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\ 


As. 


vr? „_ 


L,  ,z,;i.,C00J^IC 


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Jufi  fuhlijbed,  hy  the  fame  A  u  T  H  o  k,  /£«  tw 
felloming  Books. 

I. 
A  Geneial  Chrotudogical 

HISTORY 

O    F      T    H    E 

A1R»  \\SEASONS, 

WEAtHRR,\lMErEORS,Uc. 

In  fundry  Places  and  dlfierent  Times ;   more  parti- 
cuUrl;  for  the  Space  of  250  Years : 

Together  with  Ibme  of  their  moft  remarkable  £fle£b  oa 

Animal  [cTpedally  Htunaji}  Bodies,  and  Vegetables. 

In  Tw  o   Volumes, 

n. 
DISCOURSES 

O    N 

Tea,  Sugar,  Milk,  Made  Wines,  Spirits, 

Punch,  Tiiacco,  tec, 

WITH 

Plun  and  ufefiil  RULES  for  Gouty  Feoplk. 

FriUfdfir  T.  LODgman,  /■  Pater-nolter-row  i  «ti^  A.  Millar, 
iff  tbi  Soand. 


bvGoogle 


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NEW 

OBSERVATIO^fS, 


NATURAL,    T  f  POLITICAL, 
MORAL,  U  A»o 

CIVIL,  JtMEDICAL, 

O  N 

CITY,  TOWN,  and  COUNTRY 

Blt.LS  of  MORTAL  ITT. 

To  which  arefadded, 

LARGE  and  CLEAR  ABSTRACTS 


The  bcfi  AUTHORS  who  have  wrote 
oa  that  Subject. 

WITH     AK 

A    P    P    E    N    D    I    X 

O  H    T  H  B 

WEATHER  AND  METEORS. 
ij  THOMjtS    SHORT,  M.D. 


Nt  ^luerat  quit  fid  quid. 


LONDON: 

Princed  for  T.  Lo  n  g  m  a  n,  in  Pater-nefter-row ; 

and  A. Millar,  \n  (he  SlranJ^ 

M  DCC  L. 


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T    O 

HIS  ROYAL  HIGHNESS 

FREDERICK, 

Prince  of  Wales. 

SIR, 

THAT  Good-will  to  Men 
wbich,  while  it  is  the  dar- 
ling Attribute  of  the  beft  and  greateft 
of  Beings,  fo  amiably  diftinguKhes 
Your  Royal  Hiohness's  Cha- 
tiSxXy  ebcoiuages' jne  to  the  double 
Prefiimption  of  laying  at  Your  Feet 
a  Work  intended  for  the  Benefit  of 
my  Fellow-Subjeds,  and  of  hoping 
that  You  will  have  the  Goodnels  to 
pardon  me  for  it. 

A3  Thad 


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DEDICAriON. 

That  Your  Royal  Highness 
may  long  live  to  cherifh  the  Hopes, 
and  compleat  the  Happinefs  of  Mil- 
lions, is  the  liocere  and  ardent  Prayer 
of. 


YOUR  ROYAL  HIGHNESS's 

mofi  faithful, 

mofi  obtdient, 
cmd  mtfi  biaiAk  Servant, 


Thomas  Short. 

CqilizDdbyGoOgle 


[vH] 


PREFACE. 


JpEGISTERS  of  Marriages  and 
XV  Births^  atidprobahly  of  deaths  alfo^ 
/eem  of  great  jint/quitjfi  as  we  fee 
throi^h  the  whole  Old  Teftament :  For  the 
Children  of  Baftards,  Ammonites  and  Mo- 
abites,  whether  defcended  of  Proftlytcs,  or 
liy  Intermarrsaees  with  Ifraelites,  were  not 
to  enter  into  the  Congregation  of  the  Lord 
before  the  tenth  Generation  j  nor  of  the 
£domitcs  and  Egyptians  before  the  third 
Generation,  Dcut.  xxiii.  which  Jbews  the 
Necefffty  and  Ufe  of  puhlick  Regifiers, 
iike  thofe  in  our  Bilhops  Courts,  TMf 
Jews  that  had  married  ftrange  Wives  dth 
ring  the  Captivity,  after  their  Return  were 
ohUged  to  put  away  both  them  and  their 
Children^  Hzr.  i.  9,  10.  H^e  have  alfo  a 
very  clear  Account  wbofe  ^efcenaants 
they  were  that  returned  from  Babylon, 
EzF.  IL  Nchcm.  vii.  and  the'  exa^  Num- 
'bers  that  died  in  feveral  peftilential  Vi' 
fitationSf  even  during  the  Peregrinations 
fl/Ifrad  in  the  Wildernefs  \  ^icb  Things 
A  4  Jeem 


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viii  P  R  E  I'-  A  C  E. 
feem  to  require  Regiflcrs.  The  fth  and 
nth  Chapters  ef  GeacRs  are  plain  Bills 
of  Mortality.  7%e  chronological  Genealo- 
gies are  RegifterSi  and  the  longejl  Genc" 
alogy  on  Record^  we  have  Luke  iii.  even 
for  +000  Tears.  All  Nations  of  every 
Age  {efpeciallj  fmce  the  UJe  of  Letters) 
have  kept.  Re^/iers,  or  Records  ^  the 
Births,  Marriages^  Offspring  and  ^Deaths 
of  their  Patriarchs,  Trinces,  and  great 
"Mm  {a  few  ignorant  and  barbarous  Ra- 
tions excepted,  who  knew  not  the  Ufe  of 
Letters)  as  is  evident  from  the  Fragments 
ef  Rolls  or  Records  of  Bzbyloaiansy  Medes, 
Pcriians,  Egyptians,  Grecians,  <^.  that 
Hiftory  hath  himded  down  to  us  through 
fe  many  Viciffitudes  of  Government,  Peo- 
ple, Languages,  Religion  and  Cufioms,  In 
Imitation  of  which.  Religious  Houfes, 
even  i»  the  darkefi  Times  of  Topery,  kept 
Regifters  of  the  Promotions  and  deaths 
fl^/ffrtr  Dignitaries  J  and  though  a  Monkijb 
^hilofophy,  or  rather  Ignorance,  deftroyed 
9r  hindered  the  Growth  of  ufeful  Sciences, 
yet  are  we  indebted  to  fame  fcattered 
Gleanings  in  their  ff^ritings,  for  feverat 
abrupt  Hints  on  Weather,  Meteors,  5ea- 
fons.  Food,  and  Epidemic  Difcafcs,  ^ry?- 
veral  Centuries ;  which,  if  collehed  and 
properly  ufed,  might  probably  be  of  no  eo»- 
temptible  Service  in  Thyfick  and  natural 
^hilofophy.  But  of  whatever  Antiquity 
Regifiers  are^  yet  neither  a  right- Met hoel 

of 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


PREFACE.  it 

of  kttfing  tbem,  nor  their  very  extenfi-ve 
UftSf  were  fo  eaJUy  difcavered.  At  what 
Tifne  general  Regijiers  of  all  Weddings^ 
Births,  and  B«riaUj  came  firji  to  be  kept 
m  Cirics,  Towns,  and  Country  Tlacet, 
I  cannot  Jay  i  only  in  feveral  Parts  of 
Gormany,  they  feem  to  have  hegun  about 
the  latter  End  of  the  fifteenth  Century,  as 
appears  from  fome  good  ones  commencing 
with  the  i6th  Century.  'Probably-  it  was 
in  Imitation  of  them,  that  King  Henry  the 
Eighth,  by  Advice  of  thom2s  Lord  Crotor 
wcJi)  Earl  of  Eflcx,  ^d  the  rejl  of  the 
^rivy-Council,  gave  Orders,  Anno  Dom. 
1558,  that  the  Incumbent  of  every  Parifli 
ihould  keep  a  true  and  cxid  Rcgifter  <^  all 
Chriftcnings,  Weddings,  and  Funerals  in  his 
Diftrift,  with  what  farther  f^iew  it  is  now 
impojjible  to  fay  with  any  Certainty.  This 
Order  was  &ut  little  regarded  in  many 
'Places,  till^ueen  Elizabeth  in  1  f  j8,  which 
was  twentyiears  after,  fent  out  another 
for  keeping  them  more  exaSily  i  yet  after. 
all-  they  were  kit  remifsly  kept  in  many 
'Parifhes,  and  often  committed  only  to  loops 
Papers  s  by  which  Means  feme  were  lojf, 
others  rotted  in  damp  Chinches,  or  were 
devoured  by  Rats  and  Mice.  To  remedy 
Hfefe  Evils,  the  Clergy  were  charged,  in 
'Iffp,  that  for  the- future  all  Regiftcrs 
fbouU  be  kept  in  Parchment  Books  only, 
and  that  aU  preceding  ones,  that  could  be 
founds  Jboutd  be  tranjcribfd  into  new  Books. 
Hitherto 


d=,Googk' 


X'  PREFACE. 

Hitherto  their  chief 'DeJ^  feems  te  have 
been  only  to  prove  the  Birtb,  'Death,  and 
1>efcent  of  private  'Per fins ^  and  that  the 
Civil  Maetftrate  might  more  readily  and 
jurely  infpeB  the  publick  Healthy  or  the 
Invajum,  Trogrefi,  and  Effeifs  of  Epidc-  . 
mics  or  Endemics,  in  Cities  and  Towns. 
But  no  'Place  in  England  flighted  thoje 
Charges  fo  much  as  London  j  fir,  except  in 
two  or  three  Tears  of  great  Plagues,  we 
find  none  of  their  Bills  before  the  Tear 
1604.  Jnd  even  to  this  T>ay,  they  would 
be  much  better  omitted  than  printed,  ex- 
cept they  were  more  exaB,  for  they  give 
Its  no  Weddings,  and  only  a  Part  of  ^he 
Buryings,  there  being  thirty- three  Burying- 
places  belonging  to  the  Ejiabiijbed  Churchy 
within  the  Bills  of  Mortality, '  never  to 
this  'Day  taken  into  the  Bills,  befides  thirty- 
two  more  belonging  to  Diflcnccrs,  foreign 
Ambaffadors,  Jews,  ^c.  But  however  re- 
mifs  the  City  may  be  in  theirs,  yet  I  have 
procured  fe.veral  exaB  Country  Rcgiftcrs, 
commencing  with  1 5*3  8,  and  continued 
without  one  Chafm  for  above  200  Tears. 
Thefe  are  far  more  valuable  than  the  late 
ones  J  ce  1 644 :  For  neither  ■  City  nor 
Coum  Regijli-rs,  wh^re  there  has  been^ 
orfiiL  any  confiderable  Body  of^ijffm- 
ters,  1  pl(h  or  Proteftant,  are  to  be  much 
relied  on  after  the  laji  Period  that  the 
1)ivifion  broke  out  in  the  Church.  Thot^h 
.the  Children  of  Diffenters  Ure  not  bapti- 
zed 


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PREFACE.  X 

xed  at  Churchy  and  perhaps  too  feldom 
regiftered  there,  yet  their  Marriages  and 
Buryings  being  at  the  Churchy  atCd  regif- 
tered, thefi  two  being  given,  it  is  eajy  t9 
come  pretty  near  a  third,  ejpecially  when 
compared  with  the  former  Tart  of  the 
R^ftei  before  1644,  //  exiting.  But  if 
a  Body  ofTeopie  partake  with  the  Church 
in  no  Ordinances,  nor  keep  Kegifters  of 
their  own  s  or  if  we  cannot  come  at  them  . 
though  they  do^  fuch  make  the  publick  Kc- 
gtflets  uftlefs  in  many  Rejpeiis.  In  fame 
'Places  aifa  where  there  are  no  T^JfenterSt 
R^iAcrs  are  Httle  to  be  regarded,  on  aC' 
count  of  fever al  unhappy  concurring  Cir- 
cumfianceSj  as  the  Negtigence^  or  frequent 
jibfittce  of  the  Regifier  Keeper,  the  Igno- 
roBCCj  Tovertyy  M/iakeSy  or  Prejudices  of 
Joverai  of  the  People ;  but  fiiU,  where*  any 
valuable  natural  UJes  are  to  be  made  of 
Rcgtftcrs,  Cnvnrrr,  »tf/ OVy  Rcgifters,  mufi 
be  confutied  and  trufted:  Though  for  fome 
medical  Purpofes,  not  Country^  but  City 
and  Town  Regifters  ate  bejl. 

The  feveral  Alterations  and  Additions 
made  to  the  London  Bills  may  be  fen  in 
Major  Graunt'^  Obfervations^  and  the  in- 
genious Mr.  Maitland'f  late  Survey  of  Lon- 
don }  which  they^  with  Davenant  in  his 
£0ay  how  to  make  the  People  Gainers,  Sir 
WUUam  Petty  in  his  'Difcourfes  before 
the  Royal  Society,  Derham  in  his  Phylico- 
Theology,'  &c.  have  happily  applied  to  fe- 
•Veral 


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xii         PREFACE. 

verai  political,  civil,  ariihinctical,  and  oa- 
tural  Ufcs  i  ^t  bejUes  the  Omfflon  of 
many  natwr&l  Obferuations,  none  have  tried 
whether  they  might  afford  any  Hints  of 
medical  Vfes  i  or  what  Soils^  Sitnatimts, 
TradeSy  Manner  of  Life,  &c.  are  heft  a- 
dapted  to  Health  and  Long  Life,  or  the 
contrary.  Or  if  they  are  mhealfhy,  whe- 
ther they  are  equally  fatal  as  well  as  fick- 
iy  J  or  in  what  l^egree,  to  what  Age^  Sex, 
and  Confiitution  t  in  what  Seafons,  Wea- 
ther, "Periods,  arid  at  what  'Diftances  i 
and  whether  by  chronic  or  acute  Tiifeafes : 
Or  whether  a  Mortality  moves  w'Uh  a 
quick,  Jlow,  or  moderate  ¥ace  }  whether  it 
proceed  chiefly  from  Epidemics  or  Ende- 
mics, where  the  fatal  ^ifeafis  that  over- 
run the  Nation  begin,  which  Way  they  ex- 
tend andfpread,  where  and  how  they  ter- 
minate %  or  whether  the  more  cultivated 
and  populous  any  Tlace  of  the  Country  is, 
it  be  more  healthy  orjukly  ;  in  what  Soils, 
and  in  what  Weather  or  Seafon,  each  Epi- 
demic is  moft  favourable,  fevere  or  fatal^ 
whether  healthieft  or  fickiiefl  'Places  are 
moft  prolific  or  barren  j  which  of  them 
produces  mojt  Males  or  Females,  or  whe- 
ther they  bear  nearly  an  equal  'Proportion 
of  both  i  where  moft  of  thofe  baptized  live 
to  be  married,  or  where  feweft  die  in  Child' 
■hood:  What  Propoftien  one  jige  or  Coun- 
try bears  to  another  snHeaiw,  ^tolific- 
nejs,  and  Long  Ufe,  or  in  Sicklinefs,  Ste- 
-      '     4.  rility. 


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PREFACE.  xiii 
rility,  md  "Death  s  what  are  the  EffeSt 
ef  our  feveral  Variations  in  'Diet,  Drink, 
Diverjlons,  Si.q.  And  perhaps  in  Cities  and 
great  Towns,  where  'Phyfiims  have  been 
much  tmphyed,  fime  tolerable  Guejei 
might  be  made  of  the  different  Succeffes  0/ 
thefundry  Modes  and  Changes  in  the  Tru- 
tice  of  Thyjlck,  as  of  the  Hippocratical,  Gar 
Icnical,  Paracclfian,  Willifian,  Sylvi^an,  Hd- 
montian,  and  Mechanical ,  or  whether  the 
cold,  temperate,  or  hot  acgimms,  the  al- 
terative, or  evacuant  Methods,  fucceeded 
moji  happily  in  Fevers  and  Aciites  ■  Or 
whether,  by  confulting  and  perujing  many 
Regifters  from  different  "Parts  of  the  Na- 
tion, any  tolerable  Guefs  can  be  made  of 
the  Atticks  and  Duration  of  Epidemics- 
Or  whether,  or  how  far  Exhalations  Dif- 
ference ofSeafons,  fundry  Mteralions  of 
ytir  and  PTeather,  Meteors,  Comets,  Cm- 
junlttons  or  Oppofitions  of  Planets,  Eclip- 
fes  of  Sun  and  Moon,  Rains,  Droughts, 
Prop,  Colds,  Heats,  or  unwholfome  Foods 
&c  afett  human  Bodies;  whether  Epi- 
■  demies  depend  on  the  fenftble  or  mfen&le 
Sualtties  of  the  Air,  or  on  either.  IVhe- 
ther  rocky,  clayey,  fandy,  chalky,  gravelly 
marjhy,  lakey,  wet,  woody,  low,  heathy 
high,  mountainous,  bare,  barren,  or  fertile 
Soils,  are  moft  healthy  or  fickly,  and  in 
wbat  Proportion  they  are  fo.  If  their 
Diflempers  are  the  fame,  and  happen  near 
the  fame,  or  at  different  Times,  or  atjbor- 
3      •  ter. 


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XIV         PREFACE. 

ter,  imger^  or  equal  'Diftances.  To  what 
T>ifeafis  each  Soil  is  chiefly  liable;  which 
come  ofteneji,  and  with  moft  Severity  or 
Mildnefi.  What  "Places  afford  maji  Ex- 
fort  s^  or  require  the  frequent  eft  and  Urgeft 
Supply.  What  Seafons  of  the  Tear  are 
moft  prolific  or  mortal  either  to  Mates  or 
Females.  Thefe  are  only  a  few  of  the 
many  neceffary  and  ufeful  Things  that  have 
hitherto  been  made  only  Matter  of  Specur- 
iation  and  'Difputet  but  could  never  other- 
wife  be  truly  determined^  but  by  the  Help 
iy^cgifters.  Hence  it  undeniably  follows^ 
that  we  are  never  to  expeii  a  lolerable  Hif- 
tory  of  Epidemics  or  Endemics,  without 
clofe  Application  to  Rcgiftcrs  of  different 
'Places,  and  comparing  them  with  Hiftories 
of  'Difeafes,  Air,  and  Weather.  As  our 
ColleSiion  of  Regifters  is  but  fmall  {though 
the  largeji  and  widefi  I  have  yet  been  in- 
formed of  in  any  private  Hand)  I  ft}alt 
only  touch  on  a  few  of  thofe  Things  i  nor 
do'Iexpeif  that  the  few  Inferences  I  have 
made,  however  plainly  and  truly  deduced, 
Jhould  be  taken  for  final  and  general  Con- 
clufions,  extending  to  all  Places  and  Coun- 
tries at  all  Times. 

Several  other  Reafons  may  be  given  for 
a  frefb  Review  of  the  Bills  of  Mortality  i 
as  GrauRt  has  wholly  emitted  the  Country 
Bills,  and  only  made  his  Obfervations  on 
thofe  of  the  City,  and  three  Market  Towns, 
all  in  the  South  i  and  if  he  had  colleited 
never 


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PREFACE.  XV 

never  jo  many  Bills  from  different  "Tlaces^ 
{tut  to  mention  alt  the  ahve  Omiffions) 
yet  they  had  been  enh  for  one  Teriod  of 
Timei  andjtnce  his  Time,  'People,  Trade ^ 
and  Riches^  are  greatly  encreafedy  arid 
'Siith  them  huxuryy  Vohptuoufnefs^  Intem- 
perance, 'Debauchery,  ^z.  efwhefe  Effeeis 
'j!e  can  now  eafily  fudge.  From  his  ff^ant 
of  Country  Sills,  he  could  not  enquire  nor 
difcover  difiinilly  the  Effe^s  of  different 
Situations,  Soils,  &c.  jifter  all,  a  larger, 
wider,  and  faithfuller  Colle£ii§n  of  jufk 
Vouchers,  'mllftillafford  further  and  clearer 
Matter,  of  more  extenfive  Benefit,  Thd 
Davcoant'j  £flays  how  to  make  the  People 
Gaioers  ia  the  Way  of  Trade,  be  a 


ingenious,  ufeful,  and  excellent  "Piece,  md 
the  Terufal  never  can  be  unfeafonable  for 
EngliihracD  i  yet  his  Inferences  are  often 


made  too  tmith  at  random,  as  his  Vouchers 
from  King  and  Gregory  muft  not  be  deemed 
ex^,  being  taken  firem  the  Pole  Books, 
and  Books  of  Aficfltnenis  on  MarrUges, 
Births,  and  Burials ;  Taxes  that  many  poor 
Teopk  could  never  pay ,  who  therefore  were 
not  enrolled.  I'axes  are  of  themfelves  odi- 
ous to  a  free  People,  the  Engines  of  arbi- 
trary Power,  and  will  always  go  heavily 
down  in,  a  limited  Monarchy ;  they  are  the 
f^iM  Agonies  of  a  ^finking  State,  only 
fx^e^  in  the  mojl  urgent  NeceJJities  of 
*  ^^iff^d  Government,  after  all  the  In- 
fimmmts  and  Means  of  Luxury,  Voluotu- 
onfnefs. 


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xvi  'P'K-EFA  OR: 

nigoroujly  taxedy  and  all  proves  i^^^ient 
/#  aajwer  the  End.  ■  Tbofi  mentioned  above, 
were,  never  rigoroufy  colle£ied,  nor  could 
they  from  ft^h  &  Nnmher  «/*  infolvent 
Paupers,  as  mufi  n^cejfaiUji  fwarm  then. 
To  thefe  Obfervationsl  have  added  large 
AbfitftSis  of  Major  Gcaunt,  and  of  j^.' 
Davenanr^  Sir  William  Pcay,  Dcrhats,  ^c, 
that  the  Reader  may  at  owe  have  a  View 
^allfaid  on  the  Subject.  \2  her^f  achuw^ 
le^e  the  Favour ^  ^  return^  hearty  Thanks 
to  ibofe  ingenious  worthy  X^epilemen^  who 
J^  readily  contributed  their  Afylance_  to  this 
ff^orky  byfendit^  infiafonfii^lyfufh  a  Nunp^ 
Ur  of  Mater  iaff  for  it. .  Onlj\fh^  wretched 
'idoy-lmpropriatort  whofiarves  the  Church 
itnd  Sotfis  to  aggrandize  'his  Pantilyy  an^ 
fitch  as  can  en£ire  no  Schemes,  or  Improve^ 
■m$nts  but  "what  are  of  their  own  Jn^eth 
tiont  not  only  denied  their  He^^.  but  were 
diff leafed  with  fucb  as  wiro  more  ^ene^ 

fOHS. 


O  B- 


by  Google 


(O 


OBSERVATIONS 

O    N 
THEBlLtSoF  MoRTALltr. 


AS  no  triie  ^(llmatc  can  be  made  of  the 
feraal  Degrees  of  Health  and  MeaTure 
of  a  Country  Life,  from  the  Births 
and  Burials  of  large  Towns  and  Cities,  where 
a  Variety  of  avoidable  and  inavoidable  Caufes 
concur,  to  impair  Health,  and  often  HiCK-tea 
Life  in  all  Ages  and  Sexes :  I  hare  therefore 
begun  wi&  me  Country  RegiAers,  or  Bills  of 
Mortality ;  eipecially  as  a  rural  Life  was  the 
iiril  Sute  of  Mankind,  and  as  it  is  ftill  the 
healdiieft,  and  aflCbrds  the  trueft  auid  moft  in- 
noccDt  natural  Pleafures :  For  there  (except  In 
great,  rich,  or  opulent  Men's  Houfes)  lUfl  re- 
mains fuch  Veftigra  of  Virtue,  Sobriety,  Re? 
gularity,  Plainnefs,  and  Simplicity  of  Diet,  &c. 
as  bears  fome  fmaU  Image  or  Resemblance  of 
the  primeval  State.  Englandj  at  prefent,  muft 
£  by 


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(  o 

by  no  means  be  allowed  to  be  the  healthieft 
and  befl  Climate  in  the  World,  nor  muft  be 

taken  as  fuch  ^  it  can  only  be  a  Standard  for 
hftlf,  wirich  Standard  will  vary,  not  only  ap- 

■  cording  to  the  feveral  Cuftoms,  Manners  of 
Life,  and  new  Opinions  introduced,  but  ac- 
cording to  the  different  Seafons,  Weather,  Pro- 
ductions of  the  Easth,  Conftitution^  of  th^ 
Air,  State  of  neighbouring  Countries,  'and  many 
other  Caufcs.  For  Britain  Is  only  a  northern 
Illand,  furroiinded  by  Seas,  and,  according  to 
Dr.  HaUey's  Computation,  from  the  Lizard 
Point  to  Caitbnefsy  lies  between  4.9  Degrees 
55  Minutes^  arid  jft-  Degrees  35  Minutes  of 
North  Latitude.  And  as  Dr.  Claremont  *,  (a 
Phyfician  of  Lorrain^  who  lived  and  praSifed 
PhyOck  feveral  Years  in  England  and  Wales) 
after  he  baS  pafle4  ^  very  beautiful  El^comium 
on  England,  fay?,  at  l\is  firft  coming  into  the 
Ifland,  he  thought  Britain  was  blcls'd  with 
the  heaithieft  Aii*  in  the  World,  till  he  often 
obferved  the  Inhabitants  languifh  long  and  mi- 
ferably,  under  chronic  and  contagious  Difeafcs, 
'Svittiout  much  Benefit  from  Medicine ;  and 
ftw  thcrti  affiled  with  Ulcers,  bad  kinds  of 
Fevers,  and  other  ^laladjes,  rare  in  other  Coun- 
tries, but  endemic  and  familiar  to  the  EngUjh, 
This  made  him  change  his  Opinion,  and  from 
feveral  cogent  Reafons  to  conclude,  that,  in  ge- 
neral, the  Air  on  the  Ifland  was  worfe  than 
that  on  the  Gontinenlj  and  ftill  more  noxious 
as  it  extended  further  from  the  main  Land,  be-r 
paufe  of  Fogs  riling  out  of  the  Sea,  fcarce  dif- 
iipabte 

.  *  De  acre,  lods,  &  aqtas  An^'ie, 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgle 


(3) 

fipat>Ie  by  the  San  in  Summer,  far  lels  in 
Winter.  The  Sky,  is  commonly  thick  and' 
doudy,  not  only  in  Winter,  but  in  the 
middle  of  Summer.  It  is  feldom  clear,  the 
Weather  moftly  like  Autumn  or  Winter.  If 
it's  dear  a  few  Days,  it's  prefcntly  cloudy  or 
fiiltry ;  then  Gluts  of  Rain  for  feveral  Days,- 
with  a  clofe  fuffocating  Air.  Hence  ariie 
many  and  tedious  Difordcrs,  efpecially  Autum-* 
nals.  Though  this  in  the  general  is  true,  yet 
Ibn^e  Places  in  the  Ifland  are  far  healthier  than 
others^  as  has  been  often  obierVed :  For  when 
the  Plague  made  lad  Havock  in  Londotif  and 
fome  maritime  Places,  it  fcarce  touch'd  the 
EngUJh  Continent.  The  rough  and  harfli 
Voice  of  the  Inhabitants,  is  a  Proof  of  the 
Grollhefs  erf"  the  Air.  Moft  of  the  Year  is 
doudy,  miAyt  rainy,  or  ftormyj  in  Winter 
efpecially,  wi^  Froft  and  Snow.  He  iaw  the 
Earth  hard  frozen  and  covered  with  Snow  for 
feveral  Months  together,  even  on  the  very  Sea 
Coaft.  None,  iayshe,  is  fitter  to  judge  of  the 
EngHJh  Air,  than  an  Italian^  Frenchman^  or 
Spaniard^  for  a  few  Years  Refidencc  in  it, 
makes  a  total  Change  in  his  Conftitution,  It 
agrees  pretty  well  with  the  bilious,  fanguine, 
and  melancholy,  but  woe  to  the  pitiiitous  and 
catarrhoiis  there.  The  Wind  here  blows  from 
all  Quarters.  Terrible  Thunder  is  rare  in  Eng- 
land,  but  Lightenings  are  very  frequent.  Their 
Earthquakes  are  feldoni  and  flight,  the  Earth 
being  folid ;  or  if  hollow,  it  fends  out  Springs 
of  various  Qualities,  according  to  the  Ground 
they  rife  otM  of.  Their  River  Waters,  at  a 
B  3'  Giibnce 

C,.;,l,ZDdbjG00gIC 


(4) 

Diftance  from  their  Origin,  are  generally 
naught ;  and  their  putrid  Marfh  Water  far 
worfe.  He  reckons  the  Waters  of  the  Coun- 
try in  general  to  be  bad;  for  the  Sky  being 
moftly  cloudy,  the  Sun  has  little  Influence  on 
Springs  and  Rivers.  The  Country  abounds 
with  medicinal  Springs,  fitter  for  reftoring 
than  preferving  Health  j  they  derive  their  Vir- 
tues from  the  Soils  they  wafh,  which  is  moftly 
good  i  except  where  the  Ground  abounds  with 
Minerals  or  Foflils ;  or  the  Water  ftagnates, 
one  is  barren  Soil,  and  the  other  rotten.  Thus 
far  our  Author.  But  England  being  a  trading, 
rich,  plentiful  Country,  affords  other  Caufcs 
of  Difeafes  and  Death  to  the  imprudent,  in- 
cautious, luxurious,  fenfual,  and  intemperate, 
as  we  ihall  fee  hereafter. 

TABLE    FIRST 

Confifts  of  two  Periods  feparated  by  a  dou- 
ble black  Line.  The  Columns  of  each  Table, 
after  the  firfl:  and  fecoiid,  are  the  fame  in  both 
Periods.  Column  firft,  the  Names  of  the 
Country  Pariflies  or  Villages,  whofe  Regifters 
are  extracted  in  the  following  Table.  Column 
fecond,  the  Names  of  the  Counties  in  which 
thty  lie.  Column  third,  the  Number  of  Years 
for  which  we  have  the  RegJiler  during  the  firft 
Period,  or  preceding  1644 — 45 — or  46,  Gff. 
including  both  Years  fpecified  -,  except  in  ei- 
ther Period  there  was  a  Chafm  in  the  Regifter, 
or  it  was  negleded,  or  ill  kept  In  that  Cafe 
■we  .only  take  the  Number  of  Years  that  may 
4  be 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


is} 

be  depended  upon.  Column  fourth,  the  Soil 
ot  Situation  of  each  Parilh,  where  obferve  h. 
ftands  for  high,  1.  for  low,  d.  for  dry,  o.  for 
open,  g.  for  Gravel,  or  gravelly;  f.  for  Sand,  or 
iandy ;  m.  for  mountainous,  r.  for  rocky,  Is. 
&>T  Lime-ilone,  f.  South,  n.  North,  e.  Eaf^, 
w.  Weft,  wt.  wet,  c.  Sea-coaft,  rf.  rich  Soil, 
le.  light  £arth.  Land,  or  Soil,  wy.  woody, 
oy.  ouzy,  {y.  fpringy,  or  full  of  Springs  j  cy. 
Clay,  or  cUyie ;  v.  various  Soils,  e.  enclofed, 
my.  marfhy,  or  fenny.  Column  fifth,  the 
prime  Proportion  of  Chriftcnings  to  Burials, 
according  to  the  two  or  three  firft  Figures  or 
Numbers  only,  without  regard  to  the  leiler,  or 
Fraftions.  Column  fixth,  the  Number  of 
Years  in  the  fecond  Period  j  in  both  Period* 
the  firft  Year  in  each,  is  the  Year  when  our 
Abftrad  begins,  the  other  the  Year  it  ends 
with.  Column  feventh,  the  Proportions  be- 
tween the  Baptifms  and  Buryings  in  that  Time, 
Column  eighth,  in  the  fecond  Period,  ftiews 
in  what  Parifties  there  are  Di0enters,  and  whe- 
ther a  few,  feveral,  many,  or  none  at  all,  by 
the  Letters  f.  f,  ro.  o. 


Period 


ii,  Google 


(«) 


o  o  OM  p  o  o^  o  o  D  o  Ota.-b;i4;i*:  o  o  o  o 


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by  Google 


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Silllllf-iltl-i'^ 


^  ^§  o^  S  Si's  frc  t. 


by  Google 


(io) 


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h>  IS.  i>>  l-»      rs  IS.      IS,                    r>rs,i>>r.rs  fs 

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(  '3) 

In  the  preceding  Table  we  have  the  Pro- 
portions between  Chriftenings  and  Burials  of 
above  one  hundred  and  ibcty  Country  Parifhcs, 
befides  many  Chapels  in  different  and  diflant 
Parts  of  England^  lying  in  fundry  Situations  on 
various  Soils ;  and  die  Inhabitants  have  differ- 
ent Bufinciles  and  Ways  of  Life.  And  the 
Abftradts  of  the  feveral  Regiftcrs  of  near  the 
half  of  the  above  Parifhcs,  are  divided  into 
two  Periods,  the  one  ending  betwixt  the  fourth 
and  fifth  Decad  of  the  laft  Century  i  the  other 
commencing  about  that  Time,  is  brought  down 
to,  or  near  the  prefent.  In  thefe  Periods  wp 
have  a  fliort  View  of  the  feveral  Degrees  of 
the  Salubrity  or  Infalubrity  of  the  different  Si- 
tuations, Gffc,  during  the  fmall  Number  of 
Years  for  which  theft  Regiftcrs  are  to  be  de- 
pended upon ;  and  from  them  give  me  leave  to 
obfervc  in  the  general, 

iftj  Diy,  open  Situations  meanly  elevated, 
neither  like  Beacons  on  the  Tops  of  lofty 
Mountains,  nor  like  Reeds  in  the  marlhy  Val- 
lies,  are  above  all  others  {caterh  paribus)  the 
healthieft  •;  for  fuch  Habitations  have  a  £*€€, 
pure,  open  Air;  the  rifing  Grounds  fupply 
them  with  Springs  or  Fountains  of  fine  clear 
Water,  which  contains  a  healthy,  exhilerating, 
elaftick  air,  called,  in  medicinal  Springs,  a 
mineral  Spirit^  moft  comiucive  to  Health,  and 
all  the  Pnrpofes  requifite  in  that  Element  to  a 
comfortable  Life. 

zdlyj  For  thefe  Reafons,  like  Situations  on 
different  Soils,  (the  Inhabitants  Manner  and 
fiufmefs  of  Lift  being  near  alike,  or  the  fame) 


by  Google 


(•4)    . 

ue  yet  all  healthy,  tho'  not  m  the  fame  £t^ 
tent ;  aa  here,  we  have  fome  on  Gret-ilone^ 
fome  on  Free-ftone,  others  on  Llme-Aone^ 
Iron-ftone,  ftiff  Clay,  &c.  yet  their  Situation, 
Air,  and  Water,  are  all  good,  though  they 
differ  in  their  fubfuperficial  Strata. 

^4lyt  The  Inhabitants  of  diffimilar  Situa-' 
tioQs,  but  on  fimilar  Soils^  have  different  De- 
•ffces  of  Health.  Thus  Winfler^^  Buxton^  Tel- 
gravfj  Matlock,  &c.  all  lie  on  Lime-ftone,  yet 
the  Inhabitants  are  much  healthier  than  diofe 
of  Laugbtotty  (tho'  it  lies  very  high)  Steintong 
Malt^t  Pirbeckj  &c.  The  former  arc  either 
much  better  ventilated,  or  more  iree  £-oii) 
ouzy  moift  Grounds,  or  have  an  opener  and 
purer  Air  than  the  latter. 

4/^^,  In  the  Jame  Parishes  we  often  ob&rve 
one  part  to  be  healthy,  and  another  the  con- 
trary, as  St.  John  Baptift  in  Tbanet^  Hatfield 
near  Dona^cTy  Bakewell  in  the  Peak,  &c. 
For  one  Fart  lies  high,  dry,  open,  and  airy  j 
another  low,  wet,  or  marfhy,  or  bordering  on 
X/akeS)  Mcers,  Fens,  Marfhes,  «-  clofe  by 
Woods. 

$thlyt  The  more  foUd  the  Soils  of  like 
Kinds  are,  and  all  other  Things  alike,  the 
healthier  the  Situation.  Thus  Inhabitants  on 
Gret-ftone,  are  healthier  than  on  coarfe,  loofe, 
crumbling  Free-ftone ;  on  hard  Lime-ftone, 
than  on  foft }  and  on  Lime-ftone  rather  than 
on  Chalk ;  on  Gravel  is  better  than  fmall  looie 
Sand ;  on  ftrong  ftiff  Clay  is  more  eligible 
than  on  foft }  for  all  the  loofcr  fofter  Materials, 
afford  earthy,  ftoney,  iandy,  or  petrifying 
4  Parts 

L,  ,z,;i:, Google 


Parts  tt>  ^k  percolated  or  intercurrent  Wa- 
ters, which  generate  Lentors  and  ObAru&ionSy 
and  either  produce  Difeafes  in  the  Body,  or  be- 
ing \ek  friendly  to  it,  they  infenilbly  alter  not 
only  the  State  of  their  Juices,  but  even  fome- 
how  flowly  aifedt  the  Solids  and  the  Canals  of 
the  Veflels  themfelves,  by  ObilruAions,  Con- 
cretions, Adhefions,  Excrefcencefi,  &c. 

tthly.  We  fee  that  Places  on  like  Soils  and 
Sclidittcs,  but  on  different  Situations,  enjoy 
different  Degrees  of  Health ;  for  feme  being 
high,  others  low,  {caterts  paribus)  the  Re- 
gifters  prove  the  former  to  be  much  healthier 
than  the  latter. 

ytblyt  Towns,  Paridics,  or  Villages,  fliut 
dofe  up  between  lofbr  towering  Mountains, 
tho'  they  fland  never  fo  dry,  are  not  fo  healthy 
as  thofe  that  are  more  elevated,  for  their  Air 
is  both  heavier  and  moifler,  and  the  hot  Sum- 
mer Sun  Beams  arc  more  powerfully  reverbe- 
rated by  the  naked  barren  rocky  Mountains,  or 
Precipices.  This  is  the  Cafe  of  Caftlcton^  Bon- 
Jall,  &c.  And  it*s  well  known  how  infupporta- 
ble  a  Heat,  tho'  little  more  than  that  of  the 
Blood,  is  to  Animals ;  how  it  rariiies  the  Juices, 
and  Arains  off  in  Sweat,  or  collates  die  Se- 
rum of  the  Blood. 

Ztkfyy  Nor  are  Inhabitants  on  too  high  Situ- 
ations the  eaficft ;  for  being  greatly  expofed  to 
intenfe  Colds,  Storms  and  Tempefts,  thefe  Ihri- 
vel  up  and  contrad  the  Fibres,  flraiten  the 
Blood  Veflels,  increafe  their  Force  againfl  their 
contained  Fluids,  whofe  Parts  are  hereby  broken 
againfl  one  another  more  powerfiilly,  as  welt 
as  againfl  the  Veflels }  hereby  both  the  Blood 

and 

L,;,-z.d=,G00gk' 


(  i6  ) 

and  other  aDimal  Juices  are  ftrongly  ground 
down ;  and  the  Secretions,  and  fome  Excre- 
tions therefrom,  are  enlarged,  by  Urine  cipe- 
cially.  Hence  the  remaining  Juices  become 
thicker  and  unfitter  for  an  eafy  and  healthy 
Circulation.  The  membraneous  capillary  Vef- 
fels  {hrinking  at  the  &me  time  in  their  Dia- 
meters, by  the  Cold,  they  admit  larger  Glo- 
bules or  Particles  at  their  Balis,  than  can  rea- 
dily pafs  their  Cylinders  or  Cones.  Thus  the 
Circulation  becomes  flower  and  more  difficult, 
and  difpofes  the  Blood  to  inflammatory  Difor- 
ders,  Fevers,  Rheumatifms,  Arthriticks,  &c. 

gthly,  Tho'  a  Situation  be  high,  rocky,  or 
mountainous,  yet  if  its  Sur&ce  is  coniiantly 
moid  and  wet,  from  abundance  of  ouzing  fmall 
fprings,  not  fufficJent  to  form  Brooks,  Rivu- 
lets, or  Rills,  but  keep  the  Earth  conflantly 
foft  and  watry,  the  Salubrity  of  this  Situation 
is  hereby  greatly  impired.  This  is  the  Cafe 
of  Ghfop,  Hayfield^  Chappie  k  Frith,  &c.  For 
fuch  Situations  make  the  Air  cold,  and  the 
Wetnefs  of  the  Ground  moiftens  it ;  the  for- 
mer ftraitens  the  Pores  of  the  excretory  Du£te 
of  the  Skin  j  the  latter  loads  and  occludes  their 
Orifices,  and  both  diminiih  or  hinder  Perfpi- 
ration.  Such  Places  have  alfo  frequenter  Fogs, 
Showers,  Rains  and  Storms ;  for  the  Tops  of 
the  Mountains  break  the  Clouds.'  All  thefe 
together  conCpire  to  mot  Aen  the  Air ;  and  if  it 
was  not  often  fen'd  by  briflc  clear  Winds,  it 
would  differ  little  from  that  of  low  marfliy 
Grounds.  Hence  the  animal  Solids  are  re- 
laxed, the  Secretions,  Excretions,  and  Force 

of 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00glc 


(  17  ) 
bf  the  Circulation,  arc  weakened  ahd  impaired, 
and  way  made  for  Rhraims,  Catarrlis ;  ca- 
tarrhous,  iaterinittent»  and  remittent  Fevers, 
Coughsi  ,  ColdSi  Tupiours  of  the  Glands, 
Throati  Neck,  &c.  All  which  Diforders  arc 
increafed  as  the  Inhabitants  live  lower  in  the 
ftrait  Vales  between  the  Mountains,  where  the 
Air  is  thicker^  groiTer,  and  heavier. 

1  ottfyi  A  dry,  open,  elevated,  gravelly  Soil, 
we  fee  obtains  the  next  place  after  the  dry, 
t'ocky-  and  mbtintainous ;  feme  fuch  in  tliis 
Tame  have  1 5A  Chriflenings  to  98  Burials ; 
and  the  dryi  highi  Grtft-ftone,  had  100  of  the 
former  to  63  of  the  latter. 

I  it&fy.  Very  light  pure  fandy  Soils,  tho'  on 
dry  and  open  Forefts,  we  fee  are  by  no  means 
fhe  healthiefti  either  becaufe  the  fiift  Inha- 
bitants; infcnfible  of  the  diiferent  Eff&as  of  a 
dry  or  itioifti  light  or  ponderbu^  pure,  or  grofs 
Atmofphere,  generally  fix'd  their  Abodes  in 
low,  wet;  ipringy;  or  moiH  Places,  fbr  the 
Convenience  of  Water,  and  to  fliclter  them 
from  inclement  Weather :  Or  their  Water  not 
t)eing  \^eU  Arained  thorough,  fome  folid  Soil, 
has  often  a  Mixture  of  Sand,  or  fmall  loolc 
earthy  Parts  in  it  i .  Of  lying  on  a  flatter  Level, 
their  Air  is  not  fo  brifkly  fenn'd  or  purified, 
^&c.  ai  is  moft  obvious  from  the  Foreft  Re- 
gifters,  where  the  Chriftenings,  even  -  in  the 
firft  period,  exceed  not  109  to -95  Burials, 
which  is  fcarce  one  8th  Increafe. 
.  iztbfyt  A  light  thin  Mixture  of  Sand  and 
Gravel,  or  Hazle  Soil,  in  an  open  Situation, 
tho'  not  much  elevated,  is  good,  as  Is  evident 
C  from 


i.vCoogIc 


(  i8) 
irom  the  Northampton/hire  and  Narfoik  R&- 
gifters,  where  Burials  are  to  ChrHleniugs,  as 
^to  5.  Such  light  Soils  foon  drink  up  the 
^ains :  and  being  remote  from  high  Mouo- 
tains  to  break  or  intercept  the  Clouds,  they 
have  far  Icfi  Rain  and  Wet ;  and  the  Country 
being  moftly  dry  and  open,  has  good  Air. 

i-^thly,  A  Mixture  of  light  Earth  and  Gra- 
vel, in  a  proper  Situation,  aiFords  very  healthy 
Abodes  J  iiich  as  moft  of  the  dry  and  open 
parts  of  SMtlandJbire^  fome  Places  in  Stafford' 
Jhire^  &c.  where  the  Water  is  good,  the  Air 
clear  and  fwire.  Rains  are  quickly  drank  up ; 
and  there  are  no  Lakes  or  Standing  Waters. 
Births,  in  fuch  Places,  are  to  Burials  near  1 80 
to  112. 

14/%  Thick,  ftrong,  ftiiFBedsofClay,  at 
•oi-  immediately  under  the  Earth's  Surface, 
without  thick  Underlays  of  porous  Materials 
of  Sand,  Free-ftone,  Lime-ftone,  Chalk,  or 
the  like,  to  filter  the  Water  through  j  and  if 
withal  there  is  not  a  briik  Defcent  above 
Ground,  fuch  are  generally  more  unhealthy 
Habitations,  even  the'  diibint  from  MarOies, 
Lakes,  or  Fens;  as  many  clayey  Situations  in 
heicejierjhirey  Warv)ickft>ir€,  iforce/ierjhirey 
Ghcefterjhiret  ixc.  for  the  Clay  bearing  up  the 
Water,  rfio'  the  Grounds  are  very  fruitfiil,  the 
Air  is  moflty  wet,  often  cold,  &c. 

iSthfyy  Sandy,  pebbly  Soils,  are  in  an  in- 
termediate Degree  of  Healthinefs,  between 
gravelly  and  iandy^  fuch  are  moiUy  dry,  if 
open. 


i.vCoogIc 


('9) 
i6tb^,  Low  Imitations,  eipeclully  on 
ftiffOay,  rotten  Earth,  or  near  a  Level  with 
the  Sea,  great  Rivers,  Marches,  Lakes,  or  pu- 
trid ftanding  Waters.  Thefc  are  wotft  of  all  j 
for  their  Air  is  alwi^  moift,  grole,  and  loaded 
Vrith  Exhalations  onen  pntrid ;  their  Water  if 
not  n^naot  or  iU  fcentedi  yet  is  either  defti- 
tute,  or  has  very  litde  of  that  elaflick  Air,  or 
mineral  Spirit,  which  makes  that  Element  (o 
enlivening  and  ialubrioue.  Such  are  the  Fens 
in  Linco^fidre^  Me  of  Ely^  fome  Places  in 
the  Boiderntfi  of  Turkflnre^  Files  of  Lanca* 
Jbire,  Waflies  of  Norfolk^  Hundreds  of  Bp- 
fix-,  &c.  which  have  few  or  no  Hills  to  fend 
out  puriing  Springs,  nor  Delceots  to  drain 
their  Grounds.  Animals  bred  in  fuch  Places 
are  cxiarier,  their  Flcih  has  not  its  mie  kelilh, 
nor  fine  Flavour.  The  BuriaU  in  fuchP^ces, 
eame  near  to,  or  equalize,  or  g^sxk^  thek 
Chriftenings  \  in  fome  Parts  they  are  27  to  23  % 
ifx  the  People,  as  it  were,  float  in  a  c^iftant. 
ciraimambient  Moi^re,  vtiiich  retards  or  di- 
ininifhes  Perfpiration.  The  Air's  Preffure  on 
the  Body  is  alfo  leficncd.  The  Water  is  mot 
mly  drained  of  its  fine  Spirit,  but  is  often 
earthy,  puU'id,  fait,  or  abounds  with'  Infefts 
or  their  Eggs.  All  tbefe  confpire  to  impair 
9Qd  relax -the  Sprtoginbfs  of  the  animal  Fibres  j 
Sccrctiona  are  pepfbriaed  imperfc<ftly,  the  Vcf- 
fek  contain  Juices  ttl  digel^ed  or  attenuated  j 
fiwA  Bodies  being  often  bloated,  ■  produce  fre- 
^lent,.  tediousj  coni[)lic:ited,  and  dangerous  in- 
termittent, remittent,  and  putrid  Fevers,  Ca- 
chexies, Cacochimies,  Jaundices,  Dropfies, 
C  a  Leuco- 


by  Google 


(so) 

■  Leuct)phl^;macias,  Emphylemas,  White  Swel- 
lings,  glandular  Tumors,  a  pale  whiti(b  Com- 
plexion, a  flow  Motion,  and  le&  Strength  in 
Proportion  to  their  Bulk. 

lytbly^  Habitations  bordering  on,  or  fur- 
rounded   with  great  thick  Woods,   are  leis 

.  wholefome  on  any  Sitoation,  for  tlu  Air  in  the 
(otherwile  healthy)  Summer .  Months,  *is  not 
only  conftantly  loaded  with  the.  Water  that 
perlpires  from  the  Trees  and  Leaves ;  but  it  is 

.an  excr£mentitious  Moifture,  whofe  f(»iner 
ialubrious  Parts  were  fpent  in  the  Irroration 
and  Nutrition  of  the  Trees,  Plants,  and  thek- 
EiHorefcencies,  and  the  Remainder,  as  in  Ani- 
mals, being  perfpirant,  floats  ibr  a  time  in  the 
Air,  till  the  grofier  Parts  fubfide  on  the  Ground, 
and  the  iiner  rife  lugher  in  the  Air.  Such 
People,  have.,  their  beft  breathing  time  in  the 
Night,  when  theft  V^etables  are,  as  it  were, 
feeding  and  difliending  their  Vefllels  from  the 
jEarth,  laying  in  for  uie  next  Day's  Expence, 
when  they  difcharge  their  Repaft.  What  in- 
credible large  Quantity  fuch  perfpired  Moi- 
llure  amounts  to.  Dr.  Woodward  has  fufficient- 
ly  demonilrated  from  many  and  inconteftible 
Experiments.  The  Eflfedls  of -an  Air  loaded 
with  fuch  an  excrementitions  Water  our  firft 
American  Cahnies  felt  to  their  &tal  Experience  i 
the  like  do  our  Sailors  to  this  Day  in  caftern 
or  fouthem  woody  Countries. 

x%thly^  On  the  fame  account  Villages   or 

Towns,  compaifed  round  with  Quick  Hedges, 

T/ees,  &c.  are  not  A)  healthy  as  thefe  that  are 

2  quite 


byGoogk' 


quite  open,  or  have  the  Grounds  endos'd  with 
Stone  or  Brick  Walls. 

igthfyt  The  like  Inconveniencies  attend 
Towns  bordering^  or  Handing  on  Lakes^ 
Marlhes,  or  Meers^  tho*  the  Houfes  (land  on 
dry,  open,  and  otherwife  healthy  Ground. 

ZQtbly^  Habitations  lying  dry,  fomewhat  higb 
and  open,  facing  the  N.  N.  E.  or  N.  W.  (c<»- 
teris  paribus)  are  of  all  others  the  healthieit 
The  intelligent  and  attentive  Reader,  will  from 
the  Table  find  all  thefe  Obfervations  plain, 
tiafy,  and  certain. '^  Several  curious  and  ufeful 
Ules  or  Inferences  arife  from  them>  but  I  Hi^ 
referve  them  for  another  Place. 

TABLE    SECOND. 

Column  I  ft  of  each  Period  contains  the  Num* 
bers  of  Years  of  each  R^ifter;  Column  ad 
Males  baptized  in  that  Period ;  Column  3d  Fe- 
males baptized  ; .  Column  4th  Total  of  both  j 
Colunrn  rth  Wedding ;  Column  6th  Males 
buried ;  Colupn  7th  Females  buried ;  Column 
8th  Totals  of  both  i  Column  9th  theEncreafei 
Column  loth,  after  the  fecond  Period,  tho 
Number  of  fickly  and  mortal  Years  in  each 
Pariih,  during  both  Periods ;  then  the  Num* 
ber  buried  in  thefe  Years.  Laftly,  the  Num- 
ber baptiz'd. 

Note^  The  fecond  Page  throughout  th?  whole 
Table  being  the  fecond  Period  of  each  PariA) 
(during  the  double  Periods)  and  the  firft  Page 
the  firft,  therefore  each  Line  of  Figures  an« 
fv^ers  one  to  aqother  in  hoth  Pages. 

C  3  Period 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(S2    ) 


Vc^M  Fifll.        DiviCon  Fiift- 


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fwvri 


by  Google 


(23) 


Period  Second.      Divifion  i'lift. 


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so      377 

37' 

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a  S3 

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648 

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1900 

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37"7 

3708 

469* 

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804 

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70        t02         105        20; 


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■7  329  166 

15  2S7  189 

11  IJI  77 
"  276  1S4 

16  339  156 
9  106  .  67 

12  241  I9J 

J8  493  411 

J2  1385  1484 

'4  979  927 

45  3307  3361 

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9  79  48 

34  309  333 

7  337  112 

31  747  ^6 


432    373 


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C4 


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byGoogle 


(h) 


period  Firft,  Divifion  Second. 


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270 

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418 

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by  Google 


(»5) 


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433 

431 

■09 

H 

34* 

«8 

<>74 

2«7 

«74 

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(O 

iJ? 

,66 

iios 

290 

416 

48- 

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n 

102 

24 

17 

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7 

31 

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12+1 

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4608 

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■t" 

Period  Firft.        Divificm  Fifth. 


7784 
>4'J 

2649 


}93Di  81363  20jci 
0753     a7t1 


61107 

844^ 


^fii6  231 1 4 


Here  Ends  the  firft  Pyrigd, 


^iS'l"»48 


i.vCoogIc 


(27) 


Psnod  bccond. 

DiviBon  THri. 

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68, 

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146 

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It 

IS8     10; 

Ci 

IW 

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741 

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27 

4'S     *7« 

6;8    449 

Ti^t 

677 

,03 

60 

1196 

186 

2a 

719 

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,94 

1204 

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2069  1673 

Mi 

17t. 

■i3 

282 

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607     4^. 

:i 

ilo 

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M04 

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496 

414 

950 

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H 

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703 

10 

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900 
2811 

749 

65, 
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«49 
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aS9     '3? 

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9702 
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4070 

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Ptiiod  Second.      DiviTion  Foui&. 

£    7»* 

7ii 

14,6 

,69 

711 

808 

1,21 

in 

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548     43= 

■;  571 

ll6 

1122 

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33 

6,2 

272 

275 

547 

101 

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no 

447 

17, 

1022 

201 

M 

126       77 

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74 

174 
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670 

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609 

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la 

fi44      4'3 

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67981,4088 

6470167081 

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Period  Second.        DMon  Firth. 

'? 

77 

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4     6, 

7      17 

8      .2, 

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560      417 

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1    193 

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644       4.3 

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6     i6j 

7       ,01 

6    28 

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(628 

"534 

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1  472 

4    9530 

. 

1     'I' 

9 

7'9 

1 

- 

"M7 

82S59 

10260 

liiaj 

4f9.^4  ii'^y^ 

Peiio4 

byGoogle  . 


(«8) 


!*etiod  Second  wndnued. 

DiviTion  Sbith 

»4   i">.  J'9 

6291 

.1;    190 

'9S 

3»i 
S'6 

244 

10 

94        SI 

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737 

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206 

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499  623 

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697 

306 

6 

121        121 

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939 

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326 

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59      S9 

911J 

«420_ 

'7I3S 

!3896j32 

!9^|i^4S'si95 

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Period  Second.       DiviCon  Seventh. 

?9 

67 

61 

112 

if 

47 

47 

94 

28 

!i 

,6; 

■  6s 

3=7 

61 

140 

109 

M9 

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1673 

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3«70 

750 

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'43. 

41S' 

361 

12 

■  020     774 

sol 

462 

970 

287 

439 

4'4 

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78 

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5.26 

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tooo 

2.61 

96s 

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■  839  '53" 

66 

211 

181 

393 

'24 

■53 

'53 

306 

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78      44 

60 

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'47 

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220 

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126 
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57 

343 

262 

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'74 

2"S 

235 

460 

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156  80 

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774 

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299 

297 

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178 

3 

57  34 

36 

204 

198 

402 

103 

170 

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42  s 

96 

162 

.67 

329 

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40      22 

818477611 

16052,834 

6675 

667.1.33461;^ 

39.0  29591 

fmi 


i.vCoogIc 


(»9) 


T 

jioil 

xca 

Id. 

Divifion  t 

"ighth 

S*'  '53 

ra 

3" 

"^ 

■  39    121,     261 

6.1   9 

1.0      75 

5«,  4>9 

347 

766 

■73 

32J    296,     619 

■47  '4 

247     i8i 

34  UO 

405 

iv 

'74 

359    349;     708 

>73'  2861     s!9 

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"93     244 

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397 

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372    334 

706 

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377 

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3»2    3' 5 

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7|    6 

2.9     179 

K»  494 

m 

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383 

434  449 

883 

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296     |,< 

40   '7! 

537 

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1201  1272   2473 

232 

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364 

679 

162 

306   34S     651 

28 

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80, 

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788  730    ,!■» 

227 

423    313 

100  709 

«7i 

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250 

636  623    1259 

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936  966    ^902 

'43  '25 

88;     6s, 

ti^ 

769 

'55' 

492;    781   670I  1451 

10c  22 

5*3     392 

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438     7!7   7681  1525 

J^'H. 

579     39? 

959' 

9186 

877741 13  84*48>9!.'67S9"'"7l) 

!!6s  4060 

Period  Second.       Divifion  Ninth. 

!?■  335,  37" 

7'3 

\'rA 

343 

687 

2i 

54  491,  13' 

9'9 

453'  9'7 

II 

285     ■9! 

Ji;  ti:  i 

86 

751     37 

42     79 

+ 

■9        9 

103 

322     60 

41     lOI 

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■  ■ol  106 

971  203 

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JS6  614 

779 '393 
3'3I  60s 

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<4o:  313   =9! 

610 

210  292 

10 

'4»      S7 

12'    4&     1 

'5 

29    32 

32      64 

«3;  '8!j  >7 

363 

139   ISO 

36;    74 

■  86!   366 

8 

9<      39 

57     76|    7 

.48 

76;    .so 

% 

49      27 

76    180   17 

35' 

■  ■!    .8. 

■  8!l    366 

9!      3S 

83    194I  20 

399 

92,  '95 

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17 

166     lot 

<7     39     1 
83  :i^  18 
«7l_466l^ 

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44     42 

37     79 

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'74  234 

238'  472 

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6.       34 

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233!3V93S'I>.'^<<''°8' 

1      1812  1Q27J 

by  Google 


(3°) 


Period  Second. 

DwiCon  Tenth. 

Containing  fome 

uTcguIar  AbitracTS- 

flt 

•94 

'I' 

0!      6        5,        ^i 

H-- 

'V. 

481 

4Bo 

102    4     !i     ♦-»; 

T. 

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106^ 

=1' 

6     i«       gd 

41 

4«i 

370 

112 

8     111       90 

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12J7 

433 

12     267     2«; 

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30" 

10        87        58 

V 

20c 

940 

■2     jBj     27-6 

161S 

149b 

129 

6     M,       ,8 

41 

«4< 

»ot 

3? 

II     248     247 

3^ 

3$S 

103 

3?t 

13    466     26j 

bS 

1910  403 

197! 

i;    S6j     537 

58I 

>«7< 

Ill 

i'^l 

(io3i?lu77 

2793  19H 

Totals  of  the  five  h&  DiviTioits  of  this  Period. 


304631786721  59130I  ij67tJ248;o 

xziSzzi 


17410  13036] 
'793  ■9';3; 
'°'43  ,'4989 


24446 


49296)  9833! 


Totals  of  alt  the  ten  Di^^ons  of  this  fecond  Period. 


B9S3o|8495'4|'74+84t  4«334l7S94'"l7'&^Ii446o'l  l| 

'I  1194^0?!  I  I  I0*"4l3"^4i|6'^r77  480 


This  ftcond  Table  may  be  coniidered  either 
more  generally,  or  more  particularly.  For 
the  former,  during  various  Series  of  Years  in 
the  firft  Period,  in  thefe  Pariflies  where  the 
Sexes  chriftened  and  buried  are  taken  fepa- 
rately,  the  Males  baptized  are  42062,  thQ 
Females  are  39301,  both  81363  j  the  Mar- 
ried 20391,  Males  buried  30987,  Females 
30 1 20,  both  6 1 1 07.  But  including  the  Totals 
whofe  Sexes  are  not  diftinguifli'd,  the  whole 
l>apUzed  are  92116,  the  Married  23114,  thtf 
Buried  69552.  In  fo  far  of  the  fecond  Pe- 
riod, as  anfwers  to  the  firft,  the  Baptized  are 
2  J  23478, 


byGoogk' 


(  3«  ) 

1 23478,  the  \ferried  28592,  the  Buried 
102603.  But  where  the  Sexes  are  taken  {k- 
parately,  the  Males  baptized  are  59067,  the 
Females  56282,  both'  1 15349  •  ^^^  Married 
26663,  the  Males  buried  48091,  the  Females 
47214 ;  both  9^305. 

In  the  iirft  ofmcfc  Periods,  Males  baptiz'd 
arc  to  Females  above  42  to  39,  A  or  21,  to 
19  T.  In  the  iecond  Period  as  29  v  to  28  tV> 
Males  baptized  in  the  firlt,  are  to  the  married 
as  21  to  fomewhat  above  10.  In  the  Iecond 
as  29^  to  13  ,V.  Females  b&ptized  In  the 
fiHl,  are  to  the  Married  about  39  to  20 ;  in 
the  feoond  as  28  to  13  -rr.  The  Totals  bap- 
tized in  the  firft,  are  to  the  Totals  married 
near  4  to  2 ;  in  the  fecond  above  1 3  -r  to  6. 
The  Males  horn  in  the  firft,  are  to  the  buried 
as  42  to  almoft  3 1 }  in  the  fecond  as  59  to 
48.  The  Increafe  of  Males  in  the  firl^  is 
1 1075,  or  1 1  of  42  ;  of  the  fecond  near  u  of 
59.  Of  the  309S7  buried  in  the  firil  Period, 
20391  were  married;  the  few  above  33^^ 
Cent,  died  in  Infancy,  Childhood,  and  Celi- 
bacy.  Of  the  48091  buried  in  the  fecond 
Period,  were  married  26663,  ^^^^'^^  21428 
who  died  unmarried,  or  fomewhat  above  z6 
to  21.  The  Females  baptized  in  the  firfl  Pe- 
riod, were  to  the  buried  above  39  to  30; 
9181  left  fcx^  locreafe.  Of  the  buried  were 
ourried  20391,  the  former  to  the  latter  30 
to  a  little  above  20,  or  near  34  per  Cent,  to 
eight  Virgins.  In  the  fecond  Period  the  Fe- 
niues  baptized  were  to  the  buried  near  56  to 
47>  9068  forvived.  The  Buried  are  to  the 
Married 


by  Google 


(  32  ) 
Married  near  47  to  26  4 }  Cath  as  died  in  Ce- 
libacyj  were  to  the  Married  near  20  t  to  ar6 
A.  In  the  iirft  Period  each  Wedding,  one 
with  another,  produces  almoft  four  Children  ; 
in  the  fecond  4  4,  or  thirteen  Children  to  three 
Couples.  That  moil  of  the  Superplus  bap- 
tized were  Exports,  it  is  moft  probable,  for 
had  they  continued  in  their  reTpei^ve  Pa>- 
riflies,  very  likely  they  had  died  and  been  ba- 
ried  like  the  reft.  The  Difference  between 
Male  and  Female  Exports,  gives  the  Number 
of  Uniliarrled  that  go  into  the  Army  and 
Navy. 

If  we  compare  the  Abftrafts  of  every  fingte 
Parifli  in  this  Table;  with  the  Obfcrvations  on. 
the  iirft  Table,  we  Hiall  iind  their  Degrees  of 
Healthinefs  and  Pruitfiilnefs;  exadJy  agre'fc 
with  the  Situations  and  Soils  there  mentioned. 
But  to  repeat  and  apply  this  here;  would  be 
both  tedious  and  imper^ent,  only  in  one  In- 
ilance  or  two.  The  fecond  Parifli  fcarce  bu- 
ries one  half  of  the  Baptized,  and  each  Wed- 
ding produces  almoH:  five  Children  ;  very  few 
of  the  Baptized  die  in  Infancy  or  Celibacy, 
and  near  a  half  of  the  Prodiid  are  Exports. 
The  third  Parifh  has  above  iix  Children  for 
each  Wedding,  tho'  the  Encreafe  is  little  above 
one  third,  and  more  Women  are  married  than 
buried,  becaufe  they  are  exported  after  Mar- 
riage. .  This  alfo  fhews  us  that  many  more 
Males  are  married  than  Females.  Here  are 
alfo  more  Females  baptized  than  Males. 
The  fame  it  is  in  the  1 7*,  24*,  4 1",  49"",  50*^, 
58'S  62*,  74*^,  and  78*  Abftrafis:  So  that 
tho* 


by  Google 


(33) 
tho*  it  always  hold  good  upon  the  whole^ 
that  the  Number  of  Males  conHderably  ex- 
ceeds that  of  Females ;  yet  it  may  be  obfcr- 
vedj  that  in  federal  Regiflers,  fometimes  one 
Sex  takes  a  run,  and  much  exceeds  the  other, 
for  a  Series  of  Years  together,  till  that,  in  its 
turn,  ftarts,  and  not  only  makes  up  its  former 
Dedcicncy,  but  exceeds  the  other :  And  if  an 
Abftra6:  (^  a  Regifter  is  taken  at  a  time  wh^n 
one  Sex  has  bad  the  Preference  for  aSeries  of 
Years,  ex.  gr.  the  Females,  the  Males,  in  their 
tun»»  will  furpafs  them  mor©.  We  fee  ia 
other  Abiha£ts  the  Female^. exceed  the  IVflaies 
farprizmgly,  as  in  N*  i,  lo,  T3.  ,20,  28,  25, 
i4»  45»  63*  7i»  ^^'  But,,  after  all;  iome 
Fuccs  and  Situatiof^^  produce  far  .oipR  Males 
than  others; 'for  we  i^aHi  fa;,  in, jtf. {roper 
plac^-  tl£ittl}f;  Kumbef  ojf  Males  conceived  ia 
UterQt  &ai  eyceeds  the  Number  ;i>aptiz?ti  on, 
two  accounts.  Firft,  ;in tthe.heahhieft;  Soils 
inoft  Males  are  g|»ieratcd.  Secondly^' in  thele 
Places  Mli^rriages  are  rare,,,  ^or  Abn'tlons  fall 
far  heavier  on  Mal^  tloan  Female^  If  Wed- 
dings' in  a  f^ariih  are  found  quitje  tqo  many 
for  the  BMie,  the  Place  isjcither  a  Surrogacy  *,t 
a  Donativei  an  Exempt  from  the  pilhop's  Ju-, 
rifdiaion,  or  grants  .many  Licenqes.  If,  on 
the  contrary^  the  Births  prove  too  numerous 
for  the  Marriages,  fpph  Plaices  lie  convenient 
or  adjacent  to  one  of  the  laft  mentioned,  and 
many  of  the  Pariihioners  are  married  there. 
But  to  remedy  both  thefe  Inconveniencies,  lee 
Abftra£ts  of  a  large  Number  of  contiguous  and 
D  con- 

*  Surrogacy,  or  where  a  Surroptc  is  the  Incumbent. 


by  Google 


(Si) 

eontiritious  pariHies  be  taken,  fb  will  you 
haVc'the  true  Produdt  of  the  Marriage-Bed, 
except  there  happen  to  be  fome  whofe  Chil- 
dren are  not  [baptized  at  the  eftabli{hed  Chufch. 
■'  Having  thus  taken  a  general  View  of  the 
State  of  Health-  in  both  Pcribds,  let  us  now 
confider  them  more  p^ticubrly.  But  to  avoid 
Tcdioofncfs  in  comparing  each  Parifti  with 
another,  the  Periods  are  put  into  ftveral  Di- 
Tifions  J  yet  the  curious  Header  may  obferve 
&XC  Sme  of  Health  in  the  feverat  Parlflies  dif- 
fcts  cbnfidcraHy  in  each  Divifion.  ■  Intheiirft 
Diwfion- of  the  firft  Pcripd,  were  baptized^ 
Males  i2'969i"Females  12139/ both  25108; 
married  j8io,  buried  Males 'ffi 3^/ Females 
7789 i  both  i59Z2.'".7T^c''fiiptized  arc  to" 
thcMametf  near  "251  to  i i'6, ,6r  42 /i^r Ce;rf. 
6f  the  Baptiied- are  married  i  and  each  We'd-- 
diflgjone  with  another,  produces'^xChiMriefi.* 
The'  Baptiiins  areto  the  Burials  as  2^*7,  to 
15-rff,  or  100  toalmoft  634-.  .But  tie  Mar'^ 
ried  are  to  thi  Buried,-  as  11  i  to  25,  or  27 
per  Cent,  or  hundred ;  the  Married  of  the 
Dead  to  the  Unmarried,  .as  71  to  27 :  But 
the  Baptized  being  to  the  Buried  as  100  to 
63-4;  and  the  Buried  to  the  Married  as  159 
to  i!6i  ahd  the  Married  buried  to  the  Un- 
married, as  73  to  27}  then  only  2yJ>er  Cent. 
died  in  Infancy,  Childhood,  and  Celibacy, 
except  what  may  be  allowed  for  fccond  and 
third  Marriages:  For  tho'  the  fame  Pcrfon's 
Maniages  may  be  regifter'd  fcvcral  times,  yet 
they  are  but  once  baptized  or  buried.  For 
the  fame  Rcafon,  Baftardg,  Twins,  and  Tcr~ 
gemini 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(3S) 

gemini  ftiould  be  fubftradcd  from  the  Num- 
ber of  Births  allowetl  to  each  Wedding :  &u£ 
what  Proportion  eath  of  thefe  bears  to  iingle 
Births  in  Wedlock,  fliall  be  conddercd  after. 
Again,  to  iind  out  how  many  Births  foil  to 
each  prolifick  Marriage,  fubArad  from  the 
Weddings  the  Number  or  Proportion  of  bar- 
ren, impotent,  or  improliiick  Pairs  froin  the 
prolifick,  which  will  greatly  add  to  the  Num- 
ber of  Children  begotten  in  fruitful  Wedlock ; 
for  the'  fome  Couples  have  not  above  one  or 
two,  or  others  have  only  a  few  real  or  pre- 
tended Slips,  yet  fome  have  twenty  or  above ; 
and  this  is  often  the  Lot  of  the  poorer  fort  to 
have  the  greateil  Offspring,  as  we  ihall  fee 
afterward.  Males  are  to  Females  about  3 1  to 
28  J  the  Baptized  are  to  the  Married  about  16 
to  y ;  Females  baptized  are  to  the  Married  as 
61  T  to  29 }  Males  baptized  are  to  the  buried 
as  65  to  above  40- j  zo^ferCent.  furvive  for 
Increafe.  The  few  that  die  in  Infancy  and 
Celibacy,  in  feveral  of  thefe  Pariflics,  is  at 
once  a  Proof  of  their  Healthinefs,  and  Paucity 
of  DiHenters  in  that  time.  The  Females  bap- 
tized were  to  the  buried,  as  60  to  35-rr; 
above  \  were  for  Increafe. 

In  the  firft  Divlfion  of  the  fecood  Period, 
were  baptized  Males  17339,  Females  i(>^j$t, 
both  ,33914;  married  8595.  Buried  Males 
13767,  Females  13317,  both  27084.  And 
in  Divifion  6th  of  the  fame  Period,  were  bap- 
tized Males  91  i5j  Females  8420,  both  17535; 
married  3389 ;  buried  Males  6332,  Females 
591J,  both  12243.  Thefe  two  Divifions  an- 
D  2  fwcring 

L,  ,z,;i:, Google 


(36) 

Avering  one  another  in  Situations  and  Healthi- 
ncfs,  are  placed  together.  In  the  former 
Males  born  are  to  Females  about  33  to  32,  in 
the  latter  1 3  4-  to  1 2.  In  the  former  Males 
born  are  to  the  married  a  little  more  than  16 
to  8 ;  in  the  latter  9  to  4.  In  that  Females 
baptized  are  to  the  married  as  19  to  10,  In 
this  as  9  to  4.  In  that  the  Totals  baptized 
are  to  the  Totals  married  near  34  to  above  175 
in  this  above  ly^  to  64.  In  thatMales  bom 
are  to  the  buried  as  34  to  27,  in  this  as  45  to 
31  i  in  one  3572,  or  between  a. fourth  and 
£fth  JPait  rerhain  for  Increafe ;  in  the  other 
S783,  or  near  4^  Of  the  13767  that  were 
buried  in  the  former,  8595  were  married  j 
thus  the  married  dead  were  to  the  unmarried 
fiear  86  to  !cfs  than  52,  which  died  in  In- 
fancy, Childhood,  and  Celibacy.  Of  the 
6332  that  were  buried  in  the  latter,  3389 
were  married,  which  is  as  63  to  33 -i.  The 
females  baptized  in  the  former  Divifion,  were 
to  the  buried  near  83  to  66  i  j  in  the  latter  as 
42  to  29 1.  In  the  former  3572  Males  re- 
mained, and  3258  Females-,  in  the  latter 
2783  Males,  3509  Females.  The  whole  Re- 
mainer  of  both  Sexes  in  both  Divifions,  is 
1.2 1 22,  or4v.. 

■  In  the  fecond  Divlfion  of  Period  firft,  were 
baptized  Males  16978,  Females  15744,  ^°^^ 
J2722  ;  married  8i86  j  buried  Males  12399, 
Females  11991,  both  24390.  Bcfides  the 
Parishes  whofe  Totals  wc  have  in  the  Ab- 
ih:aia:,  but  not  the  Sexes,  they  baptized  4216, 
hiarried  865  Couples,  buried  2981*.  In  the 
5  fecond 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(37) 

lecond  Divliion  of  Period  fecond,  were  bap- 
dzed  26588  Males,  and  Females  2  0oi> 
both  51S89}  married  io668>  buried  Males 
20783,  Females  20258  >  both  41041;  befides 
the  undilUnguifhed  Sexes,  whereof  were  bap- 
tized 4418,  married  1018,  buried  3488.  In  . 
the  feventfa  Divifion  ot  this  Period  were  bap- 
tized, Males  8284,  Females  7768,  both 
160521  married  3834,  buried  Males  6675^ 
Females  6671,  both  13346.  In  the  fitft  of 
thefej  Males  baptized  are  to  Females  near  i-j 
to  15  tV;  Males  born  are  to  the  married  al- 
moft  17  to  84*  Females  bom  are  to  the  Mar- 
ried as  i5t7t  to  S-xTT}  the  Totals  baptized  is 
to  the  Total  wed  as  8  to  4;  the  Males  born 
are  to  the  buried  near  32  4-  to  24  j  t^t  furVivc 
for  Increafe  and  Export.  Of  the  12399  bu- 
ried, 8 1 86  were  married  j  about  24  per  Cent, 
die  unwed.  The  Females  baptized  were  to 
the  buried  almoft  15  \  to  near  12 ;  3753  were 
left  for  Increafe ;  of  the  Females  buried  3805* 
or  near  ^2  per  Cent.  The  Remainder  of  both 
Sexes  is  not  r.  In  the  fame  Divifion  of  Pe- 
riod fecond,  Males  baptized  are  to  Females 
near  26  tt  to  35 ;  Males  baptized  are  to  the 
married  near  264  to  10  4^;  Females  as  2^ 
TT  to  10  4^:-  The  Total  baptized  is  to  the 
Total  buried  about  52  to  41  j  Males  born  are 
to  the  buried  26  to  above  20  j  6  of  26  furvive 
for  Increafe.  Of  the  buried  near  ^  were  mar- 
ried, and  of  the  baptized  J-r^;  Females  bap- 
tized were  to  the  hurried  above  25  to  20  j  fo 
that  little  above  4-  remains  for  Increafc.  About 
gS  of  202  die  unmarried.  The  Remainder  of 
D  3  both 


i.vCoogIc 


(38) 
both  Sexes  is  much  fhort  of  -f.  In  the  ftventh 
DivifioR  of  this  Period,  Males  baptized  are  to 
Females  as  41  to  38  «>  Males  bom  are  to  the 
mamed  as  41  to  19;  the  married  to  the  bu- 
ried near  19  to  33;  chriftened  to  the  buried 
as  42  to  33.  The  whole  Increafe  of  Males  is 
little  above  4-j  -J-  more  Females  are  chriftened 
than  buried.  Of  the  buried,  the  Virgins  were 
to  the  Married  about  28  to  38  ;  the  unmar- 
ried Dead  were  to  the  Baptized  near  xdper 
Cent.  The  Remainder  of  both  Sexes  for  In- 
creafe and  Export,  is  fcarce  4  part.  There  arc 
icarce  4^  Children  for  each  Wedding,  or  21 
to.  5.  For  the  third  Divifion  of  Period  firft,  and 
third,  and  eighth,  for  the  fecond.  In  the  firft, 
,  where  the  Sexes  are  diftinft,  Males  are  to  Fe- 
males as  10  to  9  ;  in  the  fecond  as  49  to  ^y ; 
in  the  third  above  95  to  91.  In  the  hrft 
Males  baptiz'd  are  to  the  married  as  40  to  1 9  ^ 
in  the  fecond  as  49  to  244;  in  the  third  as 
95  to  41.  In  the  nrft  Males  baptized  are  tq 
the  buried  as  40  to  near  32,  almoft  4  for  In- 
creafe ;  in  the  Second  as  49  to  40,  above  4 } 
in  the  third  above  95  to  84,  little  above  i  4^. 
In  the  firft  Males  buried  are  to  the  married 
about  31  to  19,  or  near  36  per  Cent,  die  in 
CeHbacy  j  in  the  fecond  about  20  to  12  4,  or 
37  4-  per  Cent,  in  the  third  84  4  to  4 1 ;  here 
above  T  died  unmarried.  In  the  firft  there  are 
fomewhat  above  four  Children  to  each  Wedr 
^ing,  in  the  fecond  not  four,  in  the  third 
above  4  4..  In  the  firft  Totals  the  chriftened 
are  to  Uie  married  as  78  to  384,  in  the  fecond 
as  67  to  334.  In  the  firft  the  baptized  are  to 
3  ■        '  ■     "    "  th« 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  39  > 
Ac  buried  as  78  to  62  4,  in  the  fecond  as  13 
to  1 1  4^.  The  Females  baprized  are  to  the 
married  as  '^S  ta  above  i^  t>  in  &e  fecond  as 
47  to  24,  in  tbethird  as  91  i^  to  41.  In  th^ 
Arft  Females  baptized  are  to  the  buried  as  38' 
to  30  T7}  in  the  fecond  as  47  to  40,  in  the 
third  as  91  to  82.  In  the  firft  the  Inqreafe  is 
4  T>  in  the  fecond  little  above  4^  in  the  third 
it  is  a  little  above  4^.'  In  the  firft  Females 
buried  are  to  the  married  about  30  to  19,  Iii 
the  fecond  40  to  24,  in  the  third  41  to  20  ^. 
In  Divifion  fourth  of  Period  nrfl.  Males 
baptized  are  to  Females  near  54  to  5  r.  Males 
baptized  are  to  the  married  almoft  55  to  29, 
Females  52  to  29  ;  Males  wed  to  Males  bu- 
ried near  52  to  46;  Increafe  of  Males  704,  of 
Females  578;  married  Males  buried  to  un- 
married near  29toi7>  Females  near  the  fame. 
In  the  fame  Divifion  of  Period  fecond^  Males 
baptized  arc  to  Females  almoft  73  to  68 ; 
Males  baptized  are  to  the  marriea  as  72  4-  to 


33,  Females  near  68  to  33  j  Males  wed  to 
Males  buried  near  73  to  64 -rr,  Females  68  to 
67  i  the  Increafe  or  Males  t>  of  Females  -J 


the  buried  married  Males  are  to  the  unmarried 
as  33  to  3 It,  Females  as  33T  to  34;  each 
Wedding  had  above  44-  Childrisn.  In  the 
ninth  Divifion  of  this  Period,  Males  baptized 
are  to  Females  as  34  -^  to  almoft  33  ;  Males 
baptized  are  to  the  married  as  34  ^^  to  23  ^, 
Females  near  33  to  23  ttt  j  Males  wed  to  bu- 
ried 23  Tff  to  33  -Jtt,  "Females  23  ttt  to  35  t. 
Increau  of  Males  94,  Decreafe  of  Females  4-t  i 
.      .  D  4  the 


by  Google 


Uo  ) 

the  buried  anmanied  Mal^  ore  to  the  mar* 
lied  as  lo  to  .23,  Fcmal^f  a^  19.  to  23. 

In  the  lail  pivifioa.of  t^  firft  Period, 
Males  are  £0  l^^malei  fts  1 3  t9  1 2  j  Mjjes  b:^ 
tized  are  tq  ^e  marriqf  as  a6  to  15 -t,  Fe* 
males  as  24  to  ^Sj^i  ^^^e#;:W«d  to'buried 
as  154  tp-3^4i  *^^"^*?  y4  to  a6i;  the 
Pecreafeof  Males  is  74,.offen¥des2g8  J  the 
x^Euried  Males  buriea  are  to  the  uomanied  as 
xr^  to  Ji,  Fem^csias  1^^^  10^  Itfth*^ 
fifth  DivitioD  of  Period  focoDd,  Males  bapti- 
zed afe  toFeniales  as  3  9^(02  8 -It*  Males  tttp- 
tized  are  to  thfi  married  a&  2^  to  161  Females 
as2Bi7to-i6i  Males  baptiz<ed  ve:(Q  bt^ 
ried  as  29  to  30  -f,  ^oarried  to  buried  16  4,  to 
30  -^>  the  Decreafe  of  Males  is  shov»  4^,  of 
Females  r\v>  '  In  the  tenth  9nd.  Uid  DiflfifHi. 
the  baptized  are  to  the-  buiied  above.  11  to 
10,  the  locreafc  fomewhaj:  more  than-  7. 

The  Sum  of  all  the;,  DiviJ^pns  pf  Period 
^H,  is,  that  Males  baptized  wece  to  Females 
^42  to  .39 4^;. that  Majics  baptized  are  to 
married  above  42  to  20  ^^  Females  39  -rir  to 
alraoft  zo  -f  i  K^les  macri^  ace  to  buried  as 
20t  to  3s,.F«Hales  as;  zOt  tOiJo^Tii  Males 
Vaptize4  to.buricd  42  to  almoH:  3 1 ;  a^  4***  4-r 
xf  main  for  I^creaie ;  Famates  %  -n  The  un- 
jfufricd  buried  are  to  th|e^^n.edt  Males  io« 
^  20,  Females  g-fo  to-2pr.T^i  died  ip  Celi- 
bacy Males  25  p^r  Cff)/»7Femaics.  fcarce  zc. 
per  Cent.  feofCQ  .{bur  Children  to  each  Wed- 
ding. The  Toul  baptized  is  to  the- Total 
married,  as  4  159 .2.  Of  the  Males  born  in  this 
period,  479  furvive  for  Increafe  and  Export, 
above 


by  Google 


{4>  ).. 
above  die  whole  Number  that  died  m  In^ncy, 
Childhood,  and  Celibacy.  In  the  whole  fe- 
,cond  Period,  Births  are  to  Burials  as  97  to  8 1, 
Jncreale  i  ^  •»  Mdes  baptized  arc  to  Females 
above  89-1  to'ncar  8j,  or  above  22  to  21; 
Males  baptized  to  married  above  89  to  41, 
Females  almofl  85  to  40-rv}  Males  wed  to 
buried  40  -17  to  near  73,  Females  40  ttt  to  71 
44;  Males  bora  to  baried  near  85  to  71  -iir. 
The  total  Increafe  of  Males  is  1 6589,  Females 
3^3294}  ^  bivied  unmarried  Males  are  to 
the  married  as  40  4-ir  to  32  tt,  Females  as  40 
to  31  ;  the  Mala  that  die  in  Celibacy  arc  to 
the  baptized  as  ^2  w  to  above  89  t,  the  Fe- 
males 31  T-ff  to  aimoft  8  J  J  each  three  Wcd- 
^gs  produces  thirteen  Children.  The  whoitt 
married  are  to  the  haptized  as  40  to  $7.  If  m 
t;he  firft  Periixl  ^ra  fubftra£t  the  Surplus  of 
Males  to  Females  baptized,  which  is  2761  ; 
from  the  Surplus  of  Males  baptized  to  burled^ 
vhkh  is  1 1075,  there  remains  5553,  which 
H  3828  le&  than  die  Surplus  of  Females  bap- 
tised to  the  buried;  then  3828  more  Males 
have  exported  themfelves  than  Females,  op 
tfvtty  -i-r  Male,  Again,  in  Period  fccond,  if 
we  likewiie  SabBx^  the  SorpkiG  of  Males  to 
Females  baptized  (which  is  4576)  from  the 
Suq^us  of  Males  baptized  to  buried  (which  is 
6589)  theie  remains  2013,  whkh  is  11281 
1^  than  the  Surplus  of  Females  baptized  to 
the  buried  ;  then,  we  have  2013,  or  4-r  more 
MaJe  Exporta  than  Females.  Thus,  from  the 
B.egiftv$,  .may  be.  difcovcred  the  Excefe  of 
Male  Exports  to  Female,  in  any  Village, 
Town, 


by  Google 


(42)  , 
Tovm,  or  City  ParUhes.  And  this  gives  ub 
pretty  near  the  Number  of  unmarried'  Men^ 
or  {itch  as  have  left  their  Wives  behind  them', 
and  gone  inK>  the  Army  or  Navy,  during  the 
Years  of  faithfully  kept  Regiftcrs. 

The  Abftraas  of  this  Table  might  have 
been  coofiderably  enlarged,  by  placing  them 
in  various  Lights,  in  dailiDg  a  few  Parities 
from  the  dry,  wild,  mountainous,  open,  hard, 
Lime,  or  Grtt-ftone  Country^  where  their 
Males  baptized  are  to  the  Females  as  17  to  15, 
their  Baptifins  to  their  Weddings  near  129  to 
23 ;  fo  that  there  are  5  t  Children  to  each 
Wedding,  &c.  But  there  being  fo  great  a  Dif> 
proportion  between  Males  and  Females,  their 
jooarried  fo  fruitful,  and  fo  inconfiderable  a 
Number  die  in  In&ncy  and  Childhood*  their 
Tilli^e  fb  fmail,  and  grazing  fo  little  Trouble, 
their  Manufa(3urie6,  or  Miiung  (if  they  have 
any)  being  fometimes  upon  a  Decay,  many 
of  the  up-grown  Males  export  themfclves; 
bat  fewer  of  the  Females  removing,  they  are 
the  greateft  Sufferers  on  the  Place.  Ther* 
might  have  been  lileewife  Places  given  on  for- 
merly woody  Ground,  but  now  ftubb'd  and 
clear'dj  or  on  marfhy  Ground  before,  but 
now  drained ;  by  which  both  are  become 
healthier.  This  Table  would  af&rd  feveral 
other  -mOTe  curious  than  profitable  Obferva- 
tions ;  but  our  chief  Delign  is  to  fee  the  Dif- 
ferences in  Situations  and  Soils,  as  to  the 
Health  or  Sickness,  long  or  fhort  Life,  Fruit- 
fiilnefi  or  Barrennefs  of  the  People,  the  feve- 
ral 


by  Google 


(43) 

ral  Difproportions  of  Sexes  bom  in  dii&rent 
Places,  and  FeriodG,  and  Times ;  their  Ex< 
ports  and  Imports,  locreaie  and  Decreale,  the 
Returns  of  their  Epidemicks,  more  fcvere  or 
mild  Effcds  of  Endemicks,  &r.  This  Scheme 
is  capable  of  great  Improvement  both  as  to 
Matter  and  Manner,  by  fuch  as  have  time  to 
colIeiA  Materials,  and  Judgment  to  difcem  the 
different  Effeds  of  feveral  Bunnelles,  ManU' 
£i33irics,  various  Diets,  ^nd  Ufes  of  the  other 
Non-naturals,  &c.  Befides  the  Soil,  fuch  would 
alfo  confider  the  Elevation  or  Depreflion  of 
the  Inhabitants  Situation ;  the  Coverings,  the 
Smoothne&  ot  Ruggedneis,  the  Drine^  or 
Wetnefi,  Opcnnefe  or  Woodinefs  of  the  Ha^ 
cesj  their  Nearnefs  to,  or  Diftance  from 
Standing  Waters,  Moraffes,  Bogs,  Fens,  &c. 
The  Numeroufnefs  or  Fewnefs  of  the  Inhabi- 
tants, on  diHerent  meafurcd  or  computed 
Areas  of  Ground ;  the  Circuraftance  of  the 
People,  whether  poor  or  rich,  their  Food 
whether  chiefly  vegetable  or  animal ;  what  b 
their  common  Drink  and  cheering  Cupsj  whe- 
ther they  live  temperately  and  vertuoufly,  &c. 
I  Ihould  now  come  to  the  Ufes  of  die  laft 
Column  in  the  Table,  inz.  on  fickly  and 
mortal  Years ;  but  that,  with  the  Inferences 
from  this  and  ^p  firft  Table,  I  ihall  poftpone 
to  another  Place. 


TABLE 


by  Google 


(44) 
TABLE    THIRD. 

The  Abftrads  of  Regiftcrs'offomc  Market- 
Towns.  Column  lil,  toe  Name  of  the  Town  j 
Column  2d,  3d  of  both  Periods,  the  Years 
wherein  the  Abflnufh  begins  and  ends.  Co- 
lumn 4th,  the  Number  of  Years.  Columa 
5Ch,  Males  baptized.  Columa  6th,  the  Fe- 
males 


Petiod  Fiiff. 

DiviTion  Firil. 

Piefcod 

■  63a 

,64s 

'M 

8,5 

a,o  176! 

300 

S!i 

4«» 

1033  i 
2607  j 

Chdtcnhin 

IJSS 

1647 

9' 

2083 

1921 

4004 

839 

127! 

'33» 

Uppii.gh.m 

'!!' 

,613 

« 

499 

SO. 

1000 

HS 

332 

347 

l!79  i 

Liveipool 

l66t 

1680 

.0 

688 

604 

1*92 

140 

482 

343 

827  j 

Halli^ 

164] 

.36, 

« 

jfi,. 

■399 

3S37  \\ 

54 

*7' 

464 

94' 

242 

348 

3S7 

703   J 

Luton 

ifcj 

1639 

37 

2397 

S10 

1767   i 

HnthtnlieU 

Middlewidi 

Ftnitoi 

Bradford 

1600 

16,0140 

38.3 

!8>4 

7637 

2208 

1304 

2846 
70s 

S3SOi. 

Wigton 

i6o8r6so'43 

1130 

1 101 

2131 

407 

867 

1632  J 

CtMbr«ok 

ls6o;i6j9^8<. 

37.6 

3S5' 

7277 

19,8 

2918 

2827 

3733 1*, 

Bunfly 

i569'i62!S! 

1081 

lOJO 

2112 

632 

8.7 

838 

168! 

Tivenon 

1360163980 

6o8i 

S903 

.1988;   31,8 

4426 

49'9 

9343  3 

NaDiwidi 
Hull 

i6io'i64o'3i 

'47" 

14,8 

29.9       322 

1104 

1268 

'"'r 

S.Mm'sNottingh 

l6oji636'34 

2807     .017 

2.6,'a 

Mmficld 

I3?9'i6:z34' 

2,38'      565 

.670A 

1        1    ti9soiij.7 

43.6710331 
12973'   3321 

.5644.6346 

31990, 

1        1        1  -1          1          lse.i4oi»0!sl          '          I4IS)J    1 

by  Google 


{«) 

males  baptized.  Column  7tb,  the  Totals  of 
both.  Column  8th,  the  Weddings.  Column 
9th,  Males  buried.  Column  lothj  Females 
buried.  Column  nth.  Totals  of  both.  Co- 
lumn 1 2th,  the  Increase  or  Decreafe.  Column 
13th,  of  the  fecond  Period,  the  Number  of 
fickly  and  mortal  Years  in  both  Periods,  with 
the  Numbers  baptized  and  buried.  N.  B.  The 
rererled  Figures  Oiew  the  Decreafe. 

Peiiod  Second:      IXvi%)n  Fiift. 


i.vCoogIc 


(46) 


Peilod  Firft.      Divifioa  Second. 


>Jottkwicli 

130s 

>6o 

533 

346 

■079 

Wirkfwortli* 

ShrfdH 

.1830 

3310 

S04S 

497« 

10023, 

Leeds  Town  only 

BubuT 

.6e! 

'«43 

«4Si 

5=94 

CUIerCeU 

wi 

"744 

»99S 

3^3' 

6..6^1 

Heltou  Mowber 

VS»7 

1010 

4073  V 

Wilcefield 

B&wtr/ 

Warnngton 

366. 

«M 

.706 

168. 

3388,' 
.084,! 
4400|V 
9SO  r', 

UxltOD 

•311 

!9" 

■04( 

1038 

KinsTdilF 
Ke^ich 

Se.8  .,Se 
1Z97     30« 
(S9..  1887 

1144 

486 

..<(. 
^ 

Rotherham 

5464  '!SS 

*S99!  'S"' 

King/bridge 

767I    .So 

304I    3'3 

6'7rt 
4.07^ 

Pontefrafl 

43JS    "«^ 

Pickering 

3=.4     8,3 

.«„    H3» 

tf8S4   4016I 

1100842140! 

1                                          640*5 1^646 

1          '558.3! 

*  It  is  a  laige  €0011117  PariJli,  with  Icvcial  Chapels,  snd  %  foull  Market-TowD. ; 


by  Google 


■(  47  ) 


Period  Second.        Divlflon  Second. 


r-.:-.",' 

3i    1113    109. 

22041    jia    91a    949. 

1868-A  1,0        5.4       «;o 

^V}3 

3,  iiic    ziii 

422!     ood  .83T^  ia,6 

37"7  i 

11     1334    »S69, 

■nr;i 

»c       21 J       iJ4 

447       f]     '97     >82 

379I  7 

7      m      t6o 

a:'i:4! 

105,4610113892 

2«i02  l3«a. 57,3,4663 

3039<'i*-'-   f*  '"'W  136741 

toi-!! 

74 

1124610893 

22119  78551196711692 

236S9|V 

^■'-3r 

9» 

1946    »949 

5895    i6sa  .791    2813 

S604!V. 

25     1597    >67< 

..iTJi 

4i 

»8*3    '794 

J677   133J  1641    1749 

33J0,AI 

JO    2423     )3M 

.:r4j 

IOC 

5245   1085 

iSS 

2S     1327     2216! 

«:irj3 

54 

*m 

915,   K.2S  4240  3,38 

13     2257    *7'7| 

s-'iru 

8c 

1344     J7S     71*.    770 

>4«61t'i 

21         364        665: 

■;:ir+i 

J"^ 

!J79     !'J9 

4618   1670.  2671I  2622 

S293yr 

'7    *3oo    357«! 

^ii7i» 

9* 

2806     2586 

5392    1223    2448  2428 

4!76»\, 

3!  "3S4  207« 
.5    136s    309s! 

■■■TH 

3» 

3966   .073          1 
2651     394   l'30,  '1*7 

36382V 

:^V5- 

9f 

1J64    11S7 

pi 

24     602      «37i 

'r-rr 

J' 

'849     7;; 

}>     '409    'ISP 

■«:i'73 

9' 

♦75'  4443 

9199  23B7  434;  4154 

8499  A 

27    27,8    3!2o: 

21         416        640 

^«'7) 

U 

7<4    7"      1436     371     7"     *»« 

'5'9u'« 

■:''■+ 

1; 

1               1931     £91           1 

■«*« 

19     1649     2l8j 

'■''''t 

9- 

1917    1758     j57s    1077  I'9o  >99J'    *i83l    f 

14    389'     «8ii 

( 

i3+89,S  10?  1 104560  30269  ;35jo5i9i4ioS444l 

1  i2ggi    3574!          1             127-3! 

■17>JI3B«43I          1           ""^7 

373S»  5"47 

by  Google 


(48) 


Period  Flrft.      DuriTion  Thkd* 


Ttthi 


by  Google 


{*9) 


Period  Second.      Divifion  Third. 


716 

'7*i 
'74! 
17*! 
'74i 
1739 
174! 
74" 

mi 

733 

to 

t2 

«: 

so 

76 

rfji 
4813 
■S'9 
IJ09 
J9S 

i8,j 
.367 

zt66 
43  90 

\"l 
287 
JSI8 

.607 

H40 

57-I7 

9aoJ 

30&. 

2427 
S8o 

7'7i 
2156. 

34«o 
'077S 

H07 

36.11    2446   2i!3 

••'13    ^'J  "ll 
ti6ci    20S9  216S 

811      1273    I2l9 

14S       238     261 

229. 

817     i8s6   1791 
3=39 
1430     1491    1441 

6^' 

ii392iv 
293«V 

.9  43.!    6607 
.6  49«j    7520 
27  2470    3866 
36  2637    5387 
7     394      S27 

10  8634  .384. 
23    912     1437 

19  2551     3982 

20  735     1062 

■7S'8 

.68i7 

34385 
1077s 
Jl!6l 

14258    1540813210 
S«39 

286,8 
182,. 
■71451 

1 

667jri7497            1          1  7399(1 

16670  22330 

1 

108784 

■  03449 

.1123368471  io.8ji|9873s  igoss'i 
JI914!  9034                      t  38060' 

1 

iii6il         1           1         1  ;7"4ii 

i;ol.rfC™oi»l.l            I.64708I         1           1          l.i!7!7l 

Several 


by  Google 


(  50  ) 

Several  of  the  Muiket-Towns  in  this  third 
Table,  being  very  fmall,  can  be  reckoned  lit- 
tle more  tlian  Country  Vilifies }  nor  can  they 
di^  much  fivm  them  inHealthinefs,  their 
Situations  confidered :  Others,  though  feeming 
pretty  large,  yet  a  gpod  Part  of  me  Parities 
lie  in  the  Country  t  as  HiUifaXy  ^tbersJUld, 
Wirkfwortb.  Leeds  has  eight  Chapels  belong- 
ing to  it  in  the  Country^  whiui  for  twelve  Years 
laft  paft  have  buried  com.  ann.  253,  and  the 
Town  318.  About  i-6th  of  SS^idFariih 
lies  in  the  Counti^  j  fome  of  CbefierJUldf  aod 
Bradford.  Kefmtck  Town  is  only  a  good 
Country  Village,  but  the  Parilh  is  very  ezten- 
five,  and  lies  fcattered  in  the  narrow  Straiths 
among  thefe  lofty  Pikes }  it  has  feven  Chapels 
belonging  to  it,  &f.  Sothatmoftof  thelargeft 
of  them,  being  only  a  Mixture  of  Town  and 
Country,  iew  of  the  Abflrads  of  the  RegiAers 
muft  be  depended  upon,  as  though  they  were 
only  large  Towns.  Here  is  alfo  another  In- 
convenience, that  fome  of  the  Towns  have 
the  healthieft  Situations  of  any  in  the  King- 
dom, as  Prefcod^  Wigten^  Pemjhn,  Q>ehenbam, 
Xlpptngbam^  and  we  have  fcarce  any  of  the  Sickly 
to  anfwer  them.  In  the  three  Diviiions  in  the 
£rft  Period,  the  Baptized  are  to  the  Buried,  as 
1554-  to  133,  little  above  i-7th  Incresdei 
Chriftenbgs  to  Weddings,  4tVto  i;  ot  4  j 
Children  to  1 1  Marriages;  the  Married  are  to 
the  Buried  about  38  to  67.  In  the  iecond 
Period,  the  Baptized  are  to  the  Buried,  as  24 
to  22 4,  or  iV  Part  fi]r  Increalei  dw Eta^zed 
to  the  Marri^  near  24  to  15 }  the  Married  to 
i  the 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(5') 

the  Buried  abont  15  to  aa  i ;  but  more  paith> 
culaiiy. 

In  the  firft  IMrifioi}  of  Period  firft,  the  Bap- 
tized are  to  the  Buried  above  56  to  41  i, 
fcarce  i<'4th  remains  j  the  Baptized  are  to  the 
Married  above  c6  to  26 ;  tfie  M^ied  are  to 
^tie  Buried  as  2Qto  41^;  Males  baptized  to 
Females  about  21  7-ioths  to  21 ;  Males  bonj 
are  to  married  above  43  i  to  2 1  j  Females  42 
to  21 ;  Mdes  born  are  to  the  buried  near  22 
to  1 5 1 ;  Males  buried  are  to  the  married  Uttle 
above  15  to  10 ;  33/^  Cmt.  die  in  Ceiilacy. 
The  Females  baptized  are  to  the  buried  about 
21  to  i6>  Htde  above  i-4th  for  Increale;  the 
Buried  to  the  Married  16  -A  to  10  f. 

In  Divifion  firft  of  Period  fecond.  Totals 
baptized  are  to  Totals  buried»  as  80  to  73  f  j 
Totals  baptized  to  diarrricd,  as  80  A  to  52  5 
Totals  married  to  buried  as  52  to  above  73  f. 
Each  Wedding  produces  little  above  three 
Children.  Males  raptiz'd  are  to  Females  about 

36  to  35  ;  Males  bom  to  married  fcarce  37  to 
24 ;  females  35  f  to  near  24.  The  Total  of 
Females  baptized  to  the  buried,  about  36  to 
33>  Increafe  -iV ;  Males  'born  to  buried  near 

37  to  33  J  the  buried  to  the  married  near  33 
to  24,  -rr  die  unmarried ;  Females  baptized  to 
the  iMiried  351  to  about  33  i,  Increafe  little 
about  Vt!  above  9- A  of  3  3- A  die  unmar- 
ried. 

In  Divifion  fecond,  Period  firft.  Totals  bap- 
tized arc  to  buried,  as  64  to  almoft  56,  litue 
above   i-%th  Increafe ;   the  baptized  to  the 
married  64  to  31  i-fth  j  the  married  to  the 
£  2  buried 


i.vCoogIc 


fwried  as  31  i-5th,  to  almoft  561  of  etf  2At 
die  unmarried.  Males  bom  are  to  Femdes 
ntai  24^  to  23  i  Males  bom  to  married  are 
above  24  to  1 1  j  married  to  buried  1 1 1  to  2 1  s 
bom  to  buried  24  4^  to  2  f .;  Females  baptized  to 
married  above  23  to  ii^i  married  to  buried 
iiit0  2ij  baptized  to  buried  23  T  to  21.  In 
the  fame  Diviuon  of  Period  fecond,  the  Totals 
baptized  exceed  the  buried  by  almoil  -rr  i  the 
baptized  are  to  the  married  near  1 17  to  67  *  ; 
the  married  are  to  the  buried  above  67  i  to 
1 18  i  Males  baptized  are  to  Females  as  53  ^  to 
51,  or  near  18  to  17;  Males  married  to  buried 
as  304  to  53-1-;  baptized  to  buried  53  f,  to 
above  53-1:}  Females  baptized  to  married  51  to 
304 ;  married  to  buried  30  to  almoft  52  j  not 
two  Children  to  each  Wedding ;  of  the  Totals 
buried  32  4i  of  each  u  8- die  unmarried. 

In  the  laft  Divifion  of  Period  firit.  Totals 
baptized  are  to  the  buried,  as  1534-^  I33> 
the  baptized  to  the  married  as  ic^  |,  to  almoft 
75  ;  each  Wedding  produced  above  4^  Chil- 
dren }  the  married  are  to  the  buried  almoft  75 
to  133,  Increafe  near  T  i  Males  baptized  are  to 
Females  above  100  A  to  95.  Above  half  of 
the  Males  born  are  married,  and  of  Females 
near  51  to  95}  Males  married  to  buried  51 
per  Cent,  Females  51  to  loi  j  Males  baptized 
to  buried,  above  103  to  100  j  Females  95  to 
10 1.  In  the  laft  Divifion  of  Period  fecond. 
Totals  baptized  are  to  the  buried,  as  66  -A  to 
near  74 ;  baptized  to  married  66  -A  to  almoft 


^J 


far  fhort  of  two  Children  to  each  Wed- 


ding; married  to  buried  35  to  74;  above  half 
died  unmarried }  Males  baptized  to  Females 

not 

,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(si) 

not  17'to  16}  Males  baptized  to  wed  17  4- to' 
14T;  wed  to  buried  14^  to  15^;  Females 
baptized  to  wed  i6Tto  147*  wed  to  buried. 
i4ttoi3Ti  DecreafcTVt. 

It  may  be  expefbed  that  the  yearly  Births 
and  Burialfi  of  each  Town,  taken  at  a  Medi-. 
um,  Jhould  have  been  added  to  the  Table ; 
but  that  would  have  anfwered  no  Purpofe  with. 
Certain^,  as  all  Towns  of  Trade,  great  Tljo- 
rough&rs,  &c.  flu^ate  often,  and  many  o£ 
them  differ  much  in  the  Periods  given. 

But  we  ihall  next  compare  the  State  of 
Generation  and  Mortality  in  England^  witb 
that  of  fbme  Places  in  Germany,  whofe  Bills 
of  Mortality  we  have  in  fome  Pbibfopbical 
7ranfa£iions*.  There  for  333655  bom,  83874 
were  married,  and  245632  were  buried;  the 
firft  is  to  the  laft  near  16  4  to  12  j  to  the  fe» 
cond  as  4  to  2  ;  near  half  of  the  baptized  are 
married,  and  there  are  four  Children  to  each 
Wedding  i  above  two-thirds  of  the  buried 
were  married  ;  the  born  being  to  the  buried 
above  16  T  to  12  J  then  VVds  were  for  Export 
andlncreafe;  but  of  the  baptized  914S  were 
Baftards,  which  is  near  -fV^>  ^  fearce  -rrth. 
Take  we  a  general  Lift-ofthe  King  of  Pruffia'^ 
Dominions  for  fbme  Years  preceding  1728, 
it  Aands  thus : 

Bom  Married  Buried 

^^7S57,  '574^°  426085 

The  nrft  is  to  thp  fecond  above  double,  and 
every  Wedding  has  near  four  Children  {  the 
fecond  is  to  the  third  near  3 1  to  42  j  the  bom 
are  to  the  buried  almoft  as  3  to  z^    Tho'  this 
E  3  be 

•  No  380,  381,  400,  409. 

,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(J4) 

be  the  general  State  of  that  Prince't  Domt' 
luons,  3ret  if  they  are  looked  into  mote  Aar-- 
rowty,  a  wide  Difference  may  \x  fbuhd ;  far 
in  about  forty  of  Ills  Borou^  Towns^  weto 
baptized  20994,  married  4287,  buried  11047. 
Ja  Geldertty  in  1717  and  1718,  were  bdm 
4043,  ftiarried  986,  buried  2130,  &c.  Here 
^M  bom  are  to  the  buried*  as  40  to  2 1  i  tho 
married  to  the  buried  about  194-  to  zi  t  tho 
ttianied  to  the  chriflened  1 9  ^  to  40,  and  above 
four  Children  for  each  Wolding.  Were  fuch 
Places  for  fbme  Years  exempted  from  the  com- 
Aoa  Corre^Uves  of  the  R^undancy  of  Man- 
kind, tljtcy  would  double  the  Number  of  tbetr 
Inlubitahts  in  about  thirty  Years.  A  prodi* 
geous  Increaie  \ 

From  fereral  Places  in  Germanyt  we  are 
more  particularly  informed  of  the  late  Condi- 
tions of  Li&  of  the  Dead,  as  from  Breflt^g^ 
i^rMm^  LahoBy  Leifificy  £cc.  where  of  ^645 
bnned;  20944  were  married,  which  is  above  t* 
the  o^r  ^ths  died  in  Childhood  and  Celibacy. 
Bat  more  particularly,  of  24122  baptized, 
12534  married,  2S645  boried,  here  the  kft  are 
4523  more  tlnm  the  &ft ;  ^ths  of  the  laft  died 
in  Wedlock,  4645  wore  married  Men,  which 
is  near  4  of  tlu  whoJe;  and  only  2988  mar- 
ried Women,  which  is  about  i^ths  of  the  bu- 
ried. The  Widows  and  Widowers  were  2839, 
or  about  Ath.  But  as  near  46  married  Men 
fwere  buried,  £dr  only  29  married  Women ; 
ib  Widowers  buried,  were'to  Widow!s  about 
Bi  to  73 '.  The  Proportion  of  married  Men : 
buried,  is  to  Widowers  as  135  to  28 ;  married 
Women 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(5J) 

Womoi'to  '^Vldow6  ae  96  to  85  3  the  Propor- 
tioa  of  married  Men  and  Widowers,  is  to  mar- 
ried Women  and  Widows,  near  as  16  to  i8> 
or  6  to  9  ;  that  of  Widowers  to  Widows,  about 
28  to  85.     I  ^U  add  that  of  241 22  baptised, 
1236c  w«e  Males,  and  11757  Females;  then 
the  {aperior  Number  of  Maks  to  Females, 
obtains  as  weti  in  other  Countries  as  here. 
Now,  for  the  {everal  States  of  Life  in  which 
they  died,  fuch  as  died  in  Celibacy  above  ten 
Years  old,  were  1503,  or  iV  of  the  whole  ; 
the  Maidens  were  1260,  or  Iktle  above -rrd. 
There  died  Males  under  ten  Years  old  .7368, 
which  is  to  the  Males  born  near  7  to  12 ;  as 
the  Batchelors  were  i  4.    The  baptized  Girls 
which  died  under  ten,  were  6290,  which  is 
aboot  6  out  of  1 1  f ;  as  the  Maidens  that  died 
above  this  Age,  were  lels  than  A-  of  the  Males, 
and-/r  of  the  Females.    Deiirous  to  fee  how 
fta  onr  Regifters  agree  with  the  f<Heign,  in 
fome  of  thefe  Particulars,  I  confulted  the  Re- 
giftcr  of  a  large  Inland  Town ;  whofe  Births 
bdog  "10337,    284  whereof  were  BaAards, 
which  is  above  -rr,  tho*  the  Town  was  noted 
fbr  Induilry,  not  for  Lcwdnefs.  I  alfo  extracted 
all  the  Births  of  three  large  Farifhes,  during  a 
raniiderablc  Series  of  Years,  and  found  the 
fingle  Births  to  be  11415,    the  Twins  and 
Tergemini  311,  or  1  of  33.    In  the  former 
Regifters  of  fome  other  Market  Towns  {&x  of 
late  Still-bcH'ns  are  never  entered  in  tlus  Re- 
giiUrs)  I  found  the  Article  of  Chryfoms  and 
Still-faorus,  to  be  above  -i4  of  the  whole  bu- 
ried, and  Vr  of  the  born.    The  like  I  tried  in 
£  4  fome 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


feme  laborious  Country  Pwiflies,  osd  they 
were  as  1 1  of  1 3  to  the  buried,  but  not  i  of 
17  to  the  born.  In  neither  of  theie  baye  we 
any  Abortives,  for  tbey  are  never  enter«d  ii) 
our  R^lilers.  In  the  German  Regifters,  of 
23853  buried,  1715  were  ChryfoHM  j^nd  Still- 
born, which  is  about  -rr  of  the  whole ;  of 
which  Cbryfoms  and  Si^ll-bom,  Males  were 
to  Females  as  10  to  7}  and  Boys  that  died 
under  10  Years  old  to  Girls,  as  62  to  53 }  and 
Batchelors  to  Maids,  above  12  to  1 1.  Having 
.thus  compared  and.  found  the  Agreement  of 
foreign  and  home  Regifters,  in  fearchablc 
comparable  Articles,  we  ought  and  may  fa&ly 
truft  to  the  near  Harmony  in  other  Things, 
infcrutable  in  ours,  Leifjfc  feeips  a  little  more 
unfavourable  to  Child-bed  Women,  than  Came 
other  German  Towns,  for  1  of  52  of  them 
die.  Such  as  die  betiyeen  feventy  and  eighty 
Years  of  Age,  are  to  the  whole  as  i  in  33  j 
-fuch  as  die  between  eighty  and  ninety,  as  i 
in  65.  Thefc  that  die  in  Vienna,  from  -90  to 
100,  as  I  in  300.  In.  the  pruffian  Domini- 
ons, they  that  die  between  700  and  120  Years 
old,  are  I  of  250.  This  is  the  exadteft  Ac- 
count I  have  hitherto  met  with,  of  the  Heakji 
'  and  Longivity  of  any  Country.  But  tho'  wt 
find  a  prodigious  Increafe  in  fome  Places  of 
Germany^  let  us  enquire  whence  this  arifes ; 
for  Vienna^  Venice^  Drefden,  Friburg,  6cc.  have 
88  Burials  for  63  Chriftenings.  Aujbwgj  in 
3 1  Years,  buried  30694,  baptized  284281 
fireJlaUf  iq  eight  Years,  buried  12057,  Mpti- 
Coyrts, 


by  Google 


(S7). 

zed  100 18.  This  Ihews  that  great  Princes 
Courts,  Univerlities,  ^eat  Manu&dorieSj  Pla-< 
ces  of  great  Refort,  and  Sea-pons  of  much 
Bofinefs,  &c.  require  a  Concourfe  of  People 
both  to  preferve  their  prefent  Numbers,  and 
for  Increafe.  This  fliews  the  manifeft  Differ- 
ence between  a  clear,  open,  free,  thin  Air, 
and  a  clofe,  fultry,  fmoaky  Atmofphere,  not 
ventilated,  but  loaded  with  excrementitious 
and  animal  Effluvia ;  and  between  a  moderate 
difcreet  Ufe  of  the  fimple  Necefliries  of  Life 
with  due  Exercife  j  and  an  effeminate,  floth- 
ful,  luxurious  fpending  our  Days ;  and  between 
regular  and  irregular  Hours  of  ReA  and  R&- 
jWt  I  alfo  confulted  fome  ReglAers  to  find 
the  DiHerence  in  the  Death  of  Infants,  and 
found  it  to  ftand  thus,  London  buries  almoft 
39  per  Cent,  under  two  Years  old ;  Edinburg 
and  Norebampten 34 or  ^^ySbeJield 28 ;  Coun- 
try Places  according  to  their  Situation,  from 
30  to  28. 

We .  want  a  Number  of  foreign  monthly 
Regifti^rs,  for  a  long  Series  of  Years,  to  comv 
pare  their  fatalcft  or  healthieft,  fruitfulleft  or 
baxreneft  Seafons  with  ours ;  but  probably  we 
ihould  find  them  much  alike,  allowing  for 
the  different  Approach  and  Expiration  of  Sea- 
foDS  fooncr  or  later  than  ours.  Nor  have  I 
feen  any  of  their  Bills  give  the  Number  that 
die  in  each  Decad  of  Liie,  like  the  London 
Bills. 

Now  for  fome  mifcellaneous  Ob&rvations 
on  the  two  lafl  Tables. 

■A 


by  Google 


(  /8  ) 

lyf,  Rfcgiflsrt  are  not  only  Ac  fiireft  Tcff 
tvhat  Places  haVe  the  beft  Air,  Situaticm,  and 
Soil,  and  enjoy  the  grcateft:  Health  and  long 
Life,  or  prove  moll  fickly  and  hxaX  to  the 
Inhabitants,  but  of  the  diim^nt  EfFeAs  of  fe- 
Tcr4  Trades  or  Mana&duries,  in  the  £ime  rx 
lake  Situations.  2.  To  come  at  a  right  Know- 
ledge  of  the  various  Ef&ds  of  diffoent  Soils, 
Situations,  and  Buiinefles  of  Life,  Country 
Regifters  only  can  be  depended  upon ;  for  the 
Air  is  purer  and  freer  from  Mixture,  the  Peo- 
ples Diet  iimpler  and  plainer,  and  they  are 
more  regular  in  the  reft  of  the  Non-naturals, 
than  the  Inhabitants  of  Towns  and  Cities. 

idfy.  Of  Country  Regifters  thefe  are  the 
fureft,  where  the  whole  Parifh  is  only  one 
Village,  its  Inhabitants  all  having  the  feme 
Air,  Situation,  and  Way  of  Life;  But  large 
Pariftee,  confifting  of  fevcral  diftinft  Villages 
iand  Hamlets,  fying  in  various  Situations,  Soils, 
Air,  &c.  are  not  fo  uniforni. 

^d/y,  Regifters  alone  can  acquaint  us  with 
the  Healthinefs  or  SickUqefs,  fiiort  or  long 
Life  of  the  Bihabitants,  oA  the  £tme  Soil  ana 
Situation,  but  u£ng  different  Eatables  and 
Drinkables,  and  purfiiing  Virtue  or  Vice.  Fear 
take  an  equal  Numberof  Regifters  of  Parishes, 
of  fuch  dicing  Inhabitants,  compare  the 
Extrads  of  their  Oiriftenings  and  Burials ;  and 
■vriiere  the  Births  bear  the  largcft  Proportion, 
or  have  the  greateft  M^ority,  they  mve  the 
hcaltfaieft  Food,  Bulinelus,  or  are  more  vir- 
tuous. 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgIC- 


(59) 
4ihfyt  lUglfters  afford  as  thefe  ufeful  aad 
cemin  Profics  of  the  Healthincfs  of  any  Place 
or  Pariih,  for  by  confulting  them,  for  a  bng 
Series  of  Years  backward,  either  to  their  be- 
gioiiii^  in  15381  or  to  the  commencing  of 
Qneen  Elizafeut's  Reign  in  1558.  Firfi,  the 
finaller  Number  the  Married  bear  to  the  Bap- 
tized (if  the  Place  is  not,  or  adjoins  Bot  to  a 
Soirogacy,  Exempt,  Donative,  or  is  mach 
fieqaented  for  Nmriage  with  Licence,  or  has 
not  a  coofiderable  Body  of  Dificnters,  wh<^ 
Chrifteningfi  are  either  negle£led  ch-  denied  to 
be  entered  in  die  Church  RegiAers ;  yet  thb 
People  marry  and  bnry  at  the  Church)  as 
from  13  to  30,  to  23  of  47.  Secottdfyt  from 
the  greater  Difproportion  or  Inequality  there 
it  between  Males  and  Females  baptized,  as 
from  9  Males  to  8  Females  j  to  22  Males  for 
21  Females,  or  2.  mnch  le&  DiifvAportion  ftill. 
Tbirdh^  from  the  Paucity  that  die  in  Infancy, 
Childhood,  Youth,  and  Celibacy,  as  from  20 
«  25  per  Cera,  to  57  per  Cent,  (x  upwards. 
Fotirth/y,  from  thel'^mber  of  Exporte  (Force 
M  Neceffity  not  expelling  them)  as  from  n  i 
to  {4.  lyihfy,  from  the  Number  of  Chil- 
dren bam  for  every  Marriage,  as  from  5 1  to 
.3,  or  under.  Sixtbly,  from  the  greater  Dif- 
propcHtion  there  is  between  ChriAenings  and 
Barials,  com.  am.  (both  being  carefully  re^ 
gifteied)  as  from  30  to  18,  or  47  to  35,  or 
lower;  the  reverfed  Country  Places  arc  juftly 
termed  bad  or  unhealthy,  if  there  is  not  a 
great  Refort  of  In-comers,  and  few  or  no 
Experts  i  there  the  Burials  may  near  eqaoKze, 


by  Google 


(  6o) 
yea  exceed  the  Chriflenings,  and  yet  the  Place 
be  very  healthy  ;  but  this  leldom  happens  la 
Country  Parifhes. 

^tbly.  The  more  Births  exceed  Burials  in 
healthy  Years,  the  le&.will  the  Difproportion 
be  in  fickly  pr  mortal  Seafons ;  yea  irequendy 
the  latter  much  exceeds  the  former. 

btblyj  It  is  Idlenels  or  Ignorance  to  cfUmat« 
the  Hcalthinefs  if  any  Place,  from  its  having  a 
lew  old  People  ;  for  fuch  Places  are  not  habi-^ 
table,  where  fomc  Conftitutioos  (cfpedally  fuch 
as  are  inured  to  them)  will  not  weather  out 
Life  to  old  Age  in  any  Soil  or  Sitjiation.  For 
the  Choleric  and  Melancholy,  .or  fuch  as  have 
naturally  too  tenfe  Fibres  and  Veflels,  or  too 
Arong,  grumous,  and  earthy  Juices,  will 
wear  long  in  a  low,  wet,  ouzy  Situation,  tho" 
they  are  moftly  the  Natives  of  dry,  wild, 
mountainous  Places.  The  Pituitous  and  Phleg- 
matick,  whofe  Fibres  and  Veflels  are  weak 
and  lax,  their  Fluids  thin  end  inelaborated 
.(often  born  in  low,  wet,  or  watery  Places)  do 
well  on  high,  dry,  wild,  rocky,  and  moun- 
tainous Places. ' 

.  ytbly^  The  moft  barren,  mountainous,  rug- 
ged, open  Places,  if  dry,  and  Peoples  Habi*. 
tations  lie  neither  too  high  on  the  Mountains, 
nor  too  low  in  the  Vallies,  nor  ftraitly  fliut  in 
between  lofty  Mountains,  are  of  all  others  the 
healthieft.  The  more  populous  any  Place  is, 
commonly  there  is  the  lefs  Difference  between 
their  BirUis  and  Burials  j  hence  all  populous 
and  well-cultivated  champain  Grounds,  have 
Ctriftenings  and  Burials  come  nearer  each 
3  other, 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(6i  ) 

Other,  than  in  barren,  dry,  open,  and  moun- 
tainous Places.  May  not  this  be  charg'd,  firft 
to  a  greater  Quanti^  of  animal,  fulphureous, 
excrementitious,  and  other  Vapours  riiing  up 
into  the  Atmofphere,  cfpecially  in  the  Spring, 
when  the  Air  has  generally  a  greater  Elafticity 
and  PrelTure ;  as  we  fee  from  the  Mercury  in 
our  Barometers :  Or,  2dly,  to  greater  Occafi- 
ons,  and  Indulgence  of  Intemperance  and  De- 
bauchery aiBong  larger  Societies  and  Crowds  of 
People. 

Ztbhft  If  a  Place  abounds, '  or  is  furrounded 
with  quick  Springs,  running  Waters,  or  a  fluc- 
tuating fowling  Se^j  yet  if  the  Land  Is  dry 
and  open,  the  Earth  firm  and  hard,  and  foon 
drinks  in  the  Rain,  it  may  be,  and  is  very 
healthy.  But  where  much  Water  gathers, 
efpecially  if  it  ftagnatcs,  it  is  always  unwhol- 
fome.  Il  is  not  fomc  mcer  watery  Vapours 
only  that  makes  the  Air  unhealthy,  but  alfo  a 
Mixture  of  feveral  Exhalations  coUefted,  and 
arifing  from  feveral  Places  and  Things,  mixed 
with  Water,  and  fufpcnded  in  the  Air,  which 
makes  it  fickly. 

t)tbfyy  Our  RegiAers  prove  not  that  fuch 
Places  as  have  the  fweeteft,  fofteft  Waters, 
are  always  the  healthieft,  as  is  generally  ima- 

C"  al  ;  but  harder  Waters,  ftrained  through 
d  Iron-ftonc,  Grct-ftone,  Sand-ftone,  Gravel, 
thick  ftiff  Clay,  (Sc.  and  have  a  good  Defcent 
and  briflt  Morion,  we  obierve  to  be  healthier. 
-  lotbly.  By  comparing  our  own  and  foreign 
Regifters  together,  we  find  where  the  Births 
vaftly  exceed  the  Burials,  the  Country  is  either 

veiry 


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(62) 

very  healthy,  or  it  is  under  an  arbitrary  Gcv 
vcmment,  or  both.  The  firmer  is  known  by 
coffiparing  the  Weddings  with  the  Burials, 
where  we  fliaU  find  the  &r  greater  Part  died 
married,  and  few  died  in  In£mcy  or  Impu- 
berty ;  fweeping  Epidemiclu  or  Endemicks 
rarely  appear ;  Temperance  prevails^  and  there 
is  DO  occalion  for  Importi.  The  latter  i« 
known  from  the  general  Poverty  and  Thinnefs 
of  the  Inhabitants,  the  incultivated  Sute  of 
their  Country,  the  great  Number  of  their  Ex- 
ports i  tho'  more  MalcB  are  bom,  yet  the  Fu- 
nerals of  Females  fu  exceeds  them  j  there  ie 
little  Induftry  among  the  People,  becaufe  they 
want  Property ;  ufelels  Standing  Armies  ate 
kept  up  in  time  of  Peace,  ^ih*  the  Grandeur  of 
the  Tyrant,  maintaining  his  Tyranny,  and  the 
OpprcflxMi  of  his  People. 

I  ttbfyj  Where  the  Burials  greatly  exceed 
the  Chriilenings,  either  the  Situation  is  very 
unhealthy,  or  me  Government  is  limited.  The 
former  is  kno\m  fi-om  the  Frequency  and 
Mortality  of  Epidemuks  and  Endemkksj  die 
Neceffity  of  having  often  new  Supplies,  die 
great  Mortality  of  Children  in  Youdi,  the 
Rifenefs  of  Sicklinefs  among  the  Inhabitants, 
&c.  The  latter  is  known  from  the  great  Re- 
fiirt  of  Strangers,  L^jourers,  Arc£cers>  Mer- 
chants, &f.  Increafe  of  Bufinefs,  Trade,  and 
Riches :  Or  there  is  a  large  Body  of  People 
mix'd  with  the  Society,  of  diffwent  Manners 
and  Principles,  whofe  Baptifms  are  not  re- 
giftercd  with  the  reft. 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(63) 

iithfy.  The  UnhealtfainelB  of  a  Place  afieds 
Children  much,  and  many  of  them  it  either 
cuts  off,  or  reisers  difeaied  j  but  fuch  as  heal- 
thily furvive  that  State  of  Li&,  even  in  a  bad 
Air,  by  Regularity,  Tecnpcfahce,  and  a  fulta- 
Ue  Diet,  may  live  to  a  ^eat  Age  in  any  habi- 
table Pkce ;  hence  we  meet  with  more  or 
lels  old  People  in  all  Situations  and  Places. 

z  2f^fy»  AH  the  Regiilers  agree,  that  in  Ci- 
ties and  great  Towns  there  is  a  greater  Death 
of  In&nts  and  ChUdren,  than  in  Country  Flacea 
iQ  the  like  Situations:  Hence  a  free,  clear, 
open  Air,  is  mnch  better  for  Children,  than 
dc^  pent  up  Stoves.  Such  Parents  then  are 
furely  feulty,  who  deny  their  Children  a  pure, 
well  ventilated  Air,  when  their  Circumftances 
will  allow  it,  and  confine  them  to  the  Town 
or  City,  whoie  Atmofphere  is  loaded,  and  has 
its  Spnng  leflened  by  fulphureous,  and  other 
Steams,  lo  as  it  cannot  duly  inflate  and  diftend 
the  hangs  i  nor  comprefs  their  langui£u-ouB 
VeHels,  cool  the  Blood,  nor  communicate 
frefli  Fewcl  to  it ;  for  the  City  Air  is  full  of 
perfpired  Matter,  difcharged  from  both  dead 
and  living  animal  Bodies,  and  other  noxious 
Matter  ^  Matter  as  well  from  difcafed  as  heal* 
thy  Bodies,  and  may  infenfibly  convey  the 
Se«^  of  fevecal  Diftempers,  with  tbe  un- 
healthy State  of  thofe  Juices  they  exhaled 
horn.  Hence  thefe  noxious  Steams  fucked  in 
by  In&Dts,  may  &fe  or  thicken,  render  ialioc 
or  fliarp  their  Juices,  alter  or  afied  their  Bo^ 
dies,  and  expofe  them  more  to  Diforders :  As 
ftl£>  a  toe  frequent  Indulgence  of  animal  Food, 

too" 


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(64) 

too  great  Liberty  with  fpirituous  or  ftrong  Li-- 
quors,  Luxury,  Intempcnuice,  and  Debauch- 
ery of  Parents,  will  afFed:  their  Offspring. 
Again,  Mothers  or  Nurfes  want  of  Exercifc  to 
invigorate  their  Solids,  promote  Digeftions, 
and  facilitate  the  Difcharge  of  their  grofler 
Recrements,  muft  alfo  be  injurious  to  Infants. 
Others  deny  their  Children  the  Breaft  j  nay. 
Tome  nice  Dames  are  fo  proud  that  they  wont 
endure  their  poor  tender  Babes  to  lie  in  Bed 
with  them ;  and  what  is  ftili  more  Shocking, 
fomc  Mothers  won't  allow  them  a  Cradle, 
tho*  Excrcife  be  fo  abfolutely  neceffary  to 
Health  j  and  yet  this  is  all  that  young  Infants 
can  have.  Such  Mothers  deferve  to  be  im- 
paled for  Suicide, 

i^bly.  From  the  whole  of  our  Regifters  it 
is  very  obvious,  that  in  the  Choice  of  Habi- 
tations, or  in  judging  of  their  Healthinefs  or 
Sicklinefs,  a  greater  Regard  mufl  be  had  to  the 
Sur&ce  and  Situation,  than  to  the  Soil  or  fub- 
terraneous  Contents. 

I  $tblyy  The  Confideration  of  Regiflers  will 
(hew  us  how  beneficial  it  is  to  inure  our  Bo- 
dies to  cold  and  fimdry  forts  of  Weather  j  for 
being  accuAomed  to  it,  it  becomes  tolerable 
to  us,  and  hardens  us. 

■i6tbly\  The  great  Strength,  Hardinefs,  Sim- 
plicity of  Diet,  and  Longevity  of  the  Inhabi- 
tants of  diy  mountainous  Places,  their  Males 
marrying  fomc  Years  later  than  in  Towns  o» 
populous  champain  Countries  j  and  then  be- 
getting flrong  healthy  Children,  like  their 
long-Uvcd  hardy  ProgenitorSj  ^cat  Numbers 

an 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(6s) 
are  alive  at  dnce ;  Co  that  they  are  Ibmerinies 
longer  In  producing  a  Number  equal  to  the 
pvfent  Inhabitants,  than  in  fenny  and  more 
unhealthy  IHaces. 

lyihfyt  Inhabitants  of  wet,  low,  marihy, 
woody,  or  otherwife  unwhol^me  Situations, 
may  fometimcs  produce  a  Number  equal  to 
the  prefent  People  alive,  In  a  fhorter  tunc 
than  in  the  healthieft  Places ;  for  as  the  In- 
habitants are  generally  fliortcr  lived;  they 
marry  the  fooner  (tho*  from  the  Laidty  oi 
their  Stammtt  living  conltantly  in  a  moift 
Atmofphere)  they  are  uniitter  Sor  it;  and 
many  of  the  Offspring  in  fuch  Places  die  ia 
their  In£uicy  and  Childhood,  as  we  fee  from 
40  to  54  ptr  Cent,  Therefore  tho'  they  feem 
to  be  more  proUfick  (which  yet  is  falfe  when 
we  compare  their  3 1  Children,  or  at  moft  4, 
with  the  others  4^5,  or  5  f)  yet  they  miift 
have  frequenter  Supplies  of  ireUi  In-comers; 

i8/A^,  The  richeft,  fruitfuUeft,  and  pro* 
fitableft  Soils,  are  not  the  healthieft }  this  we 
fee  throughout  the  whole  Re^ftcrs ;  for  moft 
(^them  either  lie  low,  or  woody,  moift,  clayey, 
or  wet,  as  the  Iflc  of  £/)r,  Mardies  of  Lincahu' 
JIdre  and  Norfoiky  the  Hoidernefs  in  T^ri^rf, 

&C. 

I  gtbfyy  The  clofer  Towns  and  Villages  fland, 
th«  more  pent-up  the  Houfes,  the  lower  and 
clofer  the  Rfx»ns,-  the  narrower  iEhs  Streets, 
the  fmaller  the  Windows,  the  more  numerous 
the  Inhabitants,  the  unhealthier  ^e  Place. 
This  is  evident  lT<»n  iievend  Towns  in  our 
Tablcsj 

F  20. 


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(66) 
SO.  An  Atmofpbens  loaded  with  Moi(hire> 
is  unhealthy,  as  it  relaxes  the  Body,  diminifhes 
Perfpiration,  and  .adds  to  the  Fluids:  But 
when  the  Water,  floating  in  the  Air,  happens 
to  be  Exhalations  from  dead  or  living  Ani- 
mals, or  their  Excrements ;  from  Woods,  pu- 
trified  or  ftagnant  Water,  it  is  ftill  wcrfc,  not 
as  its  fimple  Element  only,  but  ss  it  is  ^xcre- 
mentitious,  having  not  only  loA;  its  nutritive 
Parts,  but  is  mix'd  with  Effluvia  injurious  to 
Health.  What  Hill  adds  more  to  the  Un- 
healthineis  of  fuch  Placed, .  is  .their  frequent 
Ufe  of  indifferent  Malt  Liquors^  which  are 
rather  too  Arong  for  idle  People,  or  too  fmall 
for  the  toiling  and  laborious ;  and  are  often 
only-  half  wrought,  thick,  un6iicd,  and  new ; 
thefc,  with  the  bad  moid  .Air,  are  apt  to  turn 
the  Venbls  of  the .  Body  lax  and  weak,  th< 
filood  fizy,  the  Secretions  and  Excr6tion&  im> 
perfed  i  hence  come  Agues,  Intermittents,  Re- 
mittents, Cachexies,  Dropfies^  Leucophlegma- 
cias,  &c.  epidemick.  The  Peoples  Hqufes  are 
crdinanly  mean,  and  their  Fire  little,  fo  that 
tficy  always,  as  it  were,  float  in  a  watery  Ele- 
ment; and  having  their  Alt  at  Stake,  they 
cannot  ealily  remove  from  fuch  Habitations, 
yet  they  might  ealily  be  bettered,  only  by  fluft- 
ii^  their  Habitations  from  that  Phce  to  the 
■next  open  clear  Eminence  (if  they  have  any 
fuch]  within  the  Grounds,  diilant  from  Woods, 
fens,  Marflies,  or  Meers.  As  the  loweft  Si- 
tuations are  far  from  being  the  he^thieft,  fb 
neither  tho&.too  high,,  for: Kcafons. given  be* 
fore.  , 

;  .  21; 

L,  ,z,;i:, Google 


(  67  ) 

21.  Chalk,  foft  Lime-ftone,  i^f.  being  dry, 
have  been  reputed  healthy  Situations,  but  our 
Regtflers  fay  the  contrary ;  and  that  not  from 
any  Exhalations,  Uit  from  the  Waters  carry- 
ing too  much  of  that  earthy  Matter  into  our 
Bodies,  and  there  either  occafions  a  Lentor  in 
the  Blood,  or  Obftrujftioni  in  the  fmallcr  Vcf- 
fels. 

22.  Regifters  compared  with  Hiftories  of 
the  Air  and  Seafons,  can  alone  clearly  prove 
the  EfFefts  of  different  Weather,  Seafons,  Food, 
Meteors,  &c.  on  human  Bodies }  and  whether, 
as  thefc  affcfS  our  Atmofpbere,  they  do  not, 
more  or  lefs,  infenfibly  afreft  our  Bodies. 

23.  Regifters  mull  be  our  befl  Evidence  to 
fatisiy  us,  whether  the  Earth,  at  certain  or 
uncertain  times,  emits  numerous,  in^^>ercepti-' 
blc,  unintelligible,  and  infrafible  E^mi'a  (as 
feme  great  Men  have  imagined)  into  the  At- 
mofpherc,  to  influence  and  affeijt  us :  For  by 
conutlting  Regifters,  and  medicinal  and  natu- 
ral Obfervations,  wc  find  what  fort  of  Difeafes 
have  reigned  at  any  Seafon  fince  Bills  of  Mor- 
tality were  kept :  For  when  a  great  Mortality 
wSs  of  Oiort  Duration,  then  the  acute  Difeafe 
has  been  epidemic :  But  mortal  Diilempers  of^ 
long  Continuance,  are  rather  of  the  chronic 
Clafs;  as  flow  Fevers,  Intermittents,  Remit- 
tente,  or  Erraticks,  changing  and  varying  into 
each  other,  or  degenerating  into  other  Difea- 
fes;  as  Het^ckfi,  Confumptionis,  Dropfies, 
Cachexies,  &c.  as  was  the  Cafe  in  1727^ 
28,  29,  and  36. 

Fa  ft4. 


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(68) 

24-  If  tlic  Earth  did  fend  up  fuch  Effluvia, 
by  Rcgifters  we  may  know  what  kinds  of 
Earth,  Minerals,  MctaJs,  or  Foffils,  they  are 
that  do  emit  them  j  for  in  thcfc  Tables  are 
Abilradts  of  Rcgifters  from  feveral  forts  of 
liime-ftone,  Free-ftone,  Gret-ftonc,  Clay,  Gra- 
vel, Sand,  Chalk,  Coal,  Bafs  or  Shale,  SuU 
phur.  Copper,  Calamy,  Lead  and  Black-lead, 
Iron,  and  feveral  mixed  Soils. 

25.  Regillers  dired  us  both  hpw  to  make 
feveral.Improvements  in  Grounds  and  Habita> 
tions,  both  for  Health  and  Profit,  as  by  drain- 
ing of  marfhy  Grounds,  fuch  as  the  Ije  of 
Ely.  For,  i.  All  the  circumjacent  Country  is 
hereby  made  more  healthy  as  well  as  ufeful : 
For  before  this  great  Level  was  drained,  it 
was  fo  full  of  HalTocks,  Sedges,  Reeds  and 
Weeds,  that  when  a  Current  of  Water  rufhed 
in  from  the  higher  Grounds  about  it,  it  ftag- 
nated  here,  whilfl  the  Mounts  of  Sand  thrown 
up  by  the  Tides  at  the  River's  Mouth,  ftop'd 
the  Waters  Defccnt  from  the  Levels,  where  it, 
remained,  became  muddy,  putrid  and  unwhol- 
fome.  The  Earth,  inftead  of  being  fertilized, 
was  fpungy,  bo^y,  heaving,  barren,  and  hurt- 
fiil ;  but  in  a  dry  Year,  it  is  now  the  moft 
luxurious  and  fruitful  Spot  in  the  Kingdom. 
A.  This  Fruitfiilnefe  makes  it  more  populous 
round  about,  which  is  at  once  an  Addition  to 
the  Strength,  Riches,  and  Provision  of  the 
Kingdom.  And  as  to  its  Healthinels,  beSsre 
it  was  drained,  the  Births  were  to  the  Burials 
as  61  to  70,  now  as  60  to  54,  3.  This,  with 
l^veral  others  that  are  la  the  Tables  is  too  dire 

■  ? 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00glc 


(69) 
a  Proof  of  the  mifchievous  Effects  on  human 
Bodies,  of  marfljy  Ground,  Standing  Waters, 
and  bad  Air.  4.  They  run  a  great  Riik,  who 
having  been  brought  up,  and  accuftomed  to  a 
clear  healthy  Air,  remove  to  fenny,  wet,  fickly 
Soils }  for  People  born  in,  and  inured  to  a  bad 
Air,  bear  it  much  better,  and  find  Icfs  fenfi- 
ble  Inconvenience  from  it,  than  fuch  as  have 
been  bred  and  £imiliarized  to  a  good  one. 
5.  Though  Burials  in  Inch  Places  may  exceed 
the  Births,  yet  the  Difference  between  Wed- 
dings and  Burials,  is  (kr  from  being  fo  wide  as 
might  be  cxpc&cd.  Then  it  is  evident,  that 
great  Numbers  dying  in  infancy,  are  fupplied 
by  freih  In-comers,  who  fettle  and  marry 
there ;  and  that  the  Endemics  of  the  Place  arc 
more  fatal  to  them  than  the  Natives. 

26.  In  comparing  the  firft  and  fecond  Pe- 
riods, we  fee  that  forfaking  the  former  fimple, 
plaio,  virtuous  Courfe  of  Life,  has  the  fame 
EBe&  both  on  our  own  and  Childrcns  Bodies, 
as  removing  from  a  healthy  to  an  unhealthy 
Situation,  Air,  and  Water. 

27.  Not  only  does  draining  marihy  Grounds 
contribute  much  to  Health,  but  clearing  low, 
flat,  moiil  Grounds  from  Wood,  high,  thick, 
clofe,  quick  Fences ;  by  removing  Houfes 
and  Villages  from  low  to  higher  Stations,  and 
more  difbnt  from  Ponds,  I^kes,  Meers,  &c. 
And  the  lower  Grounds  being  generally  much 
more  fruitfiil,  will  help  to  clear  the  Charges. 
Old  Houfes  {hould  alio  have  higher  Rooms, 
Urgcr  (eights,  clearer  Yards,  &<:.  which  done 

F  3  » 


i.vCoogIc 


(7°) 
in  fome  Towns  of  tliis  Tablcj    are  touch 
healthier. 

28.  Since  all  Wet  is  injyrious,  efpecially 
ftanding  putrificd  Water,  and  all  great  Woods, 
and  thick  Plantings  j  and  all  Putrefadion  and 
Naftinefs,  and  the  excrementiticus,  or  exhal'd 
Moifture  of  Wood  and  Thickets,  vitiate  the 
Air  and  the  Water  m  it.  This  Ihews  the 
MiAake  of  fome,  who  not  only  have  thek 
]^oufes  moted  about,  but  planted  alfo ;  and  of 
othersi  who  have  their  Ponds,  Refcrvoirs,  Col- 
leSions,  or  Cafcades  of  Water  a(  the  Front  of 
the  Houfe  j  others  their  Wildernefles,  Thick- 
ets, Clumps  of  Trees,  &c.  joining  to  their 
Houfe  ^  others  their  Dog-Kennels  j  and  of 
pitching  Tents  or  Camps  on  low,  wet  Ground, 
or  too  clofe  to  ope  another,  that  the  Current 
of  frefli  Air  cannot  fan  them  all  well  j  and  of 
continuing  a  Camp  too  long  in  the  fame  Place, 
till  that  Atmofphere  is  contaminated  with  the 
BMi^ia  of  the  Army,  and  the  Excrements  of 
Man  and  Horfe ;  and  the  Error  of  moft  Coun- 
try Farmers,  who  keep  their  Manure  in  a  Pool 
of  ftinking  Water  before  their  Poors,  and  their 
Orchard  clofe  to  the  Backs  of  their  .Houfes, 
which  prevents  their  having  pure  Air  from 
any  fide, 

29.  From  the  much  dimioilhed  Difpropor- 
tion  between  Births  and  Burials  of  the  firft 
'and  fecond  Period,  or  the  vaft  increafcd  Mor- 
tality of  Children  and  Youth,  we  fee  that 
Whoredom  and  Adultery  (the  fafliionable  Vi- 
ces) are  fo  &r  frotn  ipcr^afing  or  ibcngtheoing 


by  Google 


(7'  ) 

a  People*  that  they  only  tend  to  [vomoCe  the 
Ba6nc(s  of  Nurfes  and  Undertakers. 

30.  The  greater  Death  of  Males  than  Fe- 
males in  Impuber^,  ariies,  i.  from  the  greater 
Rigidity  of  the  Fibres  and  Vefiels  of  the  for-^ 
mer ;  hence  they  arc  more  expofed  to,  and  in 
greater  Danger  froax  inflaoiniatOTy  Difeafes. 
2.  Women  are  generally  fooner  marrlagable 
than  Men  by  ibur  or  five  Years,  during  which 
time,  fome  of  the  kttcr  drop  oC 

31.  The  greater  Death  of  mairied  Men,  is 
the  Increafe-  of  Widows  j  the  Ids  Death  <^ 
married  Women,  makes  fewer  Widowers  t 
the  Death  of  married  Men  being  to  the  Total 
buried  1 5  t  />er  Certt,  of  married  Women  little 
above  io4}  the  Death  of  Widowers'  to  the 
Total  buried  ai  2  T^SwC^w/.  to  that  of  Widows 
as  97  per  Cent,  which  prodigious  Odds^  exclu- 
sive of  alt  other  Aocideots,  aS:  paftial.^s  in 
Trade  or  Bafineis,  Fr6fe{Ii(^n,  orO^ce,  am? 
ply  proves  the  Equity  and  Ncceflity  of  Mar- 
riage Settlements ;  and  al£}  that  the  Seuknaent 
be  neither  too  imall  for  a  Man's  Fortune,  to 
ftraiten  hb  Widow  (efpecially  if  fl)e.}>rought 
a  good  Fcntune  into  hia  FaooUy)  nor  ]too  large 
for  his  Fortune,  to  injure  br  ruin  his  younga 
Children,  that  may  perhdps  be  otherwife  un- 
provided ibr,  either  during  their  Mother's  Life^ 
or  after  i)er  Death ;  or  to  prove,  the  Bxpulfioa 
or  Ruin  of  the  Family  in  her  Life,  {hould  ike 
marry  again.  Seeing  the  Odds  ag^^oft  a  M&a's 
Idfeis fo great,  both  Manied  ast^  Widower, 
it  is  an  unanswerable'  Arguoient  (cfpeciaUy.  if 
he  has  icvcfal  Childrdn,  or  his  ^-ije:is  a  young 

F  4  Woqian, 


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f  70 
Womanj  and  he  poOefied  of  a  plentiful  real, 
or  perfonal  Eftate,  that  he  has  a  Power  to  dii^ 
poft  of)  Why  he  Ihould  always  have  his  Will 
by  him  ready  executed,  and  not  leave  hi&  un- 
settled Eftate,  either  to  buy  his  Widow  ano- 
ther Huftttnd,  to  the  undoing  of  his  Children 
or  Family,  or  for  an  extravagant  elder  Son,  or 
rakilh  Heir  at  Law,  to  beggar  the  younger 
Children,  or  other  fober,  virtuous  Relations. 
So  tho'  more  Women  are  married  than  Men, 
yet  more  married  Men  are  buried  than  Wo- 
men }  which  both  makes  a  greater  Number 
tf  Widows  than  Widowers,  and  is  the  Reafon 
that  a  greater  Number  of  Women  than  Men 
make  fecond  and  third  Adventures. 

32.  The  Reafon  why  fewer  Men  arc-mar- 
rled  than  Women,  is,  becaufe  diey  are  longer 
ca{>able  of  Procreation  j  for  if  they  have  a  good 
Conftitntion,  and  have  lived  temperately  and 
dialUy  in  their  Youth,  they  are  capable  till 
80  or  90 ;  Women  feldom  beyond  45,  but 
very  rarely  above  j;o.  Herci  we  may  obfcrve 
ft  remarkable  Providence  in  the  Pitidufiion  of 
a  greater  Number  of  Males  than  Females,  fee- 
ing the  Mates  have  feveral  greater  Dangers  to 
go  through  than  the  Females,  for  they  run 
greater  Haeard  of  Abortion  between  their  Con- 
ception and  Birth,  are  in  more  Peril  at  their 
Birth,  feeing  there  are  10  fiill-bom  and  chry- 
Ibm  Males,  to  7  Females  j  they  run  greater 
t)aflger  in  Cbildhobd,  fedng  62  Boys  die  to 
53  Girlsj  {a  greater  Dango*  in  Celibacy,  for 
1 2  Boys  to  I  f  Girls  die  j  in  more  Peril  in  a 
'Mariajge  Ststtcj  feeing  aiboive  15  married  Men 

die? 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(  73) 
die  for  lo  married  Women :  All  which  Daiu 
gers  are  incre^ed  by  living  in  Cities  or  great 
Towns. 

33.  Seeing  the  Dangers  of  Males,  in  (^ex- 
tra uterum,  are  fo  much  greater  than  that  of 
Females,  then  Polygamy  is  a  moil  ridiculous, 
monftrous  Cuftom,  efpecially  where  furviving 
Wives  are  denied  fecond  Marriages. 

34.  Hero  we  have  another  obfervable  In- 
ilance  of  Providence,  that  one  Man  was  only 
intended  one  Wife  at  a  time,  and  one  Woman 
one  Hufband ;  for  as  at  firft  only  one  of  each 
Sex  was  created,  and  as  at  the  general  De- 
luge an  equal  Number  only  of  ooth  Sexes 
was  preserved }  fo  here  it  h^  exerted  his  fpe- 
cial  Care,  that  during  CeUbacy,  the  Difference 
of  each  Sex  dying  above  10  Years  old,  is  not 
near  fo  much  as  when  in  the  Womb  and  at 
Birth,  that  fo  each  Man  may  have  a  Wife, 
and  each  Woman  a  Hujfband. 

35.  Here  we  fee  not  only  the  Wicked- 
ne^,  but  the  Pemicioufnefs,  to  the  Individuals 
themfelves,  of  the  Gratification  of  the  unlaw- 
ful fenfual  Appetite  j  for  if  even  in  the  fafe 
and  honourable  State  of  Matrimony,  it  is  near 
9  to  3  but  the  Hulband  dies  before  the  Wife ; 
tte  Odds  are  much  increafed,  by  the  wretched 
illegal  Senfualift  expoling  himfelf  to  the  na- 
tural or  judicial  Effects  of  his  Offences. 

36.  If  the  Air  or  Situation  of  great  Towns 
ioareafe  the  Mortality  of  In^ts  and  Children 
under  10  Years  old,  from  21  to  34  or  s^per 
Cent,  then  their  Crime  muil  be  very  great, 
Y^  by  Intemperance,  Intriguing,  Nignt-re- 

■  '  *    '  yelling. 


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(74) 
vcUmg,  Luxury,  Exccfs,  or  other  Vices,  ftil! 
incrcafe  the  Fatality  of  their  wretched  OiFsprlng, 
which  is  too  often  the  Cafe.  The  greater  or 
lefe  Number  of  Baflards  in  a,  Country  or 
Place,  I  find  depends  much  on  the  prevailing 
Vices  or  Virtues  of  the  Age,  or  State  of  Reli- 
gion, publick  Plenty  or  Profperlty,  or  Calami- 
ties :  For  times  of  Poverty,  Sicknefs,  Famine, 
or  Plague,  are  as  great  Enemies  to  Senfua- 
lity,  as  Trade,  Plenty,  Riches,  Peace,  general 
Health,  Fulnefs,  and  Idlenefs,  are  to  Piety  and 
Virtue.  I  find  that  the  prefcnt  Number  of 
Baftards  are,  to  lawfully  begotten  Children,  as 
I  to  between  30  and  37,  double  to  what  they 
were  before  the  Rcftoration.  If  Whoredonl 
be  a  Fault,  Suicide  is  a  &r  greater  Crime :  By 
Suicide  is  meaned,  not  only  the  Deftni^on 
of  real  Beings  in  the  Womb,  Birth,  or  imm&- 
diately  after ;  but  all  nefarious  Pratftices  ufed 
by  wicked  Wretches  to  prevent  Conception 
firom  their  carnal  Gratification. 

37.  Though  more  die  now  than  formerly 
in  Infency  and  Childhood,  yet  the  Numbers 
that  die  of  late  in  Celibacy,  ieem  far  Hiort  of 
what  they  were  before ;  for  then  above  57  pef 
Cent,  died  unmarried,  now  little  above  28  j  or 
Ticzr  20  per  Cent,  fewer  die  in  that  State:  By 
which  the  firft  Period  appears  by  fer  more 
fatal,  feeing  30  per  Cent,  died  more  then  in 
Celibacy  than  now,  which  is  utterly  fa\fe.  But 
to  explain  this  Myftery,  we  mail  confidcr  that 
'  all  Trades  and  Manufactories  are  much  briiker 
•  and  better  now  than  formerly,  and  much  more 
People  ars  employed .  inf  the(tt>  atid  tHenlive, 
require 
4 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(75) 
require  more  In-comers  to  Apprenticejliip,  Ser- 
vice, Marriage,  Gfc.  which  coming  m»  in  Ce- 
libacy, add  to  the  Number  of  Married  and 
Buried,  but  mufl  be  fubflraded  from  the 
Baptized.  To  find  out  therefore  the  Number 
of  Imports,  Males  or  Females,  feparatcly  or 
didindly,  compare  the  Proportion  of  the  Bap- 
tized and  Buried,  with  that  of  the  Married  in 
this  Period,  with  thofe  of  the  former,  fo 
fhould  we  have  what  we  aiked,  allowing  for 
the  greater  Mortality  of  Children  and  Youth 
now  than  formerly.  In  the  former  Period 
49  per  Cent,  of  the  Baptized  wfre  married, 
but  in  this  64  T>  which  is  nigh  2-3ds  ;  there^ 
fore  above  1 5  per  Ctnt.  more  of  the  Bajh- 
tized  are  married  now  than  formerly ;  which 
is  not  true,  even  fuppofing  both  Periods  were 
equally  favourable  to  Children ;  but  I  fhewed 
before  that  57  per  Cent,  die  under  20  Years 
old;  and  however  unfavourable  fome  Places 
are  to  Children,  yet  others  are  as  healthy  for 
them  }  yet  this  kova  the  Regifters,  is  the  pre^ 
fent  Medium  of  them  taken  together.  But  to 
come  to  tho  Point;  in  the  fecond  Period  of 
Table  third,  were  baptized  211233,  and  $j 
per  Cent,  dying  under  20  Years  of  Age,  there 
remains  only  9S071  to  marry ;  but  &e  Mar- 
ried are  136942  j  then  38867  more  were  mar- 
ried than  furvived  their  20th  Year  after  Baj>. 
tifm  i  this  is  7187  more  than  were  reckoned 
before.  But  fzam  tbem  that  furvived  the 
aoth  Year,  w?  muft  fubftrafl:  5-?  per  Cent. 
that  died  in  Celibacy,  which  makes  5696 
Worcj  tbw  ^19  tcm?ii(is  only  92972  for 
Marriages 


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(76) 
M^iages  of  the  regiftered  Inmates ;  then  the 
ImpOTts  and  unregiilered  Births  are  in  all 
43963.  As  to  the  diilinft  Sexes  baptized  and 
married  in  the  firft  Period,  474  ptf  Cent,  of 
Males  baptized  were  wed,  and  50T  of  the 
Females  in  the  fecond  Period  j  63  per  Cent,  of 
the  Males  baptized  were  married,  and  667 
Females  j  then  about  16  per  Cent,  mive  Males 
of  the  Baptized  were  married  in  the  fecond 
thjui  firft  Period,  and  as  many  Females ;  both 
which  prove  that  there  are  5  per  Cent,  of  the 
married  more  Females  than  Males  now,  and 
7  per  Cent,  more  formerly.  From  the  Bapti- 
zed come  we  to  the  Buried.  In  the  former 
Period  near  58  per  Cent,  of  the  Buried  were 
wed,  in  the  prefent  almoft  72  per  Cent,  which 
is  above  14  per  Cetit.  more  than  before }  fo 
that  here  are  26678  In-comers,  and  17285  un- 
TCgiftered  Bapdfms  {  which  two  added,  make 
op  again  the  above  exa£t  Number  of  43963, 
In  this  Period  9  per  Cent,  more  of  the  marrieq 
were  Males,  and  12  Females;  then  \z  Males 
export  thcmfelves  for  9  Females,  or  3054. 
But  it  was  proved  before,  that  In  this  renoq 
only  38  per  Cent,  of  the  buried  Inmates  were 
wed,  bat  here  almoft  double  that  Number  are 
married}  then  9-i9tbs  of  the  married  Dead 
were  advena  j  which  is  very  probable,  confi* 
dcring  that  Imports  are  pretty  well  grown  up 
before  they  are  fit  either  for  Service  or  Mar- 
riage ;  and  pnly  5  per  Cent,  of  fuch  die  in  Ce- 
libacy, when  in  their  own  Air ;  but  by  Change 
of  Air,  Diet,  Method  of  Life,  and  fometimes 
&vere,  or  covetous  Mafters  or  Mtftre0es,  we 
muft 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(77) 
Enuft  allow  more,  which  in  all  will  be  8  per 
Cent.  Now  fubftradb  the  26678  In-comers 
fi-om  the  Buried,  there  remains  163878;  which 
again  fubAraft  from  the  Totals  baptized,  re- 
giilered  and  unregiftered,  there  remains  64640^ 
or  above  j-4th,  both  for  Increafe  and£;iport; 
which  agreeing  pretty  near  with  the  firft  Pe- 
riod, proves  this  Account  to  be  juil,  and  to 
be  depended  on,  and  not  Random,  or  Guess- 
work, Thus  we  may  eafily  come  at  the  Num- 
bers of  In-comers,  unregiftered  Baptifms,  In- 
creafe  and  Export,  of  any  one  Place  iu  any 
given  Series  of  Years. 

38.  The  leJier  Di(proportion  there  is  be- 
tween Baptifms  and  Weddings  (where  there  is 
little  or  no  Trade)  fhews  uat  People  often 
marry  earlier  in  Towns  than  in  the  Country, 
as  is  evident  by  comparing  Country  and  Town 
Regifters  tc^ether. 

39.  Smoe  fo  great  a  Refort  of  In-comers  is 
neceOary  in  Towns  of  Trade  and  BuHnefs,  this 
is  a  fufficient  Reafon  why  Strangers  and  In- 
comers, conforming  thcmfelves  to  the  Laws 
and  laudable  or  indifferent  Cuftoms  of  the 
Country,  fhould  be  encouraged,  efpecially  when 
their  Intereft,  and  all  their  valuable  Concerns, 
oblige  and  bind  them  to  be  faithful  and  fleady 
Advents  to  the  Conftitutlons  of  that  Country  ' 
into  whofe  Communis  they  are  entered.  For 
fuch  In-comers  are  a  dead  Lofs  to  the  Country 
they  are  come  frotn,  and  fo  much  real  Strength 
and  Riches  added  to  the  Place  they  are  come 
to ;  and  therefore,  if  they  behave  themfelves 
well,  they  challenge  and  merit  from  the  In- 

Biatts 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(78) 
mates  of  the  Place,  the  fame  kind  Ulage  and 
civil  Treatment  as  the  Natives  themfelves,  nay 
better  than  fach  Natives  as  dcfire  or  attempt 
the  Ruin  of  their  Country's  Happinefs,  the 
undoing  of  their  Places  or  Bufincucs,  or  the 
Mifery,  Lofs,  or  Grief  of  their  Families  and 
Friends. 

40.  The  great  Multitudes  of  People  requi- 
fite  for  Manufadories,  Sea-ports,  &c.  proves 
the  Neceflity  of  In-comers,  otherwifc  cither 
Trade  *  muft  languifh  ;  or  to  keep  it  up,  the 
whole  or  greateft  Part  of  the  rural  Youth  muft 
come  in,  and  be  employed  in  it ;  the  Conie- 
quence  whereof  is  to  ftarve  the  Country,  thro* 
want  of  fufficient  Hands  to  carry  on  Agricul- 
ture. And  of  Strangers  coming  into  Gxch 
places,  only  Friends  to  the  Conilittitlon  ihould 
be  encouraged ;  ibr  if  Enemies  and  conti- 
nue in  the  Place,  they  are  both  lb  much 
Riches  and  Strength  ^ded  to  the  Enemies  of 
the  Conftitution,  when  it  is  good.  If  they 
contmue  not,  by  tiieir  Removal  they  may  carry 
.with  them  the  Manufai^ory  or  Trade  of  the 
Country  into  their  own,  and  k>  give  a  Blow 
to  the  Place,  which  in  time  may  become  too 
fcnjible  and  grievous  to  all  Ranks  of  the  Place. 

41.  Since  the  great  Benefits  of  Trade  arc  fo 
cf^nrpicuous  in  the  Regiilers  (by  comparing 
thefe  Places  that  have  it,   with  others  that 

want 

•  The  Poverty,  and  poor  Figure  the  Spaniardt  make, 
.with  all  iheir  AmtrUan  Gciiil,  Silver,  and  Mercuiy  Mines ; 
and  the  Opulence  snd  Power  of  the  Dulch,  compared  bf 
their  Trade  only,  prove  that  no  Sums  due  out  of  Mines, 
bear  any  Proportion  to  what  may  be  raifed  by  Laboitr. 
induflty,  and  Tiade. 

c,,„,z.dbyGoogI(; 


(79) 

want  it)  that  having  or  wanting  it  &ffe&s  all 
Ranks,  Degrees,  and  Profcffions  of  Men,  then 
it  is  the  Interell  and  Bufinefs  of  all  unitedly  to 
{bidy  the  Prcfervation,  Increafe,  and  Security 
of  Trade*;  which  is  chiefly  done  by  necefla- 
rily  iiipporting  a  Government  that  maintains 
and  fecures  it,  oppreHing  and  dilabling  its 
Enemies,  encouraging  Strangers  to  come  and 
relide,  preventing  the  tranfinigrating  of  it  on 
any  indifcrcct  Account. 

42.  The  late  Incrcafe  of  Trade,  Riches, 
and  greater  Refort  of  Strangers,  to  unincorpo* 
rated  than  incorporated  Towns,  which  rigo- 
rouily  and  feverely  inGfi  on  the  ancient  Privi- 
l^es  and  Rights  of  their  Charters,  granted  be- 
fore this  Nation  had  much  Trade,  (hew  that 
Charters  and  Corporations  are  of  eminent  Pre- 
judice to  a  Town,  as  they  exclude  Strangers^ 
Aop  the  Growth  of  Trade,  and  hinder  the 
Welfare  of  the  Place,  prevent  Ingenuity  and 
ImprovementSj  as  well  as  occaflon  the  Lofs  of 
great  Numbers  of  Hands  that  might  beneficl- 
^ly  be  employed  in  feveral  others,  and  perr 
haps  new  Branches  of  the  Bufinefs,  One  ibrt 
of  thefe  Towns  flourifli  in  People,  Richer 
and  Trade,  the  others  continue  mean^  poor, 
and  iU-inhabited. 

43- 

*  The  great  AdnnUwe  of  Trade  is  muiifeft,  i.  From 
the  Rife  of  the  Value  of  Land,  whicb  in  1560  wu  onir 
worth  12  Yon  PurcUife,  in  1688  worth  ao,  now  worth 
30.  2.  Front  the  advanced  Rental  of  England,  which  in 
1600  was  only  £000000,  but  in  1689  it  wu  above 
14000000 ;  liRwile  an  Additioa  of  900000  IncreaTe  of 
ftofk  in  Ok  Ntiim. 


by  Google 


(  So  ) 
'43.  The  Rcgifters  both  of  Country  and 
Towns,  but  efpecially  of  the  City,  make  it  as 
vifible  and  evident  as  die  Sun  at  doudlefi 
Kpon-day»  that  there  is  a  remarkable  Increaie 
of  Buiyings  in  Proportion-to  the  ChriAenings^ 
after  the  Years  1 644,  45,  and  46 ;  which  oc- 
cafioned  the  Abftrafts  of  the  Regifters  to  be 
divided  into  tv?o  Periods  in  the  above  Tables. 
That  the  late  encreafed  Mortality  might  appear 
more  certain  and  obvious,  and  that  the  fornaer 
Etate  of  Health  and  Ipcreafe  of  tfie  Nation 
might  better  be  feen,  the  iirft  Period  comes 
down  to  the  above  Yfirr,  the  fecond  reaches 
from  that  to,  or  near  th«vprefcot  Time.  It 
might  well  have  beftn  expe«ed,  that  the  Con- 
ftifion  and  Diftraftion  of  thefe  Times  might 
not  only  occaiion  a  Negled  of  the  Regiiler^ 
but  might  alfo  have  a  cqniiderftble  Influence 
in  fhortening  the  Lives  of  many,  ei|)eciaUy  by 
untimely  Deaths ;  or,  at  leaA,  that  the  great 
Increafe  of  the  Buryings  might  at  ^at  Time 
t>e  accounted  for,  from  the  Divifion  which  feU 
out  in  the  Church.  But  even,  alter  the  Re- 
{(oration,  when  none  of  thefe  Reafons  ibb- 
fifted,  yst  there  is  ftill  a  confiderabte  locres^ 
of  the  Buryings,  above  the  Proportion  they 
formerly  bare  to  the  ChriileDings,  And  fince 
this  Increafe  cannot  be  imputed  to  the  Canfes 
thm  fubliftiiig,  hut  long  ago  refnoved.  Nor 
can  it  be  imputad  to  the  great  Shoals  oiSrtneb 
ProtcAants  who  were  forced  out  of  their  own 
Country  by  violent  Perfecution,  and  werc'^e!- 
tered  here  in  the  Reigns  ^  King  Cbaeki  I|. 
and  James  II.  for  thefe  fettled  in  iMtdtm,  Sea- 
ports, 
4 


(  8i  ) 
|)orts,  and  large  Towns  in  the  South  moftlyj. 
and  beOdes,  Had  it  been  from  tliem,  it  had 
only  been  temporary,  for  they  would  foon 
have  had  Ifliie  to  be  enKred  jn  the  R^iAers  j 
or  if  they  kept  Rcgiftcrs  of  their  own  m  Lon- 
dm^  thjcy  would  alfo  liave  Burylng-Grounds 
of  their  own :  Or  were  it  frQm  a  Body  of  Dif- 
fcntcrs,  they  muft  either  have  exiited  former- 
ly, or  to  be  ifounfl  nowri  hut  we  find  the  Re-t 
gifters  tljc  fifflc  where  they  neither  are, ,  nor 
can  we,  trace  any  Tuch  Number  of  DifTcntersi 
that  were  there  i  therefore,  the  true  Reafons 
muft  be  fought  for  elfewhere ;  for  if  this  en> 
created  Mortality  was  fcota.  Diilenters  Baptifms 
being  unrcgiftcred,  it  muft  be  fcen  in  Tab.  I, 
The  Rea/bns  arc  feveral  and  maoifeft*  At  the, 
^Reftaratien  the  Nation  was  £a  glad  to  fee  its 
ancient  Government,  Monarchy,  reftored,  that 
together  with  it  came  in  an  overflowing  De-, 
luge  of  t*ro£mcnefi,  all  Things  were  free.  Piety 
only  was  put  under  .Reftraint.  Twenty-dght 
Years  after  that,  the  happy  R^olution  was 
a  fi-eflj  Cauft  oj  Joy  to  all  f^riends  of  the 
Protcrtant  Religion,  Liberty,  and  Property, 
Twenty-fix  Years  after  tte  Froteftant  Religion 
and  Property  had  the  Happinefs  to  be  more 
(irmly  and  kfUngly  fettled  and  fecured,  by  the 
fcafbnable  Acceffion  of  the  prefent  Royal  Fa- 
mily, thereby  Induftty  was  promoted,  and 
Trade  vaAly  Increafed,  to  the  Accumulation  of 
Riches.  Though  all  theic  were  good  of  them- 
fclves,  yet  they  increafed  Luxury,  Pride,  In-, 
temperance,  and  Debauchery.  For  the  Truth 
of  thefc  fad  EffeSs,  1  might  appeal  from  the 
G  Regifters, 


by  Google. 


(82) 

Rcgifters,.  to  the  City  Tabic  of  Casualties,  and 
fee  which  Periods  have  produced  moft  heredi- 
tary Gouts,  venereal  Taints,  in  which  arc  moft 
Apoplexies,  or  violent  Deaths,  cither  by  the 
Executioner,  or  the  Wretches  own  butcherly 
Hands  have  been  moft  employed,  Drunkcn- 
hefs  and  Swearing  moft  common.  I  might 
appeal  further  to  the  Death  of  InBmts  then 
and  now,  whether  30  or  ^y  per  Cent,  arc  the 
greater  Numbers ;  and  whether  2  of  ly  that 
died  of  the  Small-pox,  or  4  in  21  be  the 
moft,  or  one  of  35  that  died  then  of  Convul- 
fions,  or  9  of  35  that  die  now  of  them. 

44.  The  different  Degrees  of  Healthineis  of 
various  Situations,  Soils,  and  Bufineftes,  ftiew 
the  ufe  of  Regifters  in  Phyfick,  ilince  they 
only  do  inform  us  with  the  ereatcft  Cert^tj 
of  thofe :  For  Phyficians  oburrtng  the  Sltua- 
don.  Manner  and  Buiinefs  of  Life  of  a  Place, 
ftiuft  be  naturally  led  to  enquire  what  DJieafes 
are  moft  common  and  mortal  in  it.'  This 
muft  neccilarily  challenge  his  Attention  and 
Application,  to  enquire  into  the  Caufcs  and 
Cure  of  thefe  Epidemics  j  and,  as  was  hinted 
before,  he  will  find  great  SatisfedUon  and  Ad- 
vantage by  comparing  Regifters  and  Hiftories 
of  tlie  Air,  Seafcns,  &c. 

45.  Not  only  are  Regifters  of  Service  to 
Phyncijins,  but  alfb  to  fuch  whofe  Inclination, 
Bufinefs,  or  Circumftances  call  him  to  change 
his  Kelidence  j  for  by  conliilting  thi;  Regifters 
for  his  own  Conftimdon,  he  will  be  enabled 
to  judge  better  for  himfelf  in  his  Choice  j  for 
he  who  knows  his  Fibres  to  be  iiaturally  laz, 

and 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(83) 
and  his  Veflels  too  much  dilated  or  weakened 
by  the  Incrcafc  or  Bulk  of  his  Fluids ;  or  if 
his  Fluids,  on  the  leaft  Diminution  of  Perfpi- 
ntion,  arc  apt  to  ^t  the  Advantage  of  the 
R^ftance  of  his  Solids ;  or  if  he  is  often  liable 
to  Catarrhs,  or  is  of  a  ctxpulent,  dull,  cold, 
Jlegmadci  and  inadive  Habit,  will,  upon  De- 
liberation, preifer  the  open,  dry,  mountainous^ 
focky  Situation.  But  if  his  Perlpiration  is 
aljeady  too  large,  his  Fibres  and  Veflcls  too 
Ihong  to  refift  the  Fluids,  the  Circulation  too 
quick,  and  he  of  a  lean  Habit,  difpofing  him 
to  a  Heftic,  or  Atrophy,  he  vnU  rightly  judge 
Ae  lower,  molfter  Situations,  and  grofl^  Air 
fitter  for  him. 

46.  Regifters  not  only  inform  us  what  Si- 
taations  are  healthieft,  but  whkh  are  the 
moft  produ(^ive  of  People,  and  vi^cther  of 
Mates  or  Females ;  and  whether  that  Healthi- 
ne^  ot  Fruitfiilnefs  alter  or  change  with  Situ- 
ations or  Soils,  in  a  long  Series  of  Years.  They 
alfo  inform  us  of  the  Import  or  Export,  In* 
creafe  or  Decreafc  of  Places ;  or  whether  the 
Difproportion  bptween  Chriibenings  and  fiury- 
ings  is  lefler,  greater,  or  continues  at  a  fland. 
From  them  the  Increafe,  Decreaie,  or  Body  of 
cither  Confbrmifb  or  Nonconfbrmifts,  may 
'cry  readily  be  difcovcred  ;  they  eafity  infOTm 
09  of  Ae  Increafe  or  Decrcafe  of  the  Trade  of 
any  Place  from  the  Imports  or  Exports.  They 
diiowcr  the  Benefit,  Indigence,  or  Prgudicc 
of  any  new  Improvements,  Trades,  Manuiado- 
ries,  eff.  to  Health.  They  give  us  the  Difiv- 
rence  between  one  Period  of  Time  and  another^ 
and  between  a  Country  and  a^City  Life ;  and 
G  2  whether, 


.Coogic 


(84) 

whether,  and  how  fer  our  prefent  Change  of 
Diet>  Drefs,  Diverfions,  and  Potables,  are  hurt- 
ful or  beneficial  to  Health  j  and  whether  the 
fame  Difeafes  are  milder  or  fevercr  now  than 
formerly.  And  in  great  Cities  they  inform  us 
which  of  the  feveral  Modes  of  Praftice  in  Phy- 
jic  have  been  moil  ufeful  in  Diftempers ;  whe- 
ther an  Animal  or  Vegetable  Diet,  or  a  Mixture 
of  both,  are  moft  condocire  to  Health  and  long 
Life ;  and  whether  Animals  or  Vegetables  pro- 
duced and  nourifhed.up  in  the  fame  Soil  with 
the  Inhabitants,  are  preferable  in  general  tp 
tbofe  brought  from  other  Places  j  and  whether 
^e  Reformation  Principlfis,  or  the  new  Reli- 
gion, tend  moll  to  promote  a  long  Life. 

To  the  above-mentioned  Caufcs  of  the  great- 
er Healthinefs,  Fruitfulnefe,  and  Longevity  of 
open,  dry,  wild,  mountainous  Places,  may  not 
improperly  be  added,  that  the  NouriflimcBt 
bred  or  fed  in  fuch  Places,  is  healthier  and  bet- 
ter, Animals  are  fed  more  fparingly  and  labo- 
rioufly.  Vegetables  are  produced  with  lefs  Art 
and  more  Simplicity.  The  Inhabitants  (till  of 
late)  lefs  inured  to  fermented,  fpirituous,  oc 
other  Strong  Liquors,  they  have  commonly  left 
Luxury  or  Plen^  of  Diet,  fewer  Made  Diflie^ 
high  Sauce,  Pickles,  faline,  aromatic  Sumu- 
lants  i  their  Clothing  is  plaber,  not  too  deli- 
cate, foft  nor  warm,  their  Hoofes  opener  and 
1»etter  aired ;  their  Exercife  greater  and  more 
equal,  their  Minds  are  lefs  hurried.  They 
have  fewer  Provocations  to  vk^ent  Sallies  of 
.their  Paflions,  fewer  theatrical  Adventures  and 
Intrigues,  lefs  Night  RevelUng,  or  other  Irrc- 
^arities,  &f,  „ 

'-.  TABLE 

L  ,_  ;i  .Cooylc 


(  8j  ) 
TABLE    FOURTH. 

Of  the  fickly  and  mortal  Years  in  all  the  Country 
Regiftcrs  we  have  collefted.  Column  firft,  the 
Year  i  Column  fecond,  the  Number  of  Regiftcrs 
I  have  for  that  Year  i  Column  third,  the  Num- 
ber of  ficldy  Pariflies ;  Column  fourth,  the  Num- 
ber baptized  \n  thefe  Parifhes ;  Column  fifth,  the 
Number  buried.  The  fame  after  the  double  black 
Line  for  the  Market-Towns. 


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(86) 


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To«h  S9777     8I3S+ 

Thus  we  fee  the  Diflerence  between  the  chri- 
Aened  and  buried,  in  all  the  milder  and  fcvcrer 
Mortalities  of  the  laft  200  Years  both  in  Coun- 
try and  Towns,  being  in  the  former  near  59  to 
81,  in  the  latter  about  97  to  141. 

The  laft  Column  of  Table  ^ird,  gives,  firfl; 
the  Number  of  fickly  and  fetal  Years  in  151 
Country  Parilhes,  during  the  Time  that  the 
yearly  AbHraifts  are  taken ;  then  the  Numbers 
baptized  and  buried  in  thefe  Years.  Thus  we 
!ee  whether  all  Places  are  equally  liable  to  the 
like  Number  of  mortal  Years  in  any  given 
Time;  or  whether  thefe  iickly  or  mortal 
Tears  arc  equally  fatal  in  all  Places  or  Times  j 
and  what  is  the  Proportion  between  ChriAen<- 
in^  and  Burials  in  each  Place. 

riere  I  beg  leave  to  premife,  that  it  is  not 
every  general  Indifpofition,  or  fhort  Confine- 
ment, that  conftitutes  a  Mortality,  even  tho' 
feveral  aged  Pcrfons,  and  fuch  as  have  long 
lingered,  and  are  worn  out  by  chronic,  or 
other  Difeafes,  ihoutd  die  of  that  Epidemic, 
as  in  Catarrhs,  autumnal  Diarrheas,  and  fuch 
other  flight  Difeafes  of  the  Seafon.  2.  If  an 
srcute  Difeafc  breaks  out  fqddenly  in  one,  or 
Jbme  few  adjacent  or  remote  Places  or  Parilhes, 
the  Seafon  not  being  fickly  or  mortal  in  gene- 
ral, that  lilnefs  may  be  iharp,  but  its  Conti- 
nuance fhort :  For  when  a  general  Sickoefs  or 
great  Mortality  comes  in  fmartly  at  once,  it^ 
JDui:atioi^ 
/■  .  ■ 


(9*) 

DuratiwtTeldom  rcsches  beyond  two,  Hme,  or 
^foof  Months ;  bat  if  it  fets  in  lingeringly  and 
SoMfy  or  by  feverat  fiidden  Jirks  or  Stops> 
b(Mh  tiiefe  I  iind  portend  a  mortal  Seafon  at 
hand.  3.  It  may  be  a  fickly  or  mortal  Y«ar 
in  a  Town  or  Countiy  Pariih,  and  yet  tbc 
Chriftenings  may  exceed  the  Buryings  coafider- 
ably,  either  becaule  it  happens  to  be  a  very 
fiiiiUiil  Year  in  that  Place  (as  often,  tho*  not 
cennally  happens)  or  the  Year  may  be  very 
'nckly  in  that  Pari(h,  if  compared  with  other 
Yelrs,  and  yet  healthy  if  compared  with  other 
Places  in  much  worfe  Situations  and  Air. 
4.  Cbriftenthgs  exceeding  the  Buryingt  is  no 
more  fign  of  a  healthy  Year,  th^  BmyiDgs 
fiirpaHing  the  Baptifms  is  a  Sign  of  a  fatal  one. 
For,  as  IJuft  now  £ud,  the  one  may  be  a  very 
frui^  Year  in  that  Place,  and  the  other  a 
very  barren  one ;  for  in  all  Regifters  we  find 
fruitful  and  barren  Yeats,  as  well  as  fickly  and 
healthy:  Therefore  when  we  fpeak  of  the 
Healthinefsof  aYear,  let  it  only  be  undetllood 
in  refped  to  our  Place  or;Neighbourhood  j  fqt 
from  this  finall  CoUedion  of  Regiilo^,  we 
find  that  no.  Year  is  univicrially  healthy,  or 
fcarce  any  State  or  Temperature  of  the  Air ; 
for  that  Conllitution  of  uie  Seafon  that  is  be- 
neficial to  fome  Situations,  Age,  or  Difeafe,  ia 
hurtful  to  others.  We  find  that  each  Place  has 
had  icVeral  fickly  and  mortal  Years  fince  Regif^ 
ters  commenced,  and  yet  Epidemics  (Dif^fes 
of  the  Seafon  excepted)  have  not  been  nuny. 

In  both  fecond  and  third  Tables,  there  are 

more  fickly  and  mortal  Years  repreiented  than 

really  happen,  and  very  often  a  Year  or  two, 

for  only  two,  three,  or  four  Months  j  and  thift 

I  is 


IsaotmMd^c,  eswpt  the  Ab9nUSbnf««  taken 

monthly.  For  iuppofe  a  fickly  Satlbn  begins 
only  in  Fehrufo^y  and  reigns  till  i/iof^  though 
but  of  three  Mon^s  Guitiniuoce,  yet  it  takes 
ia  >  part  of,  and  {nfies  for  two  Years ;  or  if  it 
iwglB  in  February,  and  continue  only  fifteen 
Months  (fince  the  Year  in  Regiflors  beginG 
March  2j)  it  comprehends  a.  whole  Year, 
and  fmall  Parts  of  two  others,  and  thu&  it 
pafles  for  three  Years.  It  is  ttue  ibmetime&:a 
DiCeafes  fagcs  in  one  Place  for  feveral  Y«ats 
-tt%ether,  as  the  late  intermittent,  cemittcn^ 
and  putrid  Fev«s,  which  b^an  in  1726,  and 
continued  to  plague  low,  wet,  marfhy  Coun- 
tries till  1730.  The  Plague  that  began  in 
Imdm  in  1602,  was  not  quite  oat  be&x« 
1611 )  and  that  which  broke  out  in  1637  was 
not  extind  before  1647.  In  the  fim  Year 
^edofit above  loooo,  in  tbekA  3597. 

It  wiMild  both  be  too  tedious  and  ufeleis  to 
conqxare  the  Proportion  between  the  Ouiften- 
ing  and  Bury  ings  of  each  fingle  Parifhby  itielf, 
but  rather  to  {mfent  their  Difl^nce  and  Ha- 
TOck.in  the  Country  to  one  View. 

TABLE    FIFTH. 


PttiOies. 

.  Buried. 

Baptued. 

4B4tinkr.  to    af 
.fl    6  uAva^,  M   4 

43 

II910 
«9"3 

879s 

M    8  and  ludcr,  10   6 
lioudiudcr.  to    % 

37 

11618 

»9 

50*7 

jw 

^  IS  ud  under,  to  10 
g  14-  and  under,  to  ii 
.tS«ndimder,'toi4 

10 

1174 

■j;i 

7 

1003 

10 

1050 

641 

1 

loso 

«7I 

b<  )o  and  under,  to  14 

z 

70 

5» 

35  asd  onder,  to  30 

.4 

'95 

9« 

Tpuli 

Jl' 

6j»o 

4740* 

Ohf. 

by  Google 


(90 

''  bhf.  I.  The  tjftcneft  that  ficfely  Years  re- 
turn in  ^e  unhealthicft  of  thofc  Country  Pa- 
rities, is  twice  in  five  or  fix  Years,  and  rarely 
fo  often.  The  feldomeft  they  return,  is  from 
once  in  20  to  3c  Years ;  then  fame  Pariihes . 
or  Pkceshavc,  from  8  to  14  iickly  Years,  for 
fome  other  Places  one.  2.  Of  thefe  1 5 1  Pa- 
riOies,  43  have  their  fickly  Year,  from  once  in 
4  to  once  in  6  Years ;  and  26  Places  from 
once  in  6  to  8  Years,  as  above,  whidi  is  indeed 
as  long,  if  not  a  longer  Interval,  than  com- 
monly happens  between  one  Vifitation  of  Small- 
pox and  Meafles  and  another*  exclufive  of  all 
other  Difeafes.  3.  When  fickly  Years  return 
ofteneft,  there  is  a  lefs  Disproportion  between 
Chriftcnings  and  Buryings,  than  where  they 
come  feldomeft :  For  where  a  Sicknefs  geno- 
raJly  happens  from  between  once  in  4  to  2 
Years  and  an  half,  there  is  not  on  the  whole 
i'4th  Part  more  buried  than  baptized :  Qr 
where  a  fwceping  Difcafe  comes  only  once  in 
4  or  6  Years,  the  Burials  exceed  the  Baptifins 
2-9ths.  •  Where  a  fickly  Time  returns  from 
once  in  6  to  8  Years,  3-i3th$more  are  buried 
than  chrif^ened ;  where  h  comes  from  once  in 
8  to  10  Years,  near  a  3d  more  die  than  are 
born.  If  it  vifits  only  once  in  lo  dr  la  Years, 
there  are  above  i-3d  more  buried  than  bapti- 
zed ;  where  it  comes  but  once  in  from  2  2  to 
18  Years,  it  is  the  fame:  But  from  18  to  24, 
Burials  are  only  i-5th  more ;  from  24  to  30, 
they  are  2-7tbs  from  30  to  35 ;  Burials  are  to 
Chriftcnings  19  to  9,  a  kind  of  Plague.  4.  The 
whole  Buryings  of  the  fickly  and  mortal  Years 
.   '  '  of 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gk' 


(  93) 
of  Tabl*  fecond,  taken  together  (tho'  7  or 
800  died  of  the  Plagoe)  fcarce  exceed  the 
Chrifteniqgs  i-4th.  ,  5,  I  can  find  nothing  re^- 
markable  in  the  DilFerence  of  Sexes  baptized 
or  buried,  ejtber  where  SicknejQ)  coo^s  ieldc^n^ 
eft  or.<^neft,  or  in  a  Medium i  for  in  20 
P^iflies  ofteneft  vificed,  Malee  baptized  are  to 
Females  near  18  to  17,  Buried,  134-  to  f^yi 
where  it  comes  feldomeft.  Males  born  are  to 
Females  20  to  almoft  19,  Buried  15  (0,15* 
As  to  the  Medium,  Males  baptized  are  to  Fe- 
males about  16  to  15,  Buried  13  to  13 -nr. 
6.  As  to  Salubrity  oc  Inialubri^  of  Placp^ 
where  Sicbiels  or  Mortality  viilt  more  rarely 
Of  fi-^iteqtly,  there  appears  no  viable  or  ma- 
terial DiSerence  in  that.  Som^  of  the  bealtbi- 
cft  Situations  have  irequently  SJcknefs,  and 
others  as  .unhealthy  have  it  as  feldom ;  but  the 
lUnefles  ofthofe  different  Places,  are 'often  of 
as  different  Kinds,  The  former  have  tlieir 
fi-equent  eruptive  and  inflammatory  Difeafes, 
the  latter  their  flow  intermittents,  remittent^ 
putrid,  and  erratic  Fevers.  It  is  true,  fome 
rare  times  the  farmer  Places  are  vifited  with 
the  latter  Difeafes,  but  rarely  except  they  arc 
Epidemics  i  nor  are  they  of  a  great  Spread, 
Duration,  or  Execution.  The  Tatter's  Places 
have  alfo  the  former's  Difeafeg,  but  (eruptive 
Fevers  excepted)  mote  mildly  dnd  rarely ;  for 
each  Country  oc  Situation  is  more  liable  to 
fome  Difeafes  than  others,  and  by  TraiHc  and 
Conunerce  Endemics  became  Epidemics,  as 
far  as  Air  and  Climate  will  altow^. 

.2  ■     ■     '  ■  If 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(94) 

If  thp  Chrilbnings  and  Baryings  of  the 
fickly  and  the  mortal  Years  in  each  Parifli  of 
Place,  be  fubllraded  from  the  whole,  or  fr<Hn 
each  fingle  Parifli,  diere  remains  the  Totals 
baptized  and  buried,  in  all  the  heahhy  and 
moderate  Years  taken  together.  One  gives 
Ae  Increafe,  the  other  the  Decreafe.  If  we 
fnbftraifl  the  whole  Baptifms  and  Bnryings  of 
of  the  fickly^  and  mortal  Years  from  both  Pe- 
rbds  of  Table  fecond,  there  remains  for  the 
heathy  and  moderate  Years,  Baptifms  238919, 
ftiryings  168619,  or  above  1 19  to  84,  d  pro- 
digious  Increafe.  Again,  the  Chrifbnings  and 
Buryings  of  both  Periods  in  Table  third,  being 
fnbflrafted  fi*om  the  whole,  there  remains  of 
both  339400  to  278605,  only  1  of5Tln» 
creafe,  or  3  of  17 ;  but  in  Table  fecond  it  was 
ilmofi  2-7ths,  which  fliews  the  greater  Un- 
healthine^  of  Towns,  even  in  the  beft  of 
Times: 

In  the  fWl  Period  of  Table  fecond,  the  To- 
tals Baptized  were  to  the  Buried  almofl  1 2  to 
9;  in  Period  fecond,  as  104  to  162,  or  little 
more  than  12  to  10,  tho'  there  are  fo  very  few 
DiHenters  in  the  Country,  as  appears  from 
Table  firfl  j  in  the  foft  Period  of  Table  third, 
the  Baptized  were  to  the  Buried  as  1 1 1  to  94. 
or  fomcwhat  above  1 1  to  9.  Here  again  the 
greater  Unhealchinefs  of  Towns  is  vi0ble  in 
the  Regiflcrs,  and  even  this  fmall  Difpropor- 
tion  dwindles  as  Towns  and  Cities  increafe, 
are  fituated  more  unhealthily,  or  the  Inhabi- 
tants are  more  vicious,  till  the  Advantage  turns 
on  the  Mc  of  the  Buryings,  where  it  increafes 
again, 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(95> 

agaif],  as  there  k  greater  Tnde,  andReTortiv 
greater.  In  the  fecond  Period,  Cbrideniags 
are  to  Buryings  Uttle  above  29  to  28,  or  Vrta 
odds.  If  it  be  queried,  whether  mortal  Years 
are  more  fatal  to  Towns  or  Country  ?  The 
Anfwer  is,  that  in  all  the  iickly  Years  of  Table 
iecond.  Births  .were  to  Buryings  about  48  to 
66;  and  in  Table  third,  about  48  to  55.  What 
is  &id  of  the  Sicknefs  or  Mortality  in  Table 
Iccond,  may  be  ealily  applied  to  thcfe  of  Tan 
ble  tl^rd,  without  a  Repetition  here  -,  and 
atfo  whether  Mortalities  viJlt  Towns  or  Coun- 
try  ofteneft. 

Having  taken  a  general  View  what  Propor- 
tion in  general  Births  bear  to  Buryings  in  fidd- 
ly and  mortal  Years  (Plague  excepted)  in  E/t^ 
iandy  I  diould  have  compared  them  with  Sh 
reign  Mortalities,  their  Frequent^  and  Patftn 
lity,  but  muft  pais  this  for  want  of  Vouchers. 
The  ianae  prevents  comparing  the  Plague  with 
ether  Mortalities;  but  from  the  few  Inftances 
we  have,  where  the  Christenings  regUlered  are 
come  to  hand,  let  it  fufHce,  that  in  the  Century 
wc  have  of  Fribur^  Regiiler,  in  that  Century 
they  had  the  Pla^e  five  times,  during  which 
Space  were  tnptized  1698,  buried  4339  s  in 
Drefden  they  had  it  part  of  10  Years  in  one 
Century,  in  which  timeBaptiims  were  ^163, 
Burials  24496  i  in  Aujburg  they  had  it  thirteen 
times,  or  part  of  23  Years,  in  the  fpacc  of 
220  Years,  the  Baptized  were  37874,  Buried 
81463;  in  London  it  raged  1562,  92,  1604 
to  II,  and  from  1625  to  30,  and  from  16^8 
to  47,  and  in  65;  in  all  which  25  Tears,  m 

little 


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.  (-96  )■ 
Ikdemore  tJian  one  Century  (for  the  &^  thre€ 
of  which  we  have  not  the  Chriilenii^  I  have 
endeaVouied  to  fupply  them  irom  a  yearly 
Meditun  taken  of  thcfe  between  1604  aod  24, 
acpocding  to  the  Jncreafe  of  the  City  in  that 
time)  the  Tdtah  baptized  were  168087,  bu* 
tied  477047.  In  me  foreign  Regiftets  th^ 
BaptiTca  are  to  the  Buried,  a^  i  to  3  4>  or  as 
3  tQ  JO }  in  the  liondon  Bills  as  l  to  24,  or  as 
6  to  17.  But  in  the  great  Plague  of  16659 
th^  were  fcarce  10  to  above  97  or  100. 

From  foreign  Bills  we  fee  the  dire  EJfeA^ 
of  theie  terrible  Corre^ves  of  the  Redundaaee 
of  Mankind,  viz.  Plague,  War,,  and  Famia^ 
in  Towns  and  Cities  especially ;  and  that  the 
Continoit  is  more  expofed  to  the  former  two 
Chan  our  Iflands,  except  the  firft  is  imported  i 
which  Bleffings,  together  with  Liberty,  natu- 
ral Advant^es  of  Trade,  ExempElOfffrtHnthe 
terrible  Effefts  erf"  Thunder  and  Lightcnin|p, 
defolating  Earthquakes,  Fertility  of  oUr  Son, 
Temperature  of  the  Air,  and  Cultivation  of 
Sciences,  are  the  Bleffings  of  Britain,  though 
not  the  moft  delirable  Cunute,  as  was  (hewed 
at  the  b«inning. 

This  Table  might  lead  to  enquit*,  1.  Wh« 
the  more  general  Epidemics  were  that  h^vc 
happened  unce  the  beginning  of  our  RbgiQers 
hi  1 53  8<  z.  What  were  the  Seafons  and  Coo-. 
Aitutions  of  the  Air  which  preceded  and  aCr 
Companied  them.  3.  What  kind  of  £pide-> 
mics,  different  •nd  oppofite  Seafons,  and-Con- 
ftitutions  of  the  Air,  do  ordinarily  produce^ . 
4.  To  what  Soils,  Situations,  Bufineflesor 
Manners 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gk' 


Mannen  of  Life  each  differferitEpidemic  is  more 
^▼otirable  tir  fetal.  5.  To  what  Ibecial  Epide- 
mic each  different  Temperature  of  Body,  Agi, 
Countryi  or'Scx,  is  more  liable,  and  by  which 
they  are  moft  endangered;  and  fn  what  Tem- 
peratures of  Ae  Air  chiefly.  6.  Whether  ihert 
arc  any  Forerunners  or  Warnings  preceding 
great  defdatmg  Epidemics,  which  are  to  be 
regarded.  -7.- Whether  Epidemics  have  anjr 
fixed  Period  of  returning  in  the  feme  Country 
Climate,  or  SoU.  8.  Whether  one  and  the 
fame  Method  of  Pradice  is  equally  fuccefsfiil 
in  the  Ikme  Genus  and  Spedes  of  Epidemics 
at  diflerent  Times ;  or  whether  the  Method-  of  . 
Core  Taries  with  the  fevcriil  remote  Caufes.  . 
9.  How  far  the  Praflice  varies  in  different 
Conftitutions  of  Body,  during  the  Reini  of 
any  one  Epidemic.  10.  If  from  the  fcvcrd 
diHserfed  Hiftories  of  ftwtner  Epidemics  col- 
le^ed  and  itofflparcd  with  their  feveral  proca- 
tanSic  Caufes;  '  it  may  not  'be  probable  and 
practicable,  to  fix  on  generally  fuccefsfiil  Rules 
of  Prafllice  in  each  fiiture  Epidemic.  1 1.  The 
Agreement  or  Difagilecment  of  Epidemics, 
and  their  difiercnt  MeAods  of  Cure  m  fundry 
Countries,  fiut  thdh  Enquiries  being  quite 
new,  a  Work  of  Herculean  tabour,  Time,  in- 
tent Application  of  Mind,  Reading,  attentive 
Obfervation,  ©(•.  belong  to  a  general  Hiftory 
of  the  Ak,  and  Epidemics,  a  difHnftWork  of 
idelf !  and  of  wJiich  I  have,  by  feveral  Years 
clofe  and  indefatigable  Study,  prepared  a  Spe- 
cimen for  the  Prcfs. 

H  From 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


.(  ,8  )  • 
-Trdm  Ae  Degrees  of  Mortality,  let  t»  te- 
ieift  a  little  oii  its  Invafion.  Hm  I  find  a 
DuSerence  in  Regifters,  for  feverat  Pkces  havte 
Uieir  d^&rent  Times  <^  Seizurcj  Duration, 
and  Terniination  of  £pidemic9>  which  the  c»< 
riotis  Phyfician  or  Naturalift  will  find  by  cpo- 
Tulting  deltbmtely  and  attentively  the  RegU 
'iters  of  their  leveral  Pkces,  for  the  laft  two 
Centuries  backward.  For  jSpecimeft  I  ihall 
give  my  Remarks  in  this  Cafe,  on  one  of  a 
pretty  large  Inland  Town,  and  refer  the  reft 
to  another  Table.  That  Mortality  which 
bfMlcs  forth  in  yartuary,  moftly  ftops  a  lew 
Weeks  after  the  Sun  ha$  paft  the  vernal  Equi- 
nox i  if  it  paHes  that,  it  generally  exceeds  tfas 
-Summer  Solllice ;  if  it  flays  not  there,  it  goes 
on  to  the  autumnal  Equinox,  but  rarely  readies 
.the  Winter  Solftiilte.  That  which  begins  in 
February  is  moftiy  over  before  the  Summer 
Solftice  (Small-pox  or  Meafles  excepted)  it 
fcldom  reaches  :the  Harveft  Equinox  j  bm  of 
the  few  Inftances  which  have  reached  that 
Time,  fomc  of  them  reach  the  Winter  Sol- 
fiice,  or  even  complest  the'  Year»  but  very 
rarely  in  the  feme  place,  A  fatal  Seafbn  get- 
ting in  with  March,  o^n  re^ffi  till  the  next 
March ;  though  in  fome  Xnllances  it  ^  ceafed 
in  Augup  or  September,  or  died  oitf  with  the 
-Winter  St^ftice.  If  it  fets  in  wkh  \^ik  it 
xeMes  in  "Jme,  Atgi^iO&iAer,  Nmemher^  or 
'  January ^  rarely  6mfhe«  its  Year.  Mfff  often 
cxtenda  its  beginning  Mortality  to  die  next 
March,  but  in  feverat  Inftances  in  this  Regi- 
ftcr,  it  has  ceafed  in  July,  OSiobtri  January, 


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lV9) 

«r  Pieii^ry,-  '  Martfttiues.  V4iy  itlAota  happen 
.in  3^0^,  but  when  tb^  do,'  thcymoftlf  <iaa- 
linue  iix  cr  .twelve  Mondjts.  If  it  fasgiiiscip 
Jtifyt  it  fcUoHL  ceaies.  at  .tbe  next  EgH^mpgif, 
but  f)Kna\$  till  th^  Wiotcr  SoUtia;  er^veratl 
£^inox.  If'  it  attacks  in  Ai^ufi,  it  reigas 
till  JDecemhr^  ytmmry,  Mercb^  M^^  June,  a: 
Jttiy.  When  it  fett  in  wi^li  Stfatmber,  it  igJlot 
at  an  End  before  January^  Fthruary,.  Marik» 
■j^it^  May,  or  July.  That  which  appftgrs,in 
Nwemhery  moluy  klls  till  February,  Marjcht 
yurte,  or  July.  That  oi  I^ecember  knovra  j^ 
■£lnd  before  Al^ircb,  Aprils  Junst  Au^tftt.  <tt 
Stptemher ;  but  faere  I  find  regard  muA  aiwo^ 
be  bad  to  the  remote  CauTe  of  the  Epidemic; 
nor  fliould  Catarrhs,  Difea&s  of  the  Seafoofi,  or 
Meafles  or  Smalt-pox,  he  included  hece.  Thus 
Biuch  for  tiie  Spinning,  Doratioo,  and  Ter- 
mination ci  Mc^iities  in  geoeraJ,  in  thi£ 
-Place. 

As  to  the  Havock  or  Ddlm£tion  theymake 
■of  Peo{^e,  I  fiad,  according  to  this  Regifler, 
taking  the  Kingdom  together,  that  the  Mor- 
talities beginning  in  DecemhtTi  yanuary^  and 
j^rt/,  are  to  theie  fetting  in  vntfa  March  or 
.^iugK/lt  as  aS  to  26 ;  fuch  ^  cooie  in  March 
or  Auguftj  are  to  tJicTe  of  Mey  and  O^ein-t  *s 
ztXQia;  thcie  of  M^jir.  aod  OS(^r,  are  to 
'thefe  of  Peirugry  and  Novembfr,  as  22  to  2a.; 
-tbefe  in  February  and  Nvacmher^  are  to  t^ofe 
^Jufyza^  Sipttmben,  as  20  eo  i^  1  thofe  of 
-the  laft  two  Moi^s,  are  to  thefe  m  Juae,  at 
)  5  to  7 ;  io  that  Mortalities  begin  four  time* 
in  rk'cem&tr^  January,  and  April,  for  once  to 
n  a  June. 


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l(    100   ) 

^yipti.  But  of  all  Mortalities,  that  vhich  be- 
gins in  January  is  generally  mo{l  fatal,  being 
-to  tlut  which  i^  in  in  December,  as  55  to 
(4.5  >  that  of  Decetnber,  is  to  that  of  Ntyaetwefy 
>a8"43  *o  4.8}  that  of  Nqveraiar,  to  that  of 
•March,  as  38  to  314  ;  that  of  March,  toi  thdt 
of  %^  or  Septetnbtry  as  34  to  2c }  that,  of 
yuN  and  September,  to. that  of  February  and 
,Ca<Aer,  as  25  to  23  j  Febraary  and  Oifober, 
ta  April  and  Augufi,  as  23  to  20  ^  that  of 
J^i/  and  Augt^,.  to  that  of  il&j',  as  20  to 
15  s  diat  of  Mffj',  to  that  oijtme,  as  15  to 
5;.  therefore  that  of  Deceadi^  is  11.  times 
more  &tal  than  that  of  yu^.  And  as  a  Mor- 
tali^  begins  4  times  in  faniMry,  for  onra  in 
y«n«,  one  time  with  another^  it  is  therefore 
44  times  more  &^1 ;  for  that  which  fets  in  in 
June,  comes  in  the  middle  between  the  vernal 
smd  autumnal  Seafons  or  Q»iIlitutions ;  it  is 
too  late  for  the  former,-  and  too  early  for  the 
latter :  But  that  which  fets  in  in  hecember 
or  "January,  has  the  whole,  Advantf^e  of  the 
vernal  Conilitution  before  it>  to  encreafe  its 
Havock  and  Duration. 

The  fickly  Years  in  England,  taking  one 
with  another,  including  Childrens  Difeafes, 
are  to  the  healthy  about  2  in  1 1  the  moderate 
Years;  or.thefe  of  a  Medium  between  healthy 
.and  £ckly,  arc  about  i  of  3.  The  very  hea^ 
thy  YeasE,  whofe  Mortality  falls  ihort  of  both 
'the  others,  are  to  the  whole  about  23  or  24 
'in  44}  fo  that  the  very  healthy  are  to  the  &• 
'  tat,  as  23  or  24  to  8 ;.  and  to  the  moderate 
Its  23  or  Z4  to  13  or  14.  But  though  this  in 
■    • '.  general 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


( I«I ) 

general  Is  pretty  near  the  Proportion  betweea 
healthy,  moderate,  and  fatal  Years,  yet  wc 
&w  it  is  far  irom  being  equal  in  all  Placps; 
Tot  ftveral  large  populous  Towns,  and  low 
fenny  Situations,  have,  one  time  with  another; 
a  fickly  Seafon  once  in  about  three  or  fodi; 
Years :  For  it  has  been  obferved,  that  once  iii 
about  four  or  five  Years,  (taking  ;one  timq 
with  another)  there  happens  fome  ipecjal  AU 
teration  in  the  Air-  and  Seafons,  of  iome  Con- 
tinuance. '  Large  and  populous  Towns  (ex4 
cept  extraordinarily  lituated)  are  ftHdom  free 
from  ibme  contagious  Diforder,  which  vifoiits 
only  a  fiivourablc  Opportunity  of  the  Air  to 
propagate  its  Infeftion :  But  many  Places  have 
not  a  mortal  Year  above  cmce  in  lo,  iz,  ,ii(., 
18,  30,  24,  30,  yea  even  in' 55  Years." 

The  different  Degrees  of  Mortalii^  itfolf  iii 
thefe  Tears,  is  itilf  wider,  accordmg  to  the 
diifcrcnt  Places,  Kinds  of  the  Eptdomii^,  Sea-, 
fon  of  the  Year,  State  of  the  Air,  €fc.  for  or-, 
dinarily  in  London,  and  fome  otrher  large  and 
populous  Places,  ■  one  time  with  anouber,  a 
Mortality  carries  not  off  above  i-jd;  i-4th,  or 
i-5th  more  than  in  healtfiy  Years  j  yet  in 
London  I  have  known  as  many  die  in  a  Month, 
as  uflially  die  in  9,  or  between  g  and  4.  .  But 
in  large,  open,  nealtlw  Country  Places,  one* 
fatal  epidemic  Year,  kills  as  m?ny  as  ufuaBy 
die  in  6,  id,  i ij,  nay  fometimcs  in'.iS  or  2q 
of  the  hcalthieff  Years,  ;(but  this  is'far  abcw^ 
die  Standard  in  general,  taking  the  whole  to- 
gether, as  we  obferved  above) 'as  though  the 
pureft  healthieft  Air,  when  6ncc'  taln^,  arid 
■   ■  H  3  the 


i.vCoogIc 


tb£  ftrongeft  Ccnftkudoos  dialed  by  the  Set* 
fon,  bom  confpired  to  make  the  grcateft 
Wrtck  of  People. 

'  Thus  far  we  have  noticed  from  local  Mor» 
talltics,  which  are  often'  bounded  vnthin '  a 
vciT  ftw  Miles,  being  either  from  Childwins 
piiaSa,  inflammatory  Diiicmpcrs,  loQimuW 
toits,  or  Ibme  of  their  Confequchccs  or  allied 
Tnbe.  As  to  general  or  national  Mortaliliie^ 
vhidi  are  properly  csUed  Epidemics,  thqr  rCr 
him  not  al^ve  once  In  12,  1^,  14^  o^  1^ 
ycirs,  there  being  bu^  ftriflly  fpeaking,  16 
Of  II  in  240.  Years.  Theyarelbroctimes  voy 
Quickly  over,  as  the  Sweating  -Slcknefs,  whkfa. 
Old  its  Execution  in  a  Month's  time  j  others 
itc  very  lingering,  as  the  late  Intermlttents. 
■n^hich  reigned  in  the  Levels  near  7  or  8,  Vcafs 
together.  The  more  general  Mortalitids  fincc 
ihthc^nAms  of  the  1 6th  Ceitfary,  were  in 
ijo5  and  a 8,  both  from  a  ipotted  mal^ant 
Fever  i  1 540  tw  an  exccfljve  not  and  droughty 
Summer,  -  Agnes  andiDyienteries  were  epidfr* 
mic  i  43  the  plague  'was  In  Loit/Ua,  and  tbip 
Terms  were  adjwimed  in  Winter ;  it  was  -« 
very  riiny  Summer,  a  great  pearth  of  Cattle, 
a  iht)ng  rroft  in  Winter,  and  a  Run  of  £ital 
n^flammatory  bifeafes  iii  the  Spring.  ;'In  45 
the  Troop-pallant  (a  kind  s>t catarrhousFewer) 
raffed  far  and  near^  and  verminons  Fevets^ 
ynich  p^rrfcd  off  abundance  ofyoupg-  ftrpng 
People.  Ip  45  Ac -Plague  raljged  injb^om^ 
^4  all  Europe  groaned  under  apeftUmitlal  Pe* 
ripneumony,  v^th  a  %>itting^  of  Blood,  and 
|j^c)iUy  of  fijr(»l;hing}  it  was  moA  contagious 

ftnd 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


{  lof  ) 
aed  &t«l.  tn  s^h^jia  and  ng«d  in  57  and 
58  burning-hot  Fevers  or  Agues,  and  RemiN 
(ents,  which  confumed  muc&  People  in  EHg^ 
Uitd^  dpect^y  ^ave  Men,  In  6a  the  Sol- 
ders brought  the  Hungarian  Fever,  (a  kind  cf 
l^bigue  to  this  Nation,  kt  in  lAnihn  died  otf 
it  ioitjb)  from  Newbtrven'witQ E,ngland,v^iiAi 
kaade  &d  Havock.  In  64  lata!  Defluxions, 
Cttarrhe,  then  Quinfies ;  68  was  very  rainyj-a 
great  Dc^lb,  ft  ifatat,  putrid,  ipotted  Fever, 
which  raged,  and  had  not  finiflied  its  Feranv 
tmlation  in  70 ;  for  firom  68  to  74^  was  dl 
tnoft  exceffively  intemperate  foutherly,  windy, 
raiim  fo%Sf  Meteors,  Dearth,  Famine.  In 
73  BIoody-Fhix,  Meafles,  and  vennindus  Fe- 
Tera.  la  74  a  httX  eptdemk;  Semirtertiaa; 
^ulepfies.  Diarrheas,  and  the  Plague  r^ic^ 
in  (evcral  Places.  In  77  fickened  and  died 
many  in  Oxford/hire  (according  to  Di»  Pi^^ 
f.  24,  25.  Hiftory  of  Oxfardjhire)  at  the  Af- 
lizes  held  there '^»/)i  4,  5,  6,  when  one  Jmiei 
a  Catholick  was  arraigned  and  condemned  f^t 
fpeaking  Treafon,  he  lighted  a  Wick  (»'  Csol- 
dk  he  had  made  of  fuch  Ingredients  as  raiitd 
a  Steam,  ^at  from  Jufy  6  to  Augt^  12,  kil- 
led 300  in  the  City,  and  200  in  the  Country,  ' 
that  were  preftnt  at  the  Coodemnation.  (Setf 
Uk  whole  Story  at  length  in  W(fi>pr  on  WitiA- 
Cfift,  p,  245.)  In  8  a  general  great  Catarrh; 
84 -Was  ^ceffive  hot  and  droughty,  Hobdy-/ 
Puoes;  in  85  fatal  Spring  Plurifiea  and  I^-i 
r^»aeUnH>niei,  with  fome  Malignity}  in'Sd;^ 
Famine;  in  89  was  the  Hungarian  Kevei' 
farpujght  from  Ftrtu^al  hy  ^ih<i  Mvglijb  Fleet,' 
H  4  and 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


Cf04) 
Mid  4ifperM  Qnr  the  NstioD ;  pn  97  Com 
Rains,  Sf^arcity  aq^  I^^th;:  in  1601  Dyiem- 
lerics  and  verminous  Fevers ;,  1603  the  PU^iu 
ifi  Lott4oft  from  Q^^Vj  whereof  died:38z44» 
and  puny  died  Qf  it  io  Cb^er.  And  in^  i6af. 
it  raged. in  siuny  C9untry  ?U/:x^i  i6£^, :9b 
14}  fdtai  autumsal  Dyienteties^  .10  the  Ca^ 
tarrh  pf  1510  and  80.  It  was  nn  cxceffiy* 
Aroughtaod  Heat  in  Summer,  Terdans  qu^c* 
ifucj  21,  22|.wet,  foutherly,  andmoift,  acon-r 
tinuai  conta^K^&malignant  Fever,  orifiMrga- 
^ftfV  .Pifeafe  i  23,.  24,  a  maHgnant  ipotted  Fo;- 
.  ysfy  )yhich  in  24  turned  to  oiePIi^Wv  aod  vi 
25  and  26  turned  tQ  the  fornw  Fever  again  f 
it  began  in  Ungi^d  in  22  or.  2^..  In  38  an 
CKcelHye  hot  and,  dfy  Spmtner,  Tertians  epl- 
deniic ;  40  a  ito^^  OBo&er,  epidemic  Pleu* 
pf}^  gext  Spring }  43-  a  moifi,  foutherly>  rainy 
Spring,  and  cxcejliv^.  hot  Summer,  an  epidi^ 
mic  fnaligi^t  Few,,  and  Hemitritxon  y  45 
^a  ^xcei&ve  hot  a|id  dry  Summer,  Bloodyr 
5|pxes.i  48,  49,  rainy  Years,  a  flow  Fevqr ; 
j4'SmallfpoV  genera),  a  hot  Summer  hec^ 
Taifjy.and  fout^ly  abroad  ;  57  Tertians  j .  j8 
a.  general  Catarrh  in  ^r//}  an  excefllve.  hot 
Su^igt^,  in -this, and  two  foUotving  Years,  thff 
'^ole  N^^0R.tg^Qaned  uader  a  Load  of  .Iiiteiv 
l^^nts  J  61  to  .64^  Sydenbam'i  depurato^ 
Fever,  which,  however,  in  65  depuratoi  tq 
the  ^talell  Pl^ue  fver  the  MctcoppUs  &lt-4 
64  .Quartans  again  j  66  great  Drought,  and  a 
fevcse,Dyfentery  i.  67  an  epidemic  Fever.;  67, 
^^  SmalUpox,  variolqus  Fever,  iind  Dyic^-r 
ter^  -t  tg  a  very  cpld  Spring  aqd  M^y^  :an  exr 
■  :  ,  .    '  ceflive 


i.vCoogIc 


ce&ve  hot  yafy,  J&^Jtfi,  Seftemier,  aifdOApk 
ier,  a  mdl  fatal  Epadcmic  Fever,  .then  a 
CMere  Mwbm  and  :X)yftnteiyv  which  cootv^ 
nued  tUl72 ;  70,  7 1, 7a,  Smali-pox, Meaflcd^ 
JBIoody-Flux,  and  bilioas  Cholk ;  73,  74, 7 j^ 
'    "         •  -    "  ^  'SmaB-poXi 


?; 


an  epidemic  Fever,  Meailea,  atid  ' 
'5  an  epidemic  Catarrh;  78,  79,  the  Sam 
'C9ct  that  reigned,  befoce  in  69 ;  79  a  general 
Catarrh;  80  a  fro% cold  Winter;  oh  CKcefr 
five  hot  SBmmer,  fafe  Agues  gensraLj  83,64; 
&o{ly  cold  Winters,  exeeffive  hot  Snmmersj  a 
genual  Dyfenteiy  j  87  a  very  xainy  ¥faar,  fpob 
rious  Intennlttents,  Diarrhea;  S8  an  epidemic 
Catairfa;  90  Teitiabs  fHtvaited;  91,  92,  9;^^ 
aa  epidemic  ipocted  Fever,  the  fiunle  ib  1505^ 
1528,  Dyfenteries  common  ;  98,  99,  a  gene* 
ral  Catarrh ;  tjie  ikme  Spotted  Fevers  preniled 
in  England^  as  had  done  abroad  in  the  two 
laft  Years.  The  Weatbff  inxn  94  to  99,  the 
lame  as  from  1568'  to  74  berorc}  Scarcity; 
Dearth,  and  Famine.  Thus  I  have  given  a 
fliort  ^Uabus  of  the  cli^f  general  Dif^&s  of 
the  two  laft  Centuries ;  «bcEt  thsir  ^Invafion,  Du' 
ration,  Symptt^ns,  and  Method  i>i  Core  b&- 
longii^  to  the  Hiftory  of  Fpidemics,  are  alien 
to  the  profent  Purpofe. ;  I  might:  have  bronght 
down  the  Syllabus  to  the  proleiit  Tihie,  but 
the  Uie  Hiflories  of .  Epidiemics  beiog  almoft 
in  every  body's  Hand,,  it  would  have  been  a 
mcer  Tautplogy. 

Thft  motti  general  Epidemics  then,  duiii^ 
our  Regiftfersj  are  thefe  whkh  began  in  1543, 
and  r^d  in  44  that,  which  appeared  in  1 557, 
and  fj^fid-.-till  1^9  \  that  ^yhich  bdgan  in  70, 

and 


by  Google 


f  ro6) 
MkdJaftcd  tUL.74;  and  that  of  97,  96 )  -Ait 
af  1622,  and  iaflrd  oat  25  j  that  of  42,  and 
continoed  till  45 ;  thatAd^?'  5^  59>  ^utt-«f 
^69,  and  remaiiwd  till  .74;-  ana  of  78,  79^ 'Of 
^1,  and  Ullcd  to  S4;  that  of  98^  $9,  172a, 
gt.%  }  that  of  a6  to  30 ;  that  of  40  to  43 }  in 
««  fimrtBcn :  When:  the  -Aeader  may  ohferve 
ft-ncar  Cflrre^x>ndcn(!e>  nay' almc^  a  Coind- 
4eDce  of  MoEtaliticfi  near  about  the  £iine  Tkne 
ia  tach  0»tiiry.  It'Is  .alfi>.6Uervable,:fioin 
idle  ferenl  Regifters,  that  cioft  of  tfab&  ged&- 
«b1.  I^emics  haw  their  firft  Rife  in  ihe  Sou^ 
and  extend  in  a  progreffive  Conrie  tathei^ortb 
fiMngian^ ;  but  notoneRegifler  can  be  pixv 
^ced  in  their  Favonr,  who  wiU  h&ve  an  £pi- 
demic  to  contkme  in  the  fame  Place  7  or  8 
Vean  b^edier.  Endemics  may  reign  Cefiti»< 
Eic&t  Jiut  not.£pidemic6  (Jntermittonts  in  flat 
^nny  Countries  excepted,  and  indeed  properly 
^waking  they  are  Endemics  there.)  And  if  we 
allow'  Epidemics  to  depend  moftly  on  the 
ibnfifale  Qualities  of  the  Air,  the  Natum  <£ 
the  thing  win  not  allow  their  Relgii-  to  conti- 
nue 7  or-  8.  Yiais  in  oiie  Place,  fince,  as  i»*s 
obfDrrad  above,  that  there  generally  is  an  Al- 
teratiaiiof  the  Air  andCoqftitutions  ooce  in 
If.  or  5.  Years  in  this  Ifkoid  ;  indeed  the  lame 
Conratution  prevailing  from  1569  to  74,  and 
£^om.  1694  to  99;  and  a  prevaiUdg  North 
Wind  in  ^ruffia  for  1 2  Years,  tc^^cdicr,  ace 
extraordinary  Inftancee  which  felddm  occur. 
,  It  is;  a  bold  Afierttim  c&  a  Ph7&ian>  aiid 
l>ewrays.  his  Zgnonuice  both  of  nafaual  uid 
pediooal  Hiftories,.  to-fit}rp  thatrbecaufe  the 
*■   '-  Temperature 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


i  ««7) 

Tempcntnre  of  the  A^  isnoc^ritli  m  Based  t^ 
the  iame  Sea£}n6  as  in  Greece  and  ^a,  tfaenN- 
A}Fe  wo.ndther.  knov^  when  pdr  wlut  Epl- 
deo^cs:  wIU  attack,  nor  hovr  they  ace  to.be 
cured, ;  And  till  .w«  iee  a  long  Series  of  Ob- 
iervatidns  for  fcveral  Centuries,  their  Judg- 
ment and  UieAilncIs  is  as  much  to  be  diiputed, 
who  give  OS  a  Hiftory  of  Epedemics  witb- 
out  the  Weather  or  Seafons  j  nor  would  the 
World  be  much  benefited  by  a  long  Hiftory 
of  Weather  and  Difeafes,  but  wluoat  the 
Ctire.  It  is  alfo  a  flrange  Jumble  of  Hiftoiy 
of  Epidemics,  to  intermix  all  the  inteicaiRot 
fingle  Diieafes,  whoie  Method  of  .Cure  have. 
no  Dcpendance-  on  the  other,  nor  have  tlw 
leail  common  Symptoms,  except  ^ickne(s  oc 
Pjun.  It  is  alfo  a  great  Defeat  .and  L<^  foe 
fuch  as  &vour  us  with  a  Hiflnry  of  Weather, 
Difeafes  and  Cure,  not  to  give  the  yearly  fiirdu 
and  Burials  of  the  Years  they  Write  of.  t 
find  in  the  Rcgiflers,  that  fometimes  Diftur-i 
bances  of  the  Body  politick,  attend  Difordecs^ 
of  the  natural  Body,  as  from  1^56  to  ^^9,', 
1623  4,  1643  4,  1684,  94  to  7,  1723, 
40,  4.1,  fSc.  As  though  Religion,  Liberty, 
Property,  and  Trade  declined,  ikkened  aiul 
died,  or  revived,  flourished  and  rejoiced  to- 
gotbor. 

The  iburth  Table  proves,  that  how  healthy 
(bever  the  Year  may  be  in  general,  yet  Sick- 
nefi  and  Mortality  invade  and  attack  fome. 
Plaoes,  all  are  never  exempted  at  once,  nor. 
vifited  at  once^  the  only  Difierence  is,  that 
more  -are  aiBi^d  ift>  fome  Years  than  In  others, 
•    :    3  or 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


of  biftaies  foriiclimes  'rit)m  'a  mecr  liniVerlal 
Caufe,  as  ihc  Air  pr  Food  -, .  fuch  are  properly 
ejpidefnic  Years ;  or  from  a  more  particuLir  or 
accidental,  and  are  circumfcrlbed  withih  lefler 
or  najTower  Bounds,  not  being  affifted  br  en- 
cpufaged'  by  outward  Aids,  to  make  a  larger 
imd  wider  Spread.  Some  Difcafes  (as  was  faid) 
are  of  a  fhortcr,  others  of  a  longer  Contimi- 
ktiie  ;  but  Diftempcrs  fi6ta  bad  or  unwhole- 
fome  Food,  or  a  long"  unhealthy  State  of  the 
Ait  and  SeafpnS,.  laft  longeft.  Sqmetimes 
Sickncfles  arife  in  a  few  ParilThes,  or  Comer  of 
a  Country,  and  die  out  where  they  began ;  at 
other  times  they  begin  and  make  a  progreffive 
Tour  over",  the  whole  Iflarid,  yea  over  the 
whole  Globe,  ■  and  take  feveral  Years  to  make 
their  generat'Perambulation,  ftill  fhifting  fi-Om 
place  to  place,  and  in  their  Frogrefs  oiten 
thangc  Symptoms,  but  fometimes  their  Spe- 
des,  accordbg  to  the  Climate  and  Conftitu- 
tidn.  Some  Difeafcs  are  not  only  far  more 
contagious,'  but  more  fatal  than  others, '  as 
there  is  no  Proportion  in  the  Havock  riladc 
by  flight  Catarrhs  and  autumnal  Diarrheas,  affd 
epidemic  putrid  Fevers,  or  a  malignant  Pcrip- 
neumony ;  I  fay  there  is  little  Comparifon  be- 
tween them  either  in  Danger  or  Duration.  It 
was  obferved  before,  that  a  Variety  of  Soils,' 
as  well  as  States  of  the  Air,  give  Riftf  to  dif- 
ferent Difeares,  therefore  moft  Years  are  fickly 
either  in  orie  Place  or  another  j  for  veiy'hi^ 
<X>\A  Situations,  difpofe  to  Inflammatory  Dif- 
tempers;' low'and  moift  Caofe  Relaxations 
and  Difcafes  depending  'tiferrfrom  ;   a  fdhry 

■ '  ■•    hot 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle    - 


hot  fiipift  Air,  -tp.maligiiWf  flp- :pdiUe»tial 
Diibrders,  &c. 

Frcnb  the  firft  Trace  Id  o^f  Regiflers,  oif 
epidemic  or  laortal  Years  in.tihe.Ctmntiy  Pa.- 
jiflies^.tjll  1644,  were  baptized  6950,  buncd 
22243,  in  Towns  331^4, 48185;  wfere,  in  the 
£rft,  ^rths  are  to  Bui'i9asnot,y.,tosibqye22t  ^ 
I  to  above  3 }  in  Towns  as  1 2  toj6.*  Frooi  the 
beginning  of  the  Civil  Wars  in  2644,  ^ill  after 
the  Reilpi;atioD  in  61,  In  die  Country  riPg^x^ 
Births' are  56^4,  Burials  78^)  .iq  Toi»r^ 
,3951  to,  5932}  &(•  which  ihcws,  tl^t-  tfi 
general  Epidemics  in  the  Cogntry,  ,>y.ere  hx 
fewer  bekve.  the  Civil  Wars  than  llnc^,  Co 
they  were  more  iiKUtal  wlien  they  canoe :  It 
^o  fliey^  their  gEcater  Severity  in  th«  Ccwik- 
try  than  in  Towc^  j  and  that  during  th^  Civil 
Wars,  .Country  Regi&rs  fuffcrcd  more,  or 
■were  nuxo  negleSed  than  Town  Regiilcrs. 

From  colleiling  yearly  or  monthly  Ab- 
flxadts,  'from  a  great Kumberof  Regifters,  and 
corapariog  them  with,  a  Hke  Collodion  of  Hif- 
torles  of  the  Wither,  Air,  Seaibns,  Meteors^ 
States  and  Prices  of  the  Fruits  of  the  Earth 
yearly,  we  may  be  evidently  convinced  of  the 
Effc&s  of  rainy,  droughty,  cold,  hot,  froHy, 
open,  cloudy,  fc^gy,  qaifling,  cjear,  .feafona- 
ble.or  unfeafonable  Weather,  or  Farts  of  the 
Year ;  oif  the  long  Duration  of  high  Winds  .or 
Calpis  j  the  long  Continuance  of  Winds  in  oae 
Quarter,,  or  their  often  Shiftily  or  Veering,'; 
of-.thp  diiferent  Effects  of  a  long  contim^ 
North,  Soujth,  or  Eaft  Wind  i  ofmu(^ThuDr 
derj  ,  Lightening, .  (Comets,  £)atthqvake.s,  and 
other 


by  Google 


hfim  McftnM,  %i  gciianl,  &c  tt  any^MfoA  of 
the  Year. 

This  yradd  slfo  giw  the  Effeas  of  Senrd^, 
Deoi^,  Faa^iie,  PUntyi  of  good  or  bod,  t^ 
•er  wripe^  jbund,  bhfled,  mildewed*  or  oAer- 
wiTe  &ult^  Fruits  of  tl^  Earth,  on  all  Sexes 
widAges.  TbefeO^ledifHnwotddftiewliow 
fsr  each,  a  any  of  didfe  is  hurtful,  ocdufive 
'(^,  or  coi^dui^  tirith  prtoedii^  and  preleiit 
Conftitutions  of  the  Air,  Seafoiu,  ProduA  of 
the  Earth,  and  ufe  of  anioui  Food.  Hereby 
we  may  be  informed  whether  Aw^a  bet-eaUst 
ConjunQions  or  Oppofition^^^of  Pknecs,  EoUp^ 
fo  (^  die  heavenly  Bodt^,  <^c.  affed  Ufi,  <k 
are  to  be  dreaded  i  and  hcnr  far  fudden,  and 
eztream  Changes  of  Weadier,  influence  oat 
Bodies  i  or  ■what  Sifuations  fach  Cbuigos  mcift 
eifiea ;  or  whether  they  affed  Operation, 
Gravidation,  &c.  And  in  fiich  TioMS  of  ta^ 
great  Diilemper,  or  Death  (rfCattle,  or  other 
Brutes,  bow  far ;  or  wheth«  itportendod  £iek- 
nefa  or  Mortality  to  Peopfe.  »it  ihefe  C^e^ 
tions  would  be  readUieic  anfwered  by  wedtly 
Abfh^as  of  the  Bills  of  Cities  and  grat  Towirt, 
Ibr  many  Country  Parifhes  are  too  fmall  CO 
dUfcover  them.  - 

Re^fters  alone  (hew  tJie  Rife,  Progiefi,  Ex- 
tent, Severity  or  Mildncfs,  Dliration,  Seafbo^ 
and  Degrees  of  Mortality,  in  fkndry  I^ccs,  l^ 
Endemics  and  Epidemics.  They  like^ifie  IheW 
which  Difeifes  have  thdr  frequenteft-Retams, 
«nd  what  Places  and  SoHs  are  moft  liable  to 
tbem,  or  fuficr  flighted  or  fharpUeil  by  diem. 
Regiflers  compared  not  oidy  with  the^ilhinei 

of 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(    lU    ) 

of  Efodanics.  bat  viitfa.  the  IU^'4^  Pren* 
kncy  of  the  feveral  Sefi^ies  io  PhjrfiCt  Aieiir 
cbe  ^ie£ls  of  the  di^reiit  PradHces  in  Cities 
aod  large  TownSj  during  the  Re^  of  the 
Aaas .  Epidemic^  from  the  tuae  coounoa 
Canfe,  and  IcAve  the  Matter  no  longer  a 
CoDtfoverly  among  their  critiul  and  b^rpo- 
dietical  Gentletnen,  but  apply  the  fev«ral 
Practices  to  the  difierent  Succx^  of  thots 
Times. 

KiKKving  the  Month  or  Seafon  when  an 
Epidemic  begins,  and  whether  it  is  of  ^m 
general  or  particular,  chronic  or  acute  knd, 
the  Regiftos  of  the  Place  being  Applied  to 
and  examined,  it  may  from  forma-  Infbnccs, 
compared  with  the  Seafon  of  its  Attack,  and 
Conuimtion  of  the  Air,  be  gucffed  at  pretty 
near,  how  long  it  Will  continue,  -  long  or 
fhort  Time,  whether  it  will  be '  gende  or 
fevere.  Regifters  Oieiv,  which  of  the  two 
Centuries  they  have  bcfn  kept,  is  moll  healthy 
or  fickly,  or  what  Parts,  or  Debadts  of  each, 
or  both  Centuries,  have  been  Ga  }  and  whether 
the  Places  where  Epidemics  appear  ofteneft  or 
ftldomeil,  are  mon  healthy..  From  Towns  . 
and  great  Cities  fuflering  te^  by  Epidemics  in 
general  than  the  Country,  po-haps  the  Inhabi- 
lanti-of  the  Conntry  fuffir  more  by  Epidemics 
from 'tbeir-faeiag  long  accuftomed  to  a 'pure 
Air^l  or  th^r  want  of  fuch  Efflnvia  and  Bxha^ 
latidDs  in  the  Atmofphcrc,  as  may  aUbrbe, 
iheaJth,  btcak,  tx  change  the  contagious  mor- 
bifiife  Effluvia  in  the  Air,  or  arifing  from  the 
Xnfeded,  Sick,  Dead,  or  their  Excntion^. 

TA^LE 


i.CoOgk: 


TAB  L  E    S  IX  T  H. 

Of  die  Beg^niui^  Dundon,  andTeraimtion  of  hgidB- 
mkst  according  to  fourteen  different  Puilh  Regjftets  of 
diflant  Places,  Cduinn  firft,  the  Number  of  Places 
aflUded  diA  lime  cadiMontbi  Column  Iccoitd,  ths 
Moadiitfaia^duie&cmniiBied;  Cdiunn  thiid,  Mtia 
tbat  died ;  Column  fourth,  Femakt.  The  Numfaor  a£ 
£ck^  Yean  in  each  of  the  fourteen  Fbca  during  their 
long  Re^fter,  9»  izi  6,  I2,  a6,  l6,  lo,  JJ>  45,  8,  9, 
»5»45l?7u 


7«««y 

//rti 

■  '  'I 

13 

4   3   88 

93 

s  4  ■;' 

143 

*   4   S3 

)> 

z  c      161 
4  *  «o 

170 
49« 

:  1  'u 

■  08 

*  J  '", 

S78 

'■    7      «4 

so 

1   8   tjS 

•43 

I     6  jt 

4S 

1   ,   J. 

30 

•   9   13 

4" 

i  •+   44 

K 

t  to   87 

SS 

I  17   .04 
s  18   6;j 

t86 
6.7 

t  t,   j8 

3   tl   22J 

3} 

>75 

I  19   s;. 

1588 

t   13    50 

1  li  t7« 

SO 
'59 

H     .68; 

8 
47 
xoo 

"S     1097 

_£1! 

My. 

S   5   107 

S   0   9) 

^ 

3   J   86 

IIS 

.79 

1   9   3> 

SS 

4   6   139 

'f 

1  to   It 

'4 

2   7   isi 

i6| 

I  fi   19 

=3 

I   9   48 

Jl 

1  IJ   7. 

■73 

3  10   8a 

■  18   « 

_iS? 

z  It   iz; 

I  12   30 
I  13   3t 

107 

'A 

U_     !<» 

779 

Marti. 
I   J   31 
1   4   Itj 

tS 

22      868 

783 

t   s   u 
S  »  HS 

■3 

Jm. 

I     I       11 

90 

t   1   t9 
t   6   s« 

^^' 

■   9   43 

46 

I   8   34 

49 

t  to   8; 

70 

J 

3  ■>   88 
3  >3   19" 
I  r5  "*3oo 
s  «o  5(6 

t5l 

t93 

1  11   30 

6      t7s 

so; 

J 

.3     1678 

(•  "3 ): 

1      .        .s 
■      3        ♦' 

;  t  ;? 
:  I  7, 

3     9      176 
1    11      1(1 

1    36     707 

11 

3S 
llJ 

2i; 

20 

5  117  132 
4      107     ■  99 

6  .47       i;8 

7  107      100 

8  292      3 10 

9  106  78 
10  254  afi2 
14       176       172 

1306     1311 

3      141      119 

♦       9«        93 

I      "J      ■« 

6  8,        73 

7  26  34 
9      139      138 

10  148         12( 

12      145       135 

16  36        39 

17  286  270 
20      192      211 

11  308      2S6 

IB            150s 

IIS6 

An**. 

1      3        .8 

I    4     36 

I  i  ^, 
'  I   « 

4      8      IIS 

'     »       5} 

s    10       s6 
4    1"       314 
1    la       34 
I    IS        as 

1    40      184 

S3 

^1 
192 
5' 
101 
4* 
49 
307 
41 
17 

'n. 

19 

1827      rtqS 

Dutmbir. 

3  3'9      359 

4  192      229 

\  \i  'i 
9  14s  167 

\\  11  11 

14  3"        "6 

15  167  203 
iS  213  340 
17  261  364 
19  271  230 
40       ?7+       504 

»5            1 197 

1080 

Stptmbtr. 
a      S        88 
3      0      331 
a      7      19a 
a      8      127 
a      9      I9J 
I     15       101 
1    ig       16 
I    ai       271 

!4 

201 
107 

2IJ 

14            1229 

I22S 

.*• 

2664    2670 

Ijl 


i.,CoogIc 


( 11+ ) 

ifl  Ohferv.  That  in  the  general,  for  the 
firft  four,  five,  or  fix  Months  of  a  Sickneli  or 
Mortality,  Females  have  rather  the  wOrft  of 
it }  for  here  Males  buried  are  to  Females,  as 
30  to  above  30  4r  J  but  in  the  latter  Part  of  i^ 
Males  are  moAly  the  greateft  Sufferers,  as  here, 
on  the  whole,  above  65  to  52  :  But  in  the  in- 
termediate Part  they  come  nearer  a  Par^  be- 
ing about  42  to  near  41,  which  1%  fcarce  ,the 
Difference  of  the  Sexes  baptized,  z.  That 
Epidemics,  or  fickly  Seafons,  begin  oftener  in 
December^  yanw^ry,  j^ril^  and  j^uft,  via, 
102  times  J  in  Juncy  Julyt  September,  woA.  Fe- 
bruary^ only  52  times.  3.  Hereby  we  fee 
which  Difeafes  were  Acutes  or  DiframMre  of 
the  Seafon,  and  which  were  not ;  ioe  uie  for* 
mer  moftly  ceafe  on  the  Approach  of  the  next 
Seafon,  as  Catarrhs,  Diarrheas,  Cbolers  Morbus^ 
inflammatory  Difeafes,  (Eruptive  Fevers  ex- 
cepted) only  fometimes  one  Difeaie  may  tread 
on  the  Heels  of  another,  and  protraft  the  Mor- 
tality two,  three,  or  four  Seafous,  and  make  it 
all  appear  one  continued  lUnefs,  where  indeed 
it  is  two  or  three,  as  Quotidians  turning  to 
Tertian  or  C^artans,  &  ^  contra ;  or  Jntermit- 
tcnts  changing  to  Remittents,  or  Remittents 
altering  into  Putrids,  or  Catarrhs  into  Heftics, 
or  Meafles  fucceeding  Small-pox,  or  Chin- 
cough  preceding  or  fucceeding  cither,  Gfr.  or 
Epidemics  going  before,  or  following  dole  to 
Difeafes  of  the  Seafons ;  or  feveral  of  thefe 
immediately  fucceedmg  one  another,  andcon- 
ftituting  a  long  fickly  Time.  4.  Hereby  we 
fee  that  Spring  Difeafes  let  in  much  earlier 
thaa 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


("J) 

<itftB  Autunuials,  continue  much  longer  often, 
and  therefore  moA  be  more  mortal ;  the  for- 
mer begmning  in  Pecemher  (wherein  we  fee 
moft  Diieafeslxgin  of  any  JVJonth  in  the  Year) 
die  other  fcarce  before  Auguji*  Of  the  28  At- 
tacju  that  Sickne^  have  made  in  thefc  14 
Place;  in  December^  zo  of  them  have  ceafea 
beiwe  the  Eruption  of  die  Aatumnals.  5. 
Htteby  we  ibo-  whether  verqal  or  autumnal 
Inv&fions  are  mpft  frequent  and  dangerous; 
the  Vemals  we  fee  reach  from  December  till 
li^yt  and  reign  till  jfugt^ ;  the  Autumoals 
from  Au^  to  yanaaryi  the  former  are  139, 
the  latter  78.  In  the  one  died  18829,  in  the 
other  10873.  The  Mortalities  of  this  TaHe, 
that  exceed  the  common  Reign  of  the  Dif- 
eaies  of  the  Seafon,  are  1 56.  Such  as  termi- 
nate before  the  nesct  Seafon,  are  98.  But  let 
it  be  minded,  that  of  69  different  Seizures  in 
December^  ^armary^  and  February ^  only  2 1  of 
them  reach  and  join  the  Autumi^  \  fo  that 
48  terminate  widkin  the  Seafon.  And  of  185 
vernal  Invalions,  only  50  of  them  ceafe  before 
the  beginning  of  the  Autumnals,  and  135 
reach,  join,  and  fome  of  them  exceed  the 
Autumnals,  and  continue  the  next  Vernals. 
But  as  a  far  greater  part  of  the  December  In- 
vafions  have  finiftied  their  Courfe  before  au- 
tumnal Difeafcs  begin,  fo  ilUI  a  greater  Share 
of  the  March  Difcucs  furvive  the  vernal,  and 
join  the  autumnal,  viz.  20  out  of  23.  Of  25 
Seizures  in  jipril^  only  9  are  over  before  Au- 
gtfi't  and  of  25  Seizures  in  Augu/iy  no  more 
tlun  3  arc  over  before  December ^  that  the 
I  2  Vernals 


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(  Ii6  ) 

Verhals  b^in;  aod  of  i5,Invafions  i&yttfy, 
only  6  are  over  before  December.  But  of  aW 
the  Attacks  in  the  fcveral  Months  of  tlie  Year, 
moil  of  theie  in  March  fubllft  longeft>  vix.  9  } 
6  in  December  y  6  in  January  y^  in  February, 
5  in  jiprily  2  in  May,  5  in  jufyy  3  in  jiu- 
gufiy  3  in  September,  i  in  Oilobery  5  in  iVe- 
vember.  From  this  Table  we  fee  whether 
the  Attacks  of  vernal  or  autumnal  Difeaics 
are  moil  to  be  dreaded,  which  of  longeft  Con- 
tinuance, and  moft  fatal.  The  Curious  may 
deduce  feveral  other  Inftances  from  this  Ta- 
ble, or  they  may  hereby  examine  their  own 
Regiilers>  as  I  mid  among  the  14  Regifto-s  in 
this  Table. 


TABLE 


by  Google 


(  "7  ) 

TABLE    SEVENTa     '■ 

Shewing  the  Inqreafe  or  Decreafe  of  Towns,  by 
comparing  the  yearly  Births  and  Burials  uken 
at  a  Medium,  for  feven  or  ten  Years,  with  the 
laft  ten  Years  of  the  fecond  Period ;  the  Year 
prefixed  to  each  Period,  is  the  laft  Year  of  that 
Period,  whofe  Re^fter  we  have ;  or  where:  there  ' 
is  but  one  Period,  it  gives  them  yearly  a:  a  Me- 
dium. 


Liverpool 

1670 

56 

42 

•MS 

476 

59» 

Lcedj 

IJ81 

'S* 

130 

174S 

S9> 

S79i 

SkSdd 

•570 

106I 

7if 

'74! 

■So6| 

S<*i 

Biminghaln 

1619 

?' 

S6 

'745 

S'9 

!!■ 

Msochdler 

t5«t 

;?i 

t49 

174! 

!23 

445 

Hjllifa 

'!4» 

168 

>74S 

33! 

318 

Notiingkun,          > 

l6t2 

81 

61 

1736 

no 

'}• 

Warriagion 

.6!  J 

108 

...J 

»'74! 

170 

•sH 

Stockport 
BtiSod 

'!93 
1609 

7' 
168 

i;- 

'745 
1739 

log 
'79 

'44 

TZI 

tiy 

t«3 

i4oi 

160 

'73* 

Its 

no 

Tiverton 

.569 

8Si 

SJ 

1-6J9 

17-f 

iiS 

Ganeftuigh 

'S74 

!' 

M 

«7n 

■;;l 

\'4 

Cmebrook 

1569 

681 

1649 

Pirfcot 

.64, 

"4 

64 

'731 

112 

105 

Coventry,  Trinity 

i6t3 

61 

as* 

'74+ 

H3 

365 

DonoUler 

.566 

f"l 

7ot 

'74! 

99i 

90 

Nunpwidr 

1619 

«! 

57 

'740 

toi 

89 

Cl««er«elii 

'5^7 

6z 

44 

•7J* 

99J 

ss 

Ponlefaia 

IS9J 

79 

7! 

'744 

"'S 

86f 

Minsleld 

.568 

JO 

;i 

1 741 

9S 

84 

Rotlnlam 

160! 

•7 

'732 

107 

S3 

Normch 

f62r 

J7 

'73* 

66 

82 

E«tbuy 

,567 

tl 

4' 

,,36 

70 

81 

Milton 

I6i8 

11 

1741 

67I 

61 

KeMck 

'S75 

1737 

4' 

60 

Leinoa 

lit: 

'fof 

40J 

1744 

77 

79 

Thorn 

1643 

!« 

S! 

1740 

11 

49 

SKnlley 

i!7! 

*7 

1733 

44 

Melton-Mowbray 

ii,8 

a 

H. 

1744> 

39 

Ul    - 

Cheltcnliam 

1(67     ;: 

.737     37 

.4}. 

I3 


Selby 


i.vCoogIc 


IlS 

)• 

i?' 

1 6  JO 

'1* 

36 

'734 

46 

43 

Wigton 

ifri7 

4« 

J7 

'737 

4] 

37 

Pickering 

1(68 

4' 

'S 

'74' 

3S 

S> 

KingfcUlf 

>S99 

20 

■  6 

'737 

"S 

*f 

H>nl™d 

>S77 

9f 

5 

'737 

3' 

» 

tjppi.8!»« 

1,80 

16} 

"! 

'74' 

38 

33 

KlilbnJg. 

i6ii 

24 

'» 

1739 

13 

■  8 

Pjiu 

,67. 

17919 

'8!'4 

'736 

1S688 

17804. 

Dnfden 
Dublin 

i«e6 
i««8 

S3J 
993 

.ni 

'72s 
'729 

Z] 

.64f 

Pnjrbnrg 

1616 

427 

467 

'717 

l|2f 

309 

A.ftmj 

IJIO 

2049 

J279 

1720 

917 

Einbuig 

'742 

1197 

Nomge 
NewcailleBBTyne 

1742 

9ot 

57S 

ii9x 
7'3 

GWg™ 

70C» 

York 

All  Nottiighim 

■73S 
'732 

Itl 

493 
S'3 

Hull 

Scaborengh 

Lincobi 

'732 
'732 
'732 

307* 
»4 
194 

«46 
197 

»73 

Derby 

NonbuBpton 
Preilon 
Huthun&Id 

'733 

:;i 

1)6 

'733 
'74S 
'743 

i8e 

■IS 
»43 

W<ke(ekl 

■733 

'79 

Whitb). 

•73* 

130 

'■i 

Hoȣn 

■733 

S7 

83 

Krii 

'73! 
'734 

i' 

«4 
7« 

Keaeme 

'73! 

69i 

Oiadle 

54 

5s 

ilelTonl 

'754 

5' 

5' 

Bakewell 

'734 

24i 

34 

H^eightno 

'73< 

4 

3' 

■unnpon 

'732 

22I 

tz 

tarim 

;?ii 

17 

■■  18 

8844 

Vielm 

.7.8 

5743 

lerlin 

1719 

2717 

^opcnn^K^Q 

'724 

«02 

Coningfbeic 

'7'! 
1721 

19211 

;jli* 

irelUo 

'72S 

'252 

1507 

Newark  on  Trent 
BurjseiiMucbelteT 

'6ao 

MPt, 

J'! 

•1*4  .t;'i 

.;i-i 

by  Google 


(119) 
I.  Here  we  fee  the  Increafe  and  Dccreaie 
of  the  Inhabitants  of  feveral  both  larger  and 
ie^er  Towns.  2.  Whether  they  have  any 
Trade,  and  its  Growth,  Decay,  or  Increafe. 
Thus  Uvfrfw/f  in  little  more  than  60  Years, 
has  its  yearly  Burymgs  rife  from  j  to  14; 
SbeffieUj  in  170  Years,  buries  above  7  times 
the  Number;  Leedi^  in  160  Years,  buries 
near  6  times  as  many  %  "Nottingham^  in  about 
120  Years,  near  4  times  the  Number,  befides 
Diflentcrs  buried  difewhere  j  Mansfield^  in  170 
Years,  4  times  as  many;  Maticbefter^  in  160 
Years,  3  times  as  many ;  SklUf'axy  doubled 
it8  Number  of  Burials  in  192  Years,  befides 
the  feparate  Butyings  of  a  great  Crowd  of  ie- 
vcral  forts  of  Diflenters ;  JJppingbaniy  thrice  as 
many  in  160  Years;  Ganejborougb  triples  its 
Number  in  160  Years  j  Cbejierfield,  doubles  in 
160  i  fo  does  Barnjley^  Banbury,  and  Brad' 
ford ,  Birmingham,  1 1  times,  befides  a  great 
Piece  of  the  Town  in  ^^cn  Parilh,  whofe 
Regifter  I  have  not,  &c.  Scarborough^  Bur- 
Ungton,  and  Wbitl^,  are  gready  eucreafed ; 
Stockton  is  but  of  Yefterday's  beginning  j  Ro- 
tberbantt  Pickering,  Ely^  and  Kingjbridge,  are 
rather  on  the  Decline.  3.  We  fee  Towns 
which  have  no  Sea  or  Land  Trade,  juft  live 
and  languish,  without  either  any  ccnfiderable 
Growth  or  Decay.  As  Rotherbam,  Weigbton, 
Mflton  Mowbray,  Prefaid,  Malton,  Hartlepool, 
Thorn,  SeUy,  &c.  which  ftiews  the  Confe- 
quence  of  Trade  to  a  Country ;  and  that  it 
can  hardly  be  bought  or  prefcrved  too  dear. 
Dublin^  in  6a  Years,  has  cncrcafed  its  Bury- 
I  4  ings 


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(    I20   ) 

ing.  Irom  1600  to  2709,  a  Bill  equal  to  ihat 
of  Berlin,  above  i-5th  more  than  C(>^ffl£d^nf, 
near  double  that  of  Stockholm^  Kenninberg, 
Brejlau,  Drefden^  or  Dantzicit  above  double 
that  of  EdinSurg.  4.  Since  Trade  is  the  means 
of  enriching  and  peopling  a  Nation,  then  the 
Rights  and  Properties  of  aPeoplemuft  bepre- 
icrvcd  and  fecured,  for  Property  is  the  main 
Spring  of  Induftry,  5.  Not  only  does  this 
Table  give  the  prefent  State  of  thofe  Places, 
as  to  Inhabitantej  but  as  to  Healthineft  or 
Sicknefs,  for  Mancbefter  is  healthier  now  than, 
formerly,  though  their  Rcgillers  were  exat^y 
kept :  But  though  there  is  a  lai^  Num- 
ber now»  whofe  Chriilenings  are  not  re- 
giftered,  yet  their  Births  are  to  their  Burials, 
as  25  to  22.  6.  We  muft  not  take  the  yearly 
Totals  of  this  Table  for  a  Standard  of  the  Dif- 
ference and  Proportions  between  Chrifienings 
and  Buryings  in  Cities  or  great  Towns,  for  fe- 
veral  of  thefe  Towns  here  are  very  fmall,  fi- 
tuated  well,  and  in  a  good  Air,  free  from 
Luxury.  To  know  the  Effefts  of  a  bad  Air, 
or  Situation,  Luxury,  Intemperance,  ^c.  we 
muft  pitch  on  large  Towns,  where  generally 
fevcral  or  moft  of  thefe  are  found,  among 
fewer  or  more  of  the  Inhabitants.  Thus  in 
the  38  Market  Towns  in  this  Table,  whereof 
we  have  a  double  Period,  in  the  firft  were 
baptized  yearly  2848,  buried  2222  j  in  the 
fecond  baptized  5985,  buried  6027 }  in  the 
former  3-i4th8  more  were  bom  than  were 
buried,  in  the  latter  the  buried  were  more. 
Allowing  more  Chriftenings  regiftered  in  the 

firft 


i.vCoogIc 


(121    ) 

firft  than  fecond  Period,  yet  the  Difierence 
between  them  and  BaryJngs,  is  much  laiger 
ibr  the  latter.  And  though  there  »e  more 
Bailards  in  Towns  than  in  the  Comitry,  from 
the  Peebles  more  plentifbl  Eating  and  Drii}k- 
ii^  greater  Idlenefs,  ImmodeAy,  Intempe- 
rance, and  other  Incitements  and  Opportuni- 
ties to  Wantonnefs }  yet  in  general  Country 
Breeders  are  more  fruitful  in  proportion  to 
their  Numbers,  than  in  Urge  Towns.  But 
from  the  greater  Number  ^  Buryings  than 
Chriftentngs  in  all  rich  and  populous  Towns, 
it  it  very  (^vious  that  Seminaries  of  Vices,  are 
only  Sraiinaries  of  Diieaies  and  Death ;  and 
that  Uncleannefles  and  Intemperance,  not  only 
leilen,  or  often  hinder  Procreation,  but  are 
highly  injurious  to  Beings  procreated.  From 
this  Table  we  fee  the  different  Proportions  of 
Inhabitants  of  one  Town  to  another. 

By  comparing  the  ante  and  pail  Revolution 
Regifters  of  Cities,  polle^d  of  great  Trade 
orManu&dory,  mani&flly  appears,  the  Effects 
of  Prc^)erty  and  LUwrty  being  in  Danger  or 
fecured. 

.  The  Prefervation  of  Liberty,  Property,  Hu- 
manity, and  Trade,  all  depend  on  the  Preier- 
vation,  vigorous  Defence,  and  Maintainance  of 
the  Frotetiant  Religion  and  Government ;  and 
when  this  is  attacked,  or  in  Danger,  it  calls 
for  a  ifa-enuous  Support.  Its  Enemies  have 
made  themfclves  notorious  from  their  mofl: 
Shocking  inhumane  Perfecutions,  Maflacres, 
Butcheries,  and  Carnages,  of  all  that  dare 
preiiune  to  dlTpute  their  haughty,  &cerdotal, 
humane 


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( I« ) 

IftMHaAd  t)l£Utes  {  and  \#hM  dangcirous  iA^. 
tempts  and  CoitirtKStions  they  have  made 
igtuAft  this^  Religion^  ki  ^is  Kingdom,  in  ^ 
Reigns  <rf"  Qaeen  Mj>-^,  ■  Qween  EHzahfih^ 
Kins  James  ^*  ^"^  ^^*  '^"S  ^I'^^Vim  III.  King 
Geotgf  I.  and  11.  are  ibme  of  cbem  wett  known< 
What  barbarous  fhockmg  Butcheries  did  they 
make  of  the  Waldenfii  and  ^higmfes  arer  all 
Europe  f<rf  400  Years,  may  be  feen  in  thdr 
Hiftory  (pnblifhed  at  Lohdin  in  1624,  in  4*°^) 
coUe£tcd  from  their  Enemies  own  Writings. 
How  have  they  drenched  feveral  <rf  the  late 
Protef^nt  Countries  in  Blood,  to  the  almc^ 
depc^ulating  of  them,  and  great  Diminution 
of  that  Rdigion  ?  In  Qacen  Elizabeth'^  Time 
fo  numerous  and  fuccefsful  were  the  Protef- 
tantS}  that  they  were  a  Match  for  their  Ene- 
mies. The  Proteftants  in  France  were  able  (0 
keep  a  Balance.  So  powerful  were  they  in 
Germany  J  that  all  Charles  the  Firft's  Power  and 
Policy  was  liot  able  to  fUpprefs  them.  Almoft 
all  Bohemia,  half  of  Auftria^  Hungary  and 
Meraviat  were  Proteftants  >  all  the  Saxom, 
moft  of  the  Palatinates  •,  fome  of  the  Cantons 
of  Switzerland,  many  of  the  Subjeds  of  Ba- 
varia, Cologne,  Wurtzburgb  and  Worms ;  the 
Vadois  in  Italy,  many  in  ^atn,  the  LoVD*C(mH* 
tries.  Savoy,  Piedmont,  &c.  But  where  are 
their  Numbers  now  ?  are  they  not  m  a  man- 
ner all  extirpated  or  expelled  ?  And  if  itl  the 
Metropolis  of  this  Nation,  our  Enemies  in  30 
Years  encreafe  from  a  few  thoufands  to  fome 
hundred  thoufands,  what  do  they  in  other 
Parts  of  die  Nati<m  ?  And  though  the  Govef*»* 
I  mcDt 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgle 


(  "3) 

mfcnt'ittty  keip  ihtta  cut  cf  uAppEtcfnt  Pbocs 
«f  Power  and  Tntft,  yet  the  fivpilifii^  Num- 
bers and  Riches  ftiU  eocreafing,  mkjcne  Day 
fliake  and  totally  fubvert  the  national  Confti- 
tutjon.  Surely,  if  our  EnemicG.niuft  bcnoo- 
riihod  and  chmOiad  in  our  BoTow,  if  we  aie 
(atisfied  with  the  Goodnefa  of  our  Cavie,  and 
Truth  of  our  Religion^  it  were  but  commoo. 
Juftice  to  give  a  n»d(n)al  parliamentary  Invi- 
tation and  Encouragement  to  our  periecuted 
Brethren  abroad,  to  come  and  istde  with  us. 
Here  would  be  no  Merit  in  u£,  &r  k  is  what 
we  owe  in  Humanity  to  the  innocent  Perie- 
cuted, whole  Grievances  we  cannot  otberwiie 
xedrefsi  it  is  a  Debt  due  to  the  common 
Cauje  of  ChriiUani^,  and  to  our  own  SeciK 
rity  and  Frefervation,  by  adding  Strength  to 
.our  own,  and  fub{b^£tuig  it  from  our  Eno- 
mie^t  <Hr  at  Icaft  we  ought  to  obtain  better 
Ternu  for  our  Brethren  from  their  £n^mies, 
when  wo  have  it  in  our  Power  j  as  at  the  Con- 
dttfioo  of  the  late  War  before  the  Peace  of 
Vtrtthtt  wlutf  warm,  commoving,  melting 
Petitions  and  Addrefles  were  made  by  the  Pro- 
tefiants  o£ France  (then,  and  long  before,  groan- 
iuig  under  the  bloody  Yoke  of  P«feciition)  to 
our  Government,  ior  procuring  them  fomc 
Liberty  at  the  enfuing  Convention ;  yet  fo  &r 
&0m  that,  that  they  were  at  laA  condemned 
to  perpetual  Slavery  hi  the  Gallics,  till  the 
Acceffion  of  his  late  moft  gracious  Majefty, 
who  redeemed  them. 

We  may  ofaderve  with  Regret,  that  as  the 
Sccor&y  of  LiberQr  and  Property,  begets  Trade 

and 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


i:  m  > 

and  Rich^  fo  tbefe-are  the  Inlets  and  Ilicke- 
ments  tot  Luxury  and  Debauchery,  Intempe- 
rance and  l>icentiou&e{s,  which  inlenfibly- 
waAe  our  Health,  Stiength,  and  Time  j  too 
much  Means  is-exhaufted  on  thefe,  our  Vt&- 
fiilnels  is  .  prevented,  our  Days  are  fiiortened, 
and  .our  OiEpring  rendered  difeafed,  fickly, 
.  and  ihort-Uved,  Laws,  human  and  divine  are 
trampled  on  and  defpifed,  Religion  turned  to 
Ridicule  and  Mocking,  Virtue  baniihed,  ou^ 
future  Happinefs  endangered^  if  what  was  for- 
morly  eflcemed  a  Riile  of  Faith  and  (%edi- 
CQce,  be  worthy  of  Regard  w  Credit. 
.  Ftoin.  eftabliihing  and  iecuring  of  Liberty 
and  Property,  we  fee.  the  ^eat  Increafe  ci 
People  (not  of  only  Inmates,  but  by  Accefllon 
of  Fore^ners)  even  including  the  common 
Correctives  of  Wars  foreign  and  dofneiUc, 
Difeafcs  Epidemic  and  Endemic,  Plague,  Fa- 
mine, Infeds,  rainy  Seafons  and  Floods^  &c. 
Pliny  obfervea  that  Plagues  generally  move 
wcftward,  and  in  fouthcm  Countries  reign 
moftly  in  Winter.  And  I  find  thatmoft  of 
our  Epidemics  move  weAward  in  this  Ifland, 
as  that  of  1528,  43,  4J  57,  8 ;  70  j  1622, 
3,  4j  43,  4J  57,  8j  69,  70,  I J  1698,  9j 
1723,  41,  2,  &c.  for  I  hnd  in  the  Rcgifters 
their  particular  Months  of  invaiion,  Duration, 
Termination,  and  Demigration.  Hence,  for 
their  Jong  Perambulation,  they  often  have 
taken  2,  3,  or  4  Years,  fiDmthe  fouthmoft  tb 
the  northmofl:  veAigable.  Points.  Plague  and 
Famine  went  together,  from  Food  being  not 
only  Icarce  biit  unwhohbnK.  I  find  Piaguft 
among 


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(  1^5) 
among  P«ofk  was  often  preceded,  'acpompa^ 
nied  or  followed  by  the  Rot,  Murrain,  or 
other  &tal  Difea&s  on  C^e,  or  other  Brutes, 
whereby  their  Flefli,  was  either  very  force, 
or  noxious,  or  bc^t).  By  great  Plagues  tha 
lower  or  fervlle  fort  of  People  are  gttatly  di* 
miniihed.  Famines  often  follow  from  Labou- 
rers or  Huibandmen  being  exhauAed  or  dead, 
and  not  a  fufiicicnt  Stock  left  for  I^iArandry, 
Tillage,  and  Encreafe :  Sometimes  Wu  paves 
the  W^y  to  both  Plague  and  Famine. 

From  the  prodigious  Increase  of  feveral  of 
tliefc  Towns  within  the  Jail  50  Yean,  we'fec  the 
great  Advantage  of  fecuring  a  Nation's  Property 
and  Liberty  under  a  well-regulated  and  property 
limited  Monarchy,  where  the  Subjects  invade 
not  the  Prerogatives  of  the  Crown,  nor  the 
Crown  incroaches  not  on  the  Rights  and  Li- 
berty of  the  People,  as  it  is  under  abfolute  and 
tyrannical  Princes,  whofe  fole  Will  is  their 
Law.  For  firft,  by  fecuring  Property,  Trade 
foreign  and  domeftic,  all  forts  of  itfeiiil  In- 
duflry,  is  fet  on  foot,  encouraged  and  pro- 
moted, both  by  Sea  and  Land.  The  Necefr- 
fity  and  Advant^e  of  this  appears  by  comp^ 
ring  the  vaA  Numbers  of  Dependants  to  the 
handful  of  Independants,  But  when  I  fpeafe 
of  the  latter,  I  underftand  a  f&r  leis  Number 
than  Davenant  does,  who  includes  all  OfHcers, 
Perfons  in  liberal  Arts  and  Sciences,  Farmers, 
Shopkeepers,  Tradefmen,  Handicraftfmen, 
with  all  their  vaft  Families  and  Dependants ; 
all  which,  in  fome  meafure,  depend  on  Trade 
and  Induftry,  as  well  as  Seamen,  Soldiers,  I^a- 
bpurcrs. 


by  Google 


(  «6  ) 

kmivn,  Servants,  Cottagers,  Psnpers,  V*^ 
grants,  and  all  their  Fsiuilies  and  Dependants. 
Again,  mrt  only  the  Independanta  add  nothing 
to,  bat  4ccreafe  die  Wealth  of  a  Nation,  bat 
many  of  the  Dependants,  as  the  Aged,  Sick, 
Weak,  Beggars,  and  Vagrante.  2.  Security  of 
PH^>erty,  we  fee,  not  only  promotes  Trade,  but 
AgricidMM,  or  Huftandry;  hence  Grounds 
being  bttter  or  more  advanbi^oufly  improved, 
we  ^nd  produce  Ptovlfians  in  Pl«ity  for  fir 
neater  Crowds  of  People,  dum  fermeriy  were 
imagined  they  c<Hild  po^bly  do.  3.  By  the 
Security  Of  Prftperty,  not  only  are  Lauids  better 
cultivated,  and  greater  Multituttes  richly  pro- 
vided fer,  but  dw  Lands  become  of  3,  ^,  5, 
or  6,  nay.  In  feme  I^aces,  of  lo  times  more 
Value  to  the  Owners,  and  either  bring  them 
in  proportionable  Rents,  at  free  Coft  to  them, 
boUi  to  enable  them  to  live  fuitable  to  their 
Ranks,  and  provide  for  their  Children ;  or  HI 
at  Prices  adequate  to  the  prefent  Rent,  if  not 
racked  on  purpofe.  4.  As  Security  of  the 
Property  is  the  Landlord's  great  Advantage  (if 
he  has  any  thing  ccHifideraUe  to  keep  or  low) 
6y  to  fHomote  proper. Induftry  and  Cultivadon 
of  L»id,  it  is  no  lefs  necej]ary  to  the  Publick, 
the  Owners,  and  PcrfTeflbrs,  that  the  Tcnante 
or  Farmers  have  their  Property,  /".  e.  die  Pro- 
duft  of  their  Ingenuity  and  Induflxy  fecured  to 
diem  by  proper  Leafes,  for  a  fuitable  Term  of 
Years,  as  2 1  at  leail ;  and  not  only  Leafes,  but 
a  Claufe  of  Reverfion,  or  Tenant-Right,  for 
Renewal  on  reafonablc  Terms  at  the  Expira- 
tion of  his  prefent  Lcafe  j  for  it  is  neidicr  ho- 

ncft 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(  127    ) 

n^  nor  jufl  in  «  Lfln^ord,  to  t^  die  Ad* 
vantage  of  a  pow  Mon'i  racking  his  BrainV 
toijing  his  owD)-  Servants,  and  F»nHiea  Car^ 
cables,  and  rxpending  his  Alt  in  taking  in,  and 
improving  his  Matter's  Eftste,  hy  digging, 
draining,  watering,  fencing,  ftubbing,  mail- 
ing, expenfively  manuring,  burning,  flowing, 
levelling,  earthing,  plao^g,  coclofingj  build- 
iiigy  &c.  Nor  wiU  any  prudent  Farmer  or  Te- 
nont,  flave  and  beggar  hlmfelf,  and  ruin  his 
Family,  without  fuch  a  Qaufe  of  Rererfion, 
or  TenanC-Right,  as  not  to  have  die  Fruit  of 
all  his  Drudgery  snd  Fortune  put  up  to  Caotor 
Auf^iofl  of  any  Man  who  may  bid  more  ia 
Rent  or  Pine.  Nor  is  the  Landlord  always  to 
be  the  Lofer,  and  reap  no  Fruit  by  the  Im- 
provement eith«  in  Poflelfion  or  Sale;  Bi^ 
there  ought  to  be  a  juft  Mean  between  the 
Landlord  and  Tenant,  fiich  as  this ;  let  fiich 
Farms  be  valued  at  a  yearly  Rent  or  Value, 
iuch  as  tb^  will  produce  one  Year  with  an- 
other ;  let  a  third  of  this  go  for  Rent  yearly, 
another  third  Part  for  keeping  the  Tegant's 
Family,  paying  his  Servants  and  Labourers, 
and  his  Expences  in  attending  Fairs  and  Mar- 
kets for  the  Sale  and  Difpofal  of  his  Goods, 
Increafe,  and  Produft ;  and  the  laft  third  Part 
to  anfwcr  the  Tenants  Cafuakies  and  Loffes, 
by  bad  Seed  Times  oc  Harvefts,  Fires,  Floods, 
Droughts,  Great  Rains,  Barrennefs  of  Land, 
Death  of  Cattle,  great  Sicknefles,  or  LoiTcs  by 
Death  in  his  Family,  heavy  Taxes  in  time  of 
War,  publick  Calamities  by  Plunder,  Rob- 
bery, Theft,  Plague  depopulating  a  Countiy, 
War 


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War  de^ojrkig  Trade,  anddraioiDg  Money 
out  (Of  tbe  County,  Sfiid  many  other  Acci- 
deatss  Aqd.  thus  renew. the  LeaSss  Fine-£:ee» 
or  renew  the  healc  at  the  former  Rent,  levy- 
ing a  il^tabfe  moderate  Fine,  in  proportion  to 
the  Ip>pxovcmi=nt&,  both  for  Owoo^  ao4  Te- 
nantt  Ko  di&reet  Tenant  at  Will^  or  from 
Year, to  Year,  that  rcsards  either  himielf  or 
Family,  'SviU  OEpend  hi6  Subftance  or  Fortune 
in  4mpro^dag  another  Man's  Eftate,  that,  for 
aQytning  he  knows,  he  may  be  oblignl  to 
leave  oext  Term, '  or  be  at  his  Landlord's  Cour- 
tefy,  or  confcientious  Principle,  or  Hoooar.. 
5.  As  this  Security  of  the  Tenant's  Proper^  is 
manifeiUy  to  the  Advantage  of  both  Tenant 
and  Landlord,  fo  it  no  lels  ftrengtben$  the 
Government  under  which  they  live ;  For  the 
Goremment  being  not  arbitrary,  but  limited, 
its  Interefl:  Is  the  Pdoples,  and  the  Peoples  its ; 
fo  that  it  is  not  a  giddy,  facEtious,  beggarly 
Mob. of  Banditti  rifii^  up  in  a  Rebellion,  or  a. 
nkilh,  dilcontented,  difane£ted  Bankrupt  Land- 
lord, chat  can  fo  eaUly  delude  or  deceive  aa 
honeft  induftrious  People,  to  run  the  Riik  of, 
or  iacrifice  their  Intereft  and  Property  fecurod. 
to  them  by  Law;  but  miferable  dependaot 
Wretches,  whofc  poor  Property  and  Security 
is  at  the  DiipoHal  of  their  debauched,  lewd, 
extravagant,  proud,  beggarly  Grandees,  who 
may  either  blind,  wheedle,  or  compel  them 
into  their  wild  anarchical  Mcafures.  6.  Thus 
legally  fecuring  the  Property  of  Tenants  or 
Farmers,  for  a  Term  or  Terms  of  Yean,  is 
not  only  advantagious  to  the  Tenants^  .Land- 
1^  lords, 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  "9  ) 

lonls,  and  Government,  but  highly  beneficial 
to  publick  Society.  For  without  thcle  Im- 
provements, many  Places  being  either  ill  cul- 
tivated, or  lying  waile,  would  ibon  be  over- 
ftocked  vnth  Inhabitants  of  its  own  Breed ; 
there  would  be  no  room  for  Incomers  or  Stran- 
gers, there  could  be  no  Trade,  Manufedtories, 
or  Branches  of  them  there ;  or  their  ProviJiona 
beijig  brought  from  a  great  DifUnce,  mufl 
come  at  a  vafl  Expence,  that  either  muft  be 
very  dear,  or  People  obliged  to  abandon  the 
Pla«.  The  Neceflity  of  fiich  Secori^  given 
to  Tenants,  and  the  Advantage  arifing  to  pub- 
lick  Socie^,  by  their  Improvements  made  in 
Hufbandry  thereby,  will  manifeftly  appear  by 
comparing  our  prefent  Regifters  with  Decm/^ 
day  Boakf  where  you  will  find,  that  the  Peo- 
ple in  many  Places  of  England,  are  between 
20  and  30  times  the  Number  now,  that  they 
were  then,  even  for  all  the  Abatements  by 
War,  foreign  Aids,  Trade,  Colonies,  and  tlie 
common  Ccuredives  of  the  Redundance  of 
Mankind.  And  who  at  that  Time  would 
have  im^ined,  that  England  could  not  only 
have  fed  25  times  as  many  People  as  it  then 
contained  in  fome  Places,  but  have  fuppUed 
its  Neighbours  in  Diflreis  ?  And  for  want  of 
this  due  Securky,  what  large  Trafts  of  Land, 
yea,  what  Countries  to  this  Day  lie  unimpro- 
ved, nay  almoft  wafte  in  Britain  ?  And  for 
want  of  this  Improvement,  how  many  Trades 
and  BufineiTes  lie  by  unminded,  to  the  great 
Lofs  of  this  Nation  ?  And  through  want  of 
Improvement,  Trade,  and  Converfc  with  Man- 
K  kind. 


by  Google 


(  '2"  ) 

i:ihd,  are  not  the  Vulgar  of  the  InhabitanfS, 
Ttidt,  uncivilized,  cruel,  barbarous,  given  t» 
Robbery,  Sedition,  Rebellion,  and  Murder, 
ineef  two-leg'd  Savages  ?  Is  fach  an  Aft  or 
Law  for  the  Security,  of  the  Tenants  Property 
in  fnch  Places,  for  the  Increafe  of  Peace,  Trade, 
Riches,  People,  national  Strength,  below  the 
Notice  or  Regard  of  the  Legillator?  A  Law 
that  would  break  the  Dependency  of  the  Poor 
lipofi  theii*  pfoiid,  turbulent,  feditious  MaC- 
ters.. 

6.  The  granting  the  Liberty  of  the  Sub- 
jefls,  add  as  much  to  the  Strength  and  Riches 
of  a  Nation,  as  fecuring  the  Property ;  for 
many  that  will  forfeit  their  Property,  will  for- 
feit their  Life  and  Liberty  together.  By  com- 
paring former  with  the  late  Regifters,  we  lee 
Trade  and  Liberty  almoft  take  Breath  toge- 
ther J  from  what  fmall  Beginnings,  to  what  a 
Height  of  Populoufncfs  and  Riches  are  fome 
of  thefe  Towns  arrived  only  by  Liberty  ?"  Tho' 
a  general  Liberty,  without  fome  Limitations 
and  Refiriaions,  is  not  to  be  allowed,  where 
there  is  a  Set  of  People  whofe  Principle  natu- 
rally and  necefiarily  lead  them  to  wifh,  feek, 
confpire,  and  if  any  feemingly  fevourable  Op- 
portunity offers,  attempt  the  Subverfionof  the 
whole  Frame  of  a  national  Conftitution  ;  and 
whofe  Dodrines  iulpire  them  with  ardent 
Zeal,  favagc  Cruelty,  and  hellifh  Fury,  to 
extirpate  all  that  differ  from  diem,  at  the 
Expencc  of  Gratitude,  Humanity,  Oaths,  Vows, 
and  all  Ties  to  the  contrary.  Liberty  and  Pro- 
perty give  Being  and  Life  to  Trade  and  In- 
3  duftry  > 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00glc 


(  i3>  ) 
duftry;  .thcle  invite  a  Refort  of  Strangers^  and 
keep  our  own  People  at  home,  all  confpirc  to 
make  a-Nation  rich,  and  dreaded  by  her  Neigh- 
bours J  her  Enemies  fear  her,  her  Neighbours 
court  hcT  Friendlhip  and  Alliance.  None  are 
Friends  to  Perfecution  of  the  feithful  and  loyal 
Subje^s  of  a  Prince,  but  a  Set  of  haughty 
proud  Men  j  and  every  Friend  of  Perftcution, 
is  an  Enemy  of  his  Country ;  for  every  Man 
thereby  fecreting  and  fcrecning,  or  exiling  him- 
felf,  or  incarcerated,  harrailed,  exiled,  or  put 
to  Death  by  it,  is  a  dead  Lofs  to  a  Nation  ; 
every  Man  deprived  of  Liberty,  incapacitated 
for  Trade  or  Bofinefs,  or  expelled  his  Country, 
is  weakening  his  own  Nation,  and  ftrengthen- 
ing  the  Country  of  his  Sanctuary ;  every  Man 
flying  to  another  Country,  and  following  his 
Trade  there,  is  not  only  fo  much  prefent 
Riches  fiibftradted  from  the  Place  whence  he 
was  exiled,  but  n^ay  carry  the  Ufe  and  Difco- 
vcry  of  the  Trade  or  Manufactories  of  his  own 
Country,  to  the  other,  to  the  irreparable  Lofs 
^d  Dam^e  of  his  native  Nation,  and  depau- 
perating and  depopulating  of  it.  , 


TABLE 


by  Google 


(  I3«  ) 

TABLE    EIGHTH. 

Tbe'  Year  when  the  Parifh  was  aumberei) ;  CoWmn  1&. 

'  cflnd,  the  Number  «t  Years  imniediatelr  preceding  the 
Date  of  the  firA  Cohiaui,  from  which  we  take  oar 
Medium ;  Coluaui  third,  the  Number  of  Families  i- 
Column  fourth,  the  Soub ;  Column  fifth,  the  yearly 
Births  at  a  Medium ;  Column  fixth,  the  Wedainga  i 
Coliannfeventb,  the  Burials  aimaaUjr ;  Column  rigbib^ 
whether  there  are  mmy.  few,  or  ao  DiOenteiB  in  each 
Paciih,  fpecified  by  the  Letter)  m.  f.  o>  as  Jn  Table  firft. 


.?5S 

to 

3111 

i+ios 

♦". 

184 

,28       ». 

'7JJ 

728 

34" 

112j 

33 

,17        f. 

■H' 

to 

570 

2707 

69 

>sf 

61         f. 

.741 

10 

890 

'497 

43 

10 

K       . 

1736 

10 

357 

610 

5' 

'♦ 

«,     '■ 

■7J! 

-rkf^'T. 

|8|      0. 

7IIO- 

«)770 

•739  1  >' 

786 

336 

"9f 

3S 

108 

«     1* 

380 

1710 

60 

II 

agl 

C 

.       * 

10 

a79 

tlso 

4; 

i' 

28 

z»3 

9*3 

2ti 

f. 

36 

ito 

70s 

fl- 

n 

0 

36 

t«8 

6,2 

J. 

:jI 

37 

III 

5^4 

>si 

>5 

0 

39 

1*4 

S3» 

'! 

3 

'3 

0 

'! 

108 

«t 

16 

5 

■  S 

0 

3« 

100 

«! 

'2i 

S 

■3 

A 

56 

9S 

m 

'7 

2 

■2i 

m. 

■    '? 

9S 

♦■3 

'2l 

2 

1 

0 

'5 

93 

410 

9 

s 

0 

3« 

90 

3«4 

'3 

3 

II 

m. 

3S 

1: 

3S7 

12 

3 

11 

0 

P 

35' 

:i{ 

t 

IZ 

m. 

9S 

349 

a 

10{ 

m. 

tl 

'+ 

346 

to 

3i 

9 

0 

i> 

86 

3t« 

■  1 

»s 

7 

5 

0 

4' 

J? 

3 '3 

9 

2 

0 

4» 

68 

3<4 

to 

:i 

7t 

^ 

IZ 

7? 

298 

7l 

f. 

S' 

10 

66 

279 

10 

a 

S$ 

It 

10 
la. 

i? 

2?' 
2«« 

7 
7 

4 

z 

8 

5 

)3 

IS 

S6 

261 

5 

H 

f. 

36 

It 

56 

"47 

■  > 

^ 

XI 

0 

29 

1 

?T 

-i'J- 

_i* 

-^- 

4f 

g. 

f?r 

frf^sTj 

5J5, 

434 

i.vCoogIc 


(  '33) 

-i^ 

i« 

1* 

«46 

8 

.} 

!5 

3+ 

63 

'K 

1 

3 

11 

0 

S' 

J28 

2 

e 

99 

'♦ 

45 

2ZZ 

8 

2 

/, 

♦» 

12 

43 

so; 

t; 

t 

jj 

0 

»? 

12 

42 

,5. 

>} 

4» 

■0 

35 

184 

1 

5« 

lO 

40 

III 

s 

75 

• 

♦a 

20 

3S 

1S8 

1 

1 

S3 

3» 

■  69 

'1 

4* 

« 

» 

10 

38 

167 

si 

'i 

3i 

e 

3; 

J« 

l6j 

6 

4? 

'4 

3? 

160 

S 

3t 

9 

3! 

to 

3' 

■38 

! 

■1 

•4; 

12 

30 

143 

1 

I 

4 

• 

96 

3« 

140 

0 

56 

3« 

.j6 

1 

e 

U 

13 

31 

'3S 

2 

0 

30 

16 

«i 

1:8 

0 

3« 

tS 

g 

"4 

6 

31 

'7 

lai 

«l 

0 

44 

>7 

*3 

118 

Si 

0 

34 

11 

"S 

■J 

P 

33 

12 

«7 

I 

0 

34 

lO 

•9 

80 

1 

4 

t 

9 

16 

7' 

■i 

0 

15 

S8 

2 

0 

total 

-SSal 

6o6Tn676   1 

1 

— 1-| 

Or  to  hare  the  fame  Thing  more  compendiouOy 
ttd  clearly,  take  an  Abftraa  of  this  Table  thus : 

TABLE    NINTtt 


7  Market- 

Yeuly. 

Towns. 

Fanil. 

Souli. 

iU,«. 

Wd.  BotWI 
al4f     8jo| 

«7ti 

«7<H3 

lit 

AVilOT 

'-Tf 

ajil 

,ot 

St 

6Paii£> 

4»4' 

♦', 

3  ParifhM 

783 

120 

''\ 

«i 

5  Parifhes 
laPtrilhn 

3»7 
7'! 

:n5 

1,82 

.1 

7* 
II 

aoi 

tl 

•  Jftrifto 

SO? 

2I7J 

67 

23 

toParifhu 

146 

2450 

.*^ 

20 

?J 

S4  l-afilbe* 

44i» 

,^7 

i« 

l6i 

tto  . 

Bcfi^  the  Ma^et-Towiu. 


The 


(  134  ) 

The  Uncertainty  of  thofe  Computers;  ot 
random  Gueffers,  who  have  reckoned  from  7 
to  1 2  Souls  each  Family,  one  with  apother, 
may  occafion  feveral  Miftakea  (not  to  fay  Mif- 
chief)  as  i.  Impofing  a  dangerous  Cheat  or 
Falfhopd  on  the  Government,  in  making  it 
believe  itfelf  doubly  or  triply  flronger  than 
it  really  is,  not  being  able  to  raife  9000  Men, 
inftead  of  14,  16,  or  24000,  by  reckoning 
7,  8,  or  1 2  Souls  to  a  Family.  Hence  a  weak 
Prince,  or  Government,  trufting  to  its  compu- 
ted Numbers,  may  rafhly  cxpoTe  itfelf  to  emi- 
nent Danger,  yea  to  the  total  Subverfion  of 
the  Conflitution,  and  Ruin  of  both  Prince  and 
People,  without  deliberately  recollefting,  that 
his  Enemy  may  be  as  rich,  and  his  SubjeSs 
Families  confift  of  as  many  Souls.  2.  It  is  a 
dapgerouj  Impofition  upon  the  People,  who 
being  hereby  greatly  deceived  in  their  Num- 
bers, believe  themfclves  equal  to  far  greater 
Undertakings  than  they  really  are,  efpccially 
at  once,  without  fonfidcring  whether  their 
own  and  Neighbour's  Families,  taken  together, 
contain  7,  8,  of  12  Souls  apiece.  3,  It  is  a. 
Deceit  put  upon  the  Landlord,  who  imagines 
his  E/tote  contains  near  double  or  tripple  the 
Number  of  Souls  it  really  does,  or  has  to  fup- 
ply  and  provide  with  Food ;  therefore  he  in- 
iifts  upon  both  a  greater  Rent  and  Fine,  than 
the  Land  will  enablp  the  Tenant  to  pay.  4.  It 
is  an  Impofition  9n  the  Farmer,  who  lookij^ 
at  his  own  Children,  Servants,  and  Labourers, 
like  his  Landlord,  takes  it  for  granted,  that 
Familicsj  one-with  another,  do  truly  contain 

;■■    ■■'■■■■■;■  ■  "■    fe 


(  Hi) 

4b  many  Souls ;  yet  finding  Servants  much 
fcarcer  and  dearer  than  formerly,  and  his  Fines 
and  Rents  much  railed,  he  thinks  too  great  a 
Part  of  the  riling  Youth  is  fnatch'd  away  from 
Huibandry  to  Trades.  5.  Tradefmen,  on  the 
other  hand>  complain  that  there  are  fo  many. 
People  in  each  Place,  and  yet  fo  fcanty  a  Num- 
ber fent  out  to,  or  employed  in  Trades,  whilft 
fiich  a  Number  would  be  fufficient  for  HuC- 
bandry  ;  therefore  there  muft  be  greater  Num- 
bers of  idle,  ufclefs  Hands  and  Spenders,  like 
Drones  in  a  Hive  j  whilft  they  pay  great  Wa- 
ges to  their  Servants,  and  high  CeiTmcnts  to 
the  Poor;  forgetting  the  great  Number  of 
Aged,  Sick,  Lame,  Maimed,  Difcafed,  Infants, 
Chphans,  and  Widows,  to  be  provided  for ; 
and  which  is  the  moft  expenuve  Article  of 
all,  and  grievous  to  the  vertuous  Subjects,  that 
drunken,  rakiOi,  debauched,  Arong,  healthy 
Fellows,  who  are  either  idle,  and  will  not  work 
when  they  may  have  Bufinefs  j  or  do  work  and 
get  Money,  but  drink  and  debauch  it  away  j 
and  the  Parifli,  yea  the  poor  and  induftrloua 
and  honeft  Part  of  it,  fliall  be  compelled  by 
Law  to  maintain  the  others  Families.  6.  Our 
Colonies  and  Plantations  think  thcmfelves  neg- 
lefted,  becaufe  they  have  no  more  Exports 
ient  tnem  ;  and  we,  on  the  other  hand,  think 
there  are  more  Exports  than  can  be  conveni- 
ently fparcd.  From  this  Miftake,  more  Peo- 
ple give  their  Sons  a  liberal  Education  than 
are  neceiiary  j  hence  they  arc  afterwards  re- 
duced to  Streights  and  DifHculties,  and  they 
cannot  live  up  to  their  Profeflion,  not  having 
Fortune  to  fubAft  upon,  but  muft  truft  t(k 
K  4  their 


(  i3«) 
Attir.Lmming.    Thus  the  Cheat  vSk/St&  moft 
J^anks  and  Baiindles. 

'  One  could  not  with  &r  a  better  Thnc  to 
take  the  Number  of  Families  and  Souls  in  any 
FIhcCj  dian  the  laft  50  Yoatc,  wherein  thon^ 
vre  hare  had  no  Plague,  yet  we  have  had  two 
Rebellions,  vi£.  one  in  i^i5jandonein  17455 
(bat  Veart  of  Scarcity,  1737,  28,  40,  and  41 ; 
{tvtA  Years  War  with  Prance  and  Spiun  both 
by  Sea  and  Land  \  feveral  fatal  Epidemiflp,  viz. 
'172;},  27*  28,  and  41 }  in  45-6,  a  fatal  Small- 
pox and  Meafles.  Rebellions  and  foreign 
Wars  gave  a  Damp  to  Trade.  And  in  the  fame 
30  Years  wc  have  had  publick  Bleflings  ftiow- 
ered  down  upon  us,  Plenty  of  the  healthieil 
tVovifionG  at  realbnable  Rates,  a  moft  mild 
and  gende  Government,  a  fiourifhing  and  en- 
Oeafing  Royal  Family,  beyond  what  we  have 
had  iince  the  Reformation ;  fo  that  if  we  have 
ComjJaintB  or  Unea£ne0es,  the  Cauies  are 
fixim  our  own  Prejudices,  falfe  Principles, 
miftaken  Intereft,  Envy  at  our  Neighbour's 
Happinefs,  ^c, 

I.  It  is  not  fo  eafy  as  fome  may  imagine, 
exafUy  to  adjufl;  die  Number  of  Years  in  each 
Place,  in  which  a  Number  equal  to  the  pre- 
sent Inhabitants  fhall  be  bom  or  buried,  ex- 
cept it  continue  at  a  ibnd :  For  where  aTown 
&  Village  is  much  on  the  Increafe  or  Decreafe, 
proper  Allowances  muft  be  made  for  a  juft 
yearly  Qyote,  and  the  Difficulty  where  to  be- 
gin to  find  that  Q^ota,  there  is  no  Rule  befide 
the  yearly  Total  of  each  Regiftcr.  If  there 
happens  to  be  a  Body  <^  Difledters  in  the 
2^ace,  which  neither  tnptize,  merry,  nor  bnnr 
with 

D,..„...vGooglc 


(»37) 

with  tbeChuroh,  thp  Numbers  of  jlitirFa^ 
mJiies  and  Souls  muA  be  omitted  jji  ihs  Taltle, 
or  they  wiU  prevent  a  juft  Accowit.-  The 
Nombov  in  this  Table  were  niofl:ly:-take9 
jfaim  Houlc  to  Houfe  by  People  pi"  Veracity. 
Here  we  fee,  i.  What  Pariihes  are  mpft  fruit- 
ful,-fince  that  which  ia  raofl  prodift^N^  of 
Children^  will  bring  forth,  a  Number. $qu^  to 
its  preient  Jjihabita^itG,  in  the  ieweft  Years. 
Some  procUice  fuch  a  Namber  in  little  moic 
than  2Q  Years,  whilft  others  are  49  or  -4.5 
about  it ;  £b  that  from  20  to  45  feeov  to  be 
the  Extrearas  between  which  Fertility  taovfit. 
a*  The  Proportion  of  Children  born  yearly, 
cam>  am.  to  the  whole  Inhabitants,  they  be<- 
ii^  from  I -20th  to  I -45th  Part  of  the  whole. 
3.  In  what  Series  of  Years  a  Numb^  equal  to 
the  prdent  Inhabitants  die,  which  is  from  20 
to  50,  or,  more  exadly,  irom  22  to  46.  The 
Reafoo  why  we  find  ib  great  Odds  between 
diiferent  Parifhes,  otherwife  all  healthy,  ie, 
I.  Some  Places  depend  chiefly  on  Grazing  or 
Paftnring ;  thcfe  are  often  in  few  Hands,  and 
looked  aficr  by  Servants,  which  though  they 
add  to  the  Number  of  Soujs,  yet  being  un- 
married, are  ho'e  to-day  and  gone  to-morrow, 
wkhout  cither  marrying  or  breeding.  2  .Others 
canfift  of  partly  Pafturing,  and  partly  Plow- 
ing, the  lall.  being  but  fmall,  requires  fewer 
JHbnds  to  labour  it,  and  fuch  as  may  be  fpared 
ga  out  to  other  Places.  ■  In  fome  Parifhe^  they 
feeea:  to  breed  &il,  and  die  ilowly,  becaufe 
Khrai  young  PcPple  are  bred  up,  the  Place 
i^ing  neimer  Work  not  Bread  for  them, 
th^  go  to  .other.  Pisces  and  return  not.'  In 
fonje  Pariihes  they  are  really  very  healthy, 
3  ^  • 


(  '38  ) 

To  that  they  increafe  a  3d  or  4th.  Some  PIace» 
here  appear  very  fickly,  which  are  truly  heal- 
thy i  for  having  more  Bufinefs  or  Trade  than 
Hands,  Incomers  are  called^  and  refort  from 
other  Parts  yearly,  which  add  to  the  Biiry<- 
ings,  but  not  to  die  Chriftcnings,  as  Stoie^ 
Damafei^  a  Country  Village  in  Devon/hire^ 
when  in  1692,  a  Dock-yard  was  bcgwn  by 
King  ^illiaoiy  which  gradually  occaiionea 
building  a  large  Town,  and  fo  much  iocrea- 
fed  the  Number  of  Inhabitants,  .that  in  1733 
they  were  3361,  fince  which  it  is  vaftly  grcatw^ 
The  vaft  Length  of  Time  for  Increafe  or  De« 
creafe  in  fome  Places,  may  alfo  be  from  fbme 
Negledl  in  reglftering,  or  from  feveral  Quakers 
being  numbered  with  the  reft,  but  no  Account 
of  them  given  in,  4.  This  fcems  a  proper 
Method  to  difcover  the  Healthincfs  or  Sickli* 
reft,  fliort  or  long  Life  of  the  Inhabitants  of  any 
Place  ;  for  if  all  that  ought  to  be,  arejuftly  re- 
giftered  ;  and  no  confiderable  Refort  or  Egrcfi 
whatever,  a  Number  equal  to  the  preient  Inha- 
bitants, is  buried  foone^,  feems  mofr  unhealthy 
or  intemperate.  On  the  contrary,  where  there 
is  the  longeft  Series  of  Years  (without  great 
Numbers  of  Exports)  to  drop  off,  muft  be 
hcalthleft.  In  fome  Places  it  may  be  the  CuA- 
tom  to  marry  very  early,   there  Produ£lion 

foes  pn  quickly}  but  if  later,  the  Breeders 
ave  fooner  done,  yet  have  a  long  Life  after, 
which  will  leffen  the  Births ;  as  it  will  do  ia 
a  barren  Country,  where  the  People  live  long, 
atid  the  young  Brood,  a  great  Part  of  it,  (hear 
off  to  other  Places  for  both  Bread  and  Wives. 
I  have  added  the  yearly  Births  and  Deaths  in 

this 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  '39  ) 

thJsTabie,  and  what  the  Pn^>ort«xi  of  tlft 
Marrieil  was,  both  to  Born  apd  fitiried ;  tht/ 
It  be  quite  fuperfluous.  Bar  Hach  as  aJra  curioi^ 
may  ttividc  the  Number  of  Souls  by  theycarljr 
Births  and  Burials,  and  they  have  :wiiat  they 
want ;  and  as  to  the  Weddings,  they  ate  &lly 
fctdcd  in  TaWe  fevcnth  j  or  they  m^  thefc 
find  what  Proporticm  the  annual  i  Marriages 
bear  to  the  Number  of  Souls  j  and  havirtg 
compared  the  yearly  Number  of  Births,  with  . 
the  Number  of  Families,  they  find  the  Pro^ 
portion  between  the  £dl  and  laA,  or  how 
many  Breeders  come  annually  out  of  any  given 
Number  of  Families.  5.  In  the  healthieft 
Parifhes,  we  fee  that  about  i  of  45  dies  year- 
ly, and  I  of  24  or  27  bom.  6.  Hereby  we 
may  find  the  Quota  that  yearly  goes  out  of  the 
whole,  com.  ann,  (Famine,  "SVar,  and  Plague 
excepted).  7.  By  the  joint  Help  of  thofc 
Tables,  we  may  judge  of  the  Series  of  Years 
any  Place  requires  to  double  its  Inhabitants, 
better  than  fiom  the  groundlefs  Fancies  of  fuch 
as  will  have  the  Nation  double  its  Inhabitants 
in  200,  435,  or  allowing  for  War,  Plague, 
and  Famine,  in  600  Years.  8.  So  far  are 
ibmc  Places  from  doubling,  that  without  fielh 
fiopplies,  they  would  foon  wear  out  their 
Inhabitants,  the  above  Tables  will  flicw  in 
what  Number  of  Years.  Others  fcarce  fcn- 
iibly  either  increaf?  or  diminiHi }  others  will 
doijble,  but  in  very  different  Terms  of  Years. 
9.  Having  an  cxadt  Reglrter  of  Chriftenings, 
Mairiagcs  and  Buryings,  and  obferving  the 
Difproportion  between  them,  it  is  prafticablc 
and  cafy  to  fin4  out  near  the  true  Numbfr  of 
Families 

L    _    .Google 


(  '4°  ) 

{''inAiltes  and  Souls  in  the  Parifli  (if  not  a  Place 
of 'extraordinary  Trade,  Riches,  or  Pqyptty) 
.tw  it  cither  hree  or  imall.  Then  enquire 
what  improveabli  Trade,  or  Places  lie  u|>ctil- 
iivatcd  ior  want  of  Hands,  whilft  other  Places 
and  Bufind^  lie  ovcr-Aockt,  that  the  Poor 
often  want  Bread,  Lands  are  over-rated,  &r. 
Hence  Mobs,  Riots,  Robberies,  .&c.  For 
Trades  and  Land '  being  overAockt  in  ibmc 
.JPlaces,  and  not  duly  improved  in  others,  may 
occaifion  Oamour  and  Discontent  with  the 
jnftcil  and  mildeA  Government^  the  Vulgar 
faem?  excited  by  Malecontents.  To  the  mak- 
ing diis  Eftunate,  the  fluduatbg  State  of  all 
liurnan  and  worldly  Afi&irs,  may  be  objeded  j 
and  that  the  Nation  is  never  at  a  Stand,  but 
ei^r  encreaJing  or  decrcafing,  fome  Years 
more  fruitful  or  barren,  healthy  or  fickly,  than 
others.  But  for  Anfwcr,  we  never  road  of 
any  fuch  thing  as  30,  40,  or  50  Years  Mor- 
tality, Sicknels,  or  Healthinefs  together,  more 
tiun  ordinary,  in  one  Country,  but  (exclufive 
of  Plague,  Famine,  or  Warj  the  Proportions 
in  all  Regifters  come  pretty  near  the.  fame  in 
a  long  ferics  of  Years.  The  iame  is  true  of 
Pertility  and  Sterility.  As  to  Encreafe  or  De- 
creafc  of  Places,  that  chiefly  depends  on  Trade 
and  Improvements,  for  where  thefe  are,  there 
will  be  Rcfort.  If  a  Place  is  much  on  tha 
Growth  and  Improvement,  it's  fecn  from  the 
Encreafe  of  Chriftenings  and  Buryings  in  the 
Regifters.  Then  in  whatever  feries  of  Years 
any  Place  chriftens  and  buries  a  Number  equal 
to  its  prcfcnt  Inhabitants,  divide  that  Number 
of  Years  into  two  equal  Parts,  fee  how  much 

the 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00glc 


(  '4') 
the  lafl  Half  exceeds  the  firfl  in  both,  take  tht 
hA  Half  and  double  it,  and  add  tlit  li^  grow- 
ing Proportion  to  the  next  or  future  Half,  af 
wis  obferVed  in  the  laft  Half  to  the  firft,  jfoc 
the  Place  Js  on  a  progreHive  Growth :   But  if 
it  is  oh  the  Decay,   fee  hovr  much  the  Ull 
Half^Uslhortofthefirft,  double  it,  lubftr^ft 
as  niQch  from  the  Duplicate  as  the^  kft  Hitlf 
fell  ihort  of  the  firft,   the  Part  being  oa  die 
Decay.    Thus  we  cannot  poffibly  err,  or  vaiy 
much  from  the  Truth.    To  find  the  Num^ 
of  Souls  in  any  Country  PafiOi,  or  iinaU  Toani 
of  no  great  f^fort,  fee  the  Disproportion  ha* 
twecn  Chriftenings  and  Buryings  in  any  given 
Parish,   be  it  great  or  frsall,  awl  Cflcnpare  it 
with  any  of  the  Extra^  in  Ta».  8«  and  lo. 
the  exad  Number  of  whofe  Families  and 
Souls  is  there  fet  down,    and  &e  in  what 
Number  of  Years  a  Number  equd  to  the  pre- 
fent  Inhabitants  will  be  bom  or  buried,  and 
by  comparing  t^e  Froportimi  or  Difproportion 
of  any  other  of  the  mne  Kind,  wfaoie  Num^ 
ber  you  know  not,  you  will  find  the  Truth,  or 
very  near  it,  except  there  are  many  Quakers 
there.    If  dicrc  arc  other  Diflenten,  then  fep 
what  Diiproportion  there  was  before  1^42,  and 
fo  you  will  come  near  it  by  the  Weddings 
which  are  all  IBIl  rcgiftered,  w  l^  the  Wed- 
dings and  Buryings.      Again,  if  Luxury  and 
Intemperance  have  debauched  a  Place :    ift. 
Compare  the  Difierence  between  Births  and 
Bur i^  before  1 642,  with  what  b  now.     2d, 
Of  the  buried,^  fee  the  Di;ference  between  the 
Married  and  Unmarried,  in  both  Periods,  and 
you  have  the  Effects  of  that  iad  Change. 

TABLE. 


by  Google 


TABLE    TENTH. 

Contains  the  monthly  Chriftenings  (of  Males  and  Fe- 
nialcs  M  Cohtmn  Sxoad  and  third,  and  the  Totals  of 
boik  Cdvma  fimrth)  of  Slv/felii  for  80  Years,  of 
.  Cafikta^  ftff  34  Yean,  of  Dat}ey  for  31  Yoars,.  of 

.    mrkjwiirtb  for  34  Years,  of  Mathti  for  34  Years, 

■  of  Mamhejier  for  11  Years,  oiUverpael  for  13  Years, 

-  of  Hellifax  for  6o'Years..    The  fifth  Column  pves 
-  the  Muipber  of  WeddingB  in  &e  remote  diftant  Races  ; 

Column  fix,  feven,  eight,  the  Males,  Females,  and 
Totals  buried  monthly  in  Sheffitld  for  184  Years, 
in  Rjithtrham  for  140  VearS,  in  Cajlleton  for  34  Years, 
.  m  Dar-Uy  for  31  YcMrsi  in  jW«&-*  for  34  Years,  in 
.  StuatRty  for  30  lears  (whofe  Sexes  not  bong  dtflin- 
guifhed  in  the  Abftra<3,  they  are  caft  into  the  Totals) 

■  in  UaUtfax  for  60  Years,  HatfieU  fbr  155  Yeara, 
WirkfviBrth  for  34  Years,  MddlewUh  k)r-  57  Years, 
HettthtrUiih  87  Years,  EukifeU  1 14  Years,  BredficU 
173  Years,   Huddtnjitld   16   Years,    GUntworth  44 

■  Years,  Waiefitli  54  Years,  Drmfield  la  Years,    St. 

■  JahnBaptiJl,  i^^t  Iftt  efThantty  165  Years;  Minfler 
there,  7a  Years,  Cbefierjitld  87  Years,  Miarn  160 
Years,  HsU  42  Yean,  Kirihtatm  29  Years,  livtr- 
p9ol  and  Manchefltr  as  above  in  all  the  monthly  Bu- 

'    rials  of  twenty-ttve  diftant  Places.     The  Chriflenings 

-  of  eight  ditKrenc  Places,  and  the  Weddings  of  fix, 

Jmuuy    2676    »S77    5JC3    tijB    8526    8406      16931 


•r, 

Mgufi 

Stftemhir 

Oihitr 

Decmhtr 


26,5 

mi 

2522     S'07 

1123   8iri8 

79S8 

161  z6 

2786    5724 

474    889; 

87,6 

1 7641 

2640 

S586     JZ16 

'397     8991 

8679 

17670 

2471 

2582    joSJ 

1499    8413 

B20S 

i66iS 

=!■♦ 

2270    4S94 

126s     7ir9 

^s'; 

136B0 

«3!t 

2s;t:ii 

961     65S6 

6448 

130J+ 

■S>+ 

1061     6550 

6245 

i»79? 

2300 

2120    4S20 

1 140    66;7 

IJ999 

■J« 

2i;4    4587 

Il8a     fig3c 
1565     7226 

6694 

13619 

24J1 

2331     4762 

% 

1407+ 

2443 

2323      682 

682     7990 

is6jS 

»«79  »8574  S»iSS 

13504  92056 

88SOO 

i8o8{6 

From 

i.vCoogIc 


(•43) 

From  this  Table  of  Monthly  Births,  Wed-- 
dings  and  Buiyings,  Qbf.  ift.  That  March  is 
the  fruitfoUcft  Month  of  the  twelve  by  almofl: 
I— nth;  and  tliat  j'^a/jf  is  the  barreneft,  the 
fbrmer  being  to  the  tatter  near  as  57  bi  44. 
The  Proportion  of  the  firft  five  months  is  to 
the  fecond  five  as  13  to  1 1.  The  Ptx)dud  of 
^e  laft  two  Months  of  the  Year  is  to  the  Pro- 
daft  of  the  firft  two  Months,  near  as  9  to  10. 
Males  are  to  Females  In  the  &ft  five  Months  as 
r33to  130;  in  the  fcoxid  five  near  11  to  10. 
In  May  Males  are  to  Females  as  24  to  25; 
but  in  July  and  Augujl  the  Odds  is  furprizing 
in  £ivour  of  the  Males»  vix.  near  23  to  20; 
and  in  the  laft  two  Months  above  24  to  23. 
Shall  we  fay  then  that  in  fruitfiilleft  Months 
the  Difproportion  between  Sexes  bom  is  leafi, 
and  in  the  barrenneft  Months  greateft  i 

Thus  we  find  that  the  mch  laborious  and 
totlfome  Months  prove  the  beft  for  Imprcgna- 
tioBi  and  Conception,  •mz.  Aprils  May^  ^^cw. 
yitJy  and  Aigufi-;  and  the  Months  of  the 
greateft  Eafe,  Repletion,  Indolence,  and  fmal- 
kft  Difcharge,  are  moft  improper  for  Procre- 
ation, as  QHober^  Nvatwber^  December  and  Ja- 
nuary. Chrrol.  Seeing  that  in  the  Months  of 
hardeft  Labour,  leaft  Reft,  longeft  Days,  and 
Exercife,  People  beget  2-i3ths  more  Chil- 
dren than  in  time  of  the  longeft  Reft,  leaft; 
Labour;  moft  liberal  and  invigorating  Feeding, 
fiveft  fenfible,  but  leaft  inienfible  Difcharges; 
then  the  moft  laborious  Part  of  Mankind  arc 
atfo  moft  fruitful  in  propOTtion  to  their  Num-^ 
bers  i  and  the  moft  voluptuous,  idle,  effemi- 
nate 

cziiizDdbvGoogk' 


(•44) 

nate  and  hixuriboa  are  the  barreneft.  Schol. 
If  it  hold  in  general  that  the  poorefl:  and  moib 
laborious  Part  of  N^nkind  are  the  fruitfiilleA, 
then  all  Taxei,  Civil  and  Eccleiiaflic,  laid  on 
the  Marriage-Bed,  and  what  pertains  to  it,  or 
on  the  commoQ  and  ordinary  Ncce^ies  of 
Life*  £dl  heavielt  on  the  Poor,  and  are  Dif- 
oxiragements,  and  prove  fome  Barr  in  their 
Marriage.  On  the  contrary,  are  the  idleft 
Months  Utteft  for  generating  Males  in  propor- 
tion to  the  few^  Children  begotten,  then  the 
Ibnner  hard  Labonr  end  Exercife  has  ftrung 
the  Nerves  and  purified  the  Blood ;  hence  the 
labouring  Man  is  more  healthy,  vigorous,  and 
firong  in  OShber^  Nonxmber^  and  December  i 
betides,  the  vernal  and  autumnal  Difeafes  have 
either  cured  <x  carried  off  the  Difeafed,  Weak, 
Feeble  and  Languifhing,  and  left  the  greateft 
Part  of  the  Remainder  in  a  more  healthy,  vi- 
giXYnis  Plight.  As  hard  Labour  makes  the 
Poor  more  fruitful,  £}  their  Children  are  gene- 
rally more  vigorous  and  healthy ;  as  we  fee 
plainly  by  comparing  the  City  and  Country 
Bills  {  for  of  the  Citizens  Children  49  per  Cent. 
die  under  5  Years  old  j  in  Towns  33  to  37  j 
in  the  Country  not  above  20  to  25,  including 
all  Difeafes  and  Cafoalties.  Or  compare  we 
hard-working  manu&dioring  Towns  with 
Country  Vilkges  of  equal  Labour  and  Situa- 
tion, Ixit  the  latter  mtxe  temperate,  keep  bet- 
to*  and  more  natural  Hours,  ufe  lels  Aiumal 
f'ood,  but  more  vegetable  and  plain  Diet, 
drink  lefs  fpirituous  fermented  Liquors,  are 
cjiafier,  and  more  £uthfiil  xo  the  Marriage- 
Bed, 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(  H5) 
Bed,  we  ftiaU  find  there  again  a  great  Odds  In  : 
the  I/ofs  of  thci^-  Chiidfcn,  one  being  fdafce" ' 
iS  J>tr  Cent,  and  the  othfcf  from  33  to  38!; 
Th*s  might  afford  a  noble  Sobjeft  for  Mcdfei-  ' 
tion  oivHeavon's  liberal  and  im}:>artial  Difti> 
butions  of  tfiaiporal  Bicflmgs,  even  on  '  the 
Poor";  for  here  we  fee  a  Chain  of  ProVidencis  ■ 
an4  BlefBngE  attends  the  Virtue,  '  Induiby, 
Chsfftlty,  Sobriety,  Regularity,  po6r,  bot  plain 
"Food  of  poor  labouring  Peofdej  they  are 'Ids 
Slaves  to  the  fcnfaal  Pamon,  Sire  more  fruitful, 
their  Progeny  more  vigorous  and  healthy,  havn 
fewer  hereditary  Difeafes,  and  fobner  and  niom  ^ 
eafily  overcome  the  common  ones,  ■  haw  '■ 
ftronger  Conftitutions,  and  better '  Stapiina, 
retlDi  a  more  natural  ^nd  true  Pleafure  in 
Wedlock ;  they  want  no  Whettcrs,  Pickles, 
Sauces  and  Stimulants,  or  Biacers  to  procure 
Appetite  and  DigeAion ;  they  have  not  their 
fine .  covered  Table  garnilli'd  with  Variety  of 
Di(hes  and  Sauces,  but  they  have  a  good  -Sto- 
mach, iharp  Appetite,  tfoe  Relifli,  juft  Di- 
geftion,  Dmribation  and  Nutrition  ;  they  have 
their  dear  Babes  not  laid  up  in  pompous 
Tombs,  or  plain  Graves,  or  but  feldom  cpri- 
fined  to  their  Beds  or  their  Rooms  under 
Doaws  and  Nurfes,  but  like  Olive  Planlts  fct 
round  their  Table.  They  Jiave  not  mndi 
Riches,  nor  the  Effeds  of  them,  Uncaftnefs, 
Jcaloufy,  Luxury,  Vduptuoufncfs,  and  fo 
much  Intemperance.  Their  low  or  tnean 
Circumftqnces  free  them  from  that  Peft  of  great 
or  rich  Men,  artful  Flatterers ;  who  arc  ready 
to  iofinuate  themfelves,  and  to  pleale,  forward, 
L  and 


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(.146)" 
and  comply  with  their  Paffions  and  Appetite^ 
CO  applaud  and  concur  with  thdr  UpinioD, 
without  re^d  to  Truth,  Equity^  or  Expo* 
diency ;  and  too  few,  though  they  love  great 
Men  well  enough,  have  Courage  to  difpleafe 
them,  by  difputing  their  Tafte  and  Opinion  ; 
but  the  crafty  Language  and  Behaviour  of 
Flatterers  will  always  render  them  rufpicious 
to  wife  penetrating  Men,  and  not  fufi^  their 
fmooth,  formal,  cerononious,  iniincere  Esc- 
prefHons  and  Air«  to  captivate  and  charm 
them,  confidcring  that  Parafites  flatter  and 
admire  them,  becaufe  they  think  them  weak 
and  vain  enough  to  fuffer  themfelvcs  to  be  de- 
ceived and  miBcd  by  them.  The  Poverty  of 
the  Poor  exempts  them  from  the  too  frequent 
Misfortunefi  of  the  Great,  who,  being  often 
Ipoiled  by  fuch  Sycophants,  have  at  length 
th^  Unhappinefs  to  look  upon  every  fincere 
and  ingemous  Friend,  as  a  coarfe,  impolite, 
.rough,  prefumptuous  and  impertinent  Fellow, 
becaul^  be  cannot  diilcmble  (or  as  the  Phi^ 
is)  fufpend  his  juA  Judgment,  at  the  Expoice 
of  Truth,  Honefly,  and  Probity,  aad  of  the 
tiue  Intercfl  of  me  Great.  Hence  honefl 
Men,  when  alked,  dare  never  tdl  all  they 
think  or  know,  efpecially  if  incompatible  with 
the  Humour  and  Opinion  of  the  Great.  How 
noble  and  laudable  was  the  Prance  of  G&0no»- 
JiiSy  who  allowed  heavy  Fines  to  be  laid  oa 
^uch  as  encouraged,  or  contra^d  a  Friendfh^, 
even  a  Correfpondence,  with  wicked  Men,  or 
PantHtes  ?  Or  the  Example  of  the  great  Men 
of  the  Syraculian  Monarchy,  whofe  Earjvas 
only 


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(147) 

oaij  open  to  Men  tfaax  fpoke  the  Truth  with- 
out Diiguiie  ?  When  Mens  Adions  are  good 
of  themJfelvcSa  and  outwardly  not  <Hily  lauda- 
ble in  all  Reipe^j  but  neceiEtry,  the  Poor 
can  eaiily  fee  it,  or  be  convinced  of  it ;  but 
the  Parafite,  purely  to  difcredit  the  Author 
vith  the  Great,  will  fiarch  igto  the  Heart, 
and  form  a  Spirit  of  the  darkeA  and  moil  ab- 
jcGt  Malice,  will  afcribe  fuch  Views  and  In- 
teotioos  as  an  honelt  Man  never  dream'd  of. 

As  to  the  EiFe£ts  of  Labour  3nd  Exercife  oa 
Mens  Bodies  during  the  bufy  Seafon  of  the 
Vear.  i.  It  caufes  plentiful  Perlpiration,  and 
|«'omotes  other  nece^ry  Evacuations,  whereby 
all  the  Aninial  Juices  are  attenuated  and  dimi- 
ni&ed,  and  the  more  ferous,  faline  and  excre- 
jQcntitious  Farts  are  carried  oiF.  2.  As  a  daily 
continued  Perfpiration  gives  Vent  to  Abun- 
dance of  fupertluGus  Humours,  fo  it  brings  the 
nfcous  genital  Liquor  to  its  greateft  Maturity, 
moft  perfect  and  elaborated  State,  much  of  its 
uleleis  Serum  is  otherwife  dilcharged ;  the  fe- 
minal  Veficles  are  nt^  fo  foon  filled  with  poor 
^iritleft  Stuff,  as  its  Bulk  or  Quantity  mu{t 
fince  an  immature  Expulfion ;  and  the  poor 
Country  Labourer's  Drink  at  his  hard  Work, 
being  feldom  ilrong,  it  carries  no  ftock  of  Salts 
into  the  Blood,  and  fuch  as  were  in  it  before, 
are  fo  thinned  aud  diluted,  that  much  of  the 
ufeleft  Part  of  them  is  carried  off  by  Sweat 
and  Urine ;  hence  lets  femlnal  Stimulus,  and 
feld(»ner  Provocation  to  Veneiy.  By  the 
£nDe  Means  the  Blood  is  frttd  from  to  great  a 
Qg|[^ty  of  Mucu(?(ity  in  the  Uterus  and  its 
- '  -  La  Appen- 


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(  .48) 
Appendages,  which  occafions  a  Slipporyners^ 
that  the  befl  genital  Liquor  was  loft,  rr 
infe&a^  or  expelled  or  carried '  off  the  ibiall 
tender  -Embryo  }  or  that  laid  in  the  Way,  ib 
that  the  prolific  Aura  of  the  Semen  reached 
not  the  Palk^ian  Tuha  and  Ovaria  to  im- 
pregnate them.  Daily  Labour  not.  only  wafles 
the  fuperfluous  ferous  and  ikline  Humours, 
but  braces  the  Fibres,  Membranes  and  Vefiels, 
and  proper  Pans  of  both  Sexes  for  the  fuller 
Preparation  and  longer  Retention  of  this  proli- 
fic Humour  in  the  Males,  and  Reception  and 
due  Refidencc  in  the  Females.  Hard  Labour, 
and  a  promoted  Perfpiration,  not  only  le&a 
the  Qnarttity,  and  mend  the  Confiftence,  and 
takes  off  not  only  an  ufelefs,  but  injurious  Sti- 
mulus at  that  Time,  yet  hinders  not  a  prolific 
one,  attended  with  all  pleafiirable  Satis&^ion. 
Hence  it  follows  :  ill.  That  tho'  Idlenefs 
may  be  a  Friend  to  Veneiy,  yet  it  is  not  to 
Prolificncfs.  Nor,  adly,  does  a  conftact  thin 
watery  Diet  promife  a  numerous  healthy  Pro- 
geny, as  that  Diet  is  liable  to  fill  the  ieminal 
Vefcicles  with  infipid  watery  Sperm.  Nor, 
gdly,  arc  high  ftimulant  Food,  Drinks  or 
Sauces,  Promoters  of  Fertility,  efptdally  be- 
fore or  at  the  Meridian  of  Life,  feeing  they 
both  provoke  to  imnuitnre  A£ts,.and,  by  the 
Irritation  of  the  Semen  on  the  Recipient,  may 
procure  its  Expfilfion.  4thly,  As  Idlenefs,  fo 
Night- revelling  and  unfeafonable  Hours,  which 
as  they  load  the  Body  with-unperfpired  Hu- 
mours, fothey^iftcnd  the  feminal  Repofito- 
ties  with  hi^borated  Mattery  which  ha.gpns 
3  .  -.  its 


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{'49) 
itsExpulfion.  5thly,  Hence  it's  pldn  that 
Procreation  is  bncn  prevented  by  too  frequently 
repeated  Gratifications.  This  is  ftill  more  evi- 
dent from  the  Decreafe  of  Births  in  yurtf,  Juiy^ 
and  ^gufly  the  Months  anfwcring  the  idleft 
and  plentifblleft  Seafon  ;  and  from  the  young 
vertuous  Breeders,  feldom  coming  with  their 
firft  Load  within  the  Year,  till  they  have  a 
litde  fated  thcmfelves  ;  and  the  young  Huf- 
bands  put  off  their  pale,  lank,  thin  looks,  and 
fomewhat  recovered  their  Batchelor  -  like 
Complexion.  Would  the  juft  Odioufneft  and 
Naftynefs  of  the  Subjeft  allow  it,  I  could  fiiUy 
and  clearly  from  hence  prove,  how  injuriout 
to  Procreation  all  unnatural  or  illegal  Gratifi- 
cations are  in  either  Sex,  whettier  before  or 
after  Marriage.  Thus  it  is  plain,  that  all  too 
frequent  or  promifcuous  EmJtion,  and  all  need- 
Icfs,  frequent,  or  profiife  Lofa  of  the  Semen  j 
the  Slipperyncfs,  Laxnels,  or  Irifenfibility,  or 
too  great  Moifturc  of  the  Recipient  Parts,  pre* 
vciit  or  protradl  Conception,  and  alfo  Stimu- 
lants, which  provoke  an  unnatural  andun- 
fruitfal  Defire,  without  due  Repletion  of  pro- 
per Matter  (except  to  dull  flegmatic  Bodies) 
and  Iflcewife  too  low  and  innutritive  a  Diet 
tnfwer  not  the  Defign  of  Fertility,  for  they 
afl  taint  the  Semen,  either  in  Quantity  or 
Q^Hly,  make  it  too  much,  too  little,  too 
watery,  acrid,  ihfipid,  falinc,  or  ftimulant,  ■ 
Now  as  to  Weddings,  thefe  depend  entirely 
on  human  Oioice  and  Difcretion  j  they  are 
thcReverfe  of  the  Ghriftenings,  for  thcSprink 
has  the  grwteft  Plenty  of  the  kft,  but  moft 
L  3  i  deficient 


(15") 
deficient  in  the  firft,  portly  on  account  of  the 
ecclefiaAical  Reftraint  affeding  hoth  City  and 
Country,  where  Money  is  fcarce  to  purchase 
Licences,  and  partly  &6m  other  InconvcnU 
cncies.  The  Weddings  in  March  are  to  thofe 
of  Mm  and  December,  as  3  to  1 1  ^  irom  which 
arife  fome  Things  not  fo  expedient.  For  firil, 
few  Childr«)  come  at  the  Expiratim  of  the 
6rA  nine  Months,  but  oftener  at  twelve  or  thir- 
teen Months  end,  which  may  rometimes  con- 
tribtttJ^  to  the  greater  Frultftilnefs,  for  then 
our  young  Breeders  of  the  laft  Year's  Conju- 
gation, bring  their  frefli  ^uota ;  fo  that  they 
«re  fet  fix  or  feven  Weeks  baclc  by  this  Re- 
ftraint,  adiy,  Children  bom  in  uie  colder 
Months,  are  generally  found  to  be  healthier, 
Jirongcf,  and  longer-Jived,  than  thole  bom  in 
the  hotter,  wherefore  it  would  be  an  Advan- 
togc  to  have  them  come  earlier,  gdly,  Tho' 
a  diminiflied  Perfpiration  in  a  healthy  Peribn, 
greater  Eafe,  plentifiiUer  Diet,  and  longer 
Nights,  are  not  fo  favourable  Grcumilances 
for  Generation,  yet  they  bef)*iend  amorous  In- 
trigues and  conjugal  Love;  and  fince  thefe 
favour  Love  whilft  there  is  a  Rcftraint  on  Ma- 
trimony, this  may  prove  Temptation  to,  and 
Occafion  of  a  previous  Engagement.  4thly, 
Since  the  Spring  is  the  fruitfullcft,  as  vrell  as 
iittefl  Seafon  for  Marriage,  and  our  newnnar- 
ried  Women  feldom  come  in  the  Year,  (except 
•their  Hufbands  are  very  chaftc)  but  there  are 
-fcwcft  Maj-riages  in  the  Spring  j  there  is  no 
room  to  doubt,  how  far  the  Denial  of  Matri- 
oiony  in  Lem»  is  confiftent  with  die  prudent* 
t'  and 

L,  ,z,;i:, Google 


(  'S'  ) 
and  Intereft  of  a  trading,  warlike,  fingiiUr 
People'  whofe  Religion,  Trade,  and  Libert/, 
render  them  hated  by  ieveral  oi  their  Neigh- 
bours ;  and  whofe  NunUiers,  Riches,  Trades 
and  Policy,  can  only  fecure  tbeie  to  tbem^ 
And  as  ft^rriage  is  often  folemnized  on  the 
Lord*»-day,  and  for  Money  inXM^,  and  mar- 
ried Men  cannot  be  watched  that  they  cohabit 
not  with  their  Wives  in  Lent,  the  Reftraint 
of  Marriage,  or  making  it  finfiil  in  Lertty  for 
want  of  Money,  feems  a  little  dark  to  all,  and 
hard  on  the  yoang  Lavtrs.  5thly,  From  the 
Decreaie  of  Weddings  in  Summer,  and  In- 
crease of  them  in  Winter,  we  fee  what  Friends 
an  eafier  Life,  a  dirainilhed  Perfpiradon, .  a 
bett^  Confiftence  and  Stock  of  animal  Fluids, 
&c.  are  to  Love;  en-,  in  a  word,  how  great  a 
Friend  a  healthy  Fletbory  isto  it.  Here  might 
be  obferved  the  Simularity  between  Animals 
and  Vegetables. 

Bat  we  fhall  confider  Polygamy  a  Uttle, 
which  by  many  and  very  eminent  learned 
Men,  has,  with  great  Pains  aod  Perfpiculty, 
been  attempted  to  be  proven  unlawful,  upon 
fiich  To|Hcs  as  thefe,  vixk  the  Parity  c^  Sexes 
created  at  firft,  prcferved  at  the  univeHal  l>e-< 
k^e,  and  of  Sexes  now  born  inta  the  World. 
But  here  they  f(»^t  to  confider,  i.  Whether 
in  this  Aipunent  they  have  to  deal  with  fuch 
as  abfolutdy  deny  or  pay  a  due  Regard  to  di- 
vine Revel^on.  2.  If  all  the  ^hrce  above  Ar- 
guments do  noc  equally  hold  in  Brutes.  If 
thefe  se  the  Ci&,  all  their  Learning  and  fiae 
Rcafoningis  loft;  but ool^nitival Light fccnia 
t  t  4  to 


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(  .152  ) 
toiet  the  Matter  beyond  til  Difpule;  For,  i* 
Jt  is  pretty  plain  that  the  Father  and  Founder 
ef  Polygamy,  had  but  a  galled,  uoeafys  tori- 
fied  Alind  or  Gonfcicncx,  as  appears  A-om  his 
Speech  tohisWives.  2.  It  is  no  lefs  evident^ 
that  all  Men  arrived  at  Puberty,  or  Years  of 
Dii<:retion,  have  an  undoubted  Right  tt>  marry, 
if  fo  di/pofed  or  ioclihed  ;  and  this  they  may 
plead,  not  oMy  from  the  Excimples  of  Pec^le 
of  the  like  CircDOinances  with  themielvea,  bM 
al&t  from,  the  Equity  of  the  Thing ;  for  tho 
Davy  ieeras  to  have  cntitulad  no  parttculai  Set 
ef  Msa  to.  tkis  Privilege,  ^xcliffivc  of  all  thd 
reft; '.but,  on  &e  contrary,'  has  conferred  on 
all  a  Fover,  properLPaita,  and  to  moft  an  In* 
clinatiiiii  to  conjugal  Love.  For  tiwugh  it  b^ 
allowed  that  Man  hss  panted  to:lBai  a  Povro* 
over  Beafts,  Fowls^  Fifhcs,  .&c.  to  kill  and 
£iedion  them,-  or' convert  them  to  other  Ufes^ 
(without  needlefs  and  wanton  Cruelty)  jret, 
exaept  in  the  Breafi:  of  Tyrant^  cme  Set  or 
Sort  of  Men,  had  never  a  Power  given  them 
prer  the  Livesy  Wills,  Bodies^  or  Pvts  of  thii 
Bodies  of  innocent  InJFants  and  Children.  But 
allow  of  Polygamy  for  once,  then  fomc  Men 
rank  necefiarily  bo  mutil^^ted,  or  deprived  of 
their  Right,  orptevented  complying  ^ith  theii^ 
natural  Indinationa,.  from  want  of  Feoulcs; 
and  the  greatec  Part  .of  t^  Woman  denied,  or 
{B<une  Hiort  of  the  Duty  due:  to  them  fiom 
their  Uuihands,  one  Woman. being  only  ca- 
^olTed,  and  the  ircili  made  £lai»a  toithePside 
and  extravagant' HuiaoDis  of  the  HtUbsod  tsd 
ferootitB  Budcv  :«rhc&.  U^ght  ,}s  but  prcou* 


i.vCoogIc 


(  'Si  ) 
riouf^  and  liable  to  be  kicked  down  by  a  ndr 
Succeflbr.  Somd  Nfttiens  indeed  Mve  both 
prafUcaUy.  and  -vQrbtlly  asrweredi  that  calba^ 
ting  one  half,  or  tvfi^.Parts  of  the  Males  born, 
ss  is  done  with  fNtts^  js  a  fu^iant  Cure 
(or  this.  True  i.  but  -kt  it  iirfl:  be  proved, 
that  the  fapmm  Being :  has  given  fame  Men 
Power  over,  and  IMfpc^t  of  the  reft,  as  Man 
either  has,  or  alTumes  oVer  Brutes,  this  might 
do  for  the  time ;  but  (dil  tbeO'  etery  Man 
ihould  be  allowed  the  Ei^oymcnt  of  that  uo* 
doubted  Right  to<^e  Iqgal  Moaia' of  Propa- 
gation, Calbation  being. only  att^arfeitraiy  In* 
vaiion  of  that  Property;  and  Deftrti^WcMi  of 
tiat  Power.  This  natural  peribn^  Right  to 
Marriage,  was  never  dUpated  or  denied  to 
any  Man,  till  about  i  »qo  Vcars  after  the  Floods 
in  the  Days  of  E!i  the  ffighrPrieft,  that  Sem* 
ramis  Qijcen  of  B^lan,  caufed  tin:  Caftration 
of  Men  and  Boys  firft  to  be  praAifod,  which 
Oiilom  has  to  diis  Day  pfevatlad'  in  Eaftem 
Countries,  both  under  MahometMt'fia  and  He4h- 
tbmifmt  till  j^athcies  King  of  Sicily  as  great 
and  as  vik  a  Moniler  as  the  other,  difcovered 
the  Trjdk  of  caArating  Women,  about  the 
440th  Year  of  Kf»w,  in  the  Htsgn  of  Hezf- 
iiak  King  of  Ju^.  Again,  the  Power  of 
CoftfatioamuA  be  eiiSier  in  tls  qivil  Magif- 
trate,  the  Parents,  or  die  Peribns  them&lves. 
Id  the  firft  it  caisiot  be,  neither  on  his  own, 
por  his  Subjects  account ; '  on  his  own  it  is  not, 
ffH?  wfaatevfiT  weakens  his  Strength,  endangers 
himfelf  end  his  Govcnimant ;  it  is  alfo  con- 
trary to  the  very  End  of  Magiftracy,  viz.  the 
Defence 


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(  '54  ) 
Dtfeace  of  their  SobjcAs  and  tlKirkight.  It 
CflRdOt'be'for  riie  Advantage  of  th&Sut^efiSi 
as  it'is  an 'ImKiADn  of.  their  natural  Right,  « 
Icifinibg  tii  then-  Strength  and  Dnfeoce.  The 
Ftlrents  Doty,  under  ^e  Prince,  is  to  dei^d 
and  jvbvide'  for  his.  own-,  but  he  neitho:  was, 
or  is  invefied  with  a  Power  to  mqtitate  them 
willingly  and  nfekilly.  Whiift  a  Man  adls 
up  tohis  Reafoi^  Self-prerervatioa  is-^e  firft 
Didate  of^Natnre,  that  he  is  conftantW  to  ob- 
serve. It  is  true,  a  Prince  in  cafe  of  Rebel- 
li(»),  or  odmr  caiHtal  Crimes,  ma^commnte 
the  Execu^m  en  dK  Sentence  of  Death  for 
Caftntion,  if  he  pleafe ;  but  it  would  appear 
widi  too  great  Levity,  and  the  .Criminal  not 
fliade  incapable  of  iiirtha-  wronging  Socis^r> 
except  it  were  lor  Tome  AA  of  Undeannds, 
and  indeed  fome  deferve  this.  But  (uppofing 
Caftration  to  be  a  Thing  indifferent,  and  le- 
g^dly  in  the  Power  of  the  civil  Magiftrate,  yet 
who  are  to  be  caftrated,  the  Children  of  the 
Rich  or  of  the  Poor  P  if  of  the  Richj  this 
would  be  the  Means  of  rooting  up  their  Fa- 
mily, the  ^eat  Idol  of  their  Ambition ;  if  of 
the  Po(M-,  they  are  the  Support  of  the  Rich, 
they  are  the  Balk  of  Armies,  Fleets  and  Glo- 
mes t  by  them  are  Trades,  ManuiaAories, 
Agriculture,  GSc.  carried  on,  if  their  Children 
are  incapable  of  Gaieration,  then  the  Rich 
muft  get  Drudges.  2.  No  Reafon  can  be  A- 
iigned  for  Polygamy  but  Lafcirioulhe^  Pride, 
and  Inconftancy :  It  is  ib  ^  from,  artfwering 
the  End  of  a  numerous  Progeny,  that  titus 
Table  ihcws  that  the  moft  lucivioos  Seafons 

arc 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(  'SS) 
are  the  moft  improlificj  and  he  that  h^.ii 
tIiou£uid  Wives  and  CohcubiDes,  had  twt^flj^ 
thicfc-iculled  Son }  and  hnaftlf  being  buried 
and  diAraAod  with-  many  Amooiv  fi^-^ly 
into  Dotage;  fodangeroos  is  Polygatay  to  the 
Intclled  i  and  we  hinted  befca-e,  tbu  th&nipre 
kfcivious  the  lefs  prpliik.  Pride  cooks  £o-i^ 
fbort  of  Fruitfiihids,  that  it  is  no  unct^iron 
thing  for  prood  Tyrznte,  upon  ftnall  Di%u^ 
or  Sufpicions,  to  plunge  their  Hands  in  the 
Blood  of  their  own  Children :  And  after  the 
Demife  of  the  Tyrant,  the  nioA  ambitious -and 
powerlii]  of  the  Sons,  often-  amilics  the  fatal 
Cord,  CH-  other  Engine  of  Death,  to  the  reft 
of  the  Males  of  his  Family.  As  to  Xocon- 
ftancy,  the  Son  of  the  prefent  Favourite  muft 
always  be  preferred,  to  the  Prejudice^  Expul- 
fion,  or  Death  of  the  reft.  ^.  The  Uncer- 
tainty of  human  Afiairs  forbid  it  t  How  often 
do  Crowns,  Kingdoms,  Eftates,  and  Richer 
diange  Families  ss  well  as  Mafters  ?  How 
often  are  Male  Lines  of  Families  extinct  ?  He 
is  then  weak,  foolifh,  and  proud,  that  pco- 
taiCes  himielf  the. Perpetuity. of  his  Family, 
dioi^h  he  calls  Houfes  and  Lands  after  his 
own  Name ;  yet  the  next  Family  that  fucceeds 
toay  change  them  ^ain ;  or  ihould  they  never 
fhm,  yet  this  only  tranfmits  the  Man's  Folly 
and  Ambition  to  Pofterity.  4.  Policy  forbids 
Pofygamy  on  a  douUe  account,  for  the  proba- 
Ue  Sa&^  of  a  Nation  depends  on  the  Num- 
bers of  its  People  and  Riches  j  then  the  inca- 
pacitating a  great  Number  of  its  Males  &om 
lawful  Procreation,  is  inconiiftent  both  with 

the 


(  ij6  ) 

Ac  Increafe  of  People,  and  native  couragious 
Soldiers.  Hence  Countries,  where  Polygamy 
is  nfed,  are  the  dunneft  of  Inhalritahts,  -fo 
martj  of  their  Males  b<;ing'  caftrated,  and  Co 
many  Women  unifiarried.  It  is  alfo  impolitic 
on  the  account  of  Men  of  public  Profeffions ; 
ftr  there  arc  abundance  of  Idftanccs  of  Men  of 
liieancft  Rank,  but  of  tnoft  eminent  diilin- 
guifhed  ufeftil  Parts,'  of  greateft  Service  in  the 
Army  and  at  the  Council  Board.  5.  Polyga- 
my is  inconliftent  with  the  naturaf,  as  weU  as 
civil  Strength  of  a  People  j  for  as  it  requires 
too  frequent  Gratifications  of  the  amorous  Fzf- 
fion,  few  erf"  them  will  prove  prolific,  and 
ftill  fewer  produaive  ^of  ftrong-bodied  Men,' 
fi?om  the  Inelaboratcdnefs  of  the  too  often 
drained  genital  Liquor.  It  is  a  juft  Obfertat* 
rion,  that  ih  general  Longevity  ceafed  when 
Polygamy  and  Idolatry  commenced.  6.  As  it 
is  mconuftent  widi  both  cinl  and  natbral 
Strength,  fo  with  the  nefccffitry  Means  of  Sdf- 
prcferration  which  every  Man  owes  himfelf, 
thele  freqnent  Dalliances  enervating  the  Vigour 
both  of  Body  and  Mind,  whilft  each  of  his 
Wives  mayjuftly  foUicitcand  cxpefl:  their  own 
doe  Gratifications.  7.  It  is  ^nconfiftcnt  With 
the  Love  and  Duty  which  every  Man  ow<s  Tiis 
Wife,  whom  he  is  obliged  to  love,  dierifh, 
and  provide  fbrfaitable  to  his  Station,  and  co- 
habit with  :  But  in  Polygamy  all  tliefe  Duties 
iliuft  dwindle  away,  and  be  divided  artiong 
fevcral,  to  the  defrauding  every  one  of  their 
Right  J  for  a  Number  of  Wives  is  only  a  N'um- 
bcr  of  Slaves  to  the  Ambition  of  the  Hufcand. 


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('57) 
8.  It  is  inconliiteot  with  the  Love,  Care,  and 
ProTifioa  that  every  Man  u  obliged  to  make 
^  his  Children ;  no,  Man  bemg  able  eqaally 
to  provide  fiir  &veral  foetanetws  Womens  ChiU- 
dreo,  according  to  his  Station ;  every  one  «f 
the  other  Wives  and  their  Children  comii^  in 
Sharers,  and  Defrauders  of  the  true  Wife  and 
her  Children.  It  is  alTo  likely  to  be  injorioOB 
to  the  Health  as  well  as  Life  or  Fortune  of  the 
lawfiil  Children :  It  ib  alfo  inoonfiftent  vnth 
the  Peatx  and  Tranquillity'  of  a  Family,  with 
the  Care  and  Education  of  the  Children.  If 
CaflratioD  is  lawiiil  in  any  Cafe,  it  is  certainly 
ib  on  Folygamiils  and  Adulterers  themfelves^ 
who  have  juilly  forfeited  that  Part.  9.  The 
near  Number  of  Ms^bs  and  Females  born  into 
the  World,  makes  Polygamy  appear  a  MoOr 
Aer,  but  efpecially  feemg  more  Males  are  bom 
than  Females.  If  Polygamy  were  at  all  allow- 
aUc,  it  ihould  be  that  fome  few  V/ometi 
ihouM  have  feveral  Hulbands  at  once,  there 
being  more  Men  than  Women.  10.  The 
Conception,  Abordoi,  dying  before,  at,  or 
immediately  after  the  Birth,  of  fo  many  Males 
more  than  Fennaks  (a  Cafe  wfaich  feldom 
hi^peas  among  Brutes)  is  a.iignal  Inftance  of 
I^ravidence,  that  the  Numbo-  of  the  firft  fhould 
not  exceed  the  latter  £a  &r,  that  there  ihould 
not  be  Wives  enough  fi^cient  for  them. 
Caftration  of  Brutes  is  necefiary,  i.  To  prevent 
the  Sterility  of  the  Females,  for  were  diey  all 
left  uncamated,  the  unavoidable  promifcuous 
Cution  of  the  Females  with  fo  many  Males, 
would  render  them  quite  barren,  a»  we  fea  it 


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(  '58  ) 
Wi^.  oommOD  Stmoipets.  2.  It  would  noJB 
only  render  the  Femala  barren,  but  be  the ' 
DeftrufUon  of  both  in  ibme  necefiaiy  Species, 
by  the  loteafaicls  and  loc^  Coatununce  of 
tbcir  venereal  Appetite,  taking  them  off  ftom 
Feeding,  and  wailii^  their  Flcfli.  3.  Sudi 
AnimaU  as  are  foe  Food,  it  tenders  and  meli- 
orates their  Fle£h,  as  Wethers,  Oxen,  fife  As 
to  Adultery,  it  begets  the  Negled  of  the  Fa-i- 
oaily,  is  the  Moth  of  Frugality,  the  Oblivion 
of  ^duftiy,  the  Ruin  of  the  adulterous  firood, 
(if  not  al^.  of  the  lawful  b^otten)  the  Coa< 
iiwiption  of  the  Hlate,  or  Alunation  of  it  by 
the  Female,  the  Burial  of  Family  Tranqml- 
Uty,  &c.         : 

To  xriake  a  People  great,  numerous,  pchj 
and  formidable,  Property  and  lawful  Libcsty 
jnuft  firit  be  fecuced  i  this  engages  the  Native* 
to  Hay  at  home,  invites  Strangers  to  come  and 
jrcHde,  and  promotes  Induiby,  Trade,  Fruga- 
lity, and  .Oosnooiy,  Hereunto  it  is  necefi^ 
that  Marriage  be  encouraged  cfpeciallyj  the 
Genius  of  the  People,  fioii.  Situation,  Ports^ 
and  Trade  of  the  CmuUiy,  be  improved  by 
unwearied  Diligence ;  a  powerful  Army  kept 
up  in  tune  of  Conger }  that  there  be  good  Ma- 
nagement of  the  public  Revenues ;  and  to 
fupport  thefe,  die  making,  daily  maintaining, 
and  a  rigorous  Execution  of  the  beft  Laws  is 
requifite.  To  facilitate  which,  Parents,  Ma^ 
fters  of  Families,  and  Clergy,  (hould  all  con- 
tribute in  JnAilling  good  Principles,  fetttitf 
good  Examples,  and  ri^tly  ieafoning  theMintu 
pf  Youth  sarly.  Since  the  Bulk  of  Armies, 
Navies, 


byGoogk' 


(  '59  ) 

Navies,  Cc^nies,  Maaui£bftaric8,  JVgBtaUtures; ' 
Mechanics,  and  Servants;  or,  in  a  word,  -all.^ 
that  are  either  the  Defence  or  Encrca&n  of  I 
the  Riches  of  a  Nation,  arc  made  op-  chiefly, 
of  the  meaner  Sort  and  Poorj  and  mice  Peo- 
ple of  that  Rank  are  generally  the  mc^  pto- 
Ufic,  and  we  fee  a  greater  Difproportion  be*- 
tween  their  Males  and  Females ;  their  Chil- 
dren are  generally  the  moil  vigorous,  healthy, 
hearty,  long-Uved,  liable  to  feweft  hereditary 
Diieafes,  and  fit  to  bear  the  grcateft  Fatigues } 
then  People  of  this  Cla&  diouid  be  encouragol 
to  many  for  Procreation,  and  all  Hinderances 
removed  as  much  as  poflible  by  the  Legiiktuxel, 
Now  thefe  Hinderances  are,  i.  Laying  oa 
heavy  Taxes  on  the  common  NeceiBiries  of 
Life,  whiUl  many  Articles  ibr  meer  Luxury 
cfcape  quite  free.  2.  Laying  Dues  or  Duties 
on  the  Marriage-Bod  and  its  Product  j  thus  a 
Burden  is  dire&ly  laid  on  the  poorer  Sort, 
which  malce  up  the  Strength  and  Wealth  of  a 
Countiy.  Taxes  conbrary  to  true  Policy  an4 
Reafon,  though  they  may  appear  finall  to  the  - 
legiflative  Donors,  who  ue  nothing  but  Pcsnp 
and  Wealth  around  them,  yet  they  are  found 
too  hard  on  fuch  as  can  hardly  maintain  them- 
(elves.  Such  Burdens,  however  trifling  they 
may  appear,  may  hinder  the  Poor  from  marr 
rying,  and  fo  prevent  Procreation ;  and  if  they 
are  difcouraged  from  marrying,  in  time  of 
War  our  Army  mufr  confifl  of  Natives  or 
Strangers ;  if  of  the  firfr,  Majiu&dories  or 
Trades  may  lie  negleded,  Plantatinis  and  Co- 
lonies, for  want  of  Recruits  and  De&nce,  may 

tie 


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(ifto) 
be  the  Prey  of  new  Mafiers.  If  wholly  of 
■Strangers,  cfpecially  of  mercenary  Officers,  the 
Fate  of  Carthage  mould  admonim  all  prudent 
Princes  and  States  of  that  Danger,  as  fuch 
may  always  be  at  the  Beck  of  the  higheft  Bid- 
den J  or  hy  rcfufing  to  obey  the  Command  of 
dieir  Hirers,  at  a  critical  JuntSure,  may  let  flip 
an  Advantage  not  qoickfy  or  cafily  got  again. 
Or  as  they  ate  the  ToBl  of  Princes,  they  may 
betray  the  Rights  and  Liberties  of  the  People 
into  his  Hands,  and  make  him  arbitrary.  Nor 
docs  the  Sale  of  Poft  and  Places  in  an  Army, 
portend  the  Honour  or  Safety  of  Prince  or 
People,  or  great  Succefs  in  a  neceffary  War : 
For  this  puts  an  effeftual  Stop  to  Merit  (ex- 
cept to  firft  Purchafers)  For  when  there  is  no 
Reward  for  Courage,  Fatigue  and  Hazards  run 
with  Judgment^  ConduA  and  CooUiefs.  they 
iave  nothing  in  view  to  expofe  themfelvcs  for, 
it  muil  check  their  Bravery,  make  them  more 
indifferent  and  llack.  Sale  of  Places  not  only 
obftru£fcs  Merit  in  fuch  as  would  deierve  it, 
but  opens  the  Door  to  the  Raw,  Ignorant, 
Unexperienced,  and  often,'  in  all  Relpeds,  Un- 
deserving i  only  they  have  Money  to  purchaft, 
who  in  a  Time  of  War  flibuld  come  5n  as 
Cadets  or  Volunteers,  to  qualify  them  for  Ser- 
vice. What  can  be  more  difcouraging  to  a 
brave  Veteran,  who  has  behaved  with  Honour 
and  Reputation  in  feveral  Campaigtls  and 
Sieges,  than  to  fee  a  young,  ignorant,  un- 
difcipiined  Fellow,  who'nevCr  wasin  an  Ac- 
tion Of  Skirmifti,  .or  before  a  ToWn  in  his 
Life,  paflied  over  his  Head  into  a  Vacancy, 
which 


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(  i6i  ) 
which  was  his  Right  from  Merit,  Policy,  and, 
Reafon  to  fupply ;  only  the  other  had  a  little  ' 
Money,  or  his  Grace,  or  my  Lord,  was  his 
Friend :  Many  a  Campaign,  Field,  City,  and. 
Ibme  Countries,  have  been  loft,  and  the  Flowec 
of  fome  Armies  cut  off,  by  the  Ignorance, 
Male  Condufl,  or  Cowardice  of  improper  Of- 
ficers. Befidcs,  the  Buyers  may  have  been, 
brought  M  in  Voluptuoufnefs,  Idlenefs,  Lux- . 
ury,  and  Effeminacy,  which  quite  unfit  a  Man 
for  the  Hardfhips,  Fatigues,  and  Dangers  of  a 
Field  or  Siege,  and  difqualify  him  for  brave 
or  heroick  Aftions.  Places  thus  filled  up,  pro- 
mife  a  tedious,  cxpcnfive,  and  inglorious  War, 
if  not  the  Lofe  of  a  Country.  Or  fuppofing 
only  the  loweft  Offices  fliould  be  venial,  yec 
this  as  eiFedhially  eJtcludes  Merit,  as  tho'  the 
whole  were  fo,  feeing  the  loweft  Entry  muft 
be  come  at  by  Purchafe.  Some  Excufe  might 
ftiU  be  pleaded,  if  the  Purchafe-Money  was 
for  the  Ufe  of  the  Publick,  either  toward  the 
Payment  of  the  Army,  or  in  part  of  the  Re- 
«ivers  Pay ;  but  being  put  to  neither  Ufe,  it  is 
funk  to  me  Publick,  and  a  Bar  to  Courage 
and  Bravery.  But  to  return :  It  is  evident  that 
one  of  the  remoteft,  but  fureftStepsofan  im- 
perious Prince  to  make  himfelf  abfolute,  is  to. 
deter  the  poorer  fort  from  Marriage,  and  {a 
\ctCen  the  Proportion  of  his  own  Subjeds, 
And  there  is  no  greater,  moral,  nor  civil  In- 
difcretion,  in'caftratbg  a  great  Part  of  the 
Malfe,  Wkt  the  Orientals,  or  fliutting  up  a 
Part  of  the  Females  in  Religious  Houfe,  like ; 
fevery  Burc^ean  Countries,  than  in  hindering 
M  the 


i.vCoogIc 


(162) 

the  Marriage  of  the  poor  Sort,  by  Impofts  laid 
heavy  on  the  NeceiTaries  of  Life,  and  hinder- 
ing the  Marriage-Bed  and  its  lawful  Prodi^i^} 
cfpecially  whilft  many  Articles  of  Luxury  arc 
Tax  free ;  and  more  than  the  Taxes  thus  le- 
vied, are  iquandercd  away.  But  it  is  always 
the  Interefl  of  all  Officers  to  mx)tra£t  a  fore^ 
War,  as  much  as  that  of  the  FeopIe>  to  defire 
a'  quick,  fafe,  and  honourable  Peace.  3.  Mar- 
riage of  the  Poor  is  hindered  by  maintaJnii^ 
numerous,  ufelefs,  ilanding  Armies  in  time  m 
Peace,  i.  Becaufe  a  Fund  to  fupport  fiich  Ar- 
mies, muft  necel^ily  arife  either  from,  con- 
tinuing many  old  heavy  Taxes  necefiary  in 
time  of  War  and  Danger,  or  by  laying  on  and 
levying  new  ones,  bo^  which  mufl  unavoid- 
ably fall  heavy  on  the  Poor,  however  ealily 
they  may  feem  taxed.  2.  Many  of  the  Army 
give  themfelvcs  up  to  Whoredom  and  Adnltt- 
ries,  whereby  Children  are  ieveral  wicked 
Ways  cither  artfully  prevented,  or  come  un- 
deltred,  and  fo  moAly  negledted  and  perlfli 
ih  bringing  up,  their  Fathers  being  both  meer 
Itinerants  and  poor,  and  their  Mothers  being 
die  Wives  or  Daughters  of  the  poorer  Ibr^ 
they  and  their  Brood  are  odiou^  and  too  bur- 
denfome  to  their  Parents  or  Hu&ands ;  and 
their  Pariflics  moftly  give  them  a  too  fliort 
Allowance,  having  fufficient  of  their  ow^  to 
provide  for.  Not  that  ever  any  wife  Coimtry 
ihould  leave  itfelf  naked  and  deftitute  of  aU 
armed  Force,  whihl  its  Neighbours  conftantly 
keep  up  Standing  Armies,  which  may  either 
furprize  the  Defencelefs,  or  endanger  its  own, 
Peace 


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{  i63  ) 
Peace  and  Security  from  the  Turbulency  of  its 
ladieos,  uneafy,  contentious  Spirits.  4.  Mar- 
riage is  difcouia^ed,  by  promoting  Batchelcrs, 
chicfly>  to  Places  and  Offices,  publick  and  ce- 
contHnical.  5.  By  fqueezing,  opprdling,  and 
defrauding  the  Poor,  cither  becaufe  they  arc 
poor,  and  have  none  to  redreis  their  Wrongs, 
or  they  want  Money  to  obtain  Right  and 
Jofficc.  6.  By  not  executing  the  prefent,  or 
not  making,  and  rigoroufly  executing  better 
Laws  againft  Whoredom,  Adultery,  Dranken- 
nefs  and  Idlenefs,  thefc  great  Funds  of  na- 
tional Expences}  from  which  the  Poor  that 
have  Families  are  often  not  exempted.  7,  The 
Want  of,  or  not  executing  fuch  Laws  as  may 
di^y  punifh  the  Promoters  and  Pradlifers  of 
fuch  impious  Arts,  as  prevent  Conception  by 
Whoredom.  8.  If  all  Gratifiers  of  unnatural 
Lud  »e  not  rigoroufly  puniihed.  9.  The  too 
eaiUy  compounding  with,  and  pafHng  by  the 
Parents  of  Baftards,  whofe  Maintainance  be- 
come another  Expence  to  mean  Houfekeepers, 
and  Coo  ofren  fatal  to  the  poor,  illegitimate, 
innocent  In£uits.  10.  The  Negleft  of  early 
ioftiHing  into  the  Minds  of  Youth,  the  Evil, 
Danger,  and  Confequences  of  Whoredom,  A- 
.dultery,  &c.  and  the  Honourablenefs,  Ufeful- 
pels,  and  Convenience  of  Marriage.  All 
Means  to  prevent  the  Marriage  of  the  Poor  are 
fit  Engines  of  an  afpiring  illimited  Power,  to 
refrrajn  the  Increafe  of  People,  and  keep  their 
Liberties  in  Bondage,  and  them  in  Slavery. 
II.  Perfecution,  for  differing  in  mere  Forms 
aad.  Modes  of  Worfhip,  when  hoth  Parties 
M  2  agreed 


by  Google 


(  i64  )  , 
agreed  entirely  in  all  the  publillied  and  pro- 
feflcd  Principles  of  the  fame  Religion,  has  not 
only  been  another  Hindrance  of  Marriage,  but 
obliged  many,  both  married  and  unmarried. 
Trades-people  and  Manu&durers,  £<x  that 
own  Safely  to  fly  their  native  Country,  and- 
carry  the  Manufedories  with  them  into 
others,  to  the  no  fmall  Detrinnent  of  their 
own.  Whilft  others,  either  denying  all  Reve- 
lation and  Religion  therefrom,  or  differing 
both  in  the  ObjeS  of  Worfhip,  and  widely  ia 
the  Principles  of  Religion,  but  agreeing  in 
thefe  Forms  and  Modes,  have  beoi  carefled 
and  preferred.  12.  There  are  ftill  other  Re- 
tardcrs  or  Hinderances  of  Marriage  arifing  too 
often  from  Parents  themfelves,  in  Towns  cT- 
pccially.  As '  when  Parents  breed  up ,  their 
Daughters,  and  give  them  an  Education  much 
fuperior  to  their  Circumflance,  or  Fortune  they 
intend  to  give  them,  or  a  Match  fuitable  to 
their  Patrimony ;  inilead  of  '  infliUing  into 
them  early,  true,  and  jufl  Notions  of  Religion 
and  Virtue,  and  in  training  them  up  in.Houfc- 
wifery  to  aflift  their  Mothers  in  doing,  ordcr- 
inp;,  directing,  managing  or  overfeeing  their. 
Family  and  domeftic  AiFairs,  or  being  in- 
ftruded  in  the  neceflary  relative.  Duties  of. 
Life ;  how  to  be  dutiful  Children,  loving, 
liiithful,  frugal  Wives,  difcreet,  prudent  Mif-. 
trefl'es,  faithful  Friends  and  good  Chriftiansj. 
or  taught  how  to  live  comfortably  and  happily. 
They  are  (to  the  Shame  of  the  Chriftjan  Name) 
too  often  brought  up  the  very  revcrfe  j  being 
iirfl  taught  to  mind  and  afFeft  Gaiety,  Drc^.,. 

and 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


('6s) 

and  Modes,  hear  and  learn  unedifying  Con- 
veriationj  and  when  they  can  read  a  little, 
they  have  fabulous  Hiftories,  Romances,  Plays, 
Novels,  or  Pagan  Fiftions  put  into  their  Hands; 
As  ibon  as  tljey  are  grown  up  a  little,  Miffts 
are  packed  off  to  Boarding- Schools,  to  learn 
Dancing,  Mufick,  French,  Gaming,  and  withal 
get  well  tinftured  with  Pride,  &c.  When  Ihe 
comes  home  fhe  purfues  the  fame  Sort  of  Read- 
ing ;  now  flie  is  fit  for  vifiting,  going  abroad, 
is  Miftrefs  of  every  neceflary  Qualification, 
only  is  a  Stranger  to  two  infignificant,  antique, 
obfolete  Trifles  called  Religion  (fave  that  flie 
can  read  her  Prayers)  and  Houfewifery.  When 
married  the  way  is  paved  for  Drefs,  Idlenefs, 
Luxury,  Voluptuoufnefs  and  Pleafures ;  which 
are  fo  far  from  engaging  and  charming  the 
other  Sex,  that  they  deter  even  Rakes  and 
Debauchees,  who  determine  rather  to  gratify 
themfelves  in  their  former  Courfe  of  Pleafures ; 
or  to  keep  a  Miftrefs,  which  they  can  difcard, 
than  venture  on  a  State  that  very  few  can  fup- 
port  the  Extravagance  of.  Whilft  the  vir- 
tuous and  fober  Youth  are  often  obliged  to 
leave  his  Fellow-citizens  or  Towns-women, 
and  feck  out  for  a  fuitahle  country  Girl,  who 
has  not  been  bred  up  in  thofc  guilty  Follies, 
which  may  often  occafion  (hocking  living 
Agonies  of  Mind,  matrimomal  Broils  and  a 
thorny  dying  Pillow.  13.  Not  only  do  fome 
Parents  give  their  Daughters  Education  un- 
fuitable  to  their  Rank  j  but  many  that  have 
acquired  by  their  own  Induftry  a  handfome 
Fortune,  make  their  eldeft  Son  a  Gentleman 
M  3  to 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(  i65) 
to  the  Ruin  of  the  reft,  as  though  they  were 
not  their  kwful  Children,  but  either  Baftards 
or  adopted  ;  hence  not  a  few  old  Maids,  and 
fevcral  kept  Miilreffcs,  to  which  laft  Courfe 
many  indifcrcet  Parents  have  no  faiall  Accef- 
fion.  The  Pride,  FoUy,  and  ill  Judgment  of 
which  is  fully  and  clearly  proved  by  the  Au- 
thor <Jf  the  WTjole  Duty  of  Man.  A  very  few 
Parents  alfo  who  can  give  their  Children  com- 
petent Fortunes,  either  give  their  Children  no 
fuitable  Education,  or  one  worTe  than  none ; 
but  thefe  are  fo  rare  in  comparifon  of  the 
other,  that  they  defervc  no  further  Notice. 
As  to  Mortality  in  its  monthly  Reign,  com. 
\AnmSj  Epidemics  excepted,  it  generally  be- 
gins its  Triumph  in  December,  increafes  its 
Conquefl  till  it  comes  to  its  Zenith  of  Power 
in  March  \  then  declines  till  May.  Sec  its 
monthly  Progrels  in  the  Table  j  where  we  fee, 
that  beginning  with  December^  the  firft  Six 
Months  are  to  the  laft  Six,  near  as  96  to  77. 
or  take  them  Quarterly,  they  wiU  be  Decern" 
ber^  Januarst  Fehruaryy  46923  j  die  next 
cooio;  the  third  38272;  the  laft  39341. 
Though  this  be  the  common  or  ordinary  Rate, 
yet  a  Mortality  may,  and  often  does  break  in, 
an  any  Month,  Seafon,  or  Quarter,  according 
to  the  different  Conftitution,  or  the  Difpofttion 
of  the  Air,  to  gather,  fuftain,  or  breed,  blow 
o0i  difpel  or  vetjtilate  any  noxious  EfHuvi^ 
ftom  the  Earth,  Water,  Air,  Fruits,  in&aed, 
iick  or  dead  animal  Bodies  of  any  kind,  or  ihe 
Attack  of  an  imported  or  communicated  In- 
fedtion. 
\ 


{  i«7) 
fe^on.  On  the  contrary,  any  Months  or 
Seafbns  may  be  healthy  when  the  Earth,  Air, 
Sealbns  or  Foods  contribute  to  render  thera 
ihch.  But  this  Rule  anfwers  not  fo  well  in 
great  Cities. 

Thus  Sickneft  and  Death  are  generally  more 
prevalent  in  the  Spring  Months,  when  the 
Earth  begins  to  be  more  loofcned  and  fet  at 
Liberty  from  the  Winter's  chilling  Colds  and 
Exhalations,  and  the  Sun  rifes  higher,  ap- 
proaches nearer  a  Perpendicular ;  therefore  the 
lubterranean  Exhalations  afcend  more  copioufly 
than  at  other  times  of  the  Year.  The  Country 
Mortality  is  greater  then,  than  at  the  autumnal 
Equinox,  when  the  Sun  recedes  from  us,  and 
the  Cold  increafing  the  Vapours  that  had  ho- 
vered above  in  the  Atmofphere  during  the  folar 
Inftuence,  are  more  condenfed,  and  begin  to 
&U  down  on  the  Earth.  Hence,  i.  The  moil 
heterogeneous  and  mixed  State  of  the  Air  is 
€tr  from  being  moft  dangerous  and  fetal,  or 
yune,  yafy,  and  Auguft  would  be  moft  fatal, 
feeing  tlw  Atmofphere  (befides  Exhalations 
fronx  other  Bodies)  is  loaded  with  the  KfHuvia 
of  Thoufands  of  Plants  and  Flowers,  which 
during  Winter,  and  fome  Part  of  the  Spring 
and  Harveft  lie  hid  under  the  Earth.  2.  See- 
ing the  DiiFerence  between  the  vernal  and  the 
autumnal  Mortality  is  fo  considerable,  does  it 
hence  follow  that  the  Eruption  and  Afcenfion 
of  fubterrancan  Vapours,  from  their  dark, 
comprefled,  and  lefs  communicating  RecelTes, 
is  more  injurious  to  animal  Bodies,  than  either 
did;  Fluduation  during  the  Summer,  or  De- 
M  4  fcent 


i.vCoogIc 


(  r68) 
fcent  about  and  after  the  automBal  Equittox  ? 
3.  As  thefe  Vaponrs  feem  more  dcnfe  and 
grofs  in  their  ATcent  than  Descent,  and  when 
mixed  with  the  Air  become  more  dilated,  ex^ 
panded>  and  mixed  ;  and  this  liland  on  cvcfy 
Side  being  inclofed  by  the  Sea,  Part  of  them 
\pill  &U  as  well  on  the  Water  as  on  the  Land. 
The  Channels  of  the  Deep  may  alfo  emit  their 
Exhalations  through  the  Waters,  which  from 
the  Elafticity  and  Communication  of  the  At- 
mofphere,  may  reach  the  Land  alfo,  and  mix 
with  thofc  of  the  Earth  and  Air;  yea  thofe  of 
diftant  Countries  are  by  the  Winds  brought 
hither,  and  ours  by  contrary  Winds  fent  to 
them  in  Exchange.  From  fuch  a  Mixture 
therefore  of  Exhalations  from  Sea  and  Land, 
o^  fundry  Countries  and  Soils,  is  it  not  reaib- 
pable  to  expert  the  Spring  fliould  be  man 
mortal  than  the  reft  of  the  Year  ?  4.  May  not 
thefe  Vapours  more  fenlibly  affe&  us  in  their 
Afcenfion  than  Defcent ;   lince  in  this  mors 

frofs  and  impure  State,  floating  on  the  Earth's 
urface,  they  are  each  Moment  taken  into  our 
Bodies  with  our  Food  and  Air,  and  perhaps 
fome  of  them  penetrate  the  excretory  Da&s 
of  the  Skin  ?  I  lay,  while  we  receive  them  in 
this  impure,  putrid  State,  before  they  reach 
that  Region  of  the  Air,  where  they  are  rari- 
fied  by  Heat  and  Light,  agitated  and  mixed 
with  the  Atmofphere,  are  at  a  juft  Baltancc 
with  it  and  float  in  it,  till  they  arc  converted 
into  Clouds,  and  thefe  again  pour  down  on  us 
in  Rain,  Hail,  Snow,  Dew,  &c.  5.  This 
feems  to  intimate,  that  fubterranean  Exhala- 
tions 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgk' 


(  »«9  ) 
tieiia  are  taotc  hurtful  to  us  than  v^^able 
Effluvia;  fiuce  the  Spring,  fHicrein  the  firft 
chiefly  abounds,  is  more  <  iktal  than  the  Sum- 
mer, when  the  laft  are  more  copious.  Or 
perhaps  the  vegetable  Effluvia  meeting  with 
the  Subterranean,  from  their  Agitations,  Mix- 
tures, and  Collifions  may  change  the  firA  into 
a  more  benign,  falutiferous,  or  lefs  dangerous 
Nature?  But  when  I  fpeak  of  fubterranean 
Exhalations  rifing  up,  I  mean  only  tbefe  im- 
pure, grols,  long,  fi^nant,  putrid  Vapours 
which  kid  pent  up  in  the  Earth,  during  the 
Winter's  Diitance  or  Abience  of  the  Sun  or  of 
hard  Froils  ;  and  not  of  thole  imaginary  and 
never  yet  proved  (in  this  Climate)  periodic  or 
erratic,  metallic,  mineral  or  fofiil  Vapours, 
&id  by  fome  to  burft  out  of  the  Earth,  and 
caufe  epidemic  Difeafcs,  and  a  greater  and 
more  general  Mortality. 

Or  perhaps  the  greater  Mortality  of  March 
and  ^pril,  may  be,  from  the  B^iniung,  Ra- 
re£idioa  and  Dilatation  of  the  Fluids  in  our 
Ve&ls,  like  the  rindured  Spirits  in  Thermo- 
meters, expanding,  riiing  higher,  and  taking 
up  more  Space  in  the  Tubes' as  the  Sun  con^et 
nearer  and  Weather  turns  warmer,  at  the  fame 
time  the  Vcflels  of  our  Bodies  begin  to  be 
more  relaxed,  whilft  yet  the  Blood  retains  its 
den&r  and  ftronger  ConfiAence,  the  Outlets 
of  the  Skin  not  being  yet  proportionably  wi- 
dened, to  give  free  Vent  to  the  accumulated 
pcrfpirable  Matter,  after  the  cold  Winter's 
bracing,  i.  Then  if  the  Blood  begins  to  be 
xariiiied  in  the  Veflels,  whiUl  much  of  iu  Win- 


by  Google 


(  I70') 
-cer'ffeoulai(7>  is  yet  retained  and  undepurated, 
and  the  Vd&ls  now  b^;iii  to  be  more  rdaxed 
^id  dilated  j  may  not  this  afford  Opp(»tumty 
to  feme  of  the  animal  Juices  to  go  off  by  the 
lateral  Veflels»  both  in  greater  Quantity  and 
grol]fer  Confiftehce,  and  fo  reach  and  load  the 
capillary  Ve0el$  on  the  Surface  of  the  Body 
chiefly,  and  not  yet  find  the  excretbry  Dndts 
propcxtionably  dilated;  may  not  this  be  a 
great  Cauie  of  remal  Fevers  and  their  Fre- 
quency ?  3.  May  it  not  follow  from  this,  that 
moft  Spring  Weather  being  very  tuiequal,  with 
fiidden  Heats  and  Colds  going  and  returning 
fuddenly,  frequent  Interchanges  of  Frofts  and 
Thaws,  com{M%fled  and  dilated  S^te  of  the 
Air,  all  Sorts  of  Weather  almoil  the  fame 
Dxf ;  may  we  not  expe£t  to  find  Fevers  of 
ibme  Sorts,  efpecially  inflammatory,  to  prevail 
moft  at  that  time  ?  4.  Do  we  not  in  reality 
find  this  to  be  h&.  ^m  vernal  Agues  con- 
tinuing till  Harvefl:,  that  the  Blood's  Rare- 
hQioa  begins  to  ceafe,  the  Veffels  to  fubfidd 
their  Cavities  to  ftraitcn,  the  Capillaries  to  re- 
cover their  Tone,  and  the  excrementitious  Rarts 
of  the  animal  Juices  to  be  mote  ptentifiiUy  dif. 
chained  by  Urine.  On  the  contrary,  autum* 
nal  Fevers  rtign  till  the  Spring,  that  the  Fhiids 
begin  to  be  rarified,  and  verge  toward  the 
State  they  were  in  when  the  Difeafe  flril  fei* 
zed,  that  the  Outlets  of  the  Body's  Sur&ce  are 
enlarged,  Perfpiration  increafed,  and  the  Len- 
tor  which  lay  on  the  Infidc  of  the  fmall  Vef- 
iels  is  dilutol,  ground  down  and  wafted  ?  Ano- 
ther Proof  of  this  we  have  in  the  ftated  Re- 


i.vCooglc 


( I?' ) 

tarns  of  Hectics,  Coughs,  Catarrhs,  Hxmor- 
riiages,  &c. 

From  the  fubterranean  Exhalations,  Blood's 
beginning  Expanfion,  and  the  yet  unfettled, 
uneven  State  of  the  Air,  may  arife  a  third 
Caufe  of  the  greater  Mortality  of  the  Spring, 
viz.  the  greater  Danger  that  comes  from  tlic 
Continuation  and  Exacerbation  of  chronic  Dii^ 
eaies,  of  which  that  Scafon  is  a  kind  of  Cri- 
terion. I.  This  (hews  the  Indifcrction  of  fuch 
as  negleft  or  delay  fceking  Help  for  fuch  Dif- 
eafes  before  the  Spring,  when  the  lUnefs  is  all 
the  while  gathering  Strength,  and  riveting  it- 
felf  into,  and  weakening  the  ConAitution,  be- 
comes more  obilinate,  and  the  Sick  feoflbly 
lofes  Ground.  2.  Since  the  Spring  is  fo  un- 
favourable to  fuch,  then  furely  Intemperance 
or  any  Abufe  of  the  Non-naturals  mud  be 
highly  culpable  in  them,  efpecially  during  theie 
McHiths,  3.  Seeing  it's  probable  that  the  above 
Caufes  render  this  Time  more  dangerous,  from 
the  Blood's  greater  Quantity  and  GrolTnefe, 
which  leaves  a  Lentor  on  the  Veflels ;  the  lef- 
iened  Spriaginefs  of  the  Solids,  from  the  great 
Indolence  and  Inadivity  of  the  Winter  and  di- 
siiniflied  Perfpiration,  with  a  fcorbutic,  fe- 
brile, inflammatory  Dilpofition  of  the  Blood. 
Then  during  tbc&  Months,  chiefly,  we  arc 
fiireded  to  keep  the  Solids  braced,  and  prevent 
an  Accumulation  and  Cohefion  oif  our  Fluids, 
hy  fuitable  Diet,  and  keeping  up  a  due  Perfpi- 
ration, rather  than  by  multiphcd  Purgatives, 
which  neither  reach  fo  fer,  nor  are  fo  well 
adapted  to  feveral  chronic  Difeafes,  or  Sudo- 
rifics 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gk' 


(  >70 

rifics  which  carry  off  only  the  thinner  Parts, 
and  leave  the  Body  more  difpofed  to  catch 
Colds.  But  in  common  Cafes  Exercife  an- 
fwcrs  all  thcfc  Defderata  at  once,  where 
People's  Strength  will  allow  it,  and  no  Sym- 
ptoms forbid  it  j  this  neither  weakens  nor  de- 
jcds  Body  nor  Appetite,  nor  fpends  the  Spi- 
rits, hut  renders  the  firft  more  fprightly,  vi-' 
gorous  and  healthy,  and  the  fecond  ftronger. 
Hereby  thefe  Effluvia  are  expelled  the  Body 
almoft  as  foon  as  taken  in,  having  not  Time 
to  coUeia  or  gather  in  the  Body,  nor  to  taint 
or  allimulate  the  animal  Juices  to  them  ;  and 
as  chronic  Difeafes  have  either  weakened  fomc 
Vifcm  or  Veflcls,  or  got  a  Lodgment  in  the 
extreme  Parts ;  but  as  Exercife  agitates,  breaks 
and  mixes  the  Humours,  and  forwards  them 
to  their  proper  Outlets,  there  to  be  gradually 
and  infeniibly  difcharged  \  fo  it  ftrengthens 
the  weak  and  relaxed  Parts,  fortifies  them 
againft  any  fudden  and  frefh  Reception  of  the 
like  Matter.  4.  As  on  the  one  hand  we  arc 
to  guard  againfl  Intemperance,  fo  neither  (hould 
we  deny  ourfelvcs  a  moderate  and  feafonable 
Ufe  of  the  Comforts  of  Life,  left  wc  let  down 
the  animal  Cords  too  low,  leflen  the  Body's 
neceflary  Vigour,  impoverifli  our  Juices,  and 
render  them  too  thin,  watery  or  flegmatic,  and  fo 
generate  a  Lcntor  or  Vifcidity  produftive  of 
Spring  Fevers  of  a  bad  Sort,  as  many  of  the 
Poor  yearly  experience  to  their  Lofs ;  fo  that 
a  proper  Medium  is  the  lafeft,  eafieft,  and  beft 
Road;  for  out  of  that,  on  each  hand  are 
Qgickiuids,  Danger,  and  Death. 

Country 

DiqilizDdbyGoOf^IC 


(  '73  ) 
Country  Bills  began  to  be  kept  geRcrally  and 

regularly  from  1538,  the  City  BiUs  not  fooner 
than  1592,  and  were  difufed  again  from  9^ 
till  1603  ;  from  that  the  Weekly  Bills  were 
publifhcd  on  Thurfday  every  Week  j  and  on 
the  ^burfday  before  Cbrijimas-day  the  Yearly 
BUI  was  published  Soz  the  <)y  Pariflies  withiif 
thQ  Walls  and  the  16  without  the  Walls,  but 
within  the  Liberties.  In  1606  was  added  to 
them  St.  Mary-Savoy f  and  Weftminjier  ^  in 
29  was  flrft  publiflied  the  Dileafes  and  Cafu- 
altics  of  which  they  died,  with  the  Diftinftion 
of  the  Sexes ;  in  1626  the  Parifli  of  St.  Jamef 
Dukes-Place  was  joined  to  the  reft  j  as  w«e' 
Hacineyt  I/7ingim,  LamSetb,  Newingtm^  Ra- 
therbitb  and  Stepney  in  1636,  and  St.  Paut^ 
Sbadisell  and  Chrift  Cburcb  in  Surrey  in  1670 ; 
and  alfo  St.  yamei'szaA  St.  ^ne'%lVefimnfler 
in  85  and  86.  In  1726  was  added  St.  Afory- 
/e-Strandy  and  in  29  St,  George' t-Hanowr- 
Square^,  and  in  1730  Cbrift-Qjurcb  Sfnttle- 
jields,  St.  George' %  Ratdiff-Bigbxay,  Bt.Gearge 
tbe  Martyr^  and  St.  j^nne's  Limehoufe  j  in 
J731  ht..George\  Bloomjbury- Square,  St.  yobn 
toe  Evangeiiji-fVeJiminJier ;  in  1733  were  ta- 
ken in  St.  John's  Souibwark,  St.  Luke  in  Old- 
Street.  Of  the  Births  and  Burials  of  thefe  Pa-- 
rilhcs  are  our  prefent  City  Bills  of  Mortality 
made  up ;  beiides  which  the  indufbtous  and  . 
ingenious  Mr.  Maitland  has  in  his  Surv^  of 
Lotuion,  difcovered,  and  given  us  63  other  bu- 
rying Places  in  and  about  the  City,  which  were 
never  yet  taken  into '  the  Bills,  in  which  are 
yearly,  buried  about  304.0.  And  from  the 
1  whole 


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(  174  ) 
v/hM  taken  togedier,  he  will  have  LonAa  to 
be  the  greateft  City  in  the  World,  either  an- 
cient or  modem  j  larger  than  Nineveb^  Jeru- 
faUm,  Alexandria,  ancient  Rmu^  6cc,  But 
could  he  prove  his  Theorem,  I  cannot  ice  <^ 
what  great  Service  his  DcmonAration  would 
be  to  the  World  3  and  though  Londcn  with  its 
Suburbs  may  be  juftly  allowed  to  be  die 
greateO:  City  in  the  Weftern  World,  yet  it 
follows  not  therefore  that  it  is  the  great^  that 
has  been,  or  is  on  the  Globe }  vx  between 
1 63 1  and  33  Gowro  the  Capital  of  Bengal,  on 
die  Ganges^  was  computed  to  contain  three 
times  more  Families  than  London  at  prefent 
floes  Souls,  vix,  1200000  Families:  But  al- 
lowing the  ComputaUon  to  be  wide,  yet  one 
15th  I^irt  will  make  it  as  large  as  hmikn. 
As  to  Nineveh  we  know  no  moife  of  it  for 
certain,  but  that  it  contained  i2<:jooo  Children, 
lb  young  that  they  knew  not  their  right  Hand 
A'om  their  left,  and  their  dawning  of  Real(»i 
being  fo  fmall  God  was  therefore  difpofed  in 
Mercy  to  fpare  that  great  City  for  their  Sakes : 
This  has  been,  and  is  the  general  Acceptation 
of  thefe  Words ;  and  not  that  they  meant  the 
helplefs  fhiftle&  Wretches  of  the  Place,  inca- 
paUe  eitha*  to  defend  or  provide  for  them- 
lelves }  for  Jews^  Cbrifiiam,  and  Mabometam 
agree  that  fuch  Adults  are  capable  of,  and 
guilty  of  afhial  Sin,  both  of  OmiHion  and 
Commlffion,  and  fo  render  themfelves  ob- 
noxious to  Punifhment.  There  are  few  Chil- 
dren bred  up  in  Cities,  efpecially  where  there 
is  a  brilliant  Court  or  flQuriHiing  Trade,  w.hcre 
there 


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( m  } 

there  are  Crowds  of  ingenious  polite  People ; 
but  Acy  know  their  rigbt  ff a;^  from  their 
left,  before  they  are  five  Years  old,  and  fup- 
poling  that  in  Nineveh  (as  in  London)  45  per 
Cent,  died  under  5  Years  old,  then  their  Yearly 
Births  muft  be  46800  to  have  120000  <n 
that  Age  alive  at  once.  But  allowing  the 
Mortality  to  be  only  25  per  Cent,  under  5  Years 
old ;  then  the  Yearly  Births  in  Nineveh  muf^ 
be  32000 ;  a  greater  Increafe  than  perhaps  he 
can  prove  fells  to  the  Share  of  London  yearly 
at  a  Medium.  As  to  yerufakm^  Jofepbui  ha$ 
given  us  a  beautiful  Defcription  of  the  City ; 
but  if  the  Suburbs  of  London  were  left  out  of 
the  Bills  of  Mortality,  they  would  cut  no  grand 
Fig;uFe ;  nor  would  it  be  found  an  eafy  Matter 
to  ftow  up  within  the  Walls  of  London^  as 
many  People  as  periflied  in  the  great  Carnage 
made  by  Titus's  Army  at  the  Siege  of  Jeru- 
/aiem^  viz,  iioooqo.  As  to  the  Inhabitants 
of  a^cie^it  RopKy  we  know  Ut^e  more  of  it 
foe  certainty,  but  fropi  thfi  feyeraj  Kumber- 
ii^  of  the  Qitizens,  ^j^hich  in  ^q  1^  Year  of 
..^uffi/iui's  Reign  .yi^rc.  4137094;,  which  afi 
fiicds  very  little  Evidence,  beodqs  this  Remark, 
tliat  the  ancient  Romans  were  not  afraid  that 
their  dear  and  valuable  Blop4  afid  Nam« 
diould  be  loft  by  beiiig  mise^  ap4  blende<i 
with  Foreigners  or  Strangers}  they  knew 
that  the  Naturalization  of  Strainers  was  a 
Mafter-piece  of  Policy  to  make  them  great, 
formidable,  and  fiourifhing ;  therefore  they 
made  Abundance  of  Citizens. 

TABLE 


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(176) 

TABLE    ELEVENTH. 

Of  the  Lontha  Bilb  of  Mortality  monthly  for  fif- 
teen Yeais,  viz.  from  Jamutry  i,  1732.  to  Ja- 
nuary  i,  1747. 


Mila. 

taaSa 

Tool. 

Males. 

Fai»la.TonL 

Tihm^n 

110S7 

10566 

•  .6;j 

19366 

19195    38561 

1009+ 

95!! 

19629 

16559 

>7«2    3,ooi 

tUr,!. 

■0944 

10JI8 
8iio 
9J5S 

21262 

■7378 

16643    35021 

'Z 

IS 

I8l2t. 

.8840 

,15024 
■69(4 

16325     35269 

7™ 

.«4S9 

I7'!3 

13850 

14021     27871 

y-4 

8719 

8..7 

16946 

.2689 

12799    ■!488 

Jus./! 

9769 

9307 

19076 

'4934 
15562 

14520  29454 
15644    31206 

Sepiimher 

9640 

875. 

18392 

oatbtr 

«>i 

8900 

18211 

■4825 

15868  30693 
16281     31626 

ll^,.b<r 

928s 

8787 

18072 

>5345 

Dectmbir 

926; 

8J05 

18070 

15312 

16287    3'S99 

Toot 

,15567 

098,1 

225408 

877B8 

91047  37883s 

It  is  furprizing  to  fee  the  great  Increafe  of 
the  City^  and  its  Bills ;  for  compare  we  their 
firft  eight  Years,  from  1604  to  11,  bo&  in- 
cluded, with  the  eight  Years  from  die  Begin- 
ning of  1 738  to  the  End  of  45 ;  in  the  foraier 
died  64994  (whereof  died  of  the  Plague 
14752)  or  8124  yearly.  In  the  latter  eight 
Years  were  buried  208822,  or  26103  yearly; 
and  add  we  the  yearly  3040  difcovered  and 
added  by  Mr.  Maitland,  the  whole  annual 
Tofaffij  at  a  Medium,  is  29143;  all  which 
can  by  no  Means  be  allowed  to  be  Citizens, 
fince  a  great  Part  of  the  Nobility  and  Gentry 
of  good  Eftates  of  both  Kingdoms,  fpend  the 
Winter  there  with  moft  of  their  Families,  ei- 
ther 


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(  >77) 
ther  to  attend  the  Parliament,  for  Company, 
Converfation>  Bufinels,  or  Education  of  their 
Children  J  many  principal  Officers  civil  and 
military  go  thitbei-  with  their  Fanulies  in  Win- 
ter ;  many  of  the  dignified  Clergy ;  many  go 
yearly  thither  from  all  Parts  oFthe  Country 
to  Apprenticeihips,  Journeymen^  Services, 
Marriages,  for  Trade,  Places,  &c.  Many  are 
called  to  attend  the  Courts  of  Juflice  j  great 
Numbers  croud  up  to  the  Infirmaries;  feveral 
Regiments  of  Soldiers  He  there  often  from 
other  Parts  of  the  Kingdom ;  Foreigners  from 
all  Parts  of  Europe  come  there  for  Trade, 
many  of  all  which  die  pearly  there ;  befides 
natural  and  accidental  Deaths,  fbme  are  mur- 
thered  or  executed ;  all  which  Strangers,  In- 
comers and  Lodgers  cannot  with  any  Juftice 
or  Froprie^  be  reckoned  Citizens  or  Inha- 
bitants, only  Sojourners;  for  thefe  we  may 
difcount  i-7th  of  the  yearly  Bills,  and  the  Re- 
mainder will  be  24980,  .which  multiply  by 
28  (fuppofing  that  1  of  28  dies  yearly)  then  the 
Produd  will  be  699440.  But  if  i-yxh  be 
thought  too  large  an  Allowance,  let  us  reckon 
all  the  Incomers  and  Lodgers  Citizens,  and 
make  no  Difcount  for  them ;  then  fuppoUng 
X  of  24  dies  yearly,  the  Produft  will  he 
699432,  almoil  ^-loths  of  the  whole  People 
in  the  Kingdom  of  Ireland  in  1625.  This 
I  find  to  be  the  Cafe  of  fome  Parimes,  the 
Number  of  whofe  Families  and  Souls  were 
fent  me  with  the  Abilrafis  of  their  Regillers. 
However  unwholfome  fuch  Situations  are,  the 
City  way  of  Life,  in  general,  is  as  Inconfiflent 
N  with 


i.vCoogIc 


(  >7«  ■) 
tvilh  Health  and  long  Life.  In  1631  all  rtie 
inhabitants  of  the  City  and  Lihertics  were 
tiumbered  and  found  to  be  130178  ;  the  fame 
Year  died  in  the  97  and  16  Parifties  6156, 
which  niultiply  by  24  the  Produdl  is  147744 ; 
in  that  Year  only  274  died  of  the  Plague. 
Some  Country  Parifhes  bury  a  Number  equal 
to  their  Inhabitants  in  23  Ycari.  One  of  24 
of  the  Citizens  (  including  Incomers  and 
'Strangers)  is  as  few  as  can  be  allowed  to  die 
yearly:  I  could  offer  feme  Conjcftures  for  this, 
'but  what  is  faid  is  grounded  on  Fads )  and  let 
■it  be  remembered,  that  King  Ci^/w  numbered 
'the  Citizens  in  an  Age  whefi  the  City -was 
much  healthier  than  how,  the  Plague  ex- 
cepted. 

Take  vre  the  healthieft  Time  of  the  City, 
"after  Rcgifters  were  regularly  kept,  till  the 
'Schifm  broke  oot  in  the  Church,  which  was 
ffom  i6to  to  24,  wherein  only  8^4  died  of 
the  Plague  ;  in  thcfe  Years  were  baptized 
107352,  buried  J  22554,  or  about  r-6th  taorc 
"of  the  latter  than  the  former.  But  in  the  7 
immediately  preceding  Years,  2-9ths  tnore 
buried  than  baptized,  one  Iwing  4rr76  'the 
other  57*647,  whereof  14121  died  pf-the 
Plague;  both  theft  were  in  a  Time  when'therc 
were  few  Separatifts  of  the  reformed  Religion 
from  the  eftablifhcd  Church-j  hitherto  all  Pro- 
teftants  were  baptized,  married,  and  bdritd  by 
the  Church.  But  when  it  came  to  an  open 
Rupture,  many  diflcnting  Cohgregatitjns:  were 
fet  up,  the  publick  Rcgifters  were  ncgJefted 
■  or  difufed,  and  we  are  wholly  delHtuteof 
them 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


( in ) 

'  ttiera  duFJng  all  Queen  Eiizabetb'%  ,Reig/i,  i 
Period  .whorein  they  wotild  Ijaye  been  of  moit 
Service  aow,  W  fould  have,  tjeen  mpft  de- 
pended on,  both  Queen,artd  J^ation  being  fen- 

.  fible  of;  wWt  they  ha4,fu6^ered,  ^d  apprizpd 
of  the  Dangcf  of  Jt^cufants,  fiipprefled  thcra  ; 
but, 01  K^Qg  I  y^»»^j'8"  coming  to  the  Throne, 
aftcr;-^!S;/Guspfiwder-Plot,  jif  was  ever  afraid 
<>f  .thwn.'ithprefqre  permittisd  aad.careiled 
them  j,  then  -upon  the  Spanijb  Match,  ai^d 
K.ing.C«&**f/f  J  I-  marrying  a  Princefi  of  France^ 
and.  -BCfljfting  the  French  by  Sea  tp  befiege  the 
:.proteft4nts  in  Rocbel,  and  his  writing  an  obli* 
ging'J»*tter  to  the  Pope,,  all  contributed  toin- 

■  creafc. their  Numbers,  within  the  Bills  of  Mor- 
tality-efpecially  j  for  King  "James  had  fufpended 

-  the  penal  Lfaws  ag^unfi  tbem :  th^  Burying.i 
tnuxh 'Receded  the  Chrlftqning^  ?vcr  after, 
fotvPi^'ing  the  next.  Viceoary  ivene  baptized 
only  1.86608,  buried  267832,  or  neat  as  9  to 

-  J3,'  ■  With  the  next  Viccijiary  began  that  fatal 
and  hitherto  unrepaired  Breach  among  Protef- 
laiij^s  ■  '^qd  though  from  1 648  to  60  Rccufants 
itfiiic  iuppreifed,\yet  the  public  Regifters  were 
ib'fhMaelvlly'negle^d,.that,the  baptized  wers 
to  Jlhft  "feuiieti  citly  as  14  to  2ji.  After  the 
^florajipn/  PrgtjE^int  Diflenters  were  chaftifcd 

,  and-fupfirthed,  I?op^y  fw  the  next  18  Years 
alTumofll  ■OeOl  ^^ts.^nd  Vigour,  having  both 
a  Kidg  aTid',ati.H?ir  apparent,  that  they  knew 

.  cttheritaibcjof  thfir-ftwn  Religion,  or  ho  Enc- 

■jMiCi  -to, it  i .  during  ■  this  -Time  th^  BaptiTms 
.vreiifej3^40?,-thei8iMials'6226o8,  or  atmbft 
j4.to-^2.,.    Tjms  flood  the  -Cafe  till  the  Re- 

.  .  ;  ■  '    ■    ^J  2  '  volution. 


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(  >8o  ) 
volution,  from  that  to  17 14.  were  baptized 
^99389,  buried  549531,  OT  as  39  to  54. 
from  1714  to  27,  feptized  2551.82,  bunoi 
368877,  near  25  to  36,  not  1-3*1  odds;  but 
man  that  to  45  inclufive  were  baptized  274584, 
buried  448062,  or  27  to  above  44,  or  near 
2-5ths,  and  this  under  an  eminent  Decay  of 
the  diflenting  Proteftant  Intereft ;  which  gives 
a  clear  Proof  of  the  Increafe  of  Popery  under 
the  prefent  merciful  Reign,  far  exceeding  any 
that  has  happened  ilnce  ue  Revolution.  Thus 
the  Bills  or  Mortality  afford  evident  Proof  of 
the  flourifhing  State  or  Decay  of  the  Proteftant 
Religlan  under  the  feveral  Reigns,  fince  they 
began  to  be  kept  regularly.  Another  neat 
Defe<ft  in  the  City  Bills,  is  their  Want  of  the 
Marriages;  the  Ufefnlnefs  whereof  is  fuffid- 
cntly  obvious  ip  the  former  Partof  this  Weak ; 
nor  could  I  ever  hear  any  good  Reafon  for 
their  OmiiHon,  and  if  we  had  them  they  could 
not  be  depended  on,  and  fq  of  no  great 
Service. 

From  comparing  the  15  Years  In  this  Table 
with  the  II  firfl  Years  of  Graunt^s  Table, 
wherein  the  Sexes  are  diiHnguifhcd,  and  with 
Dr.  Jrbotbnot'%  Table  of  the  DifiercDCc  of 
Sexes  bom,  (in  the  Pbil.'tranf)  In  Grawtt's 
firft  Undecadc  were  baptized  Males  55 137> 
Females  51Z17}  where  the  firft  are  to  the  tail 
near  as  14  to  13.  In  Dr.  ji^'^/^f's  Series 
of  46  Years,  viz.  from  i664*to  1710,  were 
baptized  Males  329742,  Females  308644, 
near  16  to  15 :  But  in  our  15  Years,  the  firft 
are  115567,  the  laft  109841,  ne^  20  to  19. 
How 

DiqilizDdby'GoOgIC 


(  i8i  ) 
How  doe^  the  Dii!erence  of  Sexes  dwindle? 
will  they  continue  to  do  foP  2.  That  'Ja- 
nuary^  ■  the  fniitiulleft  Month,  is  to  June  the 
barrcnefl,  near  as  2t  to  17 ;  the  Fertility  of 
January  being  owing  either  to  the  ecclefiaiUc 
InterdiA  being  taken  off  the  Marriage-Bed  at 
Eafier\  or  to  the  religious  Abftinence  and 
other  Lent  Severities,  whereby  the  Gty  Ladies 
have  reduced  their  Bodies  to  a  more  impreg- 
nable State  s  or  becaufe  in  Lent^  ^^^>  ^'^*» 
^Jfemblies^  Mafquerades^  and  other  Occaiioos 
of  Night  Reveiltngs  and  Litrigues,  happen  not 
to  be  quite  To  lafhionable  as  in  Winter.  3. 
That  as  January  is  the  finitfullcft,  fo  in  Sep- 
temher  ieems  to  be  the  grcateft  Di^nwortion 
between  the  Sexes,  Males  being  to  Female 
near  as  96  to  87.  4.  As  the  Number  of  Males 
bom  exceeds  tmt  of  Females,  fo  the  Number 
of  Burials  of  the  laft  exceeds  that  of  the  firfl^ 
being  19  to  i8| ,  which  Difierence  gives  us 
the  Proportion  of  Males  more  than  Females 
that  export  themielves  to  other  Places,  and 
other  fettle  or  die  eUewherc;  as  in  the  Plan- 
tations, Settlements,  Fleet,  Navy,  or  Army,  &c. 
which  in  thefe  15  Years  is  3105,  iaz  5726 
more  Males  were  baptized  than  Females  t  but 
3105  more  Females  are  buried  than  Males. 
Now  8831  is  above  i-i3th  of  the  whole 
K^es  cm'iftened.  Hence  Trades  and  Bofi- 
nefles  cdl  for  a  much  larger  Sv^iply  of  Males 
than  Females  from  the  Country,  and  the  Males 
that  die  in  Town  add  to  the  Number  buried, 
but  proportionally  fubtraft  from  the  Number 
<tf  Citizens  that  die  abroad.  5.  Compare  the 
•     -    .  N  3  Excefs 


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(  i8»-  ) 
Exccfe  of  Feqaalea  bwicd  in  thefe  15  Yeaif. 
beyond  Males,  with  .the  firft  Uijdecade  of 
Majbr  Grgant's.Lmdon  Table  that  has  the 
Sexes  diftinguifh^d,  viz.  frpm  1629  to  39,  in- 
cWfive,  were  baptised,  Mile*  551^6%  buried 
66650,  Females  51217,  burled  60383;  Herrf 
}«^es  baptized  were  td  Feoules  near  as  14  to 
13.  Males  buried  near  as  lof.  to- Females,  9^  ^ 
fy  that  induding  Incotnefs>  the  Ova-plus  of 
^^de8  .botied  -exceeds  that,  of  the  baptizcdi 
whkh  (hews  us  the  rrnall  Trade  of  the  City 
then  tor  What  it  is  now,  when  including  all 
Advena^  i- 1.3th  mote  Females,  in  Proportion 
ffte  buried  than  were  baptized,  and  eye^  13th 
Malp  Citizeh  is.  an  Export;  .be&les  jdl  Stran- 
gtes.  tii  Compare  the  IncreaTe  of  the  Ci^ 
iTom  1732  '1043  inclufivciwlth  tbisUndecade 
ioamedlatsly  preceding,  imthe  Uft  were  buried 
0aa,ia4,.ia  the  firft-301,561, 1.  e.  1377  odds, 
or  ;an  annual  Imlieafe  of -about  12.C  burials  at 
a  Medium;: which  according  to  tne  Bills  oif 
Alortality,;  dicws  the  CI^  to  be  increafing 
-yearly  about  36;50  SoulB»>ov!er  and  a^bove  thp 
■Number  jof.  ^te  Exports  \  ,which  in  the  above 
(>i  Ycat^.we  4iave Tfhewa  to  Ije  8831  Males 
:more  rfian  Femilds,  or  about.  64.6  yearly;. 
.and  that/thri  .City  may  yearly  fend  put  646 
:Aidre  of  dts  tnmx  Males  Pr odud,  there  moft  be 
-«  heceflary  .-annual  Addition  of  3650  Spals. 
cAdd  bsth,  Aitd^we  have  3:ycariy  A4diU0n  of 
•  »'8~^34  Maics  ijMtte  than  Females  i  and  for  the 
, annual -fricreaft  of  1E5  Burials,  the  yc«riy-Ad- 
-.dition  of  36p3:Soals.  Add  both  and  we  have  a 
■  yearly  Arfdkion  o£22j84;  or  if  thpyearljeEx- 
ftort  of  646  continue  at  a  ftand  add  this  to  the 

L,  ,.  ;)    , Google 


(  «83) 
yearly  3650  frefh  Incomers,  and  U  is  4296,  abfp- 
lutely  neceflary  \vithoiit  Increafe  of  Merchan- 
dize, Trade,  War,  Accidents,  &£.  y.  That 
this  whole  Addition  muft  be  out  of  the  lit- 
creaJc  of  the  Country,  is  neither  neceflary,  nor 
is  it  trueinFaftj  for  befides  thefe,  from  all 
Parts  of  his  MajeAy's  Dgminions,  there  is  ti 
large  Relbrt  from  other  Countries,  cither 
for  Trade,  Security,  or  Curiolity.  In  King 
Charles  11.  Reign,  about  1 00000  French  Pro^ 
tcftants  fled  to  England  for  Prote<Sion,  and 
tnoftly  fettled  here ;  and  fince  the  Revolution^ 
what  Crowds  of  Germans  have  come  oyer 
and  fix'd  ?  Yet  fuch  Crowds  of  Foreigners 
are  fo  fer  from  being  a  Detriment,  that  they 
are  &  great  Advantage  to  a  Nation  or  State, 
for  they  fiibftraft  from,  the  Strength  (if  not 
Wealth)  of  the  Country  they  are  come  from, 
and  add  it  to  the  Country  where  t^iey  ftttle,; 
they  are  a  great  Benefit  and  Increafe  to  Mer- 
chandize, Manufaftorles,  Trade,  and 'Agri- 
culture, as  we  (hall  fee  more  iifter;  and  of 
which  Holland  in^E'tigland  are'  pr^nant 
Proofs :  But  that  they  may  be  fo,  three 
Things,  are  neceflary,  i;  That  tncy  Be  not 
ctouded .  into  a  Corner  ty  themfelves,  but 
fcattered  up  and  down  among  "the;  Natives. 
2.  That  there  be  Marriages  andlnterraarriages 
between  them  and  the  Natives,  j.  That  they 
be  not  entrufted  with  any  imj)jirOr(t  Place  pr 
Office  at  home,  before  the  fccond  or,  thiiH 
Generation.  4.  Thar' they  b?  allowed  no 
putlick  Policy  or  Religion,  poflibly,  or  that 
his  oixivi  known  to  be  manifeftly  evcrfiv^'of 
--■    ■  .    N  4  ■       ■    thq 


i.vCoogIc 


(  .84  ) 
the  Conftitution  under  which  they  arc  flid- 
tered.  8.  If  Major  Graunt's  Words  (P.  41, 
42)  are  true,  where  he  fays,  tiil  Mout  tbe 
Tear  1642,  we  find  the  Buriali  equal  with  the 
Cbri^enmgs,  or  near  thereabout.  In  tbe  whole 
Tear  of  1672,  "Were  cbrifienei  in  Paris  18427, 
buried  ly^Z^ ;  •which  Difference  between  Cbri- 
Jienings  aitd  Suryings^  was  very  agreeable  with 
tbe  Difference  formerly  in  the  City  of  London. 
If,  I  fay,  thefe  Words  are  true,  then  London  was 
a  Place  of  neither  Trade  nor  Manufeftories, 
nay,  fcarce  a  King's  Court,  or  a  Seat  of  Juf. 
cice  i  for  we  have  feen  already,  that  even  fmall 
Market-Towns,  without  either  Trade,  Manu* 
faifory,  or  Court,  or  even  fo  much  as  a  Dlf- 
fenter  in  them,  yet  bury  more  than  they  chri- 
fien.  But  that  London  had  then  Trade  and 
Manufaflories  (tho'  fcarce  comparable  to  what 
it  is  now)  we  prove  from  his  own  Tables.  For 
take  we  the  above  firft  Undecade  of  his  Tables, 
where  the  Sexes  are  diftinguifhed,  we  &id 
126933  buried,  and  only  106353  chriflened} 
i.  e.  20580  odds.  Take  both  at  a  Medium 
yearly,  and  the  Baptized  are  about  9661,  the 
Buried  near  1 1 53 1 ;  fo  that  the  ml  is  near 
2-iiths  more  than  the  firft.  (But  the  annual 
Medium  of  our  i  c  Years,  is  annual  Chriilen- 
ings  15027,  Burials  2553,  15  of  the  firft  to 
25  of  thelaft.)  But  iuppofe  it.be  objected, 
that  in  this  Undecade,  about  1 5700  died  of 
the  Plague;  allow  it;  but  here  are  above 
2opop  mpre  buried  than  chrifte^ied^  If  we  take 
^n  his  whole  firflt  Vicenary,  it  wHl  not  mend  the 
, Matter,  for  in  it  wer^  baptized  144229,  bu- 
ried 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(  iSs) 
ri^  267832,  the  iirft  being  to  the  laft  near  as 
144  to  1671V.  And  his fecond  Vicenary  isitill 
wider,  for  io  it  were  baptized  186608,  buried 
267832,  or  near  as  93  to  133!;  joiD  both 
Vicenaries,  and  they  make  the  Cliriilenings 
near  as  33  to  43-7;  i.e.  about  i-4th  odds. 
Thus  we  lee  wlut  bis  Equdity  or  fuperior 
Number  of  ChriAenings  to  Buryings  is.  9.  It 
is  plain  from  the  above,  that  the  great  Ezcefi 
of  Buryings  beyond  Chiifleiiings,  is  not  fivm 
a  great  Number  of  Diffenters,  the  Cafe  with 
them  being  different  now  to  what  it  was  in 
Graufit's  Time  i  for  though  they  then  buried, 
but  not  baptized  with  the  Church,  yet  now 
moil  of  them  having  Burying-Grounds  of  their 
own,  their  Buryings  are  no  more  entered  in 
the  public  Rcgifters  than  their  Chrifteniogs : 
But  all  Foreigners  and  Country  People  going 
to  London^  are  baptized  iirft,  and  dying  uier^ 
encreafe  the  Exccfs  of  Funerals.  We  (hall 
alio  prove  elfewhere,  that  the  City  it&lf  is 
much  unhealthier  now  than  formerly ;  there  is 
alfo  a  greater  Negle£t  in  regillering  Children, 
often  from  fome  Prejudices  of  Parents,  or  their 
Poverty.  10.  The  fruitfiiUeft  Time  feems 
alfo  very  fatal ;  for  as  the  Births  in  January 
were  to  thofe  in  *)^^  near  as  19  to  1 37,  f.  e. 
about  i-5th  odds,  fo  was  the  Death  of  thcfe 
Months  as  38  to  27.  11.  The  Ptoportion  of 
Burials  between  the  iataleft  and  favourablefl  of 
thofe  Months,  taken  together  a>m.  ahn.  we 
few  above,  is  near  38  to  25.  In  the  reft  of 
the  Months,  Mortality  ordinarily  moves  in  an 
intermediate  Space,  between  its  common  Ex- 
treams. 


byGopgle 


,(  .86  ) 
treanw.  12.  Whatever  the  Autumn  might 
fbrinerly  be,  it  is  not  now  the  ^taleA  Seafon 
of  the  Year,  npr  the  healthft^,-  fince  in  May^ 
"June,  and  'July^  died  86628  j  in  Januaryy 
February^  and  Marc&j  197583  j  fo  that  in  ge- 
_perai  the  Spring  is  moft  mortal.  But  to  fee 
■which  Months  ar«  mofl;  prolific  of  Males  or 
Feoiales,  or.ta  which  Sex  moft  &ta],  if  there 
is  any  Difference,  the  Table  wUl  difcover  it. 
13.  From  1732  to  45  incluiive,  5512  more 
,Maies  wfre  baptized  than  Females,  and  ^779 
more  Females  buried  than  Males ;  hence  929.1 
more  Male  Exports  than  Females  (over  and 
above  the  great  Numbers  that  flock  from  all 
Parts  of  the  Country  to  the  City)  into  the 
Army,  Fleets,  Colonies,  Trade,  Gff.  But  if 
.we  compare  Peace  and  War,  we  {hall  find 
what  the  Colonies  and  Trade  require  from 
,173?  to  38  inclafive.  Males  buried  were 
90877,  Females  92543,  or  1666  more  Fc- 
,  ^ales  buried  than  Males,  in  a  Time  of  Peace ; 
but  during  the  lail  eight  Years  of  War,  Males 
buried  102594,  Females  107742,  or  5152 
rowe  Females  than  Males :  So  that  the  Army 
and  Navy  have  taken  near  twice  the  Number 
of  Men  in  the  fame  Time  that  Plantati&ns 
and  Trade  did  j  as  aifo  fincc  the  War  begun, 
thcf e  is  a  frpall  Dccrcafc  in  the  Buryings. 


T  A  B  L  E 


by  Google 


(  •St  ) 


T  A  B  L  E    T  W  E  L  FT  H. 

In  26  laft  Ycare  of  the  Plagoei 


Year<  BaptiEcd.  Bulcd^  :PIague.  Total. 

ltf0+        S4S8  4M}  89S  5119 

■c       «jo+  594*,  ■      444-  6391 

6  6614  5790  '    aia4:  79ao 

7  fis8«  SS70  i3«"  toti 
S  bifz  0758  I  xz6*  90BO 
9       6388  7««  :    4t4a  Li7«S 

678J  7486  iSoj . 


It  and  If     IJ997     35964      3*^44 


_    _,  ,,,,  ^^,_,      ^.-^^      li»*8 

LBdji  178J9  17s »4  '     «S9''     i9f'S 

«»4S  80443  9'7S»      '9»44    '1<i99* 

4104!  37«09  45«09.-.     ^j6<     5914; 

166;  {1767  aapio    .  68{96      9*306 

«  «997  I07H  -     *9»»-     "733 

JaOia  21,3315  2lSlot»  :i4£i)0'  407150 


TABLE 


by  Google 


ti88) 


TABLE 

THIRTEENTH. 

>6  sickly  rem.       II         16  Htalthr  Yon. 

VOT. 

Btptind 

Baiid. 

Yeir. 

Blpdml  BiHid. 

.l(l> 

?5J| 

96H 

.     I&4 

«4S' 

!•■« 

SO 

97" 

7014 

7343 

»J 

794! 

mil 

■6 

5?S 

H 

»4 

•9S"4 

13(10 

i? 

8009 

J« 

9i3! 

6701 

1 

34 

1090O 

33 

9997 

« 

j8j! 

■«!'! 

39 

101  JO 

5» 

tii> 

i>!74 

4« 

«!44 

'1 

«IO 

■3«47 

50 

!6il 

>S7*9 

70SO 

■39«" 

•   7' 

■  IJIO 

1; 

6170 

■499  J 

7! 

■■77! 

Us; 

■97;; 

87 

■49!; 

31460 

70 

I! 

:;ii; 

S0198 
aisoi 

u 

\X 

\^l 

<33SS 

»3»7^ 

1700 

14639 

■9443 

9) 

13631 

14100 

2 

■1687 

19481 

170. 

'!«■' 

24071 

6 

■1369 

19847 

10 

■  49U 

S 

tl 

■4706. 

'9833 

>♦ 

■749! 

>i 

17134 

.6360 

■344' 

•S 

i>4>3 

i!»47 

■7 

■847! 

»3 

■  19103 

■  19*97 

31 

■  7788 

133!< 

s6 

1880S 

19647 

11 

■6»73 

13!3< 

•9 

.7060 

19711 

16060 

.581! 

33 

i74«J 

19133 

." 

■  6181 

1S431 

40 

ijjji 

30811 

1675 

■■39! 

■7So^ 

^i 

'495  7 

31169 

1680 

"747 

"'?!.! 

^M 

jiioio 

'I'otjr 

3134^!  4^8136 

tiooo 

■'^ 

"4,9     <&*> 

TABLE 


by  Google 


(•89) 


TABLE    FOURTEENTtt 


aiFniiifuIYaM.|l  iiBunBran.] 

Yw. 

bpUnd 

Yo,.;B.,«»d 

ilSii 

i?it 

•  6o« 

!4!« 

■9 

20 

794! 

«7 

»408 

»« 

ITOI 

»9 

990' 

tft, 

35 

loojt 

4* 

10570 

M 

9»S! 

^70 

43 
49 

?si; 

10x92 
iijio 

II 

1:^ 

93 

■IKS 

■S>59 

n 

::i?? 

1707 

iSl 

94 

I'l'i 

"♦ 

■749! 

9 

«j 

I9«.} 

'J 

■s»2; 

ill 
■S«3' 

so 
z8 

II 

'.H?. 

& 

4« 

•  sis< 

'Tool. 

.71S'o 

Toab'  S44ih 

kXdhlm' 

"mi 

->Ubo|  .ll!.7i 

'i'able  13;  which  gives  us  firft  the  Cbri" 
fimings  and  Buryings  of  26  very  fickly  Years, 
wherein  the  Tom  <^  Cbrijienings  were  3 1 1  g22> 
and  the  Buryings  522010 ;  fo  that  the  firft,  at 
an  annual  Medium^  is  near  12000,  the  laft 
20080,  or  ricar  3  to  5.  The  Number  of  Cbrz- 
fteriBgl  I&itisi  HS  .'hUd  tfcclii^dl  ftr  2^  Years 
part,  having  fallen  from  above  igooojterjinn. 
to  15,  ii^ )  yea,  ibmetunss  Utile  above  13000, 
which  is  near  A  thirc^  yet  not  at  ^  imputable 
to  the  _  Dijl'enting  Iitttrtfi,  for  that  has  long 
been  vifibly  dwindlii^  j  {>ut  k  the  fame  time 
BurUls  keep  rifing  fibm  s,^  to  32000,  which 
is  another  Proof  that  [Diflenters  lelTen.  To  this 
Table  IfiiprefixBd  thdCbri/iemngs  and  Buryings 
of  the  tail  26  ytars  tiint  the  ;i^j^Bf' was  more 
or  lefs  In  luondfitti  add  thd  firft- is  213325,  the 
lafl  4a7i"5bi  fo  thit  tbei  firft  is  to  the  laft, 
near  as' 2 j' to  494..  But  iji  all  jthcfe,  26  Years 
were  only  three' greal  Plague  Years,  Wz.  1625, 


36,  65;  \frh|Crciridied 


i68g3o,^aptiaed  26472, 


where  .tW  ^rH;  ■  is  to  (the  laft,  jnear  a^  1 3  to  2  . 
though  in  I'thfe.ifickljr  Years  it  was|  about  26 
to  lb.  ,  the -idoruUty  .^i  thefe  three  great 
P/rwwf  Years,  is  to  tteeB  of>*he  (khcr  moft 
fiddy  Years:-(w«;pT^fi3,  «4i  i^^^S)  near  as 
4tto  I,.  Hiereweh^caUb,26;ofthc-heaUhieft 
Years,  wherein"werebaptized3234ic,  buried 
418136  i  fo  that  the  firA  is  to  the  laft,  near  as 
i6t0  20T;  the  Buryings  of  the  26  healthy 
Years,  are  to  thofc  of  the  26  fickly  Yeat-s,  near 
as  209  to  261,  i.e.  about  i-5th  odds;  for 
i(ijtlic  firft  were  buried  418136,  in  the  laft 
■  Jaioio.  The  Cbrijenings  alfo  of  the  healthy 
Years, 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgIC 


f  19'  ) 
Years,  were  to  thofe  of  thefickly,  near  as 
261  to  156,  or  little  ibove  j-iith.  odds;  the 
Cbriftemngf  of  the  firft  being  333415,  of  the 
laft  3 1 1 922 :  So  in  g«ieral  the  h^thieft  Years 
arc  not  the  barreneft,  nor  the  ficklicft  the  fhiit-  - 
follcft.    If  we  compare  2 1  of  the  ffloft  prolific 
Years  with  21  of  the  moft  fterile,  the  firft  . 
brings  271520,   the  laft  244182,   which  is 
about  i-ioth  odds,  though  there  was  i-ctK 
odds  between  the  Burymgs  of  the  hcalthidl: 
and  ficklieft  Years  in  general.    Sometimee  we- 
find  the  ficklieft  Years  the  fiuitfulleft,  ^s  in 
1658,  81,  93,  1714,  23,404  and  thehealdii- 
cft  Years  the  birreneft,  as  in  1604,  26,  95, 
1700,  38.     Sometimes  a  very  fruitful  Year  is 
followed  by  a  very  mortal  and  fickly  one,  as  : 
in  1619,  35,  48,  63  i  and  mortal  ones  often 
.  focceded  by  very  fruitfol,  as  1610,  r  8,  20,  24,  '. 
27,  38,  63,  71,  1724,  34;  as  though  Nature 
fought  either  to  preyent,  or  qaickly  repair  the  - 
hok  by  Death.     In  general  the  next  Year 
after  fidcly  or  mortal  ones,  is  prolific  ig  Pro-  ' 
pcxtion  to  the  Breeders  left ;  for  many  p£  the 
weak,  fickly,  declining  ConfUtutions  being  cut . 
off.  Health  returning  gives  V^our  and  Viva-  ■ 
city  to  the  Siir\'ivers.  - ; 


TABLE 


by  Google 


<  »92  ) 
TABLE    FIFTEENTH. 

For  15  Years,  viz.  from  yofiuary  i,  1728, 
yatuiary  i,  1743,  being  monthly ;  and  b^ 
with  January^  and  ends  with  Decemier. 


by  Google 


(  »93  ) 
Tibie  igi  ihews  what  Havock  Morfa/iiy 
has  made  of  all  Ages,  in  every  Month  from 
January  i,  1728,  to  January  j,  174I,  wjz. 
I  ?  Years.  Where,  i.  The  fuperior  Mortality 
ot  yanuaryt  February^  and  March  occurs  a  fc- 
cond  time»  thbre  being  about  i-4th  more  bu- 
ried in  them  than  in  "Jimt^  Jufy^  and  Auguji, 
In  September,  OSober,  and  November  were 
buried  102146:  fo  that  the  Spring  Mortality 
exceeds  the  Autumnal,  near  as  much  as  the 
Mortality  of  fickly  Years  exceeds  that  of 
healthy.  2.  We  fee  how  many  died  in  every 
IDecade  under  90 ;  and  how  few  of  every  100 
escceed  that  Age.  3.  Whzt  Month  is  in  ge- 
neral moil  &tal  to  every  Age.  Thus  the  Deatk 
of  Children  under  2  Years  old  in  September  and 
OStober,  is  to  that  of  June  and  July  as  27  to 
2 1 .  The  Death  of  Children  from  2  to  5  Years 
old  in  Marcby  Aprils  May.,  and  September, 
is  to  that  of  juney  July,  Auguji,  and  Novem-' 
her,  as  12  to  10.  From  5  Years  old  to  10, 
the  Death  in  January,  February,  March,  Mm, 
Jwte,  and  December,  is  to  that  in  the  other  ux 
Months  as  19  to  17^.  From  10  to  20,  De^ 
cem6er,  January,  and  February,  arc  fetaleft  j 
MiTf,  July,  and  Augufi  mildefr ;  Deaths  in  the 
firft  being  to  tho&  in  the  laft  as  174-  to  14. 
From  20  to  30,  January,  February,  and 
March  are  more  mortal  than  June,  Jufy,  and 
Auguji ;  the  firft  being  to  the  lail  near  as  4  to 

!.     From  30  to  40,  January,  March,  Novem- 
er,  and  December,  are  more  deftruftive  than 
June,  July,  Augufi,  and  September ;  the  firft 
being  to  the  laft  about  as  13  to  10.    The 
O  Death 


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i 


(  194) 

Death  of  thofe  betwecD  40  and  CO  IB  ^touQffr^y 
Decemher,  February  ^  and  Mgrctt  U  to  that  o|' 
the  feme  Ag«  in  >w,  July,  .^lufi^  and  Sef-- 
temiery  near  as  14  to  si.  From  5010  60* 
Jaauary,  Marcb,  and  December  are  worft^ 
%«f,  3^,  and  jbiguji  mildeft  j  for  the  ENp- 
ftru£Uon  oif  the  firft  three  M<»ith8  U  to  UiaJC  of 
>  the  lail  near  about  5  to  3-^.  Frcm  60  to  ye^ 
Decemher^  Jmuary^  Febrwry^  and  Mar^^, 
exceed  Jtm,  yuiy^  Augttfl,  and  September, 
about  as  41T  docs  3.3.  From  jo  to  80  the 
Cafe  is  much  the  iame ;  for  the  Peath  of  the 
firll  4  Months  is  to  that  of  the  laft>  as  384- 
to  22<  From  80  to.  90,  the  Qeath  oiy^mary^ 
February^  and  March  exceeds  that  t^Juna^ 
yufyt  and  uiugiifit  as  4  does  3>  or  it  is  double, 
rVom  00  and  upwards,  Becember,  J^mtarj^ 
and  February  are  more  fetal  than  Augu^^  S,^ 
temier,  and  03i>beri  the  firft  being  to  the  lail 
near  as  33  to  154-.  4.  By  looking  abov%  we  i«c 
finm  what  Ages  chieoy.  Monthly  MwtaliUes  do 
arife ;  e.  g,  that  of  Septc/pSer  and  O&tber^  frc^a 
Oiildrea  under  2  Years  old,  which  yet  are  the 
healthiefiMonthstothofeabQveQoYcarsoJd.  5. 
If  we  compare  the  prefent  State  of  the  landon. 
BiUs  of  l&rtatityy  with  what  they  were  $0  eo' 
go  Years  ago,  in  C^tain  Graunt's  Ti|s«»  'we 
ihall  find  they  diSet  pretty  much,  as  appears 
from  the  Computation,  how  many  die  ch4  o^ 
each  Hundred  born»  of  all  Ages  ^  ^r  then  only 
36  of  each  100  died  under  6  Years  a)d»  and  9^ 
hom  6  to  16  Years,  then  only  40  of  the  100 
remained  j  but  now  36A  die  under  2  Years 
old,  and  9  more  under  5,  and  fearCQ  7  more 
die  from  5  to  20  Years  old ;  fo  that  474-  ilill 
fufvive 

.,.=,Z,.:,C00S|C 


(m) 

lomve  tt  30,  which  makes  a  very  great  odds 
So  that  the  State  of  Mortality  is  ^et  more  dif^ 
&tcnt  DOW,  with  regard  to  the  fereral  Ages, 
than  it  was  then.  From  r6  to  26  Years  old 
he  computes  i^pff  Cent,  to  die  j  but  they  are 
not  above  8.  From  36  to  46  he  allows  only  4., 
but  in  reality  above  9  die  in  that  Decade.  From 
46  to  ^6  he  computes  3,  though  we  And  them 
above  6.  From  66  to  76  he  allows  only  of 
.2  inftead  of  5.  At  the  End  of  85  Years  he 
finds  only  i  alive,  we  find  3  j  which  Dif- 
ferences muft  make  a  to^  great  Variation  iil 
the  Computation  of  Annuities  for  Life.  6. 
From  this  Table  we  juftly  Infer,  that  the  fun- 
dry  Ages  of  the  prefent  litlng  Inhabitants  Aand 
thus  in  Londorii  of  every  loo,  4^  are  under 
10  Years  old,  and  on^  50^  above  it;  464 
above  20,  47T  above  30,  above  40,  3  a  -^i 
above  50,  214,  above  60,  137,  above  70,  yr» 
above  80,  3},  above  90,  i|.  Thus  we  flieW 
the  Chances  of  the  Length  of  human  Life.  7. 
From  this  Table  we  fee,  that  near  i-9th  Part 
more  die  under  2  Yeats  (My  than  die  fi-om  2 
to  40  Years  old  %  or  very  neitr  as  many  die 
under  2,  as  die  fi-om  2  to  45  Years  old. 
Again,  diore  die  under  e  Years  old  than  from 

5  to  53  i  again,  more  die  between  20  and  30, 
than  in  the  laft  15  Years  before,  /'.  e.  from  5 
to  20.     8.  Did  only  36  of  each  100  (fie  under 

6  Years  of  Age,  90  Years  ago  ?  and  now  4^4 
(£e  under  5 ;  then  fee  the  fhocking  UfkGcs  of 
our  new  and  delicate  Ways  of  mirfing  and  rear- 
ing Children,  far  moi%  of  thetn  are  Stat  into 
the  Country  now  than  fbrmerly ;  fbme  are  de- 

O  2  nied 


by  Google 


(  196) 

filed  all  Breaft,  and  muft  be  brought  up  wkb 
the  Spoon ;  many  muA  not  draw  at  the  Mo- 
ther's Breaft,  but  muft  have  a  ftrange  Nurfc, 
the  Cheapnefs  of  -whofe  Wages  are  confidered 
more  than  the  Goodnefs  of  her  Conftitution. 
Other  I^ames  are  too  delicate  to  fuffer  thdr 
Babes  to  be  in  the  Houie  to  offend  their  NoJe 
and  Ear,  but  muft  be  fent  away,  no  matter 
whither  or  to  whom  i .  Others  muil  not  be  al- 
lowed a  Cradle  in  the  Day,  and  others  not 
admitted  to  Bed  at  Night,  &c.  by  which  and 
other  means,  near  i-ioth  of  the  Citizens  are 
deftroyed  in  their  In£ucy,  more  than  ufcd  to 
die  formerly.  9.  By  comparing  this  with  the 
former  Table,  we  find,  that  thoftgh  mwe 
Males  are  bom  than  Females,  yet  ikt  more 
Females  are  buried  than  Males  -,  therefore  there 
are  more  in  London  of  Fenoales  above  20  Years 
old  than  of  Males,  by  a  6th  or  7th  Part.  Now 
of  every  1000  Souls  alive,  only  475  are  above 
20  Years  of  Age ;  yet  die  Number  of  Ex- 
ports of  Males  above  Females  being  above 
j-7th  Part,  there  will  not  remain  above  202 
Males  above  20  Years  old :  Then  with  Cratmt, 
to  draw  an  Army  of  81233  '^S^^S  ^™  ^"^^ 
of  London  and  fFefiminfier,  above  20  Years 
old  each }  they  muft  then  contain  400000 
Souls.  But  here  we  include  all  Males  above 
20  to  100  and  upwards.  But  if  from  the 
above  202  you  fubtraft  27,  for  all  above  60, 
according  to  the  Table,  then  only  175  fighting 
Men  of  all  Ranks  and  Ouiditions,  heilthy  and 
.  diiea&d,  &c.  out  of  every  1000  Sonls  alive, 
remain,  then  to  draw  out  the  above  Army  of 
Men 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgIC 


(  197  ) 
Men  from  20  to  60,  there  nraft  be  46400b 
-  Souls  alive^  including  all  Sexes,  Ages,  Ranks, 
.  ProfeSiom,  and  Stages  of  Life,  from  highefl 
to  loweft,  from  moft  reverend  to  moft  profile. 
Thia  Part  of  his  Computation  is  not  &r  wide  ; 
but  then  fuppofing  Lotion  buries  a  Number 
equal  to- its  prefent  Inhabitants  in  23  Years, 
(wrliich  in  this  Place  we  only  fuppofe)  then 
300a  fuch  Men  between.  2O  ^d  60  muil  be 
Buried  yearly  j  and  every  1000  Souls  affords 
only  J75  fuch  Men,  then  the  Burials  com.  Ann, 
mufl  have  been  20000.  But  from  1653  to 
6^  they  exceeded  not  13000  one  Year  with 
another;  even  then  when  Djflenters  were  bu- 
ried at  the  efUblifhed  Church,  and  conle- 
quently  had  the  fame  Chance  as  others  to  be 
regiflered.  But  this  happens  from  reckoning 
30  or  32  Yoars  to  bury  a  Number  equal  to 
the  Inhabitants ;  but  in  its  proper  Place,  and 
upon  better  Evidence,  we  have  computed  its 
Inhabitants.  But  fuppofing  Van  JHoey's  late 
Report  to  the  States  General  be  true,  that  the 
French  King  could  raife  5000000  fighting 
Men ;  flien  including  all  Ages  from  20  to  60^ 
Ranks,  Conditions,  and  Profeflions,  Perfons 
found  and  unfound,  fick  and  healthy,  accord- 
ing to  the  Table  before  us,  that  King's  Do- 
minions mufl  contain  29030000  Souls,  which 
feems  lefs  incredible,  than  to  find  Funds  to  pay 
fuch  an  Army;  fuppofing  either  Graunt  or 
King's  Computation  of  the  People  of  England 
to  be  jufl,  either  at  the  Rifioration  or  Rev<h 
htion:  But  fuppofing  £.m<^ff  contains  609433 
Souls  in  it,  only  175  of  thefe  fer  Mm  tc- 

o  3  i&g 

L;,.;,-z.d=,GoOgk' 


ing  Malea  betwem  20  and  60  Years  of  Ate,  fit 
to  bear  Anns,  U  can  fend  out  Males  of  that 
Age,  of  all  Ranks,  Qualities,  and  ConditioDS, 
an  Army  of  S7429  iendble  Men^  $ut  as  60 
is  too  ml  and  crazy,  let  us  take  from  16 1056> 
and  fuppofing  each  looo  People  may  afiord 
203  fttdi  mcrii  then  the  City  m^  raife 
141587  fiich  Men,  including  blind,  lame,  or 
omerwife  diftafed:  A  vau  Army  for  ono 
City! 


TABLE 


by  Google 


( '99  y 


,KB,a,  a,    8,        8.8,2,  »,a,s, 


la,Sia,  e,  8,2,  a,  2,s,9,  8,%  s 


i 


I- 


P4 


by  Google 


(  200  ) 


•b's 

■S  'S    'S    'S     'S'S'S'S'S    'B      o'S'i    'o 

.l 

s  S,   2    s,   s:"^5    S   J^i  1 

•s 

1   lllfl*  T  l*ll?t  fel 

f 

■""jj"i?il  «H&s-  n- 

1/ 

f 

^"•i;---ig-|  *gr^a  =1* 

8<    -a 

fi  J  t  r    }      1 

i"     i  ^  ' 

i.vCoogIc 


(   20«   ) 


I'll 
B'S' 


..  "J,— -jt:- 


-2.? 


„  -I-  m  I? 

'S    "B'S    'S'S'S    •J's 


■B'S 


^     «     -If. 


g,  II  III  li:  II 


■S   i'S'S    S'3'S 


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82  -*r ,:  ,_^  •e-£. 


!'* 


"l?^ 


■  14 


d=,GoogIi: 


f  204  ) 


2: 


It's 
1^ 


|ll«ll 


■8 


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^ 


fig:  A 


|l^lfllli1l 


by  Google 


(   203  ) 

lo  thia  i6th  Table  v(  Difeafet  and  Ci- 
Juahiett  we  hsve  the  Numbers  that  died  du- 
riog  three  OSamrUx,  at  diftant  and  difib- 
rent  Pcriads.  The  6rft  begins  with  1629, 
and  Olds  with  1636}  and  wiU  be  a  kind 
of  Key  to  the  other  two.  .  The  fecorid  begins 
with  1653  and  ends  with  166a  The  third 
with  1734,  and  ends  with  1742  j  39  and  4* 
ore  omidsd  to  make  the  Number  in  eschequaC 
In  the  firft  Cohuxm  of  the  Table  we  hi^e  the 
Names  of  the  IMfeafes,  In  die  ed  the  Numbet 
that  died  of  each  Difittfe  \  in  the  3d  the  Pro- 
portion that  fuch  at  die  in  the  firft  Cla&,  bear 
to  the  whole  that  died  in  that  Odenary.  Af- 
ter the  fiift  ClBft,  or  thatof  ChildrensDifeaieSy 
the  Cluldren  buried  are  not  included  in  the  re^ 
maining  fbor  Cla&s ;  but  the  Sum  total  that 
died  not  of  Childrens  Di&afts,  but  died  of 
cdier^  is  carried  through  each  Article  of  all 
the  other  Clafles,  and  made  the  conftant  Di- 
vidend of  each  OAenary.  .  The  4th  and  5th 
Cofaunns  arc  the  &me  for  the  3d  Odenary, 
that  the  2d  and  3d  were  for  die  firit  The 
Atfa  and  7th  Cohinus  an  for  die  3d  Odcntry, 
Ae  iaaoe  as  the  other  two.  A  Arid  arith- 
vudacA  or  mathematical  Divifion  is  not  here 
intended;  i.  Becanfe  die  Propofdons  being 
only  ^ven  in  the  grofi,  are  much  gainer  and 
eafier,  and  come  pntty  near  the  Trudi.  2, 
Thia  pievents  the  Trcml^  of  FraAioos,  which 
moft  hare  ran  into  Fhinons,  without  aoAwr- 
ing  any  oftfiil  Forpolb,  Thefe  I^t^Kvtions 
&ve  modi  Tranble  bodi  in  exfiuAing  juid 
raiding* 

%  la 


i.vCooj^Ic 


(204) 

In  this  Table  the  Articles  in  the  common 
Bills  are  much  tninfpofcd,  for  inftead  of  fol- 
lowing the  alphabetical  Order  throughout,  the 
£rA  C\a&  contains  the.  Difeafes  proper  to  Chil- 
dren ; '  the  2d  thofc  common  to  Children  and 
grown-up  PerfonSj  the  3d  thofe  proper  to 
Adults  ahd  Aged ;  tiw  4th  external  Difeaies} 
the  cth  unnatural  or  violent  Deaths.  Here 
^De^tin  is  considered  cither  as  natural  ac  violcOti 
the  firft  either  in  Childhood,  or  in  a  more  ad- 
■vanced  State,  or  in.  Adults  or  A-ged,  and  that 
other  in  inward  or  outward  Gri^;  thelaft 
eithei;  accidentaV,  as  drowned  out  of  Ships  or 
Soats,  or  by  ^afliing  <x  bathing,  ftarved  by 
Hunger  or  Cold,  fciddted  to  Death,  orcrlaid,  bit- 
ten by  Animals,  murtbered,  iinothered,  bn^in^ 
or  having  their  Bones  broken ;  and  fuch  other 
Accidents  as  depend  on  Men's  Trade  and  Em- 
ployment: Or  as  the  Efled  of  their  own 
Wickedneis,  as  .  the  Frmcb-Pcxt  exceffive 
pridking,  &c.  or  iocfa  as  ^1  by  Aeir  own 
bloody  Hands  immediately,  or  by  common 
Juftice.  In.  all  Bills  or  Tables  of  Cafualties 
and  Difeafes,  fame  of  the  Totals  are  alnays 
loft,  either  from,  the  Difeafes  of  fome  being 
OKicealed  firom  the  Sfcarchers,  or  mot  retuxziea 
to  the  Clerk's-HalU  and  overboked  by  them, 
or  not  fit  to  be  mentioned,  as  Fkior  a&ut^ 
l^ocbia,  Menfes  nimi,  &c.  Thus  the  Total 
that  died  in  me  firft  O^nary  of  our  Table  is 
78604.  But  in  the  Table  of  Chriftenmgs  and 
B^ir^,  we  fee  their  Number  is  90225.  In 
the  2d  Qftenary  the  Number:  lA  our  Table 
ftands  103571,  but  ia  the  Tabic  of  Boryings 
: .  "       :.  it 


by  Google 


{  *05  ) 

it  is  I06960.  In  the  3d  oaenary,  the  T\i<al 
of  thele  8  Years  Buryingswas  221292,  but  in 
this  Table  it  is  only  215813.  There  is  a.con- 
fidcrable  DifiTerence  in  Graunf's  fundry  TU>le9 
for  the  fame  Years,  for  the  Table  of  his  an- 
nual Cafualties  taken  is  one  Number,  it's  ano- 
ther in  his  Quaternions  of  the  iame  Years,  and . 
a  third  in  his  Table  of  Chriftenbgs  and  Bury- 
ings.  In  the  old  Table  we  have  Bleach,  Ca- 
lenturct  Wolf,  (omitted  here)  CbryfomSy  Jaw~ 
faiien,  Headacb,  Plague  in  the  Guts,  Pli^ue, 
Shingles,  Stitch,  Swtne  snei  Chtcken-PcK,  Wen, 
tiffick,  ficc.  But  the  new  has  thefc  that  the 
old  wanted,  mz.  ( AAfama,  which  was  Tiffick^ 
and  therefore  joined  them  in  this  Table)  Bed- 
ridden, Diabetes,  (Mmtmgh,  I^admouldjhot, 
Infammation,  Mi/carriage,  Mortijication,  Rajh^ 
Wieumatifm,  Morbus  Q>oUra.  Some  Names 
are  only  changed,  as  Mortification  for  Gangrene, 
Blafted  for  Planet-flrutk ;  and  fome  are  omit- 
ted} others  are  added,  as  Diabetes,  Rheuma- 
tifm,  Ra/h,  8cc. 

Obf.  Firft,  the  Number  of  jibortives  fo  fer. 
advanced  toward  the  due  Time  of  fiirth,  as 
to  deferve  Burying  and  RegHlering  is  about  i. 
of  ao  s  but  a  great  Number  of  Conceptions 
being  loft  before  they  arrive  at  that  Bulk  and 
Time,  we  are  not  to  imagine  thefe  to  be  all 
the  Milcarriages  that  happen.  2.  In  the  zd, 
but  efpecially  in  the  laft  Odtcnary,  tbcKum- 
ber  of  Abortives  leHens  much,  either.  fr{)m  their 
being  interred  privately,  or  not  at  all  in  the 
common  Burying-PUces,  and  fo  neither  regif-. 
tered  nor  returned..  \  3.  The  old  Article  of 
Cbryfoms 


i.vCoogIc 


f  206  ) 

Qr*^omt  and  Infanu  feeros  to  be  my  mjudt* 
doafly  left  out>  not  as  it  exprcfied  any  Difeaie, 
but  r^hcr  the  Age  of  the  Infants,  •oiz.  fuch  as 
died  widiin  the  Month,  either  of  unknown 
Diftempers,  or  fuch  as  fall  not  under  our 
Senfes,  But  Convu^vm  falling  under  the  Senfes 
Af  the  Spedlators,  were  rightly  made  a  feparate 
Article.  Hence  the  prc^nt  Article  of  Cpn~ 
widens  (befides  the  real  Increafe  of  the  Difeaie) 
is  monftroufly  fwelted  beyond  iti  juft  Bounds^ 
by  thruilfaig  into  it,  all  that  die  within  the 
Month,  of  IXfeafes  not  obvious  and  certain. 

4.  Diibales  of  the  firft  Clafi  feem  more  pecu- 
liar to  Children  under  5  Years  old,  (a  few  ex- 
cept, asCbin-cMgbj  Small'Pox^  and  S^aJUi.") 

5.  AUrtives  and  Sti^ior/iy  are  to  thofe  Ixmh 
alive  at  full  Time,  but  die  under  5  Years  old, 
near  as  i  to  84-  in  the  firft  Odxnaiy }  and  as  1 
to  10}  in  the  2d,  and  as  i  to  20  in  the  3d ; 
not  that  Mothers  arc  fbonger  and  saore  rcteiH 
tive  now  than  formerly,  but  fewo*  are  re^f- 
tered,  and  in  many  Places  none  are  regiflered 
at  all.  6.  Such  as  in  the  prefent  Bills  are  faid 
to  die  ccHivnlfed,  or  within  the  Month  (cxclu- 
five  of  jiiortive  and  Stillborn)  are  above  6 1 
of  94.  (^  thoie  that  die  under  5  Yeais  old. 
y.  Such  as  outlive  the  Month  have  flSll  two 
iitta]  Difeafes  impending  their  Childhood,  vrar. 
Sifieli-Pox  (with  which  I  take  in  Ckicken'PiKCy 
Me^jks^  and  ^ajb)  and  Teething.  Such  as  di* 
of  the  firfl,  are  to  the  whole  \yosn  ^ve  at  ibH 
Time,  but  die  under  5  Years  rfd,  as  i  to  ^f- 
in  the  firfl  Odenaij,  as  i  to  5  in  the  feeond, 
and  as  4  to  21  in  the  tbird.    The  dtieEfieas 

of 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  »07  ) 
of  Uie  hoc  Repmea  U  TifiUe  vi  the  fccoikU 

and  I  ana  9&vA  of  the  toQ  general  Pra^e  </ 
Bleeding,  (without  due  Regard  to  the  Au> 
Seaibn,  A^e,  and  Conftitution  of  the  Sick) 
am(»ig  Chiltken  of  the  middle  Rank,  and  th« 
Vulgar's  too  liberal  Ufe  of  Sa^erit  Viaftvr- 
Mum,  hCtbridatet  Stafeit-Wa^trt^  aivl  the  Ttf- 
taceous  PowUrsy  in  the  third  O^aiy  :■  And 
alfo  to  the  greater  Intenwemice,  Lusuuyj  Irr 
regularities,  and  CareleUhefs  of  iVeitfs  aa4 
Nur&s.  8.  Teething,  fuch  as  ere  bom  alive 
but  die  of  this,  are  to  the  whole  that  dieufl^v 
5  Years  old  in  the  firft  and  third  O^cnvy,  as 
I  to  8i !  in  th«  iecppd  as  i  to  4-;>  Here  ii  i^ 
more  vifible  the  deftruftive  £^^  of  the  hot 
Re^it/un  in  Teething  Fevers.  9.  The  Nuinr 
bers  that  die  of  Childrens  Diie^es^  or  under 
5  Years  old,  in  the  firil  Oftenary,  are  about 
15  of  39 )  in  the  fecond,  37  of  103  3  ip  the 
third,  39  of  2iSt  or  /^g  to  i^Jr*  But  bad. 
wc  as  €s3i&  and  full  a  R^ifter  for  the  ieeond 
and  third  Oflqnaries,  as  for  the  firft.  ^ 
Number  that  dies  under  5  Years  old  would 
be  greater.  As  the  above  Vices  prevail  amoqg 
Parents,  Death  proportionally  incceafes  its 
CoDj^ueAs  over  their  wretched  dileafed  Pro- 
geny. What  a  fatal  Time  is  Infancy  and 
Childhood  to  young  CitizenKl  If  the  Dt£- 
fcrence  between  the  firft  and  laft  Oaenanr  be 
fo  great,  in  little  more  than  a  Century,  how 
-few  Cfa^drea  are  Citizens  like  to  bring  np  af- 
ter a  few  more.  Centuries  P  10.  In  the  lafl 
Oftepary  99022  died  of  Children's  Difea&s^ 
and  in  the  whole  eight  Years  100359  die^ 
under 


by  Google 


.Under  5  Yeah  oHd;  Sublfarad  the  firft  from  the 
lift  of  thefe,  only  1337  remains,  which  is  the 
dumber  of  all  under  5  Years  old  that  died  of 
Difeafes  of  ^e  fecond  Clais,  or  common  to 
Children  and^^Adalts,  *hich  is  not  one  of  7^. 
This  alfo  proves,  (hat  not  one  of  75  Perrons 
above  5  Years  old  dies  of  Children  s  Diieaies, 
and  how  many  Children  above  5  Years  old  die 
pf  Small-PoXy  Mtafieiy  and  ^ifi-cmglr  i  fo 
that  kvT  Children  die  of  other  Difeales  in  the 
City.  II.  There  are  Ibme  Difeafes  on  the 
XtecUne,  as  though  they  woold  wear  ou^  as 
tiie  RJciets,  whereof  i  of  32  Children  died, 
in  the  &cond  Odtenaiy,  but  in  the  third  icarce 
one  of  367  that  die  of  Children's  Dijeafes,  die 
of  that.  Sore  Meiabs,  Tbrufiy  and  Canker ;  in 
the  iecond  Oftcnary,  died  of  this  i  of  237  of 
all  that  died  of  Children's  Difeafes,  but  in  the 
third  icarce  one  of  3083  die  of  it.  Agues, 
whereof  one  of  40  of  the  whcde  that  died  of 
Fevers,  died;  now  icftrce  i  of  11 00  that  die 
of  Fevers  die  of  this:  This  Diftemper  has  at 
ieveral  Times  prevailed  for  a  long  Series  of 
Years,  and  has  fometimes  raged  like  a  Plague. 
In  1664  they  disappeared,  and  fcarce  came  on 
riie  Stage  before  78 ;  but  from  1720  to  29, 
they  and  Remittents  afflifled  the  whole  Nation 
grievoufly  j  and  now  as  to  their  Severity,  et- 
pecially  their  Mortality,  they  are  extinf^  but 
as  they  decreafe,  other  Fevers  incrcafe.  The 
B/oody'F/ux  made  ftrange  Havock  fimnerly, 
in  the  firft  Ofienary,  when  12  of  01  that  died 
in  the  fecond  Clafs,  di6d  of  it,  and  in  (he  fe- 
cond  OAenary  orJy  i  of  21,  but  now  not 
above 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  209  ) 

%bove  I  of  965.  Ruptures^  whereof  died  i  of 
735,'of  the  lecond  Clafsj  then  i  of  356;- 
laftfyi  I  of' 597.-  l^alling-.Sickntffs  is  fiiUen' 
from  1^  of  786  of 'the  fecond  Clafs  to  i  of 
29664I'  TIw  XSrat&lf  Stone,  and  ■Strangury 
wa^.firft  I- of  125,  then  i  of  130;  now  only 
Qtic  or.aii  of  thfc  fecond  Clafs;,-  Lethar^m 
the  fecond.  O^naiy  was  about-one  of  r  1 30  of 
the  iecond  Clafs,.  now  i  of  1468;-  •Li'Oer- 
growii  and'  SpJien  "was  1  of  56,  then  i  of  i'43  ■ 
now  onljr. lOoe.  of  1493  of-die-fecpnd  Cl^s; 
^'"'i/p'was  I  of  344,  now  i  of  jaiz;  .  CMkrk 
'Ii0r^  was  -I-.  OT.478,  now'i.bf  786. ,  For 
the  tfiird  Qa/si.  ,^y  that  died  Iri  ChsYdbe^ 
were  at  firft  as  '5 -to  31 ;  th?n  as-.-r  of  7,  now 
only  one  ©f  I'i  of  tiatwrholcClafe.-  G/ff^wai 
I  of  j68  at-fitft,  npw  one  of  ;2Sr,:  iitjm^of 
tbeXagBts,  whatever  it  is,  was  firft  1  of  ^t^i 
then  .J-  ope  of  7,  iflow  i  of'  sio3i  '■  Stoppa^ 
^'tfyi:  StQoi^cb.'yfas  'j  of  10,  now  i 'of 'i^. 
f  qr  the  fourth  .ClaiJl,' '  fiict,  as  diciJ  of  outwa^ 
Grieft  and  Sorei',  vrtct  to  the  whole  that  flifed 
ahQye  e  Years  old,"  of  naturs^I  D^ths,  irf  th^ 
firft. .plenary,  near  as  I'to  38J.  in' the  fecond 
9&\  to '39,  in  the.thirdas  1  of  114.   -  ■  -  -  * 

- .  i^  As-  fdme.  liilfeafefi  are  wearing  out;  fb 
pt}iers  arc  gath&ilig  frefli  Vigour  and  greater 
Stripngthj:  are  both. more  freqticnt  and^  filial, 
i&Convu^ns,  (including  (Ssryjonis  and  Jnfanft, 
asia;the  preient  Bills)  in  "uic  fccc^id  Peridd 

they  were,  but  6  oif  15  of  all  the  firft  Glafe^  ift 
!thelaft,Oaeni*rya!bove  61  of  94.,-  Were  dw 
.Caufe  of  this  prodigious  locreafe  enquired'iit- 


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to,  perh^p^  tbe  Sra y/o^A^he  jbuqd  tti  c6m- 
nitact  irom  Parents  too  geaeral  and  &tal  Ac^ 
quaiptance  with  fpintuotu,IJ^u6rs,  for  bem^eq 
1670  fxi  83,  this  Article  rol^  pota  i^ooto 
40QQ.  TYfls  is  t}ie inore  probable,  if  we  loC^  into 
Tnland  remote  Gountry  Places^  which  tho*  fulfy 
w;poled  tQ  the  Inclemcpcy  of  Weather,  yel 
h^e  in  a-  grqat-  M^afure .  ih?  Hagpine^  to 
be  ifmcquainted  with  .Spirit^j. and  cfher  Arohg 
liqnprsr  Ate  excepted  i  there  diis  Difeafe  keips 
ifo  its  pld  State,  .'t'he  Onncou^b  is  nt^-men- 
ti^ed  in  th^  tvb  forHler  Oftenaries,  but  in 
Ch?  tfainl  f  :of  106  of.the  &A  Clais,  dt^  dfiT. 
trhc  Moi^vy  of  SmailrPojc.^d  Mfajia\  in- 
W«aied  ijora.  i  of  ^■lo.^.ibf.'ai.  Dr^Mi^oJ 
the  Head  not  nopie^  in  f(^9icr  Bill^nja^ 
a^  coqfidera^le  Fjgurc  -iii  th^'prefent,  it  boii^ 
|tte  iDc^th  ()f  V'irf  85  in  tjie  firft  Claft.  9%r^ 
jis  mc^  fi^..naw  -than  bfeibrc}  J^iBn4'ahA 
^^kis-fueafcbm  tpf  9o^j^e&cond'^afi, 
jtQ'7  of  19.  the  d^/f^'  if 'iiaknctd  fi-aar.  1 
In  ^96 of  thiit  dafs.  tpi  (rf  39. .  Gwsaw*. 
jCMStif  and  Ilrt^f  feem'  t^"deat^  A?^^* 
But  the  Dangqr,Of  flfwrj  ^3,-pitrpies  tftdtajfts 
^OK.  yauj^dice  is  rifen  ^oiii  i  {^,9'^  to  1 
sof  ^8.  h^iamputthns  axia' Mth'tf^btiffittaxt 
t»n>  WW  growing  Arti(;^.sV  .Pa^  is,  from  1 
ipf  .J07  to  1  ©f  27^  tieur{fes  fyxx  I 'Of 
^o,  tq  1  ^  205.  m  die  third  Oafs,  j^ 
fieitiejTtnd.Juddfn  Deatku  ^re-ri^^n  ftoax  1  dS 
a|6  of.tbat  Cla%"  to  littfc'oi.^re  thwi  i  of  i^. 
J^i  Qtle  <^fcrvcs,  that  this,  pifcafe  wa^  ^ 
^^entcr,  and  the  Artidc  moreaied  aiter  dife^- 
tenfely 


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•         (   2"    ) 

tcB&fy  coU  Winter  of  tiSj.  In  th«  bft  Cic> 
tmrf.  We  fawl  <ho  Winter  df  the  Beginning  of 
1740  mori  ineie,  if  not  fo  long ;  but  >i  food 
Epidemic  Difeafts  or  Accidents  have  tieen 
Saaad  more  hmtfiil  60  die  nervoos  Syftenij  thftii 
efaav  -Coid  Sdifons;  ib  perhaps  it  would  bt 
&niid.oii  Search,  that  few  Aga  havi  been 
Seed  fiipib  fiKh  rigid  WeathUr,  Without  lea^ 
Ving  iome  ToBt  oA  (»uin  Conftittttions.  Tltt 
Ooal  is  adviilced  from  i  of  10  j  to  i  of  j^, 
Luaacj,  ftom  i  of  i8(>  t6  164.  IMikltat-dl 
or  •oiikiu  Geetbs  fiiom  1  of  |&  to  i  of  ad,  &c* 
Ths  FritukFrn  is  nlorg  fMsaentthaa  fisri- 
itmly,  though  &W  dyin^ef  th«  Silitfi)  «* 
euteivd  under  l^t  A^de.  If  6  rui|>dziti^^ 
the  terribIeK  Symptloitts  of  that  Diftctnper  havt 
been  on  the  IJeclhg  enr  6Aoi  tint  gfeat  CoM 
of  1 7405  if  fo,  tognhef  with  its  ViNitatt, 
that  rafiafe  itiUf  may  ill  Titttit  difappetr.  Tht: 
Gov/  muil  increale,  wIiiHl  in  Parens,  Luxury, 
Idkncfs,  Wboitedom,  aAd  Draftkennefs  abound 
fo  much.  Exce^otDrinking  had  neither  Nanife 
aoc  Plaee  in  the  o(d  Tabid,  now  it  msk«Sa 
limdfiimB  Attidc.  Though  Omfamprimls  ai<e 
preajr  much  at  a  Aand,  yA  Fevers  gro« 
mora  fatal.  Confimp/iM  k  a  raoll  exteii- 
fin  Article,  comprdiendiag  not  only  mtift 
Diftempers  of  the  Bre^  bat  all  Atrnfbiits, 
Bmiuitims,  fim  lingering  Difirieri,  and  pro- 
bably" SaimrtlMges,  as  that  Article  is  nd9r 
inpfed  in  liie  Bills;  and  all  from  a  CaM^b 
to  Sftttei,  hSttUgnant  Fniiri  arc  put  iSfo 
Fntri. 

P'2  From 


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i   212  ^ 

.  From  the  Whole,  it  appoafs,  i.  That  ewery 
Age  increafes  in  Vice  and  Wickednefs,  .far  ia 
the  iirft  Odtenary,  fuch  as.  were  killed  acci- 
dentally, were  to  fuch  as  procured  thdr  owa 
Death,  as  5  to  j.  In  the.iccond  as  14  tt> 
5 ;  in  the  third  as  1 1  to  9,  A  e,  four  Times 
more  than  in  the  firft.  But. had  we  theit  true 
Number,  the.  laft  would  &r  exceed  the'.  Gift 
Sort  of  Deaths.  2.  That  the  mod  beneficial 
Remedies,  or  Spedfics,  in  fome  Difeafes.  ^cre 
the  Difcovery  c^  Chance  not,  Philofophy,  as 
the  Bark  for  ^termittents  and  Remittents  i 
Jpecacuanab  and  Rhu&arb'.  Mr.  MaitUmd's 
Inoculation  for  the  Smail-Pox^  &c  But  thde 
Chance  Difcoveries  are  vaHiy  ini}Muved,  made 
more  ikfe  and  fuccefsful  by  Pliiloibphy..  3. 
Since  chance  Discoveries  have  leflened  thiie 
.Panger  and  Mortality  of  feveral,  Dl&aics, 
oug&  not  this  to  call  us  oS  ftoia  Theories  and 
FhUofophy,  to  a  more  cbfp  Attention  to,  and 
Reafonine  from  PraAice  and  Obfervations : 
Obfervabon,  I  mean,  not  each  Man  his  own, 
for  young  elated  Practitioners,  and  fuch  as 
-have  had  little  to  do,  have  no  Fund  of  Pcac- 
tice  to  reafon  from;  but  they  Should  callio. 
mi  colled:  as  it  Q^ere  into  one  3yftan,  and  di- 
-geft  and  methodize  all  the  good  HUloriea  of 
,  Difeafes  th^:  can  find,  from  JSppocrates's 
Time  to.  their  own,  and  reafon  from  them; 
-and  I  will  venture  to  fay,  tisA-iach  in  genetal 
vwill  be  more  futcefsful  and  ufcfnl  Praditiopers, 
(.t^  they  would,  be,  if  Mafters  of  all  the  fiio- 
dry  Syftems  of  Philofophy,  that  have  beea  in 
i...   .  Vogue 


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(  V3  ) 
Vogue  fi-om-  Mfcul^^iut'i  Days  to  this  Time, 
this  v^ould  be  po  dimcutt  Taflc  to  prove.  Such 
will  not  only  bq  greater  MaAers  of  the  Diag- 
noftic.  and  Fcognoftic  Parts ;  but  he  only  can- 
tell,  -e.g.  when  and  where.exb-ayagant  Quan- 
ticies,  of  the  Bark  will  not  Aave  off  above  one, 
or  almofl  a  few .  paroxyfms  of  IntermittentSj 
ancT  yet  even  in  that  Conuituti(»i,  how  to  make 
it,  fuccefsful.  .  He  knows  when  and  where  a 
fcw'  imall  Pofes  of  it,  or  ieven  a  few  Salt 
Draughts  alone,  will  do  the  J^fine^  quickly.! 
When  the  Bark  given  in  any,  or  different 
Fotnis,  is  little  ihort  of  Homicide.  He  is  not 
at  a  Stand  to  know  when  and  where  Bleedtngy 
or.  refraining  it,  m  Infiamrtiatoryt  or  other  Fif- 
verst  is  certain  Deaths  -or  Recovery.  He 
knows  when  one  Sort  of  Opiate  is  beneficial 
and  other  Kinds  hurtful,  or  all  of  them  arte 
injurious:  He  is  apprized  when  the  mildc/l. 
Laxative  (as  Syrup  of  ftewcd  Pruans)  will 
prove  a  Hyper-camarfa^  and  even  endanger  a 
Dyfentery  j  and  when  the  pov^crfuUeft  Ca- 
thartics, as  Scamony  and  Cohcintb  in  moderate 
Dofes,  will  fcarce  operate :  He  knows  when, 
or  ^jrhat  kind  of  Evacuations  are  proper,  or 
when  to  ufc  Alteratives,  and  of  what  Sort, 
whether  cold,  temperate,  or  warm,  (Sc.  And 
knowing  thefc  from  Obfervation,  his  Philo- 
fophy  will  quickly  fuggeft  the  Reafon  of  them, 
aod  how  and  when,  to  ufe  them  to  the  beft  Pur- 
pofe.  4.  That  the  Improvements  in  Surgery 
in  general,  have  fer  out-ilrippcd  thpfe  in  Phy- 
fick.  Several  Things  have  contributed  to  this  i 
P3      ■  The 


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(  »I4^ 

The  firft  generally  &lls  under  die  outwtrd 
Senfes,  the  other  under  the  Intelled  only; 
which  ihews  Reafonmg  irom  Fads  tp  be  much 
better  and  fiirer,  than  from  Theories ;  die  6rft 
being  from  certain  Truths,  the  other  from 
Imagination  ^nd  Fancy.  As  Surgery  fells  more 
under  the  external  Senfes,  &nd  k»  Icis  liable  to 
Deception,  fo  it  lies  In  a  narrower  Compafs  than 
Fhyuck,  and  depends  t^Jefly  on  Dexterity  of 
Hand  direfled  by  a  good  Judgment.  We  find 
diat  Men  of  the  greateft  Merit  in  Suig^, 
though  they  have  generally  lefs  Learning,  yet 
they  often  compcnfate  that  by  a  clof^  Appli- 
cation to  the  Study  of  their  own  FrofbOion, 
without  jumbliqg  the  finite  Mind,  and  niizing 
Studies  of  a  different  Nature  from  their  own, 
as  of  the  Drammadl^,  Poets,  C^^fficks,  Ar- 
chitecture, Politicks,  Hiftory,  Cridcks,  Lo- 
gicks,  &c.  They  are  alfb  leis  liable  to  Theo- 
ries and  felfe  Reafotungs,  have  not  that  Con- 
tempt of  the  Ancients,  nor  of  Obfervadons 
built  on  Praftice,  improved  and  directed  I^ 
the  Underflanding,  and  raifed  to  the  Pitch  of 
Truth  by  a  long  Enquiry  into  the  EficAs  of 
Difeafes  and  Medicines.  Nor  are  th^  fo  Ua>- 
tile  to  be  attached  to  fome  one  or  two  nvounte 
Medicines,  which  they  think  deferre  to  b« 
efteemed  Panaceas ;  either  becaufe  they  found 
them  fuccefsiiil  in  a  lew  Cafes  at  their  firft 
fetdng  out,  or  from  a  natural  Inclinadon  to 
extol  and  afc^ibe  £idtidous  Virtues  to  fome 
Medicines,  as  forac  do  the  Bark>  odi(;rs  Salt 
pr^wgfats,  or  Sah  Draughts  and  Pedoial  D&- 
co£tioOj 


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co^4Q»  Qtbtfs  Cianabarioes  or  Mcrcunals,  qf 
t^  V(d«tilo  Spki^,,  or  Acidsi  or  tcAaceous 
PotmdjirSt  or  Facging  and  Bleedjjig,  &c.  Otjueci 
agtfiQ  wefcribc  proper  Medicims,  but  generaU^ 
ia  fycti  picifol  X>qre6,  as  though  thoy  werp 
a6u4  of  Poifoaing  iRAea^  9^  Curiag.  Sooi* 
Uks  in  a  h^tt  Qrcle  of  Medicines,  but  iroqi 
ieipt)  &1£f  Idol,  ixSagiivt  terms  it)  or  others 
xety  prei«Ftbc  Ip  Tqch  a  r^om,  tumultuoiv 
W^  as  r^etf  fii^eedfi  weU.  Others  may^ 
kU^ins,  that  kt^ing  floadily  to  the  fame  Ii^- 
tflin^PM  in  t|ie  &JXvt  Dife^es,  at  all  Times,  will 
he  .ffjwally  iji^cejsiEiiil  at  all  Times,  than  vrhict 
n^ilJtUNg  is  m^ro  ^16 1  Othors,  have  a  dextrous 
Knaf^  Ut  dti^ovccing  a  Sr^atch  of  the  Gfiutt 
Ftver,  S'tfn^,  or  i£^  in  all  Difeafcs ;  others 
mil  ^iHi  notthiog  ^ut  what  is  the  Produif^  of 
tbi-  Furnace,  by  Crpoil^W  aod  Retoit  j  or  her 
lie«6  bothkig  but  wiiat  they  fee  widi,  their  own 
Iwtfi  M  lisar  w^th  theit  own  E^rs^  as  thou^ 
att  wcife  Liars  but  ^oy^  and  thereby  g^vp 
SbifticJipB  that  they  th^pi^lves  are  fuch.  Soovb 
wiM  work  all  by  Evacuationj,  and  none  by  AW 
t^^fftiSj  others  exclude  Evacuaqts.  from  any 
Shtafi.  and  dep^n^  wholly  om  Alteratives,  whilft 
atbiT4ndhtlyjoii^both>&ff.  Thefd  are  a  fe^^ 
<^  tiw  Ictuwdimcnts  that  have  obftm^ted  thfi 
GroiMh  o/  Pfayfick}  a  great  many  more  ma^ 
be  {^^  » the  laft  iw^ed  ingenious  excellent 
Aut^.  |.  The  Improvements  in  Sucgei^, 
ftdsv  to  }^t,  th»t  ^o  late  minuter  Difcoveries 
JD  Anmiomy  are  not  fo  u&fol  and  aOiftant  to  the 
Phydcaa  as  to  the  Surgeon.  6.  That  the 
P  4  Surgeon 

2 


i.vCoogIc 


(216) 

^rgeon  has  frequent  new  LiglOs  and  Helps 
given  him  by  Amputation,  Inchon,  and  Apn- 
'tures  making  in  living  Bodies,  that  the  Phy- 
fician  wants  in  the  Evifceration  and  Encerok^ 
'of  dead  Bodies.  7.  The  late  great  and  uicfiU 
Improvements '  in  Surgery  fhould  excite  die 
Emulation  of  Phyficians,  to  fearch  out  other 
and  more  fuccefsAil  Methods  for  the  Cure  <^ 
thofe  DifeaCes  which  feem  ftil(,  from  our  Ta- 
ble, to  increafc  their  virulent,  ^tal  Nature,  as 
Convul^nSy  Smail-Pox,  Pevtrs,  Apo^etdes, 
Confumptions,  &c.  And  to  fee  how  th^  Cane 
"by  iheir  Attainments.  Whether  by  The(xies> 
or  attending  tc  Reafoning  on  a  juft  Hiflory 
and  Efledts  of  Difeafes  uid  Medicines^  8. 
Some  Difeafes  either  go  and  retilrn  at  iataz  yet 
unknown  Pferiods,  after  they  have  arrivedat  a 
certain  Acme,  ot  they  rife  to  a  Height  and  then 
quite  vanifli,  as  the  RicketSy  Leprofy,  Bhody- 
■pluxj  Leikargy,  Diabetes ^'iicc.  9.  When  we 
compare  the  fundry  Totals  of  different  Ode- 
naries,  we  arc  not  to' imagine,  either  that  die 
City  increafcs  proportionably,  exclufive  of -ta- 
king new  Parifhes  into  the  Bills ;  or  that  Pa- 
rifhes  proportionable  to  the  Incres^o,  are  added 
to  the  Bills  j  but  it's  from  both  ;  for  only  in 
the  laft  Year  of  the  firft  Oftenary  fix  new  Pa- 
riflies  were  added,  viz.  Hackney,  IJUr^ton, 
Lamhetb,  Newington,  Rotherbitb,  and  Stepnty^ 
whofe  Buryings  we  have  all  the  Years  of  the 
iecond  Oflenary.  Kit  what  Proportidn  thefe 
PariJhes  bear  to  the  whole,  is  impoffible  to 

iay. 


d=,Googk' 


(  «I7  )  _ 

to  £17^  .  vntbovt  c^nTi^ltii^  either  ^r  Ban^ 
•  SJoibie'i  BiUsi  or  ipplyiug  to  Uk  Ckrk's  Hail. 
10.  la. compariog.jhe  Bills  of  fundry  Periods 
to  &)4  th«  StattipC  H^Ith  and  Difeafcs,  a  Se- 
ries of  Years  fbwld  bo  taken. in  that  contun 
vasiws  Seafons,  Cooilitutions  of  the  Air,  and 
State  of  Foods.  Thus  1735  and  39  were  coIcL 
rainy  Years,  the  begionbg  of  40  thcgreatt^ 
Frod;  that  probably  vk  have  ^d  ^t  ieveral 
Centuries  paft,  iax  at  Lijnfmat  after,  the  Eaitb, 
waa  ftiU  haEd  frozen  a  little  -way  under  the 
Sai£ice  v  and  oi>  •  Micbaelmafi-rday .  our  Rivec 
was  frozen  over-  ixoax.  fide  ,ro  fide  j  ^8  and  39 
were  Y^rs  of  udCc»liinoa  Plenty- p/all  Provi- 
fions  fix  Man  flnd.  Betfft,  producing  ftifjident 
^  well  maqaged)  for  four  Yeusji  41  and  4a 
were:;Yeajs  of  Prg^ight,  Dearth^  and  ^carcity^ 
fted.  probably  it  muil  have  been^  fo,  had  Qo( 
dtdgreat  Froft  haj^aed  j  .for  by  the  two  fofr 
aei^  Yoars  luxuriant  Crops,  the  Earth  had  in  a 
maoo^  exhaufted;aRd  impoverifi^cd  itfeif  1^ 
Vegetatiop.  ;  11.  By  ^QpifKuii^  the  Bills  of 
Mortali^  of  different  Periods*  we  not  only 
fee  the  State  of  Health  aiyi  D^feafes,  but  tlie 
Flouriihing  or  Decay  of  Trade,  the  Growth  of 
Riches  or  Poverty,:tlje  Continuance  of  Liberty 
and  JVoperty,  or  Invafion  of  Tyranny,  are  ri- 
fibte  from  the  Refort  or  Withdrawing  of  Peqc- 
pie  from  the  Cityj.  the  wide  Difproportion  be- 
tween Births  and  Burials  lefiening,  till  like  the 
Country  the  firft  come  to  exceed  the  lail.  \z. 
Not  only  do  the  BUls  of  Mortality  difcover 
the  {^yfical,  civil,  and  comsaa'ci;il  States  pf 

the 


i.vCoogIc 


the  i^,  BAt  the  Decay  <rf'  Vbwie  Ind  Kttf ; 
1iIH3  t>teTiiIeAi!f  efVlcseiHainlpietir.  13.  Nm 
mlf  would  i  Table  of  DS&fts  conciilued, 
^  the  begimiiBg  Incnafe,  Height,  and  De- 
clinatioii  «f  feme  Difealea,  w  their  ineerttia 
ketuimandPrevalency,  btttihewiuwhaelU- 
liellb  have  a  gamt  Affinitjr  ta  ooe  anoihav 
owing  their  Rife  and  Frogrda  pnetqr  aev  to 
die  &me  Caiife ;  tluis  Aguts,  Dropfla,  ^un- 
dice,  and  Abortion,  tragncd  in  1^35,  16,  47, 
j4>  5^>  J9>  ^"  P"?^)  ^><>tted,  petecniol  tat 
emptive  Fc«en  in  1633,  3^,  44,  4^,  63  and 
041  which  ^m  die  lealtOommunieatioo,  ttiadt 
way  fbr  At  Plagne,  which  lilce  a  Spark  of  Kic 
In  Gunpowder,  immediately  braaiss  iMtbhil 
dke  Mdrtati^,  as  in  1624,  35,  46,  63,-  64^ 
6;.  Ai  Pleuilfies,  Qoinfiea,  Heaics,  Oon^ 
and  Catarrhs, 'pare  the  way  to  abundance  «f 
Confumptions.  14.  Had  Wdifaparate  Numban 
ef  the  Chriftenlngs  and  Baiyingsof  the  Parifln 
added  at  fevera!  Times  to  the  Bills  of  MaR» 
lity,  fince  1629  j  or  rather  fiaca  Co  many  pri- 
tate  Burythg-ptacea  W6i«  ufed,  it  woutd  be 
eafier  to  find  oat  ^  Increafe  of  People  in  the 
City  and  Suburbs ;  but  what  woidd  ItiU  be  of 
greateft  Serrice  (next  to  the  ezaft  Nnmbetc 
ttcnifclrcs)  is  the  eiaft  yearly  Naiaber  of 
Weddings,  feeing  al)  Marrlagts  are  only  by  the 
Chnrch,  Quakers  excepted.  Though  the  fe- 
cond  denary  hMa  during  the  very  greateft 
Negjea  and  Difnfe  of  the  pnblick  Regiftoa, 
.  yet  priTate,  Burying-places  not  bring  come  into 
Fafhion,  tliough  pnvateClviftenings  werf ,  we 
baTe  ftiil  ooe  Article  left,  by  which  we  maj 


byGoogIc 


(  at9  ) 
dtfponr  pretty  nnr  4he  feme  Nsn^r  of  Bicdit 
and  B«ptifins,  vrV.  the  Death  of  Child,  bed 
WotBen,  which  in  the  fiHl  OAenaiy  was  ^ 
ef  6i,  there  being  76712  ba^zed,  aqd  1259 
Ch&d-b«d  Woqwn  died,  which  is  about  i  of 
61.  In  the  CtcOAd  Odcnary  were  regiftcredj 
of  ChiiAonlnga  5334,(1  ^^  in  Child-bed  1609, 
wlucb  16  about  i  m  32^  or  a  of  65 ;  in  tho 
ih&c4  OftenBiy  were  127753  ChriftaiineB  rei 
glAcred,  1929  Women  died  iq  Chtld-bedj 
Whi^  is  about  i  of  66t}  in  the  iecond  06bt* 
Bory  iH  Buryifigs  were  at  Church,  but  not  att 
Ckn^emitffi  In  the  thitd  no  more  Women 
dyli^  in  Ould-bed  were  Ixiriei  at  Oiarcl^, 
than  were  of  the  Church  Conunimion,  and 
had'lAieir  ChUdren  ohriftened  therv,  ^i^efbrA 
the  Gtft  and  third  Accounts  are  right  Now 
according  to  the  firft  Odxnarjr,  wherein  aS 
OiHftenlngs  and  Buryings  wae  duty  regi£> 
tcied,  I  of  6 1  Child4}ed  Women,  and  i  isi 
66r  in  the  th^d.  Then  in  the  fecond  Ode- 
naiy,  wherein  1609  Women  died  in  Child-bed^ 
multic^y  this  by  61,  the  Product  is  98149, 
which  was  at  leaift  the  real  Ntunber  of  Chrift- 
ening«  in  that  Time.  Again,  I  fay  that  in  the 
firft  OAenaty,  though  1600  died  <^  the  Plagus 
60m  the  boginmng  of  162S  to  the  End  of 
1635,  yet  the  whole  Boryings  were  74669, 
and  the  ChrUlenings  75774-  In  the  feconl 
Q^nary,  though  only  lao  died  of  the  Fbgue^ 
yet  10347a  were  buried;  therefore,  I  iay, 
about,  or  above  1 00000  were  cbrKbened,  tho' 
ib  few  wQfe  regifteted.  In  1706  and  170S 
were  baptized  in  Sheffield  663,    17  Women 

died 


by  Google 


(    2t0   ) 

died' in  ^hil(lrl>ed,  which  isnbove  j-of  40; 
but  here  cuily.  7r8th&  of  the  Chriilenings  are  re- 
giftcced^.lEcnr  the  Weddings  thefe  two  Years 
were  192,  the  ChrlAcpiog^  663*  wbkh  is  not 
Jt  to  edch  Wedding, /but  .they  arc  or^aarily 
|Jearcr4jas  from  1629  to  36  inclufive,  were 
434  Maniag^i  Chriftenvigs  ^^9S'  ^  7*^  °f 
663.  is. near.  95,  add  boA  and  the  Tc^:  of 
ChriAe^ngs  theie  two  Ycara,  will  be  7c8s 
fheil  I  of  44t>  or  z  of  89  Women  diedf  ia 
Chitd-bed»  whU:h  gives  the  difiereot  Dangers 
Of  Child-bed  Women  between  Lotukn  and 
Sbe^U.  In  I^pfic  were  -bom.  in  4  Yeas 
4369  Children,  6^  Women  died  in  Child-bed, 
tpfaich  is  X  of  64.  In  feveral  other  Places  61 
Germany^  where  for  2550  ^rths,  4.3  Wonea 
died  in  Child-bed,  wmch.is  1  of  near  59.  In 
Sbeffeid  I  of  ;r4  were  Chry (bms,  of  the  B^iti- 
zed  I  of  66  died  of  Convulfions.  Some  Years 
are  much  more  &tal  to  Child-bed  W^nen 
than  others,  for  double  the  Number  dies  one 
Tear  thit  do  another,  as.  Jn  the  firft  Odepary 
jn  one  Year  died  ii2,  ya.  another  130. .  In 
-Z706  died  id  SbeMeld  11,  m  1708  only  6. 
}  c-  WJiat  they  call  Aged  in  the  BHk  cf  Mor- 
tality, is  not  fpecified,  Grauttt  fays  60  a*  70 ; 
Imtthis  is  Randoni  Guefling }  I  therefore  took 
the  Totals  of  the  fundry  Ages  above  50,  then 
^fe  above  60,.  but  both  wete  too  great  a 
dumber  for  that  Article  in  our  laft  O^nary, 
which  is  15630.  Thto'  I  took  all  «bove  70, 
and  found  fttemto  be  15216,  which  is  only 
414  Ihort  of  the  Article;  fo  that  all  above  69 


byGoogk' 


■'  (  asi  ) 
or  70  only  at  Kpkpned  Aged.  In  the  £4'»-! 
iurgi  Bills  60  is  oUed  Aged.  i4  As  to  tb; 
Difference  of  Burials  between  the  iicklieOl.ajoj 
healtliiell  Yats,  '■  without  any:  Flague,  lyy^ 
was  th^  hcalthief^  ia.tlie  laft  Ofteoary,  whcrc^ 
iodi'^  23538;  and  1741  theiicl[liell,wheteii 
in  i&d  32169)   fo  that  the  Odds  is  abon 

32-rV  to^jjT.     :■  ■.'..-  _    .,  ,./ 

There  18  a  Difeafe  which  Mo!  in; four  sf 
£te  Years  has  a  more  >  general  iad  remarfcah^ 
Rnoi:  of.  all  commoq  Epidemics  it  attaclu 
iaaft.Iilddienl]r,  unexpeftedjiy,  generally.  mak» 
the;fl«ortcft  Suiy,  and  grealeft  Havosfc  iniitltT 
tic  Time,  of  weak,  Reclining,  .con&inptiy^ 
andaAbmatic  Conftitutions,  .of  the  Aged. and 
Cfaildien  chiefly  and  mollly ;,  and  yet  there.ii 
bnt!a:Yery  finall: Proportion  b«(wecn  the..Iiit 
feOed,  or  fuch  3$  are. feized  with,  it  in  one 
ShaperAr  othci-,  and  :diofe  th«t  die  of  it.,  nit 
IsaUb  immediately  fuceeeded  by.  as.healthyva 
Time,  carrying;  off  .chiefly  foniealmoft  vornr 
out'C<»iftitutiQns,.:tbat  would.jnot.lave  Baiir 
ved  long  had  sdt.it  comei  InrnaCabtiiit, 
or.  Bpimtras ',  th^ -depend-  imnediatelyio* 
the.  preceding  State  of  the  Air:«!(d  Westhflt 
andrat.difierentr  Times  are  found  to  f^uir^  ^ 
lioiu'Iif tthods  .of  Cure, .  according. -tp  the  iMe 
and  piefiint  Conftimtion  of  the  Seafon,  whicli 
.Di&renceconfifls  (jiielly  in  the  Advastage:oc 
.Dil^paot^ge  of  Bleeding,'  a-  C-afe  only  to  .be 
i«£^cdby:Obfeivation,  not.  Theory.  Ihai^e 
aoacxcda  17*6  Table,  of  nflt.  only .  the  f^ 
great  jvoiverfal  reiparkable  ones  thait  happeoeii 


byGoogle 


(  BS2  ) 

ht  OBiitr  1728,  jMutty  lyjj,  0(l»hr  1737; 
j^t  174. J,  but  of  tbe  wwr  eno  which  have 
con&lcttibly  nifed  the  Bilk  of  Man>%  it 
tttf  other Time,  during  the  laft  t6  Ytatt,  vut, 
ftom  Jumsij  i>  172*1  to  JVaBJ/y  i;  17431 
and  of  th(i  r«a-  in  0;9i>i<r,  Nmitiier,  and 
2>iK«>><r  17411  ffkltb  Table,  couqund 
with  the  monthly  Bills  of  Mortality,  We  fc^ 
t.  That  dikDifdaf^Af  alt  Bpideaiiesaniaion 
10  all  Agu  ind  S«es,:c«m««fte«ll,  has  ttit 
moft  exknfirs  %tBid,  and  gtnoal  Infeasn 
Of  attothtta.  z<  Varteaitaoft  in  its  Degtstt 
«S  Milda«6  and  Sewtiiy,  a  fnsn  a  Gnlr  Sncee- 
jug,  Hiavy^heiidedHet^  a»  Hour^  cafy  Sweat 
kfter  a  ffight  Shitering,  6t  an  Hotlr's  {Uumiag 
iit  the  N«fe,  to  i  higb  Fever,  DeliriuBS,  and 
Death.  ^.  Ic  difiisra  alb  in  in  Mauacc  cf 
Stteitte,  Syfflptoois,  and  Dutatien.  4,  By 
tomparing  thoDe  with  flich  as.  hi^ipenM  afier, 
we  may&e  which  have  been  mon  Epidenib 
andfeol^  dtowlhgfor  thelacteafcorDecrede 
aftheCiiT.  t.  %  eomfititingthisTiUewith 
,lMle  flfteendi,  we  fee  of  what  Ages  dns  Dtf- 
<iife  is  taaA  deftroaive,  sMd  to  whether  it  it 
More  £uigiiiDe  or  flegmatic  a<  difiiiraie  Timea, 
fejr  bcmg  more  per^sm  to  Youth  or  Aged. 
^,  Juu,  yiiii  ind  Aig^  have  been  thecaly 
^Months'  ftee  fi«ffl  iu  Attacks  ihefe  Yeais,  the 
«ther  nine  hiM  bad  it  Aihihg  k&  or  mote. 
jj.  We  lie  ihitf  aa  in  sdier  Difeafis,  fb  in  this, 
tbe  %nng  Months  are  ffloft-fiital.  t.  Sfides 
gcneiitlly  .fuftain  or  feel  its  fiA  and  faexrieft 
'Seizure,  then  the  Femaleir  but  tddoai  ia  ^ 
e^ual, 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgli: 


C  W3  ) 

cqaal.  &r  lefs  in  Co  fevere  and  dangerous  * 
Way.  9.  Here  we  fee  whether  the  Diieafe, 
at  difl^ent  Seafbns  of  the  Year,  and  di&rent 
CWStotions  o£  Wexther, .  equally  aBedts  the 
kAx,  or  different  Ages  and  Coni^tudons  at 
dlfiltrftnt  Times.  10.  That  tiie  City  Morta- 
Ety  muft  be  }ud^  of  by  thfi  Months,  not 
Tealrs  $  fo  feme  Months  have  near  four  times 
as  aany  as  dtb^.  .     ~     .        :' 


T  A  B^t  E 


by  Google 


C   '24.  ); 


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ySsjJ^srjJs-rs 55525  J 

^,  1 

sSJIs£s??«sS?sS^»  i 

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ii.p,8S!E=irsni ==*??-:  1 

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< 

ss?Hrs>=i3Hr?sjgt? 

1 

|||Pir-s|i.f?jHS|| 

8 

1 

by  Google 


(225) 


ON     THE 

DUBLIN  BILLS, 

AIR,    WEATHER, 

METEORS,  ^r. 

On  rfe  DUBLIN    BILLS. 

MAJOR  Graunt  having  taken  no  No* 
tice  of  the  Dublin  Bills  of  Mortality, 
though  the  fccond  City  in  his  Ma- 
jefty'9 Dominions,  an  ingenious  Author  in  i68r» 
has  publiJQied  a  fmall  Schedule  on  them,  with 
three  <hqrt  Tables.  The  firft  is  a  retrograde 
Table  for  fix  ftraggling  Years  between  i683 
and  1680.  wherein  he  compares  them  and  the 
London  Bills:  During  which  Years  were  bap- 
tized yearly  in  London  12180,  buried  zooz^i 
itiDu&Hn  1026,  1644.  From  which  he  ob* 
fcrves,  I.  That  the  London  Burials  exceed 
thofc  oiParh,  2.  That  the  Births  are  five 
eighths  of  the  Burials;  and  that  Lendon,  in 
Q^  Time, 


i.vCoogIc 


(a»6) 
Time,  would  decfcaJe  quite  away,  vtevc  it  oat  \ 
Applied  out  of  the  Country,  where  there  are  i 
abotit  five  Births  for  four  Burials ;  the  Propcv- 
^ioa  of  Breeders  in  the  Country  being  greater 
than  in  the  City.     3.  Tt^it  the  Dublin  Burials 
are  about  a  twelfth  of  the  London  Burials,  and 
about  one  fifth  over ;  fft  that  the  People  in  Leu- 
Am  feem  to  be  twetve  times  as  many  as  theie  of 
Duhlin.     4.  The  Births  in  Dtiilin  are  about  , 
£ve  eighths  of  the  Burials,  which  {hews  that  tiu  1 
Froportion  between  Burials  and  Births  in  L6ii~  ' 
^M  axxAGublin  are  alike;  and  that  die, Ac- 
cMuits  are  kept  alike,    and  conf(.(^eDtly  are  1 
likely  to  be  true :  which  if  To,  t^,  5.  Births  : 
are  uio  beft  Way  (till  purpofely  the  Nambers  | 
of  the  People  are  exactly  taken)  whereby  to  ' 
ja4gc  of  the.Increafe  and  Decreale  of  Peoftki 
that  of  Burials  being  fubjedt  to  more  Contio- 
gencics  and  Variety  of  Caufes.    6.  Jf  Births  be 
as  yet  the  Mcaiure  of.  the  People,  and  that  tfae 
girths  are  as  5  to  S,  then  eight  fifths*  pf  t^  ' 
Bir^s,  taken  at  a  Medium,  is  the  NumbeE  of  , 
the  Barials,  where  tbe  Year  was  not  UMCoa-  '. 
monly  fickly  or  healthy.    7.  In.  the  ifiniat 
Bills,  every  Year  the  Numtxr  of  Males  bora  1 
is  ^eater  than  of  Females. 

The  fecond  Table  gives  us  the  yearly  HiMn 
■Births  and  Burials  fcv  fifteen  Years;  ihefbripcr 
whereof  is  14765,  the  Medium  9S4:;  the  lat- 
ter 24199,  the  Medium  is  1613.  Theielie 
divides  into  Ternaries,  or  every  three  ,Yc«s  ; 
and  then  be  gives  the  Medium  of  thefe  fiftwn 
Years,  then  of  the- above  fixf  wbich  fliews 
.that  there  wercalfo  ^ewer  Peoplgj  though  both 

the 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(   S27) 

the  fiAeeta  add  fix  Years  were  in  thb  fame  Tittle^ 
vizi  between  166  and  t68o.  2^  He  makes 
foiue  Remarks  on  hia  Tfernarfes ;  and,  3. That 
probably  as  the  People  in  DvSitn  have  increafed} 
(0  have  the  Houfes. 

His  third  Tabic  gives  the  Nufiibcr  of  Hoofo, 
or  Families  and  Hearths,  in  each  of  the  thir- 
teen Parifhcs  of  Dili/in,  and  the  Mean  of  each 
Parilh^  Births  and  Burials  in  1670^  y  i ,  and  72. 
The  HoufeSi  or  Families^  he  mids  to  be  4000 
in  i63i}  the  Hearths  18156;  the  annual 
Births  1Q13}  tlie  Burials  1696:  From  which 
he  gives  us  the  Order  and  Proportion  of  thofe 
Fanihes  to  one  another,  and  what  it  {hould  be. 
ed.  If  eadi  Family  confiAs  of  eight  SouI%  as 
there  were  4.000  Families  or  Houfes,  then  there 
nerc  32000  Souls  in  Dublin^  which  was  but 
half  of  what  moH  Men  imagined  j  and  that, 
befides  the  Royal  Regimenr^  only  one  fixth 
Part  were  able  to  bear  Arms.  3d,  That  with- 
out knowing  the  true  Number  of  the  People, 
the  XJfe  of  keeping  Bills  of  Births  and  Burials  is 
greatly  impaired  j  for  to  deduce  their  Number. 
from  Births  and  Burials  by  Uborious  Conjeftures 
and  Cakulationa,  maybe  ingenious,  but  very  pre^ 
poftcFous.  4th,  He  tells  us  who  are  proper,  eafily 
and  at  a  fmall  Expente,  to  take  an  Account  oif 
the  whole  People,  and  their  fevcral  Ages, 
Seres,  TilleSi  Marriages,  Trades,  Religion,  &c. 
Then  tie  gives  us  a  Scheme  of  making  up  a 
Weekly  and  Quarterly  Bill  of  Mortality,  with 
tiic  Nuo^ier,  Agas  aDdDifea&s,  or  Accidents^ 
of  all  that  died  out  of  each  Parifh  in  that 
Tim^  infourctbuTableSi  with  fonpe  of  their 


i.vCoogIc 


XJCes  and'  AdvarltagCE.  Bgt  our  Aafbof  being 
deficient  in  Materifils,  and  a  longer  Seties  ^ 
Years 'to  draw  his  Inferences  front/ hafi  tnade 
feme  too  hftAy  Cor.cluitons  wbieh  v/ii  not 
feold. 

In  1682,  there  raged  a  fpotted  I^ewr  in 
Dublin;  in  that  Yeartlied  2262,  a  v^  high 
Bill :  yet  in  84.  Sir  PTifliam  Petty  proved  be- 
fore the  Royal  Society,  that  even  adding  that 
to  the  Paris  Bills,  they  were  yet  ftrart  of  tlic 
London  Yearly  Bills;  taken  at  a  Medinih. 

In  Numb.-  261;   of  the  Philaf.  tninf.  wc 
have  an  Account  of  the  Number  of  i^c^Ie  in 
■the  Couilties  of  ^Irdmagb,  Leioth,  and  Mfoth, 
m  Jan.  1695-6.  and  in  the  City  oPDu&lm. 
In  Dublin  Were  40508  Souk.    Tht  NufAber 
of  ^ya(t^men  In  that  \vho!6  Kingdom,  thte  fatnc    I 
Year,  were  4424,  2654.  whereof  were  Prfpifts;    I 
feSS  of  the  Watermen  bclenged  to  DwiMr.  In 
1698.  an  exaft  Account  was  taken  of  nil'  the 
/?om//5 Clergy  in  Ireland;  there  were  Regulars    | 
495,   Seculars  872  J  from  Dublin,    GaUwav, 
Cork  and  Wcterford,  424   Regulats  were  by 
K&.  of  Parlianpent  fhipt  off  for  foreign  Part«, 
their  Paflage  and   Provifion  bdng-pa^  for  by 
the  Government. 

After  this,  I  meet  v/ith  no  other  public  Ac- 
count or  Notice  of  the  Dublin  Bills,  till  1747. 
that  the  worthy  and  ingenious  Dr.  kufiy  "diere 
procured  me  tn  annual  AbArafl^  of  them  from 
1715.  to  1746.  only  the  feirdis  and  Bbriate  of 
1739.  are  wanting;  becaufc  before  that  Year, 
4hey  ended  their  Year  with  March  (he  '24th  j 
but  fmee-  then  with  t^dttttktr  2^.-  There 
wants 

L,  ,z,;i.vC00gIC 


<  «9  ) 
wants  alfo  Ac  Chriftcnings  of  1732,  37,  and 
38.  Nor  is  it  ipccified  in  the/e  three  Years 
die  particular  Numbers  that  died  above  and 
ttoder  fixtecn  Years  of  Age,  as  is  done  in  all 
the  otber  Years.  But  theie  Chafins  ]  have  fup- 
pHed,  by  taking  them  at  proper  Mediums. 
Neither  the  old  nor  new  Bills  djftinguifli  the 
Sexes  of  Baptized  and  BUried,  like  other  Bills ; 
nor  have  either  .of  them  the  IWarriages,  which 
is  a  great  Waat.  In  theie  32  Yeats,  'y;jB..froai 
1715.  1046.  were  baptized  43940,  or  1373 
at  a  ycariy  Medium  ;  buried  769IJ5,  or  2400 
anqually.  To  the^  is  added  the  cxaft  Num- 
bers that  died  abo»e  and  below  fixteen  Years 
oMi  the  f^rm^r  being  reckoned  Adults  and 
Co9imfiDi<;ants>  the  latter  Children.  The  Dr. 
kjt,  thot-^be  whole  Account  of  Chrif^enings 
'tnd  fiaryiogs  is  confideraUy  ihort  of  the  T^th, 
becaufc  of  the  great  Number  o£  .Roman  .Ca- 
tholics there,  wba  chrift^n,  and  fometimes 
bury,  by  themfelves  j  therefore  the  Proportiou 
(f  Burials  is  too  great  for  the  Chriflchings.  I9 
1745.  the  Number  of  Families  in  Dublin  was 
taken  cxaftly,  and  laid  before  the  Lord  Mayor  ; 
it  was  9214,  whereof  were  R'oteflants  5639, 
Papifts  3575,  or  near  14  to  9.  But  he  Jays 
the  Honfes  in  Dublin  are  fo  thronged,  that 
ibroc'imes  fereral  Families  arc  crowded  into  a. 
Room, 


SLs  '^'^' 


i.vCoogIc 


(««>) 

Tti.  xxni.. 

From  j666  »  7* 
1674  to  Ho 

5715  «o  29 
,   J730  to  46 

BqiM 

7016 

6816 

20033 

248S1 

»i6jo 

♦12I» 

38>37 

From  J715  to  29     20455 
17301046     26814  ■ 

2  J  775 
16529 

Btftinl  BttM 

-&  1671,74,  So,  threefickly  Yean  304I  59pA 

1676,77,79,  three  healthy  Year^  4910  4J47 

1717,  22,  29,  40,  41,  fickly  Ycm  7269  152^ 

J734>3St+3>44>  46,  healthy  Years  731a  10152 

■   1727,  28»  33, 40,  fruitful  Yetn  6774  914J6 

J730,  36,  +1, 44,  barren  Yev^  54»5  ^8^ 

.  In  this  ifhort  Tatle,  ^n4  the  foUowIi^  Ob- 
jervations,.  the  iirA  and  lafl  tnetitiooed  Years 
,  are  always  included.  Qhf.  jil.  From  167a.  to 
8p.  the  City  fee|i>s  to  have  been  on  the  pe- 
crcaie,  as  we  fee  from  the  yearly  Me^iuoa  of 
3irths  and  Burials ;  l>ut  cannQt  fay  hi>Si'  long 
it  coQtiDued  {q  \  for  in  1695.  we  1^1  quickly 
fef  it  was  not  ooly  r^overed,  but  much  io- 
creafcd.  sd,  In  the  thr^e  fat£^L  Years  ctf  the 
iirfl  two  Septeonarics,  the  ChriAepiugs  \rer<t  to 
the  Buryings  as  30  to  59,  But  in  the  three 
Jiealthy  Years,  the  former  were  to  the  latter  as 

^4to  20, 3d.  TlW  Burials  of  the  above 

tl^rc?  flckJy  Years,  are  ?o  Uicfc  in  j)x  Itcalthy 


by  Google 


(a3«  ) 

*c  59  to  41,  tbe  ChriilcningB  as  30  to  29. — -•» 
4tfa,  In  the  five  ikkly  Years  between  1715.  to 
4JS.  the  Births  are  to  the  Burials  as  9  to  abovf 
J  9  :  sand  in  the  five  htalthy  Yean  in  that  Pc^ 
riod,  as  ^  to  10.- —  5th,  Chriftcnijjgs  of  thofe 
five  fickly  Years  are  to  thoie  of  the  five  heahhy 
as  18  to  i8tj*  Kirials  above  15  to  10. — - 
6th.  During  five  of  the  holthieft.  in  Lm^n^ 
WJB.  1715,  17,  32,  44,  45.  the  Baptifms  were 
to  the  Bufyings  as  41  to  55,  or  10  to  14.  In 
the  five  fatallefl:  Years  there,  ^/«.  1723,  29, 
33, 40, 41.  they  were  as  42  to  75.— 7th.  Births 
in  the  fatallefl  Years  are  to  thpfe  of  the  healthieft 
as  83  toSi>  the  Burials  abov^  15  to  11 :  So 
that  fickty  Years  are  &r  more  fatal  to  DubUn. 
than  Lonaon  ;  for  in  the  former  they  are  7  to 

15,  in  the  latter  as  11  to  15. 8th.  Thisdif- 

proves  the  Opinion,  that  fiddy  or  mortal  Yeart 
are  always  the  barrenefli  i  i<x  in  the  five 
healthy  Years  in  lAndon^  the  OiriAtnings  were 
tcATQt  82  to  84  in  the  ficklyeft  Years,—--  9th. 
This  fliewsus  the  fmall  Difproportion  there  is 
between  the  Produif):  of  fraitful  and  barren 
Years  in  general,  and  how  great  Odds  there  is 
between  the  Deaths  of  fickly  and  healthy  Years 
in  Dnilin^  one  bekig  as  36  to  37,  the  other  ag 
15  to  io.-«—  loth,  As  there  ts  a  "mde  Dif- 
ference between  the  difiertfnt  Degica  ci'MorCa- 
Uiy  ki  LoitdoH  and  DubUn,  io  tn  the  Ages  of 
People  caitied  off  atdif&rentTimesin  theiama 
Pk^;  fot  DuiUn  feems  to  have  been  more  un- 
ftvoufi^Ifl  to  ChildrAi  formerly  than  now ;  for 
from  lytj.  to  23.  were  buried  under  16 
Years  o{  Age  13236 ;  above  i6j  11522,  almoll 


i.vCoogIc 


'( -232  ^ 

13  ton:  ihecMHtary  wbcKof  we  jH^ired  bo- 
fere  to  ba  the  Cafe  of  Loruk».  In  1733,  34> 
36,40,  and  to  46,  died  under  16  Years  old 

10394,  above  it  15152. iith.  1716,  17, 

21,  22,  23,  26,  27,  and  31.  were  inorul  to 
Chtldien;  for  of  them  died  13640,  and  of 
Adults  only  100005,  But  In  1729,  40,  and 
41,  the  Cafe  was  o^rwife;  for  of  Adults 
died  6045,  and  of  Children  only  3267.  Here 
»re  ei^bt ^tal  Years  to  Children,  and  cHily  three 
to  Adults,--.—  11th.  Heocc  we  fee,  that  »  the 
Difeafes  of  Adults  return  feldomer  than  ordi- 
pary,  fo  they  arc  more  deftrud^ive ;  for  the 
grcatcft  Mortality  of  Childien  was  in  1717- 
and  22.  when  each  limCAbouti^oodied;  bat 
in  40.  and  41.  above  4100  Adults  died. —— 
13th.  Though  Infants  and  Children  undergo 
their  proper  Difeafes  but  onpe  in  Liie,  yet  they 
return  ofteoer  to  the  iame  Places  than  the  Dii^ 
eafes  of  Adults,  who  are  liable  to  the  coounoa 

Epidemics  oftener. 14th.  Here  we  lee  to 

whatAgci,  Intermittents,  Remittents,  nerfous 
or  malignant  Ferers,  Dyl^nteries,  &c.  are  moft 
dangerous  and  fatal ;  and  of  what  EXflempers 
Children  or  Adults  ^n  bear  the  greateftShedf,— 
]  5tli.  Here  we  alfo  fee  the  different  DcftruAiot 
that  commonly  fevoral  Dtftcmpers  make  erf" 
Ibndry  Ages :  for  as  the  inilammatary  DiAem' 
persof  Children  carried  off  171 2  of  tfaem  in 
1722,  fo  the  Intermitients  and  Reraiunw  of 
1729.  kilted  1S98  Adults;  and  the  sniignant 
putrid  Fevers  of  174.0.  and  41,  made  a  Slaugh- 
ter of  4147.  mofHy  Adults.  Thiw  we  fee 
^^t  the  prc^nt  £ute  t^  ffeal^li  in  .CM/i's  is 
very 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(  233  ) 
very  diffcfcnt'from  that  of  hon^n  in  diffident 
Ages  and  Years-n* —  "i  6th.  In  the  Abftraft '  rf 
the  Dublin  Bills  from  1715.  to  46.  wc'  bare 
the  EKtremes  of  both  Ages  that  die)  for  in 
172?.  died  1712  Children,  and  in  44*  only 
595,  or  17  tofcarce-d.  \n  174T.  died  2145 
Aduks,  And  in  1730.  only  839,  which  is  as 
2 1}  to  8.  which  ag^in  fliews  what  we  geaeraHy 

meet  with  in  Regifters. 17th.  That  when  % 

Meftality  makes  great  Deftroftton  of  Adtilis 
efpecially  a.  Scries  of  healthy  Years  naoflly  fuc-* 
cecds.  There  we  fee'it  did  from  1729.  to  40; 
and  Aom  41.  Hill  coniinnes  very  healthy ;  moft 
of  the  weah  declining  broken  Conilitudoo^ 
and  hon  Companions  being  taken  off. 

Having  at  a  Medium  fupplied  the  Chafin  of 
the  three  Years  and  nine  Months  In  the  Birtha, 
and  the  nine  Monch^wantmg  in  the  Burials,  [ 
find—-  I.  That  London  and  Dublin  do  not  al- 
ways fn'ofKircioratly  incrcafe  and  decrealeat  thfi 
iame  tioie ;  fur  from  1673.  to  80.  the  DubUa 
Bills  funk  one  fortieth  Fart  perjimim  fronj 
what  they  were  from  1666.  to  72.  and  the 
Chriftenings  about  one  Wvcnty-fiftfa  ;  but  from 
1673.  to  80.  the  hondon  Btrihsrofe  925  yearfy 
(U  a  Mecliun>,  and  the  BuriJli  2619. — -2d.  la 
55  Years,  i.e.  frtm  1666.  to  1721.  Ae  Lok' 
d^  Burials  increaied  from  T7097  to  28083  at 
a  Medium  yearly,  or  from  17  to  28.  The 
ChriOeningi  from  11580  to  i7957i  or  irf  to 
almofl  18,  and  the /^»M«  Biiitis  rcom.'iao9 
to  ii49f  or  fiwm' 10  to  ir-}<.  The  Burklt  irotn 
1640  to  2684.—--  3d,  HycomparingthcSep»- 
teanry  from  171 5.  to  z\,  with  Aat  from  174a. 


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(  234  ) 
ta  4^.  we  iee  from  the  Decreafe  of  FonenU 
both  in  Lmdoa  and  DuUia^  both  the  di^eot 
Healthinels  of  the  two  S^tenaries,  and  what 
Nambers  of  Peq>Ie  both  of  them  have  coo- 
tribnted  to  the  pr^ot  War  i  thoagh  each  (^ 
tho&  two  Septenaiies  had  two  moil  £ital  Yeais 
in  ifaem.  For  the  Lmdm  Burials  are  feUen 
irom  a8o8j  to  x^573>  or  oear.Doefemtccnthf 
and  the  Births  in  tlut  time  from  17957  ^'^ 
145061  or  from  almaft  9  to  7^^ ;  the  Dublin  Bu- 
rials fr(»n  26  to  25 ;  but  iu  Births  increafed 
machj  viz.  from  1 1  to  15.  So  that  m  Lon^n 
has  decreafed  id  both  Births  and. Burials  in  the 
laA  Septenary,  Dublin  has  increafed  near  one 
fourth,  in  the  Births  — -4th.  Since  the  Pro- 
portion between  Births  and  Burials  Icceps  pt^ 
much  die  fame  in  both  Cities ;  Chen  ukisg  it 
in  the  general,  the  State  of  Health  io  »tfa 
is  not  very  different,  and  that  the  Refort  from 
the  Country,  and  oi  Strangers,  is  near  Ae  ^qk 
'  in  both  in  Pr<^x)rtion  to  their  Bulks. — 5tb. 
Thot^  it  has  been  thought  ihat  Dublin  ooo- 
tains  more  Roman  Catholscks  in  proportian  to 
its  Magnitude  than  Lmdon ;  yet  there  is  ce 
great  Odds  in  Dif^oportion  between  the  Births 

aod  Buriabof  the  two  Places. 6tb.  Though 

fince  ^e  happy  Acceffion  of  the  prefent  Ro^ 
Family,  the  Number  of  Proteftant  D'lSaUGS 
has  greatly  decreafed  in  Londm ;  yet  the  Dif- 
ttoportion  between  Births  and  Burials  is  gready 
jncreaicd;  for  from  1715.  to  21.  and  Utim 
1740.  to  216.  the  -Odds  in  the  Krths  is  fhiM 
from  alroofl  9  K»  7.  and  of  the  Burials  iiroin 
14  to  1%.    tliough  the  Odds  iit  the  Fiuccab 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(  *JS  ) 

nuy  be  occafioned  frosi  the  V/ar,  6nce  maaf 
jtre  killed  or  die  abroad  that  otherwife  would 
die  at  home.  But  in  DubUn^  the  Dif&reace 
betwceo  tbcfe  Septenaries  \a  the  Births  is  from 
11  to  I  ^,  in  the  Barialsfrcvn  26  to  23,  which 
is  a  PreiumptioD  that  DifafitfUon  to  the  picieiit 
EftaU^iuimt  19  inoeafed  in  JJmdott^  bat  dev 
created  to  DubSa  i  and  that  greater  Ok  is  ta- 
ken to  prevent   or   fiipprefs   DiiLSoQiaa   in 

Duilin  than  in  Lfind^. 7th.  Seeing  the  D^ 

pcopottion  between  Births  and  Buriak  in  Ijon- 
don  &om  1604.  to  43.  \TOs  St  to  II  before  the 
Divifion  broke  out  in  the  Cburch,  we-fes  wdiat 
Regard  is  due  to  fuch  as  a£Ecrt,  that  before 
.diat  Schilm,  Births  and   Burials  were  pretty 

much  alike,    or  equal   there. 8tlk  ftince 

Lmdcttf  from  1604.  to  23.  at  a  yearly  Me* 
diam,  buried  only  8400,  and  Duikn  for  the 
laft  80  Years  (We  fuppofe)  buried  about  one 
etevfatb  of  their  Number;  tlieQ  Du&Hm,  at 
that  Time,  fcarce  buried  1 64  yearty }  Jb  thtt 
LoTtdon  and  Dublin  contain  between  three  and 
four  Times  the  Nimber  o£  Souls  now  that 
they  did  then,  viz.  120  Years  before  1721.'— 
9th.  That  London  and  Dublin  both  hare  ist 
exceeded  Paris  in  their  Increafe.  For  in  1670, 
yi,yz.  Parist  at  a  Medium,  buried  188131 
but  from  1728.  1036.  it  buried  only  17804 
yearly,  fo  that  it  is  rather  on  the  Decreaie ; 
which  ihews  the  great  Advanta^  of  Property 
fecured  by  Law,  beyond  the  Exadtion  and  Op« 
preflion  of  civil  or  military  Affairs,  or  gmdy 
and  tyrannical  Landlords ;  for  Property  (o  ie- 
«ared  will  excite  the  P^ple's  loduihy,  and 
caofe 


byGoogk' 


«fufe  their  ReTert  and  Increaie.—-  loth,  Hie 
BaftUms  ia  DniHn  being  onlf  ii«B  oighths  of 
tlic  Furerals,  but  in  Paris  a»  18  to  i^,  (hews 
OB  the  dive  and  impditical  EfSodh  o£  Pezkca- 
tio»  of  2  People  wbo  would  be  fiutbfiil  to'dicft: 
Jawfvl  Prince «  &»■  horehjr  we.  ice  the  IVcv 
leflaae.Rrltgioa isnow almoft cxpelted aad  cbc- 
tind  is  i^i«rr;,  (tfaoagh  titty  weie  foaaerlf-  an 
Ovec-match  for  tbeir  Enenues)  aad  (hews  us 
what  we  ate  to  ejq^&,  thoaSd  we  charily  and 
leoderly  connive  at,  or  nuiiie  np  Pkpifta^  till 
they  become  onr  MaAers. .  Aod  a«  the  BtpuW 
6an  of  Proteftantifm  tbeflCv  is  chiefly  owihg 
to  ibto  Frlefls,  ws  fee  how  dtngereus  it  it  for 
s  People  to  make  them  tbeie  Maftora »  for  if 
duy  can  compa^  their  &ids,  ttiey  wHi  miJfe 
the  Prince  abfolute,  and  the  IV^^Ie  miferaMei 
c^cially  when  fhe-vcry  Princi[desof  iJk  Cic^ 
.  ttachcB  Crudly  and  fitoodihed. 

A^easly  fepteaary  Medium  of  the  XnMfet 
and  Dv^/rs  Births  and  Burials  are  thtfs  pnfenied 
to  the  Eye  at  one  View. 

T^.    XXIV.  •      .. 

BIRTHS.        BURIALft 

-  '                          Lmdm,  £>uhlm.  .  Ludoi.  ffuMif. 

From  1666  to  72    ii^So    1009  '7°97  '  »Sf 

■■         1671  to  80     I2J25      97a  ^9*^^     is^ 

•         1715  a  ix-  17957     *^49  ■  18083     366^ 

47401046     1450*    lyig  «6S7J.   236a 

TosaJ*  56368    4635  90869  'istj;^ 

]  '  Tom 


i.vCoogIc 


(  237  ) 
From  the  total  annual  Medium  of  theft  foae 
Scpcenarifs,  we  fee  the  London  Births  are  id 
thele  of  Dublin  near  as  12  to  i ;  the  Burials  as 
1 1  to  I."*"  2d.  From  1692.  to  q%.  the  anml 
L^dm  Burials,  at  a  Medium,  were  2<0433, 
the  I  ith  of  which  is  about  185S  ^  the  Loadan 
Births  were  r4904,  the  12th  of  which  is  1242. 
]632  was  a  fatal  Year  in  Dublin^  2262  died  in 
it;  and  iri  84.  24100  dieJ  in  LWwr.  Here 
Dublin  Burials  were  72  above  the  nth  Part> 
which  (hews  the  Diftemper  to  be  more  fatal  in  - 
Dublin  than  in  London.  Multiply  18^,  the 
Medium  of  the  Dub/in  Septenary,  by  22,  and 
the  Produ-fl  is  40876.  But  the  totol  Inhabi- 
tants of  Dub/in  being  numbered  in  January 
1695.  were  40508  ;  but  40876  is  368  above 
this  Account :  or  if  we  divide  40508  by  at, 
the  Quotient  is  18411  which  multiply  ^;atn 
by  22,  the  Produft  is  40482,  or  26  ibort  of 
the  true  Number.  The  ly  yearly  Burials  abo*e 
the  Medium  arife  from  the  Mortality  1682; 
Here  divide  40508  by  5,  the  Quotient  is  8101, 
or  the  Number  c^  Families  in  Dublin ;  then 
(for  I  have  fufEciently  proved  before,  that, 
without  mnqing  into  Abfurdiiies  of  very  bad 
Confequence,  we  muft  never  allow  above  6ve 
to  a  Family,  and  but  feldom  fo  many)  excla* 
iive  of  Lodgers  and  Boarders,  which  are  not  to 
be  reckoned  Inhabitants,  but  Sojourners  er  Iti- 
nerants. Again,  divide  the  810 1  Families  by 
fix  and  a  half,  the  Quotient  is  1 246,  the  Num- 
ber of  Children  bom  yearly  of  thofe  Families; 
having  fully  proved  from  Table  8th,  and  its- 
Additions,  that  every  13  Families,  one  wkh 
I  another. 


i.vCoogIc 


f  a3»> 
Mtuhttt  produce  yearly  tvo  Chtldcen :  9a  thd 
the  Children  of  Lodgers  and  Iniineraitti,  born 
aad  baptized  id  Dublirii^  compaa&te  the  Num-' 
Iw  of  uor^iftcfed  Cfaildrco.  of  the  iDhabt- 
tants,  befidci  ftveral  unregiftercd  baptized  Cfail- 
drcB  of  Lcdgen,  and  fuch  as  baptiw  not  at 
«ll,  nor  re^ifter  with  the  Church.  1  was  fiir- 
prized  to  fee  the  Author  of  the  Obiervations  on 
the  Dublin  Bills  of  Mortality  fay,  that  in  1670. 
there  were  but  3  8  50  Huu&s  or  Families  in 
DubUn^  when  the  Mean  of  the  yearly  ChriAcn- 
ings  were  1009,  which  neccl&rily  requires 
6559  Families  to  produca.  They  muA  alio 
.  bury  a  Number  cqoal  to  their  whole  prefent 
-InhalHtants  in  about  i  if  Years.  In  17451  the 
Houies  or  Families  in  Dublin  were  numbered 
again,  and  found  to  be  9214,  and  their  yearly 
&ptifms  then,  at  a  Medium,  were  15071 
which  Births,  (fiippofe  they  were  all  regiAered) 
require  9795  Families  to  produce ;  which  ihewt, 
that  in  their  Recounts  they  mean  Houfcs,  not 
Families ;  and  that  feveral  Families  of  Lodgers 
and  Sojourners  are  crowded  up  in  one  Houfe 
.of  the  meaner  Sort,  elpecially  if  we  make  doc 
.  Allowance  for  unregiftcrcd  BaptJfms,  which 
are  always  more  than  the  Funerals.  There- 
fore to  take  the  Number  of  Hoofes,  and  not 
Families,  as  they  do  here,  is  a  mcer  Jeft.  Of 
dKfe  92i4Houfes,  5639  were  inhabited  bjr 
•  Proteftants,  and  3575  by  Papifts.  But  FV&' 
teiftants  muft  lodge  in  ihetr  Houfes  4156  other 
Families,  whole  Children  (or  a  Number  equal 
to  them]  are  regiftered.  But  3575  JEioules, 
or  0.991  two  fifths  of  the  Houfes,  being  fK^eft 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


<  239  ) 

1^  Catholics,  add  2700  mwe,  in  proportion  of 
II  to  8  (aa  was  done  with  the  Protcftant 
Honfea)  and  the  Number  will  be  6275,  whole 
yearly  Births  are  about  950,  which  are  fup- 
poled  to  be  unregiAered,  of  all  Denominations. 
Thus  the  whole  principal  Honfholders  in  Vuilim 
are  9214  ;  the  Families  (including  conftant  or 
fixed  Inhabitants,  Sojourners,  Lodgers,  &e.  are 
9795  whoie  Children  arc  regiAered,  and  6275 
of  all  Denominations,  whofe  Children  are  not 
ngtftered,  in  all  16070  Families  >  and  803  50^ 
alkiwing  5  to  each  Family,  or  76333,  allow- 
ing 44  Soab  to  each  Family,  whofe  yearly 
Births  are  about  3471,  and  Burials  about  2700. 
Thus  will  a  Number  equal  to  the  prc&nt  Id- 
habitaote  be  born  in  about  30}  Years,  and  bu- 
ried in  about  20  Years.  This  diffi:rs  but  about 
4000  from  the  iitb  I^  computed  hchte 
to  he  ia  Xjoruiott,-  Thus  Dublin  buries  a 
Number  equal  to  its  Citizens  •  in  24  Yean. 
This  al£>  dctedte  their  MilUkc,  who  ^y  there 
are  £x  Catholics  Ip  Duhlin  for  one  Proteftant, 
fiooe  regifter^  Baptilms  are  to  unregiflered  as 
15  m  9,  and  regiftercd  Funerals  are  to  nnre* 
^ered  as  23-^  to  jt- 

RcgilVcrB  are  not  dellitute  of  furprizing  In- 
Aances  of  kind  Providence;  as,  1  ft.  That  the 
Ame  Year  is  fddom  mortal  both  to  Childrea 
and  Adults  in  general ;  for  when  an  uocom- 
mon  Sweep  of  Adults  comes,  God  is  gracions 
to .  their  Children,  that  they  may  quickly  fup- 
ply  their  Parents  Places ;  or  if  be  ttraoft  mo 
KQOCy.the  Branches  are  left;  or  the  virmoos 
and  &)beF  furviving  ^dutts  are  foon  bleft  with 

a 


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(  24«  li 
ft  lovely  Ofispring. — -t-  ad.  Some  MohautM 
ftealon,  as  it  wcre,infcnf]bly,  bot  contioue  long  j 
'  86  thtt  which  he^n  in  1722.  was  icarce  out 
before  1730.  Others  again,  as  it  were,  fur-> 
prize  ftfccure  World  at  oace,aDd  a  few  Months 
determine  them,  as  that  of  1740.  and  41* 
SooKtimes  a  communicated  Contagion  or  lo- 
fe^ion  makes  fad  Havock,  but  it  is  foon  orer. 
At  other  Times,  Epidemics  attack,  with  all  the 
AffiAance  of  Air,  Seafons,  and  Food,  to  let  us 
iec  who  has  the  Command  and  Ordering  d 
tbefe  in  his  Power,  and  cotifeguently  our 
Health  and  Lives.  Stxactimcs  Providence  fo 
prders  it,  that  tlie  Viedence  or  Virulence  of  a 
DiAomper  is  ipent  before  it  reaches  us }  as  ii  may 
be  a  Plague  In  one  Place,  but  turn  to  a  pcfti* 
leucial  fpottcd  Fever  before  it  reaches  another, 
imd  onij  ft  maltgaant,  putrid  Fever,'  before  it 
comes  to  a  third  Country :  Or  he  may  incrctft 
its  Viruicace  in  its  Progrejsi  it  may  begin  a 
potrid  Ferer,  turn  to  a  pcAiientlal,  and  prove 
the  Plague  in  a  third  Place  :  Of  if  he  defigD  a 
fcneral  Viikadon,  he  £rft  &nds  to  fuch  Places 
as  it  iliall  be  quickly  fpread  over  alt'  the 
neighbouring  Countries,  as  into  a  Ornip  juft 
about  to  break  up,  or  a  Fleet  t^yotit  to  faiffor 
different  Countries ;  or  he  can  fend  it  in  (be 
Air,  or  by  common  Food,    and  many  other 

Ways  he  l»s  for  Corrosion. 3d.  Tboagfa 

his  Mercies  arc  often  general,  yet  bis  Judg- 
ments .arc  rarely  fuch  j  for  he  never  vifits  dll 

Places  at  once. 4th.  When  a  City,  Town, 

Village,  or  *a  Corner  of  a  Country,  or  -ewn 
fometimes  a  fingic  Family,  degenerate  ftrangely 


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(HI ) 

in  their  Principles,  or  Praftice,  or  both,  God 
permits  or  commtflions  Difeafes,  Death,  or 
fome  other  Calami^  to.  imite  them ;  and  that 
from  flight,  trifling,  or  wholly  unintelligible 
Caufes  to  vilit  them ;  as  by  the  Plague  in  a 
Letter,  Cloaths,  Goods,  &c.  Inflammatory 
Diftompcrs,  nervous,  putrid,  malignant  Fevers, 
brought  in  by  a  Stranger,  Traveller,  Vilitcr, 
Sr  the  like ;  and  fays  to  the  Dlfeafe,  as  Co  die 
proud  raging  Waves  of  the  Sea:  Hitherto  Jhalt 
thu  go,  and  no  farther.  Yea,  either  for  Cor- 
reSion  or  Trial,  he  fends  T«mpefts,  Meteors, 
Mildews,  Rot  of  Corn  or  Cattle,  Sfi-.  to  fomo 
paiticular  Places,  and  not  to  others.— 5th,  Of 
Mercy,  when  the  People  of  a  Place,  or  Coun^ 
try,  have  long  groaned  under,  or  been  often 
tedioofly  and  fatally  afHided  with  a  Difeafe, 
or  Difrales,  he  removes  it.  Where' are  now 
our  general  Leprofies,  Rickets,  fi-equent  Re-* 
turns  of  the  Plague  ?  Great  Mortalities  by 
Agues  ?  Some  of  thefe  are  removed,  or  pre-< 
vented.  For  others.  Providence  has  (to  us) 
cafually  difcovercd  Antidotes ;  as  the  Ufe  of  , 
Sulphur  Waters  in  Leprofies ;  the  Jefuits  Bark 
in  Agues,  and  other  intermittent  and  periodic 
cal  Caies.  And  'tis  to  be  hoped  that  the  great 
Deftniftion  of  Children  and  Youth  by  the 
Small-pox  will  be  much  lellened,  when  the 
unreafonable  and  ungrateful  Objections  to  In-^ 
ocalauon  are  removed. 

6th.  From  Regifters  compared  with  Hifto-. 

ries,  lye  fee  the  Viciflltude  and  Uncertainty, 

not  only  of  Life,  but  of  all  worldly  Thin^ 

Eftates,  Riches,  Honours,  Families,  Gff,  Death 

R        "  not 


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(  242   ) 

Dot  only  levels  crowned  Heads,  Princes,  Pea.- 
£uits  and  Beggan;  and  Providence  not  only 
tranfinits  Eftates,  Riches,  and  Honours,  £x>m 
Perfon  to  Fcrfon,  frotti  Family  to  Family,  but 
Kingdom  firom  People  to  People  j  fo  that  the 
Defcendants  of  the  moil  wretched,  miferable, 
loathfome  Beggars,  come  to  be  Proprietors  and 
Fofleflbrs  of  the  worldly  All  of  the  Great  and 
MighQr  i  and  the  PoAerity  of  Princes,  in  theif 
Tum,  are  tumbled  down  from  their  Grandeur 
to  the  Footftool  or  Dunghil ;  and  the  Seed  of 
!R.enegadoes  and  Exiles  are  raifed  to  Principa-' 
iities.  Kingdoms,  or  Empires,  and  their  for- 
mer Owners  are  extirpted  or  expelled.  Of 
tbeie  Changes  there  is  Reiiibuice.  But  whetv 
Piety  and  Virtue  refide  longed,  all  earthly 
Bleliings  are  of  the  greatefl:  Continuance  j  and 
as  thefe  decay  and  wear  (wt,  ib  do  the  others. 
No  room  then  for  Pride  and  Contempt  of  the 
Poor,  or  thcfe  below  us ;  for  what  the  greateft 
are  now,  theirs,  in  a  few  Generations^  may  be, 
and  vice  verfa, 

7th.  We  may  fay,  with  Dr.  Hallyj  that  fince 
3S>304  die  under  16  Years  of  Age,  for  21,269 
that  exceed  it,  'tis  unjuH  to  repine  at  the  Short- 
XK&  of  our  Lives,  fince  fo  great  a  Number  of 
thofe  that  are  bom  are  Ibatched  oS*  in  fo  fow 
Years ;  but  to  efteem  it  a  fileifing  if  we  ibrvive 
that  Time  which  has  fwallowed  up  fo  great  a 
Number  of  our  Cotemporaries  j.  and  with  Pa^- 
tience  and  Unconcern  fubmit  to  our  Diflblution, 
which  is  the  neceHary  Condition  of  our  perish- 
able Materials, 

I 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(HZ) 
i  fhould  here  have  put  an  end  to  this  Dif. 
courfe ;  but  having  made  my  Compliments  to 
fo  many  ingenious  Writers  on  this  Subjea,  the 
learnded  Dutch  Author,  JViiltam  Kerjfeboom^ 
might  judly  take  it  as  an  Affront,  rudely  and 
abruptly  to  leave  the  Stage  vrithout  laking  the 
leafl  Notice  of  him,  who  has  laborioofly  com- 
|Hitcd  the  Number  of  Souls  in  the  two  Provinces 
0^  Holland  and  Wefi-Friejlani^  and  found  them 
to  be  980,000.  To  prove  which  he  lays  down 
three  Prmciplcs,  or  lyata.  i.  His  Obfcrva- 
tions  on  the  Table  of  afTignable  Annuities  ia 
Holland,^  2.  That  there  are  yearly  28,000  live 
Children  born  in  thcfc  two  Provinces.  3.  Thac 
the  whole  Number  of  inhabitants  of  any  Coun- 
try is,  to  the  Number  of  Births,  as  35  to  one. 
But  as-to  the  firl>,  'lis  rare  toparchaie  An- 
nuities on  vifibly  1^  Lives ;  nor  do  they  con- 
cero  the  Multitudes  of  frefli  Incomers  into  ai 
rich,  frugal,  trading  Country  }  nor  have  many 
Exports  much  to  do  with  them.  His  fecond 
Prindple  is  meerly  fuf^fitious,  and  fo  like  to 
be  ^lacious,  and  cannot  be  admitted  £}r  a  Da- 
tum. His  third  Principle  is  demonftrably  falfe, 
of  which  ieveral  primed  Bills  of  Mortality 
might  have  convinced  him  }  as  thofe  of  tm 
Pruffian  Dominions,  the  very  hcalthiefti  have 
feen.  For  taking  the  whole  Binhs  together, 
iQcIuding  BiHiards,  (which  make  one  30th  of 
the  whole,  whofe  Procreation  and  E^pcnces 
licenfed  public  Stews  might  have  prevented) 
Tcrgemini  and  Twins ;  yet  the  annual  Births 
are  not  to  the  Weddings  as  4  to  i.  Becaufi^, 
as  was  obferved  above,  where  Sul;^c£t8  have  no 

R  z   .  Pro- 


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(  244) 

^ropefty,  there  are  great  Crouds  of  Exports^ 
as  well  married,  as  unmarried,  and  the  Wed- 
dings of  the  former  are  regiftered  there,  but  not 
the  Bifths  of  their  Children  j  nor  are  there 
fiefti  Incomei  s  to  marry  and  fupply  their  Place. 
But  let  us  caft  about,  and  come  to  the  Chriftcn- 
ings  and  Weddings  of  ^oi^frJuw,  from  1617, 
to  1624,  the  yearly  Medium  bajptizcd  in  the 
Reformed  Churches,  was  7505,  married  2347, 
The  former  is  to  (he  latter  fcarce  3  ^  to  i ;  or  take 
vrc  in  his  prefent  yearly  Chriftening  at  Dor/, 
Sarlemt  Delfts  Leaden  and  Amfierdam,  whofc 
Medium  is  11749,  Marriages  3733.  the  for- 
mer are  above  34.  to  I  of  the  latter.  Andof 
two  noted  inland  Towns  in  England^  whofc 
accurate  Regifters,  for  a  long  Series  of  Years, 
now  lie  before  ine,  with  the  exaA  Number  of 
their  Inhabitants ;  their  annual  Births  are  to 
their  Weddings,  at  a  Medium,  as  34.  to  i. 
The  fame  might  be  proved  from  many  other 
Indances  now  before  me ;  and  all  agree,  that 
Vrhere-ever  Births  arc  to  WcdtMngs  as  3^  to  i, 
from  274-  to  29  Years,  Births  are  equal  to  the 
total  prefent  Inhabitants  of  a  Country  or  Place. 
Tarn,  whieh  has  44.  Chriftervings  to  each  Wed- 
ding, cannot  be  admitted  a  Voucher  for  him ; 
the  raoft  Chriftian  King  bting  both  too  Chri- 
■ftian  artd  too  Politick,  legally,  for  the  Lucreof 
a  fmall  Tax,  to  allow  Stews,  to  prevent  Pro- 
creation by  common  Proftltutes  there  ;  there- 
fore, befides  fcveral  others,  he  has  his  Found- 
ling Hofpital,  where  Multitudes  are  baptized, 
whofe  Parents  were  not  married  there.  There 
is  alio  the  Report  of  the  Coiirtj  and  principal 
Officer* 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle_ 


OfficcTJ  of  State  and  Army,  with  their  Fami- 
lies, wh  )ie  Children  being  born  there, are  bip- 
t;zed.  So  that  allowing  28,000  live  Children 
to  be  born  yearly  in  thofc  two  Provinces,  (foy 
1  cannot  difprove  it)  yet  I  cannot  allow  above 
28,  or,  at  moft,  2g  Ye«rs  Baptifms  to  cqua» 
lize  the  Number  of  the  prefent  Inhabitants, 
which  therefore  cannot  exceed  812,000.  which 
is  fubflra^lii'.g  168,000  from  his  980,000 ;  nor 
indeed  are  they  fo  ntuny  as  800,000.  We  have 
already  f<;enthe  DUadvantage,  both  toGovern*. 
mcnt  and  Subjefts,  of  fuch  extravagant  Com- 
putations i  except  when  they  compare  them- 
felves  to  ii)inc  favojrite  neighbouring  Nation, 
and  fondly  conceive  that  they  and  their  dear 
Neighbours,  in  cife  of  War,  may  join  and 
bully  all  adjacent  Kingdoms  and  States  into 
th,-ir  Meafurcs,   without  ftriking  a  Blow  j  or 

intimidate  them  into  an  inglorious  Peace. 

As  the  above  five  Dutch  Towns  bury  about 
i-22th  Part  more  than  they  baptize,  by  con- 
fulting  the  Additions  to  Table  8th  before,  may 
be  foon  feen  in  how  many  Yedrs  they  bi|iy  a 
Number  equal  to  their  prefent  Inliabitantj, 
and  confeqoently  their  Trade  and  Refort  of 
Strangers. 

'Tis  no  Wonder  he  fliould  reckon  the  Lm- 
don  Cbriftenings  fewer  thm  thifc  of  Parity 
fincc  the  ingsnious  Mr.  Mtitland  has,  with 
great plligence,  dilcovered  lii  Cong'egations 
whofe  Chriftenings  are  never  publiftiLd.  And 
tho' the  Buryings  of  Ptfr/i  in  1736  did,  at  a 
Medium,' run  fo  high  as  17,804,  {when  the 
MediuiB  of  the  landon  Bills  was  about  27,000) 
R  3  or 


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(  »46  ) 
or  fuppofing  they  had  hand  21,000,  as  in 
-their  fatal  Year  1670 ;  yet  in  78  and  79  died, 
yearly,  out  of  two  of  iheir  Ho^ials  only,  {viz, 
the  Httel  de  Dieu^  and  la  Qtarit^, )  740S, 
Whereas  oot  of  two  of  the  greatcft  Ionian 
Hofpitals,  •olz.  St.  Bartbokmrw's,  and  St.  Ih-- 
vuis\  died  not  5001  And  if  two  of  their 
Hofpntals  make  fo  large  an  Addition  to  their 
Burying  what  muft  the  other  Hofpitals,  Nun- 
neries, ISc.  make  ?  What  a  forry  Figure  would 
their  other  grand  Bill  nuke,  in  ComparUbn  of 
Lmden, 

*Tis  not  at  all  furprizing  that  cither  Frtncb^ 
or  frenchtfied  Dutcbmen^  {hould  be  out  of  Hu- 
mour with  Sir  JfiUiam  Pefty's  Eflays  ;  for  he 
charges  the  Portions  with  being  mewod  up 
^nd  aambed  together,  with  Poverty  and  Bcg- 
garitnefi,  fince  20  of  the  Sick  in  Paris  prefer 

§oing  into  HoipUals,  fbr  one  in  Lon^tt. .  He 
lercfore  blames  either  their  Situation,  fiadoeft 
of  their  Air,  Inhjmanity  of  their  Phyticians, 
in  not  duely  attending  the  ficfc  Poor,  or  ibe 
Unfkilfiilnds  of  their  Surgeons ;  iince  abort 
i'4th  die  out  of  their  HolpitalsL  and  fearce 
1.50th  Part  die  out  of  the  Loaim  Hofpitak, 
And  iince  fuch  Numbers  die  out  of  the  Hotel 
ide  Dteu,  they  die  not  by  natural  Noceffity,  but 
by  the  bad  Adminiftratkin  of  that  Hofj^. 
That  fewer  die  out  of  the  moft  poor  a»<J 
wretched  Holpitals  in  LoitJm,  than  out  of,the 
beft  (viz.  La  Char  if ^)  in  Peris  i  tnddltctbe 
pooreil  People  in  Lonhn  have  better  Aiafwn- 
modations  in  their  oitrn  mean  Hoalcf,  tban  the 
French  have  m  their  beft  Hotpit^  in  Piaris. 

He 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(  247  ) 
He  computes  the  French  King's  yearly  Lofs  of 
3,506  Sabje^  (valuing  them  only  at  60/.  per 
Head)  the  common  Price  of  ^^^r/W  Slaves,) 
to  be  210,360  Founds  Sterling;  or  252,432 
French  Livres ;  all  which,  he  fays,  might  be 
faved  by  encreafmg  the  Fund  of  uut  Hoipital, 
(See  bis  two  Elkys  on  the  People  of  London 
and  Paris,  printed  In  1687,)  If  all  this  move 
not  French,  or  frenchified  Choler,  they  de* 
fcrvc  to  pais  for  good-natured  People.  Tho'  I 
readily  agree  with  KerU'eboom,  about  the  Digni- 
ty and  Uii^ulnefs  of  Davenani's  Obfervations 
on  King's  Bills  of  Mortality  ^  yet  I  mufl  dii&nt 
fr<Hn  him,  as  to  the  JuOnefs  of  his  Computa- 
tions, and  Deiign  of  fome  of  his  In&rencs.  . 

I  {hail  conclude  this  Part  with  the  Obfer- 
vation  of  an  eminent  Judge  of  this  Nation  j 
that  the  Growth  and  Enaeafe  of  Mankind  is 
man  ftinted,  from  the  cautious  Difficulty  Peo- 
'  pie  make  to  enter  on  Marriage,  from  the  Pro- 
Iped  of  the  Trouble  and  Expences  in  provid- 
ii}g  for  a  Family,  than  frc»n  any  thing  in  the 
Nature  of  the  Species ;  nor  are  the  Poor  cul- 
piblc  for  their  Cautioufnefs  herein,  iince  the 
Difficulty  of  their  fubfifling  arifes  not  only  from 
the  Narrowness  of  their  own  Circumftance;, 
and  incapacity  to  extend  them  much  j  for  be- 
fides  tbcmfelves  and  Families,  they  are  to  pro- 
vide for  their  Landlord,  and  Maders,  and  their 
Families.  For  weie  only  3  Wonwsn  of  17, 
between  15  Years  of  Age  and  45,  married, 
and  bear  Children  yearly,  we  might  cxpeft  fc- 
veral  more  Children  every  Year  (allowing  for 
dry  Pairs.)    Since  the  Strength  and  Glory  of  a 

R  4  King 


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(  Ht) 

Klngdepends  on  theMultitudes  of  Subjeds ;  and 
^he  Flouriiliing  of  Trade  aid  Agriculture,  on  the 
Number  and  Diligence  of  People,  then  Coeli- 
bacy,  Whoredom,  Adultery,  and  Gratification 
of  unnatural  Luf^,  ought  by  ^11  means  tobedif- 
couragtd  or  fuppreffcd,  by  making  the  laft  a- 
pital  and  unpardonable  in  all  Ranks  of  Men,  aod 
laying  the  tirft  under  heavy  Taxes  (toward  the 
Support  of  the  married  Poor,)  and  drawing  out 
'the  fccond  into  Military  Service,  when  wanted, 
or  fending  them  into  the  Plantations,  and  mak- 
ing the  Third  fevercly  punifliablc,  which  many 
Countries,  both  Pagan  and  Chriftian,  have 
made  Death.  And  to  make  Taxes,  Fees  and 
Ceflmcnts  on  married  Poor  caiy,  only  find 
them  Employment  for  their  own  and  Families 
Maintenance  ;  punifli  Drunkenncfs,  and  Idlc- 
nefs }  difcard  ufelefs  Penfioners,  and  Deputy 
Officers  in  the  Government ;  fupprcfs  Luxury, 
VoluptQOufnefs,  and  Intemperance  ;  let  arable 
Grounds  be  improved,  and  others  enclofed ; 
oblige  every  Man  at  home  to  marry  his  Wbore, 
or  pay  a  fmart  Fine  toward  Ihc  Support  of  the 
fruitful  married  Poor,  inftead  of  paving  Ccfe- 
pients  toward  the  Maintenance  of  Baiiards;  but 
make  the  Parents  keep  them,  or  go  into  the 
Army  or  Colonies  ;  or  lay  a  fpecial,  dlflinft 
Tax  on  all  Whore-maft?rs,  whether  they  have 
Children  or  nor,  to  keep  their  fiaflards. 


Of 

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(  249) 


Of  the  Increafe  and  Numbering 

of  the  ISRAEMTES, 

TH  E  firft  Account  we  meet  with  on  Re- 
cord, of  the  Numbesing  of  any  groat 
People,  is  in  ExoJusxxx.  ii;  12.  and  xxxviii. 
25,  26,  Where,  in  the  6th  Month  after  Jfrael's 
Departure  out  of  Enp^,  we  find  Mojes  com- 
manded to  take  the  Noniber  of  all  the  Males, 
from  20  Years  old  and  upward,  of  all  the  12 
Tribes  j  and  the  Numbered  were  to  pay  a  Bf- 
babf  or  i-^d,  4  a  piece,  (Rich  and  Poor)  Ran- 
fom  Money  for  their  Lives,  that  there  might 
be  no  Plague  upon  them,  as  was  afterwards 
the  Cafe  ia  the  Days  of  David.-—  The  Rea- 
fons  of  this  Numbering  were,  i.  That  by  this 
Ranlbm-money  a  Contribution  might  be  raifed, 
(over  and  above  the  free-will  Offerings)  toward 
purchaling,  preparing,  and  fetting  up  the  San- 
ctuary. For  the  People  numbered  were 
603, ^co.  And  theRanfom-money  was 34,42  iJL 
gs.  od.  Or  at  1 5(/.  a  Piece,  37,721'.  ijs.  6d. 
Bn^ajh  Money.  The  Poor  being  obliged  to 
give  as  much  as  the  Rich,  {hews  God  to  be 
no  Refpedcr  of  Perfons  ;  nnd  that  iht  poorell 
had  the  fame  Right  and  Pivilcge  to  the  San- 
Aaary,  as  the  rieheft ;  and  that  they  had  as 
tnuch  Share  and  Intereft  in  God,  and  Worfhip 

of  that  Race. 2.  That  God  might  (hew 

%o  th^t  great  Afliembly,  and  to  ^1  Ages,  his 
{  Faithfult 


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(   2JO  ) 

Faithiulaefi,  and  extenfive  Completion  of  that 
PtomiCt  made  to  Jacei,  Gen.  xlvi.  3. -^ 

3.  That  by  their  free-will  Oflfcrings,  they 
might  give  a  public  Specimen  of  their  Riches, 
and  a  ftoof  of  God's  faiihfiil  Performance  of 
that  Part  of  his  Promife  to  ^rabam.  Gen,  xv. 
14,   and  to  MofeSj    Exodus  iii.  2i»  22.—-— 

4.  God  delivered  the  Charge  of  this  great  Peo- 
ple to  Mofes,  as  it  were  by  Tale  and  Account 
of  their  grown-ap  Males. 

.  Six  Months  after  this  they  were  numbered 
.a^n,  by  God's  fecial  Order,  Numb.  i.  46. 
iii.  39.  probaUy  with  thcfe  Views.  1.  For 
the  more  orderly  aranging  of  the  Tribes  around 
the  Tabernacle  or  San^ary,  that  they  might 
decamp,  march,  and  encamp  with  greater  Eafe 
and  Regularity.* — -  2.  For  the  Separation  <tf 
the  Tribe  of  Zrfw'  from  the  other  Tribes,  for 
their  Dedication  to  the  Service  of  the  Taber- 
nacle.—  3.  For  the  Exchange  of  the  ZrfWfw, 
for  the  Firft-hom  of  the  reft  of  the  Tribes. 
Here  no  Ranfom-money  was  required,  no  not 
for  22000  Overplus  that  were  not  numbered 
before,  i.  Becaufe  the  Overplus  of  the  Firfl- 
born  were  to  be  redeemed.  2.  Becaule  th^ 
wanted  no  general  Affefllnent  fw  any  public 
Service.  The  fanje  Jfraelites  yterc  numbered 
a  third  Tinip,  about  38  or  near  39  Vears  and 
a  Half  after,  or  in  the  40th  Year  after  their 
Exit  from  Egypt,  Nmii.  xxvi.  Perhaps  for 
thefe  Purpofes.  i .  To  fliew  that  as  God  bad 
been  faitl^ul  to  his  Propaife,  in  makmg  tb»i 
g  great  Nation  in  E^pt,  fo  he  had  been  asjuft 
to  his  Thrcaming,  Numb.  xxvi.  64,  65.  The 
3  Males 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(  250 

Males  now  numbered,  from  ao  Tears  oM 
andupTrard,  ,  including  JJviies  and  all,  were 
624,730,  or  about  2i,2oo  more  than  at  the  firft 
Reckoning  ;  now  were  only  3  Men  in  the 
whole  Congregation  above  60  Years  rf Age.— 

2.  For  a  Manifedation  to  them,  and  all  future 
Ages,  of  the  Power  and  Providence  of  God, 
who  provided  and  icd  fucfa  a  prodigious  Multi- 
tude in  a  barren  Wilderne^  40 Yean  together,— 

3.  Thatas^o/«  had  received  the  Charge  ci 
that  great  People  by  Tale  or  Number,  io  he 
was  to  deliver  them  up  to  God  a»in  in  the 

feme  Manner. 4.  To  ftiew  the  People,  that 

tho'  fb  many  hundred  Thoufands  of  them,  had 
been  confumed  for  their  Ejifobedicnce,  by  fc- 
veral  Eruptions  of  various  Kinds  of  Plagues  j 
yet  they  were  ftronger,  in  better  Condition, 
and  filter  for  the  War  before  them,  that  Day, 
tfian  when  they  came  out  of  '^pt ;  Sot  they 
were  not  only  21,200  ftronger,  but  all  thdr 
aged,  difeafed,  fick,  worn-out  Males  were 
dead,  and  they  were  all  young,  hale,  and 
inured  to  Fatigue.  And  that  this  young  Oe* 
neration  having  ieenthe  righteous  Judgment  of 
God  on  their  Others  for  their  r^fobcdience  and 
Ido1atry,evenamidftfamany  extraordinary  Fa- 
vonrs.and  daily  Mir3clcs,might  remember  ,tranf- 
mittheMemorvofittoPofteiity,and  all  be  warned 
to  beware  of  the  like  Sins,  that  they  might  not 
be  confumed  by  the  like  Judgments.  That  the 
JfraeliteSy  from  thefe  Correftions  and  Chaftife- 
ments,  might  know  that  they  were  the  peculiar 
jPteople  of  God,  and  Favourites  of  Heaven,  fee- 
ing he  judged,  and  thus  feverely  vifited  them 

for 


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(   252    ) 

(at  tboft  very  Sins  (tho'  in  a  lower  Degree)  in 
which  Biypi  itfelf,  and  all  the  neighbouring 
Nations  were  drowned,  yet  had  been  permit- 
ted to  go  on  fo  long ;  tho*  they  knew  that  the 
Nations  whither  they  were  going  were  to  be 
extirpated  for  them,  or  they  could  have  no 
Poflcflions  there.  It  was  their  Idolatry  with 
the  Golden  Calf  that  broaght  the  firft  Plague 
upon  them,  within  fix  Months  after  they  went 
out  of  Egypt ;  yea,  God  upbraids  cheir  Pofte- 
rity  by  his  Prophet  jimos,  v.  25.  and  the 
Proto-Martyr  Stephen,  A(Ss  vii.  43.  that  their 
Fore-fathers  ofEered  not  their  Sacrifices  to  him 
in  the  Wildernefs,  but  to  their  Gods  Molecb, 
Cbian  and  Rempban  ;  a  goodly  Company  of 
Images  which  they  carried  about  with  them. 
Adultery,  fpiritual  and  corporal  together,  oc- 
cafioned  their  Lit  great  PLigue  in  the  Wilder- 
nefs, Numb.  XXV.  wherein  24,000  of  them 
died.  Idolatry  was  the  Caufe  of  all  their  Sijl>- 
jedions  and  Slaveries,  under  (heir  Neigbboun, 
whilft  in  Canaarit  and  of  their  Removals  by 
Captivities.  Their  Connivance  at  the  Idol^ry 
of  the  Danites  with  their  Ep&od,  and  Images 
tQ  whom  youatban,  the  Giandfoa  of  Mo/'es, 
yrst  Friell,  very  nigh  occafioned  the  total  'tx- 
cifion  of  the  Benjamimtes^  between  the  Death 
of  Jojbua^  and  Oibnieh  beginning  to  jw^ 
IfraeL  But  however  fevere  God  was  with  them 
vx  the  Worfliip  of  falfe  Gods,  or  of  the  tnK 
God,  through  or  by  Images  \  yet  it  vres  but  ad 
a  Flea-bite  in  Comparifon  of  what  they  of- 
fered under  Ve^afim^  Titus,  Hadri^n^  txA 
I'rfijgn,  ice,  m  their  rejecting  of'  th^  true 
God, 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(  353  ) 

God,  G>rlftyefui.    If  fuch  an  unparalleled 
Train  of  Judgments  followed  the   Jews^  for 
their  Idoiarry  in   denying  his  Deity,    who   is 
God,   and  the  total  Reje^on  of  the  Afiatic 
Churches,  for  the  Blafphemy  of  Arius ;    what 
fliall  we  fay  of  our  modern  Armimans,  who 
are  guilty  of  double  Idolatry,  both  in  denying 
the  Godhead  of  the  Son  and  Holy-Ghoft,    and 
yet  afcribe  Worfliip  to  him  whom  they  believe 
to  be  no  God,  or  an  impolTible,   or  meer  ima- 
ginary Entity,    a  made,   created,  or  inferior 
God  ?    Let  never  Protcftants  be  angry  with 
Papifts    for   their  Worihip    of    Dulia    and 
Latria^   nor  with  their  Doctrine   of  Tran- 
fubOantiation  ;    that   the     Priefl  can   make 
their  Saviour,  when  God  can  make  Gods,  whilft 
they  have  Men  of  fuch  Principles  amongft 
them.    Nor  let  them  charge  them  wiih  bloody 
Perfccutions,  when  they  reflcft  on  the  (hock- 
ing Tragedies  under  Omftantius,  Vdens,  and 
the  reft  of  the  Arian  Emperors.     Several  in- 
genious Hypothefcs  have  been   contrived,   to 
accouat  for  the  furprizing  Encreafe  of  the  If- 
raelites  in  Egypt,  from  70  ta  600,000,  in  the 
fiiort  Space  of  215  Years,  efpecially  as  the  En- 
creafe was  fo  fmall  ibr  almolt  200  Years  in  Ca~ 
Tiaan.     But  none  of  their  pretty  Schemes  ^ving 
general  Satisfaction,    the  late  Mr.  Bohin^  the 
Elder,  thinks  he  has  hit  the  Nail  on  the  Head, 
by  examining  the  Chronology  of  yofepbus  and 
the  Sepiuagint^  and  comparing  it  with  a  long 
Pafljge  in  Manetbo,  and  fo  to  have  fettled  the 
4JO  Years  mentioned  by  Mofts  thus.    They 
continued  under  "yacob  and  Jofipb^  in  Gejbtn^ 

71 


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(aw) 
71  Yetrs ;  after  Jojepb'%  ]>ath,  bis  Son 
J^raim  mounted  the  Throne  in  kp^t,  and 
reigned  19  Years  under  the  Name  otSalatbis ; 
after  him  fucceededbis  five  Sons  fucceffively^onc 
alter  another,  and  reigned  240  Years,  3  Moothf, 
during  a  great  part  of  which  Time,  a  moft 
bloody  War  was  cairicd  on  between  them  and 
the  Natives;  who  at  laft  proving  vi£korious,  re- 
duced the  Children  of  Ijrael  to  their  former 
Station,  (j^ffi,  and  brought  them  under  Bon- 
dage for  99  Years  and  nine  Months.  -  Mr.  Boi- 
•oin  collars  in  Mofei  for  a  Voucher,  Exod.  ui. 
40.  iaying.  The  Sojourmng  of  the  Children  rf 
Ifrael,  who  dwelt  in  JE^gypt,  ifas  430  XforSi 
but  as  the  Saying  is,  Dum  viiant  Jiulti  vitia^ 
in  conlraria  currunt ;  &x  hereby  he  has  over- 
0tot  him&lf  in  his  own  Bow,  and  made  their 
ftay  in  E^t  to  be  511  Years,  »■  81  Years 
more  than  either  God  or  Mofex  intended.  But, 
^tbbo  theeU  in  Egyp£t  a  better  read  with  a  Pa- 
remhcfis,  and  then  'tis  what  Mojis  ddjgned, 
that  their  Sojourning  was  430  Years,  viz.  from 
the  Calling  of  Jirabamt  upon  his  leaving  CM- 
4ea,  and  coming  into  panaan^  in  the  7510  Tear 
of  his  Age,  Gen.  xu.  For  ftom  the  ProiaTe 
oiade  to  ^rdi>tfai  there,  to  I/aac's  Birth,  was 
25  s  from  that  to  ^dco^'s Birth  60  Years }  from 
tHat  to  yacoi's  going  to  Padimaram»  yy  or  78 
Years;  from  thence  to  his  Return  ao  Years } 
&Qtn  that  to  his  going  down  into  ^y^,  32  or 
33  Years,  in  all  215.  Or  if  ye  will  rather, 
Irom  the  Promife  made  to  j^abam  when  he 
was  j^  Years  old,  to  the  Birth  of  Ifaac,  25 
Years  i  &om  Ifaac'&  Birth  to  his  Death  180 } 
from 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  2JJ  )        ... 

from  lfaa(^s  Death,  to  yacoh*^  going  into  Ugypt 
I  o  Years,  in  all  215.  Orifwc  reckon  tiata 
yofeph's  going  into  Egypt^  it  will  ftill  torn  to 
the  fame  Account.  Durit^  which  215  Years  . 
they  had  no  fettled  Abode,  but  wandered  about 
in  Tents,  till  they  had  the  Land  of  Gojhen  af- 
iigned  them  by  Pbaroab.  Sbuckjord  blames 
the  interlincal  Tranflation  of  the  Hebrew  Bible, 
.  and  the  vulgar  Latin  Verfion  of  Exod.  xii.  40. 
for  they  mifrepreftnt  the  true  Senfe  of  the  Place, 
in  rendering  it  thus :  Now  the  inhabiting  of  the 
Children  of  Ifrael  in  E^pt^  teere  430  Tears » 
But  the  Samaritan  Text  is  both  fiiUcr  and 
clearer,  which  is ;  Now  the  Inhabiting  of  the 
Children  of  Ifrael  and  their  Fathers,  whereby 
they  inhabited  in  the  Land  of  Canaan,  and  irt 
the  Land  of  Egypt,  were  ^^o  Tears.  With 
this  Jofepbus  agrees  exadtly,  faying  it  was  430 
Years  after  ^braham'^  coming  \^XaCanaan^  and 
215  Years  after  Jacob's  coming  into  Eg\-pt, 
that  J/raei  went  out  in  the  Reign  of  Jpachnas, 
93  Years  after  the  Beginning  of  the  Reign  of 
Salatis,  who  firft  brought  Iffraei  into  Slavery. 
Befides,  Boivin  aMovrsEpbraim's  Sons  too  long 
a  Reign  of  240  Years,  and  all  of  them  die  with- 
out Iffue,  Yet  we  know  that  Elijkama,  Ami- 
hud^  Nun  and  Jofma,  were  their  Defcendants, 
So  long  and  bloody  a  War  after  Ephraim's 
Death,  muft  neteflarily  have  exhaufted,  inftead 
ot  encreafed  the  Males  according  to  the  Pro- 
mife,  that  they  Qiould  become  a  great  Nation. 
Mofes  would  alfo  have  been  unpardonably  re- 
mifs,  had  he  given  us  a  Detail  of  the  Dukes 
and  Kings  oiEdont,  and  an  Account  of  ihe 
Kings 


i.vCoogIc 


Icings  of  feveral  other  neighbouring  pet^  ICin^ 
doms,  and  omitted  thefe  mighty  Monarchs  of 
his  own  Nation,  of  fo  long  and  formidable  a 
Race.  Nor  can  Boivin's  Scheme  tally  with 
the  Promifc  of  God,  that  they  fhould  come  out 
in  the  fourth  Generation,  which,  however,  was 
cxaflly  fiilfilled  in  many  of  them,  Ex.gr.  Levi, 
Kohatb,  Amram  an  J  Mofei.  Ifjdcob  be  rec- 
koned the  firft,  then  Amr&m  (who  lived  137 
Years)  maft  be  alive  when  they  went  out ;  tho' 
liis  Daughter  Miriam  was  then  85  or  86  Years 
old.  But  to  paTs  this  Idle  Scheme,  tct  us  lee 
what  the  Number  of  the  Chi'dren  o(  Ifrael,  at 
their  going  out  of  Egvptj  really  was  ;  and  next 
account  for  this  prodigious  Encrcafe  in  fo  fmall 
a  Time. 

As  to  their  Number,  we  are  told,  ExoJ.  xiT. 
37,  that  it  was  about  600,000,  befides  Wo- 
men and  Children,  and  a  mixt  Multitude ; 
which  600,000  were  all  Males  above  20  Years 
old,  or  60  per  Cent,  of  all  the  Males,  allowing 
^operCent.  to  be  under  20  Years  old;  and 
this  even  according  to  our  own  Countfy  Re- 
giftcrs  of  healthy  Situation?,  is  a  modcft  enough 
Computation.  Again,  in  ihe  lixth  Month  af- 
ter their  going  out  of  Egypt,  when  they  were 
numbered  at  Sinai,  we  find  the  Number  of 
their  Males,  above  20  Years  old,  to  be  603  556. 
Then  their  whole  Males  were  1,005,916.  dif- 
counting  at  leaA  the  5,916  for  the  fuperiof 
Number  of  Males,  then  their  Females  were 
j,ooo,ooo ;  both  thefe  added,  the  whole  Na- 
tion confided  of  2,005,916  Soul?,  befides  the 
mixt  Multitude,  whofe  Number  wc  know  net. 

A&l 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  257  ) 
And  tho'  this  be  above  three  times  the.  Num- 
ber opnerally  thought  of,  by  fuch  as  overlook 
andfoi^t  the  Women  and  Children  -,  yet  con- 
l]der-»-  I.  'Tis  no  more  thin  what  we  find  in 
feveral  others  of  jihraham*&  Poflerity,  who 
yet  had  no  other  Share  in  the  Promife,  but  as 
they  were  Defcendants  of  him,  and  were  (o  be 
fruitful  and  muhiply>  and.  have  Inheritances  in 
that  Cotiatiy>  as  the  Itii^ianites,  ]Jhmaelite$f 
Edomitett  ^^  even  the  AmaUkitu  the  Grand- 
fon  of  ^ittti  who  came  into  the  Field  againft 
Jfrael,  when  they  came  out  of  Egypt.— •'• 
Jacoh^  when  78  Years  old,  went  to  Padan- 
araatf  and  took  two  Wives,  and  two  Concu- 
bines, by  whom,  ic  20  Years,  he  had  1 2  Sons 
and  I  Daughter.  In  ^2  Years  more  he  had 
56  GrandTons,'  4  Great- grdndfons,  and  i 
Grand- daughter,  in  all  61,  befides  his  own 
Sons,  Gen,  xlvi.  ,  Again,  between  the  firft  and 
fecond  Numbering  of  the  Children  of  Jfrael^ 
which  was  but  6  Months,  they  had  encreafcd 
22,000  -,  for  at  tlte  firft  counting,  all  the  Males 
above  20  Years  old,  of  the  whole  12  Tribes, 
were  only  603,550.  At  the  fecond  Reckon- 
ing, when  the  Tribe  of  Levi  were  to  be  fepa- 
rated  and  cpDfecrat;ed  to,  the  Lord,  and  a!l  tho 
Firft-born  were  to  be  redeemed,  and  the  Le- 
•mfes  taken  in  Exchange,  then  the  Males  of  the 
n  Tribes; ,  from  20  Years  old  and  upward, 
were  the  fame  Number  to  a  Man,  that  tho 
whole  12  were  before  i  and  the  M^les  of  the 
Tribe  of  Z.n)/,  from  a  Month  old,  were  22,000, 
which  is  above  i-28th  of  the  whole.  Jacob 
was  78  when  he  went  to  Padan-aram,  where 
S  he 


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(  258  ) 
he  begot  1 1  ^cftis  and  j  Daughter  j  at  98  be 
returned  to  Canaan,  and  had  a  i  sth  Son  txtfn 
to  him  at  bis  EntPf  in  there ;  at  108  or  1 10, 
when  Jofefb^  at  17  Years  old,  was  fold  inbi 
j^//}.  120  wheo his  Father  ^fic died;  130 
when  he  went  down  with  his  Family  into 
B^ft,  with  his  Children,  Grand-children,  and 
Great-Grand-childien.  When  Jacok  went 
jnto  Eg^t  theTe  were  de&ended  of  his  Body  in 
CI  or  5 2  Years,  'oiz,  ftom  the  BirA  of  Reu- 
ben to  his  going  into  Egypt,  were  i  a  Sons  and 
I  Daughter,  (which  went  down  with  him, 
but  either  was  never  married,  ot^^r»  chiklkfe, 
for  her  Children  were  not  reckoned  with  the 
reA.)  54  Grand- fens,,  (includir^  Err  and 
Onan  that  died,  and  7e/f^A's  two  Sons)  i  Grand- 
daughter, 4  Great' Grand- fons,  beiides  fais  Sons 
1 3  Wives,  Simeon\  Concubine^  and  a  Grand- 
daughters in  Law,  in  all  86.  From  whi^, 
compared  with  the  above  Difference,  between 
the  firft  and  fecond  Numbering  of  them  Bxod. 
XXX.  26.  and  Numb.  Cbron.  i.  i,  4,  and  with 
the  Xncrcafe  of  the  other  Dsfcendants  of  .^rtf- 
kam  and  Jacob  above,  'tis  plain  they  doubled 
once  every  i  ^  Years,  according  to  the  firftBfrt 
of  the  following  Table,  which  gives  their 'Num- 
ber and  Encreafe  every  1 5  Years.  Fig.  r,  2-,  3, 
of  Col,  ifi.  &c.  is  for  the  firfl;,  fecond,  and 
third  1  <f  Ycdfs,  &c.  the  firft  Col.  of  the  fe- 
cond Part  of  the  Table  gives  the  Number,  erf 
Males  of  every  Tribe  at  the  fecond  Number- 
ing, Col.  2d.  their  Numbers  39  Years  after. 
In  the  lafl:  5  Years  of  the  Encreafe,  or  i-3d. 
of  15,  inilead  of  taking  a  3d  Part,  I  have  only 
token 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  259  ) 
taken  i-ffh,  which  is  yet  too  mochbyiTOjOOo. 
becaufc  tht  zd  and  3d  five  Years  of  each  1  r, 
the  Number  will  neccikrily  rife  much  higher 
than  in  the  firft.  The  Total  at  BoKom  ie  only 
for  the  lal)  J  5  and  5  YearG^  not  the  wJiolc. 


Tab.  XVIII.          Oflncreafc.    , 

84 

Tb«  two  AcMuni  of  tbt  ^rttntt,,  E»d.  vxriH. 

1            171 

se.  *dJ  A/w(.  i.  and  iiv 

3             688 

Mm.  mi.  Oup. 

Rcobcn,      46100 

*37Jo 

4           IJ76 

Simeon,       S93«> 

zjioo 

J           2752 

Gad,           4>Ci$o 

40JO0 

6          yso4 

Jud»h,         74600 

76500 

7        iiooS 

iftichar,       54+0O 

64300 

8         Z2016 

Zebulun,      574O0 

60SO0 

.?  jfj; 

Ephraim,     40,-00 

31500 

Manaflch,    31  TOO 

52700 

u      1761.8 

Benjamin,    5  s  400 

4s6oo 

»«     15*256 

Dan,           61700 

64400 

13      704SJ2 

Mitt,         4150a 

534*0 

14    1409024 

Naphchali,   53400 

45400 

t      76«ia 

Levi,            zzQcya 

13000 

.2I7J5J6 

62SSSO 

614730 

This  -uncommon  Increafe  feems  furprizing 
to  us  at  this  Diftance  of  Time,  when  human 
Life  is  much  .abbreviated,  Conftitutions  wcak- 
cnedj  clpeciaUy  in  our  Climate,  Country,  and 
Way  of  Life,  all  fo  different  from  theirs.  But 
yet  'tis-ea£Iy  accounted  for ;  i .  From  the  Pro- 
mifetnade  of  their  Fruiifulne^.  Gen,  xiii.  [4,. 
16.  I -mU  make  thy  Seed  as  the  Duft  of  the 
S  2  Earth, 


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(    260   ) 

Earthy  Jh  that  if  a  Man  can  numher  the  Dufl 
eftbe  Earib,  then  /kail  thy  Seed  a^  be  mm- 
bered^  Gen.  xv.  i8.  and  Cbron.  acxvi.  4.  We 
fee  further  from  the  Hiftory  itfelf,  that  all 
jibrabam's  Pofterhy  were  Sharers  of  this  Pro- 
jnife,  tho*  it,  wth  the  Promire  o( Canaan,  md 
of  the  Meffias  to  come  of  his  Family,  efpecially 
related  to  Jfaac  and  Jacob's  DcfccodaBts-^ — 
2.  The  Mens  early  and  long  Capacity  for  heal- 
thy and  ftrong  Generation,  •uiz.   from  14  to 

100  Years  old,  of  above. 3.  Their  vaftly 

fuperior  Number  of  Alales  to  Females,  wbilft 
in  Canaan  -,  Graham,  had  S  Sons,  iJaM  two, 
Jacob  12,  and  only  one  Daughter.  His  12 
Sons  had  54  Sons,  and  only  one  Daughter ; 
this  made  room  for  a  prodigious  Ihcr^^  as 
they  were  to  take  Wiviss  from  among  other 
People.-^ —  4.  Their  Polygamy  or  Concnbt- 
nagc  with  Women  from  amongft  the  nei^ 
bouring  Nations  being  connived  at,  ttadr  diat  at 
any  Time  of  Life.  Abraham  married  J^tarab 
at  140  Years  of  Age,  and  had  fix  valiant  Sons 
by  her.  Jacob  was  78  before  he  married,  yet 
had  13  Jlrong  long-lived  Children.  Thc^rtW 
in  £^_y/^,  were  not  yet  confined  to  marry  ei- 
ther with  their  own  People,  or  id  their  own 
Tribes,  Daughtfers  were  fo  fcarce  among  them, 
till  they  were  much  encreafed.  They  might 
marry  Women  out  of  other  Nations  where 
they  dwelt,  but  eipeciatly  Concubines,  they 
becoming  Profelytes  to  the  Jewt/h  Religion, 
which  was  only  the  moral  Law  then,  or  the 
Religion  of  Nature  uncorrupted,  and  free  frrtn 
Idolatry,  without  the  ceremonial  Law,  Oflfcr- 
ings. 


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(   26l   ) 

logs,  or  Sacrifices,  which  the  Egyptians  would 
not  fuffer,  ExoJ.  viU.  26. 5.  It  was  pro- 
mired  that  Abortion  or  BarrcDneis  fhould  be 
Strangers,  .or  unknown  among  them.  Exo4. 
xxviii.  26.  Deut.  vii,  14..- —  6.  Immature, 
or  improlilic  Deaths  were  rare  among  them  ; 
for  from  the  Days  ofNabor^  (who  was  the  firft 
Patriarch  that  fet  up  Idolatry,  yfl/6.  xxlv.  2.) 
jibraham%  Grandfather,  not  one  Male  of  their 
Seed  died  before  their  Fathers,  Haran^  Err 
and  Ortan  excepted,  and  all  thefe  three  were 
married ;  they  buried  not  their  33,  46,  or  57 
per  Cent,  tfi^berei  as  we  do,  nay  not  one. 
And  'tis  more  than  probable,  flom  Deut.  xiv. 
3 1,  that  this  was  their  Cafe  in  EgypT,  as  it  was 
Itill  to  be  in  Canaan^  if  they  were  obedient. 
For  we  may  obferve,  that  as  the  Threatning, 
Nundf.  xiv.  a6.  extended  to  all  Males  above  20 
Yearsof  Age,  fotbePromifetotheirSeed,i;^r.  31. 
isasfevouraWe;  and  as  few  of  their  Deaths  do 
we  meet  with  in  the  whole  Hi  (lory,  except  the 
iittle  ones  of  Datban  and  Ablram,  and  their 
Company,  NutnA.  xvi.  27,  32.  This  is  fur- 
ther proved  from  theuncominonExemptionof 
thjt  People  during  their  40  Years  Abode  la 
the  Wilderncfs,  not  only  from  the  ordinary 
Havock  of  common  Mortality,  but  the  Rage 
of  ordinjiry  Difcares,  Deut.  viii.  4,  and  xxix. 
c.  when  we  compare  the  firft  and  fetond 
Numbering  together,  and  fin  J  that  in  6  Months 
time',  there  we  e  as  ip  my  Mules  above  20  Years 
pf  Age  in  1 1  Tribes  only,  as  was  in  t!ic  whole 
J2  before,  which  inftnuati^s  that  during  that 
S  3  Space 


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(  26»  ,) 

space  not  one  Male  above  20  Tears  old  wai 

dead. 

Some  have  difputed  this  now  uncommoa 
Encreafc:,  both  by  not  refleifUng  on  thefc  ex- 
traordinary Advantages,  and  becaufe  the  £d- 
creafe  was  little  or  none  the  firH  1 60  Years  or 
more  ;  bat  they  forget  that  the  Proovii  nras 
not  that  their  Numbers  Oiould  be  great  beJbr^ 
but  after  they  went  into,  and  were  in  Bgyft^ 
Gen.  w.  [6.  andxlvi.  3.  For  as  the  Cafe  ftood, 
that  they  were  not  10  enter  00  the  Pbfleffioo  of 
Canaan  till  the  Cup  of  the  Amorites  toas  fidl^ 
(which  would  not  be  till  430  Years  were 
elapfed)  And  to  have  greatly  encreafed  fooner, 
had  been  neither  noceiTary,  nor  beneficial  to 
thenij  but  might  have  tended  to  their  Preju- 
dice, whilil  Sojourners  and  Strangers  in  Ca- 
naan ;  for  it  might  have  rouzed  the  neighbour- 
ing Canaanites  to  expel  them  ;  and  alfo  have 
prevented  their  Reception  in  Egypt,  in  'Joftfh 
or  Jacob's  Time ;  and  they  had  no  where 
clfe  appointed  them  for  Shelter  till  the  430 
Years  were  expired,  except  they  had  gone  ImcIc 
to  idolatrous  Cbaldea,  and  perhaps  been  repel- 
led there. It  became  neceflary,  and  could 

be  no  longer  delayed,  that  they  fhould  become 
exceeding  numerous  in  E^pt,  both  to  niie  t 
Jealoufy  in  the  Natives  to  defire  and  prwnote 
their  Expulfion,  and  to  ftrike  a  Terror  inio  the 
Caimanitifl}  Natiom,  to  prevent  their  furprtztiig 
and  crufhing  them  in  their  Parage-  uiithtf, 
and  to  be  able  to  deal  with  them  wfaeo  '^ 
into  Canaan.--'  Nor  did  Provideqce  fecf  it  & 
to  confume  the  rebellious  IfraeUtes  fpRdily  In 

the 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(263  ) 
tbe  Wilderoefi,  for  then  all  the  Mctt  of  War 
had  died,  and  only  a  Multiiude  of  Wontcri, 
Children  and  Infants  would  be  left  to  &U  a 
Vi^m  to  the  Rage  of  their  incenfed.EQemits  j 
but  rather  took  them  offgraduilly,  astheChiU 
dfcn  and  Youth  grew  t^  to  be  fit  for  War,  and 
to  defend  tbemfclves  and  the  Td\.——  Indeed 
the  Eocreafe  of  the  JJraeHtes  in  Egypt  was  ib 
fudden  and  wonderful,  as  both  terrified  and 
fuf^rized  ihe  Native,  '£xo4i  i.  7,  9,  1  o.  This 
Encreafe  became  the  Cauie  of  their  AiHidioa 
and  Bbndap,  ver.  j  i,  14,  whxh  began  with 
the  ReigD  of  SaJates,  the  hi  it  of  the  PaOor 
I^>oSr>  13  Years  before  the  Binh  of  Mofti; 
which  Bradage  retarded  nor,  but  promoted 
their  Fruitfufcels,  (asweiaw  above  hard  La 
boar  does  among  ps  at  this  Day)  to  that  De^ 
^ee,  3S  put  dx  Kiog  and  his  Coancit  on  con^ 
ifivii^  the  Butchery  of  all  their  Male  Iny 
fanis,  ver.  15. 

Jn  the  WilderneiE,  the  Longevity  of  the  if" 
raeStei  was  cut  ihort  to  the  Adults  of  that 
Genenuion,  to  what  their  Fathers  had  lenjoyed 
in  Carman  zrvi  Egyfii,  and  fi-om  180,  ly^, 
150,  &c.  their  Da^s  was  abbreviated  to  the 
fhort  Space  of  70,  or  80  Years,  and  even  that 
fnttU^Span  attended  with  great  Trouble  and 
Feaib.  That  -Mojes  planned,  the  90th  Pfalm, 
immediately  after  rcocivi:ig  that  terrible  Denun- 
ciation of  judgment.  Num&  xiv.  29.  is  plain, 
fcom  ver.  7,  8j  9,  11,  12,  13,  14,  15,  16, 
and  ffotn  the  Age  fpecified  ver.  lo.  This  is 
not  (as  is  generally  fuppofed)  defigncd  for  the 
Tfrmjofihuman  Life  in  general,  but  of  the 
-  -  S  4.  then 


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(  264) 

then  Males  above  20  Years  old  in  paitidihr ; 
for  at  that  very  Tioie  yojbua  was  65,  and  lived 
45  Years  after;  Miriam  8j,  jUren  63,  M*- 
Jes  8i(  apd  all  lived  39  Years  after  ;  Amram 
lived  1 07  Years,  and  'tis  iiud  Levi  lived  as  long ; 
yet  Mofes's  Eyes  were  not  dim  at  1 20,  nor  lus 
natural  SLrength  abated.  Cale^  at  85  was  ts 
£t  and  as  ftrong  for  War  as  he  was  at  40. — 
If  yo  or  80  were  the  common  Standard  of 
life,  mo(l  would  reach  it ;  if  the  tu^id  ultra, 
none  ibould  exceed.  That  the  tatter  is  &li^ 
appears  from  both  Bnglijh  and  Ftveign  ^Is  of 
Mortality,  which  alfo  difcover  the  Falfhood  of 
the  former  j  for  fcarcc  i  of  15  of  the  Baptned 
feacb  JO,  and  about  i  of  24  reacn  80.  In 
this  Plalm  we  iind  no  Mention,  Infinuation,  or 
Lamentation  for  the  Deadi  of  Youth  or  Chil- 
dren, (as  Daviei  didj  Pfalm  Ixxviii,  61.)'  bnt 
only  for  fuch  as  west  above  20,  30,  or  4t, 
when  they  came  out  of  Egypt. .  Thwcfbrc  'tis 
certain,  uom  both  Context  and  Ages  ^leci- 
$ed  here,  that  this  firft  Period  of  Life  wn 
meant 'and  intended  for  this  only  Time  and 
Generation.  Mojes  neither  did,  nor  had  he 
Qccaiion  to  lament  the  Death  of  Youth  ;  for 
they  had  a  moft  &vourable  gracious  f^dmife 
made  them,  Num6.  xiv.  3 1.  and  this  Rromift 
feems  rather  a  Continuation  of  their  Uxtaa 
healthy  State  in  Qmaaa  and  Egypt. 


Emen- 


i.vCoogIc 


Emendations  and  Additions  tO 
Table  VIII. 

LARGE  Towns,  Sea-PorW,  great  Rbad- 
Towns,  Manufactories,  or  more  obfciire 
Places  taken  together,  have  not  above  44  Soufs 
to  each  Family,  one  with  another,  and  Country 
Villages  ndt  quite  ^^-•-  2.  That  in  Tovpnfe 
each  1 3  Families,  one  with  another,  have  twd 
Children,  or  fix  Families  and  a  half  have  onA 
Qilld  yearly.  But  in  Country  Villages  64  Fa- 
milies only  bring  a  Qiild  yearly,,  or  27  FamlHei 
have  yearly  four  Children,'  This  27th  Pari 
greater  Fruitfiilncfi  of  Towns-pe(^!e,  is  very 
near  compeniatcd  by  the  greater  Numbers  of 
Baflards  produced  in  them. 3.  Towns  pro- 
pagate a  Number  equal  to  their  prefent  Inha- 
bitants from  24V  10  2 9I  Years,  the' Country 

from  27i  to  294 4.  One  in  about  J74' 

is  married  yearly,  or  two  of  115  j  in  thcCoun- 
tiy  one  of  56,  or  near  2  of  1 1 3  ▼  -  -  c.  Conn- 
hy  Towns  bury  a  Number  equal  to  uicir  prfi- 
fait^InhabitanlB  in  26  to  32  <w  36  Years,  Vil- 
lages from  24  to  52  Years.  -  -  *  6.  In  Country* 
Towns,  where  there  is  no  confiderable  RclbrC 
ofStrangers  for  Tratfc,  or  in  Travelling,  i  in  ay 
to  294.  is  born  yearly,  or  1  of  6^  Families ;  and 
taken  at  a  Medium,  1  of  7  Families  dies  year- 
ly J  in  Viilages  one  of  8  Families  dies  yearly. 
But  though  this  is  near  the  Truth  in  general, 
yerirls  ^r  wide  of  it  in  particular  Places-,  for- 
3  fomt: 


i.vCoogIc 


(  266  ) 

£}me  Vill^es  prodace  a  Number  equal  to  their 
prefent  Inhabitants  in  lefs  thao  28  Years,  but 
)}ury  not  a  Number  equal  to  theia  in  le&.than 
52  or  56  Years,  where  1  of  28  is  born  yearly, 
and  J  of  52  or  56  diet  yearly.  Others,  in  a 
very  bad  Situation,  bury  a  Number  equal  to 
their  Inhabitants  in  23  or  24.  Years,  but  produce 
not  the  like  Number  in  lets  than  27  or  28 
Years.  The  fecond  Rank,  or  fix  firft  Ceuntry 
Villagea  in  the  iecond  Part  of  the  8th  Table, 
baptize  a  Number  equal  co  their  prefem  Inhabi* 
tanis  in  28^-  Years,  and  bury  the  like  Number 
in  42t  Years.  The  three  Parities  in  the  third 
Oafs  and  Rank  bear  thrir  Nqmber  in  28  Years, 
and  bury  them  in  33^  0^.- --- 7.  Thou^ 
there  are  but  few  Years  Di&rence  in  producing 
Niunbcrs  e<{ual  to  their  prefent  Inhalntants  in 
diiFerent  Places,  yet  there  is  a  very  wide  Dif- 
ference in  buryif^  them  }  fw  though  fome  bury 
the  like  Number  in  24,  26,  w  28  Years,  yet 
other  Places  require  50  or  1^6  Years ;  a  iw- 
prisii^  Oddsv  only  from  Situation  and  Manner 
of  Life.  •  -  -  8.  This  swords  us  a  new,  eafy, 
and  unexpected  Methoid  of  aiming  near  the 
Number  of  Families  and  Souls  in  any  krge 
Village,  Town,  or  Bace,  where  there  are  ei> 
tbcf  no  DificDters,  or  their  Chrlftenings  arc'te- 
gjuUrly  entered  in  the  public  R^iflers,  (x-  taken 
irom  their  own,  and  added  to  the  Church  Re- 
gifterfi  i  or  the  Number  of  Dif&nters  Familin 
are  certainly  known,  but  not  the  reft;  and 
Qukers  FumilieS'.cttber  Idt  out  of  dw  Reckon. 
ing,  or  their  Biitbs  and  Burials  taken  from 
their  own  Account,  and  added  to  theNumbere 


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(  267  ) 
in  dM  public  ^^tfier.  '  For  OIm  thft  NtMnber 
of  yearl;^  Births  at  »  Medium^  and  multiply  - 
by  6^  in  Towns,  md  6^  in  the  Country,  {o 
have  yo»  Ibc  Number  of  Families  j  which  in 
TowM  multiply  again  by  44,  and  ih  Vill^es 
by  44,  io  have  you  the  Number  of  Soul?. 
Again,  lake  the  Totals  of  Birtha  for  a  Series  of 
Years,  as  lo,  20,  3.0  of  any  Place,  that  is 
neither  vifibly  much  on  the  Inotafe  nor  De- 
cay, divide  them  at  a  yeaily  Medium ;  mul- 
tiply this  Medium  by  28,  (the  Medium  be- 
tween 27  and  29)  fo  have  you  the  Number  of 
StMils.  Or  where  the  Town  or  Village  k  noc, 
nor  lies  near  a  Surrogacy,  Dcmative,  or  Ex- 
empt, and  has  no  Body  of  Quakers  in  i^  and 
the  Place  fcems  at  a  AaJid,  as  above  i  take  the 
yearly  Number  oi  Marriages  at  a  Medium, 
double  the  Number  married  (as  they  are  Pairs) 
and  in  Towbs  multiply  by  57,  in  Villi^  by 
561-1  Co  have  you  the  Number  of  Souls  as4 
Families.  But  if  there  is  either  Surrogacy, 
Donative,  or  Eicempt,  in  or  near  the  Place  t 
«r  if  it  is  the  FafliioD  kt  Towns-people  to  be 
married  in  neighbouring  Churches  or  Chapels^ 
or  Country-people  10  be  married  in  Town, 
then  it  will  be  nece^ry  to  take  in  the  Wed- 
dii^  of  many  contiguous  or  continuous  Town 
and  Country  PariOics,  that  what  yo  lofe  inane, 
ycf  will  have  in  another;  £ta  if  ibme  not  bc- 
■Iraging  to  the  Diilrid  comC  in,  others  go  out. 
1^  if  either  ttsie  is  a  Refort  irom  other  Pa» 
tifiktsto  a  Place  to  be  married,  cr  if  many  IV 
tiQiioaers  go  to  other  Places  to  be  married,  and 
uone  come  from  other  Parts  >  as  this  will  iinke 


i.vCoogIc 


(26S  ) 
a  great  Alterttion  in  ieveral  adjacent  ParUha, 
then  apply  to  the  yearly  Baptifins  and  Buryings, 
find  their  Difproportifta  from  the  Table  be- 
low, and  fee  in  what  Time  they  bary  a  Num- 
ber equal  to  the  prefent  filppofed  Inhabitants, 
Where  any  two  or  three  of  thefo  five  different 
Ways  agree  moft,  that  is  nearell  the  Thith. 
Another  Way  is.  Take  the  Weddings  of  fe- 
ven,  eight,  or  ten  Years,  odd  them  together  t 
total  alfo  the  Births  of  thoifo  Years;  and  if  the 
former  are  to  die  latter  as  i  to  3^  or  i  to  3^, 
a  Number  equal  to  the  prefent  Inhabitants  wHl 
be  bom  in  284^  or  29  Years.——  9.  The  next 
Taflc  is,  t»  find  when  any  I^cc,  Town,  or 
Pariih  will  double  its  Inhabitants,  whicfa-^ 
Reader  will  ice  in  this  Table,  wherein  ^ 
Place  is  fuppo&d  to  produce  a  Number  equal 
to  its  prefent  Inhabitants,  as  above,  in  28  Yean. 
Ex.  gr.  if  it  bury  only  half  the  Number  of 
ita  Births,  it  will  double  in  56  Years ;  if  K 
iiury  two  thirds,  it  will  double  in  84  Ye^tfs  j 
if  three  fburtbt,  in  1x2  Years;  if  four  fifibs, 
in  14a  Ye«s;  if  five  fixths,  in  168;  if  fix 
ievenihs,  in  196,  &c.  Bat  if  inflcad  of  aS, 
a  City,  Town,  or  Parish  produce,  dt  a  Me- 
dium, a  Number  equal  to  its  prefent  Inhabi* 
tanls-  in  b6,  27,  29,  or  30  Years,  the  feme 
Number  of  Years  muft  be  taken  inflead  of 
ftS.  But  where  the  Buryings  exceed  the  Births, 
be  it  a  aoth,  19th,  loth,  6th,  3d,  or  an; 
other  Part,  the  Table,  by  counting  it  back- 
wards, ^ivcs  you  alfo  the  Number  of  Supf^in 
requifite  to  keep  up  the  fame  Stocks  belides 
ihelncnafe. 

fable 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG0e>gIC 


(  *69  ) 

Tai. 

XIX. 

If>H«.Wliter>ik   . 

Ifbotnto 

'      Ifil^Sod*! 

.7V««» 

,  tbca 

^iBYun 

"S 

Bink> 

Tm 

ft 

54 

■a- 

sfi" 

4- 

58 

■i 

81.   - 

-T 

84 . 

-r 

»7 

T 

108 

T 

112 

■J 

Ii« 

T 

>35 

T 

I40 

T 

»45 

',■8 

162 

T 

168 

T 

'74 

t 

-.8, 

f 

,96 

■f 

203 

T 

116 

T 

224 

T 

432 

T 

H3    • 

T 

251 

T 

261 

Tff 

>?9 

-V* 

•76     ■    . 

.■iV 

490 

TT 

■97-   . 

-TT- 

304 

Vr 

3"9 

A 

M4 

tV 

%■ 

iV 

348 

TT 

2S' 

TT 

xr 

377 

TT 

27S 

TT 

388 

T* 

40S 

TT 

305 

TT 

4-6 

TT 

435 
464 

Tff 

33* 

■       T» 

444 

T» 

Vt 

35?  • 

Vt 

472 

IT 

49J 

TT 

386 

TT 

500 

TT 

5I» 

■^ 

52S 

TT 

551 

^ 

5S« 

" 

S8o 

An 


i.vCoogIc 


An  Abftraft  rf  Gr aunt  on 
'    the  Bills  of  Mortality. 

ATTER  he  fias  ^ven  the  Oocjfion, 
'  Rile,  and  Frogrcfa  of  diem,  -hn  comes 
to  his  OUewatiom  od  4ie  C^ualties.  i.  The 
Mi^Ulfiite^  ihould  takq  notice  of  tb^  Nuraben 
of  CbFiflenings  and  Boryfaigi,  tfiat  Aey  may 
fee  \«lKther  the  City  increafcs  or  dectcaibs  in 
Feopte  'proportionably  vitb  the  reft  «f  the- Na- 
tion, &c.  2.  He  ceruld  find  no  Reafwi  fat 
diftingtiilhiQg  the  Males  and  Females,  nor  Wfay 
the  Marriages  were  conceaI«d.  Caftu^tjes  were 
added,  that  at  all  times  the  Ci^*4  Sutc.«f 
Health  m^ht  appear,  from  the  y^ccoaqt  of 
Epidemics,  but  eipocaally  of  the  J'lagu^-la 
which  the  Numbers  that  die  are  not  Id  ^  lilkai 
on  the  R^wrt  of  the  Seasch^,  (which  aire 
old  WomeB  provided  en  purpofe,  that  when 
they  hear  the  Fafiing-Bel)  in  any  Churoh,  im- 
mediately go  and  inquire  of  the  Sexton,  who  it 
is  for,  and  go  and  infpei^  the  dead  Body,  and 
inquire  of  what  it  died ;  and  may  be  impend 
on,  or  deceived)  but  ti'om  Reaibning,  and  com- 
paring the  Ftague  with  other  Cafualties ;  ibr  a 
foiKth  more  die  of  the  Plague  than  are  fit 
down.  — —  3.  The  Report  of  the  Searchers  may 
be  credited  in  moft  Articles,  as  they  are  Mat- 
ter of  Senfe,  as  in  Abordon,  Still-hom,  Aged, 
Small-Fox,  Fits,  Fever,  Cough,  Confumptioe, 
Convulfions,  Teething,  Furging,  Stone,  Drop- 

fics^ 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(   27'    ) 

fies,  Pa!iy,  Pleurify,  Afthma,  &e.  In  gnsny 
Cafes  the  Searchers  Senies  are  fufficient,  as  ia 
violent  Death,  Hemorrhages,  Ulcers,  ^c.-t^ 
4.  That  of  acute  DKeafes,  (the  Plague  ex- 
cited) die  about  two  ninths  of  the  Whole  ( 
which  Froportioii  (he  thinks)  gives  the  Mea- 
fure  of  the  State  and  Dilpoution  of  the  Cli- 
mate and  Air  with  Regard  to  Health,  as  thefc 
epidemic  Acutes.  happen  fuddenly  and  vahe^ 
mently,  upon  Eruptions  and  Alterations  in  thf 
Air.-—  ^.  That  not  above  i  of  3275  dies  of 
chronical  Dileafes.  This  ihews  the  State  and 
DifpoGcicm  of  the  Country,  Food,  and  Air,  as 
to  Health  and  long  Life ;  £ot  as  acute  iand  epi- 
demic Difeafes  fhew  the  Aptnefs  of  the  Air  to 
fudden  and  vehement  Impreflions,  fo  Chronics 
fliew  the  (vdinary  Temper  of  the  Place,  and 
its  Fitncfs  for  long  Life :  For  in  Countries  fub- 
jeft  to  great  epidemical  Sweeps,  Men  may  live 
very  long;  but  where  the  Proportion  of  chro-' 
nic  Diilempers  runs  high,  it  is  not  fit  fer-Lon- 
gcvi^ ;  for  Men  long  and  always  fick,  are  not 
like  to  attain  a  great  Age. —  6.  Not  one  of 
fixty  die  of  outward  Griefs.  Then  he  takes  in 
his  Table  of  Difeafes  and  Cafualtics,  which  we  . 
had  before,  (compaced  with  the  preicnt)  ^nd 
finds  that  ^vcn  of  an  hundred  live  to  fixty  or 
feventy  Years  old :  That  feme  Difeafes  and 
Cafiialties  bear  a  conflant  Proportion  to  the 
whole  Buries  j  fuch  are  the  chronical  Difeafes 
to  which  the  City  is  moft  fubjeft.  But  epi- 
demical- and  malignant  Difeafes  keep  not  that 
EqaaEty. 

In 


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In  hii  Chap.  III.  of  parttcular  Cafwhies, 
be  ol)rerves^    i.  That  not  one  in  4585  arc 

ftarved. 2.  That  it  would  be  better  to  keep 

nil  the  Beggars  at  the  public  Bxpence,  than 
ifuffcr  them  to  beg.  that  they  tnlgm  live  regu- 
larly, and  not  in  their  ordinary  Debauchery ; 
and  that  they  might  be  cured  of  their  bodily 
Difeares,  aijd  taught  to  work-.—-  3.  That  of 
229*250  buried,"  only  86  were  murdered,  the 
"Bng^ijh  abhorring  BloodHied,  and  uting  all 
Means  to  difcover  the  Murderers,  till  they  are 
found,  and  the  Citizens  ihemfelves  guarding 
the  City.-—  4.  Not  above  one  of  1500  die 
Lunatic.  Accidental  Deaths  depend  on  the 
cafual  Trades  and  Employments  ofMen.  Ooty 
^92  of  the  above  buried  are  faid  to  die  of  the 
French  Pox,  %  i  were  crf"St.  Giles's,  and  St.  Mar- 
tin\  the  reft  were  returned  dead  of  Ulcersand 
Sores,  or  of  Confumptions.---  5.  A  new  Dif- 
eafe  called  the  Rickets  came  in  in  1634.  and 
the  Number  of  Liver-grown  decrcafed,-— - 
6.  Stoppage  of  the  Stomach  began  in  1636. 
and  in  j 660.  got  to  314.  This  be  cannot  tcU 
what  to  make  of,  except  it  be  the  Green-fick- 
nefs,  or  Hyflerics.--  7.  In  1636.  44  died  of  the 
Rifing  of  the  Lights,  in  1660.  249.  This 
Difeafe,  the  Stoppage  of  the  Stomach,  Rickets, 
and  Liver-grown,  he  takes  to  be  all  near  akin. — 
8.  The  Stone  decreafes,  the  Gout  was  at  a 
ftay,  the  Scurvy  encreafes,  the  Phthific  is 
worn  out  J  Agues  and  Fevers  are  entered  cro- 
mifcuoudy,  or  where  they  are  diftinguiued, 
not  above  one  of  40  of  the  whole  die  of  A- 
gues. —  9.  Abortives  and  Still-born  are  one 
20th 


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20th  of  the  Baptized.—  lo.  Before  the  Year 
1642.  Chridenings  and  Buryings  were  about 
equal,  {a  great  Falfkoody  ai  tuas  Pxwed  before) 
But  1648  the  Chriftenings  were  but  two  3ds 
of  the  Burials }  and  in  59  not  half,  from  neg> 
le^ing  the  Accounts  of  the  Chriftenings  becaufe 
of  the  Cbnfufions.  Then  from  the  Number 
of  Abortives  taken  at  a  Medium  that  Year,  he 
fuppoies  the  Births  to  be  8288,  inftead  of 
5670.  And  from  the  Article  of  childbed 
Women  that  commonly  die,  he  thinks  they 
were  11,500;  for,  ordinarily,  3  of  200  child- 
bed Women  die  j  but  where  Women  ufc  no 
Stays,  not  one  of  fomc  Thou&nds  die  in 
Child-bed.  The  Reafons  of  neglcding  the 
Regiftration  of  Baptifms  were»  the  Eticreafe  of 
Anabaptifts.  Some  Miniilers  were  a^  to  exa- 
mine Patents  too  ftri£tly  before  they  woulgd 
baptize  the  Children ;  fuch  Parents,  to  avoid 
them,  had  their  Children  baptized  by  fuch  as 
had  neither  the  Keeping,  nor  Command  of  the 
Regiftcrs.  A  fmall  Fee  was  to  be  paid  for 
rcgiftering.  The  Heterodoxy  and  Pecvlihnefs 
of  Parents,  0c. —  11,  From  1629.  to  36.  the 
Article  of  Convulfions  rofe  from  52  to  709 ; 
bat  when  Convulfions  were  few,  Chryfoms 
and  infants  were  many.  But  firom  36.  Con- 
vulfions and  Chryfoms  taken  together  were 
much  lefs ;  from  which  he  thinks  Teething 
was  croudcd  into  thefc  Articles  before. 

His  4th  Chapter  b  upon  the  Plague;  where 

he  enquires  in  which  Years  mod  died,  and  in 

which  of  them  happened  the  grcatcft  Mortality 

of  all  Difeafei  in  general,  or  of  the  Plague  in 

T  par- 


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(  274  ) 
particular.  In  1592.  thofe  that  died  of  the 
Plague  were  to  the  whole,  about  11  to  2-5. 
In  1593.  101017.  In  1603.  30  1037.  m 
1625.  7  to  10.  In  1636.  10  to  23.  There- 
fore he  concludes  1603.  to  be  the  greatcft 
■  Kague  Year  of  that  Age.  But  to  find  in  which 
of  thefe  Years  was  the  greateft  Mcjrtality  at  large, 
he  fays,  in  1592.  were  buried  26,490,  bap- 
tized 4277,  or  as  6  to  :.  In  1603.  buried 
38,244,  chriftened  4,784,  as  8  to  i.  In  1625. 
died  54,265,  baptized  6,983,  as  8  to  i.  In 
1636,  buried  23,359,  chriftened  9,522,  5  to  2. 
In  the  laft  Chrittenings  were  two  5ths  of  the 
Buryings.  In  159a.  one  6th:  But  in  1602. 
and  25.  not  above  one  8th  ^  fo  that  thefe  were 
the  Years  of  the  greareft  Mortality.  To  prove 
which,  he  alledges  an  Error  in  the  Account, 
or  Deftindions  of  the  Cafualties ;  and  that 
more  died  of  the  Plague  than  were  returned 
tinder  that  Name  ;  for  in  1625.  35,  417  only 
were  faid  to  die  of  the  Plague,  and  of  all  other 
Difeafes,  18,848.  But  in  the  Year  immediately 
preceding,  and  that  following,  Burials  were 
between  7  and  8000 ;  fO  that  adding  1 1000, 
the  Difference  between  7  and  1 8,  to  the  3  5000, 
the  whole  will  be  46000,  which  bears  to  the 
whole  54,000  about  4  to  5  j  thus  the  Ikid  Year 
is  as  great  a  Plague  Year  as  that  of  1 603 ,  and 
no  greater  j  thus  the  Mortality  of  thefe ,  two 
Years  are  equal ;  therefore  one  4th  more  died 
of  the  Plague  than  were  returned  as  flich.  This 
is  further  proved  by  noting,  that  in  1636  died 
of  the  Plague  10,400,  one  4th  of  which  is 
2,600  i  of  all  other  Diieafes  there  die4 12,959. 
from 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  vs) 

from  which  dcdud  26oo,thcrc  remains  10,3.59, 
more  than  which  died  not  annually  for  fevcral 
Years  before  nor  after.  The  Plague  of  1603 
lafied  8  Years>  in  Tome  whereof  died  4000, 
in  others  20oo,andinoneonly,  lefs  than  600. 
But  in  the  Year  1624.  died  only  11 ;  in  26, 
134  of  the  Plague.  In  1625.  the  Plague  de- 
crealed  from  its  htghefl  Number  446 1  a  Week, 
to  below  1000  in  fix  Weeks.  The  Plague  of 
1636  lafted  12  Years,  in  8  whereof  died  2000 
yearly,  one  Year  with  another,  and  never  left 
than  300  J  hence  he  will  have  the  Infe<aion  to 
depend  more  on  the  Difpofition  of  the  Air, 
than  on  the  Effluvia  from  dead  Bodies }  which 
he  alfo  infers  firom  the  fudden  Jumps  the  Plague 
has  made,  leaping  in  one  Week  to  118  to 
927,  and  back  again  from  927  to  258  j  and 
from  thence  up  again  next  Week  to  852.  Pef-  . 
tilential  Difeafrs,  as  Purple  Fevers,  Srnall- 
poac,  (Sc.  are  Fore-runners  of  the  Bague,  as 
in  1622,  23.  24.  &c. 

His  ?tb  Chapter  contains  other  Obfervatlons 
on  the  Plague  and  Cafualities.  The  Encreafe  or 
J)ccreafe  of  the  Citizens  is  to  be  reckoned  from 
the  Chriftcnings  (for  many  die  there  befides 
hihabitants,'  tho'  few  others  are  born  there) 
which  were  well  kept  before  the  Schifm  hap- 
pened in  the  Church,  which  were 'from  no 
to  1 30  p^  Week ;  and  for  all  the  prefcnt 
Breach,  they  keep  pretty  regular  and  propor- 
tkinable  ftill ;  but  in  the  PUguc  Ycare  they  de- 
creafed  to  under  po.  Of  teeming  Women, 
iomc  died,  others  ned,  and  many  mlfcarried. 
From  March  to  July  1602,  not  above  20  frr 
T  2  Week 


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(  876  0 
Week,  died  of  the  Plague,  yet  the  Cbrlftenings 
were  one  4th  lower.  From  yuly  2 1 .  to  09o- 
ber  12.  died,  at  a  Medium,  70  p»  Week; 
Chriftenings  were  reduced  to  two  5ths  ;  this 
was  from  flying  as  well  as  Abortion,  for  25,000 
died  in  that  Time.  From  December  1624.  to 
the  Middle  of  .^:^V,  died  not  above  5  per 
Week  of  the  Plague ;  Chriftenings  1 80,  which 
by  the  22d  of  September  decreafed  gradually 
to  75.  The  City  was  repeopled  again  by  the 
2d  Year ;  for  in  1627.  the  Chriftenings  were 
8,408,  or  291  more  than  1624.  the  Year  be- 
fore the  Plague  began,  which  fwept  amy 
54,000,  This  Encreafe  is  by  a  new  Refort  to 
Loadm  out  of  the  Country,  and  not  by  Pro- 
creation ;  which  is  proved  from  ;he  Chriflen- 
iogs  before  1603.  being  6,000,  that  Year  only 
4,789,  but  the  next  Year  5,458,  and  io  1605. 
61504.  So  that  let  the  Mortality  be  what  it 
will,  the  City  repairs  it$  Lofs  in  two  Years. 

His  6th  Chapter  is  on  the  Healthinefs,  SkJdi- 
ncfs,andFruitfulncfsofSeafons;  and  after  thefcvc- 
rai  PlagueYears,gives  us  the  lickly  Years, whereby 
he  means  thefeYears  wherein  the  Burials  exceed 
thofe  of  both  preceding  and  following  Years,  aad 
yet  not  above  200  die  of  the  Pli^ue.  He  allows 
them  not  to  be  fickly  Years  wherein  more  die,  for 
that  may  proceed  from  Encreaie  and  Accds 
of  People  to  the  City.  The  Hckly  Years  were 
j6i8.  20.  23.  24.  32.  33.  34.  49.  52.  54- 
56.  58.  61.  The  more  fickly  the  Year  is,  mc 
lefs  fruitftil.  Kings  Acceflion  to  the  Throne 
are  not  always  Plague,  or  fickly  Years.  The 
Difeafes,  befides  the  Plague,  whidi  make  the 
City 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(»77) 
City  unhealthy)  are  Spotted  Fevers,  Small-pox 
and  Dyfentery. 

His  7th  Chapter  is  on  the  Difference  between 
Burials  and  Chiiflenings.  Tho'  the  Btiriats 
greatly  furpafs  the  Chriftenings,  yet  the  City 
decreafes  not ;  for  fromiboj.  to  44,  both  ex- 
cluiive,were buried  363,935,  hiptlzed  3301747. 
The  City  is  fupplied  out  of  the  Country,  both 
to  balance  the  overplus  Buryings,  and  encreale 
the  Inhabitants ;  which  is  a  Reafon  why  H^in- 
cbefier,  Lincoln,  and  feme  other  Cities,  de- 
creafe,  and  many  Towns  in  Cormoal.  The 
Country  has  6,339  Chriftenings  for  5,280  Bu- 
ryings, whereby  the  City  may  cncreafe  with- 
out decreafing  the  Country.  For  all  England 
being  fuppofed  to  have  but  14  times  more 
People  than  Lontion,  the  former  will  abundantly 
cncreafe  both.  For  if  there  be  in  the  130  Pa- 
riihes  contained  in  the  Bills  ofMortality  460,090,' 
then  there  are  in  alt  England  6,440,000  Per- 
fons  }  from  which  fubftra^t  the  Londaners^ 
there  remains  5,980,000  in  the  Coantry ;  and 
they  encreafing  a  7th  Part  in  40  Yearj,  the 
whole  Encreafe  of  the  Country  will  be  about 
'854,000  in  40  Years,  out  of  which  Number 
let  250,000  be  fent  up  to  ifl/w'tfJi  in  that  Time, 
or  6,000  yearly  i.  to  iupply  the  above  Altera- 
tions in  the  City  from  1603.  to  44.  above 
wMch  is  thus  proved.  The  Burials  in  all  the 
Pari&es,  and  of  Difeafes,  from  1603.  to  12. 
werd,  W'a  Medium,  9,750?  and  between 
163^.  td  44. 180,000,  the  Difference  is  8250, 
which  1ft  the  total  Encreafe  of  Burials  in  40 
Years; -or^about  206  yearly.  Now  to  produce 
T  3  this 


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(  278  ) 
thu  yearly  Enereafe,  add  30  times  as  many  to  the 
.  City,  (allowing3todieycarlyoutof  iiFamilies) 
viz.  6, 1 80  Incomers,  which  multiply  by  4.0, 
the  Produdt  is  247,200,  which  is  lefe  than  th« 
above  250,000  propofed;  fo  will  there  remain 
above  600,000  of  Encreafe  in  the  Country,  in 
the  faid  40  Years,  both  for  Encreafe,  War, 
and  fending  into  Colonies.  That  England  has 
14  Times  as  many  People  in  it  as  L/mdon^  is 
probable,  as  Landon  pays  one  15th  of  the 
whole  Taxes.  Englandas)A  Wales  have  39,000 
fquare  Miles  of  Land,  In  a  Market  Town  in 
aatitJixM^  containing  twelve  Square  Mil^, 
there  are  220  Souls  to  every  fquare  MUe  ;  jbr 
which  he  abates  i-4jh,  as  it  is  more  populous 
than  in  other  wild  Countries }  fo  that  3'4ths 
multiplied  by  the  Total  of  Iquare  Miles,  pro- 
duces 6,400,000  Souls  in  all,  including  Im- 
don.  There  are  about  10,000  Parilhes  in 
England  and  WaUs^  allow  600  Souls  to  a  Fa- 
riQi,  one  with  another,  there  will  be  6,000,000 
of  People  in  the  Nation.  In  England  and 
Wales  are  25,000,000  Acres  of  Land,  and  if 
they  contain  6,000,000  of  People,  which  is 
4  Acres  for  every  Perfon,  he  concludes  that 
the  Nation  does  increafe  %  and  if  ibme  Places 
decreafe,  'tis  to  fupply  London  only.  The  Bu- 
rials in  London  exceed  the  Chrlftenin^,  becaulb 
the  Proportion  of  thofe  fulled:  to  die,-  unto 
thofe  capable  of  Breeding,  is  greater  than  in  the 
Country :  For  if  there  are  1 00  Perfoas  in  Le^* 
don^  and  as  m^jiy  in  the  Country,  If  there  tn 
6q  of  them  Breeders  in  the  former,  there  arc 
more  than  60  in  the  latter  \  or  Imdon  is  niorv 


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(  279  ) 
tnihealthy,  and  encUnes  Men  and  Wdmea  more 
to  Barrennefs,  which  yet  is  icarce  difcernable  in 
comparing  the  City  and  out  Parifli  Bills  toge- 
ther.-— The  Reafons  why  there  arc  fewer 
firecders  in  London^  than  in  the  Country,  are, 
the  Refbrt  of  People  to  London  about  Law, 
for  Trade,  Manufactories,  Rarities,  or  for 
Pleafure  or  Curiofity,  or  to  be  cured  of  Dlf- 
eafes,  who  moflly  have  their  Wives  in  the 
Country.  Many  Apprentices  ftay  unmarriod 
fome  time  after  their  Time  is  out.  Many  Sea- 
men leave  their  Wives  behind  them,  tmdm 
is  more  unhealthy  (eipccially  to  Children  and 
new  Comers)  from  the  Smoaks,  Stinks^  and 
clofe  Air.  Tho'  the  native  Air  of  Ijmdon  \% 
not  the  Catife  of  Barrenness,  yet  the  Citizens 
Intemperance  in  Feeding,  and  their  Fctfniqa- 
tioQs  and  Adulteries,  binder  Breeding ;  for  a 
Woman  by  admitting  many  Men  is  fo  &r  from 
having  more  Children,  th«t  £he  has  ncHie  at  all. 
Men  in  London  are  atlb  more  thoughtful,  which 
hinders  Breeding. 

Chap.  8th,  of  the  Difference  of  the  NuiQ- 
bers  of  Males  and  Females.  From  1628.  to 
62.  exduiive,  were  buried,  Males  •09,4.36, 
Females  190,4.74,  ornear  i-iith  more  of  the 
former  than  latter,  {which  at  onctflipmi  the  UttU 
Trade  «f  the  City  then,  to  what  it  ii  now,  and 
how  few  of  the  Citizens  have  been  confumed  in 
theCivii  Wars.)  Not  becaufe  Lotfdpn  is  the 
great  Shop  apd  St^  of  Bulinefs,  whereof 
Males  bear  the  greatell  Share  }  for  in  the  iaow 
Time  were  b^ized  139,782  Males,  and 
i30,866Femak8  (wbich  isconfooant  to  hb  3 
T  4  Market 


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(  28o) 
Market  Town  Bills,)  or  i5f  to  14^.     The 

-  Chrillian  Religion  that  forbids  Poligamy,  is 
more  agreeable  to  the  Law  of  Nature  than 
Mahomfctanifm  that  allows  it ;  for  one  Man 
having  many  Wives  fignifics  nothing,  except 
there  were  many  Women  alfo  in  Nature  for 
one  Man  :  for  tho'  of  fcvcral  of  the  Brute  Kind, 
one  Male  may  impregnate  many  Females,  yet 
the  Number  of  Males  is  leflened  by  Caftration ; 
or  if  they  were  not  thus  diminifhed  by  procntf- 

-  cuous  Copulation,  the  Females  would  be  bar- 
ren, as  we  fee  in  common  ProAitatcs  ;  but 
wild  Brutes,  none  of  whofe  Males  are  caftrated, 
breed  and  increaie  much  (lower,  tho'  few  of 
them  are  killed,  and  many  of  the  others.  Tho' 
more  Males  are  born  than  Females,  yet  con- 
iidering  that  m(H%  Men  die  violent  Deaths 
than  Women,  in  the  Wars,  by  Accidents,  at 
Sea,  io  travelling,  by  iheHandof  Juflke,  ©f. 
yet  Things  are  brought  to  that  Pafs,  that  every 
Woman  may  have  a  Hufband }  and  tho'  a 
Man  be  proli6c  40  Years,  and  a  Woman  only 
25,  which  makes  the  Males  as  560  to  325  Fe- 
males, yet  the  later  Marriages  of  the  Men,  and 
the  abire  Canfes,  reduce  all  to  an  Equality. 
Though  there  are  more  Men,  yet  'tis  often  faid, 
that  Phyficians  have  two  Female  Patients  to 
one  Male ;  which  may  he  true  in  Cities,  bat 
not  in  the  Country,  where  Women  live  regu- 
larly and  temperately,  and  have  much  Labour 
ami  Excrcife ;  but  the  City  Women  hani^ 
Weaker  or  worfc  Stamina,  and  lefs  of  thofc 
Afliihnces,  are  more  liable  to  the  Green-lick- 
nefs.  Cachexy,  breed  with  more  SymptonK, 

have 


(  28i  ) 
have  frequenter  Abortions,  Hyftericks,  Ob- 
ftradUons,  &c.  yet  fewer  Women  die  than 
Men,  thefe  Difeafes  being  moAly  cured,  and 
Men  being  tben  more  intemperate,  more  of 
them  died  by  their  Vices,  and  more  expofed 
to  Accidents ;  thus,  tho'  more  of  them  are 
born,  more  of  them  die.  Tho'  fevcral  Men 
went  out  of  London  to  the  Civil  Wars,  yet  thdr 
Places  were  immediately  fupplied  out  of  the 
Country;  the  fame  as  happened  after  the 
Plagues,  both  which  leffencd  not  the  Inhabi- 
tants of  the  City,  but  of  the  Country.  The 
Plurality  of  M&les  is  the  Reaibn  of  making 
Eunuchs,,  where  Polygamy  is  allowed,  thefe 
being  ufelefs  Sx  Generation.  But  Caflration 
of  Brute  Males,  is  both  to  meliorate  the  Fleth 
of  fuch  as  arc  for  Food,  and  to  prevent  Stcrflity 
of  the  whole,  by  promifcuous  Copulation.  In 
Popiih  Countries  where  Caftration  is  prohibited, 
yet  Celibacy  is  allowed ;  yea.  Women  forced 
into  Nunneries,  which  is  worfe  than  Polyga- 
my and  Caflration  ;  for  in  the  former.  Females 
either  admit  no  Men  at  all,  or  they  do  it  in 
Whoredom  with  more  than  one,  both  which 
hinder  Conception,  or  Abortion  is  jKocured,  or 
fccret  Murder  pra^ifed,  all  which  turn  to  the 
fame  Account.  Hence  appears  the  Neceffity 
and  Execution  of  a  Arid  Law  againfl  Fornica- 
tion and  Adultery.  Hence  powerful  and  ridt 
Princes  and  States  fhould  advance  their  own 
Intereft,  and  promote  Religion,  by  encouraging 
Marriage,  and  hindering  Licentioufnefs.  The 
Overplus  of  Males  putting  a  Bar  to  Polygatoy 
is  a  Ble(&ig  to  N^nkind,  &r  then  Women 
2  could 


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(280 

could  not  live  in  that  Parity  and  Expence  with 
their  Huibands  as  now  they  do :  and  this  not 
becaufe  a  Man  could  not  reduce  himlelf  and 
them  to  live  at  a  third  or  half  Expence  i  but 
becaufe  to  keep  himfclf  and  them  quiet,  he 
mull  keep  them  in  greater  Awe,  and  lels  Splen- 
dor, and  (o  keep  them  as  low  as  he  pleafes. 

Chap.  9.  of  the  Growth  of  the  City.  In 
1 593.  died  in  the  97  Pari(hes  within  the  Walls, 
and  16  without  (befides  421  of  the  Plague) 
at^oS  i  and  in  94.  3478,  bcGdes  29  of  the 
Plague:  in  both  Years  died  6986.  20  Yean 
,  after  died  in  the  lume  PariHies,  vix.  in  1614. 
and  15.  12110;  fo  that  in  ao  Years  they  in- 
creafed  irom  7  to  12.  In  the  next  Years,  viz. 
34.  and  35.  were  buried  15625,  which  Is  nuich 
more  than  douUe  the  m&,  viz.  69S6.  So 
that  in  20  Yeats  they  have  increafed  from  23 
to  52.  But  the  16  PariOiei  being  witlKnit  tw 
Walls,  and  having  more  Room,  h^ve  increaied 
£ifter  than  the  97  Parifhes  within.  For  in 
2620.  the  97  Pariflies  buried  2726.  and  in 
a66o.  only  3098,  or  increafed  irom  9  to  lo. 
]n  1604.  died  in  theie  Parishes  151 8.  and  in 
}66o.  3098,  which  is  double :  or  more  juiily, 
thefe  Pariihes  are  increafed  from  >o  to  17  in  54 
Yean.  But  to  iind  truly  from  whence  a  great 
Fart  of  this  Growth  arites,  we  are  to  confider, 
that  in  1605.  were  buried  in  the  16  Out-Pa- 
riihes  2974,  and  in  1659.  6988  :  fo  that  in  54 
Years  they  are  grown  from  3  to  7.  And  in 
the  8  Out-Pariflies  died  in  1605.  960.  and  in 
>^9*  4391.  which  is  more  than  fi'om  i  to  4. 
la  1605,  was  buried  in  the  whole  5948,  fuul 


d=,Googk' 


(  283) 
in  1659.  14720  i  about  2  to  5.-— Then  he 
gives  the  Pari£hes,  both  within  and  without  the 
Walls,  that  have  contributed  moft  to  this  Aug. 
mentation  -,  and  obferves,  that  the  City  moves 
Weftward  ;  and  would  do  Co  much  fafteV,  did 
not  the  Royai  Exchange  and  the  Bridge  prevent 
it,  fonae  Streets  Eaftward  having  loft  their  Trade 
already.  The  Reafons  are ;  the  Court  being  at 
Wefiminfier^  and  many  of  the  old  Streets  unfit 
for  Coaches,  has  occalloned  the  building  of 
broader  Streets.  There  Is  a  greater  Confump- 
tlon  of  Goods  at  the  Weft  than  Baft  End  of 
the  Town  ;  and  the  cramming  up  all  the  void 
Spaces  within  the  Walls  with  Houfcs,  to  the 
Prejudice  of  Air  and  Light,  caufed  People  to 
build  new  Houfcs.  Old  wooden,  dark  Houiies 
are  gone  to  Decay,  and  new  ones  built  in  their 
Aead ;  and  that  Ludgate  and  Newgate  are  too  ^ 
narrow  a  Throat  In  and  out  of  the  City. 

Hb  loth  Chapter  is  on  the  Inequality  (^  Pa- 
rifhes,  -  evident  from  their  refpe^ve  Burials  ; 
iat  in  Crippkgate  were  buried  119 1,  and  only 
12  in  Trinity  Miltories  -,  St.  Saviour's  Stmtb^ 
wark  and  Botolpb  Bijhopfgate  are  of  a  middle 
Size,  each  burying  5  or  600  hundred  yearly. 
So  that  the  ift  is  to  the  2d  of  thefe  as  i  to  100, 
and  200  times  as  big  as  feveral  others  withia 
the  City.  Wherefore  it  would  be  better  to 
have  the  Parilhes  more  equal,  and  of  a  middle 
Size,  as  to  bury  100  and  1^0  per  Annum;  thej 
wtmid  be  eaficr  to  preach  in,  and  Church- 
wardens would  dtfcharge  their  Duty  better. 
St.  Peufi  he  thinks  fitter  for  an  Amphitheatre 
than  a  Church,  as  there  is  now  no  Occafion 

for 


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(  *84  ) 
for  grand  Proceffions,  or  faying  50  Mallb  xt  s 
time  in  it. 

His  nth  Chapter  is  on  the  Number  of  In- 
habitants, which  he  took  fcvcral  Ways  to  ex- 
piftate.  The  firft  was,  if  there  were  2000000 
People  more  in  London  than  before  1625.  then 
there  muA  be  6  or  7000000  in  all ;  but  finding 
that  not  above  15000  died  yearly,  thcnonl]'  i 
of  400  died  annually;  and  of  the  15000, 
5000  were  In^ts,  Abortives,  and  Aged  :  and 
Uiat  between  10  and  60  fcarce  loooo  died 
yearly!  which  muhiplied  by  10,  (as  it  is  an 
even  Lay  whether  any  Man  lives  10  Years,  or 
one  of  10  dies  yearly)  it  makes  looooo  in  all, 
or  one  fixtieth  Part  of  what  was  before  fug- 
gefled.  Then  he  confidered,  that  the  Num- 
ber of  Child-be£uing  Women  vras  about  doable 
the  Births  j  fuch  Women,  one  with  another, 
having  fearce  more  than  a  Birth  every  two 
Ytars.  When  the  Regiftets  were  well  kept, 
be  found  the  Births  to  be  fomewhat  fewer  than 
the  Burials ;  tlie  Burials,  at  a  Medium,  were 
-13000,  the  Births  12000  ;  therefore  the  Num- 
ber of  teeming  Women  was  24000,  and  that 
ihere  was  twice  as  many  Families  as  of  fuch 
.Women,  or  twice  as  many  between  16  and  jb 
as  between  16  and  40 ;  then  the  whole  Num- 
ber of  Families  would  be  48000 ;  and  that 
there  was  eight  Perfons  in  a  Fao&ily,  one  with 
another.  Multiply  48000  by  8,  the  ProdoQ 
is  384000.  He  found  by  counting  the  NuA- 
.ber  of  Families  in  fome  Parishes  within  the 
: Wails,  that  3 out. of  11  Famiiics  died  yearly; 
therefore  as  13000  died  in  the  whole,  there  muA 

be 


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(285) 
be  48000  Families.  He  thinks  his  Ac^onnt 
of  the  Train-Bands  and  auxiliary  Soldiers  juf- 
tifies  this  Account.  LaOly,  he  took  the  Map 
cf  London^  and  fuppofing  100  Yards  fquare 
might  contain  54  Families,  and  every  Houle 
Front  to  be  20  Feet  j  for  on  two  Sides  of  the 
laid  Square  will  be  100  Yards  of  Houfing  on 
each,  and  on  two  other  Sides  80  each,  in  all 
360  Yards,  or  54  Families^  on  each  Square, 
of  which  there  are  220  within  the  Walls, 
makit^  in  all  1 1 880  Families  within  the  Walls ; 
but  as  3200  die  yearly  within  the  Walls,  and 
13000  in  the  whole,  then  the  HouHng  within 
the  Walls  is  one  fourth  Part  of  the  whole ; 
therefore  there  arc  47520  Families  in  and  a- 
bout  London,  Having  determined  the  Inha- 
biiants  of  London  to  be  384000,  the  199112 
are  Males,  and  184888  are  Females;  andfup- 
poling  from  the  Table  of  Decades,  (fee  the 
laft  but  two  in  the  Book)  that  there  are 
199112  Males,  and  the  Number  between  ;6 
and  56  Years  of  Age  being  34,  it  follows  that 
34  in  a  hundred  of  all  the  Mates  in  London  are 
^t  for  %hting  Men,  /.  e.  6y6g^,  or  near 
70000 ;  to  which  add  one  fifth  for  Wejiminfiery 
Stepney^  Lambtth^  viz.  13539*  *^^y  ^^ke  in 
all  81233  '^gh^'^g  Mea,  Then  he  inquires  in 
how  long  time  London  will  double  itfelf,  which 
he  fays  in  about  7  Years,  or  (Plagues  confi- 
dered)  8,  fince  one  eighth  of  the  whole  is 
Breeders ;  for  in  8  times  8  Years,  the  whole 
People  ihall  double  without  the  Accels  of  Fo- 
reigners. Accordingly  he  reckons  one  Couple, 
viz.  Adam  and  Bve^  doubling  themfelves  every 

64 


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(286) 
64  Vcars  of  the  5610  of  the  World,  acci»ding 
to  Scripture,  will  produce  far  more  People  than 
are  in  it. 

Chap.  12.  of  the  Country  Bills:  Whcrc- 
ftom  he  obfervcs,  that  every  Wedding,  one  wirfi 
another,  produces  four  Children.  That  Males 
are  to  Females  as  16  to  15,  and  in  Londm  as 
14  to  13  ;  but  in  other  Places,  perhaps,  there 
may  be  a  Variation  of  thefe  Proportions.  In 
90  Years,  Burials  of  JVlales  and  Females  were 
equal  in  Hantjhire  PariQi,  and  in  the  19  De- 
cades they  di&red  not  one  hundredth  Part; 
and  there  are  Decades  where  Births  of  Males 
and  Females  difl^  much.  That  during  the 
iaid  90  Years,  one  Year  with  another,  have  not 
born  yearly  1 2  more  than  were  buried,  though 
th.e  Inhabitants  are  computed  to  be  2700,  and 
has  not  now  in  it  30c  more  Souls  than  it  had 
90  Years  ago;  therefore  the  1059  that  were 
born  more  than  buried,  have  contributed  to  the 
Increafe  of  London.  If  other  Places  fend  one 
third  of  their  Increafe  to  Dindon^  and  if  there 
are_i4  times  as  many  People  in  England  zi  in 
London^  then  they  fend  6000  yearly  to  X09- 
dottj  which  wilt  increafe  their  Burials  about 
200  yearly,  and  will  anfwer  the  above  Increaici 
and  400  went  out  of  this  Country  Parifh  to 
j^erica  in  40  Years  time.  Taking  them  at  a 
Medium,  there  have  been  5  Baptlfms  to  4  Bu- 
rials.  The  Accounts  of  this  Pariih  confirm 
the  healthieft  Years  to  be  the  fruitfuleA. 
There  is  a  wider  Dilproportion  between  the 
*  greateft  and  leaft  Mortalities  in  the  Country, 
than  in  the  City,  viz,  5  to  i ;  &r  in  Lsttdan 
(except 

L,  ,z,;i:, Google 


(  28?  ) 
(except  from  the  Plague)  they  are  never  dou-  - 
ble  :  but  in  the  Country,  Chriftenings  are  fel- 
dom  double.  Open  and  free  Airs  are  more 
iubjedt  both  to  good  and  bad  Impreflions ;  and 
the  Fumes,  Stenches,  and  Steams  of  London 
(o  medicate  the  Air  about  it,  as-  if  they  met 
with,  and  oppoled  the  bad  Influences  of  the 
Air.  He  computes  this  Parifh  to  contain  2700 
or  2800  SouU,  and  that  i  of  50  dies  yearly; 
but  in  London  1  of  32.  So  that  the  Country  is 
healthier,  fewer  die  in  it,  and  that  they  die 
more  gradually  in  London^  and  lefs  per  faltunu 
tandon^  he  thinks,  is  more  unhealthy  now 
than  formerly,  becaufe  more  populous,  and 
more  Sea-cctel  burnt  in  it ;  and  that  Nemcafik 
is  more  unhealthy  than  other  Places,  from  the 
Suffocation  caufed  by  its  Coal.  This  Country 
Parilh  cannot  double  itfelf  in  lels  than  200 
Years;  but  London  requires  a  longer  Time, 
without  a  Supply  from  the  Country. 

In  the  Conclufion,  he  makes  a  (hort  Reca- 
pitulation, and  (hews  what  further  Uics  fuch 
Calculations  may  ferve  j  as  how  to  prcfcrvt 
laudable  Peace  and  Plenty,  without  one  biting 
another :  This  coniifls  in  underftanding  the 
Lands  and  Hands  of  the  Territory  to  be  go- 
verned, according  to  their  intrinfic  and  acci- 
dental Differences ;  for  inftance,  to  know  the 
geometrical  Coittent,  Figure,  and  Situation  of 
^1  the  Lands  of  England,  e^ecially  according 
to  its  Natural,  permanent,  and  confpicuous 
Bounds  ;  as  how  much  Hay  every  Sort  of  Mea- 
dow will  bear,  how  many  Cattle  the  Weight 
of  each  Sort  will  feed,  what  Quantity  of  Grain 
2  the 


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(  288  ) 
the  fame  Acre  will  bear  yearly  at  a  Mediom, 
for  what  Ufc  each  Soil  is  fittcft,  Thcfe  are  in- 
triniic  Value.  The  extrinfic  is,  why  a  Parcel 
of  Land  lying  near  a  large  rich  Town  ihall  be 
worth  double  another  Parcel  of  the  fame  Good- 
neis,  but  farther  off.  How  many  People  there 
are  of  each  Sex,  State,  Age,  Reli^n,  Trade, 
Rank,  or  Degree,  &c.  By  which  Means  Trade 
and  Government  may  be  made  more  certain 
and  regular :  for  if  the  People  were  known, 
the  Confumption  they  would  make  might  be 
known,  fo  as  Trade  m%bt  not  be  expeded 
where  it  is  impoHiblej  for  if  the  Inhabitanu 
are  thin,  and  neither  work  themfdvcs,  nor  em- 
ploy others,  they  are  unfit  Subjedts  of  Trade, 
Jet  their  other  Conveniencies  be  what  they  will. 
Beiides,  if  all  thefe  Things  were  fully  known, 
it  would  appear  how  few  of  ibe  People  wotk 
upon  neceuary  Labours  and  Callings,  (and  theft 
chiefly  of  the  poor  and  middle  Sort)  how  ma- 
ny Women  and  Children  do  nothing,  only 
learn  to  fpend  what  others  get ;  bow  many  are 
meer  Voluptuaries,  and  meer  GuncAera  by 
Trade  j  bow  many  Aged,  Sick,  and  lo^m ; 
how  many  Divines,  Lawyers,  Phyiicians,  Apo- 
thecaries, and  other  Branches  of,  or  Pretendcn 
to  the  BuHnefs ;  how  many  Soldiers }  h9w  nut- 
ny  by  Minifteries  of  Vice  and  Sin  {  hp:ir  tamj 
by  Trades  of  meer  Pleafurc  and  Ornament} 
liow  many  in  an  idle,  lazy  Way  of  Attcndanee 
on  others.  On  the  contrary,  how  few  sre<i^ 
ployed  in  working  necdiary  Food  and  Qner- 
ing  i  and  of  fpeculative  Men,  how-  few  ftudy 
Nature  and  Things.  All  thefe  Things  aiv  oc- 
ceflary 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(289  i 

Cfc^rjr  to  good,  certaio,  and  eafy  Gdveromenti 
and  to  balance  Parties  and  Fz&ions  in  Church 
and  State,  fiut  for  whom  this  Knowledge  b 
neceflary,  he  determines  not; 

In  the  Appendix,  he  fays,  DuiHn  burying 
20  weekly,  and  ZjmJon  300,  and  the  Inhabi- 
tants Qi Liadon  460000,  and  of  Dublin  30000J 
then  the  fwmer  is  three  times  as  big  as  the  lat* 
ttr;  Again,  the  Defeat  of  the  Chrifleniiigs  is 
the  fame  there  as  in  London^  and  probably  from 
ihe  £ime  Caufes:  Here  he  puts  in  the  Crane- 
hrook  and  Tiverton  Bills,  which  he  thinks  agree 
with  the  Hantjhire  Bill ;  and  that  the  Wed^ 
dings  in  48.  and  49.  were  very  few,  ittsa^  the 
People's  Dilpleafure  at  beheading  the  Kingj 
He  gives  the  Number  of  Men,  Women,  and 
Children  found  within  the  City  and  Liberties 
ia  163 1  ;  by  which  he  owns  he  had  computed 
too  many  Souh  before.  Then  he  gives  the 
Numbers  that  died  in  the  feveral  Years  of  (he 
Plague  at  Amfierdami  viz.  in  1 1  Years,  viz. 
109364.  The  Town  has  li  Bmying-placcsj 
beQdes  theHoffrital  and  Peft-boulc,  257  Streets 
and  Lanes,  43  Burgways,  that  in  7  Years,  viz. 
from  1617.  to  24.  were  baptized  in  the  re- 
formed Cnurch  52537,  buried  32532,  belides 
the  chriftened  In  other  Congregations.  16430 
Nbrnages  were  published.  Then  he  gives  els 
the  Increafe  and  Decreafe  of  that  Plague  there 
ia  1664  3  then  an  Account  t>f  the  Mortalities 
of  feveral  ^eat  Cities  in  the  World ;  and  ob- 
ferves  Srom  them,  that  both  Norfiiem  and 
Sontfadrn  Countries  are  in&Aed  with  great , 
Pli^es(  but  they  are  feverer^  txgin  and  end 
V  more 


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(  «9fr  )  .^ 
more  fuddealy  in  the  latter  than  former <  That  it 
ihould  be  inquired,  whether  the  Plague  that  be- 
gan in  1.652.  and  laded  to  57.  in  its  Perambula- 
tion, was  the  Tame,  or  feverat  Diicafes,  ia  each 
Place.  That  the  Plague  is  longer  in  rffing  to 
its  Height  than  in  decreafing,  being  as  3  to  2. 
'  That  of  the  above  4  great  Plagues  of  Lomien^ 
the  Height  was  not  always  in  the  fame  Month ; 
its  Continuance  was  of  feveral  Durations,  oidy 
5  times  the  Dileafed  increafcd  to  double  of  what 
it  was  the  Week  before.  In  his  Pollfcnpt  be 
obferves,  that  from  the  Paris  Bills  of  Decm^ 
1672.  the  Proteilaots  were  to  the  Catholics  as  i 
to  6^.  That  City  Burylngs  in  1672.  were 
175H4,  Chriflenings  18427;  much  the  fame, 
he  fays,  with  the  Difference  that  wad  in  the 
Xjtmdon  Bills  before  the  Schifm.  Paris,  he 
thinks,  is  above  one  fourth  greater  ^n  London^ 
exclufive  of  Weftminfter^  and  the  7th  Canton, 
or  5  Country  Parilhes.  Thus  ends  his  Abftra^, 
whofe  Scheme  in  the  Appendix  Davenent  pur- 
ibes.  Graunt's  Want  of  Information,  and 
Plenty  of  Vouchers,  have  run  him  ioto  many 
very  random  Guefles. 

Sir  »^illiam  Petty,  in  Iiis  Efiay  (of  1686.)  | 
to  prove  -that  London  has  more  People  and 
Houling  than  both  Parts  and  Rouen  t^tber, 
fays,  that  the  Medium  of  the  Burials  at  Lenthn 
in  16S3,  84,  85.  (wherein  there  was  no  ex- 
traordinury  Sicknefs,  and  Chriileniogs  and  fiu-. 
rials  correfponded  as  ufual  in  other  Years)  was 
22337 }  and  the  Medium  of  the  Parts  Bills  for 
82,  83,  84.  (the  laft  whercf^,  by  cooipariiig 

U 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


■     C2{iO 

It  with  the  Chiiftenaqs,  appears  to  be  very 

fickly)  is  19887. By.  comparir^  .the  Trade 

and  CuAo'ms  of  Rotan  and  Briftol^  the  latter 
fecins  as  populous  \  Dublin  appears  tohave  more 
Chininoys  than  it,  and  confequently  more  Peo- 
ple: yet- in  i.68a  (being  a  fickly  Year)  it  bu^ 
ricd  2263  :  Pizm  and  Dublin  Bills  added  make 
22150,  or  about  187  f^r  Annum  fewer  ttiaa 
Lonaon.  &it  if  we  fubftra^  the  3000  that 
unneceflarify  die  yearly  in  the  Hofpitat  i/if  Dieu 
out  of  the  Paris  Bills,  the  Aflcrlion  is  ftronger* 
In  1666  were  burnt  in  Leadtw  13000  Houies, 
or  one  fifth  of  the  whole  Houfes,  which  were 
that  Year  above  65000  ;  and  the  London  Bu- 
rials, at  a  Medium,  are  increjfed  one  third  be- 
tween 66.  and  86.  The  Total  of  the  Houfes  in 
86.  nnuA  be  about  87000  i  for  in  &z.  they 
were  84000.  Morery^  who  makes  Parii  the 
greateft  City  in  the  World,  reckons  only  50000 
Houfes  in  it,  and  others  much  lefs ;  nor  arc 
there  full  7000  Houfes  in  Dublin  i  add  both  to- 
gether, they  make  but  57000,  but  London  has 
H7000  :  thus  the  two  odiers  are  to  it  as  6  to  9. 
The  Shipping  and  foreign  Trade  of  Lmden,  hf 
a  general  Eftimate,  f..r  exceed  thofe  of  Pans 
and  Rouen.  As  to  the  Courts  of  Juftice,  they 
aflefl  all  England  and  Wales  7000000  of  Peo- 
ple ;  thofe  of  Paris  extend  not  neir  fo  far  \ 
nor  have  the  Lawyers  of  Paris  any  thing  neat 
the  Number,  Wealth,  and  ftately  Buildings  of 
thofe  of  London ;  the  People  of  Paris  being 
to  thofe  of  London  as  6  to  7,  the  Buildings  as 
6  to  9  i  then  the  latter  are  not  fo  clofc  and 
crontled  up  a?  the  former.  The  Hofpitals  in 
U  2  London 


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(   i$2  > 

tondon  arc  Wtter  and  more  defirable  tinn  ^inoCt 
of  Paris  -,  for  cut  of  tbefe  of  the  latter  die  ± 
to  15,  of  the  former  2  of  16  of  tfab  worfl; 
and  yet  one  fiftieth  Part  of  the  whole  die  oat 
of  the  tmdon  Hofpitals,  and  it  of  5,  or  twen- 
ty times  diat  Number,  die  out  m  the  "Barit 
Hofpitals,  which  are  of  the  &me  Kind ;  or 
^elc  in  landm  that  chuic  rather  to  lie  £ck  in  the 
Hofpitals  than  in  their  own  Houics,  are  to  the  j 
like  People  of  "Pdris  as  1  to  20:  which  (hews 
which  fl«  the  two  is  pooreft :  And  the  Difib- 
rence  of  them  that  die  in  FarU  and  Lendon 
Hoipitah>  fhews  which  have  the  beft  Air,  Cote, 
and  Care.  If  Paris  were  the  greateft  City  in 
the  Worlds  no  notice  need  be  taken  of  PequiH^ 
Dfly,  and  ^gra,  nor  of  ConftantinopU  and 
Grand  Cairo  ;  in  the  laft  of  wbich,  it  is  (aid, 
73000,  or  two  fifths  of  the  People,  died  in  "teii. 
Weeks;  hox'm  Lm^nin  1665.  only  one  fifth 
of  the  People  died,  viz.  97000 }  which  ftews 
the  latter  to  be  far  the  greater  City,  As  to 
Con^antinofik,  it  is  faid  15CO  die  a  Day  <£ 
the  Plague;  in  Lcnt&tn  in  1665.  died  izoo  a 
Day  ;  yet  in  the  whole  died  only  one  fifth  of 
the  People :  But  there,  and  in  all  the  EaAem 
Countries,  and  even  in  Sfain  and  Jtafy,  the 
Plague  carries  two  fifths,  or  a  half,  or  more. 
fThus  he  concludes  Lmdoa  to  be  the  gxcaleft 
Gtv  in  the  World.  In  another  Efilay  is  dx 
fame  Year,  he  proves  London  as  la^  as  Paris 
and  Rome  both  ;  the  latter  containii^  iheo 
1 1 9000  Souls,  befides  yrws.  And  that  in  85. 
London  buried  23222,  and  Am^rdam  6245* 
therefore  London  is  four  times  as  big.     In  an- 


dbv  Google 


(  293  ) 
other  hfi  proves,  that  in  the  Hotel  de  Dteu  in 
Parity  above  3500  die  yearly  by  111  AccQtnnw- 
datioos,  which  at  60  /.  per  Head,  the  Price  of 
jSIgier  ^ves,  amounts  to.  2io36o/._ Sterling, 
2524320  French  Livrcs  dead  Irofs  to  France, 
and  might  be  &ved  yearly  by  goQ4  Accom- 
modations, 


An  Abstract  of  Part  of  Da- 
venant's  Effay. 

HE  fays,  that  the  firft  Colony  of  Inhabit 
tants  coming  into  England  about  800 
Years  after  the  Flood,  and  1 500  Years  before. 
Cbrijl^  we  may  fuppoTe  to  be  Mtween  100  and 
1000,  when  there  might  be  only  4  or  5000000 
People  in  the  World.  That  at  the  Romans  firit. 
lovafion  of  this  Ifland  55  Years  bcfure  Cbriji^ 
the  P<op]e  here,  from  ^at  Colony,  might  be 
iacreafed  to  360000;  and  at  our  Saviours 
Birth  400000 ;  and  at  the  l^orman  Conquel>, 
A.  D.  1066.  they  might  be  2009000,  or  half 
the  Nmnber  that  was  in  1698.  iSo  that  £»§--. 
land  douUes  its  Inhabitants  in  about  435  Years. 
The  Dext  Doubling  would  be  in  about  600 
Years,  viz.  A.  D.  2300,  when  the  People  will 
beabom  1  i,oooopo.— —  2.  Whereas  the  yearly 
locreale  of  People  in  England  U  20000,  yet 
fubftrading  4000  yearly  for  extraordinary  Morr 
^litie^  afxd  3500  for  foreign  an4  civil  Wars, 
y  3  au4 


by  Google 


.  (  *94  ) 
gnd  2500  for  the  PUntatlons,  then  tli^  next 
yearly  liicreafe  wiH  be  9006  Souls.'  '^J  Tb« 
the  Country  yearly,  by  Procreation,- inoreaies 
a^oooi  and  -Cities  and  Towns  (Lon^n  a- 
Cluded)  2000;  but  London  and  t-ht  Bills  <rf 
Mortality  deereafe  yearly  sooo,  Bjt  wiucfa  it 
demands  the  like  yearly.  Siip|rfy  ODt  of  the 
Country  to  prevent  its  Decreaio,  befidcs-a  yearly 
Supply  of  3000  more  for  Increafe.  -— »  4.  By 
the  Jffeffhuntsxxi  Births  MamagMi-  «nd  A- 
nerals,  and  the  CoUeBon  Returns  on  the  F<^- 
Booki  thereon,  it  appears  that  in  tandtM,  and 
within  the  Bills  of  Mortality,  the  People  are 
530000:  Then  I  of  26  is  married'yearly,  in 
all  5000,  each  Couple  producing  4  Chilckcn; 
and  that  .1  of  264-  being  yearly  born,  thcfiotbs 
are- 20000.  The  Burials  are  i  of  24.1.  in  all 
22000.  'In  Cities  and  Market- towns,  the  Peo- 
ple being  830,000,  r  of  128  being  owrried 
yearly,  the  annual'Weddings  are  6300,  each 
Wedding  producing  4.5  Children  ;  and  i  in 
284.  being  born,  in  a!t'3o6oo;  and  iof3o,4 
being  bifricd,  the  yearly  fJuryings  are  2S6o§, 
In  ViHngesand  Hamleti,  the  People  being 
40100000,  one  of  eiich  141  feeing  w:;dc'cd, 
the  yearly  Marriages  wili  he  29200,  each  Cou- 
ple producing  4.8  Children;  and  one' in  29T 
being  born  yearly,  the  whole  Births  ate  139+00. 
Whence  he  observes,  that  in  loooo  io^cxiiiiag 
Perfons,  there  are  71  or  72  M.;rriagCR  in  the 
Country,  producing  343  Children  j  78  Wed- 
dings in  Towns,  producing  351  Children:  94 
Weddings  in  London  produces  fewer  Children 
th^ri  \^  th?  Country  j  yet  London  haviiig  more 
Brecdefs 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  295  ) 
feeders  than  other  great  Towns,  is  more  fruit- 
ful, and  the  Towns  are  more  prolific  than  the 
Coontry.  Were  Londoners  as  long-lived  as 
Peafents,  the  City  would  incrcale  much  faftec 
than  the  Country.  3.  Each  London  Wedding 
produces  fewer  Children  than  the  Comitry, 
irom  Fornications  and  Adulteries  being  more 
faibknab]Cf  from  their  greater  Luxury  amFin-' 
temperajice,  from  greater  Intenftnefa  id  Bufi- 
nefs,  from  the  UnhealchinefE  of  the  Smoke  of 
Sea-coal,  from  a  greater  Inequality  between 
the  Agtfi  of  Hulbands  and  Wives,  fFom  thtir 
not  living  fo  long  as  in  the  C.ounuy,  fiom  ihe 
frequently  necel^ry-Abfence  of  many-Huihands 
from  their  Wires. 

He  £iys/  that  in  London^  and  the  -  Bills  of 
Mortality,  Males  are  to  Females  as  10  to  i-^. 
In  other  Cities  and  Towns  they  are  8  to  9.  In 
Villages  and  Hamlets  as  100  to  99;  in  all  as  27 
to  2;.^.— —That  Hufbands  and  Wives  are  fo  the 
reft  as  344.  per  Cent.  Widowers  ds  li  per  Cent. 
Widows  as  /^iper  Cent,  Children  are  45  per 
Cent,  Savants  topper  Cent.  Sojourners  and 
fingle  Perfons  ^per  Cent,  Thus  in  the  general, 
bat  pattioularly  in  London^  and  within  the  Bills 
of  Monality,  Hofbands  and  Wives  arc  37  per 
Cent,  Widowers  2  per  Cent.  Widows  7  per 
Cent.  Children  33  per  Cent.  Sojo'irners  8  per 
Cent.  In  other  Cities  and  Towns  Huftands  and 
Wives  are  36  per  Cent.  Widowers  2  per  Cent, 
Widows  6  per  Cent.  Children  40  per  Cera. 
Servants  1 1  per  Cent.  Sojourners  ^  per  Cent. 
In  the  Country  Hufbands  and  Wives  34  per 
Cent.  Widowers  li  per  Cent.  Widows  4^  per 
U  4        ^  Cent. 


:,  Cookie 


Cent-  Children  47  per  Cent,  Savants  \«>  fit 
Cent.  Sojourners  3  per  Cent,— — Now,  lays 
}ic,  fuppoiiDg  the  Pepple  of  England  to  be 
55COC00,  the  yearly  Births  19Q000,  thcfundfy 
Ages  are,  thefe  under  i  Year  old  are  170000 ; 
under  5  Years  old  820000  j  under  10  Yean 
ptd  1520000;  under  j6  Ycargold,  22400001 
above  16  Years  o]d,  3260000  j  above  2]  Years 
old,  27000PQ  i  above  25  Years  old,  240000D; 
^bove  60  Yci^  old,    6ooopo,    whereof  are 

Males  270,oop,  Females  3300P0. From 

which  Scheme  he  pbfcTves,  that  the  Number 
pf  CommunicaptG  in  all,  or  thp&  above  16 
Years  old,  is  3260000.  a.  The  Number  of 
lighting  Men  between  16  and  60,  is  130S0DO. 

That  Batchelors  beipg  abppt  28  ptr-Cent. 

of  the  whole,  whereof  of  thefe  under  15 
Years  old,  arc  about  z^^  per  Cent,  tkd  Mai- 
dens arc  about  28  per  Cent,  of  the  whole,  whetf- 
pf  under  25.arc  about  2ti-perQttt.  Above  2J 
are  25  per  Cent,  That  the  Males  and  FerattK 
in  the  J^ingdom  in  general  are  aged,  one  with 
another,  27T  Years  old — -  4.  That  in  the  Kisg- 
dom  in  general  there  are  near  as  many  Pet^e 
living,  imdpr  20  Years  of  Age,  as  above  it, 
whereof  half  of  the  Males  arc  under  19,  and 
half  of  the  Females  under  2 1  Years  o)f}.  . 

From  ano;her  Scheme  he  Qievrs,  ^ut  fueh 
3S  have  a  Df:pendiince,  have  greatly  ihftMi- 
joriiy  of  the  othpr  Part.  The  ^rd,  vim,  Sd- 
nien,  Soldiers,  Labourers,  Servants,  Coctagcn, 
I^aiipers,  Vagrants,  with  ail  their  Families^  are 
to  the  Nobility,  Gentry,  Office,  MerdMUls, 
lawyers,  Clergy,  freeholders.  Farmers,  Pcr- 

fons 


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§im  in  llberst  Arts  atid  Sciences,  Shopkeepers, 
Tradefmeo,  Haiidycrafcfmen,  naval  09tLcrs, 
wirh  all  dieir  Families  and  Depenclants,  as 
0825000  to  4675520*-^- He  again  divides  (be 
People  into  ti*o  Chif^s,  wz.  Inch  as'  increafc 
the  Wealth  of  the  Kingdom,  and  fuch  as  de-t 
dVafe  it;  the  firft  are  2675520,  the  fecond  are 
aSzyooo  Heads  or  'Souls.  The  firft,'  from 
Land,  Art>  and  Indaftry,  both  maintatn'them-' 
ftlvcs,  and' add  yearly  fomcthlng  to  the  general 
Slock.  The  fccond  are  Cottagers  and  their 
Families,  Aged,  Si^,  Weak,  Beggars,  and 
"Vagrants.  In  1 685  it  appeared  fiom  the  Hearth- 
Money  Books;  that  in  the  whole  Kingdapi 
were  130000D  Houfcs,  whereof  cooooo,  were 
Cottages.  -Hence  he  infers,  1.  That 'Liberty 
&ould  be  prefcrved  on  a  right  Foot;  for  this 
Itteps  our  own  Inhabitants  at  home  with  gs, 
fuid  invites  Strangers  to  us.  2.  That  Men  fhould 
be  encovaged  to  marry  for  Procreation.  3. 
Marriages  being  ye^-ly  i  out  of  134,  it  is  not 
A  Aat  Proportion,  fince  (o  &w  of  our  Males . 
perifh  by  War,  or  other  Accidents;  and  as 
many  of  both  Seses  as  continue  unmarried  af- 
ter they  are  come  to  ripe  Years,  are  a  dead 
Lofe,  every  Firth  being  as  fo  much  certjJn 
Trcafurc  to  the  Narion,  4.  From  this  Scheme 
pa  the  Ranks,  Degrees,  &c.  of  the  People,  he 
ibbws  their  Error  who  calculate  from  the  Plen- 
ty, Wealth,  and  Splendor  they  fee  in  rich  ChJes 
and  great  Towns,  and  from  this  make  a  faJfe 
'  EAimate  of  the  Remainder,  fuppofing  Taxes 
^ittfly  to  grife  firom  the  Gentry  adj  better  Sort } 

but 


by  Google 


(tgS) 

bat  thefe  are  only  a  fn»U  Part  a(  tbt  whola 
Body.  HcDce  dther  tbe  Public  runs  into  Debt, 
or  the  Poor  beiag  oppreiled^  raire  infufferaU*- 
Clamours  againft  all  Duties  on  tbe  ConfumptKni 
of  large  Prcdufl:s,  falling  heavily  on  the  Poor. 
Thus  far  Vavenant  (m  King's  Calculadons. 
£Qs  vthcr  Schemea  arc  a  meer  Pojhttota^  to  an- 
fwcr  Grauat's  propofed  Queries  in  I^  Con- 
clufioD. 

Deriam  fays,  the  fpecial  MaoagftmBBt  of  the 
Recruits  and  Decays  of  Mankind,  fo  equally 
all  tbe  World  over,  ehaUcnges  <»ir  particular 
Obfervation.  Aitor  tbe  Creation^  and  Noab^s 
Flood,  tbe  Longevity  of  Man  was  ahfcdotely 
neceflaty  for  the  more  fpeedy  peopling  the 
World,  and  for  a  fpecial  Inllance  of  the  £M> 
vine  Providence  herein.  In  the  former  Period, 
moft  of  thcfe  on.  Record  lived  900  Years,  or 
above ;  but  after  the  latter,  none  except  Sbm 
exceeded-  500,  and  only  his  three;  Sona,  in  that 
fa:&  Century,  came  near  that  Age.  In  tltt 
next  poil-diluvian  Centuiy,  none  reached  240  i 
in  the  third  Century,  Terai  only  reached  200  j 
for  then  the  World,^  the  Gaftecn  efpccially,  was 
pretty  well  peopled ;  they  had  built  Cities,  and 
cantoned  themfehres  into  (hdinA  Nations  and 
Societies  under  their  refpe£tive  Leaders,  and 
were  able  to  wage  War  one  agatnll  anotho'.— •• 
When  tbe  World  was  pretty  w<Il  peo^d, 
there  was  a  fpecial  Providence  in  reducing  ifafi 
common  Age  of  Mankii)d,  befbce  the  Fiood, 
to  1 20  Years ;  after  it,  in  Mp/h's  Time,  to  70 
or  2o,  {in  both,  tbefe  the.Texti  srt  %rtgji'^ 


by  Google 


(  299) 

»iip^lied.)  BythisMean§  the,  peopled  World 
is  kept  at  a  convemem  Stay,  neither  too  faU 
nor  too  empty ;  for  if  the  GencraKty  oF  Men 
were  to  live  ^itficr  to  the  -antc^dilnvim  Ages, 
or  poft-diluvian,-  for  the  firft  two  or  three  CeriT 
turies,  the  World  would  be  ovcr-ftockt  with 
People  J  «r  were  Men  to  live  only  ten,  twenty, 
or  thirty  Years,  then  their  Decay  wtould  be  too 
faft  J  bnt  by  this  middle  Rate,  the  Balance  "is 
nearly  even,  and'Life  and  Dea^  fce^p  fuoh  aa 
cquat  PiCe,  as  is  an  evident  Ptoof  <w  iha  Di- 
vine Maniigemcnt,  Sacred  and  profiine  Hrfiwy 
agree,  that  tince  the  World  was  peopled,  the 
Age  of  Man  ket;ps  mui  h  the  fiinie ;  feme  nxe 
Examples  of  long  Life  may  be  met  with  ia 
jnoft  Coun:ries. 

From  opr  Eunpean  Accounts,  (and  perhaps 
the  iame  all  over  the  Globe)  there  appears  to 
be  a  certain  Rate  or  Proportion  in  the  Propa- 
gation of  Mankind,  Such  a  Number  marry  j 
&i  many  are  born ;  and  fuch  a  Number  die,  in 
PropMtian  to  the  People'  in  a  Nation  or  Coun- 
txy, .  it  is  renurkabSe  thai  the  Births  of  Mates 
add  Females  ;^ re  near  equal,  and  that  a  few 
more  are  born  than  die;  which  is  a  Provision 
for  the  extrao:din«'y  Emergencies  and  Occa- 
iifflis  of  the  World,  as  the  Unhealthinefs  of 
fwne  Places,  where  Death  out-runs  Life;  to 
make  up  the  Ravages  of  Plagues,  Difeafes,  De- 
predations of  War  and  the  Seas  j  and  to  afford 
Traniports  to  unpeopled  Colonics.  Extraor- 
dinary Expcnces  of  People  are  either  to  punifh 
them  for  their  $ins,  or  keep  the  Balance  even, 
4  Fr<?Hi 


byGoof^le-. 


(  joo  ) 

From  a  Table  he  gives  ofel^t  Placet  m  Eng^ 
land,  and  five  beyond  Sea,  he  ob(crve^  t£t 
about  I  in  104  marrj;  each  Marriage,  one 
with  another,  produces  about  four  ChiUreo ; 
)ie  reckons  Grmnt's  Prcrportion  of  14  Mdes 
to  13  Females  to  be  juit.  That  Detths  in 
^%m4t  in  general,  are  to  Births  as  i  tq 
x-iVVi  ill  Cities  aad  Market-towns  as  i  to 
|-rn>  '^^  TParii  as  It-  to  I.  See  his  Ptgfiokgft 
P'  175*  &^*  His  other  JUcnarks  arc  col; 
QiioutiOiu. 


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by  Google 


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Some 


by  Google 


(  303  ) 

$me  curfory  Obfeniafiom  en  a  Farijh^  tcbojif 
Regijiers  I  bad  more  Time  and  0/^tumty  to 
perufe. 

THE  31  Years  of  monthly  Funwals  for 
this  Pari(h,  in  the  Table,  commence 
with  the  learned  and  ingenious  Dr.  Jftntering- 
bam's  Hiftory  of  Difeaies  for  Tork  and  about 
ir.  Such  Tables  anfwer  either  feme  fpecia!  or 
common  Ufes.  By  the  firA,  I  intend  fuch 
Purpofcs  as  Bills  of  Mortality  have  not  been  or- 
dinarily applied  to.  By  the  laft,  the  anfwer<> 
ing  of  fuch  Quefttons  as  are  moftly  the  ££fed 
of  Curiofity, 

As  to  the  firft,  here  we  fee,  i.  The  ereatw 
or  leflcr  Frequency  and  Mortality  of  each  Epi- 
demic mentioned  in  the  Hlflory ;  as  the  Ha- 
vock  of  the  £ital  Years  1723,  27, 28,  and  41 ; 
the  great  Difpasity  between  the  Rifeneis  and 
little  Mortality  of  the  general  Catarrhs  of  1725, 
29,  37,  42,  ^c.  Hereby  we  fee  the  Lenity 
or  Sevetity  of  any  general  or  particular  Epide- 
mic pad,  fince  152^'  that  Regifters  began  firft 

to  be  kept. 2.  Hereby  we  trace  the  Pro- 

grefi  of  Epidemics,  whether  they  move  S.  to 
N.  or  N.  to  S.  E.  to  W.  or  W.  to  E.  and  fo 
have  an  Opportunity  to  inquire  into  the  Cauies 
and  Rile  of  an  Epidemic,  in  that  particular 
Qwiner,  whether  brought  firom  abroad,  or  be- 
gun there.  -  -  -  3.  Hence  we  learn  the  Duration 
of  paft  Epidemics  from  their  6rft  Appearance, 
till  they  fini{h  their  Perambulation.  So  that 
which  raged  in  the  6th  Decade  of  the  i6th 
Century, 


by  Google 


(  i04  ) 
(Tentory,  b^flo  in  >  5^56  or  5,  and  had  not  6* 
pifhed  its  Rout  before  58.  Thai:  which  bcg«a 
iii  i&2T.  ra^^  to  24.  That  which  td£  In  xHt 
Earl  of  JS^ir'S  Army  in  1643.  was  not  quito 
out  before  46.  That  of  17a?.  lafted  till  24. 
The  Fevers  that  began  in  26.  were  not  oatt31 
29.  The  late  fatal  Fever,  which  was  brought 
into  P^motah  by  the  Cant&bury  and  Arne^er 
Men  <»  War  in  Ma;^  i74C><  bad  reached  but  ft 

little  beyond  Glajgow  in  yfe^.  42. 4.  Ag 

an  Inference  from  the  laft,  &ice  (general  Epi- 
dcnucs,  Catafrhs,  and  Plague  excepted)  take 
two  or  three  Years  to  begin  and  fioilh  their 
Frogreis ;  this  &ews  tis  that  a  Harmony  aind 
Correrjpondence  among  Phyficians  at  a  diftaoce 
znuft  be  of  fpecial  Service  to  the  Public,  and 
favc  thoufands  of  Lives ;  fince  unlnfcdcd  Places 
itiay  obtain  early  Intelligence  from  the  infcAed, 
of  the  particular  fuccefsful  Method  of  Cure  d 
that  prefent  Difeafe ;  if  the  lame  Getua  of  Epi- 
demic requires  quite  different  Courles  at  their 

fundry  Attacks. 5.  Tables  of  this  Kind, 

colle^d  from  fcveral  Parts  of  the  Illand,  would 
fhow  us  in  what  Soils,  Situations,  and  Buli- 
tiefles  of  Life,  G*f.  diffcrcfit  Epidemics  are  man 
br  lefs  fatal }  and  where  they  appear  feldoin,  ot 
often ;  and  to  what  Epidetnjcs,  or  Endemic^ 

each  IHace  is  moft  liable. 6.  Whether  thefe 

Endeihids,  or  Epidemics,  keep  any  fixt  Periods 
6f  Returns,  or  Whether  they  depend  on  ibe 
SealbnS,  Air,  Fruits  of  the  Earth,  Difeafes  of 
Animah'ufed  in  Diet,  Ttades,  &c.  —  7.  Whcr 
ther  in  Places  of  like  Situation,  Soil,  Piet,  "^i* 
JSneCcs  of  Life,  f^c.  tliefe  Difeafes  are  mpt^ 
*        "favoui- 


byGoogk' 


(  305  ) 

favourable '  or  &tal,  wliere  no  Medicines  are 
ufed,  or  where  they  arc  not  ufed.  —  8.  This 
Method,  if  prudently  and  cautioufly  ufed,  might 
be  a  Sort  of  Tcft,  of  the  Succefs  of  the  fun- 
dry  ScSaries  in  Phyfic,  viz.  the  Hypocratic  or 
Aiakgical,  (from  Reafon,  Praflice,  and  Ob- 
fcrvation)  Paracelfum,  Syivijan^  Wilijian^  Hel- 
motitian,  at  Mecbatacal. 9.  Perhaps  here- 
by fome  tolerable  Goefs  might  be  made  of  the 
Duration  of  Epidemics  in  any  particular  Flac^ 
from  the  Time  of  th^ir  Rife  and  Spread.  Ex. 
gr.  In  this  Parifli  for  above  nine  Score  Teats 
paft,  I  6nd,  that  futh  as  begin  from  ytme  to 
00.  end  in  Feir.  or  March.  Such  as  ftt  in  in 
Marcbt  feldom  reach  beyond  the  Smnnier  SoU 
fiice ;  ^  the  Diieale  exceeds  tbis^  it  extends  to 
the  Automnal  Equinox,  and  in  a  very  few  rare 
Inflances  to  the  next  VernaU  If  it  Aops  not  here, 
we  mayexped  moll  calamitous  Times  &r  34 
or  z8  Months  longer.  The&  that  commeoce 
in  Fehr.  end  in  May  or  Jmu  \  as  thefe  that 
begin  in  jtpr.  reach  only  to  Junt  or  Jufy'  Such 
as  fee  in  in  Dec,  or  Jan,  ibmetimes  fbp  in  the 
htter  end  of  Marco,  but  ofitener  reach  to  the 
next  SeyHce,  or  even  to  the  End  of  Aug,  Such 
as  come  in  OSf,  or  Xov,  are  out  in  March  or 
^ril.  -  •  -  10.  Not  only  may  we  be  helped  U> 
a  tolerable  Guels  of  their  Duration  in  geoerai 
hot  alio  of  their  ££fe£ts.  For  fucb  as  break 
odt  in  March  are  moft  of  all  to  be  dreaded^ 
not  only  on  account  of  their  long,  but  uncer- 
tab  Ccnidouance.  Next  to  them  are.  fueh  of 
brttk  oat  in  Dec.  or  Jan.  iot  tbey  not  oniy 
make  ptat  bavodc  till  the  Spring,^  bat  join  tba 
X  yearly 


by  Google 


(3o6) 

yearly  Mortality  of  the  Seafcn. '  And  if  that 
which  begins  in  Jufy  pafs  the  Autumnal  Equi* 
nox,.  it  reaches  to  the  VernaL  -  -  -  1 1.  As  the 
more  healthy  or  fickly  Seafons  of-the  Year  in 
t^isParilh,  from  1561.  to  1645.  'oiz.  84  Years, 
March  has  been  moft  &tal,  A^.  and  Dec.  next, 
then  May  and  Tebr.  for  in  thcfe  five  Months 
died  533a.  -  In  yum^  J^yt  -'^-  ^^-  ^^ 
OSi.  died  7921 ;  iQ  that  tM  Mortality  of  the 
firiH  five  Montlis  is  to  that  of  the  laft,  near  as  53 
to  39.  -  -  -  12.  The  mqft  proli6c  Years  are  to 
the  mo&.  Aerile,  near  as3toi.--  13.  Tallies 
of  Rcgifters  arc  the  beft  Way  to  find  with  any 
Certainty  the  Effeds  of  great  .and;  long  Rains  $ 
as  in  1712.  1713.  Frofts,  Droughts}  as  in  1714. 
1723.  Floods,  Earthquakes,  Comets,  Eclipfes, 

e?c. 14.  This  whole  Pariih  lies  dry,  near 

,thc  Mountains,  has  a  Defcent  firom  aU  Farts, 
is  hilly,  mof!lyiaces  the  E.  and  N.E.'withouc 
Fens,  Marrties,  or  ftagnant  W:rters,  yet  wdl 
fuppKfd  with  Rivers  and.  good  Springs.  The 
Air  from  the  Mountains  is  pure,,  thin,  and  fine. 
The  Inhabitants  are  well  ferved  with  the  beft 
and  wholfomcft  of  necefTa^y  Provifions,  at  mo- 
derate Prices.  It  is  lituated  in  the  53  Degree 
ard,26  Min.  of  N.Xatitude.  .' 
,  The  common  ObfervaCions  on  Bills  i^  Mor- 
tality are  as  follow:  From  ^r,  i,  i^fii;  to 
.Apr.  1, 1587.  both  .included,  were  chtmelded 
, Males i476,.FemaTe9i392,  twth  2868;  Wed- 
■  dings  739 ;  Buried  Males  1 134,  .Females  C97, 
both  2091.  Hence  weljee,  I.  ThatChti/ten- 
ings  are  to  Bufying*  near  as  58'tQ-2D,.or  ^-to  5. 

:. By  comparing  the  E*era&'  of  fuadi^  Re- 

giflers 

•  C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


gtfters  of  Parifhes  on'difiFerent  SoilSi  Situations, 
&c.  we  come  to  the  fpreft  Proof  of  the  Health!- 
ncfs  or  Longevity  of  variops  Soils  ;  For  where 
the  grcateft  Difproportion  is  between  Chriftcn- 
ings  and  Euryings  in  ^vour  of  the  firfl,  the 
healthier  the  Place,  (fuppoling  the  Regiilers  are 
&ithfuUy  kept,  and  all  Chnflenlngs,  Marriages, 
and  Buryings  regtftered]  and  no  uncommon  Re- 
fort  of  Strangers  to  the  Place,  nor  Difperiioii 
of  its  Inhabitants,  as  ia  Sea-Fofts,  Manufaiftu'-esj 
&c.  2.  The  lefs  Kfparity  there  is  between  the 
Baptized  and  Married,  the  healthier  the  Pla^ei 
for  there  the  fewell  die  ia  In&ncy,  Youi,h,  and 
Celibacy ;  if  they  e:i^ort  not  themfelves  to  other 
Places,  or  go  into  Uic  Army,  Navy,  or  Colof 
nies.     In  fuch  Places  Epidetnict  muft  come  fcl- 

dQmeft,  and  be  the  mildeft. z.  Males  bora 

were  then  to  Females  born  near  as  14  to  13  j 
but  of.  this  there  is  no  Certainty  i  for  different 
Haces  have  difit'rent  Proportion^,  though  th^ 
Males  are  ftill  in.  grcateft  Number,  r  -  -  3.  'The 
X)eath  of  Males  is  to  that  of  Females  near  as 
1 1  to  a  ;  which  Number  of  Males  buried  be^ 
in^  Co  imuch  fpperipr  to  M^Ies  born,  ihews^ 
I.  Thai  the  Number  of  Exports  to  XiOndofi, 
Army.  £^^.  was  very  fmall  at  that  tinpe^  2..ThaC 
the  FarUh  feems  to  be  Increafiog  by  frefh  Ip- 
fomers  to  Trades,  Service,  G?f.  ---4.  Thcfe 
Married  were  to  the  Chriftened  above  2. to  4, 
the  lefler  half  dying  in  Childhood,  Celibacy,  or 
.exported  themfelves.  5.  Each  Wedding  pro- 
duces near  &ur  Children. 
",  j'roin  17^^.  ^r,  i*.  to  174a  ^r.  i.  were 
^gtized  Males  ^7,a8,  Femnies'  534^*';  both 
..   ,  '         "      ■"  •    X  a  11070: 


by  Google 


(  3°8  ) 
»io70  :  Weddings  3!J54.  Buried,  Males  s^ss. 
Females  4.85^,  bbrff  I03f4.  With  thefe  two 
Niimtwrs  the  R^iiter  begins  and  ends ;  betwixt 
iotcrrene  128  Yeaft ;'  during  which  time  we 
fee  the  IncFcafe  oif  the  Inhabitants  of  the  Ri- 
riffi,  which  muil  be  judged  from  the  Mar- 
riages iUid  Biuyings,  not  thb  Chriftemngs ;  which 
Ian  &II  mnch  Oiort  of  Truth.  The  Biiryiligi 
bf  the  firft  27  Tears  were  2091 ;  of  the  lau 
10314:  fo  that  the  Inhabitants  are  included 
frooi  I  to  5,  and  above  ;  For  in  the  firft  aH 
were  buried  at  the  Chnith,  hut  ndw  Oiffentets 
have  their  Surylftg-Haccs,  (thbugh  few  ex- 
cept Quakcis  bur;  at  them)  whofc  fiuiials  are 
aot  entered  in  ^he  Churth  A.^ificr.  z.  In  the 
Brft  Period,  above  2  ont  of  every  4  chiriftened 
were  married  -,  Tn  thejaft  ^iod  13  but  of  i2^ 
are  married.  -  -  -  3'.  Again,  «  C4  Weddings 
product  1 1670  Children,  w&cb  it  not  3f  to 

faich  Weddmg,  or  7  to  2. 4.  The  Pr5pc»- 

tion  of '3  16  2  between  Chriltsniugs  and  Bo- 
ryings  in  the  Erft  P(iriod,  is  dwindled  a«ray  In 
the  feCond  to  about  11  to  to  1  Vvhich  iluft  ti- 
ther  be  froin  AEnindanee  of  ChrifteiAngs  .not 
regifiefed,  or  flie  farifh  being  itiore  ucjheahfay, 
or  a  greit  Rtifort  of  tttlh  Ihoafiers,  or  ftoiii  111 
three.  -  -  J.  f  he  Diljiroportibn  between  Males 
■nd  FeWiales  is  aHb"  It-flcned  •Jn  this  Period ;  fck 
inftead  of  .'56  tb  52,  it  iis  riot  57  to  53 :  thoo^ 
th=  greatefi  tJart  of  Clflenters  (Qnakers  far- 
cepted)  hiVe  [heir  Children  entirtd  in'flie  fkh- 
Jic  Regifters,  as  well  as  others.'  Here  b  IbtfteC. 
thing  Tike  a -P*ado'l[,  that  the  Dififcrence  iie- 
tween  C:hrUte1lings'and  Buryidgs,  dioutd  iio<^ 

be 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgle 


(  3^9  ) 
be  fmall,  as  i  in  u^  inftead  of  iz  to  8;  ajid 
^et  above  half  of  the' ChriAened  aire  married 
as  vtpll  now  as  before.  For  this  there  are  two 
Reafons ;  i.  All  Marri^es  are  regiftered  at  the 
Church,  but  not  all  Chriftenjngs.  i.  This 
(hows  a  ftili  greater  Reform  to  the  Place  of  Ser- 
vants and  A|»>rentices,  -  -  -  6.  By  comparing 
the  firft  and  laic  Parts  of  iuch  old  Regifters,  we 
have  an  Opportunity  to  try  the  EScAs  of  AltC' 
rations  in  Diet,  £)refs,  and  other  Variatioos  of 
the  NoD>naturals,  whether  they  are  better  pr 
worfe.  -  -  -  7.  By  the  iPeiufal  of  fuodry  Rc- 
giftcrs,  we  may  fee  whethpr^  or  what  is  the  Dif- 
jerence  as  to  Hcalthincis  and  Longevity,  be- 
tween People  fcattered  in  Ufmltts  and  Villages, 
and  Multitudes  croudcd  together  in  Citis  and 
great  Towns,  even  on  dx  lame,  or  like  Soils, 
Situation?,  and  Manner  of  Life.  Between  fucb 
as  live  in  an  open  and  pent-up  Air,  loaded  with 
Variety  of  Efiluvia  j  between  a  laborious  aiid 
idle  life;  between  Luniry  and  plain  Urn^c  Diets 
between  Temperance  and  Intemperance. -- - 
The  curious  and  ingenious  Clerk  of  tHp  Church 
had  once  the  Curiofity  to  tind  .the  Number  of 
Children  out  of  every  hundred  that  died  under 
fgur  Years  old  in  this  Parinx.  And  in  1705. 
were  baptized  314,  of  wluch  Ab  died  the  firft 
Yfar,  13  the  fec-ond.  16  the  tnird,  and  5  the 
4tb,  tfi  all  80.  So  that  at  the  end  of  the  4tb 
Y^,'  pear  75  of  each  hundred  were  alive. 
^t  ^'thc  Lfindon  Bills  for  1732,  33,  34,  35. 
.  out.of  102191  buried,  50383  were  under  five 

Vf^rs'  pid,  wKich  is  near  25  out  of  52. 

a.  in' 1706.  the  iathp  Gerlctook  an  Account 
^     ■  '  *  X  3  of 


by  Google 


of  the  Ages  of  thofc  that  were  buried  :  And 
this  Year  was  far  from  being  the  moft  favour- 
able to  Children  under  7  Years  old  ;  died  82  : 
from  yto  (4 died  15:  from  151021, 12  :  from 
21  to  28,  i;  ;  from  29  to  35,  14 ;  fr6m  3510 
42,12:  421049,6:491056,14:  56to63, 
7  :  63  to  70,  18  :  70  to  77,  81  77  to  84,  6 ; 
84  to  91,  4.  Insll  209.  Now  the  Chriften- 
jngs in  1705  were  3-14:  in  1706  were  320- -■• 
This  Clerk,  on  firift  Inquiry,  and  Account 
,kept,  fnvind  th«t  fuch  as  died  of  chronic  Dif- 
eafes,  were  to  them  that  died  of  Acates,  near 
C^ual,  Chryfoms  and  Small  Pox  excepted. 

3.  In  the  iickly  Year  1582  were  buried  120, 
^chriftcned  124.     ttistnieit  has  happened -that 

^e  Bpryings  have  not  only  exceeded,  but  near 
'  doubled  the  ChriftenipgSj  &s  in  the  memorable 
'  Year  1723,  (the  faralleft  Year  that  ever  had 
Ijccn  in  this  Parifb  beforcj  wherein  only  365 
"  were  baptized,  and  632  buried :  and  in  J  741, 
wherein  from^ja.  1,1740-1.  toF<r^.  1.  1741-2. 
w<;re  buried,  935,  and  6  in  the  Quakers  Bu- 
rying-Place  i  in  all  96 1 ;  Baptized  in  all  505.—^ 

4.  Having  5  Yean  before  the  laft  htal  Epi- 
demic procured,  the  Number  of  Fapiiiies  apd 

■  Souls  in  this  whole  Parifb.  The  firft  w^  3232, 
.  th(;  Iaft'i4^ooi  from  which  fubtraft  22i  for 
Quakers,  there  remains  13778.  Now  from 
^tfH.  M731.  to ^(jn.  1. 1742.  were  buried  4600, 
which  multiply  by  3,  the  total  is  13800;  which 
at  a  Medium  ^)stween  healthy,  fickly,  and  fiital 
Years,  .takes  about  33  Years  to  bury  a  Number 
equal  to  the  prcfent  Inhabitants,  or  about  i  of 
33  di?  yearly.    Tl^ough  the  very  few  buried  at 

the 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


( JII ) 

die  r^bting  Chapels  are  not  rcgiftercd  at  the 
Church,  yet  their  Number  is  much  exceeded 
by  Strangers  and  Itinerants  that  die  yearly  here, 
and  are  regiftered ;  for  as  Quakers  are  not  rc- 
giftercd, they  arc  excluded  out  of  the.firfc  To- 
tal. -  -  -  5.  In  the  aforefaid  1 1  Years,  4700 
having  bwn  baptized,  multiply  this  by  3,  the 
Produ^  is  14100.  Nowallow  (asappears  true 
by  comparing  the  fiift  and  fccond  27  Years 
Years  Chriftenings  and  Butyings)  one  eighth 
Part  for  Children  baptized,  but  not  rcgiftcred 
at  the  Churcli,  this  will  amount  to  about  600 
niore  J  which  add  to  the  other,  the  Total  will 
be  3  500 ;  which  will  bring  it  to  about  2  6  Years, 
in  which  a  Number  equal  to  the  prefent  Inha- 
bitants is  bom.  Both  thcfe  lafi  Ob^rvations 
prove  the  Number  of  Families  and  Souls  in  the 
Parifh  to  be  Biithfully  taken,  and  fully  proves 
their  Clamours  and  Suggeftions  to  be  meer  Ro- 
domontade, who  will  luve  the  Numbers  to  be 
20,25,30;  yea  feme  35000  Souls;  for  then 
the  greateft  Part  muft  be  Heathens  never  bap^ 
lizcd,  and  either  immco'tal,  or  never  buried. 
Sach  fbow  themfelves  Novices  at  Computation 
of  this  kind.  But  to  ftrengtben  the  Argument 
yetraorc,  in  1734  the  whole  Number  of  Fa- 
milies in  Gtuns&orough  Town  and  PariHi  was 
taken  moft  firiflly,  the  Families  were  748; 
Souls  341 1.  Now  from  1702  to  173^  indu- 
five,  were  buried  3454:  fo  that  a  ^ 
perior  to  the  Inhabitants  die  in  3  if  ^ 
fl  Number  equal  to  the  piefent  In 
&arce  born  in  2  8 ;;:  Years ;  yet  the  W 
to  the  Chrifteoings  liear  as:iot  to.,;^^ 

X  4  .  out 


i.vCoogIc 


(    3»2    ) 

cut  rf  39t  are  wed.  In  the  laft  place,  the 
Proportion  of  People  to  the  Numbec  of  Fa<* 
milics  proves  the  Acconnt  to  be  jiiAly  takco 
in  the  firft,  as  well  4s  in  the  lad.  For  if  3232 
Families  contain  14300  People  for  thb  Pa- 
riib,  having  3232  Families  and  14200  Souls, 
allow  4i  Pcrfons  to  each  Family,  or  9  to  2, 
the  Froduft  will  be  1403  ;  only  lyo  remains. 
Gmnjborougb  having  748  Families  and  341 1 
SouU,  allow  4t  CD  a  Family,  it  makes  3304  ; 
only  107  remains. 

That  there  has  formerly  been  a  confideraUe 
Body  of  DilTenteti  in  this  Parifh,  but  aic  now 
.Arangely  dwindled  away,  I  prove  thus:  Ii| 
1640.  and  the  next  5  Years  foUowing,  (whicb 
-were  all  mortal,  a  malignant  putrid  Fever  faaF- 
ifi%  mftde  tenibk  Havock  in  43.  and  44.  eifie> 
dally)  were  be^>ti(sed  1463,  buried  1449:  Butt 
In  48,andthe5MXtYears(whicfavereMlvcry 
jiealthy)  were  bapdzed  only  973,  bqried  1044. 

I  can  advance  nothing  certain  on  the  Edipfes 

<£  the  Snn  and  Moon,  when  attended  with  do 

uncommon  Air  orSe&£;ns,  efpecially  in  the  r6tfa 

Gentury,  vt^iich  fi'om  the  genend  ^tal  G^»« 

^demk;  of  1 556.  and  7.  Teems  to  be-very  hcrimy 

-het-e  to  1582,     But  hi  the  lytfa  Century  feenxs 

to  be  ibme  Difibttnce ;  fbr  a  lunar  Edipfe  bo- 

can  a  Mort^ity,  "which  prevailed,  llll  it  ended 

IT  one  in  September  after.  A  total  one 

on  in  Mafcb  89.  was  attended  with^ 

th  till  Jttfyj  which  was  rekindled  with 

lelipfe  ifi  Sfptimber  the  fame  Veav, 

d  iill  jffril  after.     The  like  it  was  «t 

[cl^fe  im  March  next  Ybar,    lUbBti 

iDt&th  rode  u  Triumph  till  die  Suiraner  Sol- 

4  Alee. 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00glc 


(3'3) 

1  M^reb  09.  i 

both  Luminaries  were  darkened :  amrin  Peir. 
1701.  and  in  1713.  when  the  Sun  was  dtrit> 
ened.  The  like«  the  Mora  io  1715.  andin 
yttm  and  Jnfy  173 1,  and  in  S^,  zd.  whea 
bodi  were  ccl^iKd.  The  &me  m  29.  when 
the  Sun  was  tobdly  darkened  both  u  Feir.  and 
July.  The  like  in  Jan.  jo.  Bat  reiaarkafale 
was  the  Inftancc  in  I^rcb  36.  darioqg  the 
Rdgn  of  the  fatal  Mealies,  (attended  or  fcd- 
lowed  by  a  Pn^uietimony)  for  all  that  were 
very  ill  here  died  the  fiime  N^.  But  an  the 
cotilcary,  the  EclipicB  in  j6ig*  i673>  3*^11**  94. 
jh^,  1701.  Nov.  1730^  ^c  pK  an  end  to  the 
dm  pKvaiUDg  Morttdities.  Some  Comets  fas«e 
not  mcreaied  the  Bills  of  MortaB^  hcie,  •• 
thofe  of  157I1  77,  85,  1653,  fife.  By  odien 
our  Atmoibnere  &eaa  to  be  affii9ed,aiiridieie- 
hf  ODF  Bodies,  c^»oia%  jf  ieveral  xcauvkaUe  . 
Ed^ifts  -have  bappeoed  Aaot  the  Ame  time ; 
as  ia  1580,  90,96.  1607, 18,  6i,  64. 7*,  77, 
80,  82,  83,  64,  86, 98.  1718.  But  Prdi^ 
of  iimtre  Mtttaliues  I  have  >iwt  yet  been  aUe 
to  Icflin  irom  onr  Regifler,  tiioagh  I  iavc  tried 
Jt  ausBf  Wajtt. 

The  HealthirHs  or  Siotiinels  of  ihii  PutOt 
mmf  he  ftirilier  difcowned,  i^  icmqarifig  <it 
wiu  !the  aext  contig&ous  Parifii,  cwhicb,  tho* 
far  huacT,  yet  is  kfs  popohms,  lin  on  die'^ne 
Soil,  -has  the  l^:Snnaiiaa,  Diet,  S3t,  In  it 
ftaaij^.  J,  i55S<  to-^j^.  a,,  >i^4<  vi».aj 
YeBn^weiT.baplKEcd  Males  6c3,  Femdes  594, 
both  1^7.}  Woddii^  376 :  boned  jftidM^3, 
Females  368,  both  851.  tiere  ■  Males  bm  :to 
Finales  as  62  to  59.  Out  of  every  it  bi^ 
ti»c^ 
I        .Coogic 


(  314  ) 
tized,.  7f  ire  married ;  each  two  Marriages  pr(»- 
duced  abcut  7  Childrea.  The  Chriflenings  are 
to  the  Burnings  near  as  1 2  to  8t.  From  u^. 
1, 1716.  ioy^r.  I,  1743.  were  baptized  Males 
J 175,  FenuUes  1139*  both  23 141  Weddings 
863:  boEied  Mates  866,.  Females  804,  both 
1670.  S»  chat  the  Chriftenings  of  the  GitL  27 
^Tesrs  aie  to  thc^  of  the  laft  near  as  12  to  23  j 
the  Boryihgs  near  as  8  to  16:  the  ChriAenings 
of  the  Un  Period  are  to  the  Buryings  as  46  to 
^3.  So  that  this  Uft  Parifh  is  both  healthier, 
has  few  or  no  Dificnters  in  it,  and  its  RegiAcr 
fecnu  to  be  carefully  kept  Each  Wedding  in 
the  laft  Period  produces  fcarce  three  Chil- 
dren i  which  gives  us  the  Number  of  extra- 
paflodiial  Marriages. 

In  a  neighbouring  finall  Marl^-Town,  four 
-Miles  eaft  of  the  firft  of  thefe  Parishes,  I  find 
the  wideft  Difierence  between  Males  and  Fe- 
males bora  I  for  from  1562.  to  i6qq.  both  in- 
datire,  were  baptised  Males  1980,  Females 
1 583,  near  1 9  Males  to  15  Females  s  and  from 
1720.1046.  both  exctufive.  Mates  I529>  Fc- 
malea  1259,  near  5  to  4;  and  in  the  120  Years 
ntermediate Space,  I\&les6368,  Females 603^ 
as  si  to  20,  no  contemptible  Di&rcnce':  the 
wbde  taken  together  is  Males  9877,  Females 

8876, ^moft  9  to  8. From  1562.  to  159a. 

were  baptized  yearly,  at  a  Medium,  87t : 
from  L592.  to  1601.  baptized,  at  a  Medium, 
104,  buried  95,  litde  more  than  one  twelitii 
Increafe.  .  From  1601.  to  1641.  baptized  1 10}, 
bmkd  yearly,  at  a  Medium,  near  103.  From 
(641.  to  81.  baptized  yearly  io5t,  buried 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgle 


Ivs) 

103  T.    From  1681  to  1721.  baptized  yearly 
105  T  buried  97."  And  fi-om   1732,  1045 
both    included^   baptized   yearly  Icarce  107, 
buried  77  4;  wbichfbews,  i.  That  this  Town 
is  much  healthier  now  than  from  1562  to  1641. 
when  the  Increafc  was  littlemore  than  one  i6th, 
but  for  lad  14  Yean,  it  isnearone  4tb.   2. The 
late  increafed  Diiproportioo  between  fiaptifms 
and  Burials  IheWs  the  Number  of  Diilemers  to 
be    ilrangely  dwindled.     3.  Not  only  is-  the 
Ptace  healthier  of  late  Years,  but  much  fruit- 
fuller,  and  has  kvr  extraparochial  Weddings : 
For  neither  before,  nor  during  the  civil  Wars, 
were  there  more  than  3  4-  Births  for  each  Wed- 
ding, including  Baftards  and   allj  now  there 
are  above  4  i  exclufive  of  Baftards.    4.  That 
from  1590  tb  i745<-6.  this  Town  has  only 
exported,  (over  and  above  its  Iqiports)  *S5^» 
or  about  one  11th  Part,  vtz.  987  Males  and 
643  Fem^es.     5.  That  Towns  without  Trade 
or  ManufaAory,  only  a  weekly  Market  to  de- 
pend upon,  juft  languifh  and  live.    6.  That  as 
^r/7  is  not  only  the  fruitfuUcft  Mjonth,  it  is 
chiefly  fo  of  Males.     The  firft  four  Months  pf 
"the  Year,  (b^inning with  Mirci^  as  63  to  54, 
And  the  3d  4  Months  as  63  to  SV'^'J- 
That  as  ^pril  is  the  moft  prolific,  fo  it  is  the 
moft  feia!  Month  in  tfie  Year  -,  then  Jan.  Fei. 
March,  Decern,  and  May.  '  The  moft  iavour- 
able,  are    Jviyy  ^guft-,  Stpt.   yuiu,    Novr. 
O&oi.  The  MotUlity  of  the  former  6  Months 
is  to  that  of  the  latter  as  i  c  to  12.  or  5  to  4. 
.^r;7  alone  is  to  Junej  Jufy  ot  Jug.  as  13  to 
9  ;  it  istoilfarfiabove  13  to  12.    The  Mor- 
tality 


by  Google 


(316) 

talitjr  ofj^iUnd  ya/tuary  is  to  that  tiSSep,  and 
O^ob.xt  to  26  T  to  20  4*  Thus  we  lee  the 
Plfference  between  the  Vernal  and  Autunuial 
MoTtalitjr, '  It.is  worth  our  Notice,  that  in  all 
Re^no-s,  &a  a  \oa%  Series  of  Years,  the  &tal- 
left  Months  of  the  Year  are  alio  the  fruitfuUcft 

8.  The  intermediate  Degree  wherein 

Mortality  mores  from  its  two  Extreams  of  low- 
eft  and  hidicil  is  from  i  to  4.  In  1667.  died 
205.  but  in  1708  only  49*  ^^^  ^^  common 
Mcoium  in  which  it  moves  is  from  70  to  120. 
-  f  -  9.  When  the  Bills  run  pretty  high,  they 
quickly  fall  j  iniC92,  died  147.  lHitfor3  Yean 
after  they  rcachedf  not  80  :  Or,  when  a  great 
.Mentality  happens  here,  it  comes  not  all  at  once, 
but  fteals  on  ^udually.  For  in  2666  died  113. 
in67,  2oc.^  ^^  1668,  113.  Or  where  a  loi^ 
Series  ofiiealthy  Years  fucceed  one  aoother,  a 
proportionable  Number  of  fickly  Years  follow 
and  take  their  Turn.  Thus  from  1600. 101613. 
W;ere  very  healthy,  the  yearly  Burials  never 
reached  joo.  but  the  next  4  Years  it  \reot 
from  103  to  153  i  but 'when  fewer  healthy 
Years  have  preceeded,    the   following  fickly 

Ynrs  have  neither  been  £b  many  nor  &tal. 

IQ.  Great  Mortalities  happened  ieldomer  fince 
1671  than  bofoie.  The  Regifter  ftnoe  the  ht' 
ter  have  paly  10  Tioies  come  up  to  100, 
apd  exceed  it  8  Times  in  73  Years.  But  &<m 
tj6i^3  to  73*  it.exceeded  no.  26  TiiueSf  apd 
wajirercd  ft^m  100  to  i  10.  ,11  Years  motc^  lii 
th^  j^c6q' years  haj>ppnc4'ii  Yeji3'"...gre^ 
Mortiility;  In  6  «r^|Ux6rthe  ^eg;ift^  ^^ 

'  were 


by  Google 


(V7) 

were  only  5  iatal  Yfeafs,  none  wh*eof  exceed- 

cd  i^$. It.  The  greaieft  Mortalities 

have  befcn  forefl  on  the  Males  ;  the  Death  of 
Females  heVer  exceeded  that  of  Males  above  23 
in  a  Yair,  but  the  latter  have  exceeded  die  for- 
ttier  39  m  a  Year.  The  Mortality  irom  1613. 
to  73.18  to  that  from  73.  to  1746.  as  64.  to  51. 
Thus  the  Regifler  ofeach  Paridi  would  afford 
particular  Obfervations,  which  the  Curioi^  may 
eafily  make  for  tbcmfelves. 

In  Vol.  3d  of  Lfwtiorp's  AiriJgeifmt  of  the 
Pbihfopbical  Trartja3imu,  the  Authoc  gives  tlw 
Marriagei  and  Burals'  of  Frmaifort'  and  Sa- 
cbetd>aufen\  wherein  1695  were  baptized  916. 
buried  748.  Then  he  gives  as  the  Births,  Mar- 
liageb  and  Burials  of  the  three  March,  and  Brari' 
dtahurg  Id  1698.  inbodi\^iich  were  baptized 
81539.  Weddingii  21096.  buried  fiSto.  the 
ifirft  to  the  lad  near  fl;E  8  to  ^.  -  -  -  -  The  Kio^ 
ofPnj^in  hiswhole  I^mimcms  I71C.  16.17. 
18.  yearly  at  aMeduimhad  78826  Daptized, 
30520  ^  married,  55852  buried,  the  firft  to 
the  laft  as  78.  to  55.  In  how  many  Yean 
thefe  Places  will  douUe  their  lohatntaots  m^ 
be  feen  in  the  Additions  to  Tab.  8.  before. 
-----  la  Brejlaw  from  1687.  *to  92.  inclu- 
fivb,  were  burinl  yearly  at  a  Kfedtum  ii74' 
baptized  1238.  or^meadth  Part  Increa&fWhidi 
nuy  be  levied  for  die  Prmct'a  Scrricc  $  of  the 
1x38 Births  348  die  the  firft  Year, 'and  193 
die  the  next  5  Yearsi  at  the  fix  Y&irt  End  only 
692,  furvive,  at  which  Age  the  Children  being 
Aronger,  are  left  mort^.  There  die  yearly  (U 
^  Poetic  dS  Breflaw  above  6  Yca»  old,  as  in 

thi9 


i.vCoogIc 


(3«8) 
^ut  TaBe,  where  thtt  upper  Line  is  the  A§e, 
and  che  lower  line  the  Number  of  Ferfons  of 
^t  Ag«,  that  die  yearly  at  a  Medium,  and 
where  there  is  ao  Figure  over  it^  in  the  Line  a- 
bove.  it  is  the  Number  of  thofe  that  die  between 
the  Ages  of  the  precceding  and  ibllowiug  Q>- 
lumns. 

.     Tahk  XXr. 

7.    9.  14,         18.  21.  27 

ji.    6,  Si       a.  3i     5-  6-      4^6^      g 

28.         35.    36.         42.         45.  49. 

'8.  7.      7.      8.  9*     8.  9.      7,  7.      10. 

54*    SS-    56-         63-        70-    7'-    72 
i  i»     9."    9. 10.    12.  94  1 4-    .  9>    7  ^*  9 

77.'        81.  84.         -90.     91:    '98. 

6,   7.      3. 4.'    2.  r.      I.      1.      oi 

99.    100. 


He  &7S  ihb  agrees  pretty  well  vnth  Chrift's 
Churdh-ilorpiur  Bilk,  where  of  tKcypung  Lads 
only  about  i  per  Cent,  dies  yearly.  Froni  f  Jto 
50  there  die  7,  8,  or  9  yearly  pf  cadi' Age; 
From  50  to  70.  yet  the  Mortality 'increaus ; 
and  tho'  the  ifurviving  Number  be  fmatt,  yet  the 
Mortality  increafts,  and  there  are  found  to  die 
I  o  or  1 1  of  each  Age  yearly.  From  ^lence  die 
Living  bang  few,  they  d^Iinc  gradually  till  Aere 
be  h«hc  left  to  die.  The  following  very  ofcful 
■-'    -  •  *  -  .  "Table 


by  Google 


(  3'9  ) 

Table  gives  a  more  juft  Idea  of  the  State  and 
Condition  of  Mankind,  than  any  Thing  he 
knows  of  yet  extant.  It  gives  the  Number  of 
People  oiBreJhw  of  all  Ages/  from  the  Birth 
to  very  old  Age ;  and  how  to  make  an  Eilt* 
mate  of  the  Value  of  Annuities  for  Lives,  and 
the  Chances  that  there  are  that  a  PerA>n  of  any 
Age  propofcd,  does  live  to  any  other  Age  given. 
Tbis  Table  ihews  the  Number,  of  Perfons  thaC 
are  living  in  the  Age  current  aimexed  thereto. 


rahle 


by  Google 


.^M  sxn. 


li^nsuL 

V 

^erfU:" 

■ 

1          1000 

4S 

4'7     ■                                     1 

}    1 

44 

4«7 

:i 

IS 

8       710 

47 

377 

4» 

JW 

»       tv 

18_ 
S» 

JS7 
S4« 

i       is. 

.1    SK 

S' 
S« 

3SS 
3>4 

11         «SJ 

ss 

S'l 

13        640 

57 

JO. 

1' 

BMta       rMa. 

14         S»4 

'2' 

1  ud     7       SSJ7 
7  uxl     14        4S>4 

IS         618 

16         61s 

S« 

•it 

14  "rf     Jl        4.70 

15   t:z 

II 

ti  ai    xt        ait 
■Sand    ,s        yS. 

'A   1^ 

11          S9> 

6t 

112 
III 

Ms 

)S  ■i.d    4.        317} 
4<  and    40        170, 

r^l  \^ 

«5  urf    70        I«04 
Toud    77          691 
77"}    «4          «S3 
tf  «Bd  100          107 

11          SK 

M          179 

3  [^ 

«9 
7< 

■5' 
■4" 
■3' 

Tot.lJ4i«o 

>9         5M 

>•         Si- 

7» 

110 

s'          5»3 

73 

1 

J«         S>S 

74 

3>,       507 

;i 

J4         499 

?! 

55 S° 

7^ 

6t 

-75 

ff     p; 

!J    12J 

s 

49 

4> 

89         454 
to        445 
4'         4S5 

Si 

» 

53 

•3 

.0. 4'7 

•t- 

so 

Tlnu 


by  Google 


(  321   ) 
Thus  he  fhews  ihe  whole  People  of  Sre/taia 
confifts  of  34000  Souls,  which  is  the  fame  to- 
tal ih  the  Table  whofc  Ufes  are, i.To 

(hew  the  Proportion  able  to  bear  Arms  in  any 
Multitude^  which  are  thefe  between  1 8  and  56. 
For  at  1 6  they  are  too  young,  and  at  60  too 
crafie  and  infirm  in  general.  Under  1 8  from 
the  Table,  are  found  in  this  City  11997  ^^^~ 
for«  and  3950  above  56.  both  thefe  added, 
makes  15947.  which  fubftradl  from  34000^ 
there  remains  18053,  whereof  one  half,  or 
9027  are  Males,  fit  to  bear  Arms }  but  more 
thana  half  of  the  18053  being  Males,  drop  the 
Surplus  for  incapable  and  Invalids,  but  9027 
being  527  aboVe  i  4th  of  34000,  or  i  -  -  i8ih 
of  the  9000  pafs  them  alio  for  Gcnilemen, 
Men  of  the  thtee  Profefiions,  Merchants,  &Ci 
ftill  I  4th  (remains  good  -----  zdty.  This 
Table  fhews  the  different  Degrees  of  Mortality, 
or  rather  Vitality  of  all  Agesj  for  if  the  No 
of  Perfons  of  any  Age,  remaining  after  i  Year* 
be  divided  by  the  Difference  between  that  and 
the  No  of  the  Age  propofed,  it  {hews  the  Odds 
that  there  is  that  the  Perfon  of  that  Age  does 
hot  die  in  a  Year,  ex  gr.  a  Perfon  aged  25  Years 
has  the  Odds  of  560  to  7,or  80  to  i,that  hedocs 
not  die  in  a  Ycafj  for  if  560  of  that  Age,  only 
y  died  in  a  Year.  It  likewife  fliews  the  OJds 
that  any  Perfon  does  not  die  before  he  attaios 
any  propofed  Age ;  takeihe  No  of  the  remain* 
ing  Perfons  of  the  Age  propofed,  and  divide  it 
by  the  Difference  between  it  and  the  No  of 
thefe  of  the  Age  of  the  Party  propofed;  and 
thftt-ib«wi-the  Odds  tlwre  is  between  the  Chan- 
Y  cc» 


by  Google 


(   322  ) 

ces  of  the  Fifty  liviDg  or  dying,  exgr.  What's 
the  Odds  that  a  Man  of  40  Lives  y  Years  ? 
Take  the  No  of  Pcrfons  of  47  Yean,  which 
in  the  Table  is  377,  and  fubftraft  it  frmn  the 
No  of  Pcrfons  0/40  Years,  which  is  445,  the 
Difference  b  6S,  which  (hews  that  the  Pcr- 
fons dying  in  that  7  Yean  are  68,  and  that 
it  is  377  to  68,  or  5  ;  to  one,  that  a  Man  of 
40  does  live  7  Years,  and   fo  of  other  Ages. 

3i//)>,  If  it  be  asked,  at  what  No  of 

Years,  it  is  an  even  Lay,  that  a  Perfon  of  any 
Age  (haXi  die,  this  Table  readily  performs  it ; 
forif  the  Number  of  the  Perfons  living  of  the 
Age  propofed  be  halfed,  it  will  be  found  by 
the  Table,  at  what  Year  the  faid  No  is  rcdac- 
cd  to  half  by  MortiUty ;  and  that  b  the  Age 
to  which  it  is  an  even  Wager,  that  a  Perfon  of 
the  Age,  (hall  arrive  before  he  die.  Exgr. 
A  Perfon  of  30  Years  of  Age  is  propofed,  the 
No  of  that  Ageis53i,thchalfofwhichis275, 
which  No  he  finds  to  be  between  57  and  58 
Years,  fothat  a  Man  of  30  may  reafonably  ejt- 
peS  to  live  between  27  and  28  Years.  -  -  -  -- 
J^thljy  By  what  has  been  faid,  the  Price  of  In- 
furance  upon  Lives  ought  to  be  regulated,  and 
the  Difierence  is  difcovered  between  infuring 
the  Ljfe  of  a  Man  of  20  and  50  ex  gr.  k  is  a 
I  op  to  I ,  that  a  Man  of  20  dits  not  in  a  Year  i 
and  but  3  8  to  i  for  a  Man  aged  50  Years.  On 
this  depends  the  Valuation  of  Annuities  upon 
Lives,  feeing  'tis  plain,  that  the  Purchafer 
ought  to  pay  for  only  fuch  a  Part  of  ilje  Value  of 
the  Annuity,as  he  has  chances  that  he  is  living  ; 
and  this  fhould  be  compufed  yearly,  and  the 
Sum 


by  Google 


{  323  ) 
Sum  of  thole  yearly  Values  being  added  toge-^ 
ther,  will  amount  to  the  Value  of  the  Annuity 
for  the  Life  of  the  Perfon  propofed. 

To  this  our  Author  adds  a  great  Deal  more 
on  Annuities  from  the  ingenious  Mr.  £</man^ 
Halley  on  the  Brejlaw  Bills  of  Mortality  in  No 
196.  Pbikfo.  ^ranf.  But  there  has  been  fomuch 
wrote,  both  then  and  fince,  on  that  Subjed,  that 
I  iball  not  here  enter  upon  it.  I  the  more  wil- 
lingly decline  it,  cfpectally  as  it  is  foreign  to  our 
iSubje(% ;  and  as  a  ferious  Reflexion  on  our  for- 
mer Tables,  chiefly  the  \fi  and  7^16  will  afford 
fo  many  juft  Objeftions  to  all  general  Tables  of 
Annuities,  ariiing  ^m  the  different  Situation 
of  Places,  feveral  Climates,  various  Conftim- 
tions,  Difference  of  Education,  Trades,  Bufi- 
neffes,  V/ay  of  Life,  Ufe  or  Abufe  of  the 
Nonnaturals  in  a  Place,  Town  or  Country  in 
genera),  ^c 


Ya  OB- 


by  Google 


(  3H  ) 

OBSERVATIONS 

ON    THE 

QUANTITIES 


Rain,  fundry  Winds,  Meteors, 
with  their  Signs,  ^c. 

TH  E  Wcftther  has  fo  great  an  InHoeoce 
on  our  Bodies,  and  is  fo  often  the 
Mcans^  of  producing,  protrai^ng,  in- 
creafing,  alleviating  or  checking  Difeafes  c^  dif- 
ferent Kinds,  according  to  its  feveral  Sorts 
and  Duration,  and  the  various  Changes  of  the 
Air,  very  often  into  oppofitc  Exircams,  that 
one  cannot  well,  and  fhould  not  treat  of  Bills  d 
Mortality,  without  taking  fome  Notice  of  tbefe 
Alterations,  and  how  they  are  brought  about  j 
more  cfpecially,  as  they  nnt  only  aftcdt  human 
Bodies,  but  the  Produft  of  ihe  Earth  itfclf,  ei- 
ther in  rendering  it  barren,  or  fpoiling  its  Fruit, 
and  making  them  unwholfome  ;  but  above  all, 
.when  both  a  bad  Air,  Scarcity  or  Famine,  and 
unwholfome  Produdl  of  the  Earth  happen  to^ 
gethcr.  What  (hocking  Woifc  did  the  onna- 
tural  (to  this  Climate]  and  unfeafonable  Cold 
of  the  whole  Year  1695  and  96  make  firft  by 
.  Famine, 


by  Google 


(  325  ) 
Famine,  and  then  with  the  fatal  Fever  of  98  ? 
Great  Sicknefs  fucceeded  the  Rains  of  1712 
and  1713,  and  great  Mortality,  the  Cold  of 
1723  and  the  Heat  of  1726,  and  the  Variable- 
ncfiof  27i  iheWetnefs  of  35,  the  Rains  of 
2^  fucceeded  by  the  Cold  }  Froft  and  Scarcity 
of    40  and  41    one  cannot   look    into   the 
£ital    Years  in  the  Bills  of  Mortality  with- 
out  reflefltng  upon,    or   enquiring    into    the 
pteceeding  or  concomitant  State   of  the  Air 
and  Weather,  However  Rains  or  Drought,  Heat 
or  Cold  may  have  been  accufed  of  producing 
Difeafcs,  yet  upon  a  flriifter  andclofcr  Eoqui-^ 
ry,  we  (hall  find,  that  a  too  great  Fixedne^  of 
the  Winds  for  a  long  Time  to  one  particular 
Point,  has  been  the  more  remote,  mediate  and 
chief  Caufe,  as  In  t^e  Difeafes  of  1666,  1667, 
.95  and  96.     What  Depopulating,  did  near  a 
12  Years  Prevalency  of  a  N.  Wind  make  in 
Pru^a  ?  On  the  contrary,  we  fhall  find  thefe 
Years  in  gener4l  the  healthiefV,  wherein  the 
Winds  are  often  {hifiing  and  varying,  and  the 
Air  neither  unfeafonably  hot  nor  cold,  dry  nor 
moilV,  light  nor  heavy.     But  of  all  fixt  Winds, 
the  Weft  is  commonly  the  healihicft,  the  N. 
N.  E.  and  E.  being  too  cold,  the  S.  and  S.  W. 
being  too  moift,  or  foltry.  By  comparing  Jour- 
nals of  tjie  Weather  kept_  in  different  Places, 
and  Bills  of  M-jrtality  together,  we  fee  clearer 
thcEfteiis  of  the  Air  and  Weather  on  human 
Bodies,  and  fee  the  Reafon  why  the  fame  Di- 
feafe  at  the  fame  Time  is  fevere  in  one  Place, 
and  favourable  in  another.     And  why  diff^^rent 
Y  3  Species 


i.vCoogIc 


(  3'6  ) 
Species  of  tMreafes  of  the  fame  Genius  are  ftlrtiog 
at  the  fame  Time  tn  feveral  Parts,  and  have 
fundry  Terminations,  and  by'  taking  in  the 
DiDancQs  and  different  Situations,  we  fee  why 
it  may  be  healthy  in  one  Place,  and  fickly  in 
anoihei,  &c.  It  is  furprlzing  not  only  to  fee 
the  Difference  of  the  Wind  and  Weather  in 
the  Journals  of  Germany  and  Holland^  and  of 
Holland an\ England,  in  1728  and  29:  Butta 
fee  the  wonderful  Difference  in  the  fame  Days 
in  the  S.  Weft,  Midland  and  N,  of  England, 
hence  various  Seafon^,  and  very  di^eot  Ef- 
fcils, 

In  the  firft  ic  Years  of  the  TvmUy  Re^llw, 
we  have  whole  Pounds  of  Water,  which  at  the 
iame  Time  gives  both  the  Quantity  of  half 
Pounds  and  the  Height  of  Inches,  with  this 
Diflfcrcncc,  that  either  in  the  Months,  Yean, 
or  Totals,  for  the  half  Pounds  the  laft  Figure 
is  a  Decimal  Fra^ion,  and  the  next  before  it  the 
half  Pounds,  and  for  the  Height  the  two  laft 
Figures  denote  the  Decimal  Fraction  of  an  Inch, 
and  the  Remainder  the  Height  of  the  Inches, 
In  all  the  other  Regiflers,  the  Rain  is  counted 
by  Inches,  Decimals,  or  Centefimals.  MaUm 
Regillcr  of  1743,  and  to  the  End,  is  meafured 
by  Pints  i  the  Receiver  there  is  fquare  3  8  Inches 
in  Coinpaf?,  and  the  CiH^rn  14.  In  thcLynht 
Regifttr  the  firft  Column  of  every  Month  gives 
the  Height  of  the  Barometer,  the  fecond  of  the 
Thermomeier,  the  third  the  QuanUtics  of  Rain  j 
after  which  are  the  Fune  fflSf 

4 

Tabie 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(3^7) 


li 

?fl^mff^f 

II 

1*5=^1.25*^^1 

11 

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tTs? 

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fa^is  8?  iS  Jl'=  1 

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?? 

3-s?'s?='l3ll*'af 

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3  3  .J!  S  "cou^  "m  ^  "o  *.2"m  -f? 

21 

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li 

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ftaH*1,?*t  Si  f 

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\ 

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I 
9 


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Tovmley  continued^ 


Ys. 

_ifg7 

.M 

16<M 

1700 

1701 

■7=. 

170  J 

Toal 

iZ: 

S-13 

6.47 

'7-9' 

20.84 

22.41 

21. 10 

15.17 

109.3 

7.17 

S.8£ 

32.7c 

19.12 

16.78 

»i.»7 

1S.8S 

118.80 

Mmr. 

4-93 

I7-9* 

7.58 
18.65 

7.1c 

J.*8 

10.2 

6i.i« 

Afr. 

4.U 

J0.9; 

I0-+7 

6.11 

S-34 

17.64 

82.67 

hi^ 

11.88 

8-9>- 

4.00 

'7-9J 

19.67 

8.S1 

88.«7 

Jn,. 

8.9: 

6.4s 

10  J7 

ij.n; 

\^,h 

13.00 

14.06 

«7.»9 

7'h 

IMS 

IO-37 

16.S. 

li-^ 

15.31 

j.6s 

ioi.85 

M 

40.ZS 

Il.JC 

«9-77 

20.11 

14.21 

15156 

S».. 

46.00 
27.60 

ii.79 

'6.  S3 

23.!^ 

21.30 

aj.i 

133.! 

Ga. 

22.25 

18.9c 

J644 

24.  i9 

21.;, 

7.14 

'SS-C 

iWTO. 

10.72 

*4-7! 

\t^ 

.J.69 

25.60 

37.11 

2».s6 

■54.40 

JilC. 

24.?0 

2fi.SP 

IO.I(J 

41.6, 

10.34 

1 50.74 

p<xmi 

loj.-c 

189.92 

.96-Si 

215.30 

?J 

'S7-7S 

196.bc 

i^68.il 

V^ 

41.40 

37-984 

39.302 

43.60 

S'-SS 

39  i 

.991" 

Cbelmsferd  iji  Iffex. 


Ve»r 

i7n 

ms 

I7W 

1740 

1741 

174a 

Total 

>•. 

0.6 1^ 

1.080 

3.075 

000 

652 

I.020 

W»< 

809 

4.262 

I4« 

7.^68 

J»-,. 

2., 61 

1.161 

68fi 

00 

6.932 

i^r 

1.280 

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vw 

■  .6^^, 

I8q 

95c 

7- "07 

JWi, 

'■i32 

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1  924 

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M65 

207 

8.125 

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6U 

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2.  ,6. 

792 

1.497 

2.19c 

^? 

4. 90  J 

..■,H= 

8,c 

11. 128 

1-tl^t 

1.750 

1.630 

1.603 

10.96 

i'.^. 

3.6;2 

1.80  J 

1.257 

■:74> 

2.2  IK 

11.671 

2.502 

2.762 

.56 

18. 

1.879 

7.680 

2-021 

1.826 

S.014 

/J« 

i.06n 

I.S2C 

1.S57 

2.79i 

1.300 

9..*.; 

" 

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17.1^7 

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( 329) 

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by  Google 


(  330  ) 
Five  Tears  Kent, 


Ym 

I7W} 

I7JO 

■7J« 

■71) 

'734 

Total 

?r 

..J? 

M 

S-57 
...7' 

■  -23! 

..63 

8.458 
8.367 

Mmr. 

I.2« 

4-W 

i.iiC 

2.161 

i.9i 

9.828 
6.366 
10.820 

X 

3.197 

t.ai6 

0»s 

1.31a 
3-494 

ill 

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^. 

730 

803 
1.527 

1-742 

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2.^3 
■•4 

8.164 
8.261 

f%- 

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HI 

931 

31* 

■  .■(. 

8.*.5 

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1.043 

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7-769 

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1.471 

■  .o8^ 
J.201 

3'«1 

11.740 

Da. 

4-334 
■■047 

r.j2i 

;:s 

.v^ 

■JS'S 

!2.5J^ 

140.310 

.9.998 

29.72 

109.2S3 

Leadott^  Seven  Years. 


Y««r 

tytq 

1730 

•m. 

■732 

'7SS 

UM. 

•2iL 

T«2l 

^ 

7J9 

4S0 

■25 

S'i 

69 

2.36 

SS7S 

785 

1.230 

82 

l.,0 

1.16 

■■9SS 

i.7» 

9610 

1:^ 

J-|95 

,J 

;:;i5 

2.145 
1.70 

■-79 
45 

'■^6 

'1% 

ji% 

1.515 

755 

JO 

32 

55 

4^7 

2-4 

13.6«. 

^ 

1-200 

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3-7SS 
2-390 

M5 

■■! 
1.13 

2.65 
■54 

3.2. 
1.11 

2.8 
^■4 

16.245 
'24!! 

/V 

3-04 

20 

■-73 

■5 

3.225 

1.76 

■-49 

12.529 

&//. 

3.505 

1.36 

1.14 

■-37 

..56 

oa. 

1.420 

1460 

2.39 

9' 

2.10 

-    98 

ii.'6ii 

Ntv. 

2.425 

■-S70 

■•S3 

1.2 

S' 

■.77 

2.69 

11.70! 

Dte. 

1.951, 

1.500 

1.40 

7.705 

2-44 

427 

14.65! 

"0-3441 

21.495 

■  3.60 

19.65s 

18.09 

'4-S7 

22.83 

141.220 

Monthly 


by  Google 


(331  ) 


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Year 

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17;B 

2739 

1740 

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r«ii 

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1-33 

1.2s 

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6.71 

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1.90 

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2.50 

1.66 

1-75 

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87 

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1.61 

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2.40 

2.6, 

1.87 

1.94 

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3-23 

2.30 

S.28 

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3-76 

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1.3 

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2.81 

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1.79 

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2.94 

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ti.i6 

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2.77 

10.J7 

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6.8j 

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23.8 

19,87 

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'737     '739 

1.100 

1.578    4.400 

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3.301        2.840 

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1.28s    3-7+a 

3-5^9 

3.742    3.63 

1.896 

2.742    3.856 

4.00 

1. 16;    3.00 

1.S39 

1.23;    1.854 

1.18, 

3  4!3     "793 

1.044 

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17.801 18.44,1)7,6711 

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4,498 

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19.131 

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1.010 

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7.174 

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by  Google 


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Tbe  Month]]'  and  Ynrly  QuutLtiel  of  tia  that  'fell  at  Lyninit 
mr  Uppingbamy  in  the  County  of  Rutland,  as  It  was  exaaiy  takea 
by  that  worthy  and  ingeniout  Gentleman  ntnui  Barktr  Jun.  Elq) 
with  hisFathcr's  andbuownObfcrvatioiuon  theWcathcr,  After 
ibr  Monthly  Quantity  of  Rain  ii  added  tbe  Monthly  Number  of 
-  Funcrali  in  the  next  Town  to  it: 


7" 

At. 

1736 

n<r. 

^«i».  Wy*</. 

Mr. 

0 

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2 

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The  Monthly  and  Yearly  Quantities  of  Rain  chat 
has  fallen  at  Pickeritg^  in  the  Eaft  Riding  pf  Zork- 
fiire,  taken  by  the  ingenious  Tbotnai  Rolrin/on  E,{qi 
there,  for'  the  following  Years.  His  Receiver  and 
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(34*) 

A  General  Account  of  the  Weiatlier 
at  tiynd&n  in  Rutland, 

This  Acaunt  vms  fitjl  neritftn  ebiat  174  r ; 
tbereforr  the  Part  before  that  ttine  narwriitm 
hy  Memory^  and  fucb  otber^Halpt  -as  J  bad; 
yet  I  believe  there  are  no  great  Mifiakes  in  it. 

17J3.  '  r"^HE  Summer  if^^/j^f^^  hot  and  dry, 
J_  and  yrnie  27,  tk-iiig  two  Days  after  in 
extcflitfc  hot  Day,  there  ctmeU'ficrtc  Thun- 
dcr  and  'Hail-ftorm,  with  HaSl-ftobes  ot"  pcr- 
lt.tt  Ice,  and  fomc  of  them  about  i^Ihch  ower 
and  I  of 'an  Inch  thick.  The  Autumn  v^lb 
'  remarkably  fine  and  warm,  that' ihe' Birds  built 
their  NeHs  in  November ^   and  except  a  Fort- 

J734  liight's  Froft  in  yanaory/ it  ivas  ftiild,  ifry, 
fine,  and  more  like  Spring  than  Winttr,  till 
the  End  of  February^  when  it  grew  wet,  and 
lilted  fo  moft  Part  of  1734.  andtn -the  Winter 
following  there.wasnot  much  Froft, 'but  a  re- 

jyjfl,  pi-irkably  high  Wind  in  ^aftdia/y.  The  Sam- 
-  mer  J735-  was  very  wet,  there  beiijg  fcldom 
3  Days  together  fair,  'and  ftarie  any  Weather 
^ke  Sunimer  except  about  the  Beginning  of 
H;r-'cft,  Water  I  ly  at  the  Ends  of  the  Land's 
on  the' top  of  the  Hill  is  "^-weJhn^Field  till 
^ugufl  ;  and  though  no  Ponds  were  fiear,  there 
wer>.  Ill  fotn^  of  them  many  ybt^iigPenitf^okles. 
The  Autumn  and  Winter  wero  alfo  wet,  and 
there  w.is  a  great  Rot  among  Sheep  j  but  only 
*  fai»Il  hrpken  Frofts,-  the  greateft  of  wt)i^  was 

ia 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(  343  ) 

in  Fehruary^  which  yet  was  a  remarkably  wet  1736. 
Month,  but  grew  drier  toward  the  End.  March 
began  cold  and  windy  j  but  ^lom  March  12,  to 
J^pril  8,  W.1S  very  warini  growing  Spring-wea- 
ther,   the  Wind  bcir^  moftlv  Southerly  ;  but 
afterwards  came  dry  and  cold  Northerly  Wind*;, 
and  but  little  hot  Wcathej-.     Toward  the  End 
ot  yune  it  grew  fliowery,  and  ^a^  3,  4,  and 
5,  in    a  .contiuual  and  heavy  kain,  there  c^c 
near   5  luches  deep  of  Water,  which  made  a 
great  Flood,  and  carried  away  a  great  deal  of 
H^y  off  the  Meadows.     The  End  of  the  Year 
was  moderate  and  a  good  Seed-time,  and  no 
^eat  Frofts  in  the  Winter.     The  Spring  1737.  '737' 
began,  wetj  but  after  March  it  was  dry  moft 
part  of.  the  Summer,  but  variable  as  to  Heat, 
frequently  cban^ng  from  cold  to  very  hot  in  a 
few  Days;  and  the  Ground  was  very  much 
burnt  in  May  znd  yun'e,  and  ftili  more  in  yafy. 
Tiie  Crop  of  Wheat  and  Rye  was  good.  Bar* 
ley  pretty  weil;  but  Beans  and  Peas,  through 
the  Diynefs  of  the  Scafon,  were  very  bad  ;  moft 
of  the  Wheat  was  got  in  befta-e  the  wet  Wea- 
ther, .which  came  in  Jiuguji  and  the  following 
Months,  and  damaged  the  latter  Part  of  the 
Harveft^  but  made  a  fine  Autumn  for  Grafs. 
An  open   Winter    fullow'd,  with   only   (hort 
Frc^s,  and  after  a  fomcwhat  cold  Spring,  came  1738. 
.  a  hot  (howcry,  but  fine  and  growing  May,  with 
great  Plenty  of  Grafs.    It  continued  a  wet  Sum- 
mer, bu^  not  fo  fine  as  in  May  -.  but  the  Au- 
tumn was  drier,  fo  that  there  was  lefs  Rain  in 
tlus  whole  Year,  than  in  the  former. 

Z  4  ,         The 

L,  iz^d.vCooglc 


<  344  ) 
J739*  '^^^  ^^"  '739-  twgan  wet;  fome  warm 
Weather  in  February  brought  Plants  forward  ; 
but  the  cold,  wet,  and  blading  Winds  id  March 
and  the  red  of  this  backward  Spring,  blafted 
almoil  all  the  Bloilbmsi  and  the  North  Sides 
of  the  Hedges,  which  lay  open  to  the  cold 
Winds,  wcie  fcorch'd  by  them.  It  was  cold 
and  wet  Summer,  but  Part  of  Hay-tiroc  was 
fair  J  and  again  in  Harveft,  till  moft  of  the 
Whi-,.r  and  Barley  was  carried.  The  Autumn 
was  not  quiic  fo  wet  ;is  before  ;  and  in  Ocfoher 
it  grew  told  with  N.  E.  Winds  j  and  a  Iharp 
Frolt  for .  1 1  Days  came  in  November.  But  the 
greii  Froft  began  December  z$t  which  with  a 
ftrong,  exceflively  fliiirp,  and  freezing  Eaft 
WJnJ,  dertroy'd  what  Grafs  remain'd  on  the 
Ground.  Almoft  conftant  Northerly  Winds 
1740.  attended  this  Frofl,  and  lafted  all  the  Spring, 
and  Part  of  the  following  Summer.  This  fctr 
tkd  Froft,  in  which  there  was  but  little  Snow, 
having  by  its  Length  and  great  Severity^  kitt'd 
moil  of  the  fmall  Birds,  and  deftroy'd  or  dama- 
ged great  Numbers  of  Plants,  went  away  Fe~ 
hrunry  id  ;  hut  fo  cold,  dry,  ftcrn»  cutting  and 
backward  a  Spring 'follow'd,  as  can  hardly  be 
match'd  ;  and  the  Summer  was  cold  and  dry 
till  almort  Auguji,  with  fcarce.any  Grafs,  and 
very  Utile  Hay  ;  but  the  Harveft  in  this  Coun- 
try, an  1  fi>!iie  other?,,  was  good;  but  in  fome 
Part-  of  England  v^'cy  bad.  Before  the  Froft 
in  tbi^  Cojn^rv,  Whejt  w-iS  fcarce  4  Shillings 
a  Strike  ;  but  that  raifcd  the  Price  to  6  Shillings, 
till  this  Harveft  lowcr'd  it  to  5  Shillings,  about 
which  Price  it  continued  till  the  Harveft  1741. 
nude 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


<  34S  ) 
made  it  ^11  to  its  uftial  Price ;   bat  where  the 
Crop  was  more  deftroy'd,  it  was  dearer,  evea 
to  9  or  I  o  Shillings  a  Strike.  After  heavy  Rdin 
yuif  30,  it  was  a  moift  Autumn,  and'  the  Sca- 
loa  was,  and  had  been  all  this  Year,  fo  biclc- 
ward,  that  fome  Wheat  was  cut  betorc  it  was 
fully  ripi-,  the  latter  End  of  Augufl  ;  and  ficans 
and  Pc,  fe  were  not  finifti'd  till  near  Michaelmas. 
The  cold  Weather  began  foon  this  Year;  for  it 
fnow'd  OBoher  1  j  and  a  Froft  about  the  2«th 
froze  ihe  Apples  on  the  Trees  bcJorc  they  were 
Ripe  ;    iind  it  contini!cd  a  cold  Winter  with 
fro:1y  Weather ;  the  longeft  Froft  being  about 
a   Fortnight  1(  ng,  broke   December  2 1  :  Ani 
there  was  anothc'-  (harp  Froft  in  January,  but  '74'* 
ibme  warm  Spring  Weather  came  the  beginning 
oi  February  :  But  though  there  was  fine' Wear 
ther  f>;veral  times  this  Spring,  there  was  alfo 
iuch  flern  and  cold  Weather,  as  made  it  a  back- 
ward and  blafting  S-afon  j  and  the  Spring  and 
Summer,  were  fo  dry  that  from  Januart  to 
Augufi  there   was  fcarce  half  the  Rain  which 
ufuiilly  falls  in  that  time.     There  wa-^  fiowcver 
more  Gia's  this  Spring  than  laft,  as  tiicre  was 
more  warm  Weather  j  but  it  burnt  aw  .y  very 
much,  in  the  almt  ft  corf  ant  hot  Weather  from 
about  May  20,  till  September,     There  was  fo 
little  Hay  this  Yearj  that  a  Load,  which  has 
fometimts  been  fold  for  12  or  i^  Shillings, 
could  fcarcely  be  bought  for  coJ.  but  the  Har- 
Teft  was  moftly  good  ;  though  Beans  and  Pcaic 
were  bad,  as  is  ufual  in  dry  Years.     An  Inch  of 
Rain  about  Auffiji  20,  madetbe  Ground  gieea; 
but  it  burnt  sgain  the  Beginning  of  SeptemheK ; 

and 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(3+«) 

aad  then  between  i^h  and  19th  came  44.:IjDch- 
esof  Rain,  with  wVl  Weather;  but  it  grew  hot 
again  afterward^  >nd  Ufted  &>  till  .fome  time  in 
OSober,  wiuch  inade  Plenty  of  Grafi.     It  Was 

1742.  moftlyan.opcn  Winter^  and  mild  in  yanuaryi 
but  the  Beginning  of  February  it  turn'd  cdd,  and 
contioued  a, cold  and  backward  Spring,  and  was 
dry  till  ^fril,  when  near  2  Inches  of  Rain  made 
more  Grafs  than  had  been  the  two  Uft  Springs ; 
but  the  Trocs  were  very  backward. 

This  Summer  was  very  dry  in  ftHne  Places, 
particolerly  about  Ijmdon^  where  thtre  was  ve- 
ry littl&RaJn  tilt  toward  the  End  ofyuae  j  and 
all  the  way  down,  the  nearer  this  Country,  the 

■  more  Grafs  thca  was.  Here  alfo  the  Weather 
mas  mofllyL  dry,  and.fcarce  any  Rain  in  March  -, 
but  after  that  there  was  no  Month  vnrhuut  Rain. 
And  though  the  Ground  began  to  burn  3  times, 
ibme  Rain  foon  c^me  and  recover'd  the  Grafs; 
and  there  proved  a  moderate  Crop  of  Hay  j  but 
it  was  a  wet  Hay-time  from  the  Middle  of  Juae 
to  the  Middle  of  ya^.  From  toward  the  End  of 
jfufyt  till  the  dOeginning  of  September^  was  the 
longefl  dry  SeaJibn  this  Year,  in  which  the  Har- 
veft  was  well  gotten  ;  and  the  Crop  of  Wheat 
■was  good  }  but  the  Barley  bad,  being  of  two  ■ 
Growths.  The.  Autumn  vras  moOly  cold  and 
■wet,   efpecially  in  Nffvember.     After  a  very 

•  iharp  Froft in Dcffffi^r,  the  Winter  wasmildj 

1743.  bat  it  wasalllb  dry,  that  vaFehruary  the  Roads 
were  good;- and  in  many  Places  they  wanted 
Water,  the  Springs  being  even  then  low.     The 

.  Spring  was  dry,  cold  and  -backvrard  ;  and  the  ' 

■  Slimmer  dry,  except  Jk/c,  whic)^  was  very  wet, 

wd 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


and  madeetery  thing  grdw  very  feft,  and  ma- 
•ny  ^reeSjfliDot  agkio,  which  had  ceaftd  grow- 
ing before.  ^hcreWa&lhisYcar  a  general  good 
'Crop  of  ali^ortsof  Grain,  andagood  Time  to 
get  it  in  ;  for  after  yufy  there  was  fcarce  any 
"  Rain  til!  O^oifr,  wbith  made  the  Spr'ogs  ran  ' 
flower  than  Was  aimoft  ever  luiown.  The 
Winter  was  in  general  open  and  dry  ;  Co  that  1744. 
in  jRr^rflflry  the  Roads  were  pretty  good,  and 
the  Springs  wefe  low,  though  not  fo  lowas  laft 
Spring;  but  the  End  of  Pehuary,  z\l  Marcb, 
and  Part  of  ^W/,  there  came  Rain  which 
ibak'd  the  Ground,  and  made  the  Springs  run 
as  the  ufed  to  do.  This  Summer  was  in  muny 
Places  comp]ain'd  of  as  very  dry  j  but  in  this 
Country,  and  chiefly  at  this  Town,  we  weie 
never  very  long  without  Rain  ;  for  a  hcivy 
Thunder-Shower,  whkb  reac?h'd  bu'  a  litdc 
Way,  with  fonne  o;her  Rain  in  yune,  were  the 
main  Supports  of  our  Grafs,  which  at  t':iis  Town 
never  qiiitefaikd  us.  But  rhc  longeft  dry  Time 
was  in  j^w/^,  aiid  A/guJi,  which  fui:;d  the 
Hay-time  and  '  Harveft  "ffery  well.  There 
was  a  pretry  good  Crop  of  Hav,  ■  and  in  all  Pla- 
ces a  good  Crop  of  Corn,'  which  iii  tl  isCountry 
was  well  gotten  J  butinibnic  Places,  ptrticular- 
ly  in  the  North,  South, '  and  Weft  of  fiflg-Ajfli/, 
much  of  -the  Harveft,  and  even  fomc  of  ihc 
"Wheat,  was  fpiil'd  by  the  grCaC Rains,  which 
came  in  fome  PLices  footer,- bat  chiefly  in' 5(?*- 
temher  and  OBober-^  of  Whichrhcy had  a  great 
'deal  more  than  we  ;  though  "wi'h  us  alfo,  it 
was  a  wet  Sealbn.  The  Winter  was  a  cold  one  j 
«id  I  DcVer  biforc'rettieniber,  folate  ia  the  Year, 

foch 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00yIC 


f(348.) 

1745.  fiich  a  fettled  Froil  as  there  was  all  Vehrmrp 
and.  w^ch  lafted  into  IvUrcb.  .  Aftcf  thip  Froft, 
■briik  S.W,  Winds  brought  a  great  deal,  of  Rain  j 
but  about  March  20,  there  came  Tome  finer 
and  w^mei:  Weather  than, had. been,  at  that 
Time  of  the  Yeax,  for  fcyeral  Years  before  j 
but  it  did  not  lfifi..long,  for  it  was  a  cold  aad 
backward  Spring,  with  frequent  Rain.  The 
Summer  was  mofUy  cold }  and  in  jMf^i  and 
Part  oiAuguH^  very  wet;  and  Augujl  b(^  thwc 
fell  near  2  Inches  of  Raih,  with  a.great  deal  of 
Thunder  and  Lightning,  for  a  g  eat  while  a- 
bout  8  Flaflies  in  a  Minute,  and  did  Mifchief 
io  feveral  Parts  of  England :  But  both  Hay-time 
and  Harveft  were  good  here,  though  the  Hay 
was  fpoil'd  towards  London,  The  Crcp  of 
Wheat  was  worfe  this  Year  than  Uft ;  but  the 
Barley  wasLvery  good  j  fo  that  Wheat  fq^d  lor 
near  3  times  as  much  as  Barley.  Ae  the  Spring 
and  Beginning  of  Summer  was  very  windy  ;  Jo 
the  latterEiid  of  it,  and  Autumn,  was  muftly 
calm  and  fine,  till  the  Eiid  oiOSi^er.  The 
firft  Fortnight  in  November^  atJii  moft  Part  of 
December^  was  dark,  cloudy,  culm,  and  moid 
or  mifty  Weather,  but  the  reil  of  thefe  Months 
was  moftly  Oiprt  and  broken  Frofls.     The 

1746.  Year  J 746  began  with  a  clear  Froft,,but  fo 
white  as  to  look  almoft  like  Siiowj  this,  with 
fopie  Thaw8  and  XVind  between,  laflcd  till 
ne^r  the  End  Qiyanuary^  when  in  one  N^ht 
came  a  great  and  fudden  Snow,  f^id, continued 
frofty  and  ibmeiimcs  Snow,  or  rainy,  to  the 
Equinox ;  and  the  reA  of  Marpb  w^  Partly  fine 
and  partly  wet :  After  whiph  the  Spring  was 

' dryi 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


X  ^49  ■) 
dry^  bbt  fometimes  warm,  andfometime&cdd; 
tot  fllmoft  all  JV/dy  was  hot,  with  a  N.E.  Windj 
^nd  vaft  Swarms  of  great  Gnats,  >vbich  flinging 
many  People,  ■  made  tjielr  Legs  and  Arms  fwell 
greatly  -,  and  fuch  Nombef  s  of  Caterpillars  were 
on  the.  Gocifcbcrry  and  Currant  Bulhe^  thaf 
many  were  very  near  ftrip'd  of  their  Leaves. 
When  the  Gnats  had  been  very  nurperous  pnd 
tronblelbme  aboat  a  FortnJghi,  their  Numbe^ 
dwindled  about  May  20 ;  and  Toon  after,  as  k 
grewihowery,  and  was  a  windy  and  wet  ^(^s^, 
few  if  any  of  ihem  were  left.  Between  the 
ShowcR,  Bees  got  confiderably  i  but  fo  fafl, 
when  it  grew  dry  Weather  in  the  Begmning  of 
yufyj  that  Jufy  Swarms,  which  are  generally 
worth  little,  got  this  Year  flrong  engugh  to 
Aand  the  Winter  ;  one  of  them,  the  fecond 
.Weik  after  they  wcrefwarm'd,  gaining  i-^^^  in 
height  each  Day.  Whether  this  was  caufed  by 
the  vaft  Numbers  of  white  Trefoil-  Flowers 
then  in  BIow,(as  there  was  vaft  Plenty  of  them 
in  1 74  T .  when  alfo  the  Bees  were  very  rich)  or 
for  what  other  Rcafon,  except  dry  Weather, 
I  do  not  know:  -The  Crops  of  Hay  were  but 
fmall,  yet  well  gotten  j  but  the  Crop  of  Grain 
was  in  general'good,  and  well  gotten,  befides 
a  large  Stock  of  old  left ;  and  therefore  cheap ; 
for  in  Autumn,  Whetit  fojd.  for  about  zos,  a 
Quarter,  Ryefori4J.  Barley  ioj  61/.  Oats  8f. 
or  8  i  6i/.'  and  Peai?  1 5*.  or  1 61.  The  latter  E^ 
of  the  Summer  was  mpftly  dry,  which  left 
the  Ground  very  bare  of  Grafs  againft  Winter ; 
•  for  the  Rain  which  came  in  OSober^  was  too 
Ute  to  produce  much  Grafs. 

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<  J5P  ) 

The  Diftemper  among  Cewsi  which  Q&cc 
the  Summer  1745.  has  io  iniichi  affifii^  iba 
Cointies  about  LtrndoH,  ct^bgi  Nbrdiwacd, 
came  in  Autumn  into  thisCoUB<y ;  aqd  ati&rMi 
thcY  b(t  about  150  Beafis  outof  a  Herd  of  be- 
tween 200  and'300.  bunhUYear  ifrdtd<not  fproad 
inttny  other  Town  it  viHted  iit  thisCdiHity. 

A  (ore  Judgment'  has  thls^  Oflemper  been  on 
Europe ;  fc^r  after  having  affliflcd  /M^,  Prance^ 
^Hob  haw  Cmntrhf^  Germany t  and  Averely  Z}Nf»- 
mark,  it  came  hifbpt  ^afad'as  in  tha  Weft- of 
England,  after  the  great  Froft  Irt  1740^  there 
vras  little  left  than  a  Famine,  and:' the  North 
■Weft  was  Lifl  Year  plagued  with  {$»  Rt^ls, 
and  traverflng  of'  Armies ;  fe  has  the  Mid(^e 
been  diftrel&d  by  this  DiftempeE,whkk  gra- 
dually creeps  farthei* ;  and  how  far  it  mvf  yet 
i^read,  GiJ^  only  knows.  This  be(MTfc  we  <toi 
make  of  thefe  AffliaMnCi  and  the  mt^  J^My 
way  to  be  deliver'd  from  them;  is  to  otfnfidiBr 
that  God  does  rat  ivilHrtgly  aJtllS  the  ChUdrm  ef 
Men  J  but  that.  Famine  and  Fhtgtte,  TriMtOt- 
on  and  Jnguijharefent  as  Scourge t  for  Anend- 
mrnt.  But  thou^  aH  thej'e  Fugues  are  come 
i^m  us^'—Tei  have  tue  n(t'  jfrafd  hefar*-  tiye 
Lord^  that  we  mfgbt  turn  every'  me  /Wf»  #Ap 
Imaginations  of  bis  'itick^d  Heart.  Whence 
■  the  Lord  ba/b  watcl/d  over  us  fir  evU.  God 
grant  tliercfore,  that  we  may  fenbuDy  laylbefe 
Tning^to  Heart,  and  that  now  his  Jadgmtines 
are  in  the  Earib,  the  hha&icatHi'  of  tb*  Wsrid 
tniy /earn  Rigbteoufneji.'  Aftei'an  Antunsiifo 
bare  of  Crafe,  a  mild  Winter  Was  wry  bafto- 
able,  aiul  inch  it  moftly  proved  j  for  the  6Va6 
grew 


(351- 3  - 
grew  a  little  even  in  December  and  yamtary,  and.  lyj^j* 
confiderab}y  the  Bf^nning  of  February ;  and  it 
was  moftly  wet>  eibecialTy  in  yarmary.  But 
toward  the  End  of  February^  a  Froft  and  Snow 
ftop'd  the  Spring,  which  was  conning  on  fb  fad; 
atid  cold  Weather  all  March,  put  it  off  tilt  v^n'/) 
however,  it  was  a  fine  Seed-time.  And  in  jiprit 
the  Spring  made  all  Things  grow,  till  dry  Wea- 
ther began  to  fiop  them  the  Beginning  o(May. 
But  thig-didi  not  lafl:  long }  for  toe  reft  of  May, 
all  June,  except  the  Rtddle,  and  till  July  6, 
was  a  wet  Seafon,  which  made  Plenty  of  Gral^, 
grfcat  Crops  of  Hay,  and  the  Grain  rank,  a 
good  deal  of  which  was  laid,  and  fome  grown 
through  V  and  the  firft  cut,  Hay  was  fpoil'd. 
But  as  it  came  a  dry  and  hot  Seaibn  afterward. 
moft  of  the  Hay  was  well  gotten,  and  the  laid 
Gofn  was  not  ipoil'd  fo  much  as  was  fear*d,  for 
the  Crop  was  gqod,  and  well  gotten  i  but  the 
Heat  made  a  great  deal  (bed  in  the  Field;  for 
though  there  was  fcarce  one  wet  Day  all  Har- 
veft,  yet  fo  great  a  Bulk  could  not  be  brsught 
Home,  before  the  violent  Heat  over-ripcn'd  it. 
Moft  Part  of  >^,  all  Augufi,  and  Part  of  5*^ 
tember^  was  dry  and  hpf,,  clpecially  Aiguft, 
which  was  one  of  the  moft  hotaud  burning 
Months  ever  known,  with  icarce  any  Rain, 
hut  Nfx-them  Lights  alpioft  every  Night.  Tho 
Autumn  was  dry  and  fine  till  the  End  of  J^^ 
^aember,  which  iefc  die  Ground  very  bare  againft 
Winter;  but  the  laft  of  that  IV^nth,  in  one 
Ni^t  came  a  Snow  2  Feet  deep,  which  with 
Wet  Weather  following  it,  made  great  Floods, 
broke  down  ieventl  Peft-hanks,  aiid  laid  aloioft 
I  that 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgle 


(  352  \ 
that  whole  .Country  under  Water.  But  after 
J748.  that,  the  Winter.was  not  in  general  wetj  though 
ot  en  a  little  Snow,  almoft  daily  in  part  of 
hldicj).  It  was  moilly  frofty  Weather,  yet 
f.Hom  a  felttrd  Froft  for  3  D-ys  together,  ve- 
ry charigabic  Winds,  often  mlfty  and  rimy  in 
^anuafy  and  "February ;  and  whereas  November 
Wjs  fine,  there  was  very  little  Sun  after.  On  the 
whole,  it  was  very  odd  Weather,  and  may 
piQperly  be  called  the-fnowy  Winter. 

The  latter  End  of  lift  Summer,'  the  Murrain 
agdn  vifited  this  County  ;  and' while  the  Wea- 
ther was  dry,  the  Fields  being  open,  it  (pread 
like  Wild-firc;  and  carried  Deftfuftion  wiih  itj 
fot  I  believe  iii  this'fiiiall  County,  ievcral  thou- 
fand  deafh  perilh'd  \^  it.  Biit  the  refl  of  the 
Winter,"  though  it  Iras  fbmelimes  fpread,  yet 
not  nfiaj  fo  many  have  fallen ;  and  I  believe 
fewer'have  died  than  did  in  Autumn  }  and  in 
Spring  ^t  almoft  ceafed  in  this  County.  God 
grant  that  we  may  at  length  know  the  Tbiagi 
that  behmg  to  our^  Pf^cfy  and  may  j£«  no  more 
Ufi  0  nvorfe  tbtng  com  unto  us. 

The  Seafons-of  ^att  Years  hwe  been  unfit- 
vour^bic ;  and  this  is.tW  fourth  Spring  running, 
'in  wfrtch  a  frofty  February  has  carried  cm  the 
Winter  a  great  way  in  March ;  and  with 
moftly  dry  latter  Ends  of  the  Summer,  and 
pleaf  int  but  not Rowing  Autumne-,  which  left 
the  Ground  without  Grafs  againft  Winter,  has 
ipem  a  great  deal  of  Fo<5der,  as  this  Winter 
has  done,  to  a  great  Degree. 
.  t:his  Spring  iy^S.  wSs,  I  thinfe,  the  lateft 
\vi^  ^?w}  there  behig/fiiarec  the  Icaft  Ap- 
'  '  T  ■'         pearance 

'  X 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(3J3) 

peararice  of  it  before  the  middle  of  March, 
and  very  little  till  after  the  Middle  oi  April  % 
and  on  the  Clay-Ground,  the  Wheat  look'd 
then  almoft  as  bare  as  if  juft  fow'd  ;  nor  was 
there  any  Grafs  :  But  when  once  the  Spring 
came,  every  thing  g:ew  very  faft,  the  Wheat- 
lands  were  almoft  covct'd  in  a  Fortnight,  and 
there  has  feldorn  been  known  more  Grais, 
than  there  was  this  Year;  for  the  Weather 
was  generally  fliowery,  and  fometimes,  with 
and  after  Thunder,  a  great  deal  of  Rain.  This 
Year  there  were  many  Infedls,  particulady  Ca- 
terpillars, and  in  fome  Places  in  May  a  red  File 
was  very  troublefome  in  biting  Peoples  Legs, 
which  made  them  fwcU  very  much.  A  vio- 
lent Heat,  and  very  wet  Air  June  \  i ,  and  fol- 
lowed yune  1 2,  by  a  great  deal  of  Thunder  for 
36  Hours,  and  fome  of  it  violent,  reach'd  from 
Edinburgh  to  Paris ;  'only  at  Paris  \ht  Heat 
was  one  Day  later  than  hers.  B.it  thoigh  the 
Year  was  fo  Ihowcry,  there  wa?  often  fine 
Weather  between,  efpecially  in  June  which 
was  hot  ;  and,  except  the  Week  after  the 
Thunder,  generally  fine  though  (howery,  and 
the  Hay -time  was  not  in  general  bad,  though 
there  was  a  very  wet  Week  toward  the  End  of 
it,  and  it  lafted  a  great  while;  for  there  was 
fo  much  Grafs,  that  matiy  People  laid  more 
Grounds  than  rfiey  at  firft  defign'd.  There 
was  in  general  a  very  plentiful  Harveft  j  only 
it  is  faid  fome  Oats  in  the  Fens  did  not  ripen 
well ;  and  where  the  Harveft  was  earlier  than 
it  was  here,  they  had  good  Weather  for  it,  the 
A  a  latter 


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(  354  ) 

Utter  End  of  July  and  Beginning  of  Jh^u^. 
But  very  little  wasgot  in  here  before  ^^i^  1 9th, 
and  it  was  then  fo  Ihowery,  that  there  was  Dan- 
ger tiiat  a  great  dqal  of  Wheat  and  Barley 
which  was  then  cut^  might  be  ^oil'd,  till  it 
tum'd  idk  and  fine  jiugu/i  zzd.'  which  conti- 
nued ;  and  I  hope  not  much  Harm  was  done, 
for  there  was  fcarce  a  Drop  of  Rain  after  ;  and 
it  has  lafted  moftly  dry,  plealant,  calm  and 
warm  ever  lioce,  except  feme  cold  WeaUwr 
with  frofty  Mornings,  followed  by  ibtoc  Rain 
the  Middle  of  0£fder.  But  the  wet  Weather 
this  Summer  did  not  \a^  in  all  Places,  fo  loi^ 
IS  it  did  here }  for  beyond  Northampton  and  ia 
Qs^QrdJkire^  there  was  very  little  Rain  after  the 
Beginning  of  Hay-time,  and  in  jiutumit  tbe 
Ground  was  very  bare  and  Water  fcanx,  and 
probably  it  was  fb  in  fome  other  Places. 

The  Diflemper  among  tbe  Cattle  thi&Spriog 
aloiofl  entirely  ceafed  in  this  County,  and  I  be- 
lieve abated  in  other  Parts  ;  but  it  has  got  as 
far  North  as  Torkjhire,  where  it  ftill  is  in  foroe 
meafure :  And  as  it  did  the  two  kft  Years,  fo 
it  broke  out  afrefh  about  Harveft  this  Year, 
by  infcAcd  Beads  brought  from  other  Parts, 
and  i*!  now  very  bad  in  Leiceftrr/hire^  vrtiae 
almoft  all  dye  who  have  it }  but  it  is  not  fo  ge- 
-neralin  this  County,  ncH-in&veral  other  Pkces 
as  it  -was-laft  Year,  nor  fo  mortal  here  as  it  mu- 
Whether  by  the  Plenty  of  Grafs  tbere  was  t^is 
Year,  feouring  the  Cattle  more  than  they  Lte- 
ly  have  been,  or  for  what  other  Reafon  I  cannot 
fay  J  another  Method  of  Cure  has  Iiowcver  been 

this 
3 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(  m  ) 

this  Year  tried,  which  many  thought  too  m\ich 
negle<Sed  before  j  1  mean,  applying  lo  him,  irt 
whofe  Hands  are  the  Iflhe*  qf  Life  and  D;ath» 
who  and  who  only  candeltver  us.  But  though  this 
Plague  is  not  yet  ceafed,  another  already  hdngs 
over  us,  which  if  Gad  caufa  to  come  upon  us  to 
theuttermoff,  though  tbe  Land  be ai the  Garden 
ef  Bdm  before  rBefn,  yet  behind  tbSm  a  defrlat? 
Wildtmefif  I  mean  the  Locufts,  who  having 
eaten  every  green  Herb  In^fome  pijrre  of  Tran- 
jyhati'a^  arc  come  iflro  this  Ktngdoqi,  where, 
as  well  as  in  Bobemia,  they  lay  the-'r  Eggs, 
threatning  a  fevcrtr  Scourge  another  Year. 
However  as  they  have  not  here  comnihted  their 
Ravages  as  yer,  I  fay  no  more  about  them ; 
but  taking  Occafion  from  ihcfe  and  other  Pa- 
niffimenta  latpty  fent  on  a  wicked  World,  I 
conclude  with,  ^oiab,  tet  the  Wicked forjah 
his  ffay,  and  the  unrightems  Man  his  ^hjughfSy 
and  tet  bim  return  unto  the.  Lord,  and  he  liiU 
have  mercy  upon  bim,  and  to  our  Gbd,  fcr  he 
will  abundantly  pardm. 

Oaober  2&,  17^8. 

December  3, 17+8.  the  Thermometer  being 
49,5  was  the  warmcft  I  ever  ^iSlt  in  December*  -, 
and  indeed  that  whole  Month,  and  moft  Part 
of  January  was  mild,  but  mndy  and  wtt 
enough. 

A  a  2  The 


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(356) 
The  difierent  QuanCitics  of  Rain  that  has  &1I- 
en  in  feveral  Places  of  England,    mentioned 
in  the  Taile,  having  been  taken  by  fundry  ju- 
dit^ous  Perfons ;  hereby, 

1.  Our  CurioGty  ts  greatly  gratified,  when 
we  luiQW,  that  fuppoie  the  Rain  was'  neither 
drank  in  by,  nor  run  off  from  the  Earth,  but 
remained  yearly  flagnant  on  its  Sur&ce,  what 
Depth  it  meafiires  yearly. 

2.  Not  only  have  we  the  different  Quantitiet 
of  feveral  Years  Rains,  but  the  Quantities  in 
feveral  Places.  The  highefi  of  Townlty  annu- 
al Rains  in  22  Years,  was  5  it  Inches,  the 
lowefl  or  leafl  was  3  li  Inches,  about  2-5  th 
odds.  The  greatelt  C^antity  in  E^'x  in  one 
Year  of  27  was  27  Inches,  the  Icaft  1 1^  th.  The 
moft  that  fell  in  one  Year  of  i  j  at  Plymouth, 
was  37t  Inches,  the  Icaft  ly^.  The  moll 
that  fell  at  Soutbmck  in  one  Year  of  1 5  was  27 
Inches,  the  leafl  was  13.  There  fell  in  one 
Year  of  6  at  Darlington  29Tlnche5,  in  another 
only  16.  At  Makoa  (not  far  from  Darling- 
ion)  in  one  Year  of  fix  fell  above  374  Inches, 
in  another  22.  In  Kent  m  one  Year  of  5  ietl 
29t>  in  another  fcarce  19. 

3 .  Not  only  have  we  in  feveral  Years,  and  in 
diilkrent  Parts  of  the  Cpuntry,  various  Quan- 
tities of  Rain  }  but  iheiame  Year  is  farlrom 

.making  an  equal  DiAribution  of  its  Moifture  in 
ail  Placee,  fuitable  to  their  Demands.  In  1697 
they  had  Rain  enough  at  JownUy^  but  a  d^ 
Year  in  ^x.  98  ,was  rainy  in  the  latter,  but 
the  former  was  far  fliort  of  its  Medium.  In 
99.  Townley  was  better  watered,  but  Effex  was 
pinched 


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(  3J7  )    .   • 

pinched,  1 702.  was  the  rainleft  Year  of  all  in 
Lancajhire^  but  moderate  enough  in  EJfex. 
1714,  1723,  40,  41,  were  a  general  Drought, 
&c.  By  looking  back  into  the  Table  we  ihall 
find  as  great  Odds  in  the  Months  as  in  the 
Years,  ibme  pouring  out  Plenty  of  Rain  in  forae 
Places,  and  little  enough  on  others. 

4>  ^e  here  fee  what  Situations  arc  expo- 
fed  to  moft  Rains,  and  thele  arc  either  very  high 
and  Idfty  mountainous  Countries,  and  their  fub- 
jacent  Valleys  (cfpccially  where  not  far  from 
the  Sea)  for  the  Clouds  loaded  with  Vapours 
raifed  from  the  Ocean,  being  driven  by  the 
Winds  againft  the  Tops  of  thofc  towering 
Mountains,  are  ftopt,  and  retarded  in  their 
Courfe,.  and  being  broken  pour  down  their 
Waters.  But  the  Remainder  of  thofc  Vapours, 
or  fuch  Clouds  as  are  elevated  higher  in  the 
Atmofphere,  being  carried  by  the  fame  Winds 
over  the  Tops  of  the  Mountains  into  remoter 
Vallies,  at  a  greater  Diftance,  hemm'd  in  by 
Other  Mountains,  have  a  Icfs  Quantity  of  Rain 
or  Vapours,  left  in  them,  to  let  fall  in  the  latter, 
than  in  the  former  VatHcs.  For  this  Reafon 
champain  Countries  have  lefs  Rain  than  Moun- 
tainous, and  inland  plain  Countries  have  lefs 
than  Cosfters.  And  Places  or  Valleys  lying 
under  the  Eaft-fide  of  high  Hills  diftant  from 
the  Sea,  have  lefs  Weft  and  South-weft  Rains, 
than  when  they  come  from  the  Eaft,  South- 
eaft,  or  North-eaft  j  and  Vallies  near  and  la- 
cing the  Sea,  over  which  blow  oun  frequenteft 
Winds,  have  the  ofteneft  Rains.  Hence  where 
there  is  a  Country  which  is  fann;d  only  with 
Aa  3  one 


i.vCoogIc 


QBC  Wind,  and  has  a  long  Ridge  of  fai^  Moun- 
tains in  it,  reach  above  .<he  lower  AonoA^en, 
the  VaUeyfi  or  Country  Iheltered  froni  thatWind 
will  have  very  little  or  nb  Raio  at  all,  but  -be 
vRitcrcd  with  Dew,  or  Snow- Water,  Q-(Hn  the 
Mounidins.  <-  -  -  2,  CoftAers  or  Borderers  on 
IMarQics  about  new  or  full  Moon,  with  a 
JgDcezc  from  the  Abrflies,  tjave  a  qaiflit^  Rain 
called  Tide- Weather,  which  may  be  from  the 
Vapours  rifing  from  the  Tides  that  coyer  .a  lai^ 
.Tra<ft  of  Land  in  the  Neighbourhood  j  yet  ite 
Mercuiy  taay  Oaad  high  in  the  Batonoeter  aH 
the  while,  thefe  being  only  local  Vapouni,  and 
tbcAtmo^here  in  the  general  notafFe^ed.  -  -  - 
3.  Very  woody  Countries  afford  pot  ooly  more 
and  JFrequenter  Rains,  but  oftenek'  Thunder, 
Ughtnii'g,  andElorthquakes,  as  tbey«mit  greater 
Pltuity  ct'  Vapeuts,  arifiqg  not  only  from  the 
Earih  and  Heibage,  bat,  in  the  Surubct  and 

.  Harvdl  cfpecially,  from  inrumer^lc  Surfaces 
of  Leaves,  Twigs,  Branches,  and  Trunks  of 
Wood  and  Trees,  whilft  their  Juices  ckculalc ; 
as  is  evident  not  only  from  the  vaft  ExpcBGC  of 
Water  from  narrow^  mouth *d  Bottles,  in  tbe 
Nutrition  and  Growth  of  Plants  put  in  to  grow, 

,  but  alfo  from  tbe  Turgtdncfs  and  Stifioels  of 
Leaves  of  Trees  apd  Flowers  early  in  a  Suouncr 
Morning,  and  their  iUgging,  UnguiOiijig  Qu- 
diiion  in  a  clear  hot  AlLernoon, 

5.  Wc  lee  what  Proportion  wet  Years  bear 
to  dry  and  moderate;  at  Townley  1682,  i£86, 
170Z,  were  very  rainy ;  the  annual  Medivm  of 
«befc  Years  was  about  jO,  Inches;  79, .8 r, 
83>84,85,9i,92,  981,  were  ail  dry  Yeais;  il:e 
yearly 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(  3J9  ) 
yearly  Medium  of  their  Rain  was  35*  Inches. 
The  very  wet  Years  in  E£e3t  (of  thofe  whofe 
Regifter  *c  hare)  were  1698,  1706,  09,  ij, 
1739.  The  Medium  of  thefe  Years  Rain  was 
fcarce  25-^  Inches.  Their  tiry  Years  wew 
1697,  99,  1701,  07, 10,  14,  16,  40,  41 J  thb 
Medium  of  whofe  yearly  Rain  is  fcarce  16 
Inches.  But'  1714  was  th@  drieft  of  them  all; 
for  tbeh:  fell  only  1 1  Inches  that  whole  Year } 
*"**  '739  ''^'^  **^  wetteft  in  ^ex.  OS  11 
Years  at  Plymautb,  173O1  3ii  37.  ^^^^  dricft  ; 
their  Medium  was  23^-  Inches  of  Rain  j  thdr 
wetteft  were  1728,  34,  36,  the  Medium  of 
whole  Rain  was  near  37  Inches.  The  rainieft 
Years  at  Smtbivick  •vrcit  1716,  28»34;  their 
yeariy  Mean  was  26 1  Inches.  Their  drieil 
Years  were  1731,  32,  33,  38,  40.  The  yearly 
Mean  of  thefe  Years  was  fcarce  17  Inches. 

6.  We  may  here  obferve  the  Propcfftion  of 
Rain  one  Seafon  bears  to  the  other.  The  22 
Winter  Quarters  of  TownUy  Rains  (beginning 
wi*h  Niraember)  amounted  to  246  Inches.  The 
Total  of  the  three  Spring  Months  was  about 
193  Inches.  The  Whole  of  the  Summer 
Months  was  197  Inches;  and  of  all  the  Har- 
vcft  Months  282  Inches.  The  total  quarterly 
Rain  for  1 7  Years  are  (omitting  the  FraAions) 
Winter  64  Inches,  Spring  64,  Summer  86, 
Harvcft  100  Inches.  Kent  5  Years  Raia^  thus. 
Winter  334'  Inches,  Spring  24T,  Sumtncr  274, 
Harveft  284..  The  7  Years  Londm  Rain,  thus. 
Whiter  32  Inches,  Spring  3177  Sommer  4a-J-, 
Harveft  35*1  for  the  laft  five  Years,  May, 
June,  yuly,  and  jiugu/i  had  been  very  rainy 
Aa  4  there i 


i.vCoogIc 


(  36o  ) 
there  j  hence  an  uncommon  <^antUy  in  Ac 
Summer  Months.  SouHmick  quartviy  Rauis 
for  15  Years  were,  Winter  79^,  ^ng  66, 
Summer  94,  Harveft  964-  lochci.  Darlir^- 
ton'%  6  Years  qoartcrly  Rains  are,  Winttr  1 9 
Inches,  ^ring  aS-i^  Summer  4c4-,  Harveft  354. 
Multom  for  5  Years  are.  Winter  234,  Spring 
334.,  Summer  464,  Harveft  454^  Pfymtab 
for  1 1  Yeart,  Winter  964,  Spring  84,  Summer 
664,  Harveft  92^  -  -  -  -  Or  take  wc  the  Rains 
monthly,  beginning  with  yameary,  th&TomnAr; 
monthly  Rains  are  near  as  follow,  Jan.  70 
Incbe«,  Febr.  yi,  Mareb  62,  .jiprilt'^^  Maj 
56,  jme  74,  July  68,  Ai^.  98,  5(^.  38, 
0£?.  97.  ATdw.  96,  Z>«.  81.  The  Mcdiam  of 
the  monthly  Kains  for  ii  Years,  at  Pfymatb^ 
and  5  at  Malton,  arc  nearly  Jan.  36,  ftAr.  43, 
March  38,  ^r.  36,  M^  314,  ^ttw  37,  ^^ 
44.^,  ^tig.  4Qr,  S^'^5>  0*^-53'  ^ov.'^b, 
Dec.  46.  -The  monthly  Totals  for  1 5  Years  of 
Soiitbztick,  7  Years  of  I^adon^  5  of  iCm/,   17 

•of  EfeXf  and  6  of  Darb'ngte/t^  all  colleded  to- 
gether, are  y^ur.  88-^,  i->^.  844,  March  94, 
w^r.  8if,  JlMy  1094,  June  no,  July  1334, 
^tf^.  1274,  Sept.  126,  0^.12^14.,  iVov.  944, 
i>rf .  1 17.  From  which  it  is  obvious,  that  bci- 
thcr  of  the  Equinoxes  are  the  rainieft  Months, 
cs  has  been  faid  and  believed,  nor  are  ^  Sc/l- 

.ftices;  but  taking  the  whole  together,  yme^ 

'  y^fyt  ^^-  atid  OB.  in  general  are  the  wctfcft. 

-  In  Lancafl.ire:^  Marcb  and  jlprjl  arc  drieft;  be- 
caufc  in  thcfe  Months  the  E.  N.  E.  andiS^E. 

.Winds  arc  pretty  much  ftirring  there,  winch 
*    carry 


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(  36'  ) 
tarry  leaft  Rain  into  the{e  Parts ;  nor  is  March 
very  wet  at  Plymouth  and  Maiton^ 
•  7.  Very  raioy  SamiUers,  but  efpedally  Har- 
.v«fts,  precede  and  portend  a  very  hard  Winter 
to  ibllow.  In  Nfiv.  0&.  and  Dtc^  i68z,  fell 
15  Inches  of  Rain;  83  and  84.  were  the  g^eat 
Froft ;  1706  was  a  very  rainy  Year,  aiid  1707 
little  better;  Com  dear;  very  cold.  Jan.  25, 
1708,  began,  and  fell  for  ieveral  Days  together 
in  Scotland^  a  very  great  Snow,  wiUi  a  Froft, 
which  continued  till  far  in  April,  with  greater 
Severity  and  longer  Duration  than  the  general 
Froft  of  1709.  ThcAillowing  Summer  there 
'was  pretty  dry  till  Aig.  then  abundance  of 
Rain  preceded  the  great  Froft,  which  though 
ierere,  was  not.  of  long  Continuance.  From 
yune to  Dec.  1715,  was  a  very  rainy  Time; 
then  followed  the  great  Froft  of  1716.  1728 
was  a  general  rainy  Year,  and  was  fucceeded 
by  a  Froft  in  Germary  equal  to  that  of  1709,  - 
1739  was  a  very  rainy  Year  j  and  on  Dec.  28. 
b^n  the  fcvere  Froft  of  40,  which  far  ex- 
ceeded any  Froft  that  had  been  felc  in  England 
for  fome  Centuries. 

8.  DiHerent  Places  have  their  rainy  Months 
at  various  Seafons.  At  Tawnley  the.  Rains  of 
the  laft  5  Months  of  the  Year  is  to  that  of  the 
■firft5,  as  46  to  31.  At  Upminfiefy  Aug.  Sept. 
00.  and  Ncv.  are  to  Fei.  March,  April  and 
itifsy,  near  as  91  to  61.  iVbv.  generally  the 
rajnieft,  and  Fehr.  the  £iircil ;  the  Rain  of  the 
'fbrnoei  to  that  of  the  latter  as  27  to  12.  At 
■London,  June  and  i>?f.  feem  to  thefe  of  Jan. 
and  Nw.  as  30  to  14.    At  Soutkwici,  thefe  of 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


ya^,  j6ig.  Sept:  and  Dec.  beibgnear  alike,  are 
to  the  Rains  of  Jan.  Fd>r.  and  I^rch^  as  y6 
to  4 1 .  Tb«  0&.  Dee.  and  Feir.  Rains  at  Pfy- 
muitbf  are  to  thefe  o£  jlpri/.  May,  and  Tamr, 
u  131  to  64,.  Darlmgton  rainicA  Months  are 
yaiji  Aug.  and  Sept.  the  dricft  are  Afeti.  Dec. 
ood  y^n.   The  CiUe  k  near  the  like  at  Ms/ton. 

9.  Here  ve  iiee  what  Situations  require  ibe 
leaft  Quantities  of  RjUB,  and  xthich  the  greateft; 
for  what  only  fertilizes  one  Soil,  wotild  drown 
another,  and  render  it  barren:  For  a  level 
champain  Country  requires  not  near  To  nnic^ 
as  lofry  Mouiitains ;  nor  a  thidc,  fti6F,  clayie 
Ground  fomuch  as  a  Hghc  running  Sand  ;  uor 
a  thick  deep  Mould  fo  much  as  Lime-ftonc  juft 
•t  the  Grafs-roots.  Here  are  Inftanccs  of  Wif- 
^lom  in  The  Creatioik,  and  of  Providfence  tn  go- 
verning the  World,  that  the  high  fte^  Moun- 
tains, whofe  Caverns  often  contain  nec^^ 
Minerals  and  Metats,  their  floping  Bnr- 
iaces  which  afford  large  Paftiffcs,  and  their 
Foot  which  fupply  us  with  Variety  of  fine 
■Springs  and  the  Origin  of  great  Rivers,  as  they 
want  often  and  moft  watering,  £>  it  is  provided 
ibr,  and  fent  them}  whilil  the  Plains  from 
whofe  Surfaces  Water  runs  not  fo  fpeedily-  oS, 
and  have  not  fuch  plentiful  Spring^  to  fuppTy, 

have  lefs  Rain. As  there  is  this  Variety  of 

Soils  which  ftand  in  need  of  difieicnt  Quanti- 
ties of  Rain,  fo  all  Soib  are  rarely  deficient  in 
their  ProdukS  of  Corn  and  Grafs  at  dhCC;  biii 
different  Soils  have  them  in  their  Turns,  that 
fo  Commerce,  Sociability,  and  Humanity 
ihottld  be  preferved  among  Men.  -  -  •■  And  as 
Rains 


i.vCoogIc 


Kains  are  MceiSuj  for  wateriqg  the  Earthy  fo 
with  us  is  Snow  and  Froft,  at  proper  S^afons, 
for  fertilizing  it.  -  -  -  Aad  as  ieafonkble  mode- 
rate Rains  and  Warmth  tend  to  make  the  Earth 
fruitiu],  io:  barren  Years  arc  nectSkry  for  the 
Ground  to  recover  itlelf,  after  it  has  fpent  its 
vegetative  Principles  by  over-bearing.  Hence 
the  Jewijb  Sabbatical  Year  was.  greatly  to  the 
Advantage  of  their  Land,  and  enriching  it  fcv 
the  next  fix  Years. 

10.  The  diBrrent  Quantities  of  Rain  necef- 
iary  to  fertilize  feveral  Places,  (hew  what  Quan- 
tity is  proper  for,  and  adapted  to  each  Soil  aiid 
Situation,  and  how  (when  it  may  be  done) 
they-  may  be  improved  either  by  draining  or 
watering ;  to  lay  on,  or  let  off  the  Water  from 
clayic,  marfhy,  low,  or  other  Ground,  or  let 
in  on  Tandy  dry  £arth  ;  or  otherwiie  to  provi4e 
againft  Drought  or  great  Rains. 

1 1.  Here  wc  fee  a  Variety  of  Seafons  in  our 
Ifland,  and  in  very  contrary  Times,  by  the 
timely  Intervention  of  Showerfi  in  dry  Springs, 
and  of  Heat  ami  iSunfhine  before  and  during 
Harveil.  After  cold  and  wet  Summers,  we 
have  commonly  near  the  like  Quantities  of 
Grafs  and  Corn,  even  in  a  Succcffion  of  Years, 
in  fome  of  which  we  have  far  greater  Rains 
than  in  others. 

12.  The  fame  Year  may  be  both  droughty 
and  rainy,  as  1 679,  wherein  from  Jiug.  to  Feh. 
fell  about  3 1  Inches  in  ^  Months  ;  1681,  when 
from  Jiig.  I.  to  March  i.  fcU  27^;  and  1682, 

.  when  from  June  i .  to  the  End  of  Dec.  fell  near 
,31  laches.  All  1633' was  dry,  only  June^  July^ 

and 


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(  3^4  ) 
andJtq.  In  1693  ^«7,  and  the  three  Harveft 
Months,  which  poured  down  near  30  Inches; 
and  a  parching  Drought  fr6m  Dec.  1739  to  the 
Middle  of  ./iug.  then  icarcc  any  thing  tut  Rain 
"and  Froft  till  the  Year  was  out.  There  arc  ft- 
veral  other  Inftanccs  in  the  Table^  of  one  Part 
cS  the  Year  dry,  and  another  wet ;  as  the  Year 
174.7,  from  0^.46.  to  the  End  of  March 
'47  was  a  mofl  melancholy  uncomfbrtable  Win- 
ter, all  cloudy,  miHiy,  milling,  and  rainy,  only 
"7  Nights  Froft.  From  March  to  the  End  of 
I^av.  very  little  Rain,  (except  what  fell  in 
yme,  nioft  of  which  was  very  cold ;)  the  other 
£x  Months  (efpecially  Aug.)  were  uncommonly 
hot  and  dry ;  lb  as  that  Springs  failed,  and  moft 
Gra£  over  at  Michaelmas. ' 

13.  Some  Years  are  very  fimilar  in  having 
(heir  Rains  much  alike,  both  for  Time  and 
Qimitity ;  others  as  difTimilar.  Sometimes  long 
and  great  Rains  are  fucceeded  by  Hurricanes.  ■ 

1 4.  As  to  the  Caufcs  of  Rain ;  Rain  is  only 
a  Cloud,  and  a  Cloud  is  Vapours,  or  Water 
rjifed  from  the  Land  and  Sea  poured  down 
again  upon  us.  Thefe  Vapours  are  only  fmatl 
Bubbles  or  Bladders  raifcd  from  the  Waters,  by 
the  Sun's  Force  and  fubterrancan  Heat.  Thefc 
Bubbles  being  lighter  than  the  AtmoTphere,  afe 
bsoyed  up  ther^y,  till  they  alcend  fo  high  as 
.to  be  at  a  juft  Balar.ce,  or  equal  Weight  with 
-the  Air  they  float  in,  till  by  fome  Perturbation 
of  the  Air,  or  foft  Wind,  they  are  brought 
rearer  together,  and  form  Clouds  j  where  they 
are  formed  into  Rain,  Snow,  Hail,  Mill,  C^c. 
Some  impute  the  Converfion  of  Clouds  into 

Rain, 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(36s) 

Rain^  to  the  Cold  which  continuaUy  occupies 
the  upper  Regions  of  the  Air,  chills  and  con- 
denfcs  the  Bubbles  when  they  arrive  from  a. 
warmer  at  a  colder  Quartt  r,  where  it  c^ufes  f. 
Collcftion  of  fevcral  of  them  intofmallMafleSi 
whtreby  their  Quantity  of  Matter  increafing 
in  a  greater  Proportion  to  their  Sur&ce$,  they 
become  too  heavy  for  the  light  Air,  and  then 
fall  dbwn  in  Drops.  Others  will  have  It,  that 
the  Bubbles  being  full  of  Air,  when  they  come 
into  a  colder  Air  than  whai  they  contain,  the'r 
Air  is  confined  to  lefe  Space,  whereby  the 
watery  Shell  becomes  thicker,  and  fo  is  heavier 
than  the  Air.  Others  will  have  the  Wind  to 
have  a  Share  in  the  Adticn  with  the  Cold ;  as 
\vc  fee  a  Wind  blowing  againft  a  Cloud  (as  iii 
Thunder-Showers)  will  drive  its  Bubbles  upon 
one  another ;  by  which  fcveral  of  them  beijig 
'united,'  their  Bulk  and  Weight  brings  them 
down.  But  this  is  more  vifible  when  two  op- 
pofitc  Winds  meet  in  the  fame.Place.  Clou 's 
alfo  already  formed,  being  increafed  by  frefli 
Additions   of  Vapours  conftantly  rifing,  grow 

heavier,  and  are  fitted  to  defcend. B  Jt 

RobauU  fays,  the  Heat  of  the  Air,  continuing 
fome  Time  near  the  Earth,  is  at  Jaft  elevated 
very  high  by  a  Wind ;  and  there  thawin^j  the 
fnowy  Fifft\  or  half-frozen  Bubbles,  reduces 
them  to  Drops  j  feveral  of  which  iiDitinj»,  de- 
scend, and  have  their  Diffblaiion  perfi;£lcd  di 
•they  fell  down  thro'  the  lower  and  Warmer 

R^ions  of  the  Air. Dr.  Clark  imputt's 

the  Defcent  of  the  Clouds  rather  to  a  Dimr- 
nutionof  the  Air's  Spring  and  Force,  than  to 

any 


Ddb^'Coogk' 


(366) 

»ny  Alteration  of  the  Bubbles ;  which  Spring 
of  the  Air  depends  chiefly  on  the  weakcoing 
of  the  dry  earthy  Exhalations,  fo  that  the  Air 
ifnks  under  its  Load,  and  the  Clouds  fall.  -  -  . 
Now  by  which  ibever  it  is  of  thofe  Means  that 
the  Bubbles  are  on  the  Delcent,  thsy  will  con- 
tinue falling,  nptwithftanding'  the  Refinance 
they  every  Moment  meet  with  in  their  paffing 
through  an  increa&ng  Thicknefs  and  Weight  of 
Air ;  for  the  lower  they  fell,  they  more  of  them 
wilt  unite  -,  and  the  more  of  them  unite,  the 
more  Matter  will  be  tinder  the  i;ime  Smfice, 
every  Moment  enlarging:  Hence  the  leis  Re- 
fiftance  to  their  Defceiit,  -  -  -  -  Niewm/yt  re- 
jefting  the  above  Caufe  of  the  Aftent  of  Va- 
pours, iays,  that  Particles  of  Fire  feparated 
from  the  Sun-Beams,  by  adhering  to  Par- 
ticles of  Water,  make  up  fmall  Bodies,  fpeci- 
fically  lighter  than  Air ;  wh'ch  therefore,  by 
hydroftatical  Laws,  rauft  rife,  andform^Clouda 
diat  remain  fufpended,  when  they  arc  rifcn  up 
to  fuch  an  Height,  that  the  Air  about  thera  is 
of  the  fame  fpecitic  Gravity  with  tbemfelves. 
And  Rain  is  produced  by  the  Separattou  of  the 
Particles  of  Fire  from  uiofe  of  Water  j  which 
U(i  being  hereby  reflored  to  their  former  fpe- 
ciBc  Gravity,  can  no  longer  be  fiipeortcd  in  the 
Air,  but  fall  down  in  Drops.  This  ii^niou; 
Hypothefis  Dr.  Defaguliert  visry  dcarTy  rafuto», 
for  leveral  Reafons ;  as  alio  the  Vapours  rifiR^ 
in  imaginary  Bubbles  as  above,  and  pTaces  tbe 
Caule  of  the  Alc^nt;  and  ikys,  that  the  Par- 
ticles of  Water,  turt\cd  into  Steam>  ot  Va^yjUt 
by  the  Heat  of  the  Son  (by  a  centrifugal  Fbtctf) 
repel 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(3*7) 
r^l  each  other  ftrongly,  and  repel  Air  more 
th^n  they  repel  each  othci:  -,  Aggregates  of  fuch 
Particfts  made  of  Vapoiu  and  Vacuity,  may 
rife  in  Air  of  di&rcnt  Ocniitics,  according  to 
their  Dcnfity  dependent  oa  their  Degree  of 
iUat :  And  this  he  atsonpcs  to  prove. 

15.  As  to  the  diffcreat  Sizes  of  the  falling 
Drops.  Jt's  iaid,  if  the  Wind  a£t  tsuly  enough 
10  precipitate  the  jbibblee,  before  they  reach  to 
any  great  Height,  their  Coalitions  being  ieor 
and  Itiudl  in  Co  ihort  a  Deicent,  the  Drop  witt. 
be  final],  and  ib  kxva  only  a  Dew.  If  the 
Vapours  are  great  and  many^  and  £0  rife  a  iittle 
higher,  they  form  Miil  or  Fog.  But  if  tbejr 
aicend  fiill  a  little  higher,  they  form  miQing, 
driiling,  or  fmall  Ram.  If  they  mest  with 
oeither  Cold  nor  Wind  enough  to  condenfe  or 
diHipate  them,  th^  produce  a  heavy,  thick,  dark 
Sky,  fometimes  of  bng  Continuance.  From 
hence  they  preioid  to  folve  &veral  Phenomena 
of  the  Wcatt^er,  as  why  a  cold  is  always  a  wet 
. Summer ,^ and  a  warm  a  dry  one;  for,  tay  they, 
the  Principle  of  Prec-piution  is  had  in  the  one, 
and  pot  in  the  other :  And  why  there  ai  e'  moft 
Rains  about  the  Equinoxes ;  for  the  Vapours 
arife  more  ptentifuily  than  ordinary  in  the  Spring. 
OS  the  Earth  is  loofened  from  its  Winter  Confti- 
pAtion ;  and:  becaufe  as  the  Sun  recedes  from  us 
i&Harv^  theCc^d  encre^fing,  the  Vapours  that 
had  lingered  above  during  the  Summer's  Heats, 
dOinoyr  £ali  down :  Why  a  titled,  clore.tlikkSky 
'  nmly.  FBins  till  it  have  been  fird  clear  (  for  the  ' 
equally  difiu&dVapours  mufl  Brfl:  be  co.-idcnrcd, 
and  coogregated  into  feparate  Clouds,  ta  Uy  the 
Foun- 


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(  368  ) 
Foandation  of  Rain,  whereby  the  reft  of  the  Sky 
is  opened  and  clear  to  the  Sun's  Beams.  A 
Shower  is  only  a  low  Cloud  difiblved  iato 
Rain,  and  poured  down  on  a  certain  Trad  of 
Land;  and  the  Continuance  of  the  Shower, 
and  &ctent  of  the  Ground  it  waters,  is  in  Pro- 
portion to  the  Quanthy  of  Water  it  contadns, 
its  Lareeneis,  and  the  Velocity  of  the  Wind  that 
drives  it.  Snow  is  only  Vapour  raifcd  to  the 
middle  Region  of  the  Air,  and  there  congealed 
and  frozen,  its  fpccific  Gravity  increaled,  and 
then  let  fell  on  the  Earth  in  icy  Flakes  of 
fexangular  Points.  -  -  -  -  Seneca  and  Robault*^ 
Account  of  Thunder,  from  an  upper  Cloud 
falling  fuddenly  upon  a  lower,  and  the  included 
Air  finding  a  Vent  in  the  Explofion  we  hear, 
agrees  neither  with  the  Elfefts  nor  Concomitants 
of  Thunder ;  therefore  we  muft  refer  it  to 
Sir  Ifaac  Newton's  fulphureous  Exhidatlons  al- 
ways riHng  up  into  the  Air,  when  the  Earth  is 
dry  i  where  meeting  with  Nitre,  by  Fermen- 
tation, or  otherwife,  they  take  Fire:  Hence 
Lightning  as  well  as  Thunder ;  the  Compo- 
fition,  Exploiion,  and  Effefls  of  Gunpowder  j 
the  plentiAil  Exhalation  of  Sulphur  and  Salts 
from  the  Earth ;  the  fultry  Warmth  of  the 
Air  before  Thunder,  and  the  choaking  ful- 
phureous Smell  that  fills  the  Atmofphere  alter 
It,  do  all  confirm  this  Theory.  The  DiAance 
of  the  Thunder  from  us  is  eafily  computed 
from  the  Space  between  the  Flafti  of  Lighming 
and  the  Clap,  allowing  1142  Feet  (with  Dr. 
Wallis)  for  every  Second  of  Time,  or  near  a 
Minute  for  a  Mile. 

16.  That 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(  3^9  ) 
t6.  'tWtiie  grcateil  Hains  do  commonly 
^1  upoa  the  Equinoite^  ta  Ihcwa  abcfve  to 
be  ial&f  frpm  Fa£t  of  the  Vernal  Equinox ; 
its.  aUb'  evident  ii  ginnoc-  be  ib,  .bccauie  if-  Uest 
c;auie  the  Alcent  of  Vapours,  then  the  Ic^il: 
.Hea.t  cannot  ckvate  the  greattil  Plcoiy  Of  Va* 
pours !  But  Sir  Ifaac  Niwton  has  {hewed,  that 
tl^  HcAt  of  Sdinmer  is  as  ;,  tbut  of  the.  Spring 
pr  Hprv$ft  as  3,  apd  of  Winter  as  2  ; .  now  its 
impo0]bl«  that  fuppofe  the  Spring  Heat  was 
ai,  it  fhould  be  lapabk,  of  raifing  as  touch 
Vapaprisis  ,5,  «^>ecra(ly  as  It  immediately  pre-i 
ceeds  the  coldeu  Time  of  the  Yoari  whofe 
Heat  ifr  wly  2.  This  again  gives  os  the  Rea- 
fon  why  our  W^inter  Rains  (if  not  prevented 
l^roft)  miift  commonly  be  oftener,  and  in  lefs 
Drops  in  Winter  than  Summer,  fbr  the  Heat 
2  cm  only.caife  Vapours  (except  in  a  clear 
Sunfhin^  iSay)  -J,  or  at  mod  -J  of  a  Milcj  but: 
the  Heat  3  can  raife  3t  Miles,  and  tbe  Heat 
5, 5t  Miles.  This  alfo  indicates  the  Canfe  why  ii> 
i^ch  of  oiir  Winter  frelli  Weatiier  is  hazy,  foggy 
afidmifly;  for  during  the  Obliquity  and  Di- 
ftance  of  the  Sun  from  the  Atmolphere,  at  and 
near  the  Earth's  Surface  is  cold,  aod  prevents 
ihc  Afcent  of  the  Vapours  to  any  great  Height, 
i^qnce  they  fail  along  the  Earth  or  near  its 
and  fipc?  the  Heat  5  of  Summer  can  raife  the 
Yappprs  5t  Mil«s  high,  then  the  Vapoars  rii^ 
ipg.high,  and  long  fti^aioed  in  the  Airy  much 
mQiP  o4  ih^m  is  gatheied  and  accumulated 
^leof:;^^  i\\\  the  Sun  be  pdO:  its  Sunrnier  Sot- 
A/c^  and  fajliqg  towards  its  Autumnal  Equir 
noz,  when  the  Air  gradually,  cools,  .the  acoUr 
B  b  fBulftteti 


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mulated  fufpcnded  Vapours  ^I  lower,  form 
Coalitions,  and  turn  to  Rain  ;  hence  more  Rains 
fall  in  'July  and  Jug.  than  before  for  ordinary. 

17.  From  a  diligent  Examination  of  this 
Table  of  Rain,  monthly  and  yearly,  I  do  not 
find  ii  can  be  known  what  Qmnttty  will  ^1 
next  Month  or  Year;  and  if  any  Ceitainiy 
ihall  be  difcovered,  it  mufl  be  f  cm  a  lorg 
Seiics  cf  Obfervations  in  feveral  Places  of  the 
Ifland  in  the  fame  Years,  iince  we  find  the 
Quantities  differ  widely  at  the  Diftascc  of  a 
few  Miles,  according  to  the  various  Situations; 
and  alfo  to  find  whether  the  fame  Quantities  <^ 
Rain  in  the  like  Number  of  Months  and  Years, 
or  in  different  Numbrrs  or  Periods  of  Time. 
1  have  wholly  omitted  the  Edinburgh  Regifter, 
r.s  it  is  for  fo  few  Years,  which  were  not  any 
of  them  remarkable  for  cidicr  Drought,  Rain, 
Froft,  Heat,  Cold,  or  one  general  Epidemic, 
ncr  any  other  Journals  publiflied  that  were 
kept  at  the  fame  Time. 

18.  As  we  find  a  Difference  in  the  Quanti- 
ties of  Rain  that  fall  in  the  feveral  Places  of 
this  Ifland,  fo  had  we  Opportunities  to  trace 
ir,  we  Ihould  find  the  like,  if  not  greater  diffc- 
rerce.  Iti  other  Places,  as  at  Zurich  in  Swit- 
zerland,  the  Medium  of  yearly  Rain  is  3'2-}  In- 
cher,  at  Pi  fa  in  Italy  43  ^J,  at  Paris  in  Frena 
19,  at  Lijle  in  Flanders  24,  at  Charles- f own '\n 
South-Carolina  47 ;  where  firom  May  to  Sept-. 
(but  efpecially  ^ug.)  are  their  rainiell;  for  in 
fix  Years,  in  thefe  five  Month?,  fell  Yearly  at 
a  Medium  28  Inches,  and  in  all  the  other 
ieven,  fell  only  19  Inches.     At  De^  26.  10, 

at 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  3^x  ) 
fit  Vtrecbt  25,  at  Rome  34  Inches  j  in  ATrtit- 
England  near  the  fame  as  in  EJfex^  at  Naples 
fell  in  1727,  43-i-  Inches,  in  1718  only  19T,  at 
Ojlrogotba  in  1729  fell  21.  490,  in  1730  only 
18.360,  at  U^/ in  1729  fell  ^T Inches,  101730 
a  Utile  more,  viz.  141V,  at  Wttienbergm  1729 
fell  II  A,  in  1730,  25:  But  the  moft  zxzQl 
and  concife  Account  we  have  of  the  Weather 
from  any  Place  is,  that  of  the  Marquis  of 
Peloni,  from  Padua,  for  12  Years,  viz.  from 
1725  to  1737,  whereof  12  Years  Rains  Quar- 
terly is  (according  to  the  New  Style)  from 
Decern,  i,  to  March  i,  is  about  82  Inches; 
from  that  to  yune  t,  i  iz  j  thence  to  Sept.  1, 
93  ;  then  to  Dec.  1,115.  ^^  "°'  °"^y  S'^" 
the  Quantities  of  Rain,  Monthly,  Quarterly 
and  Yearly,  but  the  Number  of  rainy  Day3 
out  of  the  eight  Points  of  the  Compafs,  and 
alfo  how  many  fnowy  Days,  with  the  Rile  and 
Fall  of  the  Barometer  and  Thermometer,  (^c. 
19.  Not  only  have  feveral  Countries,  yea, 
different  Places  and  Situations  of  the  fame 
Coantry,  varioas  Q^iniities  of  Rain,  but  in 
different  Spates  of  Time,  according  to  the 
Meat  of  the  Country  and  Scafon.  The  Mar- 
quis of  Poloni  thinks  the  Fall  of  three  Inches 
'injime22,  1727, a  Wonder,  and  fays,  never  fo 
much  fell  in  one  Day  at  Paris ;  but  I  have  ieeil 
above  twice  that  Qu  mtity  fall  in  Lincoln/hire, 
and  feveral  of  the  Eaftern  Parts  of  England^ 
on  Sept.  II,  12,  13,  14,  1741,  but  fuch 
Inftances  are  rare  and  feldom.  Having  the 
Opportunity  of  a  d^ily  Journal  of  the  Weather 
for  34  Year?,  i.  e.  from  Dec.  24,  1709,  to 
B  b  2  Jan, 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  372  ) 
yatt.i,  1710;  and  from  ^r;7  i,  1715^,  to 
Jan.  I,  1716,'to  Jan.  1748,  nU  the  reft  of 
the  Years  beginning  with  Jarj.  (thefirft  16 
Years  of  this  Journal  was  kept  eight  Miles  fronj 
hence,  the  Remainder  here)  and  alfo  free  Ac- 
cefs  to  ibc  Parifli  (which  is  very  large)  Bills  of 
Mortality,  I  compiled  the  following  Table, 
wherein  all  above  three  or  four  Hours  Rain  at 
a  Time,  is  accounted  a  rainy  Day  or  Night, 
and  one  Shower  conftitutes  a  Day  in  it  fhowry, 
and  a  Dozen  does  no  more.  The  fame  Day 
is  often  one  Part  rainy  and  the  other  Ihowry  > 
in  that  Caic  it  is  put  with  the  rainy  only.  ]|) 
the  firft  16  Ye.irs  feveral  dropping  or  dewy 
Days  are  omitted,  as  not  wottli  notice,  but 
taken  in  in  the  other  Ye^rs,  which  makes  ihem 
appear  more  rainy  than  the  reft.  The  Diffi- 
culty of  afccrtaining  ths  juft  Time  of  the 
Winds  to  each  Point,  arifes  from  their  frequent 
Calms,  often  Changes,  and  many  fudden  Jerks 
and  Shifts,  and  fometimis  contrary  Currents, 
&c.  As  to  the  Death  of  the  Inhabitants,  it 
being  the  Cuftom  to  keep  the  Corps  two 
Nights,  fo  for  fome  that's  kept  longer,  as  many 
Qthcrs  are  buried  fooner,  which  brings  it  to  a 
Parr.  In  the  Tabic,  the  Figures  in  Column 
■  ift  fliew  the  Number  of  fair  Days  that  Monthj 
Column  2d,  the  Number  of  rainy,  fliowry  of 
fnowy  Days  that  Month.  Then  follow  eight 
Spaces,  within  Lines  each,  according  to  die 
eight  chief  Points  of  the  Compafs,  and  each 
Space  contains  three  Columns;  in  Space  ift, 
Colurhn  4ft,  how  many  Days  the  Wind  was 
N.  W.  that  Month.}  in  Column  2d,  bow  many 
2  of 


byGoogk' 


(  373  ) 
of  thofe  Days  vnre  rainy  or  Ihowiy  ;  when 
obferve,  it  is  not  netelTary  that  the  Number  Ja 
the  ad  Column  ftioold  not  come  up  to,  or  eren 
exceed  the  Number  in  Coh>inn  i\iy  for  a  half^ 
thifd  or  quarter  Days,  the  Wind  may  come 
from  the  fame  Point,  and  all  be  .Hiowry  or 
rainy,  and  yet  make  but  up  one  full  Day. 
Column  3d,  the  Number  that  died  when  the 
Wind  was  in  that  Quarter,  the  fame  in  the 
other  Spaces.  Space  2d,  how  many  Days  the 
Wind  was  N.  E.  &c.  Space  3d,  how  long  the 
Wind  was  N.  &£.  Space  4th,  how  many  Days 
W.  &c.  Space  5th,  the  Number  of  Days  it 
was  S.  &c.  Space  6th,  the  Days  it  was  E.  &c. 
Space  7th,  the  Days  it  wasS.W.  ^c.  Space 
8th,  how  long  it  was  S.  E.  The  laft  Column 
gives  the  Number  that  died  monthly  in  the 
Pari/h :  Behind  the  monthly  Total  of  the 
Dead,  is  added  in  the  laft  1 3  Years,  the  higheft 
and  lowefi  Stations  of  the  Barometer  j  the  Di- 
ameter of  its  Tube  {which  is  perpendicular) 
is  t  of  an  Inch;  its  Range  b  divided  into  36 
equal  Parts,  which  contain  2  i  Inches.  The  6th 
of  the  36th  Part  is  oppofite  to  27^  Inches  of 
the  Tube,  and  31  oppofite  to  30^  Inches. 
Some  half  and  quarter  Days  are  marked  in  the 
monthly  Winds,  which  for  want  of  Room  arc 
omitted  in  the  annual  Totals.  In  the  Line 
below  the  yearly  Totals,  Column  ift,  gives 
the  Number  of  rainy  Days  that  Year;  Column 
2d,  how  many  People  died  on  thefe  Daysj 
Column  3d,  how  many  Days  were  fhowry, 
befides  the  rainy  Days ;  Column  4th,  the  Num- 
ixr  that  died  on  thofe  Days;  Column  5th, 
Bb  3  Number 


byGoogle. 


(  374  ) 
Number  of  drifling  Days ;  Column  6tli,  how 
many  died  ^  Column  ^th,  on  how  many  Days 
Thunder  was  heard  there  -,  Column  8th,  how 
many  died  there ;  Column  9th,  the  Number  of 
Days  on  which  it  fnowed  j  Column  loth,  hov 
many  died. 


by  Google 


Table  XXVI. 


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(39*^) 

1 .  Though  reveral  curious  and  iogenioDS  Geq- 
llemen  have  of  late  Years  favoured  the  Public, 
nrith  an  Account  of  the  Quantity  of  Rain  that 
\tz%  fallen  inontlily  or  yearly  in  fevcral  Pans  of 
England,  together  with  the  fundry  Stations  of 
their  Barometers,  Thcrmomet-.rs,    and  fopie- 
itimes  of  their  Hydrofcopes ;  yet  they  mention 
not  the  Number  of  Days  in  which  thefe  Rain? 
fell,  whether  in  continued  Rain  of  fome  Hours, 
pr  in  Showers  of  Oiorter  Duration,  or  io  Sdow; 
whether  in  great  Rains,  or  in  mifling  or  drifling 
Dews ;  nor  from  what  Points  our  frequentcA^ 
longcft   and  greateft   Rains  came,   nor  what 
their  Effe<%  on  human  or  animal  Bodies,   &c. 
fuch  Enquiries  might,  perhaps^  neither  have 
been  impertinent  nor  ufelels;  for  as  giving  die 
monthly  Quantiiies  of  Rain  j^  preferable  to  the 
Annuals,  fo  tlic  Number  of  Days,  and  Man- 
ner in  which  it  fell,  would  miike  us  ftill  bet- 
ter acquainted  with  the  Climate  we  live  io: 
For  fometin^cs  we  fee  feveral  Inches  deep  fell 
in  a  fhott  Time,  as  in  Thunder  Showers  or 
Spout;:,  and  the  patched,  hardened  Earth,  litdc, 
or  no  better  for  it  in  a  droughty  Spring  or  Sunit 
pier  i  on  the  contrary,  a  very  few  Inches  may 
take  a  long  Time,    as  fevcral  Days,  or  fome 
Weeks,    to  come  down  in  fmail   ot  miHiog 
Rain,  and  yet  make  that  Seafon  whqlly  uncom-    | 
fortable  and  unhealthy ;  for  fuch  durable  finall    | 
Rain  foaking  into  the  Earth,  turns  it;  Surface  ^ 
like  a  Bog  or  Marfh,  and  prevents  fcafonabic 
plowing  and  fowing,  or  rots  the  Ibwn  Seed,  or 
damigcs  the  Corns  in  Marved,  as  well  uncut 
»  cut  down,  as  was  tpo  often  the  deplorable 
■   ■  '  ■      ' '  ■  Cafe 


dbvGooj^Ic 


(  393  ) 

Cafe  from  1695  to  1700,  and  of  Sept.  aiyl 
d^.  1739  in  the  Moorlands,  and  the  whole 
Winter  of  1746  to  Mtircb  1 ;  cdd  Sommers 
are  moftly  wet,  without  any  great  Depth  of 
Rain  falling. 

2.  All  Places,  high  and  low,  dry  and  moift, 
^nd  and  Water,  are  continually  fending  up 
Vapours  into  the  Air,  60m  the  celeftial  and 
terreftrial  Heat  a^ing  on  Matter  capable  of 
karcfadion  \  and  Vapours  thus  raifed,  will  be 
in  Proporuon  to  that  Heat,  according  to  the 
different  Elevations  and  Depreffions  of  the 
Sun,  or  other  Caufcs  of  Heat,  the  Warmth  of 
the  fupra  and  fubterranean  Soils,  the  Difference 
of  the  Drynefs  or  Wctncfs  of  the  Earth,  the 
Thinnefs  or  Thicknefs  of  its  Covering,  &c. 
which  Vapours  are  fo  copious,  that  fome  have 
doubted  whether  the  Atmofphers  contained 
any  thing  befides.  For  by  the  ingenious  Dr. 
Halle/s  Calculation,  the  Sea  alone  affords 
more  Vapours  than  almoA  triple  the  Q£,^ntity 
of  Water  emptied  into  it  by  all  the  Rivers. 
And  the  incomparable  St  Ifaac  Newlon  iays, 
'tis  not  only  ths  Nature  of  Fluids,  but  of  uni- 
verfal  Matter,  mutually  to  attraft  themfelves, 
and  the  Parts  of  one  another. 

3.  As  a  Corrollary  from  the  laft,  fince  the 
Atmofphcrc  of  different  Countries,  at  fundry 
Times,  contains  Vapours  or  Exhalations  of  fc- 
vera!  Kinds,  as  well  faline,  I'ulphureons,  Off. 
as  watry  ^  then  fometimes,  from  invifiblc  fub- 
terranean Caufes,  fuch  Vapours  or  Exhalations 
may  be  emitted,  as  contaminate  the .  Air  in 
jome  Places  and  make  it  unfit  for  healthy 
human 


by  Google 


human  Rerpiratioft  efptcially ;  fucn  may  he 
juftly  called  invifiblc,  ot  infcniible  Qualiiiw  of 
the  Air :  Such  was  the  third  general  Plague 
after  On-ifi^  which  began  in .  Cataya,  and  al- 
moin extirpated  the  human  Race:  And  that  of 
the  Fog  or  Milt  which  carried  in  it  the  In. 
fedton  of  the  Sudor  jimUcus^  when  abroad, 
from  City  to  City,  and  Town  to  iTown. 

4.  Vapours,  h^iwever  raifed  from  the  Globe, 
•re  not  only  the  Cauie,  but  MatCjer  of  Rain  ; 
for  ^ifig  raifed,  they  arccondeafed  into  Clouds 
and  Rain  {  and  the  more  Vapours  are  raitody 
and  the  colder  the  Region,  the  greater  the 
Quantity  of  Rain.  The  ercater  the  Quantity 
of  Vapsurs  raifed  in  a  moit  Time,  and  the 
colder  the  middle  R.egion  of  the  Air  at  that 
l^me,  the  foonCr  will  they  fall  down  in  Rain, 
Hail,  or  Snow.  The  flower  chc  Vapours  rife, 
and  the  warmer  the  middle  Region  of  the  Air, 
the  longer  will  they  be  fulpenaed  h^oK  they 

5.  Vapours  bMng  the  Matter  of  Raio,  then 
whatever  t'laces,  Things,  or  Surfaces  aJTord 
moA  of  thefe,  occafion  mofl:  Rain,  if  the,Air 
is  hot  well  ventillated,  and  the  Vapours  and 
Qouds  blown  off  to  other  Places  by  tteWinds : 
Thus  great  Surfaces  of  Water  emit  far  more 
Vapours  than  level  Earth.  High  Mountains 
continually  covfered  with  Snow,  their  Surface 
thawed  by  the  Summer's  Sub,  afford  at  that 
Time  great  Vapours,  whicK  occafion  greater 

'  Quantities  of  Rain  in  the  ful^acent  Valleys. 

6.  The  greater  the  Heat  of  any  Couniry  !<:, 
the  more  vertical  the  Sun,  the  farther  from  the 

Earth 

DiqilizDdbyGoOgIC 


Eilrtli  ih  iht  Air,  are  fbritted  Rain,  HaS, 
and  Snow  .•  And  the  more  obliquely  the  Rtp 
fa\\  on  any  Place,  from  heat  the  Equator  to 
the  Poks,  the  nearer  the  Eafth  are  thty  ge- 
nerated. For  the  R^  being  refftiled,  arefaf 
rtmoved  from  pifptnaicular,  Whereby  the  H*at 
is  lefe,  and  the  watry  Vapours  are  cwitrafliiti 
ititb  lefs  Room,  and  foon  joining,  fbrrft  tht 
■^atty  Mtteors;  and  by  joining  fobner,  rfrt 
Quantity  of  Watet  will  be  left,  and  the  Raitis 
fcldom  fo  fevere.  But  the  more  oblique  the 
Rays  are,  and  the  colder  the  Climate,  the  . 
fewer  falphureoiis  Exhalations  fife  from  the 
Earth.  As  the  Sun's  Heat  is  Icfs,  the  Icfs  fre- 
quent and  terrible  will  Thunder  and  Lightning 
be.  The  fewer,  flnallcr,  and  flowet  fueh  Ex- 
halations are,  the  higher  will  they  rife,  and  be 
longer  ful^endcd  in  the  Ait,  before  they  make 
their  CorufcationB  and  Explofions,  far  beyond 
the  Afcent  of  the  Matter  of  Raio,  lliunder, 
phd  Lightning,  which  cofifift  of  larger,  groffcr, 
^nd  heavier  Particles,  and  have  alfo  a  ftronger 
Altradlion,  and  therefore  require  a  thicker  and 
heavier  Atmolphere  to  fdflain  them,  though 
for  a  lefs  Time.  Hence  during  great  and  long 
Prolts,  efpecially  when  they  go  off  with  little 
or  no  Rain,  and  in  the  Autumo  afier  droughty 
Summers,  Aurora  Boteaks  are  both  frequenter, 
clearer,  and  terribler  than  at  other  Times :  And 
alfo,  tbiit  coldeft  Countries  neSreft  the  Poles, 
which  have  longeft  and  fevercft  Frofts,  muft 
have  thefe  Northern  Lights  both  oftcneft  and 
brighteft.  Hence  alfo  their  natural  Caufe  be- 
U>g  co-eval  with  cyr  Globe,  they  muft  have 
been 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(59«) 

been  in  former  Aga>  .^  well  as  eors ;  only 
Naiuralifts  2nd  Hiftorians  have  taken  lefa  no- 
tice of  them.  And  from  their  great  Ditlance 
from  us,  even  their  Corufcations  feem  as  in- 
capable of  hurting  our  Perfons  as  the  Exhala- 
tion, fdriher  than  by  the  Panic  with  which 
they  tray  iff^-A  Come  weak  Conflitutions  of 
the  timid  Vu'gar,  ignorant  of  their  natural 
Caufe.  Hence  during  the  fix  droughty  Years 
from  lyijtojyzo,  wherein  ihcy  were  moft 
frequent,  we  .find  no  Vpftigiesof  their  bad  Ef- 
fefts,  e.thcr  in  our  Hiftories  of  Epldcqiics,  or 
in  ihe  Bills  of  Mortality.  -  -  -  -  Bitmninous, 
fulphureous,  and  other  combuflible  Subftances, 
wi'h  Nitre,  being  thrown  out  from  under  the 
Earth's  Surfice  by  Volcano's,  burning  Moun- 
tains, and  fieiy  Erujnions,  in  or  under  which 
they  had  been  treafurcd  up.  till  by  Heat,  and 
the  AccefHon  of  fubterranean  Air,  they  take 
Fire,  and  form  a  moft  terrible,  invillble,  fi|b. 
terranean  Furnace,  which  HquiiicS;,  and  dif- 
gorgcs  with  fhocking  Violence  vaft  Quantities 
of  Materials  j  which  hot  inflammable  Sub- 
ilanccs  meeting  with  Air,  and  taking  Fire,  but 
wanting  a  Funnel  or  Chimney  to  dirtjiarge 
their  melted  Minerals  by,  or  haying  one,  fcnit 
eithtr  too  little,  or  at  too  great  a  Diftance  from 
the  Fire,  may  caufe  an  Earthquake,  more  or 
lefs  general  or  local,  mild  or  terrible,  as  there 
is  mor;  or  lefs  of  the  Stowage  of  thcfc  Mate- 
rials near,  or  as  their  Strata  are  thinner  or 
thicker,  tie  (hallower  or  deeper,  as  their  Ex? 
tcot  is  narrower  or  broader,  fliortcr  or  longer, 
and  the  Accefe  of  Air  to  this  natural  Furnace  is 

ids 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


{  397  ) 
lefs  or  more,  and  the  Vacuum,  or  empty  ilib^ 
tcrranean  Space,  is  greater  or  lefs.  The  Ex- 
tent of  Earthquakes  U  in  Proportion  to  the 
Depth  and  Quantity  of  accenbble  and  com- 
buftible  Minerals,  the  Force  of  the  Air  that 
blows  them,  and  the  Size  or  Convenience  of 
the  Vent  to  the  Fire  and  Smoke;  and  their 
EfTe^  on  animal  Bodies,  according  to  their 
Degree  of  Heat,  burning  Nature  of  the  Mi- 
nerals, and  fupraierranean  State  and  Conflitu- 
tion  of  the  preTent  Air.  Earthquakes  are  fuc- 
ceeded  by  Sicknefs  and  Mortality,  when  by 
them  perennial  frcfii  Springs  ate  ftop'd,  and 
other  temporary  ones  burft  out,  throwing  forth 
Salt,  {linking,  fulphuicous,  difcoloured  Wa- 
ters J  when  the  Ground  opens  in  feveral  Places, 
and  fhocking  Chafms,  Rents  or  Gapes  appear, 
vomiting  out  Smoak,  Fire  and  Fiame,  or  melted 
Minerals,  with  great  Violence  j  or  even  a  moft 
naufeousfulphureous  Smell,  either  vitiating  the 
Air,  or  diminifhing  its  Spring ;  or  as  far  as 
the  fulphureoos  Aftics,  Smoak,  Flame,  or  Cin- 
ders contaminate  the  Atmofphere.  Moft  of 
thefe  frightful  Events  happen  near  Volcano's, 
and  where  the  Eruption  is  preceded  or  accom- 
panied wi:h  bellowing  or  crackling  Koile  like 
great  Guns,  Fiflures  and  Openings  of  the 
Earth,  calling  out  Fire,  Fhme,  Sulphur  and 
Smoke  ;  or  with  frightful  Sounds,  like  Lamen- 
tation and  Howling,  rumbling  Noife,  C^c.  K 
they  wanted  thefe  Funnels  or  Vents,  not  only 
the  Countries  about,  but  more  remote,  might 
be  rendered  quite  ufelcfr,  by  terrible  and  fear- 
ful CoitCulTious,  and  tearing  them  to- pieces  by 

the 


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(3>«) 
the  pen(rt^  Itnpriibncd  ExhafaCiotw    Aai  ai 
fa  as  chcir  Afhes  are  fprcad,  thcj  warm  and 
itnilize  the  Ground^  ^nd  mske  it  luxuripuOr 
fmitfuL 

7.  The  Winter  Frofts  and  CoHs  harinj 
loel^d  pp  the  Earth,  as  well  us  the  Sun's  Heat, 
weaker,  fewer  Vapours  arc  raiftd,  and  eonlfe- 
qtiently  th?  Spring  Rains  are  Icfs ;  but  an  open 
warm  Winter  affording  more  Vapours,  the 
Raips  will  bp  more.  But  the  greater  Sammer 
Warmtli,  and  longer  Vid  ftronger  Force  of  the- 
Sun,  wiH  oscafion  a  plentifyl  Afeent  of  Va- 
ppurfi  t  and  as  the  6u^  nas  warmed  all  the  Re- 

from  of  the  Air,  they  will  both  rifr  much 
igher»  find  be  ftifperided  lon^r,  ti(l  both  the 
Warmth  of  tfie  Seafon,  and  Heat  of  tiie  Air 
^rc  abated,  and  the  Syn's  Prefesce  with  m 
ftiortened ;  and  if  a  Part  of  them  are  net 
blown  off  in  Qpuds  into  other  Countries,  thcj 
muft  faJi  plentifully  in  Jtify,  -^^t^H^t  °'  ^*?* 
temkff  s  and  if  t^cfe  Months  are  very  warm, 
they  are  reipitcd  to  OBoBer.  Hence  the  ai- 
tupinal  Rfiins  muft  not  only  generally  exceed- 
the  vernal,  but  all  the  Qther  Seafons  of  the 
Tear  in  Qjiantity. 

8.  More  plain  or  level  Grounds  comnnonly 
bare  clearer  and  ^irer  Weather  than  high 
Mountains,  whereon  arc  often  Fogs,  Mifls, 
Rains,  or  Showers ;  for  in  the  former,  the 
Preffure  and  Elafticity  of  the  Air  is  mucb 
gi^ter,  as  its  Column  is  higher;  and  therefore 
better'iitted  to  fupport  the  «chaling  Vapours, 
and  .raifc  them  to  a  higher  and  lighter  Air, 
fuph  as  is  on  the  Tops  of  MotHitaifU,  when 

after 


i.vCoogIc 


(  399  ) 
after  tlbefar  groat  Agitations,  wbethep  by  vloIeM 
Winds,  or  other  outward  Caufes,  thry  are  co\- 
\t&oA  aod  condenied  into  Cloade  and  Mrft, 
and  by  their  own  Weight  g^vit^e,  till  thejr 
&11  into  fuch  a  Medium  of  Atr  as  can  fuftain 
them :  being  gatbofcd  hither,  they  fwim  about, 
afid  are  difperfed  in  i(,  whereby  the  other 
Parts  of  the  Sky  are  clured.  Bat  if  Bieh  a 
Cotlei^Q  happen  only  ifl  the  light  Air  on  the 
Tops  of  lir]ountain»,  there  thcfe  Vapours  ibrcn 
IDrops,  and  fall  down  id  Raini  But  when  no 
foch  high  Mountains  arc  new,  the  above  agi- 
tated VapourG  being  blowfl  together,  or  con- 
donied  t^  the  W'nds,  when  they  comeintpfiich. 
a  thin  Ak  over  Valleys  it  not  being  able  longer 
to  iiipport  4t9  Load,  lets  it  fall  down  in  Drops. 
And  the  oiore  and  greater  the  Collection  of 
Water  in  the  Cloud  is,  and  the  warmer  the 
Air,  the  larger  will  the  props  of  Rain  be,  and 
the  feoner  will  the  Fund  be  exhauAed*and 
fpcnt,  and  the  Ao- cleaFcd.  Hence  Rain  Drops, 
in  a  warm  light  Air,  in  Showers,  dten  let  ml 
imich  more  Water,  in  the  fame  Time,  than  in 
a  colder  and  heavier  Air. 

g.  As  high  MountainSi,  by  Ixvaking  thfr 
Clouds,  have  frequenter  Rains  than  a  cham- 
paign Country,  fo  the  former  reqwre  it  oftnsr } 
for  it  quickly  runs  off  them  :  and  their  Bafis 
lending  out  Springs  and  Rivulets,  which  drain 
off  tbcir  Water,  and  would  render  their  Sur- 
face pacched  and  barren,  if  not  often  fupplied, 
and  being  fiiteft  for  Failure,  they  arc  kept  bare' 
of  Grafs.  But  plain  Ground  being  ramcer  of 
Coin  or  Oral^a  which  cloath  their  ftir&oe- 
4  during 


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(400  ) 

during  their  Seafoos,  and  preienre  them  frddk 
Drought,  and  aHb  retain  their  Waterings  longer  j 
nor  have  they  DecUvities  to  carry  it  off,  or  lodi 
^tiick  Springs  or  rapid  Brooks  to  fupply. 

1  o.  From  the  Table  wc  fee.  that  ibme  Ycari 
are  very  healthy,  and  yet  a  greater  Quantity 
of  Rain  &lh  than  in  others,  which  yet  may 
prove  very  iickly  i(nd  mortal.  For  a  Confli-^ 
tutioa  (^  the  Air  may  be  long  very  cloudy, 
fo^gfi  moift,  milling,  or  often  dropping ;  yet 
upon  the  vrhole,  no  great  Quantity  of  Rain 
&11.  But  more  may  fall  in  a  few  Days  contt* 
nued  Rain,  or  often  fudden,  great,  heavy  Show-^ 
ers;  for  thefb  dry,  clear,  and  purify  the  Air, 
by  bringing  down  the  Vapours  colledled  in  it. 
The  Air  may  be  alfo.  well  fanned  and  cleared 
from  all  injurious  and  hurtful  Effluvia,  not 
only  by  frequent  Shiftings  and  Changes  of  the 
Wind,  but  by  often  pretty  brilk  Gales,  and 
little' iultry  Weather,  and  few  or  (hort  dead 
Calms  ■,  and  the  Temperature  of  the  Air  at 
the  fame  time  fuited  in  general  to  thofe  feveral 
Seafons}  and  no  infedious  or  epidemic  Dif- 
cales  ftirring,  nor  no  Impurities  left  in  the  Air 
the  pFeceding  Year  j  and  ,atl  Food  good  and 
wholfbme, 

II.  In  the  firil  Column  of  this  Table  far 
34  Years,  we  find  about  8141  fair  Days,  whe- 
ther clear,  c!oudy>  foggy,  or  mifly,  &c,  and 
in  the  fccond  Column  about  4187  Days,  on 
which  fell  either  Rain,  Showers,  Snow,  Sleet, 
or  Hail :  fo  that  the  fair  Days  are  to  the  other 
about  8  to  .4,  or  near  two  thirds,  which,  .at  a 
Medium  is  about  24o.fsir  Days  yearly,  and  125 
rainy. 


byGoogJe 


(  4SI  ) 
rainy.  But  tho'  this  is  the  Medium,  yet  the^ 
are  far  from  being  near  equal  every  Year : 
For  in  1716  were  only  93  rainy  or  fliowry 
Days;  in  1719  a  htxndred;  m  1740,  95;  in 
1739,  157J  in  1729,  152,  &c. -How- 
ever wc  may  obferve,  that  the  drieft  and  wet- 
teft  Years  do  not_  vary  far,  each  of  them,  a- 
mong  themfclves,  in  thd  Number  of  their  fair 
and  wet  Days ;  the  other  Years  differ  confidcrably 
more. 

1 2.  Of  thcfe  wetting  Days,  on  fome  it  rained 
for  a  whole,  half,  or  quarter  Day  or  Night ; 
fuch  are  called  rainy:  others  (howry,  wnofc 
Rain  cdntinued  not  from  abbve  a  few  Minutes^ 
to  an  Hour  or  two :  others  mifling  or  drilll  ig ; 
and  fome  fnowy,  whether  it  fn6w'd  whole, 
half,  or  quarter  Day^  or  had  only  Showers, 
or  fpitting  of  Snow,  or  wert  Part  of  the  Day 
Snow,  another  Slcct  or  Hail,  and  a  third  Rain. 
The  Proportions  of  thefe  ftand  thus,  rainy 
Days  1135,  fliowry  2130,  mifling  or  drilling 
'  340»  f"Owy394j  the  whole  about  4000,  be* 
fides  187  not  included,  being  only  fmall  Drop- 
pings now  and  theri,  not  fit  to  be  juftly  reckoned 
with  any  of  the  reft.  So  that  Ihowry  Days 
are  near  double  the  rainy,  and  the  fliowry  to 
the  mifling  near  7  to  : ;  and  the  mifling  to 
the  fnowy  as  34  to  39  ;  atid  the  Whole  added 
together  about  a  third  of  all  the  Days.  Stf 
that  at  a  Medium,  one  Year  with  another,  there 
are  littleabovc  33  rainy,  63  fliowry,  10  mifling, 
and  about  1 1-^  fnowy  Days  yearly.  But  though 
this  is  the  Mean,  yet  there  is  a  very  wide  Dif-  ■ 
iercnce  in  the  Years ;  for  fome  had  but  1 3,  17, 
Dd.  i9> 


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(  402    ) 

19,  or  a3  rainy  Days;  othccs  60  or 70 ;  hat 
the  &wer  rainy  Days  the  more  fhowry,  and 
the  more  (howry,  the  fewer  rainy. 

13.  Wind,  which  is  a  fenfible  current  of 
colder  Air,  rufhlng  out  of  one  Place  or  Country 
into  another,  whofe  Air  is  more  ratified.  Our 
Winds  are  neither  perennial,  which  always 
blow  the  iame  Way,  as  that  between  the 
two  Tropics,  called  the  general  Trade- Wind, 
which  blows  perpetually  from  E.  to  W,  Nor 
ftated,  which  return  af  certain  Times,  as  the 
Breezes  which  in  the  Evenit^  blow  from  Sea 
to  Land  always  j  and  in  the  Morning  from 
Land  to  Sea.  Nor  the  Shifting  Winds,  which 
blow  fo  many  Months  one  Way,  and  all  the 
reft  of  the  Year  have  the  oppodte  Diredioo ; 
but  ours  are  changeable  and  erratic,  blowing 
now  this  Way,  anon  that,  intermixed  with 
Calms,  without  any  Certainty  or  Regularity ; 
only  fomctimes  they  hava  their  more  peculiar 
Times  of  the  Dayj  as  the  Weft  Wind  aboot 
the  Middle  of  the  Day,  which  often  felU  South 
at  Night.  The  N.  is  more  common  to  the 
Morning,  or  to  SeafoBS  of  the  Year,  as  the  S. 
or  S.  W.  Wind  to  Winter ;  the  N.  N.  E.  oc 
N.W.  to  the  Spring.  There  are  alfii  parti- 
cular Winds  confined  within  a  very  narrow 
Compafs ;  as  the  N.  Wind  on  the  W.  S^e  of 
the  Jjps,  which  extends  not  above  four  or  five 
Miles  in  Length,  and  not  fo  broad,  and  fccms 
only  a  Reverberation  of  the  Wind.  Not  only 
do  Winds  differ  in  feveral  Countries,  (cxcc|>t 
they  are  either  very  ftrong  Winds,  or  are  fixed 
.lung  in  a  Point)  but  they  vary  much  in  the 
4  iame 

L,  ,z,;i.,G00gIC 


(405  ) 
ikme  Country  at  the  fame  Time ;  as  may  ht 
quickly  obfervcd.  by  ftriftly  comparing  ieveral 
Journals  of  ibe  Winds  and  Weather,  kept  in 
different  Farts,  of  this  liland  by  judicious  and 
accurjte  Pcrfons,  for  the  fame  Days  and  Years. 
And  it  is  Storm  or  Hurricane  in  one.  Place, 
when  thfi  Wind  is  either  very  fmali,  or  a  Calm 
in  another,  or  it  blows  from  a  different  Point  j 
only  tte  Barometer  is  low  in  both  Places,  but 
lowefl  where  the  Storm  or  fiurrkane  is,  or 
where  the  Wind  is  raofl  Southerly,  and  higher 
where  it,  is  Eafterly.  Hence  that  Infirumcnt 
or  Gauge  of  the  Gravity  or  Levity  of  the  Air^ 
is  oot  to  be  fb  much  depended  on  for  a  Prog- 
nc^ic  of  the  Weather  as  is  imagined )  fmce 
not  only  a  Hurricane,  or  great  Storm  of  Wind, 
or  a  deluging  Rain  in  another  Country ;  but 
even  jn  the  fame,  though  not  in  the  fame  Place, 
will  lower  the  Mercury  very  much ;  and  their 
going  off  will  T»ife  it :  But  mote  of  this  here- 
after, 

14..  As  to  the  natural  Caufes  of  the  Wind, 
Des  Cartes  and  RobauH  account  for  the  general 
Winds  from  the  diurnal  Rotation  of  the  Earth  ; 
and  fo  from  this  general  Wind  derive  all  the 
particular  ones.  But  this  Theory  failed  in  the 
conffant  Calms  in  the  Atlantic  Sea,  near  the 
Equator ;  and  in  the  Wcfterly  Winds  near  the 
Guinea  Coaft  ;  and  the  periodical  Wefterty 
Monfoons,  under  the  Equator,  in  the  Indian 
Seas.  Thb  put  the  great  Dr.  Halley  on  fearch- 
ing  out,  and  fubftitatirg  another  Caufe,  which 
might  anfwer  thefeObjeflions;  and  account  as 
well  for  the  periodical  and  variable,  as  {general 
Dd  a  Wind  J 


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(  404  ) 
VTmd  ;  which  is  the  daily  Adion  of  the  Son- 
Beams  on  the  Air  and  Waters,  as  he  paflcs 
daily  over  the  Ocean,  confidcred  together  with 
the  Soil,  and  the  Situation  of  the  at^iniog 
Continent. 

1 5.  This  Variablencfs  of  the  Winds  in  our 
Ifland^  with  their  frequent  Calms,  fudden 
'  Jirks  and  Shifts,  often  veering,  contrary  Car- 
rents,  &c.  even  in  the  fame  Place,  make  it  a 
difficult  Taflc  to  make  even  a  tdcrable  Table 
of  the  Winds,  that  for  a  Series  of  Years  may 
come  near  theTruth;  and  by  reviewing  and  cent- 
paring  ieveral  Tables  for  different  Places,  I  find 
each  Place  muft  have  a  particular  Table ;  fince 
not  only  the  Winds  are  various  at  the  lameTlme, 
in  different  Parts,  but  the  Weather  varies  a  great 
deal  more  within  mudi  narrower  Limits ;  as 
-  Kain,  Storms,  Showers,  Froft,  Snow,  Hail, 
Thunder,  Lightning,  &c.  From  thefe  many 
and  fudden  Alterations  of  the  Wind,  many 
Hours  and  Quarters  muft  be  diligently  col- 
lefled  and  carried  from  one  Place  to  another 
in  a  Month,  61  more  in  a  Courfe  of  Years. 
This  will  neceffarily  occafion  ibroe  Fraflions 
of  E>ays  at  leafl ;  as  it  will  wheel  about  from 
its  prefent  Station,  and  bring  a  Storm  for  a 
quarter  or  half  an  H^ur,  and  return  to  its  for- 
mer Point.  Hence  alfo  Rain  or  Showers  may 
be  marked  to  come  from  a  Quarter  from 
whence  the  Wind  is  not  noted  in  the  Table  to 
come,'oi;  a  Thunder-Shower.  And  more  rainy 
Djys  may  be  charged  to  a  Point,  than  tlw 
Wind  from  it  j  and  yet  fuch  a  fmall  Number 
of  Years  as  moft  Journals  contain  (for  it  being 


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(  405  ) 
A  dry  Sui^fl,  moft  Gentlemen  are  foon  weary 
of  it)  could  not  have  anfwered  the  Purpo&. 
But  in  tbefe  34  Years,  we  have  feveral  con* 
iiderable  Changes  of  Drought  and  Rain,  Cold 
and  Heat,   Froil,   Plenty,   Famine,  DiAcm- 

pCTS,    &C. 

1 6.  There  is  a  ^eat  Difference  in  the  Time 
of  the  Wind's  Continuance  in  eachjof  its  eight 
cardinal  Points }  for  it  is  almoft  3000  Days  out 
of  12370  in  the  S.W.  and  almoft  i-5th  part 
of  the  Time  N.W.  above  i-8th  ii>  the  Weft ; 
near  as  much  N.E.  near  i-9th  in  theN.  very 
little  above  i-ioth  in  the 3.  near  i-23din  the 
B.  and  fcarce  i-i^th  in  the  S.jE.  Though 
this  be  taken  at  a  Medium,  yet  diey  differ  vattly 
in  particular  Years. 

17.  Ai  to  the  Rains,  thofe  out  of  the  S,  W^ 
are  to  all  the  reft,  from  the  other  7  Points, 
above  i2iVout  of  43.  cut  of  the  N.W.  abme 
6t  of  43.  out  of  the  N.  E.  as  4-t  of  43.  out  of 
the  N.  pear  4  of  43.  out  of  the  W.  above 
4^.  out  of  the  S.  above  6^.  opt  of  the  E.  not 
]-;^3d.  from  thjp  S.E.  i-:6th:  So  that  the 
S.W.  atone  aifords  a^  much  Rain  as  N.  E.  S.  £. 
and  N.E.  all  token  together ;  and  as  much  t.% 
the  N.W.  N.E.  and  E.  together;  and  mueh 
piorc  than  W.  S.  and  E.  thcvgli.the  Time  thp 
Wind  blows  fromi  the  former  foi^r  Points,  is  to 
that  it  comes  from  the  S.W.  as  4 1  to  29f  j  and 
the  Time  it  blows  from  the  latter  three  Points, 
to  what. blovvs  from  S.W.  as  45  to  29*-. 

;  18,  The  larger  and  vaftet  thp  Oceap  over 

which  our  Winds  blow,  the  longer  and  pftoer 

Shcy  ccme  from  thence,  tlie  frequenter  our 

Dd  3  Rains. 


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Rains,  Fcr  one  half  of  the  Days  rf  our  S, 
Winds  Continuance  arc  cither  rainy  or  (hibwry ; 
and  much  above  2-5ths  of  the  Days  our  Wind 
in  S.W.  little  above  i-4th  out  of  the  N.W. 
much  the  fame  out  of  the  N.E.  not  miKh 
above  i-jth  out  of  the  E,  &c. 

19.  The  ordinarily  warmer  Points  of  the 
Wind  bring  moft  Rain,  as  the  S.  and  S,W. 
Heice  probably  is  the  Rcafon  why  moft  of  the 
N  and  N.E.  Winds  blow  m  the  latter  End  of 
Winter,  and  in  the  Spring  ;  for  the  Son  then 
afccnd-ng  in  the  Zodiac,  begins  to  warm  their 
frozen  or  thawing  Atmosphere  j  which,  the 
colder  it  is,  the  more  elailic,  and  rufties  more 
iir.pe'.uoufly  and  rapidly  into  our  warm,  wh«h 
has  lefs  Force  tp  refiftit;  which  often  makes 
them  very  high,  chill,  and  parching  in  March 
and  jfpri/.  For  the  fame  Reafon,  when  our 
S.  S.  W.  or  W.  Winds  are  very  cold,  they  are 
moftly  very  high,  as  they  arc  rufliing  to  a  con- 
trL>ry  Point  and  milder  Air;  and  when  two 
cppofite  Currents  of  Wind  blow,  as  an  upper 
and  lower,  the  Atmofphcre  is  not  loaded  with 
Moifture,  and  is  a  Sign  of  fettled  Weather 
coming  on.  The  lowermofl  of  the  contrary 
Currents  fcon  ceafe?,  and  leaves  the  uppermoft 
fole  Maficr  of  the  Air.  The  Afccnt  of  the 
Sun  in  the  Zcdiac  may  occafion  our  Froft  and 
Spring  N.  and  N.E.  Winds j  bccaufe,  as  it 
advance*;  towards  the  Pole,  it  gradually  warms 
the  chill'd  Air,  which  behind  and  on  each  Side 
is  ftill  ccmprefltd,  and  refiftcd  by  much  colder, 
which  has  not  yet  felt  the  folar  Influence; 
jhprpforc  towarJ  the  Jr'fintic  Ocean  is  t^  c  only 
Ojtlet 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  407  )     ■ 
Outlet  it  has,  and  therefore  muft  pals  us  la  its 
Courfc. 

-  20.  Our  N.  and  N.E-'are  commonly  colder 
.(according  to  the  Scafon)  than  our  S.  and  S.W, 
Winds,  bccaufe  they  come  from  the  frigid 
Zone  i  but  the  contrary  holds  true  to  the  In- 
habitants beyond  the  Equator;  for  the  Sua 
and  Air  have  warmed  tbe  N.  Wind  before  it 
reaches  them,  as  they  do  the  S.  Wind  before 
it  comes  to  us. 

2 1 .  A  Wind  from  the  Sea  is  moilter  than 
from  the  Land  :  Hence,  during  the  Reign  of 
our  S.W.  Wind,  fo  great  a  Number  of  the 
Days  are  either  rainy,  fliowry,  drifling,  or 
wetting  ;  for  the  Surface  of  the  Water,  by  the 
Sun  and  Atmofpheie,  affords  far  more  Vapours 
than  tlie  Surface  of  the  Land^  for  our  S.  Windt 
coming  fwccping  along  the  vaft  ^/ii«^(V  Ocean, 
muft  lick  up  immenfc  Vapours  from  that  pro- 
digious Expanfion  of  Waters.  Our  Weft  Winds 
from  Ireland  and  Neiif  Britain  in  America^  as 
they  blow  over  a  lefs  Traft  of  Water,  Iwing 
fewer  Vapours  along  with  them,  of  which  Ire- 
land muft  have  tbe  firft  Share;  for  fcarce 
i-4th  of  Days  the  W.  Wind  blows,  have  ei- 
ther Rain,  Snow,  Showers,  or  other  Down- 
fall >  but  half  the  Dajs  of  S.  Wind  have  fonae 
or  other  of  them  ■■,  not  only  bccaufe  of  the  vaft 
Atlantic  Ocean,  but  the  Bay  of  Bifcay,  the 
Channel,  and  all  the  Sea  between  us  and  Spdrt, 
Few  above  )-4th  of  our  N.W.  and  N.  E. 
Winds  are  rainy ;  for  on  the  fwoicr  of  us  lie 
the  Orcades,  Iceland,  Grstnland^  Mid  a  great 
many  more  iilaiids ;  and  as  the  Air  is  colder  on 
XXd  4  each 


i.vCoogIc 


(4o8) 
p^  Side,  as  it  reaches  nearer  the  Pol^,  the 
Water  is  \c&  rarified,  and  fewer  Vapours  rife} 
^nd  thefc  that  do  rile,  arelonger  fuftained  in  a 
mode  heavy  and  elaftic  Air:  Henpc  our  Rains 
from  tlicfe  Points  are  of^en  longer  apd  heavier 
from  the  S.  or  S.W-  and  often  about  thcEquir 
noxcf.  And  as  our  p.  Winds  come  over  fJr 
larger  Contiiienis  and  Icfs  Sea,  they  bring  lel- 
domcr  Raim, 

22.  A  Wind  blowing  from  the  open  Sea  is 
ivamier  in  Winter,  and  colder  tn  Sammer} 
far  then  the  Earth's  Surface  and  Air  are  warmer 
than  the  Water,  but  colder  in  the  Winter  from 
the  Froft  and  Snow. 

.  2^.  A  moderate  Cold  renders  the  Air  cloudy, 
not  clear  j  for  its  linall  Warmth  raifes,  but  dif- 
pells  not  the  Vapours,  But  an  intenfe  Cold 
often  clears  the  Air,  both  as  it  thickens  the 
grofs  Exhalations,  till  they  fall  down  to  the 
E^rih  again,  and  becaufe  the  Fores  of  the 
Earth  arc  lock'd  uf,  which  hinders  the  Vapoius 
to  fjfe  i  but  the  Sea  being  not  frozen,  may 
ftnd  up  Vapours  to  make  the  Air  cloudy  and 
turbid  J  yet  tlie  Cold  keeps  the  watry  Particles 
larger  and  heavier,  and  unfit  to  rife  in  great 
Cjuantity. 

24.  Th«  colder  the  Air  is,  it  is  the  thicker; 
therefore  it  is  moftly  colder  in  Winter  than  in 
Summer,  by  Night  than  by  Day  ^  which 
Groffnefs  of  the  Air  is  increafed  in  Winter,  and 
in  the  Eveniiigs  and  Mornings,  by  the  Afcin- 
fion  ol"  grofs  Exhalations  from  the  Water :  And 
even  in  the  Summer  and  Harveft,  the  After- 
noon and  Eycning  Vapours,  which  had  taken 
Wing 


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(  409  ) 
Wing  during  the  Abatement  of  the  Sqn  an4 
Earth's  Heat,  being  groller  than  thole  which 
role  during  the  Warmth,  (if  the  Night  is  c^m) 
they  fall  duwn  ag^ip  in  pleatiful  Dew,  and  re-  - 
frcOi  the  langutihing  Vegetables  }  but  the  for-; 
tner  Vapours  being  ipore  rarified,  rife  higher ; 
and  if  the  Night  is  wiody,  they  are  alfo  raifc4 
too  high  to  return  in  fweet  Dew. 

25.  Exhalations  raifed  by  ;he  Day's  ^cat, 
-when  the  Sun*s  Warmth  can  no  longer  fupport 
thein,  being  formed  into  Clouds,  condenfed  by 
the  Cool  of  the  Night,  gravitate  jn  the  Air  j 
^vherc  hrll  meeting  with  the  higher  Parts  of  the 
Earth,  gather  and  fettle  on  them. 

26.  Showers  are  only  the  Vapours  afcended 
froin  the  Earth  into  the  Air,  by  the  Wind 
f}lown  into  a  Cloud,  which  is  refolved  into 
props  of  Rain  too  licavy  for  the  Atmofpherc 
to  ful^ain,  and  fo  let  L\\  on  the  Eiirth  again. 
The  Extent  of  the  Ground  on  which  it  falls, 
■wi-U  be  in  Proportion  to  the  Dimenfion  of  ihc 
Cloud  i  its  Duration,  and  the  Quantity  of  Rain 
it  diicharges,  will  be  in  Proportion  to  the  Va^ 
pour  or  Moifliire,  or'  Denfity  of  the  Cloud, 
and  the  Velocity  of  its  Motion  by  the  Winds. 
iShbwers  cotne  in  the  fame  Courfe  and  Di- 
re<3ion  with  the  Wind,  except  Thunder  Showers, 
which  cnine  againft  the  Wind,  becaofe  there 
ate  at  that  time  two  oppolite  Currents,  one 
lower,  the  other  higher.  We  meet  with  In- 
ftances  of  preternatural  Showers,  as  of  Brim- 
ftone.  Frogs,  Millet- feed,  &c.  of  which  after. 

27.  Snow  is  only  Vapour  raifed  by  the  Heat 
pf  the  Sun,  or  Earth,  or  both  j  and  by  the 

In- 


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(  4^Q  ) 

Intenfencfs  of  the  Cold  of  the  middte  R^kn 
of  the  Air,  is  frozen  under  large  Surfaces 
(hence  its  L&fity)  into  beautiful  hexagonal  FU 
gutes,  as  both  Dr.  Grew  and  Dr.  H^eiUer  ob- 
ferved  it,  upon  Examination.  This  Congela- 
tion of  its  Parts  iilcreafts  its  fpeciBc  Gravity, 
which  faaflens  its  fall  to  the  Earth  in  fine  Flakes, 
which  fiinaetitne  appear  in  different  Shapes, 
from  their  beihg  dafiied  againft  one  another, 
either  in  the  Fall,  or  by  the  Wind  in  the  Air. 
But  if  this  fame  Snow  in  its  Defcent  lall  thro' 
a  warmer  Atmofphere,  it  comes  to  us  iu  Rain ; 
or  if  one  Fat-t  be  melted,  ai:d  not  another,  it '» 
Sleet.  If  at  any  Sejfon,  the  middle  Region 
of  the  Air  be  imenfcly  coM  over  any  Place, 
whilft  a  Showtf  of  Rain  is  falling,  or  about  tg 
£)ll,  the  Drops  of  Rain  are  irozen  into  Ice,  and 
fo  form  Hail.  We  ihall  meet  with  Thunder 
after  it,  often  attended  by  Hail ;  for  the  Cold- 
nefs  of  the  Nitre  that  helps  to  form  the  latter, 
has  alfo  a  great  Share  in  producing  the  foimer. 

28.  Froft  is  that  cold  State  cf  the  Air,  or 
Weather,  which  during  that  Time  ftops  the 
Fluidity  and  Motion  of  Liquors,  and  turns 
them  into  Ice,  and  fwells  their  Body  near 
i-2oth  of  their  Bulkj  yet  the  Liquors,  to  this 
frozen  or  conftipated  State,  emit  their  Vapours, 
as  appears  from  the  Dccreafc  of  their  Weight 
Many  have  written  well  on  the  Effc^of  Froft, 
as  Mr.  Auzoutj  Mr.  Boyle,  Scbeffer,  OUarius, 
Pohjrt,  Derbam^  Remus^  &c.  who  have  given 
us  the  Hiftories  of  the  grcatcft  Frofts  in  our 
Time,  viz.  1672,  16S3  and  84,  1709,  lyJ^i 
as  we  fhall  fliortly  have  that  of  1740  from  a 
very 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(4i<) 
Very  eminent  and  proper  Perfon.  After  which, 
the  greateft  was  that  that  began  Nov.  30,  and 
lafted  10  Dec.  10,  1747.  ^  Nov.  jo  and 
Dec,  I.  fell  a  great  Snow  14  Inches  deep  npon 
a  Level  in  the  Plains,  and  ahove  20  on  tlie 
Moors  and  high  Grounds.  The  high  N.  Wind 
blew  it  in  Drifts,  that  covered  Hedges  and 
Walls,  61led  up  Ditches  and  hollow  Places. 
The  Degree  of  Cold  was  tried  on  Holft  Mer- 
curial. The  Pocket  Thermometer,  whereon 
the  freezing  Point  is  32,  it  ftood  there  the  2d 
Day,  when  the  Ice  was  3  Inches  thick  in  ore 
Night  J  open  Air  20 ;  hid  in  Snow  32  j  in  the 
River  32  i  in  a  fmoaking  perennial  Spring  44  ; 
in  Snow  and  Salt,  3  below  o.  This  Froft 
went  oiFwith  a  Week's  great  Rains  and  la- 
mcntiiWfi  deluging  Floods,  which  did  much 
Mifchief  in  many  Places,  carrying  off  Cattle, 
many  Sheep,  &e.  From  Dec.  18  to  yan.  19 
wa'.  like  fine  mild  Spring  Weather,  Fields 
green,  fmall  Frofls  moft  Nights,  as  in  ^r.  and 
gons  by  10  a  Clock  nest  Morning.  From 
yan.  ig  to  30,  a  S.  or  S.  E.  Wind,  fevere 
Cold,  no  Sun  fcen,  all  cloudy,  moift,  foggy, 
drilling,  and  quire  undefirable,  like  the  Winter 
of  1746;  and  from  yav.-^i  to  March,  one 
continued  Froft,  except  Feb.  26  and  2f^.  Sept. 
19,  1728,  began  the  fevere  Froft  in  Germany^ 
exceeding  that  of  1709.  All  Rivers  were 
frozen  over,  (which  ufed  not  to  happen  before 
the  Winter  Solftice.)  Septembtr  2 1 ,  the  Ther- 
mometer ftood  at  66,  WindN.  E.  0^.3, 
■the  Sp'rirs  ftood  at  72,  Ice  on  ftagnant  Warcr 
hajf  an  Inch  thick.  November  began  wi;h  fix 
Days 


i.vCoogIc 


(  4>»  ) 
Days  ftrong  B.  Wind.  5th  Day  Sfuriu  86,  Ice 
inuph  thicker.  28th  Day  96,  no  more  Raio, 
til  Vapours  were  turned  to  Ice.  yan.zp, 
Spirjyts  iz6,  Cold  was  iQttderable.  Ftb,  3. 
Spirits  at  86.  4.tb,  95.  From  this  to  March  %, 
they  ranged  betweci)  So  and  ipo.  March  B, 
noo'i  9th,  1 10}  zi&t  81.  All  Rivos  bote 
Men,  Horfe,  and  Qtriagts.  Many  PeofAs 
pcriifaed  in  th^  Journeys,  ^nd  more  toft  tonr 
t.imbs  ip  a  Aioit  time.  Crows  fell  down  dead. 
Stag^,  Goats,  and  Hares  died  in  great  Numbecs. 
29.  Take  the  Toul  of  rainy,  ffaowry,  mlf- 
ling,  and  foowy  Days  in  28  Years  of  the  Tabl^ 
and  the  Numbers  that  died  in  each  -of  tbem  ; 
and  fee  which  of  them  has  been  moft  ir^onoas 
ito  Peoples  Livep.  The  rainy  Daysare  883; 
there  died  oo  them  968  :  ShowryJJiysiii^;; 
died  on  them  2071  :  JMifling  Days-323  ;  diof 
;£S8 :  Snowy  Days  33 1  ;  died  402.  k  tlmn- 
dered  and  lightened  on  200  Dajrs  i  died  226. 
Mifling  or  drilling  Weather  feems  leaft  hurt- 
ful, and  fnowy  mod  &taL  Rainy  is  woife  than 
ibowry.  Let  all  that  died  in  thdc  leveral  Sorts 
of  Weather  be  fubflraSed  from  the  Whole  that 
died  in  28  Years,  the  different  Degrees  of  Mm- 
tality  in  thefe  fcveral  States  of  the  Ajr  wit  - 
appear. 

.  30.  *Tisfurprizing  to  obfervc  the  near  Equi- 
librium in  .general  kept  up  am'idft  fuch  Vicif^ 
-Atudi^^.^f.thciWeather.  .  In  a  Revotmion  of  a 
Jong  Series.of-Years*  feir. Days  arc  to  all  qthers 
n^ar  as  2  to  i.  TheNumberthat-dtcs  on  the 
ibrnicr  is^to  that;.6f  the  J^tcr  very  little  Dint 
of2-3d3j  for  on.tbc  ft)rmcr^Kd-7i89,-onthc 
latter 


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(413  ) 
latter  3729 ;  the  whole  regUlered  Burials  in  the 
Parifliin  thefe  zSYears,  were  10918,  a  third 
of  which  is  3639.  Another  Advantage  of  this 
Table  is,  that  by  comparing  it  with  the  above 
Aaxiant  of  Epidemics  in  thefe  Years,  it  may 
be  readily  known  what  Kind  of  Wind  or  Wea- 
ther is  moil  mild,  mortal,  or  favourable  in 
each  reigning  Difeafe ;  and  how  the  Danger 
arifing  to  the  Sick  may  be  in  fome  alleviated,  or 
le0encx).  But  to  ilhiftrate  this  in  a  Variety  of 
Particulars  would  both  be  too  tedious,  and  only 
anfwer  die  Purpofe  of  one  Set  of  Men  j  there- 
fore (hall  pals  it. 

Another  Ufe  is,  that  by  dividing  each  of 
theie  Numbers  by  a8,  the  Number  of  Years, 
may  be  leen  how  many  rainy,  lhowry,&f .  Days 
happen  yearly  at  a  Medium.  The  Gentleman 
may  ti\(o  gadier  fcveral  ufeful  Hints  from  this 
Table :  For  if  he  is  about  to  build  a  Houfe  or 
Country  Seat,  near  a  City  or  ^eat  Town,  he 
is  dire^d  which  Side  to  chufe  to  be  freeft 
from  its  Smoak,  Exhalations,  &c.  or  if  he  is 
to  raife  his  Strui^ure  in  the  Country,  his  Way 
was  pointed  out  how  to  avoid  frequent  Miih, 
Vopy  Showers,  and  Drilling  on  one  hand,  and 
how  to  elchew  Damps,  a  too  moift  or  heavy 
Air  on  the  other.  Nor  need  the  Farmer  be 
without  his  Inflrudtions,  to  excite  his  Cuiiofity 
to  feek  after  mn-e.  I  Ihall  only  point  one  molt 
ufefiil,  and  which  his  Barometer  could  never 
tell  him,  taz.  let  him  number  carefully  his  fair 
Days  in  Feiruary,  and  he  may  commoMy  ex- 
peA  near  about  die  fame  Number  of  rainy  or 
ihowry  Days  in  Cwn-Harveft. 

fahU 


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fM  XXVtt 


The  Total  of  rainy 
Days  each  of  the  12 
Months  of  the  34 
Yean,  and  the  Num- 
ber that  died. 


7" 

111. 

1167 

fifc-. 

,18. 

1143 

Mtr. 

177- 

.,08 

X 

376- 
379- 

1183 
IIII 

?™ 

86. 

At- 

»♦! 

»v. 

111- 

«4! 

iq;. 

«8i 

107- 

'local 

4187. 

ii&i 

8141  Fair  Days. 
4187  Rainy  Days,  £?*. 


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Siig.^ 


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I. 


(4'J) 

30.  Having  taken  notice  of  the  monthly 
Quantities  of  Kain  that  fell  in  feveral  Places  ia 
a  Series  of  Years;  it  may  not  be  improper  to 
ob{erve>  that  however  the  monthly  difier  In 
the  fame  or  fevcral  Places,  yet  it  is  furprizing 
there  is  no  greater  Dlfierence  in  the  Number 
of  Days  in  each  Month  throush  the  whole 
Year,  during  a  Series  of  Years,  than  is  in  this 
{hort  monthly  Table;  there  being  only  51 
Days  Odds  between  the  highc:(l  and  loweft  oif 
4  Months ;  and  one  of  thefe,  viz.  February^ 
las  commonly  3  Days  lefs  in  it  than  the  other ; 
one  having  28,  and  the  other  31  Djys,  or 
about  i-icthof  the  Month:  now  add  i-ioth 
of  379  to  328,  and  it  will  bring  it  to  366  ; 
then  the  Otias  is  fmaller  than  between  July  and 
'January^  which  is  48.  .  QBober^  in  a  Series  of 
Years,  has  the  ieweft  r^ny  Days  of  all  (he 
Months,  the  Difference  between  it  and  July 
being  8 1  Days.  Nor  is  it  true  that  Winter 
has  either  fo  much  Rain,  orib  many  rainy  Days 
as  Summer ;  Ifovember,  December^  and  Ja- 
nuary having  only  1050  wetting  Daysj  and 
May,  Juae,  and  July  1 1 19.  And  though  the 
Autumn  has  only  959  rainy  or  fhowry  Days 
and  the  3  Spring  Mcmths  ioC9,yet  much  more 
R^  &lls  in  the  former .  than  in  the  latter, 
thoi^h  O^ober  has  the  &weA  wet  Days  of  all 
the  Months. 

31.  As  10  the  ordinary  monthly  Courfe  of 
the  Winds,  this  fliwt  Tabic  fljews  Ju'y  to  have 
the  moft  N.W.  Wind,  and  the  Icalt  S.  E.  of 
any  Month  in  the  Year.  May  has  the  lead 
N.W.  and  moft  N.E.  of  any  Month.    Juh, 


i.vCooglc 


(4(6) 

Hovm&er^  and  DecemSer  have  the  Icaft  J^.S, 
and  j^tril  and  May  the  itioft.  March  and  Af<if 
the  moft  N.  ^aw  and  July  leaft.  ^u/?  and 
A/gufi  haw  rooft  W.Wind  ;  Marcb^  yanmryi 
and  O&e&er  Icaft.  09oher,  December^  and  iWiay 
have  moft  S.  Wind  j  ,4ft^V/  afid  juh  Icaft. 
.^^fhrfV  and  May  have  moft  E.  VCind,  jaimarj 
and  Nowtpier  Icaft.  November^  Jufyy  and  S<f^ 
/M^  have  longeft  S.W.  Windj  March,  .^friU 
and  Aftf^rthe  ftiorteftTime  of  it.  ^r//  and 
■Dtcember  moft  S.  E.  June  and  ^B^r  Icaft. 

32.  The  next  Inquiry  is^  which  of  thofe 
Winds  upon  the  whole,  or  in  general,  are  moft 
healthy  or  hurtfuT  to  us  ?  The  Anfwer  is,  the 
E.  Wind  of  all  other  is  moft  fatal,  in  Propor- 
tion to  the  Time  it  blows }  for  the  Number  of 
the  Days  it  reigns,  is  to  the  Number  that  dies 
on  thefe  Days,  as  4  to  5.  The  S.  E.  Wind  is 
next ;  the  Time  of  its  Prevalency  Is  to  the 
Number  of  the  Dead  at  that  Time,  as  6  to  7. 
The  next  is  the  N.  WinH,  whofe  Dead  is  to 
its  Days  as  26  to  23.  The  moft  fevourable 
is  the  S.  Wind,  whofe  Days  acnd  Dead  arc  near 
equal.  After  it  the  W.  Wind,  whofe  Odds 
between  the  Days  and  Dead  is  only  i-3otb. 
Then  the  S.W.  whofe  Time  and  Dead  is  near 
19  toao.  Hence  obferve,  i.  The  moft  inju- 
rious Winds  to  us,  of  all  others,  blow  mofl 
rarely,  as  the  E.  and  S.  E.  ^  from  1723  to 
3 1 ,  the  E.  Wind  blew  only  4  Days.  ,  2.  When 
we  have  the  leaft  E,  Wind,  we  have  moft  S.E. 
in  the  &me  Series  of  Years  {  for  from  17 15  to 
3 1,  were  only  ^y  Days  E.  Wind,  but  of  S.  E. 
39S.  From  1732  to  1745  inclufive,  E.  Wind 
379 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gk' 


(417) 
379  Days ,  of  8.  E.  ot\\y  2 1 1»  3:  It  is,a  kind 
Providence  tb  us,  that  the  moA  hurtJIul  Wmda 
are  not  the  moji  prevalent  •  for  had  we  as, 
much  oi  ihem  as  of  the  S.Vy.  andW.  wh«^ 
terrible  Havock  would  they  make  of  Man- 
kind? 4.  Though  the  B;aDd  W.  Winds  arq 
to  all  others  nioft  ^voiirable  to  us  ^  and  yet 
their  Proportion  is  but  fmall  to  fome  otfaiecs ; 
yet  it  is  more  than  that  of  (he  £.  and  S.  £.  the 
former  being  to  the  latter  near  zo  to  10.  Btit 
thefe  Witlds  are  moft  prevalent,  which  prevent 
cither  a  too  great  Increafe  or  Decreaie  of  Man- 
kind, as  the  S^W.  5.  He  that'hast'heWlndei 
Rains,  and  Seafons  in  his  Hand,  can  make 
them  either  falutiferous  or  deleterious  as  he 
pleafes,  either  to  puni0i  or  fave  a  Natiovi,  as 
they  are  ripe  for  Judgment  or  Mercy ;  whereof 
we  have  abundance  of  pregnant  Inftances .  boih 
in  £tcrcd  and  prophane  Writings ;  and  that  alfo 
not  of  ordinary  Meteors  only,  but  of  extraor- 
dinary }  as  we  (hull  inilunce  in  fame  after. 

33.  As  to  the  Mortality  of  thefe  Months,  if 
has  been  coniidered  before,  what  fmall  t)\t' 
fercnce  there  is  of  Moitality,  during  the  dif- 
ferent Winds,  may  be  fcen  in  the  fmaU  l^able^ 
But  this  apparently  fmaU  Didereace  is  only  in 
the  general ;  but  their  dire  E)fic^,  when  of 
long  Continuance,  and  accompanied  with  an 
uncommon  Temperature  of  the  Air,  whether 
dry  or  moid,  cold  or  hot,  clear,  cloudy  or 
foggy,  rainy  or  fair,  &c.  and  their  fuddco 
Changes,  have  been  too  often  felt  by  the  fad 
Experience  of  many  Ages ;  though  wehave  but 
few  Hiftories  of  them  left,  only  a  Fragment  of 
Ee  h:'p^ 


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(  4.8  ) 
ISppocrates  j  Syde7ibam'&  Works,  which  is  a 
Hiltory  of  EfFeifts  without  the  Caufc,  whereby 
he  is  fomctimes  loft ;  fome  general  Hiilorics  of 
Cole  of  Belhna  j  and  others  fcattered  in  the 
MifceUanea  Curiofai  and  a  few  particular  ones 
fcattered  in  feVcral  Authors,  but  efpecially  tbefe 
two  finall  ineftimable  Jewels,  Dr.  ff^intering- 
Barn's  Nofologicum,  and  Dr.  Huxam'i  Pfymsutb's 
ten  Tears  Epidemics.  Hence  there  is  nothing 
fo  mnch  wanted  at  prefent,  either  in  Natutd 
Hiftory  or  Phyfick,  as  a  good  general  Hiflory 
of  Epidemics,  or  of  the  Effeds  of  the  Winds, 
Weather,  and  Mercury,  to  Ice  the  various  Epi- 
demics, their  different  Symptoms,  Cures,  Ter- 
minations or  Tranfitions.  in  divers  Countries  and 
Ages.  A  Work  long  wanted,  highly  nccef- 
fary,  and  mo{l  extenfively  ufefd ;  the  Want 
of  which  has  coft  the  Lives  of  Millions  in  a 
long  Series  of  Ages.  But  to  explaio  a  little  the 
various  Eife^  of  thele  fcveral  Changes  and 
ConAitutions  of  the  Air  and  Weather  on  hu- 
man Bodies,  and  then  to  give  theie  icveral  na- 
tural Prefages  of  thcle  Changes  according  to 
the  heft  Authors  and  ftiidcft  Obfervations,  (hall 
ihut  up  this  Difcourfe. 

34.  The  Effe{n:s  of  thefeveralKinds,Changcs, 
Extremes  and  Temperatures  of  the  Air  and 
Weather  in  divers  Countries,  were  fVriflly  ob- 
ferved  by  Hippocrates  ;  his  Obrervations  are 
found  juft  and  true  to  this  Day  :  And  the  Al- 
terations in  our  Bodies  depending  thereupon,  in 
different  Conftitutions  of  People  and  Scafons  of 
the  Year,  have  been  well  explained  by  feveral 
learned  and  great  Men,  as  Bellini,  ff^aimcn'gbf, 
Hoffman, 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  4^9  ) 
Ueffman,  Drs.  Winitringkam  and  Huxam,  and 
others  who  have  cither  wyitien  on  the  Atr, 
Meteors,  Non-naturals,  Epidemics,  or  Hillo- 
ries  of  Dilc^es,  &c.  and  have  accounted  for 
them  pretty  math  as  follows. 

35.  The  Air,  by  In/paration  into  the  Lungs, 
dUa:es  all  their  Ve^els,  aud  opens  them  to  the 
circulating.  MaTs  of  Blood,  which  hcpe  un- 
dergoes a  great  Change ;  for  being  become  too 
thick  and  grois  by  Its  How  GrcuUtion  alqng  the 
great  Vciii^,  and  mixed  w^  the  crude  Chyle 
cxpeUed  from  the  right  Vcniricle  of  Uie  Heart, 
unBt  for  Circulation  and  Nutrition,  till  being 
difperfed  into  .the  iinall  Innumerable  net-like 
Arteries  of  the  Lungs,  it  undergoes  a  verygre.it 
Comprcfficai,  partly  from  the  imp  red  Air,  panly 
from;thorc6fting  Blood,  and  pardy  from  the  Co  * 
traftion  of  the  Vtffiels  lifting  variauflyuponitev«-y 
MomcDH  i  io  that.every  Way  it  is  fliakeri ,  broken 
in  piece^  and  has  its  Molemia  diminished  :  ikre 
its  red  Gbbolcs  (each  (xmipolcd  of  five  or  fix 
leflir  watery  ones)  are  compofed :  Here  ihs  Par- 
ticles df  i'rcfli  Chyle  are  ground  down,  become 
globular,  and  put  on  an  animal  Nature ;  all 
which  arc  further  promoted  and  perfedad  by  ihe 
Aaion  of  Expiration,  in  the  Corrugation  of 
the  Lungs  and  collapllng  of  toe  Ribs.  Ths 
Comminution  and  Attrition  are  io  necdffa^y  b  )th 
Sot  Circulation,  Nutrition,  and  Mutiqn  of  tlie 
Miifcles,  that  none  of  tbem  can  be  performed 
before  the  Blood  has^patt  the  Lungs. 

36.  Hence  it  follows,  that  the  Air  fiioul.i 
not  only  be  pure  and  free  from  noxious  Quali- 
ties and  EfHuvia,  but  of  a  due  Gravity  and 

Ec  2  EUliit-ity, 


by  Google 


{  42o) 
ElaAkity,  that  it  may  diilend  the  Lui^  fiiiH- 
dentty ;  for  hoviwer  flronger  Conftitations  cao 
bear  either  an  locreafcd  or  diminiftied  Wc%hc 
of  the  Air,  and  can  live  on  the  Tops  of  the 
higheft  Moantains,  or  in  the  Bott<»n  of  the 
loweft  Valleys,  yet  the  Sick,  Weak,  and  Vale- 
tudinary cannot  bear  it ;  the  latter  require  more 
elevated,  the  former  more  depFe0ed  Sitaatiop, 
as  the  Cslumn  of  the  incumbent  Air  is  lighter 
or  heavier. 

37.  Air  fit  for  Refpiration  flioutd  be  of  a  fit 
Temperature,  neither  too  hot  nor  cold,  fince 
one  Ufe  of  the  inipired  Air  is  to  temperate  the 
Heat  of  the  Blood,  which  otherwiTe,  by  grow- 
ing too  hot,  would  foon  putrify ;  for  if  the  Air 
be  as  hot  as  the  Blood,  the  Petfon  muft  qoickly 
die.  The  Air  not  only  cools  the  Blood  in  the 
Lungs,  bur,  by  thickening  it,  prevents  the 
Breach  of  the  finall  pulmonary  Veflcls  by  its 
flrong  Ebulition.  Hence  Afthmatics,  during 
the  Fit,  pant  vehemently  for  cool  Air,  their 
Lungs  being  turgid  with  Blood,  that  they  be 
not  inllantly  furcated.  Such  as  arc  fick  of 
ardent  Fevers,  or  run,  or  wreftle  hard,  breathe 
very  riiick,  that  the  fi^Hi  cool  Air  bdng  often 
drawn  in,  may  cool  the  Ebulition  of  the  Blood, 
and  keep  it  within  its  Canals.  The  Power  of 
the  infpired  Air  muft  thicken  the  Blood  in  the 
Lungs  as  much  as  the  violent  Attrition  of  its 
Particles,  and  Comminution  of  its  Mileatia, 
expand  it ;  otherwtle,  the  rarified  Blood  would 
fwell  to  too  great  a  Bulk,  which  is  the  fame  as 

if  it  was  of  a  redundant  (^antity.  • Hence 

appears  the  fingular  and  invaluable  Benefit  of 

cool 


i.vCoogIc 


(4"  ) 
cool  kt(h  Air  to  People  in  Feven,  expiring  al- 
moft  every  Moment  in  Anxieties  and  Languors. 
This,  with  judicious  repeated  Emilfions  of 
ffnall  Quantities  of  Blood,  according  to  its  Ra- 
refaftion  and  EfFervefcence,  in  ardent  Fevers, 
exceeds  unfpeakably  the  Ufe  of  volatile  Spirits 
and  warming  rich  Cordials,  which  only  increafe 
the  Symptoms,  and  haften  on  the  ^tal  Mo- 
ment, from  the  too  great  Congeftion  and  Ra- 
re^idion  of  the  Blood  in  the  Lungs :  but  too 
cold  and  froAy  an  Air  muft  not  be  immediately 
drawn  in  by  the  Sick  in  too  great  Floods,  fuch 
as. thst  in  Winter  in  Ruffia^  Siberia^  and  thc(e 
I^ortbern  lilaods,  or  on  the  Mountains  of  Pfr»; 
fuch  in  this  Cafe  would  not  only  be  fatal  to  the 
Lungs,  but  to  the  other  Parts  of  the  Body. 
This  fliews  us  the  wonderful  Advantages  to 
Travellers  in  fuch  Air,  of  drawing  in  the  Rcak 
or  Steams  of  warm  Water  into  the  Lungs,  and 
the  Danger  of  going  abroad  f4fting  in  fuch  Air 
^  may  fuddenly  occallon  Peripneumonie8,&f . 

38.  The  external  FrelTure  of  the  Ale  on  the 
Surface  of  the  whole  Body,  to  the  Amount  of 
32000  Pounds  Weight,  on  a  Pcrfon  of  a  mid- 
dle Stature,  not  only  (Irengthens  the  whole 
Compages  of  the  Body,  and  keeps  its  Humours 
within  Bounds,  but  greatly  promotes  the  Cir- 
culation of  the  Blood.  For  feeing  the  whole 
Body  is  continually  preiTed  by  an  incumbent 
Atmofphere,  its  whole  Blood  muft  neccffarily 
be  propelled  along  the  Veins  toward  the  Heart ; 
for  fo  little  of  the  original  Motion  received  from 
the  Heart,  reiqalns  to  the  Blood  in  the  larger 
Veins,  that  it  could  fcarce  afcend  from  the 
Ec  3  Ex-« 


i.vCoogIc 


(   422   ) 

Extremes  to  the  Hesrt,  except  thusaflifted  ;  fo 
jlow  is  the  Circuit  of  the  Blood,  there,  ilrat  we 
find  many  Valves  iii  the  VcinF,  to  prevent  the 
Blood  filling  back  in  them  ;  therefore,  without 
this,  it  ajuld  not  have  Force  to  overcome  the 
Contraction  of  the  Heart,  rufh  into  its  Ven- 
tricles, and  dilate  it. 

39.  We  fee  from  the  Barometers,  that  the 
Air  is  fometimes  near  one  tenth  heavier  thaa 
at  other  times  j  of  which  Difference  our  Bodies 
are  fenfible  in  a  few  Hours  Space,  as  its  in- 
creafed  or  decrcafed  Gravity  accelerates  ot  re- 
tards the  Blood's  Motion.  Hence  in  dry  dear 
Weather,  when  the  Air  is  heavy  and  elaftic, 
we  find  ourfeives  briflc  and  lively,  fi-om  the 
greater  Velocity  of  the  Blood,  and  fuller  and 
jufter  Difcharge  of  all  natural  and  neceflary  Se- 
cretions and  Evacuations,  cfpecially  Pcr/pira- 
tton,  on  whofe  due  and  regular  Difcharge  fo 
much  of  the  Vigour  both  of  Body  and  Mind 
depends.  By  the  greater  Preffure  of  the  Air  on 
the  whole  external  Habit  of  our  Bodies,  the 
Blood-Veflels  are  more  flraitened,  which  an- 
fwcTS  the  fame  Eiid  as  though  the  Quantity  of 
Blood  was  increafed  in  the  Veflcls  ;  for-  it  not 
only  haftens  on  the  moved  Humours,  but  the 
greater  the  PrelTure  on  the  outward  Habit,  the 
more  die  Blood  is  forced  on  the  internal  and 
vital  Parts  of  the  Body,  whofe  Aftion  is  thereby 
ftronger.  Hence  a  pure  elaftic  Air  not  only 
overcomcG  the  flowiOi  moving  Blood  and  crude 
Chyle  in  the  Lungs,  but  over  the  whole  Habit. 
But  if  too  great  a  Weight  and  Btafticicy  of  the 
At  continue  long,  it  pro^ucfs  Difeafes  from  the 


byGoogk' 


<  423  ) 
increafed. Motion  of  the  Blood,  as  Quinzies, 
PIcurifics,  Peripncumooics,  ardent  Fevers,  &c. 
c/pecially  with  other  Qnditics  of  the  Air  hap- 
pening, as  of  Cold,  Heat,  Gfc, 

40.  On  the  contrary,  if  the  Air  is  too  light 
and  inclaftic,  it  produces  the  contrary  Effefts : 
For  hence  follows  a  flower  Circulation,  dimi- 
nifhed  Secretions,  a  IclTer  Perfpinttion ;  thence 
a  too  great  Lentor  of  the  Humours;  hence,  a 
languor  both  of  Body  and  Mind,  while  fuch 
a  Conflitution  of  the  Air  tails  ;  which  if  it  con- 
tinues, thefe  Evils  increafe  daily,  till  they  pro- 
duce Hyftcrics,  Hippo,  intermitting,  remitting, 
putrid,  flow,  nervous,  or  eruptive  Fevtrs,  all 
flowing  from  too  great  a  Lentor  of  tlie  Blood, 
and  its  flow  Circulation. 

41.  But  becaufe  thefe  Effefts  of  the  Air, 
which  arifc  from  its  Gravity  and  Levity,  re- 
ceive very  great  Power  from  its  fecnndary  Qua- 
lities, viz.  its  Cold  or  Heat,  Moiflure  or  Dry- 

neft,  I  fliall  confider  thefe. Cold  contrdtls 

and  ftraicens  the  VcHcls  of  the  Body,  and  the 
Vcflels  being  contra^ed,  &&  far  more  vigo- 
roufly  on  their  contained  Fluids,  than  when 
they  are  lax ;  for  by  the  Cold  the  E]aft,icity  of 
the  Fibres  is  increafcd,  and  the  greater  Con- 
tradion  of  the  Veflels  both  grinds  down  the 
Humouis  more,  and  accelerates  their  Motion ; 
for  as  ihe  Capacity  of  the  Veflels  is  leflcncd, 
the  Velocity  is  enlarged  ;  and  what  attenuates 
the  Blood,  and  accelerates  its  Motion,  mult 
promote  the  fluid  Secretions  and  due  Excre- 
tions ;  hence  all  the  animal  FunSions  are  better 
difcbarged.    But  all  thefe  things  being  brought 

E  c  4  about 


by  Google 


(  4H  ) 
about  by  a  weighty  and  elaftic  Air,  they  be^ 
corre  much  more  powerful,  if  at  the  &iae  time 
thcr  Air  is  cold  and  dry.  But  whilfl  all  tbefe 
Qu.alities  combine  or  concur,  they  often  [h-o*' 
duce  a  greatcrFoiceof  Life  than  is  juftw&fe; 
for  fo  great  an  Attrition  arifes  between  the  So- 
lids and  Fiuid<:,  and  fo  rapid  a  Motion  of  the 
Blood,  the  Skin  at  the  fame  time  being  corm- 
gated  by  the  Cold,  there  follows  fo  great  a  Dif- 
fip.:tion  of  the  fluidcr  Parts  of  our  Jiiices,  and 
a  Retention  of  the  groffer,  that  the  Blood  be- 
comes acrid  and  vifcous,  and  being  unfit  rea- 
dily to  pafs  the  fmaller  Tubes,  it  begets  all 
Sorts  of  inflammatory  Difcafes  ;  and  that  cfpc- 
dally  in  an  exceflive  dry  Air,  which  affords 
not  due  Moifture  through  the  Skin,  either  to 
^ilute  the  Blcod  in  the  Capillaries  on  the  ex- 
tertal  Habit,  nor  to  fupply  and  lubricate  the 
too  frigid  Fibres  ;  which  though  it  be  of  emi- 
nent Advantage  to  many,  whom  a  cold,  heavy, 
dry  Air  lenders  ftrong,  chearful,  and  healthy ; 
yet  it  is  of  eminent  Differvice  to  others,  who 
are  thereby  ftizcd  with  acute  Fevers,  Pleuri- 
,  fies,  Pcripneumonies,  grievous  Afthma,  Rheu- 
matifm-!,  arthritic  Pains,  Gfc.  -  -  -  -  A  cold  and 
moift  Air  is  no  lefs  injurious  ;  as  it  is  cold,  it 
conftringcs  the  Pores  of  the  Skin,  and  the  Moi- 
Jlure  fhucs  them  up ;  and  both  thefe  diminifh 
Perfpiratinn  much.  A  wet,  ihowcry,  or  rainy 
Seaf/U  leffens  the  Gravity  of  ihe  Air,  artd  its 
Moifture  leflens  the  Strength  of  rhe  Fibres;  and 
both  thefe  hinder  the  Impetus  of  the  Blood, 
and  the  due  Secretions  and  Excretions  from  it : 
Hence  fcrous  Colleflions,  DiftilJations,  Swcl- 
lin*!! 


by  Google 


{  4=5  ) 
lings  of  the  Jaws,  Coughs  and  Quinzies,  and 
otho:  like  Mifchiefs,  follow.  If  ^ch  a  Seafon 
continues  long,  catarrhous,  intermittent,  re-' 
mittent,  flow,  putrid,  and  ncivous  Fevers  fol- 
low, unlefs  the  retained  Humours  are  feafonably 
expelled  by  the  Skin,  Urine,  or  Stool.- --Not 
onjy  does  a  cold  ■ind  wet  State  of  the  Air  harm 
us,  by  diminiHiing  Perfpiration,  but  this  cold 
Moifture  is  drawn  into  our  Bodies,  as  is  .evi- 
dent from  the  ready  Penetration  of  Mercury, 
Turpentine,  Ointments,  Liniments,  Oils,  &c, 
though  the  lafl  confift  of  much  larger  Particles 
than  Water,  and  the  firft  is  14  times  the  Weight 
of  Water ;  bathing  in  Water,  and  the  Com- 
munioation  of  perfpirable  Matter  from  one  Per- 
ibn  to  another  in  Bed,  (Sc.  -  -  -  -  The  Infinua- 
tion  of  this  cold  MoiAure  by  the  Skin  into  the 
Body,  is  a  very  likely  Caufc  of  cold-catching, 
as  the  Attack  of  that  Indifpolidon  is  inoH:  com- 
mon and  general  at  the  off-going  of  Froft  or 
Storms  by  Rain,  milling,  or  thick  Fogs.  And 
perhaps  in  this  cold  moift  Aic  may  be  a  Mix- 
ture of  fome  frigoric  Principle  or  Matter,  which 
may  ibme  how  or  other  vitiate  our  Blood  and 
Lymph.  For  to  fay  that  Cold  is  only  a  Pri- 
vation of  Heat,  is  laying  nothing  ;  or  may  he 
retorted,  that  Heat  is" only  a  Privation  of  Cold. 
But  it  is  more  probable,  that  there  is  an  Ad- 
dition of  fome  faline  Mixture  with  the  Air  $ 
Why  otherwifc  cannot  artificial  fireezing  be  per- 
formed without  Salts }  Why  otherwiie  does 
Water  fo  expand  iifelf  by  fnfezing,  as  the  in- 
tenfe  Cold  makes  theintenhixed  Air  (brink  into 
Icfs  Space,  as  fuzed  Metals  expand  by  the  In- 
terpolittoa 


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(426) 
terpofition  of  igneous  Panicles  that  have  fe~ 
prated  the  Cohefion  of  the  Parts  of  the  Metals? 
Why  otherwife  docs  Water  fometimes  freeze 
10  a  warmer  Air,  when  the  Spirits  in  the  Ther- 
mometer Aand  in  ^^  Degrees,  at  other  times  it 
freezes  not  io  a  much  colder,  as  when  the  Spi- 
rits are  funk  to  65  ?  Will  Water  freeze  at  all, 
or  as  foon,  in  vacuo,  as  in  the  open  Air  ?  Do 
not  Snow  Waters,  or.  Water  from  melted  Ice, 
produce  greater  Mifchiefe  in  animal  Bodies  than 
other  Water  f  If  Congelation  be  only  a  Pri- 
vatioD  of  Heat,  then  are  the  Stiria,  or  Hairs, 
in  a  beginning  Congelation  of  all  congcalable 
Liquors  of  the  lame  Figure  ?  -  Is  not  the  di^ 
folved  Water  of  Ice  much  colder  than  before 
it  was  frozen,  and  unfit  for  feveral  Purpofcs  ? 

42.  Heat  not  only  expands  the  Humours  of 
our  Bodies,  (and  relaxes  the  VelTcls)  but. Iron 
itfclf ;  the  Rarefatftion  of  our  Blood  and  Re- 
laxation of  our  Vcffels  fubftrafls  from  the  Mo- 
mentum of  the  circulating  Juices :  Hence  a 
Diminution  both  of  Secretions  and  Strength  : 
Hence  we  are  never  fo  frrong,  adive,  nor  nimble 
in  the  Heat  of  Summer,  as  in  the  Froft  ac  Cold 
of  Winter :  Therefore  the  Inhabitants  of  hot 
Countries  fleep,  or  lie  in  their  {hady  or  fubter- 
faneous  Dens,  moft  of  the  Heat  of  the  Day ; 
hut  a  moift  Air,  joined  with  this  Heat,  is  very 
dangerous,  as  it  relaxes  our  Fibres  and  Veflels. 
This  Air  is  not  only  moift  and  hot,  but  light, 
which  diminiOies  the  Circulation  much,  and 
hinders  Perfpiration ;  hence  fuch  a  State  of  the 
Air  is  JuAly  deemed  pcAilential ;  for  thus  the 
.Obftrut^d  Humours  become  daily  more  and 


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(  427  ) 
ntore  acrid,  the  Lymph,  from  want  of  its  ^ae 
Motion,  grows  fizy,  the  Blood  turns  grumous, 
and  the  Salts,  by  their  mutual  Attraflion,  form 
iioxious  Molecula,  and  the  Humours  quickly 
putrify :    Hence  arifc  many  Difterapers  both 
acute  and  chronic,  in  a  continued  State  of  fuch 
an  Air;  in  whjch,  although  we  make  but  a 
fliort  ftay,  the  ftrongeft  Man  will  ibon  perceive 
the  StTMigth  both  of  his  Body  and  Mind  to 
languiih:  for  the  Air  being  loaded  with  Va- 
pours,   efpecially  fiilphureous,    quickly    lofes 
much  of  its  Elafticity,  &>  that  it  has  fcarce  Force 
to  expand  the  Lungs ;  fo  that  a  litde  before, 
and    during  great    Lightning,    many   People 
breathe  difficultly,  the  Atmofphcrc  being  then 
filled  with  fulphureous  Vapours :  On  the  fame 
account  many  weak  People  can  bear  a  City  but 
one  or  a  few  I>ays,  but  can  live  comfortably 
and  chcarftiliy  in  theCountry.     How  many  la- 
bour under  vartoas  Dtftempeis,  which  a  pure 
clean  Country  Air  can  only  cure  ?  And  who  can 
bear  the  Steam  of  Brimllone  ?    Country  Air 
is  far  more  pure  and  elafliic  than  that  nafly  un- 
wholfome  Air  of  Towns,  loaded  with  innu- 
merable excrementittous  and  other  Vapours  and 
Effluvia,  efpecially  in  Summer,  when  the  Sun's 
Heat  raifes  them  up  of  all  Sorts.     It  is  alfo 
cooler,  and  hlled  with  the  cheering  healthy 
Smell  of  Herbs  and  Flowers,  and  the  Spirit  of 
the  Earth,  moft  fit  for  reviving  the  Strength 
and  Spirits,    and  expanding  the    Lungs,    not 
tainted  or  corrupted  with  noifome  Vapours,  nor 
d'minifhes  Perfpiration,  but  promotes  it  much ; 
Jlence  a  pure  plcafant  Country  Air  excites  new 
*  Life 


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Liie  and  Spirits  in  uf,  being  fo  highly  beneficial 
both  for  Rcfpiration  and  Pcrfpiration. 

43.  Though  a  hot  and  dry  State  of  the  Air 
is  much  whcTfomer  than  a  hot  and  moift,  yet  it 
wants  ndf  its  Inconveniences^  efpecialiy  if  it 
taft  long :  ibr  a  dry  Air  is  commonty  more 
bcuvy  and  elaftic,  which  accelerates  the  Blood's 
Motion  much  j  but  u  it  is  hot,  it  exhaufb  the 
perlmrable  Humours :  Hence  the  watery  Part 
of  the  Blood  is  dilTipated,  and  the  liquider  Parts 
of  the  Body  fly  off,  and  the  thicker  Parts  of 
the  Blood  remam ;  for  the  P(h%s  of  the  Skin 
imbibe  no  Moiflure  from  a  dry  fcorchiog  Aix : 
Hence  follows  a  great  and  ftrong  Attriticm  of 
the  Blood,  and  a  Heatj  which  being  daily  in- 
creafed  from  the  Air>  conftantty  fliarpens  the 
f^ine  and  fulphurcous  Parts  of  the  Blood,  till 
^t  lail  they  bec:onie  acrid ;  and  the  more  fo,  the 
Icfs  the  Blood  is  cooled  in  the  Lungs.  If  the 
fy^CticR.  Stutter,  or  any  animal  Oil,  is  loi^  cz* 
pofed  to  the  intenfe  Heat  of  the  Sun,  it  foon 
inelts  down  into  a  putrid  corrofive  Alcatl  j  (b  a 
continued  Summer's  Heat  fo  fcorches  or  brrals 
the  animal  Humours,  that  they  are  much  fliarper 
in  Autumn  than  in  the  Spring ;  which  is  that 
Aduflion  of  the  Blood  fo  often  mentioned  by 
the  Ancients :  If  from  hence  great  Plenty  of 
/harp  Bile  is  generated,  hence  Cholera  Morbus^ 
Dyfcnteries,  bilious  Colics,  putrid  and  malignant 
Fevers  are  fo  common  in  Autumn.  The  ve- 
bement  Heat  of  the  torrid  Zone  fo  exhaufts  the 
Hmnours  of  the  Inhabitants,  and  dries  their  Fi- 
bres, that  they  fecm  parched  up;  their  Blood  is 
inuch  thicker  and  blacker  il^n  in  Europe: 
Hence 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(429  ) 

Hence  ardent  and  peftilcntial  Fevers  are  ib  com- 
mon in  thofe  Places,  from  flight  Caules  putri- 
fyihg  the  Humours. 

44.  Seeing  various  Temperatures  of  the  Air 
in  different  Climates  produce  fundry  Difeafes, 
why  may  not  various  Scafons  in  the  fame  Re- 
gion produce  different  Difeafes  ?  For  if  in  the 
Spring  long  and  dry  N.  Winds  continue.  In- 
flammations and  inflammatory  Fevers  abound ; 
and  in  the  Autumn  flow,  putrid,  and  Quartan 
Fevers,  Difentery,  Cholera,  &c.  feldom  fail  to 
rage.  In  like  manner,  one  Sort  of  Difeafes  pre- 
vail in  a  warm  moift  Seafon,  and  another  Sort 
in  a  cold  dry  Time :  Hence  wc  fee  what  Con- 
Oitutlon  of  the  Air  is  moft  healthy,  which  an- 
fwcrs  the  eftabliJhed  Law  of  Nature  according 
to  the  fcveral  Seafons  of  the  Year. 

45.  As  divers  Conditutions  of  the  Air  and 
Places  affcfl:  out  Bodies  divcrfly,  the  Reafon 
and  Manner  of  this  Divcrfity  moft  always  be 
regarded  by  Phyficians ;  and  all  of  them  with 
one  Voice  declare,  that  vernal  Difeafes  bear 
bleeding  much  better  than  autumnal.  Diftem- 
pers  even  of  the  fame  Kind  require  much  more 
plentiful  Bleeding,  and  the  Sick  bear  it  &r  better 
in  dry  Weather,  when  the  Mercury  ftanrfs  high 
in  the  Barometer,  than  in  hot,  moift,  or  wet 
Weather,  which  has  relaxed  the  Veflelst  and 
this  never  fails  even  in  Difeafes  of  the  Bre^ll. 
In  Rome  and  Atbem  Pleuritics  are  worfe  of 
Bleeding,  for  their  Situation  is  hot  and  moift ; 
but  in  the  Hellefpont  they  are  much  relieved, 
for  that  is  drv  and  often  cold. 

46. 


bj  Google 


(  43°  ) 

^6.  Strong  robuft  People  eafily  beir  bleed- 
ing; but  the  flaccid,  though  th«y  are  equ^lj 
fall  of  Juices,  do  not }  for  fiom  the  Wcakoeti 
of  their  Fibres,  the  Equilibrium  between  the 
Solids  and  Fluids  is  not  eafily  reftored :  Hence 
&II0WS  a  Kind  of  ihort  Stagnation  o(  the  Bloc^. 
The  Weight  of  the  Air  cotnprcflesand  ftrei^thefls 
the  whole  Habit  of  the  Hodj  much,  and  pro- 
motes the  Circulaiion  ;  and  efpecially  if  foined 
with  Cold,  it  greatly  increafes  the  Strength  of 
the  Fibres ;  both  the£:  Joined,  invigorate  the 
animal  Powers,  and  the  Habit  of  the  Body  it- 
felf  iccms  as  it  were  changed,  hi  foch  a  State 
of  the  Air,  the  Weak  and  F'ccj}le  can  readily 
endure  Bleeding. 

47.  Not  only  the  Air  is  to  be  reg^ded  in 
the  Cure  of  p.fcafe's,  but  jbr  the  Prevention 
ai'.d  the  Freiervation  of  Health  :  Thus  when 
the  Spring  is  cold  and  dry,  we  are  in  danger 
of  Pleurifies,  Peripneumonies  and  Quinzics; 
but  fuch  as  live  on  a  moiiAening  Dior,  and  te- 
pid relaxing  Drink,  relift  the  Fault  of  the  Seu- 
foo,  and  niofUy  eicape  thefe  Difeaies :  Bi>t  if 
there  falls  much  Rain  with  tlie  Cold,  a  mo- 
derate exhilerating  Glafs  Should  be  allowed  as 
a  Cordial,  and  the  Body  kept  well  clothed,  that 
the  Fibres  &U  not  back,  nor  PcripiratioA  hin- 
dered :  But  a  hoc  wet  Sof^  re(\uices  a  dry 
and  rdlriogent  Diet,  and  rough  WiiK  diluted 
with  Water,  and  fuch  Thi«^  as  prefervc  the 
healthy  Tone  of  tlic  Fibres,  ^nd  refift  the 
Lentor  and  Putrefaftion  of  che  Blood,  as  the 
cold  Bath  is  then  moft  bciefiri..!.  The  con- 
trary Courfe  is  moft  pcinicious,  as  tlie  Uf-  of 
3  warm 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


t  430 
warm  Tipple,  hot  Drink  or  PuncTi,  BroA;; 
Goffipes,  hot  or  fweei  Pois,  CSc 

48.  Froft  dies  the  Air,  by  condenfing  the 
Vapours,  and  gluing  or  cementing  them  to  the 
Earth ;  (he  Earth  Jifelf,  in  the  mean  time,  is 
fo  bound  together  with  the  Froft,  that  it  checks 
the  riftng  Exhalations.  This  is  manifeA  at  the 
Thaw;  for  though  there  is  no  Rain,  yet  all 
the  Ground  is  wet,  and  as  it  were  fpues  out 
Water,  from  the  Vent  given  to  the  Vapours 
raifcd  up  by  the  fubierranean  Heat,  but  bound 
up  in  the  Surface  of  the  Ground ;  hence  the 
faline  and  fulphureous  Steams  being  locked  up 
by  a  long  Froft,  they  make  the  Earth  fruitful  j 
■hence  aUo  on  a  long  Froft  going  off  with  Rain, 
Fog,  Mift,  Mifling,  or  Squalls,  follow  a  ge- 
neral Run  of  catarrhous  Djleafcs. 

49.  A  very  moift  cold  Temperature  of  the 
Air  certainly  produces  Hcavinefs,  Coughs,  and 
other  Diforders  depending  on  a  ferous  Collu- 
vief,  and  that  not  only  by  checking  Perfpira' ion, 
but  by  the  noxious  Moifture  loaded  with  Nitre 
of  the  Air,  Jind  penetnting  the  Pores  of  the 
Skin,  and  mixing  with  the  Blood ;  for  ihefe 
Rcafons  Coughs  ijre  more  frequent  in  BritaJH 
than  ill  France ^  Spain,  or  Ital)\  which  have 
drier  warmer  Air,  That  the  Air  penetntes  our 
Bodies,  is  evident  fiom  its  piercing  the  Sub- 
ilar.ce  of  Plants,  Bark  of  Trees,  the  hardeft 
Wood,  and  even  Rocks  and  Stones.  Ketl  in 
his  Statics  has  fliewn  us  how  quickly  and  co- 
pioufly  the  perfpirable  Matter  of  one  Perfon  ■ 
enters  another,  even  to  eighteen  Ounces  in  one 
Night.     Hence,  Conolla.  i.  That  fafting  and 

weary 


by  Google 


(  432  ) 
Hreaiy  Peribns  fiiould  neither  eiqwfe  tlieinfelTes 
to  an  ihfeifUotts  Air,  nor  viiit  the  Sick  laboiiring 
under  malignant  or  peftilentUl  Fevers,  or  other 
contagious  Diieaies.  2.  That  People  {hoald 
be  cautious  how  they  expofe  thetnfelves  long 
in  an  infefted  Air,  or  if  obliged  to  it,  the  Ne- 
ceflity  of  puling  that  Air,  by  opeiuog  the 
Windows,  having  a  Fire  in  the  Room,  not 
keeping  it  mewed  up,  (^c.  3.  That  healthy 
People  (hould  beware,  diat  they  admit  not  dif- 
eaftd  Bedfellows,  or  of  laying  Children  or 
young  Perfons  with  old  withered  dry  Perlbnt. 

50.  From  a  moiQlefs  elaftic  State  of  the  Air, 
is  produced  too  great  a  Lentor  of  the  filood  ; 
hence  the  Circulation  not  being  forwarded  in 
the  fmall  Veflcls,  and  too  great  in  the  larger, 
and  that  much  increafed  by  catching  Cold,  it 
quickly  diminishes  Perfpiration ;  therefi-om 
comes  a  feverifh  Fit,  which  is  foon  over  j  taea 
the  Refinances  ceafc,  and  a  Sweat  follows, 
except  the  Blood  be  tough  and  vifcid  ;  then  ei- 
ther a  putrid,  flow,  ardent,  Gff.  Fever  enfues, 
as  the  Tone  of  the  Fibres  is  more  or  lel^  elaftic, 
and  the  Humours  difpofed ;  therefore  the  Bark, 
Alexipharmacs,  and  Volatiles  fhouli  not  be 
too  fuddenly  given,  in  the  Beginning  of  Tn- 
termittents  especially,  till  proper  Evacuaots 
have  been  ufed  j  fuch  a  Miftake  has  often  oc- 
cafloned  dangerous  or  fatal  Pleurifies,  PerJpnea- 
monies,  or  continual  Fevers  with  a  Delirium  or 
Coma,  Agues  rarely  kill ;  but  if  by  Mifina- 
nagement,  they  are  become  Continual,  ^ 
Cafe  is  very  bad. 

5'- 


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(  433  ) 

3;  I .  In  the  nrft  Attacks  before,  there  is  fcarco 
any  thing  required,  but  that  the  Sick  drink 
plentifully  of  fome  fmall,  tepid,  diluting  Li- 
quors, which  t^kes  &fF  the  Cold  and  Shaking 
ipcedily,  and  proniotes  Vomiting,  if  the  Pcrfon 
is  difpofcd  to  it,  and  foon  puts  an  end  to  ihc 
Fever- Fit,  by  caofing  a  plentiful  Sweat  t  to  for- 
ward which,  let  the  Sick  keep  in  Bed  during 
the  whole  Fit ;  afier  which,  give  a  Vomit, 
and  follow  it  with  a  Laxative  ;  or  if  there  was 
a  Loofenefs  before,  ufe  Rhubarb. 

52.  To  carry  off,  or  mitigate  Fevers,  aftef 
proper  Blce.iing,  (if  neceffary)  let  the  firft  Puf- 
lagesbe  cleanfed  from  putrid  orgiofs  HamourS 
by  a  Vomit,  whofe  A<ltion  may  at  the  fame 
time  open  Obftruftions  in  the  Vifcera  ;  hereby 
many  Fevers  have  been  prevented,  or  cufed  ia 
their  Bud  or  Beginning. 

53.  After  two  or  three  Fits,  which  have 
difcovcred  the  G:nus  of  the  Fever,  and  its 
proper  Method  of  Cure,  for  which  Purpofe 
the  Barkjuftly  claims  the  firft  Place,  con- 
clude the  Cure  with  Stomachics  and  Chaly- 
beats;  and  if  the  Sick  have  had  Relapfes  a 
Week  or  ten  Days  after  thefe  are  taken,  let 
them  be  repeated  wiih  the  Bark ;  but  the  Curd 
of  vernal  and  autumnal  Agues  is  Very  different; 
as  alfo  in  cold  and  hot  Weather ;  of  thofe  in 
dry  Seafon  and  a  rainy. 

54.  In  the  E.  or  N.  E.  Wind,  the  Air  is 
not  only  heavy  and  elaftic,  but  often  cold  j 
therefore  it  more  than  ordinarily  diHends  and 
preffcs  the  Lungs.  The  Atmofphere  at  the 
fame  tibie  being  heavier,  compreffes  the  Body 

^  f  more  J 


by  Google 


(  434  ) 
more  ;  and  if  colder,  conflringes  the  coticular 
Nerves  and  Fibres  more  :  Hence  more  Blood 
is  thruft  upon  the  Viiccra,  and  its  Motion  i» 
more  rapid  ;  and  therefrom  comes  a  (pitting  or 
vomiting  of  Blood  to  tender  Lungs,  and  many 
are  feized  with  a  Fit  of  Aflhma  j  to  whom 
Bleeding,  antiphlegrftic  Purges,  Qjs  Sulphur, 
Vinegar,  andOxymel  of  SquilJsin  PofletDiiok, 
Or  fom«  fniall  fiiarp  Liquor,  are  good  ;  or  Pc- 
deluvia  :  But  to  flegmatic  and  humid  Afthma- 
tics,  Vomits,  BlifteFs,  Volatile?,  ftroager  Purges, 
and  (harper  Detergents,  are  proper. 

55.  Not  only  does  a  long,  cold,  dry  State 
©f  the  Air  produce  inflammatory  Difeafes,  (by 
rcndring  the  Fibres  mofe  tenfeand  Blood  thick) 
as  Coughs,  Pains  of  the  Sides  and  Breaft ;  but 
the  colder  the  Air  is,  Spitting  is  much  more 
difficult  i  which  is  an  Affair  of  the  greatefl 
ponlequence  in  Dtfeafcs  of  the  Lungs,  which 
are  not  to  be  refolved  without  free  and  eafy 
Expeiflwation  ;  which  is  beft  promoted  by  fre- 
quent plentiful  Draughts  of  fi;me  tepid  ami- 
phlog^ic,  nitrated,  cleanfing  fmall  Liquor,  after 
luiiable  and  necelTary  Bleeding.  Thefe  falling 
fliort  of  the  Defigii,  Gum  Ammoniac,  Vinegar 
of  Squiils,  witii  the  like  Aiteouants  and  Deter- 
gents, come  in  ptay ;  and  fomctimcs  oilyThin^ 
or  Volatiles  may  be  ufed,  ftill  drinking  plenti- 
fuUy  of  tepid  fmall  Potables,  duiing  the  Cold 
cfp;cially.  But  if  the  Impetus  of  crude  aod 
(hiTp  Humours  on  the  Lui^s  be  too  great,  mild 
Anodynes  to  check  and  thicken,  and  Blifters 
to  the  Jnfides  of  the  Legs  to  divert  the  Hu- 
mours another  Way,  muft.  be  ufed  1  For  we 
z  ftc 


byGoogk' 


(  435  ) 
fte  Droplies  of  the  Feet  relieve  old  Afthmatics, 
^nd  with  the  gciog  off  of  the  Swellings,  the 
Afthma  returns:  And  a  Strangury,  or  Swel- 
ling of  the  Scrotum,  indicates  Recovery  in  a 
PJtqrify  i  but  to  provoke  plcmiful  Expectora- 
tion in  a  finiple  Pleurify  is  nccdlet ;  for  in  a 
cold  Seafon,  only  free  repeated  Bleeding,  with 
the  liberal  Ufe  of  emollient,  diluting,  tepid 
Drink,  is  needful  with  Nitre,  Camphire,  and 
Opiates ;  thcfe  dilute  the  Blood,  relax  the  Fi- 
bres, eafe  the  Fain,  and  abax  the  Rapidity  of 
the  Circulation.  Where  the  Cafe  is  moregric- 
"vous  and  fevere,  Bliftcrs  are  applied  to  the  Side. 
In  a  malignant  Pleurify,  Scaril:catiot>  and  Cup- 
ping (hould  not  be  omitted.  In  the  Begitiping 
of  a  genuine  Peripneumony,  plentiful  bleeding 
from  a  great  Veffel,  through  a  large  Orifice, 
tiefore  the  third  or  founh  Day,  mull  be  ufctj, 
to  miike  room  for  Diluters  to  be  thrown  in, 
and  to  eafe  the  turgid  fmall  Arteries.  But  in 
an  Infldmmation  of  the  ev,\nefcent  bronchial 
Arteries,  comprefling  at  (he  fame  time  the  ex- 
treme pulmonary  Arteries,  the  Danger  is  great, 
and  Time  ihort ;  if  there  is  any  Relief,  it  is 
from  immediate  profufe  bleeding  till  the  Pa- 
tient faints.  The  Quantity  of  Blood  let  out  in 
Peripneumonies,  mult  always  be  proportioned 
to  the  greater  or  flightsr  Difficulty  of  breathing  j 
if  the  Pulfe  rifes  on  bleeding,  the  more  fiiould 
be  taken.  A  Peripneumony  is  much  more  dan- 
gerous in  general  than  a  Pleurify  ;  and  though 
the  Difeafc  has  been  flower,  but  not  lefs  futal, 
yet  it  has  been  much  more  common  fioce  1740 
than  before.  A  Pleurify  is  known  from  its 
F  f  2  '  at- 


by  Google 


(436) 

attacking  with  Cold  or  Shivering,  quickly  fiic- 
ceeded  by  an  inienfc  Heat ;  then  comes  a  ft- 
vere  and  pungent  Pain  of  the  Side,  darting  to 
the  Ercaft,  or  Spin,  or  Clavicles,  a  hard  Pulfc 
hke  a  twiiied  Cord,  and  often  a  Cough.  In  a 
Peripneumony,  ihtre  is  an  Oppreffion  of  the 
Breaft,  a  Weight  of  ihe  lungs,  and  Difficulty 
of  breathing  f  the  expired  AJr  fcorching  hot,  a 
/pitting  np  of  purulent  Matter,  \vi:h  a  Fever 
and  Cough,  and  fomerimes  an  obtuic  fain  of 
the  Bieaft  or  Sides,  a  vehement  Defire  for  cold 
Drinks,  a  panting  and  g;;pir',g  for  cold  Air,  ©"c. 

56.  Black  or  livid  Spots  in  the  Si::all-Pox, 
commonly  called  Hives,  are,  from  diflblvcd 
Glo"bule&  of  Blood  enieilng  the  Lymphatics; 
where  ftopping,  they  form  thofc  Spots  like 
Bruiies,  and  difcolour  the  Skin.  They  fhew 
the  Blood  to  be  puirid,  and  greatly  diffjived, 
fo  as  large  Hemorrh:ges  often  follow  j  which 
frequently  happens  to  Scorbutics  without  the 
leaft  Fever  ;  though  their  whole  Habit  of  Body 
be  marked  with  fucli  Spot*,  who  are  unex- 
peiledly  feized  wiih  Difcharges  of  Blood.  In 
I'uch  fported  Fevers  of  any  Kind,  bKeding  has 
in  general  been  found  hurtful,  not  beneficial. 

57.  That  ;ill  People  fhould  have  the  fame 
Quantities  of  Ingeftion  and  Egcftioh,  it  is  ab- 
iolutcly  nectflary  that  ihcy  all  be  of  the  fame 
Conftitution,  have  the  fame  Stren'^ih  in  their 
Fibres  and  Veflcis ;  that  the  Momentum  and 
Velocity  of  the  ciiculating  Fluids  be  alike;  that 
their  Strength,  the  Aftiviiy  and  Dijme;er  of 
all  their  fccretory  and  excretory  TuKs  be  equal ; 
Uiat  their  Tafte,  AppetiLC  and  Digeflion  be 
alike : 


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(437) 
alike;  that  their  Food  and  Drinkables  be  the 
fame,  in  the  lame  Quantitv,  of  equal  Di- 
gellion  ;  that  their  Gloaming,  Houfrs,  Accom- 
modations, Exercifes,  Labours,  Motions,  Air, 
Clim.:te,  Heat,  or  Culd,  Watching,  Sleeping, 
venereal  P!eafu[es,  and  a  thou&nd  other  Things 
be  alike,  or  the  fame,  which  are  Impoffibilitics 
and  Impradlicabilities.  However,  the  inge- 
nious Dr.  Lining,  of  Charles  Town  in  Carolina, 
by  an  indefatigable  Series  of  ftatical  Experi- 
ments made  on  himfelf  for  a  whole  Year,  has 
found  that  of  the  Spring  Excretions,  Urine  is 
to  Perfpiration  as  53  to  33,  and  to  alvire  Dif- 
charges  as  26  ;  in  Summer  as  36  lo  5 1  and  26 ; 
in  Harvcft  as  37  to  48  and  40 ;  in  Winter  as 
53  to  3 1  and  29 :  So  that  the  Difchargc  of  the 
Skin  is  greateft  in  Summer,  and  leaft  in  Winter ; 
the  Urine  much  alike  in  Winter  and  Spring, 
but  leaft  in  Summer.  The  Stools  are  much 
the  Inrgeft  in  Autumn,  being  to  thofe  of  Sum- 
mer or  Harvcft  as  40  to  26,  and  of  Winter  as 
40  to  49.  Hence  the  Caufe  and  Prevalency  of 
Diarrheas,  Dyfenterie*,  and  Cholera  Morbus, 
may  be  eafily  accounted  for  at  that  Scafon ;  for 
the  Patents  of  the  excretory  Du(fts  of  the  Skin 
be'ng  flraitened,  and  their  Difcharges  leffcned 
one  thirteenth  Part,  or  from  51  to  48,  and  the 
urinary  Cutlet  enlarged  only  one  thirty -feventh, 
and  the  mufcular  Coat  of  the  Bowels,  efpe- 
cially  where  they  a-^e  weak,  not  having  yet  at- 
tained their  full  Strength  and  ELfticiiy  from  the 
cooler  Seafon,  muft  r.eceflarily  in  weaker  Per- 
fons,  or  fuch  as  live  more  irregularly,  or  a^e 
oftcner  cxpoltd  to  fudden  Heats  or  Cools,  have 
FI3  a 


i.vCoogIc 


(  438  ) 
a  CoIIovies  thrown  on  thcm>  which  for  ibme 
Days  aLcumulating,  muft  at  laft  burft  out  in  a. 
Loofcncfs  i  or  if  by  a  greater  Stagnation  in  the 
Inteftines  and  Stomach,  a  flaKi:^  of  the  Ap- 
pttiie,  iind  pumping  of  the  Bile  upwards,  it 
will  turn  out  a  Cholera,  followed  by  a  bilious 
Lbolenefs.  If  that  Seafon  happen  to  be  clottdvj 
foggy,  harie,  moiiV,  mifling,  or  rainy.,  the 
Niiinbcr  of  Sufferers  in  a  Diarrhea  ««ll  be 
riiuch  greater,  and  their  Excretions  much  more 
thin  and  wattry.  If  the  Seafon  is  otherwifc 
con^Ituted,  there  will  be  more  Compiainants 
of  the  Cholera  than  Diarrhea  ;  their  Steels  will 
be  more  bilious,  rnd  attended  with  greater 
Cripings  and  Tormina  Ventri,  Gfc,  But  if  the 
prevailingConflitiiiionofthe  Air 'befultry,  calm, 
foutberly,  and  hot,  it  is  a  Sign  of  flow, putrid,  or 
ihtermittent  Fevcfs  t6  fucceed,  to  fucn  as  have 
efcapcd  both  Diarrhea  and  Cholera  will  be  more 
e'xpofed.  Again,  the  Dccrcafe  of  Uxine  be- 
tween Winter  and  Spring  from  almoft  ,54  to 
53,  and  Increalp  of  Perfpiration  from  31  to 
33,  whilft  the  Stools  are  only  26in  both,  Ihewf, 
that  wTtilft  ihe  Appetite  and  firft  Digeftions 
are  fo  far  from  flagging,  as  they  do  in  the  Heat 
,  of  S;immei  and  idler  Winter  Months,  that  they 
are  better,  and  demand  a  larger  Supply,  with- 
out an  Increafc  by  Stool,  and  a  Diminution  by 
U:  ine  i  then  both  a  larger  Quantity,  and  fume 
left  prepuFcd  Parts  of  the  Food  niuft  go  into 
and  be  retained  in  the  Habit  of  the  Body : 
Hence  a  greater  Fullnefs  in  the  Vtfiel?,  and 
from  their  Dilat  tion  they  become  weaker,  and 
tlie  fmaller  R^^mification  lefs  able  to  reH^  the 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


(  439  ) 
Approach  and  Ingrefs  of  too  hrge  Globules  or 
Particles.  From  thcfe  fevcral  Caures  arife  a 
Plethora,  greater  Difficulty  in  the  Cjrculatioii 
and  Secretions,  fome  Obftrudlions  in  the  fc- 
veral  Orders  of  Veflels ;  hence  eruptive  and  in- 
flannmatory  Fevers,  vernal  Agues,  Hedtics,  E^c. 
Here  we  fee  alfo  the  Reafon  why  People  look 
ordinarily  better,  freflier  and  fuller  in  the  Win- 
ter, bccaufe  the  autumnal  Perfpiration  of  48 
is  reduced  ftom  that  to  31,  and  their  alvine 
Difcharges  from  40  to  29  ;  yet  their  Appetite 
and  Digeftion  is  much  better  and  flronger. 
This  alio  gives  the  Reafon  why  People  ar£ 
weakeA  and  fainteft  in  Harveil,  and  can  leaft 
bear  any  Evaciia-ions;  for  the  Quantity  of 
Urine  difcharged,  after  all  the  exhiufling  Sum- 
mer's Heat  and  Labour,  is  increafed  from  36 
to  37,  and  of  their  Stools  from  26  to  40.  From 
this  alfo  it  is  evident,  that  an  Increafe  of  the 
alvine  Digeftion  is  of'all  natural  healthy  Eva- 
cuations the  moft  weakening,  as  from  26  m 
■Summer  to  40  in  Harveft.  Hence  we  fee  the 
Communication  between  Skin  and  Blidder  ia 
temptrate  healthy  People  ;  for  the  Increafe  of 
the  one's  Difcharge  is  the  DeCTcafe  of  the  other, 
and  vi^e  verja :  not  only  fo,  but,  fi'omonc  of 
Dr,  Lining's  Experiments,  we  fee  how  quiikly 
the  Decrcafe  of  one  aS  the  Evacuations  is  the 
Increafe  of  the  other:  For  from  July  i,  1740, 
from  a  Quarter  after  eleven  a- clock  lill  half  an 
"Hour  after  twelve,  he  drank  tweniy  Ouncef  of 
Punch,  (Water  to  Rum  as  9  to  i)  ufed  no 
Ei"ercife,  was  not  expofed  to  tlje  Wind,  •;:  s 
doathed  in  a  Holland  Jr.ckct  unbjttonsd  ;  he 
F  f  4  made 


i.,CooyIc 


(  4+0  ) 
made  in  that  Hour  and  Quarter  one  Ounce  of 

flan.meuus  Urine,  and  fweatcd  fo  cxceffively, 
the  Heat  of  ihe  Air  he  fat  in  being  87  in  Farn- 
teit's  Thermometer,  that  both  his  Shirt  and 
Jacket  were  fo  wet,  that  be  was  obliged  to 
Hiift  into  a  Holland  Jacket  and  Chintz  Gown  : 
Though  doubtlcfs  his  Perfpiration  was  greatly  di- 
minifhed  by  the  Coidnefs  of  the  wetCloaths,yet 
at  ihe  End  ot  the  75  Minutes  he  had  perfpircd 
betwixt  117,  and  124.  and  ijt^Ounces.  Being 
then  flijfted  into  dry  fre(h  Cloa:hs  and  cx- 
pofed  betwixt  127  a-clock  and  2^  to  the  third 
Degree  of  the  Wind's  Force,  and  cuen  icr 
Ounce!!  of  roafled  L^inib,  Biead  and  Shallot?, 
and  dank  40  Ounces  of  Punch,  and  ufed  no 
Exercife ;  in  ihcfe  two  Hours  he  made  Jt 
Ounces  of  Urine ;  and  being  expolcd  to  that 
Force  of  Wind,  perfpircd  only  twelve  Ounces, 
though  he  fweatod  a  little  all  the  while,  and 
the  natural  Heat  of  the  Air  being  cooled  by  the 
Clouds.  The  fame  Day,  betwixt  2t  a-^d  Sr 
a-clock  P.  M.  his  Ctoaths  being  the  fame,  and 
ufing  no  Exercife,  he  drank  between  23  and  75 
Ou.iccs  more  of  Punch,  and  the  Air  being 
cooled  by  the  Clouds  oveifpreading  the  Hci- 
vcnp,  the  C^.ntity  of  Urine  in  thefe  at  Hours 
increafcd  to  284  Ounces.  But  the  Perfpiration 
fo  diminifhcd,  that  the  Quaniity  of  Moifture 
attraded  by  his  Skin  exceeded  the  Qnamity 
perfpircd  in  thtfe  zf  ;  lonrs  t^  Ounces.  Here 
we  fee,  I.  iiow  fpccdily  the  Kidneys  and 
Bladder  fupply  not  only  the  Dtftit  of  the  Skin's 
Difcharge,  but  of  i.ddiiional  Moidurethroueh 
jt  made  to  the  ar.iipal  Fluids.     2.  Hjw  open 


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(  4+'  ) 

fmd  ealarged  the  excretory  Dti^s  of  tlie  Skin 
are,  after  the  Body  has  been  heated,  and  per- 
fpircd  much,  that  it  quickly  imbibes  fo  much 
Wat«r  from  the  Air.  3.  This  {hews  at  once 
both  the  Preffure  and  Moifture  of  the  Air,  even 
in  its  Meridian  rarefied  State  in  a  hoc  Sun,  that 
can  force  ib  much  Water  in  fo  fmall  a  Space  as 
1 5  Feet,  through  the  Pores  of  the  Skin,  in  lb 
little  a  time.  4.  What  a  great  Addition  of 
Moiflure  to  the  Air,  and  Diminution  of  Per- 
spiration (6  fmall  a  Matter  makes,  as  a  few 
Clouds  paHing  over  us  in  the  Air,  though  im- 
perceptible  to  our  Barometer.  5.  This  direCts 
to  what  Drinks  are  littefl  for  us  in  fuddea 
Changes  of  the  Temperature  of  the  Air,  viz, 
fuch  being  neither  too  ftrong  nor  weak,  pa(s 
iboned  through  the  Body,  with  an  agreeable 
imperceptible  Stimulus,  and  leaves  the  leaft 
Drofs  or  Dregs  behind  them  ;  as  a  Punch  made 
of  9  Parts  Water  to  one  of  Spirit  in  Summer, 
and  five  of  Water  to  one  of  Spirit  in  Winter, 
one  thirteenth  Acid  in  Summer,  and  one  twen- 
tieth in  Winter,  and  a  Sixteenth  or  20ih  Part 
Sugar.  6.  The  Rcgardleffnefe  or  Difrcfpea: 
fuch  have  for  their  own  Health,  who  drink 
this  Liquor  only  two  or  three  of  Wa;er  to  one 
of  Spirits.  7,  The  Danger  in  general  of  keep- 
ing on  wet  Cloaths,  efpecially  when  the  Body 
is  at  Reft,  which  diminifli  Perfpiration,  and 
dog  up  the  VIouths  cf  the  excretory  Dufts  with 
what  perfpircd  bcfijre,  and  by  their  Coldncfa 
firaiien  the  Oririces  of  the  excretory  Dudh. 
S.  Here  we  are  directed  to  the  fpeedlcft  Me- 
thpd  of  reit<^ing  a  diminiibed  ^  obAru£led 
Per- 


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(+♦») 

PerQ^tioQ,  vrz,  keeping  th«  vrhsic  Body  id 
an  agreeable  Warmth,  and  drinking  fuch  finall, 
diluting,  tepid  Liquors,  as  ma^  at  once  give  the 
VcScls  a  fmall  Scimulas,  thin  the  Bkiod,  relax 
aod  open  ifac  Mouths  of  the  fecretory  Dutlh:, 
and  leave  the  leaft  Feculency  behind  them,  to 
fiick  to  the  Sides  of  the  VcffcU,  and  require  ei- 
diec  a  greater  propulfive  Vorcc  to  mix,  atte- 
ouacc,  and  (kire  them  on,  or  leave  a  Lcntor 
on  the  Infidcs  of  the  Ve&h.  9.  That  fince 
ftvEral  pretty  large  Draughts  of  this  Ltqaot 
moft  be  drank,  to  take  heed  that  it  be  net  ftrong, 
left  in  curing  a  Cold  we  run  not  the  Riique  of 
a  Fever,  or  fome  Inflamm^ion.  10.  That 
Liquors  fame  Degrees  Aronger  may  be  avowed 
in  the  Winter  than  in  riie  Summer,  to  keep  up 
and  flreogthen  the  Tone  of  the  Solids  and  Vef~ 
fcis  under  an  kicreafed  Quantity  of  their  con- 
tained Fluids.  1 1 .  That  6nce  from  (lie  An- 
tmnn  to  the  Spring,  the  Quantity  of  Fluids 
ate  ftHl  incrcaiing  in  the  Habit  of  the  Body, 
and  the  Pcrfpiration  fallen  from  48  to  31,  and 
from  the  Winter  to  the  Spring,  die  Liquids  are 
pofhtng  dieir  Veflels,  or  excrementitious  Parts, 
from  die  Bodies  Centre  to  its  Circumferences, 
and  iroQi  the  Spring  to  the  Sanmier  increafcs 
the  cuticular  Difcharges  from  33  to  51  ;  aoi 
fi-om  this  Pufh,  as  one  great  CauK,  the  Spring 
Mortality  is  fo  much  increafed ;  then  we  fee 
how  imprcdent  and  dangerous  it  is,  eipecially 
for  fedentary  People,  to  indulge  the  Ufe  of 
^icid  glutinous  Po:ables,  whic4i  may  not  only 
leave  a  Sizynefs  or  Lent^  behind  them  at  that 
critical  -Seafon,  and  As  generate  many  and  va- 
xioBS 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


nous  Sorts  of  Obftrudioiu,  but  in  a  gneat  mea* 
fure  buoy  up  the  fecrelor/  and  fmali  excretory 
Pi^a^es  of  the  Skin,  bmc]fedriitm  cohort.  Both 
Z>.  Limng's  Letters  and  Tables  in  Piihf.  Treaf, 
Numb,  470, 475,  deftrre  to  be  pcruifed  widi 
the  utmoft  Attention  aad  Regard.  Now  Sat 
the  Signs  (rf  Weather. 

58.  As  the  VViuds  are  a  general  Prefagc  of 

the  Weather,  I  fluil  begin  with  them. 

There  4s  Reaiba  to  fitTpoft  a  Tempeft,  when 
the  Sea  tefbands  updn  the  Shore,  its  Waves 
fwelL,  and  are  like  Fire,  though  there  is  a  great. 
Calna  at  Land ;  or  murmuring  like  Wind  is 
heard  in  the  Woods,  and  amoog  Ru&es  and 
Reeds,  even  during  the  Caloi ;  the  twinkling 
of  the  Stars  is  ■quickly  obfcuKd  with  the  Clouds, 
or  Mift ;  tb«  FJaiDee  of  Fire  and  Cindles  tretn- 
l^e  {  tive  Coals  cafl  off  tbetr  Alhes  more,  and 
btfrn  ckaret ;  the  Rifing  Soa  hus  pak  Spou 
-  on  itB  Orb,  end  daezicG»  a  {Irong  S.  Wiod 
follows  i  if  the  Sun  fets  with  reddifh  and  ikry 
SpQis,  a  ^reat  Wind  quickly  follows;  a  red 
lowring  Morning  nay  prefegc  the  lante,  or  if 
the  Sun  is  riddcr  than  ordinary?  or  ihe  reddeft 
Circle  about  the  Full  Moon  ;  kfthe  Stars  {boot 
Knuth,  or  feena  tm  fall  headloWj  ftom  the  Sky ; 
if  there  is  a  f  mall  murmuric^  Noife  like  Thun- 
der from  the  North. 

59.  As  to  tile  Winds,  S.  or  S.W.  Winds  are 
often  higher  than  N.  or  N.W.  2.  The  laft  aro 
n>oftly  higher  by  Day,  snd  the  iirft  by  Night; 
the  Sun  raifes  the  S.  and  W.  Winds,  and  in 
Sunmier  lays  the  S.Wind.  3.  If  .the  S.  E, 
Wind  begins  from  r  clearer  Sky,  it  will  -not 

laft 


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(  444  ) 
laA  all  Night }  but  an  E.  Wind  continues  moft 
of  the  Night.  4.  In  wha[  Quarter  focver  the 
Wind  is,  if  it  feel  wann>  it  fixcs  there  many 
Days.  5.  When  the  Sun  nfes  pale  with  maDy 
Spot!,  in  is  Oib,  and  fome  of  it  hid  under  a 
CI  ULi,  the  Wind  will  quickly  turn  S.  6.  When 
it  is  lixcd  24  Houis,  or  more,  in  any  one  foil 
P'-tn%  when  it  Ix-gins  to  turn,  it  often  fliifts 
diieftly  to  the  oppoiite  Point.  7.  It  moftly 
changes  about  t.  e  Ntw  Moon,  and  with  it 
Changes  of  Weather.  When  the  Clouds  rake 
or  drive  with  the  Wind,  it  will  foon  flag  and 
fliift.  8.  InconRant  We;ither,  when  k  alter- 
nately freezes  one  Day,  and  thaws  next,  (as  in 
OSiober  and  February)  the  Wind  k  often  N.W. 
in  the  Morning,  and  turns  Southerly  as  tbe 
Day  rifes ;  then  it  is  preparing  for  Rain,  and 
in  the  Evening  flics  out  to  S.  E.  or  S.S.E.  and 
ofton  wiih  Oormy  Weather ;  and  when  the 
Shower  is  over,  it  turns  N.W.  again,  and  very 
low ;  or  it  is  S.  6.W.  in  the  Mommg,  rifes  W. 
or  N.W.  with  the  Day,  with  Showers,  and 
falls  back  S.W.  in  the  EvMiing.  9.  A  Storm 
may  be  foreieen  from  black  lo.  fe  Clouds,  lower 
than  the  reft,  wandering  to  and  fro ;  or  if  at 
Snn-rifing  feveral  Clouds  gather  in  the  W.  if 
the  Sun  feems  double  or  treble  through  the 
Clouds ;  or  if  there  are  two  or  three  broken  or 
fpccfclcd  Ciicles  around  the  Moon,  a  great 
Storm  is  near.  10.  The  Storm  will  quickly 
he  over,  if  Sparrows  begin  to  chirp  merrily, 
Moles  creep  cut  of  Holef,  if  the  King's-fiflicr 
attempt  the  Sea,  or  if  a  fudden  Shower  of 
Rain  cornea  oii.      11.  If  the  Wind  is  R  « 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(  445  ) 
tias  been  moll  N.  for  two  or  three  Mcxiths, 
then  turns  S.  though  the  firil  three  or  four 
Days  are  fair,  yet  on  the  fourth  or  iifih  Day 
comes  Rain,  or  the  \V:nd  ihifts  N.  again. 
If  it  turnb  S.  in  a  Day  or  two  without  Rain, 
and  wheels  N.  with  Rain»  and  returns  S.  the 
firil  nr  lecond  Day  as  btfi.re,  and  fliifts  thus  two 
or  three  limes tigeth^-r,  then  it  witl  be  mofily 
S.  Oi  S.W.  two  or  ihrce  Mor.ths  after,  as  it 
w.is  N.  bciore.  The  like  may  befaid  of  other 
Point--.  If  it  ihifts  quickly  frt  m  N.  to  i,  dry, 
it  returns  with  Ruin.  Thcfe  Things  agree  in 
general  with  the  exadeil  Journals  of  Wind, 
and  their  Changes,  tz.  Thick  Clouds  fud- 
denly  difptlled  fcy  a  ftrong  high  Wind,  if  the 
Wind  turns  and  hxcs  in  the  cppofite  Quarter, 
it  brings  back  the  fame  Ckuds  loaded  with  Va- 
pour and  Water,  which  muA  neccflarlly  fall 
down  in  a  little  time  in  Rain,  Hail,  or>  Snow. 
13.  Sundjy  Winds,  in  different  Countries,  have 
various  Qnalitics  ;  for  at  Archangel  the  N. 
Wind  thaws,  and  the  S.  Wind  free2es;  in 
Egypt  thi  N.  Wind  is  moid,  and  the  S.  Wind 
is  dry,  &c.  From  Winds  come  we  next  to 
ihe  general  Signs  of  Rain  ;  and  as  the  Indica- 
tions of  it  are  now  chi.fiy  taken  from  the  Ba- 
rometer, I  Ihall  begin  with  it. 

6d.  Hurricanes  and  Spouts  are  preceded  by 
an  abfolute  Calm.  2.  The  greateft  Number 
of  the  fiift  blow  from  S.  to  N.W.  as  the  Witid 
veers  from  S.  to  N.  fewer  as  it  be-;rs  from  S.  to 
N.  by  E.  3.  Moft  (not  nil)  of  th=m  faappea 
in  this  Ifland  from  the  Ei;d  of  Augufi  to  Marcb\ 
io  that  the  moiflcA  Months  hive  mod  Hurri- 
canes, 


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f  44«  > 

canes,  which  fliews  the  Affinity  between  Wjod 
and  Rain.  4.  Hurricanes  are  prcfaged  by  a 
too  light,  high,  red  Sky  after  Sun-fettir^,  or 
beibre  its  rifing,  (but  if  the  Clouds  are  uicfc. 
low,  black,  and  a  deep  red,  they  porteod 
Rsin)  or  if  the  Sun  icts  in  a  thick  black  Cloud, 
and  it  rains  not  loon  after,  it  blows  hard  next 
Day  J  or  if  the  Sun  dans  out  his  Rays  very 
high,  a  long  while  before  it  rife;  if  the  Mo(»i 
looks  red,  or  has  a  great  Circle,  or  is  dim  and 
mifty,  and  no  Rain,  Snow,  or  Hail  foiiows. 
The  running  atid  fqualiing  of  fotnc  Animals, 
as  Gecfe,  Ducks,  Swine,  &c.  forbode  either 
high  Winds  or  great  Rains.  Great  Working 
ef  the  Sea  in  a  Ci.lm,  or  red  or  yellov  Halo 
aboHl  the  Moon,  denotes  Wind  or  Tcmpcff. 
A  very  red  Rainbow,  where  the  Rainbow  be- 
gins ^^  break,  the  Wind  will  riic,  and  bring 
heavy  Showers;  if  it  break  in  many  Parts,  tetn- 
peftaous  Winds  are  at  hand.  We  are  told  in 
the  Pint.  Tranf.  that  in  the  Carihiee  Jflandi 
Hurricanes  are  certainly  forefecn,  prepared  for, 
and  their  Mifthiefs  often  prevented  ;  thus  if  a 
Hurricane  comes  either  en  the  Day  of  the  Full, 
Change,  or  Qviarter  Moon  ;  if  on  the  Day  of 
the  CTiange,  the  Sky  feems  tucbulcnt,  the  Sun 
redder  than  ordinary,  9  great  Calm,  the  HiUs 
are  fiee  from  Clouds  and  Foggs ;  in  Caverns 
of  the  Earth,  or  deep  Wells,  is  heard  a  j^^t 
Noife,  as  in  a  Storm ;  the  Stars  feem  large, 
■with  great  Bors  about  them ;  the  N.W.  looks 
black  and  foul,  the  Sea  fmdls  ftrongcr  than  at 
other  Times  j  fcmetime  that  D^y  the  Wind 
btows  hard  Wcfterly  out  of  its  natural  Courfe, 

the 

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(447) 

the  Hurricane  comes  that  Day  Forti^ht.  K 
the  Signs  h^pcn  at  Full  Moon,  the  Moon  has 
a  great  Burning  about  her,  and  often  the  Sun, 
the  Storm  comes  next  Change,  i.  f.  all  the 
Si^s  precede  the  Storm  jufl  fourteen  pays, 
c.  Wherever  the  greatefl  Calms  are,  there  are 
the  greatelt  and  frequented  Hurricanes  ot 
Spouts,  as  on  the  Coail:  of  Gsirtea,  or  where 
the  Trade  Winds  ccafc  to  a  Calm,  as  on  the 
Cbafl  of  Cormiandeiy  on  the  Southerly  IQes  in 
the  Sea  of  China.  But  wh^re  tbey  have  few 
pr  DO  Calms  the  Year  throughout,  Hurricanes 
iire  rare,  as  in  the  Arabian  Gulph,  among  the 
'Amelia,  oi"  upon  the  Equator.  -----  Hurri- 
canes are  fore&cn  at  Bermudas  from  the  fwel- 
ling  of  the  Sea  at  fome  DiAance  frota  the 
Shore ;  its  beating,  when  calm,  with  a  g^eat 
Noife  againil  the  Rocks  or  ^ore ;  or  it  iud- 
denly  breaks  in  unaccountably  upon  the  Land, 
and  falls  back  beyond  its  Low- Water  Mark, 
then  foon  returns  with  greater  Fury,  and  &lla 
yet  tack  farther  than  befc«-e  ;  or  fometime* 
iends  ont  a  dUagreeable  Smell ;  or  kmg  Streaks 
of  diiferent  Colours  afi^r  in  the  Air,  called 
Horfetails,  or  very  fmaii  dark  Spcrts  or  Clouds 
appear  in  the  Sky  at  a  great  DiAance ;  or  the 
Sky  is  covered  with  thick,  black,  globutar» 
fmoaky  Clouds  before  a  TempeA,  Boyie.  Hur- 
ricanes about  Goa  happen  all  in  the  Beginning 
of  March  and  0£hber.     Ditto. 

6i.  The  Years  moft  remarkable  for  frequent 

and  terrible  Thunder  and  Lightning  are  found 

ib  on  account  of  unfeafonable  Weather,  \>»A^ 

corrupt,  and  unhealthy  Air,  as  appears  from 

fixty 


by  Google 


(  44M 
fixty  InAances  in  a  Table  by  me.  2.  Several 
of  tbcfe  Explofions  have  been  preceded,  at^ 
tended,  or  quickly  followed  by  Earthquakes. 
3.  But  many  more  have  been  followed  by  Har- 
ficancs  and  Ttmpcfts.  4.  As  a  Proof  of  the 
bad^rainy,  and  inconftanc  Seafons  wherein  they 
have  been  ofteoeft.  Famine  and  great  Morta- 
lities have  often  been  the  Conf  quence  of  them; 
whereof  I  find  thiity  Pri;ofs  in  a  Table  by  mc. 
5.  Snltry  Southerly  rainy  Years  are  mod  pro- 
Qu3ive  of  Thunder  and  Lightning  j  yet  they 
of  thcmfelvcs,  diverted  of  other  Concomi'.anf!, 
fcem  not  to  portend  great  fubfequent  Calamiiiej 
to  Mai  k'nd.  6.  Thunder  and  Lightning  are 
more  frequent  and  tcrrib'e  in  hot  Countries, 
near  the  Line,  or  where  there  arc  Vulcancs, 
or  great  S;owagcof  Combuftibles  in  the  Bowels 
of  the  Eiirth,  or  en  very  low  mardiy  Coun- 
tries, than  in  Britain,  whofe  Situation  is  happy, 
being  neither  fcorcheJ  by  the  Torrid,  nor  per- 
petually frozen  like  the  Frigid  Zone  -,  exempted 
from  Vulcanos  and  burning  Mountains,  to  ru-n 
and  fwallow  up  her  Cities  and  People ;  her 
Plagues  neither  fo  frequent,  extcnfive,  nor  fatal 
as  in  fome  other  Nations.  7.  The  drier  any 
Country  is.  the  lefs  liable  it  is  to  Thunder, 
Lightning,  and  Earthquakes;  and  where  no 
great  Vapours  or  Steams  rife  from  the  Earth, 
Rainbows  are  not  fo  frequent ;  but  in  fuch 
Countries  are  /birora  BorealeSy  even  with  Trains 
of  Smoke  following  the  darting  Streamers,  are 
no  Strangers.  8.  The  mod  common  Signs  of 
Thunder  and  Lightning  at  hand,  are,  if  the 
Wind  in  Summer  has  been  two  or  three  Days 

S. 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  449  ') 
-S.  and  the  Air  turnE  very  hot,  and  Clouds  with 
great  white  Tops  like  Towers,  one  on  the  back 
of  another,  with  Black  on  their  under  or  ne- 
ither Side  appear,  then  Thunder  and  Ram  come 
rio  a:littte  time.  If  the  Wcithcr  is  hot,  and 
-the, Air  fmells  of  Su'phfur  fcveral  Days,  expedl 
^  T«n?peft  of  Thunder  quickly.  If  the  Thun- 
der rolls  from  S.  toN-  or  from  S.E.  toN.W. 
cw  from  the  Zenith  to  N.  or  N.  E.  there  ottcn 
-follows  a  Set  of  fair  Weather  for  fcane  Pays 
.after.  But  if  it  Acer  ia  the  contrary  Courfe, 
rainy  Weather  is  commonly  the  Confequencc. 
Many  C^aps  or  Chafms  in  the  Earth,  without 

■  ioddcn  DroRghtora  parching  dry  Wind,  foretel 
Thunder.  Sultry  "Weither  withc^t  -Cloudy, 
a&d  the  Sun  jetting,  red  And  fiery-l^ke,   prefage 

:gDeat  LightBtng  ^t  Night  in  the  N.  or  N.W. 
Vf ithoBt  Thurajer.  Black,  fed,  brown,  whit« 
Qopds,  piledupoppofiteto  theWind,  in  a.h^t 
Djy,  denote  Thunder. itfay  has  generally  as 

■  mHch-Thuiider  as  any  Month  in  tlic  Year ;  far 
.  the  Earth,  having  been  locked  up  by  the  Win- 
ter's Cold,  could  not  «mite  its  groflcr,  ialirw 
and  fujphureous  Exhalations,  rill  the  Warmth 
of  April  and  May  ^ppns,  the  E»th's  Pores,  and 
giwes  them  Vent. 

62.  In  the  warmer  Countries,  whofe  Rains 
like  ours  are  unceitain,  though  they  are  much 
iower  and  feliomer  in  the  warm  Months;  yet 
tljey  fall  in  mucJi  greater  Drops  and  larger 
Quantities ;  though  the  Rains  are  longer  in  Aa- 
tumnal  or  Winter  Months. 

63.  The  more  fevers  the  Cold  of  Summer  is, 
and  the  thicker  the  Clouds,  the  greater  Quan- 

G  g  tity 


i.vCoogIc 


C  45°  ) 
liijr  of  Vapours  is  raifed,  the  more  Rain  falls ; 
except  cither  a  flrong  S.  Wind  carries  off  thcfe 
exhaled  Vapours,  without  fhifting  to  the  op 
poQtc  Poins  and  bringing  them  again ;  or  after 
a  long  Froft,  when  the  middle  Region  of  the 
Air  ftill  retains  a  freezing  Difpofition,  till  Har- 
veft  Rains  come  for  a  long  Time,  and  are  fol- 
lowed by  another  Froft. 

64.  The  greatcft  Rains  happen  generally  at, 
or  a  little  before  and  after,  the  Autumnal  Equi- 
nox, from  the  great  Defcent  and  Afccnt  of 
Vapours  about  that  Time. 

65.  Theearlier  in  the  Autumn,  and  the  later 
in  the  Spring,  a  very  rainy  Seafon  fets  in,  the 
longer  it  continues. 

66.  A  rainy  Seafon  fucccieded  by  a  cloudy, 
if  the  Clouds,  though  they  feem  thick  and 
daik,  rife  higher  and  higher  in  the  Atmofphere, 
ir  certainly  denotes  a  Drought ;  for  the  Son  is 
daily  diminiftiing  and  difpelling  the  Vapoun 
and  Water  on  the  Surface  of  the  Clouds,  diat 
they  daily  become  lighter  and  rile  higher,  till 
they  evanini,  and  a  clear  Sun-(hine  fucceed. 

67.  As  to  Barometers,  they  are  made  of  dif- 
f"tent  Sorts,  Shapes,  and  S.zcs,  fome  upright, 
others  diagonal  or  wheel ;  fome  have  a  narrow 
Tube,  whereiti  from  the  fmall  Quantity  and 
Weight  of  Mercury  they  contain,  the  mutual 
Attraftion  of  the  Tube  and  Mercury  being  too 
ftrong,  fpoils  their  Defign.  Others  have  a 
wider  Tube,  whereby  the  Gravity  of  the  Mer- 
cury leffcns  and  dcftroye  the  Force  of  that  mu- 
tual Attraction,  and  gives  the  jud  Rilance  of 
the  Air  much  better.  The  Revereod  Mr.Sauts 

Ac- 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


( «I ) 

Account  of  this  Inflrumcnt  is  admirable.  Uri 
Halley,  Mr.  Patrick,  Mr.  Betgbton,  and  hisObfi 
rervations  on  it,  amount  to  this :  i;  When  the 
Surface  of  the  Mercury  appears  perfedly  plain 
and  level,  the  Preflure  of  the  Air  is  equal  and 
fteady,  and  the  Weather  for  fome  Hours  will 
be  the  lame.  2.  It  appears  round  and  convex 
in  wet  Weather,  being  higher  in  the  Middle 
than  at  the  Sides;  the  Air's  Prefltire  is  in- 
creafing,  and  an  Interval  of  fair  Weather  will 
icon  follow.  3 .  If  the  Surface  of  the  Mercury 
is  concave  or  depreflcd  in-  the  Middle,  the 
Preflure  of  the  Air  is  deereafing,  and  the  Wea- 
ther will  fliortly  be  rainy,  windy,  or  cloudy. 
But  that  the  Judgment  from  thefe  Appearances 
be  juft,  it  is  neceflary  that  the  Tube  be  widci 
the  Mercury  clean  and  pure,  the  Light  good^ 
and  the  Eye  near  the  Tube.  4.  In  forming  a 
true  Jtidgmcnt  of  what  Weather  is  to  come, 
the  Point  or  Quaiter  the  Wind  comes  from  muft 
be  flridly  regarded.  5.  In  calm  Weather^ 
when  the  Air  a  inclined  to  Rain,  the  Mercury 
is  moftly  low.  6.  In  clear,  fettled  fair  Wea- 
ther, it  is  moftly  high.  7.  That  before  and 
during  great  Tempcfts  of  Wind,  even  without 
Rain,  it  finks  Hovfeik  of  all,  according  to  the 
Point  from  whence  they  blow.  8.  That  other 
Things  being  alike,  the  Mercury  is  highcft 
when  the  Wind  is  E.  or  N.E.  if  not  too  high. 
9.  That  in  calm  fsofty  Weaiher,  the  Mercury 
is  generally  high.  1  o.  That  after  great  Storms 
of  Wind,  which  have  brought  the  Mercury 
'  low,  it  ufually  rifes  very  high,  11,  That  in 
[he  Seat  of  the  vuiable  Winds,  i,  ».  in  the  La- 
Gg  a  titude 


by  Google 


(  4^  ) 
tiWdeof  45  Degrtcs,  and  <b*it  lo  ]Degree»4ii 
cich  Side,  is  the'^catcftVaria(ioapf<licHciglK 
of  the  Mercury,  the -Rife  and  Fall  of  it  gra- 
dually cfccfeafir^  toward  the  Equator  and  Pofesj 
fo  that  -within  the  Tropics,  anB  near  tbc  Polar 
Circles,  It  fends  at  ndar  three  tenths  of  in 
Inch,  At  1^5  Degrees  Latitude  N.  or  S.  from 
-the  Vaie,  its  R«nge  is  one  Inch;  at.30  D^ec^ 
two  Inches ;  at  4.5  Degrees  three  lodhes ;  at  60 
'Degrees  two'Iiiches,  the  l&me  as  at  39;  at  75 
■one  Irteb  ;  at  &i  Degfecs  n6t  one  fourth  of  an 
I^xh.  This  Eflfmate  is  for  the  ordinary  Coorfe 
of  the  Weather;  but  in  violent  Storms  aid 
Hurricanes  i^ithin  the  Tro|)ics,  a  tiiuch  lower 
Depreffion  of  the  Mercury  Oiuft  be  allowed. 
The  Station  <>(  the  Barometer  above  the  Suifaft 
of  the  Sea  Ihould  alfo  be  known.  i2.  That  to 
judge  tTuly  ijf  ihc  Weather,  the  leaft  Altcratioas 
of  the  Mercury  fhodld  be  regarded.  13.  That 
as  the  Rife  of  the  MerCury  prefages  &ir  Wea- 
ther, fo  its  Fair  denotes  Rain,  Snow,  hi^ 
Winds,  or  Storm..  14.  In  very  hot  Weather, 
the  Fall  of  the  Mercflry  denotes  Thunder. 
15.  Its  Rife  in  Winter  is  a  Sign  of  Froft,  at)d 
Jts  Fall  a  few  Degrees  prcfages  aXhaw.  16.  Its 
.  Rtie  in  a  continued  Froft  (hews  Staow  to  be  it 
hand.  17.  If  Ratn  hapben  prefentty  after  the 
Fall  of  Mcicury,  It  will  be  but  little,  or  (hortj 
.  or  if  it  prove  fair  quickly  aftir  the  Rife  of  the 
Mercury,  it  will  be  but  of  (hort  Dararioo. 
18.  In  rainy  Weather,  (f  the  Mercury  rifes 
much  and  high  two  or  three  Days  before  the 
Rain  ceafes,-then  a  fettled  State  6f  fairWea^r 
moflly  follows.     19.  If  the  Mercury  5dls  much 

add 


i.vCoogIc 


(■  4-53  )' 
and-  in  lon^  fair  Weather,  be&re  the  Rain 
comes,  then  a  great  deal  of  Wet,  or  high  Wind, 
is  at  hand.  20.  An  unfculsl  Motioix  of  the 
Mercury  denpiefi  changeable  Weather.  a.i.The 
Mercury's  ftlliog'  and^  rHiig  is  more  to. bft  re- 
garded than  the  Words  on  the  Flate  j  for  when 
much  Rain  has  ^llen,  and  the  IS&rcu^y.  rifes 
to  Cbangeabie^  it  denotes  fair  Weather,  though 
it  hft  not  fo  long  as  if  it  ^ad  rifen  higher  ;  or 
if  the  Mercury  ftOod  at  Fair^  and  feUs  and  ftops- 
at  Changeable^  it  is  a  Sign  of  rainy  Weather, 
though  not  fo  much  or  long  as  if  it  bad  fallen 
lowef.  22.  Though  the  Fait  of  the  Mercury 
in  dark  and  cloudy  Weather  denotes  Raiq,  yef 
it  is  moftly  preceded  by  fair  Weaker ;  when> 
the  Fair  com^s,  the  Rain  is  near  :  This  is  often 
the  Cafe  when  the  Wind  points  Eaftcrly,  23. 
The  Mercury  feldom  vafies  for  Thunder. 
34.  If  while  it  is  rifmg  there  fall  fome  Showers, 
they  have  been  driven  on  us  by  Thunder,  though, 
at  a  DiHance.  2  5;  If  it  &11&  bc^rc  H^o,  and 
none  comes  till  it  begin- to  rifC)  the  Rain  will 
either  be  little,  or  it  has  ^Iten  at  a  DiHaoce; 
26.  If  it  continue  to  ialt  whilft  it  rains,  it  will 
rain  next  Day.  27.  If  in  fair  Weather,  when 
it  has  continued  rifing  higher,  it  J^Ue  a  little 
about  Noon,  and  riKS  a  little  agaia  in  the 
Evening,  it  will  be  a  Shower  next  Day  at 
Noon  or  Afternoon,  and  fair  again,  28.  If  it 
rif:;s  flowly  for  fcveral  Days  together,  expeft  a 
feir  Scafon, / for  as  many  Days  at  haft  as  it  was 
rifing,  except  prevented  by  fmall  Gales  of  S.  W,. 
or  S.Wind.  29.  If  it  fill  quickly,  or  rife  quickly, 
the  Rain  or  fair  Weather  will  be  ftiort.  30.  It 
Gg  3  falls 


i.vCoogIc 


{  454  ) 
^lls  three  or  four  Days  before  great  Storms,  and 
more  before  great  Floods,  but  fcldom  for  Thu  odcr 
Showers,  and  falls  on  hot  or  fultry  Weather, 
The  preceding  State  of  the  Mercury  (as  well  as 
the  Winds)  mud  always  be  uken  in,  for  a  right 
Judgment  of  the  Weather. 

6S.  Yet  after  all  thefe  ingenious  ObiervaboDS 
on  the  Barometer,  the  various  P^pQthefcs  of 
the  Learned  on  the  Caufes  of  thefe  Alterations^ 
on  the  Afcent  and  Defcent  of  the  Mercury  in 
the  Tubes,  which  tend  rather  to  dcraonftntte 
and  eAdblilh  the  Truth  and  Reality  of  the  Gra- 
vity of  the  Air,  or  its  Gravity  and  Eladicity  to- 
gether, with  the  frequent  and  feveral  Changes 
of  that  Gravity,  and  its  ordinary  utmoft  Kx- 
tremes  in  different  Latitudes }  by  which  Ex- 
tremes, and  their  prefent  Mediutn,  the  Weather 
may  be  tolerably  guclTed  at  for  two  or  three 
Days  to  come,  or  very  often  not  fo  long.  Ba- 
rometers are  a  curious,  ufefol,  and  ingenious 
Invention,  to  gauge  or  meafure  the  Height,  Gra- 
vity, Elaliicity,  Differences  and  Changes  of  the 
Air,  as  Thermometers  are  of  its  Temperatuie, 
and  Hydrofcopes  of  iis  Dryneft  or  Molflure  in 
their  Places  where  they  are  fixed.  But  thefe 
make  us  not  a  bit  wifer  of  the  Courfe  of  our 
Winds  and  Weather,  When  the  Wind  is  E. 
and  N.E.  we  fee  and  know,  that  generally  the 
Barometer  is  high,  and  the  Thermometer  low, 
becaufc  of  the  chill  elaflip  Bkfts  from  the 
Northern  Pole,  and  over  Norwtjy,  Sieeden^ 
Bu/^a,  Germany  y  and  other  Northern  and  Eaftern 
ipontinents  and  Iflands.  But  when  it  is  S.W. 
^  S,  it  is  comnfqaly  wsrmer  and  moifler,  as  it 
eom{s 

L,  ,z,;i.,C00gIC 


comes  from  nearer  the  Line,  and  over  raft 
Oceans,  whether  it  is  reverberated  by  the  Py- 
rermees  and  Andes,  or  not.  Then  Barometers 
are  lower.  Thermometers  higher,  and  Hydro- 
fcopes  point  to  more  molft.  AU  this  gives  us 
only  the  prefent  State,  Gravity,  Temperature  of 
the  Air,  widi  its  Moiilure  or  Drynels ;  but  it  is 
nothing  to  Latitude?,  Climates,  Winds  and  Wea- 
ther }  nor  can  we  from  them  tell  what  Changes 
may  be  in  the  next  Hour,  without  recoUct^ing 
and  obferving  what  ufually  has  happened  when 
thefe  were  tn  that  Station  before.  October,  No- 
vember, and  December  of  1713  were  all  very 
rainy;  and  January  of  1714  throughout,  ex- 
ceeded in  Rain  beyond  what  any  living  had 
ieen  before;  yet  the  Mercury  has  rarely  ftood 
invariably  higher  in  the  Tube.  1735  was  a 
cold  wet  Summer,  yet  the  Barometers  were  often 
very  high,  and  role  and  fell  as  It  were  by  fuddcn 
Jirks  {  fo  that  there  was  no  Dependance  on 
them.  Journals  would  foon  afford  many  fuch 
Jnilunces :  But  which  of  all  thefe  modern  Dis- 
coveries can  fuppty  us  with  Hints  what  the  en- 
iuing  Seafons  will  be  ?  Whether  the  next  Winter 
will  be  mild  or  fevere,  fiiort  or  long  ?  Whether 
the  Spring  will  be  tatc  or  early.  Summer  hot  or 
cold,  rainy  oc  dioughty,  the  ProduA  of  the 
Earth  ne;ct  Scafon  plentiful  or  fcarce  ?  Yet  all 
thefe,  and  much  more,  have  been  known  and 
told  without  them.  Wherefore  it  would  be 
more  advifeable,  prudent,  and  profitable  for  the 
htmeft  Countryman  to  fiudy  and  be  better  ac- 
quainted, with  his  Book  of  Nature,  to  which 
he  hgs  daily  Accefs;  and  if  he  plofely  obfeive 
Gg4  it, 


i.vCoogIc 


(456) 
it.  he  may  oftcner  depend  on  it  than  his  Book 
of  Art ;  whilft'  the  Citizen,  who  wants  his  Op> 
portiHiides,  tnay  attend  to  his  Baromeeer  and 
Thermometer,  which  often  deceive  hifik  Fee 
the  lormer,  if  he  underAands  his  Book  of  Na- 
ture rightly,  may  often  leacn  Intimatton  of  ex- 
traordinary Sets  of  Weather  or  Soaibos,  ioae* 
time^  before  ^ey  come,  of  wfaiah  tfieliMer,  or 
Citizen's  Tackle,  cannot  infonn'hiai';  tbongb 
in  his  fancied,  witty,  ridiculoDs  Sarors,  ha  rc- 
jeft  the  fuppofed  idle  Ob&rvatwns  of  fupeifti- 
ttotK  whim^cal  People,  as  a  Cbud  of  foolifli 
popuKu  PredJdtioiTs  from  the  BitiDD  uid-  Vege> 
table  World,  which  the  Sagacity- and  ilreduhij 
of  his  Countrymen  has  eilahlilhed;  thefc  t» 
fets  afide,  as  not  flowing  from  any  nsttml  ne- 
ceiTary  ConnefHon  that  he  knows  of  in  the 
Things  themiclves ;  and  becaoie  he  knows 
ihem  not,  therefore  they  cannot  be.  Thus  be 
alliimes  all  Knowledge  to  himfel£;  for  which 
he,  in  hie  Torn,  defervcs  tobe  ridicaled.  But 
take  him  in  a  more  grave  and  Prions  Aifood, 
rilen  he  will  cry  out  what  vail  yet  tegolar  Al- 
tet'aHons'  a  Hnle  Turn  of  Weatlka  inakes  on  bis 
Barometer  and  ThertBomoocr  y  and  16  is  owing 
to  Peoples  Inattention  and  Inccmperance  inili'vin^ 
that  they  obierve  not  as  great  and  regular  ones 
in  (heir  own  Bodies.  It  is  inanifeft,  &]«  be, 
a  greit  Part  of  the  Brute  Creation  have  a  Seo* 
fibility  and  Sagacity  this  Way  beyond  Man- 
kind, bfcaafe  thtir  Veffch  are  regular  Barome- 
ters, afFe»3ed  only  fc^  outward  Principles  j  but 
oBrs  are  aited  on-  by  divers,  fiom  within  as  well 
ds  without.  And  fi-om  the  Animal,  he  will 
con- 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  45.7  )> 
concede  the  V«g9taUe  World  ma^  dibrd-ibow 
FrognoiUcs.  This  is  giving  up  his  Point  io  ibe 
aiz]^Ieil.  Manner,  and  contradifting  himfelf,  it 
is  HOC  reaibnable  to  ima^ne,  that  Providence 
haa  fevouced .  the  rational  Inhabitants  of  fame 
FartB  of  our  Globe  with  their  cerraki  Aated  an- 
nual Revelations  of  Wind  and  WoadieTf  and 
leaTcs  the  lilfie  Inhabitants  of  th^  variable  Laii-> 
tudes  wholly  at  a  Lo&  for  near  6000  Yeacs,  of 
aU  Matter  oc  Underilandkig  to  take  indication^ 
Fniages,  Marks  and  Signs  of  Weather  from, 
cfpecially  when  a  total;  Incapacity  to  prepatc  &r 
£n»o  extraordinary  Changes  m^bt  be  of  the 
TorA  ConiequeDce.  But  the  more  wi&  audi 
£^dous  have,  ia  all  Ages,  and  ieveral  Goun- 
irieSj.  found  Matter  to  make  their  OUcrvations 
ii-bm,  and  carefully  handed  thenit^nvn  to  us  in 
a  Cioad  of  no  de^icablc  Auchors.  Long  and 
gDcat  Rains  being  bji  bag  and  iod  Experience 
found  moft  hurtful  to  both  Animals  aod  Vege-  ' 
tables,  it  is  necsflary  to  colkdl:  all'  the  ObfecTa- 
taons,  and  call  in  all  the  Afiifiance  we  can  to 
ibrafcc  &ich  Rains.  1  Uball  begin  with  the  fia- 
roRiestr,  feeing  Bacomcters  oben  deceive  us. 
I .  Becaafe  there  may  be  Signs,  which  generally 
hold  good  over  aU  the  Globe ;  bat  the  Mer- 
eofy  leilens  its  Elevations  in  the  Tobcs  as  we 
come  nearer  the  Line,  till  it  vaxj  none  at  alL 
z.  Because  even  in  Britain,  it  falls  as  weil  for 
higb  Winds,  Hurricanes,  and  Tetupeft,  as  foe 
Eains.  3.  Becaafe  the  Mercury  iaUs  as  welt 
(though  not  fo  low]  foE  Rains  or  Hurricanes  at 
a  great  Diilaocc,  as  if  chey  were  near,  as  on  the 
f  fece.  4.  Becaule  the  Mercury  is  very  near  as 
high 


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(  458  ) 
high  when  the  Wiod  is  N.  or  N.  E.  with  Raiio, 
as  when  it  is  in  the  S.  with  &ir  Weather,  efpc- 
ciallv  if  fultry.  Therefore  the  Quarter  ia  which 
the  Wind  is,  and  the  Height  of  the  Mercury, 
ihould  always  be  ibi<ftly  obferved.  5.  Is  eitlwr 
very  rainy  or  droughty  Scafons  little  R^^d  is 
to  be  paid  to  the  fudden  fmall  jirks  of  the 
Mercury ;  for  in  the  firft  its  Ufe  means  no- 
thing, and  in  the  laft  it  Is  a  very  uncertain  In- 
dication of  Rain,  as  it  rifes  and  falls  with  the 
Heights  and  Shifts  of  the  Wind.  The  rainy 
Years  of  1734,  35  and  39,  and  the  Drou^ts 
of  1738,  1740  and  41,  are  fufficicnt  Proofs  of 
this  in  all  Djarics  of  the  Weather.  6.  In  very 
hot  Weather  during  a  fixed  State  of  the  Air  and 
Wind,  the  Mercury  often  falls  in  the  Day,  and 
rifes  in  the  Night. 

69.  Thou^  the  Rrefages  of  the  Weather 
from  the  Barometer  are  neither  of  that  Cer- 
tainty, nor  gives  that  early  Notice  of  its  Changes 
that  might  be  delired ;  and  that  even  the  il- 
literate Populace,  and  the  Pagan  World,  have 
from  Animals, Vegetables,  £^f.  yettheWcather- 
glafs  is  a  curious  InArument,  ufefut  in  various 
Cafes,  as  in  giving  pretty  near  the  Meafurc  of 
difierent  Altitudes,  foefpccially  to  give  the  df- 
ferent  Gravity,  or  Denfity,  or  Levity,  or  Li- 
clailictty  of  the  Air  in  feveral  Places,  or  at 
fundry  Times,  Changes,  or  whether  its  too 
great  Weight  or  Lightnefs  (exclufive  of  other 
Qualities  or  Accidents)  is  moft  injurious  to  the 
Health  and  Life  of  the  Inhabitants  of  a  Country 
or  Clim^e.  With  this  View  I  took  the  monthly 
Mean  of  the  Barometer  &om  Jan.  i.  1736  to 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  459  ) 
^an.  I.  1743,  (ftven  Years  of  as  great  Variety 
of  Droughi  and  Rain,  Heat  and  Cold,  Plenty 
and  Scarcity  of  Fravifionp,  Peace  and  War, 
Health  and  Sicknefs,  £<fc.  as  any  Part  of  the 
Journal  of  the  Barometer  contained)  with  the 
Number  of  Days  the  Mercury  flood  above  or 
below  that  Mean,  and  how  many  died  in  each : 
The  Refult  was,  above  that  Mean  1389  Days, 
in  which  died  1873  }  below  that  monthly 
Mean,  1168  Days,  died  1645.  Then  1  took 
the  collateral  Medium  of  each  of  thefe  Months, 
and  the  Number  of  Months  above  the  Meaa 
v?as  31,  wherein  died  1357.  The  Months 
under  it  were  53,  died  2193.  ^  '°"''  ^^^  ^^ 
svhole  Range  of  the  Mercury  each  Year  fep^ 
rately  \  and  I  obferved,  that  the  Year  wherein 
the  total  Altitude  was  mofl  of  all  here,  was  alfo 
the  moil  lickly  and  fatal :  For  in  1741  it  was 
9694,  died  in  (h&  Parifl]  706 ;  the  Total  of 
1742  was  9086,  died  579;  the  Total  of  1739 
was  8533,  died  3771  the  Total  of  1740  w^ 
9282,  died  428:  So  that  tho'  there  is  no  material 
Difference  between  the  Deaths  in  the  firft,  ya 
the  lecond  and  third  throw  it  &irly  on  the 
highci  Station  of  the  Barometer ;  yet  without 
laying  the  Fault  on  the  Air,  but  on  the  QnaU- 
ties  that  attend  it,  I  next  took  the  monthly 
Mean  of  the  Thermometer  f  jr  two  Years  and 
eight  Months,  with  the  Number  of  D^ys  be- 
}ow  and  above  the  Medium,  and  how  many 
died  in  each.  Spirits  were  below  the  Medium 
390  Days,  died  495;  above  the  monthly  Me- 
dium 553  Days,  died  ^46.  Here  we  morevi- 
fihly  fee  t|ie  E^e^  pt  Cold  i  ancl  yet  not  fa 
much 


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QEtacbof  Cold  ae  of  Mafiuse,  Bsoij^  orDroi^ht 
that  ma^  abend  it;  Soc  w«  know-  in  mudi 
cokJarClfoiateithelnJubitants  live  much  longer, 
and  arc  beakhier,  (with  jvopct  Care)  butthds 
Cdld  Ib  dry.  Thi»  \tadt  us-  inieniii^  into  a 
Aire  Way  of  detennining  that  Aale  pCTplexii^ 
Qoeltion  i»PbyfK,  which  fa^s-coft  us  iomudi 
Study  ajid  Writing,  and  is  ottierwife  iiTefoIvahle; 
whethe*  aU  Epidemics  do  oot  d^nd  upoathe 
ftnfible  Qualitin  of  the  Ail  ?  Or  whether  do 
sot  fom:^  depcad  on  fenfible,  and  othecs  on  u»- 
UnCiYAc  Qualities  ?  But  by  a  clofe  AtteiUioD  to, 
and  compaFing  Jootnals  of  the  Sarotneter, 
which  fliews  the  Incseaib  and  Dccr-eafe  of  the 
Aic's  Gravity  and  EtaflQcity  ;  the  Thermomewr, 
vi^ich  gives  its  daily  Temperatore ;  aii4  *^ 
Hydrofcope^  which  (hews  its  variable  Moiiiata 
and  DryneH  j  this  may  be  done,  provided  we 
alwayg  «y«i  the  late  efpcdally,  as  well  as  jjtq- 
ieot  Conftitutian  of  the  Wcathn^.  And  tJi^iE 
not  only  diicovcrs  its  natural  Caufc,  but  its 
Method  of  Cure.  And  except  with  regard  to 
ibis  one  medicinal  View,  which  every  Pljyficiaa 
ihould  fhxly  and  be  well  acquainted  with,  I 
cannot  ice  any  mighty  Matter  of  Odds  in  it, 
with,  regard  to  fucH  as  believe  a  Provideoce, 
whether  God  correds  and  punifhes  us,  either 
Biore  immediately  without  the  Intervention  of 
t^efe  natural  Caufes,  or  by  them,  or  &nding 
an  infcfted  Perfon  or  Goods  into  our  Country, 
or  blowing  a  VeH^l  with  an  ipfi^fled  Crew  into 
oar  Harbour,  or  on  our  Coafts ;  only  as  the 
firft  is  generally  more  fcvere,  and  ftrikcs  more 
awfiilly  &x  a  fliorter  time;  fo  the  latter  «( 
ufliered 


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t  .01  ^ 

u&ered  in  more  0owly,  and  )give  more  Time 
fer  Repentance  and  R^cirnfation. 

^o.  We  Ihall  therefofe  give  ibme  fuch  Sigftt 
of  RaiQ  fts  have  been  rfgurded  in  «U  Ages,  t^f 
the  moft  ilrid  Oblcrvers  of  SdafcHiE,  as-i^^Au, 
f  ;>^(V,  P%,  PlOtarch,  Fromnd^  VoMus,  ^c. 
collefied,  and  ingenioufly  accounted  for,  by 
iAx,'Pomtir  \  ahd  With  them  Join  fame  Re- 
nfarks  of  our  own..  The  Signs  of  Rain  in'get- 
neralare,  Strings  of  mufical  InAmments  fw«fl 
tuid'lbund'fliat'peri  Sea-Fowls  in  Flocks  refeit 
to  Land,  and  Land-FowJs  to  waihiug  ami 
dabbling  in  Water,  erth&y.pidcanij  pr-une  char 
Feathers  mUch  withtheir'Btils;  Herons,  Swat- 
lows,  and  FHes'fly  low  ;  Crows  ^ther  in 
F^hts,  ily  with  thtir  Heads  upward,  croak, 
'are  ho^He,  and  (Jail  for  Rain ;  Gcefe,  Peacocks, 
swallows,  Swine,  A^es,'Deer,  Foxes,  ^c.  make 
■a  great  Noifc ;  Sheep  and'  Cattle  rHc  early  to 
feed  hard ;  Fifhes  play  and  flcip  on  the  Surface 
of  (he  Water  j  Worm&  creep  out  of  the  Earth 
in  Crowds ;  Moles  latour  hard ;  Bees  and  Ante 
kdep'athome;  Frqgs-CfdE^^  Flies; Gnats,  &;. 
bite  bittedy ;  cdd  Petfptes'Pains  and  Aches  waktfn 
afre^ ;  theSon  withoat  the  Gloads  (hines  watry ; 
the  Sky  is  red  at  6un-fiftfig,  Or  is  red  ki  the'S. 
or  S.E.  after  Sun-fttj  the  Moon  looks  pale,  as 
if  compailt^  with- a  great  Circle, -and  /he  is  dim 
and  mifty,  or  has  a- Rainbow  about  her;  iffaer 
Hdrns  are  broad  and  i>tunt  at  firil  rifing,  or 
withintwo  or  three  E>»ys  after  the  Change,  it 
vnll  be  rainy  Weather  that  Q^rter,  but  good 
^e  reft;  if  the  Clouds  fdCm  like  Rocks  or 
Towets,  if<ci»UClbuaUigather  and  look  bi^r 
2  and 


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C460 
«nd  b^er,  or  Clouds  fit  down  On  the  Topi 
of  Mountains,  if  a  Rainbow  appear  after  a  long 
Drought,  if  it  turns  thicker,  grofferanddarkCT; 
if  in  the  W.  it  will  rain  with  Thunder ;  if 
Dandelyon  lie  down,  and  Pimpernel- flowers 
are  clofe  Ihut,  and  Trefoil-ftallu  are  (welled 
arid  ereft,  &c. 

71.  We  know  that  Rain  is  at  hand  £'om 
Ropes  and  Cords  fweliing  and  fiiortetung;  the 
Mercury  falls  in  the  Barometer ;  Marble  or 
other  Stones,  Brick  or  Boards,  Walls  or  Doors 
fweat ;  Salt  turns  moift ;  the  Sun  lifes  of  a 
darker  red,  broader,  darker,  or  paler  than  mdi* 
nary,  of  with  a  yellowiih  Circle  inclining  to 
white,  of  a  mifly, ;  muddy  Colour,  darting  its 
Beams  from  N.  to  S.  or  it  fets  behind  a  thick 
dark  Cloud; 'the  Stars  feem  bigger,  paUr and 
duller ;  if  bright  and  blazing  in  Summer,  they 
portend  Wind  and  Rain  ;  or  if  they  appear  very 
numerous,  with  an  £.  Wind  and  fmall  Clouds 
in  N.W.  it  rains  in  the  Evening }  or  if  MiSt 
afcendfl  from  Water  or  Marflies  to  the  Tops  of 
Hills ;  if  there  is  a  Hazineis  in  the  Air,  fo  that 
the  Sun's  Light  quails  by  Degrees,  and  his  Limb 
is  ill  defined,  is  a  Sign  of  Rain,  efpeciallyif  the 
Mercury  fells  j  but  the  like  Hazinefs  at  Night 
is  a  fure  Sign  of  Rain.  Though  the  Height 
of  the  Mercury  varies  not  fo  much  iti  the  Sum- 
mer, and  to  pafl  the  Equinox,  as  to  other 
Times  of  the  Year,  yet  we  have  the  moil  Rain 
in  thefe  Months }  hence  it  feems  that  either  the 
Range  of  the  Mercury  varies  with  the  Tem- 
perature of  the  Climate  and  Seafons,  which  b 
reality  it  does,  or  that  the  different  Warmth 
(and 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  4«3  ) 
(anil  coniequ'ently  the  Rarefa<^ion  of  the  Va- 
pours) in  the  upper  and  lower  Currents  of  the 
Air,  and  thefe  Currents  mixing,  and  fome- 
times  wholly  interchanging,  are  the  more  im- 
mediate Caufe  of  Rain,  if  not  aifo  of  Thunder 
and  Lightning.  Black  fleecy  Clouds,  formed 
on  a  fudden  Hurry  of  the  Wjnd,  are  moftly 
followed  by  a  Shower.  In  hot  Weather,  the 
Wind  Ihifting  almoft  round  the  Compais  in  a 
ihort  Space,  is  often  fucceeded  by  a  Thunder 
Shower.  Sometimes,  when  the  Mercury  has 
been  a  good  while  high,  and  (o  continues, 
mifling  Rains  fall  about  the  New  or  Full  Moon, 
which  are  only  Vapours  from  the  Sea-coaft 
driven  off  by  the  Wind. 

72.  But  if  Rain  is  at  fome  Diftance,  the 
Mercury  fells  flowly ;  if  there  arc  many  white 
Clouds  like  Shcep-wocl  fprcad  in  the  E.  it  rains 
in  three  Days,  Very  thick  black  Clouds 
threaten  Rain  at  Night,  or  from  the  W.  next 
Day  I  if  the  Rainbow  appears  together  at  once, 
it  rains  in  two  or  three  Days  after.  A  general 
Mift  at  New  Moon  foretells  a  rainy  Old  Moon ; 
or  a  mifty  Old  Moon  threatens  a  rainy  New 
Moon. 

73.  That  the  approaching  or  prefent  Rain 
will  be  little  or  (hort,  is  known  from  the  Mer- 
cury keeping  at  or  near  its  former  Station  i 
the  Clouds  are  high,  but  neitlier  very  black 
nor  heavy.  All  Rain  coming  quickly,  goes 
quickly;  if  it  begins  to  rain  an  Hour  or  two 
befiire  Day ;  if  there  is  a  Rainbow  in  the 
Morning ;  ot  if  the  Sun  rifes  broader  in  a  Sum- 
mer's Morning,  &c. 

74- 


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73^  That ;tt will  rsio  nmchor  kag,'i&kDcnm 
jhnn  the  long,  {lov,  gradnl  Fall  tif  tbcflilsr- 
oary,  ifrom  long  frecoahiig  ^y  Woather.  Pro- 
fak  Sweats  of  Stooc,  Matble,  Brick,  or^oiixl 
Wails,  Gciliags  or  Doors,  the  .ia&  fwell  and 
CFudc^as  well  as  fweat.  Salt  meks,  Cords  and 
'Rapes  tfaicknn  And  flLorten  muoh.  ,U  the  Sun 
liies-'vcbfeftflyj  <broad  In  Wiiuer  and  roldSi; 
^the  RWioaioD,  or  totning  dfide  the  Rays  of 
'Ijjight  from  their  ;  ftzaight  Courfe,  as  Toon  :as 
•they  enter  £he  Ak,  preyeBts  ^thek  coming  di- 
rediyiirom  the  Heavens  to  otir  £ycsjthrQB^ 
.  the  Air ;  from  which  Re^ftun  or  £)cfld%ion 
of  the.'Rays,  k  ifi  that  iwe  ^  the  Pianeis  both 
before  they  rife  and  after  they  «k  Tet,  whca 
they  are  Cirenty  Degrees  of  'Elevatton  under 
tthe  Horieon :  This  Riefrsftien  is  tfie  gtcater, 
and  tt  is  longer,  foeibre  the  San  or  lotbcr  Pliuets 
life,  as  the  Air  or  Medium  is  tbickbr  or^oofler ; 
•  OT'thcgroAcr  the  Medinm,  the  moreitbe  Son 
or  Moon  i^onder  the  Horizon,  vrhen  we  6tfi 
dndkH:  fee. thorn;  or  ^  lover > the  Air  -is,  {o 
.  mvu^  more  arc  they  under  the  Horizon  when 
ihey  firft  appear ;  and  the  more  ihey  are  utnder 
the  Horizon  when  firft  and  laft  fcen,  ihe 
'fimrter  the 'Twilight.  Hence  the  Caoie  of  our 
■Mornihg  and  Evening  Twilight,  is  the  Re- 
flection xs£  the  Rays  of  the  Sun  fcom  *he  Par- 
ticles ef  Air,  whdch  reverberate  them  by  tJbcir 
irregnlar  Situation  ;  fbrthe  Eveningaod-Morn- 
lag  Twilight  begin  when  (he  Sun  is  about 
•eighteen  Degrees  under  the  Horizon.  Hcoce 
the  TwiUght  is  from  a  double  Refra£tion  or 
RcBc^lion.    Not  only  does  the  Sunrife  earlicT 

and 

D,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(  46s  ) 
and  broader  in  Winter,  but  reddifli  before 
Rain.  If  fmall  Clouds  gather  and  grow  bigger 
and  bigger,  till  they  flowly  cover  the  Hcmi- 
fohere,  and  the  Air  turns  fenfibly  thicker  and' 
thicker,  Sun,  Moon  and  Stars  Ihine  duller  and 
duller,  till  they  are  wholly  obfcurcdj  if  there 
is  a  very  large  Rainbow,  in  the  E.  eipccially, 
or  if  there  is  none  before  the  Rain  i  If  it  be- 
gins to  rain  irom  the  S.  with  a  high  Wind  for 
two  or  three  Hours,  then  the  Wind  ^Is,  but 
the  Rain  continues,  it  will  be  a  long  Rain,  till 
another  Wind  rifes;  but  fuch  long  Rains  fcarcely 
happen  above  once  a  Year.  S.  and  W.  Winds 
bring  laigeft  and  greatell  Rains.  Woods  or 
Mountains  feeming  very  near,  fhow  Rain  to  be 
at  iiand ;  as  do  Sounds  continuing  flrong,  and 
heard  at  a  great  Difbncc,  without  Mift  or 
Fog:  If  Smells,  agreeable  or  dilagreeabte,  are 
perceived  ftrong,  and  at  a  greater  Diflance ;  if 
Rivers  fall  fuddcnly  after  great  Floods,  or  if 
the  Clouds  feem  high  and  of  a  fhining  blueilh 
black,  or  livid  during  the  Rain,  or  a  fpeedy 
Day  or  two  of  bright  Sun-fhinc  Weather 
coining  on  a  cloudy  Drought,  with  a  fhifiing 
Wiud  and  falling  Mercury  ;  if  after  a  long 
Drought,  the  Wind  veers  often  and  fuddcnly ; 
the  long  (hutting  and  finaU  opening  of  feveral 
Plants,  Flowers  and  Downs;  if  feveral  Tem- 
pefts,  or  long,  cold,  cloudy  Weather,  frequent 
Thunders  rolling  from  N.  to  S.  if  the  Rain  is 
intermixed  with  feveral  Nights  Frofts ;  if  in 
the  Spring  the  Frogs  Spawn  is  thrown  near  the 
Side  of  Itagnant  Waters ;  all  thcfe  are  Prog- 
noilics  of  a  long  rainv  Seafon. 

Hh  75. 


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(  466  ) 
.  75-  Miners  fometimes  fbrefee  Tempcft  fiom 
their  Lights  burning  blue,  when  ttuy  are  free 
from  all  Apprehenfion&  of  a  Damp.  If  &.- 
veral  Fires  (hinc  in  the  Night  in  dificrcnt  Places 
either  on  the  Sea  or  Shore ;  if  fmail  thick 
Clouds  rife  quickly  out  of  the  Sea ;  if  its  Wa- 
ters feem  all  on  Fire,  they  indicate  a  Tempcft 

at  hand. Some  Miners  can  foretel  Changes 

of  Wind  at  fifteen  or  twenty  Fathoms  de^ ; 
for  many  Hours  before  they  veer  to  the  S.  tJie 
Water  at  the  Bottom  appears  thick,  but  when 
it  is  changing  to  the  E.  it  becomes  unufually 
clear.  -  -  -  -  Some  Springs  certainly  forctel  great 
Rains  or  Tcmpcfis  fome  time  before,  as  ^^m, 
Chalybeat  near  Derby ^  whofc  Waters  turn  white 
or  milky ;  and  the  whiter  it  is,  the  greater  it 
the  Rain  or  Tempeft.  From  Rain  adjourn  we 
to  Snow  and  Hail. 

76.  Befidcs  Hail,  Snow,  Rain  and  Dew, 
fcveral  other  flrange  Bodies,  both  light  and 
ponderous,  folid  and  fltud,  have  fallen,  or  been 
poured  down  out  of  the  Air,  at  fundry  Times 
and  divers  Places,  to  the  Surprize  not  only  of 
the  Vulgar,  but  even  of  Philofophers  them- 
fclves ;  fuch  as  the  Board  of  Ice  which  b3\  in 
Burgundy^  June  2,  824,  fifteen  Foot  Iwig, 
feven  broad,  and  two  thick  ;  and  the  ^eat 
Stone  mentioned  by  Plutarch^  that  fell  in 
Thracia,  after  it  had  hovered  about  in  the  Air 
feventy-fivc  Daysj  it  was  fo  large,  that  it  loaded 
a  Waggon  :  and  one  that  fell  in  A^ace,  th- 
vember  29,  1630,  which  weighed  three  hundred 
Pounds  Weight  j  and  a  Shower  of  Stones  which 
Marcellinm  fays  fell  in  tbrace  in  14521  and 
.   .  the 


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(  467  ) 

the  feveral  Showers  of  Stones  mentioned  by 
^T/V.  Liiyy  which  at  very  diiFerent  Times  fell 
on  the  Mountain  j^lta ;  the  laft  Shower  con- 
tinued two  Days;  fonne  of  them  were  red-hot, 
others  cold  j  iome  like  hard  Clods  of  Earth, 
others  like  Sand  or  Duft.  Several  more  In- 
ilances  of  this  -Sort  are  to  be  found  in  Hilln-ies. 
Hence,  i.  As  to  the  Formation  of  feveral  fuch 
Showers,  perhaps  no  rational  Account  cm  bs 
given  of  them.  2.  Some  of  them  we  iind 
have  been  produced  by  Hurricanes,  Whirlwinds, 
Earthquakes,  Volcanos,  &c.  fuch  as  that  which 
routed  the  Persons,  about  to  plundir  theTempfc 
of  ^poik  at  Delpbes ;  and  another  the  Gauls  on 
a  like  impious  Occafion  j  and  that  which  dif- 
comfited  the  Confederate  Armies  befo:  e  Jo/hua. 
Several  fuch  Showers  arc  faid  to  fall  in  America. 
Late  and  remarkable  is  that  in  the  Archipelago 
in  1707,  on  the  Emerfion  of  the  Ifland  Sar.- 
torinfy  from  the  Bottom  of  the  Sea.  Mont- 
Jaucon  iays,  the  like  happened  near  'Tiiporgo.'a 
in  Italy,  in  1535,  from  an  Earthquake,  An- 
other Shower  poured  down  about  1200  Stcnes 
near  Abdua,  like  rufly  Iron,  ftrong,  fmooth, 
hard,  and  of  a  ilrong  fulphureous  Smell.  3. 
Hence  we  fee  what  folid  BoJies  may  b^  fup- 
ported  a  long  while  in  the  Air,  as  well  thefc 
mentioned,  as  the  many  Showers  of  great  Hail 
of  feveral  Inches  Diameter  as  well  as  Circum- 
ference, and  from  Ounces  to  ■feme  Pounds 
Weight,  &c.  4.  We  fee  the  Atmofphere  i.felf, 
though  capable  of  fuftaining  great  Weights,  yet 
has  been,  and  may  be  loaded  by  an  Acgegate 
of  either  Exhalations  of  unwieldy  Bodies 
H  h  2  thiovvn 


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(468) 
thrown  or  carried  up  into  it,  yea  even  of  Va- 
pours, which  though  they  may  expand,  and 
fill  or  cover  a  larger  Space  or  Area,  yet  bKome 
too  heavy  for  that  elaftic  Fluid  to  fuilain,  even 
when  expanded  on  its  Surface :  Hence  the  fatal 
burfting  of  Clouds,  fhooting  of  Stars,  Flakes 
of  Ice,  monftrous  Hail,  S^c.  5.  We  find,  that 
when  the  Pores  of  the  Earth  are  very  open. 
Exhalations  rife  plentifully,  when  the  Ajr  is 
difpofed  to  fupport  them  ;  Nitre  and  Sulphur 
may  be  fo  compreffed,  as  to  be  fhut  up  by  the 
Froll  in  the  Air,  in  the  midft  of  great  Hail- 
ilones.  6.  It  is  Ignorance  or  Superflition  to 
imagine,  that  every  Shower  of  fmall  Scoacs, 
Duft,  Afhes,  or  Soioak,  fhould  be  thought 
ominous,  feeing  on  Eruptions  of  Vulcanos,  ct 
EreiAion  of  Ifltnds  out  of  the  Sca«,  fuch  Ma- 
teiials  are  thrown  out,  and  cirried  to  a  great 
Diflance  in  the  Air,  by  ftrong  fwift  Winds, 
y.  From  the  great  Alterations  of  Air,  Rains, 
Dews  and  Springs,  during  and  immediately 
after  E^r.hquakes,  where  Flalhcs  of  Fire  and 
Flames  rife  out  of  the  Chafms  of  the  Earth,  or 
where  there  are  burning  Vulcanos  difcharging 
their  liquid,  confufed,  mineral,  bituminous  Sub- 
ilances,  there  feems  to  be  a  curious  natural, 
fubterranean  Kind  of  ChemiAry  carried  on  at 
Times  in  fome  Pans  of  the  Bowels  of  the 
Earth.  8.  Bloody,  milky,  or  other  unnatural 
Springs,  need  not  always  be  ominous  and 
frightful,  lince  feveral  fupra  or  fubtcrranean 
Commotions  of  a  deep-coloured  Bo!c,  red  Clay, 
or  deep  ruby,  may  caufe  Springs  to  fend  out 
Water  red  as  Blood }  or  if  a  Vein  of  Brazil  be 
mixed 


d=,Googk' 


(469) 

mixed  with  the  hidden  Stratum  that  is  (haken, 
the  Water  will  be  fetid  as  well  as  red  :  even  a 
fliaken  Strata,  or  new  Springs  burning  out  of 
Chalk,  may  make  the  Waters  milky,  or  lijce 
thick  Cream,  and  leave  their  grolTer  and  hea- 
vier Parte  in  their  Courfe,  or  Sides  and  Bottom 
of  the  Bafon,  like  Cream  :  for  Leaves  or 
Woods  of  aftringent  Trees  or  Shrubs  may  fall 
into  Chalybeat  Springs,  and  turn  the  Waters 
purple,  red,  blue,  or  black.  Thefc,  or  the 
like  Alterations,  may  be  the  Effefls  of  either 
Earthquakes  or  Springs  having  their  old  Courfes 
flopt  up,  and  forcing  open  new  Paifages  through 
frefli  and  different  Strata  of  Earths  or  Mi- 
nerals i  or  from  Works  carrying  on  near  the 
Springheads,  or  near  fome  of  its  lateral 
Branches,  with  which  it  communicates ;  or 
from  l(;me  Change  in  the  fubtcrranean  Atj  r.s 
fome  Springs  1  have  fecn,  have  the  Colour  of 
their  Waters  quite  changed  before  great  Winds, 
Tcmpefts,  Rains,  &c.  9.  As  to  Honey- dews, 
it  is  a  well  known  Obfcrvation,  that  in  Sum- 
mcrs'Mornings  during  hot  Weather,  the  Leaves 
of  Oaks,  efpccially  in  great  Forefts,  are  covered 
with,  and  drop  down,  a  fweet,  flimy,  balfamic 
Liquor,  like  Honey,  or  melted  Manna ; .  which 
being  nreticd,  thinned,  and  carried  into  the  Air, 
driven  down  in  Clouda  fome  Diflance  oir,  may  at 
Nighr,  when  the  Air  is  clear,  fall  down  in  a 
Dew.  10.  In  the  fame  Manner  may  the  Af- 
centor  Defcent  of  folphurecu*  Exhalaiions,  col- 
lc<3ed  in  the  Air,  fall  down  at  Night  like  Buster 
or  Tallow,  as  it  was  exhaled  in  a  thick,  ful- 
H  h  3  phuieous 


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phureous,  ftinking  Fog.  1 1 .  Nor  need  Sbowen 
of  Grain,  Fi(h,  Wool,  Birds,  &c.  be  far- 
prizing,  fince  fo^h  Things  cannot  refift  the 
Force  of  Tempefts,  or  Spouts  at  Sea,  that  take 
»p  WhirlFo;)ls  of  Water,  Ricks  of  Corn  and 
Hay,  Roofs  of  ilately  Buildings,  old  faft-^own 
Trjcs,  &c.  when  the  Turnado  difpels,  they  moft 
drop  down  at  the  Diftance  to  which  they  woe 
carried  in  the  Air.  It  is  alfo  remarkable,  that 
fuch  Rains  arc  never  of  any  great  Eartcnt ;  they 
reach  but  a  little  Way. 

yy.  Great  Floods  arc  from,  t.  Either  fuddeb 
and  violent,  or  long  and  great  Rains.  2.  From 
Tides  and  great  Land  Floods  joined.  3.  From 
oppofitc  Winds  forcing  up  the  Sea,  and  damming 
fc^ck  the  Land  Floods  at  the  fame  Time,  as  on 
OBo'er  ift,  1250,  September  30th,  1555,  OBo- 
ber  22d,  1629,  November  1660,  November 
jtt^,  Marcbioxh,  i ^jo, September b'^,isg2y 
December  1600,  December  26th,  1601,  Fe- 
bruary  23d  and  24th,  1602,  March  1604;  in 
all  which  the  great  Tide-Rivers  had  both  the 
Tide  driven  impetuoufly  in  by  the  Wind  or 
Hurricane,  and  the  Land  Flood  kept  up^  to 
an  incredible  Deftru<!lion  of  Peoples  Lands  and 
Cattle.  Or,  4.  From  the  Perigaum  of  the 
Moon,  efpecially  in  its  firft  and  Jaft  Quarters, 
wherein  it  comes  nearer  the  Earth ;  as  on  No- 
vember the  5th,  1530,  when  that  fatal  Inun- 
dation happened  in  Zealand;  "Jamtary  13th, 
1592,  Sandwich  and  the  Marihcs  were  over- 
flooded  j  November  ift,  1570,  Jnt^erp  and 
the  Coafts  of  Holland  were  laid  under  Wa- 


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(  47') 
terj  December  8tb,  1600 ;  January  zoth,  1670, 
the  Severn  laid  Somerjet  and  Gloucefter  under 
Water;  January  23d,  162^,  Friejland  viis 
drowned  i  February  23d,  1651  ;■  y^figuji  idy'^ 
1657;  Jiugu/i  22d,  1658!  September  2()X.h^ 
166 1  i  JW-ay  24ih,  1663  j  September  ift,  1669 ; 
with  a  Multitude  of  othe:  s,  according  to  Dr. 
Wallit.  Such  Inundations  may  happen  from 
the  diurnal,  annual,  and  menilrual  Motions  of 
the  Earth.  6.  On  the  contrary,  a  violent 
Tempeft  of  Wind  in  the  fame  Direftion  with 
the  Decent  oi  the  River,  may  fo  drive  down 
its  Water  before  it,  and  keep  out  the  £ea  and 
Tide,  that  the  Channel  of  the  River  and  thofe 
may  be  almoft  dry,  and  yet  mean  no  more 
than  the  daily  common  Phxnomenft  of  Na- 
ture, as  Winds,  Tides,  Eclipfes,  Phaf^s  of  the 
Moon,  Conjundions  and  Oppofiiions  of  the 
Planets, '©'f.  Tables  of  which  wculd  be  ro  lefs 
large  than  needlele.  7.  Great  fatal  Floods 
-may  happen  from  great  Spouts  of  Water  burft- 
ing  out  of  Mountains,  or  falling  from  the 
Clouds,  or  Torrents  from  Mountains,  after 
Tempeils  of  Rain. 

78.  Snow  is  preceded  by  Clouds  like  woolly 
Fleeces,  appearir^  bigh,  and  moving  flowly^ 
the  Middle  dark,  and  Edges  white.  The 
Riling  Sun  looks  pale.  Ravens  make  a  great 
Noife,  and  Biids  flag  their  Tails,  a  great  cold 
Wind  before.  Th?  Air  immediately  turns 
warm,  as  the  Clouds  thicken.  Fifteen  Feet 
deep  of  new  fallen  Snow  melted,  affords  twenty 
Lines  deep  of  Water,  or  one  ninth.  A  Foot 
H  h  4  fquare 


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(  472  ) 
iquire  of  new  ^len  Snow  here  produced  fear 
Pints,  and  a  half  of  Water  ;  but  when  ic  had 
laid  twenty-fcur  Hours,  above  five  Pints.  1700 
Yards  fquare  of  that  Efcpth  would  afibrd  above 
270937  Hogftieads  of  Water. 

79.  The  Approach  of  Hail  is  known  from 
the  Sun's  cafting  a  gliftering  Light  at  riling,  as 
though  refleacd  by  fome  lucid  Body,  even 
when  there  are  few  or  no  Gouds.  The  Eafletn 
Sky  looks  pale  before  Sun-rifing,  and  rcfra^ed 
Rays  appear  in  the  thick  Cknids,  which  look 
fleecy,  duflcy,  and  inclining  to  yellow ;  they 
move  heavily,  though  the  Wind  be  briflc,  or 
when  the  Clouds  are  of  a  whitilh  blue,  and 
expand  much,  either  fmal)  Hail  or  firozen  Mills 
are  at  hand;  the  Clouds  then  feem  curdling. 

80.  After  Rains  fuccecds  fair  Weather,  which 
with  a  temperate  Air  (neither  fcorching  hot 
nor  pinching  cold)  and  felutiferous  Wind, 
(which  with  us  we  find  to  be  the  W.  Wind 
chiefiy)  is  the  mo{l  defirable  and  pleafant. 
Thefe  are  the  common  Signs  of  ^r  Weather 
and  Drought :  If  the  Sky  is  red  where  the  Sun 
fets,  the  Clouds  high  and  light }  if  the  Moon 
looks  clear,  or  her  Horns  fiiarp  j  if  great  Clouds 
break,  and  turn  fmaller  and  imaller,  eipecially 
afcer  heavy  and  long  Rains ;  if  the  Rainbow 
appears  after  long  Rains,  if  it  vanifhes  all  to- 
gether at  once,  if  it  turns  lighter  and  lighter, 
and  the  Colours  fairer,  or  if  it  is  in  the  £.  at 
Night,  and  its  Colours  bright,  it  prefagesWind 
withal.  If  Mifts  rife  out  of  Ponds,  Rivers, 
and  Lakes,  and  thefe  vanifli }  if  there  is  a  ge- 
neral 


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.  (473  ) 
neral  Mift  on  high  and  low  Grounds  before 
SuD-rifing,  near  the  Full  Moon ;  if  after  Sun- 
ietting  or  before  its  Riling,  a  white  Mift  ariies 
from  Waters,  Marihes,  or  Meads,  the  Mor- 
row is  fair  and  hot;  if  Dandelyon-down  or 
Pimpernel-flowers  are  fpread  out,  or  Winta:- 
pipe  Flowers  open  in  the  Morning ;  if  the  San 
rifcs  and  fets  fair  and  bright  without  Clouds, 
or  the  Clouds  vanifli  in  the  Sky ;  if  the  Moon, 
being  three  or  four  Days  old,  looks  fharp  and 
bright,  *tis  fair  till  full,  if  not  during  the  whole 
Moon.  A  bright  Circle  about  the  full  Moon 
promifes  fair,  if  the  Stars  look  clear  and  bright, 
darting  forth  their  Rays ;  if  little  Clouds  ^nk 
low  at  E.  or  S.W.  if  the  Tops  of  the  Hills 
arc  clear,  and  fccm  fiirther  off  j  if  white  woolly 
Clouds  a(^>ear  N.W.  if  the  MiAs  or  white 
Clouds  that  hang  over  Poods  or  Rivers  fpread 
no  farther ;  if  the  blue  and  yellowifh  Parts  of 
the  Rainbow  fcem  of  a  very  bright  and  light 
Colour  after  a  Shower ;  if  the  Air  and  Gra^ 
feem  full  of  Spiders  Webs }  if  Bees  fly  hr 
from  their  Hives,  and  come  home  late  at 
Night;  if  Gnats  gather  in  great  Swarms  or 
Clouds ;  if  Kits  and  Swallows  fly  high,  or 
Larks  and  green  I^overs,  and  fing  long;  If 
Water-Fowls  flock  to  Water,  and  Land-Fowls 
to  Land,  N.  N.E.  and  E.  Winds  bring  mod 
dry  Weather ;  if  the  Wind  turns  N.  E.  and 
fixes  there  two  Days,  and  no  Rain  the  third 
Day  J  nor  docs  the  Wind  turn  S,  if  it  fhifts 
thence  to  N.  E.  again,  and  keeps  there  two 
Ddys,  and  neither  turns  S.  nor  rains  the  third  Day, 
it  will  fix  moftly  there  for  two  or  three  Months, 
Thefe 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIC 


(  474  ) 
Th«fe  Chaogei  to  the  N.  are  finished  ia  three, 
Weekf  time.  If  the  Wind  has  been  chiefly 
N.  for  two  Months  paft  or  more,  then  turns 
S.  it  is  often  i^ir  for  three  or  four  Days ;  on 
thfi  fourth  or  fifth  Day  comes  the  Rain,  ex^ 
cept  the  Wind  Oiifts  N.  then  the  &ir  Weather 
pontioues.  Woods  or  Mountains  fcemiog  at  a 
^%ater  Diflance,  or  Sounds  loft  or  weakened 
ID  a  little  Way  ;^  or  an  upper  and  lower  Current 
of  Qppofite  Winds  at  the  fame  Time  i  Strii^ 
of  miiJGcitl  Inftniments  founding  dull ;  lei^gtben- 
ing  and  flackening  of  Cords  and  Ropes.  The 
high  thui  Clouds  in  the  W.  are  red  at  Night, 
and  then  next  Morning  grey  Clouds,  or  high, 
imall  ricked-up  grey  Clouds,  covering  the  He- 
mifphere ;  a  long,  flow,  gradual  Afccnt  of  the 
Mercury}  a  tedious  running  out  of  freih  Floods 
in  Rivers;  quick  fharp  Showers  decrcaflng  is 
Quantity,  at  longer  Intervals ;  a  loud  fliriU 
Noife  of  Water  falls  from  N.  E.  N.  or  N.W. 
after  Rain ;  old  Aches  and  Pains  lefliening ;  in- 
creafed  Agility  and  Alacrity  both  of  Body  and 
Mind,  are  all  Signs  of  fair  Weather  at  hand. 
From  watery  Meteors  and  Frofls  come  we  to 
other  Meteors. 

8 1.  From  comparing  a  Table  of  near  an 
hundred  and  twen^  great  Frofls,  the  following 
Obfi;rvations  feem  to  hold  in  general :  .  i .  That 
when  the  natural  and  ordinary  Courfe  or 
TeiQperatures  of  the  Seafons  have  been  ine- 
gular,  or  left  for  fome  time,  the  Weather  oftcQ 
uofeafooably  cold,  it  often  ends  in  long  and 
heavy  Rains }  thefe  fi-equeotly  in  Frofls,  one 


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(  475  ) 

or  two  whereof  moAly  iets  the  Seafons  right 
again.  2.  Cold  dry  Summers  are  often  the 
Forerunners  of  rainy  Harvefts,  iboncr  or  later. 
3.  Rainy  SummerE,  but  efpecially  Harvefts^ 
arc  a  great  Sign  of  a  fcofty  or  fevore  Winter,  u 
it  is  the  Caie  of  near  half  the  Frofts  in  the 
Table.  4..  Froils  immediately  facceeding  long 
-Rains  are  rarely  durable.  5.  Great  Frofts  ft\- 
dom  fucceed  long  Rains  immediately,  but  after 
the  Intervention  of  one  or  a  few  Weeks.  iV.  S» 
What  I  call  great  Frofts  are  both  fcvere  and 
durable,  not  for  Gx,  eight,  or  ten  Da3rs,  be 
they  ever  fo  fcvere.  6.  Zxng  Frofts  are  moftly 
fiicceeded  by  Droughts,  and  often  hot  Sum- 
mers. 7.  When  the  Sprii^  and  Summer,  after 
a  long  Froft,  prove  un&afooably  cold,  the  next 
Harveft  is  often  rainy,  and  the  Winter  after 
frofty,  then  comes  a  hot  and  moderately  warm 
dry  Summer.  8.  If  the  Summer  is  full  of 
Tempefls  of  Wind,  Thunder,  Lightning,  Hail 
and  Rains,  it  is  equivalent  to  a  rainy  Summer 
or  Harvcft,  in  bringing  about  a  Winter  Froft. 
9.  An  uncommon  Fertility  of  the  Earth  fome- 
.  times  portdids  a  great  Froft,  as  docs  Barrennefs 
of  Land,  Famine,  or  Dearth  next  Year.  10. 
Many  long  and  great  Floods  near  the  End  of 
Harveft  or  Beginning  of  Winter,  indicate  hard 
Froft  to  fbllow.  1 1 .  Long  hard  Frofts  withocit 
Snow  are  hurtful  to  the  Winter  Corns.  la.  A 
Load  of  Snow  preceding  or  coming  with  the 
Beginning  of  a  hard  Froft,  fertilizes  the  £arth, 
if  carried  off  in  due  Time  without  a  Deluge  of 
Rain  and  great  Floods,  and  followed  by  a  warm 
Spring. 


i.vCoogIc 


(  476  ) 
Spring.  13.  The  iboner  in  the  Seaibn  great 
or  long  Frofls  break,  the  greater  TempcAs, 
Storms  and  Floods :  The  later  in  the  Sealbo 
the  Thaw  comes,  it  moftly  goes  of  with  little 
or  no  Rain  or  Storms.  14.  Different  Tem- 
peratures of  the  Air  will  produce  a  Froil  in 
different  Countries,  as  well  as  different  He%hts 
of  the  Mercury  will  produce  Rain  or  £ur  Wea- 
ther }  for  the  freezing  Point  in  EttgUnd  is  60 
or  65  i  in  Siciiy  51; ;  lb  a  Temperature  of  the 
Air,  inequal  in  itfelf,  may  leem  equal  to  the 
Inhabitants  of  the  different  Climates.  15.  Frofts 
are  either  general,  as  that  of  1709,  or  topical, 
as  that  of  1 740,  which  was  the  mod  fevere  in 
Britain^  France^  Germany,  &c.  yet  was  laid 
to  be  milder  in  the  Iflands  near  the  Poles ;  that 
the  Floods  at  the  fame  time  in  Spain  were  laid 
to  be  as  deftruftive  there,  as  the  Froft  was  here ; 
or  the  three  Years  great  Drought  they  endured 
in  1737,  38,  39;  which  laft,  efpecially  the 
Harveft,  was  very  rainy  all  over  the  firft  Coun- 
tries, 16.  Early  and  long  Frofts  going  off  lea- 
fonably,  and  fucceeded  by  a  warm  Spring  and 
Summer,  with  feafbnable  Rains,  leave  always 
a  fruitfiit  Year,  if  not  prevented  by  the  Seeds 
being  killed,  rotten,  or  ftarved  under  the  Clod, 
or  deftroyed  by  Thunder,  Lightning  and  Tern* 
.  peft.  17.  A  long  hard  Froft  beginning  early, 
as  in  O^oSer^  or  ift  oi November^  promifes-in 
general  a  good,  hot,  and  plentiful  Summer  to 
follow,  A  hard  continued  Froft  fctting  in 
with  the  End  of  the  old  Year,  or  Beginning  of 
the  new,  threatens  a  late  hard  Spring  and  cold 
Summer 


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(477) 
Summer  after,  whether  dry  or  wet ;  if  the  laft, 
the  preceding  Seafons  have  fome  time  paft  been 
irregular  j  and  another  fevere  Winter  may  be 
expected  to  fet  them  right ;  and  the  fooner  it 
fets  in^  the  better  for  the  next  Spring  and  Sum- 
mer. 1 8.  An  open  Winter  is  portended  by 
an  open,  dry,  or  hot  Summer ;  Iwt  if  it  reach 
into  OSober,  the  laft  denotes  an  open  Beginning 
of  Winter,  and  a  colder  Latter  Hnd  and  Spring. 
39.  An  early  Winter  often  promifcs  a  good 
Spring,  if  not  prevented  by  long  Frofts.  20. 
We  don't  find  above  two  great  long  Frofb 
immediately  fucceeding  one  another;  but  we 
find  four,  five,  or  fix  rainy  Years  in  a  Series, 
and  fometimes  as  many  droughty  Years,  yea 
once  thirty-fix .  Years  Drought  and  Heat  to- 
gether in  the  fame  Country.  21.  Thefe  Signs 
^retel  a  bard  Winter,  and  cold  rainy  Summer 
and  Harvefi,  but  efpecially  the  laft.  If  the 
long  profiife  Sweats  on  Stone,  Marble  or  Brick, 
and  Wainfcot  Walls  and  Doors,  turn  fuddenly 
dry  in  the  Beginning  of  Winter,  and  Houfe- 
eves  drop  flowly^  if  the  Birds  that  yearly 
change  Climates,  fiy  the  colder  ones  early; 
fome  add  great  Plenty  of  Hips  and  Haws;  this 
heldtruein  1709,  1715,'and  1739.  22.  The 
following  prefages  FroA  in  general ;  the  Sun 
fets  broader  than  ufual  in  a  Mift  ;  and  a  white 
Fog  fails  along  low  and  marfiiy  Grounds.  The 
Moon  after  the  Change  fhines  forth  biight  with 
iharp  Horns.  The  Stars  fccm  more  bi  igbt  and 
twinkling  ;  Starlings,  Swallows,  and  Felde- 
fares  hallen  out  of  the  Northern  to  the  Southern 
Cli- 


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Cimafes  early ;  Small  Birde  hoard  up  Hips, 
Haws,  &c.  in  Plenty  in  their  NeiU  and  hollow 
Trees ;  cold  Dews  and  white  Hoar-frolh  begin 
in  the  latter  End  oiJugu/li  Uitle^  low,  hovering 
Clonds  Ay  in  the  N.  when  none  are  vifiUe  »ny 
where  elfe ;  hot  Alhes  ilirred  u|>  are  blue ;  the 
Fire  bums  fiercrfy,  with  clearer  blue  Flames, 
and  a  greater  Heat.  33.  The  Froft  is  likdy 
to  hold  long,  if  the  Wind  on  the  Change  of 
the  Moon  Oiifts  W.  or  N.  £.  if  there  are  Tc 
veral  Mornings  Hoar-firofts  abont  the  Uttra- 
End  of  Sfptemher  -,  if  a  vo-y  rainy  Harvcft  foc- 
ceeds  a  cold  late  Spring,  and  a  cold  wet  Sum- 
mer, then  fwne  Days  fciir  Weather,  and  the 
Wind  fixes  N.  or  N.E,  intenfely  cold,  with 
Flakes  of  Snow,  or  fmall  Snow  and  little  fnru^ 
Hail.  24.  That  a  Thaw  is  near,  and  tnaj 
be  fufpc^ted  from  the  Sun's  appearing  watery 
at  rifing,  or  fctting  in  blueifh  Clauds,  or  darting 
Te^aA^  Rays  into  them,  the  Stars  look  dull] 
and  the  Moon's  Horns  Wunt  j  if  the  Wind 
has  ilood  long  and  very  fharp  in  a  Point,  then 
fiiifts  fuddenly,  and  no  new  Moon  near  j  if 
withered  Rufhes,  Reeds,  or  Flags  whiille  with 
the  Wind.  25.  If  the  Wind  Siifts  with  the 
Change  of  the  Moon,  thdn  returns  to  its  old 
Quarter  in  a  Day  or  twq,  the  Froft  goes  on, 
though  there  be  a  Relent,  or  fmall  Thaw  for 
the  prefcnt.  26.  Though  our  Account  of 
Frofts  be  very  lame  and  deficient,  yet  we  may 
clearly  obferve  fome  Periods  of  mod  Countries, 
that  great,  long  and  fevere  ones  generally  ap- 
pear within  tturee  or  four  Years  of  the  latne 
Pointj 
3 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gIe 


(  479  ) 
Point,  as  though  they  obferved  fome  datk  Pc' 
riods  of  Revolution,  as  from  38  to  43,  58 
to  64,  69,  75  or  6,  20  to  25  i  fuch  as  ha{^)«i 
more  irregularly,  as  in  the  i&,  9th,  or  10th 
Decade,  are  often  longer  and  feverer.  27.  Of 
X15  remarkable  Frofls,  about  an  half  of  them 
have  been  preceded  t^  great  and  long  Rains. 
Other  Indications  of  a  fevere  Winter  are,  if  the 
knoiediately  preceding  Winter  and  Summer 
have  been  dry  and  cold,  efpccially  with  fre- 
quent N.  and  N.E.  Winds  j  if  the  Sky  in  yuh 
and  Auguft  hasoften  been  covered  withdark  black 
Clouds,  which  cool  the  Earth  much,  and  difpofi: 
it  for  a  Froll ;  for  a  dry  Air  cools  fooner,  is  hea- 
vier, and  retains  its  Cold  longer  than  a  moift. 
Frequent  Northern  Lights  in  Harveft,  followed 
or  attended  by  cool  clear  Weather  ;  or  if  an 
unufual  Number  of  large  Spots  have  been  on 
the  Stm's  Dillc  for  fome  Time  before ;  for 
thefe,  by  Length  of  Time,  in  fome  Degree 
weaken  or  diminifh  the  Force  of  its  Rays,  and 
give  the  cold  Winds  greater  Liberty  to  prev»l 
on  the  Earth  and  Air :  All  which  concurring, 
the  Cold  of  the  Air  muft  increafe,  and  come  to 
an  Extreme. 

82.  We  come  to  another  Kind  of  Meteors, 
called  Aurora  BoreaUsy  Lumen  Zodiacum^  or 
Nertbem  Lights ;  thefe  are  no  Upftarts,  they 
have  been  long  known.  Andreas  Cel/its,  Pro- 
feflbrof  Adronomy  at  Upfal,  pronounces  them 
co-eval  with  the  Arflic  Pole,  having  been  al- 
ways common  in  Ice/and,  Greenland,  Lapland 
and  Norway.  Our  Saxon  Chronologcrs  took 
early 


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(  48o  ) 
etrlyi^otice  of  them  ia  £rkairt,.hat  nmftly 
leffet.  than  the  Cpoclufion  of  the  laft  and  Be- 
ginning of  this  "Century  have  produced-    Thefc 
taken  natice  of  in  Brittiiny.Jknmark,.Sweiia, 
Cermairy,  and  fotnetimes  in  France,  Spain  aad 
Jtaly,  have  been  greater,  and.ieem.^no^£ai  ^ 
from  15.6Q  to  1580,  they  were  very  common} 
but  Jrom  that  to  1699  were  fddomer  ieen: . 
then  they  begsti  to  be  more  iiegueot  aod  set- 
lible  in  Britain^  though  fcaice  nolicxd  io  Eag- 
land  before  M^cb  1,716.    After  1729,  they 
declined  both  in  Frequency  and  Frldi^oels, 
and  of  late  Years  have  been  both  ieXdc^.aad  . 
little. .  They  .were  very  frequent  in  the.BcflaT 
ning  of  the  feventeenth  Century ;  but  tb^-of 
the  firft  two  Decades  of  this  Century  woe 
both  greatt^a  and  extended  iarther  Bom  the 
Poles.    The  fame  learned  Cei/iii,  of  thirty-fij: 
more  remarkable  ones  obferved  by  himfelf  s^ 
Vyhl  from  17 16  to  1732,  with  tae  State  .gf 
the  Air  and  Winds  on  the  precedir^  prcfaot; 
and  following  Days,  he  could  not  obferve  thdt 
the,  Air  and  Winds  had  any  Share  in  producing 
them»  nor  that  a  notable  Cold  always  attended  - 
them,  or  that  they  prciaged  a  Change  of  WciV* ' 
thcrj   on  the  contrary,  he  moftly  ^ounii  thc.- 
Air  calmer,   clearer,   heavier,   and  fitt^,  &ff- 
raifing  and  fuflaining  the  Vapours,  efpe(;iilUy  - 
when  the  Heavens  feemedto  be  ina!]^4i?nex.., 
(which  Obrervers  {hould  carefully  dtftli^i^  it 
from  the  leiTer  Lights.)     Some  Phijoi^ih^  ' 
plead,  that  both  the  one  and  the  other/oi'jtllf)^' 
IS  the  Efied  of  mere  Sulphur  aiad  Isiitce  exbalpd 
fiom 


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(  48i  ) 
fiom  the  Earth.  Others  will  hare  the  firft  to 
be  only  the  Atmofphere  of  the  Sun,  or  a  cer- 
tain thin,  fine,  k/^  Matter,  either  refplendent 
of  its  own  Nature,  or  enlightend  by  the  Sun- 
Beams  circling  round  the  Solar  Globe,  but  ex- 
tending and  revolving  itfclf  profuiely  about  the 
Equator  of  this  ConftcUation ;  as  the  fame  Solar 
Atmofphere  gives  fome  Light  to  our  Hemi- 
iphere,  during  a  total  Eclipfe  of  the  Sun  :  So 
CelJuSt  MavianuSj  £.  Marcus^  Kincbiut  de 
I>uiller,  Jybijion,  &c.  But  thefe  Speculations 
do  not  account  for  their  Revolutioa<!,  nor  why 
every  clear  Sky  has  them  not,  nor  for  their  In- 
creaie,  nor  their  Variety ;  for  fometimcs  they 
rife  from  a  dear  Sky,  fomeljmes  from  white, 
black,  or  blood-red  Clouds  j  fometimcs  the 
Lights  or  Streamers  of  a  whitiCh  clear,  other 
times  of  a  yellow,  orange,  b;  ight  vermillion, 
or  blood-red  Colour.  I  have  ftriifHy  obferved 
them  for  forty  Years  pad  in  all  Points  and 
Weather?,  when  the  Sky  was  clear,  in  all  Sea- 
fons  of  the  Year  j  fomet!mes  in  the  Prefcntc 
and  Light,  as  well  as  Abfence  of  the  Moon. 
They  were  frcquenteft  from  the  latter  End  of 
March  to  the  Beginning  or  Middle  of  June ; 
yet  fomedmeS  moft  terrible  in  the  latter  End 
of  Harvcft  and  Beginning  of  Winter,  as  in 
OBober  1 699 ;  and  moftly  indicated  a  Conti- 
nuance of  the  fame  State  of  Weather  in  which 
they  happened,  whether  it  was  good  or  bjd. 
I  have  fcen  moft  of  ihem  in  the  beft  and  moft 
plentiful  Years,  and  fewcft  in  the  barren. 
Sometimes  their  Motions  are  very  quick,  other 
I  i  times 


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{ 4^» ) 

tigsf^  languid,  or  ftpod  ^tll  till  thcp  .v^f^^ed. 
They  moAly  appear  as  Su'eamers,  (wkic^  I 
fuppofe  is  w^it  was  qall^  ^fmip&,-^^tii>g  iQ 
the  Air,  Battles  ^qd  5kirmi(h$s  -,)  ,tvyi{«  o^4ate 
Tears  I  (ibftrved  like  a  fjplepjjid  fai^  Crowa, 
wiiole  Vertex  ftood  ^ircflly  tpw^jd  tbc  ?icnith, 
and  lis  inijer  (:oncave  Si^c  to  the  {f^  its  Koobc 
moftctirioufly  fct  wit^  brilliant  Jewpl^  th^fcfl" 
and  faireft  llood  fopie  Hours  fixed.  -  -  -  -  (^ 
a]>ove  an  hundred  ani}  Tixty  of  them  which  Hftv^ 
teen  obferved  '  in  forty- fix  Years,  only  thir- 
teen have  fallen  in  th«  ftimp  Years  with  Earth- 
quakes, artd  eight  wi.lb  Comets.  They  arc 
mod  frequent  and  rem^rkal^le  during  and  after 
a  hard  Fio^,  which  goes  away  with  4  cle-r, 
WJirm  S.  S.W.  or.  W.  Wind,  without  Rain, 
as  in  1716 ;  or  after  a  dry  hot  Suaiin<f,  as  it 
Septei}iber  and  OScbfr  1 747  j  for  in,  both  tht^ 
the  Earth  plentiiMlly  emits  its  ialinc  ^d  ful- 
phurcous  E:(halationSj  the  Caufc  bot^pf  thtn 
and  of  Thi.nder  and  L^htning,^  ^\^\i  ii:tsft 
chiefly  (o  differ  in  the  fundry  Airimdes  ^hcyf^*; 
cend  to  ia.  the  Atmofphere :  Hence  the  a^^ 
there  is  of  the  one,  the  lefs  of  theptho:^  ,F(Dft 
prevents  the  AfcenV  of  the  grofier,  but  hind^ 
not  the  Hiling  of  the  more  miqpte  efhaitRg 
Particles  It  is  obfei  ved,  that  where  the  ^- 
rora  BoreaJei  are  moA  fequent,  ^ity.-JA^^$f4( 
one  ur  more  fair,  if  no^c1«ar  Days  ,(0  fuCCt9*ii 
p-oyidir()  thjy  feein  cl^^r  ,apd,  bright  .thfl^r 
Iclvcs.  And  if  they  are  frequriWi^tww^itiwi 
Beginning  of  Harvefl,  •  they  denote:  K  ^i.bfr 
rich  and  plcniiful,  and  a  goisd  Seaftip^ ..  If  t)^. 


i.vCoogIc 


( 4^i  y 

are  ofilen  In  Winter,  tli^  indicate  ii-^rpOotd* 
tofbccctd.  '  ,  , 

83.  Thire  is'yet  another  whole  Tribe  of  bo-i 
(Krlak)  Meteors,  vi'as.  Fiiry  Dragam^Fire^alts, 
TraSes  Igmta;,  Latufks  Pblans,  Tax,  &c.  Thcfe 
probably  cbme :  frtitn  die  fjme  combiiftible 
Matter  as  T^uHder  arid  Lightning  j  only  there 
fecmb  diis  Diffiirenf%.  tjiftt  the  hrft  cotlOft  6£ 
ihach  ibafter  PaTrid<fs  eVhaled  than  the  laft  t 
ahd  ib«hdfi)re  require  much  lorgtr  Time  td 
collefl  In  'the  Atmorphere,  -as  they  &ft;end  to  a 
ikr  gr^atbr  Height,  ahd'  niufl:  be  Mpcnded  iA 
fl  mwtk  thinafcr  ifitbcr  :  For  filch  whdfe 
Heights  have  been  cxartty  taken,  none  of 
them  have  been  loMrtr  than  thirty  Miles,  and 
otbefB  &aVe  tifcn  to  »i  hundred  ;  as  is  evident 
£-om  then-  bein^  feen  at  fo  great  Diftances  at 
the  ftaie  time :  For  thak  of  December  5, 1737; 
vrhitK  attended,  br  rafecr  concluded  that  tif-^ 
riblt  Mhehal  Confl.'gfalion,  was  feert  at  Fetacey 
and  (o  the  farthcft  Pbint  of  Iceland  -,  and  per- 
haps riiight  have  'bbeti  obferved  farther,  had 
Xhttt  been  Continent},  feeing  it  niadc  it^  ter- 
rible Explofion  over  Kilkenny ;  and  the  Loud- 
nefs  df  it  through  io  great  a  Diftarlce,  and  fo 
tblti  a^  Air,  at  leaft  two  thoufand  tiihe^  thinner 
tlian  out^i  which  leflens  the  Soilbd  to  a  two 
tHouTarkilh  Parr,  ^ill  readily  pfoM  what  M^. 
0^/m  advances,  that  fudi  a  Colleaion  of 
Va^rs'of  a  Mtlie  Diameter,  is  toftich  a  Col- 
fe^io*  of  the  like  Vapours,  in  a  great  Thunder 
Storni  herebetewj  of  fcarce  twenty  Feet  Dia- 
ineter>  as  the  Cubes  of  their  Diameters,  or 
li  2  as 


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{,  484  > 

as  16,000,000  to  1  s  io  thjit  the  l^plofipa  or 
Force  of  fuch .  a  Ball  of  Fire  woyld,  .  as.  to 
light,  Sound,  and  Strength,  be  in  the  fzmc 
ProportioD  alfo}  and  OjQuldXuch  a  Ball  of  Fire 
dclcend  downward,  what  dreadful  Deiblatioa 
mufl  it  make  in  a  Country  ?  Frtnn  the  In- 
Aances  of  them  in  this  HiHory,  I  cannot,  by 
comparing,  them  with  others,  find  them  to  be 
any  Forerunners  or  Frefages  of  general  w  par- 
ticular Cilamities  to  Nations  or  People,  what- 
ever they  may  be  here^cr  of  the  Omfumma- 
tiun  of  ajl  Things.  But .  t^e  fiery  Meteor  of 
of  December  2,  1739,  at  Night,  was  very  jdif- 
fcrent,  being  of  no  great  Height,  though. preity 
broad,  with  a  Tail »  it  went  from  N,  to  S.  was 
iollantly  followed  by  a  Sound  (a  fmall  E^h- 
quake  mod  likely)  fomewhat  like  Thunder  at 
a  Diftance,  and  went  (torn  S.  to  N.  Qwck\y 
after  was  a  great,  broad,  deep  Orange-cotour^ 
'Halo  .about  the  Moon  .  -  -  -  -  Of  feventy-iix 
Years  noted  for  thcfe.Jlfrf«r*,  only  thiriy-ii« 
of  them  fall  in  the  Years  of  Eartbguaiest  and 
thii  ty-two  with  Comets^  and  twelve  w»th  Aurora 
Borealef. 

84.  Earthquakes  of  all  Meteors  give  the 
Earth  the  fuddcneil  and  greateft  Conquijion, 
and  Arike  its  Inhabitants  with  the  moft  Jnflan- 
tancouf  and  ffjocking  Terror.  1.  From  the 
too  jufl  ApprehenHon  of  their  fi;emient  ipoft 
dreadful,  Gonfequencts  fuining,  overwhelming, 
and  iwtillowing  up  VillageE, Towns,  Mountainf, 
IflLinds,  ,  yea  whole  Counu-ics  or'  Kingdornf, 
with  their  Inhabitants,  both  rational  and  brutF- 


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a;  I'rdm  the  Notion  of  peftiferous  Steams  tifitjg 
out  of  the  Earth,  and  afFefting  Mankind,  -j; 
From  their  Suddenriefs'  and  Uncxpeflednefs4 
4;  Rotn  their  diiferent  Manner  of  Attacks. 
5.  From  the  general  Ignorance  of  their  true 
Caufcs,  whether  from  Fire,  Water,  Air,  or  Ex- 
halations from  Sulphur,  Vitriol,  Nitie,  or  Iron, 

85.  From  the  Hiftorics  we  mayobfcrve,  that 
they  have  feveral  different  Motions  J  as,  i.  Ho- 
rizontal, wherein  they  run  on  in  a  direA  Line, 
like  a  Wave  of  the  Sea,  heaving  up  the  Earth. 
i.  Elevating,  whereby  Iflands,  Mountains,  and 
Rocks  raife  up  their  awful  Turrets  from  the 
Bottom  of  the  Ocean,  or  Lakes,  or  Valleys. 
3.  Deprefling,  when  Mountains  are  turned  to 
Seas,  Lakes,  or  Valle)rs.  4.  Inclination,  whereby 
they  throw  together,  or  dafli  Mountains  ag.iiiift 
one  another.  It  is  by  the  fecond  they  caufe 
^eat  Chafms  or  Chinks  in  the  Earth. 

^6.  It  is  difficult  to  fix  on  certain  Signs  ei- 
ther of  their  more  remote  or  immediate  Ap- 
proaches, from  the  great  Deficiency  we  meet 
with  in  all  their  Hiflories,  (a  very  few  late 
ones  eTfcepted  j)  but  by  comparing  the  impcr- 
feft  Accounts  of  many  together,  fome  of  tlfff 
following  have  generally  been  obferved  to  pre- 
ceiJe  them.  i.  Great  Rains  or  Moirturc,  pre- 
ceded by  hot  and  dry  Weather.  2.The  Sea  rages 
fiveii  in  the  greafeft  Calms,  fwelli:,  and  its  Waves 
ifcem  to  fight ;  or  it  fuddenly  flies  its  Bounds, 
Jhrinks  in,  leaves  its  Channel  bare,  and  its  In- 
habitants dead.  3.  Water  in  the  Bottom  of 
I  i  3  deep 


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(4H> 

deepWelU  ts  nraddy,- dpd-finclte  of,  Sulptor. 
4.  The  Sky  i»  coveted  w(^  ypHoin  (M.browt 
Cloudy,  the  Sun  aad  Moon  are  vf:  ^a^gc  Co- 
l9Urs»  St  red  like  Bbod,.  nod  very.brew)^  or 
Mur^  wid  a]lObied&£;em  of  the  faineiCoIoorS* 
or  ^lefe  Lumuiaries  feem  dim  or  dull.  ,51.  iaiac~ 
times  {tidfJen  and  great  B^kodtj.  6.  Gorpct 
times  the  Sea  ceafes  to  ebb  or  Aovr  fome  Df^ 
or  WeeJtt  before.  7.  Other' Times  ^<^ba5» 
wide,  fiery  Meteors  laUaloQgthe.Sitff«GcofdK 
Barth,  yet  feem  to  kcop  aaflqHall^itancc&om 
the  Spoftators;  this  Fire  neither  boroS  nor 
0ngl»  Animals  or  Plants,  hut^saKind^of  maer 
Jgnii  fatuus.  8t  It  i&ufhtredin  hy  a.  bidden 
Change  of,  the  Temperature  of.  tihe-v^,  to 
fliarper  Cold  or  glovriog  Heati  .9J.A.&lall 
:grilmbb'ng  Noife,  as  at  a  great  DiAance,  it  iietrd 
ilnder  Grbond  ;  at  that  Inftant;  the  vingied 
Tribe  take  Wings  and  fly^  or<!3p.doNiui.dD& 
on  the  Ground,  ,  ■        '• 

87.  The  Caufe  of  fome  EarthqudfiRs  .mpK 

not  only  lie  deep  in  the  Earth, .  fen^  nfs  fied 

they  i^ke  no  lefi  a-  Compafi  thap  BeHetn^ 

Prance^  Geraiattf^  Smtzerlaiui,  &e.  M,  once, 

allowing  ibr  iheiv  difFercot  Meridjans }  ibiot  they 

mud  alio  be  iocredtbly  flrong  and  .pQ^ECrfai, 

ieeing  they  (halu  thegroatefl.  Riuigc3::Dftthe 

.  h^heil  Iti&untains,  VaUqys,  Sca^,  &Ci^.vti^itmt 

:  the-ComaHi[liica:bns,  or  YibratiQca'df  iheii^- 

..moipbere.     They  indtferiminawIy/pcndLthiBr 

'  Fucy  on  Cities,  Mountdhis^  afid  Rook&i'OnJhe 

WilderQeis,  and  ftrtikrFkins  j  aa  tbuofJ^^ 

-fidonius,  montioocd  by.£/rj2ifo,/\yiwcia>ftiCiiy 

.    .  .      .  of 


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(  +»7  ) 

of  Phanicia  was  fwalloued  up,  two  thirds  6f 
Sidon  fell  down ;  it  reached  as  far  as  S^ria,  ch« 
Cyclades,  and'£«Ayfl;  ftbppMl  theFouriiairisof 
^rttbufa  in  Ckalcis,  till  many  Days  after,  that 
they  burft  out  at  oihor  new  Springs';  if  (Jioofc 
the  whijle  Ifland  ^  Pieces,  till  <h*e  fiar.h 
opened  in  the  VitXS Lelantus,  and  gave  Vent 
to  a  Torrent  of  fiery  Clay  :  or  that  mentioned 
by  Plato  in  his  ^iaana^  related  by  the  Bg)'l>- 
ttan  P r jeRs  to  So/on  tlie  ptsx -/HBenian  Liiw- 
gi»er,  who  flouriflied  fix  hundred  Years  befori 
Chrifi^-xhaX  of  old  liiiie,  \^fithoiit  the  Siraitfe 
of  Gibraltar,  was  a  moli  extcnfive  liUnA,  larger 
than  all  J^  and  Africa  together,  caUed  Ai' 
Uniis^  vf'iyich  in  one  Day  and  Nighc  wasover- 
wht-lmed,,  and  fwallowed  up  by  the  Sea,  by  a 
terribic  Earthqiuka  and  Inundation.  The  like 
was  the  Fate  of  the  famous  IflL-nd  Mauvi  or 
Marroi,  a.  fmall,  rich,  and  populous  Kingdom 
on  the  Cojft  of  Japan,  where  the  beft  China 
in  the  World  was  formerly  made,  and  U  nil! 
found  and  fetched  up  by  Divers ;  an  1  that  men- 
tioned by  Democki  in  Straho^  whkh  hapjirned 
to  Lydia  and  Sonea,  cxtfnded  as  fir  as  7reqSf 
demolilhtd  Syrylus,  fwallowed  up  many  Vil- 
higcs,.  and  turned  Fens  into  great  Lakts:  or 
that  mentioned  by  Demetrius  Galiliami,  which 
ha]bpcned  over  Greeat,  and  drowned  a  great 
-  Fare  of  the  Lytbiades  Iflcs,  and  ftrpped  the  hot 
-Biiths  of  Edepfus  tliree  Days,  till  they  forced 
:  liew  Outlets,  threw  down  the  Walls  of  Oreui 

■  fiffd'  fevcn   Irandred  Houfes,  with  a  great  Part 

■  cDSeracelia,  Tracbtnia,  and  all  Pbalernm.-" 

li  4  The 


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(48») 

:    Hielikciiappeiiol todie ZtfooMu and  Jjm>/1 

:  fiaai  \  Scarfhia  was  dcmoliflieil  to  the  Fodd- 

■  ifUtbii,  and  feventecn  hnnikod  People  buried 

in  it,  and  near  a  thoofand  of  the  ^Unnii  :  or 

.thatof  P/iaj*  in  the  Rciga  of  Ti'^^ru^  wTUch 

. .  overthrew  twelve  or  tfautccn  Cities  of  j^  : 

or  that  of  St.  jSugu^ne  de  MiracuL  which  at 

once  deaioli(hed  an  hundred  Qtics  of  L^a  .- 

-  or  tboCc  which  happened  in  the  Reigns  ctf'  7ra- 
jan^  jM^iniaftj  &c.   And  probably  by  the&tne 

-  M^ns  might  an  Iftfamos  between  Calais  and 
Dover  be  cut  offj  and  another  between  Z>0- 
nacbadee  and  Portpatrick,  that  joined  Scttkud 
and  Ireland ;  as  the  I^  cf  Wight  was  tctnhxmk 
Hampjhire  by  an  Earthquake,  A.  D.  68. 

88.  From  die  fmall  Gleaning  of  tiie  Eflfeas 
of  Earthquakes  in  this  Hiilory,  and  thooGoids 
more  in  other  ancient  and  modern  Records, 
which  have  not  come  to  my  Hands,  befides 
endleis  that  never  were  recorded,  from  Ig- 
norance of  Letters  ;  fitrni  ail  which  it  is  node- 
niably  plain,  that  fuch  and  fo  great  Altecidons 
has  ^is  terraqueous  Globe  undergone  in  £uDdry 
Ages,  by  Seas  being  turned  to  Land,  and  Land 
to  Seas,  Mountains  funk  down  into  Lakes 
and  Valleys,  and  others  reared  up  their  Icfcy 
Turrets  from  the  Bottom  of  the  great  Ocean, 
that  it  is  abfolutely  impoflible  now  to.tcU  what 
the  Primordial  and  Poft-diluviaa  Stats.of  the 
Earth  was,  what  Countries  were  then  cx90ti- 
nuous,  cootiguous  or  Separated ;  what  wieto  the 
then  Boundaries  of  Sea  and  I.and  t!  wlutt.old 
Countries  loil,  or  new  gained  6nce  j  .vhat 
Com- 


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(  ♦89  ) 

Oxnmimkitaoo^lfUuiiu^s,  ttrTraOBof  Land 
■bcnvcen  Contioefit  and  jContiDcnt^JQaad^iid 
Illaod  were  then,  and  fiane  Ages  after,  xnflent, 
but-tong  fioce  quUe  kit:  Thif^  wkh  Stomns. 
IVn^ieftsi  and libimcanes,  anfwersantbeOb- 

jfe£tions  that  can  be  raHed  abost  peeing.  £ir 
diftant  Contkioits  before  die  Ule  of  Nav^- 
tioR:  For  1^.  the  laft,  (the  U&  ofioull  Boats. 
6f  Beafts  Hides,  Birk  of  Trees,  or  hollonred 
TreeSj  hani^  been  very  early  known)  fcana 
&w  Ferfons,  at  di&rcnt  Times,  might  1  be 
drhrenimofondry  Countries,  but  neither  could, 
nor  dared  to  retorn.  There  may  alio  be  Aill 
many  undiTcoTered  lAhmu^s,  by  which  they 
may  remove  in  iznall  Companies  from  Country 
to  Country  ;  but  having  no  Knowledge  of  Let- 
ters, could  not  pofiibly  traniinit  their  Fer^i- 
nations. 

89.  The  E&ds  of  Earthquakes  we  iee  are 
ehber  more  flight  or  trifling,  or  dangerous  and 
fliockii^.  I.  In  Proportion  to  the  Caiiie,  or 
to  the  Stowage  of  the  Earth  with  combuftible, 
or  other  proper  Matter,  finoe  they  are  often 
more  terrible  in  the  hotteft  Countries,  and  neai- 
Volcano's.  2.  As  the  Caofe  lies  more  fuper- 
ficial  or  deep  in  the  Earth,  according  to  which 
it  fhakes  a  longer  or  {horter  Way.  3.  As  the 
Pores  of  the  Earth  are  more  or  leis  obftrut^d 
or  opened  by  Frofis,  Droughts,  Raiiis,  Heats, 

-.  &c.  4.  According  to  the  Situation  of  Places 
ihaken  ;  £or  Cities,  Towns,  Villages,  or  Coon- 
tric»  in  hot  Climates,  near  Volcario's  elpecially, 

'  ieccive  more  Damage  than  thote  in-  temperate 

coo! 


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tSoA  Ceantries  wirfioQt  Volcano's,  on  fandy 
Formdanons}  light  Air  or  loofe  Ground  gpt 
off  the  6tt,  are  in  more  D-irlger  than  thole  on 
fa>rdffrongCay;  htaTySt'onc  or  Brick- Hcmfes, 
on  this '  ftrit  Kind  of  FountfetJons,  are  worie 
than-Wooden-Hbulcr.  5.  Very  barren,  fandy 
Raclu,  and  woody  Counrries  io  hot  Climates, 
•re  in-  dangcroas-  Situation'.  6.  Places  near  the 
hmieare  moftly  more  Kable  to  them  than  Coa(^> 
tries  near  the  Poles;  if  they  hare  no  Volcano's  ; 
AeyhflTe  them  aHb  more  terrible. 

90.  B^  compafing-ancienr  and  modern  Hif- 
torics  inr  the  different  Ages  of  the  World,  wfi 
iee  that  in  genera!  (Countries  that  have  Vol- 
cano's excepted)  therarc  ikr  fliott  both  of  the 
Danger  and  Terror  that  preceded  jrtid  attended 
thom  one  or  two-  thoufand  Years  ago,  either 
from  the  Caufe  being  weakened^  or  the^arth'a 
Surface  more-  di^jofcd  for  them. 

gi.  The  Earth'  feenrs  a  mecf  faperficial 
Stratam,  ffiiead  like  a  Ctuft  over  an  ima:icn& 
Abyfr  of  Waters ;  or  the  Waters  of  the  Sea 
have  a  free  CoinmunicatlDn  through  all  Pari* 
of  the  Globe;  or  Earthquakes  force  fubtcrra- 
ncan-  Hiato/s  as  far  as  the  Shock  reaches :  For 
in  many-  Earthquakes;  Waters  of  the  fame 
Saltnefs  with  the  Sea  gufli  oii:  impetuoufly,  and 
moft'  frefh  Springs  bwrame  fait  till  fomc  Days 
after,  where  the  Earthquakes  have  been  ter- 
ribic,  as  in  Sicily,  ^iiocb,  Cf'c, 

■    92.  Therefeems  nutonly'to  he.an  Abyfe  of 
Waters  treafiircdup  inthe  Bou'cls  of  the  Earth, 

but  that  there  is~  al&  a  Communicatioo  be- 


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tweeo  die  fi^tenancan  aod  rDptetenanean  Flnii* 
during  fome  terrible  EasEhqDAkcft;  otbcrwifei 
how  come  main  Seas  to  fhruik  in  «r  bo  4ri«l 
ttpi^  If  from  meer  Elevation  o£  ikt- .iubrnviiat 
'Ea.nhj  then  theft  Waters  rufhing  forcibly  hacfc 
to  otheo  Seas,  mnil  fwell  liiem,  tO'  the  clieiu^^ 
the  othcf)  whole  CoDntrics  about  the  fame  time'; 
but  we  read  of  no  fuafa  thiag.  Again,  tftha 
were  not  the  Cafe,  whence  fhould  Waters 
coaie,.tfaat  tncn  large,  fruitful,  papulous Coun^ 
tries  into  a  perpetual  Ocean,  as  tbe  j^filanticop. 
Mauri;,  when,  yet  no  fucb  Coantries- rile  out 
of  tho.Depth'inileadof  the  Dsiuged  ?  Suohaai- 
thentio  Hiflories  confidered,  may  readily  ac- 
count how  Ameriea  comes  to  be  cut  off  kosoi 
allthe  odier  three  Parts  of  the  World. 
'  95.  Thunder  and  Eartluiuakes  io-  genera! 
Ceaa  moce  peculiar  to  rainy  Seaibns  in  tbefe 
Countries;  the  lail-fecm  ptecedizd  by  a  cor>teF 
Air.  after  a  manner,  the  iirft  by  a  hotter  afier 
a  cooler.  ---- Eanhqiukes  are  both  greater 
^id  more  frequetit.  in  dofe,  tlu'ck,  woody 
Countries,  than  open  ones  even  of  tbe  iamo 
Temperature:  Hence  we  find  them  both  iet- 
domer,  and  much  fiightser,  both  in  ^gianJ 
«nd  N0t9  England,  fince  they  were  more  cleared 
<^  great  continued  Woods. 
".  ^4;.  Earthquakes  after  a  S.  Wind  are  nKmr 
ttf  ibe  dreaded  than  others.  -  -  -  -  Sooie  Placet 
are  much  oftener  ihaken  than  others ;  as  Con- 
fiaHtiwplty  Antiscby  Nice,  Mcguntium,  Skiffs 
^^opotamr4t,  &c.  yet  in  Places  naoft  Vrak^  to 
-theai^  we  ilwU  find  them  exempt  a  loeg  whtl& 
.'  I J  to- 

3 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


(49*> 
togtAar  dtui'  they  undergo  nurriy  (Hockiiig 
CoonilGons  within  a  fhort  Period ;  then  they 
jtfc  quiet  for  many  Years:  But  aiter  a  long  In- 
temiffioa,  the  Shock  is  fb  macb  more  frightful 
and  £ttil. 

'  95.  Erapdons  and  Conflagrations  of  Vol- 
cano's are  preceded,  or  at  faH  attended  wMi 
Earthquakes.  Of  iheje  burning-Mountains,  <»7/^ 

fituki,  in  the  Life  of  Pierajlirim,  fkys,  that 
they  communicate  to  a  great  Diftance,  at  a 
wodigious  Depth,  under  Seas,  Mountains,  Vd- 
hyi  I  as  Vejitvius  with  Mtntr,  Mtna  widi  Ae 
Moontaios  of  Syria^  under  the  vaft  Medit6r- 
nnean  Ocean,  and  thcfc  with  the  ArainanSt' 
and  they  with  Mount  Soma  in  Etinopia ;  for  m 
the  Year  1633  they  all  burnt  at  once;  f^e- 
tinKfr  they  burnt  alternately  -,  for  if  one  fmokes, 
the  other  flames ;  and  when  tbe  firftibmes; 
the  lafl  fmolKs.  -  -  -  It  is  furprizing  to  what  a 
He^ht  in  the  Air,  and  DifUitce  from  that 
Mouths  and  Funnels  they  throw  forth  Stonc!^ 
Sandj  Affaes,  Sulphur,  &c.  For  at  die  ^eat 
Deflagration  of  Vefimius  in  the  Reign  of  7V/s/, 
the  Mount  direw  Smoke,  Afhes,  and  Cinders 
«)wr  Sea  into  Africa^  ^gyp^>  *"^  SyWtf;  at 
fime  they  darkened  the  Air  and  Sun ;  the 
Mounuin  (hook  fo  at  the  fame  time,  that  it 
demdliflicd  two  iidjointng  Cities,  and  bnfri^ 
the  Inhabitants  in  the  Ruins.  Here  and  nt>^^ 
ti  was  that  the  great  P/wy,  the  rmmraVHiftj^ 
Ttan,'  &cri6ced  his  Life  to  the  Gratification  df 
fais  Coriofity.     At  another  Eroption   itt'tih* 

.  Emperor  X^'s  Time,  its  Afhcs  were  Icdttcna 


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(  493  ) 

over  all  Ewnpe,  ^^  difpcrfed  as  &  as  Cc^fiw^ 
tiacple,  Surprizii^  are  the  Torrents  of  xnolticd 
Mincrais  they,  fend  out. .  -     u 

96.  Next  to  Eattbquakes  .and  Eruptjoos  of 
Volcano's,  Comets  have  been  deemed  moft 
frightful  Meteors  and  Prodigies  in  all  Ages, 
andtakm  foe  certain  Pre&gps  of  moft  dcfdating 
Calamities,  as  >  Plague,  Famine,  Wan,  Revck- 
lutions,  Death.of  Princes,  &c.  For,  .1.  PJu- 
Joibphers  were  ^cady  .divided  about  their  N^ 
tore ;  fome.  would  have  them  «>  be  ;meer  £]&- 
halations  from  the  Earth,  rifiqg  to  the  Topaf 
the  Atmoiphere,  .and  there  takmg  Fire  i  ouiit% 
took  them  &r  Exhalation  £^om  the  Sun,  or 
fiom  fomeoraUof  thePiancts.  6omethougkt 
them  a  Heap  of  Caiall  Stars  meeting  together 
accidentally,  (becaufe  of  their  unequal  Motions) 
and  ibi  af^waring  for  a  Time  in  a  vifihle  Mah, 
till  they  feparated  and  dwindled  avmy.  .Some 
looked,  on  them  ^  meer  Meteon,  Some,  took 
.them  for  the  Satellites  of  the  primary,  very 
diAant  Planets.  None  before  the  great  Sir  I^i^c 
Newton  difi»vered  them  to  be  a  Kind  of  PJat- 
nets,  having  proper,  fixed,  compaii^,  dilnbk 
Bodies,  moving  in  very  oUique  Orbits;. and 
that  their  Head,  Beard,  TaII  ch;  Hair,  is  '<mfy 
th^  Vapour  or  Atnoofphere  heated .  by  ..^p 
Sun-  -  -  -  2,  From  the  UncQtainty  add  isSifo- 
^^ncy  of  their  Appearance,  ^d  the  Igiii9fasi^ 
of  Aftronomtri  of  their  Revolution^  .from 
Want  of  itxvtxx  judicious  Obftryatitpna,  rwbiflb 
4Tiadc  tbem  feem  unnatural.and  ^ghtfutt  :  9. 
From  thdr  jl^&cent  Forauy"ff»ns.  hftUDSJi 
Head, 


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(  4W) 

ilMM^>i'.A  bcUnA^bs  £.  of  Uie&iA^  infl  tttonag 
tkom  it^  A^eAxt  Jus  a.  ghrwing  i  Ahnof^ltere 
before  it ;  others  S;W.  of  the  Sim  'have'  ^ir 
Vaibauft  Stated  bdaad  thaUj  wbkli  is.  thcff 
Tuij'tof  tb>  Eerdi  being- bmvnwi 'the ^naad 
OMrt,  itBTcsin^iUbc^indiit,  ^idi  bflia^ 
cMuwd  by  imSides^  Anti  like  Hiir.  4>  Fcom 
^Nitr^rltffaretit  Magaitudcs,  ibine.  being  Wd^ 
lirgcv  OS  that  ai  1680$  othcus  MiyTmal),  4t 
«rel  ail  ifatt  hvit  iifffbaxtdim  the  c^fanECJitil 
Cebtsry  to  tba  Tidie,  «ithfer  fewn  £eir  oar 
sqiui  Qiftaeca^  lor  dkfemit  MagraGades,:)* 
bbtb.  5.  From  tbiic  diffetcot  CourfiSi  fonte^ 
ftje^ttag  tht  &me  with  the  Planett,  mAmhg^ 
airttregrade-ar  contrary  Motlom^  ■  6.-FnMi^ 
idwir  diffcrefit  Goloon  and  Lights^  i<Ma«  tiki^t; 
I>^t  >n  iheMiddle  of  a  dik:k.Saud[^  or-v 
<^iHd  dimly  glowing,  asthuofidSoi  «r<]£a 
-yiAtowiih  or  Gdd^  Colour,  Mkx  tiut  of  1^6^^ 
fome  like  Fire,  others  ckar,  f^f.  7.  Frohi 
th^r  dif^TttH  CMilinuaDce  with  ut,  as  from  a 
few  Minutes  to  feveral  Months.  8.  From  their 
fudden  and  unexpefted  Appearance.  9.  From 
aintbulent  fa£l;icus8piritof  adiicontonMd  Pany 
in  all  Agerf,  which  take  Occafion,  even  fiodi 
Coatdoon  Mctsors^  to  irritate^  eiKite,  and  ani- 
matA  tb«  Vut^  ag^nft  the  Confthntion,  Or 
4ul6A  Part  of  it.  Out  of  two  Imndred  and 
feartedn  ComeUy  I  have  coileaed  the  Account 
of  in  Hiftories,  oftly-fixty-two  coincided  with 
Earthquakes  the  fethe  Year.  All  the£:  fundry 
ConAitutions  of  the  Air  and  Weather  af)e£l  ttw 
feveral  TempcrAMents  of  human  Bodies  va- 
rioully. 


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(m) 

rioufly,  in  difl«rent  Countries  and  Qimates} 
for  imall  Rains  falling  here  at  any  Time,  Injure 
not  our  Health  ;  but  in  Egypl^  -where- they' 
rarely  have  any  Rain,  their  leldom  fmallMiflii^ 
are  followed  by  epidemic  Catarrhs,  Fevers, 
AOhma$,  &f.  But  their  daily  Morning  Hoar- 
FroAs  (which  fupply  fome  Part  of  their  Rain) 
would  not  fit  us.  In  fbme  Parts  of  the  King- 
dom of  Peru,  they  do  not  know  what  Rata, 
is  i  yea.  Places  at  fmall  Diftance  have  very  dif- 
ferent Seafons;  for  Sumatra  and  Javay  but  a 
little  iifunder,  the  one  is  mod  unhealthy  &om 
its  great  Ridge  of  Mounuins  breaking  ths^ 
Clouds,  and  caufing  almoft  daily  great  Rains, 
and  its  many  Woods  and  flagnant  Waters  in 
the  Valleys  i  the  latter  wanting  thefe>  is  healthy, 
clear,  and  pleafant.  Nor  are  the  fruitfulleft 
Places  always  the  healthier ;  for  Thomas's  Ijland 
abounds  with  all  Things  but  Health, 


FINIS. 


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INDEX. 


W 


HyCouiitryBillstobemoftdqieiidcdoh,  Pageij 
Of  the  Air,  Water  and  Climate  of  England^  3^ 
3»  *: 

Why  elevated,  dry,  open  Situations  are  belt,   1 7,  64. 
.Why  like  Situations  on  diiFerent  Soils  arc  heahhy,  1  j. 
Why  diffimular  Situations  on  fimilar  Soils  have  dinereni 

Degrcea  of  Health,   tj. 
Why  one  Part  of  the  f^une  Parilh  is  more  healthy  than 

aoother,  14. 
Why  the  folider  light  Soils  are  the  healthier  Place,  14. 
Why  Places  on  like  Sdidities,  but  00  diflei«it  Situations, 

differ  in  Degrees  of  Healthinefs,  15. 
Why  Places  Uiut  up  between  high  Mounuins  are  l«a 

healthy,   t;,  16. 
Why  Inhabitants  on  high  Situations  arc  not  heklthieft,   1 ;. 
Why  elevated  open  Situations,  if  ouzy  and  vct|  are  not 

bealthieft,   1 6. 
A  dry  open  gravely  Situation  good,  17. 
Why  light  Tandy  situations,  tho'  dry  and  open,  are  not 

beft.  17. 
A  dry  Situation  on  Sand,  Gravel,  or  light  Earth,  whygood^ 

17- 
Why  Situations  on  flifFCUy  not fo healthy,  13. 
Sandy  Pebbly  Soils,  what,  i3. 
Why  low  Habitations  are  unhealthy,  I9. 
Habitations  in  or  by  thickWoods  iinwholfoine,and  why,  le. 
Too  thick  and  near  Indofureswith  thick  Hedges  not  good> 

10. 
N.E.  orN.  W.  Situations  beft,  if  dry,  ai. 
The  fecond  Table  conTidered  more  generally,  30,  34. 
A  particular  Review  of  Tab.  fecond,  34,  43. 
Sum  of  Dirifions  in  both  firlj  and  fecond  Periods,  40. 
Several  other  Ufes  might  be  made  of  Tab.  lecond,  4s,  4). 
K  k  The 


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I     N     D     E     Xi 

*rhe  general  Divifion  of  Tab.  third,  jo. 

Particular  Divifion  of,  51,  S'* 

Generation  and  Mortality  compared  idE^lani  and  Geri 

^"ny,   54,  57. 
The  Proportions  of  each  Conditioa  and  Age  of  the  Dtad^ 

54*  57-  ,      ■ 

Why  fome  healthy  Places  bury  more  than  tfiey  baptise*  S9' 
OF  what  Regiftits  are  the  fiiteft  Tefi,  dpecially  Comittj 

R^ifters,  58. 
What  Country  Regiften  to  be  nio,^  depended  cm.  liiJ. 
Regil^cn  citsriy  poiht  out  ttie hli^thidl  Places,  59]  ^i. 
A  few  old  People  no  Proof  of  a  healdiy  Place,  60,^9. 
>Vhy  Places  that  have  few  Feeble  are  heillhier  t&m  po' 

puldus,  '60. 
Habitations  near  hinning  Water  hti^,  hit  dot  bear  A^ 

nant,  ahd  \frfiy,  61, 
Whether  h^rd  or  foft  Water  is  ML  61. 
To  know  wheUier  a  County  is  licuUiy  aid  iVee,  )»*  siU- 

trary,  6a, 
Unhappy  SituaQons  alTefl  Chtldreh  inudl,  63. 
Why  Cities  and  Towns  worfe  f6r  Children  don  ^e  CbnA- 

try,  f'M- 
'A  greater  Regard  to  be  liid  to  Seuttioh  ad  SiAfta  dl^ 

to  the  Soili  64. 
Why  beilthy  Places  miy  pi-oddce  fe*ttCtflareB  ti»  Wi- 

healthy,  65, 
Lets  healthy  Places  may  be  more  fruitful^  IH^- 
The  richeft  and  fruitfulcft  J'lace^  nbt  healdneft,  sKi. 
Several  Caufcs  of  healthy  Towns  or  Villages,  ^id. 
Why  a  moift  Almpfphere  is  unhealthy,  66. 
Why. Chalk  and  Toft  Lttneftone  uidindtbyj  67. 
The  Ufe  of  Refifters,  with  Hiltorics  of  the  Air,  Hid.  ■ 
Rcgifters  Ihcw  if  the  Earth  emits  noxious  Vapoiirs,  iiui. , 
How  to  improve  Ground  bo^th  for  Hcstth  and  Profit,  n, 

Katives  inured  to  unhealthy  Placts  bfcar  it  heft,-  fij, 
EfFeifts  of  our  new  Cburfc  of  Life,  iVd. 
iievcra]  things  that  render  Houfcs  unhealthy,  ikiJ,  ^O. 
The  EfTcas  of  Whoredom  and  Adiiliere,  jj,  74. 
Why  more  Males  than  Females  die  ih  TmpubcRy,  71, 
^^ore  n  »ried  Men  die  than  inarried  Women,  »« J. 
1  hit  Equity  iuid  NcCclEty  of  Marniee  Setdcmem*  and 
WiU^  7a,- 

Why 


by  Google 


INDEX. 
"Why  fewer  Men  at*  mariicd  diao  Women,  iHJ. 
A  ereM  Providence  in  the  Surplus  of  Malca  to  Fetnales'. 
■      iSiJ.      '■        - 
Polygamy  a  Monfter,  73.  -< 

A  Providence  that  ftwer  Males  die  after  tea  Yean  oU, 

Hid. 
Tho  Injiuy  of  Parents  Intempcraoce,  ibtJ. 
On  what  die  pFOportion  and  Number  of  Baftarda  depend^ 

Other  Crimes  in  Whoredom  and  Adultei^  beAdes  Uri- 

deumels,  Uid. 
Whether  mote  die  now  in  Celibacy  orhefore,  Hid. 
To  find  the  Number  of  imports,  Male  or  Feiiudc  into  any 

Place,  7S- 
Whether  more  Males  or  Females  married  in  efch  Period ^ 

itid. 
How  to  find  the  Number  of  Incomers,  unregiftcred  Bap^ 

df(W,  Eflcteafe  and  Etpott,  7;,  76^  77. 
Whether  Coontry  or  Town  Youths  marry  fooneft,  77. 
Why;  and  what  labobring  Strangers  aic  to' bi  encouiagedj 

iHd.    - 
The  Ufe  and  Neceffity  of  Incomers,  yS. 
'The  'Pfcfcrvadon  and  iocreafe  of  Trade  to  be  /ought,  and 

■why,  79. 
The  bad  Sffcd.  of  Qnrtere  rieorouflr  obfcrvcd,  ibid. 
Why  Burials  arc  mochincreaicd  in  the  fecond  Period,  80^ 

81. 
A  I^ty  that  propoled  Means  of  Life  ihould  be  CauTe  of 

greatsr  Mortality  and  Death,  8t, 
Perufal  atid  Regidets  ufeful  to  PhyGcland,  and  fuch  as  are 

about  %o  Ihifttbcir-Rcfiderice,  Ba. 
A  fhort  Rctapituiation  of  feveral  Ufes  of  Regifteri,  ibid, 
83.  , 

.  Whether  all .  Place*  sere  eqti^y  liable  to  fidtly  and  mot&l 

Yean,  89. 
Not  evtfry  ^enetal  Endlfpt^ltion  that  conftitntcs  2  MortS' 

lity,  ibid. 
SigM  of  a  long  or  (hort  Mortality,  Hid. 
Chriftenings  may  exceed  Butyitigs  in  a  fiekly  Seafonfortwo 

ReaTMis,  90. 
Chrifteninesand  Bui'vihRs  exceeding  one  another,  no  Si;n» 
■    of  »:4ltaMiy  or^ficJtly  Yeari  Hid. 
Why  fecmincly  more  fickly  Years  than  re^ly  aii.  Hid. 
->r  K  k  a  ■  do* 


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I      N      D     E      X. 

How  ofien  ftskW  Yean  return  t&  IcvenI  FUcc*.  ml  tibou 

they  are  molt  fatal*  91. 
The  Proportion  between  Quiftenings  ud  Bunala  in  nwc- 

uIYean,  9X. 
Ijttle  Difference  in  Sexes  bapbzed  ot  buried  where  Mwta- 

lity  comes  ofteneft  or  fcMomeft,  9}. 
Little  Differences  to  Salubrity  or  lolalubritj  of  Places  w/icfb 

Sicknels  comes  oftenefl  or  fcMomeil,  iiij,   _  . 
How  to  find  the  locrcafc  or  Decreafe  in  healthy  or  ficUy 

Years,  94. 
Whether  mortal  Years  are  moft  fo  to  Townt  or  Cotmbji 

iiU. 
■  The  Plague  compared  with  other  Moctalides,  95. 
The  Continent  more  expofcd  to  Pl^ue  and  War  thin  £itg- 

landy  ibi4-  96. 
Several  Queries  about  Epidemics  prc^fed*  but  Icfi  to  ano- 
ther Work,  96, 97. 
Of  die  Invafion  aod  Duration  of  Epedetmcs  in  one  Tows« 
98. 
,  What  Proportion  fickly  Years  bear  to  bealthyi  loo. 
The  different  Degrees  of  Mortality  itfcif,  loi. 
How  often  general  or  national  Mortalittei  return,  102. 
When  and  which  were  the  more-general  Morta/iacs^  tot, 

103. 
The  qiidemic  Years  in  the  laft  Centuries,  105,  106. 
Several  Defc&  in  Hiffories  of  Epcdemtcs,  (07. 
All  Places  never  afflided>  nor  free  from  Mortalitjr  at  one 

Time,  107,  108. 
The  Proportion  of  Births  to  Burials  in  fcveral  Period)  io 

lickly  Years,  109. 
The  Advantagcsof  comparing  Bilb  of  MortalitT' with  Htf- 

tories  of  the  Weather,  itid.  . 
Regifters  the  bcff  Hiftory  of  Epidemics.  Iio,  m, 
Kegiffcrs  give  the  heft  Guels  how  long  Epidemics  ue  like 
to  laft.  III. 
'  Why  Epidemics  are  fometimes  fatalerindie  Country  ^u 
•    Towns.  ibiJ. 

Whether  Epidemics  affcfl  Males  or  Famales  moll,  114. 
In  what  Months  Epidemics  b^in  oftcneft,  ibid. 
How  Epidemics  are  diftinguilhed  from  Difcafes  of  the  Sea- 

fon,  ibid. 
Whether  vernal,  or  autumnal  Difealtu  b^in  fobnefti  and 
continue  longcft,  ibid.  1 1  j. 

Whic 


i.vCoogIc 


INDEX. 

Whicif  of  theTe  Times  Invanons  uc  moft  freqAcnt  and' 

dangerous.  Hi  J. 
Of  the  furpHzing  InGitate  orfcveral  Towns,  119. 
The  furprizing  Incrcafc  of  Towns  Oicws  the  Importance 

of  Trade,  iiid. 
Small  Market  Towns  no  Indication  of  the  Salubrity  vi 

Cities  on  like  Soil,  110. 
Wbf  more  Baitards  in  Towns  than  in  the  Country,  in.' 
The  greater  the  Towns,  the  nearer  ecjial  are  Buryings,  and 

why.  Hid. 
f  rotn  the  Regiftera  of  great  Towns  the  Security  of  Liberty 

and  Property  is  feen,  Hiii. 
Liberty,  Property  and  Trade  all  depend  upon  a  Proteflant 

Government,  ibid.  I2z. 
The  great.  Diminution  of  ProteSants  now  to  what  thejr 

were  formerly,  i*2. 
The  bad  EffeasofTrade  and  Riches.   n+. 
Security  of  Libcny  and  Property  mjikes  a  Country  popu- 
lous, itiJ, 
Epidemics  here  moftly  move  frotri  S.  to  K.  iitd. 
Why  Plague  and  Famine  often  go  t(^ether,  and  what  Rank 

of  People  moftly  hurt  by  Plague,  1 15. 
The  Advantage  of  Property  fecured  under  a  well  ordered 

Government,   nj,  13O.' 
Property  fecured  encourages  Trade,  Hufbandry  raifes  the 

Value  of  Land,  i^c.  1*6. 
The  Advantages  of  Leafes  and  Tenant  Right,  to  Landlord, 

Tenant  and  Government,  iz3. 
The  Advantages  of  Lealcs  of  limited  neceffary  Liberty 

given  to,  or  taken  from,  a  People,  1 30. 
Inconveniencies  from  ovcr-rcckootng  Souls  of  Families, 

134.13s- 
The  Suitablenefs  of  the  late  Yean  fbr  taking  the  Numbere 

of  Families  and  Soub,  136,137. 
Some  Difficulty  to  find  the  juft  Medium  of  yearly  Births 

and  Burials  in  fome  Places,   136. 
The  different  Numbers  of  Years  in  producing  a  Numlxr 

equal  to  the  prcfent,   1 37. 
Why  fome  Places  bury  3  riumbcr  equal  to  the  prelent  In- 
habitants in  a  longer  or  (bortcr  Time,  139. 
^umbering  the  Inhabitants  a  fure  Way  to  dil^over  cht  Sa- 
lubrity*^ a  Place.  138. 

K  k  3  How 


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r     N     D     E^    X 

{[owtofiivdtlitAccouotof  Itabatiltttita^tlottaibbtikcil,  (4<j^ 
141. 

The  DlSefence  in  IRrtbs  and  Sam  IH  the  ftveral  McnkUci^ 
14a. 

Seafons  or  hardeft  Labour  beft  fbr  Conco^nt '  745,  iiid 

:  why,  144'  H*- 

The  moft  laborious  Part  of  Mankhfd  riioft  fnuifuU  i<4. 

7%e  Mifchtef  to  B  Govern Acot  frofii  Tixcai  on Hft  Mar- 
riage Bed,  Hid, 

BlelDngs  heaped  on  the  Poor,  145,  146. 

Fbucretcthe'Pe(Iofgre%tMcil,  146,  (fioUgft  fiNtfeltkir« 
dircouraged  them,  1 47. 

Thi  ESefli  of  lAbaut  oh  thefiMiAei*,  14S. 

Preventative  or  Retardcrs  of  Frofifidoeft,  I'tfrf.  14*), 

Which  are  iJic  fhritfollefl  Ms'ntfw,  150.  '     ■ 

Jnconveniencies  from  denying  Marr&gte  tA  LMt,  wfehuiiC 
Lkenfes,  ijo,  151, 

Natural  Religion  and  Reafon  {jrove  Potfg^n^  ^tft^m, 

151.  'S3- 
The  Ineonyentence  and  lojidtke  ^  YoTt^mtfj  ijCi.  t'$7. 
Caftration  an  arbitrary  Invagon  on  the  utLid  rOMt  aai 

Right  of  others,  153,  154. 
The  Adtantage  of  caaratihg  Brutes,  >{7, 
The  Effefli  (rf^  Adultery,  158. 
What  is  necefiry  to  mvki  a  Peot^e  great,  wanfcraiu,  f{db 

and  formidable,  ibid. 
The  Poor  Ihould  be  encouraged  to  faiarrjr,  and  aB  Hut* 

drance  of  it  taken  away,   1 59,  160. 
£vi!s  to  be  dreaded  from  mercenary  Officns  and  Arib/, 

160,  161. 
The  EvJls  of  feee^ng  up  great  Artntea  ih  Time  trf  VtsKSf 

16*,  163. 
Which  are  the  fatakft  Morithi  or  Qdarters  m  tbe'YtStf, 

l66. 
The  mc^  hcteiogenioos  State  of  the  Air  flot  Aie  ttrbft'ttk* 

tal,  167. 
Front  whence  At  Dl^tence  between  Sprmg-uid  Hmft 

Mortality,  168. 
Why  tbc  Sprllig  Months  moftfttal  in  tfce  Cbontiy,-  flfe 

'7'.  ■■    ,, 

TheCaufe  of  vefnal  Fewrs,  Catarrhs 'ttkd  Httft^'  '^K>» 

171.  ""' 

C,.;,l,ZDdbyG00gle 


INDEX. 

^Ihf  vpxmi  lift^f^^tfeofi  gynMy  gp  <^  ia  Hzrvc^  vfi 

lemtra,  170, 
The  Faliy  of  Inttipjperaive.  wJ  ^jWg  the  Oiw  pf 

I^fe^estiTJ  the  Spring,  171. 
The  Benefit  of  a  pioper^pring  Diet  and  E^ercife,  ibid. 
Th.e  Danger  of  ^Do  ^i;eat  M.fUnucu^ejl3'in  t^c  Spring, 

:Th|e  64  Order  fjr  Ite^yltig  gi,ys  of  R^ta^,  fcoifr  a^ 

when  the  City  fiiUs  were  mage,  173. 
Whether  ^i^n  be  thegreate^  Ci,cy  in  t^  Wojld,  1744 
Ol  Ninnifi,  Jtrufaltm  and  ancieiic  Rtii^t^  17J. 
The  furnri^ing  I^rcafe  oi  Londcn  \n  jjo  Years,  176.     • 
That  all  buried  in  LaMdon  arc  not  Cltizeos,  nor  the  if  itn- 
bcr  of  Citizens  to  be  caqiputed  ftom  the  ^ills  t^  iAiij- 
iailty,  177.    Number  of  Souls  in  LonaBtif  17^,  197,' 
,Qnc  i(»f  aj8,  flf  t(l|«  .Citizens  dies  ycatiy,  cxcjufiye  of  Ipco^- 

tji,  or  J  pf  14  pxcluJiv.e  of  them,    i  -f-j. 
.JiliryiRgs  always  exceeded  the  CWftet^i^  ^  ^  pity,  a^ 

now  much,  179,  180. 
Tbp  City  3ills  fi^LW  ^c^ourlfliing  or  Rccj^y  ^^ihe.Prp- 

tcflant  Religion,' 180. 

A  great  L^fe^  in  the  Cify  Bills  is,  t|iey  afe  }ranci(]g  in 

^Quegi  Slizabcth's  K.cigti,  and'^.l^  ^iem  w^^t  ^e 

UUrxiage,  179,'  i  So. 

The  ^i^renccs  of  Sexes  b^ized  in  ftveral  Periods,  1 82. 

The  fiuitfulkft,    and  baVreiiert,    healthip^  and   faul^ 

Months  in  Z.|in<^n,  iSi,  194. 
How  many  fioie  M^ies  than  Fenfalcs  export  thcmfelves, 

i'8i,'i96.  "■  '        ■ 

■The  vaft  Increafe  of  Lmdon  and  its  Trade  proved,  1S2. 
The  prelcnt  yeaity  Supply  of  the  City  both  foi  its  Stand 

and  Ipcreafe,  ibid. 
Wncnce  comes  this  Addition  io  the  Ci^*  1 63- 
.With  .'frhat  Reflriflians  Strangers-are  an  Advantage,  ilnd. 
PtOKd  agaiiift  Graunt  the  City  foimciiy  baptized  not  as 
^many  as  it  buried,    184. 
.  .Pn>poi|^,(^f  CljiiileiiingB  to  Buryjngs  in  36  Plague  Year* 

there,  1^7. 
JPjKif^iilicm  jif  Chijflening^  to  Burying^  in. z6  lickly  Y^ra 

in  Ijindm,  iss.         '  ', 
PropPCtion  uf  (Jlhqfleoii>gBtoBttryi'>£<'°2^JlP*ltl>y>^c*r>> 

\%' 
Thp  monthly  Havock  in  Zm^w  of  all  Ages,  193. 

■  K  k  +  '  ^         Th« 


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INDEX.. 

The  prefent  Monality  of  all  AgcscotnpirEd  to  wbxt  it  ms 

in  Gr aunt's  Time,  194, 
The  fiindry  Asm  cf  ihe  prefent  CitiwnsT  194,  195. 
The  dire  £Se£b  of  the  Citizens  Altentionj  in  Life  and 
■    Principles,  196. 

More  Females  alive  at  prefent  in  Lmtdm  thaBMakH*fcV£ 
.How  many  fighting  Mm  Zdiubit  cuuld  r^ife.  197. 
What  Proportion  the  Numbers  that  die  of  cvcr^  imnnl 

Difeafebcv  to  the  whole,  zoj,  113. 
Specilk  Medicines  not  difcovered  but  iinjiraTed  by  Pfiilo- 

fophy,  a  1 2,  313. 
Whether  Theory  or  Obfervation  be  mofi  beiiefici)^  iii  Pby- 

fick,  in. 
Why  Siii^ry  more  improved  than  the  Prafike  of  Phyfiifc, 

213.  114. 
A  Pbylicjan  fliould  not  fpend  Ms  Tioie  in  other  Staffs, 

nor  attach  himfelf  to  a  few  favourite  Medidnt*.  114. 
Several  Ufei  to  be  made  of  comparing  the  0(y  Klb  of  fe- 

yer»l  Periods.  116,  117. 
What  Dtfeafes  have  an  Affinity  and  arife  praty  Btucfa  to 

the  fame  Canle,  s  1 8. 
The  yearly  Weddings,  added  to  the  Bil's  ifc^ 
TbeUreoftbeArticteof  Childbed  Women,  119,  no. 
What  Years  are  called  aged,  and  the  Dificience  .of  Bury' 

ings  between  a  fickly  and  a  healthy  Yearj  220^  2x1. 
Of  Catarrhs  or  Ephemeras,  221,212. 
The  firft  numbering  of  the  Iffattitts,  249^  250.    " 
The  Propenfity  of  the  Ifratbttt  to  Idolatry  the  Canfe  of  all 

their  plagues,  252,  353.    . 
Btivin'i  Account  hoir  long  ^atl  dwelt  in  Egypt,  253, 

«54- 
TJie  true  Chronology  from  the  calling  of  Abraham  till  Ifratt 

vitat  to  Esfpt,  154,155. 
The  Increafe  of  Tfratl  in  EQpt  proved  and  accounted  for, 

256,  262. 
Why  the  Ifraelilis  were  not  (o  increafe  greuly  till'tfiey 

went  into  Egypt  I  Why  then  ?  And  why  the  Rebek  were 

40  Ye^rs  in  dying,  ^62,263.  -■        '' 

That  Mefis  penned  the  XCth  Pfalm  on  the  Thmuung, 

Nutitb,  xix.  ag,  p.  263,  164.  . 
EtnOuJaiiom  and  Addiiioni  to  Table  the  Eighth,  16^.  < 
How  to  find  the  Number  oi  Families  or  Snds  tn  Town  or 

Parifh,  266. 

To 


by  Google 


I     N     D     £   ^. 

..  To'  fiflJ  hi  bow  -manjr  Yean  any  Pboe  or-Ptctfli'^ivfl 

double  its  Inhabitants,  168.  y' 
Whf  the  Magifintcx  fluuiU  obierve  tbcBilb  of  Mortality, 

fl70. 
CaAialities  Ibould  be  added,  th^t  the  State  of  Health  mif 

The  Scaxchera  may  be  credited  in  lOoft  Cofea,  iUJ. 

Two  Ninth;  die  of  accnte  Dileaies  ;  thejr  are  the  Qag^  ^ 
the  Air's  Salubrity,  271. 

Di&rence  between  cbronie  and  acute  Di(i»les,  ibid. 

Seven  /«•  Cm',  live  to  60,  q;-  yq  Yearsi  One  of  60  die  of 
jOutWaid  Grieft.  Some  Dileafes  bear  a  moftant  Propor- 
tion, others  nor,  i^d. 

Of  the  Starved,  Mnrthered,  Lunatks,  Frptch  Pox,  Ric- 
kets, f^c.  zyz. 

Ncgled  of  the  Regtflcn,  273,  and  why,  itid. 

Few  in  Danger  or  die  in  Childbed,  who  ufe  no  Stays, 

iUd. 
'  Of'ConyuIfiorw,  ibjd. 

Qf  the  Pl^e  and  other  Mortalities,  itid.  274, 

The  Increafe  or  Dccreafe  of  the  City  known  1^  the  Bap> 
tifms,  a76, 

OfficHy  Years,  /«i 

Tfie  Ci^  recruited  out  of  the  Country,  bow  many  People 
inaU£ir/'£jinfandLM^,  tl)e  Increafe  every  4oYcara, 

»77.  *?*■ 
Fewer  Breeders  in  Lmdm  than  in  the  Country,    378, 

179- 
Caufes  of  Londttf^  Unheal thincfs  and  Barrennefs,  279. 
Oftbe  Difference  of  Sexes  born,  attd  of  Polygamy,  380. 
Why  Phyficians  have  more  Female  than  Male  Patientff 

ibid.  ■         ^ 

Of  Caflration,  Nunneries,  Adultery  and  Whoredom,  281. 
Of  the  Growth  of  the  City,  2S2.    Of  the  Inequidity<^ 

Parifhes,   jSj. 
Of  the  Number  of  Citi«i»,  Families  and  Soidi,   ^84, 
■c     18;.    - 

How  many  teeming  Women  in  Laidm,  284, 
How  many  Sotdien  the  City  could  raifc,  at  34  Men  ptr 
Cent.  285.  ' 

.  Of  the  Cotmtry  Bills ;  Ei^demics  more  &tal  in  (he  Country 
-  ■    thiirCity,  and  whyj  186,  187. 

A 


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fk  Compariiba  iKtwie^  Liviba'$ai  i^nUw,  xK^.  ^ 

Countrj,  390. 
Of  /in^fr4aiifj  P^h  V^  ^^  ^^'^*  *^Sb  *9P^ 
Sir  pyiiUam  PesUn  oa  the  iMtdta  I'coplc  and  H(^|^nl^  2:90, 
■    a9J,i4f, 
-Whw,  ao^  how  i^ny  the  £rS  Cc^y  is  Englaitii,  thu 

Increafe  ia  ?«/jw  dgfar't  Tifoe^  at  Chiift'a  coipiog^  at 

thcQan^uevavd^  ]^8^^  xjootlwu  doutilc^aiM]e 

jn^oo  Yvu,  293. 

294. 
The  Niwnbcrs  maniccl,  born,  ^  ^e  yearly  to  lA^I/ft^p^ 

theCountry,  194,39;. 
The  Propoition  of  MUct  to  Fcmaki  \  of  Hufliapdi  ;yfd 

Wiwts,  Chii^icn  and  Serrants  Sojwntas,  Ut,  ia.if$- 

tbn  and  the  Country,  295,  196. 
The  diflinS  Number  of  all  Ages,  Sexes,  Cqmiiu^BJi^nt^ 

Batchelgrs-and  MaUi,  of  aU  ingpfWal*  'O^- 

297- 
Tbe  Number  of  Houfcs  in  the  Eingdot^,  397. 
<X(ifaerty  to  be  prcfaned  and  Afjtrrji^e  ctKQwraged,  i^ 

Why  Men  lived  longer  before  the  Flood,  and  Life.Mi 
ihoruiMd  after  Pe'^'ie.frpsggti!ei^t.i,.(Xftvn  ti^  ^ 
ovor  the  Globe,  198,  399. 

TheCat^eofMartalitie,  299,500. 
.  H»w  mwy-Biarry,  arc  bora,  juid  di«,  300* 
.  A  Tabic  of  3  8  Years  Burialt,  301,302. 

Special  Ufesof  Bills  of  Monality,  303. 

Gv^taonVieaQfthvn,  306. 
,  Tbe  PariOk  jwrttwred,  and  ju(Ujr»  S09»  i  »,  31  J«     ' 

TheESiasofEclyprcs,  31a,  313. 

.H<»IiAiB«fejndSi**n^pf.i*«pMTifl»»  3»3-        ^       j 
Some  Oblemtions  on  a  neighbouring  I'own's  BilU»-  3  i  4^ 

3'I-  ....       ; 

.foictgn  Bills,  3i7. 

The  Age  and  Number  of  all  Perfoni  that dkiattnflaWf 
-      317.-31*--  ..■'■■ 

The  Number  and  Age,  fiitfli  ^  Pcfitfa  of  3II  io^  of 
..  -pMpte,  331. 

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I    N    n    EX: 

Hov  nuy  tS  my  Hwriier  oTFcppIe  fittotevAnrifi 

■  ibid. 

What's  the  even  lAf  itpoo  may  Afe,  jm, 

InruNlKcs  upon  Lifc,  baw  to  bcftgilbteri,  tij^. 

.Of  Annoities,  ^23. 

iObrcrvations  on  the  i>«My  Bills  of  Mortaiity,  93$. 

TheNumberef  Ho«i(esin  1670  aad  ^745*  P*  >2.7,  S2^ 

a2i».  ■    ■ 

The  Number  of  Souls  there  in  i695.aBd  174$,  at^. 
The  PrapOTtion  between  latdem  nul  Da^  Sartb  Ul0 

Euriah,  231. 
£inli»HKl  Bur iaOs  u  iDm^  far  -ja  Y«ai^  uid  bow  uaa^ 

died  above  16  Vearaold,  and  hew  jmd^  oftder  it.  Hid. 

^  quadruple  ]^rjy  Mediain  ti  tadaivid  DaiSm  Snhs 

and  Burials,  and  inferenca  from'it,  236,  Z37. ' 
Inftanccs ofProvidolcb  obfen^e (ram  Regiflenti  339. 
iVc  nuft  not  raptncn  <iie  Shoitnefs  of  oar  Lifr*  M'Ik 

tfaankhil  wc  hare  lived  fo  long,  24.1. 
Dblervationson  JSVtytJami^CalailatioiH,  sif3,  tit4>24;.  ' 
Petty'^mikiMeSta.'x  of  P  aril  iiofyitai&,  146. 
jP^rtV  Hofpitals,  (^f.  make  up  a  great  Part  of  that  Sill  of 

Mortality,  itij. 
Fear  of  a  married  State  a  great  Obftaole  to  ibelniaiedb  of 

Mankind,  247. 
Howamat-Tied  ftutemay  be  made -alter  lotbePoor>  atA 

lt■lIa^vfal  SenfoalitieS  &ppreDcd,  348. 
JDificrent  l^antities  of  Raio infernal  Paiti-of  SvgUmit 

J»7.  333'  356- 
The  highelt  and  lowcfl  Qwntities  in  the  jpcdficd  Ffauik, 

356- 
The  difi^nt  Quantities  in  diffctent  Y«aa,  •ibid. 
What  Situations  expofed  to  moft  or  lealt  Rains,  357,  '35S. 
What  PfOpoitian' wet  Years-bear  Aodry and' inoderate,.)'jt» 

359- 
Difiercm  PtDfUMtionfof'Rain  in^tSie-ftreial&afint,  .3:$^, 
I.     t6«. 
Rainy  Summers  portend  a  hard  Winter,  361. 
DifieirntPUccshsvcthcirTainyUonthsat  vuisus'Sesfiii^ 

»faV,  362. 
What  Situatinu  and  SmIs  RqatredieJeift  orewft  Rain, 

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I     N     D     fe     X 

Piflefeat  Quaniiiies  of  Rain  necd&ry  to  fiatdize  ievenl 

,  PJjco,  SoiJj,  e^r.  363. 
TbcVanetf  of  Seafoniin  this  Ifland,  iiiJ, 
The  fune  Ye»  aaj  be  botti  droughty  and  niny,  iU4. 
Some  Years  may  be  very  fingular  in  thdr  Raict,  364. 
The  Caufes  or  Rain,  iiiJ.  36;,  366. 
Of4hc  different  Sizes  of  the  faUing  Dropf,  367. 
Its  not  to  be  known  what  C^uantitjr  of  Rain  wtU  bQ  oat  - 

Year  or  Month,  570.- 
Sifierent  Quantities  fall  both  in  the  like  and  dSerent  Spacw 

of  Time,  371. 
How  many  Days  of  erery  Month  the  Wind  came  ontcf 

each  of  the  eight  Points,  btc,  373,  391. 
AH  PlacesuK)  SoibafEitd  Vapour  more  or  fewer,  393. 
'Subtemnean  Bodies  may  emit  iiifenfible  Effluria  to  Titiate 

the  Atmofphere,  39J,394- 
Vapours  arc  not  only  the  uuife  but  Matttf  of  Rain,  3  94. 
.Whatever    affords  mofi  aqueous  Vapoun  produces  mdt 

Where  Raint'CiTf.  is  foooeA  genenicd,  395. 

When  Aurora  BoieaJes  are  imift  frequent,  clear  and  terrtU^ 

How  fubterranean  Combufiibles  take  Fire,  (fc,  andcauleait 

Earthquake,  396. 
Of  EvChqiuJcM  ^nd  their  EScas,  ifc.  597. 
Why  Spring  Rains  vary  in  their  Quantities,  398. 
Vallies  have  left  Rain  tiian  Tops  of  Mountains,  ihid,  397^ 
Why  Mounains  have  ofteocft  Rain  and  moll  need  il> 

399- 
A  Year  may  be  both  rainy  and  healthy,  400, 
What  Proportirx)  fair  Days  bear  to  rainy,  ibtJ, 
What  Proportion  rainy  Days  bear  to  flKiwry;  bowy,  &V. 

401. 
What  Wind  it,  and  its  Caufe,  and  bow  many  Sorts  tbece 

are,  402,  403. 
Boch  Wind  and  Weather  diffin-  in  different  PUces.  at  tlte 

fiimeTimei  'tis  difficult  to  make  a  Tableof  the  Winds, 

404- 
The  Proportion  of  Time  the  Wind  continues  in  each  (tf 

the  eight  Points,  405. 
.  The  Proportion  of  tbe  Timet'of  Rain  from  ca^'of  the 

eight  Points,  Hid. 
.      *^  ,  The 


i.vCoogIc 


1      N      D-     E     X 

The  wider  tbe  Ocean,  and  the  lot^r  the  Wind^coail 

from  it,  tbe  more  Rain,  405,  406. 
.Tbe  warmer  Poinu  the  Wind  comes  from,  tbe  more  Rao. 

406. 
.Why  the  moft  E.  and  K.  E.  Wind  in  the  Spring,  aad  why 

very  high  S.  and  S.  W.  Winds  are  cold,  ibid, 
.Why  N.  and  N.  E.  Winds  are  coldeft,  407. 
A  Sea  Wind  motfter  than  a  Land,  and  why }  and  a  Land 

■  Wind  drier,  and  why,  ttid. 
A.Sea  Wind  warm  in  Winter  and  colder  in  Summer,  40S. 
Moderate  Cold  makes  a  cloudy  Air,  and  why }  but  an  in- 

tm(e  Cold  often  clear,  and  why,  iiui. 
The  colder  the  Air  .is  the  thicker,  and  why  j  tlie  dufe  of 

Dew,  ibid. 
Why  Vapours  raifed  in  rmaB  Heat  afcend  not  very  high, 
.     409. 

Caufe  of  Showers,  their  Extent  and  Duration,  ibid. 
Caufes  of  Snow,  Half,  Sleet,  f^e.  ibtd.  410.     FroQ,  what, 

410,411. 
The  di^rent  Degnes  of  Mortality  in  different  kinds  of 

Air  and  Weather,  and  Icveral  Ufea  therefrom,  412. 
The  Number  of  rainy  Day*  in  each  Month  during  a  Series 

of  34  Years,  414. 
.  Of  the  monthly  Coiirlc  of  the  Winds  during  the  lame  Series 

of  Yeara,  4 15. 
.  Which  of  the  Wiqds  are  moft  healthy  01  hurtfU  to  lU, 

416, 
.Of  the  diflerent  Mortality  of  theTe  Months,  417. 
£ficas  of  the  different  Sorts  and  Changes  of  Weather  and 

Air,  4tS.  » 

EfieAs  of  Air  on  the  Blood  in  the  Lungs,  4 19. 
Qualities  of  the  Air  that  fhould  difleiu]  the  Luogi  duljt, 

420. 
What  Air  is  proper  for  ReJpiratjon,  420. 
'The  Advanuge  of  cool  frcfh  Air  to  People  in  Fevers*  ibid. 

4»'- 
'  The  E&a  of  the  outward  PreHure  of  the  Air  on  the  Bod^, 

either  too  heavy  or  too  light.  421,  42)'> 
.  Tbe  Effcfls  of  cold  Air,  413. 

Of  acold  and  mtiift,  624,425, 
Of  a  hot  State  of  the  Air,  426, 
Of  a  hot,  and  dry,  and'moift  Sute  of  the  Air,  4x7, 
428.    . 

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X   N     D     E     X. 
VadMuToaipcmtum  ofdipAiripdiAnatiGHaatet  mt 

in  the  fame  R^ioa,  produce  fiuvlr^  E&At*  419. 
XIlcDtrstfitf  of  CwaMtiDMof.tlMAir  mVOiheatfa^d, 

Hid. 
Vfby  AiQilB  Vvifk  k«Lr  tleeding  mII,  \mt  aot  voir, 

430. 
The  Air  to  fce  reguded  botb  ia  Cure  itad  Pzcreatiatt  «f 

Qi&afo,  j^ 
TiK  %fk£U  of  Froft  on  the  Air,  4.3*. 

Ofaverjr  motfiaDlilTeinpcnituresfdwAIr^  £i«^. 
Of  a  4rj  ehSic  Stale  of  titeJu;  4^1. 
The  Management  ef  beginsitig  Fnto,  fjTr.  iU^.  ^y. 
TfaaSffteoftheAicinuifi.  otN.E.  WiwJ,  •nJ.iMfir- 

fcas,433. 
Spitting  to  Jh  prasoted  im  [Uadtt  •(  the  firai^  in  &  iff 
cold  State  of  Air,  or  the  Humours  diverted  another  Wajr, 
or  the  VeOcta  DwcIi  flnptied*  4)4. 
Of  Pleurifia  aad  Pcsifmeumoniat,  4-3$.- 
LivKl  Spoti  or  Hives  in  the  Small  Pox,  from  vfa*t,  436. 
iKoqififiteB  to  all  Foople  luxiiig'tbejaioc  Ingpftions  wd  £^- 

tions,  Hid. 
.Dr.  Lining't  AcCMiiit  of  ibe  Badtu  4i&rut  IXkha^e*  ik 

fereral  Seafons,  437. 
TheCaufeof  RliacsaadChakrainHanKftt^dvlwdiSB 

ntoft  liable  to  putiid  Fevera,  ibid. 
The  Cau&  ai  vkihI  IpSwiunatiosst  Agues»  and  Hi0iVt 

438. 
Why  People  ionkhetter,  fnOiert  jmd  [itlkr  in  Wiotcf. 

439* 
Why  People  are  weaker,  Winter*  and  can  bear.  l«iA  f  vjvnsi^ 
.  don  in  Summer  and  yarwft,  liiid. 
How  fpeedily  the  Bladder  fupplic3>the  DifainucioB  .of  Ae 

Skin's  Difcharge,  ibid. 
How  dilated  the  cucsneouePowsAre  on  .gmt  Httt,}^40. 
The  ?wEvt  A«d  Moifliin-jof.tiie  J^  ui  jqipcUit^'  UcjC- 

ture  thro'  the  Skin,  441. 
.fio'w  Uttlc  a  Ik&tter  .adds  MoiOutv  toJbe  Air. and.  kfw 

Perfpiration,.  ibid. 
What  Potables  and  moA  fitteft.foc  us.ia  .fiiddea  GfaM^ea 

of  the  Air,  ibid. . 
The  Danger  of  keeping '0iL«retJCiatfaB-vheiL<be;Bgdr  i$4t 

Reft,  ibid. 
How  to  reftore  a  diminiihed  Pcrrpiationrpeedily^ii/^ 

The 


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1    N    p    E    x; 

TbeDegreeofStrea^oF  Liquors  drtffft  In  a  £Mlf  HMfll 

to  be  i^arded,  44.2. 
Why  ftronger  Liquore  to  be  allowed  in  Winter  tfaart  Sum* 

mer,  for  ordinorv,  thid. 
The  Dai^  of  iiufirwus  PotaWts  in  the  Spring,  ibid. 
Signs  of  an  approaching  Tempcft}  443. 
Of  the  Wind,  Hiid.  444. 
Sigm  of  a  Hiftrlouie,  445. 
■Where  Hurricanes  and  Spouts  arc  moft  frequetit.    l^ore* 

f£eh  at  Bemtadas  and  the  Cantin  f/httdsy  446. 
"What  Years  moft  remarliaMc  for  terrible  Thundtr  and 

Lightening,  447,  4^8- 
Tbunder  fonnetimes  followed  by  Earthqoalte*,  Harricanet 
and  Tcmpeft,  Famirleand  Mortality.  Thunder  often 
the  Product  of  fultry  rainy  Years,  They  are  more  ter- 
rible in  hot  Countttes,  md  near  the  Line  or  VQlcanosi 
448. 
The  drier  a  Country  it,  the  lefs  Thunder^  Lightening  ot 

EairtlHfaalccs,  biK  the  frcquftilter  Northern  Ltghfs,  ibid. 
The  Signs  of  Thunder  and  Ligftteohlg,  &fid  in  whit  Month 

is  didinarlly  irtoH,  Hid. 
The  warmer  the  Country  or  Seafon'  is,:  the  larger  the 

Drops  of  Rain,  445. 
The  greateft  Rains  happen  near  the  Autumnal  Equinox,  450, 
When  the  lorgeft  Raftis  ftt  in,  ibid. 
When  a  cloudy  Seafon  fucceedingaiaiity,  denotes  Drought, 

ibid. 
AH  the  barometrical  Obfervations  collected  together,  451^ 

4S4- 
Why  Barometers,  Thermometers  and  Hydrofcopes  are  all 
infufiicient  to  prcfage  the  Weather  any  confiderableTim* 
to  come,  454- 
Why  Country  Pebple  fhouM  rather  cAnfuIt  the  Book  of 

Nature  than  Art  about  tiie  Weather,  455, 45-6, 
Whether  moratPeopIc  die  when  the  fiarometer  and  Termo- 

meter  are  higbeft  or  ioweft,  459. 
Signs  ofRainthat  have  been  regarded  in  all  Ages,  461,  462* 
To  know  when  Rain  is  at  hand,  or  at  fooie  Diftance  ; 
whether  it  will  rain  much,  fhort  Time  or  long.    Miners 
forefee  Tempefts,  Wind  or  Rain,  463,  465. 
Strange  Things  have  been  rained  down  feveral  Times  in 
di&rcnt  Places,  and  Icveral  Inferences  therefrom,  466, 
470. 

Great 


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J  ir  P  E  Xr 
Otat  FkKMfa  are  from  fevend  Ciufa,.  470. 
SkniofSnowi  471.  *^ 

OfHiai,  472. 
Of  f^ir  Wcitber,  iUJ. 
Several  Obrervationi  on  great  Frofls,  and  Pfdiiges  of  themt 

474, +79. 
Qf  Aurora  Boreales  or  northern  Ligtio,  479. 
Of  feveral  other  Meteon,  as  iieiy  Dr^ooSj  Cbafms,  Tax« 
.    Wf.483- 

Of  Earthquakes,  why  the  mofl  terrible  of  all  Meteon,  484. 
Their  di&rent  Motiona,  4^5. 
Their  Signs  or  Preragei,  iHi. 
Thdr  Caufe,  486. 

Their  great  Changes  made  in  the  Earth,  tUd.  4S71 
Their  Effects,  488,489. 
^^  Why  lefs  terrible  now  than  foroierty,  490. 
Why  the  Earth  Iccns  a  Dicer  fuperficial  Stratum  fpread 
orer  Water,  iild. 

And  that  there  is  a  fubterntneaa  Communication 

of  thefe  Watcn,  Hid.  ^i. 
Thunder  and  Earthquakes  more  peculiar  to  rainy  Scalbni 

and-Places>  491. 
What  Earthquakes  moft  to  be  dreaded,  and  whereofteneA, 

Hid. 
Of  Vulcanos  or  burning  Mountain;^  492. 
Of  Comets,  493,  494. 


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