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Full text of "The Nighantu and the Nirukta, the oldest Indian treatise on etymology, philology and sementics [sic]. Critically edited from original manuscripts and translated for the first time into English, with introd., exegetical and critical notes, three indexes and eight appendices"

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THE    NIGHAIVTU 

•        • 
AND 


THE  OLDEST  INDIAN  TREATISE 
ON  ETYMOLOGY,  PHILOLOGY,  AND  SEMENTICS 

CRITICALLY     EDITED    FROM    ORIGINAL    MANUSCRIPTS    AND 

TRANSLATED  FOR  THE  FIRST  TIME  INTO  ENGLISH,    WITH 

INTRODUCTION,  EXEGETICAL    AND    CRITICAL    NOTES, 

THREE  INDEXES  AND  EIGHT  APPENDICES 


BY 


LAKSHMAN   SARUP,  M.A.  (PANJ.),  D.  PHIL.  (OxoN.) 

LATE    PROFESSOR    OF   SANSKRIT    AT   THE   UNIVERSITY   OF    PANJAB,    LAHORE 


TEXT 

(  Pages  1    to  298  ) 

INTRODUCTION,   ENGLISH  TRANSLATION    AND   NOTES 

(  Pages  1  to  260   ) 


MOTILAL     BANARSIDASS 
DELHI       ::       VARANASI       ::        PATNA 


MOTILAL      BANARSIDASS 

BUNGALOW  ROAD,  JAWAHARNAGAR,  DELHI-7 
NEPALI  KHAPRA,  VARANASI  (u.P.) 
BANKIPORE,  PATNA    (BIHAR) 


Pk 


-^  , 


Second  Reprint  1967 
Price  Rs,  40.00 


PRINTED     IN     INDIA     BY    SHANTILAL     JAIN,      AT     SHRI     JAINENDRA     PRESS, 
BUNGALOW      ROAD,     JAWAHARNAOAR,      DELHI-7      AND      PUBLISHED     BY 
SUNDARLAL    JAIN,      MOTILAL      BANARSIDASS,     BUNGALOW        ROAD, 
JAWAHARNAOAR,     DELHI-7 


THE   NIQHANTU 

•  • 

AND 

THE   NIRUKTA 

THE  OLDEST  INDIAN  TREATISE 
ON  ETYMOLOGY,  PHILOLOGY,  AND  SEMANTICS 

CRITICALLY   EDITED  .FROM    ORIGINAL   MANUSCRIPTS    AND 

TRANSLATED  FOR  THE  FIRST  TIME  INTO  ENGLISH,  WITH 

INTRODUCTION,  EXEGETICAL  AND  CRITICAL  NOTES, 

THREE  INDEXES  AND  EIGHT  APPENDICES 


BY 


LAKSHMAN  SARUP,  M.  A,  (PANJ,),  D.  PHIL.  (OxoN.) 

(Of  Balliol  College  Oxford) 

PROFESSOR  of  SANSKRIT,  ORIENTAL  COLLEGE,  LAHORE 


SANSKRIT  TEXT,  WITH  AN  APPENDIX  SHOWING  THE 

RELATION  OF  THE  NlRUKTA  WITH  OTHER 

SANSKRIT  WORKS. 


MOTILAL  BANARSIDASS 

DELHI     ::      VARANASI     ::      PATNA 


£    T";,. 

>hanti  Lai    am 


Sundar  Lai  Jam 

Motilal  Ilium  rNhlusft,  flirl  J»*»c»«™  ****** 

,       u    _  I  Buncalow  Road,  Jawahar 

Bungalow  Road,  ^  ^  ^ 

Jawahar  Nagar,  Delhi-6 


Copies  available  at  : 

i.    Motilal  Banawldass,  Bungalow  Road,  Jawaharnagar,  Delhi -6 
a.     Motilal  Banarsidass,  Nepali  Khapra,  Varanasi. 
3.    Motilal  Banaraidass.  Bankipur,  Patna. 


II  %ft: 


n 


H. 


PREFACE. 


On  my  return  home  to  India,  a  systematic  and  exhaustive 
search  for  the  hitherto  unutilised  mss.  of  the  Nirukta  was  made. 
I  myself  undertook  an  extensive  tour  in  Rajputana,  Baroda, 
Tihri-Garhwal  and  Cashmere  and  examined  the  state  collections  of 
Sanskrit  mss.  I  also  visited  Benares,  Patna,  Madras,  Madura,  and 
Tanjore.  I  wrote  to  scholars,  and  librarians  in  charge  of  Sanskrit 
mss.  throughout  the  country.  I  was  therefore  able  to  secure  the 
use  of  several  mss.  hitherto  not  utilised  for  the  constitution  of 
the  text.  These  mss.  are  as  follows  :  — 

Bk.1  This  ms.  belongs  to  the  state  Library,  Bikaner.  The 
loan  was  secured  for  the  University  of  the  Panjab  through  the 
courtesy  of  Maharaja  S'ri  Sir  Bhairon  Singhji,  K.  C.  I.  E.,  Vice- 
President,  Council,  Bikaner. 

Contents.  The  Nirukta  of  Yaska  in  the  shorter  recension 
containing  the  two  parts  i.  e.  the  piirvdrdha  and  the  uttardrdha 
in  in  leaves.  It  is  a  badly  preserved  ms.  and  full  of  mistakes. 

Size:     9J"x4|"    Material:   Paper.   No.   of  leaves:     in 
No.  of  lines  per  folio:  8.  Characters:  Devanagarl. 

Date  :  on  f.   inr.  (  sic.  )  «ft  OTntTsrH*?^  II  *N^  *i*rrftj*r§?5*Trif  I 
i  sre^ri  fovprft  %  feftkii  <ra*      i.  e.  I7o5  Vik.=l67i)  A.  D. 


The  colophon  ends  thus  :   (  sic.  ) 


BK.8  Contents  :  the  S'-iksd  Cat'iiMaya  written  without  a  break. 
The  IIIH.  is  injured  in  many  places.  Niyhantu  is  given  from  f.  9 
r.  to  f.  18r. 

Size  :   Og*  x  4f  .    Material  :  Paper.  No.  of  leaves  :  18. 

No.  of  linos:    8.  Charaetern:  Devaniigarl.     Dato:  cm  f,  18  P: 

MIC:      $*?    «VH9It  ||    «o     ^«^    ^rj^     1*\^    q»i    W^A  ^  1« 

*ft  i^f'HnT  fef^^f  i  *?t  iTiinfvrn^  %ft  si^jiftrf  &  fonwA  u  ftr^ir^i  11 
K.1     A    am.     written   on    paper    in     Uevauaguil    eharucU 


obtained  through  the  courtesy  of  the  Curator,  Central  Library, 
Baroda.  The  contents  are  the  1st  half  of  the  Nirukta.  It  is  full 
of  mistakes  and  belongs  to  the  longer  recension. 

Size  :     8  ^  x  3§".      Number  of  leaves  :  69. 
Number  of  lines:     9. 
Date:    sic.    ^r%  11  n  u  ^  u 

pJi  u  «<tqi«ft  %%*K^fi 
Scribe  :    sic.    w^Hflw^TO     x  ****  *     *rnr  a  u 


Peculiarities:  The  colophon  at  the  end  of  the  1st  chapter  runs 
thus  :  ll  ^%  %?5%  ^^wt«rnr:  ll  ;  at  the  end  of  the  3rd  chapter  thus  ; 
sic.  u  ^r  5*^fc  u  i^%  u  ?jrforhan*T:  ^n^rr  ^r  u  VL  u  &  M  ?i%  in  \  n  ^^  u 
i4wwft«iuw«wi<1  n  «nTi5^[^te*^i  ft«n  ^jttr'rlftr  HIT?:  u  ;  at  the  end 
of  the  4th  chapter  thus  :  u  ^fa  %^  i^r^  ^m«Tni:  w\i\ft*i  ?&fo  *n  \\ 


Evidently  ayam  refers  to  the  4th  chapter  and  not  to  the  Nirukta 
as  the  5th   chapter  is  immediately   continued.     But  the  use  of  vd 
does  not  seem  to  be  correct  in  this  case. 

Sandhi  and  spelling  :  The  visarga  is  retained  but  at  the  same 
time  euphonically  combined  i.  e.  a   double  process  is  introduced, 
e.  g.  f.  lv:  5^n^n?r^r:^8r«T  ......  *wiwn:«&  etc.    The  avagraha  is  not 

marked,  e.  g.  f.    2r.     sn^fa  f.    lv.     3ST<nT5*nftft  etc.     The  dental 


nasal  is  avoided  in  conjunction,  being  reduced  to  unusvdra,  e.  g.  f. 
lv.  Pkn*i«iil*t«<6<i  ^«JS  =50«iifiio 

F.  2r.    «f%nftu  :    f.  Gv. 


R.a  A  neat,  well-written,  woll-[>roscrvcd  and  complete  ms. 
of  the  Nirukta  in  Devanagarl  characters. 

Sixe:     8i/;x4J".     N  urn  ber  of  leaves:   69  +  ?7  +  i  blank=147. 
Three  leaves  75-77  are  wrongly  numbered  a«  85-87. 
-Number  of  linew  :     9. 

No  date  i»  given.  The  name  of  the  scribe  i«  not  known. 
The  ins.  lookn  alxjut  200  year.s  old.  It  belongs  to  the  longer 
recciiHion  and  doe«  not  give  any  new  variants. 

B*.  It  contaiiiH  the  2nd  half  of  the  Nirukta,  written  on 
paper  in  Devanagari  character*. 


Size:    8£"x3|-".     Number  of  leaves  :     83  +  i  blank.     Number 
of  lines:  9. 

Date  :    sic.    i  ^  i  31%  I 


The  owner  seems  to  be  one  Ramakrsna.  He  is  saluted  like  a 
god  which  is  rather  unusual  :  sft  i  *m$wnTrfe<snr  «nr.  I  Or  the 
word  Mcilika  does  not  refer  to  the  owner  of  the  ms.  but  to  God, 
who  is  the  master  of  all. 

The  ms.  belongs  to  the  longer  recension.  It  represents  a 
very  late  stage  of  textual  expansion.  The  colophon  at  the  end  runs 

thus  I      s[Kf  «i^»Tf>  >3THM^j  ^8*n^lT«  I   . 

R*.  A  fragment  of  the  1st  half  of  the  Nirukta,  written  in 
Devanagarl  characters  on  paper.  It  looks  old.  It  is  illegible  in 
many  places.  Ink  is  bleached  by  age.  It  belongs  to  the  shorter 
recension. 

Size  :  9£"  x  3J".  Number  of  lines  :  7.  Number  of  leaves  :  61- 
Eight  leaves  are  supplied  in  a  different  handwriting. 

Kn.  A  palm  leaf  ms.  written  ia  old  Canarese  characters, 
presented  to  the  Panjab  University  Library,  Lahore.  It  belongs 
to  the  shorter  recension  and  sometimes  gives  important  readings. 

Size:  lU"xiy.  Number  of  leaves:  94+i  blank.  Number 
of  lines  :  7. 

No  date  is  given,  but  as  it  is  written  in  old  Canarese  characters, 
it  must  bo  at  least  ;500  years  old,  and  might  bo  older. 

K6.  The  text  of  the  Nirukta  is  made  up  by  2  different  inss. 
Tho  1st  half  is  given  in  GO+i  blank  leaves. 

Size:  i)i"x3.y'.  Number  of  lines:  9.  Date  is  not  givoii. 
Tho  name  of  the  surilx)  is  also  unknown.  The  colophon  ends  thus:  — 


n   wrft  u  sr«^  u  i^%«?fn|owrg  i    The  ms. 

belongs  to  the  longer  reeeiisiun. 

o  o 

Tho  tind  halt'  is  given  in  i  +  C5  leaves. 
Si/e:     <J"  x  il".     Nuinhor  -)f  lines:  9. 


Colophon  ends  thus:    (  sic.  ) 

<rtonra*ta;  u 
u 


u  V  u  wj  u  **  u  v  u  ^  n      $wm*nw   *ro:  «  s   *rr^<*u«    m  \\ 

The  text  belongs  to  the  longer  recension,  both  the  parisl^tas 
being  given  in  full. 

K.8  An  incomplete  ms.  of  the  1st  half  of  the  Nirukta.  The 
1st  leaf  is  missing.  It  looks  old  and  has  preserved  the  old  spelling. 
The  text  belongs  to  the  shorter  recension.  In  many  parts  it  is 
illegible. 

Si«e  :  9"  x  4".     Number  of  leaves  :  78. 

Number  of  lines:  8.  Characters  :  Devanagarl.  Material  :  paper. 

The  text  is  given  up  to  the  34th  section  of  the  6th  chapter. 
The  last  leaf  is  missing. 

R.T     A  fragment  of  an  old  ms.  gives  the  text  of  the  Nirukta 
in  tne  shorter  recension  from  the  words  srorw^f  trranrer  ^nrroir  ......  of 

the  4th  section  of  the  5th  chapter  up  to  :  a^faf  *ff  :  xrf^ir  sfowrr  of 
the  9th  section  of  the  8th  chapter.    The  7th  ch.  begins  thus  :  (  sic.  ) 


Size:  9"x4£".  Number  of  leaves:...  54-97...  missing.  Nu- 
mber of  lines  :  9.  Characters  :  Devanagarl.  Material  :  paper. 
Spelling  :  old.  Date  etc  :  unknown. 

R8.  A  ms,,  the  contents  of  which  arc  tho  2nd  half  of  the 
Nirukta. 

Size  :  9"  x  4".    Number  of  leaves:  62. 

Number  of  lines  per  page:  9.  Characters  :  Dovanagarl,  Material: 
paper. 

Date;  sic. 


uwfort  vnftat  i<nnfi  feftwfe^  u  v^  u    ^?  *?^3  u 


The  Parift'iijtas  are  given  together  as  one  chapter,  being 
bodily  separated  from  the  12th  ch.  of  tho  Nirukta. 

Spelling  is  old.  The  paper  is  very  much  worn.  There  is  no 
ground  to  suHpect  the  date.  Tho  external  appearance,  tho  state 
of  the  paper,  which  unmistakably  bears  the  stamp  of  old  ago,  auc| 


the  internal  evidence  of  old  spelling   support  the  above  mentioned 
date.     It  belongs  to  the  shorter  recension.     The  following  case  of 
accidental  omission  is  to  be  noted. 
F.  29r.  1.  6  from  top: 


The  eye  of  the  scribe  wandered  from  the  1st  line  to  the 
similar  words  in  the  3rd  line  with  the  result  that  the  intervening 
passage  «nr^HTT...^5n7:  was  omitted. 

D.  A  ins.  brought  for  me  by  my  friend  P.  Bhagavaddatta. 
B.  A..  It  is  a  neatly  written,  well  preserved  ms.,  and  belongs  to 
the  longer  recension. 

Size:  6j"x2j".  Number  of  leaves:  112+128+i+21=261. 
There  are  3  parts.  The  1st  two  parts  contain  the  1st  and  the 
2nd  half  of  the  Nirukta  respectively.  The  contents  of  the  last 
21  leaves  are  the  Nighantu.  Number  of  lines:  7.  Characters: 
Devanagarl.  Material  :  paper. 

Date  on  f.   112r.  (sic.)  sr% 


Scribe:—  (sic.)  ^im<S*«t><  ^3^^^  *?$WT&T  feftiH  u 
Date  on  f.  128r.  (  =  240  ):  (sic.)  u  *n%  i  w  <Mhmr*i««ft  ^nh 


Scribe  i    >sn*r&T^T  ^^nTPSf  r  ^wi^^Twrs^T^VT^  fefe^i  I   Colophon 
ends  with  the  usual  statement  :    *m(  5^1%  ijr  etc. 

Date  on  f.  21r  (  =261r  )  :    sic.  u  sr 


Scribe  :    ^fr^ 

There  is  a  good  ms.  of  the  Jfiruktq  in  the  library  of  H.  H. 
the  Maharaja  of  Alwar.  All  my  efforts  to  secure  a  loan  of  this  ms. 
were  fruitless,  as  the  authorities  refused  to  lend  the  ms.  to  the 
Panjab  University  on  any  terms.  Even  a  copy  of  the  ms.  could  not 
be  obtained.  But  H.  H.  the  Maharaja  was  kind  enough  to  let  me 
see  the  ms.  On  examining  a  few  test  passages,  I  found  that  no  new 
variants  were  forthcoming.  Its  collation  was  therefore  unnecessary. 


Besides,  six  ms.«.  of  the  Rnghunatha  Temple  Library, 
Jammu  were  collated  by  Principal  Raghubar  Dayal  M.  A;  M.  O.  L. 
of  the  S.  D.  College,  as  far  as  the  12th  section  of  the  1st  chapter 
of  the  Nirukta.  He  WMS  good  enough  to  place  the  result  of  this 
collation  at  my  disposal.  On  carefully  examining  the  critical  notes 
supplied  by  Principal  Raghubar  Dayal,  I  did  not  find  any  new 
variants.  I  did  not  therefore  feel  justified  in  collating  the  mss. 
afresh\ 

Th&  evidence  supplied  by  the  Indian  mss.-  further  supports 
the  conclusion,  deduced  from  the  collation  of  European  mss. 

Thfc  evidence  of  the  European  mss.  was  discussed  at  length 
in  my  Introduction  to  the  Nirnkta,  published  by  the  Oxford 
University  Press  in  1920.  The  Introduction  was  sold  out  within 
a  few  years  of  its  publication  and  is  now  out  of  print.  New 
reade.rs  of  the  Nirukta  will  require  information  with  regard  to  the 
principles  of  the  constitution  of  the  text.  For  their  benefit,  the 
relevant  part  of  the  Introduction  is  reproduced. 

The  Relationship  of  the  MSS. :  two  recensions. 

The  manuscripts*  foil  into  two  groups,  and  for  the  sake  of 
convenience  and  brevity,  may  be  called  A  and  B- — A  representing 
the  longer  and  B  the  shorter  recension.  None  of  the  manuscripts 
grouped  in  these  two  families  is  earlier  than  A.  D.  1479.  Although 
they  have  been  copied  form  earlier  manuscripts — often  with  great 
labour  and  trouble  as  some  of  the  scribes  remark — neither  of  them 
transmits  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  in  an  uninterpolated  state. 
Both  recensions  add  the  paris'ista — which  can  be  proved  to  be  an 
interpolation  by  independent  testimony — as  an  integral  part 
of  the  text,  and  cannot,  therefore,  be  the  faithful  repre- 
sentatives of  the  archetype.  Moreover,  both  have  besides  the 
paris'ista,  an  entire  section  or  the  equivalent  of  a  section  added 
on  to  them.  These  additions  are  meaningless.  The  commentary 
on  the  Vedic  stanzas  quoted  therein  is  very  poor,  and  written 
in  a  style  quite  different  from  that  of  Yaska.  For  instance, 
there  can  hardly  be  any  doubt  as  to  the  interpolated  character  of 
ix.  2,  which  is  given  as  a  constituent  part  of  the  text  by  the 
manuscripts  of  both  recensions.  Further,  the  commentary  on  the 
Vedic  stanza  in  xi.  7  is  meaningless  and  written  in  a  different  style. 
The  Vedic  stanza,  being  quite  easy,  requires  no  explanation. 


Yaska  generally  does  not  comment  on  easy  Vedic  stanzas,  simply 
remarking:  iti  sd  niyada-vy.(lkhydtdl9  i.  e.  'this  stanza  is  explained 
by  the  mere  reading'.  In  all  such  cases,  this  note  of  Yaska  comes 
after  easy  Vedic  stanzas  only.  It  would  thus  be  intelligible,  if  it 
had  followed  immediately  the  Vedic  stanzas  in  xi.  7.  But  as  the 
text  now  stands,  it  is  placed  just  after  a  very  difficult  Vedic  stanza 
in  xi.  8.  This  is  contrary  to  Yaska's  method.  It  is  clear  that  the 
words  :  iti  sd  niyada-vydL'hydtd  were  originally  placed  immediately 
after  the  Vedic  stanzas  in  xi.  7.  The  intervening  passage  is  an 
interpolation,  and  rather  a  clumsy  one,  for  it  can  be  easily  detected. 
This  is  further  proved  by  the  fact  that  Durga,  who  repeats  every 
word  of  Yaska  in.  his  commentary,  ignores  them.  How  these 
additions  gradually  found  their  way  into  the  text  is  illustrated  by 
the  following  example.  There  i?  an  easy  quotation  in  xii.  2,  and 
Yaska,  as  usual,  simply  adds  :  iti  sd  diyada-vydJchydtd.  Some 
interpolators  have  endeavoured  to  add  after  these  words  a  short 
comment.  Thus  some  manuscripts  IICTO  subjoin  lliu  following 
remark:  ^rr%g  ^r  ^r<ft  srerrrRT  "a^ff  3*??%  ......  g*i<n?h  n 

Further,  each  recension  contains  passages,  which,  being  super- 
fluous, are  omitted  by  the  other,  or  are  amplified  versions  of  those 
in  the  other.  For  example,  B  adds,  between  vii.  19  and  20,  one 
entire  section,  which  is  omitted  by  A.  It  is  clearly  an  interpolation 
as  the  commentary  on  the  Vedic  stanzas  is  identical  with  that  of 
xiv.  33  with  slight  alterations. 

Again,  in  B  the  commentary  on  the  Vedic  stanza  quoted  in 
v.  27,  reads  as  follows:  fj^Kc^r  s^niTRt  TO  <re  ^  13$ 

ti  *»  n 


A's  version  of  this  is  greatly  amplified: 

TO 
I 


Further,  A  contains  a  long   passage   in  6.  5: 
:  omitted  by  B. 

*0miss,io  ex  homoeoteleuto'  in  Sanskrit  Manuscripts. 
It  is  clear,  therefore,  that  both  the  recensions  cannot  faithfully 


1  Cf.  N.  x,  IS.  24;  xi.  3,  45;  xii.  31, 


represent  the  archetype.     Hence   the  question   arises  which    of 
them  adheres  more  closely  to   the   original  ?     Koth  adopted  the 
text   as  given   by   the  longer  recension   in  his   edition,  without, 
however,  assigning  adequate  reasons  for  his  preference.     The  same 
text  is  also  adopted  by  most  of  the  editors  of  the   Nirukta.     This 
text,   as  has   been  shown  above,   does  not   represent   the   original. 
It  is  true  that  often  the  longer  recension  preserves   the  better  text, 
for  sometimes  passages  are  omitted  by  accident.    The  eye  of  the 
scribe  wanders  from  a  particular  word  to   the  same  or  to  a  similar 
word,  occurring  further  on   in   the  text,   with  the  result   that  the 
intervening   words    are    omitted.     This    phenomenon    known    as 
omissio  ex  homoeoteleuto  is  universal  and  of  very  frequent  occurrence. 
The  following  example   illustrates  this  kind  of  omission.     In  copy- 
ing the  lines:  'The  book,  which  is  rather  scarce,  was  till  very  lately 
of  absolute  necessity  for  the  Student  of  the  Christian  Hynmology, 
above  all  for  the   Student  of  Adam  of  St.  Victor's  hymns',1  the 
eye  of  the  copyist  wandered  from  the  student  of  the  first  to  the 
same  word  in  the  second  line  and  the  words  'of  the  Christian...  for 
the*   were  left  out.    The  same  thing  happened   to  the  scribe  of  ms. 
C  3.     In  copying  the  sentence  :    *?fifaH*{*H  SKfjTTOt  ^jp&Wi  I  swftg- 

his  eye   wandered  from   the  word 


in  the  first  line  to  the   same  word  in   the  second  line,  with 
the  result  that  the  words  3*?mi    T^r«  I  srcfaug  were  left  out. 


Again,,  in  copying  N.  vi.  22:  ^  ?re:  smni  $3f*ff  $foftg  I  RV. 
VIII.  4.  19.  r<p:  snrrfaKnrraV  srsi^nrft  i  the  eye  of  the  scribe 
wandered  from  the  **jr  of  the  first  line  to  the  similar  word  **p:  in 
the  second  line,  consequently  the  intervening  words  <rr«r:  9RTW... 
were  omitted  in  ms.  C  3. 

Further  in  N;   ii.  26  : 


:  is  the  first  pdda  of  the  second  hemistich  of  the  stanza  of 
RV.  III.  33.  6.  Unconsciously  the  scribe  remembered  the  second 
pdda  ?rar  ^  sm%  *rnr  ssff:  and  wrote  it  down  immediately  after 
finishing  the  first  pdda  with  the  result  that  the  intervening  words 
I  <nf&T:  <TOfT^...^3rqi?cf  are  missing  in  ms.  C  4.  It  cannot 


therefore  be  concluded  that  the  shorter  recension  is  always  the  best, 
for  sometimes  omissions  are  accidental. 

1.  Clark,  Descent  of  Manuscripts,  p.  1. 


Dittography  in  Sanskrit  Manuscripts. 

On  the  other  hand,  there  is  also  the  phenomenon  called 
dittography,  i.  e.  the  repetition  or  addition  of  a  few  words  or 
sentences.  An  excellent  example  of  dittography  is  furnished  by 
The  Globe  on  July  9,  1915. 

The  Echo  departs  publishes  a  message  from  Cettinje  announcing 
the  message  form  Cettinje  announcing  the  appointment  as  Governor 
of  Scutari  of  Bojo  Petrovitch.'1  The  part  of  the  second  line  is  a 
verbatim  repetition  of  a  part  of  the  first  line. 


In  N.  ii.  28,    ^srwft  ffcqfa  gr^ffa  rftaror  ^  arft  ...... 


the  eye  of  the  scribe  wandered  by  chance  after  *%  to  the  Vedic 
stanza,  and  he  mechanically  copies  the  whole  of  the  first  line  except 
3<T  *r  in  ms.  C  5. 

Again,  in   N.  vi.   8,    the  scribe  of  the  ms.    Mi.  repeats 


Further  there  are  some  passages  whose  omission  by  B  is 
absolutely  unjustifiable.  Yaska  explains  every  word  occurring  in 
the  fourth  chapter  of  the  Nighantii.  The  omission  of  the  passages 
containing  the  explanation  of  any  of  these  words  is  therefore 
inconsistent  with  Yaska's  plan.  Examples  of  such  omissions  are 
the  following.  Yaska  explains  ftsprr:  (  Ngh.  4.  3.  12.  )  in  N.  vi.  3, 
but  the  passage  :  ferersn  ftsr«Tfrftoi:  is  omitted  by  B.  Again,  Yaska 
explains  sffow  (  Ngh.  4.  3.  28  )  in  N.  vi.  6  as  sfrro  sraror,  which  is 
omitted  by  B.  This  omission  makes  the  following  Vedic  quotation 
meaningless. 

FurtKer,  in  commenting  upon  a  Vedic  stanza,  Yaska  always 
starts  from  the  very  beginning  of  the  stanza.  To  leave  out  the  first 
few  words  and  to  begin  from  somewhere  in  the  middle  of  the  stanza 
is  altogether  foreign  to  his  practice,  yet  if  the  text  of  B  be  followed. 
the  omission  of  the  passage:  qrafcR  f^onfoft  Rcj^r  (  N.  vi.  26  ) 
would  involve  Yaska  in  an  inconsistency.  All  this  shows  that 
B  is  not  absolutely  reliable. 

1    Cl*rk,  op.  cit.,  p.  6. 


Now  let  us  examine  A.  The  majority  of  the  manuscripts  of 
A  belong  to  a  period  later  than  those  of  B.  Thus  not  one  of  them 
lias  preserved  the  old  spelleing,  while  most  of  the  B  mss.  retain 
this  peculiarity,  i.  e. 

of  writing  15     as  I  /    as  ^rt    for  ^ 


I  /'I 


it 


„         $  for 


Again,  some  of  the  A  MSS.  divide  the  paris'ista  into  the 
so-called  thirteenth  and  the  fourteenth  chapters,  while  those  of  B 
put  the  whole  of  the  paris'ista  into  one  chapter  only,  which  is 
numbered  the  thirteenth. 

It  has  already  been  pointed  out  that  A  contains  an  obvious 
interpolation  in  N.  vi.  5,  and  an  amplified  version  of  B's  comment 
in  N.  v.  27.  Besides  these  there  are  shorter  passages  scattered 
throughout  the  book  which  are  omitted  by  B  and  are  suspected  to 
be  interpolations.  Ona  very  fertile  and  insidious  source  of  interpo- 
lations is  supplied  by.  Yaska's  own  method  of  giving  etymological 
explanation.  He  does  not  content  himself  with  one  derivation,  but 
goes  on  adding  derivation  after  derivation  of  a  single  word  till  the 
whole  list  of  probable,  possible,  and  even  fanciful  etymologies  is 
exhausted.  In  many  cases,  interpolators  found  it  quite  easy  to 
add  new  derivations  and  attribute  them  to  Yaska.  A  contains  a 
considerable  number  of  such  additions,  while  B  has  only  two. 

The  following  are  a  few  samples  : 

N.  ii.  6.     A  reads  :  %$ft  Jwmj  1  t*9TT  «frf  ftre^tft  3T  I   qn  fy^foi- 


B  reads: 
The  two  derivations  are  omitted. 
N.  ii.  It).    A  reads: 


B  reads: 

N.  ii.  13.    A  reads: 
B  reads  : 


N.  ii.  20.    A  reads  : 
B  reads  : 

N.  ii.  22.    A  reads:  sr«w  ^fa  g&rara 
B  reads  : 

N.  iii.    8.    A  reads  : 
B  reads  : 


N.  iii.  10.    A  reads: 
B  reads: 

N.  iii.  15.     A  reads:   ^t  ^t 

3F&&  I 

Breads:  ^t  wt  ?r^  fr>gfcr  ^j;  i 

In  this  particular  case  it  is  obvious  that  the 
passage  ^rc:  ^^TT^,  &c.,  is  an  interpolation, 
for  as  the  words  stand  in  the  first  line, 
Yaska  would  naturally  give  the  etymological 
explanation  of  &w  first  and  then  of  ^r,  not 
vice  versa.  As  a  matter  of  fact  he  does  so  ; 
after  explaining  ftrvrer  he  says  : 


This  would  have  been  absurd  if  the  reading 
of  A  represents  the  original. 

N.  iii.  16.     A  reads  :  -su®«n  ^  l^r  0fa  I  i^ 

*r  ii  u  ll 
B  reads  :   sro^n    er    ^55T    %fir  u  i  $  u 


N.  iii.  19.    A  reads:  fofifens^nihr...^  I  iWfir  ^wr^  i 
B  reads:  ft 


N.  iv.    2.     A  reads:  JT^^T...^!^  I  ^pn^r  4fiUi<&<kfr    I 


B  reads  : 

N.  iv.  10.     A  reads  : 
B  reads: 

N.  iv.  13.    A  reads: 
B  reads  : 


N.  iv.  15.    A  reads  : 


B  reads  :  «Erqr  ^wftar  ?ra%  i  tfesf  ^r«^fcr  31  i 

N.  iv.  19.    A  reads:  3^  s*  3^  I   ^for  571*353^   I 
3^%  i 

B  reads  :  sr^i  5?  <r^s%  i  <»)«t»i 

N.  v.    3.    A  reads  :  <TRftfrT 

B  reads  :  7i%ftfflr 
N.  v.  12.    A  reads: 

B  reads  : 
N.  v.  26.     A  reads: 


B  reads  : 
N.  vi.  8.  A  reads  : 

B  reads: 
N.  vi.  16.  A  reads  : 

B  reads  : 
N.  vi.  33.  A  reads  :  ?ft^  $&  i 

B  reads  :   ?ft?T%  ft%  i 


N.  vi.  32.    A  reads  :  f^  5$&rf<r  fe^  srr  f*??^1  ^rr 

B  reads  : 
N.  vi.  33.    A  reads: 


B  reads  :  *R     ^r^sfiifftni  'Wf^nfiRf  «rr 


Instances  might  be  multiplied,  but  the  above  examples  suffice 
to  show  that  A  has  been  much  more  tampered  with  than  B. 

Fortunately,  as  has  been  said  above,  Durga  repeats  every 
word  of  the  Nlrukta  in  his  commentary,  so  that  the  text  of  the 
Nirukta  in  toto  can  be  reproduced  from  his  commentary  alone. 
This  commentary  therefore  serves  the  purpose  of  a  manuscript  of 
the  Nirukta  and  supplies  valuable  information  about  the  condition 
of  the  text  in  its  author's  time.  Durga  does  not  recognize  the 
paris'ista  as  an  integral  part  of  the  Nirukta,  as  in  fact  he  is  even 
unaware  of  its  existence.  Thus  his  commentary  preserves  the 
text  of  the  Nirukta  as  current  before  the  addition  of  the  paris'ista. 


w 

Further,  it  derives  great  value  from  the  fact  that  Durga  displays 
critical  judgment  in  the  adoption  of  readings  in  the  text,  while 
giving  variants  and  adding  critical  notes  on  them.  For  example, 
in  N.  i.  2,  he  reads  STJJITT^  but  gives  ^TT^  as  a  variant,  adding  : 


Again,  in  N.  i.  12,  he  reads  tfte^Mift    but  gives   qfcflRift  as 
a  variant,  adding  scorer  tffti*?Rriv|f 


Again,  in  N.  iii.  15,  he  remarks  :  srfari  *r  %&** 

•T 


Again,  in  N.  iii.  21,  he  reads   3i£Mifcr  but  gives  «rfe^Rf  as  a 
variant,  adding  : 


Again,  in  N.  iv.  19,   he  reads  *g:  but  gives  «RT^  as  a  variant, 
adding  :  ^TT^sf^1  ^ftc^f  TTS:  i  sr^rf^^^f  MHI^^I^:  i 

Again,  in  N.  vi.  2,  he  remarks  :   £fr%  *TT 


Again,  in  N.  vi.  4,  he  reads  sRsrnrr^  but  gives  3H3«inq  and 
as  variants. 


Again,  in  N.  vi.  6,  he  reads  snrorer  but  gives  ifam  as  a  variant, 
adding  :  $ftop$r3r^%  w**§  I  acg^^qq^^  I  g^»^)fft  fe  *TPST 
Again,  in  N.  vi.  21,  he  remarks:   5^^%:   sremCT^tri  i 


Again,  on  N.  vi.  33,  he  remarks: 


This  shows  that  Durga  took  pains  to  ascertain  the  correct 
readings  and  has  handed  down  a  sort  of  critical  edition  of  the 
Nirukta,  as  it  existed  in  his  time. 

Three  stages  of  interpolations. 

We  have  thus  manuscript  materials  which  belong  to  three 
distinct  periods. 

(1)  D,  i.  e.  the  commentary  of  Durga,  written  before  the 
addition  of  the  paris'istas  and  embodying  the  whole  text  of  the 
Nirukta,  represents  the  earliest  period,  i.  e.  about  the  thirteenth 
century  A.  D. 


(2)  B,  i.  e.  the  manuscripts  of  the  shorter  recension,  represents 
a  period  later  than   D,  —  when  the  paris'istas  were  added,  but  not 
divided  as  yet  into  different  chapters,  and  when  the  old  orthography 
was  still  prevalent. 

(3)  A,  i.  e.  the  manuscripts  of  the  longer  recension,  represents 
a  still  later  period   when  the  paris'istas  had   been  divided  into 
chapters  and  the  old  orthography  had  gone  out  of  use. 

A  collation  of  these  three  different  recensions  indicates  that 
three  distinct  stages  of  interpolations  in  the  Nirukta  can  be  clearly 
traced.  For  example,  let  us  take  a  passage  in  N.  i.  4.  On 
collating  D,  B,  and  A,  we  find  that  the  reading  of  D  has  been 
expanded  in  B,  and  that  of  B  in  A. 

N.    i.    4.    Dreads:  arrarifaii^  ^rfefa 


B  reads  :  «iHN!(M3ft      rc%H  n^f*"     I 

WT  I 


A  reads  :  sr 


i  ^Mimifiv^i^^lcud  i 


Another  example  for  these  three  stages  is  supplied  by  N.  ix.  2, 
as  follows: 


D  reads  :  arer  «gr^iq;  i  <refar  *rar%  u  ^  u 


B  reads  :  «r4t  S^R^M:  i  3^Nr  ^r%  u  ?  u 

wit  €te^r  g^  ......  v^i%<^  'ift  ^RT  u 

>£(     ^  ^®^f  t 


U 


*rr  'rt  film 
A  reads  :  «r^  S^T^T 

"ift  ^Rl  II 


I    g><   ^l*<l<d  ^T    I 
I  W^  «4i<JHin:  I  ^HT  *T^l?r  U  ^  U 


It  has  been  shown  above  that  the  list  of  etymologies  increases 
as  one  passes  from  the  text  of  B  to  that  of  A.  In  the  same 
manner  the  list  of  etymologies  increases  in  B  as  compared  with  D. 
The  following  are  some  examples. 

N.    i.    4.     D  reads:  fgHiqlfoTO&HfEafr  I  3  f^r4t... 

B  reads  :   ^cr+imifar^i^'^q^foM^  I  ^C^IM::  $%$  tft^cf  I   «J 


T>  reads  :  TOT;  ^THST  %%:  I 
B  reads  :  TOT:  SFTT^T  i^ 

N.    i.    7.    D  reads  :  <&$&  &  %&  \  ts  fa^r 

B  reads  :  if  ?%TT  ^%  %^^  I  *mV  •**&:  \ 

N.  ii.  22.     D  reads: 
B  reads: 


N.  ii.  26.    D  reads : 
B  reads: 


:  n 


N.  iii.  18.     D  reads  :  rer^: 
B  reads  :   wrf  : 


:  u 
^rr 


°iV 


N.  v.    4.     D  reads  :  wfi 

B  reads  : 
N.  v.  23.     D  reads:  ^^n  oft 


B  reads  : 


u  ^  ii 

MS.  C  1  agrees  with  B  except  that  the  last  line  *ro 
is  omitted. 
N.  vi.    3.     Dreads: 


B  reads: 


N.  vi.    8.    D  reads  :  %$t  ^n?w<iMi  fjqr  ^f^rMi  u  ^  u 

B  reads  :  ^t  ^i*ii<HTtt«{i  ^TT  i  f^n  $?te^  +^3f«fi  u  *  II 

N.  vi.  24.  D  reads  : 
A  reads  : 
B  omits  it  altogether. 

N.  vi.  28.    D  reads  : 

B  reads  ;  srwrr  fa®...  ... 


Parallel  instance  of  Servius,  commentator  of  Virgil. 

Thus  the  stages  of  interpolation  at  different  periods  can  be 
traced.     The  principle  of  the  '  best  mauuscript  '  is  obviously  inappli- 
cable in  this  case,  for  none  of  the  manuscripts  can  be  called  the  best. 
All  that  is  available  is  the  best  manuscript  of  each  family,  and  the 
best  plan,   under  the  circumstances,   would  be  to  place  all  the 
three   families  side  by  side.     Fortunately   it  is  possible  to  do  so, 
for  the  successive   interpolations  from   one  family  to  another  are 
invariably   the   amplifications  of  the   text  of  a  shorter  recension, 
and  are  thrust  between   sentences   wherever  the  text  could  be  so 
enlarged   with   impunity,   as,   for    instance,    in    multiplying  the 
number   of  etymologies  and  attributing  them   all  to  Yaska.     I 
have,  however,  distinguished   the  evidence  of  Durga's  commentary 
from  that  of  the  manuscripts  of  the  Nirukto,   although   Durga's 
commentary  is  very  important  for  supplying  such  valuable  evidence 
for  the  history   of  the   text   of  the  Nirulcta,  it  cannot,  strictly 
speaking,   be  called  a  manuscript  of  the  NiruJcta.     The  relation 
of  the   shorter  to  the    longer  recension  is   shown    by  the  use 
of  square  brackets,   which    contain   the    additional  passages    of 
the  longer   recension,   while   the  relation  of  the  shorter  recension 
to  the  text  preserved  by   Durga  is   indicated  ,  by  foot-notes.    An 
analogous  example  is  furnished   by  Latin  literature.     The  text  of 
Servius,  commentator  of  Virgil,  shows  a  similar  threefold  amplifica- 
tion ;  the  three  stages  of  interpolations  being  pointed  out  by  Thilo 
in  his  edition.     I  think  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  reproduced  from 
Durga  represents  the  archetype  as  closely  as  it  is  possible  to  restore 


it  with  the  help  of  the  present  materials.  I  have  collated  thirty- 
seven  manuscripts  myself,  and  in  addition  have  taken  into  account 
the  evidence  of  fourteen  manuscripts  collated  by  Roth,  eight  by 
the  editor  of  the  Nirukta  in  Bib.  Ind.,  and  six  by  Principal 
Raghubar  Dayal  as  stated  above.  Thus,  directly  and  indirectly, 
the  evidence  of  sixty  five  manuscripts  is  available  for  this  edition. 
I  doubt  if  any  useful,  hitherto  unutilised  ms.  of  the  Nirukta 
will  now  be  forthcoming.  The  text  may,  therefore,  be  regarded 
as  more  or  less  settled. 

The  present  text  is  in  the  main  identical  with  the  text,  which  I 
constituted  at  Oxford,  and  which  served  as  the  basis  of  my  English 
translation.  But  as  a  result  of  the  collation  of  Indian  mss., 
this  text  is  somewhat  further  developed  than  that  used  for  the 
translation.  There  are  certain  variations  in  detail,  see  for  example, 
line  3  on  page  35.  Thus  the  present  text  differs  from  the  basis  of 
my  translation  although  the  difference  is  not  considerable.  This 
may  serve  to  show  the  existence  of  the  differnce  until  such  time  as 
I  may  be  able  to  publish  a  revised  edition  of  the  translation  based 
on  the  final  text. 

The  text  is  followed  by  Appendix  I.  Parallel  passages  from 
the  Sarhhitds,  the  Brdhmanas,  the  Prdtis'dkhyas,  the  Brhaddevatd, 
the  Astddhydyl,  the  Mahdbhdsya,  the  Arthas'dstra  of  Kautalya 
and  other  works  of  Vedic  and  Classical  Sanskrit  are  compared 
with  the  text  of  the  Nirukta.  The  Appendix  I  will  be  useful 
for  the  history  of  the  Nirukta.  One  could  see  at  a  glance  the 
extent  to  which  Yaska  is  indebted  to  his  predecessors  and  the 
influence,  exercised  by  him,  on  his  successors.  It  will  also  be 
useful  in  enabling  one  to  estimate  the  originality  of  Yaska's 
contribution. 

It  was  formerly  proposed  to  add  Appendix  II,  containing  the 
hitherto  unknown  and  unpublished  commentary  of  Mahes'vara  on 
the  Nirukta.  But  as  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  is  already  very  much 
delayed  and  the  addition  of  Appendix  II  would  require  consider- 
able time,  the  publication  of  the  commentary  is  being  withheld  for 
the  present. 

Commentators  of  Yaska. 

Although,  from  an  early  period,  Yaska's  work  has  been 
recognized  as  one  of  the  most  important  veddngas  by  the  orthodox 


tradition  of  literary  India,  he,  unlike  Panini,  has  not  had  many 
commentators.  This  does  not  mean  that  he  had  few  followers  or 
that  his  speculations  did  not  dominate  the  thought  of  succeeding 
generations.  On  the  contrary,  he  has  been  acknowledged  to  be 
the  pre-eminent  authority  on  etymology.  Hence,  at  first  sight, 
it  seems  rather  inexplicable  that  his  work  should  have  been  com- 
mented upon  by  so  few  people.  One  reason  of  this  paucity  is  that 
Yaska's  work  itself  is  a  commentary  and  not  an  independent 
treatise,  hence  it  did  not  stand  in  need  of  much  elucidation. 
Secondly,  it  is  written  in  classical  Sanskrit  prose,  and,  notwithstand- 
ing its  somewhat  archaic  'and  terse  style,  is  easily  intelligible  to 
the  reader  as  compared,  for  instance,  with  the  aphorisms  of  Panini  ; 
consequently  there  was  not  much  demand  for  further  comment. 
Yet  four  commentators,  at  least,  are  known  to  have  elucidated 
Yaska's  work. 

(1)  Ugra  is  mentioned  as  a  commentator  on  the  Nirukta  by 
Aufrecht  in  his  Catalogus  Catalogorum.1  But  no  other  information, 
about  his  personality,  the  character  of  his  work,  and  the  time  when 
he  lived,  is  available.     No  reference  is  made  to  him  by  any  of  the 
other  writers  in  the  same  field. 

A  ins.  in  the  Library  of  the  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal  is 
entitled  'Ugra's  commentary  on  the  Nirukta  '.  It  is,  however,  not 
Ugra's  but  Durga's  commentary.  In  writing  the  name  of  Durga, 
the  letter  D  was  accidentally  omitted  by  the  scribe,  i.  e.  Bhagvad- 
durga  was  written  Bhagvad-urga.  This  Urga  became  Ugra  by 
metathesis.  The  cataloguer  never  looked  at  the  commentary.  He 
did  not  even  read  other  colophons,  otherwise  he  would  not 
have  committed  such  a  blunder.  This  misspelt  name  of  Durga 
appears  as  Ugra.  I  suppose  it  was  this  ins.,  which  served  as  the 
source  of  Aufrechts'  information. 

(2)  Another  commentator  is  Skaridasvamin,   mentioned  by 
Devarajayajvan  in  his  commentary  on  the  Nighanlu  :  — 


i  tt  §. 

|  ^^TTmrr  ^  WHWdl      J... 


1     Vol.  i,  p.  297. 


It  is  clear  that  Devaraja  was  well  acquainted  with  .the 
commentary  of  Skandasvamin  on  the  NiruJcta,  and  utilised  the 
same  in  writing  his  own  commentary  on  the  Nighanfa..  No  ms. 
of  Skanda's  commentary  on  i<he  Nirukta,  has  yet  come  to  light. 
He  is  anterior  to  Devaraja. 

Date  of  Devaraja. 

(a)  Devaraja  quotes  Bhoja  frequpqtly,  see  pp.  20,  21,  29,  85, 
37,43,55,69,77,93,117,  130,  145,  ftf,  173,  175,  181,  182, 
183,  184,  187,  193,  197,  198  etc.  of  the  first  volume  of  the 
Bib.Ind.  edition  of  the  Nirukta.  Devaraja  'is  therefore  later 
than  Bhoja.  * 

(6)  Devaraja  quotes  the  Daiva,  a  work  on  grammar  by 
Deva:—(sic.)  gft:  $nref*?r  OTSWT  &^t  $ni^  ^r  %^  i  This  occurs  in 
the  Daiva9  as  follows:—^:  5^n7%  OTTOT  Sr^  ^T^i^%  I  136.  The 
quotation  is  almost  identical.  The  difference  may  be  attributed  to 
the  faulty  reading  of  the  mss.  But  even  accepting  the  identity  of 
the  passage,  the  quotation  does  not  lead  to  any  definite  result  foiS 
the  date  of  Deva  is  still  subject  to  controversy. 

(c)  Devaraja  twice  quotes  a  passage  from  a  Dhdtuvrtti. 
The  passage  is  the  following:  —  (sic.)  $n^  sWf  {  srft  syran^  5%  wrf^s 
irf&ftsft  «ig<»flafir<ft1«i  ft  trol  qug<«k3  H  ^rr^f  ^  q^*  I  The  same  quotation 
occurs  a  second  time  as  follows:  —  (sic.)  $rr  sfcnft  I  .  %«lild[c<i 

TlT  H«Mn      I 


The  only  extant  Dhdtuvrtti  is  that  of  Sayanacarya  and  the 
passage  is  not  found  therein.  Nor  is  it  likely  to  occur  in  Sayana's 
Dhdtuvrtti  because  Devaraja  is  anterior  to  Sayana  as  the  latter  quotes 
the  former,  the  quotation  being  the  following:  — 

1.  See  Bib.  Ind.  ed.,  vol.  i,  pp.  2-4. 

2.  See,  op.  cit.  p.  43.  commentary  on  $pn  ^gh.  I.  7. 

3.  Trivandrum  Sanskrit  Series  No.  1.  p.  95, 

4.  The  Nirukta,  Bib.  Ind.  ed.  voL  I.  p.  43. 

5.  Op.  oit.  vol.  I.  p.  109. 
4 


1  i     Devaraja's  comment  on  the  word 
Ngh.  II.  11.  is  the  -following:  —  < 


I  Samas'ramfs  edition  of  the  commentary  of  Devaraja 
is  capable  of  improvements.  Max  Muller's  ms.  of  Devaraja's 
commentary  reads  3^rr  for  3^r  of  Samas'rami.  It  is  clear  however 
that  Sayanaearya  is  posterior  to  Devaraja,  who  therefore  could  not 
have  quoted  from  the  Dhdtuvrtti  of  the  former, 

The  above  mentioned  quotation  of  the  Dhdtuvrtti  also  occurs 
in  the  Purusakdra,  a  commentary  on  the  Daiva  by  Krsnallldduka- 
muni,  as  follows:  —  qfa  qn*3mi>  \  snr  sR$r  I 


I  This  comment  is  written 
on  verse  136  of  the  Daiva,  quoted  by  Devaraja.  It  is  therefore 
very  probable  that  Devaraja's  quotation  of  the  Dhdtuvrtti  is 
borrowed  from  the  Purmakdra.  Devaraja  will  therefore  be  later 
than  the  author  of  the  Purusakdra.  The  lower  limit  of  the  Purusa- 
kdra  can  be  easily  fixed  for  Hemacandra  is  quoted  three  times  :— 

(1) 
(2) 

(3) 


The  upper  limit  of    the  Purusakdra  can   also  be  fixed  with 
certainty  for  it  is   quoted   by   Sayanacarya   in  his  Dhdtuvrtti:— 


(1) 

(2) 

(3) 

The   second     quotation   is  found   in  the   published   text  as 
follows:  —  ^3T  ^rf%  ^4^  I 


1.  Sayana's  commentary  on  RV.  I.  62.    3.   Also,  see,   Max  Muller's  2nd 
edition,  IV,  CXXXIII. 

2.  The  Nirukta,  Bib.  Ind.  ed.    I.  230. 

3t  Trivandrum  Sanskrit  Series  No.  I.  p.  95. 

4.  Trivandrum  Sanskrit  Series  No.  I.  p.  22. 

5.  Op.  oit.  I.  24. 

6.  Op.  cit.  I.  37. 

7.  Quoted  by  Ganapatis'aatri  in  op.  cit,  p.  III. 

8.  Op.  cit.  p.  61. 


(d)     Devaraja   quotes  the  Padamanjarl  in  his  commentary 
on  the  word  ^^nwr1  —  (sic), 


Haradatta,  the  author  of  the  Padamanjarl  is  also  mentioned8. 
Haradatta  was  the  son  of  Padmakumara,  a  younger  brother  of 
Agnikumara,  and  a  pupil  of  Aparajita.  The  Padamanjarl  is  a 
commentary  on  the  well-known  Kds'ikd  and  later  than  the  Mahd- 
bhasyapradlpa  of  kaiyyata,  who  is  mentioned  by  the  author  of  the 
Sarvadars'anasamgraha.  The  Padamanjarl  is  assigned  to  c.  1100 
A.  D.  by  Prof.  Belvalkar  in  his  Systems  of  Sanskrit  Grammar. 
Devaraja  therefore  must  be  later  than  the  llth  century  A.  D. 

(e)    Devaraja     also  quotes   Bharatasvamin:  —  #«-C[|JIMJ 


In  his  introductory  remarks,  Devaraja  mentions  a  Bharata- 
svamin as  a  commentator  of  the  Veda.  The  quotation  shows  that 
Bharatasvamin  belonged  to  the  Samaveda  and  must  have  therefore 
written  a  commentary  on  that  Veda.  A  ms.  of  the  commentary 
of  Bharatasvamin  on  the  Samaveda  is  mentioned  by  Burnell  in  his 
Sanskrit  mss*  in  the  Palace  at  Tanjore5.  The  commentary  of 
Bharata  was  written  in  the  reign  of  king  Rama  of  the  Hosala 
dynasty.  King  Rama  reigned  at  Devagiri  from  1272,3  —  1310 
A.  D.  The  commentary  is  therefore  to  be  assigned  to  the  end  of 
the  13th  century.  Devaraja  is  therefore  later  than  the  13th 
century.  But  as  he  is  quoted  by  Sayanacarya,  he  is  earlier 
than  the  middle  of  the  14th  century  A.  D.  He  may  therefore  be 
assigned  to  the  beginning  of  the  14th  century. 

Devaraja  also  quotes  one  Durga8.  This  Durga  however  is 
not  the  commentator  of  Yaska  but  a  commentator  of  the 
Kdtantrasutrapatha,  the  standard  work  of  the  Katantra  School  of 
grammar.  This  Durga  is  quoted  by  Hemacandra  and  is  assigned 
to  the  8th  century  A.  DT. 

1.  Ngh.  I.  14. 

2.  The  Nirukta,  Bib.  Ind.  ed.  I.  147. 

3.  Op.  cit.  pp.  i.  174,  240,  245,  246  etc. 

4.  The  Nirukta,  Bib.  Ind.  ed.  I.  95. 

5.  Vedic  and  Technical  Literature,  Part  I.  p.  11,  ed.  1879. 

6.  The  Nirukta,  Bib.  Ind.  ed.  p.  i.  112. 

7.  Belvalkar,  Systems  of  Sanskrit  Grammar,  p,  87. 


(3)  But  the  most  important  of  all  these  commentators  is  Durga. 
He  seems  to  be  later  than  Devarajayajvan  who  is  familiar  with  the 
then  extant  commentaries  on  the  Vedas,  the  Nighantu,  and  the 
Nirukta,  and  who  does  not  mention  Durga  in  the  long  list  of  tha 
authorities  used  by  him  for  the  purpose  of  his  own  work.  Although 
a  conclusion  based  on  the  argument  of  silence  is  not  cogent,  yet  in 
this  particular  case,  it  is  justified  to  assume  that  Durga  is  not  refer- 
red to  because  he  was  posterior  to,  or  a  contemporary  of,  Devaraja. 
The  latter  made  an  exhaustive  study  of  the  commentaries  on  the 
Nighantu  aud  the  Nirukta  and  could  not  have  ignored  the  very 
important  work  of  the  former.  Durga  would  also  be  later  than 
Skandasvamin.  Durga's  commentary  is  published,  and  has  super- 
seded the  works  of  his  predecessors.  His  work  is  important  for  two 
reasons:  (1)  he  is  a  later  commentator,  and  therefore  represents 
a  fuller  development  of  the  traditional  interpretation  of  the 
Nirukta;  (2)  the  very  fact  that  it  has  survived  at  the  cost  of 
earlier  commentaries  indicates  its  importance.  We  shall  therefore 
examine  his  work  somewhat  in  detail. 

Date  of  Durga. 

It  has  already  been  pointed  out  that  in  all  probability  Durga 
is  posterior  to,  or  a  contemporary  of,  Devarajayajvan,  and  therefore 
later  than  the  beginning  of  the  14th  century  A.  D.  However, 
Durga's  upper  limit  can  be  determined  almost  with  certainty. 
A  manuscript  *  of  his  commentary  in  the  Bodleian  Library  is 
dated  1387  A.  D.  The  date  is  genuine  and  is  accepted  as  such  by 
Professor  A.  B.  Keith.2  The  manuscript  was  copied  at  Bhrguk§- 
etra  in  the  reign  of  Maharana — Durgasirhhavijaya.  Thus  he  could 
not  be  later  tHan  1387  A.  D.  It  is  not  definitely  known  as  to 
which  particular  site  was  represented  by  Bhrguksetra  but  probably 
it  is  to  be  identified  with  the  present  Broach.3  As  Durga  wrote 
his  commentary  in  a  hermitage  near  Jammu,  a  place  not  easily 
accessible  in  the  absence  of  modern. means  of  communications, 
the  migration  of  the  ms.  of  his  commentary  to  Bhrguksetra 

1.  MS.  Wilson  475. 

2.  See  Catalogue  of  Sanskrit  Manuscripts  in  the  Bodleian  Library,  Toi 
ii,  p.  108. 

3.  See,  The  Imperial  Gazatteer  of  India  Vol.,  IX.  p.  16. 


presupposes  the  lapse  of  half  a  century  at  least  in  order  to  account 
for  the  spreading  of  his  fame  as  a  commentator  from  the  isolated 
heights  of  Jammu  to  the  plains  of  Bhrguksetra.  It  will  riot  be 
far  from  the  truth,  therefore,  to  place  Durga  about  the  beginning 
of  the  fourteenth  century  A.  D. 

Durga  does  not  speak  of  any  predecessors  by  name  nor  does 
he  leave  any  clue  as  to  the  sources  of  his  own  commentary.  Unlike 
Devarajayajvan,  he  does  not  give  the  slightest  informatioa  about 
himself  or  the  general  state  of  the  Nirukta  during  his  time. 
That  he  wrote  his  commentary  in  a  hermitage  near  Jammu  is 
proved  by  the  colophon1  on  f.  132  v.  at  the  end  of  the  eleventh 
chapter  of  the  Nirukta,  which  runs  as  follows  : 


This  shows  that  the  full  name  of  the  commentator  was  Durgasimha. 
The  fact  that  he  lived  in  a  hermitage  and  was  addressed  as 
lhagavat  indicates  that  he  was  .an  ascetic  and  belonged  to  some 
particular  order  of  SannySsa.  Further,  he  was  a  descendant  of 
the  family  of  the  Vasisthas.  He  does  not  explain  the  stanza  RV. 
III.  53.  23,  quoted31  by  Yaska  to  illustrate  the  meaning  of  the  word 
lodham,  because  the  stanza  implies  hostility  to  Vasis.  tha.  He  says: 


I  'The  stanza,  in  which  this  word  (lodham)  occurs  is  hostile 
to  Vasistha.  And  I  am  a  descendant  of  Vasis.  tha,  belonging  to 
the  Kapisthala  branch,  hence  I  do  not  explain  the  stanza.'8 

Say  ana  has  the  following  note  on  it:  3*1 


'There  was  formerly  a  royal  sage  named  Sudas,  a  disciple  of 
Vigvamitra.  Somehow,  he  became  an  object  of  Vasistha's  hatred. 
Then,  VisVamitra,  in  order  to  protect  his  disciple,  reviled  Vasistha 
with  these  stanzas.  These  are  the  imprecatory  stanzas.  The 
Vasisthas  do  not  pay  any  attention  (lit.  listen  )  to  them.'4  This 
corroborates  Yaska's  statement  that  there  are  stanzas  which  contain 
asseveration  and  imprecation  only.5 

1.  MS.  Wilson  475. 

2.  The  Nirukta,  ir.  14. 

3.  Durga's  Commentary  on  the  N.  iv.  ^4. 

4.  Sayana  on  BY.  Ill,  53.  Of.  Bib.  Ind.  edition  of  the  Nirukta,  rol.  ii, 
p.  416. 

5.  N.  vii.  3. 


Durga's  commentary  is  important  for  it  repeats  every  word  of 
Y&ska,  thus  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  in  toto  could  be  reproduced 
from  Durga's  work  alone.  As  none  of  the  manuscripts  collated  by 
me  is  older  than  the  fifteenth  century,  Durga  supplies  therefore 
evidence  of  a  very  valuable  character  for  the  textual  criticism  of 
the  Nirukta.  The  number  of  variants  attributed  by  Durga  to  his 
predecessors  and  his  frequent  remarks  that  the  text  is  corrupt  and 
that  the  right  reading  is  to  be  discovered,  —  all  such  cases  I  have 
pointed  out  in  my  notes,  —  indicate  that  there  has  been  no  unbroken 
tradition  with  regard  to  the  handing  down  of  the  text  of  the 
Nirukta. 

Further  there  seems  to  have  been  some  sort  of  a  revival  of  the 
study  of  the  Nirukta  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Jammu  in  Durga  's 
time,  for  it  seems  difficult  to  imagine  that  in  an  isolated  place  like 
Jammu,  Durga  sat  clown  to  write  his  commentary  simply  for  the 
love  of  writing  a  commentary.  It  is  more  reasonable  to  suppose 
that  Durga  accomplished  this  task  in  order  to  meet  the  demand 
for  a  good  text,  elucidation  of  obscure  passages,  and  amplification 
of  Yaska's  arguments,  a  demand  which  a  revival  of  the  study  of 
the  Nirukta  had  called  forth.  The  examination  of  the  manuscript 
of  Durga's  commentary,  mentioned  above,  leads  one  to  the 
conclusion  that  Durga  did  not  live  to  complete  his  work  and  that 
he  himself  wrote  his  commentary  up  to  the  end  of  the  llth 
chapter  only.  This  is  indicated  by  a  comparison  of  colophons  in 
the  manuscript  which,  at  the  end  of  the  7th-12th  chapters, 
numbered  as  12-17  by  Durga  consecutively  from  the  five  chapters 
of  the  Niyhantu,  are  as  follows  : 

(1)  At  the  end  of  the  7th  chap,  on  f.  50  r.  u 

(2)  „  ,,  8th  chap.  onf.  70  v.  u 

(3)  „  „          9th  chap,  on  f.  86  v.  u 

(4)  „  „  10th  chap,  on  f.  112 

(5)  „  „  1  1th  chap,  on  f.  132v.  u 


A  comparison  of  these  five  colophons  shows  that  the  first  four 
do  not  contain  any  reference  to  Durga  by  name  nor  to  his  honorific 
titles,  which  fact  implies  that  they  were  written  by  Durga  himself, 


while  that  at  the  end  of  the  llth  chapter  was  added  by  some 
disciple,  who  speaks  of  Durga  as  an  deary  a  and  addresses  him  as 
bhagavat.  Durga  could  not  have  appropriated  these  titles  himself 
unless  he  was  very  vain".  Another  point  in  favour  of  the  fifth 
colophon  being  written  by  a  person  other  than  Durga  is  that  while 
the  first  four  colophons  say  that  such  and  such  a  chapter  has  come 
to  an  end,  the  fifth  remarks  that  such  a  pdda  of  that  chapter  has 
come  to  an  end.  The  colophon  at  the  end  of  the  llth  chapter  is  the 
final  inscription  and  as  such  should  have  been  placed  Li  the  end  of 
the  12th  chapter,  where  no  such  description  is  found;  the  colophon 
there,  on  f.  150  r.,  being  n  srs^srer  **&*:  "TT^:  II  This  leads  one  to 
the  conclusion  that  Durga  himself  wrote  his  commentary  up  to  the 
end  of  the  llth  chapter,  whose  colophon  was  added  by  a  disciple 
who  also  wrote  the  commentary  on  the  12th  chapter,  and  faithfully 
refrained  himself  from  adding  the  name  of  Durga  in  the  colophon 
at  the  end  of  the  12th  chapter.  MS.  Mill  142,  dated  A.  D.  1839, 
and  described  in  the  Catalogues  of  Sanskrit  Manuscripts  in  the 
Bodleian  Library  by  Keita,1  also  preserves  the  final  inscription  at 
the  end  of  the  llth  chapter,  while  on  f.  123  v.,  at  the  end  of  the 
12th  chapter  it  simply  says  n  m^wa  =3g«r:  qr^:  II  It  is  also  to  be 
noticed  that  in  this  manuscript  as  well,  the  word  adliydya  only 
is  used  in  the  earlier  colophons  while  pdda  makes  its  appearance 
in  those  at  the  end  of  the  llth  and  the  12th  chapters.  Another 
point  of  minor  importance  may  also  be  adduced  in  this  connection, 
i.  e.  the  manuscripts  have  the  following  s'loka  at  the  end  of  the 
12th  chapter. 


As  Durga  is  shown  to  be  a  hermit,  to  ascribe  these  verses  to  him 
will  be  highly  inappropriate. 

Durga  and  the  paris'ista. 

Both  the  published  editions  of  Durga's  commentary  regard 
the  commentary  on  the  portions  of  the  13th  chapter  as  an  integral 
part  of  Durga's  work.  But  the  ms.  Wilson  475,  dated  1387  A.  D., 
and  ms.  Mill  142,  dated  1839  A.  D.,  do  not  contain  the  commentary 
on  the  13th  chapter.  In  both  these  manuscripts  the  commentary 

1.  Vol.  ii,  p.  108.. 


is  completed  at  the  end  of  the  12th  chapter  and  the  ms.  Mill 
142,  expressly  says  that  the  work  is  finished,  u  smrgV  I^T:  II 
Moreover,  the  13th  chapter  was  not  added  to  the  Nirukta  by 
Durga's  time,  as  is  proved  by  his  remark  in  the  introductory  part 
of  his  commentary  : 


'And  this  (the  Nirukta)  is  its  (the  Nighanfvfs  )  amplified 
commentary  consisting  of  twelve  chapters  whose  first  sentence  iar 
"a  list  has  been  handed  down  by  tradition".'  Hence  the  commen- 
tary on  the  13th  chapter  was  written  at  a  later  period  and  attributed 
to  Durga  by  some  disciple  or  follower  of  his. 

(4)  Barbarasvamin  is  mentioned  as  an  old  commentator  of  the 
Nirukta  by  Mahes'vara.  Aufrecht  is  not  aware  of  his  existence. 
All  the  mss.  of  Mahes'vara's  commentary,  discovered  up  till  now, 
have  the  reading  Barbara,  but  I  doubt  the  genuineness  of  this 
reading.  I  think  Barbarasvamin  stands  for  Skandasvamin. 
There  is  however  a  Varavara  mentioned  as  a  commentator  of 
Oltd.  This  information  is  contained  in  the  following  passage  :  — 

I  This  commen- 


tary was  entitled  Bdldbodhinl  as  well  as  Gltdrthasamgrahadipikd. 
The  author  Varavara  was  a  pupil  of  S'ailanatha,  a  follower  of 
Rarnanuja,  and  lived  in  A.  D.  1370.  See  the  S'dstramuktdvall 
series,  no.  25.,  Kanchi  edition,  1906. 

(5)  Another  commentator  is  Mahes'vara,  a  ms/  of  whose 
commentary  I  discovered  at  the  Government  Library  of  Sanskrit 
MSS.  at  Madras.  A  complete  Palm  leaf  ms.  of  Mahes'vara's 
commentary,  written  in  Malyalam  characters  exists  in  the 
Lalchand  Library,  attached  to  the  D.  A.  V.  College,  Lahore. 
The  Baroda  Central  Library  too  contains  a  fragment  of  the  com- 
mentary. This  fragment  comes  up  to  the  end  of  the  1st  chapter 
of  the  Nirukta  only.  I  have  collated  all  the  three  mss.  for  my 
forthcoming  edition  of  the  commentary. 

MahesVara  is  unknown  to  Aufrecht,  as  his  name  is  not 
mentioned  as  a  commentator  of  the  Nirukta  in  the  Catalogus 
Catcdogorum.  He,  however,  appears  to  be  later  than  Durga.  An 
examination  of  Mahes'vara's  commentary  shows  that  the  explanation 


is  much  more  amplified  than  that  of  Durga.  It  represents  a  still 
later  stage  of  development  in  the  traditional  interpretation  of  the 
text.  The  internal  evidence  indicates  a  date  posterior  to  that  of 
Durga.  Besides,  Durga  is  mentioned  by  name.  The  passage  is 
the  following:  —  *rsr  fo^sr  <rar«iT3T  *ftart  ^OT^ffr  i?ta*£*r:  i  for  * 


Mahes'vara  is  certainly  later  than  the   13th  century  A.  D. 
The  following  two  stanzas  occur  in  the  Baroda  ms  :  — 

fWfcr  *r<R  (Mr  *•  urn*  *  ^^  i 

11  i  n 


JTOT  ^vrTOt  *  <*  wg«r«  *prm%  H  ^  u 

These  two  stanzas  are  not  found  in  the  Madras  and  the  Lahore 
mss.  They  seem  to  be  spurious.  Had  they  been  genuine, 
Mahes'vara  could  not  be  assigned  to  a  period  earlier  than  the 
15th  century  A  D.  On  other  grounds  too,  Mahes'vara  could 
hardly  have  lived  before  the  15th  or  the  16th  century.  He  calls 
Durga.  a  Purvatikdkdra,  i.  e.  'an  ancient  commentator7.  He 
could  hardly  have  called  Durga  'an  ancient',  had  he  not  been 
separated  from  the  latter  by  several  centuries.  To  call  Tennyson  an 
ancient  poet,  at  present,  would  be  atrocious  although  Shakespeare 
may  be  so  described.  The  idea  that  a  person  is  ancient,  is 
generally  associated  with  the  lapse  of  a  few  centuries.  It  will 
not,  in  my  opinion,  be  far  from  truth  to  assign  Mahes'vara  to  the 

16th  century  A.  D. 

•oidho  ^ibsktoobnif  ew 

Acknowledgment  of  help.  [)n6  ovif  (faum  veiiT 
It  is  my  most  pleasant  duty  to  thank  my  former  teacher, 
Mr.  A.  C.  Woollier  M.  A.  (Oxon.);  C.  I.  E.,  Principal  of  the 
Oriental  College,  Lahore  ;  University  Professor  of  Sanskrit  ;  Dean 
of  University  Instruction  etc.  etc.  for  many  valuable  suggestions. 
He  has  been  kind  enough  to  include  the  present  volume  in  the 
Panjab  University  Oriental  Series.  I  have  also  to  thank  my 
friend  P.  Bhagavad  Datta  B.  A.  Superintendent  of  the  Research 
Department  of  the  D.  A.  V.  College,  Lahore,  for  drawing  my 
attention  to  the  Balakrldd,  the  commentary  of  VisVarupacarya, 
who  attributes  a  hitherto  untraced  quotation  of  the  Nirukta 
6 


(p.  61.  line  18.)  to  the  S'ruti  of  the  Bhallavis  and  for  partly 
correcting  the  proofs  of  several  chapters.  My  thanks  are  also  due 
to  the  Manager  of  the  Nirnaya-sagara  Press,  Bombay. 

When  I  undertook  the  present  task,  I  had  no  idea  of  the 
labour  involved  in  it.  Nor  will  the  general  reader  have  any 
adequate  notion  of  the  time  and  labour  spent  in  producing  the 
present  volume.  The  word  to  word  collation  of  thirty  seven  mss. 
can  be  appreciated  by  such  persons  only  as  have  done  some  critical 
editing  themselves.  Apart  from  mechanical  labour,  it  will  not  be 
generally  realised  how  much  hard  thinking  is  often  necessary  for 
the  proper  punctuation  of  the  text.  Several  sentences  are 
unintelligible  simply  for  want  of  proper  punctuation.  A  judicious 
employment  of  a  comma  or  a  full  stop  removes  the  difficulty  and 
makes  the  sense  quite  clear.  To  put  a  comma  or  full  stop  may  look 
like  a  trivial  matter  in  itself.  But  it  is  not  so.  It  often  means 
very  hard  thinking.  Division  of  several  knotty  sentences,  e.  g.  lines 
1-2  on  p.  28  has  cost  me  hours  of  concentrated  thought.  But 
I  do  not  grudge  the  time  and  labour.  I  would  do  it  over  again,  if 
necessary.  And  my  ample  reward  will  be  to  know  that  the  present 
edition  has  made  the  study  of  the  Nirukta  easier  even  to  a  small 
extent. 

The  result  of  ten  year's  constant  work  is  embodied  in  this 
edition.  It  is  yet  far  from  perfect.  No  one  is  more  conscious 
of  its  defects  than  myself.  It  is  capable  of  further  improvements. 
All  genuine  criticism  will,  therefore,  be  most  welcome.  But  there 
are  undoubtedly  critics,  whose  vocation  is  to  find  faults  only. 
They  must  live  and  be  true  to  their  nature,  as  the  poet  says : — 


£  *rf$pranrfn^r:  u 

ORIENTAL  COLLEGE,  1 

LAHORE.  I  Lakshman  Sarup, 

12-11-1926. 


ftl 


I. 


II. 


...  lo 

...  lo 

...  lo 

...  11 

•  •  •  *  *\ 

*..  1* 


II. 


III. 


*1 


IV 


1*1 


u 


m. 


***«*   lfl 


......    ^fji 

...     ^^ 

...  --   _..-,-.-.     RV 


...        ^\ 


I. 


— M£««*S»- 
II, 


...       ;.ii^;  w 


...         <T» 


«£r<Traft 


^T^J  . .  * ':  P  £^» 

5  v  i^M+VI«iT3[  CtatottT«l«roiq(:. . .      ^ \ 


^o^, 
II. 


«^ 
V« 


^TUTFfFS  i 

;::^     ---^.        -.. 


«piiMN«i*fi4*i*      ...    HI 

H^  ' 


H^' 
^1f*;-     ^ 

...       Ht 


^1 
n 


«^e 

.^;,'  -;U:-.VHH.U 


^\>  tg^n^Wi^^n H^ 

Wl       ...  ...      HI 

...      H» 


HI. 


t^TI^T^fT^  ^ 

H^ 
...    •--.%« 


lfl 


*<  ^ 


1^» 


IV. 


-V. 


*« 


WrfH^ftPF 

jnp* 

wro«iTO*»wr- 


vso 


... 

;  •    - 


~  fpi 
":x  -!  ;:••-•" '•'•    -  / 
»^ 


__ 

;,         :..         ...  10, 

?c^ 
^  o  9 

50 


,'      '  '-   i  .  "    .    .  -  '•:   '      •     -   -       ''        ' 

••<•  -,:'•   .•'•-     ;-:--;'-Vi      ' 


-••--;--     ;-• 

...  ...       1  •  O 

pnfrff&rpii*  rr 


... 


;  .:  ;••  ":••-•:•    '•'  '•• 

MPipgnril 

...       -       ;;.     15^ 

.-,      ...,,.,  »^ 

... 


^u 

...     =    IV.'  m 
...        ...  tu 

..V  1^ 
..    at 

...        .:;  ,^ 

.;.  u« 

...  ...  'HI 


VII. 


3Ti«uW 


vm. 


1> 


IX. 


:      m 


X. 

) 


^<wit  ... 


XI. 


XII. 


XIII. 


ft* 


30$ 


3lo 
313 


31* 


3U 


33o 
331 


33^ 


3*3 


Appendix  I 


lo   ., 


:  I 


wnmtn 

'  ,-. . 


- 


i  -  .1 


U  J» 

!!      ^ 


$3  W  3 


••'.' 


*f 


«rt  i 
l    ^  i  fan 


SRT  i 


ftikfe: 


ii 


:  i  3&ffi  ?f^n:  [  *it^[^5rft: 

>jn 

-    -  -  '  ,  •    '  '  •  -r  :• 


[ 


]  11  ^  11 


ft: 


.  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 


f.  S;  $ui<Ji:  Dev.  $noft  is  also 
given  as  a  different   reading   by 

Deva: 


V.  SSJT  M2,M3,W1,  W2,  W3; 
BK2. 

BK2. 

p  Comes  immediately  after 
ftsfeft:  in  M  2,  MS,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3;BK2. 

is  the  text  of  M  2,  M  3,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3,  n,  BK  2.  The  text 
within  [  ]  is  given  by  M  4, 


C  1,  C  2,   C  3,  C4,    S,   W   4; 
3>.  ^T.  *;  A.          r  f^T^IP 

. 

.M2,  M3,  W1,W2,W3; 
BK2.         .         .  -:*    - 


:  i>  given  as  a    different 
reading  by  Dev  ;  ^RT^tl^KT^t 

l  ......  l 


:  II 


.  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 


T.  BK2. 


„       r 

"jffPv.Ai      L31^,.,5fT- 


I 


R 
M    »ft: 


5ft  i^srewft  ]  n  «  n 


:  I  iii* 


.  \ 


l  srrat:  I  ^<m:  i  srrgr:  I 

[  ?f^r  ^et  fepnft  ]  11  ^  n 

i  '^rift  i  shir:  i  g^ft  i  ^tert  i 

I  <r4:  I  ^4:  I  ^^  I  ¥feKft  I 

i  ^^f  i  gfaft1  i  ^4t  i  7*n  i  fpir  i 

]  n  vs  n 

ft  i  fw^r  i 
i 


ft  4 


i    nflf 


n 


v. 


BK  2. 

w  i. 
^. 

.  W.  3. 


2. 


:  I  BK.  2. 


ft]. 

3. 
:  I  BK  2. 

S3 

IV.  im*  X;  See  (Roth's  edition. 
p.  6  )  note  under  (  7.  1  ),  and  also 
under  (7.2). 


i  TTO^  M  2,  M  3,  w  i, 

W  2,  W  3;   ^r,   BK  2. 

iftair.  X,  BK  2, 

Long  vowels  i.  e.    ^,   ^  and  gjf 

are  shortened  in    jfaft  I 

^>j:  I  and  fn  ia  the  Ms. 


Y. 


etc.  ^.  Roth  attributes 
to  Devaraja  ;  it  is  not  found 
in  his  commentary,  published  in 
Bib.  Ind.  The  editor  says  in  a 
note,  that  he  found  this  read- 
ing in  two  of  his  Mss. 
M  2. 


;  [ 


innft  ]  Y. 


1  p  l  *?T3:  I  q§ 
I  fetf  I  fi^rfift  1 
n  ^  n 

I  *Rt  l      s  l   a:  I  sref:  l 


I   sfa:  I 


l  [ 


I  Sft: 


:    yn  I 

]  n  ?  o  n 


WT 


I  *:    I 


^Rcft  I       *  I 

1     :  l 


1.  wm:  BK  2. 

^  rfr:  ^i  ^ev-  5:  'ia  alfio  given   by 
Devaraja  as  a   different   reading 


r:  X,  BK,  2. 
V. 


ft]  Y. 

,.  arsr:  M.  3;  *m:  BK  2. 


M  3,  W  2,  W  3; 


M.  2. 


2,  BK  2, 
1. 


:  M  3,  M  4,  C  1,  0  2,  C  3, 
C  4,  S,  W  1,  W  2. 
K  2. 


r:  is  »l«o  given 
by  Devaraja,  as  another  reading  ; 
BK  2. 


.  BK  2. 

:M2,M3,  Wl,  W  2,  W3; 
:  *T.    ^;   BK  2;   sfT^.   V. 


:  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 
IT;  BK  2. 

ftPr:<M2fM3f  Wl,  W  2,  W3; 
IT,  BK  2. 

im:  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 
JT^BK  2. 

JWf^M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3 
BK  2. 


d:  i     r  i  k*\  i 


:  [ 


i    ia   I  sn: 
.  i  * 
^  wtft  ]  II 


Jl    3$:  I  -fllfrl 


!  sjrfir^H^  i  ls?g;fa[  i  irSr 


:  I          I      - 


1.  lloth  gives  jff  as  the  reading  or 
Devaraja^  but  it  is  sot  found  in 
the  published  text  of  his  com-  i  £j£  9 

mentary  in  Bib.  lud. 

[.    Dev.    srq-f     is   also     given 


,  W2,  W  3, 


by     Devaraja     as     a    different 
reading. 

*.  TO:  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3 ; 
.-.,;:;-    .  **'-  .  '  .  '       .,      .  i-,      n  -.,;     .-. 

ti      iff         '   jg.       'Yy'    1  .     jy-Tj.    Ay      '         "W^     9 

BK  2,  M  2,  M!  3  \  ?T.J  ?f55^r;  W^  3. 

r:   M  2,   M   3,  W    1,    W  2;  ^9 

TTW  W   3.  SJtt*    ••'f 


Y. 


:  BK  2,  M  2,  M  3,  W  i,  W  2, 


f- 

c* 


M  2,  M  35  W   1,  W  2, 
W3;  ^.ir.^^,BK2. 


2. 


;«;  **r  M  2,  M  3,  w  i,  w  3,  n; 


:  BK  2, 


is  given  by  Devaraja  as  another 

reading. 

•  .   .    - 

;  he  also  gives      CT  ttS 


another  reading. 
BK  2. 


:  M2, 
^;    jj;    BK    2,    Devaj&ja    gives 

as  another  reading. 
.M2,M3,  W1,W2,  W3, 

**'  ^  ^ITTP  &   ;K7Tftfb»  •» 
'id.  jr?f:  Dev.  ^ 

«o      -^_^^    "RTT  9 
j's.  TvTqt  JDJV  ^i. 

^°.  T£:   is  omitted  by-  M'?8f  M  3, 

W  1,  W  2,  W  3;  BK  2. 
•.^l..H9:.BE2. 
«.  ?n^:  M  2}  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 

T^TC    9 

.andn. 


i 


i^  i  *     r 


1,  M  2,  M  3,  W  1, 


\ 

BK  2,  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
n,  ^m^.^  is  giveo  by  Devaraja 
as  another  reading  for  *f**^. 

^.  »Tf^  M    2,   M    3,    W   1,    W  2, 
W  3,  BK  2. 

i.*M  2,  M   3,  Wl,   W2,W3, 
BK2. 

2. 


is  omitted   by   M  2,  M   3, 
Wl,  W2,  W3,TT. 

M   2,   M   3,  W   1,  W  2, 


is  added  after  mfc  by  BK  2, 
M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  fr, 


given    by    Dcvariaja    as    another 
reading. 

;^i«fW;-^-;2,  M  3,  W  I,  W  2, 
W  3,  BK  2. 

U.  W«^:  M2,M3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
^H^:  is  given  by  Devaraja,  as 
another  reading  of  ctzf:  on  the 
authority  of  ^TVTW,  ^t 


I  He  says  that 
Skaucia  Svanii  does  not  state 
the  words  " 


BK  2. 

2. 

:   M  2,  M  3,  W    1,   W  2, 
W  3,  jj.  BK  2.. 

:   M   2,   M   3,   W   1,  W   3, 


BK  2  ;  ^9T:  W  2  ;  ^^:  is  given 
by  Devaraja,  ay  another  reading 

of 


.  1 


I  ina^:  I  to 


[  TO 


h  I  M:  l-apff  I  **ft  I  aft: 


:  I  qfcr:  I   » 


I  mi  I 


I  iuvlfli 


[  2(^K4  ] 


:  II  ^  II 


Y. 


BK  2. 

BK  2. 


:  Ti  Devaraja  gives 
i  as  a  different  reading; 
and  ?fs^3  as  a  reading  of 
Madhava.  jrf^c^:  M  2,  M  3, 
BK  2;  4<Ujcj;  Roth. 
s?r«W:  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
BK  2. 


t  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 


BK2. 


Y. 


and  <£. 
.  Omitted  by  X. 


Skanda    SvamI 


.«.  »5TO^T  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3,  BK  2  ;  ¥55Rm  '^r';  ¥55RRilr 
is  given  by  Devaraja  as  a 
different  reading. 


.  tfr?r*  «  3?^^  I  Deva.  and  gp. 
is  given  as  a  variant  for 
by  Devaraja. 

is  omitted  by  X. 


ft. 


fffi: 
] 


^frttft 


]  M  l,  M  4,  C  l,  C  2, 


II 


I 

i     :  i  ^3:  i  ^    i   3T 
]  n  ^  n 


and    « 

f:  is  also   given   by  Devaraja 
as  a   different    reading,   on    the 
authority  of  Skanda  Svaml. 
X 


M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3  ; 
^,  BK  2. 


2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 

BK  2;  it  is  placed  after  .^jjj:  by 
Devaraja. 

M  2,  M  3,  W  1,   W  2,  W  3, 


2,  M3,Wl,W2,W3;ji. 
:  is  given  by  Deraraja,  as  a 
different  reading.  He  attributes 
the  reading  -cfi<m  to  Madhava 


r.  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
BK  2. 


4  BK  2,  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3. 

BK  2. 


Vi. 


.H.  ] 

?  \  ^J  1  %fT:  I 


1.  ^5^rr:  I  «ru:  I  «rr:  J  M  2,  M  3? 
W  1,  W  -2,  W  3,  BK  2. 

^.  ^n:   is    omitted  by  M  2,   M  3, 
W  1,  W  2  and  W  3. 

:  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 
yd 


:  n. 

>* 


]  Y. 


^  ?TTf  M2,M3,  W1;M  1,  W  4.    » 
vj.  ^f^r.  M  3. 

i3  g^en   by  Ddvaraja,  as 


another  readinsr-fgni 

<*~VY          *-      «•  »»•         M       •*  a-     Q        *H*     * 


W 


- 

°.  f^^rr;  is  added/after  3fd5q;  hy  'JT'. 
1.  f%?r;  If^ry:  I  Dev, 


:  BK  2,  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3;lpt:^. 

IV  wS:  M  3,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
?T.  9T*r^ar:  is  given  by  Devaraja, 
as  another 


1»-  ?t%r:    is  added    after    g-fcf:    by 


x;     [ 
f      - 

:   is  omitted  by  M  2,  M  3, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

;g$^rT:    and  ^^r;    are  give  a  by 
Devaraja,  as  different  readings; 

1«.  si^3T-%  is  added  after  &&ffa 
uyM2,  M3,  Wl,  W  2,  W  :5, 
BK  2, 

K-  ^ylfrf  is   given   by    Devaraja    as 

another  reading. 
1^.         .  K  and     . 


.  ] 


at 


I  gw*:   i  i 

:  ll  $  ii 

3pi-  1  fob  I  <r4:  l  M:  I 
1  1  1  %ft:  I  ^  I  sat  I 

^*< 

I  &b  I  H^  i  ;pj: 
I  [  ^[^r^  I 

I 


|<r: 


ll  va  11 


ll  <:  ll 

:  I  ^H:  I  sri*  I    ^:  I  wf:  I 
1  Yrg 


is  added  af tcr 

^;   is   omitted    by   M     2, 

M.3,  Wl,  W2,  W3. 
^.  TO^M2,M3,   Wl,   W2,  W  3, 

BK2. 
V.  ^R^M2,M3,W1,  W2,W3, 

BK.2. 
^.  Omitted  by  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2, 

AV3. 
^.  <n3T:  is  added  after  gfnr:  by  M   2, 

>E3,W1,W2,W3,BK2. 
».  spy:    is    given    by    Devaraja,    as 

another  reading,  on  the  authority 

of  Skanda  SvamI ;  y&:  is  omitted 

by  M  2,   M  3,   W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 

BK2. 

4.  Devaraja    reads    ^q-;   and    gives 
f:    as    another    reading ; 


11. 


M  2,  M  3,  BK  2. 

S?4:  is  omitted  l>y  Devaraja  and 
qj.  ^:  is  added  after  qp|:  in 
BK  2. 

^nr:  ^r. 

^  M  2,  M  3,  BK  2. 
5T3T:  M  2. 


SRT:   is  omitted    by   M   2,  M   3, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

f«wfif  BK  2. 

Wf  fa  I  ^H^T  I  WT«r:  I  BK  2. 


Y. 


:    as     anotiier    reacting  ;    ^ 
2,    M    3,   W   1,    W  2,    W   3  ;  I 
BK2. 


,  M3,  Wl,    W2, 


:  Devaraja.  q^:  is  given  by 
him  as  another  reading  on  the 
authority  of  Skanda  Swaml. 

%*•  X>  BK  2« 
.  BK  2. 
AV1,W2,AV3. 


:  I  wfih: 


mi 


: 


vrer 


It  ?o  (I 


toft 


n  ?  ?n 

i  Sfir  i 
ii  U  n 


n 


\\ 


V. 


X,  BK  2. 
BK  2. 

T.  ^.  and  Devaraja 
X; 


ifc;— 


OT  is  added   after  q^:    by  M  2, 
M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3;  JT. 


^.  It  is  placed  after  jj^:  by  X,  BK2. 
<»;.  ^     M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 


1,  W  2,  BK  2,  W  3,  M  2, 


11.  EnruM  2,  M  3,  w  i,  w  2,  w  3, 

BK  2  ;  Devaraja  does  not   accept 


BK2. 


M3. 


.  is  omitted  by  M  3. 

.  is  omitted  by  X. 

.  ^;for:    Dev.   Skanda   Svami   reads 

^f;,  which  is  doubted  by  Deva- 

raja. 
.  TC  M  2,   M  3,   W  1,   W  2,  W  3. 

BK? 


i 
I  sr4ft  i 

I    JR^  I 

I  ssiflf 
i  *nft  i 


i  %3fa  I  *nfi  I 
i  ftefrft  I 


ariflr  i 


ftUft  i 


i  fonft 


I  ?T       I 

i  an 


I  tfr  I 


i  r  i 


1  5fi{f|  i 
i  ank   I 


:  n  ?«  n 


1.  Not  explained  by  Devaraja. 
is  repeated  by  M  1. 

is  given   by   Dev.,   as   an- 
other reading. 

Roth. 


w  a, 


is   give  by   Devaraja,   as 
another  reading: 


.  ^  and  Devaraja.     ^§f  is 
given  as  a  variant  by  Dev. 

M  L 

.  »T.  C.  D  F. 

p^ced  after  as  well  as 
before  $5%  by  M  1. 

.  *!*%•    T.  C.  D.  F. 

.  Devaraja  gives  5^1%  as  another 

reading,    on     the    authority  of 

Skanda  Bvami. 


is  also  giren 
by  Devaraja   as   another  reading* 


See.  14  according  to  the  shorter  recension  is  as  follows:  — 


i  wft  i  *?!%  i  anfif  i  vraft  i  *3ifir  i 
I  fWtft  l  ^rfir  I  farft  i  %ftft  i  %ftft  i 


i 

i  IHT  i  'Fft'i^  i 

i  aft  i  aift  I  a^ft-  1  g*ft 

I  qft  I    lift  I 


1  ?  fr  i 


iftft  1  3HR[  1 
1  331% 


i  «nft  l  f^nnft  I 


:  n  ?»  ii 


.  iRffiT  W  2;  OT%  W  1. 


is  omitted  by  M  2. 


I  Bhad. 


1o.  5*qfa  I  Bhad. 
KM.  :       11. 

^TTf^TtS  I    Itotli  &  JDiiuu. 
V.  5KiTT%   W  1,    W  3,     M  L>,    M,   3, 
BK  2,  Iloth  &  Bhad. 
BK  *J. 


Bhad 


Roth  &  Bhad. 


M  2. 


I  Roth 


.  ] 


[ 


3  I  5S  I  P^  I  sn^  I      T:  1         I 

I  ^  I  srf^  I  2I°3:  I  3  I  SITS 
:  I  arm:  I  sHra    i 


sn 


ii  ^  ii 


|^t  I  553:  I  ift  I 


:    'S'      I          I  2n:  I  ^:  I  g:  I     i  I  1 

^>f  ~" 

I  ^f?^  I  5^?^  I  *ri?  I  55^  I 

I       t      I         I  Sin^T  I  IHI^T  I  3T3f  HT^Hf  I        ^ft%  I 


r:  M  2,  M  3,  VV  1,  W  2,  W  3, 

TVI/"     4).  **^»«»w»»     _ 

\.  3*3  BK  2.  n. 

V.  afr^M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,   W  3,  ;    W. 

V,  BK  2.  i«. 


X,  BK  2. 


RK  •' 

».  «m  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  L>,  W  3, 


:  is  omitted  by   M  2,   M  3, 
:  X;  BK  2. 


3,  x,iv  2,  I     ^^.  is    omitted    by    .M  2,   M  3,    W  1, 
1,  W  2;  sng^  W  3.  W  2,  W  3,  B  K  2. 

r:  M  2,  M  3   W  1,  W  2,       ^.  ^%  M  1, 
W  3,  BK  2.  sv..  ^T%  ^  and 

^3$,  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,   W  3. 
BK2. 


c.    M  2,   M   3,   W  1,    W  2,  | 
3,  BK  2.  <J33TFf;  ^/iva- 

£   2    !£  3,   W  1,   "W  2,  i    ^.  is   omitted   by   M  2,   M  3,   W  1, 
W3. 

BK<2. 


W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 
^\».  5PW  is  added   before 

'  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 


?irg%  i  ^  i  W  i  *nf  i 

^ifeR^R^THT^  ]  II  ?V9    II 

i  ^ft  1  3fn*r*r:  i  smfc  i  Sra!  i  aqqprt  i 
IT%  [  ^  ]  sqiforoior:  n  ?<s  n 

i  «rtfir  i  ^fftr  i  frf%  i  ^ 
^ifo  !  s<pnf<t  i  %?4^[  i 
i  ftcfanj  i  sr^Tf^  i  firife:  i  snfil^  i 
I  fanffl  i  ^^rf^  i  55rri^  I  ^9rf»f  i 
i  f^^^  1  1u'ft4tRI  !  ^rftfit  ^R^ft^:  [ 
:  ]  n  ^  n 


ft  ]  II  ^  II 


I        5MTVW       ft        „,  .    fV^V        & 

r:   M  2,   M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
BK  2. 


M2,M3,W  1,  W2,    W3, 

"RTT   9 
*T,  •«*•&•  ^« 

V.  arc:  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,   W  2,   W  3, 
BK  2. 

1.  STRtt  comes  before  3TOr£  ia  M  2. 
M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 

$.  is  omitted  by  X. 

vs.  ^T^T   JR   added   after     srsjf^f   by 
M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 
X,  BK  2. 


I  f^T%  I  M  2,  M  3,    W  1, 
W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 

^T%  M   2)  m%   I   ft 

M  2,  M  3,  w  2,  w  3, 

BK2. 

omitted  by  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,    W  2, 

W  3,  BK  2. 

^ft  is   added   after   fjpftft  by 
M  2,  M  3  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 


:  ]  y- 

BK  2C 


».  TOft.  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  IT; 
BK  2;  srsfft  M  2. 

2, 


;  |    M  2,   M  3,   W  1,  W  2, 

W  3,  BK  2. 
?r:  Devaraja. 


M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2 


:  BK  2. 


X; 


I  sp:  I  I  r?r 

3  H  ^  ii 


Y  adds  the  following  :  — 

^sqpj  sn^pqsJfSft 

srfr^f:  11 


]  11  ?  n 

^R  I     r:  I  <%^:  !  HT?:  I    fgi  I        I 
l  §^:  l 
u  ^  n 


.  ?T,  BK  2.  lo.  ft£  BK  2;  ^f^.  ^. 

9..  omitted  by  X.  ^  ^^.    is  added   after   fa^:    by 
^.  T%:   is   given   as   a  Variant  by  BK  2,   M  2;   M  3,  W  3  jj.   and 

^9v.  f^ff:  by  W  1,  W  2. 

v.  ^r  ^T...^T^T  X;  [•%*  ^..,5imr-  1  ^^  ^^.  M  2,  M  3,  w  i,  w  2,  w  3; 


and    qftro   are    not  ex-  ,  ^  M      M      w  IW2W  3 

plained  by  Devaraja.  EK^ 

Roth. 

I  BK  2.  «.  omifc^d  by  BK  2.  M  2,  M  3,  W  1, 

W2.W3. 


.  x.  ] 


:  I  3PR[:  I  ?pr:  I 

I  Inf^r:    I  «nflr: 


I  %:  I        :  I 


n  3  n 


I       *  I       :  I 

]  II  «  II 


i        i 


[  ^r  ] 


:  n  \  n 


1.  *f:  X,  BK  2. 
^.  i&:  BK  2. 
\.  ?%:  X;  BK  2. 

».  «rf^:  I  «r»^:  come  after  3%^  in  j 
M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2.  ! 
BK  2. 


m.  ^  M  2,  M  3,   W  1,   W  2,   AV  3, 
BK  2. 


2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 
is  added  after  3T^  w  BK  2- 

1S  omitted   by   M  2,    M  3. 


:  I  ^Tf^r:  I  M  2,   M  3,  AY  1,  ^ 

AV  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 

n.  sr#  X,  BK  2 


2,X. 

11.  3T3T3:  BK  2;  X, 
X: 


It.  ipfr:  Ml. 


X: 


H2,   M   3,    W   1,   AY  2, 
W  3,  BK  2. 

Srefa  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  AV  2,  AV  .'!, 

BK  2. 

^5f  is  omitted  by  X. 


-  ] 


I     T     I 


i  i     i 


I  ?fir:  I  ^:  I  k&  I  guffi:  I  and:  I  %:  I 


:  \ 


M2,  M3,W1,  W2,.W3; 


,  BK2. 


?jf  BK  2,  X. 

w^gf^  is  omitted  by  M  2,  M  3, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3  ;  BK  2. 
5Ti*n*M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
BK  2. 


Y. 

gfij:  is  added  after  gtj:  by  M  2, 
M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 

t^  M  1,  M  4,  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  0  4, 
S,  W4;  5^:  M  2,  M  3,   W  1, 
W2,  W3;BK2. 
omitted  by  X;BK  2. 
3 


X;  [  f 


:  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 

BK  2,  and  S'iva,  Sama. 


ia  omitted  by  M  2,   M  3, 
W  1,    W  2,   W  3,  BK   2  ;   3^: 

S'iva,  Sama. 

srfSm:  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
BK  2, 

ai^f^rf^:  I  snjcrer:  I  M  2,  M  3, 

W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 

r:  M    3,   W  2,  AV  3; 
2,  ^^  W  1. 
...o^   X; 


Y. 


n  ?o  n 


i  ^  i  ft  41  i 


i:  n  ??  si 


]  II  ?R  II 


:  n  ?^  I! 


ft?»  l 
l 


i    iprra 


I  7     I 


I 

II   ?tf  II      According  to  the  other  recension  the 


list  of  words  from 


onward  is  the  following: — 


\  ^T  I  T$r&  I  M  2,  M  3, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3  ;  BK  2. 
V.  is  omitted  by  X. 


is  omitted   by  M  2,  M  3, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 


:    l   M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2, 
\V  3,  BK  2. 

rfaT    X; 


:  M  3. 
BK  2. 


x,  BK  2. 

^T  ^  ^s'fw  i  23%  i 

X;BK2. 

.  qorerflr.x;BK  2. 

.  TTRff  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
Roth. 

TT^rfft  I 

BK  2. 

"   omitted  by  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3,  BK  2. 


I  ?^T%  J  M  :?,  M  3,  W  1, 

W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 


:  n.  C.  D.  F. 


.  ?vs>.  ] 


M2,  M3 


W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

fob  i  fol:  I 
:  i    ft:  I 


:  I  *frb  I  l^r:  I  t^rn  I  «*4:  I 
I     *RTF  I  frn  I  M:  i 


n  ?K  n 


I  $re:  I 


I  ^:  I  ?TR[:  I  55?: 


'ft: 


n  ?^  n 


1      :  I 


Roth- 
BK  2- 


^3:  BK  2- 

^    M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 

BK2. 

:  Bib.  Ind. 

:  is-  omitted    by    M   2,  M   3. 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  fevmTT  and   f^j 
omitted  by  BK  2. 

:  X,  BK  2. 
:  I  %fTO  I  X,  BK  2. 
n  M  1;  «RKW  BK  2, 


:  IT. 


:  M  1. 

:  *T.  C.  D.  F. 

.  Words   within   brackets  aro   the 
text  of  the  shorter  recension. 


1«.  ^r:  !  ^T?fV  I  arecnr:  I  f^^:  I  M  2, 
M3,  W  ],W  2,  W3,  BK2. 


,  Wl,  W2.W3; 


X; 


]  II  ?<£  II 


ft$f|  I  frfrfe  I 


%fNr 


n 


I  i^r  i  3 
n  R?  n 


[     n:  J 


n  ^R  n 


I    i:  I      :  I  p:  I  ^R:  I  w:  I  grpt  1 


]  II  33  II 


:  5P.  and  Devaraja. 
r:   is  placed    after 
by  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,   W  3, 
BK  2. 

X; 


V.  ^T.  M  1;  ^ffcr  M  2,  M  3,  W  1, 
WS^fr*  W2. 

M  i. 


BK2. 

q^f  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3  ; 
BK2. 

omitted  by  X. 

2fM3,  W1,W2,  W3, 
BK  2. 

!^%  is  added  after  ^ori%  by 
M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 
K  2. 


is  omitted  by  M  2,  M  3, 
W  1,  W  2,  BK  2,  W  3. 
^5T  is  omitted  by  X, 


:  omitted  by  X. 
.  crsr:  M2,  M3,  W  2,  W  3;  ^: 
W  1  ;  ^sr:  BK  2.     ^&:  ia  placed 
after   ^j    by   M   2,  M   3,  W   1, 
W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 


:  I  snre:  I  M  2,  M  3, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 
fef^  M  2;  ^  M  3,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3  ;  ^q:  is  placed  after  %f^  in 
M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  after  %fe. 
BK2. 

^T^  M  3. 

:   M  2,  M  3,   W  1,  W  2, 
W  3. 


:  I  for  i  ftwrf  I  RS:  I  ftd  I  ft?  kr:  i  qg:  i 
I  ps*3p?:  I  3T9W:  I  1$  jfit 

ft  ]  it  ^»  it 


i  Ir:  i  *r:  i 

it  ^  ii 


]  II  ^V9  II 


i     ^  i 
^  ]  ii 


I    ra:  I  g: 
^  \ 
\  w  \ 


n  ^  11 


:  M  2,  31  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
BK2. 


8:3:  I  ^f^T  I  ?J^^T  I  ft^T  I  ftf  T  I 
2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 


Y. 

V.  *ra:  BK  2. 

<1.  t^  is  omitted  by  X. 


BK  2. 
:  BK  2. 

2,  M3,  Wl,  W2,W3, 


BK2. 


.  ?.  ] 


jfir 


*nWh  yaAft  1  ip*  !  ?4ft  I 
i   ^  i    i  i  f^ft  I  arffcft  i 

t  [ 

1  iu<>  n 
f  frf 


M  1,  M  4,  0  1,  U  il,  C  3,  C  3,  S,  W  4  added  the  following 
summary  :  — 


Jfft^T 


f  f?i 


r:M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W2,  W  3, 
BK  2. 


1.  *re.  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

"?•  ^>3{ft   is   added    after   ^t^^fy   by 
M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 

is  omitted   by  M  2,  M  3, 
1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 

,.  IW?hM2, 

M  3,  W  L  W  2,  W  3;  BK  2. 
Ms.  IT  has  «jt£^|r, 

l«ftl  I*ft  •  tf  «*  i  «n*  etc.  !     «•  ^  X  &  Y>  BK  2' f oth-  , 
M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3.  lva  an     feama-     "he  authority 

^  ^       TV  •-  -  °^  *^ie  ^3Sl    °^   ^ot^    recensions 

^.  '  Los  been  discarded  for  this  parti- 

cular word  because  Yaska,  &  much 
older  authority  than  all  the  Mss. 
put  together,  reads 


X 


Jf. 


!  ar^wsr  i  fsrtfft  i  pi:  1    jfTfor:  i  anip:  I  • 


rg:  I  f*r4:  i  finr  i  id%  i 
[IcSfofftft:  ^rft]  n  ?  li 


l  wng:  !    r:  ! 


:  i  airft?r: 


wijt  SFT:  [ 


]  II  ^  II 


^g  is  omitted  by  M  2,  M  3,  W  1, 
\V  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 
BK  2. 

:  a  variant  given  by  yaska. 
BK  2. 
W  1. 

2. 
<:.  stT^T  W  3. 


I  M  3. 
M  3. 


,  ^:  is  omitted  by  M  2,  M  3,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 


s. 


M  2,   W  1,   W  2,  BK  2. 
:  M  3,  W  3. 
I:  is  omitted  by  Roth. 

2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
BK  2. 

M  1,  W  1  ;  ^q^  BK  2. 
3. 

w  !• 


2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 


v.  3.] 


:  I  3jntrr«rt  I  $r&:  I  lori^  1  ^rarp:  i 
l  ftfefc 


i  iwr&nsrf  i  ?if  I  sforel  i  *$  i  <n4: 
i  grot:  I  f|?Tift  l  sn*fer:  I  srrah  1  3ml 

l  5^  pi^n  fTT  l  ^31^15:  i  £tak:   i 

s  — 

l  fi^i^f  l  aT^rq;  i  sr^fT  i  |f|^  i  Mrf  i  w^: 
I     ^r:  I         l  ft^ri^:  I  p;^:  I  5%^:   I 

I  3  f  I  3f4        I  81         I 


l       :  l  f?^T  i     ^     i  i^:  i 

Q  >. 

^  i  tg  i 


i  %TT:  i  snrk  i  ^^q;  !  fffo:  i      : 
J  i  iitv™  i  l^J  i  T|I^:  i 
i  ^1  i  iHt4  i 


i    i    l         g  l  32  i  ^Nfir  l  anfo:   I 

I  ^I^J  I  ^t  I 


!  "  *• 


1. 


». 


W  1. 
i 


».  STJT:  BK  2,  M  2,  M  3,  W  2,  W  3 ;  I 


BK  ± 

.  The  third  section  comes  to  an  end 
after  ^ro^R:  in  M  2,  M  3,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

.  nfeir:  w  i. 

.  omitted  by  C  3  &  S. 

3^  |  BK  2. 
:  BK  2. 

BK  2. 


is  omitted  by  M  2,  M  3, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 


I  at«  I    n  I 


n  |  n 


f  frf 


M  1,  M  4,   C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  4,  S,    W  4   add   the  following 
summnary'. 


f  fa 


<r?rft]  n  ?  n 


:  I  pr:  I 
!  ttaki  I  f| 
II  3  II 


i  ?re  I 


gift:  I  ff^t:  I  H 
I     ^:  I      W  I 


5'^:  I  p^r:  I  ftg:  I 
1    ?T  I  ^M  l  sr^i  i 


1. 


is  added  before 


:  is  omitted  by  M  2,  M  3, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  BK  2. 


v. 


Y. 


C3,S.     Roth.  Bhad; 


Sama. 

M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3  have 
II  tf  n  instead  of  II  3,  II 
4 


:  I  ?^it?T:  etc,  M  2,  M  3, 
Wl,  W2,  WVBK2, 

.  ^r:  ^.  ^.  »T.  BK  2. 

:  H  ^  II  M  2,  M  3,  W  1, 


W2,  WSj 

SRRRT:  M  1,  M  4,  C  1,  C  2,  C  4, 

S,  W  4. 

I  sssjsre  gsr£  i  r.K  2. 
IT.  ^.  ^qisft  ^  2,  M  3. 
i    Wt  i  M  a. 


Jrwfaflpft  I  ft 


u  3  u 


:  I  5:  I 

:  !  a  I 


?r: 


1  <rc:  I  5?3'  I  5*K  1 
:  I  i?r:  I  p^:  I 


i!  »  .11 


I  f^:  I  1:  I  srrai  I 
§3[T:  I  ^r4:  I  ^w:  1  f^H::  i  whfrr:  I 
I  ^rf^t  I  ^wt  l  H^ft  I  ^  l  srs^:  I 

I^  I  f|H  ^ft  l  l%*f  I  jfrfir  I  F?!1^  l 
|  aiPitl  S«lt  I  1%:  I  NT:  I  ^  I  ^^ft  [ 


:  I  ^  I 
:  I       t  I  %^  I 
I  src$:  I  *faf  I  ^: 
m  I  vsk:  I 

]  II  ^  II 

f  frr  ^^  q^r^s^rra:  i 

M  1,  M  4,   C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  4,   S,  W  4   add  the    following 
summary'. 


f  frr 


M  2,  M  3,  w  l,  w  2, 

W  3,  BK  2. 

f^TT^^^r  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2, 

W3,  BK  2. 

[-]  is  omitted  by  X,  BK  2 ;  |U  II  X. 

II  *  II  Y. 

3**5TT  IH  II  X  j  BK  2.  ^^T 

II  9  II  Y. 

:  is  added  after  35?^:  by  X, 


BK2. 


BK  2. 


I  3?^  I  ^3:  I  I>ev. 

:  u  i  is  x; 


Y. 


:  I 


n      W 


1.  Thej  word  ^^|^|(^|:  means  'a  list,' 
or  «  a  traditional  list';  of.  VPB. 
viii.  i  : 

n* 


TP  LI.  i.  I.  $ 


•  6: 


other.  Both  was  rather  hasty  in 
doing  BO  and  later  on  he  rectified 
this  mistake.  All  the  Mss.  that 
I  have  collated  and  Durga  read 


Durga: 


f*T»  BK  1. 

BK1- 
».  cf.  BPll.  12.  5:691) 

«f  r«Hi  ^»^  i.^  *|^  1^4  rf 


cf.  also  flr«nc3TCfr  on  TPB.  i.  1. 

{.  cf.  Sa.yai.ia,   Int.  toRV.p.21: 


APR.  i.  lr 


ft- 


\J  urga  explains    the  term   in  llio 
following  way: 


V?B.  8.  52  : 

MUwM*  i 

Wf^^^t^H*  * 

KAS.'   II.  10:  23.  p.  72: 


TMbh. 


DS.  p.  HO? 


l\  1  Loth  adopted  the  valiant 

Oi/i    the  principle   lectio   diflicUior  \ 
l><  <tior    66t.       This     reading    was 
iwiiopted   on    the   evidence    of    a 
si  nglo    Ms.  unsupported    by   any 


strict 


Say  ana,    Int.     to   RV.    p.     21: 


of.    Dionysius   of     Halicarnas- 
sus:  Literary  Composition.  Ch.  Hi, 
Robert's  ed.  p.  71.     "Composition 
is  ......  a   certain  arrangement  of 

the  parts  of  speech...  These  were 
reckoned  as  three  only  by  Theod- 
ects  and  Aristotle  and  the  philoso- 
phers of  those  times,  who  regarded 
nouns,  verbs,  connectives  as  the 
primary  parts  of  speech.  Their 
successors,  particularly  the  leaders 
of  the  stoic  school,  raised  the 
number  to  four,  separating  the 
article  from  the  connectives", 
'  cf.  Aristotle,  Poetics  20.  1456 
6  By  water*  s  ed.  p.  57:  'Diction 
viewed  as  a  whole  is  made  up  of 
the  following  parts:  the  letter 
(  or  the  ultimate  element  )  the 
syllable,  the  conjunction,  the  art- 
icle, the  noun,  the  veil/,  the  case, 
and  the  speech. 


of.  RPR.  12.5:  700-1,707: 


we 


. 

The  following  stanza  is  cited  by 
thejBOtnmentator  on  the  APR,  in 
the*beginning  of  the  4lh  ch.  «/. 
A.O.N.  Vol.  7,  p.  51)1; 


VPR.  8.  54-55  : 


II 

BD.  ii.  121  : 
KAS'.  II.  10:  28.  p.  72  l 


« 

JPM  :  2.  1.  1  : 


SDS  p  144; 


cf.  Plato,  the  Gratylus  .,  Jowett  : 
Dialogues  of  Plato  p.  i.  3l;8-9  : 

'Name    is    not    a   musical    or 
pictorial    imitation  ......  bit    it   is 

expression  of  the  essence  of  each 
thing  in  letters  and  syllab  les'. 

cf.  Aristptle,  Poetics  5,0.  1456 
610  Byvoater*,  ed.  p.  58:*  '  A  noun 
or  name  is  a  composite  sig  nifioant 
sound  not  involving  the  idea  of 
time,  with  parts  which  1  lave  no 
significance  by  themselves  in  it.... 
A  verb  is  a  composite  sig  aificant 
saund  involving  the  idea  c>f  time, 
with  parts  which  have  no  signi- 
ficance by  themselves  in  it. 
Whereas  tlie  wo*  u  "'man'  or  'white' 
does  not  imply  when,  'wal  ksf  and 
kiias  walked'  involve  in  addition 
to  the  idea  of  walking  <;hu,t'  of 
time  present  or  time  past'. 


BK  1. 


The  1st   section  eonfos   to  an  on»l 

in  Mas.  of  tho  .shorter  recoiisioii. 
^f^f  is  omitted  by  G, 


I  ar  ITT 


i 


1.  f^T?T  is  omitted  in  BK. 

^.  Durga  gives     rr      as  a  variant. 


BK. 

A. 


:.  Here    ends    the    second    section 

inBK. 

'*.  ^ft  is  omitted  in  BK. 
lo.  cf.  BD.  ii.   121;   PMbh.  i.   3.  1. 
p.  i.  258. 

13.  snarrcro  BK. 

ft 

)*. 


of.  BD.  ii.  122. 

«nn*%  G.  cf.  RP.    12.  6:   702; 

VP.  8.  54-55;  KAS'.  II.  10:  28. 

p.  72;   PMbh.   i.  3.  l..p.    256;  ii. 

1.  1.  p.  3G5. 

.cf.  RP.  12.  5:  707. 

cf.  BD.  ii.  91.     Here  ends  the  4th 

section  in  BK. 

3TT  3TT  BK. 

ftOmfWfftft   M  1,  0  2,  C  3,  C  6. 

cf.  SRY.  I.  124.  11.  p.  i.  560: 


cf.  SUV.  I.  123.  7.  p.  i.  55D  : 

s 
\ 


s.  3 


ift  sfflT  ti<5 


I        ft  I 


t  i 


I    [ 


is 


.  The  sentence 
omitted  by  Durga. 

.  Here  ends  the  5th   see.  of  the  1st 
pada  in  BK. 

.  cf.  8RV.  I.  124.  12.  p.  i.  566: 


V.  cf.  BD.  ii.  89;   EP.  12.  8;   707; 
YP.  8.  55, 

1.  ^reraftfa   31.  VRf?cf  is  omitted  by 
C  2,  G,  S.  cf.  BD.  ii.  1)1: 


11.  cf.  SUV.  I.  8.  5;  124.  4,  pp.  i.  61, 
563.  Here  ends  the  1st  sec.  o! 
the  2nd  pada  in  BK. 

1^.  Omitted  in  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M 
3,  M  i,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
and  Durga. 

1^.  of.  PMbh.  i.  1.  3.  p.  38: 


.  RV.  X.84.  2;  106.3. 

.  UV.  X.  84.  5;  166.  2;  173.  2. 

.  of.  Bt>.  ii.  92. 

.  RV.  X.  86.  1. 

.  BY,  VITI.  2.  12. 


.  The  whole  sentence  from 
cfT  is  omitted  by  Durga. 

.  cf  .  SRV.  I.    169.   3.    p.   i.   737  : 


.  Quoted   by   SRV.  I.    129,    10.   p. 
i.  588. 

.  t^K-li:  BK. 

.  The  sentence  f5*Tnn: 
is  omitted  by  Durga. 


H.  ] 


n  y  11 


:  M  i,  M  3,  BK. 
Quoted  by  SR.V.  I.  SI.  3.  p.  i.  403  : 

i 

:  t 

Hero  ends  the   2nd   section  of 
the  2nd  pada  in  BK. 
V  HV.  VI.  21.  3. 

«.  The  passage  cRr:...*raf?cT  is  quo- 
ted  by  SHY.  I.  59.  1.  p.  i.  201. 

^.  srrarW    ^i^f^T     ia    omitted    by 
Durga. 

i3  omitted  by  Durga. 


BK. 

.  %  W  I,  W  2,  M  i,  BK. 


0.  RV-  VIII.  G2.  11.    The  ar  of  «£ 
is  elided   affcor   ^sr^RT^   by  the 
Mss.  of  the  longer  recension.   The 
first  i  of  iti  is  accented  in  the  Mss. 
but  as  I  have  separated  ifc  from 
the  Vedic  quotation,   I  leave  it 
unaccented. 

3.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  48. 1C.  p.  i.  24G. 

1.  RV.  X.  1C.  11. 

^.  of.  BD.  i.  5G :  snTT^?%7  5?cTTS  etc. 

i.  RV.  X.  119.9. 

t.  TS.  1.  7.  T:  2;  Krf.  13.  14.     Hero 

ends  tlie    3rd  &octioii  of    the  2nd 

pfidain  BK-. 

i.  firf^TJT^T^f^  'M  l»  ^  -» 0  3,  C  G,  BIC. 
!».  ^^  is  omitted  l>y  Roth. 
:.  5   M  2,    M  3,    W  1,    \V  2,   04. 

o  r>,  UK. 


im  i         ^srr  i 

54U'flhftw<|?r  I 


:  I  m  ^fffi^r 


*  i 


1.  BV.  IV.  51.1. 
3.  IIV.  I.  62.  G. 

\,  Tho  passage  ^n^qr'"^  is  quoted 
by  SRV.  I.  170,  l.p.  i.  739;  of. 
BD.  iv.  48-50. 

V.  Here  ends  the  4th  see.  of  the  2nd 
puda.  BK.  of.  13D.  IV.  CO-51. 


RV.  I.  170,  1. 


is  omitted  by 
BK,  C  4,  C  5,  K^,  M  3,  M  i,  R  4, 
R  C,  W  1,  W  2,  ^  3,  and  Durga. 
Here  ends  the  Dtttlsec.  of  the  2nd 
pada,  BK. 


vs.] 


*n 


TFf:    I 
I 

i  f^g-^ir  ^  %^%  i  *r*ft  vrlr^:  i 

I  ^T.^T:  ^rMIWTcnil  «TT  I  «ftrt 


fir  tffas: 


f  ?r 


n  ^  11 


I.  11 V.  II.  11.  21 

cf.  SUV.  VIII.  10.  21.  p.  iii.  290  : 


«T  ^TT  if  SfftT 
C  ."). 


etc. 


(.  cf,  PMbli.  VI,  1.  l.p.  16:   $ 
^ta^m  I.   cf-  8HV.    1.  57.    1.  p.  i. 

L'Si  : 


V. 


.  cf.  SUV.  VI.  ;iO.  *J.  p.  ii:  770: 


cf.  also    »SRV.    IX.  7(.>.    4.    p.    iii. 
7'J'J: 


:  is  omitted  by  Durga. 


T  0  2,  C  6,    M  1,  M  4,  R  1, 
U  2,  U  5,  S  6,  M  3,  W  3. 


The  passage  ^t(V-..^T  is  quoted  by 
SRV.  X.  10.  2.  p.  IV.  21.  cf.  also 
II.  11.  21.  p.  ii.  32: 


10.  11V.  II.  28.  4. 

11.  AV.  4.  1.  1;  5.  6.  1;  8V.  1.  321; 
VS.  13.  3. 


l.Mi,  C  1,  BK. 
.  cf.    Hll\r.    I.    113.    J.    p.    i.   498: 


.  Hero  ends    the    Oth    soc.    of    tho 
2nd  puda  in  13K. 


et  ^ 


*TRT% 
t  ft  f*mm 


M    I 


irtTTcrr^r 


[  ^T^TPTJ  ]  I  3T%  ^HJ:  I 


tor  gr^f>r  i  sT?Tf  !  ^4f^?r:  i 
:  i  TO  iftf^oi^f 
:  i  sr^rt    ??%  i 


1.  KV.X.  71.  11. 

^.  cf.  SRV.  X.  71.   11.  p.  IV.  223: 


\.  cf.  KB.  23.  2;cf.  AD.  5.7.  3. 

V.  The  passage  ?T^^V...^%  is  quot- 

ed .y  SRV.  I.  102.  5,  p.  i.  G85. 
Vlfil*:C2,  CO,  M  1,   M4,  11  1, 

It  2,  n  5,  S,  M  :*,  W  3. 
^.  qftf*C2,   CO,    M  1,   Ml,    111, 

It  2,  U  &',  S,  M  3,  W  3, 
":•.  Quoted   by  SUV.    IT.  T4.  1.  p.  ii. 

41  i  cf.  also  II.  1.  2.  p.  ii.  $. 


.  cf.  BD.  ii.  114. 

.  11  V.  X.  71.  5;  cf.  N.  1.  20. 

.  UV.  X.  71,  4;  cf.  N.  1.  10. 


UV.  X.  71.  7. 

Omitted  by  UK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  11  4,  R  C,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3  and  S. 

cf.  SUV.   X.  71.  7.   p.  IV.  222: 


V1.  The  quotation  i.s  u  nt  raced. 


s  srSrar  ^7 


lr  I 


.     S'ivadatfea's    edition,     of. 
PMbh.  i.  1.  4.  p.  i.  61 : 


Tha  Mss.  of  the  longer  and  the 
Shorter  recension  except  Kn. 
read  the  passage  as  follows: 


I    I   have     adopted     the 
variant   oa  vthe    authority   of    a 
single  Ms.  loecauso  it  makes  the 
.text  in*i 


BK,   C  4,   M  3,    R  4, 
11  6,  W  3. 

^.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  9.  2.  p.  i.  64; 

of.  also  I.   HO.  1;  123.   11;  pp.  i. 

248,    561;   cf.    UP.    12.    9:  708; 

BD,  ii.  90-91. 
0.  The   quotation   is    untraoed.     of. 

SRV.    V.    83.    10.    p.    ii.    678: 

9>fa$R  faftR  SftSRTCT    ^  I   Ms. 

Kn.  cites  the  pratikas  only  bub 

gives  this  quotation  in  full. 
.  RV.  I.  9.  2;  AV.  20.  71.  8,  sec. 

SRV.  loo.  cit. 
.  RV.  VIII.  92.  21 ;  IX.  61.  14. 

RV.   I.   SO.   4;  AV.   20.   45.   1; 

SV.  1.  183;  2.949. 


*fr 


' 


<.s 


.  RVKH.  10.  106.  1. 


V.  of.  BD.  i.  23-24,  20-27,  30-31 


cf.  PMbh.  iii,  3,  1.  p.  138. 


^.  cf.  SRV.  I.  1.  1..  p.  i.  25.  With 
regard  to  the  punctuation  at  thhi 
place  see  my  English  Translation  i 
oftheNirukta  note  on  pp.  212,  2  13*,. 

*.  tffr  01,   02,   03,    0  6,   1«  1, 

M2,  R  1,  R'2,  B5,  S;  Kn. 

«.  Gune   proposes    to   add   a   c.  vuse 

Sit  JTT^f^T^^  affcer  ^TRfn^.  But 
see  ray  note  Translation  of  the 
.  212,  213. 


4.  Durga     gives 
variant. 

<*>.  ^  Kn. 


g  37 


1.  gto  0  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,   M  1, 
M2,R  1,R2,  B5,S;  Kn. 


ti,  C  5,  Kn. 

?.  snro  M  1,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2, 
C  2,  C  3,  0  4,  C  6 ;  5n«r  M  2. 

i.  *RK>  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1,  M  2, 


4d*hKlq[ 


% 


,  iff:  C  4,  C  5,  M  3,  Mi,  W  2. 


is  omitted  by  C  2, 
>.  Omitted  by  BK,   C  4,    C  5, 


j  R  ^ 


W  3. 


«. 


M  :5- 


^V.  Quoted  by  811V.  p.  i.  L'l. 


1.  VS.  1.22;  TS.  i.  ,1.  8.  1;  VI.  2. 
7.  3;  KS.  1.8;  31.7;  Ms.  i.  L  9. 

*.  cf.  VS.  2.  15:  jfteffa. 

V  TS.  i.  2.  1.  1;  3.5,  1;  VI.  3/3.  2; 
KS.  ii.  1;  Ms,  i.  2,  1;  iii,  9.  3; 
cf,  VS.  4.1;  5.42;  d.  15:  ^t^ 

CT*rcr;  cf.  S'B.  iii.  i.  2.  r. 

V..VS.  4.  1;  5.  42;   6.  15;  TS.  i.  2. 
.1.   1;  3.  5.   1;  VI.   3.  3.  2;  KS. 
ii.   1;  Ms.  i.  2.'  1;  iii.  9.  3;   of. 
S'B.  iii.  1.  2.  7 ;  6.  4.  10 ;  8.  2.  12.  j 

<i.  cf.  TS.  i.  8.  G.  1. 

t.  VS.  16.  54;  Ms.  ii,  9.9. 

*.  BV.  X.  133.  2;  AV.  20,  95.  3; 
SV.  2.  1152. 


I  «^  I  cfir  II  ?H  II 


UV.  X.    103.   1;  AV.   19.   13.2; 

SV.  2.  1199;  VS.  17.  «3. 

T3,    VI,   3.  7.  1;   Ms.  1.  4.^11; 

TB.  III.  3.  7.  1 ;  S'B.  ii,  5.  2.  9. 

RV.  I.  89.  10. 

SeeN.  4.  23. 

Occurs  once  only  in  RV.  1. 169.  3. 

Occurs  once  only  in  RV.  V.  44.  8. 

Occurs   once    only    in   RV.    VI. 

12.  4. 

Occurs  once  only  in  RV.  VIII. 

77.  4. 

All  the  4  words  are  written,  in 
the  MSB.  I  have  collated,  without 
the  accent. .  But  as  they  are  (-he 
words  cf  the  Rgveda,  I  have 
restored  the  accent. 


?v$.  ] 


3  V     [ 


i  fo<nyft 


:  |  3T?ffiNft  I^TT  I 


Hi, 


.  GB.II.  2.  6;  cf.  AB.  1.  4.  9;  1. 
13;  16;  17  etc.  The  quotation 
ia  AB.  is  found  without 


3.  RV.  X.  85.  42;  AV.  14.  1.  22. 
\.  cf.  Manu  Y.  39;  44: 


:  » 


C  5;  ^r^t  Mi. 
.  of,  Manu  II.  130,  122: 


of.  also  II.  123-125. 

Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  G,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 


RV.  X.  169.  1. 


at 


I 
rflr 


fNfiwr: 


n  l^  11 


II V.  I.  104.  1.     See  Sayana's  com- 
mentary on  the  same. 

^T^I:^  c  5. 

cf.  SRV.  VII.  28.  4.  p.  iii.  62'. 
RV.  X.  165.  1;  AV.  6.  27.' 1. 
RV.  X.  164.  1 ;  AV.  20.  96.  23.  • 
cf.   Panini.   i.  4.  109;   cf.  PMbb. 
i.  4.  4.  p.  i.  354. 
RP.  2.  1 :  105. 
?f%  C  13. 

cf.  BD.  ii.  39,  109  B,  HOB. 
RV.  VI.  4.  7;  VS.  33.  13. 

RV.X.   84.2;   AV.  4.  31.  2;   of. 

N.  1.  4. 


C  4,  M  3,  Mi. 
cf.  BD.  ii,  119. 

cf.  S.  U.  B.  3.   Comm.  and  S'ankh. 
B.  XIV. 

cf.  PMbh.  i.  1.  1.  p.  i.  2: 


cfc  Sayana's  comm.  on  the  Man- 
tra Brahma^a: 

u 


The  whole  passage  : 

JT5RTT  ......  5pf|f^f   is  quoted   by 

SRV.  p.  i.  15. 


f  RT 


I  3Tq^rT  5TFJT  I  ^TlTf  JHTT  ^l^fl  I 


?f?r  «TT 


1.  of.  SRV.  II.  39.  1 ;  V.  43.  1 ;  pp. 

ii.  117,  587 :  STsnS^ffffcT  ^n^Jt  I 
^.  EV.  X.  71.  4;  tff!  N.  1.  8. 
\  cf.  SRV.  X.  71.  4.  p.  IV.  221: 


o^C  4,  C  5. 

cf.  PM  bh.  i.  1.  1.  p.  i.  4. 
Omitted    by    BK,    C  1,   C  5,  ICn,  i 
M  3,    Mi,    R  4,    R  6,    W  1,  W  2, 
W  3  and  Dnrga. 

Suyana   reads  STsJ^^T   5T5T^I   See  j 
SRV.  p.  i.  10. 
6 


J  ]  i  563*1^3 


i  s 


6.  Quoted  by  SRV.  p.  i.  17. 


C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1, 

M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  8, 

.  The  M'hole  passage  $n$n^... 
^T^rOf  ^  is  quoted  by  Helaraja 
iu  Lis  commentary  on  the  r«Av/a- 
j.>ad~iya.ot  Bharti'hari  ;  Ben.  S.  S. 
Vol.  II.  I,  p.  30.  (  1905). 


Pt^cflci  ^ 


:  I 


ff?r 
i  RtRyi  ftr 


f  fk  srwt 


:  I 


'T?[TTr£  Helaraja,  op.  cit. 

Helaraja.    op. 


Harivrsabha  in  his  commentary 
on  the  VdJfyapad~tya  of  Bhartrhari 
Ben.  S.  S.  >*os.  11,  19,  24.  (1887) 
p.  3.  remarks: 


*. 


1,   C  2,   C  3,   C  6,    M  1, 
M2,  R  1,R2,  R5,  S. 
cf.  BD.  i.  18,  19: 


o  c 


^  RV.  I.  27.  1  ;  SV.  1.  17;  2.  984. 
vs.  RV.  I.  154.  2;X.  180.2. 

*.  Quoted  .by   SRV.  I.   145.   5.,p. 

i.  645. 
<^.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  55.  1.  p.  i.  278. 

0.  cf.  BD.  i.  33: 


^1.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  145.  2.  p.  i. 
662.  cf.  also  I.  51.5;  V,  56.4; 
VIII.  63.  12. 

«.  See  N.  7-12. 


Small  figure  on  this  page   represents  the  corresponding  »«otion  of  the 
first  chapter  of  the  Nirukta. 


:  i     r:  i  sipsr:  i  *irar:  i      »  i 


C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1, 
M2,  R  1,  R2,  R5,  S;  Durga; 
Roth's  and  S'ivadatta's  edition. 

*.  cf.  N.  I.  14. 

^.  cf.  SRV.  I.  1.  1.  p.  i.  25. 

V.  Quoted  in  the  Mdthara  Vrtti  on 
the  Sdnkhyakarika  XXII.  ed. 
by  Sahityacarya.  Benares  1922, 
p.  37: 


I  .     It  should  be  noted 
that    the    intervening     sentence 
is  olnitted  and 


the    Nirukta    is    raised    to    the 
dignity  of  a  S'ruti. 

ii__.  -v  p-i     ri  o     p  0     Pfi     M  1 

JcJ ^"cf<?TT  ^      )  ^      J  J  >  M 

M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S;  M  3,  Mi. 
cf.   PMbh.   VI.  1.    1.  p.  iii.   17; 


i.    31| 


5. 

cf.  BD.  ii.  116. 
cf.    PMbh.   i.    1.    2.    p. 

fSri«3>:  I  ^ft:  fa«t<iii  I 
cf.  also  Vol.  ii.  p.  -87. 
feq^R^   ||   una.   Su.    1.    17.   Au- 
freeht's  edition  p.  7. 


.  *.] 


[  R«T 


ffilT 


f  f^T 


cf.  PMbh.   i.  1,  1.  p.  i.   9; 


is  quoted  by  Kslra- 
svamin  in  his  commentary  on  the 
Amarakosa  II.  9.  107.  Poona  ed. 
(1913)  pi  157. 

cf.  PMbh.  i.   1.  1.  p.  i.  9; 


V.  ^T^o.  C  1,  C  2,  03,  06,  Ml, 
M2  R  1,  R2,  R5,  S;  C  4,  C  5, 
Mi,  W  1,  W  2  ;  Roth's  edition. 


n  ^  u 


I  5[rcft% 


Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
AV  3  ;  and  Durga. 

cf.  BD.  ii.  106. 

T^o.   C  1,   C  2,   C  3,   C  6,  M  1, 

M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 

°^%  c  i,  c  2,  c  3,  c  6,  M:  i, 

M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 

cf.    SRV.   I.    126.   4.    p.    i.    571: 


C  2,  C  3,   C  4,   C  5,  C  6, 
M  3,  Mi,  AV  1,  \V  2. 
TA.  10.  10;  3:  Mu,  10.  4, 


TOT 


f  f^T  T'TO:  I 


«4Wtl«fi  I  ^ftt 


:  i 


:  i 


^.  cf.  Manu  II.  114;  Su.  III. ;    Vas. 
II.  8  i  VisnuXXIX.  9. 

*.  sr^'^flro.  C  5. 

*.  cf.  Manu   II..  144;  Vas.  II.   10; 

Visnvu  XXX.  47 ;  Ap.  I.  1.  14. 
V.  of.  Manu  II.   115;    Vas.   II.   9; 

Visnu  XXIX.  10. 
<4.  All  the   4  verses    are   found  in 

STJ.   B.   3.  (  Burnell.  pp.  29-32  ). 

Quoted  by  SRV.  p.  i.  22. 


cf.   SRV.   I.   158.   2.   p.  i.  672: 


cf.  S'B,  VI.  1.  2.  34.  Weber's  ed. 
P-  505:         %  ijtaT  ^r^ftr  f%  ^ 


RV.  IX.  40.  4. 
RV.  X.  94.  9. 

Quoted  by  SRV.   IX.  89.  6;  97. 
14;  pp.  iii.  759,  780. 


i  arorfo  srrar  ^  %**rr 


MTTIH  I  c)n«un«ivHvi!  I 


1.  EV.  VI.  47,  26;  AV.  G.  125.  1; 
of.  N.  9.  12, 

*.  RV.  VI.  75.  11;  VS.  29.  48; 
of.  N.  9.  12. 

V  RV.  X.  27.  22. 

*.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

<«.  Quoted  by  SRV.  VI.  75.  11.  p. 
ii,  890. 


cf.  BD.  ii.  111. 
RV.  VI.  56.  3. 

VS.  18.  10;  S'B.  IX  4.  1.  9;  cf. 
g^T;  etc.  TS.  111.  4.  7.  1. 

RV.  I.  84.  15;  AV.  20.  41.  3; 
SV.  1.  147:  2.  265;  cf.  N.  4.  2;V 
The  passage:  aTm<*rlNjfr...lftT- 
*F*cT%  is  quoted  by  SRV.  I.  S4. 
15;  p.  i.  379. 

N.  4.  25. 


V] 


«r 


TO 


[  ^jfc?H  T  ] 
i  ^nirT^cf 

J  I 


J  TOT 


J  I  crf?T- 


r  I 


fl^frT  II  V9 


f  :fER 


f  5?g 


n 


3    i 


i 


ft 


»  ftth    n 


RV.  I.  154.  6. 

Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  E  4.  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

^^r  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi3R4,  R6,  Wl,  W.2,  W  3. 


:   I   of.   PMbb.   i.   2.    3. 


p.  1.  247:  TO%:  <JT: 


\.  RV.  I.  164.  32;  AV.  9.  10.  10, 
».  Quoted  by  SRV.  I,  160.  2.  .p.  i, 


674. 


C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  G  6,  M  1, 
M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 


.  RV.  I.  164.29;  AV.  9.  10.  7. 


«TT*T  I 


%  r^  H  in  i  ^ 


^TT  I 


i  *TT 


II  °.  II 


1.  Omitted   by    BK,   C  4,   0  5,   Kn, 

M  3,  Mi,  R  4,   11  6,   W  15   W  2, 

W  3. 
3.  Quoted  by  SRV.  III.  54.  11. 

p.  ii.  309;   of.  also  VI.  72.  3.  p.  ii. 

882. 
\.  Omitted  by    BK,   C  4,    C  5,    Kn, 

M  3,   Mi,   R  4,   R  6,    W  1,  W  2, 

W  3;  and  Durga. 
V.  The  whole  passage:  f^u 


:    is  quoted  by   SRV.  I. 
22.  5.  p.  i.  115. 

<«.  4te*r  c  5,  Mi. 

*.  o^SRfrfa  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2; 
W  3. 

7 


The  passage 
Tftfcf  3T I  is  quoted  by  SRV  I.  30. 
18.  p.  i.  156;  cf.  also  I.  1GO.  4, 
VI.  72.  3;  pp.  i.  675;  ii.  884. 

cf.  BD.  VII.  155. 

t&fon^  C  5. 

cf.  BD.  VII.  156;  VIII.  1. 

cf.  BD.  VIII.  2. 

cf.  BD.  VIII.  4-5. 

cf.  SRV.  X.  98.  1.  p.  IV.  324. 

RV.  X.  98.  5,  ,. 

cf.  SRV,  X.  98.  5.  p.  IV.- 325. 


Xo. 


ft  '4  -UJI  I  &\  \ 

|  r--|  |  '  \ 


«u 


SRI 


f  ^ 


T 


!  sT'Trs'^r:  i 

II  5.?.  II 


11 


^TT  I 


]  ^rf 


J  i 


'A  II 


[  3i  l«  n  ?  JP^  J 


ftll 


1.  of,  SRV.  I.  68.  10;   40.  2;   125.  3; 

pp.  i.   329,   212,  568.  cf.   Manu. 
IX.  138. 
3.  Quoted  by  SRV.  IX.  96.  6.  p.  iii. 

770. 
^.  Omittad   by  BK,   C  4,   C  5,   Kn, 

M  3,  Mi,  R  1,   R  6,   W  1,  W  2, 

W3. 

».  TA.  ii.v9.    The  words  within  the 

brackets  are  not  omitted  in  TA. 
<<.  Quoted  by  SRV,  I.  70.  6.  p.  i.  333. 
K.  RV/X.98,  7, 


Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  1.  1.  p.  i,  24. 

cf.  BD.  VIII.  6.    ' 

Omitted  by   BK,   04,  C  5,  Kn, 

M  3,   Mi,  R  4,    R  6,  W  1,   W  2, 

W  3. 

cf.  BD.  VIII.  S  B. 

See  N.  12.  8-22. 

RV.  X.  88.  11;  cf.  N.  7.  29. 

Omitted   by   BK,    C  4,   05,  Kn, 

M  3,   Mi,   R  4,   R  6,   W  1,  W  2, 

W3, 


i  ST^SHM  ^t^w 
%  li 


:  \ 


i  5  s^^1  ^  3  frnT:  J 

I  ^r     *nr  ^TT  I  ^"5?  ^it^TR^TrTT  I 

I  i 


cTT  I  3T?I  ?:  I 


[  ^rr  ^TRT^  ] 
I  rrsrfff'Pi 


i    r 


VT«rf?t  I  [ 


fT  ]  I 


:  I 


1.  RV.  I.  136.3;  II.  41.  6;  SV    i>, 

262. 

*.  RV.  III.  59.  2. 
^.  RV.  I.  24.  15;  VS.  12.12. 

ga  and  Bib.  Ind. 


and  Bib.  Ind. 

.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  112.  5;  148.  1;  VII. 

10.  2.  pp.  i.  488;  650;  iii.  25. 
.  Cf.  SRV.  IX.  83.  3.  p.  iii.  734 
.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  C  5,  KD, 


M  3,  Mi,   II  4,  R  6,  W  1,   W  2, 
AV  3 ;  and  Durga. 

<^.  The   quotation   is    untraced.   Cf. 
SRV.  I.  125.  5.  p.  i.  569. 

I*.  TO*^  C  1,  02,  03,  06,  Ml, 
M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S;  and 
Rotb,  edition. 

11.  ftcVPC3;famo.Wl. 

^^.  Omitted  by  BK,    C  4%C  5,  Kn, 

M  3,   Mi,   R  4,   R  6,   W  1,  W  2, 

W  3,  and  Durga. 

1*.  SW*:   BK,   04,   05,   Kn,   M  3, 

Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  \V  1,  W  2,  W  a 


«T  «? 


^rgt 


II  V*.  II 


i  3?ftr 


[  JTW  ]  ^rfir  I  ^rgr  npm 


:  I  ]  3TTT 


[  f^n^r  ] 


i.  Omitted  by  BK,    C  4,    C   5,    Kn, 
M  3,    Mi,    E  4,    11  6,   W  1,  W  2, 

I.  Cf.  ailV.   VIII.   80.   8;  X.    103.  |          J>y  BK,  C  4,^C  5,  "'Kn,  M  3,    Mi, 


K,  C  1,  C  5,  Ku,  M  J, 
Mi,  E  4,  E  G,  AV  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

Q..  i—  is    omitted 


0.  pp.  iii.  529;  IV.  340. 
V.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  37.  10.  p.  i.  202. 
M.  HV.  I.  32.  10. 

*.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  E  4,  E  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3 


II  4,  E  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  and 
Durga.  The  passage  3Tf^nj?<fr- 

smT-'-^rfafiffr^r:  is  quoted  by 
SRV.  I.  32.  10.  p.  i.  170. 

JT^T^u^T  BK,  C  4,  O  j,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  E  4,  II  6,  VV  1,  W  2, 
W3. 


•       I 


X3- 


[  TTTi 


n 


i  3T?n     rr.  !  sgrwr^  I 

I  f^ifecfV^i:    I 


u  fin  ^3  JTR:  I  ^rfoT^fonvT^TPT  I 
fir^  vrr 


1      ^^T     3TTT: 

^ra  i 
i 


i^4  1*4  "-43^  ;  ^  (  •  ! 


:  i 


n 


n 


1.  RV.  I.  32.  11. 

*.  Cf.  BD.  V.  166. 

*.  3T  C  4,  Mi,  AV  1,  W  2. 

V.  Ci  TS.   11.  4.   12.    2. 

wffntac  i  ff^jfii 

f^^T  l^ccf^  I 

M.  All  the  three  quotations  are  un-. 
traced.     The    passage:   ^j^q^f... 
f^3TT*T§f  ia  quoted  by  SRV.  I.  32. 
11.  p.  L  170;  Cf.  also   I.  124.  10. 
p.  i.  566. 

*•  oftsirfir  BK,  C  1  C  5,  Kn,  M   3, 
Mi.  R  4,  R  6.  W  15  W  2,  W  3 


3.  5T^?T% ^TU^T  is   quoted   by 

SRV.  III.  34.  4,  p.  ii.  219. 


J,  C5. 

>.  Cf.BD.  III.  9. 

J.  Cf.  BD.  iii.  8.  Dawn  is  a  ka>a  i.  *. 
16th  portion  of  night. 

*.  RV.  I.  113.  1;  SV.  2.  1099. 

(.  The    text   seeins    to   be    corrupt. 
I  propose  to  read  ^j:  for  ^ffe: 
this     will     make     the     line    in- 
telligible. 

*.  ^    %f^--'^T5T^    is     quoted 
SRV.  I.  H3.  l.p.  i.  496. 


TSOT  v-jhft  5?n*ip[T?*j 
grar 


I 

rercnTr^  i  J^STT  HR^T:  i  srft- 
i  ^^  ?^^%i  i  f^inzt  4w:  i  3 

I  3T?Jn  STflTOTq'flTnn  I  ST5!!^!    [  STSf 


? 


[  ^k  ] 


i  I    *&  ^n    i 


]  i 


f  sir 


3TT5T,  I  ^Tf  :  ^Wf^  I 
II  ^°  I1 


f^r 


:  i 


I  itfHr?r  ^Trf;  I  3TT 


STPT  fftr  «TT 


51 


1.  RV.  I.  113.  2. 

3.  Cf,  CJRV.  VI.  04.  1.  p.  ii.  i>65. 

\.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  92.  2.  p.  i.  410. 

V.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  35.  2;  123.  2.  pp.  i. 
186,  557. 

«1.  Pmitted  by  BK,  C  4,  CD,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

«.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4.  C  5,  KP, 


21  3,   Mi,  11  4,   K  0,    W  1,    W  L', 


The 

quoted  by  SRV.   I.   113.   2.  p.  i. 
497. 

RV,  VI.  9.  1. 
06. 


RV.  X.  27.  23. 


:   [  ^T  ] 


I  WSKHfll 
I?T%:   I 


firm 


J  sre      ^FT:  i 
rir(rt  i  ^rgwrrr  ^r  ! 
i  qr  qr  snrf^r  i  ^T^H-J^^IH  i 


:  [  ^Stvr^fTfiT:  ] 


:  JrKftfdlf 


3n%r$ft'«r 


^.  Cf.SRV.X.  27.  I!:),  p.  IV.  80. 
*.  ST*mt  C  5,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  AV  2. 
?t.  Cf.    SRV.   I.    li>3,    2.  p.  i.   557;  j 

VI.  72.  1.  p.  ii.  8*3. 
V.  Omitted  by  13K,   C  1,   C  5,   Kn, 

M  :3,  Mi,  11  1.  R  6,  W  1,   W  2, 

W  3. 
<?.  C£.  SRV.  III.   22.  4.  p.   ii.  194; 

omitted   along   with    tg^tficft  by  : 

Durga. 
^,  Cf.  SRV.   I.  3.   12.  p.  i.  40;   Cf.  j 

BD.  ii.  135-436. 
v».  Seetf.  11.  25-27. 
t-  ^R^IffV^o  M  1. 
<*.  RV.  VI.  61.  2. 


Quoted   by  SRV.   I.   128.  3.  p.  i. 
580;  Cf.  also  II.  23.  7.  p.  ii.  65. 

tfg^firfa  M  i,  M  2,  w  3;  is 

omitted  along  with   qj  by  C  3; 
Durga. 


Quoted  by  SRV.   VI.   61.  2.  p,  ii. 

855. 

^JTlwfH:   BK,   C   4,  C  5,  Kn, 

M  3,   Mi,   R  4,   R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 

W3. 

Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,   Kn, 

M3,  Mi,  R4,   R6,   W  1,  W  2, 

W3. 


s, 


TT?ft'^3!TT  JW?  f  ^^TT 


^rr  I 


3.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  03.  8.  p.  i.  313. 

R.  Cf.  BD.  IV.  10G,  107. 

3.  N.  9.  39. 

^.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  2.  8.  p.  i.  3. 

®.  *^j:  is  omitted  by  C  5, 

<.  fjg  C  6,  M  1,  M  2. 

«,.  Cf,  SRV.  III.  33.  5.  p,  ii.  243. 

lo,  RV.  III.  33.  6. 


I         f>  I 


:  II 


rH5T 


BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
R  4,  R  G,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
ft  C  4,  M  3. 


•JV.  The  passage 

is  omitted  by  C  4. 
Vi.  cf.  SRV.  III.  33.  G.  p.  ii.  244. 

BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
R  G,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

is     omitted     by 


Durga, 


3TT 


^TT  I  ^ 


srftr  ^ 

f*K.ri  «ir    I 


n 


J     I 


^TI^II"! 


^TT  I 


^rr  siirf  ^rt 


i 


^TT  I 
I 


^.  BV.  III.  33. 10. 

*,  of.  SBV.  III.  33.  10.  p.  ii.  246. 

^.  cf.  BD.  ii.  56. 

V. 

<<.  BV.  IV.  40.  4. 
8 


cf.  SBV.  IV.  40.  4.  p.  ii.  458. 

The   following   passage  is  added 
after   5^      by   C  5: 


cf.  SBV.  I.  123.  8.  p.  i.  560. 


.  ]  H^.         53^733*11  [  J 


f 


:  II  ] 


Small  figure  on  this  page  represents  the  corresponding  section  of  the  second 
chapter  of  the  Nirukto* 


TTf  5fJ 


n  ^  II 


5  ft 


T  [3^:] 


^3  *" 


1.  of.  Manu.  IX.  138;  Vii3nu,  XV. 
44. 

*.  of.  Manu.  .  IX.  32,  35-41.  The 
diametrically  opposite  view  is 
given  IX.  48-54.  of.  also  Vas. 
XVII.  6-9 ;  63-64;  Ap.  Dh.  II. 
13.6-7;  Ga,  Dh.  XVIII.  9-14. 

^.  EVt  VII,  4.  7. 

S.  of.SEV.  VII.  4,7.  p.iii.H. 

M,  of,  SB V,  I,  93.  4;  p,  i,  418, 


i.  of.  SRV.  VII.  4.  7.  p.  iii.  14. 
9.  RV.  VII.  4.  8. 

j.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Ku, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3.  • 

I.  ift  BK,  04,  05,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
R  4,  R  6,  \V  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

It  C  4,  0  5. 

and  S'ivadatta's  edi* 


tion,    of,  BD,  IV,  110-111, 


KV.    III.    31.  1.     The    Second 

hemistitch     is  paraphrased    by 

yaska    in   the  last   part    of   the 
fifth  Section. 

-4i<fT,  C  1,   C,  2,   C  3,   C,  6,  M  1, 
M  2,  R  1,  K  2,  R  5,  S. 
cf.  BD.  IV.  112. 
Omitted  by  C  v. 
cf.  SRV.  I.  34.  5.  p.  i.  182. 
cf.  SRV.  III.  31.  1.  p.  ii.  226. 
5. 


The  quotation  is  un  traced,  cf.  Ms. 
4.  6.  4;  4.  7.  9: 


Durga  gives   the  quotation  in  the 
following  manner:   ^^  z 


S'B.  XIV.  9.  4.  8;   BU.  VI.  4.  8; 
SVB.  1.  5.  17. 

cf.  Manu.  IX.  130,  133,  139;   Ba. 
II.  3.  11 


Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Kn, 
M3,  Mi,  R4,  R6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3  ;  and  Durga. 

cf.  AV.  1.  17.  1. 


'A.] 


[start 


OTT  pte  ft  tiMlfr  ir^;  ii 


i  jj:  i  sr^jjia  w    i 
i  srctRNf  i  ^r    ^t^r  i 


;  1 


i  ^PH   ^*1  Vr 


^  I  ftrar 


11  x  II 


.  of.  Manu.  III.  11-  Ya.  I.  53. 
.  BV.I.  124.7. 

.  Omitted  by  C  2,  C  5,   0  6,   M  1, 
M  2,  M  3,  W  3. 

.  <nfo*rre.  BK»  0  4,  0  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  K  4,  11  6,  W  1,  W  2,   W  3. 


W  2. 


G  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 
M  1,  M  2,  R  1,  E  2,  E  5,  S. 
».  «f.  8BV.  I.  124.  7.  p.  I  565. 
i  C  4. 


.  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1, 
M  2,  E  1,  E  2,  E  5,  S. 

to.  The  quotation  in  uutraoed. 
«..  of.  SEV.  V.  62.  5.  p.  ii.  643. 
«.  EV.  V.  62.  8. 
^^.  T^TT  is  omitted  by  C  5. 
39.  The  quotation  is  uiitraced. 
11.  of.  Manu.  III.  11  ;  Ya.  I.  53. 

.  cf.  BD.  iv.  in: 


.  of.  Manu.  IX,  131 


«rfl(*K 


u  vj  ii 


i  srftr 


J  i 


RV.   III.   31.  2.   of.   BD.   i.   57,        e.  of.  SKV.  III.  31.  2;   I.  123.  5; 
where  it  is~  quoted  as  an  example  .          pp.  ii.  227  ;  i,  558.  of,  s^ff  ff 
of  denial.  ^^^  ^  B'ak.  IV. 

^r^T^  M  3  ;   ^l^^o   0  1,  C  5, 
Mi,  W  1,  W  2, 


of.  BD.  ii.  113. 

*f5£  C  1,  03,  Ml, M2,  R,  of. 
SRV,  III.  31.  2i  p.  ii.  227. 
SRV,  loo,  oib, 


c 


11.  RV.  X.  53.  4. 

«.  Cf.  SRV.  X.  53.  4.  p.  IV.  158. 

H.  Cf.  TB.  ii.  3.  8.  2,  4. 


:  0  D, 


•1-  S-] 


1  I    Ts^SRT 
^*c^iO    3"flft 
I  M^«i^R**rMiHQr>Ri  In 


3TT 


4r  ] 


ST^RT 


rtir«!T<ftf^r 


:  i 


.  Cf,  BD,  VII.  68;  of.  AB/  III.  31. 


. 


,  Cf,  BD.  VII.  69—72;  SRV.  1.  89. 
10;  VIII.  32.  22;  pp.  i.  399;  iii. 
390, 


BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
K  4,  B  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 

i^°.  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  06, 


is 


?t  Omit.fced   by  Durga. 

added  by  G  1. 
*.  RV.  VIII.  63.  7. 
4.  g^f^T^T  0  1,  M  3. 
?,.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,    Kn,  M 

3,  Mi,  R  4,  B  6,  W  1,  W  2,  \V  3, 

<k  Durga. 


M  1,  M  2,  II  1,  R  2,  S,  R.  5.  Roth. 
.  RV.  X,  94.  7. 
.  Of.  SB  V.I.  62.  10.  p.  i.  309. 
.  Of.  SBV-  1.  38.  12.  p.  i.  206. 


3. 


5. 


.  Cf.  SBV.  X,  94.  7.  p.  IV.  206. 


STTI 

ft*T*n  ^f^rf^  ii  *»  ii 


^f  arfti 


IT 


J  I 


I  ef^;:  i  [ 


I         JTT 


1.  ffflWTO^Ol,  C2,C3,C6,M 
1,  M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 

06,    Ml;    ft:^   C  3; 


V  RV.  X.  48.  7;  of.  BD.  I.  49. 
V.  Of.  SRV.  X.  48.  7.  p.  IV.  146. 

6 

0  3. 
».  Omitted  by  C  5. 


^.  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1,   M 
2,R  1,  R2,  R5,  S. 
<*.  SOT?  0  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1,  M 

2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 

1o.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M 

3,  Mi.  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

is  omitted  by  Durga; 


[:  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1,  M 
2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  6,  S. 


«PT 


d<*n?r 

fllOT  si'Tll. 


»  II 


f 


H  u  n 


1.  BV.  VIII.   17.  12;    AV.  20.  5.  6. 

SV.  2.76. 
*.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M 

3,  Mi,  B  4,  E  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 


1,  C  2,  C  3,   06,   M  1, 
M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 


M  2,  R  I,  R  2,  R  5,  3. 
'   9 


:  H 


II 


j.  RV.  II.  23.  9. 

U  Cf.  SRV.  II.  23.  tt,  p.  ii,  66. 

>.  RV.  I.  94.  7. 

:.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  94.  7.  p.  i.  423. 


C  lf  C  6,  M  1,  M  2. 
11.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  11.  7.  p.  i.  78. 
1*.  RV.  I  164.  21 ;  cf.  AV.  9.  9.  22. 


[  fjqnrn  ] 


I  ^T  ITT  *lT' 


fir%$TfcT 


i  STST  [  ^Wi:  ] 


I  H  ITT     75"-   ^T^ 


[  3^rT  ] 


Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  0  5,'Kn, 
M3,  Mi,  R  4;  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3. 

Cf.  SUV.  I.  31.  14;  120.  1  :  pp.  i. 
163,  583. 

The  quotation  is  uutraced. 

<*faf*T<?fNf  **£,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  0,  W  1,  \V  2, 
W  3. 


M  3. 


^ai  ft 


Cf.  8RV.  V.  30.  1.  p.  ii.  551. 


Omitted  byBK,  C  4,  C  5,  K.D, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3  ;  and  Purga. 

Cf.   SRV.   X.   50.  5.   p.  iv.    152: 


i  ^?TT£  ^Jirnr^t  i 
i 


f  I  T 
^t  ^T 

feu[Hrr 


f  I 


3r9r  n 


[ 


4*r%rr:  i 


i  ^  SRW:  i 
] 


w  n 


RV.  X.  4.  6. 

Cf.  SBV.  X.  4.  6.  p.  iv.  9. 
Omitted  by  BK,   04,    05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,   W  2, 
W  3  ;  and  Durga. 


V. 


Omitted  by  BK,   04,   05,    Kn, 
M  3,   Mi,   R  4,   R  6,  W  1,   W  2, 
W  3;  and  Durga. 
RV.  X.  40.  2. 

S'ivadatta's  ed. 
:  S'ivadatta's  ed. 


.  0  1,  0  2,  0  3,  0  6,  M  1, 
M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S.  and  Roth's 
edition. 

10.  Cf.  SRV.  X.  40.  2.  p.  iv.  121. 

11.  RV.  V.  78.  8. 

1^.  RV.  I.  50.  3;  AV.  13.  2.  18;  20. 

47.  15;  VS.  8.  40. 
1*.  RV.  X.  97.  11;  VS.  12.85, 
IV.  RV.    X.    73.    2.     According    to 

Durga   some    Mss.   do    not    read 

the  quotation  thinking  that  na 

is   already  explained : 


TOT  'ij 


:  I 


«TTR?t| 


^.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3. 

*.  RV.  I.  41.  9. 

3,  ^r^  is  omitted  by  Kn.  and  Say  ana. 

».  Cf.  SRV.  I.    41.    9.   p.   i.    217: 


Fragment  of  RV.  X.  11.  6;  AV. 
18.  1.  23. 

Cf.    PMbh. 


:  i  voi,  ii.  p.  147. 


.  grr^  C  4,  M  3. 

.  RV.  VI.  55.  5. 

.  ^?mf*T^rf  W  2  ;  o^  C  4,   M  3, 

.  RV.  VIII.  2.  40. 

.  Cf.  S'B.  VI.  2.  1.  4: 


Weber's  edition  p.  507. 
,  RV.  II.  35.   10. 


1«.  RV.  V.  44.  1  ;  VS.  7.  12. 
VI.  TO  W  1, 


II 


I  fsRTT 


:  \ 


J  I 


J  I  «T  ^ 


1    I 


SM  ^  i  ^  i  M  rl^  T  ^TTrT  I  i^im 


i 

^  «i  :  I 

i  ?F-^r  ^rr  5%:  I 
TT  11  \<  n 


fj  i 


fa 


}.  The  quotation  is  untraced.  Mss. 
of  the  longer  recension  do  not 
accent  the  passage. 

3.  Omitted  by  BK,  0  4,  05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  B  4,  B  6,  W  1,  W  L, 
W  3 ;  and  Durga. 

*.  jttV.  I.  45.  3. 

V.  Of.  SBV.  I.  139.  9.  p.  i.  623. 

<*.  Cf.  SBV.  I.  44.  6.  p.  i.  225. 

$.  Cf.  SBV.  I.  45.  3.  p,  i.  229:  nf. 
BD.  V.  99. 

*.  Cf.   AB.   iii.   34: 


Cf.  SBV.  I.  1.  6;  127.  2;  X.  62. 
5;  67.  2.  pp.  i.  27,  574;  IV. 
186,  206. 

*.  Omitted  by  BK,  0  4,  0  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  B  4,  B  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3  ;  and  Durga. 

*..  Cf.  SBV.  I.  139.  9.  p.  i.  623. 


:.  Hf.  SBV.  I.  45.  3.  p.  i.  229. 

.  ftdni  -ftqfcrar  »  omitted  by 

"'•     VMhh. 


I 


:  I 


«rr  1  4« 


i  fruit  i 


Roth's  and    S'ivadatta's 


edition. 


Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

Cf.  SRV.  I.  126.  3,  p.  i.  571. 
Cf.  SRV.  I,  104.  1.  p.  i.  457. 


^.  RV.    VIII.  4.   3;    SV.    1.   252; 

2.  1071. 
$.  RV.   X.   133.  1;  AV.  20.  15.  2; 

SV.  2.  1151. 

«.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  31.  6.  p.  i.  160. 
*.  ^sffa:  C  5,  M  3,  Mi. 
<*.  RV.  I.  126.7;  of.  BD.  IV.  3. 
lo.  RV.  I,  27.  13;  cf,  VS.  16.  2§. 


*' 


srrrr^f  I 


Her; 


i  crnsT^r:  i 

I  SR^1  cff 


f^TOt 


is  given  as  a  variant  by 
Durga. 

3.  Of.  SRV.  VI.  75.  9;  VII.  104.  21. 
^.  RV.  V.  75.  7. 
V.  RV.  VII.  104.  21 ;  AV.  8.  4.  21. 

<*  Cf.  SRV.  L  72.  4;  147.  2;  V.  61. 
8j  VI.  3o,  5.  pp.  i.  340,  .648; 
ii.  639,  777. 

S'ivadatta's  edition. 
».  RV.  I.  147.  2;  VS.  12.  42. 
t.  Cf.  Ms.  ii.  9': 


<^.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  24.  10.  p.  i.  132. 
^o.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  166.  11.  p.  i.  728. 
11.  Cf.  Taifc.   B.  I.   5..2.   5,6: 


Quotation  is  untraced,     Cf.  Tait. 
Br.    II.  7.    18.    3. 

^  i  cf 


n.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  50.  2.  p.  i.  24ti. 
IV.  RV.  I.  24.  10. 
1<«.  RV.  IV.  7.  3. 


1.  RV.  IV.  19.  9.  It  is  omitted  by 
BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  4, 
R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  and  Durga. 

3.  RV.  VIII.  102.  21;  VS.  11.  24. 

*.  ftTin  TORI:  "  read  by  C  1,  C  2, 
C  3,  M  1,  M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5, 
8.  and  Roth. 

V.  RV.  II.  14.  11. 

«i.  VS.  29.  1. 

V  RV,  VIII.  45.  20, 

vt.  Cf.  SRV.  VIII.  45.  20.  p.  iii.  432, 

€.  KS.  9.  7;  cf.   VS.  3.   61.;  S'B.  2.  | 
6.  2.  7;  TS.  1.8.6.2. 

^  Cf.   SRV.  1.51,   13;  I.   1$1.  4;  ! 


IV.  34.   7 ;  V.  43.  6.   pp.  i.  260, 
679;  ii.  445,  558. 

•jo.  f^ra:...$;ftJr:  is  omitted  in  the 
passage  quoted  by  SRV.  I.  15,  3 . 
62.  7.  pp.  i.  93,  308;  cf.  also  I. 
I.  51.  13.  p.  i.  260.  Cf.  PMbh. 


Vol.  I.  p.  245,  246. 
11.  Quoted  by  SRV/  I.   51.    13.   p. 

i.  260. 

13.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  15.  3.  p.  i.  93. 
U.  RV.  V.  31.  2. 
IV.  MS.  1.  9.  4:  134.  8;  KS.  9.  9. 
1^.  Cf.  SRV.  IX.  Il3.  4;  X.  95.  4.  pp. 

iii.  829;  IV.  310. 


:   I 


ft 


RV.  X.  85.  37;  cf.  AV.  14.  2.  38. 
RV.  X.  95.  5. 
RV.  IV.  4.  15. 

RV.  VII.  16.  1;  SV.    1.  45;  2.  99; 
VS.  15.  32. 

RV.  X.  85.  27;  of.  AV.  14.  1.  21. 

ftreffc  BK,  C  4,   C  5,   Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,11  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

Cf.  SRV.  L  18.  2;   38.   8.   pp.  i. 
104,  205. 

RV,  I.  18.  2;  VS.  3.29. 
RV.  I.  1,  9;  VS.  3.  24. 
10 


^o.  Cf.  SRV.  VIII,  5.  2.  p.  iii,  255. 

^1.  °^lf^T.  Roth's    edition.   Durga 
gives  f^^r^T  as  a  Variant. 

«.  ^^frT  C1.C2,   C3,G6,    Ml, 
M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S;  &  Roth. 
Cf.  SRV.  VIII.  1.  1.   p.  iii.  6;  cf. 
also  I.  35.  1;89.  6. 

IV  Cf.  SRV.  I.  31.  3;  87.  3;  II.  12.  1; 

pp.  i.  159,  390;  ii.  32. 

i*.  RV  II.  12.  1;  AV.  20.  34.  1. 
11.  RV.  VI.  66.  9. 

Roth's  edition. 


1.  RV.I.  185.  1. 

*.  Cf.  SRV.  T,  185.  1.  p.i.  772, 

V  Small     figure    within     brackets 


represents      the      corresponding 
section  of   the  third  chapter  of 
e  Nirukta, 


.  3«  ] 


f  f^T 


n 

I    [ 


[  ^^^TTJ  ]  ^ 


I   *£& 


^To  M  3. 
^.  RV.  VIII.  45.  37. 
\.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  U 

3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1  ,  W  2,  W  3; 
V.  Quoted  by  SRV.  VIII.  45.    37.  p. 

in.  435.  cf.  13D.  ii.  109, 
1.  RV,  X,  73,  11;  SV.  1,  319,' 


a.  Cf.  SKY.  I.  164.  14.  p.  i.  701, 
^    Cf  SPxV    1§  3:>    J2       5    195 

^  H<agment  °f  **>  *1'  ^' 
1°.  Cf-  SRV-  l>  1C  l-  1-  P-  1-  G9tf. 
11.  xfrfc:  C  5. 


*TR*T  err  i 


[  f^f^  ] 


r  ^rr  i 

:  a  «  11 


%  I  srftr  ^rr 


ftwt  ^ 


[  *fc  ] 


1. 


Cf.  BD.  ii,  114. 

M  2. 
T  Q  1§ 

C  4,  C  5,  M  3,  Mi, 
TT^:  C  3,  C  5,  M  3,  W  2. 
RV.  V.  30.  1:  SV.  1.  345;  2.  522. 


would  have  used  Ihe  words,  as  he 

usually  does:, 

instead    of  5 

are  generally  used  with  Erahmana 

quotations. 


V-. 


Omitted  by,  BK3  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  ! 
35  Mi,  R  4,  R6,   W  1,  W  23  W  3. 

Quoted   by  SRV.   V.  39.    1.  p.  ii.  \ 

573. 

Quoted   by  SRV.   VIII.   4.  21.  p.  j 

iii.  254. 

i 

^TT  is  omitted  by  C  1.  cf.  SRV. 
I.  129.  10.  p.  i.  588. 

RV.  X.  94.  9.  It  looks  as  if 
Yaska  did  not  think  it  to  be 
a  Vedic  quotation  otherwise  he 


MS, 

Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

W.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  123.  3;  VI.  71.  4.  pp. 

i.  558,  ii.  883. 
W.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  60.  4;  IV.  11.  5;  pp.  i. 

295:  ii.  381. 

\  4.  5;  AV.  7.  73.  9. 

:.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M 
3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


II 


Bra1 


srfrir«r4t 


[  fir^ 


srft 


it 


n  in  I 


ii  \s  ii 


is  added 
,  after  ^  by  Durga  &  S'ivadatta. 

*.  Cf.  SRV.  III.  25.  5.  p.  ii.  200. 

1,  C  4,  0  5,  M  3. 
0  1,  0  2,   03,   M  1,   M  2, 
R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 

BK,  04,   05,  Kn,   M 


3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
\.  Cf.  SRV,  I.  105.  8.   p.  i.  464. 

>.  RV.  I.   105.  8;  X.  32.  2;  of.   BD. 
VII.  34. 

C  3,  0  4,  C  5,  M  3. 


Cf.  SRV.  I.  105.  S.  p.  i.  464. 
Cf.  SRV.  X.  33.  3;  p.  IV.  99. 

Omitted  by  BK,  0  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M. 
3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

Cf.  SRV.  X.  1.  3.  p.  IV,  2.  Dnrga 

cites  the  following  passage: 
?TcT 


U.  RV.  VIII.  48.  T. 

W.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  128.  T>.  p.  i.  581. 
1<1.  Cf,  SRV.  I.  112.  17.  p.  i.  492. 


ffar  tf 


/VJ 

T^TSf  ^T5^  W* 
[  n*Ff(i  ] 


\  Pfa 


II  ^  II 


II 


r 


i  [  ^^^fi^i  ]  i 
M«M$ui;  i  ^^"  «rt 


5.  RV.  III.  47.  1;  VS.  7.  38. 

*.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Kn,  M 
3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

^.  m  is  added  after  srqn^  by  C  3. 
V.  Quoted  by  SRV.  Ill,  47,  1.   p.  ii. 

<*.  Quoted  by   SRV,  X.  71.  2.   p.  iv. 

220. 

\.  RV.  X.  71.  2. 

*.    cf^;  C  4,  M  3. 

<.  jfR^rf:  W  2. 

«..  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M 
3,  Mi,  114,  RC,   W  1,  W2,  W3. 


is  added,  after 


by 


°  ll 


«.  Omitted  by  BK,   C  4,   C  5,   Kn, 
M  3,   Mi,   R  4,  R  6,   W  1,   W  2, 

vy  o 

«.  ^s^H^T  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  8, 

Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 
«.  Cf.  PMbh.  i.  1.  1.  p.  i,  4. 
W.  See  N.  6.  17. 
V1.  RV.  I.  115.  4;  AV.   20.   123.    1; 

VS.  33.  37. 
H.  «^  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 

11%   R  6,   W  1,  W  2,    W  3;  of. 

SRV.  I.  115.4. 

i*.  wwrfrft  w  2. 


f^rrft 


srftr 


r  tf  ft 


I  5RT  ?T%  3TfT 


^  i 


i  w&t.    RT  rafs     i 

I    ^3l£U|R?  [ 


:  i  3T9IT  ST^TT:  i 
[  Srfit^r 

:  I 


.  I.  115.  4.  p.  i.  511. 

3,  11V.  II.  38.  4. 

\.  RV,  I.  6.  7;  AY.  20.  40.    1;  70.  3; 
SV.  2.  200. 

V.  Of.  SUV.  I.  6.  7.  p.  i.  52;  of.  BD. 
ii.  141. 

4.  RV.  I.  163.  10;  VS.  21).  21. 

$.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M 
3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


P  ]  2^5::  S^^ 


i  I^TT 


:  II 


is  added  often 
P.Mbh.  Vol.  III.  p.  21, 


Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M 

3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

^rj:  SRV.  I.  163.  10.  p.  i.  694. 

Of.  SRV.  loo.  cit. 

RV.  I.  163.  2;  VS.  29.  13. 

RV.  III.  9.  2,  SV.  1.  53. 

Of.  SRV.  III.  9.  2.  p.  ii.  160 


.  ] 


ftrftr  ^r  n  w 


f%  «CT  ] 


1.  RV.  III.  53.  23;  cf.  BD.  IV.  117-  j      it.  Cf.  BD.  IV.  44. 
120.    Durga     Remarks: 

tr  C  4,  C  5,  C  6,  M  3,  W  2. 
C  5. 

r:  C  4,  C  5,  M  3,  Mi,  W  2. 
H.  Cf.  BD.  IV.  144. 
U-  W%m  is  omitted  by  M  3,  W  2. 
**.  RV.  VIII.  19.  37. 
m.  RV.  VII.  58.  5. 
1*.  snret  C  *,  C  5,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2. 
T*.  TO<T  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  R  4, 


*.  RV.    III.   9.   8;    VIII.   43.    31; 

102.  11. 
\.  Cf.  SRV.   VIII.  102.    11.   p.   iii. 

596. 

V.  RV.  IV.  32.  23. 
<*.  Cf.SRV.  I.  123.  10.  p.  i.  560. 
S.  Omitted  bylBK,  C  4,  0  5,  Kn,  M  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

3*  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3.       It.  See.  N.  7.  17. 


JI^T 


f: 


?;fct  ^r  \ 


.  RV.  IX.  75.  5. 
.  Cf.  SRV.  IX.  75.  5.  p.  iii.  723. 
.  RV.  I.  124.  4. 
V.  Hf^SwC  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M 


1,  M  2,  H  1,  R  2,  R  5,   8; 
C^jni  S'i  vadatta. 

.  ««r  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1,  M 

2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 

.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  61.  U.  p,  i.  302. 

5. 

1,02,  03,06,  M 


1,  M   2,    R  1,   R  2,   R  5,  S;  of. 
SRV.  I.  124.  4. 

Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Kn,  M 
3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  VV  3. 
11 


11. 
«. 

tt. 


i,  c  2,  c  3,  o  6, 

M  1,  M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S  & 
Roth.  SRV.  I.  124.  4~the  entire 
passage  being  quoted. 

RV.I.  87.  6. 
RV.  III.  53.  3. 
5. 


W. 


C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M 
1,  M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S  &  Durga. 

oSHTT^r  BK,  C  4,  C  5,   Kn,  Mi;  R 
4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

^fcf  C  4,  M  3,  W  2. 

SeeN.  11.25. 


*r  fr:  i 


JTT 


ff  snraR  ^?^r2  ?rt  ^ff 
:  i   ^crnr^t:  i 


1.  TS.  i.  2.  10.2;  KS.  2.  8. 

*.  KS.  19.  3;  m  111.  5.  13.  1;  N.  9. 

43;  cf.  VS.  28.  16. 
^.  RV.  I.  84.  7;  AV,    20.  63.  4;  SV. 

1.  389;  2.  691. 
V.  RV.  VI.  6.  5. 

1.  EV.TIL  34.  1;  AV.  20.  11.  1. 
^.  ^01,02,03,   M13R1.R2, 

R  5,  S. 

v>.  Quotation  is  untreced.  Durga 
explains  the  4th  pada  only  «fe 
remarks: 


1. 

.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  136.  p.  i.  612. 
,  RV.  VI.  30.  3. 
.  nfrwwCM,  M3,  W2. 
.  HV.  I   96.  7. 
.  RV,  V.  39.  2;SV.  2.  523. 
.  Quoted   by  SRV.   X.    109.  1.  p, 
'    IV.  3G4. 
<.  cf.  PiMbh.  Vol.   II.  p.  98. 


n.  ^^u:  c  i. 

T$.  RV.  V.  2.  9. 


v.  n.] 


II  \<  ii 


TO 


*Tlj<FRT 


^.  Of.  SBV.-V.  2.  9.  p.  ii.  502. 

^.  Of.  SRV.I.  35.  10;    129.   11;  pp. 

i.  190,  588. 
^.  RV.  X.  3.  7. 
V.  VS.  28.  5. 

4,  c  5,  M  3,  w  2. 


u  RV.  I.  89.  1;VS.  25.  14. 

».  aro?^  is  given  as  a  variant  by 
Durga  who  however  attributes  it 
to  the  carelessness  of  the  Scribes'- 


:.  RV.  X.  39.  4. 
*.  gcri  M  1. 

I.  Quoted  by  SRV.   X.   39.    4.    p. 
IV.  117, 


Quoted   by   SRV.   VI.   62.   2.  p. 

ii.  859. 

Cf.  SRV.  I.   161.1;   164.  14;  II. 
39.  7.  pp.  i.  676,701;  ii.  119. 
Cf.  SRV.  I.  33.   7;  35.  2;  50.  7; 
90.  7;  110.  6;  VI.  70.  5;  X.  129, 
1;  pp.  i.  176,  186,  250,  401,  482; 
ii.  879;   IV.  423.     cf. 'SB.    VI,  3. 
1.18.    ;*%*fc»T?*n>fel 
Cf.  SRV.  I.  124.  5.  p.  i.  664.    The 
entire  passage:  ^   T^  3^  « 
quoted  SRV.  I.  19.  3.  p.  i.  107. 
RV.  V.  63.  5. 

Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  KD, 
M  3,  Mi  1,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3;  and  Durga.  It  is  sthiok  out 
inCl. 


v.  n. 


TT 


i  ] 


I  ^TT 


1.  Cf.  SRV.  X.  87.  25.  p.  IV.  278. 
*.  **T  ^^  BK,  C  4,   05,   Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
^.  RV.X.87.  25;SV,  1.95. 

V.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3,  and  Durga.  The  line  sn*ffr... 
^<ff^|  is  struck  out  in  C  1. 

M.  RV.  V.  19.  2. 

^  RV.  VI.  1.  4. 

«,  RV.  III.  41.  3  5  AV,  20.  23.  3. 

*.  RV.  1.153.  4;AV.  7.  73.  5. 

,  III.  31,  11.  p.  231. 


Omitted   by  BK,   C   4,  C  5,   Kn, 

M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R6,  W  1,  W  2,  \V  3. 

The  quotation  is  un  traced. 

Cf.  RV.  I.  134.  2. 

Of.  SRV.  I.  134.  2.  p.i.  605:  jpum: 


RV.  X.  101.  10 

WTftrftfrT  C  4,  C  5,  M  3,  Mi,  W  2. 
RV.  VII.  21.  5.. 

Quoted  by  SRV.  X.   27.  19.  p. 
IV.  79. 

Cf.  SRV.  I.  2.  8;  VII.  22.  5.  pp, 
i.  33;  Hi.  50. 


it 


STTSRT: 


II 


TOT  ^T  mTcTr  ^r  ttxi  I 
^N^TJTT    i  »nf5r*  *r 


t  i  snr«T 


1.  11  V.  X.  10.  10;  AV.  18.  1.  11. 


».  Durga. 
^.  KV.  I.  164.  33  ;  AV.  9.  10.  12. 
V.  Omitted  by  'Durga. 


lo. 


3. 


II.  RV.  X.  15.  4;  VS.  19.  55;  Cf.  AV. 

18.  1.  15. 
K.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  157.  4;  VIII.  67.  21; 

pp.  i.    670;    iii.    493;    Cf.    BD. 
Cf.  TS.  VI.  1.  7.  2.  VITt  95< 

6>  •    (*\    •»      -\/f    n 

M    1     AT   9  **>•    *TT^«T  ^  *l  •"•*•  •»• 

.4.1  JL        J-  J        X*Jl.       W« 

-     / 1  i     n  o    n  s   n  «    vr  i        ™»  Quoted 
<•  ^^RfRt   C  I,   02,  C  d,  0  b.  M  1, 

M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 

*.  Omitted   by   BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Ku, 

M  3,  Mi,  R  4.  B  6,  W  1,  W  2,  AV  '6.      H.  TS"  ii,  '    10.  2 ;  8'B.  i.  9.  } .  26. 


V.  VA,  ] 


[*rh 


ii  ^  ii 


*  fan 


?  ^rgft  q  554  s 


srftr  ^Nr 


I.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  46. 

I  RV.  I.  89.   10;  AV.  7.  G.  1 ;   VS. 
25.  23, 


n 


V.  RV.  I.  143.  4. 
4.  RV.  IV.  38.  5. 

$.  Quoted  by   SRV.    IV.  38  5.  p.  ii. 
454. 

•:  M  3, 


^.  Cf.  SRV.  I,  132.  1.  p.  i.  598. 
1°.  fofsfrT  Mi. 
11.  *WrM3;'^C3. 
H.  RV.  X.  45.  1;   VS.  12.  18. 
n.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  101.  1.  p.  i.  446. 
IV.  RV.  I.  101.  1;SV.  1.380. 
14,  Sea  N.  2.  5. 

1*.  RV.  I.  84,  15;  AV.  20.  41.  3;SV. 
1.  H7;  2.265. 


ift: 


*<T 


i  ] 


f  ?*TT5 


ft 


^.  Omitted  by  C  3. 

*.  «lRf^rH  is  Omitted  by  C  3 ;  is 
preceded  by  srtfqr^  ia  C  1,  C  6, 
M  1,  M  2. 

V  SHfidffcfH  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M3,  Mi,  B4,  B6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

V.  See  N.  4.  21. 

4.  RV.  IV.  51.  1. 

t.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  B  4,  B:  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

».  BV.  X.  138.  1. 


.  BV.  I.  9±.  2. 

.  ^ff :  is  omitted  by  C  5. 

.  BV.  I.  190.  5. 

.  Quoted  by  SBV.  I.  190.  5.  p.  i.  788. 

.  tfgfcf:  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  5,  C  7, 
Mi,  W  2,  W  3. 

5,   M   3,    Mi,   W  2 ; 

4. 

.  BV.  III.  54.  7. 

.  See  N.  3.  19. 

.  Quoted  by  SBV.   IX.  64.  30.  p. 

iii.  683. 
>.  VS.  8.  20. 


i  BT*TT 

I 


srrero  TTfler  i  sr 


1  3T^n«rr  ?nrr 
i 


ijpssr  w  qfinff^g 
i 


srat 


BK,  C  4,    C    5,    Kn,        <.  RV.  X.  85.  39  ;  AV.  14.  2,  2, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W'2,  W  3.        v  ^f^n  M  3. 
3. 


Quoted  by  SRV.  VII.  34.   4,  p.      „    Ry  L  164  r.  AV  Q  g   L 


«.  Cf.  BD.  IV.  33. 

-  ,,.Cf.SRV.I.9.4.p.i.65 

<i.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,   Kn, 

M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,      "•  DttP6a 

w  3 


...... 

«.  Quoted  by   BBV.  I.  138.  4.  p.  i.  ,  ^^     %     ^^  , 

618. 


5. 


5^jR'T  3T5WT  frsrr 

'"'J'l  i  T'T^^it^^TTfrnrq;  I 
sr  i 


\  ttwwwrv&^  \ 

s'a^:  i  fsRrftr  ^srq  i  ~^g:  r-hr-qr:  i     trm  ?nr 
i  ^^7-:  TT^^swrijrrriTr  i  tfiw  ^PT^sforsFn:  i 
^:  i  ir^^T  feir^rr^j  TPTTT    ^r^^r  i  fewrer  i  yr 


I  JTT^T  JTT  fTT'T  I  Sffa:  .ST%?ft  ¥R 


^f  ^f  STT^T^T 

?.  HV.  1.  ]«ij.  ;!;  AY.    (J.  9.   2;   i:J.  .',',.  of^f^q^^  1>K,    C  1,  C  5,  Kn, 

3,  6.  M  3,  Mi,  U  -J,  II  0,  \V  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

^.  (Rioted    by  SUV.  I.    IGi.    L'.  p.  i.  'j^.  11Y.  J.  1G4.  12;  AY.  9.  9.  12. 

GOT.  r4^  i>y.  T.  101.  11;  AY.  9.  9.  3. 

^.  Cf.  SRV.  X.  101.  7.  p.  IV.  oM.  ,    W.  II  Y.  I.  1G1.  J8;  AY.  10.  8.  4/ 

V.  Cf.  G13.  I.  5.  5.  |    vi.  <Moted    by   «RV.   I.   IGi.   48.  p. 

c  3.  i.  ri,s. 

is  omitted  by  C  3.  ^    ^^.  M  3> 

3.  Vd>  KVt  i  1G4<  48  .  Ay.  10.  8.  4. 

,..  RY.  I.  164.  13;  AY.  9.  9.  11.  ^    CL  GD>  L  5j  5.  ^r^f  ^  ^^ 

«..  o^T?TT:  C  4,  ]\I  3,  AY  2.  rrfgsj  ^^T^n^rrnn^r  I  Cf.  AB. 

o.  Cf.  AJJ.i.  1.  14:  ^T^Trr^T:^??^  •'-''•    ^-    2:    ^TW  ^  3T  ^TrfT^T  ^ft» 

^^cTf^rf^^:    ^*TT&5f   frnrrw-  ^^R^T^rw  I  Cf  .  S'B.  XII.  3.  2.  3. 

cfR.'lCf.  S'B.  i.   T.   2.8;   XII.  3.  5fifa^%  5T?TT 

2.  1  :  Tund  B,  XVIII.  2.  1  1  ;  4.  11.  i          STfa  •  Cf-  KB'  "*•  2' 
12 


fifcrfite 


II  R^  n 


%«i\»ft  Mr^rr 

J  II  ] 


1.  KV.  I.  164  11;AV.  9.  9,  13. 

^.  Cf.  GB.  I.  5.  5 ;  AB,  II.  17.  4 ;  S'B. 
XII.  3,2.  4;  AA,  III.  2.1.     ' 


.  Small  figure  within  brackets 
represents  the  corresponding 
section  of  the  fourth  chapter  of 
the  Nirukta, 


ftftat 


m  in 


RV.  X,  139.  6. 
RV.  VIII.  26.  16. 

Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  149.  2.  p. 
i.  652. 

RV.  X.  4.  2. 

Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
RV.  X.  5.  5. 


5, 

«.  RV,  VIII.  25.  13. 
^.  RV.II.  14.  1. 

^o.  JT?HF>9r:  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3 

11.  srtfifrCM,  05,  M3.   Quoted  bj 
SRV.  II.  14. 1.  p.  ii.  41. 

«.  Quoted  by  SRV,  I.  62. 5.  p.  i.  307. 


i  * 


'TT 


3.  B.V.  I.  164.  16;  AV.  9.  9.  15. 

3.  RV.  VI.  70.  2. 

^.  Quoted  by   8RV.  VI,  70.  2.   p. 

ii.  880. 
S.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.   73.  9;   121. 

10.   pp.  i.  347,   547. 
<i.  RV.  I.  132.  1 ;  VIII.  40.  7. 
*.  RV.  VII.  82.  1. 

*•  qm^rN'r    ?fTp^    ia     omitted     by 
Durga. 


s?f^nftor;  i 


t.  RV.  VII.  48.  2. 
*,.  RV.  III.  3.  4. 

10.  RV.  IX.  86.  41. 

11.  RV.  X.  10.  8;  AV.  18.  1.  9, 
13.  odrerwro.  C  3. 

IV  *TT:  C  5,  M  3. 

1».  RV.  I.  179.  4;  Of.  BD.  i.  53: 
i^TT:  ^IH^-W  JTT  I  Macdonell 
translates  ^^  'as  of  the  reed'. 

m.  Quoted  by  SRV,  1. 179.  4.  p.  i.  758. 


3.] 


<U- 


:  fa 


i 


3?F 


11 V.  X.  59.  0. 

RV.  IX.  107.  0;SV.  2.318. 

KV.  X.  28.  -i;  Omitted  by  Durga, 

RV.  X.  88.  4. 

Quoted  by  SRV.  X.  88.  4.  p.  IV. 

279. 

RV.  VIIL   G8.  1;  SV  1.354;  2. 

1121. 

See  N.  9.  39. 

RV.  X.  99.  12. 

Omitted  by   Bk,   C  4,  C  5,   Kn, 

M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,   W  2, 

W  3,  and  Durga. 


.  RV.  X.  79.  3. 

.  **TH  CK»  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
R  4,  R  G,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

.  Cf.  SRV.  VIII.  72.  4.  p.  iii  509: 

:  i 


.  RV.  III.  17.  D. 
.  fH  C  3,  M  3. 

.  Quoted   by  SRV.  IH.   17.  5.  p. 
ii.  184. 


v. 


MlrM'l*  star:  II  3  II 


arf3*I«rf  I  ^fqr  ftmft 
i  ^frr  q-^rft1  1 
I 


f^mt 


1.  RV.  VIII.  2.6. 

3.  The  quotation  is  untraced.  It  is 
inserted  after  ir^n^  further- 
down  by  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  G,  M  1, 
M  1,  M  2,  R  1,  R2,  R5,  S;  Cf. 
SRV.  I.  61.7.  p.  i.  299. 

^.  RV.  I.  61.7;  AV.20.  35.  7. 

V.  RV.  VIII.  77.  10. 

H.  RV.  X.  67.  7.  AV.  20.  91.  7. 

$.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  88.  5.  p.  i.  394. 


«.  RV.  I.  88.  5. 
<s.  RV.  I.  3.  8. 

<*.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  3.  9  ;  VIII.  88.  1 ;  pp. 
i.  39;  iii.  543. 

10.  Omitted  by   BK,  C  4.  C  5,  Ku, 
M  3,  Mi,   R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3,  and  Durga. 

11.  Quoted  by  SRV.  1. 148. 4.  p.  i.651. 
^.  RV,  IX.  110.  5;  SV.  2,  857. 


V. 


Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  10.  1.  p.  i.  68. 
Sayana  reads  ^^:  for  ^^  :  | 
RV.  I.  10.  1  ;  SV.  I.  342  ;  2.  604. 
5TT3Tm:  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1, 
M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S,  &  Roth. 
Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  10.  1.  p.  i.  68. 
Cf.  SRV.  I.  138.  3;  V.  62.  2;  also 
I.  88.  2.  pp.  i.  620  ;ii.  642;  i.  393. 
RV.  V.  52.  9. 

wrg:  C  4,  C  5,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1. 
Aocording  to  Durga,  the  quotati- 
on is  from  Some  Brahmana,  the 
passage  in  full  being 


Vl. 


:  I 
qRr:  i 

See  N.  4.  16. 

Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  95.  10.  p.  i, 

RV.  X.  187.  2;  AV.  6.  34.  3. 

Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  61.  4.  p,  i.29?. 

RV.  III.  62.  1. 

See.  N.  3.  16. 

Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  7.2;   34.   U; 

pp.  i.  55,  185, 

Fragment  of  RV.  II.  31.  1  ;  VIII, 

35.  1. 

3. 


?.  See  N.  1.  4. 

3.   VS.  4.  1'J;  12.  53. 

i(.  Seo  N.  1.  4. 

V.  Fragment  of  RV.  V.  48.  1. 

1.  This  is  tho  text  of  C  1,  C  2,  0  o, 

C  6,  M  1,  M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  ,S, 

and  Roth. 

$.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  37.  4.  p.  i.  200. 
».  RV.  VII.  25.  3. 

*.  Quoted   by  SRV.    VII.   25.   3.  p. 

iii.  57. 
<*>  SV.  2,  652. 

*o.  Fragment  of  VS.  7.  1.   Head  toge- 
ther Nvith  what  follows  in  square 


:  i    rr      ?;RT  q 


3^5  ^ 


fti*t 


brackets    it    is:    11 V.  IX.   8<>.   34. 

S'lvitd.xtta  gives  2  quotations,  0110 

from  \'S.  7.  1,  the  othor  form  RV. 

i  K..  c<j.  34.  and  reads:  c^rfa  ^tTTTf 

Omitted  by  i'>K,  0  1,  C  5,  Ku, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  G,  AV  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
RV.  VII.  47.  3. 

5,  W  1. 

^q^f  is  omitted  here 
but  is  added  in  tho  beginning  of 
the  following  section  in  C  1 

1.  rihnCl,  C2,C3,  CG,M1,MJ, 
R  1,  R  2,  R.  5;  Mi. 

^.  Tho  quotation  is  not  traced. 


X.  <:.  J 

qft*  *  w  W3  i 


n 


«pTRt     I     ITT 

i 


.  Omitted  by  U  3. 

.  IIV.  I.  150.  1;  8V.  1.  07, 

.  oJT^cf  BK,   C  4,  C  5,   Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  C,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

.  Quoted    by    SUV.    I.    150.  1.  p. 
i.  653. 

.  UV.  V.  37.  1. 
.  UV.  VII.  100.  G. 


S  ivadutta. 
It  is  evidently  a  mistake.  The 
editor  seems  to  have  iguored  the 
reading  of  Durga  whose  com- 
mentary he  has  edited  with  the 
text  of  the  Nirukta. 


«.  f^oft: 

G.  p.  iii.  208. 

13 


VII.  100. 


spt  ^%.-^^:  is  P^ced  at  the 
beginning  of  the  2nd  pada  of  the 
following  stanza  by  C  3. 

The  passage:  fafrftHt  fa^ftfa--- 
H^f?f?H:  is  quoted  by  SRV.  VIL 
100.  6.  p.  iii.  208. 


«TT  I 


rfct  ^T  I 


l  I 


W5f^T  ^fJr^r 


:  i 


J  I 


I.  RV.  VII.  100.  5. 

[:  is  omitted  by  C  3. 
S'ivadatta. 
V.  RV.  VI.  55.  1. 
4.  Cf.   BD.   iii.   95   B,     96   B, 
is  explained  by  £%. 

v».  RV.  III.  49.  2.' 

4.  Cf.  SRV.  Ill,  49.  2.  p.  ii.  263 


<*.  RV.  VII.  1.  1;  SV.  1.  72;  2.  723. 
lo.  Cf.  SRV.  VII.  1.  1;  VIII,  77.  4. 
«.  11 V.  VIII.  77.  4. 

1^.  Cf.     Kunaaria,    Tantra     Vartika, 
Benares     ed.   p.   66  or  I.    2.   49, 


u] 


.    3»mwm  i 
I  '• 


i    srftr  SN  s 


-:  I  %rftfrT  ^Ffl[?n?T    I    I  STJTsnf  I 
*i  M  t«  i  m  li^Mn    d^,\niMHHluirf 


According   to   Durga,  some  read 


VS.  5.  7;  cf  AV.  1.  81.  6;  TS.  ii.  4. 

14.  1. 

oq^TT^^f^  0  1,  C  4,  M  1,  M  2. 

M3. 


VS.  5.  7. 

ST^TRT^To  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M 

3,  Mi,  R  4,  Pv  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

5  C  5. 

AB.  ii.  7.  11. 

RV.  III.  21.  4. 

Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  61.-1.  p.  i.  296. 


11.  UV.  I.  61.  1;  AV.  20.  35.  1. 

K.  Quoted   by  SRV.   I.  61.  2;    62.  1; 

pp.  i.  297,  304. 
n.  RV.  I.  105.  19. 
1».  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  105.  19.  p.  i. 

468. 

m.  RV.  X.  89.  5. 
^.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  0  5,  Kn,  M 

2,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
is  omitted  by  C  3.   and 
by  Durga.     IS  is  however 

quoted  by  SRV.   IX.  97.  8.  p.  iii. 

778. 

RV.  V.  40  4;  AV.  20.  13.  7. 


oo 


fwrit  '+ra%  i  ^TI  R 


i 

mft"   ^t^rf-?T  i 
:iT  i  ^ 


STWrT      ct  3TT  I  ^TT^  TT?T  ^TT  I 


3T  I 


3RTT 
^ft  i  cr^rqr?rf^rfrr  ^TT  i  ^T^  T 


n  \\  \\ 


The  quotation  is    untruced. 
.  C  4,  3^[  3,  W  2. 


The  passage  srnnfow^J 
is  quoted    by  SUV.    X.    89.    5.  p. 
IV.  284  where  the  lines  fnffor... 
l?f%3H}  do  not  occur. 
C  4,  M  3,  W  1. 
RV.  X.  105.  1;  SV.  1.  228. 
Cf.  BD.  VII.  153. 
^^m^S'ivadatta.  33  is  evidently 
a  mistake  for  gj^.  33;  ocouring  in 
Durga's  commentary   is  correctly 
printed  in  the  same  edition. 
Quoted  by  SRV.  IV.  2.  18.  p.  ii. 
353. 


50.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  59. 

11.  Quoted  by  SRV,  VII.  4.  G.  p.  iii. 
14. 

1^.  KS.  IX.  4.  MS.  I.  10.  2.  Cf.  VS. 
20.  17.  According  to  Durga,  the 
quotation  is  the  following. 


VS.  20.  17  is  the  following: 


.  VS.  14.  4. 

.  Cf.  BD.  V.  149, 


'  I  S^TTTT  ST^T^  iTTOvnnJT:  I  3r<*r 

I  ^pfrrT  VTcTrar  I  ?T^  T^TTJ  JJ^^hi. 

I  ^4:    ^F:      I    TTT^^     i     i 


'  --M  ftcNU  |  ^  I 

^:  I  ^rf^T5Tf  I 


3TT 


.  RV.  VII.  33.  11. 
.  ^fCl,  02.  C3,C4,  C6,  M  1, 
M  2. 


Durga. 

V.  Cf.  BD.  V.  155. 
1.  qfafa  C  5,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2. 

5.  g^i^  S'ivadatta. 

is.  ^j  is  added  after 
1,  C  3,  M  1. 

t.  =qun  Durga. 
«i.  RV.  VI.  21.  3. 


0.  ^3  S'ivadatta. 
.  efr^fq^  is  omitted  by  C  5. 
.  RV.  IX.  98.  12;  SV.  2.  1030. 
.  n^fffc^rnro  Mi. 
.  RV.  IX.  98.  12;  SV.  2.  1030. 

.  Quoted  by  SRV.    I.    12C.  6.   p.  i. 

572. 

.  RV.  IV.  16. 11. 
.  Cf.  SRV.  IV.  16.  11.  p.  ii.  391. 

.  Cf.  SRV.  I.   I2G.  6;  IV.  38.  4;  pp. 
i.  572;  ii.  454. 
RV.  L  126.  C. 


«<  1  yrtq  ^  'TT'T*  I 


^ff 


1.  RV.  VIII.  3.  21. 

3.  The  quotation   is   untraoed.    See 
Rotb,  p.  65. 

*.  RV.  IV.  4.  14. 

».  RV.  VIII.  25.  23. 

<!.  RV.  I.  101.  4. 

*.  Cf.  SRV.  VIII.  33.  5.  p.  iii.  302. 

v>.  RV.  I.  54.  5. 

4.  Omitted  by  BE,  C  4,  0  5,  Kn,  M 
3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

«*,  Omitted  by  C  3. 


.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  54.  5,  p.  i.  2 


W.  Fragment  of  RV.  II.  24.  3. 
W.  Cf.  SRV.  II.  24.  3.  p.  ii.  70. 
U.  f^qift  C  6,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2. 

IV.  wr:  M  3,  Mi;  w:  C  4,  W  1; 
W  2.    It  is  omitted  altogether  in 
C5. 

N.  ^^f:  M  3,  Mi,  ^f  5j;  ifafo: 

W2. 

K.  Cf.  SRV.  IX.   97.  37.  p.   iii.    786. 


.  RV.  I.  104.  5. 


SRV.  I.  104.  5.  p.  i,  459. 
3W?r:  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 

R  4,   R   6,  W   1,    W   2,   W  3; 

Quoted  by  SRV.   VIII.   32.  4.  p. 

iii.  387. 

RV.  VIII.  32.  4. 

RV.  I.  84.  8. 

3n*3*fa  BK,  C  4,  0  5,  Kn,  M  3, 

Mi,   11   4,   R   6,  W   1,  W   2,  W 

3,  and  Durga, 

^%  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 

R  4,   R  6,   W  1,   W  2,   W  3,  and 

Durga, 


s   quoted  by  SRV.  I.  84.  8. 
p.  i.  376. 

*.  «fatf*iforaiC  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 
M  1,  M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 

<*>.  The      passage:     3?^...^^     is 

omitted  by  Durga. 

o.  Cf.  SRV.  VIII.  93.  22.  p.  iii.  563. 
.  RV.  VJIt.  93.  22. 


.  VS.  3.  48;  8.  27;  20.  18. 
.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  125.  2.  p.  i,  568. 
RV.  I.  125.  2. 


:>  f<  .  ] 


o  v?. 


[ 


'<<w  I  ^r^cr:  i 
i 


T  T?^r  5^5  i^ 


m  [  VT^RT]  ^? 
ifcr 


its^r 


I    3P»ofr   J^Tf  nftit:    I 


1.  JT^ST^  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,    M  1, 
M  2,  111,  112,1:5,8. 

C  1,  C  3,  C  6,  M  2,  W  2. 


^.  RV.  X,  27.  24. 

tt.  JTT  sr^£  is  attributed  to  a  different 
recension  by  Durga  who  para- 
phrases as  follows:  37f>r£  fj\  ^3T  I 

M.  RV.  I.  105.  18;  cf.  BD,  ii.  112. 

*.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  112. 

».  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M 
3«  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


:.  Cf.  I.  SRV.  I.  105.  13.  p.  i.  463. 
t.  RV.  I-  117.  16. 

>.  STlT^Tr^  BK,  C  i,  C  5,    Kn,   M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  AV  1,  W  2,  AV  3. 


Jxpj:  £>K,  C  4,  C  5,    Kn,  M  o, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  AV  1,  AV  -,\  AV  3. 

!.  Quoted  by  SUV.   I.  117.    16.  p.  i. 


,  BY.    VIIT.  66.  8;   AV.  20.    97.  2, 
SV.  2.  1042. 


li  ^?  II 


f  f% 


i  ^  kf^r  i 
wft  ft 


4: 


?.  RV.  I.  116.  16. 

3.  Omitted   by   Blv,  C  4,   C   5,   Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
^.  RV.  VI.  59.  4. 
V.  Cf.  SRV.  VI.  59.  4.  p.  ii.  849. 
S.  RV.  VIII.  90.  6  ;  SV.  2.  762. 

I.  *refft*n^K,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 

Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  \V  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
».  Cf.  SRV.  VIII.  90.  6.  p.  iii.  549. 
*.  KS.  9.  7;  Cf. 


etc.  VS.   3.    61;  S'B.  ii.  6.  2.  17  ; 


i.  8.  0.  2.  Omitted  by  Durga  and 
C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1,  M  2,  R  1, 
11  2,  R  5,  S. 

^.  VS.  16.  51.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4, 
C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1, 
W2,  W3;  C  1,  and  Roth, 
i    lo.  Cf.  SRV.  VIII.  45.  38.  p.  iii.  435. 
!    11.  RV.  X.  43.  5  ;  AV.  20.  17.  5;   Cf. 
RV.  X.42.  9;  AV.  7.  50.  6;«20. 
89.9. 
.  fo^Rn  C  3,  C  4,  C  5,  Mi,  W  1, 

\V2. 
.  RV.  VIII.  75.  9. 


14 


off 


'^j  1  3?'4rftr 


ft4r§ 
rfT  fi? 
i  f^qfir  ^ftftfit 


rfT  fi?t  MM:  n 


II  V4  II 


»  i  STSFRT 


I  3Rnfr 


Of.  SRV.  VIII.  75.  9.  p.  iii.  519. 

KV.  VIII.  21.  8. 

RV.  V.  24.  3;   VS.  3.  20. 

<KFT<ft  **IWT  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 
M  1,  M  ii,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S  and 
Roth.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  58.  8;  19. 
15;  119.  G. 

RV.  VIII.  39. 1—10.  The  passage 
is  omitted  by  Durga; 
is  omitted  by  C  1. 


RV.  I.  40.  i. 
Tal  C  3. 

5. 

Cf.  SRV.  I.  4G.  4.  p.  i.  232. 
Cf.  SRV.  X.  42.  7.  p.  IV.  127. 
RV.  X.  42.  7;  AV.  20.  89.  7. 
RV.  X.  44.  6;  AV.  20.  94.  6. 

t^BIC,   04,   C5,   Kn,  MS,  Mi, 
R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


H. 


J  I 


I  cs 


i  >**r  i 


1.  Cf.  SRV.  X.  40.  G.  p.  IV.  132, 
3.  RV.  X.  50.  6, 
*.  RV,  X.  101.  7. 
3. 


II  ^  n 


i     t^r  fnjTPT  yprr  I 
r  i 


n«n 


T  lift  i 


I  ^    5: 


vnrftr  I 


[  ««t'=h4'J|J  ]  RN(V 


H 


err  BK,   C  4,   C  5,   Kn,  M    3,  Mi, 
R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


fef  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

».  Cf,  PMbh,  i.  1,  1.  p.  i.  4. 


Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  G,  W  1,  W  2, 
AV3. 

<T^:  C  1,  C  3. 
vfif:  C  3. 

Omitted  by  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 
M  1,  M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 

RV.  VIII.  69.  12;  AV.  20.  92.  9. 

Cf.  PMbh.  i.  1.  1.  p.  i.  4. 

This  is  the  text  of  BK,  04,  05, 

Kn,  M3,    R4,   R  6,    W  1,   W  2, 

W3. 


sftaffir  i 


I!  W  II  ]  ' 


This  is  the  text  of  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  | 
C  6,  M  1,  M2,  R  1,R2,  R  5,   S. 
The  entire  passage  is  added   after 
the  shorter  version  in  Mi. 
RV.  VII.  39.  2;  VS.  33.  44. 

wnsurar:  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  i, 

M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S.  See  N.  1,  7. 
See  N.  4.  25. 


«*.  gjT 
*• 


C  1,  C  6,  M  3. 


;  VS.   12.68;  S'B. 


-•-•• 


Small     figure 


within  brackets 
represents  the  corresponding 
section  of  iho  fifth  chapter  of 
the  Nirukta. 


:  II 


RV.  II.  1.  1;VS.  11.  27. 

Cf.SRV.  II.  1.1.  p.  ii.  1. 

Of.  SRV.  IV.  58.  7.  p.  ii.493. 

¥rT^M3. 

RV.   II.   41.   12;  AV.  20.20.7 

57. 10. 

SRV.  III.  30.  5.  p.ii.  219. 

RV.  III.  30.  5. 

SRV.  I.  38.  11.  p.  i.  206. 


<*>.     Cf.   S'abara   on    Mlmansa    sutra 

IX.  1.  9. 

o.  RV.  III.  30.  8;   VS.  18.  69. 
.  ^ft%  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
R   4,    R    6,    W   1,    W   2,   W,  3; 


«.  SRV.  III.  30.  8.  p.  ii.  220. 
1*.  ^>C1,C3,M2. 
1».  S^fcf  C  3,  C  5,  M  1,  M  2. 
11.  RV.  III.  30.  10. 


ft 


I  y^mu  ^TJ  I 


J  I 


I  SHU  2nra^rfir 

1 


1  1 


01,  02,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1, 
M  2,  B,  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S;  Roth 
and  S'iva. 


1,0  2,03,06^], 
M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S  ;  Roth  and 
S'iva;  Of.  SRV.  III.  30.  10. 

V.  SRV.   III.   30.   10;   Cf.  I.  33.  9; 
51.  5,  pp.  i.  177.  255. 

<l.  *<J]ft  01,   03,  05,   Ml,   M2, 

M  3,  Mi,  W  2. 
*.  RV.  Ill,  30.  17. 


». 


is      omitted     by 
Durga. 

5,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2. 
5  ;  ^^  C  G. 
BK,   C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  G,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
.  SRV.  III.  30.  17.  p.  ii.  224. 
.  RV.  V.  32.  6. 
.  RV.  VI.  7.  6. 
.  RV.  X.  97.  3;  VS.  12.77. 
.  RV.  VI.  22.  2;  AV.  20.  36.  2. 
.  SRV.  VI.  67.  11.  p.  ii.  874. 
.  RV.  VI.  22.  3  ;  AV.  20.  36.  3. 


f<  . 
;  ]'  11  \ 


sffi:  II 


T^rf^cT  I 


1. 


C  6. 


^.  Omitted   by   BK,  04,  05,  Ku, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
*.  RV.  VI.  55.  6. 
V.  SRV.  VIII.  32.  10.  p.  iii.  388. 
<*.  RV.  VIII.  32.  10;  SV.  1.  217. 
$.  Of.  SRV.  II.  33.  5.  p.  ii.  98. 

ft  c  -i.  c  2,  c  3,  c  6, 


M  1,  M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S;  Rotb, 

S'iva0. 

RV.  VIII.  48.  10. 


^.  See  N.  6.  33. 
So.  RV.   I.    179. 


Of.     Kalidasa  : 
I  Kumara- 


Sambhava.  IV; 
.  RV.  X.  79.  1. 
.  RV.  V.  54.  6. 
.  SRV.  I.  44.  3.  p.  i.  224, 
?.  RV.  X.  12.  2;  AV.  18.  1.30. 

«.  f^Tf5T  C  1.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  32, 
6.  p.  i.  168. 

RV.  I.  32.  G. 


r<  U- 


i  £«kl«  I 
T%flT  s$R  shift  I  **ift  ftmft 


i  *<  ^^i  *n*i  i  M 
i  vdn^    srf%nnf^r 


TT^T 


nr  fa  sfti 


n 


Heft 


err 


i  ftrg- 


^rr  i  5^n  «rr 

TT«r  ^ 


BK,  04,  05,   Kn,   M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,   W  2,   W  3 ; 

3.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  129.  8.  p.  i.  587. 

^.  RV.  I.  129.  8. 

V.  RV.  VII.  69.  4. 

1.  CTT  M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2. 

*.  SKRhn*  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 

Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3;  Du- 

rga  gives 


<*>.  The      passage     within        square 
brackets  is  oinitted  by  BK,  C  4, 
C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 
lo.  RV.  IX.  112.  3. 

A  A        •         »*    C^     O 

1°.  JTTT  U  *» 

1^,The   passage  ^if^Mf^Mt-'-^4  " 

cited  SRV,  IX.    113.  3.  p.  iii.  829. 

The  story  of  Indra  and  the   seers 
not  occur  in  this    quotation 


as  variants. 
.  Sayanaadds  ^fa  after  osrfeofV.  See 

SRV.  IX.  113.  3.  p.  iii.  829. 
.  The  quotation    is  not  traced,  Cf. 

BD.  VI.  137—138. 


RV'  X-  27<  13' 
.  RV.  VII.  18.  15. 

.  Quoted  by   SRV.    VI.  50.  5.  p.  ii. 
829. 


i  fsrffr  fonft  wfir]  11  %  H 


?.  RV.  VI.  50  5. 
*.  RV.  VI.  19.  10. 

^.  ^ftu»W  ia  given  as  a  variant  by 
Durga. 

V.  Quoted  by  SEV.  I.  117.  8.  p.  i 
525. 

f.  BV.  I.  117.  8. 

^•Omitted  by  BK,  01,  05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

•;  vs.  4  22. 

<:.  RV.  I.  118.  11. 
^  RV.  1. 165.  7. 
15 


.  RV.  III.  36.  10. 
RV.  VI.  47.  13. 

RV.  III.  30.  19.  The  reference  o! 
RV.  III.  30.  19.  is  wrongly  given 
ia  VC.  as  IV.  30.  19. 

VS.  8.  18. 

SRV.   I.    113.  8;   151  5.  pp.  i, 

499,  663. 

RV.  VII.  63.  5;  its  reference  in 
VC.  is  wrongly  given  as  IX 
63.5. 

RV.  VII.  34.  10. 
RV.  X.  70. 10. 


f4  *tf|<5! 


I  ^iftr  f^nft 

rT:  £'<?:  I 

fowl 


3^T         315      MH 


I  [ 


] 


1.  Quoted  by  SRV.   VI.  72'.  2.  p.  ii. 

882. 

*.  RV.  VI.  71.  2. 
^  Quoted  by  SRV.  V,  13.  4;  VI.  68. 

9.  pp.  ii.  529,  876. 
V.  KV.  V.  13.  4;  SV.  2.  757. 
M.  RV,  III.  27.  7;  SV.  2.  827. 

$.  RV.  VIII.  99.   3;  AV.  20.  58.  1; 
SV.  1.  267;  2.  669;  VS.  33.  41. 

».  Quoted  by  SRV.   VIII.  99.  3.  p. 
Hi.  585. 

*.  RV.  VIII.   69.  6;  AV.  20.  22.  6; 
92.  3;  SV.  2.  841. 


TS.  iii.  2.  7.  2. 

11  V.  I.  1G3.  7;  X.  7.  2;  VS.  29.  18. 


BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
Quoted  by  SEV.   VI.   65.  1.  p.  ii. 
867. 

Omitted  by  BFM  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  t,  W  2, 
AV  3,  and  Durga.  it  is  added 
however  on  the  marginal  sp.  <e, 
probably  by  a  later  scrib*  ir  (J  4. 

^5T%^?T^  ^T  is  repe-.tc'5  in  Mi. 
Cf.  SRV.  X,  29.  l.r,  V  35. 


i  &t  3  ^i 


I  [ 


I      II 


f  fl 


Ta  I 

«IT  sir 


^.  RV.  X.  4.  4. 

^.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  68.  8.  p.  i.  329. 

*.  JTS^n*  01,   C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1, 

M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S;  Roth  and 
S'iva. 

V.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  141.  10.  p.  i.  633. 
M.  RV.  I.  151.  7. 

$.  RV.  I.  127.  1;  AV.  20.  67.  3;  SV. 

1.  465;  2.  1163;  VS.  15.  47. 
».  FIT  $3fpteft  3»5<TefaT  is  added   by 

C   5,    M   3.    Durga     reads:    %m 

^foKTCT  I  Cf.  SRV.  1. 127.  1.  p.  i. 

573. 
$.  Omitted  by  C  5,  M  3,  and  Durga. 

C  1  strikes  it  out. 
%.  RV.  1. 109.  2. 


11. 


BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

3HW1HHL  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R4,  R6,  Wl,  W2,  W  3. 

:  is  the  proposed  emen- 


IV. 


«. 


dation  by  S'ivadatta. 
:  C  5,  M  3. 
SJRfifc  is  omitted  by  Durga. 

srm?r:  ?ren^f  SRV.  1.  109.  2. 

Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

Cf.  SRV.  loc.  cit. 
See  N.  12.  40. 

RV.  I.  18.  1;  VS.  3.  28;  Cf. 
SV.  1.  139;  2.  813. 


I  3TST    ^"J  I      'S'rmTH'Tt   I  <tfT£«ri  n  I 

«  I  ^n^^^g^Jt  VT^%  I  ^r%«fr  i  ^^K'^I^TTTFT:  i  sr^rfk^  [ 
i  ^^MI^  ]  ^jsm^^1  1  [  srfr^r$j%  ]  ^T'^TT'TPT  i  wz 

n  ^r^n  I  ^i»i^r-4*i»i^«iRx  i  <4^«l  «r  ^^^^  ' 
I  nk4iR*)  i  ft»Ri^i*nRjfit  ^r^  i  Pfrf^1^  FM^firRt  «n  i 


:  5rf^f 


;  i  trap; 

I  ^H^  ^T  I  TT%  < 


I  5 


4)^1  In  I  mHn«ii 


»  I 


i.  ^mw  Roth. 

^.  Cf.  SBV.  I.  51.  13.  p.  i.  260. 

^.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  18.  1.  p.  i.  103.    Also 

Cf.  PMbh.  Vol.  III.  p.  33. 
V.  RV.  VII.  104.  2;  AV.  8.  4.  2. 

1.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
C  4,  C  5,  M  3. 


3,  C5,M3. 
.  Quoted  by  SRV.  X.  87.  24.  p.  IV. 
277. 
RV.  IV.  4.  1;  VS,  13.  9. 


BK,  C  i,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
R  4,  11  G,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

«.  TOTTO*  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 

Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  X 
K.  SRV.  X.  87.  15.  p.  IV.  275. 

n.  ^riwm  SRV.  iv.  4.  i. 

loc. 


cit. 

It  SRV.  loc.  cit. 

1$.  RV.  X.  162.  2;  AV.  20.  96.  12. 
*».  &fon  C  4,  C  5,  M  3,  Mi. 
K.  Cf.  AV.  12.  2.  28. 


rtftri 


?^  [  flf  Rft 


1  3?rg 


?    a 

T^T    I    ^Tcf:    ^FnWTITRR.  I    T3TT&  I  g       ^TTH  I 

i  fi^ii^  siTO^iifew^Hw  i 


I  M^Ta  *%<$  m  ^-H  "i  » 


\  - 


J  I 


1.  Fragment  of  RV.  X.  103.  12; 
AV.  3.  2.  5  ;  VS.  7.  44;  N.  9.  33; 
Of.  SV.  2.  1211. 

*.  AV.  7.  14.2;  SV.  1.  464;  VS. 
4.  25.  The  word  arcrf^:  occurs  in 
RV.  1. 64.  9;  73.  2.  but  Yaska  has 
not  quoted  from  the  RV. 

^.  Omitted  by  Bk,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

«;  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  67.  2;  VI. 
68.  1.  pp.  i.  326 ;  ii.  874. 

«jf  RV.  VII,  39.  4. 


.  Of.  SRV.  VIII.  5.  23;  42.  4;  also 
1.3.3;   34.7. 


:  C  4,  W  2.  Of.  SUV.  I.  5.  3; 
116.  7;  134.  3;  VII.  9.  C.  pp.  i.  46, 
515,  605;iii.  24. 
t.  RV.  V.  85.  G. 
<*..  RV.  V.  1.  2;SV.  2.  1097. 
30.  RV.  VIII.  27.  10. 
W.  Durga  reads  ^nr^rfaf:    &  8ives 


un  as  a  variant. 
Quoted  by  SRV.  1.  164.  49.  p.  i, 
719. 


^  sift 


u  w  n 


t  I 


:  I 


I  ]  ' 


I  [ 


1.  EV.  VII.  34.  22;  VS.  2.  24;  8.  14. 

*.  EV.  X.  15.  9;AV,  18.  3.48. 

^.  Quoted  by  SEV.  VIII.  12.  11.  p. 

iii.  297. 
V.  EV.  VIII.  45.  1;  SV.   1.133;   2, 

688;  VS.  7.  32. 

<*.  Quoted  by  SEV.  I.  56.  3.  p.  i.  283. 
*.  EV.  I.  56.  3. 
v>.  SEV.  I.  62.  1.  p.  i.  304. 
«.  EV.VIII.  89.  7;  SV.  2.  781. 
<*.  EV.  X.  82.4  :VS.  17.  28. 


:   BK,  C  4,   05.  Kn, 
Mo,  Mi,  E  4,  E  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
^.  ^01,  02,  03,06,  M  1,M2, 

E  1,  E  2,  E  5,  S. 
«.  EV.  I.  169.  3. 
1*.  EV.  V.  44.  8;  Of.  N.  1.15. 
IV.  EV.  V.  12.  4. 
y«.  EV.  IV.  34.  3. 
:  M  2. 


JJ«.  Omitted  by  BK,  0  4,  0  5,  Kn, 
M  3,Mi,  E  4,  E  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


•  ] 


m. 


RT  dftr 


i 

:  I  s 
i  ry^f 


:  I 


'Iff: 
r  i 


ftrot 


I  ^ftr  ftroft 


11  1^  11 


RV.  X.  116.8. 

MS.  IV.  ia.  9.  Cf. 
VS.  21.  60;  28.  23,  46. 

C  4,  C  5,  M  3. 


K  V.  III.  28.  2. 

KV.IV.  23.  8;Cf.N.10.41. 


^.  Fragment  of  RV.  VI.  19.    1;  VS. 

7.  3'J;Cf.  N.   6.  17. 

^.  Quoted  SRV.  V.  52.  6.  p.  ii.  813 
^o.  RV.  V.  52.  6. 
11.  Quoted  SRV.  I.  7.  6.  p.  i.  56. 

«.  RV.  I.  7.  6;  AV.  20.  17. 12;  SV, 

2.  971. 

U»  5TT^T?T^T^:  C  3.   Quoted  SRV.  I. 

123.  10;  124.  6.  pp.  i.  560,  564. 
IV.  RV.  I.  33.  r 


V 


*flM«u 


:  i 


I  wRr  ft*** 


itsiMi 


1.  BV.  VIII.  32.  10  ;SV.  1.217. 

*.  Quoted  SRV.  III.  18.  5;  VIII. 
32.  10.  pp.  ii.  186 ;  iii.  388. 

^.  RV.  VIII.  21.  8. 

V.  Quoted  SRV.  I.  9.  3;  29.  2;  III. 
30.  3.  pp.  i.  65,  150 ;  ii.  218. 

<l.  RV.  1. 101.  10. 

*•  Wftfrg   is  added  after    73    by 
Durga. 

«.  RV.  IL  4.  6. 

^.  Quoted  SRV.  VIL  8.  6.  p.  iii.  23. 


<*.  RV.VI.  19.  1;  VS.  7.  39;  Cf.  K. 

6.  1C. 

*o.  RV.  III.  1.  12. 
11.  Quoted  SRV.  Ill,  19.  2;  IX.  109. 

9.  pp.  ii.  187  ;  iii.  822. 
H.  RV.  IV.  7.  8. 
n.  Quoted  SRV.  VII.  5,2.  p.  iii.   16. 


1<«.  RV.  VI.  44.  21. 

:  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 


Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
.  ^r  is  added  by  RotL. 


faqr 


OT  IT 


:  I 


y^rfn 


«TT  I 


EV.  X.  69.  4. 

Cf.  SRV.  IV.  5.  7.  p.  ii.  367: 


RV.IV.5.7. 
KV.  VII.  9.  6. 
RV.  I.  32.  5. 

3. 


C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
B  4,  R  6,  W  14  W  2,  W  3. 
16 


s  omitted  by 
Durga. 

RV.  I.  7.  7;AV.  20.  70.  13. 
;gSt  C  6.  Quoted  SRV.  I.  7.  7.  p. 
i.  57. 

RV.I.  54.  3. 
RV.  V.  34.  3. 

3  ;  S3fj  oi^«(^  C  5, 


W  1,  W  2. 

^W%  f  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,   M  3, 

MilR4lR6fWl,W2,  W  3. 


f^f  fo  firt 


I  'ftfer  Tcn 


5ft 


ft 


:  i  <|jmftr  i 


ilRMH^Nt:  I  raft 


1.  Scrfal  BK,  04,  05,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

*.  RV.  I.  33.  12. 

^.  Quoted  SRV.  I.  33.  12.  p.  i.  178. 

V.  RV.  I.  61.  12;  AV.  20.  35.  12. 

^.  Quoted  SRV.  I.  61.  6.  p.  i.  299. 

$.  Of.  SRV.  I.  61. 12.  p.  i.  302.  Sayana 
reads : 


.  RV.  I.  31.  10. 


BK,  04,  05,  KD,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

RV.  VII.  60.  7. 

RV.  I.  142.    10;  AV.   5.27.   10; 

VS.  27.  20. 

Fragment  of  RV.  I.  22.  4. 

Quoted  SRV.  I.  6.  9;  37.  3;  54.  2; 

IV.  21.  5;   pp.  i.   53,  200,    273; 

ii.  411, 


n  ^?  ii 


:  II 


*  I  ] 


IIV. 


G.  1. 


Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  II  4,  R  6,  \V  1,  W  2,  W 
3,  and  Durga,  The  commentator 
says  Yaska  did  not  cite  any  quota- 
tion to  illustrate  the  meaning  of 


\.  RV.  I.  90.  1;SV.  1.  218. 
S.  RV.  VIII.  13.  27. 
<l.  RV.  X.  30.  11. 

^.  *R5TT?T  0  3,  C  4,  Mi  &  Roth; 
S'ivadatta. 

«.  Of.  SRV.  X.  30.  11.  p.  IV.  90. 
5,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2. 


<?,.  Omitted  by  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 
M  1,  M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 

?o.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  .°,,  Mi,  R  4,  R  C,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

11.  RV.  I.  33.  3. 


.  Quoted  SRV.   VIII.  7.  41.  p.  iii. 

270. 

.  RV.  VI.  47.  16. 
2. 


.  Quoted  SRV.  I.    100.  1C;  156.    2; 
162.  7.  pp,  i,  444,  6G7,  C85. 


wsft  ^TT^  I 
j  I 


1.  RV.  I.  162.  7;  VS.  25.  30. 

3.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Kn, 
M3,  Mi,  R4,  R6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

».  RV.  VIII.  4. 19;  cf.  VIII.  24.  29; 
cf.  BD.  VI.  44. 

**•  ^m^itSH*  BK,  0  4,  0  5,  Kn,  M  3,  j 
Mi,  Rl,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

*.  I*iFt  C  5,  W  1. 
«.  See.  N.  5.  1. 


r:  is  omitted    by  0  3.  RV.  I. 
164.  51 ;  cf.  N.  7.  23. 
Quoted  SRV.  I.  61.  9.  p.  i.  300. 
RV.  III.  36.  4. 
RV.  RV.  X.  22.  2. 
Quoted  SRV.  I.  61.  1.  p.  i.  296. 

erffeirgt  BK»  C  4»  C  5»   Kn>  M  3> 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

Cf.  SRV.  VIII.  99.  4.  p.  lii.  586. 
RV.  VIII.  99.  4;  AV.  20.  58.  2; 

RV.  I.  190.  1 ;  Of.  BD.  IV.  63. 


«[£*<!  IcT 


if?  $     ? 


11 


|  qr 


f  5TR 


I  ] 


j  i 


»  i 


ii 


1.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  190.  1.  p.  i.  787. 
3.  Omitted  by  M  3,  W  2. 

^.  Quoted   by   SRV.   V.  25.  2. 

541. 
».  KV.  I.  39.  10. 

i;  fo&t  C  4,  C 
1,  W  2,  and  Sayana  on 
39.  10.  p.  i.  211. 
*.  RV.  VIII.  1.  20;  SV.  1.  307 

••  'Hi^ltr  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  kn, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W 

e.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  0  5, 


p.  ii. 


3, 


M  3S 

3. 

Kn, 


M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W3. 
1  is  omitted  by  Durga. 

RV.  I.  15.  1»>; 


srr  srr  f 

VIII.  92.  22». 
RV.  VIII.  61.  11. 

Quoted  SRV.  VIlL  61.  17.  p.  iii. 

474. 

RV.  I.  117.  21. 

Omitted  by   BK,   04,   05,   Kn, 

M3,Mi,  R4,R6,  Wl,  W2,  W3. 

Quoted  SRV.  VIII.  22.  6.  p.  iii. 
344, 


[8RT: 


srai 


I  ^ 


J  I 


1. 


.  The  passage 
is  omitted  by  Durga. 


C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 

H.  RAr.  VIII.  66.  10. 

S.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C'  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  C,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 

».  sfte^for  c  5, 

<:.  RV.  'VIII.  07.  5. 
^.  3TSSTTOT  BK,   C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R4,   RC,   W  1,    AV2,   W3; 

J,  M  2, 


RV.  I.  105.  17. 

RV.  X.  5.  C;AV.  5.  1.  G. 

^N  Wl^i:  C  1,  C  2,  03,  C  6, 
M  1,  M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S;  Roth 
and  S'iva. 

31%T^C  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
ii:  C  4,  C  5,  M  3,  W  1. 


Quoted  by  SUV.  X.  5.    G.  p.  IV 
11.  The  word   $nT£3n   is  missing 
in  the   passage  cited    by   Sayana, 
consequently   the   number   of  bo- 
undaries is  only  six. 


sfalftf  ^    ifa      *f^T    t^ 


fifan- 


!  crier 


«n  I 


i  %frf 


r: » 


*<flft  f^ron 


11 


1.  UV.  X.  10  13  ;   AV.  18.  1.  15. 

c!>BK,C4,C51KD,  M  3, 


Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

f9RH^:  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  06,  Ml, 
M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S;   Roth  and 

S'iva. 

srerem  c  4,  c  5,  M  3,  Mi,  w  i. 

The  passage  fe 


is  omitted  by  Durga. 
$.  RV.  IX.  35.  5. 
».  RV.  X.  29.  1;  AV.  20.  76.  1. 
<s.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  114. 

*.  ^rfmBK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


is  added   after 
by  Durga. 

H.  STWS  BK,  0  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R64  W  1,  W2,  W3; 
C  6,  M  1,  M  2. 

«.  RV.  IX.  3.  5  ;  SV.  2.  609. 

H.  RV.  VI.  63.  8. 

W.  Quoted  by  SRV.  VI.  63.  8.  p.  ii. 
864. 

1<«.  RV.  X.  26.  4. 

BK,  C  4,  C  5,   Kn, 


M  3,  Mi,  R  4,   R  6,   W  1,   W  2, 
W3.   Quoted  by  SRV.   X.  84.  5. 
p.  IV.  252. 
.  RV.  X,84,5i  AV.  4.31,5* 


??  9raffSrcrf5frsn> 

«%  I 


?  I 


I  fitft  1^5  1 
ipr.  \  rft^  fq%  i  [ 


I  [ 


]  *  II  ^o  II 


n 


RV.  X.  155.  1. 
3>nyr  Roth. 

Omitted   by   BK,   C  4,    C  5,   Kn,    i 
M  3,   Mi,  R  4,   R  C,   AV  1,  AV  2, 
W3. 

Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  AV  2, 
W3. 

is  omitted  by  C  6. 
.   C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 
M  1,  M  2,  R  1,  R  2,  R  5,  S. 
f:  0  1  and  Durga. 


t.  KV.  VII.  18.  21. 
<^.  RV,  VII.  104.  21  ;  AV.  8.  4.  21. 
1«.  UV.  I.  166.  G. 
^.  Omitted   by  BK,   04,  C  5,  Kn, 

M  3,  Mi,   R  4,  R  6,   W  1,   W  2, 

AV  3,  and  Durga. 
«.  RV.  IV.  30.  24. 
^.  Quoted  by  SRV.  IV.  3024;   VI. 

71.  4;   VII.    18.   1.   pp.  ii.   434, 

883  ;  iii.  36. 
**.  Of.  BD.  IV.  139  B. 
W.  Cf.  KB.  VI.  13,  S'B.  I.  7.  ^  6. 


for 

»U 


«ur* 


*i.siH*<»*4n  ^1^ 


IRT 


[  ^  ]  i 


jfe  i 


^TT 


X 


*  I 


1.  RV.  I.  174.  2. 

^.  Quoted   by   SRV.   I.  174.    'J.  p.  i.  ] 

748. 
*.  RV.  X.  86.  9  ;  AV.  20.  126.  U  ;  Cf. 

BD.   i.   53.  Maodonell   translates 

snfcr  as  'without  a  husband'. 
V.  Quoted  by  SRV.   VIII.  92.  30.  p. 

iii.  557. 
««.  Cf.   SRV.  I.    51.   14,  p.  i.   260. 


^.  RV.  I.  51.  14. 

vs.  Omitted   by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,    Kn, 

M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W   1,  W    2, 

W3. 

*.  Cf.  SRV.  L  51.  14.  p.  i.  260. 
«*.  RV.  in.  53.  14. 
lo.  Cf.  SRV.  Ill,  53.  14.  p.  ii.   302, 


Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
Cf.  SRV.   III.  53.  14.  p.  ii.  303 


Omitted  by  C  5,  M  3,  Mi. 
Wf  tflTSKftfa   BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn, 
M  3,   Mi,   R  4,   R  6,  W  1,    W  2, 
W  3. 

:  W  1. 

K,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
^  ^   BK,   C  4,  C  5,   Kn,   M  3, 
Mi,   R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 
Sng*$  Roth,  S'ivadatta. 
H:  BK,  C  4,  C  5,   Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
R  4,   R  6,   W  1,   W  2,  W  3.  Cf. 
SRV.  III.  53.  14.  p.  ii.  302. 
The  passage   virtn?n^...^T?TJT%  is 
omitfced   by  Durga.      Quoted    by 
SRV.  loo.  oit.  . 


17 


[  Br^f  4r  i  ] 


II  ^  II 


SIT 


n 


\ 


!.  Quoted  by  SRV.  VIII.  45.  4.  p. 
iii.  430. 

!.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3;  &  Durga.  C  3  reads  3^  m. 

{.  RV.  VIII.  77.  11. 
V.  refarsra  BK,  0  4,  0  6,  Kn,  M  3, 


Mi,  R  4,   R  6,   W  1,   W  2,    W  3; 
•*"•  ^ 


Roth  and  S'ivadatta. 
Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,   R  4,   K  6,  W  1,   W  2, 
W3. 

Of.  N.  6.  4. 

Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3,  and  Durga. 


<*..  Quoted  by  SRV.  VIII.  77.  ii.  p. 

iii.  525. 

o  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  3, 
and  Durga,  who  remarks  : 


I  Omitted 
also  by  SRV.  VIII.  77.  11.  p. 
iii.  525. 

11.  RV.  VIII.  77.  6. 
13.  RV.  X.  52.  3. 

1^.  Omitted  by  BK,  0  4,  0  5,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  4,  R  6,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3. 


IS. 


is    omitted 


by  03. 


n 


II  ^  II 


1.  RV.  X.  51.  1.     Cf.  BD.  VII.  80. 
3.  RV.  I.  116.  8.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  110. 

\.  Quoted   by  SRV.   I.   11G,  6,  p.  i, 
516, 


!TTC?TT  Jf 


n 


V.  Small  figure  within  brackets 
represents  the  corresponding 
section  of  tho  sixth  chapter  of 
the 


3  sr 

aridef  i 


6. 


C  1,  C  2,  C  6,  M  1,  M  3. 
V.  fr&  C  1,  C  2,  C  6,  M  1,  M  3. 

<H.  Cf.  BD.  i.  6 ;  JBrhatsarvdnukrama 
9iH,p.  1.  -*-    *- 


C£.  BD.  i,  34  : 


The 


passage: 


is  quoted  by  SBV.  L 
6.  9.  p,  i.  53. 
«.  BV.  X.  89.  10. 

*..  BV.  I.  1.  1-  AV.  20.  38.  4;  20 
47.  4;  20.  70.  7;  SV.  1.  198;  2. 
146. 

50.  BV.  VII.  18.  15. 

11.  BV.  VIII.  98.  1;  AV.  20,  62.  5; 
SV.  1.  388;  2.  375. 

1^.  BV.  IX.  68.  6;  SV.  2.  720. 

!*.  BV.  I.  32.  1;  Cf.  AV.  2.  5.  5. 

IV.  The  quotation  is  untraoed. 

1%  Cf.  BD.  i.  H. 


ft  4 


iH 


Sfcr   Ri+iRF( 


J  I 


I)  R  II 


5  3         M  5T  I 

«T 


^  ^ff:  I 


?.  EV.  X.  153.  2;  AV.  20.  93.  5;  SV. 

1.  120. 
*.  RV.   X.    152.   4;   AV.  1.   21.2; 

SV.  2.  1218;  VS.  8.  44;  18.  70. 
*.  ft^o  M  1. 
V.  RV.  VIII.   1.  1;  AV.  20.  85.  1; 

SV.  1.242;  2.  710. 
<1.  RV.  I.  37.  1. 

*.  RV.  III.  53.  11;  cf.  BD.  IV.  115. 
(9.  The  second   section  ends  here  in 

BK,  C  4,  C  5,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1, 

W  2,  W  3,  R  7,  R  8. 


*.  RV.  X.  48—49. 

S.  RV.  X.  119. 
?o.  RV.  X.  125. 
11.  Cf.  BD.  i.  35. 
1*.  RV.  I.  32.  1;   cf.  AV.  2.  5.  5. 
IV  Cf.  Paraskara  gr.   su.   II  6.  19; 

As'va.  gr.  su.  III.  6.  7. 
1».  RV.  VII.  104.  15;  AV.  8.  4.  15. 
m.  RV.  VII.  104.  15;  AV.  8.  4.  15. 
U.  Cf.  BD.  i.  36. 

1».  RV.  X.  129.  2;  of.  BD.  i.  58:  ^ 

I 


RV,  X,  129.  3. 


V. 


II  3.  II 


:  i  srr  «rr 


i  *TT£T  W^TTT 

i  3rftr 


Cf.  BD.  i.  35. 

RV.  X.  95.  14.  Cf.  BD.  i.  53: 
^^  ^f|f  ^  j^rj  |  Quoted  as  an 
example  of  desire. 
RV.  I,  164.  37;  AV.  9.  10,  15; 
cf.  BD.  i.  56 :  «f  ft  vrrT*ni5T  W«K: 
quoted  as  an  example  of  agita- 
tion. The  passage:  ajsjrfqr  ^ft%' 

^«n ifc^f^r  ^s  c^e^  ^y  SRV, 

I.  164.  37.  p.  i.  713. 
Cf.  BD.  i.  35. 


RV.  X.  117.  6;  TB.  ii.  8,  8,  3;  of. 
Manu.  III.  118. 

RV.  X.  107,  10, 
RV.  X.  34. 
Cf,  BP.  i.  3. 


xrt*ft%«rcfif  «n  i 


1,  C  2,  C  6,  M  1. 
Cf.  BD.  i.  20. 

wrfaC2;cf.  BD.  VII.  16, 
Cf.  BD.  VII.  17. 

The  4th  section  ends  here  in  BK, 
C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7, 
R  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3.  See  Ngh, 
V.  3.  1—22. 


is  omitted  by 
Durga.  See  Ngh.  V.  3.  29—36  ; 
N.  9,  35—43. 


Cf.  BD.  IV.  143. 


Lahore  edition  of  Rajaraina. 
Cf.  BD,  i.  71, 


:  I 


:  I 


I    3Tftr  3T    W*TFl*tt?\r^  I 

srftr  m  «Ftgr  ^:  i 


5:5  :  i 


I  *T2TT 


3TT 


If"  i 


ftc 


.  Cf.  BD.   i.    74  : 


H3  : 


^fvir  ft  H:  II 

1,  C  6,  Roth. 


<*.  Cf.  BD.  i.  70—71. 

^.  ^T^TT^[>T^[  ^  c,  J\L  i. 

i     TV"' 

1^.  =3   is   added    after 


V.  Cf.  BD.  i.  73  : 

*«.  t^T  ^T  II  ^  II  5T«m:  «TT^:  BK, 
C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7, 
R  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

^.  Cf.  AB.  ii.  17.  17  ;  V.  32.  1  ;  KB. 
VIII.  8;S'B.  XI.2.  3.  1. 

9.  Cf.  AB.  V.  32.  1  ;  S'B  XI.  2.  3. 
1  ;  BD.  i.  69. 


in 


Bib.  Ind.   ed.  of  N.  Cf.  KB.  1.  1  : 


.  RV.  VI.  47.  8;  of.  AV.  19.  15.  4. 

«.  RV.  III.  30.  5. 

t.  RV.  II.  18.  4. 

.  RV.  Ill,  53.  6. 


I       [ 


?  for 


srftr  3 


^  i  srftr 


*  u  vs  H 


:  I 


n 


1.  BV.X.  116.  7. 
*.  EV.  t  10.  9. 

I-  The  lasfc  section  ends 
C  1,   C  2,  C  6,  M  1, 
M4,  S. 

V.  KV.  X.  94.  2. 
4.  RV.  X.  75.  9. 
*;  KV.  X.  94.  2. 

».  Cf.AB,ii.  32.1;  iii.  13.  IjIV. 
29.  1 ;  VIII.  12.  4;  KB,  VIII.  9; 
XII.  4;  XIV.  1,  3,  5;  XXII.  1; 
GB,I.  1.  17,  29;  2.24;  II.  3.  10, 
12,  16;BD.i.  11D. 


lo. 


C  1,  C  2,  C  6,  M  1,  M  4, 

8. 

f^ir  C  2, 

Omitted   by  BK,  C   4,  C  5,  0  7, 
Kn,   M  3,  Mi,  E7,   B  8,   W  1, 

W  2,  W  3. 

Hdhwc   Both;   of.   BD.    i.   119, 

120, 

WTST  Mi. 

Cf.BD.  i.  117—119, 

C  1,  C  2,  C  6,  M  1,  M  4. 
BD.  iii.  41. 


II  ^  H 


TOT 


11  1°  11 


1.  RV.  X,  17.  3;AV.  18,2.54. 

*.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  G  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3. 


V.  ^gfN!  C  4,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi,  W  2, 
W  3,  W  4. 

M.  Cf.  BD.  i.  130—131. 

*.  Cf.  AB.  ii.  32.  1  ;  iii.  13.  1  ;  IV. 
31.  1;  VIII.  12.4;  KB.  VIII. 
9;  XIV.  1,  3,  5;  XVI.  1  ;  XXII. 
2;GB.  I.  1.17,  18,  29;  2.  24;  II. 
2.10,  12;  II.  4.  4. 

».  ft^BK,  04,  C  5,  0  7,  Kn,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

4.  Cf.BD.  i.  87;ii.  6. 

^  Cf.  BD.  ii.  2—3. 
18 


V>.  siflRT  C  1,  C  2;  C  6,  M  1,  MT4, 

B.  &  Roth.    The    cor  (responding 
passage  in  BI>.  reads  srrgjfr  I. 

«.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  4t  5,  13,  14. 
^,  Cf.BD,  ii.  13—  14. 

IV  Of.  AB.  II.  32.  1  ;  III.  13.  1  ;  V. 
1.  1;  VIII.  12.  4;  KB.  VIII.  9; 
XIV.  1,  3;  XVI.  1  ;  XXII.  3,  5; 
GB.I.  1.  19,  29;  2.  24;  II.  3.  10; 

4.  18. 


omitted  by 


S  ;  Roth. 

V*.  *fiprfa*r 

Durga* 

n.  ^04,  05,07,  M3,Mi,R7, 
R^8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

1*.  C!.  BD.  ii.  15—16. 


SK^TT 


i  tr: 

I  f^STsfJ  I  TOT 


^T  i  ^T  3 


»  I 


t3f^  i  rf^r 


«    mF^TfjTT^^a  i 


.  -Of.  AB.  V.  4.  1  ;  VIII.  12.  4;  KB. 

xxii.  0;  BD.  i.  116. 


Cf.    AB.   V.    6.1;   VIII.    12.   8; 
KB.  XXIII.  3;   BD.  i.  130—131  ;  j 
SUV.  p.  i.  2. 

Cf.  AB.   V.    12.  1  •   VIII     12.  4-  I 
BD.  ii.  13—14. 


V.  Cf.  Chha.  up.  I.  4.  2. 

^ret^r^i  SF?^*^  i 

V?.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  B  7,  B  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3;andDurga. 

$.  Quoted  by  SRV.  p.  i,  2. 
».  Devtadhyaya  Br.  III.  2. 


Devtadhyuya  Br.  III.  3. 
The  passage:    {3 
omitted  by  Durga. 

eJJ-jja^NjjO  Al    O  j 

who  places  ^«^r^  after 
Daivata  Brahrnana  III. 

Cf.    AB.   V.  19.  6;    KB.    1.  3,  4; 
XL  2 ;  XII.  2 ;   XIX.  4,  7 ;   GB. 
I.  3.  8,  10;  4.  24. 
Cf.  Daivata  Brahma  >a  III. 

sraw*rfcf:  Mi,  W  it  ^  ";  Roth 
attributes     the    variant 
?Tfa:  to  the  shorter  recension, 
Cf.  BD.  i.  17;  VXII.  129. 
MS.  II.  2.  11. 


VT^rftfrT  ^IT^T^tRr«  I  «T  jf 
J  I  ^Tf     I 


II  ^  II 


Omitted  by  Bk,    04,   05,   07, 

Kn,   M  3,   Mi.   E  7,   R  8,   W  1, 

W  2,  W  3. 

MS.  II.  2.  10. 

Of.  BD.  ii.  71. 

Of.   BD.  ii.    24;   Of.   S'ankara  on 

Vedantasutra   i.    2.  7.   28: 


Of.  S'B.  II.  2.  4.  2. 


Of.  also  S'B.  VI.  1.  1.  11. 


'<iT=rRt 


H  \\ 


sr^nr 


Of.  also  RV.  VI.  16.  48. 


t,.  Of.  BD.  i.  91. 

$.  Of.  SRV.  I.  i.  1.  p.  i.  24. 

».  RV.  I.  1.  1. 

A.  N.  2.  12. 

^,  Of.  N.  3.  19.   sf^r  Mi,  M  3.  Of. 
SRV.  I.  1.  1.  p.  i.  24. 

Jo.  *ft  %^:   *N  ^rerr    is  omitted    by 

Durga. 
W.  Quoted  by    SRV.  I.   127.    1.    p.  i. 

573. 

K.  Quoted  by  SRV,  I.  1.  1.  p.  i.  24. 
I      RV.  I.  1.  2. 


I 


«h*n 


[  ^  ] 


v:IKT 
I   cTf 


n 


1.  Omitted  by  Bk,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

*.  RV.IV.58.8;  VS.  17.  96. 


Cf.  SRV.  I.  57.  2.  p.  i.  285;  I.  62. 
2.  p.  i.  311. 

V.  fttffoftfa  is  omitted  by  Durga. 
<*.  RV.  IV.  58.1;  VS.  17.  89;  of. 


KB,  XXV.  1. 


AB.  II.  3.  Taitt.  B.  I.  4.  4.  10. 
Cf.  AB.  I.  1.  4;  Tand.  B.  II.  1.  12; 
GB.  II.  1.  12;  Sad.  B.  III.  7;  S'B. 
I.  6.  2.  8;  MS.'l.  4.  14.  %  is 
added  after  siffr:  in  all  these 
passages. 

RV.  I,  164.  46;  AV.  9.  10.  2tt. 

Omitted  by  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 
M  1,  M  4,  R  2,  R  3,  R  5,  S; 
of.  SRV.  L  164.  46.  p.  i.  718; 


1°. 


c  i. 


is  omitted  by  Durga. 
11.  Cf.  SRV.  loo,  oik 


1  t 

r:  I 
:  I 


'Hf^l H ^M ^^1  <l  cT 


1.  Cf.    BD.  i.   78: 


.  Cf.  BD.  i,  67: 


MS.  I.  8.  2.  Cf.  AB.  III.   36.  S'B. 
IX.  5.  1.  68: 


Cf.  BD.  ii.  30: 

II.    39. 


etc.  AB. 


I 


V.  -Of.  BD.  i.  92:  q%&  ft  5TT3:  etc. 
Cf.  also  ii.  31. 

<l.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  K  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 


«.  MS.  I.  8.  2. 

<:.  Cf,  SRV.  I.   44.   1.   p.   i.  223;  I. 

127.  1.  p.  i.  573. 
<*..  RV.  I.  99.  1. 

<jo.  The  section  within  brackets  is 
omitted  by  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 
M  1,  M  4,  R  2,  R  3,  R  5,  S;  and 
Durga.  Cf.  N.  14.  S3. 

11.  EV.  X.  188.  1  ;  cf.  BD.  VIII.  8?. 

«.  ofto   C  4,   C  5,   C  7,    M  3,  Mi, 
W   VW 
Roth. 


5TT 


55^1 


m  i  srftr 


cT^T 


T  fe  5 


?.  RV.  X.  188. 

*.  STRfN^T  C  4,  C  5,  07,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

\.  Of.  BD.  i.  90,  97. 
V.  RV.  IV.  58,  8. 

*i.  N.  7.  17. 

^.  RV.  I.  50.  1;  AV.  13.  2.  16;  20. 
47.  13;  SV.  1.  31;  VS.  7.  41;  8. 
41, 

».  N.  12i  15. 
«.  Cf.  BD.K67. 
«<.  Cf,  BD.  ii.  60. 


.  Cf.     S'ankara     on     Vedantasutra 
I.  2.  28. 

I 


«.  Cf.SRV.  I.   60.  6;  III.  2.  1;   VII. 
5.  4.  pp.  i.  293;  ii.  133  -iii.  16. 

13.  *3^«fT°  Roth. 

1^.  RV.  I.  98.  1  ;  VS.  26.  7. 

1*.  Cf.  BD.  i.  67:   ^  Writ  f^T  i 

11.  RV.  I.  59.  6, 


srorftr  ftf^ 


1,  C  2.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  60. 
6.  p.  i.  293. 

Quoted  by  SRV.   HI.  13.  2.  p.  ii. 
171. 


V.  Quoted  by  SEV.  I.  60.  6.  p.  i.  293. 
M.  Of.  BD.   i.   67.  S'B.  IX.  3.  1.  25. 


^.  RV.  VI.  8—9. 

vj.  Cf.   BD.  i.    102: 
etc.  Cf.  AB.  XII.  3. 


.  Cf.  BD.  i.  103. 

.  Cf.  AB.  VII.  9.  1;  KB.  IV.  3;  cf. 
BD.  ii.  1G—  17.  S'B.  VI.  6.  1.  5: 


:  I  «OT    <4tal*fi 


I    3cft^  li« 


MS.   II.    1.   2.    Cf.   KB.    IV.   3; 
XIX.  2: 


S'S'.  8.  22.  1. 


VS.  33.  92. 
RV.  X.  88. 
Cf.  BD.  ii.  16—17. 
Cf.  GB.  I.  2.  20. 

fesmTO^raf  Trft   C  4,   C  5,  0  7, 
M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

Cf.  BD.  i.  101. 

?^n^BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi, 
E  7,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 


.  ] 


5r*j£i*444i<j|Ti 


MI  win  R 


m  $H  |l~n  Pi  WT 

«rr  [  ^^ar^o^rrf^1  *n  ]  ^5 


II  ^  II 


TO  ^r  srfH 


it 


4,   05,   07,   M  3,  Mi, 
K  7,  B  9,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


0  7,  M  3,  Mi. 


RV.  I.  98.  1;  VS.  26.  7.  See  N,  7. 
22. 


mi  01,  C  2,  C  6,  M  1, 


M4, 


Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  98,    1.  pi  i. 
437;  cf.  also  IV.  5.  7.  p.  ii.  366. 


[.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  07, 
Kn,  M3,  Mi,  R7,  R  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3,  and  Durga. 

>.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

••  ^f tftfa  is  added  after  ^r<ft% 
byM3. 

^  RV.  I.  164.  51. 

».  RV.  1. 164.  47LAV.  6..22.  1, 


i  \ 


\ 


[  95  1  ]¥ 


yw^Sf^il'  [  ^s  ^  ] 


/Hffir 


^itn  t^  ^IH 


^.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  164.  47.  p,  i. 
718, 

*.  Of.  BD.  ii.  8—9, 

*.  ^m^f^  C  1,  C  2,  C  6,  M  1, 

M4,  8. 

V.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  KD, 
M  3,  Mi,  E  7,  B  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3, 

^.  5^  C  1,  02,  C  6,  M  1,  M  4,  S; 
Koth. 

*.Cf.  KS.  xi.  i 


!  Sohroeder's  edition  vol.  i. 
p.  157. 
Of.  TS.   II.  4.    10. 


pp,    1722-3,   Cf.   MS.   II.   4.    8? 


last  quotation   is  cited  by  PMbh. 
vol.  i.  p.  256. 

3. 

M  1.     The  passage  vrf^hR 
*T3Tf?cT  is    jomitted     bv 
Durga, 

Cf.  S'B.  XIII.  3.  8.  3, 


lo.  S'B.  V.  2.  5.  1.5;  VI.  6.  1.  5, 


11.  Of.  Taitt.  Br.III.  7.  3.  2. 


.  S'S'.  8.  22.  L    Cf.  KB.  V.  8. 

.  ^T%  04,   05,  07,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 

.  »ar<Dfo*  M  3, 
.  YS.  33,  92. 


19 


wrfir 


N 


ifl'TT 


ilraftvt 


:  I  &5T 


n  5&  n 


II 


1.  As'v.  S'raut.  VIII.  3. 

^.  %?Tf3>  C  4,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2; 

C  5,  M  3,  W  3. 
*.  KV.  X.  88.  1. 

».  afT^f  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,   M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


r:  Mi.  ^3f*?T:  is  however 
added  on  the  margin  at  bottom, 
obviously  a  different  and  probably 
some  later  scribe. 

4,  C  5,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1, 


W  2,  W  3. 


:  N 


Cf.  SRV.  X,  88,  1.  p.  IV.  278. 
BV.  VI.  8.  4. 

Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  05,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 


Cf.  AB.  II.  38: 

Cf.  also  S'B.  VI.  4.  3.  4: 

3f4  % 


Quoted  SRV.  III.  6.  9,  p.  ii.  145. 
RV.  X.  88.  6. 


i    H^I^I    <4^*^M(* 


II  RVS  II 


[  $T  ]  ^"i*<  I 


4. 
^.  Quoted  by  SRV,  I.  59.  2.  p.  i.  291. 

*.  *X^  C  4,   C  5,   C  7,  M  3,  Mi, 
B  7,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

».  Quoted  by  SRV.  X.  88.  6,  p.  IV. 

279. 
^.  RV.  X.  88.  10. 

*.  q%Cl,  C2,C3,  06,  M],M4, 
R  2,  R  3,  R  5,  S. 

».  ^T^t  0  1,  C  2,  C  6,  M  1,  M  4,  S. 
Of.  SRV.  X.  88.  10.  p.  IV.  280. 


<*>.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

So.  The  quotation  is  untraced. 

11.  Cf.  SRV.  loo.  cit. 

W.  'arft'rcj  M  3. 

1^.  RV.  X.  88.  11. 

IV.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  0  5,  0  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

!<!.  Quoted   by   SRV.  X.   88.   II.  p. 

IV.  281. 
W.  RV.  X.  88. 17. 


ti+u«ii<?<4i*u 


^  iraftr:  I 


:  i  $^  i1  ?T^IT  i 

H3PT  I 


«TT 


c^T 


f fn 


4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

Quoted  by  SRV.   X.  88.   17.  p. 
IV.  282. 
EV.  X.  88.  19. 

Of.  SRV.  I.  57.3;  88.6;  VI.  4. 
3;  pp.  i.  285,  394  ;ii.  697. 

0  4,  C  5,  M  3,  Mi,  W  I. 


.  The  whole  passage:  q 


is  quoted  by  SRV.  X 
88^  19.  p.  IV.  283. 

t.  This  is  the  quotation  of  reoitfttion 
AS'.  1.  S.aSjS'S',  1.6.2. 

*..  VRS  M  3. 
^o.  Of.  BD.  i.  67. 

11.  MSS.    of    both     the    recensions 
repeat  ??%%  but  not  Both. 


vs. 


ftr^ 


II 


Small  figure  on  this  page  represeaU  the  corresponding  section  o£  « 
•eventh  chapter  of  the  tfirukta. 


t 


t    I   TOT 


0  1,  C  2,  C  3,  M  1,  M  4, 
W  2,  W  3;  ^  is  crossed  and 
jf  added  on  the  margin  in  C  5  ; 
^  added  on  the  margin  is  corrected 
to  ?r  in  W  1. 

.  Of.  BD.  ii.  25.  Of.  S'B.  VI.  3.  3.  13. 


^.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  15.  7.  p.  i. 
V.  RV,  I,  15.  7. 


,  C6. 

6. 

C  7. 

t.  Of.  BD.  iii.  61. 
<*>.  BV.  X.  73.  10. 
*o.  RV.  II.  12.  3;  AV.  20.  34.  3, 
11.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  15.  7.  p.  i.  95. 
1^.  RV.  II.  37.  4. 


I  raft  ft*ro> 


:  I  raft 


^T:  ft^rg 


j  n 


J  i  BRUIT 


c 


ft^  I 


M  3- 
^.  Of.  BD.  iii.  65. 
^.  EV,  I.  96.  1-7. 
V.  Cf.  BD.  iii.  62. 
M.  Cf.  BD.  iii.  U. 

*.  Quoted  by   SRV.  II.  37.  4.  p.  ii. 
113. 

».  AV.  4.  39.  9;  VS.  5.  4. 
4.  Cf.  BD.  iii.  63-64. 


*.  RV.  V.  60.  8. 
.  RV.  II.  37.  3. 
.  *m:  01,03,11  4,  a 
.  f^wnft  fawft  Roth. 

.  Omitted  by  BK,   C  4,  0  5,  0  7, 
Kc,  M3,   Mi,   R7,   R  8,  W  lt 

W  2,  W  3. 

.  Cf.  BD.  iii.  26. 

2'  M  1.M3.M4,  W2, 


] 


i 
i  fct  'sr 


^r:  ? 


\ 

I    t^rer  3T        STFT*  I 
5RTT   3Tfcfft%  I 
I 


J  I  ] 


ftn: 


I.  Cf.  Taitb.  B.  II.  2.  8.  6: 
I 


^.  KB.  X.  3;  AB,  ii.  4.  1. 
^.  Of.  BD.  ii.  158. 

V.RV.  X.  110.   1)  AV.  5.   12.  1; 

VS,  29.  25. 

S.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  B7,  B  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 


».  Cf.  BD.  ii,  27. 

^     .  .    rv  p  7 

*•  a^f^t^a  ^  »• 

^.  «^T%?TT  G  5,  M  3,   Mi,   W   1, 

W  2. 
1*.  RV.   X.  110.  2;  AV.  5.  12.  2; 

VS.  29.  26. 

11.  vrofar:  0  7,  M  3. 
Cf.   AB.   II.   24: 


Cf.  BD.  il  28  j   iii.  2-3. 
RV.VIII.  2.  2;  VS.  29.  27. 


fo5  f|: 


:  i 


?  t^fr  SR 


[  f^^rt  ] 


§ 
*9 


%cTTTfrr 

il  vs  n 


i  arrarofr 


;  i 
i  srfirfHrf 


1.  Quoted  by  SRV.  VII.  2.  1.  p.  iii,  8. 

H.  Cf  .  BD.  iii.  4. 

V  BV.  X.   110.  3j  AV.   5.   12.3; 

VS.  29.  28. 
».  ^TRr«r  07,   M   3,   W  2;  a  51  is 

added  just  above  ^  in  Mi. 
4.  Of.  BD.  iii.  5. 
*.  BV.  X.   110.   4;  AV.  5.  12.  4; 

VS.  29.  29. 


Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  0  5,  0  7, 
Kn,   M  3,  'Mi,   R  7,  R  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 
20 


Quoted  by   SEV.  VII.  17.  2.  p. 
iii.  35. 


M  3. 


RV.   X.   110.  5;  AV.  5.  12.  5; 

VS.  29.  30. 

**3W>  0  4,  C  5,  0  7,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


Cf.  BD.  iii.  6. 


srnSr 


3TT 


^rr  i  *rf    ^q^T?         -  *NUV  i    r^n  JTC^TT  i 
i  5^*  snl 


^^  sfterrcr  i  sr 


*nsEr!r: 


\\ 


«ft 


J    \ 


II  U  I) 


Cf.  S'B.  VI.  7.  2,  3. 


*.  N.  2.  18. 

^  Cf.BD.  iii.  9. 

V.  RV.  X.  110.  6;  AV.  5.  12.  6;  27. 

8;  VS.  29.31. 

<j.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  49.  2.  p.  i.  247. 
$.  Cf.  BD.  iii.  11. 

<s.  RV.  X,  110.  7  ;  AV.  5.  12.  7  ;  VS. 
29.  32. 

<.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  Ku,  ! 


M  3,    Mi,   R  7,   R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
AV  3. 

^.  RV.  X.  110.  8;  AV.  5.  12.  8;  VS. 

29.  33. 

Jo.  Quoted   by  SRV.    I.   22.    10.  p. 
i.  117. 


I*. 


SRV.  I.  142.  11.  p. 


i.  637. 


4,   C   5,  C  7,   M  3,   Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

.  Quoted  by  SRV.  loo.  cit.;  of.  BD. 
iii.  1C. 


n 


j  i 


n  ^  n 


n 

^»|<» 


I 


n 


1.  EV.  X.  110.  9;  AV.  5.  12.  9;  VS. 

29.  34. 

^.  Of.  BD.  iii.  15,  25. 
\.  RV.  I.  95.  5. 

v.  3*-*;dfc*ft*nif?rCi,  c  2,  c  6, 


M  1,  M  4,  S  &  Roth  ;  cf.  SRV.  I. 

95.  5.  p.  i.  429. 

.  fa*...*?rfrr  is  omitted  by  Durga. 
.  Omitted  by  BK,   C   4,  C  5,  07, 

Kn,   M  3,   Mi,   R  7,  R  8,  W  1, 

W  2,  W  3. 
•  ?%^rfq%%Jr9I%SRV.  I.  95.  5. 

p,  i.  429. 


.  SRV.  loo.  cit. 
%.  N.  8.  * 

.  RV.   X.   110.  10;  AV.  5.  12.   10; 

VS.  29.  35. 

cin^r  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 


11. 


:  C  7,  M  3. 


.  Of.  BD.  iii.  28.  According  to 
BD.  IV.  100.  the  stanza  3r$rfcf 
^^  RV.  III.  8.  1.  is  addressed 
to  qtj,  the  sacrificial  post. 


^ftstff  4 


%  51^ 

5T          T^r  ^1%:  II 


r  ]  c[rg4cfiR  i 
J  i  ^T%! 


i  ^rr  ^tTTr  ^r  i 

Ro  n 


1.  EV.  III.  8,  1. 

*.  ^TWf^  C  4,   C  5,  C  7,   M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

X.  Quoted  by   SRV.  III.  8.1.  p.  ii, 
155. 

V.  KS.  XVIII.   21;  MS.   4.   13.   7: 

208.  10% 

<*.  .(^r  M  3. 

V  KS.   XVIII.    21 ;   MS.   4.  13.    7: 

209.  i;of,  EV.  x.  70. 10.  (...Or^rr) 

5    Omitted   by   BK,    C  4,  05,  Kn, 
~v   R.7     H  6,  W  1,    W  2, 


W  3  ;  it  is  added  on  the  margin  by 
a  different  probably  later  soribe 
inC7. 

.  According  to  Durga  ^T  WHITf 
is  a  quotation  from  some  Brah- 
mana.  He  remarks: 


quotation  : 


I  ,  adding  the 
%   I   rf  35TT  ^T- 

i  *r^  ^rr^r^TT'w 

I     Cf.  KS,  VI.  1.  MS.  I,  8,  1. 
Cf.  BD.  Hi  29. 
.  KV.  X.  110.  11;  AV.   5.  12.   11; 

VS.  29,  36, 


ftrfJr*ffar 


1 


3rg*rnnfe[ 


^rf:  II 


I  sRn 


1.  Omibted   by   BK,   C  4,  C  5,    Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,   K  7,   R  8,   W  1,   W  2, 
W  3;   is  added  on  the  margin  in  i 
07. 

3.  Cf.  SRV.  1.  188.  1.  p.  i.  782, 

V  RV.  X.  51.  8. 

».  RV.  X.  51.  9. 

<l.  The  quotation  is  untraoed. 

*.  «CT&*n...?raR'Jn*    is     omitted    by 
Durga. 

<*.  Durga  does  not  comment  on  the 
following  passages  remarking  :  3?*? 


*>. 

lo. 

11. 


.  Cf.    S'B.    i.    3.    2.     9  : 


4,   C  5,   C  7,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

Cf.   KB.  Ill,  4.    S'B.   i.  3.  2.   8  ; 
MS,  i.  4.  12:^4t%snn5rT:  I 
Cf.  KB.  III.  4. 

Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

3TTRT  3f3<TRrr:  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

Cf.  AB.  i.  11.  3;  17.  14;  KB.  VII. 
I;X.  3;  S'B.  XI.  2.7.  27.  Cf.  KS. 
XXVI.  9  :  srruK  %  Jrqisn:  I  Schro- 
eder's  ed,  vol  ii,  p,  133, 


^!  ^  SRTT^T  e?rrJTT  ^T  3?«plT*ft: 


3       gT'*   I 

erf  ?r?r^T  ^ 


II  3.^  li 


:  i 


j  11  ] 


II 


.  0  4,  C  5,  07,  M  3, 
Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

*.  Of.  TS.  VI.  1.  5.  4 ;  cf.  KS.  XXIII. 

9.  smm  %  5T*rnrr:  srarr^rnn:   I 

Sohroeder's  ed.  vol.  ii.  p.  85. 
^.  Cf.  BD.  iii.  29.     . 
V.  Cf.  AB.  iii.  8.  1 : 


GB.  II.  3.  4  : 


<<.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  154—157. 

^.  Small  figure  within  brackets 
represents  the  corresponding 
section  of  the  eighth  chapter  of 
the  tfirukto. 


n 


[  w  ^fte^T  ]*  i 


ir  yrq-  5%^  ^%  |  [  y  (^d 

i  $11  Ji^y  rft  Id  i  «TTft  STT^^T%  I  ] 


STT 


?TT 


5ft 


H 


^rr 


srr  i 


I.  SeeN.  2.  27;  of.  1.  12. 
S.  RV.  I.  162.  2. 

*.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  0  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

V.  The   passage:  gf«r  *nfa  ^l«rnT- 

seems  to  have 


been  written  by  a  different  scribe 
in  C2.  f.  10r.  The  letters  are 
larger,  lines  crooked,  and  stand 
in  marked  contrast  to  the  rest 
of  the  page. 


The  second  section  is  omitted  by 
Durga   and  given  in  a  foot-note 
by  Roth.   But  it  is  found  in  the 
MSS.   of  both  recensions  and  is 
also  enumerated  in  the  summary 
at  the  end  of  the   chapter   in  the 
MSS.  of  longer  recensions. 
RV.  I.  162.  1;  VS.  25.  24. 
C  1. 


is  omitted  by  M  3;  partially 
obliterated  with  yellow  pigment 
in  W  1  ;  added  on  the  margin  in 
W2,C7. 


t  I  "2^  f  Rt 


\\  X  II 


t  I  JTT 


II  «  II 


1.  RV.  II.  42.  1;  of.  BD.  IV.  94. 
:  M  3. 


^.  Quoted   by   SRV.    II.    42.    1.    p. 
ii.  125. 

<i.  Cf.  BD.  IV.  93. 

Roth. 
>.  RVKH.  2.  43.  1. 

r;  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  Kn,  M  3, 


U  Quoted  by  SRV.   VII.   4.  2.  p. 

iii.  13. 
».  SRV.  II.  20.  8.  p.  ii.  57;  cf.  BD. 

IV.  78. 
I.  Cf.  Unadi    sutra  IV.    42. 


is   omitted  by 
Durgci. 

I*.  Cf.   SRV.    VII.   103.    1.    p.    iii. 

211. 
IV.  RV.  VII.  103.  1;  AV.   4.  15. 13 ; 

cf .  BD.  VI.  27. 


W  3. 

C  7,  Mi,  W  3,  3  is  partially 
obliterated  with  red  ink  and  an 
31  added  on  the  margin  in  W  2 ; 
STWTTrf'T  ^  3.  Cf.  K.umarila  - 
Bhatta,  Tantra  Vartika,  Benares 
ed.  p.  200  or  1.3.  18:  ...j 


*T>?  ft      $  IT 


IT 


ITT 


i  [ 


i.  Quoted  by  SRV.   VII.    103.  1.  p.  j 

iii.  211. 
*.  a  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  1,  M  4. 

v  /""I     *T 

i.  AV.  4.  15.  14. 

«.  RV.  X.  34.  1 ;  cf.  BD.  VII.  36. 

\.  JRfcfT:  C  1,  C  2,  C  6,  M  1,  M  4, 
S ;  &  Roth  ;  ^  is  partially  oblite- 
rated with  red  ink  and  $t  added 
on  the  margin  in  W  2 ;  Durga 
gives  both  i.  e.  sr^jfan:  as 
well  as  sre^iTT:  I.  Sayana  reads 
IS  I 

x   3  4,  0  5,  C  7,   M  3,  Mi, 
W  2,  W  3;  W  1   agrees   with  the 
reading  of  the  longer  recension. 
*.  fom%:  C  4,  C  5,  07,  M  3,  Mi, 
21 


II 


.  i 


4  q^i 


:  II 


11. 


W  2,  W  3  ;  W  1  agrees  with  the 
reading  of  the  longer  recension. 

Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

3;   Sayana   also    reads 
See  SRV.  X.   34.  1.  p. 
IV.  101. 

Quoted  by  SRV.  III.  24.  3.  p.  ii. 

198. 

Cf.  SRV.  X.  34.  1.  p.  IV.  101. 

The    passage: 


IV. 
!«,. 


is  omitted  by  Durga. 

ia  omitted  by  S'ivadatta 
although  given  by  Durga. 

RV.  X.  94.  1. 


STT  I 

sra-rer^1 


^t  5f 


'T^T  f  ^TT 


^fr  i  ^^n  [  ^¥r  ]  i 


:  II 


! 


\\  \\  it 


n 


i  STT^TRTT 


:  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3;  Durga,  & 
S'ivadatta. 

3.  55fop:  ......  ^T^[:     is    omitted    by 

Durga. 

V  K  V.  I.  126.  1  ;  cf.  BD.  III.  155. 

».  TO*!*  C  4,   05,   C  7,   M  3,   Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

V.  The  passage 


f:  is  omitted  by  Durga.  Ety- 
mological explanation  of  a  word 
which  occurs  neither  in  the  text 
of  the  RV.  nor  in  that  of  Yaska  is 
irrelavont  and  suspicious. 


f:  is  omitted  by  Durga. 

«.  ?*nTT"Tt SfT     *s     omitted     by 

Durga. 

Cf.  PMbh.  vol.  I.  p.  327.  line  15. 


is     omitted     by 
is    omitted     by 
BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
R  7,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
3. 


.  RV.  VI.  47.   26;  AV.  G,  125.  1  ; 

VS.  29.  52. 

.  S*hl>  Cl,  02,  06,  MU.S-  & 

Roth  &  S'ivadatta. 


n 


I  cf  3TCT 


51  RT  ftar  55  ^r 


§  *pff: 


:  u 


II  ly  II 

Irlr 


:  II 
?  i 


n  V\  n 


:  n 


V  *TT$wfrFi:  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3, 
Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3  and  Sayana; 
see  SRV.  VI.  47.  29.  p.  ii.  815. 

*.  EV.  VI.  47.  20;  AV.  6.  126.  1. 
*.  Quoted  SRV.  VI.  75.  5.  p,  ii.  888. 
V.  RV.  VI.  75.  5;  VS.  29.  42. 

1.  5^01,02,06,  M1,M4,  U; 
Roth  &  S'ivadatta ;  ^  is  crossed 
and  5-  added  on  the  margin  in 
C7. 

*.  **wa  jfo  ?n  ^ftznrm:  C  4<  C  5, 

C7,M3,W1,  W2; 


" 


T  M  3. 

RV.  VI.  75.  14;  VS.  29.  51. 
Cf.  PMbh.  vol.  II.  p.  340. 


1.  16. 


^o.  Quoted  SRV.   VI.  75,  Ii, 

891;  of.  also  VII.  6.  1, 
11.  N.  3.  9. 
H.  RV,  VI.  75.  6;  VS.  29,  43. 


p.  il 


I  3T*fT3i*TT 


i  S 
37  1 


t 


VT^fcT  II 


ntft: 


II 


1;  ^r^Rr:  C  4; 
O  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi,  W  2,  W  3; 
and  Sayana,  cf.  SRV.  VI.  75,  6. 
p.  ii.  889. 


and    Sayana   loc.   cit.   W  1,    C  7 

agree  with   the  text  of  the  longer 

recension. 

V.  Quoted  SRV.  loc.  cit. 
^.  RV.  VI.  75.  2;  VS.  29.  39. 
*.  Quoted  SRV.  VI.  75.  2,  p.  ii.  888, 
«.  RV.  VI.  75.  3;  VS.  29.  40. 
4.  Omitted  by  BK,   C  4,  C   5,  07, 

Kn,  M  3,   Mi,   R  7.     R  8,  W  1, 

W  2,  W  3, 


^.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3;  quoted  by  SRV.  VI. 
75.  3.  p.  ii.  888. 

So.  {gftfft:  Roth. 

«.  Omitted  by  04,  07,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  3;  is  underlined  in  C  5; 


on  the  margin  in  W  2. 
>.  RV.  VI.  75,  11;  VS.  29.  48, 
..  N,  2.  5. 
.  Cf.  SRV.  VI.  75.11.  p.  ii.  890 


1M.  ?^?T?n  M  3, 
just  above  e 
M3. 


but  a  ^  is  added 
on  the  margin  in 


3TT 


if^r 


M  3. 


^.  RV.  VI.75.  13. 

*.  WfT%  C4,  05,  07,  Mi,  Wl, 

W  2,  W  3; 
V  ^qf^T  M  3; 
V.  Of.  SEV.  I.  28.  2.  p.  i.  147. 
«1.  Omitted   by  BK,  0  4,   05,   07. 

Kn,   M  3,    Mi,   E  7,    E  8,  W  1, 

W  2,  W  3 
*.  Quoted  SEV.  VI.  75.   13.  p.  it 

891. 
•.  ****  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 

0  4,  0  5,  Mi;  grfe  ^>*^  Eot. 
6.  Of.    S'B.    VII.    5.    1.  22: 


f  RT  srr 


it 

^r  i  [srf^r  :] 


I   Of.  SJiV. 
I.  28.  5.  p.  i.  148. 

^.  The  seotioa  comes  to  an  end  here 
in  S'ivadatta's  edition.  It  is 
however  against  the  evidence  of 
the  MS3.  of  both  recensions, 

jo.  EV.  I.  28.  5;  of.  BD.  Hi.  101. 

11.  EV.  X.  102.  5. 

«.  Omitted  by  BK,  0  4,  0  5,  0  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  E  7,  E  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
\V3. 

U.  *rtfo?f^rt  is  omitted  by  Durga, 


underlined  by  Eoth;  Sayana  reada 
,  I,  56,  1;  143, 


w: 


*raf  55^?* 


i  vrf^Hi^i  i 
^rr  i 
i 


I  'TT        I 


, 

t  ^r  ] 


*  i 


li  VA  II 


n 


[%r]  i  ?r^  Pr 
3*: 


I  cf^f^fl  *T^T  II  *#  II 


SRV.  I,  52.  9.    p.    i.  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,   W  1,  W  2, 

265,  W  3. 


.  Quoted  SRV.  ioc.  cit. 


.  Cf.  S'B.  I.  9.  2.  20.  AB.  I.  13. 


V.  Cf.  BD.  viii.  12;  SRV.  X.  102. 1. 
p.  IV.  338. 

<«.  RV.  X.  102.  U;  cf,  BD.  VIII.  11. 

^»  !J*WT33f  ^f^f  C  4,  C  5* '  C  7,  M  3, 

V2,  W  3; 


.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  0  5,  0  7,  KB, 


L  B  V.  I.  187,  1 ;  VS.  34.  7. 

>.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  :,  0  5,  0  7, 
En,  M3,  Mi,  R  :  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3* 

».  N.  2.  24. 

I.  RV.X.75.5, 


?T?T:  i 


gi 


3  5 


I    3TT?J 
]  ^Tcr7TTm?ft'  I    ^TW?f^=2^r;imni  I 


I     PTT^T^rT^T  I     TSTnTTT^T  I  "TT^TT  3T^r 
'  I  ?T^Trf5TT^%  I 


H  w  ii 


1.  Cf.  SRY.  X.  75.  5.  p.  TV.  232. 

3.  Omitted  by  C  4,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1, 
W  3;  the  reading  of  C  5,  C  7, 
W  2  is  that  of  the  longer  recen- 
sion. 

*.  ffifS*  M  3. 

4,  M  8,  Mi,  W  1,  W  3. 
M  3,  W  3. 

:  C  4»  M  !«   M  3»   Mi' 


W  1,"W  3. 

«.  HF.^5TWT  C  lt  C  2,   C  3,   C  6, 
Ml,   M4.    R2,   R3,   R  5,   S;  <fc 


Roth.    Cf,    Durga: 
T^cT:  I  ?T^TT^  SfVRirr  I 
ofrn^^  Ml,  M  3. 
Cf.  SRV.  I.  135.  4.  p.  i.  5CO. 
Cf.  S'B.  VI.  1.  1.9. 


also  Unadi  sutra  II.  58. 


11.  R  V.  X.  9.  1  ;  AV.  I.   5.  1  ;  SV.  2. 

1187;  VS.  11.  50;  36.  14. 
1^.  Omitted  by  BK,C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  Kn, 

M  3,   Mi,   R  7,   R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 

\V3. 
H.  RV.  X.  97.  1;  VS.  12.75. 


I  3TRT 


an 


t  I 


aw 


II 


*rTH  ^  [  IfrT  ]  1 

i 


g:  n 
i  ^J 


VT^cfH^T  ^TT  I 


n 


T 


wire! 


c  4,  c  5, 


07,  M  3,  Mi,   Wl,   W2,   W3; 
of.  SEV.  X.  97.  1.  p.  IV.  319: 


Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  05,  07, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  E  7,  E  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3.  • 

i,  M  3,  Mi ;  is  corrected 
in  C  7;  gpmfa  is  par- 
tially obliterated    with  black  ink  i 
&  ^TRlOf  added  on   the  margin  j 
in  W  2;  ^RTfa  is  added  on  the  ' 


margin  although  no  attempt  is 
made  to  obliterate  5|?inf?T  in  W  !• 
Cf.  SRV.  X,  97.  1.  p.  IV,  319: 


Jo. 


Cf.  also  S'B,  VII.  2.  4.  26. 

N.  2.  18. 

AV.  19.47.  1;  VS.  34.  32. 

EV.  X.  146,  1. 

Cf.  SRV.  X.  147.  1.  p.  IV.  462. 

W®  M  3. 

EV.  X.  151,  1. 


mil 


g:  sjil  5«V:  II 


II  ^^  II 


^TT 


i  [ 


r  i  ] 


N.  1.  13,  14. 

RV.  I.  22.  15  ;  cf.  AV.   18.  2.  19: 


Cf.  VS.  35.  21: 


Cf.  SRV.  I.  41.  4.  p.  i.  215. 

*3cRR>  C  4,   C  5,   07,   M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

Omitted   by  0  1,   C  2,   C.3,   C  6, 
M  1,  M  4,  R  2,  R  3,  R  5,  S. 

Cf.  SRV.  I.  22.  15.  p.  i.  118. 


a.  N.  6.  12. 
t.  Durga  reads 

<^.  RV.  X.  103. 12  ;SV.  2.  1211;  VS. 
17.  44;  of.  AV.  3.  2.  5;  cf.  BD. 
viii.  13B. 

10.  Omitted  by  BK,   04,   C  5,    Kn, 
M  3,   Mi,   R  7,   R  8,   W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

11.  RV.  I.  22.  12. 

13.  Omitted  by  BK,  C '4,  05,  07, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  \V  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

1^.  N.  9.  20. 


3  v  ] 


n  ^\s  ii 


n  \t  n 


n 


n 


II 


n 


.  RV.  I.  28.  7. 

C  4,  C  5,   C  7,  M  3,  Mi; 
is  corrected  to  spsrifa  in 
W3. 

^.  Quoted  by  SRV.   I.  28.   7.  p.  i. 

148. 

V.  BV.  II.  41.  21. 
1.  Omitted  by   BK,  04,   0  5,  0  7, 

Kn,   M  3,   Mi,   E  7,    R  8,    W  1, 

W  2,  W  3. 
$.  N.  1.  13^14;  3.  22. 
».  RV.  II.  41.  20. 

£.  ufTT«sjfli^     M  3; 
W3. 


<^.  N.  2.  24;  9.  26. 

10.  RV.  III.  33.  1. 

11.  Omitted  by  BK,   C  4,   05,  07, 
Kn,   M  3,   Mi,  R  7,   R   8,   W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

«.  wrmfr  c  4,  05,  07,  M3,  Mi, 

W  2,   W  3;  »n?rfr  is   corrected  to 
Wl. 


C4,  05,  07,  M3,  Mi, 
W  2,  W  3;  HftstfT  is  corrected  to 
ftfT6t  ia  W  1. 

01,  C  2,  C  3,  06, 


M  1,  M  4,  S;  W  2;  Roth. 

Of.  SRT.  III.  33.  1.  p.  ii.  242. 


?vs^. 

3T&3TT  3T  I  STcWt  ^f  I 
II  3^  II 


w 


n 


iw  ^rf|f^  5 


ft  kfa  ['  I 


«rr 


T  i  s 

n  «  n 


i 


u 


1.  RV.  VI.  75.  4;  VS.  29.  41. 


Mi,   W  2,   W  3;  the  figures  of  * 
and  1  are   plaoed   respectively  on 


.  Cf.  SRV.  VI.  75.  4.  p.  ii.  888. 
.  Cf.  SRV.  IV.  .57.  5,  p.  ii.  490;  cf. 

BD.  V.  8. 
*.  RV.  IV.  57.  5. 

3, 


.  KS.  19.  13;  MS.  4.  13.  8:  210.  1. 
.  Omitted  by  BK,   C  4,  C  5,   07, 

Kn,  M3,  Mi,R7,  R8,  W  1,TV  2, 

W3. 

M  3. 


«.  ?B^^?T;  M  3. 

^.  KS.  19.  13;  MS.   4.  .13.  8:  210.  4, 
7. 


*  II  y^  11 


ffrr 


:  II 


:  II 


Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  07, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  7,  R  8,  W  1, 
W2,  W  3. 

^^f^  0  4,  0  7,  M  3,  Mi;  «r^r 
W2. 

^T^rftm  C  4,  0  5,  0  7,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,W3. 


*Rrfar  ^S^:  is  given  only  once  in 
Roth. 

Small  figure  within  brackets  re- 
presents the  corresponding  section 
of  the  ninth  chapter  of  the 
Nirukta* 


*T«T^TRT 
:  srammnfr 


:  I 


:  ]  i 


ft* 


ii 


.  R V.I. 

.  Omitted  by  BK,  0  4,  0  5,  07, 
KD,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

SU  Of.  SRV.  I.  2.  1.  p.  i,  30. 

V.  snw*  04,  05,  07,  M  3,  Mi, 
W],  W2,  W3. 


11 V.  VI.  37.  3. 
$.  STHT  M  3. 
i».  Cf.  SRV.  I.  11.7;   49.  2;  91.17; 

pp.i.  78,  247,   407;  also  III.  11. 

6.  p.  ii.  167. 

<S.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  33. 
*.  RV.  V.  80.  3. 


3TT  I  T 


II  ^  II 


:  It 


1.  Quoted  by  SRV.    V.    85.  3.  p.   ii. 
680. 


C  4,  G  5,  0  7,   M  3, 


Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


,^.  SRV.  VIII.  41.  2. 
p,  iii.  416. 
q,.  Quoted  by  SRV.  VIII.  41.  2.  p. 
iii.  416.  The  passage  ^  «ft  fgr*jf?cT 
—  <Tro*N»OT:  «  omitted  by 
Durga. 

1o.  Quoted   by  SRV.   I.  158.   1.  p.  i. 
671. 


?.  Omitted  but  added  on  the  margin 

in  M  3. 

11.  Of.  KS.  XXV.  1. 

1*.  TS.  i.  5.  1.  1;  of.   S'B.  IX.    1,  1.  6; 
04,  C  5,  0  7,   M  3,   Mi,    ^        BD.  ii.  34. 

RV.  VII.  46.  1. 

01,  02,06,  M4,Sand 


W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


04,   C  5,  C  7,   M  3, 


Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3, 


Roth, 


*r* 


SRTrT  II  ^  II 


*&:C4,  05,  C7}  MS,  Mi,  W  1,  ! 
W  2;  gp%:  is  corrected   to  ^%:  in 
W3. 


and  also  S'B.  V.  3.  .1.  10: 


:  is  quoted  by  SRV, 
VII.  18.  18.  p.  iii.  41;  is  omitted 
by  Durga. 

is     omitted    by 


Durga. 
V.  RV.  VII.  46.  3. 

<*.  Omifeted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  0  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

^.^m'Wfer  C  4,  C  5,.  07,  M  3, 
Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  .W  3. 

3. 


.  Of.  S'B.  V,  2.  4.  13  : 


<*.  RV.  I.  27.  10;  SV.  1.  15;  2.  1013. 

10.  Quoted   by  SRV.   X.  59.  2.  p.  IV. 
171, 

11.  Quoted   by  SRV.  I.   123.  5.   p.  i, 
558;  cf.  also  I.  38.  5. 

IS.  Quoted  by   SRV.   I.  27.  10.   p.  i. 

H5.     c 
.IV  Cf.  BD;   ii.36;  of.  SRV.   I.  156. 

5.  p.  i.  668. 
W.  ^nTCRffrfo  *T  SRV.  I.  3.  5.  p.  i.  36. 

i^.  >srrcqRft%  m  SRV.  loo.  oit.  of.  also 

IX.  5.  7.  p.  iii.  609. 
1*.  ^  M  3;  3^  ^fa  0  4,  C  5,  0  7, 
Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


<H?§  ft  15:    ^t  ft 


n 


1.  H^tT  C  4,-  C  5,  07,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3;  cf.  SRV.  below 
note  7. 

3.  The  quotation  is  untraced. 
Cf.  S'B.  VI.  1.  1.2: 


Cf.  SRV.  IX.  5.  7.  p.  iii.  609: 


V.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  156.  5.  p.  i.  668. 

<*.  ^«S\*lt  Roth;  SRV.   I.  3.   4.  p.  i. 
36. 

*.  Cf.  SRV.   X.  48.   6.  p.   IV.  146: 


.  The     entire     passage     ^73* 


r     M'Hn  ^ 


:  H 


11. 


is     quoted    by 
SRV.  I.  3.  4.  p.  i.  36. 

.  RV.  V.  32.  1;SV.  1.315. 

.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3;  also  by  Sayana,  see,  SRV. 
V\  32.  1.  p.  ii.  559. 

.  ^RnTT^C4,   05,   C7,  M3,  Mi, 

W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

SRV.  loo.  cit. 


.  The  passage  3TCO 
quoted  by  SRV.  loc.  cit. 

\.  ST^itf  01;   C  2,  C  3,   C  6,  M  1, 
M  4,  R  2,  R  3,  R  5,  S. 

.  Omitted   by   BK,   C  4,   C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

.  RV.  II.  12.  1;  AV.  20.  34.  1. 

*.  3TTTOR:  01,   C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1, 
•  M  4,  R  2,  R  3,  R  5,  S. 


I  ^T  3RTO  ^  TTrT  I 


^rr 


ererrr 


wftfit 

t^T*    H«i<<n  «Tf 


f^rarftr 


55  q 


II 


...  | 


I.  The  entire  passage  zft 

II.  12.  1.  p.  ii.  32. 

*.  irft  is   omitted  by  SRV.  V.  83.  1 
p.  ii.  676. 


^.  The   passage 

is  quoted  by  SRV.  loc.  cit. 
C£.  BD.  ii.  37—38. 

V.  EV.  V.  83.  2. 

<i.  Sayana  adds  q^ft  before 
see  SRV,  V.  83.  2.  p.  ii,  676. 
23 


S'ivadatta. 

3-  The 

^;  is  omitted  by  Durga. 

The  passage  f^f  f?ct  £  ^T^ 
is    quoted  by  SRV,    loc.  cit. 


etc. 

Of.  BD.  ii.  39. 

RV.  X.  68.  8;  AV.  20.  16.  8. 
Cf.  BD.  ii.  40. 
RV.II.  24.  4. 


[  % 


H  w  ii 


II  ^  II 


?  wig 


.  Quoted   by  SRV.   II.  24.   4.  p.  ii. 
71. 


f:  C  4,   C  5,  07,   M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

^.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  41. 
V.  RV.  IV.  57.  1. 

H.  Quoted  by  SRV.  IV.  57.  1.  p.  ii. 

489. 


C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3;  cf.  SRV.  X.  64.  1.  p.  iv. 
193:  oSf  q>T5''  I 


w.  RV.  IV.  57.  2. 


4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3, 


Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


.  The  passage 


is  omitted  by  Durga. 
^o.  RV.  II.  35.  10. 
11.  RV,  X.  166.  5. 


*HWS  I 


i  I  TOT 


<w 


4r 


II 


J  i 


n  ^  n 


1.  ^5  TO^:  0  C  C  5,  C  7,   M  3, 
Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

*.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  44. 

t  BV.  VII.  55.  1. 

».  Cf.  SRV.  VII.  56.  1.   p.  iii^  114: 


.  EV.  III.  53.  8. 
.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  45. 


».  AV.  1.  1.  2. 

<.  N.  8.  5. 

^.  RV.  X.  30.  4;  AV.  14.  1.  37. 

10.  Omitted   by  BK,  C  4,   C  5,   C  7, 
KD,   M  3,  Mi,    R  8,   W  1,    W  2, 
W  3. 

11.  frsrfr  C  1,   C  2,  C  3,   C  6,   Ml, 
M  4,  S;  Durga  &  S'ivadatta. 

^.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  48. 

U.  RV.  X.14.  l;cf.AV.  18.  1.49. 


\  s 


en  I 


\\ 


C  4,   C  5,  C  7,  M  3, 
Mi,  W  1,  W2,  W3. 

*.  5TOT*  TOtfiroft  C  1,  C  2,  C  3, 
C  6,  M  1,  M  4,  R  2,  R  3,  R  5,  S. 

^.  RV.  I.  66.  7. 
V.  RV.  I.  66.  8. 
f .  RV.  I.  66.  9. 

^.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  66.  8.  p.  i.  325. 
is  omitted  by  Roth. 

^T:5T^T  is  omitted  by 
BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi, 
R  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  &  Durga. 


C  4,     C  5,    M  3,    Mi. 
W  2,  W  3. 

So.  The  quotation  is  untraoed. 

11.  RV.  VI.  59.  2. 

!*.  RV.  X.85.  40;  AV.  14.  2.3. 

n.  Of.  SRV.  I.  66.  8.  p.  i.  325. 

IV.  The  passage  ^sra^r «mnTO 

is  quoted  by  SRV.  I.  66.  lO^p,  i. 

326.    . 

^.  snfa&:  04,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  3.  Of.  SRV.  I.  15»>,  1. 
p.  i.  667. 

M  3. . 


:  t»  i£K  R  f*i 


*TT 


^TT 

i 


n 


n 


RV.  III.  59.  1. 

SRV.   III.  59.    1.  p. 


ii.  328. 

3Wi:  01,   OS,  03,  06,  Ml, 
M  4,  R  2,  R  3,  R  5,  S. 


is      omitted     by 


Durga.    The  entire  passage 
3RT^  ......  ^RStfri    «    quoted    by 

SRV.  III.  59.  1.  p.  ii,  328. 


*.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  47. 

.  RV.  X.  121.  1;  AV.   4.  2.  7;  VS. 
13.  4;  23.  1;25.  10. 

.  N.  2.  23.    Cf.  BD.  ii.  51. 

.  ^^;CJ  1,0  2,06^1^4,8, 
Durga  &  S'iradatta. 

.  RV.  VII.  96.  5. 

.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  50. 

.  RV.X.  82.  2;  VS.  17.26. 


5T5TT 


?^^  i  Pt  i 


43«nlui 
i  cf3fi*i«ri  R^  ^sraftr  \ 


;  gtaif? 


II  R^  II 


SRRT 


11  ^  11 


II 


-t*  C£.  SRV.  X,  82.  2.  p.  IV.  247  : 


W  2,  W  3. 

A.  cn^RT^  C  1  ,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  C  7, 

M  1,  M  4,  S. 

V.  The  passage  flwp??f-....W5rfer  is 
quoted  by  SRV.  X.  81.  1.  p.  IV. 
244.  Of.  S'B.  XIII.  7,  1. 

<«.  RV.  X.  81.  1;VS.  17.  17. 


^.  RV.    X.  81.  6;   SV.  2.  939;   VS. 

17.  22. 

».  Quoted   by    SRV.    X.   81.   6.   p. 
IV.  246. 

.c.  N.  8.  13. 

^  Cf.  BD.  ii.  58. 

lo.  RV.  X.  178.  1 ;  AV.  VII.  85.  1; 

SV.  1.  332. 

»1.  SRV.  X.  178.  1.  p.  IV.  503: 
is  omitted  by  Sayana. 


n  ^  n 
wrfsra:  sresr  <rarf    $r 


:    I 


n 


Irt  I 


1.  «W*  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  3. 

*.  KV.  X.  178.  3. 

\.  Quoted  by  SRV.  X,  178.  3.  p.  IV. 

504. 

».  Cf.  BD.  ii.  53. 

H.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  07, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  E  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 


$.  Quoted  by  SRV.  II.  24.  2;  X, 
83.  1;87.  13;  pp.  ii.  70;  IV.  249. 
275. 

vs.  JT??j?9lo  Iloth. 

<z.  ^s^r^j^rf^f^;  is  omitted  by 
Durga. 

<*.  RV.  X.  84.  1;  AV.  4.  31.  1. 

10.  Cf.  SRV.  X.  84.  1.  p.  IV.  251, 

11.  N,  2.  27, 


SRHT 


5TcT^TT 


\\ 


I 


l  I 


1.  EV.  IV.  38.  10. 

*.  Omitted  by  BK,   C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 

Kn,   M  3,   Mi,   R  8,   W  1,   W  2, 

W3. 
^.  Of.  BD.  ii.  62. 

Of.  S'B.  I.  1.2.  17. 


V.  KV.  X.  149.  1. 

4.  o*n?«r?r  c  4,  c  5,  c  7,  M  3,  Mi, 

W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

$.  Quoted  by  SRV.   X.    149.   1.   p. 
IV,  467, 


C  4,  C  5,   M  3, 


Mi,  W  1,  W  3. 

Of  KB.  vii.  6. 


4,  C  5,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3  ;  ff  is  corrected  to  ^  ia 
07. 


RV.  X.  149.  5. 

Quoted  by  SRV.  X.  150.  5.  p,  IV. 

468. 


J  I  fflMl 


SHIT: 


II 


II  ^  II 


g 

:  I  cf^'TT  ¥C^T  II  V*. 


3TT 


1.  N.  8. 13. 

^.  RV.  III.  55.  19;AV.  18.1.5. 
^.  oJr^^C4,   05,07,   M3,   Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

V.  •qififcO*,  05,  07,  M  3,  Mi, 

W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
M.  EV.   X.  186.   1;  SV.   1.   184;  2. 

1190. 

*.  SR*T  ft  C  4,  0  5,  0  7,   M  3,  Mi, 

Wl,  W2,W3. 
».  N.  7.  14. 
24 


*.  KV.  I.  19.  1;  SV.  1.  16. 

*.  Quoted  by  SRV.   I.  19.   1.  p.  i. 

107. 

10.  anw*  0  4,  0  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi; 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

Of.  BD.  iii.  76. 

11.  RV.  I.  19.  9;  VIII.  3.  7;  AV.  20. 

99.  1;  SV.  1.  256;  2.  923. 

^.  Quoted  by  SRV.  IX.  73.  2;  97.  22; 
X.64.  2.  pp.  iii.  717,  782;  IV.  193; 
Of.  BD.  ii.  52. 


'O1^  m  ^' 


ftd^r  11 


i  STPT 


rrf^rft 


II  ^  II 


n 


:  II 


H  «l  n 


^.  RV.  X.  123.  1 ;  VS.  7.  16. 

3.  Omitted  l)y  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  07, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  11  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3. 

^.  ?%  C  4,  C  5,  0  7,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

S,  Cf.  BD.  ii.  54. 
^.  Op.  cit.  VII.  93. 
f[.  RV.  X.  59.  5. 


vs.  RV.  X.  123.  5;AV.  5.  3.  7. 
*.  N.  2.  25;  3.  4;  4.  9;  6.  22. 
^.  ^teT  Roth, 
o.  RV.  IV.  23.  8. 

.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

2. 


j  i  [  T3"^5%<i:  i  ] 


I 

i   ?r:  I  sr^rn  i  ^RCT:  i  ^5:  i 
u*\\*i\  TTCTT  «TT  MtoiMdr  ^r  i  TOr^nr  *T«rf^r  11  y^  11 


it 


11  «^  n 


it 


9.  RV.  I.  129.  6. 

*.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  07, 
KD,  M3,  Mi,  R8,  W 1,  W  2, 
W  3 ;  added  on  the  margin  in 
0  7 ;  explained  by  Durga. 

^.  Cf.  BD.  i.  17;  VIII.  129.  . 

V.  RV.  X.  121. 10;  AV.  7.  80.  3;  VS. 
10.  20;  23.  65. 

M.  qft  arfa  *nj*r  c  4,  c  5,  c  7,  M  3, 

Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
*.  N.  2.  17. 

7. 

3,  W2; 
0  7; 


i.  RV.  Vlt  34.  16 

.  ^prifo  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,   MS, 

Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
.  Omitted  byBK,  C  4,  05.  C  7,  Kn, 

M  3,  Mi,  B  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


«  omitted   by  BK,    04, 
0  5,  C  7,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 
Cf.  SRV.   VII.  34.    16.  p.   iii.  80: 


cf.  also  VII.  6.  7.  p.  iii.  19. 


i; 


'  sr    ssn  i 


11  w*  n 


if  fft  qn   ft 


JTT 


\\  ^ 


II 


^  ft  M^H  (^  i 


5TTcfT 


T  I  *T  ^J  TTTcTT 


1  5HT 


[  ^SflJj-TT*  ]    ^' 


:  u 

«TT  I  3TTMT 
»  I 


3. 
Cf.  BD.  V.  166. 

RV.  VII.  34.  17;  of.  V.  41.  16. 
N.  4.  3;  7.  24. 
RV.  X.  114,  4, 


C  1,  C  2,  C  6,  M  4,  R  2,  R  3, 

S;  Roth  &  S'ivadatta. 
».  Cf.  BD.  ii.  59. 
*.  RV.  X.  95.  7. 
<*.  Omitted  by  BK,   C  4,   05,   07, 

Kn,   M3,Mi,  R  8,    W  1,   W  2, 

W3. 


* 


t  g 

STT  ^1   srfer 


II 


*  II 


li 


Small  figure    on  this  page  represents  the 
tenth  chapter  of  the  ffirukta. 


corresponding  section  of  the 


\\  %  n 


rmt 


wnt  II 


I  ^          ^^FC  I  STJ     ^  ^5  I 

I  <T^^^T  ^fforo^u:  I  nrtiqr^Tn^a  ^%nn  ^  frr  ^rr  i 
3T  i  ^  ^ft?T^T   rr  snrj   ?[%   i 


i  ^Jto 


N.  4.  24. 
KV.  IV.  26.  7. 

2. 
:  M  3. 


:  Both. 


M  3,  W  2. 


^.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  07, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  B  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

».  Omitted  by  0  2. 

<s.  BV.  IX.  1.  1 ;  SVt  1.  468;  2.  39; 
VS.  26.  25. 

*.  BV.  X.  85.  3;  AV.  1  .  1.  3. 


\  gr^s   err  i  OSTSI  m  11  «  II 
^T  3fr    frKN  <r   an  ^{q     4:  i 


i  ^     *HcTr  i 
:  i  ^rrsrsrei  vr^%  i  ^r^  3       i 


II  ^  H 


^Hfoiff:  n 

I 


.  RV.  X.  85.  5;  of.  AV.  14.  1.14. 
.  Of.  BD.  VII.  144. 
M   3  ; 


,  0,507,  Mi,  Wl, 


W  3. 

V.  Cf.BD.  VII.  129B. 
1.  ^  ^:  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi, 

W  1,  AV  2,  W  3. 
$.  Quoted  by  SRV.  VI.  65.   2.  p.  ii. 

86. 

w.         M  3. 


c  4,  c  5,  c  7,    M  3,  Mi, 

W  1,   W  3;   ^rsrffl  is   corrected  to 
on  the  marin  in  M  3. 


<*..  Cf.  BD.  VII.  129  (  B  ). 
•jo.  RV.  X.  85.  19;  cf.  AV.  7.  81.  2. 
H.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  GO.    ' 

K.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  MS,  Mi,  R8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

^.  RV.  X.  18.  1;  AV.  12.  2.  21;  VS. 

35.  7. 


n 


*  i 


35 


n  t  \\ 


:  n 


n 


n 


2. 

RV.  I.  155.  2.  The  text 

!   is  regarded  as  spu 


rious  by  Both.    It  is  given  how- 
ever by  MSS.    of  both   the  recen- 
sions   but    is    ignored     by     the 
commentator  Durga. 
N.  7.  21. 

BV.  X.  50.  1;  VS.  33.  23. 


.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  05,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

•  *f><?*rR[q-  ^TffHTil  is  omitted  by 
Durga. 

.  JRW  S'ivadatta. 

°sr^8ir^  M  3. 

o.  RV.  VII.  76.  1. 

C4,  C  5,   M   3,   Mi, 


Wl,  W2,  W3. 
.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  57. 


f  >jfl  Ri 


n 


c|T 


i  ^^:    wrt     i 

:  I  fir-£lUflTT^T:  il  ?R  I! 

^  ^T^f^f  1    ?T^^t 
I  ^m^TTT  ^RffrT  II  ^  II 


:  n 


J  I 


1.  **Tf$f£n*C  4,  C  5,  C  7,   M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

^.  Of.  AV.  7.  17.  2:       . 


,  05,   07,   Mi,   Wl, 


:  u 


c  4,  c  5,  M  3,  Mi,  w  i, 


W  3. 


V. 


T:  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 


M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


*  04,   05,   M3,  Mi, 
1,  W  3. 

is  omitted  by  W  2. 


BV.  X  167.  3. 
25 


.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  07, 
Kn,  MS,  Mi,  E8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3. 

.  3f8rrTCT&0iV  is  given  as  a  variant 
by  Durga. 

:  is  given  as  a  variant 


by  Durga. 


«. 


C  4,  C  5. 


RV.  I.  88.  1. 


.  Quoted  by  SBV.   I.   88.   1.  p.  i. 

392. 

.  N.  10.  5. 


§ 


%  srfl  35      n 

s  I     rarclW   ^TJTst  I     q*    ^ 


^rmfit 


i  ^JTSTT  3T 


n 


1.  EV.  V.  57.  1. 
0  1. 


omitted  by  Durga. 


s 


V.  Quotted   by   SR  V.   I.    20.  4.  p.  i. 

110. 
<<.  RV.  I.  110.  4. 


0  1,  C  2,    0  3,  0  6,  M  4, 
S  ;  Both  «b  S'ivadatta. 

.  Quoted  by  SRV.   Ill,  60,  4.  p.  ii. 
332. 


<s.  Omitted   by   BK,   04,   05,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

OL.  Of.  BD.  iii.  83  ; 

of.  SRV.  I.  110.  2,  4.  pp.  i.  480-1. 

10.  Cf.  3D.  iii.  89  B; 

of.  SRV.  I.  111.  4.  p.  i.  485. 

11.  Quoted  by  SRV.    I.  161,    11.  p.  i. 
682. 

13.  RV.  I.  161.  11. 

U.  N.  3.  17. 

1V.  RV.  X,  62,  5, 


o  j 


sir  i 


«*IWIUU5  I 


fl^frlT  I)  ^3  II 


I  4d   '      I  ^ 

:  i 


fta    5^'t  H 

*  I 


t  i 


i     ^    o4Ti3i:  i 
i  rTfsrfit^j  i 


5  I 


N.  4.  21. 

RV.  X.  15.  1  ;  AV.  18.  1.  44;  VS. 
19.  49. 

Quoted  by  SBV.  VI.   75.  10.  p. 
ii.  890. 

mui5^:  C  4,   C  5,  C  7,    M  3, 
Mi.Wl,  W2,W3. 

4,C5,  C7,M3,   Mi, 


W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 
,Cf.  BD.  VI.  155: 
*M  -H^M+iT 


N,  3,  17. 


.  N.  4.  21. 
.  N.  3.  17. 

Roth. 
.  RV.  X.  14.  6  ;  AV.  18.  1.  68. 

.  Quoted  by  SRV.   I.   62.   4.  p.  i. 

306. 


is  placed  between  ^  and 
4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi, 


W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


4,  C  5,   07,  M3,Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

RV,  VII.  33.  8. 


I    *T«  I  3.N4HI 


eft  I 


:  I  dl'UUlf^ft: 


cf^TT 


i  w  in  » 


I 


3.  RV.  X.  120.  6;  AV.  20.  107.  i). 

3.  Quoted  by  SRV.  X.  120.  8.  p.  IV. 
399. 

^.  N.  4.  22,  23. 
v.  gTOft  0  7. 
«i.  RV.  X.  64.  5. 

*.  Wfor  pr^r  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  \V  2,  W  3.  &  SRV.  X.  64. 
5.  p.  IV.. 194. 

«.  Quoted  SRV.  loo.  cit. 


1,   02,    03, 
06,  M  1,M  4,8;  Roth. 

<<.  RV.  I.  12.   9;  SV.  2.  I9G  ;  VS.  6. 
23. 

:  0  2. 


I.  The  quotation  is  untraoed. 
Durga  attributes  it  to  the  devatti' 
stalvavidah  i.  e.  persons  who 
know  the  reality  of  deity. 

t.  RV.  X.  72.  4. 


fe  (d1^^  rfr  I 


II  p.3  II 


I    3TT*T 


[  vft%  ] 


I  cT^TT 


II  H'4  II 


I  <%<    \ 

I 


wrolf  arar: 


II 


«FT 


I    fT^T  ffrt 


11  R^  n 


1.  Quoted  by  SRV.   X.  72.  4.  p.  IV. 

225. 

*.  Cf.BD.  IV.  18. 

^.  11 V.  I.  94,  15. 

V.  <rer*Tt  C  4,   C  5,   C  7,    M  3,    Mi, 


W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

5.  3T«TT?Tfecj^  ^  ^>  ^  ^»  0  7,  M  3, 
Mi,  AV  1,  AV  2,  AV  3. 

i.  g$*w5"ft   vrq^   is   omitted    by   j 
Lhirga. 

».  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  07, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
AV  3. 

:.  Of.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  62.  3.  p.  i. 
305. 


*.  RV.  X.  108.  1. 

.  SWT5  C  4>  C  5>  c  7»  M  3>  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3 ;  SRV.  X,  108.  1. 
p.  IV.  361. 

.  Quoted   by   SUV.   I.    03.  4.   p.  i. 

312. 

.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  11G.  15.  p.  i. 
519. 

.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  112.  12.  p.  i. 
490;  of.  also.  V.  53.  9.  p.  ii.  618. 

.  Durga  adds  the  following: 


.  RS-  3 


[  srr*. 


5f5 


I  3^T  cf 


ii 


I  TOTT 


II  R^  II 


T  3T3T        %  T^fff^T  I 


J  I  cff 


5.  RV.  I.  3.  10;  SV.  I.  189;  VS.  20. 
84. 

*.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  3.  10.  p.  i.  39. 

^.  EV.  1.3.  12;  VS.  20  86. 

».  ^cfTWTfao   C  4,    C  5,   C  7,    M  3, 


Mi,  W  1,  W2,  W3. 
<*.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  3.  12.  p.  i.  40. 
*.  N.  2.  23. 
».  RV.  VIII.  100.  10. 
t.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  07, 


Kn,   M3,   Mi,   R8,   W  1,   W  2, 

W3. 

Quoted  by  SRV.  VIII.    100.    10. 
p.  iii.  589. 

RV.  VIII.  100.  11. 

:  SRV-  vni-  10°-  !!•  P- 


iii.  590. 


C  4,   05,   07,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  3. 

Quoted  by  SRV.  loc,  cib, 


m- 


5  I 


^TT 


:  i   m^r  sr  *rar  i 


il  ^  II 


T«      nr  i 
J  i  ^^ 


Roth 
^.  AB.   VII.    11.  2  ;   GB.  IT.    1.  10  ; 

Sad.  B.  IV.  6;  cf.  KB.  III.  1.  KS. 

XII.  8:    q\   rgfi   <?T<foTT*ft   ^fTgJf 

%qiTTTT  *TT  ^T^T  I   Schroeder's  ed. 

vol.  i.  p.  170. 
^  Durga  reads  :  ^ 
V.  VS.  34.  8;cf.  AV.  7.20.2: 


,  07,  M  3,  Mi,  Wl, 


W  2,  W  3, 


II 


f  C.7. 

».  RV.  II.  32.  4;  AV.  7.48.1. 
<5.  AB.    VII.    11.   3;  GB.  II.  1.  10; 

Sad.  B.  IV.  6;  cf.  KB.  III.  1.  KS. 

XII.  8: 


vol.  i.  p.  170. 


:  I  Schroeder's  ed. 


^    C  5»    C  7>    M  ^    Mi» 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

.  RV.  II.  32,  6;  AV.  7.  46.  J;  VS. 
34.  10. 


??. 


3  o  o . 


i  'j^sra    i  ^3^1:  ^^TTJ  ^TETRTJ  I 
I  *n  r^r  ^TRTOfSr  ^nsr  i  ^r^rr  ?j  ST^TT  i 
^    I  srsrf  ^  ^tfif  fr^t  ?r:  i 


«n  i 


07TT  VTcTTrT  II  ^  II 


?TT 


?r«      r    f 


ti  ^^  u 


5R»f  f^^  I 


II  \%  11 


n     n 


1.  ^g^:     ^^mgr:     is     omitted    by 
Durga. 


M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3  ; 

t      ^   ^» 
Roth. 

T   is   omitted  by 


Durga. 
V.  oTHC  4,  0  5,  M  3,   Mi,  \1, 


4,C5,C7  M3,Mi,Wl, 
W  2,  W  3. 


»  omitted 

by  Durga. 

gf  ^  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  1,  M4, 

S  ;  Roth  &  S'ivadatta.       • 

MS.  IV.  12.  6.  Of.  AV.  7.  47.  1  \ 


r 


N.  10.  19. 

RV.  X.  10. 14;  cf.  AV.  18.  1.  16. 

S'iva. 


N.  5.  13. 


:  stltff 


I  ^5TTcf:  ^fSTT^f^*  I 
S^T^TTcTT  I  cT^IT 


I  cf^TT 


I)  ^  II 


:  f4 


*.  RV.  X.  95.  10. 

*.  N.I.  13,  14. 
V.  RV.  V.  84.  1. 

<*e  Omitted   by  BK,  04,  06,   07, 
Kn,   M  3,   Mi,   R  8,   W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 
26 


$.  RV.  X.  86.  11;  AV.  20.  126.  11. 
».  srrot  M  3,  W  2. 


RV.  X.  86.  12;  AV.  20.  126.  12. 

fcq^afd  is  given  as  a  variant  by 
Durga. 


i  sr*Tcft  ^?ft  i 
*?:.  i  srs 


s  ^33:1  SIN 


\\ 


-  ^rg^rr 
I  C^T: 


I  cT^TT  Q^TT  VT^      H  U\  II 


?     ?H  f<Rf     1   fis 

IT?  ^  "Rlfif  J  II 


.  RV.  I.  164  41;  cf.  AV,  9.  10.  21. 
1.164,  41.  p.  i. 


715. 
^.  Quoted  by  SRV.  loc.  cit. 

V.  EV.I.  164.42;AV.  9.  10.  22;  13. 
i.  42. 


M.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  164.   42,  p.  i. 

716. 

$.  N.  2.  5. 
».  RV.  I.  164.  28;  of.  AV.  9.  10,  6. 

AV  2. 
W    2;   Off^T^To   C    1, 


02,03,   06,  Ml,  M4,S;  04, 
0  5,  W  1,  W  3,  and  Roth. 


^TT 


:  i 


IT 


ft  Tig  ?H%T  ^g  l5*itof  n 


^TT 


HT 


i 


1.  RV.  I.   164.  26;  AV.   7.  73.  7;  9. 
10.4. 

04,   05,   07,   M3,    fc;4| 
'1,  W  2,  W  3. 

(.  RV.  1.164.  40;  AV.  7,   73.  11;  9. 
10.20. 


715;  dc  Roth. 


Quoted  by  SRV.  loc.  cit. 

27;  AV.  7.  73,  8;   9. 

Quoted   by  SRV.  X.   59.  7.  p.  iy, 

RV.  X.  G3.  16. 

N.  2.  18. 


3RNT 


ft  TOff 


«  I 


STRTT  i  [ 


t  I  ]  " 


n  ^  n 


1.  RV.  IV.  30.  10. 

*.  The  passage  SR: 
is  omitted  by  Durga. 

*.  BV.  IV.  30.  11. 

V.  N.  8.  7. 

S'ivadatta. 
:  C  7,  M  3. 
it.  RV.V.41. 19. 
c.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  07, 


Kn,   M  3,   Mi,  R  8,   W  1,   W  2, 

3; 


is  added  on  the  margin  in  C  7. 

*.  ^Nn  C  7. 

^o.  Quoted  by  SRV.  X.  64.  10.  p.  iv, 
195. 

11.  Cf.  SRV.  V.  41.  19.  p.  ii.  582. 

«*.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  05,  07, 
Kn,  M3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W2, 
W3. 


5  3 


t  II 


1.  RV.  V.  56.  8. 

*.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  Kn, 
M  3,  Mi,  E  8,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

\.  «rnpmr:  o  4,  o  5;  07,  M  3,  Mi, 

W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


V.  Small  figure  within  brackets  re- 
presents the  corresponding  section 
of  the  eleventh  chapter  of  the 


I)  ^  i! 


fMi  ^T^T:  I 


1.  Cf.  S'B,  IV.  1.  5.  16. 


3.  Cf.  BD.  VII.  126;  Quoted  by 
SRV.  I.  92.  1;  112.  1;  181.  4; 
184.  3;  X.  106.  5.  pp.  i.  416,  486, 
764,  771;  IV.  354. 

\.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  89.  3.  p.  i. 
396. 


M  3. 
.  The  quotation  is  not  traced. 


S'ivadatta  adds  the  following 
passage  after  oMK^rfll  as  the  text 
in  some  of  the  MSS.,  which  have 
however  not  been  specified. 


^•5*^  "I 

cGZiszi  Roth. 
RV.  I.  181.  4. 


f^f 


f^f  ^1:    f: 


J  I      ";        <4>jiHi»ti  ^T«u  <4  r«-«<  i  I 


[  f^&  ] 


[  j 


II  ^  II 


SRV.  I.  181.  4.  p.  i.  764. 

RV.  loc,  cit. 
^.  Quoted  by  SRV.  loo.  rife. 
V.  RV.  I.  22.  1. 
<t  RV.  V.  77.  2. 

*.  RV,  I.  92.   13;  SV.  2.  1081;  VS. 
34,  33. 


».  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  07, 
Xn,  W  3,  Mi,  R8,  Wl,  W2, 
W3. 

<:.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  3VI  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3;  and  SRV.  1.92.  13.  p.  i. 

415. 

*>.  Quoted  by  SRV,  loc.  cit, 


SIT 


sn  d 


untt:  \\ 


:  t 


li  vs  II 


3TT 


I  cf^IT 


II  ^  II 


^.  EV.  I.  92.  1;  SV.  2.  1105. 

^.  Quoted  by  SRV.   I.  2.  6;  III.  58. 

9.  pp.  i.  32;  ii.  328. 
^.  RV.  X.  34.  5. 
».  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.  92.   1.  p.  i. 

410. 

H.  RV.  X.  85.  20;  cf.  AV.  14.  1.  61. 
*.  §*Tfc3  M  3. 
».  Of.  AB.  IV.  7.  1;  cf.  KB.  XVIII. 

L 


RV.  X.  86.  13;  AV.  20.  126.  13. 

Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  07, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3.  &  SRV.  X.  86.  13.  p.  IV. 

269. 


The    entire  passage 


is  quoted  by 
SRV.  loc.  cit.  The  intervening 
words  ^STO-.^Sin^*^  Wf  are 
omitted. 


11  ^  11 


srr 


:  i  *nr 


]'° 


n  U  n 


1.  RV.  X.  17.  2, 

^.  ajc^]tf«j  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,   Ml, 
M  4,  S;  Roth  &  S'ivadatta. 

V  Cf.  BD.  VII.  7. 
V.  Cf.  op.  cit.  VI.  162,  163. 
M.  Cf.  op.  cit.  VII.  1. 
*.  Cf.  op.  cit.  VII.  3,  4. 
19.  Cf.  op.  cit.  VII.  6. 
4.  Cf.  op.  cit.  VII.  2. 
27 


^.  RV.  X.  17.  1;  AV.  3.  31.  5;  18.  1. 

53. 

30.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  05,  07, 
Kn,  M3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

11.  N.  10.  31. 

«.  RV.  V.  81.  2;  VS.  12.3. 

2. 

3;   og^  C  4,   05, 

C  7,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


w  I  cTOT 


i*i  I  r^  I 


i 


n 


[  err  ] 


^.  TS.  V.  5.  22.  1. 
:>.  YS.  24.  1—40. 


Of.  Vasistha    Dh.  Sut.  XVIII.  17, 
18; 


Cf.  also  Karka  on  Paraskara  grbya 
su.  I.  4: 

^T:—  -?TOT 


Cf.  Vis'varupacarya  in    his  Bala- 
kridd    on     Yajfiavalkya     I.      56: 

r  TTJTT 


Cf.  KS.  XXII.  7: 


VS.  24.  35;  TS.  V.  5.  18.  1. 
VS.  24.  1—40. 


3. 

N.  3.  16. 

RV.  VIII.   41.  2;   VS.  34.    35;  cf. 
AV.  3.  16.  2. 

Roth. 


Cf.  KB.  VI.  13: 


i 

cf.   S'B.   I.  7.  4.    6: 


Cf.  GB.  n.  i.  2: 
^JTf^r  I 


Omitted  by  BE,  C  4,  C  5,  €  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

Omitted  by  Roth. 


n  w  H 


ftohr  g     n 


.^  H  •=< 


I  J 


II  ^  II 


n 


1.  Cf.      PMbh.     vol.     II.     p.     8G: 


*.  Cf.  BD.  VII.  128.  (B). 

^.  RV.  I.  50.  1;  AV.  13.  2.  16;  20. 
47.  13;  SV.  1.  31;  VS.  7.  41;  8.  41; 
33.  31. 

V.  Cf.  SRV.  I.  50.  1.  p.  i.  248: 


.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3. 

.  RV.  I.  115.  1;  AV.  13.  2.  35;  20. 
137.  14. 

.  Omitted  by  BK,  C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 

.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  63. 
;.  RV,VI,  58.  1;SV.1.73. 


:  <?K<n3r 


i  ^r  «ft 


VU  ft 


i  [ 


i  ] 


[  qr^  ] 

qtg^  f^  q^  »r  ^sprar  ^r  i  ql^r^;  qr|:  ^r?cr  ^  ^r  I  q^TTJ 

T  I  W*4r  SFreftfa  4!  II  ^  II 


II  ^°  II 


KV.  VI.  49.  8;  VS.  34.  42. 

STTO^T^^  C   l>   C  2>   °  3>   C  6» 

M  4,  S;  Roth  &  S'ivadatta. 

Cf.  BD.  ii.  69. 

BV,  I.  22.  17;  AV.  7.  26.  4. 

Omitted  by  BK,   C  4,   C  5,   C  7, 

Kn,   M  3,   Mi,   R  8,   W  1,  W  2, 

W3. 

Cf.  BD.  ii.  64. 

C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,   M  4, 
SRV.  I.  22.  17.  p.  i.  120. 


>.  Omitted  by  SRV.  loo.  cit.  For 
the  reading  of  the  longer  recen- 
sion, see  note  <:. 

SRV.  loc.  cit. 

r:  C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

^.  The     passage:     f^rcujflf ^r^ cir •••••• 

SR^ffrfa  WT  is  quoted  by  SRV. 
loc.  cit. 

*.  N.  7.  21. 

<.  RV.  VIII.  68.  4;  SV.  1.  364 
Roth. 


^  V.  ] 


:  I 


wr       rr^  n  R^  n 

fai 


i  sr^rfr 


n 


1.  N.  10.  3. 

*.  BV.  I.  50.  6;  AV.  13.  2.  21  ;  20. 
47.  18;  VS.  33,  32. 


M  3. 


V.  ^T  01,   C2,C3,   C6,M4,S; 
&  S'ivadatta. 


The   passage 

qj^ft  is  omitted  in  W  2;  but  added 

on  the  margin. 

Cf.  SBV.  I.  50.   6.  p.  i.  250: 


»."  RV.  I.  50.  6. 

<.  RV.  I.   50.  7;  AV.   13.  2.  22;  20. 

47.  19. 

^.  %fa  C  4.  C  5,  C  7,  M  3,  Mi,    W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

lo.  RV.  I.  50.  6. 

«.  RV.  I.  50.  5;  AV.   13.  2.   20;  20, 

47.  17, 


II  ?&  II 


m  vw    II 

.0 


]* 


II  ^  11 


fihrf 


3T 


\vm  sim  =32 

—         —  {  J»Tr* 

is  omit  ted  by 


II 


Durga. 


omitted  by  BK, 
C  4,  C  5,  C  7,  Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3.  . 

Omitted   by   C  1,   02,   03,06, 
M  1,  M  4,  R  2,  R  3,  R  5,  S. 


V.  °fto  W  2. 
^.  RV.  I.  50.  6, 
$c  Cf.  BD.  ii.  65: 

ftw  f^^^r  ^ftnf  ^j: 


.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  07, 
Kii,  M3,  Mi,  R8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3. 


. 


RV.  X.  136.1. 


^.  Omitted   by   BK,   04,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,   M  3,   Mi,  R  8,   W  1,   W  2, 

W3. 

jo.  Cf.  BD.  i.  94;  ii,  65. 

11.  aroWcJl,  C2,C3,  Co,   Ml, 

M  4,  R2,  RLJ  R  5,  S. 

«.  RV.  I.  164.  44;  AV.  9. 10.  26. 


:  <jp:r=f 


qr? 


:  II 


%$  ^r- 


n  R^»  n 


3.  The  whole  passage  5fq-: 

is  quoted   by  SRV.  I.   164.  44.  p. 

i.  716. 
^.  Cf.  BD.  ii.  67. 

V  *^N|  Roth- 
».  RV.  X.  86.  21;  AV.  20.  126.  21. 
<*.  Omitted  by  W  2. 
*.  fT^T%  Roth   &  SRV.  X  86.  21. 
p.iv.  271. 


The    passage  gsr^nf^--.^^  <J5f: 
is  quoted  by  SRV.  loo.  cit. 

N.  10.  19. 
RV.  X.  135.  1. 


M  3; 
is  omitted  by  Durga. 

AV.  11.  4.  21. 


fpt  w  fttepr: 
sterar   5  4VPt: 


n 


« 


eflf?:«fli  i 


J  i 


i        sr  i 
i 


n  ^o  11 


qr^rert 


:  ftrlr^f 


1.  KV.  X.  65.  13. 

*.  Cf.  SRV.   X.  65.  13.  p.   iv.   201: 


.  RV.   X.   60.    3.   Durgca  remarks: 


V.  ^   is   omitted   &  added   between 
and          :  in  M  3. 


N.  1.  13,  14;  cf.  9.  31;  11.  36. 
RV.  1.  108.  10. 


.  N.  2.  10, 


.  RV.  IX.  73.  3. 
.  srr^nrasT:  C  7.  M  3. 

.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  C  5,  C  7, 
Kn,  M3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  ,W  2, 
W  3. 

.  Qmitted  by  Rotb. 

2. 


1 


^    i 


^mfir 


T^RfT 


:  i  [ 


i 


:  i 


N.  12.  29. 
N.  12.  30. 
loo.  oit. 

RV.  VI.  50.  H;  VS.  34.53. 
C  4,  C  5,  C  7, 


M  3, 


Mi,  W  15  W  2,  AV  3. 

N.  11.  18. 

°H?ITT^  M  3. 

Of.  BD.  iii.  121. 
EV.  I.  80.  16. 

QQ 


3- 


1  13 


:  n 


C  4, 

05,   07,   M3,  Mi,   W  1,   W  2, 
W3. 

.  N.  2.  13. 

.  11  V.  II.  27.  1;  VS.  34.  54. 

.  osnarrfapq:  C  6,  C  7;  S'ivadatta, 

.  Omitted  by  BK,  04,  05,  07, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 


R 


TT^cf  I  rT 


•  I 


l^fr  11 


:  11 


?.  N.  10,  26. 

*.  OT^T  ^  |A  Roth. 

^.  VS.  34.  55. 

V.  **  C  4,  C  5,  0  7,  M  3,  Mi,  W  1, 
W  2,  W  3. 

<*.  Cf.  AV.  10.  8.  9.  The  accent  of 
this  stanza  marked  by  Roth  and  S'iya- 
datta  differs  from  that  of  the  AY. 


l,   02,   03,  06,  Ml, 

M  4.  S;  Roth  &  S'ivadatta. 

».  W^qnOl,  C  2,  03,  06,   Ml, 
M  4,  S;  Roth  <fe  S'ivadatta. 

<:.  aiteftfa  0  4,  0  5,  0  7,   M  3,   Mi, 

W  1,  W  2,  AV  3. 
*..  N.  7.  15. 
0.  RV.  I,  89,  2;  VS.  25,  15. 


H  ^^  H 

SIT  *fa  I 

:        n 


:  i 


H  y<>  n 


:  II 


I  n*ji«*i*a  i 


f  frT 


.  Omittad  by  BK,  04,  05,  07, 
Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 


^.  Quoted  by  SBV.  1.89.   2.  p.  i. 
395. 

V.  KV.  I.  3.  7;  VS.  7.  33;  33.  47. 

<«.  *fN  C4,€5>C7IM3>MS>W1> 
W  2,  W  3. 

^.  Of.  BD.  ii.  128,  132,  133.  - 

».  The  term  f^rfeifH  is  used  in 
BD.  iii.  43. 

t.  Of.  SRV.  I,  3.  7.  p.  i.  38. 
^  KV.  VIII.  29. 
V».  W>«...3tfe3fT:    is  placed   after 


«nfw^%^ia  C  4,  05,  .07, 
M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3;  is 
omitted  by  Durga. 

^r?T:  ^nf^TT:  is  *^B  seer  of  RV. 
X.  106. 

Of.  BD.  VIII.   18;  of.  Sarvanu. 


.  RV.  III.  38. 

RV.  1.  164..  50;  X.  90.  16;  AV.  J. 

5.  1;  VS.  31.  16. 

.  Quoted  by  SRV.  I.   164.  50.  p.  i. 
719. 

,  Of.  AB.  L  16.  36,  38-40;  TS.  V.  7. 

26.  i:  s  t 


ii  y^  11 


H  y^  u 


C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  M  3, 
Mi,  R  2,  R  3,  R  5,  S. 

Roth. 
arspK  Durga  &  S'ivadatta. 


Of.  TS.  i.  4.  44.  2;  cf.  AV.  7.  97.  4: 


:  I 


Cf.VS,8.  18: 


.  ^j  Roth. 

.  RV.  VII.  39,  3. 

is  omitted   in  H   3,  but  is 


added  on  the  margin;  also  omitted 
by  Durga. 

S.  «*  M  3, 
}o.  N.  2.  28. 
11.  RV.  VII.  38.  7;  VS.  9.  16;  21.  10. 


5ft 


: 


I    37: 


jn* 


3T 


II 


n 


1.  os^r^  04,  05,  07,  M  3,    Mi, 
W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 


.  M  3. 

RV.  V.  46.  7;  AV.  7.  49.  1. 
Omitted  by  BE,  C  4,  0  5,  0  7, 


Kn,  M  3,  Mi,  R  8,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 


M  3. 

.  RV.  V.  46.  8. 

.  Quoted  by  SRV.  V.  46.  8.p.u. 
602. 


5T€nfrT!|  ^ 


I)  J 


ffo  cC«TrT  «M^«gTiTT^r  ^  HTTH^  II 


9.    Small  figure  within  brackets  represents  the  corresponding  section  of 
the  twelfth  chapter  of  the  Nirukta. 


SfsfaTT  31  frT4;rJfT*T 

vidi<4i»  i  'Eusfinfa'  n 

^4|  113^^ 

f^  *>.       r> 


srftr  3rr  ST 


?  ft  ^ 


MS.  Wilson  475  dated  Samvat 
1443  (=1387  A.  D.),  which  gives 
Durga's  cornm.  on  oh.  7-12  of  the 
fiirukta,  does  not  contain  the 
paria'ista.  Another  MS.  ( Mill. 
142.)  of  Durga's  comm.  on  both 
parts  of  the  Nirukta  ends  \vith 
ch.  12th  which  is  finished  on  f. 
123.  (355).  The  colophon  is  as 
follows:  sic.  ^fffT3iT?'4:  This  MS. 
is  dated  1839  A.  D.  4  does  not 
contain  the  paris'isfa. 

The  13th  ch.  is  written  continu- 
ously: ||  ?ft  ^  |1  &  g^in  etc. 
in  M  1;  with  simply  &  in  M  4, 
C  2;  with  IK  ||  in  C  6  and  S.  C  1 
is  incomplete;  and  C  3  separates 


the  13th  oh,  from  the  previous 
part;  the  numbering  of  the  leaves 
which  contain  the  13th  is  from 
the  beginning  of  the  MS3.  of  the 
shorter  recension,  M  3,  C  5, 
W  2  and  Mi,  write  the  13th  ch. 
continuously,  with  sft  or  ^»  at  the 
beginning.  C  4  separates  the 

isth  &  begins  ^?nft 


separates   &  begins:     «ft 

:  II;   W  3  separates  &  begins; 

II. 

Mi;  Roth. 
V.  EV.  II.  1.  1. 
<*.  RV.  II.  28.  6. 
*.  RV.  VIII.  59.  5. 
».  °£.  C  3. 


\  HJ 


:  it 


ft 

t  I  5^3  ^3  i 


:  n  y  II 


II 


sroft 


i,  C  3,  C  4. 


RV.  X.  86.  22, 


Identical   with   the   explanation 
given  :n  N.  1.  20. 

Quoted  SRV.  X,   8G.  22.   p.  iv. 
271. 

RV.  X.  86.  1. 

Quoted  in  N.  1.   4.  to  illustrate 
the  use  of   the  particle  na. 

.   05; 


M  1.  M  3. 


3. 

i  J  omitted  by  C  4. 
30.  Omitted  by  Durga. 
11.  RV.  X.  106.  6. 
1*.  SRV.  X  106.  6.  p.  iv.  354. 
*r  M  3,    Mi, 


2, 


t  M  3,  Mi,  W  2,  C  4,  C  5. 

.  This  entire  section  together  with 
6th  7th  and  8th  is  omitted  by 
the  Commentary  attributed  to 
Durga. 


II  ^  I! 


I  tff<f  gjrewhft  S 


Sft 


ii 


der 


TT^T 


I  fir«rr 


STF 
i 


ftfif 


n 


1.  RV.  IX.  58.  1. 
«.  SRV.  IX.  58.  1.  p.  iii.  664. 
\.  RV.  IV.  58.  3.  * 

V.  q$.  C  3.  of.  SRV.  IV.  58.  3. 
p.  ii.  492. 

*1.  Vl«fa.  0  3. 

».  Cf.  Gopatha  Brah.  I.  2.  16. 
It  appears  that  the  passage  in 
the  Nirukta  is  an  adaptation 
of  the  Brahmana.  ^ 
The  stanza  is  quoted  by  Patailjali 
in  the  introductory  part  of  the 
Mahabfidsya  and  is  interpreted 
with  reference  to  grammar  i.  e.  4, 
horns  Are  the  four  parts  of  speech, 
29 


noun,  verb,  preposition  <fc  particle; 
3  feet  are  the  3  tenses;  seven 
hands  are  the  seven  oases  and 
so  on. 

Cf.  S'abara  on  MimaMsa,  I.  2,  46* 
Cf.  also  Kumarila  in  his  Tantra,' 
vdrlika  on  the  same  sutra. 

;.  AV.  4.  14.  4;  VS.  17.  68. 

F*  1SP3  W  2,  C  5;  C  4  reads 
a    $f    being    added    on 

the 


The    comment          attributed    to 
Du        u  regumed  Qn  fche 

from  e'to, 


11,  RV,  I.  164. 


fffr 


ug«rnH;  i 


ell 


Cf.  S'B.  IV.  1.  3.  15,  16. 
3,  W  2,  Mi,  C  4. 
M3. 

>f  3,  03; 
Mi,  04;  ^Rfefnre  M  1,  M  4, 
02,  05,  C6,  W  1,  W2,  W  3; 
B,  B.  and  Gune  in  the  Bhand. 
comin.  vol.  p.  50. 

Cf.  PMbh.  i.  1.  1.  p.  i.  3. 

Cf.  MS.  I.  11.  5.  Alsocf.KS. 
XIV.  5,  wherQ  also  this  quotation 
ocoo  ,s  with  small  variants, 

BV.  1. 164.  30. 


3Tfafr<w  C  3. 
KB.  6.  12. 

r:  Mi,  W  2,  C  4,  C  5, 
^  M  3,  W  2,  C  4,  C  5. 

MS,  Mi,  W  2,  04,  05. 


M3,AV2,C3,C4,  C5; 
^f^'JTR'to    Mi; 

Ml; 


:  is  another  variant  given 


in  £. 


•  \  «f  3 


I^T  555 


:  i  s 


1,  C3;   mrtK4,.C.S,  I 

CO,  W  1,  W3;  Roth. 

^.  tn^TTSrt  M  3,  Mi,  W  2,  C  4,  C  5.  ' 

\.  trffeft  C  3. 

V.  Cf.  N.  1.  20;  2,  4. 

^.  Cf.  BD.    VIII.   129.     srsrciQFRT 
|    Cf.    also    ^S33  on 


.  N.  1.  1C. 


Vi.  SRV.X.  71..8.  p.  iv.  222. 

K.  lloth  does   not   repeat 

which  should  ba  done  as  the  e.vi- 
deuoe  of  Mss.  shows.  Mss.  of 
both  recensions  without  any  ex- 
ception repeat  anubhavati  which 
is  a  sure  indication  that  the 
chapter  is  concluded. 

t\.  M  4,  has  the  colophon  :  sio.   ||  $H^ 
^^  «ini:  II;  C  2^3  the  colophon: 


». 


C.  Cf.  Kumar  ila  Bhatta,  Tantra- 
varlika.  Benares  ed.  p.  132.  or 
I.  3.  7. 


EV.X.71,  8. 


is  missing  in  M  1, 
added  on  the  margin  in  a  diffe- 
rent handwriting. 


:  II  ^  II  ^^T  *Rf3  II 

S  <fc  C  6,  have  the  Colophon  : 
sic.  II  %fo  Or^fe  ^rf^^  *3*t- 
t^TTT:  II;  Mss.  of  the  shorter  re- 
cension have  the  following  colo- 
phon :  |  1^  |  jjw:  qT^:  |  M  3  ;  C  5, 
W  2,  W  3;  ||  ^  ||  ^ 

^:  II  C  4,  W  1  •  sic. 
5T«TH:  TF^.'  II 

In  the  introduction  to  his  com- 
mentary on  the  Rgve'da,  Sayana 
describes  the  Nirukta  as  foil  ws  : 


This  shows  that  by  the 
time  of  Sayana,  the  13th  section 
was  regarded  as  an  integral 
part  of  the  Nirukta.  That  this 
was  Sayana's  genuine  belief  is  | 
further  supported  by  his  frequent 
quotations  from  these  sections. 

Madhusudaua  SarasvatI  ( C. 
1560  A.  D.)  writes  in  his  com.  on 
the  Mahimnastotra,  s'loka  7  WiR'cTT 


A    summary   of   the     thirteen 
sections   is    added    as  *  follows:  — 


M  4,  C  2,  C  6,  S.  02  include 
this  summary  in  that  of  the 
following  37  sections  given  at  the 
end  of  the  last  section  of  the 
next  chapter.  Although  accord- 
ing to  the  colophon  'of  C  2  the 
13th  oh.  conies  to  an  end,  yet  no 
summany  of  its  contents  is  made. 
This  shows  that,  in  reality,  the 
13th  ch.  is  not  ended. 
M  1  begins  with  ^  but  it  does 
not  begin  every  ch,  with  &.  M  i 


begins  with  ^»,  and  every  oh.  is 
commenced  with  3fr.  The  text  is 
not  written  continuously  but  is 
separated  from  the  previous  part 
in  C  6. 

See  N.  7-12.  chapters. 
See  N.  13.  1-13. 
Fragment  of  RY.  I.  115.  1. 

qjSsfT  M  3,   C  5,  Seo.   Bib.  lad. 
IV.  368. 
Cf.  N.  7.  18. 

Bib.  Ind. 

M  1,  M  4,  C  2,  C  3,  0  6, 
SjE.  B.  Bib.  Ind. 
o,.  RV.  I.  164.  46. 

lo.  tf^r  C  3. 

«.  RV.  III.  26.  7. 

«.  ARS.  1.  9;TB.  2.  8.  8.  1;   TA.  9. 
10.  6;  TU.  3.  10.  6;Nrp.  U.  2.4. 

M.  \\  IS  II  3  IIM  1;  ||  W  M  C  2,  C  3; 
II  1  ||  M  4,  C  6,  S;  (I  ^  ||  of  the 
second  pada  M  3,  04,  C  5,  W  1, 
W  3;  W  2  places  the  figure 
II  W  ||  although  the  words  ^ft 
JT*W  *T!^:  are  written  after  the 
13th  section.  Mi  has  the  figure 
I1 1 1I IV  M.  This  will  indicate  the 
method  used  by  various  Mss.  in 
numbering  the  following  sections. 
B.  See  Bib,  Ind.  IV.  368. 


fin 


1.  sni^r:  M  1,   M  4,  C  2,   C  6,  W  1, 

S.  cf.  SV.  See.  Bib.  Ind.  loc.  oit. 
^.  ^TOWTMl,   M4,   02,  06,8. 

Both,  B;  ^qmT^  C  3,  see  Bib, 

Ind.  loc.  cit. 
^.  ARS.  I.  9;   TB.  2.  8.  8.  1;   TA.  9. 

10.  6;  TU.  3.  10.  6;  Nrp.  U.  2.  4. 

v.  ssrnr  nr^m  etc,  B. 


L. 


^.  I)  ^  n  M  4,  C  6,  S;  U  ^  I)  of  the 
second  pada  M  3,  C  4,  C  5,  W  1, 
W3;  ||  ^  ||  ^HllMi,  ||  ^^||  M  1, 
C  2,  C  3;  W  2. 

».  EV.I.  164.  31;  X.  177.  3. 

^.  Missing  in  the  text  but  added 
on  the  margin  in  a  different 
handwriting  in  M  1. 


:*  n 


n  i%  5  n 


J  1 


fir^rr 


Rofch.    see    Bib.    Ind. 
IV.  370. 

f%nciT3f^  M  1,  Roth,  see  Bib. 
Ind.  loc.  cit. 

1UII  M  4,  C  6,  S;  ||  ^||  of  the 
second  pada,  M  3,  C  4,  C  5,  W  1, 
W  3;  IU  II  1*  II  Mi;  j|  K  \\  M  1, 
C  2,  C  3;  W  2. 

Cf.  Manu.  I.  75. 

Cf.  Bh,  Glta.  VIII.  1C-19. 

Omitted  by  M  1. 

Cf.   Bh.  Gila.  VIII,  17;  of.  Manu 

i.  73;cf.  BD.  VIII.  98. 

||  v  II  M  4,  C  6,  S;  ||  «  ||  of  the 
second  pada  M  3,  C  4,  C  5,  W  1, 


W  3;   ||*|i  !*  II  Mi; 
C  2,  C  3;  W  2. 


M 


i  ^nzr  5n?T     TO 


gnn?  cnn^  I 


I 

I  WJTT    :<r^r:     ^r^r  i 
I  ^Rfr^n^J  I  ^TJ  srrar  i  ^rrs^T1  1 


J 

i  cTr^r^t 
vreflr  i  ^=gr~r^rT         TJ  i 


'  n 


sns  fq 


^f' 


M  3,   C  4,   C  5,   W  l, 
W  2,  W  3,  Mi 
.  See  Bib,  Ind.  IV.  372. 
.  ||  ^  ||  M  4,    C  6,    S;   ||  ^  ||  of   the 
second  pada  M  3,  0  4,  C  5,  W  1, 
W  3-   ||  <*  ||  ^H  II  Mi;    II  1M  ||  M  1, 
C  2,  C  3;  W  2. 

Bib.  Ind.  loc.  cit. 

3,   Mi,   W1,-W2, 
C  4;  o^renjH^  C  5. 
^.  Of.   AB.  ii.  5.    5;   iii,   3.  13.   see 

Bib.  Iiid.  IV.  373. 

»..  IPR^^   M  1,   M  4,   G  2,   C  3, 
C  G,  S,  R.  see  Bib,  lad.  IV.  373, . 


Cf.  the  Garbhopanisat.  4. 

Untraced. 

^^^T.  M  1.  M  4,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 

S,  R.  B. 

The  passage: 


is   almost   identical  with 
the  Garbhopanisat.  2-4. 

||  ^  (l  M  4,  C  6,  S;  ||  *  ||  of  the 
second  pada  M  3,  C  4,  C  5,  W  1, 
W  3;  ||  *  ||  «  n  Mi,  il  n  II  M  1, 
C  2,  C  3;  W  2. 


*raurrat 
i  s^TT^TT^fr  fit^r  1  T™* 


sr?rf 


rf  r    frn*T?R'vr^a'  i     m^rr^  i 


srr 


sr^rc 


M  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  G. 

M3,  Mi,   04,  C5.W1, 


v. 


H  3,   Mi,    C  4,  C  5,   W  1, 
W  2;  see  Bib.  Iiul.  IV.  375. 

ocfrfr^vrT^T0  ^Il>    M  4,   C  2,    C  3, 
C  6,  S;  I«. 

*V  r-  _.___....        Af       '1  AfJ          "\V     1 

W  2,  W  3,  C  4,  C  5, 

||  q.  ||   M  4,    C  6,    S:    ||  o,  I)   of  the 
second  pada  M  3,    C  4,  C  5,  W  1,  j 
W  3;   ||  vs  I)  Ro  ||  Mi;   II  Ro  u  M  1, 
C  2,  0  3;  W  2, 


o.  rf^r  ^T^r  is  omitted  by  M  3,    Mi, 
W1,W2W3C4C5. 


M  4,    C  6, 


of   the 


second  pada  M  3,  C  4,  C  5,   W  1, 

W3;  immilMi;    IRHI   M  1, 

C  2,  G  3;  W  2. 

||  o.  ||   M  4,   C  6,   S;    ||  ^  ||    of  tha 

second  pada  M  3,  C  4,  C  5,  W  3; 

II  ^  II  ^  II  Mi;    ||  ^  II   M  1,    C  2, 

C  3;  W  2.     The   ^ft  fgrrfcr:  g^: 

II  ^  II  ^  II  W  1. 

r,Y.  X.  82.    7;   VS.    17.    31;    TS. 

4.  6.  2.  2;   Ks,  18.  1;   Ms.    2.  10 

3;  135.  1. 


I  f  fir:  I  ^/S:  I  ftg:  i  ?g:  I  ^^:   I 


Ah 


i. 


3,  Mi,  c  4,  c  5,  w  i, 


W3. 


:  C  5,  C  4,  W  2;  3^:  M  1, 
M4,  C2,  C  3,  06,  S;  R.  ree 
Bib.  Ind.  IV.  380. 


:  M'3. 
ft 


^.  I)  ^o  ||  M  4,  C  6,  S;  II  1*  li  of  the 
second  pada  M  3,  C  4,  C  5,  W  3; 
II  *o  ||  ^  II  Mi;  II  ^  ||  Ml,  C  2, 
C  3;  W  2--||  3  ||  of  the  third  pada 
Wl. 

v».  Cf.  Ngh.  synonym  of  day.  I.  9; 
synonym  of  sacrifice  III.  17. 

«.  Ngh.  III.  17. 

^.  Synonym  of  wise,  Ngh.  III.  15; 
synonym  of  sacrifice,  Ngh.  III.  17. 

1o.  Synonym  of  wise,  Ngb.  III.  15. 
W.  Synonym  of  earth,  Ngh.  I.  1. 
«.  Ngh.  V.  5. 


.  Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.  I.  12. 

.  Synonym  of  atmosphere,  Ngh.  I. 
3;  of  water,  I  12;  terrestrial 
deities,  V.  3. 

.  Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.  I.  12; 
of  great,  III.  3. 

.  Synonym  of  atmosphere,  Ngh.  I. 
3;  of  quarter,  I.  6;  of  water,  1. 12. 

.  Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.  I  12;  of 
food,  II.  7;  of  wealth  II.  10. 

S.  Synpnym  of  water,  Ngh.  I,    12; 
of  happiness,  III.  6, 

.  Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.  I.  12;  of 
battle,  II.  17;  of  house,  III.  4. 

.  Synonym  of  wealth,  Ngh.  II.  10; 
of  truth,  III.  10. 

.  Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.  I.  12; 
of  house,  III.  4. 

.  See  note  1^.  Omitted  by  M  3S  C  4, 
C  5,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

.  Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.  I.  12;  of 
wealth,  II.  10. 


.  vi=*v.  **.  J 


:  ' 


font*  i  ft*  i  if 

ifar:  I  fa^:  I  ante;  I 

1  5fcfar 

I  ^4%  I 


:  i  «$«  i  «twf  i  $Mi       :  i       i  i 

8  4SJ  :  I  f  erf:  I  3^  I  ^  I  ftn*  I  *W  I 

1  9rkrffca  i  vOM^r  i  M«^  4  i 


n 


3.  Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.  I.  12. 

*.  H^B.  seel. 

^.  Synonym  of  atmosphere,  Ngh.  1. 3; 

of  water,  1. 12;  terrestrial  diety,  V.2. 
».  Synonym  of  water  Ngb,  I.  12;  of 

action,  II.  1. 
^j.  Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.   I.    12; 

of  pure,  IV.  2. 
4%  Synonym  of  gold,   Ngh.    1.2;  of 

water,  I.  12. 
\».  Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.   I.    12; 

of  sacrifice.  III,    17;  atmospheric 

deity,  V.  4. 
<.  Synonym  of   water,   Ngh.   I.  12; 

of  celestial  deity,  V.  5. 
^.  Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.  I.  12;  of 

strength,  II.  9. 

10.  Synonym  of  atmosphere,  Ngh.  I. 
3;  of  near,  II.  16. 

11.  Synonym    of    atmosphere,   Ngh. 
1.3. 

W.  Synonym  atmosphere,  Ngh.  I.  3; 

of  quarter,  1.6;  of  water,  Ngh. 

I.  13. 

H.  Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.  I.  12. 
IV.  Of.  Ngh.  I.   Ij  synonym   of  at- 

mosphere,  I.  2;  terrestrial  deity, 
30 


V.  1;  atmospheric    deity  T.   4$ 
celestial  deity  V.  5. 
Synonym  of  earth,   Ngh.  I.  1;  of 
atmosphere,  I.  3. 

.  B.  and  Bib.  Ind.  see  M. 

M  3,  C  4,   C  5,   W  1,  W  2, 
W  3,  see  11. 

Synonym  o£  flame,  Ngh.  I.  17. 
Synonym  of  flame,   Ngh.  1.  17;  of 
water,  I.  12. 
Of.  Ngh.  I.  13. 

Omitted   by   =g.  9.   -3.   Mss.,   see 
Bib.     Ind.      IV.    381.    $v$;    R. 
synonym  of  night,  Ngh.  I.  7. 
Synonym  of  water,  Ngh.  1.  12jof 
food,  II.  7;  of  wealth,  II.  10. 
.  Bib.  Ind. 


M   3,  0  4,  0  5; 
2,   Mi;    see 
Bib.  Ind,  IV.  381. 
||  11  ||  M  4,  0  6,  S;  H  11  II  of  tho 
second  pada  M  3,  04,  C  6,  W  3; 
II  11  II  W  II  Mi;  ||  3V  II   M  1,  C  2, 
0  3;  W  2;  ||  3  H  of  the  third  pad* 
Wl. 
BV.  IX,  96.  6. 


II  V^  It 


i  or»r 


i  ftsrntr 


sI^TT 


This  is  the  reading  of  the  Mss. 
of  the  shorter  recension;  those  of 
the  longer  recension  read  the  text 
as  follows: 


rftfcram 


l 


||  ^^  U  M  4,  C  6,  S;  ||  «  ||  of  the 
second  pada  M  3,  C  4,  05,  W  3; 
II  «  U  ^  II  Mi;  |R1  M  M  1,  C  2, 
C  3;  W  2;  ||  ^  U  of  the  third  pada 
Wl. 

KV.  IX.  96.  6;  VS.  37.  7.  TA.  10. 
10.4. 


V. 


Bib. 


Ind.  IV.  383. 


til. 


ro  loo.  cit. 


.  Bib.  Ind.  IV.  334;  B. 
*•  «%!%.  Bib.  lad.  loft,  oil 


i  ] 


?Jh  ^ 


«lli«i^lTTfTS  5JTJT*nTT»TT 


:  f=pr: 


1.  5%  is  omitted  by  Roth. 

^.  H  H  ||  M  4,  C  6,  S  ;  ||  ^  ||  of  the 
2nd  pad*  M  3,  C  4,  C  5,  W  3  - 
llUlimi  Mi;  u^llMl,C2, 
C  3;  W  2  ;  II  V  II  of  the  3rd  pada 
Wl, 

^.  RV.  IX.  97.  34. 

V.  fliqfa  is  omiited  M  3,    04,   05, 


Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

.  H  i«  ||  M  4,  C  6,  S  ;  ||  IV  II  of  the 
2nd  pada.  M  3,  04,  05,  W  3; 
||  iv  ||  Ris  ||  Mi;  ||  ^  ||  M  1,  0  2, 
C  3,  W  2;  ||  ^  ||  of  the  3rd  pada. 
Wl. 


.  RV.  IX.  97.  35. 

.  *RTT**P   3f.   ?T. 
IV.  386. 


C  4,  C  5. 


.  *«e  Bib,  Iiid. 
omitted  by  M  3, 


3,   04,   C  5,  W  1, 


W  2,  W  3,  Mi;  Bib,  Ind. 


11.  II  1MIIM4,  06,  S;  HIM  II  of  the 
2nd  pada.  M  3,  04,  06,  W  3; 
II  11  1|  ^  ||  Mi;  ||  *<  ||  M  1,  0  2, 
C  3,  W  2;  H  *  ||  of  the  3rd  pada. 
W  1. 


tv] 


II 


I 


IT: 


u 


i  ^ra    «*<    i 


u  %   tt 


1.  EV.  IX.  97.  40. 
*.  ?Ttf*ffrft.  Bib.  Ind. 

^.  ||  u  II  M  4,  C  6,  S  ;  ||  u  H  ol  the 
2nd  p&da  M  3,  0  4,  C  5,  W3; 
II  tt  II  ^  II  Ml  ;  II  ^  li  M  1,  0  2, 

C  3,  W  2  ;  ||  o  II  of  the  3rd  pada. 
Wl. 

V.  BV.  IX.  97.  41. 

^Q  Both  ;  *.  9.  n.  See 


Mi;  ||  ^o  ||  M  1,  C  2, 

C  3,  W  2;  |U  II  of  the  3rd  pftd* 
Wl. 

».  BV.  X.  55.  5;  AV.  9.  27,  9. 

M  3,  C  4,  C  5,   Mi; 


Bib.  Ind.  IV.  387. 

U  V«  II  M  4j  C  6,  B  ;  U  *»  ||  of  the 
2ndp»d».   M3,  04,  C  5,  W3; 


W  1,  W  2,  W  3. 

^  ||  )t  ||  M  4,  C  6,  S;  U  te  ||  of  the 
2nd  pada.  M  3;  C  4,  05,  W  3, 
II  ?<  11  *?  U  Mi;  tt^l  ||  M  1,€  2, 
0  3,  W  2;  ||  ^  ||  of  the  3rd  p&da 
Wl. 

lo.  BV.  I.  164.  15;  AV.  9.  36.  16. 


f^r:  p:  ^T  Im 

TOFT 


II 


II  \\*  II 


1.  See  Roth's  edition,  p.  195. 


,  the 

whole  passage  is  taken  from  10. 
26. 

^.  ||  K  ||  M  4,  06,  S ;  II  n  II  ^fa 
f^ftf :  <U<?:  M  3,  04;  ||  1^  ||  of 
the  2nd  pada.  05,  W  3;  ||n  II 
II  3*  II  Mi ;  ||  V*  II  M  1,  C  2,  C  3, 
W  2 ;  (Mo  ||  of  the  3rd  pada. 
Wl. 

V.  BV.  I.  164.  16;  AV.  9.  25.  16. 

<*.&&  3T:M1,M4,C2,C3,-C6, 
S;  B.  <*.  3.  5f.  See  Bib.  Ind.  IV. 
991. 

r.  Bib.  Ind.  IV.  391. 
T.  loo.  cit. 

:.  |Ro||  M4,  06,  8;  m  II  of  the 

3rd   pada   M  3,   C  4;  II  ^o  ii   ^f^  i 

r__r  .    _        p  K    TXT  o.   H  a_  ii  aa  i, 
l^^tl*|.  Ml"'  v  «^i    *v    "j    II  X°  H  K"\  II 

Mi;  HUH  Ml,   02,  03,   W2; 
U  BV.  I.  164,  36;  AV,  9,  28.  7. 


M  1,  M  4,  C  S, 
C  3,  C  6,  S;  B;  **  t£*ftrf**fr 
^f.  ^.  3T.  (see  Bib.  Ind.  IV.  392  ); 
Bib.  Ind.  &  Bom- 


The  text  preserved  in  Mas.  of 
both  recensions  is  corrupt.  The 
correct  reading  can  however  be 
restored,  for  the  commentary 
relating  to  soul  i,  e,  the  passage 
following  gWTV«nmi%  supplies 


evidence  for  the  text  proceeding 
the  same.  A  comparison  of  these 
two  parts  shows  that  the  same 
words  are  repeated,  except  that 
%fij?qifif  corresponds  to  rays  & 
actions,  ou&n  to  the  sun  and 


is  used  in  the  latter  where- 
on 3f3^  is  usetl  in  the  former* 
From  this  comparison,  it  is  clear 
that  the  passage  should  be  ?n^- 
cH'&QflBfe!  «  I  have  adopted  tue 
reading  of  the  Mss,  of  the  shorter 
recension,  because  it  is  closer  to 
the  suggested  restoration  than 
the  other. 


JR^TT 


MIMCI 


f*r"n 


wvrt 


ft  f^r^pn^  11 


i  . 


I.I  3; 


5. 


II  ^1  II  M  4,  C  6,  S;  U  *  II  of  the 
3rd  pada  M  3,  C  4,  IM  II  of  the 
3rd  pada,  C  5,  W  3  ;  II  ^1  ||  ^v  U 
Mi;  ||  tyHi  Ml,  02,  C  3,  W  2; 
||  )  ||  of  the  4  th  pada,  W  1.*. 

RV.  I.  164.  37;  AV.  9.  28.  5.  The 
Mss.  of  the  longer  recension  except 
M  1  and  C  6,  add  the  second 
hemistich  of  the  stanza  also,  i.  c. 


I  Even  the  first 
hemistich  is  not  fully  given  in 
C  6,  which  -writes  only  «r  fir  3fT- 
then  adds: 


V.  The  text  is  corrupt.  I  have 
again  adopted  the  text  of  the 
shorter  recension  for  it  alone  has 
any  pretension  of  being  a  com- 
ment on  the  vedic  quotation.  The 
passage:  q  fsnTRTfa...'Wfw  " 
omitted  by  all  Mss,  of  the  longer 
recension. 


M  1,  M  4,  C  2; 
C  6,  S;  R;  L. 


ft:  s^J  «rft*^T^Ir.  C  4; 

^:  qft%^n^  M  1,  M  4, 
C  2,  06,  S,  R;  Bib.  Ind;  Bom; 
L. 

II  ^||  M4,  06,  S;  IU  ||  of  the 
3rd  pada  M  3,  C  4;  ||  ^  li  of  the 
3rd  pada  05,  W  3;  H^tt^l 
Mi;  II  ^||  Ml,  01,  C3.W2; 
U  ^  ||  of  the  4th  pada  W  1. 

RV.  I.  164.  38;  AV.  9.  28.  6. 

jpfHT  Bib.  Ind.  IV.  395,  which 
is  obviously  a  mistake.  THm 
be  associated  with  BfRtn  only  as 
is  done  in  the  explanation,  relat- 
ing to  soul,  and  not  with  the  sun. 
The  editor  adopts  the  same  read- 
ing  in  both  the  parts  of  the  oomm. 
which  are  intended  to  contrast 
each  other. 


wit 


<{ifH-Wi  «rr  I 


^TT 


Tf          I 


1.  HUH  M4,   06,  *S;   ||  VII  of  the 
3rd   pada  M  3,  04;  II  ^  II  of  the 
3rd   pada  05,   W  3;  II  U  II  H  II  i 
Mi;   ||  u  ||  M  1,  0  1,  C  3,  W  2;  j 
II  *  ||  of  the  4th  pada  W  1. 

3.  BV.  X.  120.  1. 

*.  ftftirTft  M  3,  0  4,  0  5,  Mi,  W  1, 

W  2,  W  3;  Bib.  Ind. 

V.  II  3?  II  M  4,  0  6,  S;  ||  <<  II  of  the 
3rd  pada  M  3,  04;  II  V  II  of  the 
3rd  pada  0  5,  W  3;  II  ^V  II  *»  II 
Mi;  ||  ^  ||  M  1,  0  1,  0  3,  VV  2; 
II  V  ||  of  the  4th  pada  W  1. 

4.  BV.  I,  84.  16. 

\»  *^pT^«fW^ft0.  ^C«  T.  ff.  sco  Bib. 
lad.  IV.  397. 


M  1,  M  4,   0  2,  0  6,  4;  R, 
^.  ^.  ^T.  see  op.  oit.  398. 

^3^r  M  3;  ^g^  M  i,  M  4, 

02,   C6,  S;   B,  ^r.  ^.  ^.  see  loc. 
oit. 


3,  W  1,   W  2,  W  3,  0  4, 
0  5,  Mi;  Bib.  Ind. 


MS,   Wl,  W  2,   W3, 
0  4,  0  5,  Mi;  Bib.  Ind. 

«.  II  ^11  M4,  O6,  S;  lUHof  the 
3rd  pada  M  3,  0  4  ;  ||  4  II  of  the 
3rd  pada  05,  W  3;  ||  <<  ||  of  the 
4th  pada  W.I;  ||  ^  ||  \*  ||  Mi  ; 
II  V  II  M  1,  0  1,  0  3,  W  2. 

1*.  BV.  1.84.  17. 


[8T 


«ft 


s  ftfotfo:  §?n 


stftfo 


:  1  1 


y  0  11 


si 


n 


' 


1.  ||  H  II  M  4,  C  6,  S;  ||  it  ||  of  the 
3rd  pads  M  3,  04;  IU  II  of  the 
3rd  pada  C  5,  W  3  ;  ||  ^  It  of  the 
4fch  pada  Wl;  II  H  II  ^  II  Mi; 
II  ^  ||  M  1,  C  1,  C  3,  W  2. 

*.  RV.  I.  84.  18. 


M  3,  0  4,  C  5,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3,  Mi. 


V. 

4.  ||  ^  ||  M  4,  C  6,  3;  II  *  II  o!  the 
3rd  pada  MS,  04;  ||  oil  of  the 
3rd  pada  C  5,  W  3,  II  «  II  of  the 
dth  pada  W  1  ;  ||  ^  ||  vo  II  Mi; 
U  Vo  ||  M  1,  C  1,  C  3,  W  2. 

|.  RV.  I.  84.  19. 


is  repeated  in  C  5. 

fe^    M  3,  w  i,  W  2, 


W  3,  Mi,  C  4  ; 
C5. 


II  M  4,  C  6,  S;  IK  II 
:  M  3,  C  4;  |U  II  of  the  3rd 
pada  05,  W  3;  ||  4  II  of  the  4th 
pada  W  1;  II  ^  II  \rt  II  Mi;  II  VI  II 
M  1,  C  1,  C  3,  W  2. 

10.  RV.  I.  164.  20;  AV.  9.  26.  10. 

11.  Cf.SRV.  I.  164.  20.  p.  i.  704. 

13.  Omitted  by  MSS.  of  the  shorter 
recension  M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3,  04,  05. 


[  ftw  fibro: 


i  ^  **& 


TT 


f  m^if*^  II  ] 


5  1  [  %^f  ] 


I  ^J  ^fr  ^M:  I  rfct  I 


V\  II 


1,   M  4,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 
07,  S;R.  Bib.  Ind. 

%$  M  1,   ]\I  4,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  C  7, 
8;  11.  Bib.  Ind. 


M  1,  M4,   C2,   C3.C6,  C  7,  S; 
Bib.  Ind. 


T.   M1.M4,  C2.C3, 
C6,  C7,  S;R;  Bib.  Ind. 


1,  M  4,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 
C  7,  S;  R;  f^TR^o  Bib.  Ind. 


||  1  ||   of   the  4th   pada  M  3,  C  5; 
II  1  II  W  II  Mi. 
RVKh.  VII.  55.  8. 


The  entire  section  is  omitted  by 
MSS.  of  the  shorter  recension: 
M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3,  C  4, 
C5. 

RV.  VIII.  11.  6. 

Omitted   by  M  3,   Mi,  W  1,  W  2, 
W  3,  G  4,  C  5. 
31 


M4,   C2,   C3,    06,   07,  S;   R; 
Bib.  Ind. 

a  O**R  M  3. 

IV.  tj^  M  1,  M  4,   02,   C  3,  C  6, 
C7,  S;Il;Bib.  Ind. 


V,. 


,  M  4,  02,0  3,   06,07, 


8;  R;  Bib.  Ind. 

n.  fw^ftr*  M  i,  M  4,  c  2,  c  3,  c  6, 


M  1,  etc. 

.  M  1,  eto. 


Mi,  M  3;  M  1  eto. 
.  34r«  M  1  etc. 
.  KS.XII,  l..p.  162. 


r: 


firfirfcnfrftr  *T  i 


?  Itaftftr  f^fir  I 


(  ctlrr  )  i 


i  [ 


ii  yy  ii 


1.  RV.  IV.  40.  5;   VS.  10.  2i;  12.  14. 

3.  g*H3      ^iss'      of     tho      shorter 
recension. 

*.       TRn?:  C  5. 


«nSrfer.  M  i,  etc, 


«. 

H. 
n. 
IV. 

V*. 


1,  etc. 
»  M4,  etc. 

9T3RftfiT  C  5;  OT^ftT  M  1,  M  4, 
C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  C  7,  8;  R;  Bib.  Ind. 

Omitted  by  M  3,   Mi,  W  1,  W  2, 
%  3,  C  4,,C  5. 

M  1,  M  4  etc. 

comes  after 


in  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

5. 
M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

M  3,  Mi,   W  1,   W  2,  W  3, 
04. 

ft*fif  ftv»m  M  1,  M  4,  etc.; 


M  1,  M  4,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  C  7, 
S;  R;  Bib.  Ind. 

Mi;  fttpftTft  M  1,  etc. 


etc. 


M  1,  M  4, 

>  eto> 


R. 


i,  M  4, 


M  1,  M  4,  etc. 
:  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

M  1,  M  4,  etc. 
.  Omitted  by  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

.  l&fes  Mi,   C  1,   W  1,  W  2,  W  3; 
,  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

.  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 
*».  ^fi^ra^^Rr  «!%:«  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

**.  Omitted  by  M  3,   Mi,  W  1,  W  2, 
W3,  C4,C  5. 

^.  *R?f  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

V».  vrftftifrm  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

C  5  ; 


,  Mi;  ^9f 
M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

Mi  ;     fHTTJT«r%.   M   1, 


M  4,  etc. 


J,  M  4,  efcc. 


[  *f&  ] 


1  0 


HT 


II  «<l  II 


ft 


ffrT 


^f    ( 


ii  y^  11 


it 


II  w  n 


RV.  VII.  59.  12. 

Omitted  by  M  3,   Mi,   W  1,  W  2, 

W  3,  C  4,  C  5. 

Omitted  by  M  3,  Mi,  W  1,  W  2,  ! 

W  3,  C  4,  C  5. 


M  1,  M  4,  etc. 
C  T  ft<jtl(d  M  1, 


4, 


It. 


RV.  I.  99.  1. 
3. 


M  1,  M  4,  eto. 
M  1,  M  9,  etc. 
:  Mi. 

Mi;    ^s^fn^f    M  1, 
M  4,  etc. 


lo. 


Ml,  M  4,  C  2,  C  3, 
C  6,  C  7. 

Hkii^ii  ^  'SfTW  Mi. 
sfgf  M  3. 

The   passage  within   brackets    is 
omitted   by   M  2,   M  4,   C  2,  C  3, 
C  6,  C  7,  S;  Tl;  Bib.  Ind. 
>.  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 


.  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

M  1,    M   4,   C  2,   C   3, 
6,  C7,S;R;Bib.  Ind. 

.  M  1,  M  4,  0  2,  etc. 
Untraced. 

Tlie  whole  section  is  omitted  by 
M3,  Mi,  C  4,  05,-W  1,  W  2, 
W3. 


.  J 


ff^nt 


SRI 


*  i 


«  I 


iir  cfshrf?<T 
i  ]  '  S 


SRT 


II  yvs  11 


\\ 


3  ^T  3TRT 


ia 


I)  *<  ii 


II 


1.  BV.X.  161.4;  AV.   3.11.   4;  7. 

53.  2;  20.  96.  9. 
*.  ^n  M  1,  M  4,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  C  7, 

8;  B;  Bib.  lad. 

*.  TORfr**  M  1,  M  4,   C  2,   C  3, 

C  6,  C  7,  S;  B;  Bib.  Ind. 
».  MdimM  M  1,  M  4,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 

C7,  S;B;Bib.  Ind. 
<f.  The  passage  within  brackets  is 

omitted  by  M  3,  Mi,   W  1,  W  2, 

W  3,  C  4,  C  5. 
t.  BV.  I.  84.  20. 

«.  wnf;  Ml,   M  4,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6, 
C  7,  S;  B;  Bib.  Ind. 

.  M  1,  M  4,  C  2,  etc. 
5. 


M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

MSS.  of  the    longer 


recension. 
W.  •J^far  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 


M  1,  M  4,  etc. 
i:  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

Mi,  %wp45r  M  1,  M  4, 
etc. 

BV.  X.  129.  1. 
Htftg  C  5,  M  1,  M  4,  etc. 

In  the  MSS.  of  the  longer  recen- 
sion, M  1,  M  4,  C  2,  C  3,  C  6,  C  7, 
S,  the  line  runs  thus: 


efcc«     This 


is  ignored  by  Both.  The  evidence 
of  the  MSS.  of  both  the  recen- 
sions shows  that  this  passage 
should  form  an  integral  part  of 
the  last  section.  The  section 
should  be  ended  after  srv§p£- 
Tpcftqr,  the  repetition  of  this  word 
indicates  that  the  section  comes 
to  an  end  here,  but  not  after  q 


APPENDIX  I 


APPENDIX  I 

Relation  OF  THE  NIRUKTA  TO  THE  FOLLOWING  texts. 


(1)  Taittiriya  Samhita. 

(2)  Maitrayam  Samhita. 

(3)  Kathaka  Samhita. 

(4)  Aitareya  Brahmana. 

(5)  Kausitaki  Brahmana. 

(6)  Sadvims'a  Brahmana. 

(7)  Taittiriya  Brahmana. 

(8)  S'atapatha  Brahmana. 

(9)  Mantra  Brahmana. 

(10)  Daivata  Brahmana. 

(11)  Gopatha  Brahmana. 

(12)  Aitareya  Aranyaka. 

(13)  Taittiriya  Aranyaka. 

(14)  Sarvanukramam  and  Veda- 
rthadlpika  of  Sadgurus'isya. 

(15)  Brhat  Sarvanukramanika. 

(16)  Pgveda,  Pratis'akhya. 

(17)  AtharvaVeda       „ 

(18)  Vajasaneya  „ 

(19)  Taittiriya  „ 

(20)  Brhaddevata. 

(21)  Astadhyayi  of  Pa^ini. 

(22)  Arthas'astra  of  Kautalya. 

(23)  Mahabha§ya  of  Patafijali. 

(24)  Purva  Mima^sa. 

(25)  Sarvadars'anasamgraha. 


THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  TAITTIRITA  SAMHITA. 

1.  15:  **  sm*T  l  I.  1.  8.  1 ;  I.  2.  12.  2 ;  VI.  2.  7- 


3:  3$ 
I.  2.  1.  1  ;    I.  3.  5.  1  ;  VI.  3.  3.  2: 


I.  2.  1.  1  ;  I.  3.  5.  1  ;  VI.  3.  3.  2: 


I  I.  8.  G.  l:f^i 

VI.    3.    7.  1: 


II.  4.  12.2: 


4.  17:  5^  *n  nr:  i  I.  2.  10.  2:  sfift  ITT  ^rr: 

4.  21:  STTPfT  ^raj  HHT  5CR^T  ^IT:  I     VI.  1.    7.   2: 


\    II.  6.   10.  2-3:  jM 


175 

TTJ  TITRr  TT5 


5.  11:    4*<l$l(3Ut&d4:   fW^cT.  ••••••••     II.  4.  14.  1: 

i 


6.  8:  ^  iT  ^T^%5  i  III.  2.  7.  2:  sr  5r 

7.  24:  «cfWr  ^t  fft  ^nfrwft  ^nr^-    II.  4.  10.  2:  srffcfr  *<ft 


8.  22:  sTfcm  %  srqRr  emm  ^  «T3-    VI.  1.  5.  4:  «ffi*rr> 

TM:  I  JMIIgJIMl:  > 

10.  5:  <r^0flti^^     Wf      i      ftf    I.  5.  1.  1: 


[  APPENDIX   I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 

3fKT 
i 


12.  18:  aj 


12.  41:a?ft: 


1.5: 

1.  15: 
1.  15: 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


2.  14: 

3.  4: 


i  ijgr  =?r  i 


3.  20; 

3.  21: 

4.  6: 


THE  TAITTIRIYA  SAMHITA. 
III.  3.  11.  4: 


V.  5.  22.  1: 

V.  5.  18.  1: 

I    V.  7.  26.1: 


THE  MAITRAYAN!  SAMHITA 
I.  ll.  6.  Vol.  I.   p.  1G8: 


I.  1.  9: 

I.  2.  1  ;  III.  9.  3 

I.  2.  1  ;   III.  9.  3 

ftfiri 

II.  9.  9: 


I.  4.  11: 
l    III.  3.  1:  ^  I 
I    IV.  6.  4:  a?'? 


ft 


ftri 


IV.  7.  9: 


I.  11.  9 

I.  9.  4: 

i 

i     1.  10.  4: 
IV.  1.  9 


[APPENDIX  I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


4.  17: 


4.  21: 


5.  5:  cT 

5.   11: 


6.  16:  3 

7.  13: 


I 

SffcT 

\ 


7.  17:  srerft 

^TT  ?lcf  I 
7.  19: 


^  I 
7.  23: 


7.  24:  arfto? 


8.  19: 


8.  20: 


:  11 


32 


THE  MAITRAYA^I  SAMHITA. 
I.  2.  7:  gi^  *TT  ^T:  i 

IV.  13.  8: 

IV.  13.  10:  d 


I.  10.  14:  ct 

IV.  13.  4:  srfWt 


IV.  13.  9:   <r 
II.  2.  11: 


II.  2.  10: 
I.  4.  14: 

-    I.  8.  2: 


II.  1.    2: 


II.  1.  2: 
II.   1.  2: 
II.  4.  8: 


IV.  13.  7: 


ffoftl 


[APPENDIX  I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


8.  20: 


8.  22: 

9.  42: 
9.  43:  " 
12.  18: 
12.  14: 


THE  MAITRAYAN!  SAMHIT/L. 

I     I.  8.  1.  cl  ^7  «n 


'1.4.    12: 
IV.  13.  8. 
IV.  13.  8. 
III.  14.  15 
I.  G.  12:  ^ 


THE  NIRUKTA. 
1.  5:  srrjprr 
1.  lOigftjfri  i 
5  -ft^ll^cl-  ^  J 
1.  14:  a^RTrn   :  I 
1.  15:  ^5l?T^  I 


3.  4: 
3.  21: 


5.  5: 

7.  13: 
7.  24: 


sfft 


:  I 
2.14:  ^  ^T  srg  at* 


[  ^3  %  ] 


4.  6: 

4.  17:  5ft*  «n  VTI:  i 


THE  KATHAKA  SAMHITA. 
XIII.  14:  snf*  sir 
VIII.  3:-sr%gft3 
VI.  2:  § 
VIII  2: 

I.  8: 

II.  1:  afta^1 
II.  1: 

XXI. 


\     XXVII.  9: 


IX.  9: 
IX.  7: 

XXXI.  7: 


II.  8:  gft*  nr 
XIX.  13: 

XXXVI.  8: 


X.  9: 


-    XI.  1.0: 


prar 


[APPENDIX  I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 
8.  4:  ensftRrcisauiidia  =*  WTH;  \ 


8.  W: 


8.  20: 


8.  22: 


3fR*n 


9.  42: 

9.  43: 

10.  5: 


11.  29: 


11.  31:  2TT  < 


12.  13: 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


1.  16: 


2.  24: 


:  \ 


THK  KATHAKA  SAMHITA. 

XXVI.  9:  %  VF\ 


VI.  1: 


XXVI.  9:  simr  I 
XXIII.  9:  0n3IT%SRF3r 
XIX.  13. 
XIX.  13. 
XXV.  1 
XII.  8: 


XXII.  7:  arft 

i    f|cit4 


THE  AITAREYA  BRAHMANA. 
V.  7.  3:  qftifisNn?5i5nq&:  q* 


I.  4.  9: 


XXIX.  4.  18: 
5  1  ft 


[  APPENDIX  I 

THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  AJTAREYA  BRAHMANA. 

3.  17:  sffiftuftir;  i  XIII.  10.   2: 


4.  27:    M-eRfa;    <friHK<tfl&     ^  tfWi    I.  1.  14:  <F 

[:  I 


5.  11:    ^rfWt    5i*fh^   «^i*0  snft1^    !!•  7.  11: 


7.  5.  8:  fiRr  ^  ^^fT  fl^1  «w>i:  i  II.  17.  17: 

II.  17.    17: 

V.  32.  1; 
l 


7.  8:  e^cil^R^VhlPu  3R  OT:  5n^>    II.  32.  1: 

III.  13.  1: 


IV.  29.  1: 


VIII.  12,  4:... 

7.  10:  3$dl«(U$*Nftft  i  3?^fft^5^    II.  32. 


III.  13.  i: 


iv.  31.  i:  ^  I 


4.  27:  ^^  £  I  3Wr  ^  5RTT^t  3^ttK-    II.  17.   2:  ^r    ^  t  ^mtft 


VIII.  12.  4: 


[  APPENDIX  I 

THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  AITAREYA  BRAHMANA. 

7.  11:  3?ttoic^ift>#*reftf5r  i  aflJr  3ft-    II.  32.  1:  \ 

III.  13.  1: 


V.  1.  1: 


VIII.  12.  4: 

«H<^i« 

7.  11:  *ntfflfi^«b(«NT:  ^*ft  q?M  «i*l"&    V.  4.  1: 


VIII.  12.  4: 


I 


VIII.  12.  4: 

*7     11*     f-^Yft^j^'i!  Q  I^ij^ji/^-^i .  j_Tv .TV  ^__      "\^    12     1  * 


VIII.  12.    4: 


7.  12:  q'ffo  qg^r  i  V.  19.  6:  qsrr^r  vfa'... 

7.  17:  3Nift  ^T^T  vfqr&  i  srfir:  gsft  1.  1.  4.  arffiS 

^rfT:  I  ^t 

7.  23:  ^nrf^-      rrfifrn^  w  l^w-  XII.  3.  4:  a 


7.  23:   spnft1     l^rft^Jt          ^l*m«ft    VII.  9.  1: 


[APPENDIX  I 

THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  AITARBYA  BRAHMANA. 

7.  26:  mdRfrii  *rrg:  i  X.  6.  7: 

8.  4 


8.  22:  STO  ^  ST??RT:  SFTI  m  SI^MI    I.  11.  3s  SIM  I 

1.  17.  14: 


SPfRT 

8.  22:  ^r^  ^rml  ^R^ci  5?n^  crt   HI-  8.  1:   ^ 


11.    29:   an   ^   4)»^lrfl    ^I^T:    I    VII.  11.  2 
%TTT  m  U%&  ftwft  I  ^^^  ^ 

11.  31:  qr     *miw  qr  {^»nm^  qtmr   VII.  11.  3 


12.8:  ^URTT  ^  JTR^J^^M  ?jt    IV.  7.  1:  snrreftf  *Ttarc  nit 
Jiwm^  ^r  i  ?&  ^  gfi^m^  i  iiR^i. 

12.  41:  ^fJnif^^^'d  ^n:  i  I.  16.  36: 

I  I.  16.  38: 
L  16.  39: 
I.  16.  12: 
I.  1C.  40: 


THE  NIRDKTA.  THE  KAUSITAKI  BRAHMANA 

8:  ?r^   ^^iPrt^^^f*^     d^*'(l"ij    XXIII.  2:  T^TT 


1.  9:  qifm  %$  ^rf%^  i  XVII.  4: 

4.  27:  qfe*  %  I  sftftr  ^r  5Rrr%  ^^:-   III.  2:  ^ftfir  I 

I 


6.  31:  3T^RT^:  1J[  ^  SCTOT     I  VI.  13: 


7.  5.  8:  ftB  t^  ^RTT  |&  ITOT:  I  VIII.  8:  ^  I 

7.  5:  *r* 


[  APPENDIX  I 


THE  NIRUKTA.  KAUSITAKI  BRAHMANA. 

7.  8:  arcRTiwfft^fr  i  3*4  «N»:  w.-    VIII.     9: 

Weft         «5fa>  :  ...  I 

XII.  4: 

XIV.  1: 


XIV.  3:  3ri$nit% 

XIV.  5: 

XXII.  1: 


q,  II  1 

7.  10:  arfen^NnR         i  aRitarafeft    VIII.  9: 


XIV.    1:    $f 

^I^HTTU 

XIV.  3:  t 


XIV.  5: 
XXII.  2: 


XVI.  l:  ^  I 

^^^nTT^1  ^^ 
XXII.  2: 


7.  11:    ^PqiteR^ift  I    SJ^  3ft*    VIII.    9: 

^>:... 
XIV.  1: 


writ  w^  i  ^^  ^  ^1  «  ...... 

...*TT33ft   «^« 

tor 


f  5ft- 


7.  ll: 


[APPENDIX  I 
THE  NIRUKTA.  KAUSITAKI  BRAHMANA. 


XVI.  1  ;  XXX. 

^UqMH.  | 

XXII.  3:  < 


XXII.  5:  W    3. 

cT  ^mcff 
5RfH!  ter 


•    XXII.    9: 


-    XXIII.    3: 


7.  12:  qftR:  qsfTO  «  XI.  2:  3T«T  I  q%: 

I.    3,    4.    XIII.    2;  XIX.   4.  7: 


7.  23:  3|*nfH  s^Rtw  g^i^i^irtl  VT3T&  I  IV.  3:  ^l^l«bMlci^^l  q 

7.  23:  3?^r  qi  snfiRitsBSkrsR:  i  5&  i  IV.  3:  smt  I  f^nd  ^ 

7.  24:  3|%  f|  ^J  Ifcb'cbMiw:...!  V.  8:  3W  q^4  t^«TTo5:  I... 

7.    17:    ftg£i«i^t*&*T    3%&    I    f&    ^  XXV.  1: 


8.  4:  omftf^TT^'mcf^1  ^  ^PTl  X.  3: 


8.  22:   3§3qT  q    SRfRT    %riq)s^i^i:  I     III.  4:  ^T^  I 


^n:  i  ^&  VII.  i:  5imr  I  ^^n^r  arqr^r  sr^rsn:  t 

X.  3:  SIM  I  JPTFSit 
10.  32:  smfoftsft  gf^s^  I  VII,  6:  3?A  I  gftm 


[  APPENDIX  I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


11.  29: 


11.  31:    37 


5R7 


12.  8: 


12    14: 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


7.  17: 


11.  29: 


11.  31: 


^TT 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


1.  ISi 
1.  15: 


THE  KAUSITAKI  BRAHMANA. 

ill.  1:  <T    Hiu1 


TT%     xviii.  1: 


3.  8:  <t 


3.  20: 


3.  20:  Sfcnfr 
33 


vi.  13: 


THE  SADVIMS'A  BRAHMANA. 

iii.  7:  3?f^  ^ 


IV.  6: 


IV.  6: 


ff.     1  ...... 


THE  TAITTIRIYA  BRAHMAXA. 
III.  2.  8.  4:  35 
III.  3.  7.  1: 


II.  3.  8.  2: 


II.  3.  8.   4: 

<<cn*i'%sjid  I  <c 

I.  5.  2.  5,  6: 


II.  7.  18.  3: 

I 


^rrft 


[  APPENDIX  I 

THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  S'ATAPATHA  BRAHMANA. 


1.  15:  swwfsPNtenj:  i  VI.  1.  3.  7.  p.  505: 

i  * 


1.  15:  3fa$  srre&TO  I  III.  1.  2.    7: 


S#  f|#:  I  I3H*  t*R  I  III.    i.    2.    7: 

^%  i  The  passage  is  repeated 
in  III.  6.  4.  10.  and  III.  8, 
2.  12.  verbatim  reading  *TCg: 
and  3ffe:  for  g*:  respectively. 

II.  5.  2.  9: 


6:  SW-zHjW  lf^T$P5*T^  yfa  3fcq%     IX.    4.    1.    9: 


2.  10:  sg^S^reTT^r:  I  S*?fa^-     XIV.  2.  2.  2.  p.  1035:   aw  % 
•TTN:  I  ^tS^    ^rf     v^cKHl^     ti*jS 

^if^T  vgftfe  ^5^5^^  ' 

3.  4:  3Tin^ffTcH^%  f^^f^RT^  I  XIV.  9.^4.  8. p.  1106:  % 


3.  16:  cWt  «T3:  lT^fd:  I  VI.  2.  1.  4: 


4.  21:  3?*nftr  ^«fi^M««    ^^  I  ft^iJ-     I.  9.  i.  24—27:    3?«r 


[APPENDIX  I 
THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  S'ATAPATHA  BRAHMANA. 

also  in  XII.  3.  2.  1. 
XII.  3.  2.  3:  tffa  ^  I  5RTT& 


XII.  3.2.  4s  9*  <T* 

375M  ~ 


.  5:  3Tft:  ^ft^TRtsTT^}^  ^tfft^-     XL  2.  3.  1: 

<s!%sft 


7.  14:  3Tft:  ^Wc^  i   3T1?oft  *R&  I  9fR     H.    2.    4.    2: 


VI.    1.    1.   11: 


I 
7.  17:  o?*nft  ?ii4H  *H^f  \  sjftr:  ^?ft    !•  6.  2.  8: 

^SRirs  I  f^RTIi;  <&q 

7.  23:  9rai*i)<fiRfcf  |&  ^  ^Tft^f:  I         IX.  3.  1.  25:    ^f  ??:    ?T  I^PT 


VI.  6.  1.  5: 
I 

7.  24:  «g*tRnqi4}f^  %Sf!$|U!l(«)  VRf^tTi     XIII.  3.  8,  3:  5[4(£PNt) 

V.  2.  5.  15;  VI.  6.  1.  5. 

7.  26:  STRfft^T  ^Tg:  I  VI.  4.  3.  4:   9?q 

T^t"  I 

8.  10:  3^rWT»nUT  I  ^U^T  «I^RI  ^T  I  VI.  7.  2.  3: 
8.    22:    5Jr^t%   ^    STM^^t^ra^T^n     I.  3,  2.  9: 


I  5RT5H  ^^s^rr  fgt    I.  3.  2.  8:  ^$reKOT&  i 


[APPENDIX  I 
THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  S'ATAPATHA  BRAHMANA. 

8.  22:  5TTTT   ^  SUitai:  EM  3T   Sf'JzjRr     XI.  2.  7.  27:  5JTTT  3  SPITS*!: 

9,  20:  33  fr  $ff^gf«()<i  d&&M«MOTfri     VII.  5.  1.  22:   & 

[  * 


9.  24:  ftrgteTBRm  I  I.  9.  2.  20:  am  i 

9.  26:  3H<T  smJtth  I  VI.  1.  1.  9: 


i  A  K «  _..  j-TtJl  _  j_  rr»      _.rvf^  i  ,f\.« r\ .- . ^  i      r  "v      i      i      /* 
IU.  D:  ^^tjvn^w  <jJic<H*lW  Smsw**!  I      12L.    1.    !•    o: 


10.  7:  Qffincft  ^  S«^  I  V.  2.  4.  13: 

10.  8:    ^  2j^T   5n§t:    ^Vwft7^-     VI.  1.  1.  2: 
I  ff 


10.  26:.  &j^r...^t^  srerfa  iraift    XIII.  7.  I.  1 


10.  31:  *rfcrr  ^t?i  Jrefcn  i  I.  i.  2.  17:  sfon  I 

12.  14:  3T^^T  ^l^<rf^HT  ^^^1     !•  7.  4.  6: 

f&    ^T 


I 

THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  MANTRA  BRAHMANA. 

I.  15:  9?fa^  5fR^f*I  I  I.  6.  5: 


.  6.  6: 


The  following  2  stanzas  are  quoted  by  Sayanacarya  in  the  in- 
troductory remarks  of  his  commentary  on  the  Mantra  Brahmana. 


Cf.  N.  1.  18. 


[APPENDIX! 

Daivata  Brahmana  of  the  Satnaveda 

III.  Khanda 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


N.  7.  12: 


n  K  u 


N.  7    13: 
I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


1.  16: 


2.     10: 


:    I 


T:  I 
4.  27:  533: 


KHANDA  in. 

R^-cWH^  I  1  I    TR^ft 
:  I  \  I 


i  ^  i 


:  nil 


1*  I  3»F  5 

1  1^  i 


I  *\v  i  This  passage  is  cited  by 
Gune  in  Bhand.  Comm.  Vol. 
p.  51. 


GOPATHA  BRAHMANA 
II.  2.  6;    p.  171: 


I.  1.  7;  p.  7: 
I.  5.  5: 


[APPENDIX  I 


4.  27 


THE  NIRUKTA. 
I 


7.  8: 


7.  10: 


i 


GOPATBA   BKAHMANA. 


I.  5.  5;  p.  119: 


:-     I.  1.  29;  p.  21:    ft  ^RT*&  I 


I.  1.  17;  p.  13:    ci^T 


I.  2.  24;  p.  62: 


^TT 


II.  3.  12;  p.  199: 


IL  3.  10;    p.  196: 


II.  3.  16;  p.  202: 


I.  1.  29:  2J^rr  c|i£$4cf*l 


I.  1.  18:  TO 

1.  1.  17:  *n 


.  2.  24: 


II.  3.  10: 
II.  3.  12:  <t 


II.   4.    4:   ^   f| 


[  APPENDIX  I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


7.  11: 


7.  12: 


7.  17: 


7.  23s 


8.  22: 


ift 


cTT 


11.  29; 

^ri  u 

11.  31: 

^ftrTU 

12.  14: 

THE  NIRUKTA. 
4.  27:  SF  ^  I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


2.  11: 


I.  2.  2 


II.  3.  10: 

II.  4.  18 


I-  3.  8:  3 

I.  3.  10: 

1.  4.  24: 

^r    II  1.  12 

:  i      L  2-  20: 


II.  3.  4: 

JR^T  * 

II.  1.  10: 


II.  1.  2: 


GOPATHA  BRANMANA. 
.  1.  29: 

^^  u;^t  gti 
.  i.  19:  <T$T 


f   5pn<l  cff 


I  *PT 


THE  AITARBYA  ARANYAKA. 
III.  2.   i:  ^nr  ^ 


THE  TAITTIRIYA  ARANYAKA. 

II.  9: 


N.  1.  20: 


N.  7.  3: 


[  APPENDIX  I 
THE  NIRUKTA.  SARVANUKEAMANI. 


N.  1.  2:  s&Wq-farait  t^  I  Paribhasa  1. 

N.  1.  15:  ^qrrfteJRT^ 


N.  2.10,11:  cf.  61.  98: 


jN.  5.  13:  vJsj^'-^Ki ..i^T^i  <^MrPJJ5fl-     •*.  166.  p.  12.... 


N.  7.    !h   cTsnfr  ^wrfr  5JTtTRrc§<ffaf    paribhasa  2.  5:  qr 

paribhasa  2.  7: 


N.  7.  3:  i^FT^r^fi  ^ri'i^r^i  ^  ERlqsuiqr    56.  34: 
^  i 


pari°  2.  16: 
pari°  2.  18: 
pari°  2.  12: 


N.  7.  5:  fe^T  ^  ^j   ^  %TOT:  ,     paribhasa.  2.  8:  ft® 
:  i  qipssft  ^FcTft^r-       ?cTte 

:    i  ......  srft  qn     par  i°  2.13: 


N.  7.  12:  s^tffo  g^ro  paribhasa.  2.  6: 


rs.  2.  11:  •=tr,R<^i«fic^  paribhasa  2.  4:  3p?r  ^I^W  ^  ^ft:  I 

N.  2.  24:  s  ftwBN>   ^35R  7rrgr     18»  33:  si   qfcTRi 


N.  7.  4:    *TT%T*CTJ^iforMT    tr^    sficTT     paribhasa  2.  14:    t^r  ^1    ^IHk^f 


THE  NlBUKTA. 

N.  2.  10.  *&riti  vxwt  \ 


[APPENDIX  I 

DlPlKA. 

Ved.  dip.  2.  S;  p.  60: 


N.  2.  11. 


N.  7.  12: 

N.  9.   32.   SF^E:   ^F^T'it 


THE  NIBUKTA. 


1.  1: 


1.  4:  «n;  ftqRfT...TTJJqni 
1.   9:.  aw 


-  17: 


34 


Ved.  diP-  2-  4>  P-  G0:  3^ 
fr  II 


Ved.  dip.  1.  1;  p.  57:    3^5 

^f^RT^  H^«|5  I 
Ved.  dip.  1.  1;  p.  57: 

^?F^TOI 
T    Ved,  dip.  1.  2;  p.  58: 


R.  PUATIS'AKHYA. 
-    12.  5:  G99:   •ii*fKg<<Ki3<KPft 


\      12.  5:  700-701 


:  U 


12.  8:  707.* 


12*  8: 

12.  6:  702-703 


12.  8:  707: 


12.  9:   708: 


I 


2.  1:  105:  ^ 


[  APPENDIX  I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


1.  1: 


cf.  N.  1.  3. 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


1.1: 


1.  1: 

1.   3: 
*re 
1.  4: 

1.3: 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


N.  1.  1  : 
N.  1.  1:  i 


N.  1.  2: 


ATHARVA-VEDA  PRATIS'AKHYA. 


1* 


The  following  verses  are  cited 
by  the  commentator  in  the 
begining  of  the  fourth  chapter 
(  see  J.  A.  O.  S.  vol.  7.  p.  591  ): 


II.  1: 


\ 

II.  17*.          tt*i  i  ^c  * 
ar^rft^TT  q  ^Ti^pftR^r:  ii 

THE  VAJA.  PRATIS'AKHYA. 

8.  52: 

8.  54-55: 


:  II 


VI.   24: 


i 
THE  TAITTIR!YA  PRATIS'AKHYA. 

1.15:  3?I5IRtTT«Tf^I^7ftR»nM^rf|:  U 


BRHADDEVATA. 

!Brh.  D,  II.  121: 
Brh.  D.  I.  44:  ^ 


Brh.  D.  II.  121: 

q 


[  APPENDIX  I 


THE  XIRUKTA.  THE  BRHADDEVATA. 

N.  1.  4:  3T4  mim  3-^13%^%  frr-    Brh.  D.  II.  89: 
i 


N.  l.i:  ?tam% ^rarrc 3TJTr4  H^ft i    Brh.  D.  II.  91:  ^  *  ftr* 

N.  1.  5:   9TO3T  rare  SW^    TO**:     Brh.  D.    IV.  48-50:    * 


N.   1.  6:    5T   sFmffc   *   *?:   ^^1^    Brh.  D.  IV.  50-51: 

I! 


^TO  II 

N.  1.  9:  q^OTref  fonsf^mT:  ^it-   Brh.  D.  II.  90-91 

r:  i  ^ 
II 


N.  1.  20:  ^T^^^^^T^  ft^aiTl  «w-    Brh.   I).    I.    18: 
N.  2.  2:  3T^  ?Tfeg[?wi%^Tfe  ^...    Brh.  D.   II.  106: 


II 
N.  2.  10:  %wrfo$TTf§^T:  5FrR3j  sffefr    Brh.  D.  VII.  155-157; 


VIII.    1:  5T 


II 
VIII.  2-6: 


THE  NIKUKTA. 


[  APPENDIX  I 

THK  BRHADDEVATA. 


I  IX 


N.  2.  23: 


N.  2.  24: 


N.  5.  13: 


N.  5.  14: 
N.  6.  5:    5HP2 


N,  7.  3: 


N.  2.  12:  gdfef:  3*  ttf 
N.  2.  17:  arftwri^  i 


N.  2.  18:  3W 


N.  6.  31:  «F^cfh..3ict. 
^T^rT^: 

N.  7.  1: 


:  i 


Brh.  D.  V.   166:    3T 


Brh.  D.  III.  9:  5W 


Brh.   D.   II.    135-136: 

i 


Brh.  D.  IV.    106;   107: 
T  ft: 


Brh.  D.  V.  149: 

I 
II 


Brh.  D.  V.    155: 

RT%  %^T  srm^R;  i 

Brh.  D.  VI.  138: 


Brh.  D.  IV.  139: 


Brh.  D.  I.  6:   atf 
i 

'.  It 

Brh.  D.  I.  3: 


[  APPENDIX  I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


N.  7,   4: 


N.   7.    4: 


N.  7.  5: 


i  ajrarf 


N.  7.  10: 


Shorter   recension  ] 


THE    BflHADDEVATA. 

Brli.  D.  I.  73;  74:  ? 


Brh.  IV.  143:  3rrg'4 
3 


^rft 


-    Brh.   I.  G9: 


N.   7.   8:   3?q  $*:   SRT-.S^  3*RU    Brh.  D.  I.  115-116:   <?t^s4 


Shorter  recension  ] 
:  II 


I.  119-120: 
rr^    II    ^ 

Tft^t  I 
I.  117-118 


Brh.  D.   I.  130-131: 


II.  6: 


II.  2-5: 


n  a  i 


i  ^T     T:  «jwrr  ^  3:7 
u 


[APPENDIX  I 

THE  NIROKTA,  THE  BHHADDEVATA. 

N.  7.  11:  3?HT  <st«R<icffa*T^T  TO  w&    Brh.  D.  II.  13:  3?4r  atfH  *re4  <*fa: 


'    II.  14: 


II.  15:  ipr&r  3 
f^rer^:  ii 

II.  1C:  g^m 

1.     11(3: 


cf.  I.  131. 
N.  7.  13:^nTr:...$TfW3:..   ,..sis'*n-    Brh.  D.  1.17:   *^ 


3" 
N.  7.  14:   srfjf:  ^CTRT  i  srjfjfte^f  i    Brh.  D.   II.  24: 


r:  u 
N.  7.  18:  qpr  »*  ^^  3?9T  rtrfS-    Brh.  D.  I.  78: 


:  I    WMM+Hd    3T1T          ^^^  ^  'H  1^3^"  5WH 

II 


N.    7.    19:    ^T3%^T:...5fT3TT^    %^    I    Brh.  D.  I.  92: 

Kl    II.    30: 


%Rr^r  n 

II.     31: 


N.  7v   23:   ifeR5R^Tt5f^*rft'3^n*T3-    Brh.  D.  I.  102-103: 


[APPENDIX! 


THK  NIRUKTA.  THE  BRHADDEVATA. 

N.  7.  23:  wrft  wrfWt  ai/rret    Brh.  D.  II.  1G-17: 


annft  sNtfrt  3%  *   -      sHfrsRt   5*:  n   sftwrfrJ  ft 


cf.  7.  24. 

N.  7.  24:  ^Hil^KVHST  JRrg^s^W:    Brh.  D.  II.  8-9:...q«i&r  3  yam  u 

I 


N.  8.  l:  sfiroten  ^WT^I  f^4  zfim-  Brh.  D.  II.  25: 


T:  I  Sl^  guii^  U 

N.  8.  2:  evcd  ?ft^:  i  ^  ^r  sgfj*:  I  Brh.  D.  III.  61: 

:  I....  ..............          3  i^ft^l^t:  II 

r:  i  3TiW-  Brh.  D.   III.  65: 


:  II 

N.  8.  2:  arMiren  ^ftsr  H«^TRr  ^PR^   Brh.  D.  HI. 

II  III.   64 


u 

Brh.  D.  III.  63-64: 

I    Sfs^f          siig^i^  1^  ^T^  I 
I  XM^T^RT:  ^RR  II 


N.  8.  3:  TT^  ft  iRRf  gi^rr  ^T  qi^filRrr   Brh.  D.  III.  26:  ar4  snrprf  ft  <ift: 


N,  8.  5:  ^«na^pR^u«rr:  SPTRT  ^M*   Brh.  D.  II.  27: 

^  I  fe&  fT^R:  8 

N.  8c  6:  ^TT?wt  3Rf  $     WTR:  I  ^Tf    Brh.  D.  II.  28: 


III.  2-3: 


:  U 

N.  8.  10:  ;r%fr  TTfiRW  i  ^f^R  ^-    Brh.  D.  III.  9:...5TOnraM 

I 


[  APPENDIX  I 


THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  BRHAPDKVATA. 

N.  8.  13:  c?rer   enforce  sfr  ?TTO:  i    Brh.  D.  III.  16: 


X.  8.    14:    ^rf^^STTffr^    ^    Brh.  D.    III.  25: 

<BJf^  flfTTflRftsffrftFt  STR^^fr:  I  3tS*n  *H^ft%  *T^  I 

X.  8.  22:  dl'wHf^faF^rnftti^ift  i  ^tar    Brh.  D.  II.  154-157:  ar?fa  STOTO 


infr  n 


11 

:  i 
u 


N.  0.   23:   H£<*t   *|t*f  ^ft'^H  =*    Brh.  D.  VIII:  12: 


X.  10.  8:  CT  ^r  OT^f  i  Brh.  D.  II.   36: 

i 
U 

N.  10.  10:  q^^^RTfrqffcTO  rri-    Brh.  D.  II.  37-38:  ^tori 


^i  q^ 
II 
X.  10.  12:  wraftAwr:  qi?TT  i  Brh.  D.  II.  40: 


N.  10.  27:  crr^:...^s^cift^%^i    Brh.  D.  II.   58: 


N.  10.    42:   ^cTRT*T*farTr3F«J*r*dl ft  i     Brh.  D.  I.  17: 

I 
U 


711 

X.  9.  40:  3?n^fKt  i ipt  ^rrgs  1 3  ^RT-   Brh.  D.  V.  8:  ^rg:  3^: 
ft^1 1  ^(ti  ^TTters  ^n?1?!^  i  fj«TrcfKr  ^3^15^  ^Pn  i  _ 

f^  3  ^  1?*^  ^  *FTn    ^IT^^I^r:  U 

N.  10.  5:  qr^TT?ref  ^^ftr^r  'PTSTO  i    Brh.  D.  II.  34: 


[APPENDIX  I 

THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  BRHADDEVATA. 

N.  10,  44:  4teft:   *     *t    vTCRrtor    Brh  D.  V.  166: 


N.  11.  5:  *RWT«n3Ri?flr  i  ^d  ITRTT   Brh.  D.  VII.  129  (B):  ^5  wfr 


N.  11.  6;  jfryfmJlfl  *R?t  qa  vmi-    Brh.   D.   II.   60: 
TT  I  ^t^T  TI^TT 


N.  11.  16:  ^Rfcrr  ^rnr  5$     -**R   Brh.  D.  III.  83: 


N.  12.  i;  ^refaft  i  <iNiftwiiagrtrt   Brh.  D.  VII.  126:  ^ 

i 

II 


N.  12.   14:  tf:   ^M^M^a-    Brh.  D.  VII.  128   (B): 

5 


N.  12.  16:  are  q^trrtq    srfr  cfcr   Brh.  D.  II.  63: 

:  I  1 

N.  12.  18:   aw   ^ftMvr^Vf-    Brh.  D.  II.  69:  iM| 


:  n 
N.  12.25:^%^Rn%i    Brb.  P.  II.  65: 


N.  12.  27:  w  ^m^nr^R%%    Brh.  D.   II.  67 


:  n 
:  n 


N,  12.  40:  *g  ftft^d  cffftfcrrcf  Brh.  D.  II.  133: 
g 

35 


[  APPENDIX  I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


Cf.  1.  3. 
1.  3:  an 


1.  17:  <K'  *3T«rt:  *ftm  I 

THE  NIRUKTA. 
N.  1.  1: 


N.I.  3:... 


N.  1.  4:  ere  ftqrm 


1.  7: 
1.  13: 

1.  18: 
1.  20:  ?fWt 


THE  NIRUKTA. 
:  I 

:  I 

:  i 


PANINI'S  ASTADHYAY!. 

I.  4.  83-97. 
I.  4.  89: 
I.  4.  91: 


I,  4.  94:  §: 
.1.  4.  96: 


I.  4.  87: 
I.  4.  88: 
I.  4.  97:  ar 

I.  4.  109: 

THE  ARTHASISTRA  OP  KAUTILYA. 

II.  10:  28,  p.  72: 


?T3f 


THE  UNADI  SUTRAS 


II  50: 
I.  150: 

II  4: 


i  sffafts^rsn-  1.  147: 


2.  2: 

^ 
2.  5. 


i  crar-   I.  29: 


t  ^rsrarrt 


III.  Ill: 
II.  67: 


[  APPENDIX  I 


2.  6: 


III.  66: 

IV.  67: 


2.  27: 

3.  5:  r 
3.  10: 

3.  21: 

4.  10: 
4.  17: 
7.  24: 


8.  2: 

9.  27: 

10.  5: 
10."  4: 

11.  30: 


1.  1:  3?ft 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


I.  151: 

V.  28: 

I.  100:  ai 
IV.  165: 
III.  160. 

II.  66: 

III.  89: 


II.  50: 
II.  58: 

II.  22: 
I.  13: 

III.  40: 


THE  MAHABHASYA  OP  PATANJALI. 
Vol.  III.  p.  274: 


M^Idlf^t 


•  1-  ^°^«  !•  P«  3:   -q^ift 


V.  3.  2.  Vol.  II.  p.  418: 


*  Of.  Annals  of  the  Bhandarkar  Institute,  vol.  IV.  part  2.  pp.  119-120. 
The  passage  in  lAe  Annals  is  full  of  inaccuracies.  The  reference  on  p.  119 
to  Unadi  I.  156;  I.  158;  II.  235  is  wrong;  the  correct  reference  being  I.  150; 
I.  147;  II.  67  respectively  The  quotation  of  the  sutras  is  wrong  on  the 
same  page:  srggft  etc.  should  read  sr^ijgfr.  On.  p.  120.  ^rcrf^vqf  f^  IV.  67. 
should  read  ^^if^rtf^TTl  The  passages  of  the  Nirukta  are  also  inaccurately 
quoted:  On  p.  119  the  derivation  of  55$pft:  is  quoted  as  g^<^mig|  |  Bub  the 
passage  in  the  Nirukta  4.  10.  is  the  following:  ^ftatw  I  53$TW  •  Tne 


reference  of  this   passage  is  wrongly  given  as   4.9.     On  p.    120 

<l«Wfo:   (sic.)   should  read   qft:  ER^  l-tffof   ^TO  '   '<M*fa'-    \   (  N.  2.  18). 

Similarly  N.  3.  5,  3^3  SfrffrM  ^f^  (  sic.  )  should  read  sw$  ^T  I 


[  APPENDIX  I 

THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  MAHABHASYA  OP  PATANJALI. 

1,  1.  1.  Vol.  1.  p.  1,  5:  *9w 

1.  4.  4.  Vol.  1.  p.  356:  i 


1.  1.  1.  Vol.    1.  p.  C:  ft 
1«  2:  ^wnffmr^TTj  3X?&  *tomy'i  s^fK   1.1.  6.  Vol.    1.  p.  105:   er 


1.  1.  9.  Vol.  1.  p.  175:  ^^T 


1.  2:  q^  ^rafsMEKT  *R;:cfr&  ^T^faftn  I    1.  3.  1 ;  Vol.    1.  p.   258: 
R 

i 


i 

..  3:  »T  tfrihfT  ^3  i^lf  3T^lf7i<lgRft  5TI^-     1.  3.  1.  Vol.  I.  p,  256: 


2.  1.  1.    Vol.    I.   p.    365: 


2.  2.   1.   Vol.  I.  p.   416: 


2.  1.  3.  Vol.  I.  p.  393: 

5.  1;  1.  Vol.  2.  p.  343:   qft 

5Tf%  qc&  I 
1.  3.  1.  Vol.  1.  p.  256: 


1  4:  *TRrf  arrert  JHI^  I  1.  1.  3.  Vol.  I.  p.  38: 


•  6:  iwriRn^  qfa  \  gtenst  Hm^r^  i    5.  3.  l.  Vol.  II.  p.  407: 

r:  i  etc. 


[  APP1NDIX  I 


.  7. 


I.  9: 


1.  1 


1.    15 


1, 17; 


.  18: 


1.  19: 


THE  NIRUKTA. 


THE  MAHABHA§TA  OF  PATANJALI. 
6.  1.  1.  Vol.  III.  .p.  16:  J 

$tf  I 
5.    1.  2.   Vol.  II.  p.   356: 


Cf.  3.  2.  2.  Vol.  II.  p,  119: 
S^lf%  I 

Vol.  III.  p.  408:  sftssRnft 
3.    3.    1.  Vol.  II.    p.  138: 


I.  i.  9.  Vol.  I.  p.  175: 

^3.  i  $f  s^r^rs^  *r^rrtM«(:  i 
1.  1.  9.  Vol.  I.  p.  17G: 
i 


2.    1.1.    Vol.    I.  p.  3G3: 


1.  4.  4.  Vol.  I.  p.  354:  <R: 

3ft*TT  I 
8.    3.    1.    Vol.    III.  p.   430 


1.  1.  1.  Vol.  I.  p.    2: 

c^||  l^l^Hcf    ^T£3J%  | 


II        1.  1.  1.  Vol  I.  p.  4: 


[APPENDIX! 

THE  NIRUKTA.  THE  MAHABHASYA  OF  PATANJALI. 

2.   1:  swgqvn^  *refr  3W3^g-    C.  1,  1.  Vol.  III.  p.  17:   - 


2.  1:  eWMRRrft1?        *rcfr  *Jter  n*:     1.  1.  2.    Vol.  I.    p.     ^>1: 
fa$?lW&fr  I  W&:  forai:  ^:  ft^:  I 

2.  2:  srefirtfaiw  i  $«ft3t%5r  *TM^    1.  1.  l.  Vol.  I.  p.  9: 


5115  >  ^ 

2.  18:  TlM  ^TTfR^r:  I  Vol.  III.  p.  3G: 

2.  21:  ^fti^  S<T:  i-...^r^m  3?i^^    Vol.  III.  p.   1C:  m|fcr: 


3.  1:  srm  $*TR£  i...^i^r  q^ft^  ^r  i     5.  l.  2.  Vol.  II.  p.  356: 

I 


3.  9:  *R  ^Wc^  I  fofcftfr  ^T:  I  5.  1.  2.  Vol.    II.   p.    356: 

ftffift&TH.  I 

3.  16:  enteJtssr  STTX  ^3^^  i  *rt3i>    3.  3.  1.  Vol.  II.  p.  146: 

ft?IT  I  3TTCT:  I  41^  (^cf  If^fkl:  I 

3.  18:  fof:  ^-TOI   tM  ?n^fiw(t-    3,  1.  6.  Vol.  II.  p.  87:  t&: 
^T^T  I 


3.  21:  %*r:  ^nq^:  I  1.  2.  3.  Vol.    I.  pp.  245-6 

^t%sft"  ^<4(<icl 
5fr  I 

4.  9:  to^"  ^TftT^  srefa    cTrf:;  I.   1.   1.    p.    4: 


4.  10:  «Tj>i*te...«n^T  II  ti^ft^  MftM'«l«lH     1.  1.  1.  p.  4: 

:  I       f:  SR^^  Iftfo   ^fM          e=^^    *T2ri^    I 

i  ^  ^ftn       fi^^ft  ^r^r  i...«(kT 


[  APPENDIX  I 


THE  NIRUKTA. 

1.  15:  3NTft 

1.  15:  aroiuj 

1.  16: 


16: 
^Tr 
1.  16: 

1.  16: 

B-p^ 

1.  16: 
1.  1: 


1.  1: 
1.  1: 
1 .  3 : 


THE  NIRDKTA. 


TUB  PURVA  MIMAMSA  OF  JAIMINI. 

1.  2.  36: 
1.  2.  38: 
1.  2.  40: 
1.  3.  30: 

TO;  i 

1.  2.  4 


1.  2.  41:  gurwi    ^: 
1.2.45:  4 


1.  2.  47: 
1.  2.  49:  S 

Sarvadars'anasamgraha. 
THE  PAXIXIDARS'ANA. 

p.  140.    q" 


p.  144. 
p.  135 
p.  140:  3$ 


frote. — The  references  are  to  the  pages  of  Sarvadars'anasamgraha  edited  in  Bib. 
Ind.  published  at  Calcutta  in  1858.    The  system   of  Panini  is  discussed 
in  the  13th  section  of  the  Sarvadars'a.  pp.  135-147  in  this  edition. 
36 


Additions. 

P,  4.  line  9:-Devariija  says  that  Madhava  does  not  read 
but  ftr^  and  sn<r^  as  synonyms  of  water,  ft^  occurs  in  the 
Veda  as  a  synonym  of  water,  but  as  Rr^nj;  is  used  in  the  spoken 
language  (  bhdxd  )  in  the  sense  of  water,  the  adoption  of  ftra^  is  not 
quite  appropriate.  WT^  is  extremely  obscure.  It  has  never  been 
used  as  a  synonym  of  water  by  ancient  teachers.  It  may  however 
be  explained  in  the  following  way: 


P.  9.  I.  ll:-For  *re  as  a  synonym  of  sra  cf.  S'B.  9.  4.  4.  3. 
p.  738:  sra  ^  Siw:  I 

P.  10.1.  8:-s^H[o5T  are  quoted  as  synonyms  of  cow  by  S'abara 
in  his  commentary  on  the  Purvamimdmsd.  on  X.  4.  32.  p.  492. 
(  Jivananda's  edition.  ) 

P.  11.  1.  2:~3atyavratasamas'rami  attributes  the  reading  «H% 
to  Devaraja  (see  p.  236.  Bib.  Ind.  edition  ).  This  is  incorrect 
for  Devaraja  really  reads  ^rcr^  see  p.  240.  op.  cit. 

P.  25.  1.  1:-A11  the  accented  Mss.  and  printed  editions  of  the 
Nighantu  put  the  iiddtta  accent  on  the  ya  of  T^fS  which  occurs  in 
RV.  IX.  3.  5  and  does  not  bear  any  uddtta.  «re?f  :  occurs  in  RV. 
VIII.  101..  2  also  without  the  uddtta.  £j4$  is  found  in  RV.  X. 
87.  3  and  is  accented  on  the  syllable  ya  because  it  occurs  in  a  subo 
rdinate  clause. 

P.  26.  1.  l:-5pr^ftff  bears  a  double  accent  in  the  Nighantu. 
As  an  example  of  devatd-dvandva  compound  it  should  have  a 
double  accent.  It  occurs  once  only  in  RV.  IV.  57.  5  and  is 
accented  on  the  first  syllable  only  gThftfr  although  it  is  clear  that 
it  is  a  devatd-dvandva  compound.  The  form  spTfafrTT  occurs  in 
RV.  IV.  57.  8.  and  is  also  accented  on  the  first  syllable  only. 

P.  27,  1.  8  -.-With  Yaska's  definition  of  a  noun  and  a  verb, 
cf.  Bhartrhari,  Vdkyapadlya. 

2.  346: 


P.  28.  1.  l-2:-The  passage  t<N^^...WbRf  is  quoted  by 
S'abara  in  his  commentary  on  the  Purvamlmdmsd  1.  L  5.  p.  15, 
with  the  remark: 


P.  29  1.  l:-cf.  Bhartrliari,  Vdkyapadlya,  2.  347: 


u 

P.   30.   1.    13:-^r^R  ar^TRT  is  quoted  by  Ksirasvumin  in  his 
AmaratlM,  p.  114.  7. 

Cf.  Va-       }wdna,  M.  29-30.  pp.  200-1. 


Cf.  Apastam.  Dh.  Su.  1 

cf,  S'abara  on  1.  3.  13:  wmw  Htsfafo:  I 

1.  14:  cf.  Pcanini,  8.  2.  101: 


P.  40.  1.  18-19:-The  two  lines  are  quoted  by  Kumarila  Bhatta 
in  his  commentary    Tantravartika  p.  213,  reading  sNfa  for  5^5!  I 

P.  41f  1.  5-6:-Cf.   Vis'varupacarya   in  the   Balakrtdd  p.   83: 


is  a  variant  for 
P.  42.  1.  4:-Cf<  S'abara,   8.  2.  53.   vol.  2.   p.  252:   srft 
:  I 


P.   44.   1.   4  :-3*<HT$R^JT*rr;H  is^i  fa4^  i  ^   is  quoted    by  Kumarila 
Bhatta  in  the  Tantravartika  p.  214. 

1.  10:-^^T  5^rtSr  is  a  fragment  of  RV.  I.  24.  11. 

P.  45.  1.  3:-Quoted  by   Kumarila  Bhatta  op.  cit.  p.    146: 


1.  9  '.-^rsgfl1  3&  JTf5t8rf?r  looks  like  a  quotation. 
P.  48.  1.  23:-Koth  reads  *Nnfo  for  «WH^o. 
P.  oO.  1.  10:-Cf.   Mahabharata,   Adiparvan,  (  Kumbhakona 
ed.)  63.  49: 


In  cnftsfegrfrT,  .cRt  can  be  either  in  the  vocative  or  in  the 
genitive.  If  in  the  former,  the  reading  should  be  ?Rt  «rft?w%,  if 
the  latter,  it  should  read  aJTfaf^rfcf.  The  case  is  undoubtedly 
vocative. 


P.  51.  1.  14:-The  quotation   is  found   in   KS.  21.  2,  Vol.  II. 
p.  39  ;  Cf.  MS.  3.  3.  1,  Vol.  III.  p.  32. 

P.  52.  L  ISi-^sr^:  I  Cf.  Ndradas'  iksdvivarnam.     i.  4: 


P.  5G.  1.  ll:-For  9»FSJ   cf.    Vayu  Purdna   32.  30.  p.  105: 
S^r  I   cf.  Sus'ruta  Sutra  Sthdna,  chapter  VI.  p.  22: 

Nirnaya  sagar 


cd.  with  the  com.  of  Dalhana. 

P.  57.  footnote  4:-Add,  N.  X.  31. 

P.  58.  1.  4:-Following  the  method  of  the  Samhita  text, 
should  be  read  gcfrft  I 

P.  60.  1.  18:-Eoth  reads  ^TT.     Accent  is  wrong. 

P.  60.  footnote  11  :-The  quotation  is  from  KS.  XXVII.  9. 
Vol.  II.  p.  149. 

P.  61.  1.  18  as  well  a£  footnote  14:-The  quotation  is  attributed  to 
the  S'ruti  of  the  Bhallavis  by  VisVarupacfirya  in  his  commentary, 
the  Bdlakndd  on  Ydjnavalkyastnrti  p.  61. 

P.  63.  1.  2:-Cf.  S'ankara   on   the    Vedanta  Sutra   1.    4.    12: 

:  i 


1.  6:-^T|;  is  a  variant  for 
P.  65.  1.  19:-*ro^  5*5:  $*JT  ^f^far  looks  like  a  quotation. 
P.  69.  1.  l:-The  Mss.  which  mark  accent  on  the  quotation  have 
changed  the  accent.     The  correct  accent  should  be 

P.  76.  1.  ll:-Roth  reads  t^r  for 


P.  79.  1.  17:-3TTi^rT^ft  firere  ^%  seems  to  be  a  quotation. 

P.  85.  1.  18:-The  quotation  is  identical  with  MS.  IV.  13.  10. 

P.  95.  1.  9:-The  quotation  is  found   in  MS.    I.  10.    14;  KS. 
XXXVI.  8 

P.  96.  1.  16:-For  the  quotation,  see  Ap.  grant.  Sii.  XII.  19.  u. 

Footnote  16~add,  RVKH.  XVII.  7. 

P.  99.  1.  5:-Roth  reads  ^gs^^T^nj;  for  ^is^^r^  i 

P.  99.   footnote  2:-Omit   VS.  5.  7.     The  quotation   is  found 
-in  TS.  II.  4.  14.  1. 


Foot  note  5:-Omit  VS.  5.  7.  Add,   cf.  AV.  VII.  81.  6;  cf. 
TS.  II.  4.  14.  1. 

P.  100.  footnote  12:-Durga's  quotation  is  identical  with  KS. 
IX.  4  ;  MS.  I.  10.  2,  except  the  last  line,  which  reads  in  the  KS. 
as  follows:  —  'M^rWTft  vsr^taTm^w!  ii  WfT  I  The  same  is  given 
in  the  MS.  as  follows:—  a^rrft  %a%  adrift  *$ft  i  a*r  *rfortf*ft 
i 


P.  120.  1.  15:-S'ivadatta  reads  aa$  for  TS.    It  is  evidently 
a  mistake. 


P.  121.  I.  8:-All  the  Mss.  and  printed  editions  read 
There  is  no  evidence  therefore  to  question  the  genuineness  of  «m?uir 
but  as  it  qualifies  *$**,  it  should  have  been  seisin  for  ^^r  is  used 
in  the  masculine  gender  only  and  never  in  the  neuter.  Should 
this  be  taken  as  evidence  in  support  of  w«r  being  also  used  in  the 
neuter  or  a  slip  on  the  part  of  Yaska  ? 

P.  136.  1.  19:-S'ivadatta  adds  *  after  snffAnni  I 
P.  141.  1.  18:-3TRT%^r  is  a  variant. 

P.  150.  1.  8:-The  text  reads  qrsrfar.    The  root  *n\is  used  in 

the  Atmanepada  in  classical  Sanskrit.  Probably  a  fine  distinction 
is  made  in  this  passage  i.  e.  the  solicitation  is  not  meant  for  one's 
self  but  for  others,  hence  the  parasmaipada  is  used. 

P.  168.  1.  3:-wnft  swrrftr  is  not  correct.    It  should  be  either 
(1)  *mrft  sftfa  or  (2)  wmq;.     In  my  opinion,  the  text  is  corrupt. 


P.  178.  1.  20:-Some  critics  think  that  the  correct  reading 
should  be  sfrftr  and  not  snrrfa.  This  view  is  erroneous.  It  is  clear, 
these  critics  have  not  understood  the  passage.  The  word  arrftr  is 
used  in  the  sense  of  tautology.  Some  scholars  are  of  opinion 
that  the  recurrence  of  an  identical  expression  in  a  stanza  is 
tautology.  Others  think  that  the  recurrence  of  the  same  expression 
in  a  verse  (pcida)  is  tautology.  Another  school  of  thought  holds 
that  if  there  is  even  a  very  slight  difference  (  in  the  expression  ), 
it  is  the  negation  of  tautology.  *rer  5p*rr 


It  is  clear  therefore  that  snTrfo  and  not  grrftr  is  the  correct  reading. 
P.  181.1.  14:-S'i7adatta  reads  «K«^  without  any  justification, 


P.  186.  1.  3-4:-3f*T3  is  used  in  the  masculine  gender  in  the 
third  hut  in  the  neuter  gender  in  the  fourth  line.  (uTig  STTOT  etc.  ) 
The  word  can  he  used  in  both  genders,  but  it  does  not  look  con- 
sistent to  use  the  same  word  in  two  different  genders  in  practically 
the  same  sentence. 

P.  193.  1.  14:-S'ivadatta  reads  srflifiSr:  although  the  same  word 
in  Durga's  commentary  in  the  same  edition  is  printed  as  ^trafo:  i 
I  think,  S'ivadatta  confounds  the  Vedic  word  &fb  with  the 
classical 


P.  194.  1.  4:-S'ivadatta  reads  ^ft  after 
P.  204.  L  13  and  16:-S'ivadatta  reads 


P.  206.  1.  6:-S'ivadatta  reads  argwft  while  Durga  seems   to 
favour 


P.  216,  1.  7:S'ivadatta  adds  ^  after 

P.  225.  1.  16:-The  reading  of  the  text  is  |$rer8rf<r.     I  suggest 


P.  227.  1.  h-S'ivadatta  reads  ar$nft  which  is  wrong.     It  should 
have  been  3r$nr. 

P.  230.  1.  4:-S'ivadatta  reads  ^  T^fto. 

P.  23  L  1.  5:-All  Mss.  read  TOT  which  does  not  give  any  sense 
I  suggest  *nft. 

P.  231.  1.  14:-The  reading  of  the  text  is  srf^r^  but  as  the 
subject  is  ^  I  suggest 


Corrections. 


Page       9     line     11     read 


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99 
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10 
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32 
41 
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55 
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60 


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„  footnote  * 

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62  „        15 
66      „        11 

69  „        11 

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for 


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Page    78     line      8 
79  1 


9! 


99 


*» 

79      „       17 

99 

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99 

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99 

82      „          1 

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„  footnote  3 

9t 

99              91                   * 

n 

83      „         7 

99 

99              99                17 

99 

S4      „          4 

99 

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„ 

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87      „        13 

9) 

88      ,.          6 

99 

93      „        13 

?T 

96      „          5 

M 

97      „          6 

99 

9  8  footnote  ?^ 

99 

100      „         «' 

n 

101    line        3 

99 

102      „        14 

99 

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99 

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w 

111      „        13 

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114      ,.        11 

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for 


KS.  19.  13 

untraced 


anrrv 


Kumarila 


Mlma:iisa 


VI.  12.  4 


99 
99 
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KS.  19.  3, 

untreccd 


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fif 


Kumaria. 


Mimansa 


„    V.  12.  4. 


Page 


152 

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269 

„ 

J'    )3 

,  14 

99 

„ 

271 

„ 

2,; 

,  30 

>9 

99 

279 

99 

1    1, 

,    9 

„ 

9> 

99 

99 

>,   >9 

29 

99 

99 

280 

99 

2  ,,24 

99 

99 

„ 

99 

>l    19 

28 

99 

for  l_ 
KV.  VIII.  70.  5. ,     RV.  VIII.  59. 5. 


V* 


99 
99 
99 
99 
99 
99 

9> 

99 
9> 
99 


JV,  jB, — It  is  a  matter  of  regret  that  a  good  many  misprints  have  remained 
notwithstanding  the  pains  taken  to  insure  accuracy.  During  the  summer 
vacations  I  was  absent  from  Lahore  for  a  considerable  period.  The  task  of 
correcting  proofs  had  to  be  entrusted  to  some  other  hand  in  my  atysenco  as  the 
proofs  were  likely  to  be  lost  or  would  have  been  very  much  delayed,  had  they 
been  sent  to  me  to  Cashmere  or  other  distant  hills  from  Bombay.  Even  as  it  igf 
it  has  taken  about  six  years  to  print  the  text  of  Nirukia.  If  no  arrangement 
had  been  made  for  summer  vacations,  the  period  of  six  years  would  have  been 
considerably  prolonged.  I  do  not  say  this  to  throw  blame  on  any  particular 
person.  The  final  responsibility  is  wholly  mine.  However  I  think  that  mosto 
of  the  misprints  are  such  as  can  be  easily  corrected  by  the  reader  hinwaif. 


THE    NIGHANTTJ 

AND 

THE  NIRUKTA 

THE  OLDEST  INDIAN  TREATISE 
ON  ETYMOLOGY,  PHILOLOGY,  AND  SEMANTICS 

CRITICALLY  EDITED   FROM   ORIGINAL  MANUSCRIPTS  AND 

TRANSLATED  FOR  THE  FIRST  TIME  INTO  ENGLISH,  WITH 

INTRODUCTION,  EXEGETICAL  AND  CRITICAL  NOTES, 

THREE  INDEXES  AND  EIGHT  APPENDICES 


BY 


LAKSHMAN  SARUP,  M.A.  (PANj.),D.  PHIL.  (OxoN.) 

LATE  PROFESSOR  OF  SANSKRIT  AT  THE  UNIVERSITY  OF  THE  PANJAB.  LAHORE 


INTRODUCTION,  ENGLISH  TRANSLATION  AND  NOTES 


MOTILAL  BANARSIDASS 

DELHI    ::     VARANASI    ::     PATNA, 


Published  by  \  Parted  by  : 

Sundar  Lai  Jain  Shanti  Lai  Jain 

Motilal  Kiinnrsidass,  Shrl  Jalnendra  Press, 

Bungalow  Road,  Bungalow  Road,  Jawahar  Nagar, 

Jawahar  Nagar,  Delhi-6  Delhi-6. 


© 
196$ 

!  Indian     R».  30-00 
Foreign  6O  Sb. 


Copies  available  at  : 

I.    Motllal  Banarsidass,  Bungalow  Road,  Jawaharaagar,  Delhi •<» 
a.     Motilal  Banarsidass,  Nepali  Khapra,  Varanasi. 
3.    Motilal  Banar«idacs    Bankipnr,  Patna. 


TO 
PROFESSOR  A.  A.  MACDONELL 

AS  A  HUMBLE  MARK 
OF  RESPECT 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 

(   Introduction  ) 
I.    INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIGHAJfJV 

a.  Detailed  description  of  Manuscripts 

b.  Two  recensions  ...... 

c.  Devaraja  and  his  commentary  .... 

d.  Roth's  edition  of  the  Nighantu 

6'  Bibliotheca  Indica  edition  of  the  >Nighantu 

/.  Title  of  the  work 

g.  Division  of  the  Nighantu 

h.  Author  of  the  Nighantu     .         .         . 

INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 


PAGE 

5 
9 

10 

11 

12 
13 
13 
14 


a.  Earlier  editions  of  the  Nirukta  15 

b.  Detailed  description  of  the  Manuscripts  ....      19 

c.  Relationship  of  the  Manuscripts — two  recensions      ...      39 

d.  Omissio  ex  homoeoteleuto  in  Sanskrit  Manuscripts       .        .        .40 

e.  Dittography  in  Sanskrit  Manuscripts 41 

/.  1 .  Three  stages  of  interpolations 45 

2.  Parallel  instance  of  Servius,  commentator  of  Virgil    .        .      48 

g.  Commentators  of  Yaska  49 

h.  Yaska's  contributions  to  Etymology  Philology  and  Semantics  .       53 

1.  Date  of  Yaska      .        .        .        .        .        .        •        .53 

2.  Phonetic  equipment  of  Yaska 54 

3 .  Importance  of  Etymology  .        .         .        .        ,56 

4.  Principles  of  Etymology 57 

5.  Plato  on  Etymology'  .        .        .        .        .        .63 

6.  Philological  speculations  of  Yaska        .        .        .        .      64 

7.  Origin  of  Language 66 

8.  Parts  of  speech     .        .        .  .  .        .66 

9.  Aristotle's  definition  of  Noun  and  Verb      ...      66 
10.  Semantics.    How  names    are    given  :    Criticism  and 

Rejoinder .        .68 

t.  Early  anti-Vedic  Scepticism      .        .        .        .        .        .        .       71 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 

(  English  Translation  and  Notes  ) 


CHAPTER  I 

Four  classes  of  words 

Prepositions  . 

Particles 

Expletives     . 

Are  all  nouns  derived  from  verbs  ? 

The  Kautsa  controversy 

Importance  of  etymology     . 

Compilation  of  the  Mghantu 

CHAPTER  II 

Principles  of  Etymology 

Sakapuni  and  a  deity 

Devapi  and  Santanu 

Vrtra 

Visvamitra  and  the  Rivers  . 

CHAPTER  III 

Inheritance  . 

Brotherless  maiden  . 

Fingers 

Synonyms  of  beauty 

Niyoga 

Similes 

Onomatopoeia 

Synonyms  of  Heaven  and  Earth 


PAGE 

CHAPTER  V 

6 

Vanusyati 

7 

Varaha 

8 

Vi?nu 

.       13 

Adhrigu 

14 

Vajapastya 

.       16 

Nicumpuna 

.       18 

Krtti 

.      20 

Prthak 

Srni  . 

CHAPTER  VI 

21 

27 

Virudhah 

9ft 

Indra  and  the  Seers 

•o 
31 

Asih. 

35 

Kimidin 

Jarayayi 

Amina 

Ghramsa 

39 

Pratadvasu 

4.1 

Bekanata 

Tr  I 

43 

Sirimbitha 

47 

Bunda 

48 

CHAPTER  VI] 

49 

51 

Nature  of  Stanzas     . 

. 

55 

Deity 

. 

CHAPTER  IV 


Homonyms 
Jathara 
Kayamana 
Dayamana 
Vyantah 
Erire     . 
Anta     . 
Varya  . 


56 
59 
61 
63 
65 
67 
69 
71 


Are  Gods  anthropomorphic  ? 

Metres 

Agni 

Jatavedah 

Vaisvanara 


CHAPTER  VIII 


Dravinoda 
Barhih 
Tvastf 
Apr! 


PAGE 


73 

75 
77 
79 
81 
83 
85 
87 
89 


91 

93 

95 

97 

99 

101 

103 

105 

107 

109 

111 


113 
115 
116 
119 
121 
123 
125 


129 
133 
135 
138 


TABLE  OF  CONTENTS 


vii 


CHAPTER  IX 


Sakuni 

Dice      . 

Quiver 

Whip    . 

Rivers 

Wilderness 

Ends  of  the  Bow 


CHAPTER  X 


Vayu    . 
Rudra  . 
Brhaspati 
Yama    . 
Ka 

Tarksya 
Vita  . 
Indu 


Soma    . 
Death    . 

Maruts  . 


CHAPTER  XI 


PAGE 

Aptyah 

PAGE 

175 

Sarasvati 

177 

139 

Sinivali 

179 

141 

Gaurl    . 

181 

143 

Ila         . 

183 

145 

147 

CHAPTER  XII 

149 

151 

Asvins  . 

.     184 

Bhaga  . 

.     189 

Varuna 

.     191 

Seven  Seers  . 

.     196 

.     153 

Divine  women 

.     199 

.     155 

.     157 

Exegetical  and  Critical  Notes          2 

00-245 

.     159 

.     161 

•a  ^o 

Alphabetical  list  of  Stories  related 

.     163 
.     165 

in  the  Nirukta 

.    246 

.     167 

Index  of  Authorities  cited  in  the 

Nirukta    . 

.    247 

.     169 
.     171 

List   of  Quotations    occurring    in 
the  Nirukta,    arranged  in   the 

.     173 

order  of  the  Sar/ihitds 

.    248 

LIST  OF  ABBREVIATIONS 


AA.  =  Aitareya  Aranyaka. 

AB.  =  Aitareya  Brahmana. 

AP.  =  AtharvaVeda  PratiSakhya. 

Ap.  Dh.  =  Apastamba  Dharma  Sutra. 

AV.  =  Atharva  Veda. 

Bau.  =  Baudhayana  Dharma  Sutra. 

Bhag.  Pu.=  Bhagavata  Purana. 

Bib.  Ind.  =  Bibliotheca  Indica. 

Brh.  D.  =  Brhad-devala. 

Brh.  U.  =  Brhadaranyakopanisad. 

Ga.  =  Gautama. 

Ga.  Dh.  =  Gautama  Dharma  Sutra. 

GB.  =  Gopatha  Brahmana. 

IA.  =  Indian  Antiquary. 

Is*a  U.  =  •  ISavasyopanisad. 

KB.  =  Kau§Haki  Brahmana. 

KS.  =  Kathaka  Samhita. 

MahanU.=  Mahanarayana  Upanisad. 

MB.  =  Mahabhasya. 

Mbh.  =  Mahabharata. 

MS.  =  Maitrayani  Samhita. 

MW.  =  Monier  Williams' Dictionary. 

N.  =  Nirukta. 

Ngh.  =  Nighantu. 

N.  Su.  =  Nyaya  Sutra. 

Pa.  =  Panini. 


Pu. 

PM.  = 
R.  Kh.  = 
RP.  or  RPr. 
RV. 

R.Vidh.  = 
RVKh.  = 
§ad.  B.  = 


S.  Su.       = 

sv.       = 

SV.B.  = 
Sveta.U.  = 
TA.  = 
Tand.B.  = 
TB.  = 

TPr.  = 
TS.  * 

U.  Su.  = 
Va.  = 

Vai.  Su.  =» 
VP.}  VPr.= 
VS.  = 

VSu. 
Ya.  or 


Purana. 

Purva  Mimamsa. 

Rgvidhana  Khantfa. 

=Rgveda  Pratis"akhya. 

Rgveda 

Rgvidhana  Kharcla. 

Rgvidhana  Khanda. 

§advimsa  Brahmana. 

Satapatha  Brahmana. 

Samkhya  Sutra. 

Sam  a  Veda. 

Samavidhana  Brahmana, 

5vetasvataropani§ad. 

Taittiriya  Aranyaka. 

Tandya  Brahmana. 

Taittiriya  Brahmana. 

Taittiriya  Pratis*akhya.  - 

Taittiriya  Samhita. 

Unadi  Sutra. 

Vasi§tha  Dharma  Sastra. 

Vaisesika  Sutra. 

Vajafianeyi  Prati^akhya. 
=  Vajasaneyi  Samhita. 
=  Vedanta  Sutra, 
a.  =  Yajftavalkya  Smrti. 


EIGHTH  BOOK. 


PREFACE 

WHEN  I  first  came  to  Oxford  in  the  autumn  of  1916,  I  undertook, 
on  the  suggestion  of  Professor  A.  A.  Macdonell,  to  collate  the  hitherto 
unutilized  Nirukta  Manuscripts,  contained  in  the  Max  Miiller  Memorial 
and  the  Chandra  Shum  Shere  Collections,  and  to  see  if  some  new  light 
could  be  thrown  on  the  text  of  the  Nirukta.  A  careful  examination  of  the 
materials  at  my  disposal  lias  led  me  to  the  conclusion  that  the  text  of 
the  Nirukta  has  been  gradually  expanded  by  the  addition  of  short  passages, 
chiefly  in  the  etymological  explanations  which  easily  lent  themselves  'to 
such  interpolations.  At  present  the  history  of  this  gradual  expansion 
can  be  traced  only  down  to  the  thirteenth  century  A.D.  There  is  a  lack 
of  reliable  evidence  going  further.  But  I  have  reasons  to  suspect  that  even 
up  to  the  thirteenth  century,  the  text  of  the  Nirulda  has  not  been  handed 
down  with  a  uniform  and  unbroken  tradition.  A  few  remarks  of  Durga 
scattered  here  and  there  in  his  commentary  open  up  the  possibility  that 
the  interpolators  were  already  busy  with  their  nefarious  work.  There 
is  no  doubt  that  the  text  had  already  been  tampered  with.  Thus  one 
should  be  cautious  in  making  Yaska  responsible  for  many  passages,  and  the 
numerous  absurd  derivations  contained  therein,  now  commonly  attributed 
to  him.  All  such  passages  have  been  pointed  out  in  my  edition  of  the 
text,  which  sets  forth  as  clearly  as  possible  the  history  of  the  gradual 
expansion  by  means  of  square  brackets  and  foot-notes. 

I  have  also  produced,  for  the  first  time,  a  complete  English  translation 
of  the  whole  of  the  Nirukta.  I  have  added  numerous  exegetical  and 
critical  notes  with  a  view  to  extract  as  much  information  as  possible 
from  Yaska.  And  in  order  to  make  my  work  further  useful,  I  have 
also  prepared  the  following  Indexes  and  Appendices:  (1)  An  Index  to 
the  words  of  the  Nighantu  with  meanings ;]  (2^  An  Index  to  the  words  of 
the  Quoted  Passages  occurring  in  the  Nirukta  vith  meaning*;  (3)  an  Index 


2  PREFACE 

Verborum  to  the  Nirukta  minus  the  Quoted  Passages   with  meanings; 

(4)  An  alphabetical   list   of  the  ^Quotations   occurring  in  the   Nirukta ; 

(5)  An   alphabetical   list   of  the   Untraced   Quotations   occurring  in   the 
Nirukta;    (6)  A  list  of  Vedic  Quotations  arranged  in  the  order  of  the 
Samhitas;   (7)  A  list  of  the  Authorities  mentioned  by  Yaska;   (8)  A  list 
01  Stories  related  by  Yaska ;    (9)  The  Relation  of  the  Nirukta  to  other 
texts,  i.e.  a  collection  of  parallel  passages  from  the  Brahmanas,  Prdti- 
Sakhyas,  Mahtibhdsya,  &c.;    (10)  An  alphabetical  list  of  the  etymologies 
to  be  found  in  the  Nirukta ;   (11)  A  list  of  the  Nirukta  passages  quoted 
by  Sayana.     The  whole  work  being  embodied  in  the  form  of  a  dissertation 
was   presented   to,  and  accepted   by,  the  University  of  Oxford,  for  the 
degree  of  Doctor  of   Philosophy.      Notwithstanding   the   Statt.   Tit.  VI, 
Sec.  v,  §  5.  (8),  which  requires  an  Advanced  Student  to  publish  his  thesis 
in  extenso  before   supplicating  for  the  said  degree,  the  Committee   for 
Advanced  Studies  very  kindly  permitted  me — taking  into  consideration 
the  very  high  cost  of  printing  at  present — to  publish  the  Introduction 
alone.     I  think  I  need  make  no  apology  for  bringing  out  this  part  only 
at  present,  in  the  hope  that  the  rest  will  follow  in  course  of  time. 

If  my  labours  have  borne  any  fruit,  it  is  simply  due  to  the  guidance 
which  I  have  received  in  the  course  of  my  work,  and  which  it  is  my  very 
pleasant  duty  to  acknowledge. 

I  owe  a  great  debt  of  gratitude  to  Professor  A.  A.  Macdonell.  The 
inception  of  this  study  is,  as  I  have  already  mentioned,  due  to  his 
suggestion.  The  whole  work  was  done  under  his  supervision.  His  guidance 
and  encouragement  have  been  of  invaluable  help  to  me.  And  through  his 
recommendation  the  Administrators  to  the  Max  Miiller  Memorial  Fund  have 
voted  a  sum  of  £50  for  the  publication  of  my  dissertation — my  thanks  to 
them  for  this  generous  help.  I  am  much  indebted  to  Dr.  F.  W.  Thomas, 
Librarian,  India  Office,  and  to  Dr.  J.  Morison,  Librarian,  Indian  Institute, 
Oxford,  for  granting  me  facilities  in  the  use  of  books,  and  for  their 
readiness  to  help  me  in  every  way  whenever  I  had  the  occasion  to  seek 
their  advice.  I  desire  to  put  on  record  my  special  thanks  to  Mr.  Madan, 
ex-Librarian  of  the  Bodleian,  for  permission  to  work  on  valuable  manu- 
scripts during  the  dark  days  of  air-raids,  when  the  manuscripts  had  been 
carefully  stored  away.  Professor  A.  B.  Keith  has  placed  me  under  great 


PREFACE  3 

obligation  by  giving  me  his  valuable  opinion  on  many  difficult  points. 
Dr.  T.  W.  Arnold,  C.I.E.,  Educational  Adviser  to  the  Secretary  of  State 
for  India,  has  taken  a  good  deal  of  interest  in  my  work  and  has  supported 
me  in  almost  every  obstacle  to  the  completion  of  my  studies. 

It  has  been  my  privilege  to  interpret  an  ancient  Indian  author,  who 
as  far  as  Etymology  and  Semantics  are  concerned,  is  far  in  advance  of 
the  greatest  of  ancient  Greek  writers  like  Plato  and  Aristotle,  and  if  he 
comes  to  be  better  appreciated,  my  labour  will  be  amply  repaid. 


LAKSHMAN  SARUP 


BALLIOL  COLLEGE,  OXFORD. 
July,  1920. 


INTRODUCTION 

THE    NIGHA^TU 

THE  following  manuscripts  have  l>een  collated  for  this  edition  of  the 
Nighantu, : 

1.  Max  Muller  Memorial  MS.      e.  5  =  M  1 

2.  „          „  „  „         e.  6  =  M2 

3  and  4.      „          ,,  „  „         e.  7  =  M  3  and  M  4  respectively 

5.  Chandra  Shum  Shere  MS.     d.  184  =  C  1 

6,  7,  8.         „            „  „      „  e.  62  =  C  2,  C  3,  C  4  respectively 

9.  MS.  Sanskrit  e.  17  =  S 

10.  MS.  Wilson  379  =  W  1 

11  and  12.     „        „  502  =  W  2 ,  W  3  respectively 

13.     ;,        „  503  =  W4 

<(.     Detailed  Description  of  the  Manuscripts. 

M  1. — This  is  a  neatly-written  manuscript  in  Devanagari  characters  on 
paper.  It  originally  consisted  of  13  leaves,  but  the  first  two  are  missing 
The  accent  has  been -marked  in  yellow  ink.  The  text  is  not  bounded  on 
either  side  by  double  lines. 

The  size  of  the  paper  is  9J"  x  3|". 

The  number  of  lines  on  each  page  varies  from  9  to  10.  The  date  given 
on  f.  14  r.  as  £ak.  1455,  is  not  reliable,  and  has  obviously  been  added  at 
a  later  period  by  a  different  hand,  as  the  evidence  of  the  writing  indicates. 
The  manuscript  is  well  preserved,  but  neither  its  general  appearance  nor 
the  condition  and  the  colour  of  its  paper,  nor  its  spelling  lend  the  least 
support  to  the  date  given  above.  It  is  on  the  whole  accurate.  It  belongs 
to  the  longer  recension.  The  scribe  seems  to  have  been  a  devotee  of  Krsna, 
for  he  says :  ^V  ftWLU^*^-  Neither  the  name  of  the  scribe,  nor  of  the 
owner,  nor  of  the  place  of  its  origin,  is  known. 

M  2. — This  is  perhaps  the  oldest  of  all  the  manuscripts  of  the  tfighantu. 
It  is  written  in  DevaMgam  characters  on  paper,  but  is  not  well  preserved. 
In  many  places  it  suffers  from  illegibility,  partly  caused  by  the  smudging 
of  the  ink. 

It  begins :  $  *TOt  TOUrra  H  $  H  W  flj^f  JH^Mlfa  .  .  .  ,  &c.  It  gives 
the  fiiksa  Cati&taya  in  26  leaves.  The  different  traUises  are  not  bodily 


6  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIGHANTU 

separated  from  each  other,  all  the  four,  i.  e.  fiiksd,  Jyotisa,  Chandas  and 
Nighantu  being  written  continuously  without  a  break.  The  end  of  each 
is  found  on  f.  4  r.,  f.  7  v.,  f.  12  r.,  and  f.  24  v.  respectively.  The  accent  is 
not  marked.  The  text  is  bounded  on  each  side  by  double  black  lines. 

The  size  of  the  paper  is  9f  "  x  4J" 

The  number  of  lines  on  each  page  varies  from  10-13. 

It  has  preserved  the  archaic  spelling  in  many  cases,  especially  in  the 
case  of  ^5t  ;  <*K«JW  is  written  ItfcK^ULi:  and  <fK*ll*!j:  as  lrfK*JH5:  on 
f.  22  v.  Ff.  15-26  are  slightly  worm-eaten.  It  was  copied  in  the  month 
of  Phdlguna,  Samvat  1778,  by  a  scribe  named  £ivananda.  It  belongs  to 
the  shorter  recension. 

M  3.  —  This  is  a  paper  manuscript,  neatly  written  in  Devandgarl 
characters.  In  this  manuscript  also  the  j&iksd,  Jyotisa,  Chandas,  and 
Niyhantu  are  written  without  a  break  between  them.  The  accent  in  the 
Niyhatdu  is  not  marked.  The  size  of  the  paper  is  9"x4",  and  the 
number  of  lines  on  each  page  is  7.  The  text  is  bounded  on  each  side  by 
double  red  lines.  The  name  of  the  owner  is  As'arama  KedaresVara,  son  of 
6n  Xandarama.  It  was  copied  for  private  study  at  Benares.  The  date  given 
is  Samvat  1801:  (sic) 


•    ^ne  manuscript  ends  :  (sic)  JETt  ^fU^«*l^<sHI  II  ^00  H 
II 


It  belongs  to  the  shorter  recension. 

M  4.  —  This  contains  the  £iksay  &c.,  without  a  break  between  them,  and 
gives,  in  23  leaves,  the  6iksd,  Jyotisa,  Chandas,  and  Nighantu,  which  end  on 
f.  5  v.,  f.  8  r.,  f.  13  r.,  and  f.  23  v.  respectively.  The  five  adhayds  of  the 
Niyhantu  end  on  f.  15  v.,  f.  18  v.,  f.  21  r.,  f.  22  v.,  f.  23  v.  respectively.  It 
begins  :  sft  ir%JTTO  1*:  N  ^  $^1^5  W  II  €  TO  fiT*rf  H*WTfa,  &c.  It 
ends  : 


The  size  of  paper  is  8f  "  x  Sf"  ;  the  number  of  lines  on  each  page  is 
8.  The  text  is  bounded  on  either  side  by  double  red  lines.  The  accent  is 
marked  in  the  Nighantu  with  red  ink.  No  date  is  given,  nor  the  name 
of  the  scribe,  nor  the  place. 

It  belongs  to  the  longer  recension. 

C  1.  —  It  consists  of  three  different  manuscripts.  The  first  manuscript, 
which  gives  tb*  Nighantu  in  full,  seems  to  be  a  fragment,  for  the  first  folio 
is  numbered  10.  It  appears  that  originally  it  gave  the  £iksa  Catustaya, 


VIII.  3149J  EIGHTH  BOOK. 


DETAILED  DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  MANUSCRIPTS          7 

and  that  now  the  Nighantu  alone  survives.  It  begins  on  f.  10  r.,  and  ends 
on  f.  22  r.  The  text  is  bounded  on  each  side  by  double  red  lines.  The 
accent  is  marked.  The  size  of  the  paper  is  9"  x  4J"  ;  the  number  of  lines 
is  11.  It  ends:  (sic)  \ff(  fttjdl  M-<|jftUM<i:  II  ^ft  fll« 


The  date  Sale.  1875,  and  the  name  of  the  then  owner,  Gopala  Ananda 
Sarasvati,  are  added  in  a  different,  probably  later,  hand.  It  belongs  to  the 
longer  recension. 

C  2.  —  Is  the  first  of  five  different  manuscripts  bound  in  one  volume 
[e.  62].  It  contains  the  Nighantu  in  17  leaves,  marking  the  accent  with 
red  ink  in  the  first  adhydya  only. 

It  begins  :  II  sft  *[%*TTO  TO:  II  f  ft:  ^  II  It  ends  :  (sic)  tf?T  f*N% 
:  II  ti*iiH-  II  Neither  the  date  nor  the  name  of  the  scribe  is 


given. 

The  size  of  the  paper  is  8J"  x  3  J"  The  number  of  lines  on  each  page 
is  7.  Ff.  15,  16,  17  are  slightly  worm-eaten. 

It  is  written  in  Devanagarl  characters  on  paper,  and  is  fairly  accurate. 
It  belongs  to  the  longer  recension. 

C3-C4.  —  Are  contained  in  the  same  volume,  each  being  a  &iksa 
Gatustoya,  of  which  the  Nighantu  forms  a  part.  The  text  of  each  of  these 
jsiksa  Catustaya  is  written  continuously,  and  is  bounded  by  double  red 
lines.  The  size  of  the  paper  is  8  J"  x  4,  and  the  number  of  lines  on  each 
page  is  10.  The  first  two  sections  of  the  first  adhydya  are  missing  in  the 
first  manuscript.  The  other  manuscript  is  dated  Samvat,  1852. 

Both  are  written  in  Devandgart  characters  and  represent  the  longer 
recension. 

The  other  manuscripts  are  a  Siksa  attributed  to  Panini,  and  a  Siksd 
attributed  to  Yajnavalkya.  The  latter  begins  :  (sic)  €l  ^ 


i<ai«i 

T,    <&c.     It   ends: 


Another  manuscript  bound  in  the  same  volume  gives  in   seven  leaves 
the  £iksd  of  the  Sama   Veda,  attributed  to  Lomasa.     It  begins:  If  TO: 
.      It  has  preserved  some  old  spellings  ;    for  instance,  it  writes 


as 
The  last  manuscript  gives  the  Chandomafijarl  in  5  leaves.  It  begins:  (sic) 


8  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIGHANTU 


l  N  ^  II  ii*i^ 
r:  njf^,  &c. 


It  ends  : 

S4.  —  This  manuscript  contains  five  works.  The  first  four  consist  of 
the  j&iksd  Catustaya,  of  which  the  first  three  works  are  probably  written 
by  the  same  scribe.  The  first  part  gives  the  fcilcsd  in  6  leaves,  the  second  the 
Jyotisa  in  4,  the  third  the  Chandas  in  7  leaves,  the  fourth  the  Nighantu.1 
The  first  and  third  were  copied  in  £aka  1665,  and  the  fourth  in  £aka  1660. 
All  these  four  parts  are  complete  in  themselves  individually,  each  being 
separately  numbered.  The  name  of  their  former  owner  is  JBhatta  Jayana- 
rayana  of  Themti. 

The  Nighantu  consists  of  9  leaves.  The  text  is  bounded  on  each  side 
by  a  pair  of  double  red  lines.  It  is  a  neatly-written  manuscript,  The 
accent  is  marked  with  red  ink.  The  size  of  the  paper  is  9^"  x  3f  ".  For 
further  details  see  Catalogue  Codd.  MSS.  Mb.  Bodl.,  by  Winternitz  and 
Keith,  vol.  ii,  p.  105. 

The  manuscript  belongs  t®  the  longer  recension,  and  does  not  seem  to 
have  been  used  by  Roth. 

W  1.  —  This  contains  two  different  manuscripts.  The  first  is  Veddrtha- 
dlpikd,  a  commentary  on  the  Sarvdnukramam  by  Sadgurusisya. 

The  second  is  the  Nighantu.  It  begins  on  f  .  1  v.,  and  ends  on  f.  10  r. 
It  is  without  accent,  quite  modern,  and  full  of  mistakes.  It  is  Roth's  F. 
It  belongs  to  the  shorter  recension. 

For  further  details,  see  Catalogue  Codd.  MSS,  Bib.  Bodl.,  by  Winternitz 
and  Keith,  vol.  ii,  p.  104. 

W  2.  —  This  manuscript  contains  three  different  works. 

I.  The  first  work  is  the  Siksd  Catustaya.  It  is  a  continuously-written 
manuscript,  the  four  parts  ending  on  f.  3  v.,  f.  6  v.,  f.  11  v.,  and  f.  23 
respectively.  The  Nighantu  is  given  without  accent.  It  is  Roth's  C,  and 
belongs  to  the  shorter  recension.  For  further  details  see  Catalogus  Codd. 
MSS.  Bib.  Bodl.,  vol.  ii,  p.  104. 

W  3.  II.  This  is  the  second  manuscript  bound  in  the  volume  just 
mentioned.  It  gives  the  Nighantu  in  24  leaves.  It  is  without  accent. 
The  name  of  the  scribe,  partially  obliterated  by  yellow  pigment,  is  the 
following  : 


It  is  Roth's  D,  and  belongs  to  the  shorter  recension. 
III.  The  third  manuscript  is  the  Anuvdkdnukramanl. 
W  4.  —  This  manuscript  contains  two  different  works.     The  first  is  the 
Siksd  Catustaya.      Its  first  three  parts  are  written  continuously.      The 


1  The  fifth  is  the  Uttarasatka-m  of  the  Nirukta. 


DETAILED  DESCRIPTION   OF  THE  MANUSCRIPTS          9 

Nighantu  is  separated  from  the  rest.     It  ends  on  f.  16,  which  gives  a  list 
of  the  total  number  of  words  and  Khandas  for  each  adhydya  as  follows  : — 

Khanda  words 

1st         17          412  4th        3  279 

2nd        22  516  5th        6  151 

3rd        30  410 

It  is  Roth's  E,  and  belongs  to  the  longer  recension. 

To  these  manuscripts,  which  I  have  directly  collated  myself,  may  be 
added  the  A  and  B  which  were  used  by  Roth  (not  directly  collated  by  me), 
besides  C.D.E.F  =  W  1,  W2,  W3,  W4,  and  31,  ^r,  *T,  ^C,  *,  and  ^  used 
by  SamasYami,  in  his  edition,  published  in  the  Bib.  Ind. 

b.     Two  recensions. 

The  manuscripts  fall  into  two  distinct  groups  :  M  2,  M  3,  W  1,  W  2,  W  3 
and  H  form  one  family  group,  and  M  1,  M  4,  C  1,  C  2,  C  3,  C  4,  S,  W  4  ; 
A,  B,  E;  «R,  *§,  ^J,  ^,  and  ^  the  other.  The  former  may  be  called  the 
shorter  recension,  the  latter  the  longer.  The  chief  reason  for  calling  the 
former  group  the  shorter  recension  is  that  at  the  end  of  every  section  the 
explanation  is  more  concise  than  in  the  other.  The  latter  not  only  gives 
an  extended  explanation  at  the  end  of  every  section,  but  also  adds  the 
number  of  the  words  enumerated  in  the  section.  Besides,  at  the  end  of 
every  chapter,  it  gives  a  summary  of  the  sections  by  quoting  the  first  word 
of  every  section,  and  adds  the  number  of  the  sections  in  the  chapter.  In 
many  sections  the  shorter  recension  gives  fewer  words.  It  is  difficult  to 
decide  which  of  these  two  represents  the  original.  But  as  far  as  the 
longer  explanation  at  the  end  of  every  section  is  concerned,  it  is  quite 
obvious  that  it  is  a  later  addition.  The  evidence  of  the  manuscripts  shows 
that  this  addition  was  gradual.  For  instance,  let  us  take  the  first  section 
of  the  first  chapter.  All  the  manuscripts  of  the  shorter  recension  agree  in 
giving  the  text  as  follows:  4Y^ft  trf^RTT:.  Manuscript  W2  gives  the 
number  of  the  section  only,  i.e.  USD,  and  throughout  it  follows  this  method, 
which  seems  to  have  been  the  original  one.  Gradually  a  change  was 
introduced :  along  with  the  number  of  the  section,  the  number  of  the  words 
in  the  section  was  added,  and  a  numerical  figure  placed  immediately  before 
the  number  of  the  section,  as  the  evidence  of  manuscripts  M  2  and  W  3 
indicates,  in  the  first  section  of  the  first  chapter,  II  ^  II  is  placed  before 
II  ^  II  i-  e-  *i\^fr  tjfq<*{|:  H  ^  ||  q  ||  In  this  connexion  it  is  interesting  to 
note  that  manuscripts  W  1  and  M  3  at  first  agree  with  W  2,  but  gradually 
come  round  to  the  side  of  M  2  and  W  3.  The  next  stage  of  development  is 
marked  by  the  incorporation  of  the  numerical  word  in  substitution  for  the 


10         INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIGHANTU 


figure  in  the  body  of  the  explanation,  as  II  *fV%3fa5f*Tlrffl:  <jfa<*H:  II.  This 
is  most  clearly  seen  in  the  sections  containing  verbs,  for  instance,  in  sec.  16 
of  the  first  chapter,  all  the  stages  appear  very  clearly  : 

d.  qprfffit  <*nafd*4m:  »<*$>    W  1,  W2. 

b.        „  „  msm$H     M2,M3,W3. 

In  q»4i«q:  D  <\§  H     Manuscripts  of  longer  recension. 


From  the  verbs  the  process  was  extended  by  ana-logy  to  nouns,  perhaps 
in    imitation    of    Yaska's   own   words   or  for  the    sake   of   parallelism, 
|fa  was  also  introduced.     Last  of  all  came  the  summary  and  the 


statement  of  the  sections  in  every  chapter. 

Yaska's  description  of  the  Nighantu  \  Samdmndyah  Saindmndtah  I  Sa 
vydkhydtavyah  I  N.  I.  1.  —  and  taking  into  consideration  the  fact  that  in 
some  cases,  like  that  of  Nighantu  II.  6,  8,  11,  &c.,  his  only  explanation  is 
that  a  particular  word  has  so  many  synonyms  —  suits  the  shorter  recension 
better,  for  in  the  case  of  the  longer  recension  such  an  explanation  is  super- 
fluous. Nighantu  II.  11,  the  shorter  recension  reads  t|£\0fd  TTT,  while 
the  longer  has:  ajgtOfa  -*W  «THi*nf«i,  and  Yaska's  only  explanation 
(N.  3.  9)  is:  jfHmi^HKjrU!  «f^.  To  call  this  the  explanation  of  the 
longer  recension  is  absurd,  while  in  the  case  of  the  shorter  recension  it  may 
be  accepted  as  an  explanation  to  a  certain  extent. 

c.     Devaraja  and  his  commentary. 

Devarajayajvan  explains  every  single  word  of  the  Nighantu  ;  his  com- 
mentary therefore  is  valuable,  for  it  shows  the  state  of  the  Nighantu  in  his 
day.  Moreover,  in  the  introduction  to  his  Commentary,  he  gives  a  general 
description  of  the  many  manuscripts  of  the  Nighantu  known  to  him.  He 
says  :  ?tg  ^T  ^jft^fj  tl^iUHt^lf^fw  3firfafarH^l^fVeftT*lTO*t  I 
I 


He  has  attempted  to  supply  a  critical  edition,  for  he  says  that  Yaska 
explained  150  words  of  the  Naighantuka  Kdnda,  and  Skandasvami,  in 
his  commentary  on  Yaska,  added  some  more,  bringing  the  total  to  200,  so 
the  evidence  of  Yaska  and  Skandasvami  was  very  valuable  for  these  200 
words.  About  the  rest  he  says  : 


DETAILED  DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  MANUSCRIPTS         11 

Devaraia  has  frequently  given  the  readings  of  former  commentators 
like  Skandasvami,  Bhatta  Bhaskaramis*ra,  and  Madhava,  when  he  differed 
from  them.  His  commentary  has  therefore  the  value  of  a  collation  of 
a  number  of  manuscripts,  brought  as  he  says  from  various  parts  of  the 
country,  and  also  of  the  collation  of  former  commentaries.  I  have  care- 
fully examined  it  and  noted  all  the  differences,  as  the  foot-notes  to  the  text 
will  show. 

d.     Roth's  edition  of  the  Nighantu.- 

Roth  examined  the  commentary  of  Devaraja,  but  the  manuscripts  which 
he  used  were  probably  defective,  so  that  his  results  are  unsatisfactory. 
Often  he  attributes  readings  to  Devaraja  which  are  not  to  be  found  in  the 
published  text  of  that  commentator;  for  instance  (I.  11)  the  reading  *TT 
is  attributed  to  Devaraja,  who  actually  reads  *n:  ;  he  also  passes  over 
variants  given  by  Devaraja.  Devaraja  gives  «RT  as  a  variant  for  'TOT, 
which  Roth  does  not  mention.  Similarly  Devaraja  gives  5jpj  (I.  12)  as  a 
different  reading,  which  Roth  again  does  not  notice.  Devaraja  gives  1RH 
for  VRl  ,  which  Roth  ignores.  Other  cases  are  : 

I.  14.  Roth  attributes  *Tf^:  to  Dev.,  who  reads  ^*|r:,  and  gives  *TOT: 
as  a  variant. 

I.  13.  Dev.  gives  ^jnis«5'  for  *T&  as  the  reading  of  Madhava,  unnoticed 

by  Roth. 

I.  13.  Dev.  gives  ^TOI  for  ^T^W  as  another  reading,  unnoticed  by  Roth. 
I.  14.  Roth  attributes  uf^q*i:  to  Dev.,  whose  actual  reading  is 


I.  15.  Dev.  reads  ^^TW  for  ^Wf  and  gives  ^TO!  as  the  reading  of.  Skan- 
dasvami, unnoticed  by  Roth. 

I.  16.  Dev.  gives  HT*|*lfd  as  another  reading  for  *4iy!<|ffl  unnoticed  by 

Roth. 

II.  1.  Dev.  gives  ^JRV7{.  as  the  reading  of  Madhava  for  ^TORl,  Roth  does 

not  notice  it. 
II.  5.  Dev.  gives  ^TOnfo:  as  a  different  reading  for  ^*T&  ,  Roth  does  not 

notice  it. 
II.  7.  Dev.  gives  TO:  as  the  reading  of  Skandasvami  also,  but  he  further 

gives  ^|:  as  a  variant.     Roth  does  not  notice  it. 
II.  7.  Dev.  gi  es  ?pr:  as  a  variant  for  "W,  ,  Roth  does  not  notice  it. 

It  is  unnecessary  to  multiply  instances,  for  all  such  cases  can  be  easily 
found  in  my  foot-notes  to  the  text  of  the  Nighantu. 


12  INTRODUCTION   TO  THE  NIGHANTU 

Roth  does  not  give  any  various  readings  for  the  fourth  chapter  of  the 
Nighantu,  although  the  evidence  of  the  manuscripts  as  shown  in  this 
edition  proves  that  there  are  several  such  variants. 

There  are  a  few  inaccuracies  of  accent,  for  instance  in  III.  13. 
^Tfa  $  %  is  accented  in  manuscripts,  but  not  so  in  Roth's  edition. 

There  is,  however,  a  serious  omission  in  IV.  2.  ^<*ir<!f;  has  been  omitted 
between  *4f£<|IUj:  and  ^uRjri: .  That  the  omission  is  an  oversight  appears 
from  the  fact  that  though  this  section  is  stated  to  contain  84  words,  Roth's 
edition  has  only  83.  Yaska  explains  every  word  of  the  fourth  and  fifth 
chapters  of  the  Nighantu.  His  evidence  is  therefore  particularly  valuable 
for  a  critical  edition  of  the  fourth  and  fifth  chapters.  He  gives  g<4JIUn 
in  its  proper  place  and  explains  it.  Both  the  recensions  agree  in  reading 
^<i||<!i:  between  4|£<t||(Ht  and  ^flXdt,  and  the  testimony  of  Devaraja  and 
Yaska  supports  this  reading  The  omission1  in  Roth's  edition  is  thus 
evidently  due  to  an  oversight. 

The  evidence  of  Yaska  on  the  fourth  and  fifth  chapters  of  the  Nighantu 
indicates  that  he  follows  the  longer  recension.  Thus  in  IV.  1  the  shorter 
recension  gives  |JM<:,  but  Yaska  reads  ^f^UT,  which  is  also  the  reading  of 
the  longer  recension.  Again  •][  ^,  which  is  omitted  by  the  shorter  recension, 
is  explained  by  Yaska.  In  IV.  2  f/f:  is  omitted  by  the  shorter  recension,  but 
not  by  Yaska.  Devaraja  has  also  followed  the  longer  recension,  and  this 
choice  seems  to  be  followed  by  a  long  line  of  commentators,  and  is  also,  as 
Devaraja  says,  supported  by  an  unbroken  tradition  in  his  own  family.  The 
shorter  recension  has  undoubtedly  preserved  the  original  form  of  the  text, 
at  least  towards  the  end  of  the  sections,  but  the  weighty  testimony  of 
Yaska  is  against  it.  I  have  therefore  given  the  text  and  the  order  in 
which  the  words  occur  in  accordance  with  the  longer  recension,  though  at 
the  end  of  every  section  I  have  placed  side  by  side  the  text  of  both 
recensions. 

e.     Bib.  Ind.  edition  of  the  Nighantu. 

Samasrami's  edition  of  the  Nighantu  is  useful,  for  besides  publishing 
the  commentary  of  Devaraja  Yajvan  it  supplies  a  much  larger  number  of 
various  readings  than  Roth.  But  it  suffers  from  the  one  defect  of  present- 
ing only  Devaraja's  reading  of  the  text  of  the  Nighantu.  The  commentary 
of  Devaraja,  however  valuable  as  giving  the  various  readings  of  the 
manuscripts  of  his  time,  cannot  be  made  the  sole  basis  of  an  edition  of 
the  Nighantu.  Moreover,  occasionally  the  text  in  this  edition  contains 
words  which  are  not  justified  either  by  the  evidence  of  the  manuscripts  of 
1  This  was  admitted,  and  later  on  rectified  by  Roth  himself. 


THE  TITLE  OF  THE   WORK  13 

both  recensions,  or  even  by  that  of  Devaraja  himself.  For  instance,  on 
p.  236,  appears  the  word  ^faf?f  ,  which  does  not  exist  anywhere  ;  again,  on 
p.  257,  we  find  ^ifafair^  instead  of  the  correct  form  ^l^flfair  Samas'- 
rami  seems  to  have  used  six  manuscripts,  from  which  he  gives  a  number 
of  various  readings  in  foot-notes,  but  in  the  constitution  of  the  text  he  has 
consistently  followed  Devaraja.  Hence  it  is  not  a  critical  edition,  from  the 
point  of  view  of  constituting  an  independent  text  of  the  Nighantu  based  on 
manuscript  evidence. 

/.     The  title  of  the  work. 

Sayanacarya   in   the  Rgvedabhdsyabhumikd    has  given    the    title  of 
Niruktam  to  this  list  of  words.     He  says: 

i  aft:  i 


Madhusudanasvami,  the  author  of  the  Prasthdnabheda  has  also  given 
the  title  of  Niruktam  to  this  list  of  words.  Similarly  Samas'rami  follows 
Sayana  in  calling  the  work  Niruktam,  although  he  adds  in  brackets 
(Nighantu).  Sayana  is  evidently  wrong  in  giving  the  title  of  Niruktam 
to  the  Samamnaya,  for  Yaska  distinctly  states  that  it  is  called  Nighantu. 
Samdmndyah  samdmndtah  ....  tarn  imam,  Samdmndyam  Nighantava 
itydcaksate  I  (N.  I.  1).  The  list  of  words  can  only  be  called  Nighantu,  and 
it  is  wrong  to  call  it  Niruktam;  the  term  Nirukta  can  be  applied  only 
when  some  etymological  explanations  are  given.  Moreover,  all  the  manu- 
scripts call  it  Nighantu. 

g.     The  diviBion  of  the  Nighantu. 

The  Nighantu  contains  five  chapters,  the  first  three  are  called  the 
Naighantuka  Kdnda,  the  fourth  the  Naigama  Kdnda,  and  the  fifth  the 
Daivata  Kdnda.  In  other  words  it  may  be  said  that 

the  Naighantuka  Kdnda  deals  with  synonyms  ; 
the  Naigama  Kdnda  deals  with  homonyms  : 
the  Daivata  Kdnda  deals  with  deities. 

There  is  some  sort  of  a  principle  discernible  in  the  arrangement  of  the 
synonyms  in  the  first  three  chapters.  The  first  chapter  deals  with  physical 
things  like  earth,  air,  water,  and  objects  of  nature  like  cloud,  dawn,  day 
and  night,  &c.  The  second  chapter  deals  with  man,  his  limbs,  like  arm, 
finger,  objects  and  qualities  associated  with  man,  such  as  wealth,  prosperity, 
anger,  battle,  &c. 


14  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIGHANTU 

The  third  chapter  deals  with  abstract  qualities  such  as  heaviness, 
lightness,  &c.  The  arrangement,  of  course,  is  not  scientific,  nor,  in  many 
cases,  even  systematic,  but  it  shows  at  least  an  attempt  to  group  the 
words  methodically.  The  compilation  of  the  Nighantu  is  the  earliest 
known  attempt  in  lexicography.  In  India  it  marks  the  beginning  of  the 
Kom  literature,  and  later  Kosds  have  sometimes  been  called  Nighantavas. 
The  Nighantu  contains  only  a  small  number  of  the  words  of  the  Rgveda, 
and  as  it  does  not  contain  any  explanations  of  the  words  collected,  in 
Sanskrit  or  any  other  language,  the  modern  term  '  dictionary  '  cannot  be 
applied  to  it,  although  the  Kosds  can  be  so  called.  It  should  rather  be 
called  a  vocabulary,  which  is  a  book  '  containing  a  collection  of  words  of 
a  language,  dialect,  or  subject  '  —  when  '  the  words  are  few  in  number,  being 
only  a  small  part  of  those  belonging  to  the  subject,  or  when  they  are  given 
without  explanation,  or  some  only  are  explained,  or  explanations  are 
partial  '. 

h.    The  author  of  the  Nighantu. 

Nothing  definite  is  known  of  the  author  of  the  Nighantu.  There  is 
a  vague  reference  to  the  time  of  its  compilation  in  the  NiruJcta  I.  20, 
which  attributes  the  compilation  of  the  Nighantu  along  with  other 
Veddngas  to  a  later  generation  of  the  sages  who  had  no  direct  perception 
of  dharma  (truth). 

The  following  two  verses  occur  in  the  Moksa  parvan  of  the  Mahd- 
bhdrata,  chapter  342.  86,  87  : 

«=pft  ff 


Some  conclude  from  the  second  verse  that  Kas'yapa,1  the  Prajapati,  is 
the  author  of  the  Nighantu,  for  the  word  vrsdkapi  occurs  in  the  Nighaiitu. 
It  is  not  safe  to  build  any  argument  upon  such  evidence,  for  supposing  that 
Kas'yapa  did  invent  the  word  vrsdJcapi  he  would  be  the  last  person  to  put 
his  own  word  in  a  list  of  difficult  words  like  those  of  the  Nighantu.  The 
Nighantu  is  probably  not  the  production  of  a  single  individual,  but  the 
result  of  the  united  efforts  of  a  whole  generation,  or  perhaps  of  several 
generations. 

1  The  theory  of  Kasyapa's  authorship  is  indeed  absurd,  and  hardly  deserves  any  mention, 
but  as  many  people  in  India  believe  in  it,  and  seriously  put  it  forward,  I  thought  it  necessary 
to  make  a  passing  reference  to  it. 


EARLIER  EDITIONS  OF  THE  NIRUKTA  15 

THE  NIRUKTA 

a.     Earlier  editions  of  the  Nirukta. 

The  editio  princeps  of  the  Nirukta  was  brought  out  by  Rudolph  Roth, 
and  published  at  Gottingen  in  1852.  Sanskrit  scholarship  in  Europe  was 
then  in  its  infancy.  The  bulk  of  the  Vedic  literature  was  as  yet  acces- 
sible in  manuscripts  only.  Even  the  text  of  the  Rgveda  in  print  was  not 
available,  Max  Muller  having  given  to  the  world  the  first  two  volumes 
only  of  his  edition  of  the  Rgveda  with  Say  ana's  commentary.1  Guides  to 
Vedic  studies  which  are  now  indispensable,  such  as  Prof.  Macdonell's  Vedic 
Grammar,  and  books  of  reference  like ,  Bloomfield's  Vedic  Concordance,  did 
not  exist  at  that  time.  There  was  not  even  a  good  Vedic  dictionary. 
Taking  these  facts  into  consideration,  Roth's  achievement  was  remarkable. 
He  was  the  first  to  observe  that  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  has  been  handed 
down  in  two  recensions,  a  shorter  and  a  longer  one,  and  to  prepare  a  critical 
edition  of  the  same  based  on  the  manuscript  material  to  which  he  then  had 
access.  It  must  be  admitted  that  as  far  as  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  is  con- 
cerned Roth's  work  has  not  been  superseded  so  far,  and  this  fact  alone  is 
very  creditable  to  the  author  of  a  work  published  nearly  70  years  ago, 
and  speaks  highly  of  the  critical  judgement  exercised  by  him  in  the 
constitution  of  the  text. 

But  it  is  obvious  that  a  work  produced  under  such  circumstances  and 
about  three-quarters  of  a  century  ago  shows  certain  defects  and  limitations. 
First  of  all,  the  materials  at  his  disposal  were  scanty.  For  instance,  he 
seems  to  have  consulted  only  one  manuscript  of  Durga's  commentary,  i.e. 
MS.  Mill  142,2  by  no  means  an  accurate  manuscript,  and  Roth's  incorrect 
quotations  from  Durga's  commentary,  which  I  have  pointed  out  in  my 
notes,  are  perhaps  due  to  the  errors  of  this  manuscript.  Hence  he  could 
not  have  found  it  a  very  reliable  guide.  Secondly,  many  of  the  then  pre- 
vailing methods  of  indicating  references  are  now  obsolete,  as,  for  instance, 
Roth's  division  of  the  Rgveda  into  Mandala,  anuvdka,  &c.,  which  has 
curtailed,  to  some  extent,  the  usefulness  of  his  Nachiveisung,  pp.  217—28. 
He  gives  a  list  of  various  readings  at  the  end  of  the  first  and  the  second 
part  of  the  Nirukta,  but  does  not  specify  that  such  and  such  a  variant  is 
to  be  found  in  such  and  such  a  manuscript,  a  very  unsatisfactory  method  of 
procedure,  which  no  modern  editor  would  follow.  Further,  Roth  has 
adopted  the  text  of  the  longer  recension  in  his  edition,  but  he  does  not 

1  Professor  J.  Wackernagel  has  been  kind  enough  to  write  to  me  from  Bale  that  as  Roth's 
Nirukta  first  began-to  be  printed  in  1847,  he  could  not  therefore  have  made  use  of  Max  Muller's 
edition  of  the  Ryveda,  the  preface  to  the  first  volume  of  which  is  dated  Oct    1849. 

2  Described    by  Keith   in  the  'Catalogue   of  Sanskrit  Manuscripts   in    the    Bodleian  Library, 
vol.  ii,   p.  108. 


16  INTRODUCTION   TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

show  any  reason  for  this  preference.  As  proved  by  me  elsewhere,  the 
longer-  recension  does  not  represent  the  original  text  of  the  Nirukta. 
Again, 'he  divided  the  parixista  into  two  chapters,  the  13th  and  the  14th, 
a  division  not  supported  by  the  evidence  of  older  manuscripts,  which  makes 
the  whole  of  the  parisista,  to  consist  of  one  chapter  (the  13th)  only.  Roth 
is  also  wrong  in  using  the  term  Naigamu  Kdndam  as  applicable  to  the  first 
three  chapters  of  the  Nirukta,  the  right  term  being  Naighantuka  Kaiidam. 
Further,  there  are  some  inaccuracies  in  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  itself,  which 
I  have  pointed  out  in  my  notes.  Again,  there  is  the  inexplicable  inconsis- 
tency in  using  large  type  for  printing  some  Vedic  quotations,  and  small 
type  for  others,  even  when  they  are  of  the  same  length,  and  are  cited  from 
the  same  Veda.  For  instance,  the  passage  -411^3  «t:  JTft^  ^TT  *Jff '  is 
printed  in  large  type  and  is  accented,  whilst  the  immediately  following 
passage  -*«Tfa  Pq^^qiwr^2  is  printed  in  small  type,  and  is  not  accented, 
although  both  quotations  are  from  the  Rgveda.  Other  examples,  are : 
'^MJM  ^  tnd"  *HX  TT  ^  ^nft!'  *i«*IW  3  is  in  large  type  and  accented, 
but  1*?t  4Jig£{ft  «nft  ^*f*tozn 4  is  in  small  type 5  and  unaccented. 
Again,  tfKftl^ttal  *rf^  *rf$  •  •  •  •  6  is  in  large  type  and  accented ; 
while  tlT^f  fH^^RT  T[f?T  .  .  .  . 7  is  in  small  type  and  unaccented ; 
and  ^*ft  H  W^TT  OlfijdW  ^WT 8  is  in  large  type  and  accented ; 
while  TWJft  <J|ir*|«|  ^p?:9  is  in  small  type  and  unaccented. 
Again,  *Hfll*JUl*t:  H*5<jfl  fj^10  is  in  large  type11  arid  accented; 
while  fa:  ^f  *n)p  ^n^t  %?f%«T12  is  in  small  type  and  unaccented. 
And  ly^f  *i*H!$0^4n  ^^l^ldlH.1^  is  in  large  type  and  accented; 
while  ^ft  Vl  ^f^nft  *f%HT: 14  is  in  small  type  and  unaccented. 

In    one    case.   Roth    treats   both   quotations    in    the    same    manner : 

^*1  *}4l  ^HH  15  is  in  large  type16  and  accented.     ^t 
^fif  ^J^SfTf  "  is  also  in  large  type  and  accented. 

RV.  viii.  4.  3  ;  N.  iii.  20,  Roth's  ed.,  p.  62.         10  RV.  x.  85.  37. 

RV.  x.  133.  1.  n  Roth's  ed.,  p.  64. 

RV.  i.  126.  7.  12  RV.  x.  95.5. 

RV.  i.  27.  13.  13  RV.  ii.  12.  1. 

Roth's  ed.,  p.  03.  "  RV.  vi.  66.  9. 

RV.  v.  75.  7.  16  RV.  iv.  19.  9. 

RV.  vii.  104.  21.  1€  Roth's  ed.,  p.  C3. 

RV.  i.  24.  10.  1T  RV.  viii.  102.  21. 
RV.  iv.  7.  3. 


EARLIER   EDITIONS  OF  THE  NIRUKTA  17 

This  practice  of  Roth  is  misleading,  and  is  perhaps  responsible  for  the 
fact  that  several  Vedic  passages  printed  in  small  type  are  omitted  a» 
occurring  in  the  Nirukta  by  Bloomfield  in  his  Vedic  Concordance  ;  a  few 
such  examples  are  the  following  :  M^Kt  ^JWt<J  1  *  ,1  printed  in  small  type 
and  without  accents  in  Roth's  edition,2  is  not  mentioned  in  VC.  as  being 
quoted  by  Yaska,.and  similarly  — 


and  also  Mdb<  1{\&  <flifT*i,  a  fragment  of  RV.  I.  164.  12,  and  quoted  in 
the  Nirulda  4.  27,  and  wf^TJrf:,  a  fragment  of  VS.  7.  1,  quoted  in  N.  5.  6, 
are  ignored.  (Besides  the  reference  of  tft  *P9t  ^flM*^  tHTT  7  is  wrong 
in  VC.8  It  is  quoted  in  N.  11.  7,  and  not  in  N.  10.  7  ,  as  stated  there. 
Also  the  reference  to  «T\  f^  'JJT  yO^I^Hi9  is  wrong  in  VC.,10  where  it  is 
RV.  III.  46.  3,  while  the  correct  reference  is  RV.  III.  41.  3.  Other  cases 
are:  ^  ^  ijfl%  3RT*?t  ^%,  RV.  III.  30.  19  c,  is  wrongly  given  as  IV.  30. 
19  c  in  VC,  cf.  p.  285  a  ;  the  reference  of  iNt  1  ^faw^fff  *TW  is  wrongly 
given  as  IX.  63.  5b  in  VC.,  p.  936b,  while  the  correct  reference  is  VII.  63.  5b.) 

The  Bib.  lad.  Edition  of  the  Niruktti. 

This  was  published  at  Calcutta  under  the  editorship  of  Samasrami  from 
1882-91.  Its  chief  merit  is  that  it,  for  the  first  time,  supplies  us  with  the 
commentary  of  Devardja  Tajvan  on  the  Nighantu  and  of  Durga  on  uie 
Nirukta.  It  also  adds  an  index  to  the  words  of  the  Nighantu  as  well  as  to 
the  words  of  the  Nirukta.  The  practical  utility  of  this  index,  however, 
suffers  much  from  its  being  separated  into  three  indexes,  one  for  each 
volume  and  not  consisting  of  one  single  whole.  Besides  many  misprints 
and  errors  of  Sandhi,  the  text  constituted  is  not  very  valuable  from  the 
critical  point  of  view,  and  is  thus  not  a  trustworthy  basis  for  further 
research.  The  editor,  although  his  text  generally  agrees  with  the  shorter 

i  RV.  vi.  55.  5  ;  N.  iii.  16  ;  VC.,  p.  1052  b.  p.  328  b. 

3  Roth's  ed.,  p.  60.  «  RV.  vi.  7.  6  ;  N.  vi.  3  ;  Roth's  ed.,  p.  91  ; 

8  RV.  x.  133.  1  ;  N.  iii.  20  ;  Roth's  ed.,  p.  62  ;  VC.,  p.  839  b. 

VC.,  p.  95  b.  7  RV.  x.  81.  1  ;  N.  xi.  7. 

«  RV.  iv.  51.  1:  N.  iv.  25  ;  Roth's  ed.,  p.  74  ;  8  Cf.  Bloomfield,  Vedic  Concordance,  p.  566  b. 

VC.,  p.  346  b.  *  RV.  iii.  41.  3  ;  N.  iv.  19. 

5  RV.  iv.  138.  1  ;  N.  iv.  25  ;   loc.  tit.,  VC.,  10  Cf.  p.  897  b. 

B 


18  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

recension,  does  not  seem  to  realize  that  there  are  two  recensions  of  the 
text  of  the  NiTikta,  and  has  thus  unconsciously  introduced  an  element  of 
eclecticism  in  his  edition.  For  instance,  he  omits  the  phrase  :  ^Nl^t  <*^K 
(vol.  ii,  p.  49),  probably  on  account  of  its  being  not  found  in  the  manu- 
scripts of  the  shorter  recension,  but  he  puts  the  line 


(vol.  ii,  p.  132)  within  brackets  in  his  constituted 
text,  although  it  is  omitted  by  manuscripts  of  the  shorter  recension. 
Further,  he  omits  the  passage  :  f^TT  ^t  fflBdMd  TT 
from  his  text,  adding  it  in  a  foot-note  with  the  remark  : 


(vol.  ii,  p.  181).  This  shows  that  he  does  not  follow  any  general  plan 
with  regard  to  the  additional  passages  of  the  longer  recension,  as  he  some- 
times puts  them  within  brackets  in  the  text  itself,  and  sometimes  adds 
them  in  foot-notes.  This  would  also  imply  that  he  does  not  regard  the 
passage,  which  he  puts  within  brackets,  as  interpolations,  but  only  those 
which  he  adds  in  foot-notes  ;  this,  to  say  the  least  of  it,  is  altogether  an 
arbitrary  distinction,  made  with  reference  to  the  additional  passages  of  the 
longer  recension.  Further,  he  is  not  consistent  even  in  this,  for  occasionally 
he  puts  passages  of  the  shorter  recension  within  brackets,  as  well  (see 
vol.  iii,  pp.  121-22).  Examples  might  be  multiplied.  Both  these  editions 
(i.e.  Roth  and  Bib.  Ind.)  are  very  meagrely  punctuated,  and  many 
sentences,  being  not  properly  divided,  are  misleading  or  tend  to  be  obscure. 

The  Bombay  Edition. 

Another  excellent  edition  of  the  Nirukta,  together  with  Durga's 
commentary,  is  that  of  Mahamahopadhyaya,  P.  6ivadatta,  published  at 
Bombay  in  1912.  In  type,  in  paper,  and  in  general  get-up  it  marks  a 
distinct  improvement  on  its  predecessors.  The  sentences  are  intelligently 
divided,  and,  to  a  great  extent,  the  obscurities  due  to  defective  punctuation 
in  previous  editions  have  been  removed.  The  text  followed  is  that  of  the 
longer  recension,  and  the  criticism  to  which  Roth's  text  is  subject,  except 
his  inconsistency  with  regard  to  the  use  of  large  and  small  type,  is  applic- 
able to  the  Bombay  edition  as  well.  The  editor  does  not  state  whether  he 
uses  any  manuscripts  or  not  in  the  constitution  of  his  text.  As  a  matter 
of  fact,  as  expressly  mentioned  in  his  introductory  remarks,  he  has  taken 
the  two  previous  editions  as  the  basis  of  his  own  work.  A  critical  edition 
of  the  Nirukta  professing  to  represent  the  archetype  as  closely  as  possible, 
and  based  on  the  manuscript  material  hitherto  not  utilized  is  therefore  still 
a  desideratum.  I  have,  on  these  grounds,  undertaken  to  edit  the  Nw*ukta 
afresh. 


DETAILED  DESCRIPTION   OF   MANUSCRIPTS  19 

Detailed    Description    of    Manuscripts.1 

MS.     Max  Muller  Memorial,  e.  8.     Ml. 

PART  I.    A.D.  1749. 

Contents :  The  Nirukta  of  Yaska  in  the  longer  recension,  the  text  of 
which  consists  of  two  manuscripts,  containing  the  two  parts  (the  purvdrdha 
and  the  uttardrdha)  respectively.  The  work  is  divided  into  chapters 
(adhydyas)  and  sections  (khandas)  thus  :  Chapter  I,  which  contains  20  sec- 
tions, begins  on  f.  1  v.  and  ends  on  f.  10  r.  Chapter  II,  28  sections,  ends  on 
f.  21  r.  Chapter  III,  22  sections,  ends  on  f.  32  v.  Chapter  IV  lias  27 
sections,  and  ends  on  f.  42  v.  Chapter  V,  28,  sections,  ends  on  f.  53  v. 
Chapter  VI,  36  sections,  ends  on  f.  68  r.  The  chapters  are  written  consecu- 
tively, and  at  the  end  of  each  chapter  there  is  added  a  short  summary, 
quoting  the  first  word  or  words  of  every  section — thus  indicating  and  also 
expressly  stating  the  number  of  sections  in  the  chapter.  The  text  is 
bounded  on  both  sides  by  double  red  lines,  sometimes  carelessly  drawn, 
regularly  up  to  f.  25  r.,  after  which  similar  red  lines  only  occasionally  appear. 
A  short  red  vertical  stroke  is  placed  above  the  letter  where  it  indicates  the 
application  of  the  rules  of  euphonic  combination,  and  is  also  used  to  mark 
the  termination  of  a  sentence,  being  thus  a  sign  of  punctuation.  The 
danda  appears  at  the  end  of  a  section  only,  but  also  points  out  the  begin- 
ning and  ending  of  a  quotation.  The  red  vertical  stroke  is  often  confusing 
as  the  accent  in  Vedic  quotations  is  also  marked  with  red  ink. 

There  are  two  figures  drawn  vertically  in  red  ink  on  f .  1  r.  One  looks 
like  a  goddess,  probably  Durgd,  seated  in  a  chariot  with  a  flying  banner, 
the  other  is  the  god  Gane&a,  seated  on  an  ornamented  lotus,  to  which  is 
added  in  black  ink  the  representation  of  a  small  bird,  probably  a  peacock. 
The  two  figures  contain  between  them  the  words :  (sic)  II  fa^  ^jfa^ 
TTTW  H  An  attempt  has  'been  made  to  colour  ff.  14,  29,  42,  49,  64  with 
yellow  pigment,  which  is  frequently  used  also  to  obliterate,  though  only 
with  partial  success,  individual  words,  syllables,  and  letters.  Black  pig- 
ment is  also  employed  to  obliterate,  for  instance  on  f.  24  v.,  where  half 
a  line  is  completely  covered.  The  manuscript  is  neat,  well  preserved,  and 
accurate.  It  is  the  best  among  those  belonging  to  the  longer  recension. 

1  From  the  point  of  view  of  the  general  reader,  the  detailed  description  of  the  manuscripts 
can  be  much  curtailed.  But  as  the  manuscripts  of  the  Max  Miiller  Memorial  and  Chandra 
Shum  Shere  collections  have  not  been  so  far  catalogued,,  this  description,  in  addition  to 
supplying  information  with  regard  to  the  manuscripts  material  available  for  a  critical 
edition,  is  also  intended  to  serve  the  purpose  of  u  descriptive  catalogue.  And  as  Professor 
A.  A.  Macdonell  is  in  favour  of  it,  I  have  retained  the  whole  of  it,  without  any  curtailment. 

B  2 


20  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE   NIRUKTA 

Size:  8i"x3f". 

Material  :  Paper. 

Number  of  leaves  :  ii.  -f  68. 

Number  of  lines  per  folio:  9  ;  ff.  3  v.-13  v.  have  10  lines  each. 

Character  :  Devanagari. 

Date:    On   fol.  68  r.  :    (sic)  qfc  °l$&<\  (=A.D.  1749 


qir^  (Hf*=M  (i.e.  finished  on  the  third  day  in  the  first  fort- 
night of  the  month  of  As*  van). 

Scribe  :  On  f.  68  r.  :  (sic)  qiiql«ii«i  ^RrT  ^fl**  Ruswrl  ^ 


He  seems  to  be  a  faithful  copyist,  for  he  remarks  (sic)  : 

\ 


Peculiarity  of  spelling  :  t  is  doubled  in  conjunction,  e.g.  tya  =  ttya. 

PART  II.    A.  D.  1775. 

Contents  :  The  Nirukta  of  Yaska,  Chapters  VII-XIII,  in  the  longer 
recension.  The  text  is  divided  into  chapters  (adhydyas  and  khandas),  and 
sections  thus  :  Chapter  VII  has  31  sections,  begins  on  f.  1  v.  and  ends  on 
f.  11  r.  Chapter  VIII  has  22  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  16  r.  Chapter  IX 
has  43  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  24  r.  Chapter  X  has  47  sections,  and  ends 
on  f.  33  r.  Chapter  XI  has  50  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  43  v.  Chapter  XII 
has  46  sections,  and  ends  on  f  .  54  v.  Chapter  XIII  has  50  sections,  and 
ends  on  f.  70  r.  The  so-called  two  chapters  of  the  parisista  are  treated 
as  one.  All  the  chapters  are  written  consecutively  without  a  break. 
Chapter  VII  begins  with  ^ft  jRlUJIil  «W:  II  ^ft  ^«jvTi<q  *W  II  Chapters 
VIII  and  X  begin  with  II  ffr;:  ^5t$^  II  Chapter  IX  with  ||  ^ft  ff?::  %$^|| 
Chapter  XI  with  ^  ||  ^  fadHH^ri  II  W  II  Chapter  XII  with  l|3ni,  and 
Chapter  XIII  with  II  sft  U  €f  II.  Sect.  14  of  the  thirteenth  chapter  also 
begins  with  ||^6||  The  last  word  of  the  13th  section  of  the  same 
chapter  is  repeated.  At  the  end  of  each  chapter  a  short  summary,  which 
quotes  the  first  word  or  words  of  each  section  and  states  the  number  of 
sections  in  the  chapter,  is  subjoined.  The  text  is  bounded  on  both  sides  by 
double  red  lines  from  f.  11  r.  to  f.  33  v.  Punctuation  is  similar  to  that  of 
Part  I.  Ff.  6  r.-lO  v.  do  not  give  the  Vedic  stanza  in  full  in  the  text 
itself,  where  the  first  few  words  only  of  the  stanza  are  written,  while  the 
remaining  part  of  the  stanza  is  added  in  the  margin.  Black  pigment  is 
used  to  obliterate  a  part  of  the  line  on  ff.  60  v.  and  63  r.  F.  66  is  coloured 
light  blue.  This  is  also  a  neat,  well-preserved,  and  accurately  written 
manuscript. 

Size  :  8  j"  x  3|",  and  after  f.  32,  8£"  x  3|". 


DETAILED  DESCRIPTION  OF  MANUSCRIPTS  21 

Material  :  Paper. 

Number  of  leaves  :  70  +  ii  blank. 

Number  of  lines  per  folio  :  9. 

Character:  Devanagari. 

Date  :  On  f.  70  r.  (sic)  ^f^  <\*  H  ^  (=  A.D.  1775)  fa^TOg  *l*HMi  %^ 
°*J  °i$  (i.e.  finished  on  the  thirteenth  day  of  the  bright  fortnight  of  the 
month  of  Caitra). 

Scribe  :  On  f.  70  r.: 


Although  these  two  parts  are  brought  together  in  the  same  volume  in 
order  to  make  up  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  they  are  not  related  to  each 
other  except  in  so  far  as  they  both  belong  to  the  longer  recension.  They 
were  copied  at  different  times  as  their  respective  dates  show.  And  the 
fact  that  the  first  part  uses  the  £aka  era,  while  the  second,  the  Vikrama 
era,  indicates  that  the  former  comes  from  the  south,  while  the  latter  from 
the  north.  For  the  sake  of  convenience  I  have  used  the  sign  M  1  for  both 
these  parts. 

MS.    Max  Mutter  Memorial,  d.  23.     M  2. 

Contents:  The  first  half  (Chapters  I-  VI)  of  the  Nirukta  in  the  longer 
recension.  The  text  is  divided  into  chapters  and  sections  thus  :  Chapter  I 
begins  with  ^  JlUJUntJ  TO*  II  on  f.  1  v.,  has  20  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  10  r. 
Chapter  II  has  28  sections,  and  .ends  on  f.  19  r.  Chapter  III  has  22  sec- 
tions, and  ends  on  f.  27  v.  Chapter  IV  has  27  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  35  v. 
Chapter  V  has  28  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  44  r.  Chapter  VI  has  36  sec- 
tions, and  ends  on  f.  55  v.  The  text  is  bounded  on  both  sides  by  double 
red  lines.  Punctuation  is  similar  to  M  1.  The  Vedic  stanzas  are  not  given 
in  full,  but  the  word  ^B^j  is  added  after  the  first  two  or  three  words  of  the 
quotation  thus:  f.  5  r.  4NUejiri:  ^jTjfcnf:  II  ^B^  II  In  Samdhi  the  sign  of 
the  elision  of  short  a  is  retained,  but  not  always,  e.  g.  f  .  2  r.  ^J7U*njfa^ 
and  siniflfcl,  loc.  cit.  Ff.  5,  10,  15,  20,  25,  30,  35,  40,  45,  50,  i.e.  every  fifth 
except  the  last  is  coloured  with  yellow  pigment. 

It  is  a  very  neat  and  beautifully  written  and  modern  manuscript. 

Size  10f"  x  4J". 

Material:  Paper. 

Number  of  leaves  :  ii  +  55  +  ii  blank. 

Number  of  lines  :  9. 

Character  :  Devanagari. 

Date  :  Not  given,  but  looks  modern. 

Scribe  :  Not  known. 

The  colophon  runs  :  ff?T  fa  MI  TOftj  WW  II  ^JH  W<J  II 


22  INTRODUCTION   TO   THE  NIRUKTA 

MS.     Max  Mutter  Memorial,  d.  24.     M  3. 

Contents :  The  Nirukta  of  Yaska  in  the  shorter  recension.  The 
parisista  is  treated  as  one  chapter,  and  all  the  13  chapters  are  written 
consecutively,  the  purvdrdha  being  separated  from  the.  uttardrdha  only  by 
the  words :  (sic)  II  Tf^  **$'•  M  Tne  text  is  divided  into  adhydyas,  pddas, 
and  khandas  thus :  Chapter  I  begins  on  f .  1  v.  with  the  words  II  3Jft  *nfajTO 
*m:  II  has  4  pddas,  which  end  on  ff.  3  r.,  7  r.,  9  v.,  and  11  v.  respectively. 

The  sections  are  numbered  continuously — the  numbering  of  sections  in 
each  pdda  being  not  afresh,  but  the  continuation  from  the  previous  section 
—  thus  Chapter  I  has  27  sections;  the  1st  pdda  comes  to  an  end  after  the 
5th  section;  2nd  pdda  after  the  15th  section;  the  3rd  pdda  after  the  21st 
section ;  and  the  4th  pdda  after  the  27th  section.     Chapter  II  has  7  pddas : 
1st  pdda  has  7  sections,  and  end  on  f .  14  r. ;  2nd  pdda  has  5  sections,  and 
ends  on  f.  16  r.;  3rd  pdda  has  3  sections,  and  ends  on  f .  17  r.  (where  it  is 
wrongly  stated  I  gifVtlHn&  I)  J  4<ihpdda  has  7  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  18  v. ; 
5th  pdda  has  3  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  19  v. ;  6th  pdda  has  5  secti6ns,  and 
ends  on  f .  21  r. ;  7th  pdda  has  6  sections,  and  ends  on  f .  23  v.    Sections  in  this 
chapter  are  not  numbered  continuously,  but  at  the  end  of  the  chapter; 
the  total  number  of  the  sections  is  stated  thus :    (sic)  *3f?W  m^t  |  <SHNS«IU 
§§  I  ft[ifY*n^zrro.     Chapter  III  has  4  pddas ;  the  1st  pdda  has  7  sections, 
and  ends  on  f .  26  r. ;  the  2nd  pdda  has  6  sections,  and  ends  on  f .  29  v. ;  the 
3rd  pdda  has  6  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  32  r. ;  the  4th  pdda  has  6  sections, 
and  ends  on  f.  35  r.     As  in  Chapter  II,  the  total  number  of  sections  is 
stated  to  be  25.     Chapter  IV  has  4  pddas  ;  the  1st  pdda  has  8  sections,  and 
ends  on  f .  37  v. ;  the  2nd  pdda  has  8  sections,  and  ends  on  f .  40  r ;  the  3rd 
pdda  has  6  sections,  and  ends  on  f .  43  r ;  the  4th  pdda  has  7  sections,  and 
ends  on  f .  45  v.     As  before,  the  total  number  of  sections  is  given  in  the 
colophon  on  f .  45  v.  as  29.     Chapter  V  has  4  pddas ;  the  1st  pdda  has  6 
sections,  and  ends  on  f .  48  v. ;  the  2nd  pdda  has  8  sections,  and  ends  on 
f.  51  v. ;  the  3rd  pdda  has  7  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  54  r. ;  the  4th  pdda 
has  10  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  57  v. ;  the  total  number  of  sections  being 
given  as  31.     Chapter  VI  has  5  pddas ;  the  1st  pdda  has  5  sections,  and 
ends  on  f.  60  r. ;  the  2nd  pdda  has  13  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  65  v. ;  the 
3rd  pdda  has  8  sections,  and  ends  on  f .  68  v. ;  the  4th  pdda  has  5  sections, 
and  ends  on  f .  70  v. ;  the  5th  pdda  has  8  sections,  and  ends  on  f .  73  v. ;  the 
total  number  of  sections,  i.  e.  39,  being  added  in  the  colophon,  which  runs 
as  follows :  (sic)   *Nw  HT^t  II  ^^tWRT:  I  ^1^T9Rf  $<>  U  W  II  §  II  ^  ^  II 
Chapter  VII  has  7  pddas ;  the  1st  pdda  has  5  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  75  v.: 
the  2nd  pdda   has  3  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  76  v.  (wrongly  numbered 


DETAILED  DESCRIPTION   OF  MANUSCRIPTS  23 

as  75  on  the  restored  part)  ;  the  3rd  pdda  has  10  sections,  and  ends  on 
f.  79  r. ;  the  4th  pdda  has  5  sections,  and  ends  on  f .  80  v. ;  the  5th  pdda 
has  3  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  81  v. ;  the  6th  pdda  has  9  sections,  and  ends 
on  f .  83  v. ;  the  7th  pdda  has  9  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  86  v. ;  the  total 
number  of  sections,  i.e.  44,  is  added  in  the  colophon.  Chapter  VIII  has 
3  pddas ;  the  1st  pada  has  4  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  88  r. ;  the  2nd  pada 
has  12  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  91  v. ;  the  3rd  pada  has  7  sections,  and  ends 
on  f .  93  v. ;  the  total  number  of  sections,  23,  is  stated  in  the  colophon  as 
before.  Chapter  IX  has  4  pddas',  the  1st  pdda  has  10  sections,  and  ends 
on  f.  96  r. ;  the  2nd  pdda  has  11  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  98  v. ;  the  3rd 
pdda  has  13  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  102  r. ;  the  4th  pdda  has  9  sections, 
and  ends  on  f.  104  r. ;  the  total  number  of  sections  being  43.  Chapter  X 
has  4  pddas ;  the  1st  pdda  has  13  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  108  r. ;  the  2nd 
pdda  has  11  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  110  v. ;  the  3rd  pdda  has  13  sections, 
and  ends  on  f.  114  r. ;  the  4th  pdda  has  10  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  116  v. ; 
the  total  number  of  sections  being  47.  Chapter  XI  has  4  pddas  ;  the  1st 
pdda  has  12  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  119  r. ;  the  2nd  pdda  has  9  sections, 
and  ends  on  f.  121  v. ;  the  3rd  pdda  has  13  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  125  r. 
(the  colophon  is  completely  obliterated  with  black  pigment) ;  the  4th  pdda 
has  16  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  128  v. ;  the  total  number  of  sections  being 
50.  Chapter  XII  has  4  pddas;  the  1st  pdda  has  11  sections,  and  ends  on 
f.  131  v. ;  the  2nd  pdda  has  8  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  133  v. ;  the  3rd  pada 
has  15  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  136  v. ;  the  4th  pdda  has  12  sections,  and  ends 
on  f.  140  r. ;  the  total  number  of  sections,  as  stated  in  the  colophon,  is  46. 
Chapter  XIII,  written  consecutively,  has  4  pddas',  the  1st  pdda  has  13 
sections — the  last  word  of  the  13th  section  is  repeated,  a  sign  of  the 
termination  of  the  chapter — and  ends  on  f.  144  r.  ;  the  2nd  pdda  has  19 
sections,  and  ends  on  f.  152  v. ;  the  3rd  pdda  has  9  sections,  and  ends  on 
f.  155  r. ;  the  4th  pdda  has  7  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  157  v. 

It  marks  the  accent  not  only  on  Vedic  stanzas,  but  on  fragments  of 
Vedie  quotations  also,  several  words  preceding  the  quotation  are  similarly 
marked.  The  dc.nda  appears  at  the  end  of  a  section,  or  the  beginning  and 
end  of  a  quotation. 

Size:  9i"x3i". 

Material:  Paper. 

Number  of  leaves :  ii  +  157  -f  ii  blank. 

Number  of  lines :  8 ;  f.  157  has  9  lines. 

Character:  Devanagarl. 

Date  :  Not  given,  but  rather  old. 

Scribe :  Not  known. 


24  INTRODUCTION  TO   THE   NIRUKTA 

Injuries  :  It  is  a  very  much  injured  manuscript  ;  f.  12  is  torn  on  the  left- 
hand  side,  and  the  text  is  restored  on  a  patched-up  piece  of  paper  ;  a  part 
of  ff.  23  and  52  is  injured  and  the  text  is  similarly  restored;  on  f.  153  v. 
and  154  v.  the  right  half  is  restored  ;  f.  157  is  restored  in  a  different  hand- 
writing. Besides,  the  leaves  are  torn  in  innumerable  marginal  spaces,  but 
without  injuring  the  text. 

Peculiarity  of  spelling  :  It  has  preserved  the  old  calligraphy.  Some  of 
the  chief  peculiarities  are  :  ^with  1R  is  sometimes  written  as  VT  ;  e.  g.  f  .  1  v., 
line  5,  TTMTf  is  written  IH^R-  Cf.  also  f.  1  v.,  line  6. 

Tfc  is  written  as  Til  ;  e.  g.  f  .  1  v.,  line  5,  c^  =  ?H%  ;  f  .  2  v.,  line  1,  ^%^  =°?tt*fa  ; 
f  .  63  i  .,  line  2,  %^WTJ  =  i«K?m:  >  and  so  on. 

U  is  occasionally  written  as  l/>  e.g.  f.  2  r,  line  5,  %^=%T<3[  and  541  4Jr) 
,  line  6,  ^ft  =  ^Jnf  ;  f.  2  v.,  line  8, 


But  in  the  case  of  1[  this  method  is  not  always  adhered  to  ;  occasionally 
H  is  written  in  the  ordinary  way,  e.g.,  f.  2  v.,  line  5,  ^ejijjuf  and  not 
^Hlivsf  ;  f.  2  v.,  line  7,  *jf%[frf$  and  not  t^SRVTrf  ;  f.  63  r.,  line  2,  *T^  and 
not  ^SRpRl  ,  «M*^  and  not  <4|l*(*j:  • 

•^  is  written  as  T^ft,  e.g.,  f.  2  r.,  line  1,  *ft:  =  "Rt*  ,  line  2, 
!  ,  line  8, 


Occasionally  q  is  written  like  ^T,  and  the  sign  of  ^  in  conjunction  is 
added,  not  at  the  bottom,  but  on  the  side  of  a  letter  ;  e.  g.,  f  .  1  v.,  line  3, 

;  but  f.  2  r,  line  1.  *J^h"  is  written  in  the  ordinary 


way  ;  f.  1  v.,  line  3,  ^j:  =  ^:. 

c^  is  written  as  a  short  horizontal  stroke  in  conjunction  with  other 
letters  ,  e.  g.,  f.  1  v.,  line  4,  ^WtfT  =  ^TfT,  line  6,  ^  =  ^  ;  f.  2  r.  line  5, 

0  ;  f.  1  v.,  line  7,      S  =    jf  . 


<^  is  occasionally  written  as  a  short  horizontal  stroke,  even  when  it  is 
not  a  conjunct  consonant;  e.g.,  f.  2  r.,  line  2,  ^<J?  =  ^f^lf  ,  but  in  conjunc- 
tion with  ^  it  is  written  in  the  ordinary  way  ;  e.  g.,  cf.  '3|Rd|  above,  and 
,  L  I  vv  line  6.  There  is  dittography  also,  e.g.,  f.  2  r.,  line  3, 


The  manuscript  belongs  to  a  period  when  calligraphy  was  still  in  a 
process  of  transition,  consequently  it  preserves  the  old  and  new  forms  of 
letters  side  by  side;  it  cannot  therefore  be  later  than  the  fifteenth  century. 
I  think  that  among  the  manuscripts  of  the  Nirukto,  in  the  Bodleian  this  is 
the  oldest  and  best  manuscript  belonging  to  the  shorter  recension. 


DETAILED   DESCRIPTION   OF   MANUSCRIPTS  25 

MS.     Max  Milller  Memorial,  e.  9.     M  4. 

Contents  :  The  Nirukta  (7-14  chapters  ;  the  parisista  is  treated  as  two 
chapters)  in  the  longer  recension.  The  text  is  punctuated  with  a  short 
and  vertical  stroke,  indicating  Samdhi  and  the  termination  of  a  sentence, 
while  the  danda  appears  at  the  end  of  a  section,  or  the  commencement 
and  end  of  a  quotation  Accent  is  marked  ^with  red  ink  in  Vedic  quota- 
tions. The  work  is  divided  into  chapters  and  sections,  thus  :  Chapter  VII 
begins  with  II  ^ft  -if^lH^  *w:  II  fft«  3f^  II  on  f.  1  v.,  has  31  sections,  and 
ends  on  f.  15  v.  Chapter  VIII  has  22  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  23  v.  ; 
Chapter  IX  has  43  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  35  r.  Chapter  X  has  47 
sections,  and  ends  on  f.  49  r.  Chapter  XI  has  50  sections,  and  ends  on 
f.  61  v.  Chapter  XII  has  46  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  75  r.  Chapter  XIII 
has  13  sections,  and  ends  on  f  .  79  v.  Chapter  XIV  has  37  sections,  and 
ends  on  f.  96  r.  All  the  14  chapters  are  written  consecutively,  and  at  the 
end  of  each  chapter  a  summary  similar  to  that  described  on  p.  1  is  added. 

Size:  11"  x5". 

Material:  paper. 

Number  of  leaves  :  ii  +  96  +  ii  blank. 

Number  of  lines  :  7. 

Character:  Devanagari. 

Date  :  Not  given. 

Scribe  :  Not  known. 

The  colophon  on  f  .  96  r.  runs  as  follows  :  II 

:  n  <*8  11  ^ 


It  is  a  neat,  well-  written,  fairly  accurate,  and  modern  manuscript. 

MS.    Chandra  Shum  Shere,  d.  178.    C  1. 

The  text  of  the  Nirukta  is  made  up  of  two  different  manuscripts,  which 
contain  Chapters  I-VI  and  VII-X-II  respectively,  but  both  are  incomplete, 
and  both  belong  to  the  longer  recension.  The  two  parts  are  separated 
by  a  fragment  of  a  third  manuscript  (ff.  38-43),  which  gives  a  part  of 
Chapters  XI  and  XII.  The  fragment  has  no  value  for  the  purpose  of 
collation,  and  is  therefore  ignored. 

PART  I. 

Contents:  The  Nirukta  (Chapters  I-VI)  in  the  longer  recension 
The  text  is  divided  into  chapters  and  sections  thus  :  Chapter  I  begins  on 
f.  1  v.,  has  20  sections,  and  ends  on  f  .  7  v  ;  Chapter  II  has  28  sections,  and 
ends  on  f.  12  r.  ;  Chapter  III  has  22  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  18  v.  : 


26  INTRODUCTION  TO   THE  NIRUKTA 

Chapter  IV  has  27  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  25  r. ;  Chaptei  V  has  28  sections, 
and  ends  on  f.  30  r. ;  Chapter  VI  has  35  sections  only,  the  remaining 
sections  are  missing.  The  text  is  bounded  on  both  sides  by  double  red 
lines  ff.  1-21;  by  double  black  lines  ff.  1.1  r,  17  v,  and  22-36;  f.  12  is 
written  in  a  different  handwriting.  The  accent  is  marked  in  red  ink  in 
Vedic  stanzas  only.  Double  short  vertical  red  strokes  are  used  to  indicate 
sandhi  and  the  end  of  a  sentence,  which  are  replaced  by  similar  black 
strokes  from  f.  7  v.-f.  12  r.,  which  are  again  replaced  by  a  similar  single 
red  stroke  ff.  19-30.  The  danda,  as  usual,  appears  at  the  end  of  a  section 
only,  or  at  the  commencement  and  the  termination  of  a  quotation.  The 
chapters  are  written  consecutively.  Numerous  notes  are  added  on  the 
margin,  and  sometimes  between  the  lines  of  the  text  also,  e.g.  ff.  2,  3,  12, 
18  v.}  19.  At  the  end  of  each  chapter  a  short  summary,  as  described  on 
page  1,  is  subjoined  : 

Size  13"  x  5". 

Material:  paper. 

Number  of  leaves :  1  -1-  36  +  i  blank. 

Number  of  lines :  10  ff.  1-25 ;  11  ff.  26-36. 

Character :  Devanagari. 

Date :  The  last  leaves  of  the  manuscript  are  missing ;  neither  the  date 
nor  the  name  of  the  scribe  is  known.  From  its  appearance  the  manuscript 
looks  old,  f.  8  is  numbered  as  f.  9,  and  f.  9  as  f.  11,  and  the  mistake  con- 
tinues up  to  the  end ;  the  reference  to  folios  are  therefore  to  the  number 
added  in  pencil. 

Injuries:  It  is  injured  in  many  places,  e.g.  ff.  7-12  on  the  top  (left). 

PART  II. 

Contents :  The  uttardrdha  of  the  Nirukta  (Chapters  VII-XII)  in  the 
longer  recension.  The  text  is  divided  into  chapters  and  sections  thus: 
Chapter  VII  begins  on  f.  1  v.  with  the  words  II  ^  'llSUTO  *W:  II  ^  II  has 
31  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  11  r  (=  f.  54  r.) ;  Chapter  VIII  has  22  sections, 
and  ends  on  f.  15  v.  (=  f.  58  v.) ;  Chapter  IX  has  43  sections,  and  ends  on 
f .  23  v.  ( =  f .  66  v.) ;  Chapter  X  has  47  sections,  and  ends  on  f .  32  r.  ( = f .  75  r.) ; 
Chapter  XI  has  30  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  40  v.  (=  f.  83  v.) ;  Chapter  XII 
has  43  sections  only,  and  ends  on  f .  48'  v.  ( =  f .  91  v.) ;  the  remaining  portion 
of  the  manuscript  is  missing.  All  the  chapters  are  written  consecutively, 
and  at  the  end  of  each  chapter  a  summary  similar  to  that  of  Part  I  is 
added.  The  text  is  bounded  on  both  sides  by  two  sets  on  double  black 
lines,  ff.  1-34  (ff.  44-77)  and  ff.  41-48  (ff.  84-91);  and  by  similar  red  lines 
ff.  35-40  (ff.  78-83).  The  accent  is  marked  in  red  ink  in  Vedic  stanzas 


DETAILED   DESCRIPTION   OF   MANUSCRIPTS  27 

only,  and  a  short  vertical  red  stroke  is  occasionally  used  for  punctuation  ; 
the  use  of  the  cUiiida  is  similar  to  that  of  Part  I.  F.  9  (=  f.  52)  is  written 
in  a  different  handwriting. 

Size:   llTY'x4£  . 

Material  :  paper. 

Number  of  leaves  :  48  -f  i  blank. 

Number  of  lines  :  9-10. 

Character:  Devanagari. 

Date:  The  last  part  of  the  manuscript  is  missing;  consequently  the 
date  and  the  name  of  the  scribe  are  not  known. 

Injuries  :  ff.  18  (=  61),  34-40  (=  77-83)  are  slightly  injured  in  the  top 
margin;  f.  22  (=  65)  is  practically  defaced  by  black  and  yellow  ink,  and 
f.  28  (=  71)  by  water. 

MS.     Chandra  Shum  Shere,  d.  181.     C  2. 
The  text  is  made  up  of  two  different  manuscripts. 

PART  I. 

Contents  :  The  purvdrdha  of  the  Nirukta  in  the  longer  recension.  The 
manuscript  is  fragmentary  and  incomplete,  containing  Chapters  I,  IV,  V, 
and  a  part  of  the  first  section  of  the  VI.  The  text  is  divided  into  chapters 
and  sections.  Chapter  I  has  20  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  13  v.  Chapter  IV 
has  27  sections,  and  ends  on  f  .  26  r.  Chapter  V  .has  28  sections,  and  ends 
on  f.  40  r.  The  accent  is  marked  in  red  ink  in  Vedic  stanzas  only,  while 
a  short  vertical  red  stroke  is  used  for  punctuation.  The  words  (sic) 

II  are  wrongly  added  at  the  bottom  of  f.  1  v."in 


a  different  handwriting.  F.  1  r.  has  a  figure  of  Ganesa  drawn  rather 
crudely  in  red  with  two  female  attendants. 

Size:  13j'"x5J". 

Material:  paper. 

Number  of  leaves  :  i  +  40. 

Number  of  lines  :  7-8. 

Character  :  Devanagari. 

Date  and  scribe  :  Not  known. 

Injuries  :  ff.  13-14  are  slightly  injured  by  worms.  It  looks  modern. 
The  numbering  in  the  original  is  wrong  ;  the  reference  is  to  the  number 
added  in  pencil.  It  is  full  of  mistakes. 

Peculiarity  of  spelling:  f.  2,  1.  1  ?(W[  is  written  as  "3*6  ,  f.  2,  1.  1  *ft  is 
written  as  ^f 


28  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE   NIRUKTA 

PART  II. 

Contents  :  The  uttardrdha  of  the  Nirukta  (Chapters  VII-XIII)  in  the 
longer  recension.  The  text  is  divided  into  chapters  and  sections  thus: 
Chapter  VII  has  31  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  6  v.  (=  46  v.)  ;  the  colophon 
adds  :  ^ft  <J*ft  <aJ^d<J  II  W  II  Chapter  VIII  has  22  sections,  and  ends  on 
f.  10  r.  (  =  50  r.)  ;  Chapter  IX  has  43  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  15  r.  (=  55  r.)  ; 
Chapter  X  has  47  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  20  v  (=  60  v.)  ;  Chapter  XI  has 
50  sections,  and  ends  on  f  .  26  v.  (  =  66  v.)  ;  Chapter  XII  has  46  sections, 
and  ends  on  f.  32  r.  (=  72  r.)  ;  Chapter  XIII  begins  on  f.  32  v.  (=  72  v.), 
has  13  sections,  and  ends  on  £.  34  v.  (=  74  v.);  the  colophon  runs  (sic) 


the  last  chapter,  which  is  also  named  XIII,  has  37  sections,  which  are  not 
numbered  anew,  but  continuously  from  the  previous  section,  and  ends  on 
f.  42  r.  (=  82  r.).  Chapters  VIII-XII  are  written  consecutively,  and 
a  summary,  similar  to  the  one  described  on  p.  1,  is  added  at  the  end  of  each 
chapter,  but  the  summary  on  f.42  r.  (=  82  r.)  also  includes  that  of  the  first 
13  sections,  although  the  summary  of  these  sections  is  already  subjoined  on 
f.  34  v.  (=74  v.). 

The  colophon  on  f  .  42  r  (  =  82  r)  runs  thus  :  II  J[f?T  fa^i  ^ift^^UfW  II 
The  text  is  bounded  on  both  sides  by  double  black  lines,  ff.  1-23  (=  41-63) 
and  ff.  38-42  (=78-82)  by  similar  red  lines,  ff.  24-36  (=64-76),  f.  37  (=77) 
is  coloured  yellow.  A  short  vertical  red  stroke  is  employed  for  punctua- 
tion, the  dropping  of  visarga  is  indicated  by  adding  them  on  the  top  of 
the  letter  just  before  the  red  stroke,  e.g.  f.  1  v.  (=  41  v.),  1.  3  : 


0  ;  op.  oit.  1.  4  :  Tjfasrf  tgll*  ;  °P-  &&•  1-  8  :  04VI<fi^f  ^?f*ffii  >  and 


so  on. 

Occasionally  the  short  red  stroke  is  written  |{,  but  the  sign  i  is  not 
meant  to   point  out  the  elision  of  short  a,  e.g.  op.  cit.  I.  5: 


Sometimes  $  is  replaced  by  x  .  The  danda  appears  at  the  end  of  a  section, 
or  at  the  beginning  and  end  of  a  quotation.  The  accent  is  marked  in  red 
ink  on  Vedic  stanzas. 

Size:  13^x5|". 

Material:  paper. 

Number  of  leaves  :  42  +  i  blank. 

Number  of  lines  :  12-17. 

Character:  Devanagari. 

Date  and  scribe  :  Not  known. 

Injuries  :  f.  1  (=  41),  ff.  21-22  (=  61-22),  f.  23  (=  63)  are  slightly  injured. 

It  is  a  neat,  but  closely  written  manuscript. 


DETAILED  DESCRIPTION   OF  MANUSCRIPTS  29 

MS.     Chandra  Shum  Sh&re,  d.  182.     C  3. 
The  text  of  the  Nirukta  is  made  up  of  two  manuscripts. 

PART  I. 

Contents  :  The  purvdrdha  of  the  Nirukta  in  the  longer  recension.  The 
work  is  divided  into  chapters  and  sections  thus  :  Chapter  I  begins  on  f  .  1  v. 
with  the  words  :  (sic)  ^  J|%3{  |  ^ft  <j+n*4  fR*  ,  has  20  sections,  and  ends 
on  f.  7.r.  Chapter  II  has  28  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  12  r.  (ff.  8-9,  contain- 
ing sections  3-11  of  the  second  chapter,  are  missing  in  the  original). 
Chapter  III  has  22  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  18  r.  (ff.  19  and  21-23,  contain- 
ing sections  11-12  and  14-19,  are  missing  in  the  original).  Chapter  IV  has 
27  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  23  v.  Chapter  V  has  28  sections,  and  ends  on 
f.  29  v.  Chapter  VI  has  36  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  38  r.  The  chapters  are 
written  consecutively,  the  summary  is  added  as  usual,  punctuation  and 
accents  in  Vedic  stanzas  are  marked  in  red  ink.  The  text  is  bounded  on 
both  sides  by  double  black  lines,  f.  1  r.  has  a  few  laudatory  verses  written 
on  it  and  the  words  :  (sic)  ^TOT  Mf^^s  II  tf^f  ^faMf^fa  I  ^J^j. 

A  part  of  line  9  on  f  .  5  r.,  and  of  line  4  on  f  .  7  r.,  of  line  5  on  f.  7  v.,  is 
obliterated  with  black  pigment.  Two  lines  are  added  to  the  top  of  f.  13  v., 
f.  19  v.  is  partially  defaced  by  light  red  ink,  and  half  a  line  on  f.  20  r.  is 
similarly  obliterated  with  red  pigment.  Colophon  on  f.  38  r.  runs  thus  : 

frvto       r    TOt  ^TR:  11  sffr 


«nr:  II  A  female  figure  is  drawn  on  f.  38  v.,  and  a  list 
of  several  articles  is  added.  The  prominent  difference  of  ink,  characters, 
carelessness,  occasionally  disproportionate  red  vertical  strokes,  frequent 
use  of  red  ink  for  marginal  notes,  smudging  of  the  black  ink,  give  a  very 
untidy  appearance  to  the  manuscript. 

Size:  12£"x5Ty' 

Material  :  Paper. 

Number  of  .leaves  :  i  +  38  +  i  blank 

Number  of  lines  :  10-11. 

Character:  Devanagari. 

Date  and  scribe  :   Not  known. 

The  name  of  the  owner  is  given  on  f.  1  r.  as  Godabole  Laksmana  Bhatta. 

Peculiarity  of  spelling:  It  occasionally  writes  ^  as  1,  e.g.,  f.  1  v.,  line  1, 
3ft  <j*n«<  =  ^  >l«ut4.  Like  M  1,  it  frequently  doubles  t  in  conjunction 
with  other  letters,  e.g.  f.  1  v.,  line  2,  *RTf3r  =  Wrim  ;  line  3, 
J  ;  line  4,  t|<«||(\  =  -d-»c||(\  ;  line  8,  f^TM  = 


30  INTRODUCTION   TO   THE   NIRUKTA 

PART  II. 

Contents:  The  uttardrdka  of  the  Nirukta  (Chapters  X-XIII)  in  the 
longer  recension.  The  text  is  divided  into  chapters  and  sections  thus  : 
Chapter  X  begins  on  f.  1  r.  (  =  40  r.),  has  47  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  16  v. 
(=  55  v.).  Chapter  XI  has  50  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  31  v.  (=  70  v.). 
These  two  chapters  are  written  consecutively.  Chapter  XII  begins  with 
ll^ft  qui*n*T  f*:  II  has  46  sections,  and  ends  on  L  13  v.  (=  83  v.).  This 
seems  to  be  a  different  manuscript  from  the  previous  one  containing 
Chapters  X-XI  ;  the  pagination  begins  anew,  the  handwriting  is  different, 
and  unlike  the  former  the  text  is  bounded  on  both  sides  by  double  red  lines. 
The  parisista  is  separated  from  Chapter  XII,  and  is  treated  as  one  chapter. 
The  numbering  of  leaves  starts  anew  from  the  first.  It  begins  with  II  ^  II  , 
on  f.  1  r.  (=  84  r.),  has  50  sections,  and  ends  on  14  v  (=97  v.).  The  last 
word  of  the  13th  section  is  repeated,  but  the  summary  is  added  at  the 
end  of  the  50th  section.  The  summary,  as  usual,  is  added  at  the  end  of 
every  chapter.  The  accent  is  marked  in  red  ink  in  Vedic  quotations,  while 
a  short  vertical  red  stroke  is  used  for  punctuation.  A  line  in  different 
handwriting  is  added  at  the  bottom  of  f.  1  v.  (=  40  v.).  A  line  and  a  half 
in  red  ink  is  added  on  the  right-hand  margin  of  f.  22  r.  (=  61  r.)  ;  part  of 
the  50th  section  of  the  eleventh  chapter  is  finished  off  on  the  top  and  right- 
hand  margin  on  f.  31  v.  (=  70  v.).  A  line  is  added  on  the  top  of  f.  11  v. 
(=  81  v.).  Section  43  of  Chapter  XIII  is  left  out  in  the  text,  but  added 
on  the  top  and  the  margin  on  the"  right  on  f.  13  r.  (=  96  r.). 

Size:  9"x4". 

Material  :  Paper. 

Number  of  .leaves  :  31  +  13  +  12  (=  58)  -f  i  blank. 

Number  of  lines  :  7  to  9. 

Character  :  Devanagari. 

Date  and  scribe  :    Not  known  ;    the  colophon   runs   thus  : 


Injuries  :  It  is  slightly  injured  by  worms  in  several  places,  e.g.  ff.  7-4 
(=  47-54)  and  ff..  1-3  (=  84-86). 
It  has  a  modern  look. 

MS.    Chandra  Shum  Shere,  d.  179.     C  4. 

The  text  is  made  up  of  two  manuscripts,  containing  the  purvardha  and 
the  uttardrdha,  with  the  pari&ista  respectively,  each  being  copied  by 
a  different  scribe,  at  a  different  place  and  period.  They  will  therefore  be 
separately  described. 


DETAILED  DESCRIPTION    OF   MANUSCRIPTS  31 

MS.  1.    A.D.  1629  Copied  at  Benares. 

Contents  :  The  pilrvdrdha  of  the  Nirukta  in  the  shorter  recension  ;  the 
text  is  divided  into  chapters,  padas,  and  sections,  thus  :  Chapter  I  has  6 
pddas  ;  the  1st  pdda  contains  5  sections,  and  ends  on  f  .  2  v.  ;  it  is  not 
stated  where  the  2nd  pdda  comes  to  an  end,  probably  it  should  be  ended 
after  the  4th  section,  as  the  number  of  the  following  section  begins  anew  ; 
the  3rd  pdda  has  six  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  6  v.  ;  the  4th  pdda  has  4 
sections,  and  ends  on  f.  8  r.  ;  the  5th  pdda  has  2  sections,  and  ends  on 
f  .  9  v.  ;  the  6th  pdda  has  6  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  11  v.  ;  27  being  the 
total  number  of  sections  given  in  the  colophon,  which  runs  thus:  (sic)  II  $K 

u 


Chapter  II  has  7  pddas  :  the  1st  pada,  contains  7  sections,  and  ends  on 
f.  13  v.  ;  2nd  pdda  contains  5  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  16  r.  ;  3rd  pdda  con- 
tains 3  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  17r.  ;  4th  pdda  contains  7  sections,  and  ends 
on  f.  18  v.  ;  5th  pdda  contains  3  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  19  v.  ;  6th  pdda 
contains  5  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  21  r.  ;  7th  pdda  contains  6  sections,  and 
ends  on  f  .  23  r.  ;  the  total  number  of  sections  being  36.  Chapter  III  has 
4  pddas  :  1st  pdda  contains  7  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  25  v.  ;  2nd  pdda 
contains  6  sections,  and  ends  on  f  .  28  v.  ;  3rd  pdda  contains  6  sections,  f  .  30 
containing  sections  5-6  is  missing  ;  4th  pdda  contains  6  sections,  and  ends 
on  f  .  33  v.  ;  the  total  number  of  the  sections  being  25.  Chapter  IV  has 
4  pddas  :  1st  pdda  has  8  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  35  v.  ;  2nd  pdda  has  8 
sections,  f.  38  containing  a  part  of  the  8th  section  of  the  2nd  pdda,  and 
the  1-2  sections  of  the  3rd  pdda  is  missing  ;  3rd  pdda  has  6  sections,  and 
ends  on  f  .  40  v.  ;  4th  pdda  has  7  .sections,  and  ends  on  f  .  43  v.  Chapter  V 
has  4  pddas  :  1st  pdda  contains  6  sections,  and  ends  on  f  .  46  r.  ;  2nd  pdda 
contains  8  sections  ;  f  .  48  containing  sections  6-8  is  missing  ;  3rd  pdda 
contains  7  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  51  r.  ;  4th  pdda  contains  10  sections,  and 
ends  on  f.  54  r.  ;  the  total  number  of  sections  being  31.  Chapter  VI  has 
6  pddas  :  1st  pdda  contains  5  sections,  ending  on  f.  56  r.  ;  2nd  pdda  contains 
6  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  58  r.  ;  3rd  j)dda  contains  7  sections,  and  ends  on 
f.  61  r.  ;  4th  pdda  has  8  sections,  and  ends  on  f.  64  r.;  5th  pdda  has  5 
sections,  and  ends  on  f  .  66  r.  ;  6th  pdda  has  8  sections,  and  ends  on  f  .  68  v.  ; 
f.  1  is  missing.  The  text  is  bounded  on  both  sides  by  double  black  lines. 
Punctuation  is  similar  to  that  of  C  3.  Occasionally  marginal  notes  are 
added  in  red  ink. 

Size:  8TY'x3f". 
Material  :  paper. 
Number  of  leaves  :  i  +  64 


S2  INTRODUCTION   TO  THE   NIRUKTA 

Number  of  lines  :  10. 

Character:  Devanagari. 

Date:  on  f.  68  v.  (=  64  v.)  :  (sic)  ifr  ^Rl  c^  ^ 
(i.e.  completed  on  Wednesday  in  the  former  half  of  the  month  Vaisakha 
A.D.  1627). 

Scribe:  on  f.  68  v.  (=  64  v.)  :  (sic) 


Place:  on  f.  68  v.  (  =  64  v.)  :  (sic)   II 

ii  *prrtt  TO:  n 


Injuries:  ff.  1,  30,  38,  48  are  missing;    f.  22  is  injured,  and  slightly 
defaced,  and  f.  33  is  defaced  by  marginal  notes. 

Peculiarity  of  spelling  :  1J  is  occasionally  written  as  I/,  e.g.  f.  2  r.  line  2  : 

f.  2  r.,  line  8  :    *R^  =  qjlfl    f  .  2  v.,  line  4  : 


^t  is  occasionally  written  as  |/|     e.  g.  f.  2  v.,  line  2  : 
=  «ii*n<3nni«4i:    but    cf  .   line  3,  f  .  2  v.,   line   8  : 


is   occasionally   written   in   conjunction   thus  :    f  .  3  r.,  line  2  : 
j    line  4  : 


Manuscript  containing  the  uttardrdha.     A.D.  1691. 
Copied  at  Dacca. 

Contents  The  second  part  (Chapters  VII-XII)  of  the  Nirukta  in  the 
shorter  recension  ;  the  text  is  divided  into  chapter,  pada,  and  section.  In 
this  division,  and  the  number  of  pdclas  in  a  chapter,  and  that  of  sections  in 
a  pdda,  it  agrees  with  M  3.  The  7  pddas  of  Chapter  VII  end  on  ff'.  3  r. 
(=  67  r.),  4  v.  (=  68  v.),  7  v.  (=  71  v.),  9  r.  (=  73  r.),  10  v.  (=  74  v.),  13  r. 
(=  77  r.),  16  v.  (=80v.)  respectively;  the  3  pddas  of  Chapter  VIII 
end  on  ff.  18  r.  (=  82  r.),  21  v.  (  =  85  v.)  24  r.  (=  88  r.)  respectively;  the 
4  pddas  of  Chapter  IX  end  on  ff.  27  v.  (=  91  v.)  ;  30  r.  (=  94  r.),  33  v. 
(=97  v.),  35  v.  (=  99  v.)  respectively;  the  4  pcidas  of  Chapter  X  end 
on  ff.  39  v.  (=  103  v.),  42  v.  (106  v.),  46  r.  (110  r.),  48  v.  (=  112  v.)  respec- 
tively; the4£>adasof  Chapter  XI  end  on  ff.  51  v.  (=  115  v.),  54r.  (=  118r.), 
58  v.  (=  122  v.),  62  v.  (126  v.)  respectively  ;  the  4  pddas  of  Chapter  XII 
end  on  ff.  65  v.  (=129  v.),  68  r.  (=  132  r.),  71  v.  (=  135  v.),  75  v.  (=  139  v.) 
respectively,  f.  56  r.  (=  120  r.)  is  left  blank.  The  text  is  bounded  on 
both  sides  by  treble  black  lines.  The  accent  in  Vedic  quotations  is  marked 
in  red  ink.  The  short  vertical  stroke  is  replaced  by  a  similar  black  stroke 
for  punctuation.  The  use  of  the  danda  is  similar  to  M  3. 

The  parisista  is  separated  from  Chapter  XII,  and  is  contained  in 
ff.  76-94  (=  140-158).  The  division  of  the  text  into  pddas  and  Khandas 


DETAILED  DESCRIPTION   OF  MANUSCRIPTS  33 

is  identical  with  M  3.      The  4  padas  of  Chapter  XIII  end  on  ff.  80  v. 
(=  144  v.),  89  r.  (=  153  r.),  91  v.  (=  155  v.),  94  r,  (=  158  r.)  respectively. 

Pagination  is  continued  from  the  end*  of  Chapter  XII.  The  date  given 
on  f.  94  r.  (=  158  r.)  :  (iic)  *T  «TOgM  ^  33OTT%  ^m%  qM  j|Vinft  || 
cannot  be  genuine,  for  it  is  clear  from  the  numbering  of  folios  that  it  must 
have  been  written  after  Chapter  XII,  which  was  finished  in  5R^  q^>8^>  J 
hence,  it  could  not  be  earlier  than  cj^g^.  The  name  of  the  scribe  is 
Harirama,  a  resident  of  Muphalipura.  The  colophon  runs  thus  :  (sic) 


Size:  9"x4". 

Material  :  Paper. 

Number  of  leaves  :  94  +  i  blank. 

Number  of  lines  :  8. 

Character:  Devanagari. 

Date:  on  f.  75  v.  (=  139  v.)  :  ^f%  *\  *fa^  «^8^  (=  A.D.  1691) 
IT  ^T^  JTT^T  ^  M  $>*. 

Scribe:  on  f.  75  v.  (=  139  v.)  :  ^)^^4t*)^^:  he  seems  to  have  taken 
grea,t  pains  in  copying  the  manuscript,  for  he  remarks  : 

n 


Place  :  on  f.  75  v.  (=  139  v.)  (sic)  II  ^ft  ^RTRTaT  ^PMdf^<(  II 
Injuries:  ff.  1-11  (=  65-75)  are  slightly  defaced. 
Peculiarity  of  spelling  :  it  occasionally  writes  if  as  in  Part  I,  e.  g. 
f.  1  v.  (=  65  v.),  line  1 
,,  „     r, 

»  „     3 

Some  of  the  figures  for  numbers  are  occasionally  slightly  different: 
8  =  ii,  M  =  ^,  ^  =  ^J  f.  73  r.  (=  137r.)5  ^t  is  written  as  f  ;   f.  73  r. 

(=  i37  r.),  line  8: 


MS.     Chandra  Shum  Shere,  d.  180.     C  5. 
The  text  is  made  up  of  two  manuscripts  which  are  described  separately. 

MS.  containing  the  purvardha,  A.D.  1758. 

Contents  :  Chapters  I-  VI  of  the  Nirukta  in  the  shorter  recension.    The 
text  is  divided  into  padas  and  sections.    It  agrees  with  C4  in  having 


C 


34  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

six  pddas  in  Chapter  I.  It  is  carelessly  written,  and  full  of  mistakes.  The 
text  is  bounded  by  double  red  lines  up  to  f.  24,  and  by  similar  black  lines, 
ff.  25-67.  Ff.  55  v.,  56  are  defaced  by  disproportionate  marginal  notes. 
F.  57  is  wrongly  numbered  56  in  the  original..  The  first  four  lines  on 
the  top  of  f .  58  r.  are  to  be  crossed.  Two  geometrical  figures  .-e  drawn 
on  f .  1  r. 

Size:  8J"x4*": 

Material:  Paper. 

^Number  of  leaves :  i  +  67. 

Number  of  lines :  7-14. 
^     Character:  Devanagarl. 

Daoe:  on  f.  67  v.  (sic)  SR^  ^8  J^  *faft  %  *^l  ^  «  TJ% 
(=  A.D.  1758). 

Scribe :  The  name  of  the  owner  is  added  in  a  different  handwriting 
on  f .  67  v. :  ^T  *ftfa  quto^KW^  Hiyjq  ft  %  ^  *RrfTT  (i.  e.  this  book 
belongs  to  Nathurama,  son  of  Bhamangabarama). 


MS.  containing  the  uttdrardha  with  the  parisista,  dated  A.D.  1479. 

Contents :  Chapters  VII-XIII  of  the  Nirukta  in  the  shorter  recensioa, 
written  consecutively.  The  text  is  divided  into  pddas  and  Khandas, 
agreeing  with  C  4  in  the  number  of  pddas  and  Khandas,  distributed  in 
each  chapter  and  pdda  respectively.  The  seven  pddas  end  on  ff.  2  v. 
(=  69  v.),  3  v.  (=  70  v.),  5  v.  (=  72  v.),  7  r.  (=  74  r.),  8  r.  (=  75  r.),  9  v. 
(=  76  v.),  12  r.  (=  79  r.);  the  three  pddas  of  Chapter  VIII  on  ff.  13  r. 
(=  80  r.),  16  r.  (=  83  r.),  17  v.  (=  84  v.) ;  the  four  pddas  of  Chapter  IX  on 
ff.  20  r.  (=  87  r.),  22  r.  (=  89  r.),  24  v.  (=  91  v.),  26  r.  '(=  93  t.) ;  the  four 
pddas  of  Chapter  X  on  ff.  29  v.  (=  96  v.),  31  v.  (=  98  v.),  34  v.  (=  101  v.), 
36  v.  (=  103  v.) ;  the  four  pddas  of  Chapter  XI  on  ff.  39  r.  (=  106  r.),  41  r. 
(=  108  r.),  43  v.  (=  110  v.),  46  v.  (=  113  v.) ;  the  four  pddas  of  Chapter  XII 
on  ff.  49  r.  (=  116  r.),  51  r.  (=  118  r.),  54  r.  (=  121  r.),  56  v.  (=  123  v.) ;  the 
four  pddas  of  Chapter  XIII  on  ff.  60  r.  (=  127  r.),  67  r.  (=  134  r.),  69  v. 
(=  136  v.),  71  v.  (=  138  v.).  The  text  is  bounded  on  both  sides  by  double 
black  lines.  The  accent  in  Vedic  stanzas  is  marked  in  red  ink.  Punctua- 
tion- is  similar  to  M  3.  It  is  a  very  good  manuscript,  neat  and  accurate. 

Size:  8f"x3£". 

Material :  Paper. 

Number  of  leaves :  72  +  i  blank. 

Number  of  lines :  9. 

Character:  Devanagarl. 


DETAILED  DESCRIPTION   OF  MANUSCRIPTS  35 

Date:  on  f.  71  v.  (=  138  v.)  :  H  ^rf^T  ^RHTJ^M  (  =  A.D.  1479) 


Scribe  :  on  f.  71  v.  (=  138  v.)  :  <tfM?;U!  f^ff  *g     fSff^TTOftr  II  ^  II 
The  Colophon  runs  thus  :  (sic)  ^ft  ^ 


^  TT°  Wj[  -*u*<«<<q«n«f  »Tlni«i7,«!j  &c.     The  name  of  the  owner 


is  given  on  f.  72  r.  (=  139  r): 

'^nf'f  4tf^  II  Rites  and  sacrifices  performed  by  the  owner  at  various  places 
of  pilgrimages  like  Kuruksetra,  Benares,  &c.,  are  enumerated  on  f.  72  r. 
(=  139  r.). 

Peculiarity  of  spelling:  ^  is  always  written  as  IZT>  Tf  *s  written  as  |/? 
.  g.  'W  =  ^iri  on  f  .  71  v.,  line  6. 

f.  54  r.  (=  121  r.),  line  3  :  ^RWT:      =  T^Rm: 

,,  „  „    4  :  farf  =  "HRt  and  so  on. 

^  is  written  as  |/H,  e.  g» 

f.  53  v.  (=  120  v.),  line  9  : 


„  „  „    2  :  fti         =  fMI^MJ  and  so  on. 

is  written  as  |/|  ,  e.  g. 

f.  53  v.  (=  120  v.),  line  1  : 


»          »        ,»  6: 

is  written  as  |/^5t,  e.g. 

f.  5  r.  (=  72  r.),  line  6  : 


?fvin  conjunction  with  ^is  written  as  a  short  vertical  stroke,  and  with 
or  ^as  a  horizontal  stroke,  e.  g. 


^WTf  I       W  =  ^T  and  so  on. 
^T  is  written  variously  as  ^  or  ^  or  ^. 

Injuries:  ff.  9  (=76),  10  (=77),  19  (=86),  29  (=96)  are  slightly 
injured. 

MS.    Chandra  Shum  Share,  e.  Bt    C  6. 

Contents  :  The  Nirukta  of  Yaska  in  the  longer  recension.  It  consists 
of  three  manuscripts  ;  the  first  contains  Chapters  I-V-  in  86  leaves  (86  v. 
gives  a  part  of  the  first  section  of  Chapter  VI)  ;  the  second,  Chapter  VI  in 

0  2 


8b  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  N1RUKTA 

27  leaves  (numbered  in  the  original  as  47-73  =  87-113);  the  third, 
Chapters  VII-XIV,  in  78  leaves  (=  114-191).  The  division  of  the  text 
into  Chapters  (adkydya)  and  sections  (KJtandas),  the  punctuation,  and  the 
method  of  marking  the  accent  in  Vedic  stanzas  are  identical  with  M  4. 
The  text  is  bounded  by  double  red  lines  only  occasionally.  F.  3  is  replaced 
by  a  leaf  in  a  later  handwriting.  Ff.  87-92  are  written  on  blue  paper. 
A  summary  similar  to  M  4  is  added  at  the  end  of  each  chapter. 

Size  :  8J"  x  4"  (ff.  1-86)  and  7}*  x  3|  (ff.  87-113),  7£"  x  3J"  (ff.  114-191). 

Material:  Paper. 

Character:  Devanagari. 

Number  of  leaves  :  i  +  191  -f  i  blank. 

Number  of  lines:  7  (ff.  1-113),  7-10  (ff.  114-191). 

Date  and  Scribe  :  Not  known. 

The  name  of  the  owner  is  added  on  f.  114  r.  :  I 


MS.     Chandra  Shum  Shere,  d.  183.     C  7. 

Contents:  The  uttardrdha  of  the  NiruJda,  Chapters  VII-XI,  and 
sections  1-27  of  Chapter  XII  in  the  shorter  recension.  The  text  is 
bounded  by  treble  black  lines  on  both  sides,  and  is  divided  into  pddas 
and  Khandas.  The  numbering  of  sections  does  not  begin  anew  in  each 
pdda,  but  is  consecutive  for  the  whole  chapter,  and  agrees  with  the 
manuscripts  of  the  longer  recension.  It  looks  old;  the  ink  is  totally 
effaced  in  several  parts,  which  makes  it  difficult  to  read;  but  it  is  not 
really  old,  for  it  does  not  display  any  characteristics  of  old  writing.  It 
is  full  of  mistakes.  Three  lines  are  added  at  the  bottom  on  f.  13  v.,  52  v. 
Marginal  notes  are  occasionally  written. 

Size:  9j*x34". 

Material:  Paper. 

Number  of  leaves  :  i  +  58  +  i  blank. 

Number  of  lines  per  folio  :  7. 

Character:  Devanagari. 

Date  and  Scribe  :  Not  known,  for  the  last  leaves  are  missing. 

Peculiarity  of  spelling  :  7^  is  occasionally  written  as  a  short  horizontal 
stroke  in  conjunction.  F.  1  v.,  line  1  ;  HJjfi'Hi  =  HJift*!!,  f.  1  v.,  line  2  : 
^t?t  =  ^jf^f  •  1  is  doubled  in  conjunction  with  ^,  e.g.  ?W$  =  1*$.  F.  58  v. 
is  torn  in  tv,  j. 


DETAILED  DESCRIPTION  OF  MANUSCRIPTS  37 

MS.     Wilson  488.    W  1. 

Yaska's   Nirukta,   A.D.  1768. 

This  is  described  in  detail  by  Keith  in  the  Catalogue  of  Sanskrit 
Manuscripts,  vol.  ii,  p.  107.  His  description  may  be  supplemented  by  the 
following:  the  Colophon  on  f.  79  v.  runs  thus  :  (sic)  II  "^  II 


8  ^  II 

Two  more  verses  are  added  in  a  different  hand,  one  being  a  slight 
modification  of  a  verse  from  the  Pancatantra.  The  purvfrrdha  and  the 
uttarardha  are  written  in  different  hands. 

Peculiarity  of  spelling  :  ?^and  rf^are  occasionally  doubled  in  conjunction 

with  ^,  e.  g.  -  - 

f  .  1  v.,  line  7  : 
f.  2  r.,     „    2  : 


Number  of  lines  per  folio:  7  (ff.  1-21),  9  (ff.  22-79),  7  (ff.  80-162), 
8  (ff.  163-183). 

Injuries:  Ff.  53-63  are  slightly  injured  by  worms  on  the  left 
marginal  top. 

MS.     Wilson  491.    W  2. 

This  manuscript  is  described  in  detail  by  Keith  in  the  Catalogue  of 
Sanskrit  Manuscripts  in  the  Bodleian  Library,  vol.  ii,  p.  106.  His  descrip- 
tion may  be  supplemented  as  follows  : 

Peculiarity  of  spelling  :  It  writes  VT  as  Vf 
H   is  occasionally  written  as      |/,  e.  g. 


Number  of  lines  per  folio  :  8  (ff.  1-61),  9  (ff.  62-78),  8  (ff.  79-91),  9 
(ff.  92-101),  it  varies  from  10-11  (ff.  102-130). 

F.  104  is  upside  down.  The  size  of  leaves  (ff.  79-86)  is  :  8|"  x  SJ*. 
Ff.  79-130  are  written  in  a  handwriting  different  from  that  of  the  previous 
folios. 


38  .     INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

MS.     Wilson  474.    W  3. 

This  is  described  in  detail  by  Keith  in  the  Catalogue  of  Sanskrit 
Manuscripts  in  the  Bodleian  Library,  vol.  ii,  p.  107.  His  description  may 
be  supplemented  by  the  following  : 

Peculiarity  of  spelling:  TJ  is  occasionally  written  as  I/,  e.g.  f.  .2  r. 
line  2:  f$  =  tj^TJ  ^  =  *&™>  ^ft  =  ^THf;  f.  2  r.,  line  3; 


is  written  as  |/TJ,  e.  g 


But  its  chief  peculiarity  is  that  it  frequently  doubles  consonants  in 
conjunction,  e.g.  f.  2  r.,  line  2  :  *jfa|3T:  ^is  doubled,  v*^n>  1is  doubled  ; 
yrJIiqT.  rfv  is  doubled  ;  line  4:  fti|pT,  ^  is  doubled;  line  5:  ^jfahf^  ^ 
is  doubled  ;  OjqH^,  i^is  doubled  ;  line  6  :  TgiiIW>for  n^p^o;  iine  7  :  ?rf,  ? 
is  doubled  ;  f.  2  v.t  line  2  :.  fM^lj"^^^  for  f^^W^}  f.  3  r.,  line  1  : 
'Wni.  ^T  is  doubled  ;  line  6:  ^g^H>  ?  is  doubled,  TT^,  ^T  is  doubled; 

f.  4  r.,  line  1  :  TTT^t<$i^**<*j«nf\*!ji«ii<nkv*tf^i  for  ^ii^l^^*Hl!enr\5n^  q*,«il«i> 

and_so  on. 

MS.    Mill  144.    Mi. 
Copied  at  Ahmedabad,  A.D.  1730. 

This  is  described  in  detail  by  Keith  in  the  Catalogue  of  Sanskrit 
Manuscripts  in  the  Bodleian  Library,  vol.  ii,  p.  106.  It  occasionally 
doubles  ?Hn  conjunction  with  other  consonants,  e.g.  f.  2  r.,  line  8: 

&C. 


The  numbering  of  sections  does  not  begin  anew  in  each  pdda,  but  is 
continuous,  and  agrees  with  the  longer  recension  as  to  the  total  number  of 
sections  in  Chapters  IX-XII.  It  belongs  to  the  shorter  recension. 

MS.    Sanskrit,  e.  17.    S. 
A.V.  1781. 

This  is  described  in  detail  by  Keith  in  the  Catalogue  of  Sanskrit 
Manuscripts  in  the  Bodleian  Library,  vol,  ii,  p.  105.  The  text  is  punctuated 
as  usual,  and  divided  into  chapters  and  sections.  A  summary  similar  to 
the  one  described  on  p.  1  is  added  at  the  end  of  each  chapter.  It  belongs 
to  the  longer  recension.  The  text  is  bounded  on  both  sides  by  two  sets  of 
double  red  lines.  It  is  a  neat  and  accurate  manuscript. 


THE  TEXT  OF  THE  NIRUKTA  39 

The  Relationship  of  the  MSB. :   two  recensions. 

t  The  manuscripts  fall  into  two  groups,  and  for  the  sake  of  convenience 
and  brevity,  may  be  called  A  and  B — A  representing  the  longer  and  B  the 
shorter  recension.  None  of  the  manuscripts  grouped  in  these  two  families  is 
earlier  than  A.  D.  1479.  Although  they  have  been  copied  from  earlier  manu- 
scripts— often  with  great  labour  and  trouble -as  some  of  the  scribes  remark — 
neither  of  them  transmits  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  in  an  uninterpolated  state. 
Both  recensions  add  the  pariMsta — which  can  be  proved  to  be  an  interpola- 
tion by  independent  testimony — as  an  integral  part  of  the  text,  and  cannot, 
therefore,  be  the  faithful  representatives  of  the  archetype.  Moreover,  both 
have  besides  the  pariMsta,  an  entire  section  or  the  equivalent  of  a  section 
added  on  to  them.  These  additions  are  meaningless.  The  commentary  on 
the  Vedic  stanzas  quoted  therein  is  very  poor,  and  written  in  a  style  quite 
different  from  that  of  Yaska.  For  instance,  there  can  hardly  be  any  doubt 
as  to  the  interpolated  character  of  ix.  2,  which  is  given  as  a  constituent  part 
of  the  text  by  the  manuscripts  of  both  recensions.  Further,  the  commentary 
on  the  Vedic  stanza  in  xi.  7  is  meaningless  and  written  in  a  different 
style.  The  Vedic  stanza,  being  quite  easy,  requires  no  explanation.  Yaska 
generally  does  not  comment  on  easy  Vedic  stanzas,  simply  remarking: 
iti  so,  nigada-vydkhydtd1,  i.e.  'this  stanza  is  explained  by  the  mere  reading*. 
In  all  such  cases,  this  note  of  Yaska  comes  after  easy  Vedic  stanzas  only. 
It  would  thus  be  intelligible,  if  it  had  followed  immediately  the  Vedic 
stanzas  in  xi.  7.  But  as  the  text  now  stands,  it  is  placed  just  after  a  very 
difficult  Vedic  stanza  in  xi.  8.  This  is  contrary  to  Yaska's  method.  It  is 
clear  that  the  words:  iti  sd  nigada-vydkhydtd  were  originally  placed 
immediately  after  the  Vedic  stanzas  in  xi.  7.  The  intervening  passage  is 
an  interpolation,  and  rather  a  clumsy  one,  for  it  can  be  easily  detected. 
This  is  further  proved  by  the  fact  that  Durga,  who  repeats  every  word  of 
Yaska  in  his  commentary,  ignores  them.  How  these  additions  gradually 
find  their  way  into  the  text  is  illustrated  by  the  following  example.  There 
is  an  easy  quotation  in  xii.  2,  and"  Yaska,  as  usual,  simply  adds :  iti  sd 
nigada-vydkhydta.  Some  interpolators  have  endeavoured  to  add  after 
these  words  a  short  comment.  Thus  some  manuscripts  here  subjoin  the 

following  remark :  TOTfiig  W  ^T*ft  TOHrft  <H!*ft  *TO% gTHTOt:  I 

Further,  each  recension  contains  passages,  which,  being  superfluous,  are 
omitted  by  the  other,  or  are  amplified  versions  of  those  in  the  other.  For 
example,  B  adds,  between  vii.  19  and  20,  one  entire  section,  which  is  omitted 
by  A.  It  is  clearly  an  interpolation  as  the  commentary  on  the  Vedic 
stanzas  is  identical  with  that  of  xiv.  33  with  slight  alterations. 
1  Cf.  N.  x.  18,  24 ;  xi.  8,  45;  xii.  81. 


40  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

Again,  in  B  the  commentary  on  the  Vedic  stanza  quoted  in  v.  27,  reads 
as  follows  :  «j^q*$ji  ««<eiiQi^i«ft 

u 


A's  version  of  this  is  greatly  amplified  : 


<nf*T 


II  ^  II 


Further,  A  contains  a  long  passage  in  6.  5  : 
omitted  by  B. 

c£.     'Omissio  ex  homoeoteleuto  '  in  Sanskrit  Manuscripts. 

It-  is  clear,  therefore,  that'  both  the  recensions  cannot  faithfully  represent 
the  archetype.  Hence  the  question  arises  which  of  them  adheres  more 
closely  to  the  original?  Roth  adopted  the  text  as  given  by  the  longer 
recension  in  his  edition,  without,  however,  assigning  adequate  reasons  for 
his  preference.  The  same  text  is  also  adopted  by  most  of  the  editors  of 
the  Nirukta.  This  text,  as  has  been  shown  above,  does  not  represent  the 
original.  It  is  true  that  often  the  longer  recension  preserves  the  better 
text,  for  sometimes  passages  are  omitted  by  accident.  The  eye  of  the 
scribe  wanders  from  a  particular  word  to  the  same  or  to  a  similar  word, 
occurring  further  on  in  the  text,  with  the  result  that  the  intervening 
words  are  omitted.  This  phenomenon  known  as  omissio  ex  homoeoteleuto 
is  universal  and  of  very  frequent  occurrence.  The  following  example 
illustrates  thigjdnd  of  omission.  In  copying  the  lines  :  '  The  book,  which 
is  rather  scarce,  was  till  very  lately  of  absolute  necessity  for  the  Student  of 
the  Christian  hymnology,  above  all  for  the  Student  of  Adam  of  St.  Victor's 
hymns  V  the  eye  of  the  copyist  wandered  from  the  student  of  the  first  to 
the  same  word  in  the  second  line  and  the  words  '  of  the  Christian  ....  for 
the  '  were  left  out.  The  same  thing  happened  to  the  scribe  of  MS.  C  3. 
In  copying  the  sentence:  tiT^qi'K^n  fl<tJ<JU!i  tjvsn.  I 


his  eye  wandered  from  the  word 
in  the  first  line  to  the  same  word  in  the  second  line,  with  the  result  that 
the  words  nw<j*ui  tjt^n.  I  ^nfK*J<J^  were  left  out. 

Again,  in  copying  N.  vi.  22  :  ^t  TH*:  itdk'ti  31^5*  «3  I^fofe*J  I  RV. 
VIII.  4.  19.  "^nt:  <44j|(4Mt||<^  *fl|TWrf?f  I  the  eye  of  the  scribe  wandered 
from  the  ^T  of  the  first  line  to  the  similar  word  ^^:  in  the  second  line, 

1  Clark,  Descent  of  Manuscripts,  p.  1. 


THE  TEXT  OF  THE  NIRUKTA  41 


consequent^    the   intervening   words   "^TVi    ?|dl^j   ....  f<(ftfKtJ    were 
omitted  in  MS.  C  3. 
Further  in  N.  ii.  26  : 


:  is  the  first  pdda  of  the  second  hemistich  of  the  stanza  of  RV.  III., 
33.  6.     Unconsciously  the  scribe  remembered  the  second  pada  cf^J 
^nW  ^RffJ  and  wrote  it  down  immediately  after  finishing  the  first 
with  the  result  that  the  intervening  words  c^niiuifui:  I  MlfUj:  MOjI^Tl  .... 
^*«4{«n  are  missing  in  MS.  C  4.     It  cannot  therefore  be  concluded  that  the 
shorter  recension  is  always  the  best,  for  sometimes  omissions  are  accidental. 

e.     Dittography  in  Sanskrit  Manuscripts. 

On  the  other  hand,  there  is  also  the  phenomenon  called  dittography, 
i.  e.  the  repetition  or  addition  of  a  few  words  or  sentences.  An  excellent 
example  of  dittography  is  furnished  by  The  Globe  on  July  9,  1915. 

'  The  Echo  de  Paris  publishes  a  message  from  Cettinje  announcing  the 
message  from  Cettinje  announcing  the  appointment  as  Governor  of  Scutari 
of  Bojo  Petrovitch.'  T  The  part  of  the  second  line  is  a  verbatim  repetition 
of  a  part  of  the  first  line, 

In  N.  ii.  28,    ^cT  ^f  cn<*l  f^lf^f  <<*lflld  iTNl^i  «3Tlh> 


.  .  .  the  eye  of  the  scribe  wandered  by  chance  after  3R<j  to  the 
Vedic  stanza,  and  he  mechanically  copies  the  whole  of  the  first  line  except 
^Rf  ^  in  MS.  C  5. 

Again,  in  N.  vi.  8,  the  scribe  of  the  MS.  Mi.  repeats  JJfn!(d«MJI  ^TT. 

Further  there  are  some  passages  whose  omission  by  B  is  absolutely 
unjustifiable.  Yaska  explains  every  word  occurring  in  the  fourth  chapter 
of  the  Nighantu.  The  omission  of  the  passages  containing  the  explana- 
tion of  any  of  these  words  is  therefore  inconsistent  with  Yaska's  plan. 
Examples  of  such  omissions  are  the  following.  Yaska  explains  f%^pTT: 
(Ngh.  4.  3.  12)  in  N.  vi.  3,  but  the  passage :  f'PJpn  fr^lUlfglfXuj:  is  omitted 
by  B.  Again,  Yaska  explains  ^t^RT  (Ngh.  4«.3.  28)  in  N.  vi.  6  as  ^Jra 
^«4<!!<g,  which  is  omitted  by  B.  This  omission  makes  the  following  Vedic 
quotation  meaningless. 

Further,  in  commenting  upon  a  Vedic  stanza,  Yaska  always  starts  from 
the  very  beginning  of  the  stanza.  To  leave  out  the  first  few  words  and  to 

1  Clark,  op.  cit.,  p.  6. 


42  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKT4 

begin  from  somewhere  in  the  middle  of  the  stanza  is  altogether  foreign  to 
his  practice,  yet  if  the  text  of  B  be  followed,  the  omission  of  the  passage: 

(N.  vi.  26)  would  involve  Yaska  in  an  incon- 


sistency.    All  this  shows  that  B  is  not  absolutely  reliable. 

Now  let  us  examine  A.     The  majority  of  the  manuscripts  of  A  belong 
to  a  period  later  than  those  of  B.     Thus,  not  one  of  them  has  preserved 
the  old  spelling,  while  most  of  the  B  MSS.  retain  this  peculiarity,  i.e. 
of  writing  TJ     as    \/      as  ^r^      for  ^f 

ij    »   \/\ 

»  "3ft    »     I  /I 

for 


Again,  some  of  the  A  MSS.  divide  the  pari&ista  into  the  so-called 
thirteenth  and  the  fourteenth  chapters,  while  those  of  B  put  £he  whole  of 
the  parUista  into  one  chapter  only,  which  is  numbered  the  thirteenth. 

It  has  already  been  pointed  out  that  A  contains  an  obvious  interpolation 
in  N.  vi.  5,  and  an  amplified  version  of  B's  comment  in  N.  v.  27.  Besides 
these  there  are  shorter  passages  scattered  throughout  the  book  which  are 
omitted  by  B  and  are  suspected  to  be  interpolations.  One  very  fertile  and 
insidious  source  of  interpolations  is  supplied  by  Yaska's  own  method  of  giving 
etymological  explanations.  He  does  not  content  himself  with  one  deriva- 
tion, but  goes  on  adding  derivation  after  derivation  of  a  single  word  till 
the  whole  list  of  probable,  possible,  and  even  fanciful  etymologies  is 
exhausted.  In  many  cases,  interpolators  found  it  quite  easy  to  add  new 
derivations  and  attribute  them  to  Yaska.  A  contains  a  considerable 
number  of  such  additions,  while  B  has  only  two. 

The  following  are  a  few  samples: 
N.  ii.  6.     A  reads  :     ^t  si^ii^  I     ^T  ^t  PlBdlft  TT  I  ^IT 


B  reads  :   cp^  q'^m^  I  l*i«<ni*il*i<in^.  .  .  • 

The  two  derivations  are  omitted. 

N.  ii.  10.     A  reads:   ffT^  ^Wf.  .  .  •  ff7TT*nr? 


B  reads:  ffT*S  <*^I<V  .....  fif«K*RI  aTOftfTI  17  I 

N.  ii.  13.     A  reads  : 
B  reads: 


N.  ii.  20.     A  reads  :    ^Tfa^f^  -*uf*MI*l 
B  reads  : 


THE  TEXT  OF  THE  NIRUKTA  43 

N.  ii.  22.     A  reads  :   JTZRT  l^T  *J*s*MI*J   Urfjfl  *Rf?f  I 


B  reads:  1HRT  Tfa     <£WI«  Jffi*     Hqlfl  I 
N.  iii.  8.     A  reads  : 


B  reads: 


N.  iii.  10.    A  reads  :  ^n^^sRint  I 
U  reads  :   ^IMU^Rld:  I  cfRfrt 


N.  iii.  15.     A  reads  :   qft  ql  W*&  f%^%^  ^T^l  I 
qT  ^3^  I  ftVql  fqVr^qTr  *Tq1?T  I 

B  reads  :  qft  ql  TF&l  fqWqq  ^«K*i  I  fq^Iql  f^Ml^ehl  JTqUf  I  In 
this  particular  case  it  is  obvious  that  the  passage  ^qT  qTCRTf£,  &c.,  is  an 
interpolation,  for  as  the  words  stand  in  the  first  line,  Yaska  would  naturally 
give  the  etymological  explanation  of  fq^RT  first  and  then  of  %*K,  not 
vice  versa.  As  a  matter  of  fact  he  does  so;  after  explaining  f^WF  he  says  : 
^^0  <!«*lfflqN&l.  This  would  have  been  absurd  if  the  reading  of  A 
represents  the  original. 

N.  iii.  16.     A  reads  :  mfRT  **  fWT  T%fa  I  fWt 


B  reads  :   sTT^WT  T^  f^T  ^f?f  II  <*§  II 
N.  iii.  19.    A  reads:  f*H9ftTRrff<T  .  .  .  .  ^   I  f^fr! 


B  reads  : 


N.  iv.  2.     A  reads: 


B  reads  : 
N.  iv.  10.    A  reads  : 
B  reads  : 


N.  iv.  13.     A  reads:    t^n:  fJ*nf\rfMi 
B  reads  : 


N.  iv.  15.     A  reads  :  qTOT  <*«i«i)q(  9Tqt?f  I  S^9f  ^d^ffl  qT  I 
fTI  ql^qTl 
B  reads  :    ql^qr  qW^Nn  Hqt?f  I  l^i  %ff%f?T  qT  I 


44  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

N.  iv.  19.    A  reads  :  ^31  ^?C  ^WJ}  I  <sTi«m  CM*^I%  I 
I 
B  reads  :  ^F      fC  *WS  I 


N.  v.  3.     A  reads  :   qi^f^f?f  TT  ^l^(\fd  ^T  iMl}*IRRl 

B  reads  :   m%ft 
N.  v.  12.     A  reads  : 

B  reads  : 


N.  v.  26.     A  reads  :   f%T|>{ 


B  reads  :   f%r^T  <*1  $31  I  ^ 


N.  vi.  8.     A  reads  :   f^RTfrf  faKf^^T  ^T  JJUllfdeM$l 

B  reads  :    f^Rfif 
N.  vi.  16.    A  reads  : 


B  reads  : 

N.  vi.  33.    A  reads  :   ?0«iri 
B  reads  :    ufl*i^  f^T3  I 


N.  vi.  32.     A  reads:    ^  5Tpfof?r  f%^t  TT  ^T^t  ^T  »T^t  TT  •  .  - 

B  reads  :   ^^  TH^^f  ^T^t  ^T  H^T  TT  .  .  . 
N.  vi.  33.    A  reads  :    ^"q  ^«fMlfd«Tl   J|*i*mird»Ti 


P  reads: 

n-i 

Instances  might  be  multiplied,  but  the  above  examples  suffice  to  show 
that  A  has  been  much  more  tampered  with  than  B. 

Fortunately,  as  has  been  said  above,  Durga  repeats  every  word  of  the 
Nirukta  in  his  commentary,  so  that  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  *  in  toto  '  can  be 
reproduced  from  his  commentary  alone.  This  commentary  therefore  serves 
the  purpose  of  a  manuscript  of  the  Nirukta  and  supplies  valuable  information 
about  the  condition  of  the  text  in  its  author's  time.  Durga  does  not 
recognize  the  paritdsta  as  an  integral  part  of  the  Nirukta,  as  in  fact  he  is 
even  unaware  of  its  existence.  Thus  his  commentary  preserves  the  text 
of  the  Nirukta  ^  as  current  before  the  addition  of  the  paritdsta.  Further, 
it  derives  great  value  from  the  fact  that  Durga  displays  critical  judgement 
in  the  adoption  of  readings  in  the  text,  while  giving  variants  and  adding 
critical  notes  on  them.  For  example,  in  N.  i.  2,  he  reads 


THE  TEXT   OF  THE  NIRUKTA  45 

gives   «JJ|Mc^  as   a   variant,   adding 


Again,  in  N.  i.  12,  he  reads  *iR|1jldlR  but  gives  *i  Hill  HI  ft  as 
a  variant,  adding  ^RTTT  ^'fain^n!*!  rfTf'f  ^"faijMlfa  <TTf*T  ^rtJ^NUjrfi 
*JT<fr  I 

Again,  in  N.  iii.  1  5,  he  remarks  :  ^ifa  ^ 


Again,  in  N.  iii.  21,  he  reads  ^faiTfil  but  gives   4|RMIV!  as  a  variant* 
adding  :   "^Rf  ^vTl^  ^fannf  MrtRl  I 


Again,  in  N.  iv.  19,  he  reads   ^j:  but  gives  HNJ1^  as  a  variant,  adding  : 

t  Tra^  i  (sic)  ^ 


Again,  in  N.  vi.  2,  he  remarks  :    f«nc%  TT   ^oiH  *iRrM*|fl 


Again,   in    N.  vi.  4,  he   reads    <14|^«11^I^H.  but  gives   Hq«Nlfl*^  and 

as  variants. 

Again,   in  N.  vi.  6,    he  reads   ^^Ul^l   but  gives  ^l*«i^  as  a  variant, 
adding  :  ^)<u^3q^  *i*q^  I 


Again,  on  N.  vi.  21,  he  remarks:   ^Sfft:  K4I|VM«M$I  I 


3.  5.  8.  1. 
Again,  on  N.  vi.  33,  he  remarks  :    ^m|44^  *t  ^Rrf^RT  ^?RI%  I 

j:  I  TTtft  *f\«*l*i  I 

This  shows  that  Durga  took  pains  to  ascertain  the  correct  readings  and 
has  handed  down  a  sort  of  critical  edition  of  the  Nirukta,  as  it  existed  in 
his  time. 

/.  1.     Three  stages  of  interpolations. 

We  have  thus  manuscript  materials  which  belong  to  three  distinct  periods. 

(1)  D,  i.e.  the  commentary  of  Durga,  written  before  the  edition  of 
the  parisistas  and  embodying  the  whole  text  of  the  Nirukta,  represents 
the  earliest  period,  i.  e.  about  the  thirteenth  century  A.  D. 

(2)  B,  i.e.   the  nianuscripts  of   the   shorter  recension  represent  a 
period  later  than  D,  —  when  the  pariMstas  were  added,  but  not  divided 
as  yet  into  different  chapters,  and  when  the  old  orthography  was  still 
prevalent. 


46  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

(3)  A,  i.  e.  th£  manuscript  of  the  longer  recension,  represents  a  still 
later  period  when  the  pari&istaa  had  been  divided  into  chapters  and  the 
old  orthography  had  gone  out  of  use. 

A  collation  of  these  three  different  recensions  indicates  that  three 
distinct  stages  of  interpolations  in  the  Nirukta  can  be  clearly  traced.  For 
example,  let  us  take  a  passage  in  N.  i.  4.  On  collating  D,  B,  and  A,  we 
find  that  the  reading  of  D  has  been  expanded  in  B,  and  that  of  B  in  A. 


N.  i.  4.    D  reads  : 


B  reads: 


TT  I 

I 


A  reads  :    ^i-qifefc^      mf^fa  $*  1*11*1  I   "^i^u^    <nmnj 

T  i  ^r««r^f^^M«n?  1  31^*11  q  i 


Another  example  for  these  three  stages  is  suppled  by  N.  ix.  2,  as 
follows  : 

D  reads: 

B  ^  B 


B  reads  : 

:  i 


11  ^  11 
^fft  f^rfr 

A  reads  : 


n  q  N 


I  q^          *^IIIU1I*«  I 

i  ^jfT  *wd?f  TT  i  ^m  TT  ^TRrr  TT  m^iPyfli  wr  i 

i  ?rrfT^nc^t^  i 


THREE  STAGES  OF  INTERPOLATIONS  47 

it  has  been  shown  above  that  the  list  of  etymologies  increases  as  one 
passes  from  the  text  of  B  to  that  of  A.  In  the  same  manner  the  list 
of  etymologies  increases  in  B  as  compared  with  D.  The  following  are 
some  examples. 


N.  i.  4.     D  reads:  yfllMlfq^l^qflfaft  |  «J 

B  reads  :  gramifc^itvei^sifci^  I  <ji<9imi:  fi%*J  ^ft^f  I  «J 


D  reads  : 

B  reads  :   *R1T:  tyltdl  *ft     rflT*HT  H^T  I 
N.  i.  7.     D  reads  :    ^tg^fl  %  ^^  I  ff  f^f?f 

B  reads  :   ^^^*i  ^  %^%  I  Vfift  l&ft:  \ 
N.  ii.  22.     D  reads:   3£* 

B  reads  :   ^qi 

r  it 


N.  ii.  26.     D  reads  : 


B  reads  : 


N.  iii.  18.     D  reads  .  flff: 
B  reads: 


N.  v.  4.     D  reads  : 

B  reads  :   1 
N.  v.  23.     D  reads  : 


B  reads  : 


48  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

MS.  C   1  agrees  with  B  except  that  the  last  line  *P<«(U«fl*i%  ^  is 
omitted. 

N.  vi.  3.  D  reads  : 


B  reads  :          ^WT  TV 


N.  vi.  8.     D  reads  :  ^ft"  r^l'HrtJrh^l  1RT  qif^MnqT  II  ^  || 
B  reads  :   ^ft  ^^I'Mrtlrft^l  WT[  I  ^HH  W^T  «n<?M7l4l  II  ^  II 

N.  vi.  24.     D  reads  : 
A  reads  : 
B  omits  it  altogether. 

N.  vi.  28.     D  reads  : 
B  reads  : 


/.  2.     Parallel  instance  of  Servius,  commentator  of  Virgil. 

Thus  the  stages  of  interpolation  at  different  periods  can  be  traced. 
The  principle  of  the  'best  MSS.'  is  obviously  inapplicable  in  this  case, 
for  none  of  the  manuscripts  can  be  called  the  best.  All  that  is  available 
is  the  best  manuscript  of  each  family,  and  the  best  plan,  under  the  circum- 
stances, would  be  to  place  all  the  three  families  side  by  side.  Fortunately 
it  is  possible  to  do  so,  for  the  successive  interpolations  from  one  family  to 
another  are  invariably  the  amplifications  of  the  text  of  a  shorter  recension, 
and  are  thrust  between  sentences  wherever  the  text  could  be  so  enlarged 
with  impunity,  as,  for  instance,  in  multiplying  the  number  of  etymologies 
and  attributing  them  all  to  Yaska.  I  have,  however,  distinguished  the 
evidence  of  Durga's  commentary  from  that  of  the  manuscripts  of  the 
Nirukta,  although  Durga's  commentary  is  very  important  for  supplying 
such  valuable  evidence  for  the  history  of  the  text  of  the  Nirukta,  it  cannot, 
strictly  speaking,  be  called  a  manuscript  of  the  Nirukta.  The  relation  of 
the  shorter  to  the  longer  recension  is  shown  by  the  use  of  square  brackets, 
which  contain  the  additional  passages  of  the  longer  recension,  while  the 

i  O  O 

relation  of  the  shorter  recension  to  the  text  preserved  by  Durga  is  indicated 
by  foot-notes.  An  analogous  example  is  furnished  by  Latin  literature.  The 
text  of  Servius,  commentator  of  Virgil,  shows  a  similar  threefold  amplinca- 


THREE  STAGES  OF  INTERPOLATIONS  49 

tion,  the  three  stages  of  interpolation  being  pointef  out  by  Thilo  in  his 
edition.  I  think  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  reproduced  from  Durga  represents 
the  archetype  as  closely  as  it  is  possible  to  restore  it  with  the  help  of  the 
present  materials.  I  have  collated1  sixteen  manuscripts  myself,  besides 
taking  into  account  fourteen  manuscripts  collated  by  Roth,  and  eight  by 
the  editor  of  the  Nirukta  in  Bib.  Ind.  Thus,  directly  and  indirectly,  the 
evidence  of  about  fortv  manuscripts  has  been  available  for  this  edition,  anc7 
the  text  may  therefore  be  regarded  as  more  or  less  settled. 

g.    Commentators  of  Yaska. 

Although,  from  an  early  period,  Yaska's  work  has  been  recognized  as 
one  of  the  most  important  vedangas  by  the  orthodox  tradition  of  literary 
India,  he,  unlike  Panini,  has  not  had  many  commentators.  This  does  not 
mean  that  he  had  few  followers  or  that  his  speculations  did  not  dominate 
the  thought  of  succeeding  generations.  On  the  contrary,  he  has  been 
acknowledged  to  be  the  pre-eminent  authority  on  etymology.  Hence  (at 
first  sight)  it  seems  rather  inexplicable  that  his  work  should  have  been  com- 
mented upon  by  so  few  people.  One  r.eason  of  this  paucity  is  that  Yaska's 
work  itself  is  a  commentary  and  not  an  independent  treatise,  hence  it  did 
not  stand  in  need  of  much  elucidation.  Secondly,  it  is  written  in  classical 
Sanskrit  prose,  and,  notwithstanding  its  somewhat  archaic  and  terse  style, 
is  easily  intelligible  to  the  reader  as  compared,  for  instance,  with  the 
aphorisms  of  Panini ;  consequently  there  was  not  much  demand  for  further 
comment.  Yet  three  commentators,  at  least,  are  known  to  have  elucidated 
Yaska's  work. 

(1)  Ugra  is  mentioned  as  a  commentator  on  the  Nirukta  by  Aufrecht 
in  his    Catalogue  Catalogorum,.2    But  no  other  information,  about  his 
personality,  the  character  of  his  work,  and  the  time  when  he  lived,  is 
available.     No  reference  is  made  to  him  by  any  of  the  other  writers  in 
the  same  field. 

(2)  The  second  commentator  is   Skandasvami,  mentioned  by  Deva- 
rajayajvan.3     A    manuscript    of    his   work    exists   in    the    Bibliotheque 
Nationale,  Paris,4  and  a  friend  of  mine  from  Lahore  has  recently  informed 
me  that  he  has  obtained  a  complete  manuscript  of  his  commentary. 

1  Since  then,  on  my  visit  to  Paris,  I  have  all  represent  the  text  of  the  longer  recension, 

been  able,  through  the  courtesy  of  Professor  and  do  not  afford  any  other  variants.    The 

Sylvaiu  Lt;vi,  to  examine  the  Nirukta  manu-  contents    of    Nos.   263  and  264    is   Durga's 

scripts  in  the  Bibliotheque  Nationale,  Nos.  commentary,  which  comes  to  an  end  with 

267-64,  described  by  Cabaton  in  the  Catalogue  the  twelfth  chapter. 

sommaire  des  Manuscrits  Sanskrits  et  Pali,  pp.  39-  2  Vol.  i,  p.  297. 

40.    All  of  them,  except  the  first  collated  by  3  See  Bib.  Ind.  ed.,  vol.  i,  pp.  2-4. 

Roth,  belong  to  the  nineteenth  century.  They  *  Loc.  cit.  (Aufrecht). 

D 


50  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

(3)  But  the  most  important  of  all  these  commentators  is  Durga.  He 
seems  to  be  later  than  Devarajayajvan  who  is  familiar  with  the  then  extant 
commentaries  on  the  Vedas,  the  Niffhantu,  and  the  Nirukta,  and  who  does 
not  mention  Durga  in  the  long  list  of  the  authorities  use<]  by  him  for  the 
purpose  of  his  own  work.  Although  a  conclusion  based  on  the  argument 
of  silence  is  not  cogent,  yet  in  this  particular  case,  it  is  justified  to  assume 
that  Durga  is  not  ref erred  to  because  he  was  posterior  to  Devaraja,  hence 
Durga  would  also  be  later  than  Skandasvami.  Durga's  commentary  is 
published,  and  has  superseded  the  works  of  his  predecessors.  His  work 
is  important  for  two  reasons  :  (1)  he  is  the  last  of  the  commentators,  and 
therefore  represents  the  fullest  development  of  the  traditional  interpretation 
of  the  Nirukia ;  (2)  the  very  fact  that  it  has  survived  at  the  cost  of  earlier 
commentaries  indicates  its  importance.  We  shall  therefore  examine  his 
work  somewhat  in  detail. 

Date  of  Durga. 

It  has  already  been  pointed  out  that  in  all  probability  he  is  later  than 
Devarajayajvan,  though  this  assumption  hardly  helps  us,  for  the  date  of 
Devaraja  himself  is  not  known.  However,  Durga's  lower  limit  can  be 
determined  almost  with  certainty.  A  manuscript l  of  his  commentary  in  the 
Bodleian  Library  is  dated  1387  A.D.  The  date  is  genuine  and  is  accepted  as 
such  by  Professor  A.  B.  Keith.2  The  manuscript  was  copied  at  Bhrgu  Ksetra 
in  the  reign  of  Maharana — Durgasimhavijaya.  Thus  he  could  not  be 
later  than  1387  A.D.  It  is  difficult  to  identify  any  particular  site  with  Bhrgu 
Ksetra,  but  probably  it  was  situated  somewhere  between  the  Sarasvati  and 
the  Jairma.  As  Durga  wrote  his  commentary  in  a  hermitage  near  Jammu, 
a  place  not  easily  accessible  in  the  absence  of  modern  means  of  communi- 
cation, the  migration  of  the  MS.  of  his  commentary  to  Bhrgu  Ksetra 
presupposes  the  lapse  of  sufficient  time  in  order  to  account  for  Die  spreading 
of  his  fame  as  a  commentator  from  the  isolated  heights  of  Jammu  to  the 
plains  of  Bhrgu  Ksetra.  It  will  not  be  far  from  the  truth,  therefore,  to 
place  Durga  about  the  thirteenth  century  A.D. 

Durga  does  not  speak  of  any  predecessors  by  name  nor  does  he  leave 
any  clue  as  to  the  sources  of  his  own  commentary.  Unlike  Devaraja- 
yajvan, he  does  not  give  the  slightest  information  about  himself  or  the 
general  state  of  the  Niru/da  during  his  time.  That  he  wrote  his  com- 
mentary in  a  hermitage  near  Jammu  is  proved  by  the  colophon3  on  f.  132  v. 
at  the  end  of  the  eleventh  chapter  of  the  NiruJda,  which  runs  as  follows : 

1  MS.  Wilson  475.  Bodleian  Library,  vol.  ii,  p.  108. 

2  See  Catalogue  of  Sanskrit  Manuscripts  in  the          *  MS.  Wilson  475. 


COMMENTATORS  OF  YASKA  51 


*  I  This  skows  that  the  full  name  of  the 
commentator  was  Durgasimha.  The  fact  that  he  lived  in  a  hermitage  and 
was  addressed  as  bhagavat  indicates  that  he  was  an  ascetic  and  belonged  to 
some  particular  order  of  Sannyasa.  Further,  he  is  a  descendant  of  the 
family  of  the  Vasisthas.  He  does  not  explain  the  stanza  RV.  III.  53.  23, 
quoted  l  by  Yaska  to  illustrate  the  meaning  of  the  word  lodham,  because 
the  stanza  implies  hostility  to  Vasistha.  He  says  :  ^f^RfWTTT  Tp*  ^^:  *H 
I  ^  ^  ^RTfTO^t  Trf*re:  |  ^r<T^f  ^  f^^tfa  I  '  The  stanza, 


in  which  this  word  (lodham)  occurs  is  hostile  to  Vasistha.  And  I  am  a 
descendant  of  Vasistha,  belonging  to  the  Kapisthala  branch,  hence  I  do 
not  explain  the  stanza.'  2 

Sayana  has  the  following  note  on  it: 


i  *r  ^r     ^       ^nf  ^ri       i 

:  I  cTT 


'There  was  formerly  a  royal  sage  named  Sudas,  a  disciple  of  VisVa- 
mitra.  Somehow,  he  became  an  object  of  Vasistha's  hatred.  Then,  VisVa- 
mitra,  in  order  to  protect  his  disciple,  reviled  Vasistha  with  these  stanzas. 
These  are  the  imprecatory  stanzas.  The  Vasisthas  do  not  pay  any  attention 
(lit.  listen)  to  them.'  :i  This  corroborates  Yaska's  statement  that  there  are 
stanzas  which  contain  asseveration  and  imprecation  only  * 

Durga's  commentary  is  important  for  it  repeats  every  word  of  Yaska, 
thus  the  text  of  the  Nirukta  '  in  toto  '  could  be  reproduced  from  Durga's 
work  alone.  As  none  of  the  manuscripts  collated  by  me  is  older  than  the 
fifteenth  century,  Durga  supplies  therefore  evidence  of  a  very  valuable 
character  for  the  textual  criticism  oi'  the  Nirukta.  The  number  of  variants 
attributed  by  Durga  to  his  predecessors  and  his  frequent  remarks  that  the 
text  is  corrupt  and  that  the  right  reading  is  to  be  discovered,  —  all  such 
cases  I  have  pointed  out.  in  my.  notes,  —  indicate  that  there  has  been  no 
unbroken  tradition  with  regard  to  the  handing  down  of  the  text  of  the 
Nirukta. 

Further  there  seems  to  have  been  some  sort  of  revival  of  the  study  oi 
the  Nirukta  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Jammu  in  Durga's  time,  for  it  seems 
difficult  to  imagine  that  in  an  isolated  place  like  Jammu,  Durga  sat  down 
to  write  his  commentary  simply  for  the  love  of  writing  a  commentary. 
It  is  more  reasonable  to  suppose  that  Durga  accomplished  this  task  in  order 

1  The  Nirv&ta,  iv.  14.  edition   of  the  Nirukta,  vol.  ii,    p.  416.     Cf. 

2  Durga's  Commentary  on  thtrN.  iv.  14.  Muir,  Sanscrit  Texts. 
8  Sayana  on   RV.  III.  53.     Cf.    Bib.   Ind.          *  N.  vii.  3. 

D  2 


52  INTRODUCTION   TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

to  meet  the  demand  for  a  good  text,  elucidation  of  obscure  passages,  and 
amplification  of  Yaska's  arguments,  a  demand  which  a  revival  of  the  study 
of  the  Nirukta  had  called  forth.  The  examination  of  the  manuscript  of 
Durga's  commentary,  mentioned  above,  leads  one  to  the  conclusion  that 
Durga  did  not  live  to  complete  his  work  and  that  he  himself  wrote  his 
commentary  up  to  the  end  of  the  llth  chapter  only.  This  is  indicated  by 
a  comparison  of  colophons  in  the  manuscript  which,  at  the  end  of  the 
7th-12th  chapters,  numbered  as  12-17  by  Durga  consecutively  from  the 
five  chapters  of  the  Nighantu,  are  as  follows  : 

(1)  At  the  end  of  the  7th  chap,  on  f  .  50  r.    II 

(2)  „  „         8th  chap,  on  f.  70  v. 

(3)  „  „        9th  chap,  on  f.  86  v.    II 


(4)  „  „         10th  chap,  on  f.  112r.  II 

(5)  „  „         llth  chap,  on  f.  132  v.     ||  <e 


A  comparison  of  these  five  colophons  shows  that  the  first  four  do  not 
contain  any  reference  to  Durga  by  name  nor  to  his  •  honorific  titles,  which 
fact  implies  that  they  were  written  by  Durga  himself,  while  that  at  the 
end  of  the  1  1th  chapter  was  added  by  some  disciple,  who  speaks  of  Durga 
as  an  acdrya  and  ^addresses  him  as  bhagavat.  Durga  could  not  have 
appropriated  these  titles  himself  unless  he  was  very  vain.  Another  point 
in  favour  of  the  fifth  colophon  being  written  by  a  person  other  than  Durga 
is  that  while  the  first  four  colophons  say  that  such  and  such  a  chapter  has. 
come  to  an  end,  the  fifth  remarks  that  such  a  pada  of  that  chapter  has  come 
to  an  end.  The  colophon  at  the  end  of  the  llth  chapter  is  the  final  inscription 
and  as  such  should  have  been  placed  at  the  end  of  the  12th  chapter,  where 
no  such  description  is  found;  the  colophon  there,  on  f.  150  r.,  being  1  «H<*13I 
^^5:  m^r:  ll  This  leads  one  to  the  conclusion  that  Durga  himsell  wrote 
his  commentary  up  to  the  end  of  the  llth  chapter,  whose  colopnon  was 
added  by  a  disciple  who  also  wrote  the  commentary  on  the  12th  chapter, 
and  faithfully  refrained  himself  from  adding  the  name  of  Durga  in  the 
colophon  at  the  end  of  the  12th  chapter.  MS.  Mill  142,  dated  A.D.  1839, 
and  described  in  the  Catalogues  of  Sanskrit  Manuscripts  in  the  P^leian 
Library  by  Keith,1  also  preserves  the  final  inscription  at  the  end  of  the 
llth  chapter,  while  on  f.  123  v.,  at  the  end  of  the  12th  chapter  it  simply 
says  H  4IH<«^<3  ^3*f  •  IT^  R  It  is  also  to  be  noticed  that  in  this  manuscript 

1  Vol.  ii,  p.  108. 


COMMENTATORS  OF  YASKA  53 

as  well,  the  word  cidhydya  only  is  used  in  the  earlier  colophons  while  pada 
makes  its  appearance  in  those  at  the  end  of  the  llth  and  the  12th  chapters. 
Another  point  of  minor  importance  may  also  be  adduced  in  this  con- 
nexion, i.e.  the  manuscripts  have  the  following  sloka  at  the  end  of  the 
12th  chapter. 


As  Durga  is  shown  to  be  a  hermit,  to.  ascribe  these  verses  to  him  will  be 
highly  inappropriate. 

Durga  and  the  Pariuista. 

Both  the  published  editions  of  Durga's  commentary  regard  the  com- 
mentary on  the  portions  of  the  13th  chapter  as  an  integral  part  of  Durga's 
work.  But  the  MS.  Wilson  475,1  dated  1387  A.  D.,  and  MS.  Mill  142  \ 
dated  1839  A.D.,  do  not  contain  the  commentary  on  the  13th  chapter.  In 
both  these  manuscripts  the  commentary  is  completed  at  the  end  of  the 
12th  chapter  and  the  MS.  Mill  142,  expressly  say  that  the  work  is  finished. 


Moreover,  the  13th  chapter  was  not  added  to  the  Nirukta  by  Durga's  time, 
as  is  proved  by  his  remark  in  the  introductory  part  of  his  commentary  : 


wnsrra  :  11 

*  And  this  (the  Nirukta)  is  its  (the  Nighantu's)  amplified  commentary 
consisting  of  twelve  chapters  whose  first  sentence  is  "  a  list  has  been  handed 
down  by  tradition".'  Hence  the  commentary  on  the  13th  chapter  was 
written  at  a  later  period  and  attributed  to  Durga  by  some  disciple  or 
follower  of  his. 

Yaska's  contributions  to  Etymology,  Philology,  and  Semantics. 
1.    Date  of  YdsJca. 

History  is  the  one  weak  point  of  Sanskrit  literature,,  being  practically 
lion-existent.  Not  a  single  systematic  chronological  record  has  survived, 
and  so  complete  is  the  lack  of  any  data  to  guide  us  in  this  matter  that 
the  dates  of  even  the  most  famous  Indian  authors  like  Panini  and 
JCalidasa  are  still  subject  to  controversy.  Yaska's  date  cannot  therefore 
\&  determined  with  absolute  certainty.  One  can  arrive  at  a  relative  date 

1  This  evidence  is,  however,    inadequate.  view  I  am  now  systematically  examining  and 

To  make  the  case  plausible,  it  must  be  corro-  comparing  the  commentary  on  the  twelfth 

berated  by  the  internal   evidence,  i.e.  the  with  that  of  the  preceding  chaptera.     Later 

difference  of  style,  treatment,  &c.    With  this  on  I  shall  add  the  result  of  my  tixaminatiou. 


54  INTRODUCTION   TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

only  by  bringing  together  the  isolated  pieces  of  information  supplied  by 
archaeological  finds,  literary  references,  and  accidental  mention  of  known 
historical  or  political  events.  This  evidence,  however,  is  not  conclusive, 
and  is  differently  interpreted  by  various  oriental  scholars.  There  is  a 
great  difference  of  opinion  among  them  about  the  precise  date  of  Yaska, 
but  at  the  same  time  there  is  also  the  unanimity  which  sets  down  his 
lower  limit  as  not  later  than  500  B.C..  As  this  limit  has  not  been 
questioned  so  far  (while  his  upper  limit  is  carried  as  far  as  700  B.C.),  it  may 
therefore  be  safely  assumed  that  Yaska  lived  at  least  about  a  century 
earlier  than  Plato.  Both  Yaska  and  Plato  sum  up  as  it  were  the  results  of 
their  predecessors  in  philological  and  etymological  investigations  in  the 
Nvrukta  and  the  Cratyhix  respectively.  Both  stand  pre-eminent  with 
regard  to  their  age,  and  have  dominated  the  thought  of  succeeding  genera- 
tions in  their  respective  countries.  Yaska's  work  is  important  for  the 
history  of  philology  and  etymology.  And  as  the  representative  record  of 
the  researches  of  ancient  Indians,  it  is  of  considerable  interest  for  a  com- 
para.tf  "e  study  of  the  Indian  and  Greek  achievements  in  these  two  branches 
of  'iwledge  in  the  earliest  period  of  their  history. 

2.    Phonetic  equipment  of  Yaska. 

Before  we  proceed  to  examine,  in  detail,  the  principles  laid  down  by 
Yaska  for  etymology,  or  his  speculations  in  philology,  it  will  be  worth 
while  to  ^  inquire  whether  Yaska  was  a  properly  qualified  person  to  under- 
take the  task,  i.e.  whether  he  possessed  any  knowledge  of  sound-laws, 
or,  in  other  words,  whether  he  received  any  phonetic  training,  and  of 
what  sort  ?  As  has  already  been  pointed  out,  historical  and  biographical 
records  about  ancient  India  do  not  exist,  or  at  least,  if  they  existed, 
have  not  survived.  Nothing  definite  is,  therefore,  known  about  the  life 
of  Yaska,  nor  about  the  period  in  which  he  lived,  nor  about  the  educational 
system  which  then  prevailed.  In  the  absence  of  such  records  it  is  there- 
fore extremely  difficult  to  ascertain  the  worth  of  his  qualifications,  or  the 
extent  of,  and  his  familiarity  with,  sound-laws.  Yet  some  indirect  in- 
formation can  be  pieced  together  by  collecting  a  few  isolated  data  capable 
of  throwing  some  light  on  the  subject.  In  the  nrst  place,  Yaska  is 
acquainted  with  a  vast  amount  of  Sanskrit  literature.  The  numerous 
exemplary  quotations  occurring  in  the  Nirukta  conclusively  show  that 
he  knew  the  Rg-veda,  the  Sama-veda,  the  Atharva-veda,  the  Yajur-veda, 
and  their  pada-pa&has,  the  Taittimya  Sawhitd,  the  Maitrdyanl  Samhitd, 
the  Kdthaka  Samhitd,  the  Aitareya  Brdhmana,  the  Gopatha  Brdhmana, 
the  KausUakl  Brdhm<(>ia,  the  tiatapatha  Brahma  na,  the  Prdti&dkhyas, 


ETYMOLOGY,   PHILOLOGY,  AND  SEMANTICS  55 

j,nd  some  of  the  Upanisads.  The  full  list  of  all  the  works  known  to  him 
is  given  in  the  Appendix.  This  shows  that  Yaska  was  a  man  of  compre- 
hensive knowledge  and  vast  reading.  Secondly,  he  refers  to  and  quotes 
the  opinions  of  the  various  schools  of  thought  which  existed  in  his  time, 
i.  e.  the  school  of  etymologists,  the  school  of  grammarians,  the  school  of 
ritualists,  the  school  of  legendists,  the  school  of  Naiddnaa  (i.  e.  specialists, 
in  primary  causes).  Further,  he  discusses  and  criticizes  the  views  of  many 
authorities — his  predecessors  and  contemporaries.  The  full  list  of  these 
is  also  given  in  the  Appendix.  The  mention  of  eminent  scholars  and 
schools  of  thought  presupposes  specialization  in  their  respective  depart- 
ments of  knowledge  which  implies  some  uniform  system  of  training  and 
a  sufficiently  high  order  of  education  extending  over  a  long  period. 
Otherwise  it  is  difficult  to  conceive  how  these  various  schools  could  have 
come  into  existence  at  all.  Thus  it  can  be  assumed  without  much  doubt 
that  Yaska  had  received  some  kind  of  training  in  one,  or  more  than  one, 
of  these  schools.  He  discusses  the  doctrines  of  the  schools  other  than 
his  own,  and  thus  seems  to  have  acquired  a  general  familiarity  with  them 
to  be  able  to  do  so.  Thirdly,  he  distinctly  mentions  the  prati&akhyas, 
i.e.  phonetic  treatises  which  record  the  researches  made  by  ancient 
Indians  in  the  physiological  and  the  acoustic  aspects  of  Phonetics.  These 
treatises  themselves  presuppose  the  existence  of  the  padi-pdthas,  i.e. 
'the  word  texts',  which  give  every  word  of  the  samhitd  in  its  isolated 
state,  i.  e.  free  from  the  euphonic  combinations,  and  analyse  compounds 
into  their  component  elements.  Gradually  by  the  time  of  Yaska,  a  strong 
phonetic  feeling  had  come  into  existence,  as  is  evident  from  the  scientific 
arrangement  and  classification  of  the  Sanskrit  alphabet.  This  shows 
that  Yaska  was  furnished  with  some  phonetic  equipment,  such  as 
the  state  of  the  scholarship  of  the  time  permitted  him  to  acquire.  This 
view  is  supported  by  the  fact  that  Yaska  is  familiar  with  and  recognizes 
the  following  phonetic  phenomena :  (1)  Syncope  as  in  5R*j:  (they  went) 
from  the  root  3RJ.  (to  go) ;  (2)  Metathesis  as  in  JfHctT  '  a  drop '  from  "^jp^ 
(to  drop),  "^Sj:  (rope)  from  ^Co^  (to  emit),  and  <T^  ( knife '  from  3nj  (to  cut), 
and  so  on ;  (3)  Anaptyxis,  as  in  ^nsjq^  from  the  root  1R^  (to  throw),  3[TT» 
(door)  from  the  root  5  (to  cover),  *r^j3CT:  from  the  root  *R^  (to  fry),  &c.; 
(4)  haplology  as  in  7f^  =  tri  +  rca,  i.e. '  three  stanzas  '-1  He  is  also  acquainted 
with  assimilation,  and  has  noticed  an  example  of  prakrtization  in  the 
Kg-veda  while  explaining  gj^^T  by  SRTO  (N.  v.  24).  For  the  detailed 
account  of  his  observations  on  phonetic  phenomena  see  Chapter  II,  sections 

1  All  these  words  are  found  in  the  Nirukta,  ii.  1-2.    I  have  cited  examples  furnished  by 
Yaska  himself. 


56  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

1-2.  From  what  has  gone  before,  it  may  be  concluded  that  Yaska  was 
a  man  of  extensive  reading,  that  he  had  pursued  a  systematic  course  of 
study,  and  that  he  was  furnished  with  some  phonetic  equipment.  This  con- 
clusion is  further  supported  by  the  fact  that  his  explanations  are  pervaded 
with  a  rationalistic  spirit  and  devoid  of  the  mystifying  or  supernatural 
element,  a  characteristic  of  the  ritualiet  and  the  parivrdjaka  school,  cf. 
e.  g.  Yaska's  explanation  of  Vrtra,.  He  is  altogether  free  from  fanaticism, 
bigotry,  and  intolerance  when  he  meets  Kautsa's  adverse  criticism  of  what 
he  believes  to  be  the  revealed  hymns,  but  gives  rational  answers  to  the 
various  points  of  objection.  He  is  actuated  by  a  scientific  spirit  even 
when  he  is  dealing  with  gods.  Thus,  for  instance,  he  classifies  gods  into 
various  groups,  i.e.  the  terrestrial,  the  atmospheric,  and  the  celestial 
according  to  the  sphere  of  their  activity,  and  assigns  definite  functions 
to  each.  Yaska's  classification  of  gods  has  nothing  corresponding  to  it 
in  the  mythologies  of  other  nations.  Further,  his  treatment  of  synonyms 
|nd  homonyms  is  also  scientific.  At  first  he  attributes  a  particular  meaning 
to  a  particular  word,  and  then  supports  his  assertion  by  quoting  a  passage, 
generally  from  the  Vedic  literature,  in  which  that  word  is  used  in  that 
particular  sense.  Whether  or  not  one  agrees  with  him  in  attributing 
particular  meanings  to  particular  words,  it  cannot  be  denied  that  his 
method  is  scientific  and,  notwithstanding  his  remote  antiquity,  surprisingly 
modern.  This  scientific  spirit,  so  evident  in  the  Nirukta,  coufil  be  developed 
by  a  scientific  training  only.  In  the  absence  of  any  definite  information, 
the  preceding  statement  will,  I  think,  give  some  indication  as  to  Yaska's 
qualifications  to  undertake  the  task  which  he  set  before  himself. 


3.    Importance  of  Etymology. 

Taking  both  the  East  and  the  West  together,  Yaska  is  the  first  writer 
on  etymology.  He  is  also  the  first  to  treat  it  as  a  science  by  itself. 
According  *o  the  orthodox  Indian  tradition,  the  Nir*ikta  has,  for  a  long 
time,  been  recognized  as  a  treatise  which  deals  specially  with  etymology. 
But  the  claim  of  Yaska  is  not  based  on  this  recognition.  He  has  enunciated 
his  doctrines  in  the  Nirukta.  His  remarks  on  the  importance  of  etymology 
may  sound  very  commonplace  to  us,  but  probably  appeared  to  have  the 
same  profoundness  of  wisdom  when  they  were  first  uttered  about  2,500 
years  ago,  as  President  Wilson's  fourteen  points  for  the  modern  political 
world.  His  arguments  for  etymology  are  summarized  as  follows: 

(I)  Etymology  is  essential  for  the  proper  understanding  of  the  Vedic 
texts. 


ETYMOLOGY,   PHILOLOGY,  AND  SEMANTICS  57 

(2)  Etymology  is  the  complement  of  grammar.1 

(3)  Etymology  is  necessary  for  the  analysis  of  the  sanihita  into  the 
pada-pdthci,  and  of  words  into  their  component  elements. 

(4)  Etymology  has  practical  utility,  for  it  enables  one  to  discover  the 
primary  deitj-  of  a  stanza  which  bears  the  characteristic  marks  of  more 
than  one  deity,  and  thus  helps  to  perform  the  sacrifice  with  perfection. 

(5)  Etymology  is  a  science,  and  should  be  studied  for  its  own  sake, 
for  knowledge  is  commended,  and  ignorance  is  condemned.     (Chapter  I, 
sec.  15-17.) 

4.    Principles  of  Etymology. 

Yaska's  fundamental  notion  about  language  is,  that  all  words  can  be 
reduced  to  their  primordial  elements  which  he  calls  roots.  With  this  idea 
he  lays  great  emphasis  on  the  point  that  as  every  word  can  be  traced 
to  an  original  root,  one  should  never  give  up  a  word  as  underivable.  His 
first  general  principle  is,  '  One  should  give  the  etymological  explanation 
of  words  whose  accent  and  grammatical  form  are  regular,  and  are  ac- 
companied with  a  radical  modification  in  the  usual  manner ',  i.  e.  in 
accordance  with  the  laws  of  phonology.  One  would  hardly  question  the 
derivation  of  MN<A  from  q^ '  to  cook ',  or  of  Mld^i  from  ^  '  to  read ',  or  of 
*ffaf  from  ^s^' to  know ',  or  of  5fc^  from  fWJ  *  to  break  ',  and  so  on.  It  should 
be  observed  that  Yaska  recognized  the  importance  of  accent,  and  accords  it 
a  due  place  in  his  principle.  It  is  obvious  that  the  above-mentioned  rule 
is  limited  in  its  scope,  for  only  a  comparatively  small  number  of  words  can 
fulfil  the  conditions  therein  laid  down.  Yaska  therefore  strikes  a  note 
of  warning  and  says  that  a  disproportionate  importance  should  not  be 
attached  to  grammatical  form,  for  the  rules  of  grammar  are  not  universal 
like  laws  of  nature,  and  have  many  exceptions,  adding  that  one  has  also  to 
take  into  consideration  phonetic  phenomena  such  as  syncope,  metathesis, 
haplology,  anaptyxis,  assimilation,  &c.  His  second  principle  is  that  in 
case  the  accent  and  grammatical  form  are  not  regular,  and  are  not  ac- 
companied with  a  radical  modification,  one  should  always  take  his  stand 
on  the  meaning  of  the  word  and  endeavour  to  derive  it  from  some  similarity 
of  form,  or  if  there  is  no  such  similarity  of  form,  even  from  the  similarity 
of  a  single  letter  or  syllable.  Thus,  according  to  Yaska,  one  should  not 
be  afraid  to  derive,  dois,  dti,  doive,  dusse,  &c.  from  devoir, '  to  owe ',  or  isti 
(sacrifice)  from  the  root  yog  (to  sacrifice),  on  account  of  the  apparent 
dissimilarity  of  their  form.  Comparative  philology  furnishes  the  best 
examples  to  illustrate  Yaska's  remark  that  often  there  is  hardly  any 
resemblance  between  a  word  and  its  original  source,  i.e.  its  primitive 

1  Tad  idam  vidyG-slhdnam  vydkaranasya  kurtsnymn.     N.  i.  15. 


58  INTRODUCTION  TO   THE   NIRUKTA 

and  derivative  forms.  Cf.  IE.  *penque ;  Skt.  panca ;  Zend,  pailca ;  Gk. 
Tre^re ;  Lat.  quinque ;  Lith.  penke ;  Goth.^m/;  Germ.  /?m/;  OE. //;  Eng. 
Jive.  Again,  French  larme  and  English  tear  have  only  r  in  common,  both 
being  otherwise  quite  different  from  their  original  source  *dakru,  which 
assumed  an  Anglo-Saxon  form  tear,  and  a  primitive  Lat.  dacru.  The  Eng. 
eive  and  Lat.  ovis  have  nothing  in  common,  and  each  has  exclusively  preserved 
some  parts  of  their  original  *owis.  Eng.  four,  Germ,  vier,  have  only  r  in 
common  with  Gk.  rerTapcy.  Eng.  quick  (orig.  '  alive ')  has  only  i  in  common 
with  Gk.  /&o9  (life).  Eng.  sit,  and  Gk.  hed  (HSpa,  '  seat ')  have  nothing 
in  common,  and  each  has  preserved  one  exclusive  part  of  the  original  *sed. 
Again,  cf .  IE.  *ghane ;  Skt.  hamsa ;  Gk.  xflv  5  Lat.  anser  (for  hanser) ; 
Germ.  Gans;  OE.  gos\  Eng.  goose. 

But  the  application  of  this  rule  by  an  incompetent  person  gives  rise 
to  grotesque  results ;  many  such  cases  are  supplied  by  the  Nirukta,  e.  g. 
£akatayana's  derivation  of  Sat-ya,  the  ya  of  which  he  formed  from  the 
causal  of  i,  and  Sat  from  as,  'to  be'.  Yaska  foresaw  the  danger  of  the 
misuse  of  his  principle.  So  after  laying  down  his  rule,  he  adds  a  note  of 
warning.  He  urges  that  single  words  isolated  from  their  context  should 
not  be  thus  derived,  for  without  a  knowledge  of  the  context,  it  is  often 
difficult  to  know  the  precise  meaning  of  a  word.  He  recommends  that 
derivations  should  not  be  explained  for  a  person  not  acquainted,  or  not 
well  acquainted,  with  grammar,  and  not  for  one  who  has  not  studied 
etymology  as  a  pupil.  He  says,  'One  should  indeed  explain  derivations 
for  one's  own  pupil  who  has  been  in  residence  studying  etymology  or  for 
one  who  is  capable  of  understanding;  for  the  intelligent  and  for  the 
diligent.'  N.  ii.  3. 

The  third  principle  of  etymology  laid  down  by  Yaska  is  that  one  should 
derive  words  in  accordance  with  their  meanings.  '  If  their  meanings  are 
the  same,  their  etymologies  should  be  the  same,  if  the  meanings  are 
different,  the  etymologies  should  also  be  different/  (N.  ii.  7.) 

This  principle  is  on  the  whole  sound,  for  in  every  language  there  occurs 
the  phenomenon  that  words  of  different  origin  often  assume  the  same  form. 
For  instance : 

Skt.  Akt(  derived  from  the  root  aj    means  '  driven '. 

„  „         ;,        „       „     a/y       „       'besmeared'. 

Aja  „         „        „       „     aj         „       'driver'. 

=  a-ja      „         „        „       „    jan     „      '  not  born '. 
Anista      =  an-ista  from  Vis    means  '  unwished '. 

.,  =  an-ista     „      Vyaj       „      '  not  sacrificed '. 

A  nudara  =  an-udara  means  '  a  niggardly  man '. 


ETYMOLOGY,   PHILOLOGY,  AND  SEMANTICS  59 

Skt.  Anuddra  =  anu-ddm  means  '  followed  by  a  wife '. 

„         =  a-pavana       „      'without  air '. 
Apava-'iw.  =  apa-vana       „      ( a  grove '. 

„          =  a-vasdna       „      '  not  dressed '. 
AvasdiM  —  ava-ttdiw,       „      'resting-place'. 

English  Abode.     From  abide,  meaning  '  delay '  or  '  dwelling-place '. 

Abode.     OE.  abedd-an,   connected  with   the   primitive   verb   beodaii, 

meaning  '  prognostication  ' ;  cf.  fore-bode. 
Abound.     OFr.  cMouler,  abonder,  haloiulcr;  Lat.  abunddre,  meaning 

'  to  be  plentiful '. 

„        =  a-bound,  meaning  '  to  get  limits  to*. 

Admiral.     OFr.  amiral,  derived  from  the  Arabic  amlr-cd,  latinized  in 
various  ways  and  assimilated  according  to  popular  forms, 
meaning  '  a  naval  officer '. 
„         A  by- form  of  admirable.    OFr.  amirable,  Lat.  admlrdbil-em, 

meaning  '  exciting  admiration  '. 
Adust.     Lat.  adust-US,  Fr.  aduste,  meaning  '  scorched '. 

„          =:  a-dust,  meaning  '  in  a  dusty  condition '. 
Aught.    OE.  aid ;  OHG.  eht ;  Goth,  aifit-s,  meaning  '  possession '. 

OE,  d,  6  + whit;    OHG.  eouriht,  ioiviht,  &c.;    ME.  otd,  oyht, 

meaning  '  anything  whatever '. 

Bay.     OFr.  bale',  Lat.  bdca,  meaning  'a  small  fruit,  a. berry '. 
„        Fr.  baie  ;  Lat.  baitt,  meaning  '  an  indentation  of  sea  into  land, 

or  of  land  into  the  sea '. 

OFr.  baee ;  Lat.  type  baddta,  meaning  '  the  division  of  a  barn '. 
„       OFr.  bay  ;  It.  bada ;  Lat.  badare,  '  to  open  the  mouth  ',  meaning 

'  barking  or  baying  \ 
„       Cf.  ON.  bagr,  bayja,  '  to  push  back  ^meaning  '  an  <mibankment 

or  dam  '. 
,,       Short  form   of   bay-antler,  meaning  '  the  second  branch  of  a 

stag's  horn '. 

„       Fr.  bai ;  Lat.  badius,  meaning  '  a  reddish-brown  colour '. 
Beak.    Fr.  bee ;  It.  becco;  Sp.  bko\  Late  Lat.  beccus,  meaning  'a  birtl's  bill '. 
„        '  A  justice  of  the  peace '. 
„        A  variant  of  beek,  '  to  warm  '. 
Bear.    OE.  bera-    OHG.  bero ;    Mod.  G.  bar-,    cf.  ON.  bjorn ;    Lat 

ferus,  meaning  '  an  animal '. 

„         OE.  b^re ;  cf.  Goth,  barizeins,  meaning  '  barley '. 
„        OE.  and  OHG.  ber-an;   ON.  ber-a;  Goth,  buir-anj   La-t/er; 
Gk.  fop  ;  Skt.  War,  meaning  '  to  carry '. 


60  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

English  Dole  derived  from  French  dtutt  means  '  grief4 '. 

„    related  to  Teut.  deed ;  Ger.  Tell  means  '  portion '. 
Fame.    Fr.fame;  L&t.fdma (report);  Gk.  faiprj,  meaning  'public  report'. 
„        Fr./aim;  Lat./ames;  cf.  OFr.  afamer,  meaning  'want  of  food, 

hunger '. 

„        Obsolete  form  of/oaw. 
Fast.    OE.  fcextan ;  OHG.  fasten, ;  ON.  favta ;  Goth,  fastan,  meaning 

'  to  abstain  from  food '. 
„      ME.  fest ;  ON.  fest-r,  meaning  *  a  rope '. 
„      "Fr.faste ;  L&tfastus,  meaning  '  arrogance '. 
Fold.    OKfolde;  OLG.fotda;   ON.  fold,  related  to  *felfu,  '  field  ', 

meaning  '  ground '. 

OE.fealdon;  OKG.faldan;  ON.fcdda;  Qoth.fatyan:  OTeut. 
*falfan ;  cf.  Lith.  pleta  ;  Gk.  &'-7raAroy,  meaning  'to  arrange 
one  thing  over  another '. 
„        QJL.falced  ;  Mod.  LG.  fait,  meaning  'an  enclosure  for  domestic 

animals '. 

„        ME.  fold  •  OHG?/aft ;  ON.  fald-r,  meaning  '  a  bend  or  ply '. 
Hound.     OE.  hund;    OHG.  hunt  (d-);    Goth,  hwub;    ON.  humlr ; 

Gk.  KV&V,  KVV  ;  Skt.  svan,  meaning  '  dog ' 
„          ME.  hun ;  ON.  hunn,  meaning  '  a  projection '. 
Seed.    OE.  slol]  OHG.  selah  ;  ON.  sel-r,  meaning  '  an  animal '. 

„       OFr.  seel ;  It.  huggdlo ;  Lat.  sigillum,  meaning  '  a  device '. 
Sound.    Derived  from  Fr.  son  ;  Lat.  sonus,.  means  '  noise '. 
„          OE.  sundt  means  c  strong '. 
„          Fr.  sonder ;  Lat  subundare,  means  '  testing  depths '. 

French  Air.     Gk.   drjp ;    Lat.   aer-efti ;    Sp.    aire,   meaning  '  the  gaseous 

substance  which  envelopes  the  earth '. 
„       OFr.  aire,  meaning  '  disposition '. 

It.  aria,  meaning  '  melody '. 
Champs.    Lat.  campus ;  It.  campo ;  Sp.  campo,  meaning- '  field '. 

„          OFr.  cant,  meaning  '  side '. 
Chere.    Feminine  of  cher,  •  dear '. 

„         Gk.  \apd, f  face '. 
Goimn,  -e.    Lat.  coiisobrinus ;   It.  cugino,  -a  ;   Sp.  (tobrino,  -a ;  Ptg. 

sobrinho,  -a,  meaning  '  a  relative  '. 
„          Lat.  cuHcinus,  meaning  '  an  insect '. 
Levant.    Preposition  meaning  '  before '. 

Pr.  participle  of  devoir,  -  to  owe  '. 

Feu.     Lat.  focus;   It.fuoco;   Sp.fuego:  Ptg.  foyo  ;   OFr. /ow,  mean- 
ing '  fire '. 


ETYMOLOGY,   PHILOLOGY,  AND  SEMANTICS  61 

French  Feu.   Derived  by  Estienne  and  Scheler  from  L&t.fuit  >feut  >feu ;  by 

Manage  from  Lat.  felix  >felicis  >felce  >feu ;  by  Littre'  from 

OFr.  fahu  >  feu,   connecting   with    Lat.  fatutus,  meaning 

'  dead'. 

Fier.     Lat.  jidtire  for  (fidere) ;   Itfidare ;  Sp.  and  Ptg.  far,  meaning 

'  to  put  confidence '. 

•  „        Tu&t.  ferns  ;  It.  and  Sp.fiero  ;  Ptg./ero,  meaning  'proud '. 
Firrtie.    Lat./irmu*  ;  ME.  fernie,  meaning  c  firm ' ;  cf.  Skt.  Vdhr. 

„          Med.  La,t.firma,  meaning,  a  farm '. 

Fra-iic.    Lat. /raraus ;   It./raiico;   Sp.  and  Ptg.  frunco,  meaning  'free*. 
.,          Meaning  *  a  French  coin '. 
Geste.    Lat.  gestus,  meaning, '  gesture '. 
„          Lat.  gesta;  It.  getsta,  meaning  'heroic  deed,  poetry';  cf.  chanson, 

de  ge&te. 

Louer  derive<J  from  Lat.  locare  means  *  to  let '. 
„  „  „        „      laudure  means '  to  praise '. 

German  nckt.  OHG.  ahto  ;  MHG.  akte  ;  Goth.  Man  ;  OE.  eakta,  derived 
from  an  IE.  root ;  cf .  Skt.  astau  ;  Gk.  6/cro> ;  Lat.  octo ;  Lath. 
asztuni,  meaning  '  eight '. 

OHG.  dkta  ;  MHG.  dhte  :  OE.  oht,  meaning  '  proscription  '. 
Bull.     From  belleu,  meaning  'barking'. 

MHG.  bed,  Indies;  cognate  with  OHG.  ballo;  MHG.  baUe-,  ME. 
hal,  bdUe  ;  OTeut.  *ball6n,  *balldtt ;  cf.  Lat.  foil-is, '  something 
inflated  ' ;  Fr.  balle,  meaning  *  a  ball  to  play  with  '. 
Fr.  b(d  ;  It.  ballo ;  Fr.  baler  or  bcdler'  Lat.  ballare ;  Gk.  paXXi'fa, 

meaning  '  a  dance '. 

Bauer.  OHG.  Inlr  ;  MHG.  btir ;  LG.  buur ;  ON.  bur  ;  OE.  Mur,  <  dwel- 
ling ' ;  cf .  -neighbour ;  OE.  mah-cjebur  and  -nock-bar ;  E. 
bower ;  OTeut.  *buro(m),  from  Teut.  Vb&  ;  IE.  Vbhu  :  cf . 
Skt.  bhu  (bhumi,  '  earth  '):  Gk.  <f>va> ;  Lat. /ui  (fwtur-us) ; 
meaning  '  bird-cage '. 

OHG.  btidri  ;  MHG.  bAwcere  ;  cf.  Erbauer,  Ackerbauer,  from  the 
Vbaueii,  'to  cultivate';  Du.  bouwen;  MHG.,  MDu.  b-ilwen,; 
meaning  *  a  peasant '. 

Bulle.  MLG.  bulle  ;  MDu.  bulle ;  Du.  Ind,  bol ;  ON.  bole,  loll ;  ME. 
bole  (boole) ;  cf .  ME.  bule,  bulle  and  E.  bull,  buttock ;  meaning 
4  a  buffalo '. 

MHG.  butte ;   OE.  hille  ;   E.  bull ;    Fr.  butte,  derived  from  Lat. 
meaning  *  a  papal  mandate '. 


62  INTRODUCTION   TO  THE   NIRUKTA 

German  Geiseln.  PI.  of  geisel,  OHG.  g-lnal :  MHO.  glzel ;  OE.  gr&eZ,  meaning 

1  hostages '. 

„       A  form  of  geiszeln,  MHG.  geisel  it,  meaning  *  to  whip '. 
Kehreu.  OHG.  keran ;  MHG.  keren,  meaning  '  to  sweep  '. 

„        OHG.  kerian ;  MHG.  kfr-n,  meaning  '  to  turn  ' 
Kiefer.     OHG.  klenforha ;    MHG.    kienboum  and   tlie    correspond  in  g 
word   to  OHG.  *kienforhe;    cf.   Kien   and    Fohre,  meaning 
'  Scotch  fir,  pine  tree '. 
„        MHG.  kiver,  kivel,  kivele ;   OSaxon.  kdflos :   OE.  redfl,  meaning 

'jaw'. 
Kiel.      OHG.  kiol,  chiol ;  MLG.  Ml,  kit ;  MHG  kid ;  OE.  Ml ;  OS.  jirf, 

meaning  '  keel '. 
„          MHG.  kil ;   LG.  guide ;  E.  ^u^,  meaning  '  a  piece  of  reed  or 

feather  of  a  bird '. 
Laden.  OHG.  hladan ;  MHG.  laden  ;  OS.  Idadan ;  OE.  /tZodan  ;  Goth. 

(af)halfan ;  E.  tacfe,  meaning  *  to  load '. 
„       OHG.  ladon ;  MHG.  laden  ;  Goth,  lafiou  ;  OE.  laDfan,  meaning 

'  shop '. 
Mwtuld.  MLG.  MDu.  maiule;  OE.  mand,  mpnd:  E.  maund,  meaning 

'  to  count  by  fifteen '. 

„         OHG.  tnandala\  MHG.  mattd^;  OFr.  almande^&l^o  am<mde, 
amundre ;  cf.  Sp.  almendra  ;  It.  maitdorla,  mandola,  mean- 
ing c  almond '. 
Mark.  .  OHG.  wiarka  ;  MHG.  marine:  OS.  rn«.rka  ;  OE.  raearr,  meaning 

*  boundary '. 

MHG.  mark ;  MDu.  marc ;  ON.  mpr/j ;  OE.  marc  ;  Med.  Lat. 
iiwrca,  marcus'.  Fr.  inai'c;  It.  inarco,  marca,  meaning 
'  a  coin  '. 

OHG.  niarg,  .ma-ray ;    MHG.   marc,  morg:    OS.  man/;    OE. 

wears,  m&trh  ;   MDu.  march,  innry ;    Mod.  Du.  wer# ;  OTeut. 

*mazyo:   cf.  AV.  mazya;    Skt.  majjatt<  meaning  'the  soft 

fatty  substance  of  bones '. 

Reis.      OHG.hrlis:   MHG.  rls ;    ON. /w^fo;   MDu.  Du.  Hjs;   OF. /m'v, 

meaning  '  twigs  or  small  branches  '. 
MHG.   rfa:   MLG.  rm;    ME.  rys:    OFr.  r/s;    It.   riso;   Lat. 

*orizum  ;  Gk.  opv^a :  cf.  Skt.  vrlhl,  meaning  '  rice '. 
Hindi  kdma  derived  from  Skt.  kr      means  '  work '. 
„  «          „        „     kam       „      '  love '. 

Examples  might  be  multiplied.    It  is  clear  that  such  words  can  be  satis- 
factorily derived  only  with  reference  to  their  meaning,  for  being  derivable 


ETYMOLOGY,  PHILOLOGY,  AND  SEMANTICS  63 

from  more  than  one  original  source,  they  are  liable  to  be  connected  with 
the  wrong  root  unless  the  derivation  is  based  on  the  meaning.  Yaska's 
rule  is  therefore  sound.  But  in  criticism  of  Yaska's  rule,  it  may  be 
remarked  that  words,  having  the  same  origin,  come  to  acquire  different 
meanings.  For  instance,  Lat.  cup(cupido),  '  to  desire ',  and  Skt.  kup,  '  to 
be  angry ',  have  the  same  common  origin.  Again,  cf .  IE.  klutds ;  Skt. 
6rutda ;  Gk.  /cAuroy ;  Lat.  (iri)clutu8 ;  OE.  hlud ;  Eng.  loud.  Yaska  did  not 
know  any  other  language  besides  Sanskrit,  his  horizon  was  therefore 
necessarily  limited,  yet  his  familiarity  with  the  two  phases  of  the  Sanskrit 
language,  i.  e.  the  Vedic  and  the  classical,  which  is  historically  the  develop- 
ment of  the  former,  and  which  in  their  relation  to  each  other  bear  a  close 
correspondence  to  that  of  the  Ionic  and  the  Attic  tongues,  placed  him  on 
a  better  working  ground  than  those  who  were  not  fully  conscious  of  such 
historical  development.  There  is  no  passage  in  the  Cratylus,  for  instance, 
showing  that  Plato  realized  that  the  Attic  was  historically  the  outgrowth 
of  the  Ionic  language.  On  the  contrary,  the  following  passage  indicates 
that  he  was  not  aware  of  any  such  development. 


5.    Plato  on  Etymology. 

Soc.  '  Yes,  my  dear  friend ;  but  then  you  know  that  the  original  names 
have  been  long  ago  buried  and  disguised  by  people  sticking  on  and 
stripping  off  letters  for  the  sake  of  euphony,  and  twisting  and  bedizening 
them  in  all  sorts  of  ways.  .  .  .  And  the  additions  are  often  such  that  at 
last  no  human  being  can  possibly  make  out  the  original  meaning  of  the 
word.' *  Again,  Plato  does  not  recognize  that  etymology  has  any  scientific 
or  even  systematic  basis.  He  does  not  seem  to  realize  that  derivation  of 
words  should  be  governed  by  some  general  rules.  In  addition  to  the 
above,  I  quote  the  following  passage  in  support  of  my  statement : 

Soc.  .  .  .  '  Now  attend  to  rue ;  and  first,  remember  that  we  often  put 
in  and  pull  out  letters  in  words  and  give  names  as  we  please  and  change 
the  accents.'2  Evidently  he  did  not  attach  much  importance  to  accent. 
The  only  principle,  which  can  hardly  be  so  called,  is  contained  in  the 
following  passage: 

Soc '  And  whether  the  syllables  of  the  name  are  the  same  or 

not  the  same,  makes  no  difference,  providing  the  meaning  is  retained ;  nor 
does  the  addition  or  subtraction  of  a  letter  make  any  difference  so  long 

1  Jowett,  Dialogues  of  Plato  (3rd  ed.),  vol  i,  p.  368. 
«  Ibid.  p.  341. 


64  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

as  the   essence  of   the  tiling  remains  in  possession  of    the  name  and 
appears  in  it.' l 

These  three  passages  from  the  Cratylus  indicate  that  Plato  looked 
upon  etymology  as  a  compendium  of  individual  conjecture  which  would 
justify  Voltaire's  famous  satire  that,  'Etymology  is  a  science  in  which 
vowels  count  for  nothing  and  consonants  for  very  little ',  and  Max  Muller's 
well-known  epigram  that,  '  a  sound  etymology  has  nothing  to  do  with 
sound '.  The  fundamental  difference  between  Yaska  and  Plato  is  that  the 
former  distinguished  roots  from  affixes  and  suffixes,  i.  e.  the  radical  from 
the  formative  element,  and  hence  was  able  to  formulate  general  principles 
for  analysing  words  into  their  constituent  parts;  the  latter  did  not  realize 
this  distinction  and  .consequently  made  conjecture  the  basis  of  etymology. 
It  may  be  remarked,  however,  that  Sanskrit  is  generally  acknowledged  to 
be  more  perspicuous  than  Greek ;  it  was  easier  therefore  to  see  this  dis- 
tinction in  Sanskrit  than  it  was  in  Greek,  and  besides  Yaska  had  the 
advantage  of  inheriting  this  knowledge  from  a  long  line' 'of  predecessors 
who  had  made  this  discovery  at  a  very  early  period.  But  Yaska's 
greatness,  even  if  every  one  of  his  etymological  explanations  is  proved 
to  be  wrong — as  many  are  manifestly  so, — lies  in  the  fact  that  he  is  the 
first  to  claim  a  scientific  foundation,  and  also  the  first  to  formulate  general 
principles  for  etymology. 

6.    Philological  speculations  of  Ydska. 

In  two  aphoristic  rules,  Yaska  enunciates  his  view  as  to  why  articulate 
speech  is  given  preference  to  other  modes  of  expression,  such  as  gestures, 
movements  of  hands  and  body,  &c.  He  says,  '  words  are  used  to  designate 
objects  with  regard  to  everyday  affairs  in  the  world,  on  account  of  their 
comprehensiveness  and  minuteness  '.2  Durga,  the  commentator  of  Yaska, 
explains  the  term  'comprehensiveness',  with  regard  to  the  psychological 
process  involved  in  the  apprehension  of  meaning  through  the  instrumentality 
of  the  spoken  word.  He  says  that  there  are  two  phases  of  consciousness 
in  the  human  mind,  i.e.  (1)  the  manifest,  and  (2)  the  unmanifest.  When  a 
person  desires  to  express  the  manifest  consciousness,  his  effort  results  in  the 
exhalation  of  breath  which  modified  in  the  various  speech-organs  produces 
the  word.  The  word  again  pervades  the  unmanifest  consciousness  of  the 
hearer,  makes  it  manifest,  and  thus  the  meaning  is  apprehended.3  Using 
philological  terminology,  we  may  express  the  same  thing  by  saying  that 
there  are  permanent  word-records  in  the  sub-conscious  strata  of  the  human 

1  Jowett,  Dialogues  tf  Plato  (8rd  ed.),  vol.  i,  8  The  NinAta,  i.  2. 

P.  335.  s  Durga  on  N.  i.  2. 


ETYMOLOGY,  PHILOLOGY,  AND   SEMANTICS  65 

mind.  These  word-records  are  brought  from  the  sub-conscious  to  the 
conscious  state  by  articulated  speech.  It  may  be  objected  that  what- 
ever the  psychological  process  may  be,  the  most  important  use  of  the  word 
is  to  express  and  convey  the  meaning  to  somebody  else,  and  this  purpose  can 
equally  be  accomplished  by  other  methods,  such  as  gestures,  movements  of 
hands,  face,  and  eyes.  As  if  Yaska  had  anticipated  this  objection,  he  adds 
the  term  'minuteness'  in  his  aphorism.  Durga  has  the  following  comment: 
The  movements  of  hands  and  the  winking  of  the  eyes,  &cv  are  also  com- 
prehensive, they  will  express  the  meaning  and  in  this  manner  we  will  be 
saved  the  trouble  of  studying  grammar  and  the  bulky  Vedic  literature. 
True,  gestures,  &c.,  are  comprehensive,  but  they  are  not  minute,  i.  e.  they 
involve  greater  effort  in  production  and  are  always  indefinite.  Even 
discarding  Durga's  elaborate  explanation  of  'comprehensiveness',  Yaska's 
aphorism  can  mean  only  that  words  are  used  in  the  everyday  affairs  of 
the  world  because  they  are  capable  of  giving  expression  to  every  kind  of 
meaning  with  their  numerous  shades  of  difference,  and  are  produced  with 
comparatively  less  exertion.  There  seems  to  be  no  doubt  that  at  the  time 
of  writing  the  above-mentioned  aphorism,  Yaska  had  in  his  mind  the 
alternative  method  of  expression  by  means  of  gestures,  &c.  And  iiis  argu- 
ment that  words  are  preferred  to  gestures,  on  account  of  the  economy  of 
effort,  has  a  strikingly  modern  note. 

7.    Origin  of  Language. 

Yaska  is  a  follower  of  the  school  of  etymologists,  whose  fundamental 
doctrines  is  that  all  words  are  derived  from  original  roots.1  Gargya  and 
the  followers  of  the  school  of  grammarians  do  not  agree  with  him.2  There 
is  also  a  short  discussion  about  onomatopoeia  3  Aupamanyava  maintains 
that  there  is  no  such  thing  as  onomatopoeia,  but  Yaska  holds  that  there  are 
some  words  which  are  formed  by  the  mere  imitation  of  sounds  of  nature, 
mostly  the  names  of  birds,  such  as  crow,  partridge,  &c.,  but  which  can  be 
derived  otherwise  also.  It  is  surprising  that  in  this  connexion  he  does  not 
mention  the  word  cuckoo.  Besides  the  names  of  birds,  he  thinks  that  the 
following  words  are  similarly  formed.  Kitava  4,  '  a  gambler ' ;  diindubhi  5; 
'a  drum';  ciacd  krnoti,*,  'it  makes  a  ci&ca  sound';  krka1,  the  fanner 
part  of  krkavdku,  '  a  cock '.  According  to  Yaska,  onomatopoeia  does  not 
play  any  important  part  in  the  foundation  of  language.  He  discards 

1  Nimkta,  i.  12.  6  Ibid.  ix.  12. 

2  Loc.  cit.  6  Ibid.  ix.  14. 

3  Op.  cit.  iii.  18.  '  ibid.  xii.  13. 

4  Ibid.  v.  22 


66  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

therefore  the  so-called  Bow-Wow  theory.1  As  Yaska  reduces  all  words  to 
primordial  roots,  he  may  therefore  be  regarded  as  an  adherent  of  the 
root-theory. 

This  again  affords  a  point  of  difference  from  the  Cratylus,  where  Plato, 
in  attempting  to  trace  the  origin  of  the  sounds  of  the  alphabet  to  the 
sounds  of  nature,  considers  onomatopoeia  to  be  the  most  important  factor 
in  the  formation  of  language.  As  an  objection  to  his  theory,  it  may  be 
remarked  that  the  objects  with  which  men  in  primitive  society  are  most 
familiar  would  be  things  like  '  cave ',  '  pit ',  '  tree ',  &c.,  and  the  naming 
of  these  objects  precludes  all  imitation  of  natural  sounds.  Words  like 
•  digger  ,  '  weaver ',  &c.,  would  represent  a  higher  stage  of  civilization.2 

8.  Parts  of  Speech. 

Yaska  says  that  there  are  four  parts  of  speech :  noun  and  verb, 
preposition  and  particle.3  At  first  sight,  it  seems  'inexplicable  that  an 
ancient  author  like  Yaska  should  mention  preposition  as  a  part  of  speech 
and  snould  ignore  adverbs  which  historically  can  be  shown  to  have  been 
evolved  at  an  earlier  stage  of  the  linguistic  development  than  the  former. 
The  difficulty,  however,  disappears  when  it  is  remembered  that  prepositions 
in  Sanskrit  are  seldom  used  to  express  case  relations,  but  mostly  serve  as 
adverbial  prepositions.  With  Yaska's  division  of  speech  into  four  parts 
may  be  compared  the  remarks  of  Dionysius  of  Halicarnassus,  who 
attributes  a  similar  classification  to  Aristotle. 

'Composition  is  ....  a  certain  arrangement  of  the  parts  of  speech. 
.  .  .  These  were  reckoned  as  three  only  by  Theodectes  and  Aristotle  and 
the  philosophers  of  those  times,  who  regarded  nouns,  verbs,  and  connectives 
as  the  primary  parts  of  speech.  Their  successors,  particularly  the  leaders 
of  the  Stoic  school,  raised  the  number  to  four,  separating  the  article  from 
the  connectives.' 4  According  to  Aristotle, '  Diction  viewed  as  a  whole  is 
made  up  of  the  following  parts :  the  letter  (or  the  ultimate  element),  the 
syllable,  the  conjunction,  the  article,  the  noun,  the  verb,  the  case,  and  the 
speech/ 5 

9.    Aristotle's  definition  of  Noun  and  Verb. 

Yaska  defines  the  noun  ana  the  verb  as  tollows:  A  verb  has 
becoming  as  its  fundamental  notion,  a  noun  has  being  as  its  funda- 
mental notion.  But  where  both  (i.e.  becoming  and  being)  are  dominated 
by  becoming  as  in  a  verbal  noun),  a  becoming  arising  from  a  former 

1  Max    Muller,   Science   of  Language,  vol.  i,  4  Literary  Composiimn,  ch.  iii>  Roberta's  ed., 
pp.  407-17.                                                                     p.  71. 

2  See  also  Max  Muller,  l»c.  cit.  5  Poetics,  20.  1456  b,  Byvvater's  ed.,  p.  57. 

s  Nirvkta,  i.  1. 


ETYMOLOGY,  PHILOLOGY,  AND  SEMANTICS  (57 

to  a  later  state  is  denoted  by  a  verb,  as  'he  goes',  'he  cooks',  &c.;  while 
the  embodiment  of  the  whole  process  beginning  with  the  original  and 
ending  with  the  final  conception,  which  has  assumed  the  character  of 
being,  is  denoted  by  a  noun,  as  '  going ',  '  cooking '.  &c.1  Further,  becoming 
has  six  modifications :  (1)  genesis,  (2)  existence.  (3)  alteration,  (4)  growth, 
(5)  decay,  and  (6)  destruction.2  With  these  may  be  compared  Aristotle's 
definitions  of  noun  and  verb.  *  A  noun  or  name  is  a  composite  signi- 
ficant sound  not  involving  the  idea  of  time,  with  parts  which  have  no 
significance  by  themselves  in  it.  ...  A  verb  is  a  composite  significant 
sound  involving  the  idea  of  time,  with  parts  which  have  no  significance  by 
themselves  in  it.  \Vhereas  the  word  '  man '  or  •  white '  does  not  imply 
when.  '  walks'  and  '  has  walked '  involve  in  addition  to  the  idea  of  walking 
that  of  time  present  or  time  past.'  3 

In  his  definition  of  a  verb.  Aristotle  lays  great  emphasis  on  the  idea 
of  time,  but  ignores  the  idea  of  action  involved  in  it  :  his  definition  is 
therefore  incomplete  and  states  the  element  of  lesser  importance  only,  for 
of  the  two  ideas  of  action,  and  time,  the  former  is  of  primary  and  the 
latter  of  secondary  significance.  Yaska  has  hit  on  the  right  word,  i.e. 
becoming  which  expresses  both,  the  notion  of  action  and  time  as  well. 
Aristotle's  definition  of  a  noun  is  a  negative  one.  He  explains  what  it 
does  not  involve,  but  not  what  it  positively  does  involve.  Yaska.  on  the 
other  hand,  gives  a  positive  definition,  setting  forth  being  to  be  tht- 
fundamental  notion  of  a  noun.  Further,  he  also  defines  a  verbal  noun, 
which  is  ignored  by  Aristotle. 

Yaska  explains  prepositions  as  words  which  bring  into  prominence  the 
subordinate  meaning  of  nouns  and  verbs.  He  then  subjoins  A  list  ot' 
twenty  prepositions  assigning  to  each  its  appropriate  meaning.  Proceeding 
further,  he  divides  particles  into  three  groups,  (1)  comparatives,  (2)  con- 
junctives, and  (3)  expletives.  He  defines  these  terms,  giving  a  list  of  the 
particles  of  each  group,  explaining  their  meanings  and  illustrating  their 
uses  by  suitable  quotations  from  Vedic  literature.  They  are  treated  in 
detail  in  the  first  chapter  of  the  Nirukta.  (sec.  3-9). 

Yaska  observes  the  dialectical  differences  in  the  spoken  language  of 
his  time.  Thus  he  points  out  certain  characteristics  of  the  speech  of  the 
Aryans  and  the  Kambojas,  the  people  of  the  East,  and  the  people  of  the 
North.4  He  acknowledges  the  relation  of  the  classical  to  the  Vedic 
Sanskrit.  Thus  he  remarks  that  their  vocabulary  is  identical,5  that  their 
use  of  prepositions  and  particles  with  occasional  exceptions  is  similar." 

1  Nintkta,  i.  1.  4  AVn</rfu.  ii.  2. 

1  Op.  cit.  i.  2.  8  Op.  cit.  i.  1C. 

3  Poet  its.  20.  1456  h.  10.  Bywater's  ed..  p.  58.  6  Op.  fi(.  i.  3-9. 

II 


68  INTRODUCTION  TO   THE  NIRUKTA 

He  seems  to  be  conscious  of  the  historical  connexion  of  the  two  languages 
when  he  says  that  the  words  of  the  one  are  derived  from  the  roots  of  the 
other.1  He  knows  that  it  is  not  nouns  only,  but  also  verbs,  which  have 
synonyms.  'So  many  verbs  have  the  same  meaning.  So  many  are  the 
synonym  of  a  noun  (lit.  being).' 2  He  explains  homonym  as  a  word  which 
has  more  than  one  meaning.3  He  also  notices  certain  idiomatic  expressions, 
whose  order  is  immutably  fixed  as  '  Indra  and  Agni ',  *  father  and  son  ',  but 
not '  Agni  and  Indra ', '  son  and  father  '.4 

Semantics. 

How  names  are  given. 

The  epoch  of  Yaska  was  an  age  of  remarkable  literary  activity.  There 
seems  to  be  a  general  striving  after  the  search  of  truth  in  all  the  depart- 
ments of  human  knowledge.  On  the  philosophic  side,  it  marks  the 
beginning  of  the  Upanisadic  period  which  preached  monotheism  of  an 
exalted  type,  and  gave  expression  to  some  of  the  sublimest  thoughts  ever 
recorded  in  the  history  of  mankind.  On  the  religious  side,  it  was  the 
harbinger  of  the  Buddha  who  was  soon  to  carry  out  a  campaign  of 
vigorous  protestantism  against  the  then  prevailing  ritualistic  practices. 
Even  in  the  matter  of  style,  it  is  the  period  of  transition  which  ushered  in 
the  era  of  the  aphorism  (sutra).  As  shown  above,  the  age  was  busy  with 
grammatical  and  philological  speculations,  nor  WE*  semantics  ignored.  In 
the  first  chapter  of  the  N^riikta  (see  12-14),  Yaska  discusses  the  question, 
how  names  are  given.  The  most  important  arguments  are  set  forth  in  the 
form  of  questions  and  answers.  A  critic  is  introduced  who  raises  the 
various  points  of  objection,  each  of  which  is  duly  answered  by  the  author. 
It  is  a  dialogue  consisting  of  two  monologues  which  are  put  in  the  mouths 
of  the  critic  and  the  author  in  succession.  The  arguments  are  as  follows : 
(1)  Every  being  who  performs  a  particular  action  should  be  called  by  the 
same  name,  e.  g.  every  one  who  runs  on  the  road  should  be  called  a&va 
(runner),  and  not  the  horse  alone;  everything  that  pricks,  as  a  needle 
or  spear  for  instance,  should  be  called  trna  (pricker)  and  not  a  blade  of 
grass  alone.  (2)  Every  being  should  be  given  as  many  names  as  the 
actions  with  which  that  particular  being  is  associated,  e.  g.  a  pillar  should  be 
called  not  sthuna  (i.e.  which  stands  upright)  only,  but  also  dara  aayd 
(i.e.  which  rests  in  a  hole),  and  also  sanjanl  (i.  e.  which  is  joined  with  the 
beams).  (3)  Only  such  words  should  be  used  in  giving  names  as  are 
regularly  derived  from  roots  according  to  the  rules  of  grammar,  so  that 

,  U.  2.  »  Qp.  at  i.  20.  »  Op.  cit.  iv.  1.  «  Op.  at.  i.  10 


ETYMOLOGY,  PHILOLOGY,  AND  SEMANTICS  69 

the  meaning  of  the  object  which  they  denote,  should  be  quite  clear  and  free 
from  doubt,  e.g.  piiruea,  (man)  should  be  puri-aaya  (i.e.  city-dweller); 
asva  (horse)  =  asta  (i.  e.  runner) ;  tr-na  (grass)  =  tardana  (pricker)  and  so 
on.  (4)  If  the  name  of  an  object  is  to  be  determined  by  its  actions,  the 
being  precedes  the  action  (e.g.  the  horse  comes  into  existence  before  it 
actually  runs),  the  designation  of  a  being,  which  is  earlier,  from  an  action, 
which  is  subsequent  to  it,  is  not  tenaole  (perhaps  for  the  reason  that  it 
will  leave  the  being  nameless  during  the  interval).  (5)  People  indulge  in 
sophistry  in  explaining  names,  as  for  instance,  when  it  is  said  that  earth 
(prthiri)  is  so  called  on  account  of  its  being  broad  (prath),  they  do  nofc 
consider  as  to  who  made  it  broad  and  on  what  basis. 


Rqoinder. 

(1)  We  find  that  of  the  beings  who  perform  a  particular  acuon,  all  do 
not  get  the  same  name  but  only  a  few,  e.  g.  every  one  who  cuts  wood  is  not 
called  tuksaka,  but  the  carpenter  alone  is  so  called  ;   it  is  the  ascetic  only 
who   is  called  pari-vrdjaka  (i.  e.  a   wanderer)   and   not   every  one   who 
wanders;   it  is  only  the  sap  of  the  sugar-cane  that  is  called  jivana  (i.e. 
enlivening)  and  not  everything  that  enlivens  ;  it  is  only  the  planet  Mars 
that  is  called  bhumi-ja  (i.  e.  earth-born),  and  not  everything  that  is  born 
from  the  earth  and  so  on.     He  seems  to  imply  that  there  is  a  law  of 
specialization  by  which  a  particular  name  comes  to  be  exclusively  associated 
with  a  particular  object. 

(2)  He  means  to  say  that  in  spite  of  their  manifold  activities,  objects 
take  their  name  from  one  particular  action,  which  is  the  most  important 
and  the  most  special  to  them,  e.g.  a  carpenter  performs  many  actions,  yet 
he  is  called  taksaka  (i.  e.  a  cutter  of  wood),  because  the  shaping  of  things 
by  cutting  wood  is   his  most  important  function   and   can   be  specially 
associated  with  him.     Durga  has  the  following  comment  on  it  : 


I  Wf  3^     g  I 

i  ^re  ^  (T^ror  *wH*flf*rnTTTi 
ff  n^TTt  ftnrrsr^ 

i 


70  INTRODUCTION   TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

«^*JW*^    I 

I  iff 


;  Thou  seest,  my  friend,  and  we  also  see,  that  one  man  who  cuts  wood 
is  called  'carpenter',  while  another  who  does  the  same  is  not  so  called. 
You  may  well  ask  the  reason.  Listen  ;  go  and  ask  the  world,  quarrel  with 
the  world  if  you  like,  for  it  is  not  I  who  made  this  law.  But  this  is  what 
we  find  :  of  those  who  do  the  same  work,  some  are  named  in  accordance 
with  that  activity,  others  not  You  may  say  that  because  one  object  is 
named  in  accordance  with  that  activity,  therefore  others  doing  the  same 
thing  should  be  similarly  named  .  .  .  Although  all  nouns  are  derived 
from  verbs,  the  choice  of  names  with  reference  to  a  particular  action 
is  made  by  nature  (svabhavatah)  ;  or  it  may  be  that  the  choice  is 
made  by  the  law  of  special  action.  A  man  who  performs  one  particular 
action  more  specially,  whatever  other  actions  he  may  perform,  will 
obtain  his  name  from  that  particular  action.  This  is  a  settled  rule.  For 
we  do  not  call  the  man,  who  cuts  wood  now  and  then,  by  the  name  of 
carpenter,  but  him  we  call  carpenter  who  cuts  wood  at  any  time,  or  in  any 
place  and  always.  This  is  an  instance  of  a  name,  the  choice  of  which  is 
made  by  special  action  and  this  name  may  be  freely  given  '.to  others  who 
perform  the  same  action  specially.  And  if  sometimes,  or  somewhere, 
some  other  action  is  still  more  special  to  them,  they  will  obtain  their 
names  in  accordance  with  that  action  only.  .  .  . 

We  see  that  persons  who  perform  many  actions,  obtain  their  names 
iroin  one  particular  action.  A  carpenter  performs  many  other  actions, 
but  he  is  not  called  after  those  activities.  ...  If  it  be  said,  that  many 
persons  who  perform  the  same  action,  should  have  a  common  name,  and 
one  person  who  performs  many  actions,  should  have  as  many  names,  all 
that  we  can  say  IB,  that  it  is  contrary  to  the  practice  of  the  world.  Neither 
is  the  case.  Whether  many  persons  perform  a  particular  action,  or  a  single 
person  many  actions,  the  law  about  the  names  is  that  the  choice  is  made 
by  natural  selection.'  ] 

With  this  may  be  compared  the  remarks  of  BreVl. 

'  One  conclusion  is  to  be  drawn  from  all  that  has  gone  before  :  it  is  an 
undoubted  fact  that  Language  designates  things  in  an  incomplete  and 

1  Cf.  Max  Mailer's  translation  of  some  parts  of  the  above-quoted  passage  (ilid.,  p.  167). 


ETYMOLOGY,   PHILOLOGY,  AND   SEMANTICS 


71 


inaccurate  manner.  Incomplete  :  since  we  have  not  exhausted  all  that  can 
be  said  of  the  sun  when  we  have  declared  it  to  be  shining,  or  of  the  horse 
when  we  say  that  it  trots.  Inaccurate :  since  we  cannot  say  of  the  sun 
that  it  shines  when  it  has  set,  or  of  the  horse  that  it  trots  when  it  is  at 
rest,  or  when  wounded  or  dead. 

Substantives  are  signs  attached  to  things:  they  contain  exactly  that 
amount  of  truth  which  can  be  contained  by  a  name,  an  amount  which  is  of 
necessity  small  in  proportion  to  the  reality  of  the  object.  ...  It  will  fo 
impossible  for  language  to  introduce  into  the  word  all  the  ideas  which  this 
entity  or  object  awakens  in  the  mind.  Language  is  therefore  compelled  to 
choose.'  * 

(3)  Many  words  whose  grammatical  form  is  quite  regular  are  used  to 
denote  names  of  objects,  such  as  vratati  (creeper),  jdgaruka  (wakeful), 
dcirvi-homi  (one  who  sacrifices  with  a  ladle),  &c. 

(4)  We  find  that  many  objects  get  names  which  are  based  on  subsequent 
actions,  e.  g.  the  wood-pecker. 

(5)  If  prthiw  (earth)  is  derived  from  Vprath  (to  be  broad)  there  is  no 
sophistry  at  all.    It  is  not  necessary  to  consider  as  to  who  made  it  broad 
and  on  what  basis,  for  it  is  broad  to  the  eye. 

Thus  the  question  is  discussed  in  the  Nirukta.  The  same  question  is 
discussed  at  length  in  the  Cratylus  also,  wherein  Plato  propounds  three 
theories  and  makes  the  three  characters  in  the  dialogue  their  exponents. 
Hermogenes  holds  that  names  are  conventional,  arbitrarily  given,  and 
altered  at  will.  Its  antithesis  is  represented  by  Cratylus  who  maintains 
that  they  are  natural.  Socrates  takes  an  intermediate  position  and 
admits  that  names  are  natural  and  at  the  same  time  have  an  element 
of  convention  as  well.8 


i.    Early  anti-Vedic  Scepticism. 

In  the  fifteenth  section  of  the  first  chapter  of  the  NiruJda,  a  critic 
is  introduced  in  the  person  of  Kautsa,  who  not  only  questions  the  authority 
of  the  Vedas,  but  actually  maintains  that  the  Vedic  stanzas  are  meaningless, 
adducing  several  arguments  in  support  of  his  assertion.  From  the  twentieth 
section  of  the  same  chapter  it  is  evident  that  Yaska  believes  the  Vedic 
hymns  to  be  revealed,  having  been  handed  clown  from  generation  to 
generation  by  oral  tradition,  and  requiring  to  be  studied  with  great  care; 
the  purpose  of  his  own  work  being  to  facilitate  this  study.  As  the 


1  Semantics,  eh.  xviii,  Eng.  trans,  by  Cust, 
pp.  171,  172. 


2  Cf.  Jowett,  Dialogues  of  Plato  (3rd  ed.),  vol.  i, 
pp  3E7-8,  368,  StW,  37S. 


72  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 


ta  is  one  of  the  six  auxiliary  treatises  of  the  Veda,  it  is  rather 
difficult  to  say  with  what  object  Yaska  presented  and  tried  to  controvert 
the  view  of  his  opponents,  for  it  is  inconceivable  that  the  learned  theologians 
would  reproduce,  in  their  orthodox  books,  a  controversy  which  challenges 
the  most  fundamental  beliefs  of  their  religion.     The  reproduction  of  the 
Kautsa  controversy  indicates  on  the  one  hand,  that  not  only  Yaska  was 
endowed  with  a  rationalistic  spirit,  and  was  free  from  bigoted  fanaticism, 
but  also  that  it  was  possible  to  carry  on  such  discussions  with-  tolerance  at 
that  period  of  remote  antiquity  ;  and  implies  on  the  other,  that  Kautsa  was 
an  eminent  scholar,  or  some  great  personality,  or  the  exponent  of  some 
philosophic  system,  whose  thought  could  'not  be  ignored.     Some,  however, 
think  that  Yaska  has  invented  Kautsa  as  a  convenient  method  of  giving 
expression  to  Vedic  Scepticism.     This  view  is  conjectural,  and  is  not  sup- 
ported by  any  evidence.     Yaska  uses  the  terms  eke,  and  ekam,  aparam,  &c. 
when  he  wants  to  refer  to  something  in  general,  and  he  could  have  very 
welj  employed  the  same  terms  with  regard  to  the  above-mentioned  con- 
troversy, had   it  not   been   associated   with   a   particular  individual,  i.  e. 
Kautsa.     There   is   no  ground  to  doubt  the   historical  existence   of  the 
authorities  whose  opinions  are  quoted,  or  referred  to,  or  to  whom  particular 
statements  are  attributed,  by  Yaska.     And   unless  the  contrary  can  be 
proved,  it  may  be  assumed   that   Kautsa  was   an   historical  entity.     It 
may  also  be  taken  for  granted  that  he  was  the  leader   of  a  movement, 
which  may  be  described  as  something  akin  to  materialistic  rationalism, 
and  which  was  the  result  of  a  remarkable  literary  activity,  a  characteristic 
of.  the  epoch  of  Yaska,  as  pointed  out  elsewhere.     But  Kautsa  was  by  no 
means  the  originator  of  such  a  movement,  the  beginning  of  which  can  be 
traced   to   an   earlier  period.      Its   origin   is   probably   to   be   sought   in 
sectarianism.   For  a  considerable  time,  the  Atharva-veda  was  not  recognized 
as  divine  revelation.    For  the  followers  of  the  Atharva-veda,  it  was  there- 
fore necessary  to  demonstrate  the  superiority  of  their  own  Veda  to  the 
RV.,  the  SV.,  and  the  VS.     Perhaps  the  most  effective  means,  employed  for 
the   achievement   of   this  object,  was   to  invent  legends  and  allegorical 
stories,  in  which  all  the  four  Vedas  are  introduced,  and  in  which  a  certain 
task  is  proposed  for  them.     The  RV..  the  SV.,  and  the  VS.  are  invariably 
shown  to  be  incompetent  in  its  performance,  and  it  is  given  up  as  too 
difficult  by  the  three  Vedas  in  succession,  being  finally  accomplished  by 
the  AV.,  whose  superiority  over  the  other  three  Vedas  is  thus  implicitly 
expressed.     I  quote  the  following  two  stories  from  the  Gopatha  Brahinana 
in  support  of  my  statement  : 


EARLY  ANTI-VEDIC   SCEPTICISM  73 


I  <T^RT  Wf  fq<£Hi<4 


'  Speech  said  to  them,  "  tame  the  horse  ".  "  Be  it  so  ",  replied  they. 
Having  approached  him,  the  RV.  said,  "I  shall  tame  the  horse".  When 
he  set  about  (accomplishing  it),  a  great  terror  seized  him.  He  turned  her 
in  the  eastern  direction.  He  declared,  "  this  horse  is  wild  indeed  "  The 
VS.  approached  him  and  said,  "I  shall  tame  the  horse".  When  he  set 
about  (accomplishing  it),  a  great  terror  seized  him.  He  turned  her  in  the 
western  direction.  He  declared,  "this  horse  is  wild  indeed".  The  SV. 
approached  him  and  said,  "  I  shall  tame  the  horse  ".  "  How  indeed  wilt 
thou  tame  the  horse  ?  "  "  Rathu,iitaram  is  the  name  of  my  song  of  praise 
which  is  neither  terrific,  nor  harsh.  With  that  the  horse  is  praised  ".  But 
when  he  set  about  (accomplishing  it),  the  same  great  terror  seized  him. 
He  turned  her  in  the  northern  direction.  He  declared.  '*  the  horse  is  indeed 
still  wild  ".'  * 

After  these  futile  attempts,  they  are  advised  to  seek  Atharvana  the 
tamer.  They  approach  him  and  request  him  to  tame  the  horse.  He 
prepares  the  water  of  tranquillity,  which  he  sprinkles  over  the  horse. 
From  every  limb  of  the  horse  flames  fall  down  on  the  ground,  and  the 
horse,  perfectly  tame,  salutes  the  sage. 

The  object  of  the  following  story  is  to  show  the  incompetency  of 
the  three  Vedas  to  afford  protection  : 

...  ^c  % 


I    r 


'The  gods  said  to  Indra,  "  Do  now  protect  this  sacrifice  of  ours.  Verily 
protect  us  with  that  form  of  thine,  with  which  thou  affordest  us  the 
greatest  shelter,  with  which  thou  canst  best  protect  us'.  He  assumed  the 

1  GB.  i.  2.  18  ;  Bib.  lud.  ed.,  p.  35. 


74  INTRODUCTION   TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

form  of  the  RV.,  and  having  approached,  stood  before  them.  The  gods 
said  to  him,  "  assume  some  other  form  ;  with  this  form  thou  canst  not 
afford  us  the  greatest  shelter,  with  this  form  thou  canst  not  best  pro- 
tect us".  He  assumed  the  form  of  the  VS.,  and  having  approached 
stood  behind  them.  The  gods  said  to  him,  "  assume  some  other  form  ; 
with  this  form  thou  canst  not  afford  us  the  greatest  shelter,  with  this 
form  thou  canst  not  best  protect  us  ".  He  assumed  the  form  of  the  SV., 
and,  having  approached  stood  to  their  north.  The  gods  said  to  him, 
''assume  some  other  form;  with  this  form  thou  canst  not  afford  us  the 
greatest  shelter,  with  this  form  thou  canst  not  best  protect  us  ".'  * 

Indra  then  assumes  the  form  of  the  Bralvnia-veda,  i.  e.  the  Atharva-veda, 
which  is  approved  by  the  gods  as  competent  to-  give  them  the  greatest 
protection. 

It  need  hardly  be  said  that  the  efforts  of  the  followers  of  the  Atharva- 
veda  were  crowned  with  success,  for,  in  course  of  time,  the  AV.  was 
recognized  as  one  of  the  revealed  scriptures.  But  their  method  of  dis- 
crediting the  other  Vedas  gave  rise  to  a  movement  of  inquiry  and 
scepticism—  a  movement,  the  traces  of  which  can  still  be  discovered  in 
isolated  passages  of  the  Aranyakas  and  the  Upanisads.  Besides  the  fact 
that  the  anti-Vedic  ideas  have  been  preserved  in  the  Aranyakas  and  the 
Ujxinisads,  which,  according  to  the  orthodox  tradition,  are  a  part  of  the 
scriptures,  indicates  that  the  movement  must  have  been  important  and 
wide-spread,  so  much  so  that  even  some  of  the  Vedic  Scholars  came  under 
its  influence,  and  freely  gave  expression  to  their  heterodox  views,  some 
of  which  have  survived.  I  quote  the  following  passages  in  support  of  the 
foregoing  conclusion  : 


i  ^rf^  ff  irnri  ^jn?:  irrisr  TT  TR  ^ft  tfa 

'  Verily  it  was  so,  then  the  Kavaseyas,  the  learned  seers,  said,  "  to  what 
purpose  shall  we  study  the  Vedas,  to  what  purpose  shall  we  sacrifice  ? 
We  sacrifice  breath  in  speech,  and  speech  in  breath  ;  whosoever  is  born  is 
indeed  the  authoritative  person."  '  2 


'  People  say,  "  Hymn,  Hymn  ".     This  earth  indeed,  is  the  hymn,  for  all, 
whatever  exists  springs  from  it.'  3 

The  study  of  the  Vedas  is  regarded  as  avidyd  (non-knowledge)  in  MU. 

1  GB.  i.  2.  19  -,.  Bib.  Ind.  ed.,  p.  36.  «  A.  A.  iiL  2.  6  ;  Keith's  ed.,  p.  139. 

»  A.  A.  ii.  1.  2  ;  Keith's  ed.,  p.  101. 


EARLY  ANTI-VEDIC  SCEPTICISM  75 

I.  1.  4-5 ;    as  lower  knowledge  in  MU.  III.  2.  3 ;   KU.  I.  2.  23.     The  full 
force  of  this  condemnation  will  be  realized,  if  it  is  borne  in  mind  that  the 
Upanisads  are  also  regarded  as  revealed  books  (fruti).    The  case  would 
be  analogous  if,  for  instance,  St.  Paul  had  declared  in  one  of  his  epistles 
that  the  study  of  the  Bible  is  non-knowledge,  or  lower  knowledge.    The 
following  are  the  other  anti-Vedic  passages :   Brh.  U.,  I.  5.  23 ;    Kau.  U., 

II.  5;  Ch.  U.,  V.  11-24;  TU.,  II.  5;  Vivekacuddmani  2;  the  Jain  Uttard- 
dfiydyana  sutras,  IV.  12  ;    XIV.  12 ;    Gtta,  II,  42,  45 ;   IX.  21 :  XI.  48,  53. 
In  order  to  reconcile  them  with  the  pro-Vedic  doctrines,  the  commentators 
have  offered  ingenious  explanations  of  these  passages. 

It  is  possible  that  the  Buddha  came  under  the  influence  of  this  anfci- 
Vedic  movement  at  an  early  period,  which  may  be  responsible  for  his 
vehement  denunciation  not  only  of  Vedic  rites  and  practices,  injunctions, 
and  invocations,  &c,,  but  of  Vedic  lore.  He  held  them  up  to  ridicule,  and 
discarded  them  as  an  obstacle  to  final  emancipation.  His  views  about 
Vedic  knowledge  have  beer  preserved  in  the  form  of  a  dialogue  in  the 
Tevijja  sutta  in  the  JDtyha  Nikdya.  Two  Brahmanas,  Vasettha  and 
Bharadvaja  quarrel  as  to  which  is  the  true  path.  Unable  to  settle  their 
dispute,  they  go  to  the  Buddha  for  a  decision.  The  Buddha  holds  a 
conversation  with  them,  and  after  perplexing  and  confounding  them  with 
analogies  and  arguments  in  a  Socratic  manner,  gradually  leads  them  to  his 
own  way  of  thinking,  and  finally  converts  them  to  Buddhism.  The  im- 
portant parts  of  the  dialogue  with  regard  to  the  Vedas  are  the  following  : 

13.  '  Well  then,  Vasettha,  those  ancient  Esis  of  the  Brahmanas  versed 
in  the  three  Vedas,  the  authors  of  the  verses  ...  to  wit, .  .  .  Vamadeva, 
Vessamitta,  Jamadaggi,  Angirasa.  Bharadvaja,  Vasettha,  Kassapa,  and 
Bhagu — did  even  they  speak  thus,  saying :  "  We  know  it,  we  have  seen  it, 
where  Brahma  is}  whence  Brahma  is,  whither  Brahma  is  ?  " 

"Not  so,  Gautama!" 

15.  ..."  Just,  Vasettha,  as  when  a  string  of  blind  men  are  clinging  to 
one  another,  neither  can  the  foremost  see,  nor  can  the  "middle  one  see, 
nor  can  the  hindmost  see — just  even  so,  methinks,  Vasettha,  is  the  talk 
of  the  Brahmanas  versed  in  the  three  Vedas  but  blind  talk  .  .  .  the 
talk  ...  of  the  Brahmanas  versed  in  the  three  Vedas  turns  out  to  be 
ridiculous,  mere  words,  a  vain  and  empty  thing." 

24.  "  Again,  Vasettha,  if  this  river  Aciravati  were  full  of  water  even  to 
the  brim,  and  overflowing,  and  a  man  with  business  on  the  other  side, 
bound  for  the  other  side,  should  come  up,  and  want  to  cross  over,  and  he, 
standing  on  this  bank,  should  invoke  the  farther  bank,  and  say,  'Come 
hither,  O  Farther  Bank !  Come  over  to  this  side ! ' " 

"Now  what  think  you,  Vasettha?    Would  the  farther  bank  of  the 


76  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

river  Aciravati,  by  reason  of  that  man's  invoking  and  praying  and  hoping 
and  praising,  come  over  to  this  side  ?  " 

"  Certainly  not,  Gautama.  !  " 

25.  "  In  just  the  same  way,  Vasettha,  do  the  Brahmanas  versed  in  the 
three  Vedas  .  .  .  say  thus  :  c  Indra  we  call  upon,  Soma  we  call  upon, 
Varuna  we  call  upon,  Isana  we  call  upon,  Pajapati  we  call  upon,  Brahma 
we  call  upon  .  .  .'  Verily,  Vasettha,  .  .  that  they,  by  reason  of  their  invoking 
and  praying  and  hoping  and  praising,  should  after  death  .  .  .  become 
united  with  Brahma  —  verily  such  a  condition  of  things  can  in  no  wise  be." 

35.  "...  Therefore  is  it  that  the  threefold  wisdom  of  the  Brahmanas, 
wise  in  their  three  Vedas,  is  called  a  waterless  desert,  their  threefold 
wisdom  is  called  a  pathless  jungle,  their  threefold  wisdom  is  called 
perdition.  "  '  l 

In  criticism  of  this,  it  may  be  remarked  that  the  views  of  the  Buddha 
concerning  Vedic  prayer  are  erroneous.  His  arguments,  and  especially 
his  analogy  of  the  bank  of  the  Aciravati,  are  applicable  to  any  other 
prayer  as  well,  and  thus  prayer  itself  will  become  an  absurdity.  Not  only 
is  prayer  a  very  important  act  of  worship  in  every  religion,  but  in  the 
form  of  the  wheel  of  prayer  is  the  most  distinguishing  characteristic  of 
Tibetan  Buddhism.  Moreover,  prayer  is  a  psychical  phenomenon,  it  exerts 
a  powerful  influence  on  the  mind  through  the  medium  o£  subconscious 
suggestion,  and  as  such  its  efficacy  is  beyond  doubt.  Further,  the  analogy 
of  the  Buddha  is  fallacious.  To  compare  not  only  sentient  but  omniscient 
and  omnipotent  God  with  an  inanimate  piece  of  matter  like  the  bank  of 
a  river,  and  then  to  deduce  a  conclusion  from  this  comparison  that  because 
the  latter  does  not  respond  to  prayer  hence  the  former  also  does  not  do  so, 
is  altogether  unjustifiable.  Nevertheless  the  Buddha's  denunciation  of  the 
Vedas  developed  a  strong  contempt  for  them  in  his  followers  who  often 
trampled  them  under  foot.2  It  is  also  probable  that  these  teachings  of  the 
Buddh  ,  inspired  other  non-  Vedic  scho6ls  as  well.  The  criticisms  of  some 
of  these  schools  are  equally  vehement,  and  one  seems  to  hear  the  rever- 
berated echo  of  the  voice  of  the  Buddha  even  in  some  of  their  expressions. 
The  following  passage  gives  the  views  of  the  Carvaka  system  : 


i 

1  The    Dialogues   of  the   Buddha,   translated  into   English   by  Rhys-Davids,  S.B.B.,  vol.  ii, 
pp.  304-14:  cf.  also  S.B.E.,  vol.  xi,  pp.   159-203. 

2  See  Sankaradigmjaya,  the  episode  of  Kumarila  Bhatta's  life  in  a  Buddhist  monastery. 


EARLY    ANTI-VEDIC   SCEPTICISM  77 


:  0 


'  If  you  object  ..."  how  should  men  of  experienced  wisdom  engage  in 
the  Agnihotra  and  other  sacrifices",  .  .  .  your  objection  cannot  be  accepted 
as  any  proof  to  the  contrary,  since  the  Agnihotra,  &c.  are  only  useful  as 
means  of  livelihood,  for  the  Veda  is  tainted  by  the  three  faults  of  untruth, 
self-contradiction,  and  tautology  ;  then  again  the  impostors  who  call  them- 
selves Vedic  Pandits  are  mutually  destructive,  as  the  authority  of  the 
Jnanakanda  is  overthrown  by  those  who  maintain  that  of  the  Karma- 
kanda,  and  vice  versa  ;  and  lastly,  the  three  Vedas  themselves  are  only 
the  incoherent  rhapsodies  of  knaves,  and  to  this  effect  runs  the  popular 
saying:  Brihaspati  says  that  the  (performance  of)  Agnihotra,  the  three 
Vedas,  the  three  staves,  and  smearing  oneself  with  ashes,  are  but  means 
of  livelihood  for  those  who  have  neither  sense,  nor  manliness.'  l 

1  If  a  beast,  slain  in  the  jyotistoma  sacrifice  goes  to  heaven,  why  then, 
does  not  the  sacrificer  kill  his  own  father  ?  '  2 

'  The  three  authors  of  the  Veda  were  buffoons,  knaves,  and  spirits  of 
darkness.  Jarphari,  turpharl,  &c.,  these  are  the  well-known  rhapsodies 
of  the  Pandits.'  3 

The  Arhata  system  has  the  following  criticism  with  regard  to  the 
Vedas  : 


'  And  a  non-eternal  omniscient  being  cannot  be  the  subject  of  an  etenia 
Veda  ;  then  how  can  he  be  expounded  by  a  spurious  and  a  false  Veda  ?  '  4 

Cf.  also  :  '  There  was  neither  the  Sama-veda,  nor  the  Yajur-veda,  nor 
the  Rg-veda,  nor  was  any  work  done  by  man.'  5 

The  ear'ier  anti-  Vedic  scepticism,  together  with  the  doctrines  of  the 
Buddhist,  the  Carvaka,  and  the  Arhata  svstems  must  have  created,  in 

1  Sarva-darfana-aamgrnhah,  Bib.  Ind.  ed.,  p.  3.  3  Loc.  cit. 

For   this   passage  I  have    adopted  Cowell's          *  Op.  cit.,  p.  28. 

translation  with  some  modifications.  *  MahdbMrata  Fawoparam,  11234. 

2  Op.  ctf.,  p.  6. 


78  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

course  of  time,  a  considerable  amount  of  opposition  to  the  teachings  of  tho 
Vedas.  It  was  therefore  necessary  for  the  followers  of  the  Vedas  to 
answer  the  objections  of  their  opponents  and  to  re-establish  their  position. 
Hence  Jaimini  was  compelled  to  devote  almost  the  whole  of  the  firso 
adhyaya  of  the  Purva-Mvmamsa,  to  the  examination  and  refutation  of 
such  objections.  The  substance  of  Kautsa's  criticism,  together  with  the 
subject-matter  of  Yaska's  rejoinder  is  amplified  with  numerous  additions 
in  the  nrst  chapter  of  the  PM.  The  controversy,  however,  is  too  long  to 
be  quoted  here.  Kumarila  Bhatta,  the  commentator  on  the  PM.  was 
another  expounder  of  Vedic  doctrines,  and  after  him  the  task  devolved 
on  the  great  ^ankaracarva,  who  by  his  eloquence,  vast  learning,  profound 
philosophy,  and  great  powers  of  debate  rebuilt  the  shattered  supremacy  of 
the  Vedic  religion,  and  extirpated  Buddhism l  and  other  non-Vedic  systems 
from  the  land  of  their  birth.  But  adverse  critics  of  the  Veda,  even  after 
the  great  ^ankaracarya,  have  not  been  altogether  unknown  in  India.  For 
instance,  Nanaka,  the  founder  of  the  Sikh  religion,  may  be  mentioned 
as  a  notable  teacher  who  laid  great  emphasis  on  saintliness,  and  discarded 
the  Vedas  as  mere  mythical  records.  He  said : 

Santa  M>  mahimd  veda  na  jdiie 

Cdron  veda  ksiddni. 

'The  greatness  of  a  saint  is  not  known  to  the  Veda  ;  all  the  four  Vedas 

are  merely  (books  of)  stoiieb. 

Hence  we  find  that  Sayanacarya  again  reverts  to  the  same  discussion 
in  the  introduction  of  his  commentary  on  the  Rg-veda.  The  number  of 
arguments  for  and  against  is  still  further  increased.  A  brief  summary 
of  the  controversy  is  subjoined : 

Criticism. 

'  The  primd  facie  view  is  that  there  is  110  such  thing  as  the  Veda :  how- 
can  there  be  a  part  of  it,  as  the  Rg-veda  ?  ....  It  is  not  possible  to  admit 
the  existence  of  the  Veda,  for  it  is  not  capable  of  definition  or  proof.'2 

1 I )  If  the  Veda  is  defined  as  being  the  last  of  three  kinds  of  proofs, 
perception,  inference,  and  evidence,  the  definition  will  be  too  wide,   for 
it  will  include  the  Smrtis  as  well. 

(2)  It  the  Veda  is  defined  as  an  instrument  of  apprehending  trans- 
cendental things,  the  definition  will  again  suffer  from  the  same  defect. 

1  However,   the  final  blow  was  dealt  by  the  commentary  of  Sayanacarya.  vol.  i,p]>.  2  3. 
the  Mohammedan  invaders,  who  destroyed  The  Sanskrit  text  of   the  introductory  psrt 
the  Buddhist  monasteries  in  the  Northern  of  Say  a  mi's  commentary,  together  with   an 
part  of  India.  English  translation,  is  given  by  Pett>r-on  in 

2  See  Max  Mailer's  edition2  of  theRV.  with  his  Handbook  to  Uit  Study  of  the  Rgwia.  Part  1. 


EARLY  ANTI-VEDIC  SCEPTICISM  79 

(3)  The  qualifying  expression,  'being    not    the    product  of    human 
authors ',  will  not  improve  the  definition,  for  the  Vedas  are  the  works  of 
human  anthers,  though  they  may  be  super-men 

(4)  If  you  say  that  by  'human  authors'  you  mean  'men  having  a 
corporeal  frame ',  we  will  draw  your  attention  to  the  purvusa-sulcta. 

(5)  If  you  say  that  by  *  corporeal  frame '  you  mean  '  a  body  which  is 
the  result  of  the  actions  of  a  previous  life    we  will  point  out  that  Agni, 
Vayu,  and  Aditya,  the  authors  of  the  Vedas,  were  endowed  with  bodies 
which  were  the  result  of  actions  of  a  previous  life. 

(6)  If  the  Veda  is  defined  as  a  collection  of  words  (sabda-rdsih)  con- 
sisting of  the  mantra  and  the  Brdhmana,  it  does  not  hold  good,  for  up  till 
now  it  has  not  oeen  settled  what  is  mantra,  and  what  is  Brahinaw*. 

(7)  Nor  is  there  any  proof  of  the  existence  of  the  Veda.    The  scriptural 
quotations  in  support  of  your  contention  are  useless,  as  they  are  cited  from 
the  Vedas  themselves,  and  nothing  can  be  proved  by  its  own  evidence 
No  man,  however  clever,  can  mount  his  own  shoulders. 

(8)  If  you  say  that  the  consensus  of  public  opinion  is  in  favour  of  the 
Vedas,  we  will  reply  that  the  whole  world  can  be  d«luded :  for  instance, 
the  people  believe  in  a  blue  sky,  yet  there  is  no  such  thing  as  skv,  nor  has 
its  blue  colour  any  reality. 

Sdyana's  rejoinder. 

(1)  The  definition  of  the  Veda  as  a  collection  of  words,  consisting  of  the 
mantra  and  the  Brdhmana  is  faultless;  therefore  Apastamba  has  said, 
'  The  Veda  is  the  name  given  to  the  mantra  and  the  Brdhmana.' 

(2)  It  is  true  that  things  like  a  jar,  or  a  piece  of  cloth,  &c.,  are  not 
self-luminous,  but  it  does  not  follow  from  this  that  the  sun,  and  the  stars, 
&c.,  too  have  no  such  character.     Granting  that  it  is  impossible  for  a  man 
to  mount  his  own  shoulders,  nevertheless,  the  Vedas  have  the  power  to 
illuminate  themselves  as  well  as  other  things. 

(3)  You  have   to   recognize  the   various   kinds  of   proofs,   including 
evidence.     And  the  evidence  of  the  Smrtis,  and  of  tradition  cannot  but  be 
admitted  as  proof  of  tne  existence  of  the  Veda.    Hence,  the  Vedas  cannot 
be  overthrown  by  any  of  the  infidels  like  the  followers  of  Carvaka. 

further  criticism. 

(1)  Admitting  that  there  exists  a  thing  called  the  Veda,  it  is  not  worth 
a  commentary,  for  the  Veda  is  of  no  authority  (na  hi  Vedah  pramdnam). 

(2)  Some  define   authority  as   'an  instrument  of  sound  experience', 
others  as  'a  means  of  acquiring  knowledge,  not  known  before'.     Neither 
of  these  is  to  be  found  in  the  Veda. 


80  INTRODUCTION  TO  THE  NIRUKTA 

Then  follows  an  amplified  statement  of  Kautsa's  criticism.  Sayana's 
reply  gives  the  substance  of  Yaska's  rejoinder  with  additions  and  modifica- 
tions, to  which  is  added  a  long  quotation  from  the  first  chapter  of  the 
'jwrca-Mlmamsa,  reference  to  which  has  already  been  made. 

It  would  be  superfluous  to  collect  the  pro-Vedic  passages.  The  Vedas 
are  the  foundation  of  the  whole  of  Sanskrit  literature.  But  the  triumph  of 
the  Vedic  school  is  apparent  from  this  fact  alone  that  all  the  anti- Vedic 
systems  have  either  perished,  or  been  driven  into  exile,  or  been  reduced  to 
insignificance.  Thus  the  pre-Buddhistic  antr- Vedic  scepticism  can  now  be 
traced  in  a  few  isolated  passages  only.  Buddhism,  once  the  state  religion 
of  the  Mauryan  Empire  at  its  zenith  under  As*oka,— the  then  greatest 
Empire  in  the  world — has  been  banished  from  its  native  land.  The 
Carvaka  and  the  Arhata  systems  have  been  reduced  to  insignificance. 
Their  followers  are  few  and  far  between,  and  their  influence  on  Indian 
thought  and  religion  is  so  small  th«t  for  all  practical  purposes  it  can  be 
safely  ignored. 


THE    NIRUKTA 


CHAPTER    I 

A  TRADITIONAL  list  (of  words)  has  been  handed  down  (to  us).  It  is  to 
be  (here)  explained.  This  same  list  is  called  Ni-ghantavas.1  From  what 
(root)  is  (the  word)  Ni-ghantavas  derived  1  They  are  words  quoted  from 
the  Vedas  (ni-gamoih)?  Having  been  repeatedly  gathered  together  3  from 
Vedic  hymns,  they  have  been  handed  down  by  tradition.  Aupamanyava 
holds  that,  as  these  are  the  quoted  words  of  the  Vedas,  they  are  called  Ni- 
ghantavas  on  account  of  their  being  quoted  (t/ii-gamandt).  Or  else  (the 
word  Ni-ghantavas)  may  be  (so  called)  from  being  fixed  only  (Vhan),  i.e. 
(a  list.in  which)  they  (the  words)  are  fixed  together,  or  collected  together  ( Vhr). 

Now,  what  (are)  the  four  classes 4  of  words  ?  They  are  the  following : 
noun  and  verb ;  prepositions  and  particles.  With  reference  to  this,  they 6 
thus  prescribe  the  definition  of  noun  and  verb :  the  verb  has  becoming  as 
its  fundamental  notion,6  nouns  have  being  as  their  fundamental  notion.7 
But  where  both  are  dominated  by  becoming ,/a  becoming  arising  from 
a  former  to  a  later  state  is  denoted  by  a  verb,  as  '  lie  goes  ',  '  he  cooks  *,8  &c. 
The  embodiment  of  the  whole  process  from  the  beginning  to  the  end,  which 

1  Cf.  Muir,  Sanskrit  Texts,  vol.  ii,  p.  165.  part  V,  p.  7. 

2  Durga  explains  ni-gamdh  as  :    nis-cayend-  5  i.  e.  Preceptors.     Durga. 

dhikam   vu   ni-gudhurtha  ete  parijndthah    santo  «  Identical  with  Brh.D.ii.  121,  see  Professor 

mantrdrthdn  yamayanti  jndpayanti.  Macdonell,  Brhaddevatd,   vol.    ii,    p.    65;    cf. 

8  Both  adopted  the   variant  samdhatya  on  Kautilya,  Arthaiidstra,  loc.   cit. ;    RP.   xii.   5, 

the  principle,  lectio  difficilior  potiot  est,  but  this  701,  707  ;  VP.  viii.  54  ;  the  commentator  on 

reading  is  not  supported  by  the  evidence  of  AP.,  J.A.Q.S.,  vol.  vii,  p.  591  ;   PM.  ii.  1.  1 ; 

MSS.,  and,  later  on,  WHS  admitted  to  be  un-  Patanjali,    MaMbMtya  i.    8.    1,    Kielhorn's 

justified  by  Roth  himself ;   see  Erlciutervngen,  edition,    vol.   i,    pp.    254,    256;     Aristotle, 

i.  1,  p.  4.  Poetics,    20,    1456b    10,     Bywater's    edition, 

4  Cf.  RP.  xii.  5.  699  ;   VP.  viii.  52 ;   AP.  p.  58 ;  Gune's  trans.  IA.,  vol.  xlv,  158. 

i.  1 ;  Kautilya,  Arthasastra,  ii.  10.  28,  p.  72 ;  7  The  same  as  note  6  except  Brh.  D. ;  cf. 

PataBjali,   Mahabltasya*    *•    1-    !>    Kielhorn's  Jowett,  Dialogues  of  Plato,  vol.  i,  pp.  868-9 : 

edition,  p.  8  ;   Dionysius  of  Halicarnassus  on  '  Name  is  not  a  musical  or  pictorial  imitation 

Literary  Composition,  ch.  ii,  Roberts's  edition,  . . .  but  it  is  expression  of  the  essence  of  each 

p.  71;   Aristotle,  Poetics,  '20,    1456b    1,    By-  thing  in  letters  and  syllables.' 

water's  edition,  p.  57;   Wackernagel,  Altin-  8  Cf.    Professor    Macdonell,     Brhaddtvata, 

di9chcGrammfttik,vol.i,p.lTLvni',cf.Sils<>Dharma  vol.  ii,  p.  10;   cf.   Durga's  Comm.     Cf.  PM. 

Samgrahah,  xxxv,  Anecdota  Oxoniensia,  vol.  i,  ii.  1.  3-4. 


6  MODIFICATIONS  OF  BECOMING  [1.  i 

has  assumed  the  character  of  being,  is  denoted  by  a  noun,  as  '  going ',  '  cook- 
ing ',  &c.  The  demonstrative  pronoun l  is  a  reference  to  beings,  as  '  cow ', 
'  horse  *,  '  man ',  '  elephant ',  &c. ; 2  '  to  be ',  to  becoming,  as  '  he  sits ', '  he 
sleeps',  *  he  goes ',  ' he  stands ',  &c. 

According  to  Audumbarayana  speech  is  permanent  in  the  organs  only.3 
(Here  ends  tlte  first  section.4) 

In  that  case  the  fourfold  division  (of  words)  will  not  hold  good,  nor  the 
grammatical,  connexion,  nor  the  mutual  reference  of  sounds  which  are  not 
produced  simultaneously.5  Words  are  used  to  designate  objects,  with 
regard  to  everyday  affairs  in  the  world,  on  account  of -their  comprehensive- 
ness and  minuteness.0  They,  too,  are  the  names  of  gc  as  well  as  of  human 
beings.7  On  account  of  the  impermanence  of  human  Uaowledge,  the  stanza, 
(directing)  the  accomplishment  of  action,  is  (to  be  found)  in  the  Veda.8 

According  to  Varsyayani,  there  are  six  modifications  of  becoming : 
•genesis,  existence,  alteration,  growth,  decay,  and  destruction.9  Genesis 
denotes  only  the  commencement  of  the  first  state,  but  neither  affirms  nor 
denies  the  later.  Existence  affirms  a  being  that  has  been  produced.  Altera- 
tion connotes  the  modification  of  elements  of  a  non-decaying  being.10  Growth 
denotes  the  increase  of  one's  own  limbs  or  of  objects  which  are  associated 
(with  one's  self),  as  he  grows  by  means  of  victory,  or  he  grow.s  with  his 

1  Cf.   Patafijali,  Mahabluisya :    sarvandma  ca  6  Cf.  Durga'sComm.  ;    Jowett,  Dialogic*  of 

sdmdnyavaci:  'And  the  pronoun  is  the  general  Plafo,  vol.  i,  p.  368. 

exponent.'  7  Cf.  Jowett,  op.  tit.,  vol.   i.  p.  333 :   Soc. 

8  Patafijali,  op.  cit.  i.  1.  1,  vol.  i,  pp.  1  and  5.  '  He  often  speaks  of  them  ;  'notably  and  nobly 

*  Cf.  Patanjali,  op.  cit.  i.  1.  1,  vol.  i,  p.  6  ;  in   the  places  where   he   distinguishes    the 
i.  1,  6,  vol.  i,  p.  104 ;   i.  1.  8,  vol.  i,  p.  136 ;  different  names  which   gods  and  men  give 
i.  4.  4,  vol.  i,  p.  356;    Bhandarkar,  Wilson  to  the  same  things',  i.e.  words  are  used  in 
Ptulological  Lectures,  p.  291 ;   Jowett,  Dialogues  giving  names  to  thing*  both   by  gods  and 
of  Plato,  vol.  i,  pi».  327,  387,  388 ;  Jaimini ;  men. 

PM.  i.  1.  6-23  ;   the  Vedanta  su'ras,  i.  3.  28 ;  •  This  is  tantamount  io  the  statement  that 

4.   28;    ii.    1.  4;    Kanada,    Vaitetika  svtras,  the  Veda   is   the  repository  of  eternal  and 

ii.  2.  21-37  ;   the  Sdmkhya-pravacana  sutras,  v.  perfect  knowledge. 

58-60 ;     the   Nydya    sutras,    i.    1.    7,    54-7  ;  »  Cf.  Brh.  D.  ii.  121  ;   see  Professor  Ma<- 

ii.  2.  13-17  ;  iii.  2.  49  ;  the  origin  and  nature  donell,  Brhaddevatd,  vol.  ii,  p.  65 ;  the  passage 

of  Sabda  is  a  subject  for  discussion  in  the  is  quoted  verbatim  by  Patafijali,  op.  cit.  i.  8. 1, 

Buddhist  literature  also :  Sddda  is  an  action,  vol.  i,  p.  258,  except  that  he  calls  Varsyayani. 

Kathavatihu,  xii.  3;   Sadda  is  physical  vibra-  '  bhagavdn,  and  uses  the  past  tense, 

tions,  op.  cit.  ix.  9-10 ;   Eng.  trans,  entitled,  10  The  word  a-pracyavamdnasya  is  used  by 

'Points  of  Controversy',  is  by  S.   Z.   Aung  Y&ska   in  order  to  shov/  that  alteration — 

and  C.  A.  F.  Rhys  Davids.  which  may  be  for  bettor  or  for  worse — is  to 

4  Cf.  Gune,  I.  A.,  /oc.  cit.  be  interpreted  as  denoting  the  former  only 

•  Cf.  Gune,  I.  A  ,  loc.  cit.  and  not  the  latter. 


1.  4]  PREPOSITIONS  7 

body.     The  term  decay  denotes  its  antithesis.      Destruction   denotes   the 

commencement  of  the  later  state,  but  neither  affirms  nor  denies  the  former. 

(Here  ends  the  second  section.) 

Hence,  other  modifications  of  becoming  are  only  further  developments  of 
those  (enumerated  above),  and  should  be  inferred  according  to  the  occasion. 

'Unconnected  prepositions',  says  6akatayana,  'have  no  meaning,  but 
only  express  a  subordinate  sense  of  nouns  and  verbs.'  l  '  They  have  various 
meanings,'  says  Gargya  ;  '  hence,  whatever  their  meaning  may  be,  they 
express  that  meaning  (which  brings  about)  modification  in  the  sense  of  the 
noun  and  the  verb.'  -  The  word  a  is  used  in  the  sense  of  '  hitherward  '  ;  3 
pro,  and  puroi  are  its  antitheses  :  abhi*  '  towards  '  ;  prati  is  its  antithesis  : 
ati  and  su,  '  apj  val  '  ;  nir  and  dur  are  their  antitheses  :  ni  and  ava  , 
*  downwards  '  ;  ud  is  their  antithesis  :  sum,  '  combination  '  ;  vi  and  apa  are 
its  antitheses  :  ai'.u,  '  similarity  '  and  '  succession  '  :  api^  '  contact  '  :  upa, 
1  accession  '  :  pari,  '  being  all  around':  adhi,  '  being  above  ',  or  '  supremacy  '.5 
Thus  they  express  various  meanings  to  which  attention  should  be  paid.6 
(Here  ends  the  third  section.) 

Now  the  particles  occur  in  various  senses,7  both  in  a  comparative  sense, 
in  a  conjunctive  sense,8  and  as  expletives.  Of  them,  the  following  four  are 
used  in  the  sense  of  comparison.8  Iva  (has  this  sense)  both  in  the  classical 
and  in  the  Vedic  Sanskrit  :  thus  '  like  Agni  ',  *  like  Indra  ',  &c.  The  word  iia 
has  the  sense  of  negation  in  classical,  and  both  (i.e.  the  sense  of  negation  and 
comparison)  in  Vedic  Sanskrit  :  thus  in  the  passage,  '  They  did  not  recc^i 


1  Cf.   RP.  xii.  5.  707  ;    upasargo  vis'esa-krt  :  in  RP.  and  VP.  is  identical  with  that  of  the 

*  The  preposition  is  the  specializer  (of  mean-  Nirukta,  but  enumerated  in  a  different  order- 

ing)' ;  VP.  viii.  54-5  ;  AP.  iv.  8  ;  see  Whitney,  it  is  also  identical  with  the  list  in  the  gana- 

J.A.O.S.,  vol.  vii,  p.  515  ;   Panini,  Astddhyuyl  pdtJw,,  if  the  double  forms  of  nih  and  dtih  are 

i.    4.    58  :     pradaya(fy   upasargdh    kriya-yoge  ;  not  taken  into  consideration  ;    cf.  also  AP. 

Patanjaii,  op.  cit.  I  3.  1,  vol.  i,  p.  256  :  'A  i.  15  ;  the  list  is  incomplete  and  only  half  of 

preposition  is  the  distinguishing  mark  of  an  that  giyen   in  RP.,  VP.,  N.,  and  Pa  ;  pro- 

action'  ;  cf.  also  ii.  1.  1,  vol.  i,  p.  365.  positions   are  explained   by  Panini,  op.  cit. 

*  Cf.    RP.    xii.    6.    702-3  :     '  Prepositions  i.  4.  83-97  ;   Patanjali,  op.  cit.  i.  *4.  4,  vol.  i, 

are    twenty  and  they  express    a    meaning  pp.  341,  345-9  ;   Professor  Macdonell,    Vedic 

together  with  the  other  two  (i.e.  noun  and  Grammar,    pp.    414-21  ;     cf.    also    A    Vedic 

verb)'  ;  PataiYjali,  op.  cit.i.  3.  1,  vol.  i,  p.  356:  Grammar  for  Students,  pp.  208,  211-58,  265  6. 

'  But  again  individual  prepositions  express  6  The  sentence  is  omitted  by  Durga. 

the  distinction  of  actions,  whenever  a  word  7  Cf.  RP.  xii.  9.  708  :  nipaf.dnam  arthavatftn 

which  denotes  the  same  action  is  used.'  nipidanad  .  .  .  itare  ca  sarthakah. 

3  Cf.  Panini.  op.  cit.  i.  4.  89.  8  of>  Brh   p    iig  89>  professor  Macdonell's 

4  Op.  cit.  i.  4.  91.  edition,  vol.  i,  p.  19. 
•     5  Cf.    RP.    xii.    6.    702-3  ;      VP.    vi.    24  ;  °  Op.  cit.  ii.  91. 
Panini,  op.  cit.  i.  4.  53  ;  tlio  list  of  prepositions 


g  PARTICLES  [1.  4 

Jndra  as  a  god  V  it  has  the  sense  of  negation.2  The  established  use  is  (to 
place  it  immediately)  before  that  which  it  makes  negative.  In  the  passage 
'Lake  hard  drinkers  of  wine',3  it  has  the  sense  of  comparison.  The  estab- 
ii  shed  use  is  (to  place  it  immediately)  after  that  with  which  it  compares. 
The  word  cid  has  many  meanings.  In  the  sentence  '  Will  the  teacher  kindly 
explain  it  ? '  it  is  used  in  the  (sense  of)  respect,  [from  what  root  is  (the 
word)  dcdrya  derived  ?]  *  A-cdrya  (teacher)  is  so  called  because  he  imparts 
traditional  precepts  (d-cdra) ; 6  or  because  he  systematically  arranges  (a  + 
y/cl  +  artha)  the  various  objects  (of  knowledge),  or  because  he  systematic- 
ally develops  the  intellectual  faculty.6  In  the  expression  «  like  curd ',  it 
ft  used  in  the  sense  of  comparison ;  in  '  bring  even  the  sour  gruel ',  it  is 
Used  in  the  sense  of  contempt.  Kul-md$dk  (sour  gruels)  are  so  called 
because  they  are  wasted  away  (sldaidi)  in  families  (kulesu).1  The  word 
TVu  has  many  meanings.  In  the  sentence  '  therefore  he  will  do  it ',  it  is 
Used  in  assigning  a  reason ;  in  '  how  pray  will  he  do  it  ? '  in  asking  a  ques- 
tion, as  well  as  in  '  has  he  really  done  it  ? '  It  is  also  used  in  the  sense  of 
comparison  (as  follows) : 

Ot?  thee  like  the  branches  of  a  tree,  O  widely  invoked  one!  * 
Of  thee  like  the  branches  of  a  tree,  O  widely  invoked  one ! 
"Vaydh  means  branches,  (and)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  vi  (to  move) :  they 
•paove  in  the  wind.9     tid-khdh  (branches)  are  so  called  because  they  rest  in 
trhe  sky  (kha-saydh),  or  (the  word)  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  auk  (to 
be  able).9 

Now  a  conjunctive  particle  is  that  by  whose  addition  separateness  of 
notions  is  indeed  recognized,  but  not  like  an  enumerative  one,  i.e.  because 
of  a  separation  by  isolation.10  The  word  ca  is  used  in  the  sense  of  '  aggre- 
gation ',  and  is  joined  together  with  both,  as  '  I  and  you,  O  slayer  of  Vrtra  I ' " 
d  is  used  in  the  same  sense,  as  '  for  gods  and  for  manes  V*  The  word  vd  is 
Used  in  the  sense  of  deliberation,  as '  Ah,  shall  I  put  this  earth  here  or  there? >K! 
^Moreover,  it  is  used  in  the  sense  of  '  aggregation  '  (as  follows). 

(Here  end*  thefowyth  secticrti.) 

1  x.  86.  1 ;  N.  18.  4.  7  The  sentence  is  omitted  by  Durga. 

*  The  passage  beginning  from,   *  Of  them          *  vi.  24.  3. 

.negation',   is  translated  by   Muir  ;    see  a  The  sentence  is  omitted  by  Durga. 

Sanskrit  Texts,  vol.  ii,  p.  151.  10  Cf.  Gune,  IA.,  vol.  xlv,  pp.  159-00  ;  see 

*  viii.  2.  12.  note ;     cf.   Aristotle's  definition   of    a    con- 
4  The  passage  within  square  brackets    is  junction;  .Poetics,   20,    1457*  (ed.  By  witter), 

Omitted  by  MSS.  of  the  shorter  recension.  p.  59. 

*  Cf.  Patanjali,  op.  cit.  i.  1.  8,  p.  88.  »  viii.  02.  11. 
6  The  passage  beginning,  '  From  what  root          "  x.  10.  11. 

. .  intellectual  faculty',  is  omitted  by  Durga.          1S  x.  119.  9. 


1.6]  CONJUNCTIVE  PARTICLES  9 

'  Vayu  and  thee,  Mann  and  thee.' l     The  words  aha  and  hi  have  the 
sense  of  *  mutual  opposition ',  and  are  combined  with  the  former  (member) 
as  '  let  this  man  do  this,  the  other  that ',  and  *  this  man  will  do  this,  not 
that ',  &c.     The  letter  u  is  also  used  in  the  same  sense,  (being  joined)  with 
the  later  (member],  as  <  these  people  tell  a  lie,  those  the  truth ' ;  it  is  further 
used  as  an  expletive,  as  'this',  'that'.     The  word  Id  has  many  meanings 
in  (the  sentence)  'therefore  he  will  do  it',  it  (is  used)  to  point  out  the 
reason ;  in  (the  sentence)  '  how  pray  will  he  do  it  V  to  ask  a  question ;  in  (the 
sentence)  'how can  he  analyse  it  ?  '  to  (indicate)  displeasure.    The  word  kild 
(is  used  to  express.)  superiority  of  knowledge,  as  '  thus  truly  it  happened '. 

Moreover,  it  is  combined  with  the  two  (particles)  wt  and  mi  uu  in  asking 
a  question,  as  '  was  it  not  so  ? '  and  '  was  it  so,  pray  ? '  The  word  iita  denotes 
prohibition,  as  '  do  not  do  it ',  and  '  do  not  take '.  The  word  kfudu  alsoj 
(denotes  prohibition),  as  '  enough  of  doing  this  ',  and  '  have  done  with  it '  J 
f  urther,  it  is  used  as  an  expletive,  as  '  thus  it  happened '.  The  word  satiwit 
lias  the  sense  of  uncertainty  in  classical  Sanskrit :  (in  the  sentence) '  was  it 
ever  so  V  it  (is  used)  in  an  interrogation ;  (in  the  sentence)  '  was  it  ever  so 
pray  ? '  in  an  interrogation  but  not  to  oneself.  The  word  nunam  has 
the  sense  of  uncertainty  in  the  classical  language,  both,  i.e.  the  sense  of 
uncertainty  and  that  of  an  expletive,  in  Vedic  Sanskrit.2 

Agastya,  having  assigned  an  oblation  to  Indra,  desired  to  offer  it  to  the 
Maruts.  Indra,  having  presented  himself,  lamented  (as  follows).3 

(Here  ends  the  fifth  section.) 

There,  it  seems,  it  does  not  exist ;  there  is  no  to-mouow ,  who  kru>w$ 
that  which  is  not  past?  The  mind  of  another  is  apt  to  waver;  lo!  the 
expected  is  lost.4 

There,  it  seems,  it  does  not  exist,  i.  e.  there  is  no  to-day  nor 5  indeed 
to-morrow.  To-day,  on  this  day.  Dyuh  is  a  synonym  of  day  (so  called) 
because  it  is  bright  ( Vdyut)^  To-morrow,  the  time  that  is  still  expected. 
Yesterday,  the  time  that  has  expired.  '  Who  knows  that  which  is  not 
past  r  i.  e.  who  knows  that  which  is  yet  to  come  (i.  e.  the  future)  ?  This 

1  TS.  i.  7.  7.  2.  see  also  the  different  vendon*  of  th*  story, 

2  Cf.   Muir's   translation  of  the  sentence,       Sieg,  Sagenstoffe  des  fgv^da,  pp.  108-20. 
Sanskrit  Texts,  vol.  ii,  p.  161  :   'The  particle  «  i.  70.  1. 

"nunam"   is  used   in   the  bluitd  to  signify  5  Durga  paraphrases  no   by  o«m<MM"'^>ctm 

uncertainty ;   in  the  Veda,  too,   it  has  that  He  is  wrong,  for  no  is  accented  and  could 

signification,  and  is  also  a  mere  expletive.'  not   therefore  mean  ' for  us',  i.e.   it  is  not 

3  Cf.  the  story  related  in  Brh.  D.  iv.  46-51 ;  -  nos,    but    a    compound  of   the    negative 
Professor  Macdonell's  ed  ,  vol.  ii,  pp.  138-9;  particle  na  +  u.     Cf.  N.  1.  7. 


10  NUNAM  [1. 6 

other  word  adbhutam  ('  wonderful ')  =  abhutam,  i.  e.  something  which,  as  it 
were,  is  unprecedented.  'The  mind  of  another  is  apt  to  waver',  i.e.  fickle. 
Another,1  a  person  not  to  be  introduced  (to  good  people).  Cittam  (mind)  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  cit  (to  know),  '  Lo !  the  expected  is  lost ',  [even  the 
assigned  thing  is  lost],2  assigned,  i.  e.  a  thing  intended  (for  offering). 
Moreover,  it  (nunam)  is  used  as  an  expletive. 

(Here  ends  the  sixth  section.) 

May  that  rich  reward  of  thine,  O  Indra !  milk  every  boon  for  the 
singer.  Be  helpful  to  the  worshippers,  do  not  put  us  aside,  let  good  fortune 
(corne)  to  us ;  may  we  speak  loudly  in  the  assembly  with  heroes.3 

May  that  (reward)  of  thine  milk  every  boon  for  the  singer.  Boon, 
what  is  to  be  chosen.  Singer,  praiser.  Rich  reward,  i.  e.  abounding  in 
wealth.  The  word  magham  is  a  synonym  of  wealth,  it  is  derived  from 
(the  root)  mamh,  meaning  to  give.4  Daksina  (reward)  is  derived  from  (thu 
root)  daka,  meaning  to  cause  to  accomplish :  it  causes  the  imperfect  to  be 
accomplished.  Or  else,  it  may  be  (so  called)  from  circumambulating. 
With  reference  to  the  quarter,  (it  means)  the  quarter  natural  to  the  hand, 
i.e.  the  right  hand.6  Daksinah  (right)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  daks, 
meaning  to  work  strenuously,  or  from  das,  meaning  to  give.  IJastah 
(hand)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  han  (to  strike):  it  is  quick  to  strike. 
Fulfil  the  desires  of  the  worshippers.  Do  not  pass  us  over,  do  not  give, 
leaving  us  aside.  Let  good  fortune  be  for  us.  May  we  speak  loudly  in 
our  own  assembly.  Bhaya  (good  fortune)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  bhaj 
(*A>  distribute).6  The  word  brhat  is  a  synonym  of  '  great ' :  it  is  grown  all 
round.  Having  heroes,  or  having  blessed  heroes,  A  hero,  he  disperses 
(vi-irayati)  the  enemies,  or  it  (w-ra)  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  vf. 
meaning  to  go,  or  from  mr  (to  be  powerful).7 

1  Explained  by  Durga  as  an  offspring  of  became  the  southern  quarter.  The  expression, 
u  low-class  man  who  lives  in  various  ways,  '  natural  to  the  hand ',  is  to  be  understood 
or  who  is  not  to  be  brought  to  the  assembly  as    being    pointed  out   by  the   right  hand 
of  the  good.  while  cne  faces  the  eastern  direction. 

2  The  passage  within   square  brackets  is          6  The  sentence  is  omitted  by  Durga. 
omitted  by  the  MSS.  of  the  shorter  recension          7  Durga    paraphrases    Vlrayati    by    niina- 
and  Durga.  prakdram  mdrayati,  i.e.  ;  he  kills  in  various 

3  ii.  11.21.  ways'.     He  seems   to   take  mr    as    a    non- 

4  Cf.  Patanjali,  op.  cit.  vi.  1.  1,  vol.  iii,  p.  16.  compound   root,   and   is  supported    in    this 

5  This  is  tantamount  to  the  statement  that  interpretation  by  DhMujtatha,  xxxv.  49,  where 
the  word  daksind  also  means  « the  southern  rir  is  enumerated  as  a  verb  of  the  tenth  class, 
quarter '.      Durga    remarks  :     pranmxkkasya  But  Yaska  appears  to  take  it  as  a  compound 
prajapater  ya'o  daksino  hasto  babhiiva  ad  daksind  of  vi  +  lr  (to  disperse),  for  he  distinguishes  it 
digabhacat,  i.e.  the  quarter  to  the  right  hand  from  the  denominative   verb,  cf.  his   third 
of  Prajapati,  while  he  stood  facing  the  east,  derivation. 


1. 8]  TVA  11 

The  word  aim  has  the  sense  of  totality,  or  is  (used)  as  an  expletive : l 
Aditya  sent  them  forth.2 

Sent  them  forth,  i.  e.  sent  them  forth  on  all  sides.     And  also  : 
From  all  sidas  the  wise  one  has  manifested  bright  rays.B 

i.  e.  The  sun  has  uncovered  (them)  on  all  sides.  8u-Wtfah  means  the  rays 
of  the  sun,  (so  called)  on  account  of  their  brilliant  light  (su-rocaua).  Or  else 
the  word  sima  takes  the  ablative  suffix  (-tas)  without  any  meaning, 
i.e.  sliniiah  =  slmatalt  =  simd-tah,  (which  means)  *  from  the  boundary  '. 
tiwnd  means  boundary:  it  forms  the  seam  between  two  countries.  The 
word  tva,  being  a  pronoun  with  the  sense  of  '  opposition ',  is  unaccented. 
Some  hold  it  to  be  a  synonym  of  '  half '. 

(Here  ends  the  seventh  section.) 


•  One  sits  increasing  the  store  of  stanzas ;  a  second  chants  the  yayatra 
hymn  in  vakvari  measures.  One,  i.  e.  Brahma,  expounds  the  science  of 
being  ;  whilst  another  metes  the  measure  of  the  sacrifice.4 

With  these  words,  (the  stanza)  declares  the  application  of  the  duties  of 
the  priests.  One  sits  increasing  the  store  of  stanzas,  i.  e.  the  invoker. 
A  stanza  (re)  is  a  means  of  worshipping  (arcana).  A  second  chants  the 
yayatra  hymn  in  Zakvarl-  measures,  i.  e.  the  chanter.  Gdyatram  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  yai,  meaning  to  praise.  Sakvaryah  are  stanzas ;  it  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  &uk  (to  .be  able).  It  is  known  :  because  with  these 
he  was  able  to  slay  Vrtra,  that  is  the  characteristic  of  the  &alwari  stanzas.5 
One,  i.  e.  the  Brahma,  expounds  the  science  of  every  being.  Brahma  is 
omniscient:  he  knows  everything;  Brahma  is  supererninent  from  know- 
ledge, Brahma  is  supereminent  all  around.  One  metes  the  measure  of  the 
sacrifice,  i.  e.  the  (performing)  priest.  Adhvar-yuh  (priest)  =  adhvara-yuh, 
i.  e.  he  directs  the  sacrifice,  he  is  the  leader  of  the  sacrifice,  or  else,  he  loves 
the  sacrifice.  Or  (the  word  is  formed)  by  the  addition  of  (the  suffix)  yuh 
(to  Vadhi)  in  the  sense  of  studying.  A-dhvara  is  a  synonym  of  '  sacrifice ' : 
the  verb  dhvr  means  to  kill,  (a-dhvara  denotes)  the  negation  of  it  (killing). 
According  to  some,  the  word  (tva)  is  a  particle,  then  how  could  it  be  a  noun 
of  unaccented  character  ?  It  is  clearly  inflected.  '  Lo !  they  call  thee, 


1  Cf.  Professor  Mncdouell.  A  Vedic  Grammar  4  x.  72.  11. 

for  Students,  p.  249.  5  Cf.  KB.  xxiii.  2:  'Because  with  these, 

-  ii.  28.  4.  he  vfas  able  to  slay  Vrtra,  hence  they  (are 

8  AV.  4.  1.  1  ;  5.  6.  1  ;  SV.  1.  321 ;  VS.  called)  xakvaryah:  See  Gune,  Bhandarkar 

13.  3.  ffomro.  Vol.,  p.  44. 


12  TVA  [1.  8 

steadfast  in  friendship  V  (here  it  is)  in  the  accusative ;  '  for  one  she  yielded 
her  body',2  in  the  dative.     Further,  it  is  (inflected)  in  the  nominative 

plural. 

(Here  ends  the  eighth  section.) 

'  Friends,  having  (similar)  eyes  and  ears,  were  unequal  in  the  speed  of 
their  minds.  Some  are  like  tanks,  which  reach  up  to  the  mouth,  and  are 
suitable  for  a  bath ;  others  indeed  are  like  those  which  reach  up  to  the 
breast,  and  (are  meant)  to  be  seen  only.3 

[Friends],  having  (similar)  eyes  and  ears.  Aksih  (eye;  is  derived  from 
(the  root)  caks  (to  see) ;  '  it  is  from  ailj  (to  be  beautiful),'  says  Agrayana. 
It  is  well  known:  Therefore,  they  are,  as  it  were,  more  beautiful.4  Karnah 
(ear)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  krt  (to  cut) :  it  has  its  entrance  torn 
asunder ;  '  it  is  from  r  (to  go)/  says  Agrayana.  It  is  well  known :  Going 
upwards,  as  it  were,  they  have  protruded  in  space.4  They  were  unequal  in 
the  speed  of  their  minds.  Some  reach  up  to  the  mouth,  others  up  to  the 
breast.5  Asyam  6  (mouth)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  as  (to  throw),  or  else 
(from  d-syand,  '  to  flow ') :  food  flows  towards  it.  Dagh'iiam  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  dagh,  meaning  to  flow,  or  from  das  (to  be  wasted) :  it  is 
very  much  wasted.  Some  are  like  tanks,  suitable  for  bathing.  Suitable 
for  bathing,  i.  e.  fit  for  bathing ;  (others  are)  to  be  seen  only.7  Hradah 
(tank)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  hrdd,  meaning  to  make  a  sound,  or  from 
hldd,  meaning  to  make  cool.  Further,  it  (tva)  is  used  in  the  sense  of 
'  aggregation  ',  as  '  recurrences  and  possession  of  As*vins ' ; 8  i.  e.  possession 
of  As'vins,  and  recurrences. 

Now  the  words  which  are  used — the  sense  being  complete — to  fill  up 
a  sentence  in  prose,  and  a  verse  in  poetic  compositions,  are  expletives  such 
as  fawn-,  lm,  id,  and  it.9 

(Here  ends  the  ninth  section.) 

Men  without  garments,  and  having  many  children,  being  afraid  of  a 
wolf,  as  it  were,  longed  for  the  dewy  season 10  to  live.11 

x.  71.  5;  cf.  N.  1.  20.  the  mouth  ;   (2)  from  ^/u-syand  (to  stream), 

x.  71.  4  ;  cf.  N.  1.  19.  i.e.  the  mouth  begins  to  water  when  food  is 

x.  71.  7.  thrown  into  it,  however  dry  it  might  have 

The  quotation  is  untraced.  been  before. 

'  Some  reach  up  to  the  mouth '   is  ex-  7  The  sentence  is  omitted  by  Durga. 

plained   by  Durga  as   'unfathomable',   i.e.  8  KB.  xvii.  4. 

minds  whose  depths  cannot  be  reached  ;  '  up  9  Cf.  RP.  xii.  8.  707  ;  xii.  9.  708  ;  $rh.  D.  ii. 

to  the  breast'  as  shallow,  whose  bottom  is  90-1,  Professor  Macdonell's  ed.,  vol.  i.  p.  19. 

within  siyht.  10  It  comprises  the  period  from  the  middle 

6  Durgu  derives  «</.<,oni  in  two  ways:    (1)  of  January  to  the  middle  of  March. 

from  Vfl*   to  throw),  i.e.  food  is  thrown  in  n  The. quotation  is  untraced. 


1.  i a]  EXPLETIVES  13 

Dewy  season  to  live,  siuiram  is  derived  from  (the  root)  «r  (to  crush), 
or  turn  (to  put  an  end  to). 

He  emitted  it  for  pressing ; l  i.  c.  he  created  it  for  pressing  (the  soma- 
juice). 

May  our  hymns  make  him  grow.*  May  our  hymns,  i.  e.  songs  of  praise, 
make  him  grow.  Giras  (songs)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  gr  (to  speak). 

This  person,  whom  thou  approachest,  }s  for  thee.3    Thine  is  this  man 
whom  thou  approachest.     lua  is  also  usdd  (as  an  expletive),  as  'they  all 
knew  it  well ',  and  '  they  both  knew  it  \yell '.     Moreover  the  word  na  is 
combined  with  id.  in  (the  sense  of)  '  apprehension  '. 
(Here  enda  .tie  tenth  section.) 

With  oblations  some  .seek  heaven  from  this  world  ;  others  press  stfma- 
juices  in  sacrifices.  The  pure  rejoice  indeed  with  their  rewards  :  pursuing 
crooked  ways,  lest  we  should  fall  into  hell.4 

Hell  is  going  downwards,  i.  e.  falling  lower  and  lower  ;  or  it  does  not 
contain  even  slight  room  for  happiness.  Moreover  the  words  iw.  ca  are 
joined  with  the  word  id,  in  interrogation,  as  'do- they  not  drink  wine?' 
Surd  (wine)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  -sw,  (to  press).  Thus  they  are  used 
in  various  meanings,  to  which  attention  should  be  paid.5 
(Here  end*  tJte  eleventh  section.) 

With  these  words,  the  four  word-classes,  i.  e.  the  noun  and  the  verb, 
prepositions  and  particles,  are  explained  in  their  (respective)  order.  With 
reference  to  this,  6akatayana  holds  that  nouns  are  derived  from  verbs. 
This,  too,  is  the  doctrine  of  the  etymologists.6  '  Not  all,'  say  Gargj'a  and 

1  i.  9.  2;  AVi  20.  71.  8.  vet,  aha,  ha,  kila,  &c. ;   (3)  expletives,  kam,  im, 

2  viii.  13.  18.  id,   u,  &c.      Cf.    Patafijali,   op.  tit.   i.   1.  6.; 

3  i.  #0.   4;    AV.  20.   45.  1;    SV.    1.   183;       i.    4.    4,    vol.   i,   pp.  94,  340-1;     Professor 

2.  949.  Macdonell,  Vedic  Grammar,  p.  429. 

4  RV.  Khila  x.  106. 1.  •  Cf.   Patafijali,  op.   cil.  iii.   3.   1,  vol.   ii, 
6  Panini  uses  the  term  uii>ata  to  denote  not      p.  138  :   '  And  the  noun  is  derived  from  the 

only    particles,    but    also  prepositions,    see  verb '  says  the  author  in  the  Nirukta.     'The 

Astadln/dyl,   i.  4.  56.      The  technical   word  noun   indeed    is    derived   from    the   verb', 

employed    by    him    for    particles    alone    is  so    say    the    etymologists,  and  the  son    of 

avijaya     (op.    cit.    i.    1.    37).      Particles    are  Sakata   in  grammar.      Among    the    gram- 

ynumm-ated  in  the  gana  called  cadayah  (op.  marians,    Sakatayana    says,   'The    noun    is 

cit.  i.  4.  57).    The  total  number  of  particles  derived    from    the    verb';    cf.    also    Breal, 

collected  in  the  list  is  195.    This,  however,  Semantics,  p.  107:     'It  comes  from  the  fact 

docs  not  include  cid  and   ki  mentioned  by  that  the  v«rb  is  the  essential  and  the  capital 

Yaska.    Of  the   195  particles,   22  only    are  part  of  our  languages,  which  serves  to  form 

explained  in  the  Nintktu  :    (1)  comparatives,  substantives  and  adjectives';   see  Moncalm, 

tro,  na,  eld,  and  nu ;    (2)  conjunctives,  ca,  a,  The    Origin    of    Thought   and    Speech,    p.    74: 


14  ARE  ALL  NOUNS  DERIVED  FROM  VERBS?          [1.  ia 

some  of  the  grammarians,  '  but  only  those,  the  accent  and  grammatical 
form  of  which  are  regular  and  which  are  accompanied  by  an  explanatory 
radical  modification.  Those  (nouns),  such  as  cow,  horse,  man,  elephant,  &c., 
are  conventional1  (terms,  and  hence  are  underivable).' 

Now,  if  all  nouns  are  derived  from  verbs,  every  person  who  performs 
a  particular  action  should  be  called  by  the  same  name,  i.e.  whosoever 
runs  on  the  road  should  be  called  'runner'  (a&va,  'horse');  whatever 
pricks  (like  needle,  &c.),  'pricker'  (trnam,  'grass').  Further,  if  all  nouns 
are  derived  from  verbs,  a  substantive  should  obtain  as  many  names  as 
the  actions  with  which  it  is  connected;  thus  a  column  should  also  be 
called  '  beam-supporter ',  and  '  that  which  rests  in  a  hole '. 

(Here  ends  the  twelfth  section.) 

Moreover,  substantives  should  be  named  according  to  the  regular  and 
correct  grammatical  form  of  a  verb,  so  that  their  meanings  may  be 
indubitable,  e.g.  purusa  (man)  should  take  the  form  of  pur!. -say  a  (city- 
dweller)  ;  aim  (horse),  of  astd  (runner) ;  triiam  (grass),  of  tardanam 
(pricker).  Further,  people  indulge  in  sophistry  with  regard  to  current 
expressions,  e.  g.  they  declare  that  earth  (prthivi  is  (so  called)  on  account 
of  being  spread  (Vprath)\  but  who  spread  it,  and  what  was  the  base? 
Again,  JSakatayana  derived  parts  of  one  word  from  different  verbs,  in 
spite  of  the  meaning  being  irrelevant,  and  of  the  explanatory  radical 
modification  being  non-existent,  e.g.  (explaining  sat-ya)  he  derived  the 
later  syllable  ya  from  the  causal  form  of  (the  root)  i  (to  go),  and  the 
former  syllable  sat  from  the  regular  form  of  (the  root)  as  (to  be).  Further, 
it  is  said  that  a  becoming  is  preceded  by  a  being,  (hence)  the  designation 
of  a  prior  (being)  from  a  posterior  (becoming)  is  not  tenable ;  consequently 
this  (theory  of  the  derivation  of  nouns  from  verbs)  is  not  tenable. 

(Here  ends  the  thirteenth  section.) 


'. . .  there  remain  in  the  end  certain  simple  The  diametrically  opposite  view,  that  names 
elements  of  human  speech — the  primordial  are  natural,  is  put  in  the  mouth  of  Cratylus 
roots — which  have  sufficed  to  provide  the  while  Socrates  takes  an  intermediate  position, 
innumerable  multitude  of  words  used  by  the  admitting  that  names  are  natural,  while  at 
human  race ' ;  Max  Muller,  Lectures  on  the  the  same  time  they  have  an  element  of  con- 
science of  language,  6th  ed.,  vol.  ii,  pp.  70,  80,  vention  also.  Some  passages  of  the  dialogue 
86  ;  cf.  also  AA.  ii.  1.  3  ;  ii.  1.  6.  relevant  to  the  controversy  are  given  in  the 
1  Plato  introduces,  in  the  Crafyft«!,  a  character  additional  notes;  see  JoweH,  Dialogues  of 
in  the  person  of  Hermogenes  who  maintains  Plato,  3rd  ed.f  vol.  i,  pp.  324,  327-8,  358,  366, 
that  names  are  conventional,  that  they  are  378. 
given  arbitrarily  and  ;-an  be  altered  at  will. 


1.15]         ARE  ALL  NOUNS  DERIVED  FROM   VERBS?  15 

As  to  (the  statement)  that  all  those  (nouns),  the  accent  and  grammatical 
form  of  which  are  regular,  and  which  are  accompanied  by  an  explanatory 
radical  modification,  are  derived,  ^we  reply  that)  in  that  case  it  is  quite 
evident.  As  to  (the  point)  that  every  person  whoever  performs  a  par- 
ticular action  should  be  called  by  the  same  name,  we  see  that  in  some 
cases  the  performers  of  the  action  do  obtain  a  common  name,  while  in 
others  they  do  not,  e.  g.  a  carpenter  or  ascetic,  enlivener,  earth-born,  Arc.1 
With  this,  the  following  objection  is  answered  as  well.  As  to  (the  point) 
that  substantives  should  be  named  in  such  a  way  that  their  meanings 
may  be  indubitable,  (we  reply  that)  there  are  words  (of  that  character), 
words  of  rare  occurrence,  i.e.  single  words  formed  by  primary  suffixes, 
as  creeper,  guest,  one  having  matted  locks,  a  wanderer,  wakeful,  one  who 
sacrifices  with  a  ladle,  <&c. /As  to  (the  objection)  that  people  indulge  in 
sophistry  with  regard  to  current  expressions,  (we  reply  that)  it  is  with 
regard  to  current  expressions  alone  that  (etymological)  examination  is 
most  desirable.  With  regard  to  '  they  declare  that  earth  (prthivi)  is 
(so  called)  on  account  of  being  spread  ( V'jyrath) :  but  who  spread  it,  and 
what  was  the  base  ? '  (we  reply  that)  it  is  indeed  broad  to  look  at,  even 
if  it  is  not  spread  by  others.  Moreover,  in  this  way  all  known  words, 
without  any  exception,  can  be  found  fault  with.  As  to  (the  point)  that 
a  certain  individual  derived  parts  of  one  word  from  different  verbs,  (we 
reply  that)  the  person  who  made  such  a  derivation  in  spite  of  the  meaning 
being  irrelevant  should  be  blamed;  it  is  the  fault  of  an  individual,  not 
of  the  science  (of  etymology). 

As  to  (the  argument)  that  the  designation  of'  a  prior  (beiny)  from 
a  poster  or  becoming  is  not  tenable,  we  see  that  in  some  cases  prior  beinga 
do  obtain  their  names  from  posterior  becomings,  but  not  in  others,  as 
'  a  woodpecker ',  '  one  having  long  locks  ',  &c.  Bllva  is  (so  called)  from 
being  supported  or  from  sprouting. 

(Here  ends  the  fourteenth  section.)2 

Moreover,  without  it  (etymology)  the  precise  meaning  of  Vedic  stanzas 
cannot  be  understood.  For  one  who  does  not  understand  the  meaning, 
a  thorough  investigation  of  accent  and  grammatical  form  is  not  possible, 

1  The  former  two,  i.e.  a  carpenter  and  an          2  Cf.  Patanjali,  op.  cit.  i.  1.  9,  vol.  i,  pp. 

ascetic,  are  examples  of  cases  where  people  176-6.    See  Introduction,  Yaska's  contribu- 

who  perform  the  same  action  get  a  common  tions  to  Etymology,  Philology,  and  Semantics; 

name;  the  latter  two  are  examples  of  cases  sects.  12-14  are  translated  rather  freely  by 

where  they  do  not  get  a  common  name,  as  Max  Miiller,  History  of  Ancient  .Snna/irft  Lfara- 

enlivener  means  the  juice  of  sugar-cane,  and  ture,  2nd  ed.,  pp.  164-8. 
earth-born  moans  the  planet  Mars. 


16  THE  KAUTSA  CONTROVERSY  [1.  15 

hence  this  science  (etymology)  is  the  complement  of  grammar  und  a  means 
of  accomplishing  one's  own  object.  *» 

'If  (the  object  of  the  science)  is  to  ascertain  the  meaning  of  Vedic 
stanzas,  it  is  useless,'  says  Kautsa, '  for  the  Vedic  stanzas  have  no  mean- 
ing ' ; l  this  is  to  be  established '  by  the  following  arguments :  propositions 
have  their  words  fixed,  their  order,  too,  is  immutably  fixed.2  Further, 
the  accomplishment  of  the  ritual  form  is  enjoined  by  the  Brahmana,3  as 
'  Spread  it  wide  ',4  and  so  he  spreads ;  '  Let  me  pour  out  ',6  and  so  he  pours 
out.  Further,  their  meaning  is  impossible,6  as  '  Save  him,  O  plant  ! ' 7  and 
while  striking,  one  declares,  '  Do  not  injure  him,  O  Axe ! ' 8  Moreover, 
their  meaning  is  contradictory,9  as  '  There  was  but  one  Rudra  and  no 
second  ',10  and  '  Rudras,  who  on  earth  are  thousands  without  number ' ; n 
'O 'Indra!  thou  art  born  without  a  foe',12  an(i  'Indra  vanquished  hundred 
armies  together'.13  Further,  one  enjoins  a  person  who  is  already  ac- 
quainted, as  '  Address  the  hymn  to-Agni  which  is  being  kindled  '.u  Besides, 
it  is  said, '  Aditi  is  everything '.  *  Aditi  is  heaven.  Aditi  is  atmosphere,15 
&c.'  will  be  explained  later  on.!G  Further,  their  meaning  is  obscure,17  as 
afmyak,1*  yadr&min,1*  jdraydyi,20  kdnukd,™  &c. 

(Here  ends  tfo  fifteenth  section.) 

Vedic  stanzas  are  signifieA&t,  because  (their)  words  are  identical  (with 
those  of  the  spoken  language).  There  is  the  Brahmana  passage :  This 
indeed  is  the  perfection  of  the  sacrifice,  that  the  prescription  of  the  form, 
that  is  to  say,  the  action  which  is  to  be  performed,  is  declared  by  a  stanza 
of  the  Rg  or  the  Yajurveda.22  '  Playing  with  their  sons  and  grandsons, 

1  Cf.  PM.  i.  2.  1.  J6  See  N.  4.  23. 

2  Op.  cit.  i.  2.  32.  "  Cf.  Patanjali,  op.  eft.  ii.  1.  1,  vol.  i,  p.  363-; 

3  Cf.  PM.  i.  2.  83.  PM.  i.  2.  38. 

4  TS.  i.  1.  8.  1 ;  vi.  2.  7.  8;  cf.  MS.  i.  1.  »;  »  The   word   occurs  once  only  in    RV.  i. 
KS.  i.  8 ;  xxxi.  7  ;  TB.  iii.  2.  8.  4.  169.  3. 

6  Cf.  VS.  2.  15.  M  The  word  occurs  once  only  in  RV.  Y.  44. 8. 
•  Cf.  PM.  i.  2.  34-5.  zo  The  word  occurs  once  only  in  RV.  vh 

7  TS.  i.  2.  1.  1.  12.  2. 

8  VS.  4.  1 ;  5.  42 ;  (>.  15.  21  The  word  occurs  once  only  in  RV.  via. 

9  Cf.  PM.  i.  2.  36.  77.  4. 

10  Cf.  TS.  i.  8.  6.  1.  22  GB.  ii.  2.  G  ;  ii.  4.  2  ;  the  passage  without 

11  VS.  16.  54.  the  words  '  or  the  Yajurveda'  is  fo,und  in 
JZ  x.  133.  2;  AV.  20.  05.  3  ;  SV.  2.  1152.  AB.  i.  4,  13,  15,  17,  &c.     Cf.  liar's  tr'ans- 
18  x.  103.  1  ;    AV.   19.  jlS.  2;    SV.  2.  1199;  lation:  « What  is  appropriate  in  iu  frpi,  is 

VS.  17.  33.  successful  in   the  sacrifice;    that  i*  to  say, 

i4  TS.  vi.  3.  7.  1;    MS.  i.  4.   11;   TB.  iii.       when  the  verse  (re  or  yaj us)  which  is  recited 

3.  7.  1 ;    &B.  i.  3.  5.  2,  3.  See  Gune,  Shan-       refers  to  the  ceremony  which  is  being  per- 

tlarkar  Comm.  Vol.,  loc.  cif.  formed.' 
18  i.  89.  10. 


1.  1 7]  THE   KAUTSA  CONTROVERSY  17 

&C.'1  As  to  (the  objection)  that  propositions  have  their  words  fixed, 
their  order  too  is  immutably  fixed,  (we  reply)  that  it  is  the  same  with 
regard  to  the  everyday  speech  of  the  world,  as  '  Indra  and  Agni ',  '  father 
and  son'.2  As  to  (the  objection)  that  the  accomplishment  of  the  ritual 
form  is  enjoined  by  the  Brahmana,  (we  reply)  that  this  is  a  mere  reiteration 
of  what  has  been  said  already.  As  to  (the  objection)  that  their  meaning 
is  impossible,  (we  reply)  that  no  injury  is  to  be  inflicted,  so  it  must  be 
understood  by  the  authority  of  the  Vedic  passage.  As  to  (the  objection) 
that  their  meaning  is  contradictory,  (we  reply)  that  the  same  (objection) 
is  applicable  to  the  everyday  speech  of  the  world,  as  'this  Brahmana 
has  no  rival',  'this  king  has  no  enemies',  &c.  As  to  (the  objection) 
that  one  enjoins  a  person  who  is  already  acquainted,  (we-  reply)  that  in 
salutation  a  person  announces  his  name  to  one  who  is  already  acquainted 
with  it;  the  mixture  of  honey  and  milk  is  declared  (to  the  guest)  who 
is  already  acquainted  with  it.  .As  to  (the  objection)  that  Aditi  is  every- 
thing, (we  reply)  that  it  is  the  same  in  the  everyday  speech  of  the  world, 
as  '  all  fluids  reside  in  water  '.3  As  to  (the  objection)  that  their  meaning 
is  obscure,  (we  reply)  that  it  is  not  the  fault  of  the  post  if  the  blind  man 
does  not  see  it ;  it  is  the  fault  of  the  man  himself.  Just  as  among  the 
country-folk  a  man  becomes  distinguished  with  (a  little)  knowledge,  so 
among  the  scholars  of  the  traditional  Vedic  lore  a  man  of  profound 
knowledge  alone  is  worthy  of  praised 

(Here  ends  the  sixteenth  section.) 


Moreover,  without  this  (etymology)  the  word-division  is  not  possible. 

Be  merciful,  O  Rudra,  to  the  footed  wanderer.5 

The  footed  wanderer,  i.  e.  cows,  provision  for  the  journey :  (avasdya) 
is  derived  from  (the  root)  av,  meaning  to  go,  with  the  suffix  asa\  it  is 
therefore  not  analysed  (in  the  Padap&tha). 

Having  released  the  horses.6 

Here  (ava-saya  is  derived  from  the  root)  so  preceded  by  the  preposition 
(ava) ;  in  the  sense  of  releasing  it  is  therefore  analysed. 

1  x.  85.  42;    AV.    14.    1.   22;    this  is  an  that  water  is  the  source  of  all  fluids,  hence 

example  of  the  identity  of  words  of  Vedic  all  fluids  are  contained  within  water, 

stanzas  with  those  of  classical  Sanskrit.  4  See  Introduction,  Early  anti-Vedic  Scep- 

*  i.e.  The  order  of  words  in  these  idiomatic  ticism  ;    a   summary   of  the   controversy  i» 

phrases  cannot  be  reversed,  e.g.  it  will  be  given  by  Muir,  op.  cit.  vol.  ii,  pp.  169-72. 

wrong  to  say,  'Agni  and  Indra' ;  'son  and  5  x.  169.  1. 

father'.  c  i.  104.  1. 

1  Durga's  explanation   of  the  example  is 

B 


18  IMPORTANCE  OF  ETYMOLOGY  [1.17 

Here  has  come  this  messenger  of  death.1 

(Nirrtyd)  is  either  in  the  ablative  or  in  the  genitive  case,  (so  it  is 
written  in  the  Padapdtha)  as  ending  in  the  visarjaniya  (=nirrtydh). 

Far,  far  away  call  for  death.2 

Here  (nirrtyd)  is  in  the  dative  case,  (so  it  is  written  in  the  Padapdtka) 
as  ending  in  ai  (  =  nirvtyai). 

Samhitd  is  the  closest  conjunction  by  means  of  euphonic  combination.3 
Samhitd  is  based  on  the  original  form  of  words.4  The  phonetic  treatises 
of  all  schools  are  based  on  the  original  form  of  words. 

Moreover,  in  the  sacrificial  act,  there  are  many  injunctions  with  regard 
to  the  characteristics  of  deities.  This  is  to  be  established  by  the  following. 
Should  some  people  say,  'We  here  know  the  characteristic  marks"'  (of 
deities,  we  need  not  therefore  study  etymology/  set  before  them  the 
following  stanza). 

Like  Indra,  like  Vayu,  the  gods  fill  thee  with  strength.6 
Here  is  the  characteristic  mark  of  Indra  and  Vayu  in  a  stanza  addressed 
to  Agni. 

Shining  like  Agni,  O  Manyu !   be  strong.7 

Similarly  (the  characteristic  mark  of)  Agni  (is  found)  in  a  stanza 
addressed  to  Manyu.8  Tvisitah  means  shining.  Of  this  word  (the  part) 
tvisih  is  a  synonym  of  light. 

Moreover,  there  is  praise  of  knowledge  and  censure  of  ignorance. 

(Here  ends  the  seventeenth  section.) 


He  is  the  bearer  of  a  burden  only, — ;the  blockhead  who,  having  studied, 
does  not  understand  the  meaning  of  the  Veda.  But  he  who  knows  the 
meaning  obtains  all  good  fortune  and,  with  his  sins  purged  off  by  know- 
ledge>  attains  heaven.9 

Whatever  is  learnt  without  its  being  understood  is  called  mere 
cramming;  like  dry  logs  of  wood  on  an  extinguished  fire,  it  can  never 
illuminate.10 

1  x.  165.  1 ;  AV.  6.  27.  1.  «  vi.  4.  7  ;  VS.  83.  13. 

2  x.  164.  1 ;  AV.  20.  96.  23.  7  x.  84.  2 ;  AV.  4.  31.  2. 

8  Quoted  by  Panini,  op.  cit.  i.  4.  109 ;    cf.  *  The  meaning  is  that  etymology  helps  to 

Patafijali,  op.  cit.  i.  4.  4,  vol.  i,  p.  354.  discover  the  principal  deity  to  whom  a  stanza 

*  Identical  with  RP.  ii.  1.  105,  except  that  is  addressed.    This  cannot  be  found  out  by 

the  order  of  words  is  reversed.  the  knowledge  of  the   characteristic  mark 

5  The  sentence  is  incomplete,  abrupt,  and  only  as  in  the  cases  adduced  by  Yaska. 

obscure,  very  unlike  the  style  of  Yaska.    The  '  Samhitopanisad  B.  3. 

meaning  has  to  be  completed  by  an  additional  10  Loc.  cit.  quoted  with  the  variant  adhlfam 

clause  put  within  brackets.  by  Patanjali,  op.  cit.  i.  1.  1,  vol.  i,  p.  2. 


1.  20]  PRAISE   OF  KNOWLEDGE  19 

Sthdnuh  (post)  is  derived  from  (the  ^root)  sthd  (to  stand).  Artha, 
(meaning)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ar  (to  go),  or  it  is  (so  called  because) 
it  stops  from  going.1 

(Here  ends  the  eighteenth  section.) 

Seeing  one  does  not  see  speech,  hearing  one  does  not  hear  it.  And 
to  another  she  yielded  her  body  like  a  well-dressed  and  loving  wife  to  her 
husband.2 

Even  seeing,  one  does  not  see  speech;  even  hearing,  one  does  not 
hear  it.  With  these  words,  the  hemistich  describes  the  ignorant  man. 
'  And  to  another  she  yielded  her  body ',  she  reveals  herself,  i.  e.  knowledge ; 
the  manifestation  of  meaning  (is  described)  by  this  speech,  i.  e.  the  third 
verse.  Like  a  well-dressed  and  loving  wife  to  her  husband  [well  dressed 
at  proper  seasons,  dressed  in  an  auspicious  manner,  and  loving],3  i.  e.  just 
as  he  (the  husband)  sees  her  and  hears  her  at  proper  seasons  :  this  is 
the  praise  of  one  who  understands  the  meaning.4  The  stanza  following 
this  explains  it  still  more  (explicitly). 

(Here  ends  the  nineteenth  section.) 

They  certainly  declare  one  to  be  steadfast  in  friendship,  him  no  one 
can  overpower  in  conflicts  (of  debates).  But  that  man  wanders  with 
a  barren  delusion ;  he  listened  to  speech  that  is  without  fruit  or  flower.5 

Indeed,  they  declare  one  to  be  steadfast  in  friendship  with  speech, 
i.  e.  taking  delight  in  it,  and  having  thoroughly  understood  the  meaning, 
or  in  friendship  with  gods  in  a  delightful  place ;  they  do  not  overpower 
him,  who  knows  the  meaning  well,  even  in  powerful  debates.  But  that 
man  wanders  with  a  barren  delusion,  i.  e.  with  a  symbol  of  speech.  To 
him  (speech)  does  not  grant  desires,  which  are  to  be  granted  by  speech. 
Who  heard  speech  without  fruit  or  flower  in  the  abodes  of  gods  and  men, 
for  that  man  speech  has  no  fruit  nor  flower,  or  lias  very  little  fruit  or 
flower.  The  meaning  of  speech  is  called  its  fruit  and  flower.  Or  the 
sacrificial  stanzas,  and  stanzas  addressed  to  deities,  or  the  deity  and  the 
soul  are  its  fruit  and  flower.6 

1  Durga  takes  artfia  in  the  sense  of  wealth,  bearing  a  load  of  sandal- wood,  who  perceives 

and    explains    the    two  derivations    as    (1)  its  weight  but  not  its  fragrance, 

wealth  is  approached  by  greedy  people,  (2)  8  x.  71.  4 ;  cf.  N.  1.  8. 

wealth  stops  from  going  with  the  deceased  3  The  passage  within   square  brackets  is 

person  to  the  next  world.     Durga's  explana-  omitted  by  MSS.  of  the  shorter  recension 

tion  of  ariha  does  not  suit  the  context,  which  and  Durga. 

here  denotes  '  meaning '  or  '  knowledge '.    By  4  The  whole  section  is  quoted  by  Patanjali, 

sthtind  Durga  understands  an  ass.    A  person  op.  cit.  i.  1.  1,  vol.  i,  p.  4. 

who  commits  Vedic  texts  to  memory  with-  5  x.  71.  5 ;  cf.  N.  1.  8. 

out  understanding  is  compared    to  an   ass  6  Gf.  Muir,  op.  cit.  vol.  i,  p.  255. 

B2 


20  COMPILATION  OF  THE  NIGHANTU  [1.  ao 

Seers  had  direct  intuitive  insight  into  duty.  They  by  oral  instruction 
handed  down  the  hymns  to  later  generations  who  were  destitute  of  the 
direct  intuitive  insight.  The  later  generations,  declining  in  (power  of) 
oral  communication,  compiled  this  work,  the  Veda,  and  the  auxiliary  Vedic 
treatises,  in  order  to  compreheAd  their  meaning.  BUma  =  bhilma  (division) 
or  illustration.1 

So  many  roots  have  the  same  meaning.  Dhatuh  (root)  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  dhd  (to  put).  So  many  are  the  synonyms  of  this  substan- 
tive. This  is  the  homonym  of  so  many  meanings.  This  name  of  a  deity 
is  incidental,  the  other  is  primary.  With  reference  to  this,  the  (name) 
which  occurs  in  a  stanza  addressed  to  another  deity  is  called  incidental.2 
(We  adore)  thee  like  a  horse  with, long  hair.3 

(We  adore)  thee  like  a  horse  that  has  long  hair.  Long  hair  is  for 
warding  off  the  gad-flies.  Damsa  (gad-fly)  is  derived  from  (the  root) 
dams  (to  bite). 

like  a  fierce  animal,  roaming  everywhere,  haunting  the  mountains.4 

As  a  fierce  animal  roaming  everywhere,  haunting  the  mountains. 
Mrgah  (animal)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  mrj,  meaning  to  go.  Fierce,  of 
whom  all  are  afraid.  *  Dreadful '  is  derived  from  the  same  root  also. 
Ku-carah  means  'one  who  moves  in  a  crooked  manner '.  If  it  be  an  epithet 
of  a  deity  (it  means) '  where  does  he  not  go  ? '  Haunting  the  mountains, 
li ving  in  mountains.  Oirih  means  a  mountain :  it  is  raised  up.  Parvata 
(mountain)  is  (so  called)  because  it  has  joints  (parva).  But  parva  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  pr  (to  fill),  or  from  prl  (to  propitiate).  Here,  during 
a  period  of  a  fortnight,  they  propitiate  the  gods.  It  (mountain)  is  (so  called) 
on  account  of  the  similarity  of  the  joints  of  the  nature  of  the  other 
(period).5  Seated  on  a  cloud.  A  cloud  is  called  mountain  from  the  same 
reason  (i.e.  from  its  being  raised).^  The  section  which  deals  with  the 
appellations  of  deities  to  whom  panegyrics  are  primarily  addressed  is 
called  the  daivata ;  this  we  shall  explain  later  on,  but  the  synonyms  and 
homonyms  now. 

(Here  ends  the  twentieth  section.) 


1  'Cf.  Muir,  op.  cit.  vol.  ii,  p.  165 ;  vol.  Hi,          6  According  to  Durga,  a    mountain   Las 
p.  118.  joints  in  the  form  of  stone  slabs,  and  a  period 

2  Cf.  Brh.  D.  i,  18.  has  joints  in  the  form  of  time  with  its  various 

3  i.  27.  1 ;  SV.  1.  17  ;  2.  984.  divisions.    Cf.  Muir,  op.  cit.  vol.  iv,  p.  69. 

4  i.  164.  2  ;  x.  182.  2. 


2.1] 


PRINCIPLES  OF  ETYMOLOGY 


21 


CHAPTEB  II 

Now  (we  shall  deal  with)  etymology.  With  reference  to  this,  the  words, 
the  accent  and  the  grammatical  form  of  which  are  regular  and  are  accom- 
panied by  an  explanatory  radical  modification,  should  be  derived  in  the 
ordinary  manner.  i3ut  the  meaning  being  irrelevant,  and  the  explanatory 
radical  modification  being  non-existent,  one  should  always  examine  them 
with  regard  to  their  meaning,  by  the  analogy  of  some  (common)  course  of 
action.  If  there  be  no  (such)  analogy,  one  should  explain  them  even  by 
the  community  of  a  (single)  syijable  or  letter ; l  but  one  should  never  (give 
up  the  attempt  at)  derivation.  One  should  not  attach  (too  much)  importance 
to  the  grammatical  form,  for  tllese  complex  formations  (w'ttayah)  are  (often) 
subject  to  exceptions.  One  should  interpret  inflected  cases  according  to 
the  meaning.  In  prattam  (=  pra-dattam,  'given  away')  and  avattam 
{ =  ava-dattam  from  ava  */do,  '  divided ')  only  the  initial  parts  of  the  root 
survive.  Further,  there  is  aphaeresis  of  the  initial  part  of  the  verb  Us 
(to  be)  in  weak  forms,  as  stah  ('they  two  are'),  santi  ('they  all  are'),  &c. 
Further,  there  is  elision  of  the  final  part,  as  in  gatvd  (from  Vgam, '  having 
gone '),  yatam  (Vyam,  'gone'),  &c.  Further,  there  is  elision  of  the  pen- 
ultimate, as  in  jagmatuh  (red.  form  of  gam, '  they  two  went '),  and  jagmuh 
(red.  form  of  gam, '  they  all  went  *).2  Moreover,  there  is  the  modification  of 
the  penultimate,  as  in  raja  (rdjan, '  king '),  dandl  (dandin,  a  *  staff-bearer '), 
&c.  Further,  there  is  elision  of  a  letter,  as  in  tatvd  ydmi  (=  tatvd 
ydcami),  &c. 

Moreover,  there  is  elision  of  two  letters,  as  in  trca  ( =  tri  +  rca, '  three 
stanzas ').  Further,  there  is  alteration  in  the  initial  part  (of  the  root),  as  in 
jyotih  ( Vdynl, '  light '),  ghanah  ( </han, l  killer '),  binduh  ( i/bhid, '  a  drop '), 
batyah  (\/bkat,  'to  be  hired  or  nourished'),  &c.  Further,  there  is  meta- 
thesis, as  in  stokak  (from  Vscut,  'a  drop'),  rajjiih3  ('rope'),  vikatdh* 

1  Cf.  Jowett,  Dialogues  of  Plato  (3rd  ed.), 
vol.  i,  p.  335  ;  the  Cratylus,  393 :  'And  whether 
the  syllables  of  the  name  are  the  same  or  not 
the  same  makes  no  difference  provided  the 
meaning  is  retained  ;  nor  does  the  addition 
or  subtraction  of  a  letter  make  any  difference 
so  long  as  the  essence  of  the  thing  remains 
in  possession  of  the  name  and  appears  in  it.* 
Also  p.  341,  Soc.  'Now  attend  . .  .  and  just 
remember  that  we  often  put  in  and  pull  out 
letters  in  words  and  give  names  as  we  please 
and  change  the  accents.'  And  p.  358,  Soc. 
.  .  .  '  but  then  you  know  that  the  original 


names  have  been  long  ago  buried  and  dis- 
guised by  people  sticking  on  and  stripping 
off  letters  for  the  sake  of  euphony,  and 
twisting  and  bedizening  them  in  all  sorts  of 
ways . . .'  Durga  paraphrases  akxara  (syllable) 
by  svara  (accent). 

2  Cf.  Patanjali,  op.  cit.  vi.  1. 1,  vol.  iii,p.  17. 

3  Durga  derives  rajjufy  from  ^srj,  but  it  is 
more  likely  to  be  derived  from  ^rasj. 

4  Durga    derives    sticata    from    */kas,    '  to 
shine ',  but  it  is  more  probably  derived  from 
Vsik  or  -v/sic;   cf.  Patafijali,  op.  cit.  i.  1.  2, 
vol.  i,  p.  81. 


22  PRINCIPLES  OF  ETYMOLOGY  [2.  i 

('  sand '),  tarku  ( */krt,  '  a  knife ').    Further,  there  is  change  in  the  final  part 
(of  the  root).1 

(Here  ends  the  first  section.) 

Oghah  (Vvah,  'flood'),  meghah  (Vmih,  'cloud'),  nddhah*  ('refuge'), 
gddhah  (*/gdh, '  fordable'),  Vadhuh  ( </vah, '  bride'),  madhu  ( V ' Triad, '  mead'}. 
Further,  there  is  anaptyxis,  as  in  dsthat  (V««,  'to  throw'),  dvdrah  (Virr, 
'door'),  bharujd  ( Vbhrajj,  ' ripe '.  D.),  &o  With  reference  to  this,  it  is 
pointed  out  that  when  a  root  contains  a  semi- vowel  contiguous  to  a  vowel 
it  becomes  the  origin  of  two  primary  bases.  There,  if  an  accomplished 
form  is  not  derivable  from  one  base,  one  should  try  to  derive  it  from  the 
other.  Even  there,  some  are  of  rare  occurrence,  as  utih  (-/av,  *  protection '), 
mrduk  (Vmrad,  'soft'),  prthuh  (^pjeath,  'broad'),  prsatah  (V'prua,  'a 
drop '),  kunarum  ( </kvan, '  sounding ').  Further,  Vedic  primary  nouns  are 
derived  from  roots  of  classical  Sanskrit,  as  damundh  (devoted  to  the 
house),  ksetrasddhdh  (one  who  divides  the  fields),  &c. ;  and  also  nouns  of 
classical  Sanskrit  from  Vedic  roots,  as  usnam  (werm),  ghrtam  (clarified 
butter).3  Further,  primary  forms  alone  are  employed  (in  speech)  among 
some  people ;  secondary  forms  among  others.  The  verb  savati,  meaning  to 
go,  is  used  by  the  Kambojas  only.  Kambojas  (are  so  called  becar.se)  they 
enjoy  blankets  (kambala),  or  beautiful  things.4  A  blanket  (kambala)  is 
a  desirable  object  (kamanlya).  Its  modified  form  vava  is  used  by  the 
Aryans :  ddti,  in  the  sense  to  cut,  is  employed  by  the  people  of  the  east, 
while  the  people  of  the  north  use  ddtra  (sickle).5  In  this  manner,  one 
should  explain  single  words. 

Now  with  regard  to  derivatives  and  compounds,  whether  of  one  or  more 
than  one  member,  one  should  explain  their  component  parts  in  their 
respective  order,  having  first  divided  (the  words)  into  them.6  Punishable, 
L  e.  a  person  [a  person  of  punishment]  deserving  punishment,  or  something 
to  be  accomplished  by  punishment  Danda  (punishment)  is  derived  from 

1  For  the  detailed    examination    of   tide  is   unjustified;    see   Sanskrit    Texts,   vol.    ii, 

section,  see  Introduction,  Yaska's  Contribu-  p.  856. 
vions,  &c.              ,  *  Roth  denies  the  correctness  of  Yaska's 

1  Durga  derives  nddhah    from    \'nah    (to  utatement   that  the  Aryans   use    fava    (see 

bind),  but  it  is  probably  from  VnddA;    cf.  Brl&uttntngen,  p.  17).    His  denial  is,  however, 

nadhamandh.          '  groundless,  because  Yaska  is  corroborated  by 

3  Cf.  Muir,  Sanskrit  Texts,  vol.  ii,  p.  152.  a  grammarian  of  such  eminence  as  Patafijali 

4  The  sentence  is  omitted  by  Muir  in  his  (sa«   the   Mahabhdsya,  i.    1.  1,  vol.   i,  p.  9). 
translation  as  if  it  did  not  exist.     As  it  is  The  passage  in  the  MB.  is  almost  identical 
given  by  MSS.  of  both  recessions  and  ex-  with  the  Nirukta. 

plained  by  Durga,  it  cannot  be  regarded  as  •  Cf.  Jowett,  Dialogues  of  Plato  (3rd  ed.), 

an  interpolation,  hence  its  omission  by  Muir       vol.  i,  pp.  368,  370,  Soc.   <  But  the  secondary, 


2.3]  PRINCIPLES  OF  ETYMOLOGY  23 

(the  root)  dad,  meaning  to  hold.  People  say,  '  Akrura  holds  the  jewel  '.l 
'  The  word  (danda)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  dam,'  says  Aupamanyava. 
'  Inflict  punishment  on  him  '  is  (used)  in  censure.  Kaksyd  means  girth  of 
a  horse :  it  is  carried  round  the  region  of  girth.  Kaksah  (armpit)  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  gdh  (to  plunge  into)  with  the  suffix  ksa,  or  from 
khyd  (to  make  known)  with  redundant  reduplication :  what  is  there  worth 
seeing  1  Or  it  (may  be  derived)  from  kas  *  (to  rub  against).  On  account 
of  this 3  analogy  (i.  e.  of  being  rubbed)  it  means  '  human  armpit ',  and  on 
account  of  the  analogy  of  the  arms  and  their  root,  the  word  (signifies  arm- 
pit) of  a  horse. 

(Here  ends  the  second  section.) 

Royal  servant,  a  servant  of  the  king.  Raja  (king)  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  raj  (to  shine).  Purusah  (person)  =  puri-sddah  (one  who  sits  in  a 
city),  or  =  puri-vayah  (one  who  sleeps  in  a  city),  or  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  pr  (to  fill),  i.  e.  he  fills  the  interior,  with  reference  to  the  inner  soul. 

This  entire  (universe)  is  filled  by  that  inner  soul,  to  whom  there  is 
nothing  anterior,  nothing  subsequent,  than  whom  there  is  nothing  more 
minute,  nor  more  great,  and  immovable  like  a  tree,  who  alone  lives  in 
heaven.4 

This,  too,  is  a  quotation.  Vi&eakadrdkarsa,  '  one  who  drags  about  like 
a  despicable  dog '.  The  words  vi  and  cakadra  are  used  (to  denote) '  gait  of 
a  dog  ' ;  drati  means  a  despicable  gait ;  kadrdti  means  a  despicable  drdti ; 
cakadrdti  is  the  same  as  kadrdti  with  redundant  reduplication :  he  who 
possesses  that  (kadrdti)  is  called  vticakadrah.  A  beauty  of  auspicious 
colours,  i.  e.  one  whose  beauty  is  like  that  of  auspicious  colours.  Auspicious, 
it  is  desirable.  Vartiah  (colour)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  vr  (to  cover). 
Rufjain  (beauty)  is  Derived  from  (the  root)  rue  (to  shine).  In  this  manner 
one  should  explain  derivatives  and  compounds.  One  should  not  explain 

as  I  conceive,  derive  their  significance  from  Hemacandra  ;  see  the  Nirukta  in  Bib.Ind.  ed., 

the  primary.'  vol.  ii,  p.  164,  foot-note. 

Soc.  .  . .  « Ought  we  not,  thereforo,  first  to  2  Durga  remarks  that  an  armpit  always 

separate  the  letters,  just  as  those  who  are  itches,   because   it    is    full    of   perspiration, 

beginning  rhythm  first  distinguish  the  powers  hence  it  is  constantly  rubbed  and  may  be 

of  elementary,  and  then  of  compound  sounds?'  appropriately  derived  from  the  root  kcu  'to 

Soc.  .  .  .  4  Must  we  not  begin  in  the  same  rub '. 

way  with  letters,  first  separating  the  vowels,  3  By  tat  Durga  understands  the  armpit  of 

and   then   the  consonants    and   mutes  into  a  woman.     His   explanation  that  from  the 

classes,  according  to  the  received  distinctions  analogy  of  the  armpit  of  a  woman  the  word 

of  the  learned  ? '     Cf.  Brh.  D.  ii.  106.  kakta  moans  the  armpit  of  a  man  is  arbi- 

1  The  story  of  Akrura,  a  king,  and  a  jewel  trary. 

called  syamantaka  is  related  in  the  Mahdbharata,  *  TA.  10.  10.  3 ;  Mahan.  U.  10.  4  ;  SveU  U. 

the  Bhagavatu  and  the  Brahma  Paraxas,  and  iii.  9 ;  cf.  Muir,  op.  cit.  vol.  v,  p.  874. 


24  PRINCIPLES  OF  ETYMOLOGY  [2.3 

isolated  syllables,  either  to  a  non-grammarian,  or  to  a  non-residential  pupil, 
or  to  one  who  is  (incapable  of)  understanding  it.1  Eternal  indeed  is  the 
scorn  of  the  ignorant  for  knowledge.  But  one  should  explain  to  a  resi- 
dential pupil,  or  one  who  is  capable  of  knowing  them,  the  intelligent  and 

the  diligent. 

(Here  ends  the  third  section.) 

Verily  knowledge  approached  Brahmana,  '  Protect  me,  I  am  thy  treasure. 
Do  not  expound  me  to  the  scornful,  nor  to  the  unstraightforward,  nor  to 
one  who  has  no  self-control ;  thus  shall  I  grow  powerful.' 2 

One  should  honour  him  as  a  father  and  mother,  and  should  never  bear 
enmity  towards  him  who  pierces  ears  with  truth,  without  causing  pain, 
and  besto\\  ing  ambrosia.3 

Just  as  religious  students,  who,  having   received   instruction,  do  not- 
honour  their  teachers  with  word,  thought,  and  deed,  are  not  to  be  fed  by 
the  'teacher,  similarly  that  knowledge  does  not  feed  them. 

In  order  to  protect  thy  treasure,  O  Brahman !  expound  me  to  him  alone 
whom  thou  knowest  to  be  pure,  diligent,  intelligent,  observing  the  rules  of 
a  celibate  life,  and  who  never  bears  enmity  towards  thee.4 

tievadhi  means  treasure.  * 

(Here  ends  the  fourth  section.)5 

Now,  therefore,  we  shall  proceed  in  order.  The  word  gauh  is  a 
synonym  of  '  earth  ',  (so  called)  because  it  goes  very  far,  or  because  people 
go  over  it  (Vgam).  Or  it  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  go,  with  the 
suffix  an  (go,  +  au  =  gau).  Moreover,  it  is  a  synonym  of  '  an  animal ',  from 
the  same  root  also.  Further,  in  the  latter  meaning,  there  are  Vedic 
passages  where  primary  forms  (of  gauh)  are  used  in  a  derivative  sense : 
'  Mix  soma  with  milk  ',c  i.  e.  (gauh  is  used  in  the  sense)  of  milk.  Matsarah 
means  soma;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  mand  meaning  to  satisfy. 
Matsarah  is  a  synonym  of  greed  also:  it  makes  man  mad  a^fter  wealth. 
Pay  as  (milk)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  pa  (to  drink),  or  fr6m  pydy  (to 
swell).  Kslmm  (milk)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ksar  (to  flow),  or  jit  is 
derived  from  ghas  (to  consume)  with  the  suffix  Ira,  like  uxlra  (root  of 

1  Of.  AA.  iii.  2.  6.  from  Samhitopanitad  B.  3,  Burnell's  ed.,  pp. 

8  Cf.  Manu,  ii.  114  ;  Vasistha,  ii.8  ;  Visnu,  29-32. 

xxix.  9.  6  According  to  Roth,  the  section  in  toto  is 

8  Cf.  Manu,  ii.  144 ;  Vasistha,  ii.  10 ;  Visnu,  an  interpolation.     The  evidence  of  the  MSS. 

xxx.  47  ;  Apastamba,  i.  1.  14.  and  of  Durga  goes  against  him,  but  from  the 

*  Cf.  Manu,  ii.  115  ;  Vasistha,  ii.  9  ;  Visnu,  nature  of  its  contents  the  section  seems  to  be 

xxix.    10  j    all  the   four  stanzas  are  quoted  .  of  a  spurious  character.                6  ix.  46.  4. 


2.6]  GAUH  25 

a  plant).  'Milking  soma,  they  sit  on  a  cow-skin/1  i.e.  (gauh  is  used  in 
the  sense)  of  cow-skin  used  for  sitting  on.  Amsuh  (soma  is  so  called 
because)  no  sooner  than  it  goes  in,  it  is  agreeable,  or  it  is  agreeable  for  life. 
Carma  (skin)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  car  (to  move)  or  (it  is  so  called 
because)  it  is  cut  off  (from  the  body).  Moreover  (gauh)  means  skin  and 
phlegm :  *  Thou  art  girded  round  with  skin  and  phlegm,  be  strong ' ; 2 
this  (is  said)  in  praise  of  a  chariot.  s  Moreover,  it  means  tendon  and 
phlegm :  '  Girt  with  tendon  and  phlegm,  it  flies  when  discharged ' ; 3  this 
is  in  praise  of  an  arrow.  Bow-string  is  called  gauh  also :  if  it  be  gavyd,  it 
is  the  derivative  form ;  if  not  (it  is  causal),  i.  e.  it  sets  arrows  in  motion. 
(Here  ends  the  fifth  section.) 

On  every  strip  of  wood  twanged  the  well-strung  string:  thence  the 
men-eating  birds  flew.4 

On  every  strip  of  wood,  i.  e.  on  every  bone.  Vrksa  (tree)  is  (so  called) 
from  being  cut  down  ( Vvra&c).  [Or  it  stands  having  covered  ( Vvr)  the 
earth  ksa  (earth) ;  ksd  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ksi  meaning  to  dwell].5 
Twanged  the  well-strung  string,  i.  e.  it  makes  a  sharp  ringing  sound.  The 
(verb)  mlm  means  '  to  make  a  low  sound '.  From  thence  birds  fly  in  order 
to  eat  men.  The  word  vih  is  a  synonym^  of  bird,  and  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  m,  meaning  to  go.  Moreover,  it  is  a  synonym  of  arrow  also  from  the 
same  root.  The  sun  is  called  gauh  also.  *  Lo  that  (charioteer)  in  the  sun 
who  has  joints.' 6 

'  Having  joints  means  having  brilliance/  says  Aupamanyava.7  More- 
over, a  ray  of  the  sun  illuminates  the  moon.8  That  the  illumination  of  the 
moon  is  caused  by  the  sun  is  to  be  established  by  the  following :  Susumna 
is  the  ray  of  the  sun,  the  moon  is  the  holder.9  This,  too,  is  a  Vedic  passage. 
That  (ray)  is  called  gauh  also.  Here  indeed  they  thought  of  the  ray:10 
this  we  shall  explain  later  on.  All  the  rays  are  called  gavah  also. 

(Here  ends  the  sixth  section.) 


1  x.^94.  9.  8  This  shows  that  Yaska  was  acquainted 

2  vi.  47.  26  j  AV.  6.  125.  1 ;  cf.  N.  9.  12.  with  the  non-self-luminous  character  of  the 
8  vi.  75.  11;  VS.  29.  48;  cf.  N.  9.  12.  moon. 

4  x.  27.  22.  9  VS.    18.  40  ;   &B.  ix.  4.  1.  9.     Durga  ex- 

5  The  passage  within  square  bi-ackets  is  plains  susumna   as   '  one   who    gladdens    all 
omitted  by  the  MSS.  of  the  shorter  recension  beings '. 

and  Durga.                                    «  vi.  56.  3.  »  i.  84.  15;   AV.  20.41.  3;    SV.  1.   147; 

7  According  to  Durga,  days  and  nights  are  2.  265  ;  cf.  N.  4.  25. 
joints,  hence  the  sun  is  called  one  who  has 
joints. 


26  NIRRT1H  [2.  7 

We  desire  to  go  to  those  regions  of  you  two,  where  are  nimble  and 
many-horned  rays.  There,  indeed,  shines  forth  brightly  that  highest ^step 
of  the  wide-striding  Visnu.1 

We  long  to  go  to  those  regions  of  you  two,  where  are  rays  [many- 
horned],  having  a  large  number  of  horns.2  The  word  bhuri  is  a  synonym 
of  '  many ' ;  (so  called)  because  it  produces  much.  &rhga  (horn)  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  &ri  (to  rest,  on),  or  from  «?•  (to  slay),  or  from  sam  (to 
destroy) ;  or  (it  is  so  called  because)  it  grows  up  to  protect,  or  it  comes  out 
of  the  head.  Ayasah  means  nimble.  There  shines  forth  Brightly  the 
highest  step,  i.  e.  the  loftiest  step,  of  the  wide-striding,  i.  e.  of  the  great- 
paced,  Visnu.  Pddah  (foot)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  pud  (to  go) ;  when  it 
is  placed  down.,  (the  same  word  in  the  neuter  gender)  means  a  footstep. 
The  word  (also  signifies)  a  quarter  of  division  from  the  analogy  of  a 
quadruped  ;  and  other  quarters  from  the  analogy  of  the  pdda  of  division. 

In  like  manner,  doubts  are  entertained  with  regard  to  other  nouns  as 
well ;  (the  rule  is  that)  tlie^  aliould  be  explained  according  to  their  mean- 
ing :  if  their  meanings  are  uniform,  their  etymologies  are  uniform ;  if  their 
meanings  are  multiform,  their  etymologies  are  multiform."  With  these 
words,  the  twenty-one  synonyms  of  earth  are  dealt  with.  With  reference 
to  them,  nirrtik  (earth)  is  (so  called)  from  giving  enjoyment ;  the  other 
word  (nirrtih),  which  signifies  calamity,  is  derived  from  (the  root)  r  (to 
befall) ;  the  latter  is  confused  with  the  former ;  their  difference  (should  be 
noted).  The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  her. 

(Here  ends  the  seventh  section.) 

He,  who  made  it,  did  not  know  of  it ;  it  was  hidden  from  him  who  saw 
it.  Encompassed  within  the  womb  of  the  mother,  and  multiplying  greatly, 
he  entered  the  earth.4 

*  People  having  many  children  fall  into  calamity/  say  the  ascetics.  '  It 
refers  to  the  phenomenon  of  rain/  say  the  etymologists.  *  He  who  made 
it ' ;  the  verbs  '  to  make  '  and  '  to  scatter '  are  used  in  connexion  with  the 
phenomenon  of  rain.  He  did  not  know  of  it,  i.  e.  the  middle  one.5  He,  the 
middle  one,  who  saw  it  concealed  by  the  sun,  alone  knew  of  it.0  In  the 
womb  of  the  mother :  mother  (matd)  means  atmosphere ;  in  it,  the  beings 
are  measured  out  (nir  </ma).  Womb  means  atmosphere :  this  is  a  vast 

1  i.  164.  6;   cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  Vedic  words  of  the  same  origin  different  meanings; 

Raider,  p.  35.  see  Introduction,  Yaska'.s  Contributions,  &c. 

a  Cf.  Muir,  op.  crt.,  vol.  iv,  pp.  73,  74.  «  i.  164.  32 ;  AV.  9.  10.  10. 

9  In  criticism  of  this  rule,  it  may  be  re-  •  According  to  Durga,  it  refers  to  cloud, 

marked  that  words  of  different  origin  often  G  i.  e.  Indra  alone  knew  of  it.     Durga. 
come    to  acquire    the    same    meaning,    and 


2.  IQ]  6AKAPUNI  AND  A  DEITY  27 

region  encompassed  by  air.  This  other  (meaning,  i.  e.)  a  woman's  womb,  is 
derived  from  the  same  root  also :  it  is  surrounded.1  Multiplying  greatly, 
fie  reaches  earth  through  the  phenomenon  of  rain.2 

Sakapuni 3  made  the  determination  that  he  would  know  all  the  deities. 
A  deity  having  the  two  characteristics 4  appeared  before  him.     He  did  not 
know  her;  he  said  to  her,  '  I  would  like  to  know  thee '.    She  referred  hin 
to  the  following  stanza,  with  the  words  that  it  was  addressed  to  her. 
(Here  ends  the  eighth  section.) 

Here  he  snorts,  covered  by  whom  the  speech,  resting  on  a  spluttering 
(cloud),  utters  a  lowing  sound.  She  indeed  frightened  the  mortal  with  her 
(thltfedering)  actions ;  becoming  lightning,  she  concealed  her  form.5 

He  IB  he  thunders,  surrounded  by  whom  the  speech  utters  a  lowing  sound, 
i.e.  makes  a  noise,  or  (utters  a  lowing  sound)  like  niayu,  i.e.  the  sun.c  This 
is  the  almosphefic  speech.  Resting  on  a  spluttering 7  cloud,  she  frightens  the 
mortal  with  her  (thundiww^g)  actions,8  deeds,  and,  becoming  lightning,  con- 
ceals her  form.9  The  word  vavrih  is  a  synonym  of  form :  because  it  covers 
(Vvr,  to  cover).  Having  overspread  the  earth  with  rain,  it  draws  it  back 

again. 

(Here  ends  the  ninth  section.) 

The  following  fifteen  (words)  are  synonyms  of  gold.10  From  what  (root) 
is  hiranyam  derived  ?  It  is  circulated  (hriyate)  in  a  stretched  form,11  or  it 

1  According  to  Durga  it  is  surrounded  by  5  i.  164,  29 ;  AV.  9,  10,  7. 

ainews  and  flesh.  *  The  sun  is  called  mayu,  because  lie  is  the 

8  Two  different  interpretations  of  the  word  measurer  of  all  beings  (-/wa).     Durga  thinks 

nirrtih,  (1)  as  signifying  calamity,  according  that  the  first  hemistich  describes  the  internal 

to  the  ascetics ;  (2)  as  meaning  earth,  according  thunder  of  a  cloud  which  is  yet  unmanifested. 

to  the  etymologists,  are  here  presented.  Durga  7  Cloud   is  called  spluttering,  because  it 

remarks  that  similar  differences  of  interpreta-  splutters  water.     Dhvamsani :  is  translated  as 

tion  exist  with  regard  to  other  Vedic  passages  *  Wwskt '  by  Both. 

as  well.     He  cites  dadhi-kravno  akarisam  as  to  '  Durga  thinks  this  refers  to  the  manifested 

be  recited  at  the  time  of  eating  curds  according  thunder,   which  produces  a  most   dreadful 

to  AP.  vi.  13 ;  the  same  is  also  chanted  by  sound ;   everybody  is  frightened  and  seeks 

women,  in  a  horse-sacrifice,  in  the  vicinity  shelter      Both    translates    cittibhih  by   'mil 

of  the  horse,  when  the  queen  has  risen.     He  Zischcn '. 

thinks  this  difference  of  application  of  the  '  According  to  Durga,  having  manifested 

same  stanza  is  to  be  based  on  different  inter-  herself  as  lightning  and  producing  rain,  she 

pretations  of  the  stanza,  and  points  out  the  disappears. 

importance    of   etymology    for    the    correct  10  According  to  Durga,  synonyms  of  gold 

understanding  of  the  Vedic  texts  and  hence  follow  those  of  the  earth,  because  gold,  being 

for  their  correct  application  at  sacrifices.  found  in  earth,  is  intimately  associated  with  it 

8  £aka-puni  is  explained   by  Durga  as  a  "  *• e-  In  the  form  of  ornaments,  being 

gatherer  of  herbs.  extended  in  the  form  of  beautiful  bracelets, 

4  i.  e.  Male  and  female,  or  the  atmospheric  necklaces,  Ac.     Durga. 
or  the  celestial  characteristics.    Durga. 


28  DEVAPI   AND  J&ANTANU  [2.  10 

is  circulated  from  man  to  man,1  or  it  is  useful  and  delightful,2  [or  it  is  the 
delight  of  the  heart],  or  it  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  hary,  meaning  to 
yearn  after. 

The  following  sixteen  (words)  are  synonyms  of  atmosphere.  From  what 
(root)  is  anfariksam  derived  ?  It  is  intermediate  (a-ntara,  i.e.  between  heaven 
and  earth) ;  it  is  the  end  of  the  earth ;  or  it  lies  between  these  two  (i.e.  heaven 
and  earth),  or  it  is  imperishable  in  the  bodies.  With  reference  to  this,  the 
word  sumudra  (atmosphere)  is  confused  with  samudra  (which  means  terres- 
trial ocean).  From  what  (root)  is  samudra  derived  ?  From  it  waters  flow 
up  (sam  +  ud  +  Vdru),  or  waters  flow  towards  it  (sam  +  abhi  +  Vdru), 
beings  take  delight  in  it,  or  it  is  a  great  reservoir  of  water,  or  it  moistens 
thoroughly  (samVud).  Their  difference  (should  be  noted).  With  rfifcrunci1- 
to  this,  they  relate  (the  following)  legend:3  Devapl  and  6antanu,  sons  ot 
Rstisena,  were  two  brothers,  who  belonged  to  the  clan  of  the  Kurus.  Sautanu, 
the  younger  brother,  caused  himself  to  be  installed  as  king.  Do vapi  retired 
to  practise  austerities.  From  that  time  the  god  did  not  rain  for  twelve 
years  in  the  kingdom  of  6antanu.  The  Brahmanas  said  to  him,  '  Thou  hast 
committed  (an  act  of)  unrighteousness.  Because  thou  hast  caused  thyself 
to  be  installed  as  king,  having  put  thy  elder  brother  aside,  therefore  the 
god  does  not  rain  in  thy  kingdom/  Then  he,  i.e.  Santanu.  sought  to  invest 
Devapi  with  sovereignty.  To  him  said  Devapi,  '  Let  me  be  thy  priest  and 
sacrifice  for  thee  '.4  Here  is  his  hymn  expressing  a  desire  for  rain.5  The 
following  is  a  stanza  of  this  hymn. 

(Here  eiids  the  tenth  section.) 

The  seer  Devapi,  son  of  Rstisena,  acting  as  the  performing  priest,  knew 
(how  to  obtain)  the  goodwill  of  the  gods.  He  caused  the  divine  waters  to 
flow  from  the  upper  to  the  lower  ocean  by  means  of  rain.6 

Arstisenah  means  the  son  of  Rstisena  (i.  e.  one  whose  army  is  well  supplied 
with  spears),  or  of  Isita-sena  (i.  e.  one  whose  army  is  mobilized).  Army  is 
(so  called  because)  it  has  a  commander,  or  a  uniform  mode  of  marching. 

1  i.e.  In  the  form  of  coins.   Durga  remarks :      bharata  and  many  Puranas ;  see  Muir,  op.  tit. 
tena  hi  vyavahdrah  kriyate ;  this  shows  that  there       vol.  i,  pp.  271-8. 

was  gold  currency  in  Yaska's  time.  *  This  shows  that  the  different  castes  were 

2  '  Even    a  mouse ',    says    Durga,    '  enjoys  not  divided  into  water-tight  compartments 
itself,  if  it  possesses  gold,  how  much  more  by  a  rigid  barrier  of  mutual  exclusiyeness. 
a  human  being ! '  Here  we  find  a  Ksatriya,  acting  as  a  priest, 

3  The  story  is  also  related  in  Brh.  D.  vii.  so  the  promotion  from  one  to  the  other  was 
155-7 ;  viii.  1-7  ;   see  Professor  Macdonell's  not  infrequent. 

note  in  his  edition,  vol.  ii,  p.  292 ;  cf.  Sieg,  5  Cf.  Muir,  op.  tit.  vol.  i,  pp.  269,  270. 

Sagenstqffe  des  Rgveda,  pp.  129-1 42.   The  story  is  6  x.  98.  5. 

also  found  in  different  versions  in  the  Maha- 


2.13] 


DEVAPI  AND  SANTANU 


Putra  (son) :  either  he  very  much  protects  by  offering  (sacrificial  cakes,  &c.) ; 
or  put  being  (the  name  of)  a  hell,  he  (the  son)  saves  one  from  that.1  The 
seer,2  acting  as  the  performing  priest.  A  seer  is  (so  called)  from  his  having 
vision.  'He  saw  the  hymns,'  says  Aupamanyava.  It  is  known:  because  the 
self-born  Brahma  manifested  himself  to  them  while  practising  austerities, 
they  became  seers ;  that  is  the  characteristic  of  the  seers."  Devapi,  one  who 
knew,  i.e.  was  aware  of  (how  to  obtain)  the  goodwill  of  the  gods,  i.e.  the 
blessed  will  of  the  gods,  by  songs,  praise,  and  gifts  to  the  gods.  From  the 
upper  to  the  lower  ocean :  upper,  raised  much  higher ;  lower,  moving  below 
(the  ground).  Adhah  (below),  i.e.  it  does  not  run ;  with  this  word  its  up- 
ward motion  is  denied.  The  stanza  following  this  explains  this  much  more. 
(Here  ends  the  eleventh  section.) 

When  Devapi,  domestic  chaplain  to  6antanu,  and  selected  to  be  the  per- 
forming priest,  imploring  kindled  fire,  the  generous  Brhaspati  granted  him 
speech,  which  was  heard  by  the  gods,  and  which  was  the  winner  of  rain.4 

&an-tanu  means,  peace  to  thee,  O  body,  or  peace  to  him  in  his  body. 
Domestic  chaplain  is  (so  called' because)  they  place  him  in  front.5  Selected  to 
be  the  performing  priest,  (he)  imploring  kindled  fire.  Which  was  heard 
by  the  gods,  i.e.  which  the  gods  hear.  [Which  was  the  winner  of  rain], 
i.e.  requesting  rain.  Rardna  (generous)  is  a  reduplicated  form  of  rd 
(to  give).  Brhaspati  was  Brahma ;  he  granted  him  speech.  Brhat  has  been 
fully  explained  (i.  7;  cp.  x.  \1). 

(Here  ends  the  twelfth  section.) 

The  following  six  (words)  are  common  (synonyms)  of  sky  and  sun. 
Those  which  primarily  belong  to  the  sun  will  be  explained  by  us  later  on.c 
From  what  (root)  is  dditya  derived  ?  He  takes  the  fluids,  he  takes  (i.  e. 
eclipses)  the  light  of  the  luminaries,7  or  he  blazes  with  lustre,  or  he  is  the 
son  of  Aditi ;  this  last  (epithet)  however  is  rarely  applied  to  him  in  the  text 
of  the  Rgveda,  and  he  has  only  one  hymn  addressed 8  (under  this  epithet). 

The  sun,  son  of  Aditi,9  [i.e.  the  son  of  Aditi].     In  like  manner,  there 


1  Cf.  Manu,  ix.  138 ;  Visnu,  xv.  44. 

2  Cf.  the  Ramayana,  i.  8.  8-7,  quoted  by 
Muir,  op.  tit.  vol.  iv,  p.  441. 

8  TA.  ii.  9  ;   see  Gune,  Bkandarkar  Conim. 
Vol. 

4  x.  98.  7. 
6  Cf.  Brh.  D/viii.  6. 

6  See  N.  12.  8-22. 

7  The  word  dditya  is  derived  from  the  same 
root  a-</da,  in  SB.  xi.  6. 3.  8  ;  TB.  iii.  9.  21. 1 ; 


TA.  i.  U.  1 ;  Brh.  U.  iii.  9.  5  ;  all  the  passages 
bearing  on  the  etymology  are  cited  by  Muir, 
op.  dt.  vol.  iv,  p.  117. 

8  Aufrecht   proposes  the   variant   a-suMa- 
bhak,  as  it  has  no  hymn  addressed  to  it,  but 
one    stanza    only.     See    Muir,   loc.   dt.     The 
author,  however,  means  to  say  that  although 
hymns  are  addressed,  oblations  are  not  offered 
under  this  epithet ;  cf.  Durga's  remarks. 

9  x.  88.  11  :  cf.  N.  7.  29. 


30  SYNONYMS    OF  THE  SUN  AND  SKY  [2.  13 

are  panegyrics  of  other  deities  addressed  to  them  as  Adityas,  as  in  the 
case  of  Mitra,  Varuna,  Aryaman,  Daksa,  Bhaga,  Am3a.  Also  of  Mitra  and 
Varuna : 

Adityas,  lords  of  the  act  of  bestowing.1  Lords  of  gift.  Also  of  Mitra  alone : 

May  that  mortal,  O  Mitra,  be  rich  in  food,  who,  O  Aditya.  abides  by 
thy  ordinance.2 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.     Also  of  Varuna  alone : 

Now  let  us  be  in  thy  ordinance,  O  Aditya ! 3 

The  word  vrata  4  is  a  synonym  of  action,  having  the  sense  of  abstaining  : 
because  it  enjoins.  This  other  meaning  of  vrata  (i.e.  a  vow)  is  derived  from 
the  same  root  also :  because  it  chooses.  Food  is  called  vrata  also,  because  it 
covers  the  body. 

(Here  ends  the  thirteenth  section.) 

Svar  means  the  sun ;  it  is  very  distant,  it  has  well  dispersed  (the  darkness), 
it  has  well  penetrated  the  fluids,  it  has  well  penetrated  the  light  of  the 
luminaries,  or  it  is  pierced  through  with  light.  Dyauh  (sky)  is  explained  by 
the  same.  Pr&ni  means  the  sun.  '  It  is  thoroughly  pervaded  by  the  bright 
colour/  say  the  etymologists.  It  closely  unites  the  fluids,  it  closely  unites 
the  light  of  the  luminaries,  or  it  is  closely  united  with  light.  Now  sky  is 
(so  called  because)  it  is  closely  united  with  luminaries  and  the  virtuous. 
Naka  means  the  sun,  [the  bearer  of  fluids],  bearer  of  lights,  leader  of  lumi- 
naries. Now  the  sky :  the  word  ham  is  a  synonym  of  happiness,  the  oppo- 
site of  its  negative  form  (i.  e.  ndkam). 

There  is  no  misery  for  the  man  who  has  departed  to  the  other  world.5 
There  is  no  wretchedness  for  the  man  who  has  departed  to  the  other 
world ;  it  is  the  virtuous  only  who  go  there.  Gauh  means  the  sun  :  it  causes 
the  fluids  to  move,  it  moves  in  the  sky  ( </gam).  Now  the  sky  is  .(called 
gauh)  because  it  is  gone  very  far  from  the  earth,  or  because  the  luminaries 
move  in  it.  Vistap  means  the  sun  :  it  has  pervaded  the  fluids,  it  has  per- 
vaded the  light  of  the  luminaries,  or  it  is  pervaded  with  light.  Now  the 
sky  is  (called  vistap)  because  it  is  pervaded  by  the  luminaries  and  the  virtu- 
ous. Nabhas  means  the  sun:  [bearer  of  fluids],  bearer  of  lights,  leader  of 
luminaries.  Or  else  it  may  be  the  word  bhanas  itself,  in  reversed  order  : 
it  is  not  that  it  does  not  shine.  The  sky  is  explained  by  the  same. 
(Here  ends  the  fourteenth  section.) 

The  following  fifteen  (words)  are  synonyms  of  ray.     Ray  is  (so  called) 

1  i.  136.  3  ;  ii.  41.  6  ;  SV.  2.  262.  <  Cf.  Roth,  Erlduterungm,  p.  21. 

2  iii.  59.  2.  •  See  Roth,  op.  ett.  p.  21 ;  the  quotation  is 
?  i.  24.  15 ;  VS.  12.  12.                                           untraced. 


2.  17]  VRTRA  31 

on  account  of  restraining.     Of  these  the  first  five  are  common  (synonyms) 
of  horse  and  rays. 

The  following  eight  (words)  are  synonyms  of  quarter.  From  what 
(root)  is  disah  derived?  l  It  is  derived  from  (the  root)  dtt  (to  point  out), 
or  they  are  (so  called)  from  being  within  easy  reach,  or  from  pervading. 
With  reference  to  these,  the  word  Icdsthd  is  a  synonym  of  many  objects. 
Kastha  means  quarters :  they  are  situated  having  gone  across.  Kdstfta  means 
intermediate  quarters :  they  are  situated  having  crossed  each  other.  The 
sun  is  called  kasthd  also :  it  is  situated  having  gone  across.  Destination  is 
called  kasthd  also:  it  is  situated  having  gone  across.  Waters  are  called 
kasthd  also :  they  are  situated  having  gone  across,  i.e.  stationary  waters. 
(Here  ends  the  fifteenth  section.) 

Thfe  deposited  body  was  in  the  midst  of  waters  which  neither  stay  nor 
rest  Waters  march  against  the  secret  (outlet)  of  Vrtra ;  in  deep  darkness 
lay  he  whose  enemy  is  Indra.2 

The  deposited  body,  i.  e.  the  cloud,  was  in  the  midst  of  waters  which 
neither  stay  nor  rest,  i.  e.  waters  which  are  non-stationary.3  &arira  (body) 
is  derived  from  (the  root)  sr  (to  kill),  or  from  sam  (to  destroy).  Waters 
march  against,  i.  e.  know,  [the  secret]  outlet 4  of  Vrtra.  Dlrgha  (long)  is 
derived  from  drdgh  (to  lengthen).  Tamas  (darkness)  is  derived  from  tew 
(to  spread).  A-sayad  is  formed  from  (the  root)  a-si  (to  lie).  Whost 
enemy  is  Indra,  i.  e.  Indra  is  his  slayer,  or  destroyer,  therefore  he  (is 
called)  having  Indra  as  his  enemy.  )3ut  who  is  Vrtra?  'It  is  a  cloud/ 
say  the  etymologists.  ['  It  is  a  demon,  son  of  Tvasta/  say  the  legendarians.] 
The  phenomenon  'of  rain  is  produced  by  the  commingling  of  water  (vapours) 
and  lightning  (jyotis).  With  reference  to  this,  there  are  figurative 
descriptions  of  battle.  Indeed,  the  descriptions  of  Vedic  stanzas  and 
the  narratives  of  the  Brahmanas  (depict  him),  ro  doubt,  as  a  serpent. 
By  expanding  his  body,  he  blocked  the  channels  (of  the  rivers).5  When 
he  was  killed,  waters  flowed  forth.  The  following  is  the  stanza  which 
explains  this. 

(Here  ends  ike  sixteenth  section.) 

Having  the  demon  as  their  master,  and  the  cloud  as  their  guardian, 
the  obstructed  waters  stood  (behind)  as  kine  (held  back)  by  a  merchant. 

1  Of.  Roth,  toe.  cit.  4  Durga  explains  ninycan  as  the  outlet  in  the 

2  i.  32.  10.  cloud  through  which  the  waters  flow  down. 

3  According  to  Dnrga,  these  waters  are  in  Both  translates  Vrtrasya  ninyam  as  '  von  Vrtra 
the  interior  of  the  cloud,  so  as  long  as  the  unbemerkt',    i.e.    without    being    noticed   by 
cloud  does  not   rain   they  move  with   the  Vrtra ;  see  op.  cit.  p.  21. 

moving  cloud,  and  finally  rest  in  the  ocean.  5  Cf.  Muir,  op.  cit.  vol.  ii,-pp.  174-5. 


32  VRTRA  [2.  17 

He  slew   Vrtra,  and  reopened    that    outlet   of    water  which   had  been 
closed.1 

Having  the  demon  as  their  master,2  as  their  overlord.  Ddsa  (slave) 
is  derived  from  (the  root)  das  (to  exhaust):  he  causes  the  works  to  be 
exhausted.  Having  the  cloud  as  their  guardian,  i.  e.  guarded  by  the  cloud, 
they  stood  (behind).  The  cloud  (ahi)  is  (so  called)  on  account  of  its 
motion:3  it  moves  in  the  atmosphere.  This  other  (meaning  of)  ahi, 
i.e.  a  serpent,  is  derived  from  the  same  root  also,  or  from  dVhan  (to 
attack)  with  its  preposition  shortened :  it  attacks.  The  waters  held  back 
as  cows  by  a  merchant.  Pani  means  a  merchant ;  a  merchant  is  (so 
called)  from  trading  ( Span).  A  trader  is  (so  called  because)  he  cleanses 
his  articles  of  trade.  The  outlet  of  waters  which  had  been  closed,  JSi^am,4 
the  opening  through  which  anything  is  conveyed,  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  bhr  (to  convey).  He  slew  Vrtra  and  reopened  that  outlet.  Vrtra 
is  derived  from  (the  root)  vr  (to  cover),  or  from  vrt  (to  roll)  or  from  vrdh 
(to  grow).  It  is  known:  because  he  covered,  that  is  the  characteristic 
of  Vrtra.5  It  is  known:  because  he  rolled,0  that  is  the  characteristic 
of  Vrtra.  It  is. known:  because  he  grew,  that  is  the  characteristic  of 
Vrtra. 

(Here  ends  tfte  seventeenth  section.) 

The  following  twenty-three  (words)  are  synonyms  of  night.  From 
what  (root)  is  ratrih  (night)  derived  ?  It  exhilarates  the  nocturnal  crea- 
tures and  causes  the  others  to  cease  work,  and  makes  them  strong,  or  it 
may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  rd  meaning  to  give:  the  dew  is  given 
away  during  this  (period). 

The  following  sixteen  (words)  are  synonyms  of  dawn.  From  what 
(root)  is  usdh  (dawn)  derived?  (It  is  so  called)  because  it  shines  (Vvas).1 
It  is  the  time  subsequent  to  night.  The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  her, 
(Here  ends  the  eighteenth  section.) 

This  light,  the  best  of  all  lights,  has  come,  and  has  generated  a 
variegated  and  extensive  illumination.  Just  as  being  born  it  gives  birth 
to  the  sun,  so  the  night  has  left  its  seat  for  the  dawn.8 

1  i.  82.  11.  4  Durga  paraphrases  bUaWby  nirgcKnadva- 

2  Durga  explains  the  compound  as  a  tat-      ram,  i.  e.  an  outlet. 

purusa,  but  the  accent  shows  that  it  is  a  5  TS.  ii.  4. 12. 2  ;  i.  e.  he  covered  the  waters 

possessive  compound.     His  explanation  is :  of  the  atmosphere.     Durga. 

Lords  of  servants,  i.  e.  a  servant,  exhausted  6  According  to  Durga,  be  was  instrumental 

by  the  performance  of  various  works  entrusted  in  setting  the  waters  in  motion, 
to  him,  drinks,  water,   and   becomes  fresh    .      ''  Durga  derives  Utah  from  ucch,'  to  disperse': 

again.  it  disperses  darkness.     Cf.  Brh.  D.  iii.  9. 

»  Cf.  Brh.  D.  v.  166.  «  i.  113.  1 ;  SV.  2.  1099. 


2.  acL  SYNONYMS  OF  DAY  33 


This  light,  the  best1  of  all  lights,  has  approached.  It  has  generated 
a  variegated,  .well-known,  and  very  extensive  illumination.  Just  as^  being 
born  it  gives  birth  to  the  sun,  i.e.  the  night2  to  the  sun,  so  the  Hght 
has  left  its  seat,  i.  e.  place  for  the  dawn.  A  woman's  womb  is  (so  called 
because)  the  foetus  is  joined  with  it.3  The  following,  another  stanza,  is 
addressed  to  her. 

(Here  ends  the  nineteenth  section.) 

Resplendent,  having  a  resplendent  calf,  the  white  one  has  come  ;  the 
black,  one  has  left  places  for  her.  Having  a  common  relation,  immortal, 
succeeding  each  other,  the  two  bright  ones  wander  about  fashioning  the 
colour.4 

Having  a  resplendent  calf,  i.  e.  the  sun.  The  word  riwat  is  a  synonym 
of  colour  ;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  rue,  meaning  to  shine.  The  sun 
is  called  her  calf  on  account  of  companionship,  or  of  drawing  up  the 
juices.8  Resplendent,  the  white  one  has  come.  &vetya  (the  white  one) 
is  derived  from  (the  root)  twit  (to  be  bright).  The  black  one  has  left 
places  for  her:  the  one  of  black  colour,  i.e.  the  night.  Krsnam.  (black) 
is  derived  from  (the  root)  krs  (to  drag  away):  it  is  the  despised  colour. 
Now  (the  seer)  praises  them  together  :  6  having  a  common  relation,  having 
a  common  tie  ;  7  immortal,  having  the  characteristic  of  immortality  ;  suc- 
ceeding each  other  [coming  after  one  another],  i.  e.  with  reference  to  each 
other;  the  two  bright8  ones  wander  about,  they  themselves  are  bright, 
(so  called)  on  account  of  shining.  Or  else  they  wander  about  with  heaven, 
i.  e.  they  wander  about  along  heaven.  Fashioning  [creating],  making  each 
other's  inner  self. 

The  following  twelve  (words)  are  synonyms  of  day.  From  what  (root) 
is  ahah  (day)  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called  because)  people  accomplish  works 
during  (this  period).  The  following  is  its  incidental  occurrence  in  a  stanza 
addressed  to  VaisVanara. 

(Here  ends  the  twentieth  section.) 

1  Durga  remarks  that  the  sun  is  too  hot,  by  her  calf:  this  is  companionship.     As  the 
the  moon  is  too  cool,  but  the  dawn  is  neither  calf  drinks  milk  from  the  udder  of  the  cow, 
cold  nor  hot,  hence  it  is  the  best  of  all  other  so  the  sun  draws  up  the  dew,  which  is  pur- 
lights.  ticularly  associated  with  dawn,  hence  the 

2  The  text  seems  to  be  corrupt  :  it  should  sun  is  called  her  calf.     Durga. 

read  «  dawn  '  instead  of  '  night  '  ;  the  present  6  The  first  hemistich  describes  the  points 

reading  makes  the  sentence  meaningless.  of  contrast,  i.e.  the  one  is  white,  the  other 

There  is  a  confusion  in  the  sequence  of  birth.  black,  one  comes,  the  other  leaves  ;  the  second 

8  Cf.  2.  8.  hemistich,  the  points  of  resemblance. 

4  i.  118.  2  ;  SV.  2.  1100.  7  The  sun  is  the  common  tie.     Durga. 

8  The  dawn  is  represented  as  being  followed  8  The  night  is  called  bright  also,  on  account 

by  the  sun.  She  is  compared  to  a  cow  followed  of  the  multitude  of  shining  stars. 


34  SYNONYMS   OF  CLOUD  [2.  21 

The  black  day  and  the  white  day,  the  two  regions  roll  on  with 
(activities)  worthy  of  knowledge.  As  soon  as  born,  VaisVanara  Agni, 
like -a  king,  has  overcome  darkness  with  his  light.1 

The  black  day,  i.  e.  night.  The  white  day,  i.  e.  bright  day.  The  two 
regions2  roll  on  with  activities  worthy  of  knowledge,  i.e.  which  should 
be  known.  As  soon  as  born,  VaisVanara  Agni  has  dispelled  darkness 
with  his  light  like  the  rising  sun,  who  is  the  king  of  all  luminaries. 

The  following  thirty  (words)  are  synonyms  of  cloud.  From  what 
(root)  is  megha  (cloud)  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called)  because  it  sheds  water 
(*/mih).  They  are  common  with  the  synonyms  of  mountain  up  to  the 
two  words  upara  and  upala,  which  mean  cloud:  clouds  cease  to  move 
in  it,  or  the  waters  are  made  inactive.3  The  following  stanza  is  addressed 
to  them. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-first  section.) 

In  the  measurement  of  gods  they  stood  first;  from  their  division, 
waters  flowed  down.  The  three  working  in  succession  warm  the  earth ; 
the  two  carry  the  fertilizing  moisture.4 

In  the  creation  of  gods  they,  i.e.  groups  of  atmospheric  gods,  stood 
first.5  First  is  a  synonym  of  '  chief ' :  it  is  foremost.  [Krntatram G  means 
atmosphere,  i.  e.  where  the  clouds  are  cut  into  pieces.]  By  cutting  clouds 
into  pieces  water7  is  produced.  The  three  working  in  succession  warm 
the  earth,  i.  e.  cloud,  wind,  and  sun  cause  the  herbs  to  become  ripe  with 
heat,  cold,  and  rain.  Working  in  succession,  i.e.  with  their  respective 
functions,  they  sow  the  worlds  one  after,  another.  This  other  (meaning 
of)  anupa,  i.  e.  a  bank  of  a  river,  is  derived  from  the  same  (root)  also :  it 
is  sown  with  water.  Or  else  it  may  (really)  be  anvdp,  just  like  prdc ; 
from  that  form  (anvdp)  anupa  may  be  derived  as  prdclna  (from  prdc). 
The  two  carry  the  fertilizing  moisture,  i.e.  wind  and  sun  (carry)  the 
water  (vapours).  Brbukam  (moisture)  is  a  synonym  of  water ;  it  is  derived 

1  vi.  9.  1 ;  AB.  v.  15.  5.  of  their  importance ;  for  had  there  been  no 

a  Durga  paraphrases  rajasl  by  ranjakt,  i.e.  clouds,    the    entire    universe    would    have 

dyers ;  and  remarks  that  the  day  colours  the  perished  for  want  of  rain, 

world  with  light,  night  with  darkness.  '  Roth   translates  krntatram  as   '  seed '  or 

8  The  word  upara  (cloud)  is  derived  from  *  seedland  ' ;   see  op.  ciV.,  p.  22. 

upa  ^ram  (to  cease  to  move).  Yaska's  explana-  7  According  to  Durga,  the  wcrd  upara  here 

tion,  'the  clouds  cease  to  move ',  is  obscure,  denotes  water.     Originally  it  means  <  cloud ', 

and  is  passed  over  by  Durga.  then   '  the  water  of  the  cloud ',  and   lastly 

4  x.  27.  23.  «  water  in  general '.     He  cites  an  analogous 

5  According  to  Durga,  this  refers  to  the  case  of  the  extension  of  meaning :   '  crying 
creation    of    clouds,    i.e.    Prajapati,    while  mounds  of  earth',  i.e.  mounds  of  earth  here 
creating  gods,  created  clouds  first  on  account  signify  people  seated  on  them. 


2.24]  VISVAMITRA  AND  RIVERS  35 

from  (the  root)  bru,  meaning  to  make  a  sound,  or  from  bhramv  (to  fall 
down).  Purlsam  (fertilizing)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  pf  (to  fill),  or  from 
the  causal  of  pf. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty- second  section.) 

The  following  fifty-seven  (words)  are  synonyms  of  speech.  From  what 
(root)  is  vac  (speech)  derived  ?  It  is  derived  from  (the  root)  vac  (to  speak). 
With  reference  to  these,  the  word  Sarasvat^  is  used  both  in  the  sense 
of  'a  river'  and  of  'a  deity'  in  Vedic  passages;1  we  shall  explain  the 
(Vedic  passages)  where  it  is  used  in  the  sense  of  a  deity  later,  and  just  now 
those  where  it  is  used  in  the  sense  of  a  river. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-third  section.) 

Like  one  who  digs  the  lotus-stem,  she  has  shattered  the  peaks  of  moun- 
tains with  her  might  and  strong  waves.  Let  us  worship  Sarasvat!,  who 
sweeps  what  is  far  and  what  is  near  alike,  with  well-composed  hymns,  for 
our  protection.2 

She  (has  shattered)  with  her  might,  i.  e.  with  crushing  powers.  The 
word  msma  is  a  synonym  of  strength,  (so  called)  because  it  crushes  (every- 
thing). Bisam  (lotus-stem)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  bis,  meaning  to  split, 
or  grow.  Peak  is  (so  called  because)  it  is  very  much  raised  up,  or  it  is  very 
lofty.  With  mighty  waves.  Who  sweeps  what  is  far  and  what  is  near 
alike,  i.  e.  who  destroys  what  is  on  the  other,  as  well  as  what  is  on  this,  bank. 
Pdrctm  means  something  afar ;  avdram,  something  near  at  hand.  Let  us 
attend  upon  the  river  Sarasvat!  with  well-composed  sublime  songs  of  praise, 
and  acts  (of  worship),  for  our  protection/' 

The  following  hundred  and  one  (words)  are  synonyms  of  water.  From 
what  (root)  is  uda.kam  (water)  derived?  (It  is  so  called)  because  it 
moistens  ( Vud). 

The  following  thirty -seven  (words)  are  synonyms  of  river.  From  what 
(root)  is  iiadyah  (rivers)  derived  ?  (They  are  so  called  because)  they  pro- 
duce a  sound  (*/ natty,  i.e.  they  are  roaring.  Their  character  is  mostly 
secondary,  and  very  rarely  primary.  With  reference  to  this,  they  relate 
(the  following)  legend.4  The  seer  Visvamitra  was  the  domestic  priest  of 
Sudas,  the  son  of  Pijavana.  Vi&vA-mitra,  friend  of  all.  All,  moving 

1  Cf.  Brh.D.  ii.  135.  earth. 

2  vi.  61.2;  TB.  ii.  8.  2.  8.  <  The  story  is  found   in  AB.  viii.  18-18, 

3  Durga    also    interprets    the    stanza    as  Visnu  Purana,  &c.     See  Muir,  op.  cit.,  vol  i, 
addressed  to  SarasvatI,  the  deity  ;  Sarasvatl  pp.  387-64  ;  cf.  Brh.D.  iv.  105-6,  see  Professor 
is  the  atmospheric  speech,  the  peaks  of  moun  Macdonell's  edition,  vol.  ii,  pp.  154-5  ;  Sayana 
tains   are  the   tops  of  clouds  shattered    by  gives  an  amplified  version  in  his  commentary 
her  strong  waves,  i.e.  mighty  thunders.     She  on  iii.  33.  1. 

sweeps  what  is  far  and  near,  i.e.  heaven  and 


86  VISVAMITRA  AND  RIVERS  [2. 24 

together.  Mu-das,  a  bountiful  giver.  Paijavana,  son  of  Pijavana.  Again 
Pi-javana,  one  whose  speed  is  enviable,  or  whose  gait  is  inimitable.1 
Having  gathered  his  wealth,  the  priest  came  to  the  confluence  of  the  Sutlej 
and  the  Bias.  Others  2  followed  him.  He,  i.  e.  VisVamitra,  implored  the  rivers 
to  become  fordable.  (He  addressed  them)  in  the  dual  as  well  as  in  the  plural 
number.  With  reference  to  this  we  shall  explain  (the  stanza  in  which  he 
addresses  them)  in  the  dual  number  later,  and  just  now  (the  stanza  in 
which  he  addresses  them)  in  the  plural  number. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-fourth  section.) 

Stop  your  courses  for  a  moment,  ye  great  floods,  at  my  friendly  bidding. 
I,  the  son  of  Kus*ika,  and  desirous  of  protection,  invoke  the  river  with 
a  sublime  hymn.3 

Stop  from  flowing  at  my  friendly  bidding,  I  who  prepare  soma  (for  you). 
Great  flood,  rich  in  water.  The  word  rtam  is  a  synonym  of  water,  (so 
called  because)  it  pervades  everything.  For  a  moment  (stop)  your  courses,4 
your  journeys,  or  your  protections.  A  moment,  a  recurring  (unit  of)  time. 
Rtu  is  derived  from  (the  root)  r,  meaning  to  "go.  Muhuh  (again)  as  if  the 
time  was  indolent  (mulhah)  as  long  as  a  moment.  Abhl-ksnam  —  abhi- 
ksanam  (a  moment).  Ksana  (an  instant)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ksan  (to 
injure) :  it  is  the  injured  time/  Kalah  (time)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  kal, 
meaning  to  go.  I  call  upon  the  river  with  a  great,  mighty,  sublime,  pro- 
found panegyric,  full  of  wisdom,  for  protection.  Son  of  Kus"ika.  KuSika 
was  (the  name  of)  a  king.  The  word  kuxika*  is  derived  from  (the  root) 
kryx,  meaning  to  cry,  or  krams,  meaning  to  cause  to  shine  ;  or  he  is  a  good 
expounder  of  meaning.  The  rivers  answered  (as  follows), 
(Here  ends  the  twenty-fifth  section.) 

.Indra,  the  wield er  of  the  thunderbolt,  dug  our  (channels) ;  he  smote  down 
Vrtra,  the  enclosure  of  rivers.  Savitr,  the  god  of  beautiful  hands,  led  us 
(hither),  at  his  stimulation  we  flow  expanded.7 

Indra,  the  wielder  of  the  thunderbolt,  dug  our  (channels) ;  the  verb  rad 
means  to  dig.  He  smote  down  Vrtra,  the  enclosure  of  rivers,  has  been 
explained.  Savitr,  the  god  of  beautiful  hands,  i.  e.  of  auspicious  hands,  led 
us  (hither).  Pdnih  (hand)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  pan,  meaning  to 

1  According  to  Durga,  it  means  a  person  waters',  and  takes  avanaih  to  mean  'prayers*, 

who  walks  so  quickly  that  others  cannot  i.  e.  stop  (your  course)  at  our  prayers, 

keep  pace  with  him.  s  Durga  remarks  that  an  instant  is  called 

*  i.e.  Seivants  or  robbers.    Durga.  « injured  time',  because  it  is  so  short. 

8  iii.  33.  5,  «  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  23. 

4  Durga  paraphases  evaih  by  udakaifyy.'  with  7  iii.  83.  6. 


2.  *81  SYNONYMS   OF  HORSE  57 

worship:  they  worship  gods,  having  folded  their  hands.     At  his  stimula- 
tion, we  flow  expanded.1     Urvyah  (expanded)  is  derived  from  (the  root) 
urnu    (to    cover).      'It    is   derived    from  (the   root  vj'  (to   cover),'    says 
Aurnavabha.     Having  (thus)  answered,  the  rivers  consented  in  the  end. 
(Here  ends  the  twenty-sixth  section.) 

We  shall  listen  to  thy  words,  O  bard ;  thou  earnest  from  afar  with  this 
chariot.  I  bend  myself  down  for  thee,  as  a  nursing  mother  (for  her  son),  as 
a  maiden  to  embrace  her  lover;2 

We  listen  to  thy  words,  O  bard !  Go :i  afar  with  this  chariot.  We  bend 
down  for  thy  sake,  as  a  nursing  mother  for  her  son,  or  as  a  maiden  bends 
herself  to  embrace  her  lover. 

The  following  twenty-six  (words)  are  synonyms  of  horse.  Of  these,  the 
last  eight  are  (always  used)  in  the  plural  number.  From  what  (root)  is 
affvak  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called  because)  it  trots  on  the  road,  or  it  eats  too 
much.  With  reference  to  these,  the  word  dadhikra  (horse)  is  (so  called 
because)  it  runs  while  bearing  a  rider  on  its  back,  or  it  neighs  while 
bearing  a  rider  on  its  back,  or  it  looks  beautiful  while  bearing  a  rider  on  its 
back.  There  are  Vedic  passages  where  the  word  is  used  (both  in  the  sense 
of)  a  horse  and  of  a  deity.  We  shall  explain  those  (passages  where  the 
word  is  used  in  the  sense  of)  a  deity  later,  and  in  this  place  those  (where  it 
is  u^ed  in  the  sense  of)  a  horse. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty -seventh  section.) 

That  courser  hastens  with  speed,  although  it  is  bound  by  neck,  flank,  and 
mouth.  Putting  forth  its  (best)  power,  dadhikra  sprang  along  the  bends  of 
roads.4 

That  courser,  i.e.  swift  runner,5  trots  on  the  road  with  speed,  i.e.  quickly, 
although  it  is  bound  by  the  neck.  Grwa  (neck)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  gf 
(to  swallow),  or  from  gf  (to  call  out),  or  from  grah  (to  seize).  Bound  by 
flank  and  mouth  has  been  explained.  Putting  forth  its  (best)  power,  i.e. 
action  or  intelligence.  Anusariritavltvat  is  a  word  (derived)  from  the  simple 
original  form  of  (the  root)  tau  (to  spread).  Bends  of  roads,  curves  of  roads. 

1  i.  e.  He  is  our  lord ;  he  alone  lias  the  right  hast  come,  from  a  long  distance,  and  hence 
to  issue  orders  to  us,  and  not  you.     Durga.  deservest  some  compassion,  and  so  on.    Durga 

2  iii.  33.  10.  follows  Yaska  ;  cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  23. 

3  Yaska  explains  yayutha  (perfect)  by  yiihi          *  iv.  40.  4;   the  stanza   is  translated   by 
(imperative);    this   gives    better   sense   but  Profe-sor     Macdonell,   J.R.A.S.,    vol.     xxv, 
cannot  be  grammatically  justified.     If  it  is  p.  439. 

construed  as  perfect,  the  meaning  would  be          '  Dreadful,  i.  e.  it  inspires  terror  in  the 
equally  relevant,  i.e.  we  shall  listen  to  thy      heart  of  those  who  look  at  him.    Durga, 
words,  for  thou  earnest  (a  yayatha},  i.e.  thou 


38  SYNONYMS   OF  FLAME  [2.  38 

Panthdh  (path)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  pat  (to  fall),  or  from  pad  (to  go), 
or  from  panth  (to  move).  Ankah  (curve)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  anc  (to 
bend).  Apaniphanat  is  a  reduplicated  form  (intensive)  of  (the  root)  phan 
(to  bound). 

The  following  ten  (words)  describe  the  specified  teams  of  gods  for  the 
knowledge  of  association. 

The  following  eleven  verbs  mean  to  shine.     That  very  number  of  the 
following  (words)  is  the  synonym  of  flame. 

(Here  ends  the  tiventy-eighth  section.) 


CHAPTEK   III 

THE  following  twenty-six  (words)  are  synonyms  of  action.1  From  what 
(root)  is  karma  (action)  derived  "?  (It  is  so  called)  because  it  is  done  ( Vkr). 

The  following  fifteen  (words)  are  synonyms  of  offspring.2  From  what 
(root)  is  apatya  (offspring)  derived?  (It  is  so  called  because)  it  spreads 
farther,  or  with  offspring  one  does  not  fall 3  (into  hell).  With  reference 
to  this,  we  shall  quote  (the  following)  two  stanzas,  in  order  to  show  that 
the  offspring  belongs  to  the  begetter  only.4 

(Here  ends  the  first  section.) 

The  treasure  of  the  stranger  is  indeed  to  be  avoided ;  may  we  be  masters 
of  eternal  wealth.  (The  child)  begotten  by  another  is  no  son ;  he  is  so  for 
the  fool  (only) ;  0  Agni,  do  not  corrupt  our  paths.5 

The  treasure  of  the  stranger  is  indeed  to  be  avoided,  i.e.  it  is  not  to  be 
approached.  Stranger,  one  who  is  distant.  Eekna  is  a  synonym  of  wealth  : 
it  is  left  by  the  deceased  ( Vric).  May  we  be  masters  of  eternal  wealth, 
as  of  the  parental  property.  (The  child)  begotten  by  another  is  no  son. 
The  word  sesas  is  a  synonym  of  offspring:  this  is  what  remains  of  the 

1  According  to  Durga,  synonyms  of  action  xviii.  9-14 ;   Ap.  Dh.  ii.  13.  6-7  ;   Vasistha, 

follow  those  of  flame,  because  it  is  in  the  xvii.  6-9, 63-4. 

flame  of  the  burning  fire  that  actions  like  the  5  vii.  4.  7.     Durga  remarks  that  the  stanza 

performance  of  sacrifice,  &c.,  are  accomplished,  forms  a  part  of  a  dialogue  between  Agni  and 

8  Synonyms  of  offspring  follow  those  of  Vasistha.     The  latter  implored  the  former  to 

action,  because  procreation  is  the  most  im-  grant  him  a  son,  as  all  his  sons  had  been 

portant  of  all  actions.     Durga.  killed.    The  former  asked  him  to  get  a  son 

3  Cf.  Manu,  ix.  138  ;  Visnu,  xv.  44.  by  adoption  or  purchase,  &c. ;  whereupon  he 

4  Cf.  Manu,  ix.  81-3 ;  the  opposite  view  is  denounced  all  but  the  legitimate  son. 
expressed  in  Manu.  ix.  43. 49-51. 54  ;  Ga.  Dh. 


3.  4]  INHERITANCE  39 

deceased.    That  is  a  child  for  the  fool,  i.e.  insane,  only.    Do  not  corrupt  our 
paths.     The  stanza  following  this  explains  it  much  more. 
(Here  ends  the  second  section.) 

The  stranger,  however  delightful,  should  not  be  adopted,  begotten  in 
another's  womb ;  he  should  not  be  regarded  (as  one's  own)  even  in  thought. 
To  his  own  abode  he  certainly  goes  back.  Let  the  new  (hero),  impetuous 
and  irresistible,  come  to  us.1 

The  stranger  should  never  be  adopted,  although  he  may  be  the  most 
delightful  man.  The  child  begotten  in  another's2  womb  should  not  be 
regarded  as  '  this  is  my  son ',  even  in  thought.  Now  he  goes  back  to  the 
same  abode  from  whence  he  came.  Olcah  (abode)  is  used  as  a  synonym  of 
dwelling--place.  Let  the  newly-born  (hero),  impetuous,  i.e.  swift  and  over- 
powering; his  rivals,  come  to  us ;  he  alone  is  (the  real)  son. 

Now  (some  lawgivers)  cite  the  following  stanza  in  support  of  a  daughter's 
right  to  inheritance,3  others  hold  (that  it  is  to  be  cited)  in  support  of  a  son's 
right  to  inheritance. 

(Here  ends  the  third  section.) 

The  husband  admits  that  he  (the  father)  shall  obtain  a  grandson  from 
the  daughter,4  the  wise  man,  honouring  the  process  of  the  sacred  rite.  When 
a  father  arranges  a  husband  for  his  daughter,  he  bears  himself  with  a  tran- 
quil mind.5 

The  husband  admits  the  daughter's  right  to  be  appointed  as  a  son,  with 
regard  to  (the  discharge  of)  the  duties  of  offspring.  A  daughter  is  (so 
called  because)  it  is  difficult  (to  arrange)  for  her  welfare,0  or  she  fares  well 
at  a  distance ;  or  (the  word  duhitd)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  duh 7  (to 
milk).  He  has  obtained  a  grandson,  i.e.  the  son  of  the  daughter  is  the 
grandson.8  The  wise  man,  honouring  the  process  of  the  procreative  sacrifice, 
i.e.  (of  the  diffusion)  of  the  seminal  fluid,  which  is  produced  from  each  and 
every  limb,  which  is  engendered  from  the  heart,  and  which  is  inserted  in  the 

1  vii.  4.  8.  Both  the  son  and  the  daughter  continue  the 

2  Durga  offers  two  interpretations,  (1)  I.e.       line,  so  both  are  offspring,  and  should  have 
a  child  begotten  on  one's  own  wife  from  the      equal  rights  to  inheritance.    Durga. 

seed  of  another  man ;  (2)  a  child  begotten  on  4  The  translation  of  the  1st  and  3rd  pdda 

a  woman  other  than  one's  own  wife.    An  is  approximate  only, 

illegitimate  son  is  already  denounced  in  the  5  iii.  81.  1 ;  AB.  vi.  18.  2. 

preceding  stanza,  quoted  in  section  2  ;  I  think,  6  She  is  difficult  to  please,  wherever  she 

therefore,  that  the  adopted  child  is  the  object  may  be  given  away  in  marriage.     Durga. 

of  denunciation  in  this  stanza,  hence  Durga's  7  She  is  always  milking  wealth,  &c.,  in  the 

second  interpretation  is  more  appropriate.  form  of  presents  from  her  father,  and  she  is 

8  Offspring   has   been    explained   as   that  always  demanding  something  or  other.  Durga. 

which  spreads  farther  than  the  progenitor.  8  Cf.  Manu,  ir.  188,  186,  189. 


40  INHERITANCE  [3. 4 

mother,  (holds)  that  both  children  (i.e.  the  son  and  the  daughter)  have  the 
right  to  inheritance  without  any  distinction  (whatsoever).1  The  selfsame 
view  is  expressed  in  the  following  stanza  and  sloka. 

Thou  art  produced  from  each  and  every  limb ;  thou  art  engendered  from 
the  heart  itself.  Verily,  thou  art  the  very  soul  named  son,  as  such  live 
a  hundred  autumns.2 

In  the  beginning  of  the  creation,  Manu,  the  self-existent,  declared  him- 
self that  according  to  law  the  right  of  inheritance  belongs  to  both  children 
(the  son  and  the  daughter)  without  any  distinction  (whatsoever).3 

1  Not  the  daughters/  say  some  (of  the  lawgivers).  It  is  known :  there- 
fore the  man  has  the  right  to  inheritance,  but  not  the  woman.  And  also : 
therefore  they  abandon  a  woman  as  soon  as  she  is  born,  but  not  the  man.4 
Women  are  given  away,  sold,  and  abandoned,  but  not  the  man.  '  The  man 
also/  retort  others,  '  as  is  seen  in  the  case  of  Sunahs^pa/  According  to 
another  view,  this  refers  to  a  maiden  who  has  no  brother. 

[Women,  all  clad  in  red  garments,  move  like  veins.] 5  They  stand  with 
their  path  obstructed  like  women  who  have  no  brother.6 

They  stand  like  women  who  have  no  brother,  and  whose  path  is4 
obstructed  with  regard  to  procreation  and  the  offering  of  the  sacrificial  cake. 
With  these  words  the  simile  implies  the  prohibition  of  marrying  a  brother- 
less  maiden.7    The  stanza  following  this  explains  it  much  more. 
(Here  ends  the  fourth  section.) 

Like  a  brotherless  maiden  who  goes  back  to  men,  like  one  who  ascends 
the  pillar  of  the  assembly-room  for  the  acquisition  of  wealth,  like  a  well- 
dressed  wife  longing  for  her  husband,  dawn  displays  her  beauty  like 
a  smiling  damsel.8 

Like  a  brotherless  maiden  who  goes  towards  men,  i.  e.  parental  an- 
cestors,9 (to  render)  the  duties  of  offspring  and  to  offer  the  funeral 
cake,  but  not  to  her  husband.  Like  one  who  ascends  the  pillar  of  the 

1  Durga  remarks  that  an  identical  garblta-  B  The  passage  within  square   brackets  is 

dVlna  ceremony  is  performed,  and  the  same  omitted  by  the  MSS.  of  the  shorter  recension 

Vedic  texts  are  recited,  both  for  a  son  and  and   Durga.     As  Yaska  himself  does   not 

a  daughter.    The  process  of  birth  is  the  same  explain  the  first  hemistich,  it  is  clear  that  he 

in  both  cases,  so  there  is  no  difference  between  quoted  the  second  hemistich  only.     Hence, 

them.  according  to  the  evidence  of  Yaska  himself, 

8  SB.  xiv.  9.  4.  8 ;  Brh.U.  vi.  4.  8  ;  SV.B.  the  shorter  recension  has  a  better  claim  to 

i.  6.  17  ;  Baudhayana,  ii.  2.  14.  represent  the  archetype. 

8  The  gloka  is  not  found  in  the  extant  code  6  AV.  1.  17.  1. 

of  Manu.  A  similar  view  is  expressed :  Manu,  7  Cf.  Manu,  iii.  11 ;  Yajfia,  i.  53. 

ix.  130,  133,  139.  8  i.  124.  7. 

4  MS.  iv.  6.  4;  iv.  7.  9;  cf.  also  TS.  vi.  6.  •  Cf.  Roth,  op.  ctt,  p.  25. 
8.2;  vi.  5.  10.3. 


3.6]  BROTHERLESS  MAIDEN  41 

assembly-room l  in  order  to  obtain  wealth,  i.  e.  a  woman  from  the  south. 
Garta  signifies  the  pillar  of  the  assembly-room ;  it  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  gf  (to  invoke) :  transactions  made  under  it  are  true.  There  she 
who  has  neither  son  nor  husband  ascends.  There  they  strike  her  with 
dies.  She  obtains  wealth.  The  cemetery  heap  is  called  garta  also,  being 
derived  from  (the  root)  gur  (to  raise):  it  is  raised  up.  A  cemetery  is 
(a  place  where)  repose  is  tranquil,  or  the  body  becomes  tranquil.  &arlra 
(body)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  &r  (to  burn),  or  from  &am  (to  destroy). 
&ma-6ru  (beard)  is  hair,  (so  called  because)  it  stands  ( </sri)  on  the  body 
(smani).  Loma  (hair)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  lu  (to  cut),  or  from  ll 
(to  cling  to).  One  should  not  expose  the  lower  part  of  the  sacrificial  post ; 
the  negligent  sacrificer  who  exposes  the  lower  part  of  the  sacrificial 
post  shall  soon  rest  in  the  cemetery.2  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 
Chariot  is  called  garta  also,  being  derived  from  (the  root)  gf,  meaning  to 
praise :  it  is  the  most  praised  vehicle. 

Ascend  the  chariot,  O  Mitra  and  Varuna.3 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  Like  a  well-dressed  wife,  eager  for  the 
husband  at  the  proper  seasons,  dawn  displays  her  beauty  as  a  smiling 
damsel  her  teeth.  There  are  four  similes.  One  should  not  marry  a 
brotherless  maiden,  for  his  (the  husband's)  son  belongs  to  him  (to  the  father 
of  the  girl).4  From  this,  the  prohibition  of  marrying  a  brotherless  maiden  5 
and  the  father's  right  to  appoint  his  daughter  as  a  son  are  evident.  When 
a  father  selects  a  husband  for  his  unmarried  daughter,  he  unites  himself 
with  a  tranquil  mind.6  Now  (some  lawgivers)  cite  the  following  stanza 
(in  support)  of  their  denial  of  a  daughter's  right  to  inheritance.  Some 
are  of  opinion  that  the  major  share  belongs  to  the  (appointed)  daughter.7 
(Here  ends  the  fifth  section.) 

The  legitimate  son  did  not  leave  wealth  for  his  sister.  He  made  her 
the  place  of  depositing  the  seed  of  her  husband.  If  the  mothers  have 
engendered  offspring,  one  is  the  performer,  and  the  other  is  the  director, 
of  good  deeds.8 

Na  jdmaye  means  not  for  the  sister.  Jamih  (sister)  is  (so  called 
because)  others  beget  jd,  i.  e.  offspring,  on  her,  or  the  word  may  be  derived 
from  (the  root)  jam,  meaning  to  go  :  she  has  mostly  to  go  (to  the  husband's 

1  Durga  remarks  that  the  custom  of  the          4  The  quotation  is  untraced. 
people  of  the  south  is  that  a  woman  who  has          T>  Cf.  Manu,  iii.  1 1 ;  Yajftavalkya,  i.  58. 
lost  her   son   and  husband  approaches   the  6  i.e. Heisfreefromthetormentinganxiety 

dice-board,  and  the  gamblers  make  a  collection  of  childlessness.     Durga. 
for  her.  »  Cf.  Manu,  ix.  184. 

'  The  quotation  is  untraced.        '  v.  62.  8.  '  iii.  8i.  2. 


42  FIVE  TRIBES  [3.6 

family).  The  legitimate,  i.e.  one's  own  son,  left,  i.e.  gave,  wealth.  He 
made  her  the  place  of  depositing  the  seed  of  her  husband,  i.e.  the  man 
who  accepts  her  hand.  If  the  mothers  have  engendered  vahni,  i.  e.  a  son, 
and  avahnjf,  i.e.  a  daughter,  one  of  them,  i.e.  the  son  and  the  heir, 
becomes  the  procreator  of  children,  and  the  other,  i.  e.  the  daughter,  is 
brought  up  and  given  away  (in  marriage)  to  another  person. 
(Here  ends  the  sixth  section.) 

The  following  twenty-five  (words)  are  synonyms  of  man.  From  what 
(root)  is  manuoydh  (men)  derived?  (They  are  so  called  because)  they 
connect  their  works  after  having  thought  about  them  ( Vmari)  or  because 
they  were  created  by  a  wise  creator.  Again,  the  verb  manasyati  is  used 
in  the  sense  of  being  wise.  Or  they  are  the  offspring  of  Manu,  or  of 
Manus.  With  reference  to  this,  there  are  Vedic  passages  (in  wliict)  the 
word  ( five-tribes '  is  used. 

(Here  ends  the  seventh  section.) 

To-day,  then,  let  me  first  think  out  the  speech  with  which  we,  the  gods, 
shall  overcome  the  demons.  Ye  partakers  of  sacrificial  food,  ye  holy 
five-tribes,  enjoy  my  sacrifice.1 

To-day,  then,  I  will  think  out  the  best  speech  with  which  we  gods  may 
overpower  the  demons.  Demons  (a-su-rah)  are  (so  called  because)  they 
delight  in  evil  places,  or  they  are  expelled  from  places  (Vas,  to 
throw).  Or  else  the  word  asuh  is  a  synonym  of  breath;  inhaled,  it  rests 
in  the  body,  i.  e.  endowed  with  it  (asu-rah).  It  is  known :  he  created 
gods  (surdn)  from  good  (su),  that  is  the  characteristic  of  gods ;  he  created 
demons  (asurdn)  from  evil  (a-su),  that  is  the  characteristic  pf  demons.2 
Partakers  of  sacrificial  food  and  holy,  i.  e.  eaters  of  the  sacred  food  and 
holy.  The  word  urj  is  a  synonym  of  food,  (so  called)  because  it  gives 
strength,  or  it  is  easy  to  divide  when  cooked.  Ye  five-tribes,  enjoy  my 
sacrifice.  According  to  some,  (the  five-tribes)  are  the  gandharvas,  the 
manes,  gods,  demons,  and  evil  spirits.  'They  are  the  four  castes  with 
nisada  as  the  fifth/  says  Aupamanyava.3  From  what  (root)  is  nisdda 
(hunter)  derived?  (He  is  so  called  because)  he  lives  by  killing  animals. 
*  Sin  is  embodied  (ni-  Vsad)  in  him,'  say  the  etymologists. 

When  with  the  tribe  of  five  peoples.4 

With  the  tribe  consisting  of  five  peoples.  Five,  united  number,  i.  e. 
(remains)  uninflected  in  the  masculine,  feminine,  and  neuter  genders. 

1  x.  53.  4.  a  Cf.  TB.  ii.  3.  8.  2.      his  note  vol.  i,  p.  177. 

8  Cf.  Muir,  op.  tit.,  vol.  ii,  p.  175 ;  see  also          *  viii.  63.  7  ;  AB.  v.  6.  8. 


3. 9]  FINGERS  48 

The  following  twelve  (words)  are  synonyms  of  arm.  From  what 
(root)  is  bdhu  (arm)  derived?  (It  is  so  called  because)  they  perform 
various  actions  with  them. 

The  following  twenty-two  (words)  are  synonyms  of  finger.  From 
what  (root)  is  angulayah  (fingers)  derived  ?  (They  are  so  called  because) 
they  go  foremost,  or  they  drip  foremost,  or  they  act  foremost,  [or  they 
move  foremost],  or  they  mark,  or  they  bend,  or  may  be  (so  called)  from 
decorating.  The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  them. 

(Here  ends  the  eighth  section.) 


Worship  them  who  have  ten  protectors,  ten  girdling  circles,  ten  yoke- 
straps,  ten  binding  thongs,  ten  reins ;  who  are  immortal,  who  bear  ten 
car-pole*,  and  who  when  yoked  are  ten.1 

Avanayah,  means  fingers:  they  promote  actions.  Girdling  circles 
illumine  actions.  'Yoke-straps'  is  explained  by  'binding  thong*.  Reins 
penetrate  actions.  Who  bear  ten  car-poles,  and  who  when  yoked  are  ten. 
Dhuh  (pole)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  dhurv,  meaning  to  hurt.  This  other 
(meaning  of)  dhuh  is  derived  from  the  same  (root)  also :  it  hurts  (the  team), 
or  it  supports  them. 

The  following  eighteen  roots  have  the  meaning  *  to  desire '. 

The  following  twenty- eight  (words)  are  synonyms  of  food.  From  what 
(root)  is  annum  (food)  derived?  It  is  brought  near  (a  Vnam)  created 
beings,  or  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ad  (to  eat). 

The  following  ten  roots  have  the  meaning  '  to  eat '. 

The  following  twenty-eight  (words)  are  the  synonyms  of  power.  From 
what  (root)  is  balam  (power)  derived?  Power  is  (so  called  because)  it 
sustains ;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  bhr  (to  sustain).* 

The  following  twenty-eight  (words)  only  are  the  synonyms  of  wealth. 
From  what  (root)  is  dhanam  (wealth)  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called)  because  it 
gives  delight  ( Vdhi  cl.  5). 

The  following  nine  (words)  are  synonyms  of  cow. 

The  following  ten  roots  have  the  meaning  *  to  be  angry '. 

The  following  eleven  (words)  are  synonyms  of  anger. 

The  following  hundred  and*  twenty  roots  have  the  meaning  '  to  go '. 

The  following  twenty-six  (words)  are  synonyms  of  quick.  From  what 
(root)  is  ksipram  (quick)  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called  because)  the  interval 
is  short. 

The  following  eleven  (words)  are  synonyms  of  near.     From  what  (root) 

1  x.  94.  7. 


44  KHALA  [3. 9 

is  antikam  (near)  derived?     (It  is  so  called  because)  it  is  brought  near 
(a  Vni). 

The  following  forty-six  (words)  are  synonyms  of  battle.  From  what 
(root)  is  samgrama  (battle)  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called)  from  going  together 
(sam  Vgam)  or  from  shouting  together  (sain  Vyr),  or  (because)  the  two 
villages  have  come  together.  With  reference  to  this,  there  are  Vedic 
passages  (in  which)  the  word  khala  (is  used). 

(Here  ends  the  ninth  section.) 


Single-handed  I  overcome  this  one  (opponent);  irresistible  I  overcome 
two.  What  can  even  three  do  (against  me)  I  In  battle  I  thrash  them 
well,  as  if  they  were  sheaves.  How  dare  my  enemies,  who  are  without 
Indra,  revile  me  ? * 

Single-handed  I  overpower  this2  one  (opponent);  resisting  all  rivals, 
I  overpower  two.  What  can  three  do  against  me?  One  is  the  number 
gone  a  little  (Vi,  to  go).  Two  is  the  number  running  farther  (Vdru, 
'  to  run ').  Three  is  the  number  gone  across  farthest  (trt '  to  cross ').  Four 
is  the  number  moved  most  (Veal).  A&ta  (eight)  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  as  (to  pervade).  Nine,  not  to  be  won  (Vvan),  or  not  obtained :j 
(na  +  ava  */dp).  Ten,  exhausted 4  (das),  or  whose  meaning  is  seen  {Vdrs). 
Twenty,  two  times  ten.  A  hundred,  ten  times  ten.  A  thousand,  a  powerful 
(number).  Ayutam  (ten  thousand),  prayutam  (hundred  thousand),  niyutam 
(million),  of  these  each  latter  the  former  multiplied  by  ten.  Arbuda 
means  a  cloud:  aranam  means  water;5  giver  of  water  [cloud],  it  shines 
like  water,  or -it  seems  to  be  like  water.  Just  as  that  cloud  when  raining 
becomes  a  large  mass,  so  like  that  is  the  number  arbudam  (ten  millions). 
1  In  battle  I  thrash  them  well,  as  if  they  were  sheaves ',  i.  e.  like  sheaves 
I  thrash  them  well  in  battle.  The  word  khala  is  a  synonym  of  battle ; 
it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  khal  (to  fall),  or  Mai  (to  kill).0  This  other 
(meaning  of)  khala,  i.  e.  threshold,  is  derived  from  the  same  root  also :  it 
is  scattered  over  with  grain.  'How  dare  my  enemies,  who  are  without 
Indra,  revile  me  ? '  i.  e.  who  do  not  know  that  I  am  Indra,  or  who  have 
no  Indra. 

1  x.  48.  7  ;  cf.  Brh.D.  i.  49.  Durga. 

9  Durga  thinks 'this*  refers  to  the  universe  B  Durga    explains    aranam    as  arana-tflcmi 

as  a  whole  and  not  to  any  single  opponent.  gamana-silam  ambu,  i.  e.  from  the  root  r,  to  go. 

8  No  work  is  done  on  the  ninth  day,  and  In  Monier-Williams's  dictionary  the  meaning 

to  begin  anything  on  that  day  is  regarded  'water'  is  not  attributed  to  aranam. 

as  inauspicious.     Durga.  •  i.e.  Heroes  fall,  or  kill  each  other.  Durga. 

4  The  word  cfovfc  (ten)  recurs  in  ekadafa,  &c. 


3.  n]  TADIT  45 

The  following  ten  verbs  have  the  meaning  pervade.  With  reference 
to  these,  two]  synonyms,  i.  e.  aksdiia  and  dpaiw,  are  participles,  and  mean 
'  pervading ',  '  obtaining '  respectively. 

The  following  thirty -three  roots  have  the  meaning  'to  kill*.  With 
reference  to  these,  the  form  viydtah  is  either  the  present  indicative,  'he 
crushes ',  or  imperative,  '  crush  '. 

Thou  art  invoked,  O  shatterer.1 

O  breaker  in  pieces.  [Khanda,  (fragment)  is  derived  from  (th  root) 
kJtand  (to  break).]  The  word  tadit  has  the  joint  sense  of  'near'  and 
'  killing ',  (so  called)  because  it  kills.2 

(Here  ends  the  tenth  section.) 

Through  thee,  O  Lord  of  prayer,  bringer  of  prosperity,  may  we  obtain 
wealth  which  men  covet.  Chew  those  niggards,  who  prevail  against  us 
far  and  near,  into  a  shapeless  form.3 

Through  thee,  O  Lord  of  prayer,  good  promoter  of  prosperity,  may 
we  obtain  enviable  treasures  from  men.  Chew  them  into  shapeless  form, 
i.  e.  the  enemies  who  are  far  from  us  and  who  are  near  to  us,  the  niggards,4 
who  are  not  liberal,  or  who  are  stingy.  T.he  word  apnas  is  a  synonym 
of  form  because  it  obtains  (Vap)  .(something  to  rest  upon).  '  Tadit  means 
lightning,'  says  oakapuni,  '  for  it  smites  and  is  seen  from  afar.'  Or  else 
it  may  be  meant  to  be  the  synonym  of  '  near '  alone. 

Though  afar,  thou  shinest  brightly  as  if  near.5  Although  at  a  distance, 
thou  lookest  bright  as  if  near  at  hand. 

The  following  eighteen  (words)  are  synonyms  of  thunderbolt,  From 
what  (root)  is.  vajrah  (thunderbolt)  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called)  because  it 
separates.6  With  reference  to  these,  the  word  kutsa  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  krt  (to  cut).  It  is  also  the  name  of  a  seer.7  '  A  seer  is  a  composer  of 
hymns,'  says  Aupamanyava.  Further,  it  has  the  meaning  '  to  kill '  only ; 
his  friend  Indra 8  slew  drought.9 

1  viii.  17.  12;  AV.  20.  5.  6;  SV.  2.  76.  «/It    separates    living    beings    from    life. 

2  Durga  explains,    'because   it   kills',    as       Durga. 

referring  to  lightning,  which,  according  to  7  ,Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  30  ;  Durga  remarks 

him,  is  called  tadit  also,  because  it  kills.  This  that  the  word  kutsa,  meaning  '  thunderbolt  *, 

is  anticipating  Sakapuni  in  the  next  section.  should  be  derived  from,  the  root  krt  (to  cut), 

*  ii.  23.  9.  and  meaning  '  a  seer ',  from   the  root  kr  (to 

4  According  to  Durga,  there  are  two  kinds  compose). 

of  enemies,  (1)  who  are  difficult  to  be  de-  8  i.  e.  Invigorated    by  the  panegyrics    of 

stroyed,  (2)  who  are  easy  to  be  destroyed.  The  Kutsa.     Durga. 

former  are  the  liberal  ones;  the  latter,  the  'i.e.  Something  which  dries  up  the  juices, 

niggards.  a  demon,  or  a  cloud.     Durga. 

«  i.  94.  7. 


46  SYNONYMS   OF  LORD  [3.  n 

The  following  four  roots  have  the  meaning  to  be  prosperous. 

The  following  four  (words)  are  synonyms  of  lord.  With  reference  to 
these,  the  word  ina  means  either  (1)  one  who  is  endowed  with  prosperity, 
or  (2)  who  endows  others  with  prosperity. 

(Here  ends  the  eleventh  section.) 

Where  (birds)  of  beautiful  wings  vigilantly  invoke  the  portion  of 
immortality  with  knowledge.  The  lord,  the  guardian  of  the  entire  universe, 
he,  the  wise  one,  here  approached  me,  the  immature J 

Where  (birds)  [of  beautiful  wings],  i.  e.  rays  of  the  sun  falling  in  a 
beautiful  manner,2  invoke,  i.  e.  move  towards 3  the  portion  of  immortality, 
i.  e.  of  water,  with  consciousness.4  The  lord,  the  guardian  of  all  created 
beings,  i.  e.  the  sun :  he,  the  wise  one,  here  approached  me,  the  immature 
one.  Wise,  having  intelligence.  Immature,  i.  e.  one  who  is  to  be  matured. 
The  sun  is  called  as  of  mature  wisdom  in  the  description  of  the  Upanisad. 
This  is  with  regard  to  the  deity. 

Now  about  the  self.  Where  (the  birds)  of  beautiful  wings,  i.  e.  senses, 
easily  going  astray,  vigilantly  invoke,  i.e.  move  towards,  the  portion  of 
immortality,  i.e.  of  knowledge,  with  consciousness.  The  lord,  the  guardian 
of  all  senses,  i.  e.  the  soul ;  he,  the  wise  one,  here  approached  me,  the  im- 
mature. Wise,  having  intelligence.  Immature,  i.e.  one  who  is  to  be 
matured.  '  The  soul  is  of  mature  wisdom '  describes  the  characteristic  of 
the  soul. 

(Here  ends  tlte  twelfth  section.) 

The  following  twelve  (words)  are  synonyms  of  much.  From  what 
(root)  is  bahu  (much)  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called)  because  it  is  produced  on 
a  large  scale. 

The  following  eleven  (words)  are  synonyms  of  small.  Hrasva  (small) 
is  derived  from  (the  root)  hras  (to  become  small). 

The  following  twenty- five  (words)  are  synonyms  of  great.  From  what 
(root)  is  maftan  derived  ?  '  He  repudiates  others  through  pride/  says 
Sakapuni  (mdna  +.  */ha). 

Or  he  is  to  be  respected  (Vmamh).  With  reference  to  these,  the  two 
words  vavaksitha 5  and  vivaksase  are  the  reduplicated  forms  either  of  (the 
root)  vac  (to  speak)  or  of  vah  (to  carry). 

1  i.  164.  21 ;  cf.  AV.  9.  9.  22.  the  sun.     Durga. 

a  i.  e.  They  fall  on  a  bright  object  which  4  i.  e.  They  have  full  knowledge  of  what 

is  quite  free  from  darkness,  or  they  shine  they  are  required  to  do.     Durga. 
when  they  fall.     Durga.  »  Yaska  derives  vataksitlta,  perfect  o 

8  i.e.  They  make  the  water  warm,  or  having  (to  wax),  from  ^tac  or 
seized  fluids  in  the  form  of  vapours  go  back  to 


3.  14]  SYNONYMS   OF   BEAUTY  47 

The  following  twenty-two  (words)  are  synonyms  of  home.1  From  what 
(root)  is  grhdh  (homes)  derived  ?  (They  are  so  called)  because  they  seize 
everything  2  (V  grah). 

The  following  ten  roots  have  the  meaning  '  to  attend  '.3 

The  following  twenty  (words)  are  synonyms  of  happiness.4  From  what 
(root)  is  sukkam  (happiness)  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called  because)  it  is  useful 
for  the  senses  (kham).  Kham  (sense)  again  is  derived  from  (the  root)  khan 
(to  dig). 

The  following  sixteen  (words)  are  synonyms  of  beauty.  Rupa  (beauty) 
is  derived  from  (the  root)  t*ue  (to  shine). 

The  following  ten  (words)  are  synonyms  of  praiseworthy. 

The  following  eleven  (words)  are  synonyms  of  wisdom. 

The  following  six  (words)  are  synonyms  of  truth.  From  what  (root)  is 
9at,ya  (truth)  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called  because)  it  is  spread  among  the 
good,  or  it  originates  with  the  good.5 

The  following  eight  words  have  the  meaning  '  to  see  '.  And  [the 
following]  roots,  cayati,  &c.,  are  mixed  with  nouns.0 

The  following  nine  words  (are  enumerated)  in  order  to  make  the  list 
(complete,  i.  e.  including)  all  words  (classes).7 

Now,  therefore,  the  similes.  When  an  object  bears  (some)  resemblance 
to  another  which  is  otherwise  dissimilar,  (it  is  denoted  by  a  simile),  says 
Gari^ya.  With  reference  to  this,  their  function  is  to  compare  an  inferior 
quality,  or  an  unknown  object,  with  a  higher  quality,  or  a  very  well  known 
object.  Further,  (there  is  also  the  comparison  of)  the  higher  with  the 

inferior.8 

(Here  ends  the  thirfreuth 


As  two  thieves,  who  risk  their  lives  and  Imuirh  the  forest,  have  secured 
(their  victim)  with  ten  fingers.0 

Who  risk  their  lives,  who  give  up  their  lives.10  Who  haunt  the  forest, 
i.e.  who  frequent  the  forest:  the  author  compares  the  two  arms,  which 

1  It  is  the  great  alone  who  have  homo*  of  fi  Cf.  Roth,  op.  eft.,  p.  81  ;  Durga  remarks 
their  own,  so  synonyms  of  home  follow  those  that  there  are  three  nouns,  i.  e.  cikyat,  vicar- 
'  >f  ::rea  t.     Dn  rga  .  ?'(1?/7i,  and  wYvocarsatu^,  in  the  list,  the  rest  are 

2  A  house  can  never  be  made  full.    Durga.  verbs. 

3  Synonyms  of  the  verb  '  to  attend  '  follow  7  i.  e.   prepositions  and  particles  are  in- 
those  of  homes,  because  it  is  in  homes  that  eluded  also.     Durga. 

people  attend  or  are  attended.     Durga.  8  According  to  Durga,   the  statement    is 

4  Synonyms  of  happiness  come  next,  be-      applicable  to  the  Veda  only. 

cause  thus  attended  one  feels  happy.    The          8  x.  4.  6  ;  cf.  Roth,  op.  eft.,  pp.  81-2. 
happy  are  the  beautiful.     Durga.  10  i.  *.  Highwaymen  who  are  determined  to 

8  Cf.  Sakatfiyana's  derivation,  1.  18.  rob  or  to  die.     Durga. 


48  NIYOGA  [3.  14 

produce  fire  by  (the  process  of)  friction,  with  two  thieves.1  '  A  thief  is  (so 
called  because)  he  does  that,  i.e.  [becomes  the  doer  of  that],  which  is 
sinful/  say  the  etymologists.  Or  the  word  may  be  derived  from  (the  root) 
tan  (to  spread) :  his  activities  are  manifold,2  or  he  is  active  both  during  the 
day  as  well  as  night.3  Have  secured  (their  victim)  with  ten  fingers,  have 
well  secured,  i.  e.  have  put  (in  a  place  of  safety).  Thus  the  higher  quality 
(of  the  arms)  is  intended  (to  be  compared). 

(Here  ends  the  fourteenth  section.) 

Where  are  you  at  night,  where  during  the  day  ?  O  AsVins,  where  do 
you  get  your  necessary  things,  where  do  you  dwell  ?  Who  puts  you  to  bed 
in  a  dwelling-place  as  a  widow  a  husband's  brother;  and  a  bride  a  bride- 
groom?4 

Where  do  you  remain  at  night,  and  where  during  the  day?  Where  do 
you  obtain  the  necessities  of  life,  and  where  do  you  dwell  ?  Who  puts  you 
to  bed  as  a  widow  her  husband's  brother?  From  what  (root)  is  devara 
derived  ?  (He  is)  so  called  (because)  he  is  the  second  husband.5  Widow  is 
(so  called  because)  she  is  without  a  supporter,  or  from  trembling,  or, 
according  to  Carmasiras,  from  running  about.6  Or  else  the  word  dhava  7 
is  a  synonym  of  man ;  vi-dhavd  ('  widow ',  is  so  called  because)  she  is 
separated  from  man  (dhava).  The  word  devara  means  a  player  ( Vdiv, '  to 
play').  Maryah  means  'a  man',  i.e.  one  who  has  the  characteristic  of 

1  This  is  an    example  where    something  the  intervening  explanation  of  ridhava  ;  this 

higher,  i.e.  the  two  arms  employed  in  pro-  is  against  the  method  of  Yaska,  who  places 

ducing  fire  by  friction,  is  compared    with  all  the  etymologies  of  one  word  at  the  same 

something  inferior,  i.  e.  two  thieves,  who  rob  place,  connecting  them   with    '  or  .  .  .  or ' ; 

people  in  a  forest.    The  point  of  comparison  (3)  the  passage  is  omitted  by  the  MSS,  of  the 

is,  just  as  thieves  secure  their  victim,  so  we  shorter  recension  and  Durga. 

tightly  fasten  the  two  sticks  to  produce  fire.  It  refers  to  the  Indo-European  practice  of 

Durga.  the  niyoga,  cf.  Xenophon,  Rep.  f  lac.  i.  9;  Plu- 

•  Durga  attributes  this  explanation  to  the  tarch,  Lives,  part  I,  ch.  iii,  sec.  8  and  sec.  5 ; 

school  of  grammarians,  although  there  is  no  Caesar,   Commentaries,  bk.  iv,  ch.  xiv  ;  Deut. 

evidence  to  do  so.  xxv.  5  ;  St.  Matthew  xxii.  24  ;  Manu,  ix.  57- 

3  i.e.  He  commits  thefts   in   the  village  68;  Gau.  xviii.  4-5;   Bau.  ii.  4,  9-10 ;  Va. 
during  the  night  and  robs  people  in  the  forest  Xvii.  56.  61  ;    Ya.  i.  68,  69  ;   see  Hastings, 
during  the  day.     Durga.  Encyclopaedia  of  Ethics  and  Religion,  article  on 

4  x.'  40.  2.  Niyoga. 

6  The    passage  within    square  brackets  is  e  i>e<  The  word  is  derived  from  the  root  dh u 

evidently  an  interpolation,  as  shown  by  the  ^th  vi .  at  the  death  of  her  husband,  a  woman 

following :  (1)  the  four  words  vidhava,  devara,  trembles  at  the  dark  prospect  of  the  future,  or 

man/a,  and  yosa  are  explained  by  Yaska  in  she  runs  about  without  being  protected  by 

the  same  order  in  which  they  occur  in  the  anybody  (n  <^dhav}. 

second  hemistich  of  x.  40.  2,  but  this  passage  7  Roth  thinks  dhava  to  be  a  coined  word  ; 

disturbs  the  regular  order  ;  (2)  the  first  deriva-  see  Opt  Ciyt }  p  32. 
tion  of  devara  is  separated  from  the  second  by 


3.  16]  SIMILES  49 

being  mortal.     Yosa  (a  woman)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  yu  (to  join).1 
Krnute  .  .  .  a  =  a  kurute,  i.  e.  who  makes  you  rest  in  the  dwelling-place. 

Now   the    particles    have    already   been    explained.      The   word   '  as ' 
(denotes)  a  simile  of  action  : 

As  the  wind,  as  the  forest,  as  the  ocean  stirs.2 

As  the  brilliant  fires.3 

The  soul  of  consumption  perishes  beforehand  as  that  of  a  captive 

bird.4 

AtmcL  (soul)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  at  (to  go),  or  ap  (to  obtain); 
i.  e.  it  may  be  (called)  '  obtained '  (in  the  sense)  that  it  is  omnipresent. 

They  of  golden  breasts,  who  are  like  Agni  on  account  of  their  brilliance.5 
They  who   are   like  Agni,   [i.  e.   the   brilliant   Maruts   of   resplendent 
breasts],  brilliant  and  having  golden  breasts.6 

(Here  ends  the  fifteenth  section.) 

Just  as  one  should  be  afraid  of  him  who  takes  the  four  (dice)  until  they 
are  deposited,  so  he  should  not  be  eager  for  harsh  speech.7 

Just  as  one  is  afraid  of  a  gambler  who  holds  the  four  [dice],8  in  the 
same  manner  one  should  be  afraid  of  (using)  harsh  speech.  One  should 
never  be  eager  for  (using)  harsh  speech. 

The  letter  a  is  a  preposition,  and  has  already  been  explained.  It  is  also 
used  in  the  sense  of  a  simile  : 

As  a  consumer  to  his  enjoyment.9 

Like  a  consumer  to  his  enjoyment.  The  sun  is  here  called  the  con- 
sumer :  he  is  the  consumer  of  night ;  he  is  the  consumer  of  lights  also.10 
Further,  there  is  the  Vedic  quotation : 

May  the  sister's  consumer  hear  our  call.11 

The  author  calls  dawn  his  sister,  from  companionship,  or  drawing  the 
juices.  Or  else  this  human  lover  may  have  been  meant;  the  enjoyment 

1  Durga  explains  that  a  woman  mutes  her-  the  passage,  agnir  na  ye,  &c.,  is  explained  by 
self  with  .a  man.  durmaddso  na  sura-yam  (N.  1.  4),  do  not  cite  the 

2  v.  78.  8 ;  according  to  Durga,  it  is  recited  quotation  x.  78.  2. 
at  the  time  of  delivery  :  0  child  !  ten  months  7  i.  41.  9. 

old ;  just  as  the  wind,  the  forest,  and  the  ocean  8  i.  e.  Before  the  dice  are  deposited  on  the 

move  freely  without  any  difficulty,  so  come  gambling  board,  or   remains  in  suspense  as 

forth  from  the  womb  of  the  mother  without  to  whether  he  will  win  or  lose.     Durga. 

injuring  her.  9  Frag,  of  x.  11.  6a  ;  AV.  18.  1.  28. 

3  i.  50.  3  ;   AV.  13.  2.  18  ;   20.  47.  15  ;   VS.  10  Night  disappears  at  the  rising  of  the  sun, 
8.  40;  SB.  4.  5.  4.  11.  and  the  light  of  the  moon  and  the  stars  is 

4  x.  97.  11 ;  VS.  12.  85. .  eclipsed  by  that  of  the  sun.     Durga. 

5  x.  78.  2.  «  vi.  55.  5. 

6  According  to  Durga,  some,  thinking  that 


50  SIMILES  L3-  l6 

in  that  case  will  refer  to  the  woman,  derived  from  (the  root)  bhaj  (to 
enjoy). 

In  mesah,  &c.,  the  simile  is  (denoted)  by  the  word  bhuta,  i.  e.  having 
disguised  as : 

Being  disguised  as  a  ram,  thou  hast  approached  us.1 

Mesah  (ram)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  mis  (to  blink),  just  as  pasuh 
(animal)  is  derived  from  pas  2  (to  see). 

In  Agni,  &c.,  the  simile  is  (denoted)  by  the  word  rupa,  i.  e.  having  the 
form  of : 

Golden  in  form  and  glittering  like  gold  sat  the  offspring  of  waters 
golden  in  colour.3 

i.  e.  One  whose  form  is  like  the  colour  of  gold.  And  the  word  tkd  also 
(is  used  to  denote  a  simile). 

.   Him  (thou  milkest)  like  the  ancient,  like  the  former,  like  all,  like  the 
present  (sacrificers).4 

i.  e.  Just  as  the  ancient,  as  the  former,  as  all,  as  these  (sacrificers  milk). 
This,  it  is  nearer  than  that.  That,  it  is  farther  than  this.5  The  word 
amutha  is  explained  by  '  like  that '. 

The  word  vat  (denotes)  a  simile  in  accomplishment :  Like  a  Brahmana, 
like  a  contemptible  man.6      As  a  Brahmana,  as  a  contemptible   man.7 
Contemptible,  one  who  has  the  nature  of  an  ox,  or  that  of  a  beast. 
(Here  ends  the  sixteenth  section.) 

Hear  Praskanva's  call,  O  (Lord  of)  great  ordinances,  and  having  all 
created  beings  as  thy  property,  like  that  of  Priyamedha,  Atri,  Virupa,  and 
Angiras.8 

.  Priyamedhah,  i.  e.  one  to  whom  sacrifices  are  dear.  Just  as  (thou  hast 
heard  the  call)  of  these  seers,  so  hear  the  call  of  Praskanva.  Pras- 
kanvah*  a  son  of  Kanva,  or  one  born  of  Kanva ;  it  is  formed  on  the 
analogy  of  prdgram  (in  front).  Bhrgu10  was  produced  in  flames,  i.  e. 
one  who,  although  being  roasted,  was  not  burnt.  Angiras  (was  born)  in 

1  viii.  2.  40.  like  a  contemptible  man.     The  simile  refers 

8  It  seems  as  if  Yaska  recognized  pa4  as  an  to  some  particular  accomplishment.      Durga. 

independent  root,  and  not  the  ordinary  form  8  i.  45.  3. 

of  drf.  a  Cf.  Roth,  loc.  cit. 

3  ii.  35.  10.  10  Cf.  TB.  i.  8.  2.  5 ;  indrasya  .  .  .  tredhd  atn- 

4  v.  44,  1.  dryam  mryam  parapatat.  Bhrgus  trtiyam  abhavat ; 
6  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  32.  the  seminal  fluid  of  Indra,  having  his  char- 

6  The  quotation,  if  it  is  a  quotation  and  acteristic  power,  was   discharged   threefold, 
not  an  invented  example  on  Yaska's  part,  is  The  third  (person)  born  was  Bhrgu ;  cf.  Manu, 
untraced.  i.  35,  59,  which  mention  Bhrgu  as  sprung 

7  i.e.  He  studies  like  a  Brahmana,  or  croaks  from  fire;  MBh.  Adi.  2605  and  Vayu  Pu.  i. 


3.  1 9]  ONOMATOPOEIA  51 

live  coals.  Live  coals  (are  so  called  because)  they  leave  a  mark,  or  they 
are  bright.  They  said, '  Seek  the  third  in  this  very  place ';  therefore  A-tri l 
is'  so  called,  i.  e.  not  three.  Vaikhdnasa  is  (so  called)  from  being  dug  out 
( Vkhan,  '  to  dig ').  Bhdradvdja.  is  (so  called)  from  being  brought  up 
( Vbhr).  Virupa,  multiform.  Lord  of  great  ordinances,  i.  e.  whose  ordi- 
nances are  great. 

(Here  ends  the  seventeenth  section.) 

Now  (the  rhetoricians)  describe  metaphors  as  similes  in  which  the  object 
of  comparison  is  stated  without  the  particles  of  comparison.  '  Lion ', 
'  tiger ',  &c.,  denote  excellence ;  '  dog ', '  cow ',  &c.,  are  used  in  contempt. 

The  word  kdka  (crow)  is  an  onomatopoetic  word.  This  onomatopoeia  is 
mostly  found  in  the  names  of  birds.  '  Onomatopoeia  does  not  exist,'  says 
Aupamanyava.  Kdka  (crow)  is  (so  called  because)  it  is  to  be  driven  away 
(i.e.  from  Vkal).  Tittiri  (partridge)  is  (so  called)  from  hopping  (*/tr),  or 
because  it  has  variegated  spots  of  the  size  of  a  sesamum  seed.  A  Francolin 
partridge  is  (so  called)  because  it  is  withered  like  a  monkey,  or  it  is  swift 
like  a  monkey,  or  it  is  slightly  brown,  or  it  warbles  a  melodious  note. 
Dog,  swift  runner,  or  (the  word  svd)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  «av,  meaning 
to  go,  or  svas  (to  breathe).  Lion  (simha)  is  (so  called)  from  its  power  of 
resistance,  or  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  hims  (to  injure)  by  metathesis,  or 
from  han  (to  kill),  preceded  by  the  (preposition)  sam:  it  kills  having 
collected.  Tiger  is  (so  called)  from  smelling,  or  it  kills  having  separated. 
(Here  ends  the  eighteenth  section.) 

The  following  forty-four  roots  have  the  meaning  to  worship. 

The  following  twenty-four  (words)  are  synonyms  of  wise.  From  what 
(root)  is  medhdvl  (wise)  derived  ?  (He  is  so  called  because)  he  is  endowed 
with  that,  i.  e.  wisdom.  Me-dhd  (wisdom)  is  (so  called  because)  it  is  stored 
( Vdhd)  in  the  mind. 

The  following  thirteen  (words)  are  synonyms  of  praiser.  .  A  praiser  is 
(so  called)  from  praising. 

The  following  fifteen  (words)  are  synonyms  of  sacrifice.  From  what 
(root)  is  yajna  derived  ?  •  '  It  is  a  well-known  act  of  worship/  say  the 

9.  100  describe  Bhrgu  as  born  from  the  heart  just  born  said, '  Seek  the  third  also  here',  hence 

of  the  creator,  and  Bhag.  Pu.  iii.  12.  23  speaks  the  seer  who  sprang  up  was  called  A-tri.    Not 

of  him  as  born  from  the  skin  of  the  creator.  satisfied  as  yet,  they  began  to  dig,  and  the 

1  Durga  relates  the  following  story.  Praja-  seer  thus  produced  was  called  Vaikhanasa.  A 

pati  took  his  own  seminal  fluid,  and  sacri-  similar  story  is  related  in  Brh.  D.  v.  97-103; 

ficed.  From  the  blazing  fire  Bhrgu  was  born  ;  see  Professor  Macdonell's  edition,  pp.  190-1. 
Angiras  rose  from  the  ashes.  Then  the  two 

D2 


52  SYNONYMS   OF   WELL  [8.19 

etymologists.  Or  it  is  (an  act  of)  supplication  (to  gods),  or  it  is  sprinkled 
with  the  yajus  formulas.  'It  has  a  large  number  of  the  skins  of  black 
antelopes/  says  Aupamanyava.  Or  it  is  directed  by  the  yajus  formulas. 

The  following  eight  (words)  are  synonyms  of  priest.  From  what  (root) 
is  rtvik  (priest)  derived?  (He  is  so  called  because)  he  is  the  furtherer  of 
sacrifice.  '  He  sacrifices  with  the  stanzas  of  the  Rgveda,'  says  6akapuni. 
Or  he  sacrifices  at  proper  seasons. 

The  following  seventeen  roots  have  the  meaning  '  to  beg  '. 

The  following  ten  roots  have  the  meaning  *  to  give '.  The  following 
four  roots  have  the  meaning  'to  solicit'.  The  two  verbs  svapiti  and  sastt 
have  the  meaning  '  to  sleep '. 

The  following  fourteen  (words)  are  synonyms  of  well.  From  what 
(root)  is  kupa  (well)  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called  because)  drinking  (water) 
from  a  well  is  difficult,  or  from  (the  root)  kup  (to  be  angry). 

The  following  fourteen  (words)  are  the  synonyms  of  thief.  From  what 
(root)  is  stena  (thief)  derived  ?  '  (He  is  so  called  because)  he  is  the  recep- 
tacle of  sin,'  say  the  etymologists. 

The  following  six  (words)  are  synonyms  of  what  is  ascertained,  and 
what  is  obscure.  [From  what  (root)  is  nirnUa.m  (ascertained)  derived  ? 
(It  is  -so  called  because)  it  is  cleansed  (of  doubts).] 

The  following  five  (words)  are  synonyms  of  distant.  From  what  (root) 
is  duram  (distant)  derived?  (It  is  so  called  because)  it  is  drawn  out 
( \/dru),  or  it  is  difficult  to  be  reached  (dur  </i). 

The  following  six  (words)  are  synonyms  of  ancient.  From  what  (root) 
is  purdnam  (ancient)  derived  ?  (It  is  so  called  because)  it  was  new  in  the 
days  of  yore. 

Also  the  following  six  (words)  are  synonyms  of  new.     From  what  (root) 
is  navam  (new)  derived  ?     (It  is  so  called  because)  it  is  brought  just  now. 
(Here  end*  the  nineteenth  section.) 

The  following  twenty-six  synonyms  are  in  pairs.  The  words  prapitve 
and  abhike1  are  (synonyms)  of  near.  Praf/ttve,  i.e.  arrived  at;  ab/dke,  i.e. 
approached. 

Come  quickly  to  us,  when  the  drought  is  arrived.2 
Lo  ! :;  the  maker  of  room  has  approached.4 
These  two  are  the  Vedic  quotations. 
Dalhram  and  arbhaJcam  are  (synonyms)  of  small ;  dalhram  is  derived 

1  According  to  Rotli   (op.  ci/.,   p.   34),  pra-  See  WiJrferbuch  zum  Jlgveda,  p.  87C. 

pitvam  refers  to  morning,   and  abhipitvam  to  2  viii.  4.  3;  SV.  1.  252  ;  2.  1071. 

evening.      Grassmann  attributes  to   it    the  a  Of.  Roth,  Joe.  tit. 

meaning  <  advance  ',   '  forward   course  ',   &c.  *  x.  133.  1  ;  AV.  20.  05.  2  ;  SV.  2.  1151. 


3,  20]  PAIRS  58 

from  (the  root)  dabh  (to  destroy) :  it  is  easily  destroyed.     Arbhakum,  it  is 
extracted  (avai/hr). 

Come,  approach,  embrace,  do  not  think  (my  hair)  to  be  small.1 
Salutations  to  the  great,  salutations  to  the  small.2 
These  two  are  the  Vedic  quotations. 

Tims  and  satas  are  (synonyms)  of  attained.  Tiras,  i.e.  it  has  crossed  over 
(Vtr).  Satas,  it  is  moved  together  (*/sr). 

O  undeceived  ones,  come  round  quickly  across  the  turn.3 

Smashing  like  an  earthen  jar,  he  attacks   the   demons   who   move 

together.4 

These  two  are  the  Vedic  quotations. 

Tvah  and  nemah  are  (synonyms)  of  half.     Tvah,  not  fully  spread  (i.e. 
half).    Nemah,  not  brought  in  full  (i.e.  half).    Ardha  (half)  is  derived  (1) 
from  (the  root)  hr  (to  take  away)  by  metathesis,  or  (2)  it  may  be  derived 
from  (the  root)  dhr  (to  hold),  i.e.  it  is  held  out  (  =  extracted),  or  (3)  from 
(the  root)  rdh  (to  increase) :  a  most  abundant  division. 
One  half  reviles,  one  half  praises.5 
Half  are  gods,  half  are  demons.0 
These  two  are  Vedic  quotations. 

Rksdh  and  strlhih  are  (synonyms)  of  stars.    Naksatra  (stars)  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  nalcs,  meaning  to  go.     There  is  also  a  Brahmana  passage : 
These  are  not  gold  (tia-ksatrdni).1     Rkxah 8  (stars)  appear  to  be  raised  up. 
Strbhih  (stars)  appear  to  be  scattered  (in  the  sky). 
These  stars  which  are  placed  on  high." 
Looking  at  the  sky  with  stars,  as  it  were.10 
These  are  two  Vedic  quotations. 

Vamribhih  and  upajihvikdk  are  (synonyms)  of  einmet.  Vamryah  (emmets) 
are  (so  called)  from  vomiting.  Svmika  (ernmet)  is  (so  called)  from  crawling. 
Upaj  ihvikdh,  smellers.11 

[Unmarried  maidens  (have  taken)  the  undivided  son  from  the  emmets.]  12 

When  the  emmet  eats,  when  the  pismire  crawls.13 
This  is  the  Vedic  quotation.     [These  are  two  Vedic  quotations.] 

i.  126.  7.  of  wealth.     The  stars  glitter  like  gold. 

i.  27.  13  ;  cf.  VS.  16.  26.  fc  Cf.  Roth,  op.  eft.,  p.  35. 

v.  75.  7.  9  i.  24. 10  ;  TA.  i.  11.  2. 

vii.  104.  21  ;  AV.  8.  4.  21.  10  iv.  7.  3. 

i.  147.2;  VS.  12.42.  One  half  reviles,  n  Their  smelling  power  isveryacute.  Durga. 

i.e.  demons;  one  half  praises,  i.e.  gods.  i.e.  An  insect  provided  with  proboscis;  cf. 

Durga.  Roth,  loc.  til.  ;  Bl.ii.  354. 

6  Cf.MS.  ii.  9.  "  iv.  19.  9. 

7  According  to  Durga,  Ictatra  is  a  synonym  "  viii.  102.  21  ;  VS.  11.  24. 


54  PAIRS  [3. 20 

ffrdaram  and  krdaram  are  (synonyms)  of  granary.1       Urdaram,  i.e. 
pierced  upwards  (fud-dvrnarm),  or  pierced  for  food  (urje  dlrnam). 

Fills  him  like  a  granary  with  barley.2 

This  is  a  Vedic  quotation.     He  fills  him  like  a  granary  with  barley. 
Krdaram,  i.e.  something  into  which  a  hole  is  bored  (krta-daram). 

Being  kindled,  anointing  the  granary 3  of  intellects.4 
This  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

(Here  ends  the  twentieth  section.) 

Rambhah  and  pindkam  are  (synonyms)  of  staff.  Rambhah,  i.e.  people 
grasp  it.5 

(We)  grasped  thee  as  decrepit  people  their  staff.6 

This  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  (The  sense  is  that)  we  lean  on  thee  as  decrepit 
men  on  their  staff.  Pindfcam  (bone),  i.e.  with  this  one  destroys  (pinasti). 

Clad  in  skin,  trident  in  hand,  whose  bow  is  unbent.7 
This  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Mendh  and  gnah  are  (synonyms)  of  women.  'Striyah'  (women)  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  styai,  meaning  to  be  bashful.  Mendh  (women)  are  (so 
called  because)  men  honour  them  (mdnayanti).  Gnah  (women)  are  (so 
called  because)  men  go  to  them  (gacchanti). 

Thou  didst  make  even  the  wifeless  to  be  possessed  of  a  consort.8 
Women  cut  thee,  the  active  spread  thee.9 
These  are  two  Vedic  quotations. 

£epah  and  vaitasah  are  (synonyms)  of  penis.     £epah  is  derived  from 
(the  root)  tap,  meaning  to  touch.10     Vaitasah,  it  is  faded.11 
Loving  whom  we  embrace.12 
Thrice  during  the  day  hast  thou  embraced  me.13 
These  are  two  Vedic  quotations. 
Ayd  and  end  are  (synonyms)  of  reference. 

With  this  faggot  we  worship  thee,  O  Agni  I  u 
Here  it  is  in  the  feminine  gender. 

1  Cf.  Durga's  explanation,  quoted  by  Roth,  *  MS.  i.  9.  4  ;  134.  8  ;  KS.  9.  9. 
op.  cit.j  p.  36.                                                                    10  Sprfyate  hi  tena  stri.     Durga. 

2  ii.  14.  11.  "  Cf.  Durga's  explanation,  quoted  by  Roth, 

*  Butter  is  the  granary  of  intellects.  Durga.       op.  cit.,  p.  37. 

«  VS.  29.  1.  i*  x.  85.  37  ;  AV.  14. 2. 38.    The  translation 

6  According  to  Roth  (loc.  cit.}  a-rabh  means      is  not  literal. 

to  catch  hold,  to  keep  hold,  or  to  lean  upon.  1S  x.  95.  5.     This  was  addressed  by  UrvasI 

•  viii.  45.  20.  *  to  Pururavas,  when  the  latter  implored  her 

7  KS.  9.  7  ;    cf.  VS.  3.  61  ;    SB.  ii.  6.  2.  7  ;      to  stay. 

TS.  i.  8.  6.  2.  M  iv.  4.  15. 

8  v.  81.  2. 


3.2a]  SYNONYMS   OF  HEAVEN  AND  EARTH  55 

With  this,  to  us,  0  Agni.1 
Here  it  is  in  the  neuter  gender. 

With  this  husband  commingle  thy  body.2 
Here  it  is  in-  the  masculine  gender. 
Sisaktu  and  sacate  are  (synonyms)  of  service. 

Let  him  who  is  smart  attend  upon  us.3 
i.e.  Let  him  who  is  smart  serve  us. 

Attend  upon  us  for  thy  welfare.4 
i.e.  Serve  us  for  thy  welfare. 

The  word  svasti  is  (a  synonym)  of  non-destruction,  i.e.  honoured  exis- 
tence :  it  exists  well.  Bhyasate  and  rejate  are  (synonyms)  of  fear  and  trem- 
bling. 

.At  whose  breath  heaven  and  earth  trembled.5 
The  world  is  afraid  of  the  great  ones,6  O  Agni ! 7 
These  are  two  Vedic  quotations. 

The  following  twenty-four  (words)  are  synonyms  of  heaven  and  earth. 
The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  them. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-first  section.) 

Of  these  two,  which  is  prior,  which  posterior  ?  How  were  they  born, 
O  sages !  who  knows  ?  All  that  exists,  they  themselves  support.  The  two 
days  roll  on  like  chariot- wheels.8 

Of  these  two,  which  is  prior,  which  posterior  ?  How  were  they  born,9 
O  sages !  who  knows  them  thoroughly  ?  They  themselves  support  all  their 
functions,  whatever  they  are.  And  their  two  days,  i.e.  day  and  night,  roll 
on  as  if  placed  on  chariot-wheels.10  With  these  words,  the  seer  describes  the 
greatness  of  heaven  and  earth. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-second  section.) 

vii  16.  1  ;  SV.  1.  46  ;  2.  99 ;  VS.  15.  32.  7  vi.  66.  9. 

x.  85.  27  ;  cf.  AV.  14.  1.  21.  «  i.  185.  1  ;  AB.  v.  18.  10  ;  KB.  28.  8. 

i.  18.  2 ;  VS.  3.  29.  9  The  question  is  whether  they  were  born 

i.  1.9;  VS.  3.  24.  simultaneously    like    twins,     or     one    after 

ii.  12.  1  ;  AV.  20.  34.  1.  another.     Durga. 

i.  e.  The  Mamts.    Durga.  10  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  87. 


56  PASYA  [4.  i 


CHAPTER   IV 

HOMONYMS 

SYNONYMS  i  have  been  explained.  Now  therefore  we  shall  take 
homonyms  2  in  their  respective  order  and  (such)  Vedic  words  whose  gram- 
matical forms  are  obscure.  They  call  this  (i.e.  the  list  of  homonyms)  aika- 
padikam,3  (i.e.  composed  of  single  words). 

Jahd  means  '  I  have  killed '. 

(Here  ends  the  first  section.) 

0  men,  what  friend  has  said,  Unprovoked  I  have  killed  my  friend  ?  who 
flies  from  us  1  * 

The  word  marya  is  a  synonym  of  man,  or  it  may  be  a  synonym  of 
boundary.  [Boundary,  it  is  settled  by  men.]  Boundary  is  the  (line  of) 
division  between  two  bounded  places.  Methati  means  to  provoke.  What 
innocent  man  have  I  ever  killed  ?  5  Who  runs  away  from  us  because  he  is 
afraid  of  us  ? 

Nidha,  means  '  a  net ',  (so  called)  because  it  is  laid  (on  the  ground). 
Pasyd  means  a  collection  of  snares.  Pdsah  (snare)  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  pas  (to  fasten),  on  account  of  being  fastened. 

(Here  ends  the  second  section.) 

Imploring  seers,  fond  of  sacrifices,  approached  Indra  like  birds  of  beauti- 
ful wings.  Uncover  the  encompassed,  fill  our  vision,  release  us  as  if  we 
were  bound  by  a  net.6 

Vayah  is  the  plural  of  vi  (bird).  [Of  beautiful  wings, i.e.]  the  beauti- 
fully falling  rays  of  the  sun  approached  Indra  imploring.  Uncover  our 
encompassed  vision.7  Caksuh  (eye)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  khyd  (to 
know),  or  caks  (to  see).  Fill,  i.e.  enlarge  or  give.  Kelease  us  who  are 
bound  with  snares  as  it  were. 

Ry  the  region  of  ribs,  hips,  and  arms.8 

1  Lit.,    m.m/    words     which     have     one  there   are  a  few  exceptions   in   the   list  of 

meaning.  homonyms,  as  somoaktdh,  &c. 

8  Lit.,   single    words    which    have    many  *  viii.  45.  87  ;  cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  38. 

meanings.  c  Durga  gives  a  second  interpretation  of  the 

3  According   to    Durga,    aikapadikam  is  a  sentence  as  follows:  Who  will  say,  'I  am 

conventional  term.     Or  it  may  be  significant  innocent,  kill  me '. 

and  is  rightly  applied  to  the  list  of  homo-  *  x.  73.  11 ;  SV.  1.  319. 

nyms,  in  which  list  each  word  stands  by  7  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  88. 

itself,  while  in  the   list  of    synonyms  the  8  Frag,  of  VS.    21.  43  ;  TB.    iii.  6.  11.  1. 

words  are  arranged   in  groups.       However,  Durga  quotes  and  explains  the  stanza  in  full. 


4.  4]  MEHANA  57 

The  region  of  the  ribs,  i.e.  a  part  (of  the  body)  consisting  of  joints.1 
Parsuh  (joint)  is  derived  from  (the.root)  spry  (to  touch) :  it  touches  the  back 
part.  Prstkam  (back)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  sprit  (to  touch) :  it  is  touched 
by  limbs  (of  the  body).  A  limb  is  (so  called)  from  being  marked,  or  from  being 
bent.2  &ronik  (hip)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  won,  meaning  to  go  forward, 
i.e.  a  hip  appears  to  go  forward  when  a  person  walks.  Sitdma  means  fore- 
foot (doe).  Dos  (fore-foot)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  dru  (to  run).  '  tiitdma 
means  uterus,'  says  £akapuni, '  it  is  open.'  '  It  means  liver  on  account  of 
its  dark-red  colour,'  says  Taitiki.  tiydmam  (dark-red)  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  tyai  (to  cause  to  congeal).  Liver  is  (so  called  because)  it  is  cut  out 
with  great  difficulty.3  '  (tiitdma)  means  fat,  becausait  is  white  (viti)  meat 
(mdmsam) ',  says  Galava.  &iti  (white)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  so  (to 
whet).  Mdmsam  (meat),  it  is  honoured ; 4  it  is  thought r>  (delicious) ;  or 
else,  the  mind  perishes  in  it.  Medas  (fat)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  mid  (to 

grow  fat). 

(Here  etuis  the  third  section.) 

O  Indra,  wielder  of  the  thunderbolt,  give  us  whatever  excellent  treasure 
there  is.  With  both  hands  bring  that  wealth  to  us,  O  treasure-knower.'  . 

Whatever  [excellent],  glorious,  and  abundant  wealth  there  is,  O  Indra ; 
or  that  which  I  do  not  here  possess,  (i.  e.  taking  me-ha-nd) 7  as  consisting  of 
three  words,  that  wealth  should  be  given  to  us,  O  wielder  of  the  thunderbolt. 
Adrih  (thunderbolt)  is  (so  called  because)  with  it  he  splits  (mountains),  or 
it  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  ad  (to  eat). 

It  is  well  known:  they  are  eaters  of  soma.8  The  word  rddhas  is 
a  synonym  of  wealth :  with  it,  they  conciliate.  Bring  that  wealth  to  us, 
O  Lord  to  whom  treasures  are  known,  with  both  thy  hands.  Let  both 
thy  hands  be  full. 

Damunds?  one  who  is  inclined  towards  kindness,  or  one  who  is  inclined 
to  charity,  or  one  who  is  inclined  to  self-control.     Or  else  the  word  dwnia  is 
a  synonym  of  home  ;  (damund*,  therefore)  may  mean, '  one  who  is  devoted 
to  home '.     Manas  (mind)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  mail  (to  think). 
(Here  ends  the  fourth  section.) 

1  Joints  are  called  ribs,  because  they  con-       pleasure,  or  by  those   who  are  intelligent. 
sist  of  ribs.     Durga.  Durga. 

2  Every  limb  becomes  bent   in   course  of          «  v.  39.  1  ;  SV.  1.  345  ;  2.  522. 

time.     Purga.  '  6akalya,  the  author  of  the  Rgveda  pada- 

3  According  to  Durga  it  is  cut  out  with  ^titha,  does  not  analyse  the  word  mehana,  while 
great  ease,  because  it  is  so  soft.  Oargya,  the  author  of  the  Samaveda  padapdtha, 

4  i.  e.  It  is  prepared  for  a  person  who  is  to  analyses  it  into  me-iha-na.     Yaska  explains  it 
honoured.     Durga.  in  both  ways.  8  x.  94.  9. 

5  i.  e.  It  is  enjoyed  by  a  person  with  hearty          9  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  39. 


58  MtSA  [4. 5 

Devoted  to  the  house,  welcome  guest  in  dwelling-places,  approach  this 
sacrifice  of  ours,  O  wise  onei  Having  destroyed  all  assailants,  bring  to 
us  the  treasures  of  our  enemies,  O  Agni.1 

Atithih  (guest),  one  who  goes  (Vat)  to  the  houses,. or  one  who  goes  to 
the  families  or  houses  .of  other  persons  on  certain  dates 2  ( */i  +  tithih).  The 
word  durona  is  a  synonym  of  house  :  they  (homes)  are  difficult  to  be  satis- 
fied (dur  +  Vav,  '  to  satisfy '),  i.  e.  difficult  to  be  provided  for.3  Approach 
this  sacrifice  of  ours,  O  wise  one !  Having  destroyed  all  assailants,  bring  to 
us  the  treasures  of  our  enemies,  i.  e.  having  destroyed  the  forces  of  our  adver- 
saries, bring  to  us  the  treasures  or  the  food  from  the  homes  of  our  enemies. 

Musah  means  a  mouse.    Musikd  (mouse)  again  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  mus  (to  steal).     Musah  is  derived  from  the  same  root  also. 
(Here  ends  the  fifth  section.) 

Bricks  torment  me  on  every  side,  like  rival  wives.  O  (Indra)  of  a  hundred 
powers,  oppressing  cares  devour  me,  thy  praiser,  as  mice  the  threads.  Know, 
O  heaven  and  earth,  of  this  (state)  of  mine.4 

Bricks,  i.  e.  bricks  of  the  well,  torment  me  on  every  side,  like  rival  wives. 
As  mice  devour  the  greasy  threads.  Or  (M&na)  may  mean  one's  own  limbs, 
i.  e.  they  devour  their  own  limbs ; 6  so  oppressing  cares,  desires  torment  me,  the 
singer  of  thy  praises,  O  Lord  of  a  hundred  powers.  [Know,  0  heaven  and 
earth,  of  this  (state)  of  mine.]  Realize,  O  heaven  and  earth,  this  (state)  of 
mine.  This  hymn  was  revealed  to  Trita  fallen  into  a  well.6  With  refer- 
ence to  this,  there  is  an  invocation,  accompanied  with  a  legend,  a  stanza, 
and  a  gatha.1  Trita,  was  one  most  eminent  in  wisdom.  Or  else  the  word 
may  have  been  intended  as  a  synonym  of  number,  i.  e.  ekatah,  dvitah,  tritah, 
thus  the  three  were  produced.8 

(Here  ends  the  sixth  section.) 

May  we,  with  an  active  mind,  partake  of  thy  pressed  soma,  as  if  it  were 
paternal  property.  O  king  soma,  prolong  our  lives,  as  the  sun  prolongs  the 
summer  days.9 

May  we,  with  (an  active),  i.e.  quick,  or  vigorous,  or  enlightened 
mind,  partake  of  thy  pressed  soma-juice,  as  if  it  were  paternal  property. 

1  v.  4.  5  ;  AV.  7.  73.  9.  their  own  tails,  and  the  habit  oi     .fe      juse  is 

2  i.  e.  He  comes  to  the  houses  of  sacrificers      to  first  besmear  its  tail  with  great        d  to  lick 
on  the  full-moon  day  and  other  days  of  sacri-      it  afterwards.     Durga. 

fice.     Durga.  •  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  39. 

8  Durga  quotes  the  following  passage :  It  is  7  Cf.  Sieg,  Sagenstqffe  des  Sgveda,  p.  27. 

difficult  indeed  to  provide  for  one's  family.  $  Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  J.R.A.S.  xxv. 

4  i.  105.  8  ;  x.  32.  2 :  cf.  Brh.D.  7.  34.  9  viii.  48.  7  ;  KS.  17.  19. 

5  It  is  the  habit  of  some  birds  to  devour 


4.  ip]  JATHARA  59 

O  king  soma,  make  our  lives  long,  as  the  sun  does  the  days  in  summer. 
Days  are  (so  called  because)  they  are  of  different  courses,1  or  they  are  bright,2 
or  they  pass  away.3 

The  word  fcurutaiia  (do),  as  well  as  the  words  kartana  (do),  hantana 
(kill),  and  ydtana  (go),  have  (na)  as  a  redundant  addition.4 

Jatharam  means  belly ;  (all  that  is)  eaten  is  held  in  it,  or  is  deposited 
in  it. 

(Here  ends  the  seventh  section.) 

Indra,  the  bull,  accompanied  by  the  Maruts,  is  for  battle.  Drink  soma 
for  rapture  after  food.  Ppur  down  the  flood  of  mead  into  thy  belly. 
From  days  of  yore  thou  art  the  king  of  soma-draughts.5 

Indra,  accompanied  by  the  Maruts,  i.  e.  having  the  Maruts  as  his  com- 
panions. Bull,  i.  e.  one  who  brings  down  rain.  For  battle,  for  a  delightful 
battle.  Drink  soma  for  rapture,  i.e.  for  a  maddening  victory,  after  food, 
i.  e.  after  meals.6  Pour  down  the  flood  of  mead  into  thy  belly.  Madhu 
means  soma,  is  derived  from  (the  root)  mad  (to  exhilarate),  and  is  compared 
with  soma  (on  account  of  the  analogy  of  exhilaration).  This  other  (meaning 
of)  madhu  (wine)  is  derived  from  the  same  (root)  also.  Thou  art  the  king  of 
soma-draughts  (now,  as  thou  wert)  in  the  former  days. 
(Here  ends  the  eighth  section.) 

Titau  7  means  a  sieve :  it  is  covered  with  a  hide,  or  it  has  holes,  or  its 
holes  are  (small)  like  sesamum  seeds. 

(Here  ends  the  ninth  section.) 

Where  the  wise  have  sifted  speech  in  their  minds,  as  if  winnowing  grain 
in  a  sieve,  there  friends  recognize  friendships;  the  blessed  mark  is  im- 
pressed on  their  speech.8 

As  if  winnowing  grain  in  a  sieve.  Saktuh  (grain)  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  sac  (to  cling):  it  is  difficult  to  wash;  or  it  may  be  derived  from 
the  (root)  ka&  (to  shine)  by  metathesis:  it  is  fully  blown.  Where  the  wise 
have  sifted  speech,  i.  e.  knowledge,  in  their  minds.  Wise,  very  learned,  or 
great  thinkers.  There  friends  will  recognize  friendships.  The  blessed  mark 
is  impressed  on  their  speech.  Blessed  is  explained  by  fortunate :  it  is  to  be 

1  i.  e.  They  are  cold  during  the  night  and  .    and  RV.  2.  3.  26.  3  to  illustrate  kartana,  han- 

warm  during  the' day.     Durga.                     "  tana,  and  ydtana  respectively. 

8  i.  e.  They  destroy  cold.     Durga.  •*  iii.  47. 1. 

*  i.  e.  They  are  extended,  they  roll  on  one  '8  Of.  Roth,  op.  cit.,pp.  40-1. 

after  another  ad  infinitum.    Durga.  7  Cf.  Pataftjali,  op.  tit.,  i.  1.  1,  vol.  i,  p.  4. 

4  Durga  quotes  VS.  12.  69  ;  RV.  v.  4.  30.  2  ;  8  x.  71.  2. 


SO  SIRAS  [4.  jo 

enjoyed,  or  acquired  by  created  beings,  or  its  existence  is  the  cause  of  enjoy- 
ment, or  it  goes  to  the  deserving  person.  Laksmt  (mark)  is  (so  called)  from 
obtaining,  or  from  indicating,  [or  from  a  desire  to  obtain],  or  from  marking ; 
or  it  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  las,  meaning  to  desire,  or  from  lag, 
meaning  to  cling,  or  from  lajj,  meaning  not  to  praise.1 
We  shall  explain  sipre  later  on.2 

(Here  ends  tfte  tenth  section.) 

That  is  the  divinity  of  the  sun,  that  is  his  greatness,  that  in  the  midst  of 
actions  he  rolled  up  what  was  spread  out.  When  he  has  yoked  the  bay  steeds 
from  the  stable,  night  still  spreads  around  her  garment  for  him.3 

That  is  the  divinity  of  the  sun,  that  is  his  greatness,  that  in  the  midst  of 
actions,  i.  e.  works  which  were  being  done,  he  gathers  together  what  was 
spread  out.  When  he  has  yoked  the  bay  steeds,  i.  e.  the  rays  of  the  sun,  or 
the  horses.  Night  still  spreads  around  her  garment  for  him,  i.  e.  it  discon- 
nects the  bright  day  from  all.  Or  else  it  may  have  been  used  in  the  sense 
of  comparison,  i.  e.  like  night  he  spreads  his  garment.  There  is  also  the 
Vedic  quotation : 

Weaving  what  was  spread,  she  wove  again.4 

i.  e.  She  gathered  together. 

(Here  ends  the  eleventh  section.) 

Verily,  thou  art  seen  together  with  Indra,  going  with  the  dauntless 
(group).  Both  joyous  and  of  equal  valour.5 

Verily  thou  art  seen  together  with  Indra,  going  in  the  company  of  the 
dauntless  group.6     Both  of  you  are  joyous,  happy.     Or  else  the  meaning  may 
be  '  with  that  happy  group '.    f  Of  equal  valour '  is  to  be  similarly  explained. 
(Here  ends  the  twelfth  section.) 

With  well-formed  haunches,  symmetrical  flanks,  together  the  spirited, 
divine  coursers  make  efforts  like  swans  in  rows,  when  they,  the  steeds,  have 
reached  the  celestial  path.7 

With  well-formed  haunches,  with  protruding-,  [well-protruding],  or  broad 
haunches.  With  symmetrical  flanks,  i.  e.  whose  flanks  are  compact,  or  whose 
head  is  in  the  middle.  Or  else  siras  refers  to  the  sun,  i.  c.  it  follows  all 
created  things  to  rest,  and  stands  in  their  midst.  This  other  (meaning  of) 

1  i.  e.  Men  who  have  lakswfi  do  not  praise          4  ii.  38.  4. 

themselves.     Durga.     The  whole  section  is  6  i.  6.  7  ;  AV.  20.  40.  1 ;  70.  3  ;  SV.  2. 200. 

quoted  by  Patanjali,  loc.  tit.  6  i.  e.  The  Maruts.     Durga. 

2  See  6.  17.  '  i.  163.  10;  VS.  29.  21. 

3  i.  115.  4 ;  AV.  20.  123.  1  ;  VS.  33.  37. 


4.  15]  KAYAMANA  61 

siras  (i.  e.  the  human  head)  is  derived  from  the  same  root  also :  the  senses 
depend  upon  it.  Together  the  spirited  [divine  coursers],  £urah  (spirited) 
is  derived  from  (the  ,  >ot)  6u,  meaning  to  go.  Divine,  born  in  heaven. 
Coursers,  racers.  They  make  efforts  like  swans  in  rows.  Hamsah  (swans) 
is  derived  from  (the  root)  Jw,n  (to  smite) :  they  tread  the  way  in  lines. 

&reni  (row)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  &ri  (to  combine),  they  are  combined. 

When  the  steeds  have  reached,  i.  e.  arrived  at,  the  celestial  path,  track, 
course.  The  panegyric  of  the  sun  is  the  panegyric  of  the  horse,  for  the 
horse  was  fashioned  from  the  sun : 1 

0  Vasus,  ye  fashioned  forth  the  horse  from  the  sun.2 
(Here  ends  the  thirteenth  section.) 

Observing  the  forests,  when  thou  hast  gone  to  the  mothers,  the  waters. 
That  return  of  thine,  0  Agni,  is  not  to  be  forgotten,  when  being  afar,  thou 
wert  here  in  an  instant. 

Kdyamdna 3  means  observing,  or  desiring 4  the  forests,  when  thou  hast 
gone  to  the  mothers,  the  waters,  i.e.  hast  become  extinguished.  O  Agni, 
that  return  of  thine  cannot  be  forgotten,  when  being  afar  and  being  pro- 
duced, thou  wert  here  in  an  instant. 

Thinking  him  a  beast,  they  drive  the  greedy  one  away/' 

Thinking  him  a  beast,  they  drive  the  greedy  seer  away.0 

(Praise)  Agni  of  purifying  flames.7 

i.  e  Of  pure  light : 8  it  rests  through  all,  or  pervades  all. 
(Here  ends  the  fourteenth  section.) 

Like  two  small  dolls  on  their  newly-wrought,  perforated,  wooden  seats 
the  bay  steeds  shine  on  their  courses.9 

Two  dolls,  two  young  maidens.10  Kanyd  (maiden)  is  (so  called  because) 
she  is  an  object  of  love  (Icamani'jd),  or  (because  it  is  said)  to  whom  should 
her  hand  be  given,  [or  because  she  is  brought  by  the  lover],  or  it  may  be 

1  According  to  Durga  this   gives   Yuska's  quotes:  Waters  verily  are  the  source  of  Agni. 
answer  to    an    anticipated    objection.    The  Return,  i.  e.   lightning,   if  it   is    born   from 
objection  is  that  the  stanza  is  to  be  inter-  waters,  or  the  terrestrial  fire,   if  generated 
preted  as  addressed  to  tli.e  sun,  and  as  such  its  from  the  friction  of  the  two  sticks.     Durga. 
application  to  the  horse-sacrifice  is  highly  in-  6  iii.  53.  23. 

appropriate.     To  this  Yaska  rejoins,  that  the  '  Durga  ignores  the  stanza,  because  it  im- 

panegyric  of  the  one  is  the  panegyric  of  the  plies  hostility  to  Vasistha,  he  himself  bein^ 

other,  &c.  a  descendant  of  Vasistha. 

2  iii.  9.  2  ;  SV.  1.  53.  7  iii.  9.  8  ;  viii.  43.  31  ;  102.  11. 
8  ;  Avoiding,  or  being  afraid,  or  respectful.'  '"  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  42. 

Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  443.  9  iv.  32.  23. 

*  i.  e.  Desiring   the  wood,    which   is     the          10  Cf.  Roth,  loc.  cif. 
source  of  thy  birth,  as  well  as  waters.     He 


62  ADMASAD  [4.  15 

derived  from  (the  root)  Joan,  meaning  to  shine.  '  The  words  relating  to  the 
seats  of  the  maidens  are  in  the  locative  singular/  says  Sakapuni,1  i.  e.  on 
the  ornamental  wooden  seats.  Ddru  (wood)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  df 
(to  split),  or  from  dry,  (to  injure).  Dru  (wood)  is  derived  from  the  same 
(root)  also.  New,  newly  made.  Small,  riot  large.  As  they  shine  on  their 
seats,  so  the  bay  steeds  shine  on  their  courses.  This  is  a  joint  panegyric  of 
two  bay  steeds. 

'  He  has  given  me  this,  he  has  given  me  that ' ;  having  thus  enumerated, 
the  seer  said : 

On  the  bank  of  the  Suvastu.2 

Suvastu 3  is  the  name  of  a  river.  Tugva 4  means  a  ford,  (so  called 
because)  people  hasten  towards  it. 

Will  the  Maruts  again  bend  down  for  us.5 

Once  again,  the  Maruts  bend  down  for  us. 

We  shall  explain  the  word  'nasatah  later  on.6 

Incite  Indra,  in  order  to  give  us  wealth,  with  those  gladdening,  foaming 
and  exhilarating  draughts,  which  thou  hast.7 

Incite  Indra,  so  that  he  may  give  us  wealth,  with  those  draughts  of 
thine,  which  are  gladdening,  which  foam,  and  which  are  accompanied  with 
songs  of  praise. 

(Here  ends  the  fifteenth  section.) 

She  has  appeared  like  the  breast  of  the  pure  one,  she  has  displayed 
lovely  traits  like  a  singer.  Waking  up  the  sleepers  like  a  mother,  this 
most  constant  one  has  come  of  them  that  are  coming  again.8 

She  has  appeared  lil:e  the  breast,  i.  e.  light  that  is  exalted,  of  the  pure 
one.  The  pure  one  is  the  sun,  (so  called)  from  purifying.  This  other 
(meaning  of)  vaksas  (breast)  is  derived  from  the  same  (root)  also :  it  is 
exalted  in  the  body.  A  bird,  too,  is  called  the  pure  one,  fron.  the  same 
purifying:  it  roams  over  waters.  Waters,  too,  are  called  tbe  pure  one, 
from  the  same  purifying.  Nodhas  (singer)  means  a  seer:  he  composes 
a  new  hymn.  As  he  makes  his  desires  apparent  in  his  songs  of  praise,  so 
dawn  manifests  her  beauteous  forms.  Adma-sad 9  (mother) — adma  means 
food— i.e.  one  who  sits  at  a  meal,  or  one  who  obtains  food.  Waking  up  the 
sleepers,  the  most  constant  one  has  come  of  them  that  are  coming  again. 

1  The  author  of  the  Padapatha  agrees  with  secret  place/  Roth,  loc.  cit. 
6akapuni.  5  vii.  58.  5. 

8  viii.'  19.  37.  6  See  7.  17. 

8  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit  ,   p.  43 ;    Muir,-  cp.  cit.,  7  ix.  75.  5. 

vol.  ii,  p.  344.  »  i.  124.  4. 

4  'A  sweeping  flood,  waterfall,  and  then  a          9  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.t  p.  44. 


4.  17]  DA  YAM  ANA  63 

[Waking  up  the  sleepers],  the  most  constant  one  has  come  of  them  that  are 
coming  again. 

They,  possessors  of  speech  and  impetuous.1 

Impetuous,  or  ambitious,  or  having  a  direct  perception.  VaM  is  a 
synonym  of  speech,  (so  called)  because  it  is  spoken. 

Let  us  two  praise  (him),  0  priest !  sing  in  answer  to  me,  let  us  compose 
an  agreeable  hymn  to  Indra.2 

Some  think  it  to  be  a  panegyric  on  invocation ;  others,  a  recitation  on 
pressing  the  soma.  It  is,  however,  addressed  to  Indra. 

We  shall  explain  the  word  paritakmyd  later  on.3 

(Here  ends  the  sixteenth  section.) 

Suvite  =  su  +  ite,  or  =  sute,  i.e.  in  (the  sense  of)  going  well,  or  to  give 
birth  to. 

Place  me  in  good  position.4 

This,  too,  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Dayatih  6  has  many  meanings. 

Let  us  protect  the  old  with  the  new.6  (In  this  passage  dayatih)  means 
to  protect. 

Who  alone  here  distributes  wealth.7  (In  this  it)  means  to  give,  or  to 
divide. 

Irresistible,  dreadful,  he  burns  the  forests.8  (In  this  it)  means  to  burn. 
Irresistible,  one  who  is  difficult  to  be  resisted. 

The  treasure-knower,  slaying  his  foes.9     (In  this  it)  means  to  slay. 

These  soma-juices  are  pressed,  let  the  AsVins,  who  come  at  dawn  and 
are  of  equal  valour,  drink  them.  I  am  (here),  indeed,  to  refresh  and  to 
salute  you.  The  crow  flying  at  daybreak  has  waked  me  up.10 

dayamdnah,11  i.  e.  flying. 

The  word  nu  cit  is  a  particle,  and  is  used  in  the  sense  of  ancient  and 
modern  ;  nti  ca  also  (is  similarly  used). 

Even  to-day  as  in  the  days  of  yore,  the  same  is  the  work  of  the  rivers.12 

And  to-day  the  function  of  the  rivers  is  the  same  as  it  was  in  ancient 
times. 

1  i.  87.  6.  '  i.  84.  7 ;   AV.  20.  68.  4 ;  SV.  1.  889 ;  2. 

3  lit.  53.  3.  691. 

3  See  11.  25.  8  vi.  6.  5. 

4  TS.  i.  2.  10.  2  ;  KS.  2.  8.  9  iii.  34.  1  ;  AV.  20.  11.  1. 

5  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  pp.  44-5.  Durga  remarks         10  The  quotation  is  untraced.     Durga  ex- 
that  Yaska  is  not  conjecturing  now  as  in  the       plains  the  fourth  quarter  only  and  remarks 
case  of  suvite.  that  the  rest  of  the  passage  is  to  be  discovered. 

6  KS.   19.3;     TB.   iii.   6.  13.   1;    cf.   VS.         »  Atra  dayatir  gatyarthah.     Durga. 
28.  16  ;  N.  9.  43.  12  vi.  30.  3. 


64  KACCHA  [4.  17 

The  present  and  the  past  place  of  treasures.1 

The  modern  and  the  ancient  place  of  treasures.     The  word  rayih  is  a 
synonym  of  wealth ;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ra,  meaning  to  give. 
(Here  ends  the  seventeenth  section.) 

May  we  obtain  (lit.  know)  that  unlimited  gift  of  thine.2 

May  we  obtain  that  illimitable  gift  of  thine.  The  sun  is  called  aku- 
para  also,  i.  e.  unlimited,  because  it  is  immeasurable.  The  ocean,  too,  is 
called  akupdra,  i.  e.  unlimited,  because  it  is  boundless.  A  tortoise  is  also 
called  a-kupa-ara,  because  it  does  not  move  in  a  well.3  Kaccliiipa  (tor- 
toise) is  (so  called  because)  it  protects  (pdti)  its  mouth  (kaccham),*  or  it 
protects  itself  by  means  of  its  shell  (kacchena),  or  it  drinks  (Vpa)  by  the 
mouth.  Kaccha  (mouth  or  shell  of  a  tortoise)  =  kha-ccha,  i.  e.  something 
which  covers  (chddayatl)  space  (kham).  This  other  (meaning  of)  kaccha, 
'  a  bank  of  a  river ',  is  derived  from  the  same  (root)  also,  i.  e.  water  (/cam)  is 
covered  (chadyate)  by  it. 

To  destroy  the  demons,  he  sharpens  his  horns.5 

i.  e.  For  the  destruction  of  the  demons,  he  sharpens  his  horns.  Rttksa-s 
(demon)  is  (so  called  because)  life  has  to  be  protected  (Vraks)  from  him,  or 
he  attacks  (Vksan)  in  solitary  places  (ra/tasi),  or  he  approaches  (<Suaks)  at 
night  (rdtrau).Q 

Impetuous,  Agni  with  impetuous  steeds.7 

i.  e.  Swift  with  swift  horses,  or  nobly-born  Agni  with  horses  of  noble 
breed. 

Let  the  agile  rest  in  this  sacrifice.8 

i.  e.  They  who  move  swiftly. 

(Here  ends  the  eighteenth  section.) 

So  that  the  gods  be  ever  for  our  prosperity,  our  watchful  guardians  day 
by  day.9 

So  that  the  gods  may  always  be  the  promoters  of  our  prosperity. 
Watchful,  vigilant.  Our  guardians  on  every  day. 

Cyavana10  is  (the  name  of)  a  seer  :  he  is  the  collector  of  hymns.  There 
are  Vedic  passages  in  which  it  occurs  as  cyavana : 

1  i.  96.  7.  6  Roth  derives  raksas  from  vV^»  *  to  kill ', 

2  v.  39.  2  ;  SV.  2.  523.  op.  cit.,  p.  46. 

3  i.e.  On  account  of  its  shallowness.  Durga.  7  x.  3.  9. 

4  i.  e.  As  soon  as  it  smells  any  clanger,  it  8  VS.  28.  5. 

draws  itsmouth  within  the  shell  and  assumes  <J  i.  89.  1  ;  VS.  ?5.  14  ;  KS.  20.  11. 

the  characteristic  shape  of  the  tortoise.  I0  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  46. 

c  v.  2.  9. 


4.  19]  VYANTAH  65 

You  two  made  the  decrepit  Cyavana  young  again,  to  move  anew  like 
a  car.1 

You  two  made  the  decrepit  Cyavana,  i.  e.  who  was  very  old,  young 
again,  in  order  to  move  about  like  a  car.  Yuvd  (a  youth),  he  stirs  (pra- 
yauti)  actions.  The  verb  taksati  means  to  make. 

Rajas 2  is  derived  from  (the  root)  raiij  (to  glow).  The  two  lights  are 
called  rajas,  water  is  called  rajas,  worlds  are  called  rajas,  blood  and  day 
are  called  rajas. 

[Variegated  and  thundering  worlds  move  in  different  directions.3  This 
is  a  Vedic  quotation.] 

Haras  is  derived  from  (the  root)  hr  (to  take  away).  Light  is  called 
Jtaras,  water4  is  called  haras,  worlds5  are  called  haras,  [blood  and  day  are 
called  haras.  Mix  this  light  with  thy  light,  O  Agni.6  This  is  a  Vedic 
quotation.] 

The  wise  sacrificed.7 

People,  having  a  precise  knowledge  of  the  various  acts  of  worship, 
sacrificed. 

The  word  vya-titah  has  many  meanings. 

Looking  at  the  foot  of  the  god  with  obeisance.8 

(In  this  passage  it)  means  '  to  see  '. 

O  hero,  partake  of  the  oblation.9 

(In  this  it)  means  *  to  eat '. 

Eat  and  drink  the  milk  of  the  cow.10 

Do  you  eat  and  drink  the  milk  of  the  cow.  Usriyd  [and  usrd]  is  a 
synonym  of  cow,  (so  called)  because  enjoyable  things  flow  from  it. 

The  soma  being  pressed  by  the  intelligent,11  the  well-conducted  lovers  of 
wealth  have  willingly  praised  thee,  0  Indra.12 

i.  e.  Having  presented  the  soma,  they  have  praised  thee. 

Pour  down  the  golden  juice  in  the  lap  of  the  wood,  prepare  it  with 
chisels  made  of  stone.13 

Pour  down  the  golden  juice  in  the  lap  of  the  wood,  i.  e.  of  a  wooden 

1  x.  89.  4.  being  exhausted,  are  taken  away  from  them. 

1  Cf.  Muir,  op.  cit.,  voL  iv,  p.  71.     Yaska          6  x.  87.  25  ;  SV.  1.  95. 
does  not  illustrate  the  various  meanings  of          7  v.  19.  2. 
rajas  by  suitable  examples.     Durga  supplies          8  vi.  1.  4. 
them  and  explains  Yaska's  omission  by  the  9  iii.  41.  3  ;  AV.  20.  28.  8. 

remark  that  the  word  is  frequently  used  in         10  i.  153.  4  ;  AV.  7.  73.  5. 
these  senses.  «  It  is  the  intelligent  alone  who  are  capable 

3  v.  63.  3 ;  TB.  ii.  4.  5.  4.  of  pressing  the  soma,  and  not  others  who  do 

4  i.  e.  It  is  taken  away  from -a  well,  &c.,  by  not  possess  intelligence.     Durga. 
people  for  living.     Durga.  w  The  quotation  is  untraced. 

5  i.e.    People,  the  merit   of  whose    deeds         1S  x.  101. .10. 


66  JAMI  [4.  19 

cup.  The  golden  juice  is  the  soma,  (so  called  from)  its  golden  colour. 
This  other  (meaning  of)  karih  (i.e.  a  monkey)  is  derived  from  the  same 
(root)  also.1  Prepare  it  with  chisels*  made  of  stone,  i.  e.  with  stone-made 
chisels,  or  with  songs  of  praise.2 

May  he,  the  noble  one,  defy  the  manifold  creatures,  let  phallus- worship- 
pers not  penetrate  our  sanctuary.3 

May  he  overpower  them,  i.  e.  the  manifold  creatures  who  are  hostile  *  to 
us.  Let  the  phallus- worshippers,  i.  e.  the  unchaste — stina 6  (phallus)  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  snath  (to  pierce) — not  approach  our  sanctuary, 
i.  e.  our  truth,  or  sacrifice. 

(Here  ends  the  nineteenth  section.) 

Surely  there  will  come  those  future  ages,  when  kinsmen  will  behave 
like  strangers.  Seek,  O  fair  one,  a  husband  other  than  me ;  for  him,  thy 
consort,  make  thy  arm  a  pillow.6 

There  will  come  those  future  ages,  when  kinsmen  will  act  in  the  manner 
of  strangers.  Jdml 7  is  a  synonym  of  tautology,  fool,  and  one  born  in  the 
same  caste.  Make  thy  arm  a  pillow  for  thy  consort ;  seek,  O  fair  one, 
a  husband  other  than  me  is  explained  (easily). 

(Here  ends  tJie  twentieth  section.) 

Heaven  is  my  father,  progenitor ;  here  is  my  uterine  relative ;  the  great 
earth  is  my  mother.  The  womb  is  within  the  two  widespread  world- 
halves  ;  the  father  here  bestowed  a  life-germ  on  the  daughter.8 

Heaven  is  my  father,  protector,  benefactor,  progenitor;  here  is  my 
uterine  relative ;  the  great  earth  is  my  mother.  Relative  is  (so  called)  from 
being  connected  together.  Uterine  is  (so  called)  from  being  fastened 
together.  It  is  said  :  children  are  born  fastened  to  the  umbilicus.9  Hence  the 
near  relatives  are  called  as  having  a  common  umbilicus,  or  a  common  tie. 
A  near  relative  is  (so  called)  from  being  well  known.  The  womb  is  within 
the  two  widespread  world-halves.  Widespread,  i.  e.  spread  very  wide,  or 
spread  very  high.  There  the  father  bestows  the  life-germ  on  the  daughter, 
i.  e.  the  rain-cloud  on  the  earth. 

1  Durga  quotes  a  verse  from  the  Bamayana,  *  i.e.  Who  destroy  our  sacrifices.    Durga. 

according  to  which  the  monkeys  are  described  3  Cf.  Roth,  ftp.  cil.,  p.  47. 

as  « soft  like  the  rfmfa  flower,  and  glittering  f>  x.  10. 10;  AY.  18.  1.  11. 

like  gold'.  7  Cf.  Roth,  toe.  cit.      Durga  remarks  that 

3  In  the  second  case,  the  meaning  would  Yaska  does  not  cite  passages  to  illustrate  the 

be:  prepare,  i.e.  season  or  purify  the  soma-  meaning  of  jdmi ;   he  himself  follows  suit, 

juice  with  songs  of  praise,  which  arecompre-  8  i.  164.  33  ;  cf.  AV.  0.  10.  12. 

hensive  and  sublime.     Durga.  »  Cf.  TS.  vi.  1.  7.  2. 

»  vii.  21.  5. 


4.  24]  ERIRE  67 

[Desirous  of  peace,  desirous  of  happiness.]  l 

Now  bestow  sinless  peace  and  tranquillity  upon  us.*  The  words  rapas 
and  ripram  are  synonyms  of  sin;  i.e.  freedom3  from  diseases,  and  the 
warding  off  of  dangers.  Moreover,  a  descendant  of  Brhaspati  is  called  samyu 
also: 

This  we  beg  of  £amyu:  to  go  to  the  sacrifice;  to  go  to  the  lord  of 
sacrifice.4 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  (The  meaning  is)  in  order  to  go  to  the 
sacrifice,  and  to  the  lord  of  the  sacrifice. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-first  section.) 

Aditi,  unimpaired,  mother  of  gods.5 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-second  section.) 

Aditi  is  heaven,  Aditi  is  atmosphere,  Aditi  is  mother,  father,  and  son. 
Aditi  is  all  the  gods,  and  the  five  tribes ;  Aditi,  what  is  born  and  what 
shall  be  born.6 

With  these  words,  the  seers  describe  the  greatness  of  Aditi.    Or  else,  all 
these  things  are  unimpaired. 
:  Whom  the  Bhrgus  raised.7 

Erire  is  a  reduplicated  form  of  Ir  (to  raise),  preceded  by  the  pre- 
position .0. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-third  section) 

People  shout  after  him  in  battles,  as  they  do  after  a  clothes-stealing 
thief,  or  a  falcon  let  loose  and  swooping  downwards,  and  a  glorious  herd 
of  cattle.8 

(People  shout)  after  him  as  they  do  after  a  clothes-stealing  thief,  i.  e.  one 
who  steals  clothes.  Vastrani  (clothes)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  vas  (to  wear). 
The  word  tciyu  is  a  synonym  of  thief :  '  he  is  a  store-house  of  sin/  say  the 
etymologists,  or  it  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  tas  (to  perish).9  People 
shout  after  him  in  battles.  The  word  bhara  is  a  synonym  of  battle ;  it  is 
derived  (from  the  root)  bhr  (to  bear),  or  hr  (to  carry  away).10  Swooping 

1  The  explanation  within  square  brackets  is  of  legendarians  respectively, 

contradictory  to  YSska's  comment  and  is  thus  •  i.  89.  10 ;  AV.  7.  6. 1  ;  VS.  25.  28. 

an  indirect  argument  in  support  of  its  spuri-  7  i.  143.  4, 

ous  character.  *  iv.  38.  5. 

9  x.  15.  4 ;  VS.  19.  55;  cf.  AV.  18.  1.  5.  9  i.e.  He  perishes  on  account  of  his  un- 

3  Cf.  Roth,  op.  c«.,  p.  48.  righteous  conduct.     Durga. 

4  TS.  ii.  6.  10.  2 ;  SB.  i.  9. 1.  26.  10  i.  e.  The  heroes,  or  the  treasures  of  the 
6  Durga  attributes  the  two  explanations  to  enemy  are  carried  away. 

the  school  of  etymologists  and  to  the  school 

E2 


6£  GATU  [4.  24 

downwards,  pouncing  downwards.  Downwards  is  going  down;  upwards 
is  going  up.  Like  a  falcon  let  loose.1  Falcon  is  (so  called  because)  it 
swoops  in  an  admirable  manner.  And  a  glorious  herd  of  cattle,  i.  e.  a 
famous  herd  of  cattle :  glory  and  the  herd,  or  wealth  and  the  herd. 

Yutham  (herd  is  derived  from  (the  root)  yu  (to  connect) :  it  is  compact. 

While  kindling,  the  man  of  noble  wisdom  extols  him,2  i.  e.  he  praises 
him. 

Mandl  (praiseworthy)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  mand,  meaning  to 
praise. 

Worship  the  praiseworthy  (Indra)  with  hymns  and  oblations.3 

Bring  worship  to  the  praiseworthy  (Indra)  in  (the  form  of)  panegyrics 
with  offerings  of  food. 

Gauh  has  been  explained.4 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-fourth  section.) 

Indeed,  in  this  place,  it  is  said,  they  thought  of  the  ray  separated  from 
the  sun ;  here  in  the  house  of  the  moon.5 

In  this  place,  indeed,  the  rays  of  the  sun,  together  of  their  own  accord, 
thought  of  the  separated,  i.  e,  disunited,  removed,  disconnected,  or  concealed 
(ray) ;  there,  in  the  house  of  the  moon.6 

Gdtu  has  been  explained.7 

[Dawns  made  a  move  for  man.8     This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.] 

Damsayah  means  works,  (so  called  because)  they  finish  them. 

Thinking  (to  make)'  the  works  (fruitful)  for  the  peasant,  (you  let)  the 
waters  (flow).9 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

He  became  prosperous,  distress  does  not  approach  him.10 

He  became  prosperous,  distress  does  not  come  near  him.  The 
words  amhatih,  amhah,  and  amhuh\ are  derived  from  (the  root)  Jmn 
(to  injure)  by  metathesis,  after  making  its  penultimate  the  initial  part 
(han  >  ahn  >  anh  =  amh). 

O  Brhaspati,  thou  dost  destroy  the  derider.11 

1  According      to    Durga,    jastam     means          5  i.  84.  15;   AV.  20.  41.  3;    SV.  1.    147; 
'  bound ',  i.  e.  a  falcon  in  this  state  cannot  fly      2.  265. 

up,  but  comes  down  and  kills  its  prey,  being  6  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  49. 

applauded  by  people.   This  explanation  seems  7  See  4.  21. 

to  be  far-fetched  and  illogical,  for  a  bound  8  iv.  51.  1. 

falcon  cannot  kill  its  prey.  9  x.  138.  1.     Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  49. 

2  x.  45. 1 ;  VS.  12.  18.  ">  i.  94.  2. 
» 1.  101. 1  ;  SV.  1.  380.  »  i.  90.  5. 
«  See  2.  5. 


4.  26]  ANTA  69 

O  Brhaspati,  when  thou  destroyest  the  derider.1     Ply  means  to  deride. 

Viyute  means  heaven  and  earth,  (so  called)  from  their  remaining  apart 
from  each  other. 

Alike,  heaven  and  earth  terminating  at  a  distance.2  Alike,  of  equal 
measure.  Measure  is  (so  called)  from  being  measured.  Duram  has  been 
explained.3  Antah  (end)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  at  (to  go). 

The  word  rdhak 4  is  a  term  (used  to  denote)  the  idea  of  separation.5 
It  is  also  used  in  the  sense  of  prosperity. 

Being  prosperous,  thou  hast  sacrificed;  being  prosperous,  thou  hast 
toiled.6 

In  a  state  of  prosperity,  thou  hast  sacrificed ;  in  a  state  of  prosperity, 
thou  hast  exerted  thyself. 

The  words  asydh  and  asya  have  the  acute  accent  when  referring  to  a 
primary,  and  grave  when  referring  to  a  secondary,  object.  The  more 
emphatic  meaning  has  the  acute  accent,  the  less,  the  grave. 

For  the  obtainment  of  this,  be  near  us,  O  goat-teamed  one,  gracious 
and  bounteous.7  [Be  glorious,  O  goat-teamed  one.] 

For  the  obtainment  of  this,  be  near  us. 

Gracious,  without  being  angry.  Rarivdn  ^bounteous)  is  a  reduplicated 
form  of  (the  root)  rd  (to  give).  The  seer  addresses  Pusan  as  goat-teamed. 
Goat-teamed,  goats  are  his  coursers.  Now  the  grave  accent : 

Let  her  husband,  who  has  a  long  life,  live  for  hundred  autumns.8 

May  her  husband,  who  has  a  long  life,  live  for  hundred  autumns. 
Autumn  is  (so  called  because)  the  herbs  become  ripe  during  this  period, 
or  the  rivers  are  in  flood. 

The  word  asya  (his)  is  explained  by  the  word  asydh  (her). 
(Here  ends  the  twenty-fifth  section.) 

Lightning  is  the  middlemost  brother  of  this  sacrificer  who  is  noble 
and  benevolent.  His  third  brother  is  butter-backed.  Here  I  saw  the  lord 
of.  the  universe  with  seven  sons.9 

Lightning  is  the  middlemost  brother  of  this  sacrificer,  i.e.  who  is 
worthy  of  being  invoked  ;  who  is  noble,  i.  e.  who  is  to  be  honoured ;  who  is 
benevolent,  benefactor.  Bhrdtd  (brother)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  bhr, 
meaning  to  take :  he  takes  a  share  (of  patrimony),  or  he  is  to  be  brought 

1  i.  e.  One  who  does  not  sacrifice  and  the      the  meaning  of  separation, 
object  of  whose  life  is  self-enjoyment.  «  VS.  8.  20. 

2  iii.  54.  7.     Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  50.  7  i.  138.4. 

8  See  3.  19.  8  x.  85.  39  ;  AV.  14.  2.  2. 

4  Cf.  Roth,  loc.  cit.  9  i.  164.  1  ;  AV.  9.  9.  1.     Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit., 

8  Durga  quotes  RV.  iv.  40.  5  to  illustrate      p.  61. 


70  FIVE  SEASONS  [4. 26 

up.  His  third  brother l  is  butter-backed,  i.  e.  this  Aghi.  There  I  saw  the 
lord  of  the  universe,  i.e.  the  protector  of  everything,  or  supporter  of 
everything,  or  with  seven  sons ;  i.  e.  with  the  seventh  son,*  or  whose  sons 
have  gone  everywhere,3  Seven  is  an  extended  number.  There  are  seven 
rays  of  the  sun,  they  say. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-sixth  section.) 

Seven  yoke  the  one-wheeled  car.  One  horse  having  seven  names  draws 
it.  Three-navelled  is  the  wheel,  imperishable  and  irresistible,  on  which  all 
these  worlds  rest.4 

Seven  yoke  the  one- wheeled  car,  i.  e.  the  car  which  moves  on  a  single 
wheel.  Cakram  (wheel)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  cak  (to  repel),  or  car 
(to  move),  or  kram  (to  go).  One  horse  having  seven  names  draws  it,  i.  e.  the 
sun :  seven  rays  draw  up  the  juices  for  him,  or  the  seven  seers  praise  him. 
The  other  word  nama  (name)  is  derived  from  the  same  (root,  nam)  also ; 
(so  called)  from  being  drawn  up.  The  second  hemistich  chiefly  describes 
the  year:  the  three-navelled  wheel,  i.e.  the  year  with  its  three  seasons, 
summer,  rainy  season,  and  winter.  Year  is  (so  called  because)  people  live 
together  by  them.  Summer,  juices  are  swallowed  during  this  period. 
Rainy  season,  during  this  time  it  rains.  Winter,  full  of  snow,  Again, 
himam 5  (snow)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  han  (to  injure),  or  from  hi 
(to  hasten).  Imperishable,  having  the  characteristic  of  non-decay.  Irre- 
sistible, not  dependent  on  anything  else.  The  seer  praises  the  year,  on 
which  all  created  beings  rest  together,  with  all  measures. 
When  the  five-spoked  wheel  began  to  roll.6 

This  is  with  reference  to  the  five  seasons.  There  is  the  Brahmana 
passage :  There  are  five  seasons  in  the  year,7  taking  the  winter  and  the 
dewy  season  together: 

Six  are  said  to  have  been  inserted.8 

This  is  with  reference  to  the  six  seasons,  which  are  inserted  in  the  navel 
as  spokes.  Again,  sat  (six)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  sah  (to  bear). 


1  In  a  stanza  addressed  to  Vayu,  the  order          s  This  refers  to  the  sun,  i.  e.  whose  rays  go 

of  the  three  gods  is  as  follows :  (1)  Vayu,  everywhere.    Durga. 
(2)  Adrtya,  (3)  Agni ;  hence  Agni  is  the  third.  i.  164.  2. 

Durga.  Cf.  Durga's  explanation,  quoted  by  Roth, 

7  Durga  attributes  to  the  legendarians  the  op  cit.t  p.  51. 
saying  :  that  the  sun  verily  is  the  seventh  i.  164. 13  ;  AY.  9.  9.  11. 

son.     He  also  quotes  a  Brahmana  passage  Cf.  AB.  i.  1 ;  SB.  i.  8.  5.  1 ;  i.  7.  2.  8. 

which  says  that  the  sun  is  the  seventh  and  i.  164. 12;  AV.  9.  9.  12. 

Indra  is  the  eighth. 


5.  i]  VARYAM  71 

That  twelve-spoked  one  does  never  decay.1 
One  wheel  and  twelve  fellies.2 

These  are  with  reference  to  months.  A  month  is  (so  called)  from 
measuring.3  Felly,  it  is  well  secured. 

In  it  are  placed  together  three  hundred  spokes,  as  it  were,4  and  sixty 
moving  one  after  another.2 

There  is  the  Brahmana  passage :  Verily,  there  are  three  hundred  and 
sixty  days  and  nights  in  a  year.5  This  is  taking  the  day  and  the  night 
together  (i.  e.  as  one). 

There  stood  seven  hundred  and  twenty.6 

There  is  the  Brahmana  passage :  Verily,  there  are  seven  hundred  and 
twenty  days  and  nights  in  a  year.7  This  is  taking  the  day  and  the  night 
separately  (i.  e.  as  two). 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-seventh  section). 


CHAPTER  V 

HE  found  the  cloud  in  the  course  of  the  rivers.8 
Sasnim  means  a  cloud,  (so  called  because)  it  is  washed.9 
O  men !  invoke  the  best  carrier  of  invocations,  the  hymn,  who  is  the 
messenger.10 

O  men,  invoke  the  messenger,  i.  e.  the  hymn,  who  is  the  best  carrier 
of  invocations.  Nard  means  men :  they  repeatedly  move  (Vnrtyanti)  in 
actions.11  Dutah  (messenger)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ju  (to  be  quick),  or 
from  dru  (to  run),  or  from  the  causal  of  vr  (to  keep  back). 

[Thou  art  the  messenger  of  gods  and  mortals.12  This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation.] 

Vdvasdnak  is  a  participle  (formed)  from  (the  root)  w&  (to  desire),  or 
from  vds  (to  roar). 

»  i.  164^  11 ;  AV.  9.  9.  13.  5 ;  AA.  iii.  2.  1. 

*  i.  164.  48 ;  AV.  10.  8.  4.  8  x.  139.  6. 

3  i.  e.  The  year  is  measured,  as  it  were,  by  9  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  52.    Surrounded  on 
months.    Durga.  all  sides  by  water-vapours,  or  flowing  on  all 

4  According  to  Durga,  the  second  na  in  the  sides.      The    course,    i.  e.    the  atmosphere, 
passage  has  the  sense  of  aggregation.  Durga . 

5  Cf.  GB.  i.  5.  5 ;  AB.  ii.  17  ;  ,$B.  i.  3.  5.9  ;  10  viii.  26.  16.  4. 

xii.  3.  2.  3.  "  Nrtyanti  gatrani  puna*  prakiipanti.    Durga. 

6  i.  164.  11 ;  AV.  9.  9.  18.  »  x.  4.  2. 

7  AB.  ii.  17 ;    &B.  xii.  8.  2.  4  ;   cf.  GB.  i.  5. 


72  VARYAM  [5.  i 

Desiring  the  seven  shining  sisters.1     This,  too,  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Vdryam  (boon)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  vr  (to  choose).  Or  else  (it  is 
so  called  because)  it  is  the  best. 

We  choose  that  boon,  the  best  protection.2 

We  choose  that  boon,  which  is  the  best  (protection),  i.  e.  it  is  to  be 
protected,  or  you  are  its  protectors,  or  it  belongs  to  you. 

The  word  andhas  is  a  synonym  of  food,3  (so  called  because)  it  is  to 
be  sought. 

With  drinking  vessels  pour  down  the  exhilarating  food.4 

Pour  down  the  exhilarating  food5  with  drinking  vessels.  Amatrwni 
means  a  vessel,  (so  called  because)  the  householders  eat  from  it.  The 
householders  (are  so  called  because)  they  are  innumerable.6  A  drinking 
vessel  (is  so  called  because)  people  drink  from  it.  Darkness  is  called 
andhas  also,  because  no  attention  can  be  fixed  in  it  or  because  nothing 
is  visible.  People  also  use  the  expression  andham  tamas,  i.e.  'blinding 
darkness'.  This  other  (meaning  of)  andhas  (blind)  is  derived  from  the 
same  root  also. 

He  who  has  eyes  sees,  but  the  blind  man  cannot  know.7  This,  too,  is 
a  Vedic  quotation. 

(Here  ends  the  first  section.) 


Attached  to  each  other,  having  many  streams,  rich  in  water.8 

Devoted  to  each  other,  or  without  abandoning  each  other,  having  many 
streams  and  rich  in  water.9 

Vanusyati  means  to  slay,. its  grammatical  form  is  not  known. 

May  we  slay  those  who  seek  to  injure  us.10 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

May  we,  in  battle,  conquer  the  perverse,  and  him  who  seeks  to  injure 
the  long-spread  (sacrifice).11 

May  we,  in  battle,  conquer  the  perverse,  i.  e.  the  pernicious,  the  sinful 
person,  who  desires  to  spoil  our  long-spread  sacrifice.  Pdpah  (sinful 
person)  is  (so  called  because)  he  drinks  what  is  not  to  be  drunk,  or  having 

1  *•  6.  5.  '  i.  164.  16 ;  AV.  9.  9.  15. 

2  viii.  25.  13.  s  vi<  70.  2  ;  cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  52. 

8  Evam  atra  dana-sambandhad  andhah  tabdo  *  i.  e.  Heaven  and  earth,  who  cause  much 

'nnarthaupapadyate.     Durga.  rain  to  fall,  or  who   support  the   manifold 

4  »•  1*.  I-                 a  i-  e.  Soma.    Durga.  creation,  and  who  are  rich  in  clarified  butter. 

«  According  to  Durga,  the  word  a-rod  de-  Durga* 

notes  something  which  cannot  be  measured,  10  i.  132.  1 ;  viii.  40.  7. 

i.  e.  countle  s.     Householders  are  therefore  n  i.  e.  A  person  addicted  to  the  gratification 

called  a-rna  for  the  same  reason.  of  sensual  pleasures.     Durga. 


5. 3]  VANUSYATI  73 

committed  sin,  he  falls  lower  and  lower ; 5   or  the  word  may  be  (formed) 
from  the  intensive  of  the  root  pat  (to  fall). 

Tarusyati  has  the  same  meaning  also. 

Accompanied  by  Indra,  may  we  slay  Vrtra.2 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Bhatidaua,  (applause)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  bftand?  meaning  to 
praise. 

The  widely-loved  bard  praises  him  with  many  names.4 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

He  utters  forth  praises  which  are  rich  in  offspring.5 

This  also  (is  a  Vedic  quotation). 

Go  quickly,  O  wanton,  with  some  one  other  than  me.6 

Go  at  once,  0  wanton,  with  some  person  different  from  me.  Speaking 
in  this  manner,  thou  hurtest  me  as  it  were.  Ahand1  (a  wanton)  is  (so 
called  from)  her  lascivious  speech.  Ahanah  (i.  e.  the  vocative)  is  derived 
from  the  same. 

Nadah*  means  a  seer;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  nod,  meaning  to 
praise. 

The  love  of  the  self -controlled  seer  has  come  to  me.9 

The  love  of  the  self -con  trolled  seer,  i.  e.  of  one  who  is  celibate  and  who 
has  controlled  himself  with  regard  to  procreation,  has  come  to  me.     It  is 
said  that  with  these  words  a  seer's  daughter  wailed.10 
(Here  ends  the  second  section.) 

Soma,  whose  (greatness)  neither  heaven,  nor  earth,  nor  waters,  nor 
atmosphere,  nor  mountains  (fathomed),  has  flowed.11 

According  to  some,  aksah  is  formed  from  (the  root)  as  (to  go). 

When  the  C9wherd  dwells  with  kine  in  a  watery  place,  soma  flows  from 
the  milked  cows.12 

The  fox  stalked  the  approaching  lion.i:j 

1  He  falls  very  low  in  hell.     Durga.  9  i.  179.  4  ;  cf.  Brh.  D.  i.  53. 

2  vii.  48.  2  ;  KS.  23.  11.  10  Durga  identifies  the  seer's  daughter  with 
8  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  53.  Lopamudra,  wife  of  Agastya.     Being  love- 
«  iii.  3.  4  ;  Durga  paraphrases  kavi  (bard)  sick,  she  addressed  this  strophe  to  her  celibate 

by  kranta-darfana  (of  comprehensive  vision).  husband.  The  story  is  related  at  greater 
B  ix.  86.  41.  length  in  Brh.  D.  iv.  57-60 ;  Professor  Mac- 
's x.  10.  8  ;  AV.  18.  1.  9.  This  is  a  part  of  donell's  edition,  vol.  ii,  pp.  140-2 ;  cf.  Sieg, 

a  dialogue  between   Yama  and  YamI ;    cf.  op.  cit.,  pp.  120-6  ;  Roth,  toe.  cit. 

Roth,  tor.. cit.  »  x.  89.  6. 

7  Durga  quotes  a  Brahmana  passage  in  sup-  "  ix.  107.  9  ;  SV.  2.  348. 

port  of  the  meaning  attributed  by  him  to  the  "  x.  28.  4.    The  quotation  is  irrelevant, 

word  ahanah.                    8  Cf.  Roth,  loc.  cit.  and  is  omitted  by  Durga. 


74  HASAMANE  [5. 3 

Some  think  that  (the  word  aksdh)  means  to  dwell  in  the  former,  and 
to  flow  in  the  latter  quotation.1  When  the  cowherd  dwells  with  kine  in 
a  watery  place,  then  soma  flows  from  the  milked  kine.  '  In  all  quotations 
(the  word  aksdh)  means  to  dwell/  says  Sakapuni. 

The  word  svdtram l  is  a  synonym  of  quick :  it  is  of  swift  motion. 

He,  the  winged  one,  Agni,  who  has  all  created  beings  as  his  property, 
made  quickly  whatever  moves,  the  immovable  and  the  movable.8 

And  he,  the  winged  one,  Agni,  who  has  all  created  beings  as  his 
property,  made  in  a  moment  all  that  moves,  the  stationary  and  the  noa- 
stationary.3 

Utih  (protection)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  av  (to  protect). 

To  thee  (we  turn  round)  for  protection,  as  to  a  chariot.4 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

We  shall  explain  hdsamdne  later.5 

Vamraka  has  approached  Indra  with  a  soma  draught.6 

i.e.  With  drinks,  or  with  beautiful  hymns,  [or  with  rousing  pane- 
gyrics]. 

He  found  it  glowing  like  a  fully-manifest  dream.7 

*  Dream1  refers  to  the  atmospheric  light  (i.e.  lightning)  which  is 
visible  occasionally  only ;  he  found  it  flashing  like  that  (lightning). 

Twofold  existence,  and  the  source  of  happiness  on  account  of  food.8 

Double  existence,  i.e.  in  the  middle  and  the  highest  sphere.  Source 
of  happiness,  source  of  comfort. 

As  hunters  seek  game.9 

As  hunters  seek  game,  so  panegyrics  seek  thee. 
(Here  ends  the  third  section.) 

Vardhah  means  a  cloud:  it  brings  (Vhr)  the  best  means  of  livelihood. 

There  is  a  Brahmana  passage:   Thou  hast  brought  the  best  means  of 

livelihood.10 

From  afar  he  pierced  the  cloud  by  hurling  his  thunderbolt.11 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.     This  other  (meaning  of)  vardhah  (boar) 

1  Cf.  Roth,  op.  tit.,  p.  54.  8  iii.  17.  5. 

2  z.  88.  4.  9  viii.   2.    6.     Durga   explains  praitah    as 

3  Durga  takes  it  to  mean  that  Agni  con-  panegyrics   addressed  to  thee,  and  vrah  as 
sumes  all  the  movable  and  immovable  things  greedy  persons ;  cf.  Roth,  toe.  tit. 

at  the  time  of  final  dissolution.  10  MSS.  of  the  longer  recension  place  the 

*  viii.  68.  1  ;  SV.  1.  354  ;  2.  1121.  quotation  between  « roots  also '  and  «  he  tears 

5  See  9.  39.  up',  in  1.9. 

6  x.  99.  12.    Cf.  Roth,  Joe.  cit.  "  i.  61.  7  ;  AV.  20.  35.  7. 
T  x.  79.  3  ;  cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  55. 


5. 5]  VARAHA  75 

is  derived  from  the  same  root  also :  he  tears  up  the  roots,  or  he  tears  up  all 
the  good  roots. 

Indra  (slew)  the  ravening  boar.1 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.    The  Angirases  are  called  vardhds  also: 
The  Lord  of  prayer,  with  the  powerful  Angirases.2 

Moreover,  these  groups  of  atmospheric  gods  3  are  called  vardhavah  also : 

Seeing  the  groups  of  atmospheric  gods,  of  golden  chariot-wheels,  of 
iron  tusks,  running.4 

Svasardni5  means  days:  they  move  of  their  own  accord.  Or  else, 
svar  means  the  sun,  he  causes  them  to  move. 

As  rays  to  the  days.6    This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

£aryah  means  fingers:  [they  create  works].  £aryah  means  arrows: 
they  are  made  of  Saccharum  earn  (&ara).  £ara  (arrow)  is  derived  from 
(the  root)  «r  (to  rend). 

As  with  arrows  one  (pierces),  supporting  (a  bow)  with  two  arms.7 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Arkah  means  a  god,  (so  called)  because  they  worship  him.    Arkah 

means  a  stanza,  (so  called)  because  it  is  by  means  of  a  stanza  that  they 

worship   (gods).    Arkam  means  food:   it  causes  created  beings  to  shine. 

Arkah  means  a  tree  (Calotropis  gigantea) :  it  is  compressed  with  bitterness.8 

(Here  ends  the  fourth  section.) 

Chanters  chant  thy  praises,  singers  sing  the  song.  Brahmanas  raised 
thee  up  like  a  pole,  O  god  of  a  hundred  powers.9 

Chanters  chant  thy  praises.  Singers  sipg  forth  the  song  of  thy  praise. 
The  Brahmanas  raised  thee  up  like  a  pole,  O  god  of  a  hundred  powers ! 
A  pole  (vamsa) 10  is  (so  called  because)  it  grows  in  a  forest  (vana-6aya), 
or  is  so  called  from  being  divided  into  different  parts. 

Paw 10  means  the  rim  of  a  wheel,  (so  called)  because  it  brushes  away 
the  earth. 

Lo!  with  the  rim  of  their  chariots  they  rend  the  mountain  with 
their  might.11 

The  Maruts  destroyed  him  with  the  edge  of  their  sword.12 

These  two  are  Vedic  quotations. 

1  viii.  66.  10.  T  ix.  110.  5  ;  SV.  2.  857. 

3  x.  67.  7  ;  AV.  20.  91.  7.  8  It  is  bitter  through  and  through.  Durga. 
From  the  plural    number  of  the  word          9  i.  10.  1 ;  SV.  i.  842  ;  2.  694. 

group,  Durga  concludes  that  this  refers  to  the  °  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  57. 

Maruts.  "  v.  52.  9. 

4  i.  88.  5;  cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  56.  '*  Cf.  Durga's  remarks  quoted  by  Roth,  loc. 
8  Cf.  Roth,  loc.  cit.  cit. 

•  i.  8.  8. 


76  SINAM  [5.  5 

Valcsas  (breast)  has,  been  explained.1 

Dhanvan  means  atmosphere :  waters  flow  from  it. 

It  shines  brightly  from  across  the  atmosphere.2 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Swam  means  food :  it  binds  created  beings  together.3 

With  which  you  bring  food  to  friends.4 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Ittha  is  explained  by  the  word  amutha.5 

Saca  means  '  together '. 

Being  together  with  the  Vasus.0 

i.  e.  Being  with  the  Vasus. 

Cid  is  an  enclitic  particle;  it  has  already  been  explained.7  Further, 
if  accented,  it  is  a  synonym  of  animal  in  the  following  passage :  Thou  art 
animal,  thou  art  mind.8 

All  the  enjoyments  are  stored  in  thee,  or  thou  stimulatest  knowledge. 

The  letter  a  is  a  preposition ;  it  has  already  been  explained.0  Further, 
it  is  used  in  the  sense  of  '  on '. 

Waters  in  the  cloud.10 

Waters  in  the  cloud,  i.  e.  waters  on  the  cloud.  [Waters  in  the  cloud, 
i.  e.  waters  resting  on  the  cloud.] 

Dyumnam  is  derived  from  (the  root)  dyut  (to  shine),  and  means  glory 
or  food. 

Bestow  upon  us  glory  and  treasure.11 

Bestow  upon  us  glory  and  treasure. 

(Here  ends  the  fifth  section.) 

Pavitram  is  derived  from  (the  root)  pu  (to  purify).  A  stanza  is  called 
pavitra  (pure)  : 

The  stanza  with  which  the  gods  always  purify  themselves.12 
'  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.     Rays  are  called  pavitram : 
Purified  by  rays  [pressed  by  men  with  stones].13 

1  See  4.  16.  »  See  3.  16. 

8  x.  187.  2 ;  AV.  vi.  34.  8.  «  Frag,  of  ii.  81.  1. 

8  Community  of  meals  was  a  characteristic          7  See  1.  4. 
feature  of  the  Aryan  household  in  ancient          8  VS.  4.  19  ;  12.  63. 
times,  and  even  now  implies  kinship,  or  com-          y  See  1.  4. 
munity  of  caste  in  India.    In  Hindu  Law         10  Frag,  of  v.  48.  1. 
relationship  with  a  deceased  person  is  deter-         u  vii.  25.  3. 
mined  by  one's  right  to   offer  the  funeral         12  SV.  2.  652.     Cf.  Roth,  loc.  tit. 
cakes  of  food  ;  cf.  Durga,  quoted  by  Roth,  op.        1S  Frag,  of  VS.  7.   1 ;  read   together  with 

cit.,  p.  58.  what  follows  within  square  brackets,  it  is 

4  iii.  62. 1.  ix.  86.  84. 


5.  8]  VISNU  77 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  Water  is  called  pavitram.  Having 
a  hundred  waters  (i.  e.  streams),  rejoicing  with  food.1 

i.  e.  Having  much  water.  Fire  is  called  pavitram.  Air  is  called 
pavitram.  Soma  is  called  pavitram.  The  sun  is  called  pavitram.  Indra 
is  called  pavitram. 

Agni  is  pure,  may  he  purify  me.  Vayu,  Soma,  the  Sun,  Indra,  are 
pure,  may  they  purify  me.2 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Todah  is  derived  from  (the  root)  tud  (to  push). 
(Here  ends  the  sixth  section.) 

I,  the  liberal  giver,  call  upon  thee,  O  Agni,  in  many  ways.  I  am 
indeed  the  master  (of  thy  panegyrics).  As  in  the  cavity  of  some  great 
well.3 

I,  who  am  a  liberal  giver,  invoke  thee  alone.'  Arih  means  an  unfriendly 
person ;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  r  (to  injure).  The  master  is  called 
arih  also,  from  the  same  root.  Having  seen  that  oblations  offered  to  other 
deities  are  sacrificed  in  fire,  the  seer  declared,  '  as  in  the  cavity  of  some 
great  well ' ;  i.  e.  as  in  the  opening  of  some  great  chasm.4 

Having  a  good  gait,  i.  e.  one  whose  manner  of  walking  is  good. 

Sacrificed  to  from  all  sides,  the  butter-backed  having  a  good  gait.5 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

£ipivista  and  Visnu  are  two  synonyms  of  Visnu.6  'The  former  has 
a  contemptuous  meaning ',  says  Aupamanyava. 

(Here  ends  the  seventh  section.) 

What  was  blameable  in  thee,  O  Visnu  I  that  thou  didst  declare,  '  I  am 
Do  not  hide  this  shape  from  us,  for,  in  battle,  thou  wert  of 
a  different  form.7 

O  Visnu,  what  is  there  obscure  about  thyself,  i.  e.  not  worthy  of  being 
known,  that  thou  sayest  to  us,8  '  I  am  denuded  like  a  phallus ',  i.  e.  whose 

1  vii.  47. 8.  injure)    and    means    '  an    opening '.      The 

*  The  quotation  is  untraced.  uterus  is  also  called  toda. 

»  i.  150.  1 ;  SV.  1.  97.  •  v.  87. 1. 

4  Durga  amplifies  Yaska's  explanation  as  '  Muir  attributes  the  sentence  to  Aupa- 

follows  :  I  invoke  thee  alone  because  I  am  manyava.    There  is  no  evidence,  however,  to 

master,  i.  e.  competent  to  praise  thee  well,  support  this  view.     Durga  does  not  put  it  in 

and  am  capable  of  offering  many  oblations.  the   mouth  of   Aupamanyava ;    cf.    Sanskrit 

Another  reason  for  invoking  Agni  alone  is  his  Texts,  vol.  iv,  p.  605. 

inexhaustible  power  of  consumption,  which  7  vii.  100.  6. 

is  compared  with  that  of  some  deep  well  or  8  Muir  reads  the  negative  particle  na  in- 
great  chasm.    Sarane  is  derived  from  sr  (to  stead  of  nah,   '  to  us '.     This  is  evidently  a 


78  6lPIVI§TA  [5.  8 

rays  are  not  displayed?1  Or  else,. it  may  be  that  (the  word  is  used  as) 
a  synonym  of  praise :  O  Visnu,  what  is  this  well-known  (shape)  of  thine, 
i.  e.  worthy  of  being  fully  known,  that  thou  sayest  to  us,  *  I  am  enveloped 
with  rays  (sipi-vista)',2  i.e.  whose  rays  are  displayed?  Rays  are  here 
called  sipayah?  i.e.  he  is  enveloped  by  them.  Do  not  hide  this  shape  from 
us.  The  word  varpas  is  a  synonym  of  form,  (so  called)  because  it  covers 
things.  For  in  the  battle,  i.  e.  in  the  combat,  thou  wert  of  a  different  form ;  * 
i.e.  whose  rays  are  gathered  together.  The  following  stanza  explains  it 
much  more. 

(Here  ends  ike  eighth  section.) 

I,  a  master  of  hymns,  and  knowing  the  sacred  customs,  to-day  praise 
that  name  of  thine,  fiipivista.  I,  who  am  weak,  glorify  thee,  who  art  mighty, 
and  dweilest  beyond  this  world.6 

I,  a  master  of  hymns,  to-day  will  sing  forth  that  name  of  thine,  ftipivista. 
I  am  master,  i.  e.  lord,  of  hymns.  Or  else  it  is  thou  who  art  a  master,  I,  who 
am  weak,  praise  thee  who  art  mighty.  The  word  tavasa  is  a  synonym  of 
mighty :  he  is  risen  high.  Who  dweilest  beyond,  i.  e.  very  far  from  this 
world. 

Glowing  with  heat,  i.  e.  one  whose  glow  has  reached  us. 

May  we  two  together  serve  the  god  of  glowing  heat.6 

Let  us  both  attend  upon  the  god,  whose  glow 7  has  reached  us. 

Agile,  i.  e.  one  whose  speed  is  great. 

The  agile  has  shortened  the  life  of  the  demon.8 

He  caused  the  life  of  the  demon  to  be  shortened. 
(Here  ends  tfie  ninth  section.) 

From  two  sticks,  men  with  fingers  have  produced  fire  by  the  motion  of 
their  hands ;  a  fire,  glorious,  seen  at  a  distance,  lord  of  the  house  and  active.9 

mistake,  for  Roth's  edition,  which  Muir  seems  posed';    cf.    Muir,   op.  cit,,  vol.  iv,  pp.  88, 

to  have  used,  has  the  right  reading  noA.  This  504-6. 

reading  is  also  supported  by  the  evidence  of  s  &ipi  means  -animal'  also,  cf.  TS.  ii.  5.  5. 

the  MSS.  of  both  recensions  and  Durga.    Cf.  2  :  yajno  vat  vimah  patavah  (ipih. 


Sanskrit  Texts,  vol.  iv,  p.  88. 

1  i.e.  The  rising  sun  at  daybreak,  when 
its  rays  are  not  displayed.  Durga. 

*  Sipivitta  is  a  name  of  Visnu  ;  this  is  also 
shown  by  the  following  passage  :  TS.  ii.  5.  5. 
2:  Vitnave  Sipivittaya.  It  means  'a  bald 
person ',  and  according  to  TS.  ii.  2.  12.  5,  '  a 
diseased  person  whose  private  parts  are  ex- 


Cf.  Roth,  op.  c&,  p.  69. 
vii.  100.  5. 
vi.  65.  1. 

Whose  glow,  or  whose  anger,  has  reached 
Durga. 
iii.  49.  2. 
vii.  1.  1 ;  SV.  1.  72  ;  2.  728. 


5.ii]  ADHRIGU  79 

Dfdhitayah l  mean  fingers :  they  are  employed  in  (the  performance  of) 
actions.  -  Fire-sticks  are  (so  called  because)  fire  rests  in  them,  or  because 
fire  is  produced  from  them  by  attrition.  By  the  motion  of  their  hands,  by 
the  circular  movement  of  their  hands.  They  produced  fire,  glorious,  visible 
at  a  distance,  the  lord  of  the  house,  and  swift. 

(Here  ends  the  tenth  section.) 

At  one  single  draught  Indra  drank  thirty  lakes  full  of  soma.2 
At  one  draught  alone  Indra  drank  them  together,  i.  e.  along  with  one 
another ;  this  is  the  meaning.  (Lakes)  full  of  soma,  i.  e.  dear  to  his  heart, 
or  full  to  the  brim,  or  consecrated  to  Indra.  Or  else  Indra  is  a  lover  of 
soma,  or  he  drinks  till  his  desire,  his  appetite,  is  completely  satisfied.3  With 
reference  to  this,  the  interpretation  of  the  ritualists  is  the  following :  There 
are  thirty  libation- vessels  consecrated  to  one  deity  at  the  meridional  pressing 
of  the  soma-juice.  These  (libation-vessels)  they  drink  at  a  single  draught. 
They  are  here  called  lakes.  '  There  are  thirty  days  and  nights  in  the  second, 
and  thirty  in  the  first  half  of  a  month/  say  the  etymologists.  Then  the 
rays  drink  those  same  lunar  waters  which  fall  on  certain  days  in  the  second 
fortnight.4  There  is  also  a  Vedic  quotation : 

The  imperishable  one  whom  the  imperishable  drink.6 
They  fill  him  again  in  the  first  fortnight.    There  is  also  a  Vedic  quota- 
tion: 

As  the  gods  cause  the  moon  to  grow.0 

Adhriguh  (lit.  irresistible)  means  a  stanza,  (so  called)  from  being  at  the 
head  of  a  cow  (i.  e.  =  adhi-guh).  Or  else  it  is  intended  to  refer  to  an  injunc- 
tion, for  there  is  a  repetition  of  words :  Toil,  O  irresistible  one,  toil  well, 
toil,  O  irresistible  one.7  Fire  also  is  called  irresistible. 

(The  drops)  flow  for  thee,  O  irresistible  and  mighty  one.8 
i.  e.  One  whose  motion  is  unrestrained  and  who  is  active.    Indra  is 
called  irresistible  also : 

(I  send)  a  gift  to  the  irresistible  Indra.9 
This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

1  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.t  p.  60.  xnana  passage, '  That  Aditya  is  verily  Indra ', 

2  viii.  66.  4.  and  gets  over  the  difficulty  by  identifying  the 

3  Kane  ind.  is  used  to    denote    complete  one  with  the  other, 
satisfaction,  see  Pa.  i.  4.  66 ;  ef.  Both,  loc.  cit.  6  VS.  5.  7  ;  cf.  AV.  7.  81.  6. 

4  Durga  remarks  that  the  stanza  is  ad-  '  VS.  5.  7  ;  cf.  Roth,  loc.  cit. 
dressed  to  Indra;  the  explanation  of  the  ety-  7  AB.  ii.  7. 

mologists  presupposes  it  to  be  addressed  to          *  iii.  21.  4. 

Aditya,and  it  is  therefore  irrelevant.  He  meets          9  i.  61.  1 ;  AV.  20.  35. 1. 

this  self-raised  objection  by  citing  a  Brah- 


80  ?JISI  [5.  u 

Angusah  means  a  hymn :  it  is  to  be  chanted  aloud. 

With  this  hymn  we  possess  Indra.1 
With  this  hymn  we  have  Indra  with  us. 

(Here  ends  the  eleventh  section.) 

With  infused  energy,  rushing  to  the  attack,  shaker,  impetuous,  great 
hero  and  foaming,  soma  surpasses  all  plants  and  trees.  All  the  counter- 
measures  did  not  deceive  Indra.2 

One  whose  anger  is  roused,  and  who  rushes  to  attack,  [i.  e.  who  is  quick 
to  attack,  or  who  attacks  while  moving,]  i.e.  soma,  or  Indra.  Dhunih 
(shaker)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  dhu  (to  shake).  The  word  simi  is 
a  synonym  of  action,  or  it  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  «am  (to  exert 
oneself),  or  from  vak  (to  be  able).  The  foaming  soma :  that  which  remains 
as  residue  after  soma  is  strained  is  called  ijisam,  i.  e.  something  which  is 
thrown  away,  hence  soma  is  called  r/m,  i.  e.  containing  the  residue.  Further, 
this  is  used  as  an  epithet  of  Indra  also :  rjisi,  the  wielder  of  thunderbolt.3 
That  portion  (i.  e.  the  residue)  and  the  grains  belong  to  his  (i.  e.  Indra's) 
steeds.4  Grains  are  (so  called  because)  they  are  parched  in  a  kiln,  or  dried 
on  a  board. 

Let  thy  steeds  devour  grain  and  sniff  at  the  residue.5 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  (Babdhdm) 6  is  formed  by  reduplicating 
the  first  syllable  and  removing  the  penultimate  of  (the  root)  bhas,  which 
means  to  devour.  Soma  surpasses  all  plants  and  trees.  All  the  counter- 
measures  do  not  deceive  Indra ;  i.  e.  the  counter-measures  which  they  adopt 
against  him  are  of  no  avail  before  Indra :  they  perish  before  they  reach 
him,  i.  e.  without  reaching  him  at  all.  Some  are  of  opinion  that  the  stanza 
is  primarily  addressed  to  Indra,  while  the  reference  to  soma  is  of  secondary 
character.  Others  hold  that  it  is  primarily  addressed  to  both. 

$masa,7  i.  e.  something  which  runs  quickly,  or  runs  in  the  body. 
The  ridge  has  held  back  the  water.8 
The  ridge  has  held  back  the  water. 

(Here  ends  the  tivelfth  section.) 

1  i.  105. 19.  7  Yaska  does  not  attribute  any  definite 

2  x.  89.  5  ;  cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  62n  meaning  to  the  word.     Durga  translates  it  as 

3  v.  40.  4 ;  AV.  20.  12.  7.  « a  river '  or  '  a  vein  '.    The  word  occurs  in 

4  This  is  the  reason  why  Indra  is  called  the  RV.  once  only.     It  is  probably  connected 
rjijt,  i.  e.  one  whose  steeds  feed  on  the  resi-  with  aiman  and  means  '  an  elevated  edge  ',  or 
due  of  soma  (rji$am).  '  bank ' ;  cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  63. 

8  Cp.  Roth,"  op.  cit.,  p.  68.  8  x.  105. 1  ;  SV.  1.  228. 

•  Durga  refers  to  the  sutra  Pa.  vi.  4.  100. 


5.  J5]  VAJAPASTYAM  81 

Urva&i l  is  (the  name  of)  a  naiad,  (so  called  because)  she  pervades  wide 
regions  (urn  +  A/as  '  to  pervade '),  or  she  pervades  by  means  of  thighs 2 
(uru  +  \/««  'to  pervade'),  or  her  desire  is  great  (urn+  */va&  'to  desire  '). 
Apeardh  (a  naiad)  is  one  who  moves  on  water.  Or  else  the  word  apsas  is 
a  synonym  of  beauty  ;  it  is  derived  from  the  negative  of  (ftie  root)  paa  (to 
devour) :  it  is  not  to  be  devoured,  but  to  be  gazed  at,  or  to  be  made  perva- 
sive.3 '  It  is  for  clear  perception,'  says  Sakapuni.  In  '  Whatever  forbidden 
food  ',4  (apsas  signifies)  something  which  is  not  to  be  eaten.  In  '  Pervading 
indeed  ',5  (the  word  signifies)  pervasive.  (Apsarah)  is  (therefore)  one  who 
possesses  that  (apsas),  i.  e.  a  beautiful  person :  the  beauty  is  either  acquired 
by  her  or  given  to  her.6  On  seeing  her,  the  seminal  fluid  of  Mitra  and 
Varuna  fell  down.7  It  is  to  this  that  the  following  stanza  refers. 
(Here  ends  the  thirteenth  section.) 

O  Vasistha,  thou  art  a  son  of  Mitra  and  Varuna.  O  Brahman,  thou 
wert  born  from  the  mind  of  Urvai^i.  (Thou  art)  the  drop  that  fell  in  divine 
fervour.  All  the  gods  received  thee  in  the  atmosphere. 8 

O  Vasistha,  thou  art  certainly  the  son  of  Mitra  and  Varuna.  0  Brahman, 
thou  wert  born  from  the  mind  of  Urvas'I.  (Thou  art)  the  drop  that  fellindivine 
fervour.  Drop/1  it  is  well  nourished,  it  is  to  be  absorbed.  All  the  gods  sup- 
ported thee  in  the  atmosphere.10  Puskaram  means  atmosphere :  it  nourishes 
(posati)  created  beings.  Water  is  called  puskuram,  because  it  is  a  means  of 
worship  ('puja-karam),  or  to  be  worshipped  (VpHj).  This  other  (meaning 
of)  puslcaram  (lotus)  is  derived  from  the  same  root  also :  it  is  a  means  of 
decorating  the  body  (vapus-karam).  Pusyam  (flower)  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  pus  (to  blossom). 

Vayunam  is  derived  from  (the  root)  vi  (to  string) :  it  signifies  desire  or 
intelligence. 

(Here  ends  the  fourteenth  section.) 

He  here  spread  the  unintelligible  darkness  ;  he  made  it  intelligible  with 
the  sun.11 

1  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  63.  passage  from  '  In  whatever  .  .  .  given  to  her '. 

2  i.e.  In  sexual  intercourse.     Durga.  He  was  probably  misled  by  the  assumption 

3  This  is  the  second  derivation  of  the  word  that  the  passage  contains  Yaska's  remarks, 
apsas,  i.e.  it  is  derived  from  the  root  op,  'to  He  does  not  seem  to  realize  that  Yaska  here 
pervade*.  cites  two  short  quotations  from  the  VS.  in 

4  VS.  20. 17.    The  passage  is  cited  by  Yaska  support  of  the  two  etymologies  of  apsas  given 
to  support  his  first  derivation  of  apsas  from  by  him. 

the  negative  of  psd.  7  Cf.  Brh.  D.  v.  155. 

5  VS.  14. 4.    The  passage  is  quoted  by  Yaska          »  vii.  38.  11. 

to  support  his  second  derivation  of  apsas  from          9  Cf.  Durga  quoted  by  Both,  op.  «7.,  p.  64. 
dp,  i.e.  to  show  that  apsas  means  pervasive.  10  Cf.  Brh.  D.  v.  155. 

6  Roth    suspects  the   genuineness  of   the         n  vi.  21.  3. 


82  HARAYANA  [5.  15 

He  spread  unknowable  darkness ;  he  made  it  knowable  with  the  sun. 

Vdjapastyam  means  soma. 

May  we  obtain  the  soma.1     This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Vdjagandhyam2  (has  the  same  meaning)  with  gandhya  as  the  second 
member  of  the  compound. 

May  we  eat  the  soma.3     This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Gadhyam  is  derived  from  (the  root)  grah  (to  seize). 

Like  food  which  is  to  be  seized,  they  desire  to  unite  themselves  with  the 
straightforward.4 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

The  verb  gadk  means  to  mix.     Mixed  on  all  sides,  mixed  all  around.6 
This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Kaura-yaiw  means  one   whose  car  is  made,  whose  wisdom   is    ripe, 
whose  chariot  is  made.6    Thia  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Taura-ydna  means  one  whose  car  is  very  quick. 

Approach  our  sacrifice  with  the  Maruts,  thy  friends  of  equal  power, 
O  Indra  whose  car  is  swift.7 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Ahra-ydna  means  one  whose  car  does  not  bring  shame  on  him. 

Make  it  presently,  0  (Agni)  whose  car  does  not  bring  shame.8 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Hara-ydiia  means  one  whose  car  is  moving  constantly. 

(We  found)  silver  on  him  whose  car  moves  constantly.0  This  too  is 
a  Vedic  quotation. 

Who,  steady  in  every  action,  belongs  to  all.10 
i.  e.  Pervading  all  hymns. 

Vraiidl  is  derived  from  (the  root)  vraiid,  meaning  to  become  soft. 
(Here  ends  the  fifteenth  section.) 

When  thou  uprootest  forests,  roaring  at  the  head  of  wind,  and  the 
draught  which  makes  them  soft.11 

When  thou  causest  the  forests  to  fall  with  thy  deadly  weapon,  or 
roaring  at  the  head  of  the  howling  wind,  and  the  draught,  i.  e.  the  sun  who 
is  the  drying  agent. 

The  hard  became  soft.12 

1  ix.  98.  12  ;  SV.  2.  1030.     Durga  derives  7  Cf.  Roth,  Hid. 

&jap<utyatn  from  vGja  and  \/pat  (to  fall).  8  iv.  4.  14. 

Cf.  Both,  op.  c«.,  pp.  64-5.  J  viii.  25.  23. 

ix.  98.  12  ;  SV.  2.  1030.  10  i.  101.  4. 

iv.  16.  11.  »  i.  54.  5. 

i.  126.  6.  "  Fragment  of  ii.  24.  8. 
viii.  23.  11.     Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  65. 


5.  1 9]  NICUMPUNA  83 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  The  verbs  ml  and  vril,  meaning  to  be 
hard,  are  joined  together  with  the  former. 

Nissapi  means  a  libidinous  person,  i.  e.  devoid  of  virility.  Paeas 
(virility)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  sap,  meaning  to  touch. 

O,  do  not  hand  us  over  to  others,  as  a  libidinous  person  his  wealth.1 

Just  as  the  libidinous  man  wastes  his  wealth  on  others,  so  do  not  ye 
hand  us  over  to  others. 

Turndtam  means  water,  (so  called)  because  it  flows  quickly. 

Like  water  on  a  mountain.2 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Ksumpam  means  a  mushroom,  (so  called  because)  it  is  easily  shaken. 
(Here  ends  the  sixteenth  section.) 

When,  with  his  foot,  will  he  trample  the  infidel  man  like  a  mushroom  1 
When  indeed  will  Indra  hear  our  prayers  ? 3 

When,  with  his  foot,  will  he  trample  the  unworshipping  man  like  a 
mushroom  1  When  indeed  will  he  listen  to  our  hymns  ?  The  word  anga  is 
a  synonym  of  quick  :  it  is  gone  as  soon  as  it  is  calculated.4 

Nicumpuna  means  soma,  the  exhilarating  food,  i.  e.  it  exhilarates  (when 
mixed)  with  water. 

(Here  ends  tlie  seventeenth  section.) 

These  pressed  soma  juices  accompanied  by  their  consorts  flow  lovingly 
to  be  partaken.  Soma  spreads  to  waters.5 

These  pressed  soma  juices  accompanied  by  their  consorts,  i.  e.  waters, 
flow  lovingly  to  be  partaken,  i.  e.  to  be  drunk.  Soma  goes  to  waters. 
Ocean  is  called  nwumpuna  also :  it  is  filled  with  water.  The  last 
sacrificial  ablution  is  called  nicumpuna  also  :  *on  this  occasion,  they  recite 
in  a  low  tone,  or  they  put  the  sacrificial  utensils  down.6 

O  last  sacrificial  ablution.7 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.     Nicumpuna  occurs  as  nicunkujia  also. 

Padih  means  a  goer,  (so  called)  because  he  goes. 

(Here  ends  the  eighteenth  section.) 

He  who  catches  hold  of  thee,  0  morning  guest  coming  with  wealth,  like 
a  bird  with  a  net,  shall  be  rich  in  kine,  gold,  and  horses ;  great  is  the  life 
which  Indra  will  bestow  upon  him.8 

1  i.  104.  5.  6  viii.  93.  22. 

2  viii.  32.  4.  »  i.  84.  8.  •  i.e.  For  the  purpose  of  cleansing.  Durga. 
4  The  sentence  is  omitted  by  Durga.    The          7  VS.  3.  48  ;  8.  27  :  20.  18.    Cf.  Roth,  op.  tit., 

word  artgra  is  here   by  Yiska  derived  from       p.  07. 

'to calculate',  and  -/owe,  '  to  go1.  8  i.  125.  2. 

F2 


84  V$KA  [5. 19 

He  who  catches  hold  of  thee,  O  guest  who  goest  at  daybreak,  coming 
with  food,  as  a  boy  catches  a  bird  in  a  net,  becomes  rich  in  kine,  gold,  and 
horses ;  great  indeed  is  the  life  which  Indra  bestows  upon  him.  A  net  is 
(so  called)  from  being  let  loose  on  the  ground,  or  from  lying  on  the  ground, 
or  from  being  spread  on  the  ground. 

Pdduh  l  (foot)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  pad  (to  walk). 

That  bright  foot  of  his  manifests  light,  conceals  water,  and  is  never 
relinquished.2 

The  sun  manifests  light  and  conceals  water.  The  word  busam  is  a 
synonym  of  water.  It  is  derived  from  (the  root)  bru,  meaning  to  sound,  or 
from  bhrams  (to  fall).  Whatever  water  he  causes  to  fall  by  raining,  the 
same  he  draws  back  again  by  means  of  his  rays. 

(Here  ends  tfte  nineteenth  section.) 

VrJcah 3  means  the  moon,  (so  called)  because  her  light  is  disclosed,  or 
because  her  light  is  not  sufficient,  or  because  her  light  is  strong  (compared 

with  stars). 

(Here  ends  tlte  twentieth  section.) 

The  red  moon,  maker  of  the  month,  indeed,  saw  (the  stars)  going  along 
the  route.  Having  observed  she  rises  up  like  a  carpenter  with  a  bent  back : 
be  witness  of  this,  0  heaven  and  earth.4 

The  red,  i.  e.  bright.  Maker  of  the  month,  i.  e.  the  moon  is  the  maker  of 
months  and  fortnights.5  The  moon  indeed  saw  the  multitude  of  stars 
going  along  the  heavenly  route.  And  having  observed  every  star  with 
which  she  will  come  in  conjunction,  she  rises  up  like  a  carpenter  suffering 
from  a  bent  back ;  be  witness  of  this,  O  heaven  and  earth.  The  sun  is 
called  vrka  also,  because  he  dispels  (darkness). 

The  constant  one  invoked  you,  O  Asvins,  when  you  released  her  from 
the  mouth  of  the  wolf.6 

There  is  a  legend  that  dawn  was  seized  by  the  sun.  She  called  upon 
the  AsVins,  who  released  her.  A  dog  is  called  vrka  also,  on  account  of 
biting. 

The  wolf,  the  killer  of  sheep,  is  indeed  his  warder.7 

i.e.  Killer  of  young  sheep.    A  young  sheep  is  (so  called  because)  it  is 

1  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  67.  not  solar.    In  order  to  bring  it  into  harmony 

2  x.  27.  24.  with  the  solar  calendar,  an  extra  month  of 

3  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  68.  about  thirty  days  is  added  every  fourth  year. 
«  i.  105.  18  ;  cf.  Brh.  D.  2.  112.  •  i.  117.  16. 

5  The  Indian  calendar,  according  to  which  7  viii.  66.  8 ;  AV.  20.  97.  2  ;  SV.  2.  1042. 

daily  business   is  transacted,  is  lunar  and 


5.  22]  KRTTI  85 

covered  with  wool,     ffrtid  (wool)  again,  is  derived  from  (the  root)  vr  (to 
cover),  or  from  urnu  (to  cover  oneself).     A  she-jackal  is  called  vrkl  also. 

The  father  made  Rjrasva,  who  made  a  gift  of  a  hundred  rams  to  the 
she-wolf,  blind.1 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Josavdkam 2  is  a  synonym  of  unknown,  i.  e.  what  is  to  be  made 
known.3 

(Here,  ends  the  tiventy-first  section.) 

0  Indra  and  Agni,  promoters  of  sacrifice,  the  gods  to  whom  fat 
oblations  are  offered  !  you  partake  of  (the  food  of  that  man)  who  praises 
you  when  the  soma-juices  are  pressed,  but  not  of  his  who  speaks  what  is 
unknown  (to  him).4 

O  Indra  and  Agni,  you  partake  of  the  food  of  that  man  who  praises  you 
two  when  the  soma  juices  are  pressed.  But  the  two  gods,  to  whom  fat 
oblations  are  offered,  do  not  partake  of  the  food  of  that  man  who  speaks 
what  is  unknown  to  him,  i.  e.  who  is  a  mere  reciter.5 

Krttih 6  is  derived  from  the  root  krt  (to  cut) :  it  signifies  fame  or  food. 

Great  like  fame  is  thy  protection,  O  Indra.7 

O  Indra,  thy  protection  in  the  atmosphere  is  very  great  indeed,  like 
fame.  This  other  (meaning  of)  krttih  (garment)  8  is  derived  from  the  same 
root  also:  it  is  made  of  cotton  threads.  Or  else  it  is  used  for  the  sake  of 
comparison.9 

Clad  in  skin,  trident  in  hand,  and  with  bow  outstretched.10 

[Wander  about  wearing  the  skin  garment,  and  come  to  us  bearing  the 
trident.11] 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

&va-ghnl 12  means  a  gambler  :  he  destroys  (hanti)  himself  (svam).  One- 
self is  (so  called  because)  it  is  dependent. 

As  a  gambler  picks  up  the  die  marked  with  four  dots  in  play.13 

1  i.  116.  16.  °  '  Hide,  skin  ',  &c.     Grassmann,   op.  cit., 

2  '  Magniloquence,  or  challenging  speech  ',       p.  347. 

cf.     Roth,      op.      cit.,      p.     68  ;     '  agreeable  7  viii.  90.  f> ;  SV.  2.  762. 

speech ',  Grassmann,   Worttrluch  cum  Rg-ceda,  *  According  to  Durga,  the  other  meaning 

p  .  500.  of  the  word  is '  a  girl ',  so  called  because  she  is 

3  i.e.  On  account  of  being  not  understood.  wrapped  in  cotton  clothes. 

Durga.  9  This  is  explained  by  Durga  as  giving  the 

4  vi.  59.  4.  third  meaning  of  theT^brd,  i.  e.  '  a  skin ',  from 

5  i.e.  One  who  recites-stanzas  on  the  bank  of  the  analogy  of  a  cotton  garment, 
some  river  and  does  not  perform  any  practical  J0  KS.  9.  7  ;  cf.  VS.  3.  61. 
work.     Durga.     He  quotes  a  Brahmana  pas-  »  VS.  16.  61. 

sage  :   Because  among  the   gods  Indra   and         12  Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  ctY.,  p.  1432. 
Agni  have  the  major  share,  &c.  "  x.  43.  5  ;  AV.  20.  17.  5. 


86  URUSYATI  [5.  2* 

As  a  gambler  picks  up  the  die  marked  with  four  dots  in  play.  Kitava, 
is  an  onomatopoetic  word  =  kim  -f  tava,  i.  e.  what  have  you  got  ?  l  Or  else 
it  is  a  benedictory  exclamation, '  good  luck '. 2 

The  word  s«mam3  is  an  unaccented  pronoun  and  has  the  sense  of 
comprehensive. 

(Here  ends  the  tiventy-second  section.) 

Let  the  weapon  of  our  numerous  evil-minded  vindictive  foes  not  smite 
us  as  a  wave  does  a  boat.4 

Let  the  weapon  of  all  our  evil-minded,  i.  e.  whose  minds  are  sinful,  and 
always  vindictive  enemies  not  smite  us  as  a  wave  does  a  boat.  Urmi 
(wave)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  urnu  (to  cover).  A  boat  (nau)  is  (so 
called  because)  it  is  to  be  pulled  through  (\/m),  or  the  word  may  be 
derived  from  (the  root)  nam  (to  bend).  With  reference  to  this,  how  can 
a  noun  be  an  enclitic  ? 5  (It  is  a  noun)  for  the  reason  that  it  is  inflected.6 

Lo !  give  us  wealth  on  all  occasions.7 

In  (the  above  quotation)  the  word  occurs  in  the  locative  case.  The 
verb  ai&tti  means  to  give. 

Protecting  from  all  attacks.8 

In  (the  above  quotation)  it  occurs  in  the  ablative  case.  The  verb 
urusyati  means  to  protect.  It  occurs  in  the  nominative  plural  also : 

Let  all  others  be  destroyed.9 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-third  section.) 

O  Men,  the  consumer  of  waters,  who  is  also  the  bountiful,  fills  you 
with  oblation :  the  father,  the  observer  of  the  deed.10 

He  causes  the  waters  to  be  consumed  with  oblations.  The  words 
piparti  and  po.puri  mean  either  to  Ifill,  or  to  please.  The  father,  whr 
observes  the  deed,  the  action,11  i.  e.  the  sun. 

1  i.  e.  His  friends  the  other  gamblers  ask  a  noun  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  it  is  inflected 
him  questions  like  the  following  :   did  you  and  three  quotations  illustrating  its  inflexion 
win  ?   how   much   did  you  win  ?  or,   what  in  the  nominative,  ablative,  and  locative  are 
have  you  got  to  stake  ?  &c.   Durga ;  cf.  Roth,  cited.     Towards  the  end  of  the  twenty-second 
op.  cit.,  p.  68.  section  Yaska  says  that  samam  is  a  pronoun  ; 

2  i.e.  His  friends  wish  him  good  luck,  as  he  he  here   uses  the  word  ndma  in  the  same 
begins  to  play.  sense.    Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  Vedic  Grammar 

3  Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  ctV.,  p.  1478.  for  Students,  p.  495. 
«  viii.  75.  9.  '  viii.  21.  8. 

6  The   particles  alone  are   accentless ;    as  H  v.  24.  8. 

nouns  afways  have  an  accent,  it  cannot  be  9  viii.  39.  1-10. 

a  noun.    This  is  the  objection.     Durga.  10  i.  46.  4.    Cf.  Brh.D.  8.  11.  2. 

6  Yftska's  rejoinder  to  the  objection  is,  that  u  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  69.  According  to  Durga, 

it  is  accentless  is  quite  obvious,  and  that  it  is  the  two  words  jara  and  papwri  are  in  contrast 


5.  26]  P$THAK  87 

The  word  samba l  is  a  synonym  of  thunderbolt ;  it  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  sam  (to  kill),  or  from  the  causal  of  sad  (to  knock  off). 

The  thunderbolt  that  is  terrible  ;  with  that,  O  widely-invoked  one.2 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Kepayah 3  =  Jcapuyak,  i.  e.  having  a  stinking  smell.  The  word  Jca- 
puyam  is  (so  called  because)  it  is  difficult  to  be  purified,  (even)  when  one 
tries  to  expiate  a  vile  deed. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-fourth  section.) 

The  first  invokers  of  gods  went  forth  their  several  ways,  their  glorious 
deeds  are  hard  to  surpass.  Many,  who  were  not  able  to  ascend  the  ship  of 
sacrifice,  remained  in  this  very  world,  stinking.4 

They  went  forth  severally.  Prthak  (severally)  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  prath  (to  spread).  First  invokers  of  gods :  i.  e.  who  invoked  the  gods, 
and  performed  glorious  and  heroic  exploits,  which  are  hard  to  be  surpassed 
by  others,  i.e.  those  who  were  not  able  to  ascend  the  ship  of  sacrifice. 
Now  those,  who  were  not  able  to  ascend  the  ship  of  sacrifice,  remained 
here,  i.  e.  in  this  very  place,  or  in  debt,  or  in  this  world.  The  word 
Srma5  is  a  synonym  of  arm,  (so  called  because)  it  is  very  much  moved 
(sam  \/$r).6 

O  son  of  strength,  thou  soon  drawest  all  these  pressed  soma  juices 
which  thou  supportest  thyself.7 

0  son  of  strength,  thou  soon  favourest  all  these  places  which  thou 
supportest  thyself. 

Amsatram*  a  means  of  protectipn  from  calamity,  i. e.  a  bow,  or  coat 
of  mail.  A  coat  of  mail  (kavacam)  is  (so  called  because)  it  is  bent  in 
a  crooked  manner  (ku  +  aiicitam),  or  it  is  slightly  bent  (ka  +  ancitam)t 
or  it  is  fitted  on  the  body  (kdye  +  ancitam). 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-fifth  section.) 

Refresh  the  horses,  win  fortune,  here  make  a  chariot  that  brings 
prosperity.  Pour  down,  in  the  cavity,  the  drink  for  men,  having  wooden 
troughs,  furnished  with  a  stone  wheel  and  pails  and  armour.9 

Refresh  the  horses ;  win  good  fortune :  let  victory  be  your  fortune ; 
make  a  chariot  that  brings  prosperity.  Having  wooden  troughs :  wooden, 

to  each  other,  i.e.  the  sun  first  consumes  the  Cf.  Koth,  op.  cit.,  pp.  69-70. 

waters  by  means  of  evaporation,  &c.,  and  i.  e.  As  compared  with  other  limbs  of  the 

then  gives  them  back  through  rain.  body.     Durga. 

1  Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  1380.  x.  50.  6. 

-  x.  42.  7  ;  AV.  20.  89.  7.  Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  2. 

3  « Shivering  ';cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  851.  x.  101.  7.     Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  70. 

«  x.  44.  6  ;  AV.  20.  04.  0. 


88  LATA  [5.  26 

made  of  wood ;   trough  (d-hdva)  is  (so  called)  from  being  invoked.     Con- 
veyance (avaha)  is  (so  called)  from  driving  (d-Vvah). 

Cavity  (avata)  is  (so  called  because)  it  goes  down  very  deep  (ava-atita). 
A  stone  wheel,  i.  e.  a  pervading  wheel,  or  a  wheel  that  frightens  away. 
Having  pails  of  armour:  let  your  armours  be  the  substitutes  for  pails. 
Kosa  (pail)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  kus  (to  draw  out):  it  is  drawn 
out.  This  other  (meaning  of)  ko&a  (treasure)  is  derived  from  the  same 
root  also:  it  is  .accumulation,  a  great  collection.  Pour  down  the  drink 
for  men,  water  for  men.  The  seer  compares  a  battle  with  the  characteristic 
of  a  well. 

Palate *  is  called  kalcudam :  kokwd  signifies  tongue,  that  (tongue) 
is  placed  under  it.  Tongue  is  (called)  kokuvd  because,  being  noisy 
(kokuyamcfad),  it  utters  sounds.  [Or  it  may  be  derived  from  (the  root) 
kokuy,  meaning  to  make  a  sound.]  Tongue  (jihvd)  is  (so  called  because) 
it  calls  out  again  and  again  (johuvd).  Tdlu  (palate)  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  tr  (to  cross) :  it  is  the  highest  part  (in  the  mouth),  or  from  lat 
(meaning  to  be  long)  by  metathesis  like  talam  (surface) ;  the  word  laid 
(creeper)  is  (derived  from  the  same  root)  without  metathesis. 
(Here  ends  the  twenty-sixth  section.) 

O  Varuna,  thou  art  a  benevolent  god,  into  whose  palate  flow  the 
seven  livers  as  into  a  hollow  channel.2 

Thou  art  a  benevolent  god,  i.  e.  a  bountiful  god,  into  whose  palate  flow 
the  seven  rivers  for  their  course  as  into  a  hollow  channel.  This  too  is 
a  Vedic  quotation.3 

[Thou  art  a  benevolent  god,  i.  e.  a  bountiful  god,  or  a  munificent  god, 
O  Varuna,  to  thee  belong  the  seven  rivers.  A  river  (sindhu)  is  (so  called) 
from  flowing  (sru).  Into  thy  palate  flow  the  seven  streams.  Su-Hrmi* 
(channel),  i.  e.  having  beautiful  waves.  Just  as  a  stream  (flows)  into  a 
hollow  channel. 

According  to  Taitiki,  blritam6  means  atmosphere,  and  is  derived  in 
the  following  manner :  the  former  part  from  (the  root)  ve  and  the  latter 
from  (the  root)  Ir:  the  birds  or  luminaries  move  in  it.  The  following 
Vedic  stanza  illustrates  this.] G 

(Here  ends  the  twenty -seventh  section).7 

1  Cf.  Patafijali,  op.  cit.,  1.  1.  1.,  vol.  i,  p.  4.          see  §  28.    ' 

2  riii.  69.  12  ;  AV.  20.  92.  9.  •  The    comment    placed     within     square 
8  This  is  the  version  of  the  MSS.  of  the      brackets  is  the  version  of  the  MSS.   of  the 

shorter  recension  and  Durga.  longer  recension. 

*  Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  1567  ;  he  derived          7  The  section  is  quoted  in  toto  by  Patanjali, 

it  from  Vsr  (to  move).  op.  cit.,  i.  1.  1,  vol.  1,  p.  4. 

5  <  Troop ',  cf.  Grassmann,  op.  c#.,  p.  907 ; 


6.  i]  SRNI  89 

For  them  he  twisted  the  grass  soft  to  tread,  in  the  atmosphere  they 
appear  like  lords  of  all  creation.  At  night,  at  dawn,  at  men's  earliest  call, 
(may)  Vayu  and  Pusan  (come)  with  their  teams  for  our  welfare.1 

For  them,  the  grass  soft  to  tread  is  twisted.  They  come  as  protectors 
or  benefactors  of  all.  Btritawi  means  atmosphere :  it  is  full  of  fear  or 
light.  Or  else  it  is  used  for  the  sake  of  comparison,  i.  e.  they  appear  like 
kings,  lords  of  all,  in  a  great  multitude  of  men.  At  the  termination  of 
night,  at  the  earliest  call  of  men  (may)  Vayu  and  Pusan  (come)  with  their 
teams  for  our  welfare,  i.  e.  protection.  With  his  team,  i.e.  one  whose  steeds 
are  yoked.  '  Yoked '  is  (so  called)  from  being  restrained  or  yoked. 

Accha 2  is  used  in  the  sense  of  abh  i.  '  It  means  to  obtain ',  says 
fekapuni. 

Par  I,  Im,  and  svm  have  been  explained.3 

Enam  and  enam  are  explained  by  the  words  asya  and  asydh* 

Sriii5  means  a  hook,  (so  called)  from  urging  (Vsr).  Ankum  (hook)  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  anc  (to  bend) :  it  is  bent. 

From  the  vicinity  of  the  hook,  let  him  here  come  to  ripe  grain.6 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

From  the  nearest  place  of  the  hook,  let  him  come  to  the  ripe  herbs, 
let  him  come  to  the  ripe  herbs. 

(Here  ends  the  tiventy-eighth  section.) 


CHAPTER   VI 

O  AGNI,  O  Sovereign  lord  of  men,  burning  quickly  with  thy  flames, 
thou  art  born,  glowing  with  bright  (days),  from  the  waters,  from  within 
the  flintstone,  from  the  forest-trees,  and  from  the  herbs.7 

O  Agni,  burning  quickly  with  thy  flames,  thou  (art  born)  with  bright 
days.  The  words  dm  and  su  are  two  synonyms  of  quick.  Ksani,  the 
latter  part  (of  db-u-vu-ksani),  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ksan  (to  injure) : 
it  quickly  injures,  or  procures  (sanoti)  with  its  flames.8  8uk  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  sue  (to  shine).  Or  the  nominative  has  been  used  for  the 
ablative ;  this  is  shown  by  the  context.0  The  former  part  (of  d-sumksani), 

3  vii.  39.  2  ;  VS.  S3.  44.  6  x.  101.  3 ;  VS.  12.  68. 

2  Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  15  ;  cf.  Professor          7  ii.  1 .  1  ;  VS.  11.  27. 

Macdonell,  op.  cit.,  p.  472.  8  The  division   of  the  word,  in  the  latter 

3  See  1.  7  ;  cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  op.  cit.,       case,  is  the  following  :  (Mu-tuk-nani. 

pp.  476,  486,496.  9  i.e.  All  the  other  words,  like  'from  the 

4  See  4.  25.  waters,  from  within  the  stone',  Ac.,  are  in 
8  :  Sickle  ' ;  cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  1576.       the  ablative. 


90  LOSTA  [6.  i 

i.  e.  the  letter  a,  is  a  preposition ;  the  latter  is  formed  from  the  desiderative 
of  the  causative  of  (the  root)  sue,  i.  e.  desirous  of  kindling  quickly.  £uci 
(glowing)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  sue,  meaning  to  glow.  This  other 
(meaning  of)  &uci  (pure)  is  derived  from  the  same  root  also :  '  Sin  is  removed 
from  him,'  say  the  etymologists. 

May  Indra  make  us  fearless  from  all  quarters.1 

Atsdh  2  means  quarters,  (so  called)  from  being  situated  (a-sad).  Ayah 
means  intermediate  quarters,  (so  called)  from  pervading  ( \/as*). 

Kadi  means  fist,  (so  called)  from  shining  (pra-kas).  Fist  (mustlh)  is  (so 
called)  from  releasing  ( >/muc),  or  from  stealing  ( -/raus),  or  from  stupefying 
( Vmuh)* 

These  boundless  regions,  which  thou  hast  seized,  0  Indra,  are  thy  fist, 
0  Lord  of  wealth.4 

These  two  regions,  i.  e.  heaven  and  earth,  having  a  boundary,  are  (so 
called)  from  being  bounded.  Modltas  means  a  bank :  it  restrains  the  stream. 
Kula  (bank)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ruj  (to  break)  by  metathesis ;  and 
losta  (lumps)  without  metathesis.5  Boundless,  very  extensive.  These 
which  thou  hast  seized  are  thy  great  fist,  0  Lord  of  wealth ! 

O  Indra,  crush  the  han~Iless,  thundering  (cloud).0 

O  Indra,  having  made  him  handless,  crush  the  cloud  that  thunders 
all  around. 

(Here  ends  tlie  first  section.) 


The  cover  easy  to  pierce,  the  enclosure  of  speech,  being  afraid,  yielded 
before  slaughter.  He  made  the  paths  easy  to  tread  for  driving  the  cattle. 
The  following  speech  well  protected  the  widely-invoked  one.7 

AlMrwa*  means  easy a to  pierce,  i.e.  a  cloud.  Vala  (cover)  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  vr  (to  cover).  Vraja  (enclosure)  is  (so  called)  because 
it  moves  in  the  atmosphere.  Of  go,  i.  e.  of  the  atmospheric  speech. 
Being  afraid,  he  yielded  before  slaughter.  He  made  the  paths  easy  to 
tread  for  driving  the  cattle :  he  made  the  paths  easy  to  traverse  in  order 
to  drive  forth  the  cattle.  The  flowing  speeches  well  protected  the  widely- 
invoked  one,  i.  e.  waters  on  account  of  their  flowing,  or  speeches  on  account 


1  ii.  41. 12;  AV.  20.20.  7  ;  57.  10.  5  Ruj  )  ruj  )  ruka  >  kiira  by  metathesis,  and 

2  'Room,  cardinal  point',  cf.  Grassmann,  kfila  by  the  interchange  of    r  and  f;  ntf) 
op.  cit.,  p.  187.  rosta  }  losta  by  interchange  of  r  and  I. 

8  Fist    is   called  stupefying,   because    one  6  iii.  30.8;  VS.  18.  69. 

becomes  perplexed  as  to  what  jits  contents  •  7  iii.  30.  10. 

are.  3  '  Niggard ',  cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  121. 

4  iii.  30.  5.  4 ;  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  72. 


6.  3]  VIRUDHAH  91 

of  being  uttered.     The  rain-water  is  invoked  by  a  large  number  of  people. 
The  verb  dkam  means  to  go. 

(Here  ends  the  second  section.} 

O  Indra,  tear  up  the  Raksas  with  their  root,  rend  them  in  the  middle, 
shatter  them  in  the  front.  How  far  did  you  entice  him?  Throw  the 
burning  weapon  upon  the  foe  of  prayer.1 

O  Indra,  tear  up  the  Raksas  with  their  root.  Mulam  (root)  is  (so 
called)  from  releasing  ( -/mur),  or  from  stealing  ( Vmus),  or  from  stupefying 
( Jmuh)*  Rend  them  in  the  middle,  shatter  them  in  the  front. 

Agram  (front)  is  (so  called  because)  it  comes  nearest  (d-gatam).  How 
far,  i.  e.  up  to  what  country. 

Salcdukam 3  means  one  who  is  perplexed ;  it  means  '  one  who  is  sinful ', 
say  the  etymologists.  Or  it  may  be  sararulcam,  i.  e.  moving  everywhere, 
formed  by  reduplicating  (the  root)  sr  (to  move).  Tapusi  (burning)  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  tap  (to  heat).  Hetl  (weapon)  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  /tan  (to  kill). 

(Indra)  indeed  (slew)  even  him  who  was  lying  and  swelling4  (with 
waters),  i.  e.  having  auspicious  waters,  whose  waters  are  auspicious.5 

Visruhah  means  streams,  (so  called)  from  flowing  (vl  </sru). 

The  seven  streams  grew  like  branches.6  This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation. 

Virudhah  means  herbs,  (so  called)  from  growing  (viVrult). 

Herbs  are  our  means  of  salvation.7     This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Naksad-ddbham 8  means  one  who  strikes  down  any  man  who  approaches, 
or  who  strikes  down  by  means  of  a  weapon  which  can  reach  all. 

Who  strikes  the  approaching  opponent,  who  is  swift  and  who  dwells  on 
mountains.9  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

A-skrdhoyu 10  means  one  whose  life  is  not  short.  The  word  krdhu  is  a 
synonym  of  short :  it  is  mutilated. 

He  whose  life  is  not  short,  who  is  undecaying,  and  who  is  brilliant.11 

1  iii.  80.  17  c  vi.  7.  6. 

2  Durga    omits    the    sentence    tnillam    to          7  x.  07.  3 ;  VS.  12.  77. 

(Vinuh).  8  Durga  explains  it  as  na-ktad-ddbham,  i.e. 

3  '  Melting  'jcf.Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  1401.  one  who  annihilates  by  his  mere  presence 

4  v.  32.  6.  without   killing;    annihilating,   Giassmann, 

5  Yaska  paraphrases  kat-payam    by   sukha-  op.  cit.,  p.  157. 

payasam',    Durga   by   kapayam,  i.e.    a   cloud  °  vi.  22.  2  ;  AV.  20.  36.  2. 

whose  water  is  sweet ;  Sayana  by  sukhakaram  10  i.  e.  Having  a  long  life.     Durga.     Grass- 

pai/o  yasya;    'swelling',  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  mann,  op.  cit.,  p.  157,  '  not  scanty.' 

p.  311 ;  cf.  Both,  op.  cit.,  p.  72.  ll  vi.  22.  3 ;  AV.  20.  36.  8. 


92  RUJANAH  [6.^3 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.     [Ni&rmbhdh l  means  drawing  with  a  firm 
step.] 

(Here  ends  the  third  section.) 

May  those  goats,  who  draw  with  a  firm  step,  bring  Pusan,  the  refuge  of 
men,  in  a  chariot,  may  they  (come)  bearing  the  good.2 

May  those  goats,  who  draw  with  a  firm  step,  bring  Pusan,  the  refuge  of 
men,  i.  e.  the  refuge  of  all  the  born  beings,3  in  a  chariot. 

Brbad-ukthah  4  means  a  sublime  hymn,  or  one  to  whom  a  hymn,  or 
a  sublime  hymn,  is  to  be  addressed. 

We  invoke  him  to  whom  sublime  hymns  are  to  be  addressed.5 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Rdu-udara  means  soma :  its  inside  (udara)  is  soft,  or  it  is  soft  in  the 
inside  of  men. 

May  I  be  together  with  my  friend,  the  soma.c 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

We  shall  explain  the  word  rdupe  later  on.7 

Pulukdma  means  a  man  of  many  desires.  Man  is  indeed  of  many 
desires.8  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Asinvatl  means  eating  insatiably. 

Eating  insatiably  and  devouring  too  much.0 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Kapandh  means  creeping,  i.  e.  worms. 

O  wise  ones,  as  worms  consume 10  a  tree.11 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Bhd-rjlka 12  means  one  whose  light  is  well  known. 

With  a  banner  of  smoke,  (kindled)  with  fuel,  of  well-known  light.13 
This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Rujanahu  means  rivers:  they  break  (rujanti)  their  banks. 

He,  whose  enemy  is  Indra,15  crushed  down  the  rivers.16 

1  Durga  explains  the  word   as  '  drawing          <J  x.  79.  1. 
quickly' ;  and  Grassman  as  '  stepping  firmly ',         10  Lit.  steal. 

op.  cit.,  p.  735.  1J  v.  54.  6.     Durga  also  takes  vedhasah  as  an 

2  vi.  55.  6.  epithet  of  worms,  i.  e.  who  penetrate  into  the 
8  Durga  explains  janasriyam  as  'one  whose      inside  of  a  tree  and  consume  its  sap. 

glory  has  become  manifest ',  i.e.  as  a  possessive  12  Durga  explains  the  word  as  'of  straight 

compound,   which    is   impossible    from    the  or  steady  light', and  Grassmann,op.«7.,p.391, 

accent.  '  of  radiating  light '. 

4  Roth    doubts    the    accuracy    of    Y5*ka's  13  x.  12.  2  ;  AV.  18.  1.  30. 
etymology,  which  is  supported  both  by  M.  W.  14  Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  1173. 

and  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  910.  10  Durga    takes    indra-satruh  as  a  tatpuntsa 

5  viii.  32.  10.  6  viii.  48.  10.  compound,  but  from  the  accent  it  is  clearly 

7  See  6.  33.  a  possessive  compound. 

8  i.  178.5.  Cf.Kalidasa,#umara-samWiaia,iv.          10  i.  32.  6  ;  TB.  11.  5.  4.  4. 


6.6]  INDRA  AND  THE  SEERS  93 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Jurnih l  (power,  or  army)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ju  (to  speed),  or 

dm  (to  run),  or  du  (to  hurt). 

The  army  dispatched  (against  us)  will  not  be  strong.2 

The  oblation  has  reached  you  every  day  with  protection.3 

The  food  has  reached  you  from  all  sides  with  protection.     Ghrainsa 

means  day. 

(Here  ends  the  fourth  section.) 

Upalaprakqanl*  means  a  woman  who  grinds  grain  on  stones,  or  who 
throws  grain  down  on  stones.  [Indra  asked  the  seers,  «  How  does  one  live 
in  famine  ?'  One  of  them  answered,  '  Nine  are  the  means  of  livelihood  in 
famine,  i.  e.  cart,  pot-herbs,  kine,  net,  restraining  the  flow  of  water,  forest, 
ocean,  mountain,  and  the  king.'  This  stanza  is  explained  by  the  mere 
reading  of  it.]5 

(Here  ends  the  fifth  section.} 

I  am  a  bard,  my  father  is  a  physician,  my  mother  a  stone-grinder. 
Planning  in  various  ways,  desirous  of  wealth,  we  live,  following  (others) 
like  cattle ;  flow,  Soma,  flow  for  Indni's  sake.6 

I  am  a  bard,  i.e.  a  composer  of  hymns.  My  father  is  a  physician. 
The  word  tatah  is  a  synonym  of  offspring,  it  means  father  or  son.  Stone- 
grinder,  i.e.  she  who  prepares  barley  meal.  Naud,  derived  from  (the 
root)  nam,  means  either  mother  or  daughter.  Planning  in  various  ways, 
i.  e.  working  in  various  ways.  Desirous  of  wealth,  lovers  of  wealth.  We 
follow  the  world  like  kine.  '  Flow,  Soma,  flow  for  Indra's  sake/  this  is 
the  solicitation. 

Seated,  he  slays  the  higher  one,  in  his  lap.7     In  the  bosom. 

Prakalavid*  means  a  trader,  i.e.  one  who  knows  the  small,  even  the 
minutest  *  parts  of  a  thing. 

Bad  friends,  measuring  like  a  trader.9 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

1  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cil.,  p.  74;  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  omitted  by  MSS.  of  the  shorter  version  and 
493.  According  to  Durga,v/;u  means  to  injure.  Durga,  and  is  evidently  irrelevant.    Cp.  Brh. 

2  i-  129.  8.  DM  Zoc.  rft 

3  vii.  69.  4  ;  cf.  Roth,  toe.  cit.  «  ix.  112.  8.     Cf.  Roth,  loc.  cit. 

4  Durga  explains  it  to  mean  a  maid-servant  7  x.  27. 18.     Indra  lets  the  higher  one,  i.o. 
who  prepares  the  necessary  things  used  for  the  cone  in  the  form  of  rain-water,  flow  in 
pressing    the    soma ;    cf.   also    his    remarks  the  atmosphere.     Durga. 

quoted  by  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  74.    <  Mill-woman ' ;  8  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  75  ;  <  reckoning  the 

cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  257.    Cf.  Brh.  D.  vi.  smallest  part »,  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  864. 

138.  »  vii.  18.  15. 
0  The   passage  within  square  brackets   is 


94  ASME  [6. 6 

Abhyardhayajvd  1  means  one  who  offers  sacrifices  having  made  them 
into  separate  parts. 

Pusd,  who  sacrifices  in  separate  parts,  pours  down.2 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

I/cse  means  thou  rulest. 

Thou  rulest,  O  King,  over  the  treasures  of  both  (the  worlds)  indeed.3 
This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

j^Ksotiasya-  means  of  abode.] 4 

O  As*vins,  ye  gave  a  spacious  abode  to  Kanva.5  This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation. 

(Here  ends  the  sixth  section.) 

We  are  thy  kinsmen.6  i.  e.  We  in  the  nominative.  Come  to  us, 
O  AsVins  of  equal  power.7  i.  e.  To  us,  in  the  accusative. 

With  us  who  are  equally  strong,  O  Bull.8  i.  e.  With  us,  in  the  instru- 
mental case. 

Extend  this  to  us,  O  Lord  of  wealth,  and  wielder  of  the  thunderbolt.9 
i.  e.  To  us,  in  the  dative  case. 

May  he  secretly  separate  the  enemy  even  when  far  from  us.10  i.  e.  From 
us,  in  the  ablative. 

Our  desire  spreads  like  the  submarine  fire.11  i.e.  Our,  in  the  genitive 
case. 

Bestow  treasures  on  us,  O  Vasus.12     i.e.  On  us,  in  the  locative  case.13 

Pathats  means  atmosphere :  it  is  explained  by  the  word  pathd.1* 

Like  a  flying  falcon,  he  sweeps  down  the  atmosphere.15 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Water  is  also  called  pdthas,  from  drinking  ( </pd,  '  to  drink ').  He 
observes  the  water  of  these  rivers.10 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Food  is  also  called  pathos,  from  swallowing  (Vpd,  to  swallow).  O  wise 
one,  carry  up  the  food  of  the  gods.17 

1  '  Most  munificent ',  Durga;'  distributing'.  J0  vi.  47.  13. 
Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  88.  »  iv.  80.  19  ;  TB.  ii.  5.  4. 

2  vi.  50.5.  "  VS.  8.  18. 

3  vi.  19.  10.  1S  All  these   quotations,  i.e.  seven  in  all, 

4  The  passage  within  the  square  brackets  have  been  cited  to  show  that  the  word  asme  is 
is  omitted  by  MSS.  of  the  shorter  recension  ns<ed  in  all  the  seven  cases. 

only,  and  not  by  Durga.  14  '  Region,  heavenly  path,  abode ',  Grass- 

i.  117.  8.  mann,  op.  cit.,  p.  ,805 ;  cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  76. 
VS.  4.  22.  "  ix.  68.  5. 

i.  118.  11.  «  vii.  34.  10. 

i.  165.  7.  "  x.  70.  10. 

iii.  36.  10. 


6.  8]  ASIS  95 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Savimani1  means  at  the  stimulation.  We  (go)  at  the  stimulation  of 
the  divine  Savitr.2  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Sapratkds  means  broad  all  round.  O  Agni,  thou  art  broad  all  round.3 
This,  too,  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Vidathdtii  means  knowledge.  Urging  forth  knowledge.4  This  too  is 
a  Vedic  quotation. 

(Here  ends  the  seventh  section.) 

Dependent  on  the  sun  as  it  were,  all  will  indeed  divide  the  wealth  of 
Indra  among  the  born  and  the  yet  to  be  born,  with  vigour ;  we  did  not 
think  of  every  share.5 

Absolutely  dependent  they  approach  the  sun.  Or  else  it  may  have 
been  used  for  the  sake  of  comparison,  i.e.  they  approach  Indra  as  if  he 
were  the  sun.  Distributing  all  the  treasures  of  Indra:  as  he  distributes 
treasures  among  those  who  are  born  and  who  are  yet  to  be  born.  Let  us 
think  of  that  portion  with  vigour,  with  strength. 

Ojas  (vigour)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  qj  (to  be  strong)  or  from  ubj  (to 
subdue). 

JU"i/t6  (a  mixture  of  milk  and  soma)  is  (so  called)  from  being  mixed 
(a  -/sf ,  to  mix)  or  from  being  slightly  cooked  (a  </sra,  to  cook).  Now  the 
other  meaning  of  aslh  (benediction)  is  derived  from  the  root  d-sds  (to  pray 
for). 

For  Indra,  kine  (yield)  mixture.7  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  And 
also :  That  true  benediction  of  mine  to  the  gods.8 

When  the  mortal  has  brought  thy  share,  thou  that  swallowest  most  hast 
consumed  the  herbs.9 

When  the  mortal  has  obtained  thy  share  for  thee,  thou  that  swallowest 
most  hast  consumed  the  herbs.  Jigartl  means  to  consume,  or  to  invoke,  or 
to  seize. 

(We  are)  ignorant,  (thou  art)  wise,  we  do  not  perceive  thy  greatness, 
thou  indeed  knowest,  O  Agni." 

We  are  confused,  but  thou  art  not  confused ;  we  do  not  know,  but  thou, 
O  Agni,  surely  knowest  thy  greatness. 

1  Gf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  76;  Grassmann,  op.  ctt.,       Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  187. 

p.  1493.  7  viii.  69.  6  ;  AV.  20.  22.  6. 

2  vi.  71.  2.  8  TS.  iii.  2.  7.  2. 

a  v.  13.  4 ;  SV.  2.  757.  9  i.  163.  7  ;  x.  72 ;  VS.  29.  18. 

*  iii.  27.  7 ;  SV.  827.  10  Although  very  tired,  the  horse  swallows 

5  viii.  99.  8 ;   AV.  20.  58.  1  ;  SV.  1.  267 ;  grass.    This   is  his  greatness,   for  others  in 
2.  669  ;  VS.  83.  41.  a  similar  state  cannot  even  move.     Durga. 

6  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  76 ;  '  mixture  of  hot  "  x.  4.  4. 
things,  an  epithet  of  milk  mixed  with  soma ', 


96  VIJAMATA  [6.  8 

£dvamdnah  means  praising.  (He)  who  praising  verily  offers  your 
oblations  with  sacrifices.1  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

The  god  with  favour  turned  towards  the  gods.2  The  god  whose  favour 
is  directed  towards  the  gods.  [Krp  is  derived  from  the  root  krp  (to  pity), 
or  from  kip  (to  manage).] 

(Here  ends  the  eighth  section.) 

For  I  have  heard  that  you  are  more  liberal  than  a  son-in-law,  nay  even 
more  than  a  brother-in-law.  Now  with  this  oblation  of  soma,  O  Indra  and 
Agni,  I  will  compose  a  new  hymn  for  you. '• 

I  have  heard  that  you  are  more  liberal  indeed  than  a  would-be  son-in- 
law,4  i.  e.  one  whose  son-in-lawship  is  not  quite  complete.5  It  is  well  known 
that  the  people  in  the  south  apply  the  term  vijdmdtd  to  the  husband  of  a 
purchased  maiden.  By  this  is  meant  a  bridegroom,  whose  relationship  is  not 
quite  complete  as  it  were.  Jdmdtd  (son-in-law)  is  (so  called  because)  he  is 
the  progenitor  of  ja,  which  means  offspring.  Nay  even  more  than  a  brother-in- 
law,  i.  e.  more  liberal  than  a  brother-in-law.6  They,  who  are  well  versed  in 
primary  causes,  remark  that  a  brother-in-law  is  (so  called  because)  he  comes 
very  near  on  account  of  his  relationship.  Or  else  he  is  (so  called  because)  he 
sows  parched  grain  7  from  a  winnowing  basket.  Ldjdh  (parched  grainy  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  Idj  (to  parch).  Syam,  a  winnowing  basket,  is  derived 
from  the  root  so  (to  finish).  S&rpam  means  a  sieve  for  winnowing  grain,  it  is 
derived  from  (the  root) «?'  (to  fall  off).  Now,  O  Indra  and  Agni,  I  shall  compose 
[a  new]  altogether  new  hymn  for  you,  along  with  this  oblation  of  Soma. 

We  shall  explain  onidsah  later  on.8 

(Here  ends  the  ninth  section.) 

O  Lord  of  prayer,  make  the  soma-presser  glorious  like  Kakslvat,  the 
son  of  U&j.9 

O  Lord  of  prayer,  make  the  man  who  presses  soma,  i.  e.  who  prepares 
soma,  resplendent  like  Kakslvat,  the  son  of  Us*ij. 

Kakswdn,  who  possesses  secluded  apartments.  Au&ija,  son  of  U&ij- 
U&ij  is  derived  from  (the  root)  vas,  meaning  to  desire.  Or  else  the  armpit 

1  i.  151.  7.  is  very  liberal  in  his  gifts,  because  he  is  very 

2  i.  127.  1  ;  AV.  20.  67.  8  ;  VS.  15.  47  ;  SV.      desirous  of  pleasing  his  sister. 

1.  465;  2.  1163.  7  It  is  a  part  of  the  marriage  ceremony.  The 

3  i.  109.  2.  brother-in-law  takes  grain  from  a  winnowing 

4  Cf.  Roth,  < p.  cit.,  p.  79.  basket  and  throws  it  on  the  head  of  the  bride 
0  i.e.  One  who  lacks  the  qualities  of  a  worthy  and  bridegroom. 

son-in-law,  but  who  pleases  the  girl's  father          8  See  12.  40. 

by  making  many  costly  presents.     Durga.  ''  i.  18.  1  ;  VS.  3.  28  ;  cf.  SV.  1. 189  ;  2.  813. 

c  A  brother-in-law,  i.  e.  brother  of  the  wife, 


6.  12]  KIMIDIN  97 

of  a  man  may  have  been  intended :  make  me,  i.  e.  him  (who  has  fine 
shoulders),  O  Lord  of  prayer,  resplendent,  me  who  press,  prepare  the 
soma. 

(Here  ends  the  tenth  section.) 

O  Indra  and  Soma,  let  the  wicked  man,  the  vaunter  of  his  evildeeds,  be 
heated  like  a  pot  on  the  fire,  being  tormented  by  you.  Bear  unyielding  enmity 
to  the  foe  of  prayer,  the  eater  of  raw  meat,  the  malignant  man  of  fierce 
eyes.1 

O  Indra  and  Soma,  (torment)  the  vaunter  of  evil  deeds.  Agha  (evil 
deed)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  han  with  the  preposition  a  shortened,  i.  e.  it 
kills.  Tapus  is  derived  from  (the  root)  tap  (to  heat).  Pot  (earn)  is  (so 
called  because)  it  is  a  heap  of  clay  (mrc-caya),  or  it  may  be  derived  from  (the 
root)  car  (to  walk),  from  it  waters  go  up.  (Bear  enmity)  to  the  foe  of 
prayer,  [i.  e.  one  who  hates  a  Brahmana,  and  who  eats  raw  meat],  to  the 
eater  of  raw  meat,  [and  to  the  man  whose  eyes  are  fierce],  and  to  the  man 
of  dreadful  eyes.  *  Raw  meat  is  (so  called  because)  it  is  procured  by  carv- 
ing/ say  the  etymologists.  Bear  enmity.  Unyielding,  not  ceasing ; 2  or  else 
which  may  not  be  reconciled  even  by  those  who  are  free  from  malevolence. 
Malignant,3  i.e.  a  vagabond  who  goes  about  (saying)  '  What  now ',  or  '  What 
is  this,  what  is  this?  '  for  the  sake  of  back-biting.  Pisuiutk  (back-biter)  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  pi&  (to  adorn) :  he  adorns  (his  yarns)  in  various 
ways. 

(Here  ends  the  eleventh  section.) 

Make  thy  powerful  throng  extensive  like  a  net,  go  like  a  king 
accompanied  by  his  minister,  on  an  elephant.  Hastening  after  the  net 
with  speed,  thou  shootest :  transfix  the  fiends  with  darts  that  burn  most 
fiercely.4 

Make  thy  powerful  throng.  Powerful  throng  (pajah) 5  is  (so  called)  from 
being  maintained  (Vpal).  Prasitih  is  (so  called)  from  being  fastened 
(pra*/ si):  'noose  or  net'.  Go  like  a  king  who  is  accompanied  by  his 
minister,  or  who  is  the  terror G  of  his  enemies,  or  who  is  followed  by  his  own 
attendants,  i.e.  retinue  well-nourished  with  food,7  or  (riding)  a  fearless 

1  vii.  104.  2  ;   AV.  8.  4.  2;  cf.  Kotli,  op.  cit.,  °  <  Strength  or  power ',  Durga  ;  cf.  Roth,  op, 
p.  78.  cit.,  pp.  78-9. 

2  '  Irreconcilable ',  Durga  ;  cf.  Grassmann.  6  Lit.,   who  acts    like   a   disease    for   his 
op.  cit.,  p.  53.  enemies. 

3  *  Fiend  ',  Grnssmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  325.  7  i.  e.  His  body-guard.     Durga. 

4  iv.  4.  1  ;  VS.  13.  9. 

G 


98  SRUSTI  [6. 12 

elephant.  Hastening  after  the  net  with  speed :  the  word  trsvl  is  a  synonym 
of  quick  ;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  tr  (to  pass  over),  or  from  tvar  (to 
hurry).  Thou  shootest,  transfix  the  fiends  with  darts  that  burn,  or  enflame, 
or  crush  down  most  fiercely. 

The  disease  of  evil  name,  which  attacks  thy  womb.1 

Amlva 2  is  explained  by  abhyamana,  i.  e.  disease.  '  Of  evil  name ' 
signifies  a  worm  (germ  of  disease)  whose  name  is  sinful.  A  worm  (krmik) 
is  (so  called  because)  it  grows  fat  (Vvnid)  on  raw  flesh  (kravye),  or  it  may 
be  derived  from  (the  root)  Jcram,  meaning  to  creep,  or  from  krdm  (to  crawl). 

Transcending  all  the  evil  deeds.3 

Transcending  all  the  crooked  and  wicked  ways.  Apvd*  (something) 
transfixed  with  which  (a  man)  is  separated  (from  life  or  happiness),  i.  e. 
disease  or  fear. 

Away,  O  disease.5 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Amatlh  6  means  '  made  at  home ',  or  one's  own  intellect. 

Whose  intellect  is  of  a  high  order,  whose  lustre  shone  [at  stimula- 
tion].7 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

The  word  srustl  is  a  synonym  of  quick  :  it  pervades  quickly.8 

(Here  ends  the  tu-elfth  section.) 

O  Agni,  sacrifice  quickly  for  them,  i.e.  wise  Bhaga  and  Nasatyus,  who 
are  longing  for  it,  in  this  sacrifice. 

O  Agni,  offer  oblations  quickly  to  them  who  long  for,  i.  e.  desire,  (their 
portions)  in  this  sacrifice,  i.  e.  Bhaga  and  Nasatyas,  i.  e.  Asvins.  '  They 
are  ever  true  and  never  false/  says  Aurnavabha.  '  They  are  promoters  of 
truth/  says  Agrayana.  Or  else  they  are  (so  called  because)  they  are  nose- 
born.9  Purandhi 10  means  very  wise.  With  reference  to  this,  who  is  very 
wise  ?  Some  think  it  to  be  an  epithet  of  Bhaga,  who  is  placed  prior  to  it 
(in  the  stanza)  ;  according  to  others,  it  refers  to  Indra:  lie  is  of  manifold 


1  x.  102.  2  ;  AV.  20.  96.  12.          ^  6  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  80 ;  Grassmann,  op.  cit., 

2  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  80 ;   Grassmann,  op.  p.  90,  '  weight,  sunshine  ',  &c. 

cit.,  p.  93.  7  AV.  7.  14. 2.  ;  SV.  1.  464.  The  word  occurs 

3  AV.   12.  2.  28.      The  word  duritatn  docs  twice  in  RV.i.  64.  9  :  73.2;  but  Yaska  quotes 
nob  occur  in  the  RV.     So  Yaska  was  obliged  to  neither  of  them. 

seek  his  illustration  from  AV.  8  'Immediately',      Grassmann,     op.     cit., 

4  Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  80.  p.  1439. 

8  Frag,  of  x.  103.  12  ;  AV.  3. 2. 5  ;  VS.  7.  44  ;  9  Cf.  12.  1. 

see  9.  33 ;  cf.  SV.  2.  121.  10  '  Bountiful ',  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  824. 


6.  j4]  JARAYAYI  99 

activities,1  and  the  most  dreadful  shatterer  of  cities.  Others  take 
it  to  mean  Varuna,  i.  e.  who  is  praised  with  regard  to  his  intel- 
ligence. 

This  supernatural  power  of  the  most  wise  one.2  This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation. 

The  word  rusat  :!  is  a  synonym  of  colour ;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root) 
rue,  meaning  to  shine. 

The  brilliant  strength  of  the  kindled  one  has  been  seen.4  This  too  is  a 
Vedic  quotation. 

(}Jere  ends  the  thirteenth  section.) 

There  is  indeed  kinship,  O  gods  destroyers  of  malignant  persons,  and 
there  is  friendship  among  you.5 

O  gods  destroyers  of  those  who  seek  to  injure  others,0  of  you  there  is  indeed 
kinship,  and  there  is  friendship  among  you.  Apyam  (friendship)  is, derived 
from  (the  root)  dp  (to  obtain). 

Sudatrah1  means  bountiful  giver.  May  Tvasta  the  bountiful  giver  dis- 
tribute wealth  among  us.s  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Suvidatrah fl  means  benevolent.  O  Agni,  come  towards  us  with  benevo- 
lent gods.10  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  Anutak  "  is  the  name  of  a  series 
of  succession,  it  clings  one  to  the  other. 

They  spread  the  grass  successively.1-     This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Turvanih  1:!  means  overpowering. 

He,  the  overpowering,  the  great,  the  dustless,  (shines)  in  the  atmo- 
sphere.14 This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Girvandh  means  a  god :  they  win  him  over  with  hymns. 

The  agreeable ;  the  sublime  hymn  to  the  god.1-"'  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quo- 
tation. 

(Here  ends  the  fourteenth  section.) 

1  According  to  Durga,  dhl  is  a  synonym  of  9  '  Of  good  knowledge ',  Grassmann,  op.  cit., 

work,  hence  puwndhi  means  one  of  manifold  p.  1552. 

activities.  w  x.  15.  9  ;  AV.  18.  3.  48. 

-  v.  So.  fl.  n  'In  succession',  Grassmann.  op.  e<7..  p.  178. 

3  Cf.  Grassmann,  0/7.  c/'.;  p.  1177.  10-  viii.  45.  1  ;  SV.  1.  133:  2.  688;  VS.  7.  32.  ; 

4  v.  1 .  2 ;  SV.  2.  1097.  1S  '  Victorious,  triumphant ',  Grassmann,  op. 

5  viii.  27.  10.  cii.,  p.  543  ;  cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  81. 

'  Cf.  Roth,  op.   c'd.,   p.  SO;  •  who  eat    vio-         l4  i.  56.  3.      Durga  takes  arenu  paumsyc  as 
lently  ',  Grassmann,  op.  nV.,  p.  1107.  one  compound,  but  they  are   two   different 

7  '  Liberal,  lending  out'.  Grassmann,  07?.  c*'.,       words,  as  is  indicated  by  the  accent, 
p.  1534.  15  viii.  89.  7;  SV.  2.  781. 

"  vii.  34.  22;  VS.  2.  21  ;  8.14. 

G2 


100  CANAS  [6.  15 

The  wind-tossed  gods,  who  seated  in  a  well-tossed  region,  created  all 
these  beings  together.1 

In  a  well -stirred  region,  the  group  of  atmospheric  gods  who  are  stirred 
by  breath,2  i.  e.  wind,  and  who,  while  satisfying  the  earth  with  fluids,  created 
living  beings.  The  principal  clause  '  they  sacrificed '  has  been  passed 
over. 

Straight  is  that  spear  of  thine,  O  Indra.a 

(The  spear)  which  is  hurled  towards  the  enemy  or  which  has  reached 
the  enemy.4 

By  his  skill,  he  won  everything  on  which  the  stake  was  laid.5 

By  his  skill,  he  won  all  that  on  which  the  stake  was  laid. 

Like  a  procreating  bull,  (Agni)  has  been  generated  with  sacrifices.6 

(Here  ends  the  fifteenth  section.) 

Enjoying  they  have  stood  forth  to  you,  all  of  you  have  become  the 
chiefs,  O  Rbhus.7 

Enjoying 8  they  have  stood  °  forth  to  you.  All  of  you  have  become 
the  chiefs  by  going  in  front,  [or  by  swallowing  first  of  all],  or  by  accom- 
plishing first  of  all.  Or  else,  the  word  agriya,  is  agram  itself  with 
meaningless  case-termination. 

O  Indra,  none  eat  these  prescribed  oblations,  bestow  upon  us  cooked 
food  and  sorna.10 

O  Indra,  eat  these  prescribed  oblations  and  bestow  food.  The  word 
canas  n  is  a  synonym  of  food.  Pacati  is  used  as  a  noun. 

Accept  it  cooked  from  the  fatty  portion.12 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  Or  else  it  may  be  in  the  dual  number. 
It  is  well  known  when  it  is  in  the  singular. 

Just  as :  The  cooked  oblation  of  rice,  O  Agni ! 13 

£urudhahu  means  waters:  they  restrain  heat  well.  They  are  indeed 
the  first  waters  of  the  sacred  rite.15 

1  x.  82.  4  :  VS.  17.  28.  »  Durga  paraphrases  pro,  asthuh  by  prasthi- 

2  f  A-surta,  non-bright,  dusky1,  Grassmann,  Mini,  i.e.  prescribed.     It  is  quite  wrong,  for 
op.  cit.,  p.  157  ;  Roth,  toe.  cit.  asthuh  is  root  ao.  3rd  pi.  of  sthn. 

3  i.  169.  3.  1°  x.  116.  8. 

4  In  battle,  on  account  of  heated  imagina-  n  'Pleasure,    satisfaction,     grace',    Grass- 
tion,  enemies  exclaim,  '  Oh  it  is  hurled  to-  mann,  op.  cit.,  p.  485. 

wards  me,  it  is  hurled  towards  me  '.    Durga.         J-  Cf.  VS.  21.  60. 
8  v.44.  8:  see  1.  15.  l3  iii.  28.  2. 

6  vi.  12.  4.  14  <  Hero,  strength,  invigorating  draughts', 

7  iv.  34.  3.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  1407. 

8  'Being  attended  upon  by  the  gods.'  Durga.          lfi  iv.  23.  8;  cf.  10.  41. 


6.i7] 


AMINAH 


103 


h l  means  immeasurable,  great,  or  invulnerable. 

Immeasurable  with  forces.2    This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Jajjhatlh  means  waters  (so  called  because)  they  produce  a  sound. 

The  Maruts  like  the  waters.3     This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

A-pnitiskwtah*  means  unopposable,  or  unres  train  able. 

For  us  who  are  unrestrainable.5  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quota- 
tion. 

tiasaddiuih6  ineans  eminent. 

Eminent  he  has  surpassed  even  his  own  intellect.7  This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation. 

(Here  ends  the  sixteenth  section.) 

Srprah*  (supple)  is  (so  called)  from  slipping  (Vsrp). 

This  other  (meaning  of)  srprah  is  derived  from  the  same  root  also,  i.  e. 
clarified  butter,  or  oil. 

(We  invoke)  the  supple-armed  for  our  protection.9 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  Kwra&nau  means  two  arms :  they  are 
the  promoters 10  of  actions  (Vkr  Vsnd). 

Su-sipram11  is  explained  by  the  same  also.  O  thou  having  very  supple 
limbs,  in  the  food  rich  in  kine.12  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

£ipre 13  means  the  two  jaws  or  the  two  nostrils.  Hanu  (jaw)  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  han  (to  kill).  Ndsikd  (nose)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  Vnas 
(to  join). 

Open  the  jaws  and  pour  forth  the  milk  beverage.14 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Dhena, 15  (milk  beverage)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  dha  (to  put). 

Eamsu 1C  (delightful)  is  (so  called)  from  giving  delight  ( A/ram). 

He  the  delightful  one  perceived  with  his  variegated  light.17 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Dvi-barhdh 18  means  one  who  is  great  in  two,  i.  e.  the  atmospheric  and 
the  celestial  regions. 


1  From  <^am  (to  go)  :  '  impetuous  ',  M\V.  ; 
mighty  ',  &c.,  Grassmann,  op.  cit.t  p.  93. 

Frag,  of  vi.  19. 1  ;  VS.  7.  39. 

v.  52.  6. 

•  Irresistible  ',  Grassmann,  op.  at.,  p.  79. 

i.  7.  6  ;  AV.  20.  17.  12. 

;  Presumptuous,  self-confident,  splendid, 
vi  torious  ',  Grassmann,  op.  cit.t  p.  1377. 

i.  33.  13. 

'  Spreading,  extending,  oily  ',  &c.,  Grass- 
mann, op.  ciL,  p.  1577. 
9  viii.  32.  10;  SV.  1.  217. 


10  Lit.,  bathers  (pra-snatdrau). 

11  'Having  beautiful  lips',  Grassmann,  op. 
tit.,  p.  1554. 

12  viii.  21.  8. 

13  '  Lips ',  Grassmann,  op.  cit,,  p.  1894. 

14  i.  101.  10. 

15  '  Milch  cow,  mare ',  &c.,  Grassmann,  op. 
cit.,  p.  695. 

1C  Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.t  p.  1129. 

17  ii.  4.  5. 

18  Having  'twofold  strength  or  greatness', 
&c,,  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  652. 


102  KULI&A  [6.  i; 

And  the  doubly  great,  immeasurable  with  his  strength.1 

This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Akrah2  (fort)  is  (so  called)  from  being   attacked.     Like   a   fort,  the 
supporter  of  enemies  in  battled     This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Urdnah  means  making  abundant. 

From  days  of  yore,  thou  art  employed  as  a  messenger,  making  (the 
small)  abundant.4     This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Stiydh 5  means  waters,  (so  called)  from  being  collected  together. 

The  sprinkler  of  rivers  and  the  rainer  of  waters.6     This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation. 

Stlpdh'1   means   guardian   of   waters,  or  one   who  guards   them   who 
approach  him  (for  protection). 

May  he  be  our  guardian,  aye  the  protector  of  our  bodies.8  This  too 
is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Jabaru9  means  one  who  grows  with  speed,  or  who  grows  causing 
others  to  decay,  or  who  grows  swallowing  (darkness  or  juice). 

The  sun  was  placed  on  high  in  the  beginning  of  creation.10  This  too 
is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Jarittham11  means  a  hymn;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  yr  (to 
invoke). 

Addressing  the  hymn,  sacrifice  to  the  wise  one  for  wealth.12  This  too 
is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

The  word  kulUan  is  a  synonym  of  thunderbolt;  it  is  the  shatterer 
of  banks. 

Like  the  branches  (of  a  tree)  cut  down  by  the  thunderbolt,  the  cloud  rests 
being  in  close  contact  with  the  earth.14 

A  branch  of  a  tree,  (so  called  because)  it  is  attached  to  it.  This  other 
(meaning  of)  skcwidha,15  i.e.  shoulder,  is  derived  from  the  same  root  also: 
it  is  attached  to  the  body.  The  cloud  lies  on  earth,  being  in  close  contact 
with  it. 


1  vi.  19. 1  ;  VS.  7.  39.  »  «  Hastening  ',  Grassmann,  op.  ctf.,  p.  477  ; 

2  '  Standard  of  an  army,  banner ',  Grass-  '  the  disk  of  the  sun ',  Durga. 
mann,  op.  cit.,  p.  5.  10  iv.  5.  7. 

8  iii.  1.  12.  »  'Making  old,  demon',  MW.  ;  «  an  epithet 

4  iv.  7.  8.  of  Agni  as  a  consuming  agent ',  Grassmann, 

5  'Snow-field,  glacier',  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  op.  cit.,  p.  481. 
p.  1590.  n  vii.  9.  6. 

•  vi.  44.  21.  »"«  Axe,  hatchet ',  Grassmann,  op.  ci£.,p.330. 

7  '  Protector  of  the  household',  Grassmann,  n  i,  32.  5. 

loc.  cit.  :  <  well ',  Durga.  is  jt  e>  From  yVfcandfc  « to  be  attached '. 

8  x.  69.  4. 


6.  i9]  GHRAMSA  103 

Tunjah 1  (gift)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  tuj,  meaning  to  give. 
(Here  ends  the  seventeenth  section.) 

I  do  not  lack  excellent  praise  of  Indra,  the  wielder  of  the  thunderbolt, 
in  these  subsequent  hymns  which  are  addressed  to  him  at  every  gift.'2 

I  find  there  is  no  end  to  the  praise  of  Indra,  the  wielder  of  the  thunder- 
bolt, in  these  subsequent  hymns  which  are  addressed  to  him  at  every  gift. 

Barhavia 3  means  strongly. 

The  far-famed  demon  was  strongly  made.4  This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation. 

(Here  ends  tJie  eighteenth  section) 

Illustrious  indeed  becomes  that  man  who  presses  the  soma-juice  for 
him  during  day  and  during  night.  The  mighty  Indra,  lord  of  wealth, 
strips  him  bare,  who  amasses  wealth,  who  is  fond  of  decorating  his  body, 
and  who  is  a  companion  of  selfish  men.5 

The  word  ghramsa  is  a  synonym  of  day,  (so  called  because)  juices  are 
evaporated  during  this  period.  Udhas 6  means  the  udder  of  a  cow,  (so 
called)  because  it  is  more  raised  than  the  other  parts,  or  because  it  is 
fastened  near  the  abdomen.  From  the  analogy  of  giving  fatty  fluids,7 
night  is  called  udhas  also.  The  man  who  presses  soma  for  him  during 
the  day  and  even  during  the  night  becomes  indeed  illustrious. 

He  strips  him  bare,  i.  e.  the  mighty  lord  of  wealth  strips  him  bare — 
the  man  who  amasses  wealth,  who  is  averse  to  the  spread  of  righteousness ; 
who  is  fond  of  ornaments,  who  does  not  sacrifice,  who  is  a  fop,  who 
decorates  his  bodygaudiiy;  who  is  selfish,  who  is  the  friend  of  selfish 
men.8 

He  cleft  the  strongholds  of  him  who  lay  in  the  bowels  of  earth,  Indra 
shattered  the  lofty  draught.9 

Indra  cleft  the  strongholds  of  him  who  lay  in  the  holes  of  earth 10  and 
shattered  the  lofty  cloud. 

(Here  ends  the  nineteenth  section.) 

1  c  Shock,   assault  ',     MW. ;     « start,    run,  upa^/nah  ;    cf.  Lat.  uber,  Gk.  ovOap,  AS.  v.der, 

pressing  or  pushing  forward  ',   Grassmann,  Irish  uthy  Ger.  euter. 

op.  cit.,  p.  540.  7  i.  e.  Dew,  Durga. 

3  i.  7.  7  ;  AV.  20.  70.  30.  8  '  A    companion    of    the    parsimonious  ', 
8  *  Great    growth,  or    slaughter',  Durga  ;  Grassmann,    op.  ct7.,   p.    318,   and    tatcMutti, 

'strength,  might',  &c.,   Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  *  bragging,  ostentatious',  p.  512. 

p.  900  ;  '  tearing,  pulling  ',  MW.  9  i.  33.  12. 

4  i.  54.  3.  10  Durga  explains  ifibtYa  as  cloud,  i.  e.  who 
r>  V.-84.  3.  rests    having    closed    the    outlets    (bila)    of 
0  Yaska  derives  udhas  from  ud^/han  or  from  water,  which  causes  the  food  (t7a)  to  grow. 


104  KIYEDHA  [6.  so 

Hastening  forth  for  this  Vrtra,  O  lord  who  can  hold  much,  hurl  the 
thunderbolt  on  him.  Desiring  channels,  for  the  waters  to  flow,  rend  him 
across  like  the  joint  of  a  cow.1 

Hastening  forth,  O  Lord,  hurl  the  thunderbolt  quickly  on  this  Vrtra. 
Kiyedhd2  means  one  holds  so  much  (=  kiyad-dhd),  or  one  who  surrounds 
many  attackers.  Desiring  channels  for  the  waters  to  flow,  rend  the  joints 
of  the  clouds  like  those  of  a  cow. 

Bhrmi  (whirlwind) 3  is  derived  from  (the  root)  bhram  (to  move). 

Causing  enlightenment,  thou  art  the  whirlwind  of  men.4  This  too  is 
a  Vedic  quotation. 

Vi&intah  5  means  great  expanse. 

Conducting  us  across  this  great  expanse.6  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quota- 
tion, 

(Here  ends  the  twentieth  section.) 

Let  that  fluid  of  ours  be  wonderful,  a  cover  for  many  and  a  self  for 
others.  May  the  brilliant  Tvasta,  who  loves  us,  release  it  for  our  prosperity 
and  wealth.7 

May  Tvasta,  who  loves,  i.  e.  longs  for  us,  release  that  quickly -flowing, 
great  and  self-amassed  water 8  for  the  prosperity  of  our  wealth. 

Rdspinah  means  noisy  ;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  rap  (to  chatter),  or 
ras  (to  make  a  sound). 

Of  the  life  of  the  noisy.9    This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Riijati  means  to  decorate. 

[Thou  decoratest  thy  strength  at  day-breaks.10  This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation.]  n 

The  word  rju  is  derived  from  the  same  also. 

(Let)  Varuna  (lead  us)  with  right  guidance.12  This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation. 

'  i.  61.  12 ;  AV.  20.  35.  12.  6  vii.  60.  7. 

a  Durga  construes  kiyedha  with  Vrtra,  i.  e.  7  i.  142.  2  ;  AV.  5.  27.  10. 
the  cloud  who  holds  unmeasured  quantities  8  Durga  explains  turlpa  as  water,  i.  e.  rain- 
of  water.     He  overlooks  the  fact  that  Vrtra  is  water,   and   Grassmann  as    '  fluid,    seminal 
in  the  dative,  while  kiyedha  is  in  the  nomina-  fluid  ',  op.  cit.,  p.  542.      Durga  explains  na- 
tive  case.     Grassmann    (op.  ctf.,  p.  826)  ex-  bhana  —  na  +  a  +  bhana,  i.  e.  brilliant, 
plains  it  as  '  distributing  much  ».  9  Frag,  of  i.  22.  4. 

3  i.  e.  Thou  bringest  men  into  the  wheel  of  10  x.  76.  1  ;  cf.  Brh.D.  7.  116. 
transmigration.  u  Durga  remarks  that  Yaska  does  not  cite 

4  i.  31.  16.  any  Vedic  passage  to  illustrate  rnjati,  for  it  is 

5  Something  which  spreads  far  and  wide  explained  by  bharjlka.     However,  some  MSS. 
on  every  side,  i.  e.  the  wheel  of  transmigra-  give  RV.  iv.  8.  1. 

tion,    Durga.      'Danger,    affliction',    Grass-         «  i.  90.  1  ;  SV.  1.  218. 
mann,  op.  cit.,  p.  1310. 


6.  22]  PRATADVASU  105 

Prataclvctsu l  means  they  two  who  have  obtained  wealth. 
O  Indra,  urge  the  two  bay  steeds  that  have  obtained  wealth  towards 
us.2    This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-first  section,) 

Send  our  sacrifice  for  the  worship  of  the  gods,  send  our  prayer  for  the 
obtainment  of  wealth ;  release  the  udder  at  the  performance  of  the  sacred 
rites,  let  waters  be  obedient  to  our  call.3 

Send  forth  our  sacrifice  for  worshipping  the  gods,  send  forth  our  prayer 
for  the  obtainment  of  wealth.  At  the  performance  of  sacred  rites,  at  the 
performance  of  sacrifice  or  the  yoking  of  sacrificial  car.  A  car  (is  so  called 
because)  it  is  covered  with  the  excrement  of  the  animal,  or  because  it  moves 
slowly,  or  because  it  produces  a  creaking  sound  when  it  moves.  Let  waters 
be  obedient  to  our  call  full  of  comfort.  Let  waters  be  full  of  comfort 
for  us. 

O  Indra,  offering  much  that  is  good.4 

O  Indra,  giving  much  that  has  to  be  won. 

Hating  the  impious,  king  of  both,  Indra  offers  to  tribes  and  men.5 

He  scatters  the  impious,  and  always  hates  them  who  do  not  press 
the  soma-juice.  He  distributes  wealth  among  the  soma-pressers.  King 
of  both,  i.e.  king  of  celestial  and  terrestrial  wealth.  The  two  words 
coskuyamanci  and  coskuyate  are  reduplicated  forms. 

Sunutt  means  of  one's  own  accord.  That  on  which  my  heart  is  set  has 
approached  me  of  its  own  accord.6 

Let  that  on  which  my  heart  is  set  approach  me  of  its  own  accord, 
i.  e.  by  (means  of)  the  sacrifice.  This  stanza  is  used  in  the  horse- 
sacrifice. 

Divistisu  means  sacred  rites  which  lead  to  heaven.  Abundance  of 
wealth  consisting  of  hundred  horses  in  the  sacred  rites  of  Kurunga.7 

Sthura  (abundant)  is  (so  called  because)  it  becomes  great  having  been 
collected  in  all  measures.  Anu  (minute)  means  something  which  is  not 
abundant.  It  is  the  preposition  a-iw  (used  as  a  noun)  with  its  suffix 
dropped  like  samprati.  Kurunga  was  the  name  of  a  king,  (so  called) 
because  he  attacked  (the  tribe  of)  the  Kurus,  or  because  he  attacked  the 
dynasties  (of  his  enemies).  Kuru  is  derived  from  (the  root)  krt  (to  cut). 

1  'Increasing  riches ',  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,          *  i.  33.  3. 

p.  867.  5  vi.  47.  16. 

2  viii.  13.  27.  "  i.  162.  7  ;  VS.  35.  80. 

'  x.  30.  11.  7  viii.  4.  19  ;  24.  29  ;  cf.  Brh.  D.  6.  44. 


106  ASAMI  [6.  22 

The  word  krtira  (cruel)  belongs  to  the  same  root  also.     Kula  (family)  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  kus  (to  knead),  it  is  kneaded. 

Dutah  (messenger)  has  been  explained.1 

Jlitvalih  means  to  animate. 

Clouds    animate    the    earth,   fires    the    sky.2      This    too    is    a   Vedic 
quotation. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-second  section.) 


Amatrah  means  'without  measure',  'great',  or  'one  who  is  invulner- 
able '. 

Great  without  measure,  mighty  in  a  fortified  place.3  This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation. 

The  wielder  of  thunderbolts  is  praised  as  identical  with  the  hymn.4 

The  wielder  of  thunderbolts  is  praised  as  equal  to  the  hymn. 

A  nar&aratim 5  means  one  whose  gifts  are  not  vulgar.  Vulgar,  sinful, 
unpleasant,  crooked. 

Praise  well  the  giver  of  wealth,  whose  gifts  are  not  vulgar.6  This  too  is 
a  Vedic  quotation. 

A  narvd 7  means  one  who  is  not  dependent  on  others. 

Increase  the  independent,  mighty,  sweet-tongued,  and  praiseworthy 
lord  of  prayer  with  hymns.8 

Increase  the  lord  of  prayer,  who  is  independent,  who  does  not  d<  ^nd 
on  others,  the  mighty,  the  sweet-tongued  (whose  speech  is  delightful),  or 
whose  tongue  is  fascinating,  the  praiseworthy,  with  hymns,  i.  e.  stanzas  of 
praise,  which  are  the  means  of  worship. 

Asami a  is  the  opposite  of  sdmi  (incomplete).  Sdmi  is  derived  from 
the  root  so  (to  kill). 

Liberal  givers,  bear  this  complete  strength.10 

O  ye  whose  gifts  are  delightful,  bear  this  strength  which  is  complete. 
(Here  ends  the  tiventy-third  section.) 

Let  me  not  make  thee  angry  like  a  wild  beast  at  the  time  of  soma- 
pressing  by  straining  the  soma,  or  by  my  always  beseeching  hymns ;  for 
who  has  not  besought  the  Lord  ? 


1  See  5.  1.                                  2  i.  164. 51.  1  Cf.  Grasamann,  op.  tit.,  p.  52. 

3  iii.  36.  4.                                  4  x.  22.  2.  •  i.  190.  1. 

6  'Whose   gifts   injure  not',  Grassmann,  9'Not  half,  quite  complete',  Grassmann, 

op.  crt.,  p.  53,  op.  cit.t  p.  154. 

8  viii.  4  ;  AV.  20.  58.  2.  w  i.  39.  10. 


6. 26]  BEKANATAH  107 

May  we,  always  beseeching  with  our  hymns,  songs,  praises,  and  the 
straining  of  the  soma,1  not  make  thee  angry  like  a  wild  beast  at  the  time 
when  soma  is  pressed ;  for  who  has  not  besought  the  Lord  ?  Galda, 2 
means  vessels,  (so  called)  because  the  extracted  juice  is  stored  in  them. 

Let  the  soma-draughts  flow  into  thee,  aye !  and  the  extracted  juices  of 
vessels:5  These  two  words  are  inflected  in  various  cases.  Here  it  (galdd) 
means  the  juices  which  have  been  extracted  in  the  vessels. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty -fourth  section.) 

We  do  not  think  ourselves  guilty,  or  poor,  or  devoid  of  lustre.4 

We  do  not  think  ourselves  to  be  sinful,  or  destitute,  or  devoid  of  lustre. 

We  are  celibate,  devoted  to  study,  austerities,  generosity,  and  activity,  said 

the  seer. 

Bakurct 5  means  one  who  gives  light,  or  who  inspires  awe,  or  who  runs 

effulgent. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty -fifth  section.) 

0  A^vins,  working  wonders  ;  sowing  the  grain  with  the  plough,  milking 
food  for  man,  blasting  the  impious  foe  with  lightning,  you  made  far- 
spreading  light  for  the  Arya.c 

[O  AsVins,  sowing  grain,  as  it  were,  with  a  plough.]  Vrka  means  a 
plough,  (so  called)  from  cutting.  Lahgala  (plough)  is  derived  from  the 
root  lay  (to  cling),  or  it  is  (so  called)  because  it  has  a  tail.  Ldhgitfa  (tail)  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  lag  (to  cling),  or  from  laiig  (to  wave),  or  from  lamb 
(to  hang  down).  Milking  food  for  man.  O  fair  ones ! 7  Blasting  the 
impious  foe  with  lightning  or  with  (a  flood  of)  water.  Arya  means  the  son 
of  the  lord. 

Bekanatdh  are,  indeed,  the  usurers,  (so  called)  because  they  make  (their 
principal  sum)  double,  or  because  they  advance  on  (security)  of  double 
(value),  or  because  they  demand  double  (price). 

Indra  overcomes  all  the  usurers  who  behold  the  daylight  and  the 
dishonest  merchants.8 

Indra  subdues  all  usurers  who  behold  the  daylight,  who  behold  the  sun, 

1  viii.  1.  20  ;  SV.  1.  307.  6  i.  117.  21. 

8   '  Straining    of    soma '.  Grassmann,    op.  ?  Durga  explains  dasrau  as  « enslavers   of 

cit.tp.  388.  enemies',  or   'the  promoters  of  works  like 

3  i.  15.1;  vii.  92.22;  SV.  1.197.2;    1010;       agriculture,  &c.,    by  means   of   rain'.     The 
VS.  8.  42.  passage  consisting  of  the  etymological  expla- 

4  viii.  61.  11.  nations,  from  Vrka  ...  up  to  (hang  down),  is 

5  '  A    wind-instrument  used    in    war  ',       omitted  by  Durga. 
Grassmann,  op.  cit.t  p.  897.  8  viii.  66.  10. 


108  AMHURAH  [6.  26 

whose  vision  is  limited  to  the  present  only,  who  do  not  see  the  (future) 
days  by  their  action.     Merchants  are  traders. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-sixth  section.) 

O  Adityas,  run  to  us  the  living  ones  before  the  slaughter ;  where  are 
you,  the  hearers  of  our  call  ? 1 

O  Adityas,.  run 2  to  us  while  we  are  still  alive,  i.  e.  before  we  are  slain  ; 
where  are  you,  the  hearers  of  our  invocations  ?  It  is  known  to  be  the 
composition  of  the  fish  caught  in  a  net.  The  fish 3  are  (so  called  because) 
they  float  in  water,  or  they  revel  in  eating  each  other.  Net  is  (so  called) 
because  it  moves  in  water,  or  it  is  set  in  water,  or  it  lies  in  water. 

Amhurah  means  distressed.  The  word  amhuratuim  is  derived  from 
the  same  root  also. 

Taking  away  from  the  distressed.4     This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

The -wise  established  seven  boundaries,  transgressing  even  one  of  them 
a  man  falls  into  distress.5 

The  wise  made  seven  boundaries,  a  man  going  beyond  even  one  of  them 
becomes  distressed.  They  are  theft,  adultery,  killing  of  a  learned  man, 
abortion,  drinking,  habitual  addiction  to  wickedness,  and  false  accusation  of 
heinous  crime.6 

Bata  is  a  particle,  it  is  (used)  to  denote  distress  and  compassion. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-seventh  section.) 

Alas !  thou  art  a  weakling,  O  Yama,  we  have  not  found  any  heart  or 
spirit  in  thee.  Another,  indeed,  will  embrace  thee,  resting  on  thy  breast 
like  a  woodbine  on  a  tree.7 

A  weakling,  i.  e.  devoid  of  all  strength.  O  Yama,  thou  art  a  weakling, 
i.e.  of  little  strength.  I  do  not  know8  thy  heart,  thy  mind.  Another 
woman,  indeed,  will  embrace  thee,  joined  with  thy  breast  like  a  woodbine 
with  a  tree.  Libujd  (woodbine)  means  a  creeper :  it  clings  ( \/li),  dis- 
tributing (vi-bhaj-antfy.  Vratati  (creeper)  is  (so  called)  from  selecting 
(Vvr),  or  from  entwining  (Vsi),  or  from  spreading  (Vtan). 

1  viii,  67.  5.  commentary   on  x.  5.  6.     In  Max   Miiller's 

2  Yaska  paraphrases  abhi-dhetana  by  abhi-  second  edition  of  the  RV.  with  Sayana,  the 
dhuvata.    The  former  is  imp.  of  <^dhii  with  word  bhrilnahatyum  is  omitted,  consequently 
abhi.  the  number  of  boundaries  is  six  instead  of 

5  Matsydh  (fish)  is  derived  from  Vsyand  (to      seven. 

float)  and  madhu  (water).  7  x.  10.  13 ;  AV.  18.  1.  15. 

4  i.  105.  17.  8  Yaska  paraphrases  avidtima  by  vijandmi. 

6  x.  6.  6  ;  AV.  5.  1.  6.  The  former  is  the  1st  per.  plur.  aor.  of  </vid; 
6  The  sentence  is  quoted  by  Sayana  in  his  the  latter  1st  per.  sing.  pres.  o 


6. 30]  SlRIMBITHA  109 

VcUdpyam  means  water:  wind  (vdtd)  causes  it  to  swell  (Va>  pyai). 

Purifying  the  water,  the  delight  of  all.1  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quo- 
tation. 

As  a  trembling  young  bird  has  been  placed  on  a  tree.2 

As  a  trembling,  or  anxiously  longing,  young  bird,  i.  e.  the  young 
offspring  of  a  bird.  6akalya  has  analysed  vdyah  into  vd  and  yak :  then 
the  finite  verb  would  have  had  the  acute  accent,  and  the  sense  have  been 
incomplete. 

The  word  ratJtaryati  '•'  means  one  desirous  of  something  accomplished, 
or  one  who  desires  a  chariot. 

This  god  desires  a  chariot.4     This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 
(Here  ends  the  twenty -eighth  section.) 

Fatten  the  perennial  cow  like  food.5    i.  e.  which  never  runs  dry.6 

Adhavah 7  (agitator)  is  so  called  from  agitating. 

Thou  art  the  perfection  of  intellects  and  agitator  of  priests.8  This  too 
is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Anambravah  °  means  one  whose  speech  is  irreproachable. 

Like  Indra,  thou  bringest  victory,  and  thy  speech  is  irreproachable.10 
This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

(Here  ends  the  tiventy-nlnth  section.) 

Go  to  the  hill,  0  barren,  one-eyed,  hideous,  ever-screaming  (famine). 
We  frighten  thee  away  with  those  heroes  (lit.  beings)  of  the  cloud.11 

O  barren,  one-eyed,  hideous  (famine).  '  One-eyed  (is  so  called  because) 
his  sight  is  crooked,1  says  Aupamanyava.  Or  it  may  be  derived  from  the 
root  Jean,  meaning  to  be  small. 

The  verb  Jean  is  used  to  denote  the  smallness  of  sound,  as  '  it  sounds 
inaudible'.  A  (person)  is  called  Jcana  on  account  of  the  smallness  of  his 
size,  and  Jcdna  on  account  of  his  short  vision,  i.  e.  one-eyed.  '  Hideous, 
i.e.  whose  manner  of  walking  is  crooked,'  says  Aupamanyava.  Or  the 
word  (vi-Jcata)  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  kut  (to  be  crooked)  by 
metathesis :  he  is  very  crooked.  Ever-screaming,  always  screeching,  go  to 
the  hills.  With  the  heroes  of  the  cloud.  Sirimbitha 12  means  a  cloud :  it  is 

1  ix.  35.  5.  7  '  Shaker,  exciter,  mixture,  combination  ', 

2  x.  29.  1  ;  AV.  20.  76.  1.  Orassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  177. 

3  '  One  who  drives  in   a  chariot ',   Grass-  8  x.  26.  4. 

mann,   op.  cit.,  p.   1139;    'one   who   desires          9  Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  53. 
speed  (raro/ianrtw)  ',  Durga.  10  x.  84.  5  ;  AV.  4.  81.  5. 

4  ix.  3.  5 ;  SV.  2.  609.  u  x.  155.  1 ;  cf.  Brh.  D.  viii.  60.. 

r>  vi.  63.  8.  12  '  Appellation  of  a  man  ',  Grassmann,  op. 

•  Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  152.  cit.,  p.  1395. 


110  KAKULATI  [6.  30 

shattered  in  the  atmosphere.  Bltham  means  atmosphere.  Bithtm  is 
explained  by  birita.1  We  frighten  thee  away  with  its  heroes,  i.  e.  waters. 
Or  else,  Kirimbiflta  is  (a  name  of  the  seer)  Bharadvaga,  who  endowed  with 
black  ears,  destroyed  evil  fortune  (with  this  stanza).  We  frighten  thee 
away  with  his  heroes,  i.  e.  actions.  The  verb  catay  means  to  frighten. 

Parasarah  2  means  a  seer,  born  from  the  old  and  exhausted  Vasistha. 

The  seer  Vasiatha  (surrounded  by)  a  hundred  demons.3  This  too  is 
a  Vedic  quotation. 

Indra  is  called  para&am  also,  he  is  the  destroyer  of  [other]  demons. 

Indra  was  the  destroyer  of  the  demons.4  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quota- 
tion. 

Krwirdatl 5  means  having  sharp  teeth. 

Where  your  bright  weapon,  having  sharp  teeth,  rends.0  This  too  is  a 
Vedic  quotation. 

Karufati 7  means  having  gaps  in  the  teeth.    [Or  else,  having  seen  some 
god  with  gaps  in  his  teeth,  the  seer  made  this  remark.] 
(Here  ends  the  thirtieth  section.) 

May  god  Aryaman  give  you  all  fair  and  beautiful  things.  0  destroyer 
(of  enemies),  may  Pusa  Bhaga,  and  the  god  having  gaps  in  his  teeth  give 
you  all  fair  and  beautiful  things.8 

Fair  (is  so  called  because)  it  is  to  be  won.  Destroyer  (is  so  called)  from 
destroying.  But  who  is  the  god  who  has  gaps  in  his  teeth  ?  According  to 
some,  it  is  an  epithet  of  Bhaga  who  comes  before  it.  According  to  others, 
this  god  is  Pusa,  because  he  has  no  teeth.9  Pusa  is  without  teeth,  says  a 
Brahmana  passage. 

O  Indra,  (make)  the  tribes  liberal  and  sweet  in  speech.10 

O  Indra,  make  us  men  charitable  and  soft  in  speech.11  This  noxious 
creature  thinks  me  to  be  without  a  hero.12 

This  imp  desirous  of  making  mischief  takes  me  to  be  of  little  strength 
as  it  were. 

Idamyuh  means  desiring  this.  Moreover,  it  is  used  in  the  sense  of  '  like 
that '.  The  expression  '  Indra  desirous  of  wealth '  here  means  '  having 
wealth '. 

1  See  5.  27.  7  '  Having    decaying,     shattered     teeth ', 

2  '  Destroyer,  annihilate!' ',  Grassmann,  op.       Grassmann.  op.  cit.,  p.  315. 

nV.,  p.  783.  «  iv.  30.  24  ;  cf.  Brh.  D.  iv.  138. 

3  vii.  18.  21.  »  Cf.  Brh.  D.  iv.  139. 
<  vii.  104.  21  ;  AV.  8.  4.  21.                                     ™  i.  174.  2. 

5  'Having     bloody,     formidable      teeth',          n  Cf.  Mnir,  op.  cit.,  vol.  ii,  p.  377. 
Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  359.  12  x.  86.  9  ;  AV.  20. 126.  0  •  cf.  Brh.  D.  1.  53. 

6  i.  166.  «. 


6.  33]  BUNDAH  111 

Rich  in  horses,  kine,  chariots,  and  wealth.1  This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation. 

(Here  ends  the  thirty -fi.rd  section.) 

What  are  the  cows  doing  in  the  country  of  the  barbarians?  They 
neither  get  the  milk  (to  mix)  with  soma,  nor  kindle  fire.  Bring  to  us  the 
wealth  of  the  usurer.  Subdue  the  low-born  to  us,  O  lord  of  wealth.2 

What  are  the  cows  doing  in  Klkotul  Kikittu-*  is  the  name  of  a  country 
where  the  non-Aryans  dwell. 

Non- Aryan  tribes  are  (so  called  because  it  is  said),  '  What  have  they 
done  ? '  or  their  assumption  is  that  religious  rites  are  useless.  They  neither 
get  the  milk  to  mix  with  the  soma,  nor  kindle  fire.  Bring  to  us  the  wealth  of 
the  usurer.  Maganda 4  means  a  usurer  :  he  advances  with  the  thought  that 
it  will  come  back  to  him  ;  his  son,  i.  e.  born  in  the  family  of  great  usurers,  is 
called  pramagtinda.  Or  it  means  an  epicurean  who  assumes  that  this  is 
the  only  world  and  there  is  no  other.  Or  it  may  mean  impotent,5  fond  of 
sexual  intercourse  ;  or  one  who  paralyses  himself,  i.  e.  his  testicles.  He 
makes  his  testicles  firm  as  two  pins.  Low-born,  born  in  a  low  family,  or 
whose  family  is  low.0 

Alk/.d  (branch)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  &t.k  (to  be  able). 

Aid  (testicles)  are  (so  called)  from  being  fitted  (arandt). 

O  lord  of  wealth,  subdue  him  to  us.  The  verb  radhyati  means  to 
subdue. 

Bundah 7  means  an  arrow.  [Arrow]  it  pierces,  it  inspires  awe,  or  it 
shines  when  it  fiies. 

(Here  end*  the  thirty-second  section.) 

Thy  bow  is  most  powerful,  strongly  made,  and  well  shaped.  Thy  arrow 
is  golden  and  swift.  Both  thy  arms  which  knock  down  enemies  and 
increase  sweetness  (for  us)  are  well  equipped  and  fit  for  war.8 

Powerful,  having  a  great  capacity  of  discharging  arrows,  or  having  an 
enormous  capacity  of  discharging  arrows.  Thy  bow  is  well  made,  well 
shaped,  delightful.  Thy  golden  arrow  is  the  accomplishes  Both  thy  arms 
are  [fit  for  battle]  beautiful,  well  equipped  for  battle.  Rdupe  means 

1  i-  61.  14.  <  Sftyana  explains  it  as  the  name  of  a  king 

2  iii-  53.  14.  also. 

3  Cf.  Muir,  op.  tit.,  vol.  ii,  p.  350.     SOyane  »  The  wealth  of  such  a  person,  like  that  of 
explains  Kikata  as  aflteists  who  have  no  faith  a  usurer,  is  not  spent    in   religious   works. 
and  say  :  *  What  is  the  use  of  sacrifice,  sacred  Durga. 

rites,  gifts,  and  oblations*    Eat  and  drink,  «  According  to  Sayana,  naicatakham  is  the 

for  there  is  no  world  other  than  this.'     '  A  name  of  a  city. 

name  of  non-Aryan  tribes',  Grassmann,  op.  7  < Bow,  arrow',  Grassmann,  op.  ciX,  p.  010. 

cif.,  p.  327.  *  viii.  77.  11. 


112  VRNDAM  [6.33 

knocking  down  by  movement,  knocking  down  by  motion,  [knocking  down 
by  sound,  knocking  down  at  great  distance],  or  piercing  the  vital  parts  by 
movement,  by  motion,  [piercing  from  the  sound,  or  piercing  from  a  distance]. 

(Here  ends  the  thirty-third  section.) 

From  the  mountains,  Indra  transfixed  the  mellow  cloud  and  held  his 
well-aimed  arrow.1 

From  the  mountains  .Indra  held  the  well-aimed  arrow  and  transfixed 
the  well-ripe  cloud,  the  giver  of  rain-water. 

Vrnd-am  and  vrndaraka  are  explained  by  bunda  (arrow). 

(Here  ends  the  thirty-fourth  section.) 

This  same  sacrifice!-,  who  is  the  maker  of  Yama,  carried  oblations  which 
the  gods  enjoy.  He  is  generated  every  month,  day  by  day;  the  gods 
appointed  him  their  oblation-bearer.2 

This  same  sacrificer,  who  is  the  maker  of  Yama,  carries  food  which  the 
gods  eat.  He  is  generated  every  month,  every  fortnight,  day  after  day. 
And  the  gods  appointed  him  their  oblation-bearer. 

Ulbam  s  is  derived  from  the  root  urnu  (to  cover),  or  from  vr  (to  cover). 
Great  was  that  cover  and  compact  also.4  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 

Rblsam 5  means  one  whose  lustre  is  gone,  or  taken  away,  or  concealed, 
or  lost. 

(Here  ends  the  thirty-fifth  section.) 

You  covered  the  fire  with  snow  during  the  day.  You  have  bestowed 
on  him  strength  rich  in  food.  You  have  brought  fire  on  earth,  and  you 
have  raised  the  whole  group  for  their  welfare,  O  AsVins.6 

You  have  covered  fire  with  snow,  i.e.  water,  during  the  day,  i.e.  at 
the  end  of  the  summer  season.  You  have  bestowed  on  us  and  Agni 
strength  rich  in  food.  You  have  raised  that  fire  which  is  invside  rblsa, 
i.  e.  earth,  herbs,  trees  of  forests  and  waters.  The  whole  group,  i.  e.  a  group 
consisting  of  all  classes  of  every  kind. 

GOMI  (group)  and  guna  (quality)  are  (so  called  because)  they  count. 
All  the  herbs  and  living  beings  who  spring  to  life  on  earth  during  the 
rainy  season  are  but  forms  of  the  Asvins.  With  these  words,  the  seer 
praises  them,  the  seer  praises  them. 

(Here  ends  the  thirty-sixth  section.) 

1  viii.  77.  C.  <  x.  51.  1. 

2  x.  52.  3.  5  According  to  Durga,  it  means  earth,  on 
5  Eihnut,   membrane  round    the    embryo,       account  of  its  non-luminous  character. 

Grassmann,  op.  rit.,  p.  266.  f-  i.  116.  8  ;  cf.  Brh.  D.  ii.  110. 


7.2]  NATURE  OF  STANZAS  US 

CHAPTER    VII 

Now,  therefore,  (we  shall  explain)  the  section  (of  the  Nighantu) 
relating  to  deities.  The  section,  which  enumerates  appellations  of 
deities,  to  whom  panegyrics  are  primarily  addressed,  is  called  daivatam, 
i.  e.  relating  to  deities.  The  following  is  the  detailed  examination  of  the 
same.  A  particular  stanza  is  said  to  belong  to  a  deity,  to  whom  a  seer 
addresses  his  panegyrics1  with  a  particular  desire,  and  from  whom  he 
wishes  to  obtain  his  object.2  The  stanzas,  to  which  reference  has  just  been 
made,8  are  of  three  kinds :  (1)  indirectly  addressed,  (2)  directly  addressed, 
(3)  and  self-invocations.  Of  these,  the  indirectly  addressed  stanzas  are 
composed  (lit.  joined)  in  all  the  cases  of  nouns  but  the  verb  of  the  third 

person  (only). 

(Here  ends  the  first  section.) 

Irxlra  rules  heaven,  Indra  the  earth.* 

The  chanters  (praise)  very  much  Indra  alone.6 

These  Trtsns  being  active  with  Indra.0 

Chant  the  sama-stanzas  for  the  sake  of  Indra.7 

Without  Indra,  no  place  whatsoever  is  pure.1 

I  will  indeed  proclaim  the  heroic  exploits  of  Indra.9 

Our  desires  rest  on  Indra.10    And  so  on. 

Now  the  directly  addressed  stanzas  are  compositions  in  the  second 
person  and  are  joined  with  the  word  '  thou '  as  the  pronoun. 

Thou,  O  Indra,  (art  born)  from  strength.11 

O  Indra,  slay  our  enemies.12    And  so  on. 

Moreover,  the  praises  are  directly,  while  the  objects  of  praise  are 
indirectly,  addressed. 

Do  not  praise  any  other.13 

Sing  forth,  0  Kwivas.14 

1  The  praise  is  of  four  kin«ls,  according  to  6  vii.  13.  15. 

its  reference  to  (1)  one's  own  name,  (2)  one's  7  viii.  t»8.  1 ;  AV.  20.  02.  5 ;  SV.  1.  :)83  ;  2. 

relatives  ;tml  friends,  (8)  one's  accomplish*  875. 

ments,  (4]  one's  beauty.     Durga.  H  x.  61*.  0  ;  SV.  2.  720. 

»  Cf.  Brh.  D.  1.  6;  Muir,  op.  cit,,  vol.  ii,  '  i.  82.  1  ;  cf.  AV.  2.  5,  5. 

p.  195.  lo  Cf.  Roth,  op.  clt.j  p.  100. 

»  The  clause  '  to  which  .  . .  been  made'  is  n  x.  ir>3.  2  ;  AV.  20.  08.  5  ;  SV.  1.  120. 

not  the  literal  translation,  but  rather  gives  12  x.  152.  4  ;  AV.  1.  21.  2  ;  SV.  2.  1218  ;  VS. 

expression  to  the  contextual  meaning  of  the  8.  44  ;  Id.  70. 

word  to*  used  by  Yaska.  '•  viii.  1.  1  ;   AV.  20.  So.  1  ;   SV.  1.  242  ;  i. 

«  x.  89.  10.  710. 

•  1.  7.  1 ;  AV.  20.  83.  4  ;  20.  47.  4  ;  20.  70.  "  i.  37.  1. 
7;  SV.  1.  198;  2.  14(1. 


114  STANZAS  [7.  2 

Approach,  0  Ku&kas,  be  careful.1 

Now  self-invocations  are  compositions  in  the  first  person  and  are  joined 
with  the  word  '  I '  as  the  pronoun,  e.  g.  the  hymn  of  Indra  Vaikuntha ; 2 
the  hymn  of  Lava ; 3  or  the  hymn  of  Vak,4  daughter  of  Ambhrna,  and 
so  on. 

(Here  ends  the  second  section.) 

Indirectly  addressed  and  directly  addressed  stanzas  are  by  far  the  most 
numerous.  Self-invocations  are  few  and  far  between.  Moreover,  (in  some 
stanzas)  there  is  only  praise  (of  the  deity)  without  any  benediction  (being 
invoked),  as  in  the  hymn :  I  will  indeed  proclaim  the  heroic  exploits  jf 
Indra.5  Further,  (in  some  stanzas)  there  is  only  benediction  without  any 
praise  (being  offered),  as:  May  I  see  well  with  my  eyes,  may  I  be  radiant 
in  my  face,  may  I  hear  well  with  my  ears.6  This  is  mostly  found  in  the 
Yajurveda  (tidhvaryave)  and  sacrificial  formulae.7  Further,  (in  some 
stanzas)  there  are  asseverations  and  imprecations : 

May  I  die  to-day,  if  I  be  a  juggling  demon.8 

Now  may  he  be  deprived  of  ten  heroes.9 

Further,  (in  some  stanzas)  there  is  an  intention  of  describing  a  particular 
state: 

Then  was  no  death,  nor  indeed  immortality.10 

In  the  beginning  (of  creation)  there  was  darkness,  hidden  in  darkness.11 

Further,  (in  some  stanzas)  there  is  apprehension  arising  from  a  particular 
state: 

The  benevolent  god  may  fly  forth  to-day  and  never  return.12 

I  do  not  know  whether  I  am  this  or  (that).13    And  so  on. 

Further,  (in  some  stanzas)  there  are  censure  and  praise : 

He  alone  is  guilty  who  eats  alone.14 

This  dwelling-place  of  a  liberal  person  is  (beautiful)  like  a  lotus-bed.15 

Similarly,  there  is  censure  of  gambling  and  praise  of  agriculture  in  the 
dice-hymn.16  In  this  manner  and  with  various  intentions,  seers  have  visions 
of  their  poetic  compositions  (mantras).11  , 

(Here  ends  the  third  section.) 

iii.  53. 11 ;  cf.  Brh.  D.  iv.  115.  '°  x.  129.  2. 

x.  48  ;  49.  "  x.  129.  3  ;  TB.  ii.  8.  9.  4. 

x.  119.  »  x.  95.  15. 

x.  125.  «  i.  164.  37  ;  AV.  9.  10.  15 ;  cf.  Brh.  D.  i. 

i.  32.  1  ;    cf.  AV.  2.  5.  5.  56  ;  N.  14.  22. 

The  quotation  has  not  been  traced.  "  x.  117.6  ;  TB.  ii.  8.  8.  3. 

Cf.  Muir,  op.  cit.,  vol.  iii,  pp.  211-12.  »•  x.  107.  10. 

vii.  104. 15*  ;  AV.  8.  4.  15*.  »«  x.  34. 

vii.  104.  15'  ;  AV.  8.  4-.  15C.  "  Cf.  Brh.  D.  i.  3. 


7.  5]  DEITY  115 

With  reference  to  this,  the  following  is  the  ascertainment  of  the  deity 
of  those  stanzas  whose  deity  is  not  specified.  Such  stanzas  belong  to  the 
same  deity  to  whom  tjiat  particular  sacrifice,  or  a  part  of  the  sacrifice,  is 
offered.  Now,  elsewhere  than  the  sacrifice,  they  belong  to  Prajapati  accord- 
ing to  the  ritualists ;  and  to  Nara^amsa  according  to  the  etymologists.1 

Or  else  the  deity  may  be  an  optional  one,  or  even  a  group  of  deities.2 
It  is,  indeed,  a  very  prevalent  practice,  (in  everyday  life)  in  the  world,  (to 
dedicate  things  in  common)  including  what  is  sacred  to  gods,  to  guests,  and 
to  the  manes.3  As  to  the  view  that  a  stanza  belongs  to  the  deity  to  whom 
the  sacrifice  is  offered,  (it  may  be  objected)  that  non-deities  are  also  praised 
like  deities,  e.  g.  the  objects  beginning  with  horse  and  ending  with  herbs,4 
together  with  the  eight  pairs.1 .  But  he  (the  student)  should  not  think  that 
matters  relating  to  gods  are  adventitious  as  it  were.  This  is  to  be  clearly 
seen  (by  the  following) :  On  account  of  the  supereminence  of  the  deity, 
a  single  soul  is  praised  in  various  ways.  Other  gods  are  the  individual 
limbs  of  a  single  soul.6  Or  else,  as  people  say,  seers  praise  objects 
according  to  the  multiplicities  of  their  original  nature,  as  well  as  from  its 
universality.  They  are  produced  from  each  other.7  They  are  the  original 
forms  of  each  other.8  They  are  produced  from  (action  (Ax/rma)),9  they  are 
produced  from  the  soul.  Soul  is  even  their  chariot,  their  horse,  their  weapon, 
their  arrows ;  soul  is  indeed  the  all-in-all  of  gods.10 
(Here  entls  the  fourth  section.) 

1  There  are  three  deities  only,' n  say  the  etymologists :  (1)  Agni,  whose 
sphere  is  earth ;  (2)  Vayu  or  Indra,  whose  sphere  is  atmosphere ;  (3)  the  sun, 
whose  sphere  is  heaven.12  Of  these,  each  receives  many  appellations  on 
account  of  his  supereminence,  or  the  diversity  of  his  function,  just  as 
u  priest,  although  he  is  one,  is  called  the  sacrificer  (hotr),  the  director  of  the 
sacrifice  (adhvaryu),  the  possessor  of  the  sacred  lore  (brahma),  and  the 
chanter  (udgatr).  Or  else  they  may  be  distinct,  for  their  panegyrics  as 

Cf.  Roth,  op.  crt.,  p.  101.  ing  the  human  works    to  Accomplishment. 

Of.  Durga,  quoted  by  Roth,  op.  crt.,  p.  112.  There  will  be  no  crops  without  the  .sun  and 

Cf.  AB.  i.  14.  ii.  6  ;    KB.  x.  4  ;  and  also  there  can  be  no  life  without  food.     Durga. 

AB.  i.  15.  10  This  is  Yaska' s  rejoinder  to  the  objection 

Ngh.  v.  8.  1-22.  that  non-deities  are  praised  like  deities.  The 

Xjrh.  v.  3.  29-36.  so-called  non-deities,  says   Yaska,    are    but 

6  Cf.  Brh.  D.  iv.  143.  different  manifestations  of   the  same  single 

'  As,  for    instance,   Duksa   is    born    from  soul.     In  other  words,  Yaska  here  propounds 

Aditi,  and  Aditi  from  Daksa.     Durga.  the  doctrine  of  pantheism.      Cf.  Brh.  D.  i. 

8  As  for  instance,  lire,  lightning,  and  the  73-74. 

sun  are   the  original   forms  of  each   other.         J1  AB.  ii.  17  ;  KB.  viii.  8. 

Durga.  12  AB.  v.  32 ;  SB.  xi.  2.  3  1  ;  Sarva.  Pari.  2. 

9  i.e.  To  make  existence  possible  by  bring-       8 ;  lirh.D.  i.  C9  ;  cf.  RV.  x.  158. 1 ;  Muir,o/).  eif. 

H2 


116  ARE  THE  GODS  ANTHROPOMORPHIC?  [7.5 

well  as  their  appellations  are  distinct.1  As  to  the  view  that  (one  receives 
many  appellations)  on  account  of  the  diversity  of  functions,  (it  may  be 
remarked)  that  many  men  also  can  do  the  actions,  having  divided  them 
among  thenwelves.  With  regard  to  it,  the  community  of  jurisdiction  and 
enjoyment  ihould  be  noted,  as  for  instance,  the  community  of  men  and  gods 
with  regard  to  earth.  Community  of  enjoyment  is  seen  in  the  following, 
i.  e.  the  enjoyment  of  earth  by  the  cloud,  together  with  air  and  the  sun,  and 
of  the  other  world  together  with  Agni.  There  everything  is  like  the  kingdom 

of  man  also. 

(Here  ends  the  fifth  section.) 

Now  (we  shall  discuss)  the  appearance  of  the  gods.  Some  say  that  they 
are  anthropomorphic,  for  their  panegyrics  as  well  as  their  appellations  are 
like  those  of  sentient  beings.  Moreover  they  are  praised  with  reference  to 
anthropomorphic  limbs : 

0  Indra,  the  two  arms  of  the  mighty  one  are  noble.- 
That  (heaven  and  earth),  which  thou  hast  seized,  is  thy  fist,  0  lord 
of  wealth.3 

Moreover  (they  are  praised)  as  associated  with  anthropomorphic 
objects : 

O  Indra,  come  with  thy  team  of  two  bay  steeds.4 
A  beautiful  wife  and  delightful  things  are  in  thy  house.5 
Moreover  (they  are  praised)  with  regard  to  anthropomorphic  actions : 
0  Indra,  eat  and  drink  the  (soma)  placed  before  (thee).6 
Hear  our  call,  O  God  that  hast  listening  ears.7 
(Here  ends  the  sixth  section.) 

Others  say  that  they  are  not  anthropomorphic,  because  whatever  is 
seen  of  them  is  unanthropomorphic,  as  for  instance,  fire,  nir,  the  sun, 
earth,  the  moon,  &c.  As  to  the  view  that  their  panegyrics  are  like  those 
of  sentient  beings,  (we  reply)  that  inanimate  objects,  beginning  from  dice 
and  ending  with  herbs,8  are  likewise  praised.  As  to  the  view  that  they 
are  praised  with  reference  to  anthropomorphic  limbs,  (we  reply)  that  this 
(treatment)  is  accorded  to  inanimate  objects  also : 

They  shout  with  their  green  mouths.9    This  is  a  panegyric  of  stones. 

As  to  the  view  that  (they  are  praised)  as  associated  with  anthropo- 

Sarvn.  Pari.  2.  13.  6  x.  116.  7. 

vi.  47.  8 ;  AV.  19.  15.  4.  T  i.  10.  ». 

iii.  30.  6.  •  Ngh.  v.  8.  4-S>2. 

ii.  18.  4.  •  x.  94.  2. 

iii.  63.  6. 


7. 9]  SHARES,  ETC.  117 

morphic  objects,  (we  reply)  that  it  is  just  the  same  (in  the  case  of  inanimate 
objects) : 

Sindhu  yoked  the  comfortable  car,  drawn  by  a  horse.1 
This  is  a  panegyric  of  a  river.     As  to  the  view  that  (they  are  praised) 
with  regard  to  anthropomorphic  actions,  (we  reply)  that  it  is  exactly  the 
same  (in  the  case  of  inanimate  objects) : 

Even  before  the  sacriticer,  they  taste  the  delicious  oblations.2  This  too 
is  a  panegyric  of  stones.  Or  else  they  may  be  both  anthropomorphic  and 
unanthropomorphic.  Or  else  (the  unanthropomorphic  appearance)  of  the 
gods,  who  are  really  anthropomorphic,15  is  their  counterself  in  the  form  of 
action.  (Karma)  as  sacrifice  is  that  of  a  sacrificer.  This  is  the  well-con- 
sidered opinion  of  those  who  are  well  versed  in  legendary  lore. 
(Here  eiuts  tie,  seventh  section.) 

It  has  been  said  before  that  there  are  three  deities  only.  Now  we 
shall  explain  their  shares  and  companions.  Now  the  following  are  the 
shares  of  Agni :  this  world,  the  morning  libation,  spring,  the  Gdyinrl  metre, 
the  triple  hymn,  the  ratlantaram  chant,  and  the  group  of  gods  who  are 
enumerated  in  the  first  place.4 

Ayitayl  (wife  of  Agni),  Prill vl  (earth),  and  Hcl  (praise)  are  the  women. 
Now  its  function  is  to  carry  oblations  and  to  invoke  the  gods.  And  all 
that  which  relates  to  vision  is  the  function  of  Agni  also.  Now  the  gods 
with  whom  Agni  is  jointly  praised  are  (1)  Indra.  (2)  Soma,  (3)  Vnruna, 
(4)  Parjanya,  and  (5)  the  Rtavas.  There  is  a  joint  oblation  offered  to,  but  no 
joint  panegyric  addressed  to,  Agni  and  Visnu  in  the  ten  books  (of  the 
R<jveda)J'  Moreover  there  is  a  joint  oblation  offered  to,  but  no  joint 
panegyric  addressed  to.  Agni  and  Pusan.  With  regard  to  this,  the  following 
stanza  is  cited  (in  order  to  show  their)  separate  praise. 
(Here  ends  ike  eighth  section.) 

May  Pu.san,  the  wise,  the  guardian  of  the  universe,  whose  cattle  are 
never  lost,  cause  thee  to  move  forthwith  from  this  world.  May  he  hand 
thee  over  to  these  manes,  and  (may)  Agni  (entrust)  thee  to  the  benevolent 
gods.0 

May  Pusan,  the  wise,  whose  cattle  are  never  lost,  who  is  the  guardian 

1  x.  75.  9.  Mythology,  pp.  15-20. 

=  x.94.  2.  4  Ngh.  v.  1-3. 

3  According  to  Durga,  the  visible  form  of  6  Cf.  AB.  ii.  32;  iii.  13;  iv.  29;  viii.  12, 

gods,  like  air,  the  sun,  &c.,  are  the  working  17  ;  KB.  viii.  8.  9  ;  xii.  4  ;  xiv.  1.  3.  5;  xxii. 

selves,  but  the  presiding  deities  of  fire,  Ac.,  1 ;  GB.  i.  1.  17.  21.  29;  2.  24  ;  ii.  3. 10  ;  12.  16; 

are   the  real  gods  and  they  are  nnthropo-  Brh.  D.  i.  115-18. 

morphic.      Cf.    Professor    Ifacdonell,    Vcdic  «  x.  17.  3  ;  AV.  18.  2.  54. 


118  ADITYA  [7.  9 

of  the  universe,  i.e.  he,  the  sun,  is  indeed  the  guardian  of  all  created 
beings,  forthwith  cause  thee  to  move  from  this  world.  The  third  verse, 
'May  he  hand  thee  over  to  the  manes',  is  doubtful.  According  to  some, 
it  refers  to  Pusan,  (mentioned)  in  the  preceding  hemistich ;  according  to 
others  this  extols  Agni,  (mentioned)  subsequently.  (May)  Agni  (entrust) 
thee  to  the  benevolent  gods. 

Suvidatram  means  wealth :  it  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  vid  (to 
find)  with  one  preposition  (su)  or  from  da  (to  give)  with  two  prepositions 

(su  and  vi). 

(Here  ends  the  nintk  section.) 

Now  the  following  are  the  shares  of  Indra :  the  atmosphere,  the  midday 
libation,  the  summer,  the  trfytubh  metre,  the  fifteenfold  hymn,  the  great  chant,1 
and  the  gods  who  are  enumerated  in  the  middle  place  as  well  as  the  women. - 
Now  his  function  is  to  release  the  waters  and  to  slay  Vrtra.  And  all  action 
that  relates  to  strength  is  Indra's  function  also.5  Now  the  gods  with 
whom  Indra  is  jointly  praised  are  Agni,  Soma,  Varuna,  Pusan,  Brhaspati, 
Brahmanaspati,  Parvata,  Kutsa,  Visnu,  Vayu.  Moreover,  Mitra  is  jointly 
praised  with  Varuna ;  Soma  with  Pusan  and  Rudra ;  Pusan  with  Vayu ; 
and  Parjanya  with  Vata. 

(Here  ends  the  tenth  section.) 

Now  the  following  are  the  shares  of  Aditya :  that  world  (i.  e.  heaven), 
the  third  libation,  the  rainy  season,  the  jagaM  metre,  the  seven teenf old  hymn, 
the  Vairu'pa  chant, and  the  gods  enumerated  in  the  highest  place  as  well  as  the 
women.4  Now  his  function  is  to  draw  out  and  hold  the  juices  with  his  rays. 
All  that  relates  to  greatness 5  is  Aditya's  function  also.  He  is  jointly  praised 
with  Candramas,  Vayu,  and  Samvatsara.0  One  should  frame  the  remaining 
portions  of  seasons,  metres,  hymns,  &c.  in  accordance  with  the  distribution 
of  the  places  (already  mentioned).  Autumn,  the  anustiM  metre,  the  twenty- 
fold  hymn,  the  Vairaja  chant  are  terrestrial.  Winter,  the  pdnkti  metre,  the 
twenty-sevenfold  hymn,  the  &dkvara 7  chant  are  atmospheric.  The  dewy 
season,  the  aticcJtandas  metres,  the  thirty-threefold  hymn,  the  Raivata  chant 
are  celestial.8 

(Here  ends  the  eleventh  section.) 

1  Cf.  KB.  iii.  5;  Yad  dirrjham  brhat,  '  what  is       KB.  viii.  9;    xiv.  1.   3;    xvi.  1;   xxii.  3.  5; 
long  is  great '.  GB.  i.  1.  19.  24.  29  ;  ii.  3.  10  ;  4.  18 ;  Brh.  D. 

2  Ngh.  v.  4.  ii.  18-16. 

8  Cf.  AB.  ii.  32  ;  iii.  13  ;  iv.  31 ;  viii.  12. 17  ;  7  Cf.  KB  :  '  These  are  Sakvar!  verses.  With 

KB.  viii.  9  ;  xiv.  1.  3.  5  ;  xxii.  2  ;  GB.  i.  1-17,  these  verily  Indra  was  able  to  slay  Vrtra  : 

18,  24, 29  ;  ii.  3. 10. 12 ;  4.  4  ;  Brh.  D.  i.  130-1 ;  that  Indra  was  able  to  slay  Vrtra  with  them 

ii.  2-5.  is  the  characteristic  of  Sakvari  verses.' 

4  Cf.  Ngh.  v.  5.  8  Cf.  AB.  v.  4.  0  ;  12.  19  ;  viii.  7.  12.  17  ; 

5  'Enigmatical',  MW;  'mysterious',  Roth.  KB.  xxii.  9 ;  xxiii.  8 ;  Brh.  D.  i.  116.  131. 

6  Cf.  AB.  ii.  32  ;  iii.  13;  v.  1  ;  viii.  12.  17  ; 


7.  13]  •  METRES  119 

Stanzas  are  (so  called)  from  thinking,  metres  from  covering,  [hymn 
from  praising].  Yajus  is  derived  from  (the  root)  yaj  (to  sacrifice).  Samu, 
is  (so  called  because)  it  is  measured  out  by  the  stanza,  or  it  may  be 
derived  from  (the  root)  as  (to  throw).  '  He  thought  it  equal  to  the  stanza,' 
say  they  who  are  well  versed  in  Vedic  metres.  •  • 

Gdyatrl l  is  derived  from  (the  root)  gai,  meaning  to  praise,  or  from  gam 
with  tri  by  metathesis,  i.  e.  three-coursed. 

There  is  a  Brahmana  passage :  '  It  fell  out  of  (Brahma's)  mouth  while 
he  was  singing'.  Usnih  is  (so  called  because)  it  has  stepped  out,  or 
it  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  sulk,  meaning  to  shine.  Or  comparatively 
speaking,  (it  is  so  called)  as  if  furnished  with  a  head-dress.  Ustilsa  (head- 
dress) is  derived  from  (the  root)  snui  (to  wrap  round).  Kakubh  is  (so 
called  because)  it  has  an  elevation.  Kakubh  and  kubja  (crooked)  are 
derived  from  (the  root)  kuj  (to  be  crooked)  or  ul>j  (to  press  down). 
Amistiibh  is  (so  called)  from  praising  after.  There  is  a  Brahmana  passage : 
It  follows  the  Gdyatri,  which  consists  of  three  verses  only,  (with  its  fourth 
verse  of  praise).  BrJtAttl  -  is  (so  called)  from  its  great  growth. 

PaiJdi*  is  a  stanza  of  five  verses.  The  second  member  of  the  word 
Tri$t\ibh 4  is  derived  from  (the  root)  stubh  (to  praise).  But  what  does  the  tri 
mean  ?  (It  means  swiftest),  i.  e.  it  is  the  swiftest  metre.  Or  (it  is  so  called 
because)  it  praises  the  threefold  thunderbolt.  It  is  known :  that  it  praised 
thrice,  that  is  the  characteristic  of  the  Tristubh.5 

(Here  eiids  the  twelfth  section.) 


Jagatl  °  is  a  metre  gone  farthest,  or  it  has  the  gait  of  an  aquatic  animal* 
There  is  a  Brahmana  passage :  '  The  creator  emitted  it  when  he  was  dis- 
inclined to  do  anything'.7  Virdt8  is  (so  called)  from  excelling,  or  from 
being  at  variance  with  others,  or  from  extension ;  from  excelling,  because 
the  syllables  are  complete ;  from  being  at  variance,  because  the  (number  of) 
syllables  varies ;  from  extension,  because  the  (number  of)  syllables  is  very 

1  Cf.  GB.  ii.  3.  10;  Bib.  Ind.  ccl.  p.  12S  :  5  The-   third  'Khawta  of  the  Dairafa   Er>.h- 
1  GCajatri,  verily,  consists  of  eight  syllables  '.       mana. 

Cf.  also  AB.  iv.  28:  *  Guyatrl  conceived,  she  s  'It    spreads    like    the   waves   of   water.' 

gave  birth  to  Anustnbh.     Anustubh  conceived,  Durga.     Cf.  KB.  xxx.   11:   'They  recite  the 

she  gave  birth  to  Pankti.     Jayati  conceived,  five  metres,  Anititubh,  Gayatri,  Utnih,  TriiWJt, 

she  gave  birth  to  Aticchandas.'  and  Jagatl  during  the  night,  they  are  verily 

2  Cf.  KB.  iii.  5  :  'What  is  long  is  brhat'.  night  metres ». 

3  Cf.  AB.  v.  1*.) :    * Punkti.  consists  of   five  7  i.e.  When  he  had  lost  all  pleasure  in  his 
verses ' :  KB.  xi.  2.  work.     Durga. 

4  Cf.  C4B.  ii.  3.  10  :  Bib.  Ind.  ed.  p.  128 :  *  Cf.  AB.  vi.  20 :    '  Vir&t  consists  of   ten 
ekfMasdksara  rat  triftnp ;  cf.  also  AB.  viii.  2.  syllables'. 


120  AGNI  [7.  13 

large.      Figuratively    it   is    called    the   ant-waisted.1      PipUikd  (ant)   is 
derived  from  (the  root)  pel,  meaning  to  go.2 

With  these  words,  these  deities  are  dealt  with.  Those  to  whom  the 
hymns  are  addressed,  oblations  are  offered,  and  stanzas  are  addressed  are 
by  far  the  most  numerous.  Some  are  incidentally  mentioned.3  Moreover, 
one  offers  oblations  to  gods,  having  announced  (lit.  joined  together)  them 
with  their  characteristic  appellations,  as  to  Indra,  the  destroyer  of  Vrtra, 
[to  Indra,  who  excels  Vrtra],  to  Indra,  the  deliverer  from  distress,  and  so 
on.  Some  make  a  list  of  these  also,  but  they  are  too  numerous  to  be 
collected  together  in  a  list.  I  enlist  that  appellation  only  which  has 
become  a  conventional  epithet  and  with  reference  to  which  chief  praise  is 
addressed  (to  the  deity).  Moreover,  a  seer  praises  deities  with  regard  to 
their  activities,  as  (Indra),  the  Vrtra-slayer,  or  the  city-destroyer,  and  so 
on.  Some  make  a  list  of  these  also,  but  they  are  too  numerous  to  be 
collected  together  in  a  list.  These  (epithets)  are  mere  indications  of  (a 
particular  aspect  of  the  proper)  appellations,  just  as '  give  food  to  a  Br&hmana 
who  is  hungry,  or  unguents  to  one  who  has  taken  a  bath,  or  water  to  one 
who  is  thirsty  '.4 

(Here  ends  the  thirteenth  section,.) 

Now,  therefore,  we  shall  take  up  the  deities  in  their  respective  order. 
We  shall  first  explain  Agni,5  whose  sphere  is  the  earth.  From  what  root 
is  Agni  derived  ?  He  is  the  foremost  leader,6  he  is  led  foremost  in 
sacrifices,  he  makes  everything,  to  which  it  inclines,  a  part  of  himself. 
'  He  is  a  drying  agent ',  says  Sthaulas^hlvi, '  it  does  not  make  wet,  it  does 
not  moisten.'  'It  is  derived  from  three  verbs',  says  Sakapuni,  'from 
going,  from  shining  or  burning,  and  from  leading.'  He,  indeed,  takes  the 
letter  a  from  the  root  i  (to  go),  the  letter  ft  from  the  root  atij  (to  shine),  or 
dah  (to  burn),  with  the  root  ni  (to  lead)  as  the  last  member.  The  follow- 
ing stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 

(Here  end*  tlie  fourteenth  section.) 

1  This  metre  has  only  a  few  syllables  in  the  °>%  independent  entities  ;  similarly  epithets 
middle.    Durga.  like  '  Vrtra-slayer ',  &c.,  indicate  a  particular 

2  The  whole  of  the  twelfth  section  and  this  activity  of  a  deity,  but  do  not  represent  th« 
part  of  the  thirteenth  section   are   almost  deity  itself 

identical    with    the    third    Kkawfa    of   the  B  Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  K«Kc  Ifytto&yy, 

Dojrota  BrMmatia.  PP-  88-100. 

3  Cf.  Brh.  D.  i.  17.  •  Cf.  AB.  v.  16:  Agnir  «•»,' 4  Agni  is  the 
«  The     words    'hungry',    'thirsty',    *o.,  leader1:  also  the  etymology  giv«n  by  Pro- 

merely  describe  a  particular  state  of  a  person,      fessor  Macdonell,  op,  cit,  p.  99 :  Brh.  D.  ii.  24. 
but  do  not  represent  the  individual  himself 


7.  i;]  AGNI  121 

I  praise  Agni,  placed  foremost,  the  god,  the  priest 
Of  the  sacrifice  ;  the  sacrifice!-  and  the  best  bestower  of  gifts.1 
I  praise  Agni,  I  beseech  Agni.  The  root  -Id  means  to  solicit,  or  to 
worship.  Purohita  (placed  foremost)  and  yajua  (sacrifice)  have  been  ex- 
plained. Dew  (god)  is  (so  called)  from  making  gifts  (Vda)  or  from  being 
brilliant  (Vdip),  from  being  radiant  (*/dyut),  or  because  his  sphere  is 
heaven.  He  who  is  called  god  (deva)  is  also  called  deity  (devata). 
Sacrifice!*,  invoker.  (Hotd)  (sacrificer)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ku  (to 
sacrifice),  says  Aurnav&bnft.  '  The  best  bestower  of  gifts  ',  the  most  liberal 
giver  of  delightful  riches.  The  following  additional  stanza  is  addressed  to 
him  also. 

(Here  ends  the  fifteenth  section.) 

Agni  should  be  solicited  by  seers,  old  as  well  as  new ;  he  shall  bring 
the  gods  here.2 

May  Agni,  who  should  be  solicited,  [should  be  worshipped],  by  older 
seers  as  well  as  by  us,  who  are  the  younger  ones,  bring  the  gods  to  this 
place.  He  (the  student)  should  not  think  that  Agni  refers  to  this  (terres- 
trial fire)  only.  The  two  highef  luminaries  (lightning  and  the  sun)  are 
called  Agni  also.  With  reference  to  this  (the  following  stanza  refers  to) 
the  Agni  of  the  middle  region. 

(Here  ends  the  sixteenth  section.) 

Let  them  procure  Agni  like  beautiful  and  smiling  maidens  of  the  same 
mind.  Let  the  streams  of  clarified  butter  be  united  with  fuel;  enjoying 
them  th6  god,  who  has  all  created  beings  as  his  property,  is  gratified/' 

Let  them4  bend  down  towards  it  like  maidens  who  have  the  same 
minds.6  Samanam  (of  the  same  mind)  is  (so  called)  from  breathing 
together  or  from  thinking  together.  (Let  them  bend  towards)  Agni G 
like  beautiful  smiling  maidens,  is  a  simile.  Streams  of  clarified  butter, 
i.  e.  of  water.  Let  them  be  united  with  fuel.  The  root  nas  means  to  obtain 
or  to  bend.  Enjoying  them,  the  god  who  has  all  created  beings  as  his 
property  is  gratified.  The  root  her  means  to  desire  to  obtain,  i.  e.  he  desires 
to  obtain  them  again  and  again. 

1  i.   1.  1;   of.   Professor    Macdonell,    Vedic  5  i.e.  Maidens  who  possess  qualities  such  a8 

Reader,  p.  8.  youth,  beauty,  &c.,  have  the  same  mind,  i.e. 

•  i.  1.  2.  of  di-voting  themselves  to  their  common  hus- 

8  iv.  58.  8:  VS.  17.  96.  band.    Durga,  who  thus  indirectly  supports 

1  i.e.  Streams  of  water  bend  towards  the  polygamy, 

atmospheric  fire.     Durga.  *  i.e.  The  atmospheric  fire.     Durga. 


122  JATAVEDAS  [7.  17 

The  wave,  rich  in  honey,  has  arisen  from  the  ocean.1  This  is  regarded 
as  referring  to  the  sun. 

He  rises,  indeed,  from  the  ocean  and  from  the  waters.2  This  is  a  Brah- 
mana quotation.  Moreover,  there  is  a  Brahmana  passage  :  Agni  is  all  the 
deities.3  The  stanza  following  the  present  one  explains  it  more  clearly. 

(Here  ends  the  seventeenth  section.) 

They  call  Agni  Indra,  Mitra,  and  Varuna  ;  (they)  also  (say)  that  he  is  the 
divine  Garutman  of  beautiful  wings.  The  sages  speak  of  him  who  is  one 
in  various  ways ;  they  call  him  Agni,  Yama,  MatarisVan."4 

The  wise  speak  cf  this  very  Agni,  [and]  the  great  self,  in  various  ways, 
as  Indra,  Mitra,  Varuna,  Agni,  and  the  divine  Garutman.  Divine,  born  in 
heaven.  Garutman  is  (so  called  because)  he  is  praised,  or  whose  soul  is 
mighty,  or  whose  soul  is  great.  He  to  whom  the  hymn  is  addressed  and 
the  oblation  is  offered,  is  this  very  (terrestrial)  Agni.  These  two  higher 
luminaries  receive  (praise  and  oblations)  under  this  appellation  incidentally 
only.5 

(Here  ends  the  eighteenth  section.) 

From  what  root  is  JdU'veddh  derived  ?  c 

He  knows  all  created  beings,  or  he  is  known  to  all  created  beings,  or 
else  he  pervades  every  created  being,  or  he  has  all  created  beings  as  his 
property  or  wealth,  or  he  has  all  created  beings  as  his  knowledge,  i.  e.  dis- 
cernment. There  is  a  Brahmana  passage :  that  because,  as  soon  as  he  was 
born,  he  found  the  cattle,  that  is  the  characteristic  of  Jatavedas.  And 
also :  Therefore,  in  all  seasons,  the  cattle  move  towards  Agni.7  The 
following  stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 

(Here  ends  the  nineteenth  section.) 

(We  will  press  sonia  for  Jatavedas.  He  shall  consume  the  property 
belonging  to  the  niggard.  He  takes  us,  i.  e.  the  assembly,  across  all 
obstacles  ;  Agni  carries  us  across  troubles  like  a  river  by  means  of  a  boat.) 8 

(We  will  press  soma  for  Jatavedas,  i.  e.  unto  Jatavedas,  or  Jatavedas 

1  iv.  58.  1 ;  VS.  17.  89  ;  cf.  AB.  i.  22.  c  Cf.  Brh.  D.  i.  92 ;  ii.  30-1. 

2  KB.  xxv.  1.9;  AB.  v.  16.  7  The  quotation  is  untraced.    Cf.  AB.  i,  15 : 

3  Cf.  AB.  i.  1  ;   ii.  3;  TB.  ii.  1.  12;   GB.  Agnir  hi  devanum  injufy,  'Agni  indeed  is  the 
ii.  1.  12  ;  Sad.  B.  3.  7  ;  teB.  i.  <>.  2.  8 ;  MS.  1.  4.  (sacrificial)  animal  of  the  gods'. 

14.  8  i.  1)9.  1.     The  stanza  is  omitted   by  the 

M.  164.  46;  AV. ',).  10.  28.  MSS.   of    the    longer    recension,    Roth,   and 

6  Cf.  Brh.  D.  i.  78.  Durga.     Cf.  14.  33. 


7.  ai]  JATAVEDAS  123 

worthy  of  being  worshipped.  For  the  pressing  and  straining  of  the 
immortal  king,  i.e.  the  soma,  he  shall  consume,  i.e.  he  will  burn  with 
determination,  or  reduce  the  property  of  the  niggard  to  ashes,  for  the  sake 
of  sacrifice.  The  meaning  is  that  he  will  cause  soma  to  be  offered.  He 
takes  us,  i.  e.  the  assembly,  across  all  obstacles,  all  difficult  places.  Agni 
carries  us  across  troubles  like  a  river,  a  very  deep  and  broad  stream,  by 
a  boat,  i.  e.  he  helps  us  to  overcome  difficulties  as  if  he  were  to  take  us 
across  a  river  by  means  of  a  boat.  The  following  additional  stanza  is 
addressed  to  him  also.)  * 

Do  ye  impel  Jatavedas,  the  strong  horse,  to  sit  on  this  our  grass.2 

With  your  actions  impel  Jatavedas,  who  pervades  everywhere.  Or 
else  it  may  be  a  simile,  i.  e.  Jatavedas,  who  is  like  a  horse,  may  he  sit  on 
this  our  grass.  In  the  ten  books  (of  the  Ryvedv)  there  is  but  a  single 
hymn,  containing  three  stanzas  in  the  Gayatri  metre,  addressed  to  Jatavedas. 
But  whatever  is  addressed  to  Agni,  is  associated  with  Jatavedas  too./  He 
(the  student)  should  not  think  that  this  refers  to  (terrestrial)  Agni  alone ; 
even  these  two  upper  lights  are  called  Jatavedas  also. 

With  reference  to  this,  (the  following  stanza  refers  to)  the  Agni  of  the 
middle  region. 

Let  them  procure  like  maidens  of  the  same  mind.3 

This  we  have  already  explained.4  Now  (the  following  stanza  refers  to) 
the  sun. 

They  uplift  him,  Jatavedas.5 

We  shall  explain  this  later  on.6  He,  to  whom  the  hymn  is  addressed 
and  the  oblation  is  offered,  is  this  very  (terrestrial)  Agni  Jatavedas.  These 
two  upper  luminaries  receive  (praise  and  oblations)  under  this  appellation 
incidentally  only.7 

(Here  ends  the  twentieth  section.) 

From  what  root  is  Val^vdnaru.  derived  ? 

He  leads  all  men,  or  all  men  lead  him.     Or  else,  VaUvdiumt  may  be 

1  The  whole  comment  is  omitted  by  MSS.  different  appearance,  but  without  success. 
of  the  longer  recension,  Roth,  and  Durga.  x.  188,  1. 

The  stanza,  together  with  its  explanation,  is  iv.  58.  8;  VS.  17.  9«. 

spurious.    The  style  in  which  this  passage  is  See  §  17. 

written  is  quite  different  from  that  of  Yaska  i.  50.  1 ;  'AV.  13.  2.  16  ;  20.  47.  13  ;  SV.  J. 

and  similar  to  that  of  the  author  of  the  four-    -  31  ;  VS.  7.  41  ;  8.  41. 
teenth   chapter.     It  is,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  See  12.  15. 

almost    identical   with    the   commentary  of  See  §  18.      Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  Vviic 

14. 33.    The  few  minor  differences  seem  to  be  Mythology,  pp.  03-4. 
made  witli  a  deliberate  intention  to  give  it  a 


124  VAISVANARA  [7.  21 

a  (modified  form)  of  vi&udn-ara,  i.  e.  who  pervades  all  created  beings.    The 
following  stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 

(Here  ends  tfte  twenty-first  section.) 

May  we  be  in  the  goodwill  of  VaisVanara,  for  he  indeed  is  the  king, 
the  refuge  of  all  the  worlds.  Born  from  this  world,  he  beholds  this  entire 
universe.  Vaisvanara  stretches  with  the  sun.1 

Born  from  this  world,  he  surveys  the  entire  universe.  VaisVanara 
stretches  together  with  the  sun.  May  we  be  in  the  benevolent  will  of 
Vaisvanara,  i.  e.  of  him  who  is  the  king  and  the  place  of  refuge  of  all 
created  beings.  But  who  is  Vaisvanara  ?  The  preceptors  say, '  This  is  the 
atmospheric  fire,  for  the  seer  praises  him  with  regard  to  the  phenomenon 
of  rain  '. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-second  section.) 

I  will  proclaim  the  greatness  of  the  bull.  Supplicating  men  attend 
upon  him  who  is  the  slayer  of  Vrtra.  The  VaiSvanara  Agni  killed  the 
demon,  shook  the  waters,  and  shattered  6ambara.2 

I  will  speak  forth  the  greatness,  i.e.  the  pre-eminence  of  the  bull, 
i.  e.  the  sprinkler  of  the  waters.  Supplicating  men,  i.  e.  whose  request  is 
to  be  granted,  and  who  are  desirous  of  rain,  attend  upon,  i.  e.  serve  him, 
who  is  the  slayer  of  Vrtra,  i.  e.  the  cloud.  Dasyu  (demon)  is  derived  from 
(the  root)  das,  meaning  to  lay  waste :  in  him  the  juices  are  wasted,  or  he 
causes  works  to  be  laid  waste.3  The  VaiSvanara  Agni  slew  him,  shook  the 
waters,  and  shattered  6ambara,  i.  e.  the  cloud. 

1  Now  (the  reference  is)  to  that  sun,'  say  the  older  ritualists.  The 
tradition  handed  down  in  the  sacred  texts  is  that  the  increase  of  libations 
is  in  accordance  with  the  ascending  order  of  these  worlds.  After  the 
ascension,  the  series  of  descending  is  designed.  The  sacrifice!*  accomplishes 
this  series  of  descending  with  the  VaisVanara  hymn,4  recited  on  (the 
occasion  of)  the  invocation  addressed  to  Agni  and  the  Maruts.  But  he 
should  not  lay  too  much  emphasis  on  the  hymn,  for  it  is  addressed  to  Agni. 
From  thence  he  comes  to  Rudra  and  the  Maruts,  the  deities  whose  sphere  is 
the  atmosphere  ;  from  thence  to  Agni,  whose  sphere  is  this  very  world,  and 
it  is  precisely  on  this  spot  that  he  recites  the  hymn.5 

Moreover,  the  oblation  assigned  to  VaisVanara  is  distributed  in  twelve 
potsherds,6  for  his  function  is  twelvefold.  Moreover,  there  is  a  Brahmana 

1  i.  98.  1 ;  Vs.  26.  7.  *  vi.  8-9. 

8  i.  59.  C.  5  Cf.  Brh.  D.  i.  102-3. 

3  i.e.  Works  like  agriculture,  &c.,  are  laid  •  Cf.  AB.  vii.  '.);  KB.  iv.  8  ;  Brh.  D.  ii.  16- 

waste  if  the  rain  is  -withheld.    Durga.  17. 


7.  23]  VAISVANARA  125 

passage:  That  Aditya  verily  is  Agni  Vaisvanara.1  Further,  the  invoca- 
tions in  the  liturgy  are  addressed  to  VaisVanara,  the  sun,  as :  '  Who 
illumines  heaven  and  earth'.2 

He  indeed  illuminates  both  heaven  and  earth.    Further,  the  chdiulomika 
hymn 3  is  addressed  to  VaisVanara,  the  sun : 
He  shone  present  in  heaven. 

He,  indeed,  shone  present  in  heaven.  Further,  the  havispantlya* 
(i.  e.  libation  to  be  drunk)  hymn  is  addressed  to  VaisVanara,  the  sun. 

4  This  very  (i.  e.  terrestrial)  fire  is  VaisVanara,'  says  6akapuni.5  These 
two  upper  lights  are  called  VaisVanara  also.  This  (terrestrial)  tire  is  called 
Vaigvanara,  because  it  is  engendered  from  them  (i.e.  the  upper  lights). 
But  how  is  it  engendered  from  them  ?  Where  the  lightning  fire  strikes 
a  place  of  shelter,6  it  retains  the  characteristics  of  the  atmospheric  fire, 
i.  e.  flashing  in  waters  and  becoming  extinguished  in  solid  bodies,  as  long  as 
(that  object)  is  not  seized  upon.  But  as  soon  as  it  is  seized  upon,  this  very 
(terrestrial)  fire  is  produced,  which  becomes  extinguished  in  water,  and 
blazes  in  solid  bodies. 

Now  (the  following  is  the  process  of  its  production)  from  the  sun. 
The  sun  having  first  revolved  towards  the  northern  hemisphere,  a  person 
holds  a  polished  (piece  of)  white  copper,  or  crystal,  focusing  the  sun-rays 
in  a  place  where  there  is  some  dry  cow-dung,  without  touching  it :  it  blazes 
forth,  and  this  very  (terrestrial)  fire  is  produced.7  Moreover,  the  seer  has 
said: 

Vais*vanara  stretches  with  the  sun.8 

But  the  sun  itself  cannot  stretch  together  with  his  own  self.  A  par- 
ticular thing  stretches  together  with  something  different  only.  One 
kindles  this  fire  from  this  world,  the  rays  of  that  one  become  manifest  from 
the  other  world.  Having  seen  the  conjunction  of  their  light  with  the 
flames  of  this  terrestrial  fire,  the  seer  made  (the  above-mentioned)  remark. 
Now  (had  VaisVauara  been  the  sun),  there  would  have  occurred  expres- 
sions relating  to  VaisVanara  in  those  same  hymns  and  shares  which  are 
assigned  to  celestial  deities,  i.e.  Savitr,  [Surya],  Pusan,  Visnu,  and  [the 
VisVedevas.]  And  they  would  have  praised  him  by  (attributing  to  him) 
the  functions  of  the  sun,  as  thou  risest,  tliou  settest,  thou  revolvest,  &c. 
It  is  only  in  the  hymns  addressed  to  Agni  that  there  are  found  expressions 

Tho  quotation  is  untraced.  °  i.  e.  Wood  or  water.    Durga. 

The  quotation  is  untraced.  7  This  shows  that  Yaska  was  familiar  with 

VS.  38.  92  ;  cf.  KB.  xxx.  10, '  cattle  verily  the  scientific  law  of  the  refraction  of  heat  and 

ar   chandomas  ' ;  cf.  also  AB.  v.  1 6.  light. 

x.  88.  4  ;  cf.  GB.  i.  2.  20.  8  i.  98.  t. 
Cf.  Roth,  o2>.  cit.,  p.  109. 


VAI&VANARA  (7.  33 

relating  to  VaisVanara.  And  the  seer  praises  him  (by  attributing  to  him) 
the  functions  of  Agni,  as  thou  carriest,  thou  cookest,  thou  burnest,  and 
so  on. 

As  to  (the  view)  that  the  seer  praises  him  (by  attributing)  the  pheno- 
menon of  rain,  (we  reply)  that  it  is  possible  with  regard  to  this  (terrestrial) 
fire  also. 

Uniform  with  days,  this  water  goes  up  and  falls  down  again.  Clouds 
bring  new  life  to  earth,  fires  animate  heaven.1 

This  stanza  is  explained  by  the  mere  reading  of  it. 
(Here  ends  the  twenty-third  section.} 

The  bay  steeds  having  beautiful  wings  clad  in  waters  fly  up  their  dark 
course  to  heaven.  They  turned  round  from  the  seat  of  waters,  and  lo !  the 
earth  is  made  wet  with  clarified  butter.2 

The  dark  egression,  i.e.  the  njght  of  the  sun.  Bay  steeds  having 
beautiful  wings  are  the  draught-animals,  i.  e.  the  rays  of  the  sun.3  When 
from  heaven,  from  the  common  dwelling-place  of  waters,  i.  e.  the  sun,  they 
turn  down  towards  the  earth,  the  latter  is  made  wet  with  clarified  butter, 
i.e.  water.  The  word  yhrta  is  a  synonym  of  water;  it  is  derived  from 
(the  root)  ghr,  meaning  to  besprinkle.  Moreover,  there  is  a  Brahmana 
passage:  Agni  verily  sends  forth  rain  from  this  world.  Having  become 
[indeed]  the  space-coverer  (i.e.  cloud)  in  the  atmosphere,  it. rains;  the 
Maruts  conduct  the  emitted  rain.  When,  indeed,  the  sun  turns  round  fire 
with  his  rays,  then  it  rains.4  As  to  (the  view)  that  after  ascension  the 
series  of  descending  is  designed,  (we  reply)  that  this  takes  place  by  the 
injunction  of  the  sacred  texts.  As  to  (the  view)  that  the  oblation  assigned 
to  Vaisvanara  is  distributed  in  twelve  potsherds,  (we  reply)  that  the  num- 
ber of  potsherds  has  no  (reference  to)  the  explanation  (of  the  function), 
for  the  oblation5  assigned  to  the  sun  is  distributed  in  one,  as  well  as 
in  five  potsherds.  As  to  the  Brahmank  quotation,  (we  reply)  that  the 
Brahmanas,  indeed,  speak  of  many  divisions,  as :  the  earth  is  Vaisvanara, 
the  year  is  Vaisvanara,  Brahmana  is  VaiSvanara,6  and  so  on. 

As  to  (the  view)  that  invocations  in  the  liturgy  are  addressed  to 
VaisVanara,  the  sun,  (we  reply)  that  the  liturgy  is  addressed  to  this  very 
(terrestrial)  fire.  '  Who  shone  for  the  tribes  of  men.' 7  As  to  (the  view)  that 


1  i.  164.  51  ;  TA.  i.  9.  5.  6  The  quotation  is  untraced. 

*  i.  1C4.  47;  AV.  6.  22.  1.  'The   quotation   is   untraced.      It  is  the 

3  Cf  Brh.  D.  ii.  8-9.  terrestrial  fire  which  shines  for  men  alone. 

<  TS.  ii!  4.  1.  2 ;  KS.  xi.  10.  Durga. 

5  Cf.  KB.v.  8  :  Atha  yat  saurya,  ekakapalah. 


7.  a;]  VAISVANARA  127 

the  chdndomika l  hymn  is  addressed  to  VaisVanara,  the  sun,  (we  reply)  that 
it  is  addressed  to  this  very  (i.  e.  the  terrestrial)  fire. 

Sacrificed  with  blazing  fires.12  Blazing  fires,  profusely  generated  fires,  or 
burning  fires ;  it  is  with  them  that  the  sacrifice  is  made.  As  to  (the  view) 
that  the  hymn,3 '  Libation  to  be  drunk  ',  is  addressed  to  VaisVanara,  the  sun, 
(we  reply)  that  it  is  addressed  to  this  very  (terrestrial)  fire. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-fourth  section.) 

The  undecaying  and  pleasant  libation  to  be  drunk  is  sacrificed  in  fire 
which  touches  heaven  and  knows  the  sun.  For  its  maintenance,  existence, 
and  support,  the  gods  spread  it  with  food.4 

The  oblation  which  is  to  be  drunk,  which  is  pleasant  and  undecaying, 
is  sacrificed  in  fire  which  touches  heaven  and  knows  the  sun.  For  all  the 
various  actions,  i.  e.  maintenance,  existence,  and  support,  the  gods  spread 
this  fire  with  food.  Moreover,  the  seer  said : 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-fifth  sectioii.) 

The  mighty  seized  him  in  the  lap  of  the  waters ;  the  tribes  attended  on 
the  king  worthy  of  honour.  The  messenger  brought  Agni  from  the  sun, 
MatarisVan  (brought)  VaisVanara  from  afar.5 

Seated  in  the  lap,  in  the  bosom,  of  the  waters,  i.  e.  in  the  mighty  world  of 
the  atmosphere,  the  groups  of  mighty  atmospheric  gods  seized  him  like  tribes 
who  wait  upon  the  king.  Worthy  of  honour,  having  panegyrics  addressed 
to  him,  or  worthy  of  respect  [or  worthy  of  worship].  Whom  the  messenger 
of  the  gods  brought  from  the  shining  one,  the  sun  who  drives  away  darkness, 
whoimpels  all  things  and  who  is  very  far.  [Or  else]  the  seer  called  Matarisvan, 
the  bringer  of  this  VaisVanara  fire.  Matarisvan  is  air :  it  breathes  in  the 
atmosphere,  or  moves  quickly  in  the  atmosphere.  Now  the  seer  praises 
him  with  the  following  two  stanzas  in  order  to  enter  into  all  places. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-sixth  section.) 

At  night  Agni  becomes  the  head  of  the  world.  Then  in  the  morning  he 
is  born  as  the  rising  sun.  This  is  the  supernatural  power  of  the  holy  ones 
that  with  full  knowledge  he  accomplishes  the  work  so  quickly.6 

The  head  is  (so  called  because)  the  body  depends  on  it.  He  who  is  the 
head7  of  all  beings  at  night  is  Agni,  thence  he  himself  is  born  as  the  sun  rising 

1  VS.  33.  92.  «  x.  88.  6. 

2  6ftnkh.  6r.  S.  x.  10.  8C.                                           7  Just  as  it  is  impossible  to  live  without 
s  x.  88.  4  x.  88.  1.              a  head,  so  life  is  not  possible  without  fire. 
8  vi.  8. 4.  .                                   Durga. 


128  VAISVANARA  [7.  27 

in  the  morning,1  They  know  this  profound  wisdom  of  the  holy  gods  who 
accomplish  sacrifices:  the  work  that  he  performs  with  full  knowledge, 
i.e.  hastening  he  goes  through  all  places.  The  stanza  following  this 
explains  it  still  more. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-seventh  section,.) 

With  a  hymn,  in  heaven,  the  gods  generated  Agni,  who  fills  both  heaven 
and  earth,  with  powers.  They  made  him  for  a  threefold  existence  indeed. 
He  ripens  herbs  of  every  kind.2 

The  gods  made  that  Agrii,  whom  they  generated  in  heaven  and  earth 
with  a  hymn  and  who  fills  both  heaven  and  earth,  with  [powers],  i.e. 
actions,  for  threefold  existence.  '  For  the  terrestrial,  atmospheric,  and 
celestial  (existence)/  says  &akapuni.  There  is  a  Brahmana  passage:  Its 
third  part,  which  is  in  heaven,  is  the  sun.3  With  these  words,  the  seer 
praises  him  with  reference  to  fire.  Now,  in  the  following  stanza,  the  seer 
praises  him  with  reference  to  the  sun. 

(Here  ends  the  tweitiy-eighth  section.) 

When  the  holy  gods  .set  him,  the  sun,  the  son  of  Aditi,  in  heaven.  When 
the  ever- wandering  pair  come  to  life,  then  they  behold  all  the  worlds.4 

When  all  the  holy  gods  set  him,  the  sun,  [Aditi's  son],  son  of  Aditi, 
in  heaven,  when  the  wandering  couple,  i.  e.  the  couple  that  always  wanders 
together,  i.  e.  the  sun  and  the  dawn,  were  created.  How  is  the  word 
mithuiut 6  (couple)  derived  ?  It  is  derived  from  (the  root)  mi,  meaning  to 
depend,  with  the  suffix  thu  or  tha,  having  the  root  nl  or  van  as  the  last 
member.  Depending  on  each  other,  they  lead  each  other,  or  win  each 
other. 

Its  (meaning),  i.  e.  '  human  couple ',  is  derived  from  the  same  root  also  ; 
or  else  they  win  each  other,  when  they  are  united.  Now.  in  the  following 
stanza,  the  seer  praises  him  with  reference  to  Agni.0 

(Here  cuds  the  twenty- ninth  section.) 

Where  the  lower  and  the- higher  dispute  as  to  which  of  us,  the  two 
leaders  of  sacrifice,  knows  more.  The  friends  who  enjoy  together,  and 
accomplish  the  sacrifice,  were-  competent.  Now  who  will  decide  this  ? 7 

Where  the  divine  sacrifices,  i.  e.  this  (terrestrial)  and  that  atmospheric 

1  Cf.  AB.  viii :  «  The  sun  verily  enters  into          4  x.  88.  11. 

fire    when    setting.     Hfe    then    disappears.  5  Cf.  AB.   v.    16 :     mithunam    vat   pa/avaA, 

Agrii  verily  is  born  M  th«  »un'.  'cattle  verily  are  the  couple*. 

«  x.  88.  10.  •  Cf.  Muir,  op.  cit.,  vol.  v,  p.  207. 

*  The  quotation  is  untraced.  ;  x.  88.  17. 


8.  2]  VAlSVANARA  129 

Agni,   dispute,  as  to  which  of  us  two  knows  more  about  the   sacrifice. 
Which  of  the  priests,  who  tell  the  same  tale,  and  who  enjoy  together, 
and  who  are   the  accomplishes  of    sacrifice,  will   decide   this  for  us? 
The  stanza  following  this  explains  it  still  more  clearly. 
(Here  ends  the  thirtieth  section.} 

O  Matarisvan,  as  long  as  the  birds  of  beautiful  wings  wear  directly  the 
illumination  of  dawn,  so  long  the  Brahmana,  sitting  lower  than  the  sacrifice, 
and  approaching  the  sacrifice,  bears  it.1 

As  long  as  there  is  the  illumination  or  the  manifestation  of  dawn.  The 
particle  of  comparison  is  here  used  in  the  sense  of  *  directly ',  as  *  place 
it  .directly  here'.  (As  long  as)  birds  of  beautiful  wings,  which  fly 
in  a  beautiful  manner,  i.  e.  these  nights,  O  MatarisVan,  wear  the  light  of 
the  bright  colour,  so  long  the  Brahmana  sacrificer,  who  approaches  the 
sacrificer  and  sits  lower  than  this  sacrificer,  i.  e.  this  Agni,  bears  it. 

But  the  recitation  of  the  sacrificer  is  addressed  to  VaisVanara,  who  is 
not  Agni :  0  divine  Savitr,  he  chooses  thee,  i.  e.  this  fire,  for  the  sacri- 
fice, along  with  thy  father,  VaisVanara.  The  seer  calls  this  very  fire 
*  Savitr '  (stimulator),  and  the  atmospheric  or  the  celestial  fire,  who  is  the 
progenitor  of  all,  '  father '.  He  to  whom  the  hymn  is  addressed  and  the 
oblation  is  offered  is  this  same  (terrestrial)  Agni  VaisVanara.  These  two 
upper  luminaries  receive  (praise  and  oblations)  under  this  appellation 
incidentally  only. 

(Here  ends  the  thirty-first 


CHAPTEE    VIII 

FROM  what  root  is  dravinodah  (giver  of  wealth)  derived  ?  Dravinam 
means  wealth  (so  called)  because  people  run  ( */dru)  towards  it,  or  strength 
(so  called)  because  people  run  by  means  of  it;  dravinodah  (therefore) 
means  the  giver  of  wealth  or  strength.2  The  following  stanza  is  addressed 
to  him. 

(Here  ends  the  first  section.) 

Thou  art  the  giver  of  wealth.  In  worship,  the  priests  with  stones  in 
their  hands  adore  the  god  in  sacrifices.3 

It  is  thou  who  art  the  giver  of  wealth.4    The  word  dravinasah  means 

«  x.  88.  19.  »  i.  15.  7. 

a  '  Distributor  of  blessings ' ;  cf.  Roth,  op.  *  Roth  construes  dravinoddh  with  priests, 

cit.t  p.  116 ;  cf.  also  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  645 ;  taking  it  as  nom.pl.  Yflska,  however,  explains 

cf.  Brh.  D.  ii  25.  it  as  nom.  sing. 

I 


130  DRAVINODAS  [8.  2 

people  who  sit  down  (to  distribute)  wealth,  or  who  prepare  (offerings  of) 
wealth.  Or  else  it  means  a  cup  of  soma :  *  let  him  drink  from  this.'  They 
adore,  i.  e.  implore,  praise,  increase,  or  worship  the  god  in  sacrifices. 

But  who  is  this  giver  of  wealth  ?  '  It  is  Indra ',  says  Kraustuki ;  '  he  is 
the  most  liberal  giver  of  strength  and  wealth,1  and  all  deeds  relating  to 
strength  belong  to  him/  The  seer  also  says : 

I  think  he  is  indeed  born  of  energetic  strength.2 

Moreover  a  seer  calls  Agni  a  descendant  of  the  giver  of  wealth,  because 
he  is  born  from  him.3 

Who  generated  fire  between  two  stones.4  This  too  is  a  Vedic 
quotation. 

Further,  there  are  expressions  relating  to  the  'giver  of  wealth'  in 
(stanzas  used  in)  sacrifices  and  offered  to  the  seasons.  'Indra's  drink', 
again,  is  the  (name)  of  their  vessel.  Further,  he  is  praised  with  reference 
to  the  drinking  of  soma.  Further,  a  seer  says :  May  the  giver  of  wealth 
and  his  descendant  drink.5 

'  This  very  (i.  e.  terrestrial)  Agni  is  called  "  giver  of  wealth ",'  says 
£akapuni.  The  expressions  referring  to  '  the  giver  of  wealth '  are  found  in 
hymns  addressed  to  Agni  only.6 

Gods  supported  Agni,  giver  of  wealth.7  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation. 
As  to  (the  view)  that  Indra  is  the  most  liberal  giver  of  strength  and  wealth, 
(we  reply)  that  all  gods  possess  supernatural  power.  As  to  (the  quotation) 
'  I  think  he  is  indeed  born  of  energetic  strength  ',8  (we  reply)  that  this 
very  (i.  e.  terrestrial)  tire  is  produced  when  churned  with  energetic  strength ; 
he  is  therefore  called  '  son  of  strength ',  '  offspring  of  strength ',  '  child  of 
strength ',  and  so  on.9  As  to  (the  view)  that  a  seer  calls  Agni  '  a  descendant 
of  the  giver  of  wealth ',  (we  reply)  that  he  is  so  called  as  he  is  generated 
by  the  priests,  who  are  here  called  '  givers  of  wealth ',  because  they  offer 
oblations.10 

This  son  of  seers  is  the  overlord.11  This  too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  As 
to  (the  view)  that '  Indra's  drink '  is  the  name  of  their  drinking-cup,  (we 
reply)  that  it  is  a  mere  apportionment,12  as  all  the  cups  used  in  drinking 
soma  are  called  '  belonging  to  Vayu '.  As  to  (the  view)  that  he  is 

Cf.  Brh.  D.  iii.  61.  p.  91 ;  cf.  Brh,  D.  iii.  62,  64. 

x.  73.  10.  10  Cf.  Brh.  D.  iii.  63-4. 

i.  e.  Agni  is  born  from  Indra.  Durga.              "  AV.  4.  39.  9  ;  VS.  5.  4. 

ii.  12.  3  ;  AV.  20.  34.  3.  "  Roth   translates  bhaktimdtram  as  ehrende 

The  quotation  is  untraced.  (Einladwig),  i.  e.  ' honouring  invitation'.    See 

Cf.  Brh.  D.  iii.  65.  op.  cit.,  p.  116:  the  etymological  meaning  of 

i.  96.  1.  bhakti  (  V&/tcy)  is  distribution,  cf.  Grassmann, 

x.  73.  10.  op.  ct't.,  p.  921.     Durga's  explanation  of  the 

Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  Vedic  Mythology,      same  word  is  not  quite  clear. 


8. 4]  DRAVINODAS  131 

praised   with   reference   to  the   drinking  of   soma,  (we   reply)  that   this 
happens  in  his  (Agni's)  case  also. 

Accompanied  by  associating  troops,  and  rejoicing,  drink  soma.1  This 
too  is  a  Vedic  quotation.  As  to  (the  quotation) l  May  the  giver  of  wealth 
and  his  descendants  drink ',  (we  reply)  that  it  refers  to  this  very  (i.  e.  ter- 
restrial) fire. 

(Here  ends  the  second  section.) 

May  thy  draught  animals,  with  which  thou  di  ivest  without  being 
injured,  become  fat.  O  lord  of  the  forest,  O  courageous  one,  drink  thou 
soma,  O  giver  of  wealth,  from  (the  cup  called)  nestra,  together  with  the 
seasons.- 

May  thy  draught  animals,  i.e.  the  team  which  draws  (the  chariot), 
with  which  thou  drivest,  without  suffering  any  injury,  become  fat.  Be 
firm.  Having  stirred3  and  having  approved,4  O  courageous  one,  (drink) 
thou  from  the  nestra  (cup),  placed  on  the  subordinate  altar.  Dhisnya 
—  dhisaiiya,  i.  e.  the  subordinate  altar,  (so  called)  because  it  is  the  place  of 
recitation.  Dhiscwid  [means  speech]  is  derived  from  (the  root)  dhis  used  in 
the  sense  '  to  hold  '.5  Or  else  it  distributes  or  procures  intelligence.  He  is 
called  'the  lord  of  forests',  because  he  is  the  protector  or  benefactor6 
of  forests.  Vanam  (forest)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  van  (to  win).  Drink 
with  the  seasons,  i.  e.  with  periods  of  time. 

(Here  etids  tlie  third  section.) 

Now  therefore  the  Aprl  deities.  From  what  root  is  Aprl  derived? 
From  (the  root)  dp  (to  obtain)  or  from  prl  (to  please).  There  is  also  a 
Brahmana  passage '.  One  pleases  them  with  Aprl  hymns.7  Of  these, 
Idhma  (fuel)  comes  foremost.  Fuel  is  (so  called)  from  -being  kindled 
(sam  Vidh).  The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 
(Here  emls  the  fourth  section.) 

1  v.  60.  8.  meaning.'     Durga. 

2  ii.  37.  3.  6  According  to  Durga,  Agni  is  the  protector 
9  ( Having  mixed,  i.  e.  mixed  together  with      of  forests,  or  trees  of  forests,  because  he  does 

the  finger.    It  is  the  habit  of  the  people  who  not  burn  them,  although  he  is  capable  of 

drink,  to  shake  the  liquid  with  their  finger.'  doing  so,  as  he  exists  in  their  interior.    Roth 

Du/ga.  has  misunderstood  Durga,  as  the  following 

4  Durga  paraphrases  abhi-gtirya  by  abhyud-  remark   of  his  shows :    '  Agni  is  so  called 

yamya,  i.e.  'having  lifted  up';  Roth  (op.  ct'6)  because,  according  to   Durga,  he  can   burn 

translates  aafnehmend,  i.e.   'taking  up',    cf.  wood'.      See   op.  cit.,   p.    116;    cf.    Brh.  D. 

Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  402.  iii.  26. 

8  « Speech  holds  the  meaning,  for  eternal  7  AB.  ii.  4  ;  KB.  x.  3.  2. 
indeed  is  the  connexion  between  speech  and 


132  IDHMA  [8.  5 

Kindled  to-day  in  the  abode  of  man,  O  god,  having  all  created  beings  as 
thy  property,  thou  offerest  sacrifice  to  the  gods.  And,  O  wise  one,  having 
plenty  of  friends,  bring  (them) ;  thou  art  the  messenger,  thou  art  the 
learned  bard.1 

Kindled  to-day  in  the  house  of  every  man,  O  god,  having  all  created 
beings  as  thy  property,  thou  offerest  sacrifice  to  the  gods.  And  O  wise  one, 
i.  e.  one  who  possesses  knowledge,  having  plenty  of  friends,2  bring  them. 
Thou  art  the  messenger,  thou  art  the  [learned],  i.e.  having  profound 
knowledge,  bard.  ' Idhma  is  sacrifice,'  says  Katthakya.  'It  is  Agni,' 
says  £akapuni. 

Tanuiwpout?  '  one's  own  son '.  ['  It  is  clarified  butter/  says  Katthakya.] 
The  word  napdt  is  a  synonym  of  offspring  which  does  not  immediately 
succeed  a  person  (i.  e.  a  grandson) : 4  it  is  very  much  propagated  down- 
wards. In  this  case,  the  cow  is  called  tanu  (because)  delicious  things  are 
prepared  (tatdh)  from  her.  Milk  is  produced  from  the  cow,  and  the  clarified 
butter  is  produced  from  milk.  '  It  is  Agni,'  says  Sakapuni.  Waters  are 
here  called  tanu  (because)  they  are  spread  in  the  atmosphere.  Herbs  and 
trees  are  produced  from  waters  and  this  (fire)  is  produced  from  herbs  and 
trees.  The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 

(Here  ends  the  fifth  section.) 

O  bright-tongued  Tanunapat,  having  anointed  the  leading  paths  of 
the  sacred  rite  with  honey,  be  sweet.  Directing  the  act  of  worship  and  our 
thoughts  together  with  our  prayers,  carry  our  sacrifice  to  the  gods.5 

'  Nara-saima,  is  sacrifice',  says  Katthakya ;  '  seated  men  (nardk)  praise 
( V&ams)  gods  in  sacrifice.' 6    '  It  is  Agni ',  says  6akapuni ;  '  he  is  to  be 
praised  by  men.'     The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 
(Here  ends  the  sixth  section.) 

Of  these,  the  gods,  who  are  skilful,  pure,  meditative,  and  who  enjoy 
both  kinds  of  oblations,  we  will  praise  the  greatness  of  the  adorable 
Narasamsa  with  sacrifices.7 

1  x.  110.  1 ;  AV.  5.  12.  1 ;  VS.  29.  25.  grandson  of  the  cow ;  (2)  Agni,  the  grandson 

2  Durgu  explains  the  word  mitrd-mahah  as  of  waters,  i.e.  the  offspring  of  trees  and  herbs 
'one  who  is  honoured  by  his  friends';  ac-  which  are  produced  from  waters.    According 
cording  to  Roth,  op.'  cit.,  p.  117,   it  means  to  Roth ,  loc.  cit.,  it  does  not  necessarily  mean 
huldreich,  i.  e.  '  gracious  '.     The  accent  shows  '  a  grandson ',  but '  a  descendant  in  general ' ; 
it  to  be  a  possessive  compound,  and  it  may  be  cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  520,  '  a  son  of  one's 
translated    as    'one     whose    might    is   his  own  self. 

friends'  ;  cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  1040.  4  Cf.  Brh.  D.  ii.  27. 

8  According  to  Durga,  it  means  a  'grand-  5  x.  110.  2;  AV.  5.  12.  2;  VS.  29.  26. 

son ',  and  signifies  (1)  clarified  butter,  i.  e.  the  6  Cf.  Brh.  D.  ii.  28  ;  iii.  2^3. 

offspring  of  milk,  which  is  itself  produced  7  vii.  2.  2;  VS.  29.  27. 
from  the  cow :  thus  clarified   butter  is  the 


8.  9]  BARKIS  133 

Of  these,1  the  gods,  who  are  of  noble  deeds,  pure,  promoters  of  medita- 
tion, and  who  enjoy  oblations  of  both  kinds,  i.  e.  the  soma  and  other 
oblations,  or  the  mystical  and  the  supplementary  ones,  we  will  highly 
praise  the  greatness  of  the  holy  Naras*amsa. 

Ilah2  is  derived  from  (the  root)  id,  meaning  to  praise,  or  from  liidh 
(to  kindle).  The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 

(Here  ends  the  seventh  section.) 

Being  invoked  thou  art  to  be  praised  and  worshipped.  O  Agni, 
come  united  with  the  Vasus.  0  great  one,  thou  art  the  sacrificer  of 
the  gods.  As  such,  O  excellent  sacrificer,  do  thou  sacrifice  to  them,  incited 
(by  us).3 

Being  invoked  thou  shouldest  be  praised  and  worshipped.  O  Agni, 
come  associated  together  with  the  Vasus.  O  great  one,  thou  art  the  sacrificer 
of  the  gods.  The  word  yahva  is  a  synonym  of  great,  i.  e.  gone  ( Vya),  and 
invoked  ( Vhu).  As  such,  O  excellent  sacrificer,  do  thou  sacrifice  to  them, 
incited  (by  us).  Incited,  impelled,  or  implored.  Excellent  sacrificer,  the 
best  sacrificer. 

Barhih*  (grass)  is  (so  called)  from  growing  rapidly.  The  following 
stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 

(Here  ends  the  eighth  section.) 

The  grass  in  the  eastern  direction  is  twisted  at  daybreak  with  injunc- 
tions for  the  covering  of  this  earth.  He  spreads  it  farther  and  farther  to 
make  the  best  and  most  comfortable  seat  for  the  gods  and  Aditi.6 

The  grass  in  the  eastern  direction  is  strewn  at  daybreak,  in  the  first 
period  of  the  day,  with  injunctions  in  order  to  cover6  this  earth.  He 
spreads  it  [farther  and  farther] :  it  is  scattered  to  a  great  extent,  or  spread 
to  a  great  extent.  Best,  excellent,  or  very  wide.  A  most  comfortable  seat 
for  the  gods  and  Aditi.  The  word  syonam  is  a  synonym  of  comfort;  it  is 
derived  from  (the  root)  so  (to  rest) :  they  rest  in  it,  or  it  is  to  be 
resorted  to. 

1  Roth  (op.  dt.j  p.  118)  construes  etdm  with      According  to  Roth,  loc.  dt.,  it  means  one  to 
Narafawsasya,  i.e.  the  plural  with  the  singu-       whom  prayer  is  addressed,  i.e.  Agni. 

lar.  which  is  grammatically  impossible.     He  s  x.  110.  8  ;  AV.  5.  12.  3  ;  VS.  29.  28. 

defends  himself  by  saying  that  Narafaiiisasya  4  Cf.  Profesaor  Macdonell,   Vedic  Mythology, 

=  Narandm,    but    without    any   support    or  p.  154. 

justification,      He   explains   this   as  virorum  8  x.  110.  4  ;  AV.  5.  12.  4;  VS.  29.  29. 

imperium   tentns,    i.e.   '  holding    power    over  c  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  119,  translates  vastoh  by  rft- 

men '.     Cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  713.  luculo,  i.  e. '  at  dawn  ',  and  Durga  explains  it  as 

2  Cf.  AB.  ii.  1,  i.e.  the  food  of  oblation.  'for  covering'.  Cf.  Grassmann, op. cit., p.  1238. 


134  DAWN  AND  NIGHT  [8.  9 

Dvdrah  (door)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ju  (to  press  forward),  or  from 
dru  (to  move),  or  from  the  causal  of  vr  (to  exclude).  The  following  stanza 
is  addressed  to  them. 

(Here  ends  the  ninth  section.) 

Spacious  doors  remain  wide  open  like  beautiful  wives  for  their  husbands. 
O  divine  doors,  great  and  all-impellers,  be  easy  of  access  to  the  gods.1 

Having  spaciousness,  make  yourself  wide  open  as  exceedingly  beautiful 
wives  do  their  thighs  for  their  husbands  in  sexual  intercourse.  The  thighs 
are  the  most  beautiful  parts  (of  the  body).  O  divine  doors,  mighty, 
i.  e.  great.  All-impellers,  i.  e.  all  come  to  the  sacrifice  through  them.  *  It  is 
the  door  of  the  house,'  says  Katthakya.  *  It  is  Agni/  says  Sakapuni. 

Usdsdnalctd  —  dawn  and  night.  Dawn  has  been  explained.  The  word 
naktd  is  a  synonym  of  night :  it  anoints  beings  with  dew ;  or  else  it  is 
(called)  night  (because)  its  colour  is  indistinct.2  The  following  stanza  is 
addressed  to  them. 

(Here  ends  the  tenth  section.) 

Pressing  forward,  adorable,  brought  near  each  other,  dawn  and  night 
the  divine  women,  mighty,  shining  beautifully  and  putting  forth  beauty 
adorned  in  a  radiant  manner,  may  sit  down  on  the  seat 3  (yoni). 

Smiling  or  causing  good  sleep,4  may  (they)  take  their  seat  or  sit  down, 
i.  e.  the  holy  ones,  neighbours  of  each  other,  divine  women,  mighty,  shining 
beautifully,  i.  e.  resplendent,  and  putting  forth  beauty  adorned  in  a  radiant 
manner.  &ukra  (radiant)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  sue,  meaning  to  shine. 
The  word  pesas  is  a  synonym  of  beauty  ;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  pis 
(to  adorn) :  it  is  well  adorned. 

Daivya,  hotdra  means  the  two  divine  sacrificers,  i.e.  this    (terrestrial) 
and  that  (atmospheric)  Agni.     The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  them. 
(Here  ends  the  eleventh  section.) 

The  two  divine  sacrificers  are  foremost,  sweet-voiced,  and  the  measurers 
of  sacrifice  for  the  man  to  worship.  They  are  inciters,  active  in  the  sacrifices, 
and  with  injunctions  point  out  the  light  in  the  eastern  direction.6 

1  x.  110.  5  ;  AV.  5.  12.  5;  VS.  29.  80.  nominative  form  of  sutvi,   *  to  distribute' ; 

8  Cf.  Brh.  D.  iii.  9.  cf.  Sayana's  derivation  quoted  by  Roth,  loc.  cit. 

3  x.  110.  6;  AV.  5.  12.  6;  27. 8 ;  VS.  29.  81.  It  is,  however,  a  participle  of  sutvi  which 

4  Yaska  explains  suscayanfi  as  '  smiling,  or  is  derived   from   su  (to  press),  and    means 
causing  sleep '.     Durga  follows  Yaska.     Ac-  '  pressing ' ;  cf.  Grassmann,  op.  cit.,  p.  1558. 
cording  to  Roth,  op.  oit.,  p.  119,  it  is  a  de-          •  x.  110.  7  ;  AV.  5.  12.  7  ;  VS.' 29.  82. 


8.  15]  TVASTR  135 

The  two  divine  sacrificers  are  foremost,  endowed  with  sweet  speech, 
and  the  creators  of  sacrifice  for  the  man  [for  every  man]  to  worship. 
They  are  inciters,  workers  in  sacrifices,  who  enjoin  that  one  should  offer 
sacrifice  in  the  eastern  direction. 

Tisro  devlh  means  the  three  goddesses.   The  following  stanza  is  addressed 

to  them. 

(Here  ends  the  twelfth  section.) 

May  the  light  of  the  sun  come  to  our  sacrifice  quickly,  and  speech,  here 
instructing  like  man :  May  Sarasvati  and  the  three  goddesses  of  noble  deeds 
sit  on  this  most  comfortable  seat  of  grass.1 

May  the  light  of  the  sun  come  soon  to  our  sacrifice.  The  sun  is 
(called)  bharata :  its  light  (therefore)  is  (called)  bharati.2  And  (may)  speech, 
instructing  here  like  a  man,  (come  to  us).  May  Sarasvati  and  the  three 
goddesses  of  noble  actions  sit  on  this  comfortable  seat  of  grass. 

'  Tvastr  3  (is  so  called  because)  it  pervades  quickly,'  say  the  etymologists. 
Or  it  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  tvist  meaning  to  shine,  or  from  tvaks, 
meaning  to  do.     The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 
(Here  ends  the  thirteenth  section.} 

O  wise  and  excellent  sacrificer,  incited  (by  us)  sacrifice  here  to-day  to 
the  god  Tvastr,  who  adorned  these  two  progenitors,  i.e.  heaven  and  earth,  and 
all  the  worlds  with  beauty.4 

0  wise  and  excellent  sacrificer,  incited  (by  us)  sacrifice  here  to-day  to 
god  Tvastr,  who  made  these  two  progenitors,  i.e.  heaven  and  earth,  and 
all  created  beings  beautiful.  According  to  some,  Tvastr  is  an  atmospheric 
deity,  because  he  is  enlisted  among  the  atmospheric  gods.5  *  He  is  Agni,' 
says  Sakapuni,  The  following,  another  stanza,  is  addressed  to  him. 
(Here  ends  the  fourteenth  section.) 

Spreader  of  light,  the  beautiful  one  grows  among  them,  elevated  by 
his  own  glory  in  the  lap  of  the  oblique.  Both  were  afraid  of  Tvastr, 
who  was  being  born,  turning  back,  they  both  serve  the  lion.6 

Light  is  (so  called)  from  making  (things)  well  known.  The  diffuser  of 
light,  the  beautiful  one  grows  among  them.  Carn  (beautiful)  is  derived 
from  the  root  car  (to  be  diffused).  Jihmam  (oblique)  is  derived  from  the 

1  x.  110.  8 ;  AV.  5.  12.  8 ;  VS.  29.  33.  *  Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  Vedic  Mythology, 

8  According  to  Yaska,  bharati  means  'the  pp.  116,  117;  cf.  Brh.D.  iii.  16. 

light    of   the    sun'.      But  bharati    and    ild          «-x.  110.  9  ;  AV.  5.  12.  9;  VS.  29.  34. 

evidently  stand  in  opposition  to  each  other  :          5  Cf.  Brh.  D.  iii.  25. 

i.  e.  as  goddesses  of  speech  ;  cf.  Grassmann,          *  i.  95.  5. 

op.  cit.,  p.  938. 


136  LORD    OF   HERBS  [8.15 

root  ha,  (to  bound).  Elevated,  held  up.  By  his  own  glory,  by  the  glory 
of  his  own  self.  In  the  lap,  i.  e.  bosom.  Both  were  afraid  of  Tvastr,  who 
was  being  born.  [Turning  back,  they  both  serve  the  Hon.]  Heaven  and 
earth,  or  day  and  night,  or  the  two  sticks  of  wood :  turned  towards  the 
lion,  i.  e.  the  vanquisher,  they  both  1  attend  upon  him. 
(Here  ends  the  fifteenth  section.) 

Vanaspatih 2  (lord  of  herbs)  has  been  explained.  The  following  stanza 
is  addressed  to  him. 

(Here  ends  the  sixteenth  sectum.) 

Preparing  the  food  and  the  season  by  oblations  to  the  gods,  bestow  them 
thyself.  May  the  lord  of  herbs,  the  god  pacifier,  and  Agni  enjoy  the 
oblations  with  honey  and  clarified  butter.3 

Having  prepared 4  the  food  and  oblations  at  the  proper  time  of  perform- 
ing the  sacrifice,  bestow  thyself  on  thyself.  May  these  three,  i.  e.  the  lord 
of  herbs,  the  god  pacifier,  and  Agni,  enjoy  the  oblation  with  honey  and 
clarified  butter.5 

But  who  is  the  lord  of  herbs'?  'It  is  the  sacrificial  post/  says 
Katthakya.  '  It  is  Agni,'  says  Sakapuni.  The  following,  another  stanza,  is 
addressed  to  him. 

(Here  ends  the  seventeenth  section.) 

O  lord  of  herbs,  lovers  of  the  gods  anoint  thee  with  divine  honey  in 
sacrifice.  Whether  thou  standest  uplifted  or  whether  thy  abode  is  in  the 
lap  of  this  mother,  here  bestow  wealth  on  us.6 

Lovers  of  the  gods  anoint  thee,  0  lord  of  herbs,  with  divine  honey  and 
clarified  butter  in  sacrifice.  Whether  thou  standest  uplifted,  or  whether  thy 
dwelling-place  is  made  in  the  lap,  i.  e.  bosom,  of  this  mother,  thou  shalt  give 
us  riches. 

'  It  is  Agni,'  eays  Sakapuni.  The  following,  another  stanza,  is  addressed 
to  him. 

(Here  ends  the  eighteenth  section.) 

1  The  word  both  refers  to  the  two  arms  of  loc.  cit.,  makes  it  an  attribute  of  gttrtena,  i.  e. 

the  priest  who  produces  fire  by  attrition.^  'with  sweet  butter',  a  very  far-fetched  ex- 

Cf.  Roth,  p.  120.  planation.    The  same  word  occurs  in  iii.  8. 1, 

1  See  above,  §  8.  quoted  in  the  next  section,  coupled  with 

•  x.  110.  10 ;  AV.  5.  12.  10  ;  VS.  29.  86.  daivyma,  i.  e.  '  divine '.   From  the  comparison 

4  Roth,  op.  cit,  p.  120,  translates  samanjan  of  this  passage  it  is  clear  that  madhund  cannot 
as  tchlingendj  i.  e.  swallowing.  be  taken  as  an  attribute. 

5  Yftska,  followed  by  Durga,  explains  mo-  «  iii.  8.  1. 
dhund  as  a  noun,  i.e.   'with  honey*.     Roth, 


8.  zi]  SVAHA  137 

O  lord  of  herbs,  having  golden  wings,  circumambulating  and  having 
fastened  oblations  with  a  cord,  carry  them  to  the  gods  along  the  most 
straight  paths  of  sacrifice ;  this  is  thy  object  from  the  days  of  yore.1 

O  lord  of  herbs,  (carry)  oblations  to  the  gods ;  having  golden  wings, 
i.  e.  wings  of  the  sacred  law.  Or  else  it  may  have  been  used  for  the  sake 
of  comparison,  i.  e.  whose  wings  glitter  like  gold.  This  is  thy  object  from 
the  days  of  yore,  it  is  an  ancient  object  of  thine,  hence  we  address  thee. 
Cany  (oblations)  along  the  paths  of  sacrifice,  which  are  the  most  straight, 
i.  e.  whose  course  is  most  straight,  which  abound  in  water,  and  which  are 
free  from  darkness:  The  following,  another  stanza,  is  addressed  to  him. 
(Here  ends  the  nineteenth  section.) 

O  lord  of  herbs,  learned  in  all  the  ways,  having  fastened  the  oblations 
with  the  most  beautiful  cord,  carry  them  to  the  gods,  O  thou  desirous  of 
bestowing,  and  among  the  immortals  proclaim  the  giver.2 

O  lord  of  herbs,  having  fastened  with  the  most  beautiful  cord,3  carry 
the  oblations  of  the  giver 4  to  the  gods  [in  sacrifice]  :  learned  in  all 
ways,  i.e.  well  versed  in  ail  branches  of  knowledge.  And  proclaim  the 
giver  among  the  immortals,  i.  e.  gods. 

Consecrations  by  saying  '  hail ! '  (they  are  so  called  because)  the  word 
svdha  (hail !)  is  uttered  in  them ;  or  speech  herself  said,  '  well,  ho ! '  or  one 
addresses  himself,  or  one  offers  oblation  consecrated  with  (svaha)  '  hail '. 
The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  them. 

(Here  ends  the  twentieth  section.) 

As  soon  as  he  was  born,  he  measured  the  sacrifice,  Agni  became  the  leader 
of  the  gods.  May  the  gods  eat  the  oblations  consecrated  by  the  utterance 
of  '  hail '  in  the  speech  of  this  sacrificer,  set  up  in  the  eastern  direction.5 

As  soon  as  he  was  born,  he  created  the  sacrifice.  Agni  became  the  chief 
of  the  gods.  May  the  gods  eat  the  oblation  consecrated  with  the  utterance 
of  '  hail '  in  the  speech,  i.  e.  mouth,  of  this  sacrificer,  set  up  in  the  eastern 
direction.  [With  these  words  they  sacrifice.] 

With  these  words  the  Aprl  deities  are  dealt  with.      Now  who  is  the 

1  MS.  4.  3.  7;   208.  10;   KS.  18.  21  ;   TB.  the  remark:  'of  the  giver,  i.e.  of  the  sacri- 

iii.  6.  11.  2.  ficer '.    The  word  has  no   accent   and   can 

«  x.  70. 10  ;  MS.  4.  IS.  7  ;  209. 1 ;  KS.  18. 21.  therefore  be  vocative  only  and  refer  to  Agni, 

Cf.  TB.  iii.  6.  12.  1.  i.e.  'desirous  of  bestowing'.     Roth,  loc.  cit., 

3 'With  a  well-twisted,  strong  cord',  Roth,  attributes    the    following    meanings   to    it: 

op.  cit.,  p.  121.  'wooer,   bridegroom,  husband',  Gras.smann, 

4  Yaska  explains  didhisoh    as    gen.   sing.,  op.  cit.,  p.  600. 

i.  e.   'of  the  giver'.     Dnrga  amplifies  it  by  c  x>  110>  n  .  AV.  5.  l?.  n  ;  VS.  29.  36. 


138  APR!  [8.  a  i 

god  to  whom  the  introductory  and  the  concluding  oblations  are  offered  1 l 
According  to  some,  they  are  offered  to  Agni. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-first  section.) 

The  introductory  and  the  concluding  oblations  are  exclusively  mine. 
Give  me,  O  gods,  the  juicy  portion  of  the  offering :  butter  of  waters  and 
the  fragrant  exhalations  of  herbs.  May  the  life  of  Agni  be  long.2 

The  introductory  and  the  concluding  oblations  are  exclusively  thine, 
and  so  will  be  the  juicy  portions  of  the  offerings ;  nay,  this  whole  sacrifice 
will  be  thine,  O  Agni ;  to  thee  will  bow  down  the  four  quarters.3 

Further,  there  is  a  Brahmana  passage :  Verily,  to  Agni  belong  the 
introductory,  and  to  Agni  the  concluding  oblations.4  According  to  others, 
they  have  the  metres  as  their  deities.  There  is  a  Brahmana  passage  :  Verily, 
to  the  metres  belong  the  introductory,  and  to  metres  the  concluding  obla- 
tions.5 According  to  others,  they  have  the  seasons  as  their  deities.  There  is 
a  Brahmana  passage :  Verily,  to  the  seasons  belong.the  introductory,  to  the 
seasons  the  concluding  oblations.6  [According  to  others,  they  have  sacrificial 
animals  as  their  deities.  There  is  a  Brahmana  passage :  Verily,  to  sacrificial 
animals  belong  the  introductory,  to  sacrificial  animals  the  concluding 
oblations.7]  According  to  others,  they  have  breath  as  their  deity.  There 
is  a  Brahmana  passage:  Verily,  to  breath  belong  the  introductory,  to 
breath  the  concluding  oblations.8  According  to  others,  they  have  soul  as 
their  deity.  There  is  a  Brahmana  passage :  Verily,  to  soul  belong  the 
introductory,  to  soul  the  concluding  oblations.9 

But  the  well-considered  view  is  that  they  are  addressed  to  Agni.  The 
rest  is  mere  apportionment.  Then  why  are  these  views  put  forward? 
It  is  well  known :  A  person,  about  to  utter  the  sound  vasat,  should  meditate 
on  the  particular  deity  to  whom  the  oblation  is  offered.10 

With  these  words,  these  eleven  Apri  hymns  are  dealt  with.  Of  these, 
the  hymns  of  Vasistha,  Atri,  Vadhryasva,  and  Grtsamada  are  addressed  to 
Narasamsa  ;  the  hymns  of  Medhatithi,  Dirghatamas,  and  that  of  invitation 
(praisas)  to  both  (i.  e.  Naras*amsa  and  Tanunapat).  The  hymns  other  than 
those  (mentioned  above)  are  therefore  addressed  to  Tanunapat,  to  Taml- 
napat.11 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-second  section.) 

1  Cf.  Muir,  op.  ctt.,  vol.  ii,  pp.  175-6.  8  Cf.  KB.  vii.  1 :    x.  3  ;   AB.  i.  11.  17  ;    SB. 

8  x.  51.  8.  xi.  2.  7.  27. 

8  x.  51.  9.  •  Cf.  TS.  vi.  1.  5.  4. 

4  Cf.  Muir,  loc.  dt.  10  Cf.  GB.  ii.  8.  4  ;  AB.  iii.  8. 

5  Cf.  SB.  i.  3.  2.  9.  "  Cf.  Roth,  op.  c#.,  p.  122 ;    cf.  Brh.  D.  n. 
«  Cf.  6B.  i.  3.  2.  8 ;  KB.  iii.  4  ;  MS.  1.  4. 12.  154-7. 

7  Cf.  KB.  iii.  4. 


9.4] 


SAKUNI 


139 


CHAPTER    IX 

Now  therefore  we  shall  take  up  in  order  the  terrestrial  beings  to  which 
panegyrics  are  addressed.     Of   these,  the   horse  is   the   foremost.    Awa 
(horse)  has  been  explained.1     The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 
(Here  ends  the  first  section.) 

The  horse  as  draught  animal  desires  a  comfortable  chariot  and  the 
encouraging  shout  of  the  inciter ;  the  male  organ  (desires)  the  two  hairy 
rims ;  the  frog  (desires)  the  pond ;  flow,  Indu,  flow  for  Indra's  sake.2 

The  horse  as  a  draught  animal ;  the  draught  animal  (desires)  a  com- 
fortable (chariot)  [the  draught  animal  a  chariot].  The  word  sukham 
(comfortable)  is  a  synonym  of  '  good '. 

Good  is  auspicious,  very  suitable  [or  it  proceeds  in  a  very  suitable 
manner.  Laughter ;  goer,  or  protector,  or  benefactor ;  the  male  organ  goes 
towards.  Water  causes  to  conceal.]  Mana  has  been  explained.  The 
following  stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 

(Here  ends  the  second  section.) 3 

Let  not  Mitra,  Varuna,  Aryaman,  Ayu,  Indra,  Rbhuksan,  and  the 
Maruts  overlook  us,  because  we  will  proclaim  the  heroic  deeds  of  the 
horse,  the  courser,  born  of  the  gods,  in  the  assembly.4 

On  account  of  our  proclaiming  the  heroic  deeds  of  the  horse,  the 
courser,  the  racer,  born  of  the  gods,  in  the  assembly,  i.  e.  at  sacrifice,  may 
not  Mitra,  Varuna,  Aryaman,  Ayu,  Vayu,  the  swift  one,  Indra,  the  wide 
dweller  or  the  king  of  the  Rbhus,  and  the  Maruts  overlook  us. 

A  bird  (is  so  called  because)  it  is  able  to  lift  itself  up,  or  to  make 
a  sound,  or  to  rush  along,  or  else  they  wish  him  to  be  always  auspicious, 
or  the  word  (sakuni,  bird)  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  sak  (to  be  able).5 
The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 

(Here  ends  the  third  section.) 

Crying  violently  and  proclaiming  its  nativity,  it  impels  speech  as  a 
rower  a  boat.  O  bird,  be  highly  auspicious.  May  no  apparition  what- 
soever find  thee  anywhere.6 

1  See  2.  27  ;  cf.  also  1.  12.          3  ix.  112.  4. 

8  The  section  in  toto  must  be  spurious ;  cf. 
Roth,  op.  cit.j  p.  125.  Mdnah  as  a  masc.  is 
senseless,  for  it  refers  to -ma  nah,  '  not  us ',  of 
the  following  quotation,  nor  has  it  been  ex- 


plained. 


*  i.  162.  1 ;  VS.  25.  24. 

B  The  etymological  explanations  of  4akv.ni 
given  by  Yaska  are  the  following  : 
and  Vnt,   (2)  Vs'ak  and    Vnad,   (8) 
and  Vfcf. 

6  ii.  42.  1 ;  cf.  Brh.  D.  iv.  94. 


140  MANDUKAS  [9.  4 

It  cries  violently,  proclaiming  its  birth,  i.  e.  its  name  is  onomatopoetic. 
It  propels  speech  as  a  rower  does  a  boat.  O  bird,  be  highly  auspicious 
i.  e.  exceedingly  auspicious.  Mangalam  (auspicious)  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  gf,  meaning  to  praise.1  Or  else  (from  gf ,  to  swallow),  i.  e.  it  swallows 
evil  things.2  Or  else  (the  word)  is  anga-lam,  i.e.  having  limbs."  Ac- 
cording to  the  etymologists  (it  is  derived  from  Vmasj),  i.  e.  it  submerges 
sin.  Or  else  (people  say)  'let  it  come  to  me'.4  May  no  overpowering 
force  find  thee  on  any  side. 

A  bird  uttered  a  lowing  sound  to  Grtsamada,  as  ne  was  about  to  proceed 
(to  acquire)  a  particular  object.5  This  is  indicated  by  the  following  stanza. 
(Here  ends  the  fourth  section.) 

O  bird,   speak  out  what  is  auspicious  in  the  south,  and  that  which  is . 
auspicious  in  the  north.     Say  what  is  auspicious  in  front  of  us  and  also 
what  is  auspicious  behind  us.0 

The  stanza  is  explained  by  the  mere  reading  of  it. 

Grtsamada  =  Grtsa-madtinti,,  i.  e.  wise  and  joyful.  The  word  grtaa  is 
a  synonym  of  wise ;  it  is  derived  from  (the  root)  gf,  meaning  to  praise. 

Maiidukah  (frogs)  =  majjukdh,  i.  e.  divers,  (so  called)  from  diving.  Or 
the  word  may  be  derived  from  (the  root)  mad,  meaning  to  rejoice,  or  from 
mand,  meaning  to  be  satisfied.  '  It  is  derived  from  (the  root)  viand  (to 
decorate),'  say  the  grammarians.7  Or  else,  their  abode  (okas)  is  in  water 
(maTide).  Manda  (water)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  mad  (to  rejoice)  or  from 
miul  (to  be  merry).8  The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  them. 
(Here  ends  the  fifth  section,.) 

Sleeping  for  a  year,  the  frogs  have  uttered  forth  speech,  impelled  by 
the  cloud,  like  Brahmanas  engaged  in  religious  rites.9 

Sleeping  for  a  year,  the  Brahmanas,  who  are  engaged  in  religious 
rites,  i.  e.  who  have  taken  the  vow  of  silence.  Or  else  a  simile  may  have 
been  intended,  i.e.  (uttered  speech)  like  Brahmanas,  who  are  engaged  in 
religious  rites.  The  frogs  have  uttered  forth  speech  which  has  been 
impelled  by  the  cloud.10 

1  The  bird  is  an  object  of  praise.     Durga.  5  '  Signifying  success.'     Durgti. 

2  Auspiciousness   destroys  misfortunes  as          °  RVKH.  2.  43.  1  ;  cf.  Professor  Macdonell, 
soon  as  they  arise.     Durga.  Vedic  Mythology,  p.  152. 

3  According  to  Durga,  lam  =  ram,  the  pos-          7  '  The  frogs  are  adorned  with  variegated 
sessive  suffix  :  the  letter  m  is  added  without  lines  on  their  skin  by  nature.'     Durga. 

any  meaning,  and  anga  signifies  the  various          8  The  sentence  is  omitted  by  Durga. 
ingredients,   as    honey,    milk,    &c.,    of   the          9  vii.  103.  1;    AV.  4.  15.  13;    cf.  Brli.D. 

vi.  27. 

4  i.  e.  Mawjala  is  derived  from  the  root  gam         10  Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,   Vedic  Mythology, 
with  ?»a»n,  i.  e.  'going  to  me'.  p.  151. 


>.  8]  DICE  141 

Vasistha,  desirous  of  rain,  praised  the  cloud.  Frogs  applauded  him.  On 
seeing  the  applauding  frogs,  he  praised  them.  This  is  indicated  by  the 
following  stanza. 

(Here  ends  the  sixth  section.) 

O  frog,  join  me.  O  swimmer,  invoke  rain.  Float  in  the  middle  of 
the  pond,  having  spread  your  four  feet.1 

The  stanza  is  explained  by  the  mere  reading  of  it. 

Dice  (aksah)  are  (so  called  because)  they  are  obtained  ( </«»)  by  gamblers, 
or  (wealth)  is  obtained  through  them.  The  following  stanza  is  addressed 
to  them. 

(Here  ends  the  seventh  section.) 

The  waving  ones  of  the  great  (tree),  growing  in  windy  places,  rolling 
on  the  gambling  board,  intoxicate  me.  The  ever-wakeful  berry  of  the 
vibhldaka  tree  appears  to  me  like  a  draught  of  soma  that  grows  on 
the  Mujavat  mountain.2 

The  waving  berries  of  the  mighty3  vibhidaka  tree  intoxicate  me. 
Growing  in  windy  places,  i.  e.  growing  on  mountain  slopes.  Rolling  on 
the  gambling  board.  Board  (irinam)  is  free  from  debt 4  (nir-rnam).  It 
is  derived  from  (the  root)  rn  (to  go),  i.e.  it  is  distant.  Or  else,  herbs 
have  been  removed  from  it.  Like  a  draught  of  soma  growing  on  the 
Mujavat  mountain.  Maujavatah,  i.  e.  grown  on  Mujavat.  Mujavat  is 
the  name  of  a  mountain,  (so  called  because)  it  abounds  in  Saccharum 
sara  (munja).  Munja  is  (so  called  because)  it  is  thrown  out  (-vAnuc) 
by  a  kind  of  rush.  Isikd  (a  kind  of  rush)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  is, 
meaning  to  go.  This  other  (meaning  of)  islkd  (i.  e.  arrow)  is  derived  from 
the  same  root  also.  Vibhidaka  (name  of  a  tree)  is  (so  called)  from  piercing. 
Wakeful  is  (so  called)  from  keeping  awake.5  The  poet  praises  them 
(i.e.  dice)  in  the  first  and  condemns  them  in  the  succeeding  stanzas.6 
This  is  known  to  be  the  composition  of  a  seer  made  miserable  by  dice. 

Grdvanah  (stones)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  han  (to  kill),  or  from  gf 
(to  praise),  or  from  ymh  (to  seize).  The  following  stanza  is  addressed 
to  them.7 

(Here  ends  the  eighth  section.) 


1  RVKH.  7.  103. 

-  x.  84.  1  ;  R.  Vidli.  3.  10.  1 ;  cf.  Brh.  D. 
vii.  36. 

8  Yaska  takes  brhato  as  an  adjective,  agree- 
ing svith  vibhidakasya  to  be  supplied,  aa  in 
the  text  of  the  RV.  vibhidakah  in  the  nom. 
sing,  is  the  subject  of  the  second  line. 

4  Debts  incurred  on  the  gambling  board, 


unlike  others,  are  not  payable  by  the  de- 
scendants of  the  debtors.  Durga. 

5  According  to  Durga,  dice  are  called  vrake- 
ful,  because  they  keep  the  winner  awake 
through  the  joy  of  winning,  and  the  loser  on 
account  orthe  misery  of  his  loss. 

J  See  x.  84.  2-14. 

7  x.  94.  1. 


142  NARASAMSA  [9. 9 

Let  them  proclaim.  Let  us  proclaim.  Address  the  stones  who  speak 
in  return,  when  ye,  O  unsplit  mountains,  quick  and  rich  in  soma,  together 
bear  the  sound,  i.  e.  invocation  for  Indra.1 

Let  them  proclaim.  Let  us  proclaim.  Address  the  stones  who  speak 
in  return.  When  unsplit  mountains,  i.  e.  who  are  not  to  be  split  up. 
Quick,  making  haste.  Together  (producing)  soma.  £lolca  (call)  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  sf  (to  break  open).  Ghosa  (sound)  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  gkus  (to  sound).  You  are  rich  in  soma,  or  you  are  in  the  abodes  of 
one  who  is  rich  in  soma. 

A  nardvamsa  stanza  is  that  with  which  men  are  praised.  The  follow- 
ing stanza  is  addressed  to  it. 

(Here  ends  the  ninth  section.) 

I  present,  with  wiscjom,  the  sublime  hymns  of  Bhavya,  who  dwells  on 
the  Sindhu — the  unsurpassed  king  who,  desirous  of  glory,  measured  out 
a  thousand  libations  for  me.2 

Sublime  hymns,  i.  e.  »ot  childish,  or  not  few.  A  child — turning  round 
for  strength — is  to  be  brought  up.  Or  else  his  mother  is  sufficient  for  himx 
or  his  mother  is  (a  source  of)  strength  for  him.  Or  the  word  bctta  (child)  is 
derived  from  bala  (strength),  with  the  negative  particle  placed  in  the 
middle.3  I  present  with  wisdom,  i.  e.  with  ingenuity  of  mind,  or  praise, 
or  intelligence.  Of  the  King  Bhavya,  who  dwells  on  the  Sindhu,  and  who 
prepared  a  thousand  libations  for  me — the  king  who  is  unsurpassed,  or 
who  is  not,  hasty,  or  who  does  not  hurry,  and  who  is  desirous  of  praise. 

(Here  ends  the  tenth  section.) 

A  king  obtains  praise  on  account  of  being  associated  with  sacrifice, 
and  the  paraphernalia  of  war  from  their  association  with  the  king.  Of 
these,  the  chariot  comes  first.  Rathah  (chariot)  is  derived  from  (the  root) 
mmh,  meaning  to  speed,  or  from  sthira  by  metathesis :  *  one  sits  in  a  chariot 
with  joy,  or  from  rap  (to  chatter)  [or  from  ras  (to  make  a  sound)].5  The 
following  stanza  is  addressed  to  it.6 

O 

(Here  ends  the  eleventh  section.) 

*  Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  op.  ctf.,  pp.  154-5.  Yaska,  hence  I  agree  with  Durga  in  thinking 

2  i.  126.  1 ;  cf.  Brh.  D.  iii.  165.  that  the  passage  is  spurious. 

3  The  passage,  '  A  child  ...  in  the  middle ',  4  i.  e.  sthira  >  thara,  and  by  metathesis  ratha. 
is  omitted  by  Durga.     It  gives  the  etymo-  "'  The  last  two  etymologies  are  omitted  by 
logical  explanation  of  a  word  which  neither  Durga. 

occurs  in  the  text  of  the  RV.,  nor  in  that  of         *  Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  op.  cit.,  p.  155. 


9.  14]  QUIVER  143 

O  lord  of  forests,  our  friend,  promoter,  and  a  noble  hero,  indeed  be 
firm  in  body.  Thou  art  girt  with  cowhide,  be  strong.  May  thy  rider 
win  what  is  to  be  won.1 

O  lord  of  forests,  indeed  be  firm  in  thy  limbs.  Thou  art  our  friend, 
promoter,  and  a  noble  hero,  i.  e.  a  blessed  hero.  Thou  art  girt  with  cow- 
hide, hence  be  strong,  i.  e.  be  very  firm.  May  thy  rider  win  what  is 
worthy  of  winning. 

The  word  dundubhi*  (drum)  is  onomatopoetic.  Or  else  it  is  (so 
called)  being  made  of  a  split  tree.3  Or  it  may  be  derived  from  (the 
verb)  dundubhya,  meaning  to  make  a  sound.  The  following  stanza  is 
addressed  to  it. 

(Here  ends  tJie  twelfth  section.) 

Fill  earth  and  heaven  also  with  thy  roar.  Let  the  immovable  and  the 
movable  think  of  thee  everywhere.  Besides,  O  drum,  together  with  Indra 
and  the  gods,  keep  off  the  enemy  farther  than  afar.4 

Fill  earth  and  heaven  with  thy  roar.  Let  them  all  that  are  immovable, 
i.  e.  stationary,  and  that  are  non-stationary,  think  highly  of  thy  loud  call. 
O  drum,  associated  together  with  Indra  and  the  gods,  disperse  the  enemy 
farther  than  what  is  very  far. 

Quiver  is  the  receptacle  of  arrows.  The  following  stanza  is  addressed 
to  it5 

(Here  eiids  the  thirteenth  section.) 

The  father  of  many  (daughters),  and  whose  sons  are  many,  clangs  and 
clashes,  having  reached  the  field  of  battle.  Slung  on  the  back,  the  quiver, 
when  hurled  forth,  conquers  strifes  and  all  the  hostile  armies.0 

The  father  of  many  (daughters)  and  whose  sons  are  many  is  with  refer- 
ence to  arrows.  When  exposed,  it  smiles  as  it  were.  Or  it  is  an  onomato- 
poetic word.  Sahkdh  (strife)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  sac  (to  suffer),  or 
from  kr  (to  scatter),  preceded  by  the  preposition  sam.  Slung  on  the  back  it 
conquers  when  hurled  forth,  is  explained. 

Handguard  is  (so  called  because)  it  is  held  firmly  on  the  hand.  The 
following  stanza  is  addressed  to  it. 

(Here  eiids  the  fourteenth  section.) 


1  vi.  47.  26 ;  AV.  6.  125. 1 ;  VS.  29.  52.  (tree),  and  the  latter  from  the  root  bhid. 

2  Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  op.  cit.,  p.  155.  4  vi.  47.  29;  AV.  6.  126.  1 ;  VS.  29.  55. 

3  This  gives  the  first  derivation  of  the  word  5  Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  loc.  cit. 
dundubhi,   i.  e.   the  former  part  from  druma  c  vi.  75.  5 ;  VS.  29.  42. 


144  BRIDLES  [9.  15 

Like  a  serpent,  it  encompasses  the  arm  with  its  coils,  protecting  it  from 
the  impact  of  the  bowstring.  May  the  manly  handguard,  learned  in  all 
expedients,  well  protect  the  man  from  all  sides.1 

Like  a  serpent,  it  encircles  the  arm  with  its  coils,  shielding  it  from  the 
strokes  of  the  bowstring.  The  handguard  well  versed  in  all  the  sciences. 
A  man  is  (so  called  because)  he  possesses  abundance  of  manly  spirit,2  or 
the  word  piiman  (man)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  pums  (to  crush). 

Bridles  have  been  explained.3     The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to 

them. 

(Here  eiids  the  fifteenth  section.) 

Seated  on  the  car,  a  skilful  charioteer  guides  his  steeds  in  front  of  him, 
to  whatever  place  he  likes.  Admire  the  greatness  of  the  bridles.  From 
behind,  the  reins  give  direction  to  the  mind.4 

Seated  on  the  car,  a  skilful  charioteer,  i.  e.  a  noble  charioteer,  guides  his 
steeds,  which  are  in  front  of  him,  to  whatever  place  he  likes.  I  worship 
the  greatness  of  bridles.  The  reins,  although  they  are  behind,  give 
direction  to  the  mind. 

Dhanus5  (bow)  is  derived  from  the  root  dhanv,  meaning  to  go,  or  to 
kill :  the  arrows  are  discharged  from  it.  The  following  stanza  is  addressed 

to  it. 

(Here  ends  the  sixteenth  section.) 

May  we  win  kine  with  the  bow,  and  with  the  bow  the  combat.  May  we 
win  dreadful  battles  with  the  bow.  The  bow  brings  the  desires  of  the 
enemy  to  naught.  May  we  conquer  all  quarters  with  bow.G 

The  stanza  is  explained  by  the  mere  reading  of  it. 

Samadah  (battle)  =  sam-adah  (i.  e.  eating  together)  from  (the  root)  ad 
(to  eat),7  or  =  sam-madah  (i.  e.  raging  together)  from  (the  root)  mad 
(to  rage). 

Jya  (bowstring)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  ji  (to  conquer),  or  from  ji 
(to  conquer,  cl.  ix),  or  it  is  (so  called  because)  it  causes  arrows  to  fly 
quickly.  The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  it. 

(Here  ends  the  seventeenth  section.) 

Coming  close  to  the  ear  as  if  desirous  of  whispering  a  secret,  and 
embracing  its  dear  friend,  this  string,  stretched  on  the  bow,  and  leading  us 
to  salvation  in  battle,  utters  a  low  shrill  sound  like  a  woman.8 

1  vi.  75.  14  ;  VS.  29.  51.  5  Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  toe.  ctf. 

2  Compared  to  a  woman,  who  is  poor  in          6  vi.  75.  2  ;  VS.  29.  89. 

spirit,  a   man    has    more  manlyx  strength.          7  People  devour  each  other,  as  it  were,  in 
Durga.  battle.     Durga. 

8  See  8.  9.  *  vi.  75.  8  ;  VS.  29.  40. 

<  vi.  75.  6 ;  VS.  29.  43. 


9.  20]  WHIP  145 

It  comes  close  to  the  ear  as  it'  desirous  of  speaking.  Embracing,  as 
it  were,  its  dear  friend,  i.e.  the  arrow.  It  utters  a  [shrill]  sound  like 
a  woman.  This  string  stretched  on  the  bow.  In  battle,  in  strife.  Leading 
us  to  salvation,  [leading  us  across]. 

Isu1  (arrow)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  is,  meaning  to  go  [or  to  kill]. 
The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  it. 

(Here  ends  the  eighteenth  section,.) 

She  wears  a  beautiful  wing.  Deer  is  her  tooth.  When  hurled,  she  flies 
girt  with  cow-phlegm.  May  the  arrows  grant  us  protection  there  where 
men  run  to  and  fro.2 

She  wears  a  beautiful  wing  is  with  reference  to  the  swift  feathers  of 
arrows.  Her  tooth  is  made  of  the  horn  of  deer.15  Or  else  it  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  mrg  (to  pursue).4  '  When  hurled,  she  flies  girt  with  cow- 
phlegm  ',  has  been  explained.5  May  the  arrows  grant  us  protection  there 
where  men  run  in  the  same  direction  and  in  the  opposite  direction,  i.  e.  pro- 
tection in  battles. 

Lashing  rod  is  called  whip.  Whip  (kava)  is  (so  called  because)  it 
reveals  (pra-kd#ayctfi)  danger  to  the  horse.  Or  else  it  is  derived  from  (the 
root)  krs  (to  drag)  on  account  of  being  small.  Further,  speech  is  called 
(katsa  because)  it  reveals  meaning,  or  it  rests  in  space;  or  it  is  derived 
from  (the  root)  kt^us  (to  make  a  noise).  The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to 
the  horsewhip. 

(Here  ends  the  nineteenth  section.) 

They  strike  their  thighs  and  deal  blows  on  their  buttocks.  O  lashing- 
rod,  impel  sagacious  horses  in  battles.0 

They  strike  their  thighs,  i.e.  their  moving  thigh-bones.  Sukthi  (thigh- 
bone) is  derived  from  (the  root)  sac  (to  be  united),  the  body  is  fixed  in  it. 
And  they  deal  blows  on  their  buttocks.7  Jayhanam  (buttock)  is  derived 
from  (the  verb)  janghanya  (to  strike  repeatedly).  0  lashing  rod,  impel 
horses  that  are  [sagacious,]  of  highly-developed  intelligence,  in  battles, 
i.  e.  contests,  or  conflicts. 

1  Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  loc.  cit.  enemy  and  of  discrimination  in  attack. 

2  vi.  75.  11 ;  VS.  29.  48.  »  See  2.  5. 

3  This  gives  the  detailed  description  of  an  6  vi.  75.  13. 

arrow.    The  pointed  end  is  made  of  the  horn  7  Durga  takes  janghanti   as   a   particle    in 

of  a  deer,  which  is  very  sharp,  and  the  rest  the    vocative    case,    agreeing   with   adwljcml.. 

is  covered  with  beautiful  wings.    Cf.  Durga'.s  This  explanation  is  wrong.     Not  only  is  it 

remarks.  opposed  to  that  of  Yaska,  but  janghanti.   as 

'  According  to  Durga,  certain  arrows  possess  the  accent  indicates,  cannot  be  in  the  vocative 

the   power    of    pursuing  even    an    invisible  case. 


146  WOODEN    MACE  [9.  20 

Mortar  (ulukhalam)  is  (so  called  because)  it  causes  to  spread  out  (uru- 
karam),  or  it  has  a  hole  at  the  top,  or  it  prepares  food  (urj-lcaram). 
There  is  a  Brahmana  passage :  *  '  Make  me  large/  said  he.  Then  indeed 
he  became  a  mortar.  Verily,  they  call  it  uru-karam  (causing  to  spread  out), 
indirectly  ulukhalam,  i.  e.  mortar.  The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  it. 
(Here  ends  the  twentieth  section.) 

Whenever,  O  Mortar,  thou  art  set  to  work  from  house  to  house.     Then 
utter  thy  brightest  sound  like  the  trumpet  of  the  conquerors.2 
The  stanza  is  explained  by  the  mere  reading  of  it. 
(Here  ends  the  twenty-first  section,.) 

Vrsabhah  means  one  who  rains  down  offspring, 3  or  who  increases  the 
seed  very  much.     Vrsabhah  is  therefore  so  called  from  raining,  i.  e.  whose 
characteristic  is  to  rain.     The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  him. 
(Here  ends  the  twenty-second  section.) 

Thundering  they  approached  him.  In  the  midst  of  the  strife,  they 
made  the  bull  shed  water.  Through  him  Mudgala  won  a  hundred  thousand 
well-nourished  kine  in  battle.4 

Thundering  they  approached  him  is  explained.  They  made  the  bull 
shed  water  in  the  midst  [of  battle],  i.  e.  the  place  of  conquest  or  swiftness. 
Through  him  (he  conquered)  the  king  of  beautiful  possessions.5  The  verb 
bharv  means  to  eat.  Or  else,  Mudgala  won  a  thousand  well-nourished  kine 
in  battle.  The  word  pradhana  is  a  synonym  of  battle :  treasures  are 
scattered  forth  in  it. 

Wooden  mace,  i.  e.  mace  made  of  wood.  With  reference  to  it  they 
relate  a  legend.  A  seer  Mudgala,  a  descendant  of  BhrmyasVa,  having 
yoked  his  bull  and  a  wooden  mace,  and  having  fought  in  battle,  won  the 
contest.  This  is  indicated  by  the  following  stanza. 

(Here  ends  the  twenfy-third  section.) 

Look  at  this  yoke  of  the  bull  and  the  wooden  mace  lying  in  the  middle 
of  battle,  with  which  Mudgala  won  a  hundred  thousand  kine  in  battles.0 

Look  at  this  yoking  together  of  the  bull,  and  the  wooden  mace  lying  in 
the  middle  of  battle,  with  which  Mudgala  won  a  hundred  thousand  kine  in 
battles.  The  word  prtan&jyam"  is  a  synonym  of  battle,  (so  called)  from 
dispersing  or  conquering  hostile  armies.  Mutlyalu  means  one  who  possesses 

1  Cf.  SB.  vii.  5.  1.  12.  5  According  to  Durga,  subhanan  means  a 

a  i.  28.  5  ;  AB.  vii.  17  ;  cf.  Brh.  D.  iii.  101.  prosperous  country,  especially  rich  in  barley. 

3  Prajotpatti-kuranain     retah     sincati     yonau.  °  x.  102.  9. 

Durga.                                            4  x.  1^2.  5.  "  Cf.  Roth.  op.  ci'.,  p.  130. 


9.  26]  RIVERS  147 

beans,  or  who  swallows  beans,  or  passion,  or  pride,  or  joy.1  Bka,rmyat>va, 
a  son  of  Bhrmyasva.  Bhrmyasva  means  one  whose  horses  are  always 
wandering,  or  he  is  (so  called)  from  horse-breeding. 

The  word  pituh  is  a  synonym  of  food.  It  is  derived  from  (the  root)  pa 
(to  protect),  or  from  pa  (to  drink),  or  from  pyay  (to  swell).  The  following 
stanza  is  addressed  to  it. 

(Here  ends  the  tiventy -fourth  section.} 

Verily  I  will  praise  the  food,  the  holder  of  great  invigorating  strength  ; 
with  whose  vigour  Trita  rent  Vrtra  limb  by  limb.2 

I  praise  the  food  which  contains  great  invigorating  strength.  The 
word  tavisi ''  is  a  synonym  of  strength.  It  is  derived  from  (the  root)  tu, 
meaning  to  increase.  With  whose  vigour,  i.  e.  power,  Trita,  i.  e.  Indra  who 
abides  in  three  places,  rends  Vrtra  limb  by  limb. 

Rivers  have  been  explained.4  The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to 
them. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-fifth  section.) 

Hear  this  my  hymn  of  praise,  O  Ganga,  Yamuna,  Sarasvati,  6utudrl 
together  with  Parusni,  Marudvrdha  with  Asiknl,  and  Arjikiya  with  Vitasta 
and  Susoma.5 

Attend0  to  this  my  hymn  of  praise,  O  Ganga,  Yamuna,  Sarasvati, 
Sutudri,  Parusni,  Marudvrdha  with  Asikni ;  hear,  O  Arjikiya  with  Vitasta  and 
Susoma.7  This  is  the  general  sense.  Now  (follows)  the  etymological  explana- 
tion of  every  word.  Ganga  is  (so  called)  from  going  ( </#am).8  Yamuna, 
she  flows,  joining  herself  (with  other  rivers),  or  she  flows  gently.9  Saras- 
vati— the  word  saras  is  a  synonym  of  water,  it  is  derived  from  (the  root) 
sr  (to  flow) — rich  in  water,  outudrl,  quick  runner,  rapid  runner,10  or  it 
runs  swiftly  like  one  who  is  goaded.  Iravati  is  called  Parusni,  i.  e.  having 
joints,  [shining,]  winding.  Asiknl,  non-bright,  non-white.  The  word  sitam 
is  a  synonym  of  white  colour,  its  antithesis  is  (denoted  by)  a-sitam. 
Marudvrdha,  i.  e.  swollen  by  all  other  rivers  and  winds.  Vitasta,,  not 
burnt,11  mighty,  having  high  banks.  Arjikiya  is  called  Vipas",  ;so  called 

1  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  129.  created  beings  to  the  best  place.     Durga. 

•'  i.  187.  1.  a  There  are  no  waves  in  it.     Durga. 

3  Cf.  Roth,  op.  cit.,  p.  130.  10  Cf.   Mbh.  Adi-par.,    verse   6752,   Satadha, 

4  See  2.  24.  vidruta  yasmdc  chatadrur  iti  visrutd  1. 

fi  x.  75.  3.  n  Durga   says,   on    the    authority    of   the 

6  Cf.  Muir,  op.  cit.,  vol.  ii,  p.  342.  Sdmidhsni  Brdhmana,  that  there  was  fire  called 

7  Cf.  M.  A.  Stein,  Bhandurkur  Comm.  Vol.,       Vtiidehaka  which  consumed  all  rivers  except 
pp.  21-9.  this  one. 

*  i.e.  She  goes  to  the  best  place,  or  <ends 

K  2 


148  HERBS  [9.  26 

because)  it  rises  in  rjuka,  or  it  flows  in  a  straight  line.  The  Vipa6  is  (so 
called  from  bursting  forth,  or  from  loosening  fetters,  or  from  being  extended. 
It  is  called  fetterless  because  the  fetters  of  the  moribund  Vasistha  were 
loosened  in  it.1  Formerly  it  was  called  Urunjira.  Susoma  is  the  Sindhu, 
(so  called  because)  rivers  flow  towards  it.  Sindhu  is  (so  called)  from 
flowing. 

Apah  (waters)  is  derived  from  (the  root)  o/p  (to  obtain).  The,  following 
stanza  is  addressed  to  them. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-sixth  sect  ion.) 

Ye  waters  are  indeed  beneficent.  As  such  bestow  strength  on  us,  so 
that  we  may  look  upon  great  happiness.2 

Ye  waters  are  indeed  a  source  of  comfort.  As  such  bestow  food  on  us, 
so  that  we  may  look  upon  great  happiness,  i.  e.  delight. 

Herbs  (osa-dhayah)  are  (so  called  because)  they  suck  (dhayanti)  the 
burning  element 3  (osat),  or  (because)  people  suck  them  when  something  is 
burning  (in  the  body).  Or  else  they  suck  the  morbid  element  (do$a). 
The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  them. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-seventh  section.) 

I  think  there  are  indeed  one  hundred  and  seven  abodes  of  the  tawny 
ones,  the  herbs,  that  were  produced  three  ages  before  the  gods,  in  days  of 
yore.4 

I  think  there  are  indeed  one  hundred  and  seven  abodes  of  the  tawny 
ones,  i.  e.  tawny-coloured  ones,  the  herbs,  which  carry  off  (disease)  produced 
three  ages  before  the  gods,  in  days  of  yore.  There  are  three  kinds  of 
abodes,  i.  e.  places,  names,  and  species.  Here  species  are  meant.5  Or  else 
there  are  seven  hundred 6  vital  parts  of  man,  the  herbs  are  applied  on  them. 

Night  has  been  explained.7     The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  it. 
(Here  ends  the  tu'euty-eiy/tth-  section.) 

O  night,  the  terrestrial  region  of  the  father  together  with  (atmospheric) 
places  has  been  well  filled.  Thou  art  great,  and  encompassest  the  abodes 
of  heaven ;  the  dreadful  darkness  draws  all  around.8 

1  Cf.  Mbli.  Adi-par.,  verses  6745  and  6750.  6  Yaska    explains  Satdm  .  .      sapid  ca.    as 

2  x.  9.  1.  sapta-satom,    i.  e.    700.       According    to     the 

3  There    are    two    etymologies  given,    (1)  ordinary  meaning    of   the    words   used,    as 
from  */us  (to  burn)  and  *Jdhe  to  suck,  (2)  indicated  by  the  accent  and  ca,  the  phrase 
from  4/dus  and  Vdha.  can  only  mean  '  a  hundred  and  seven'. 

4  x.  97.  1.    Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  op.  cit.,  "  See  2.  18. 

p.  154.  "  RVKH.  x.  127.  J. 

5  i.  e.  There  are  107  kinds  of  herbs. 


9.  3*]  WILDERNESS  149 

O  night,  thou  hast  well  filled  the  terrestrial  region  along  with  the 
places  of  the  middle  (region).  Great,  mighty,  thou  encompassest  the  abodes 
of  heaven ;  the  dreadful  darkness  draws  all  round  the  region. 

Wilderness l  is  the  wife  of  desert.  Desert  (aranya)  is  (so  called  because) 
it  is  far  (apa-arna)  from  the  village,  or  because  it  is  dull  (a-ramaiia). 
The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  her. 

(Here  ends  the  twenty-ninth  section.) 

O  wilderness,  how  is  it  that  thou  who  disappearest  in  deserts  ever 
onwards  dost  not  seek  the  village  ?  it  appears  that  fear  does  not  find  thee.2 

The  seer 3  addresses  her  with  the  words,  '  O  wilderness,  how  is  it  that 
thou  who  disappearest  in  deserts,  i.  e.  forests,  like  one  directed  to  some 
place  onwards,  dost  not  seek  the  village  ?  It  appears  as  if  fear  does  not 
find  thee.'  Or  the  word  iva  is  used  in  the  sense  of  slight  apprehension 
(i.  e.  the  slightest  fear). 

Faith  (srad-dha)  is  (so  called)  on  account  of  being  based  on  truth  (vrad)* 
The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  it. 

(Here  eiuJs  the  thirtieth  section.) 

Through  faith  is  fire  kindled,  through  faith  is  oblation  offered.  With 
our  speech  we  announce  faith  at  the  head  of  fortune.6 

Through  faith  is  fire  well  kindled,  through  faith  is  oblation  well  offered.0 
With  our  speech  we  announce  faith  to  be  at  the  head,  i.  e.  the  chief  limb  of 
fortune,  i.  e.  prosperity. 

Earth  has  been  explained.7     The  following  stanza  is  addressed  to  it. 
(Here  eiids  the  thirty-first  section.) 

O  Earth,  be  pleasant,  thornless  providing  a  resting-place ;  grant  us 
extensive  protection.8 

O  Earth,  be  comfortable,  thornless  providing  a  resting-place.  Rksarah 
means  '  thorn  ',  it  is  derived  from  (the  verb)  rch  (to  be  stiff).  Kantakah 
(thorn)  is  (so  called)  (because  it  says  to  itself),  Whom  (kam)  should  I  hurt 

1  Cf.  Professor  Macdonell,  op.  cit.,  p.  154.  and   which    does   not   undergo  any   change. 

2  x.  146.  1.  The  tutelary  deity  of  this  intuition  is  called 
5  Durga  remarks  that  the  poet  lost  his  way       xraddhd.      Cf.    Professor   Macdonell,    op.   cit.} 

in  the  forest,  and  being  puzzled  as  to  what  p.  119-20. 

direction  it  was,  and  being  afraid,  addresses  r<  x.  151.  1. 

the  goddess  of  the  forest,  '  How  is  it  that  I  6  Durga  quotes  a  passage  which  says  that 

am  afraid  and  thou  art  not  ? '  the  gods  do  not  accept  the  oblations  of  the 

4  Durga  remarks  that  frad-dlul  means  that  faithless, 

intuitive  attitude  which  one  assumes  towards  7  Seel.  13-14. 

religion  and'  secular  and  spiritual   matters  8  i.  22.  15. 


150  WIFE  OF  AGNI  [9.  33 


i)1!  or  it  may  be  derived  from  (the  verb)  krt  (to  pierce),  or  from 
leant,  meaning  to  go,  i.  e.  it  is  very  prominent  on  the  tree.  Grant  us  (let 
them  grant)  1  protection  from  all  sides,  i.  e.  extensive  protection. 

Apud  (disease)  has  been  explained.2     The  following  stanza  is  addressed 

to  it. 

(Here  ends  the  thirty-second  section.) 

Infatuating  the  heart  of  these  (our  enemies),  seize  th