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Copies of this management plan may be obtained from: 
Alberta Community Development 
Parks and Protected Areas 
Provincial Building 
9621-96 Ave. 
Peace River, AB T8S 1T4 
Phone 780-624-6405 
Fax 780-624-6455 



Alberta Community Development 
Parks and Protected Areas 
Box 720 
Manning, Alberta TOH 2M0 
Phone 780-836-2871 
Fax 780-836-2667 



November 20, 2001 



Errata - November 20, 2001 



Government department names have changed since this management plan was signed. The 
changes are as follows: 



Old Name 


New Name 


Natural Resources Service, Alberta 
Environment 


Parks and Protected Areas, Alberta Communitv 
Development 

Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Sustainable 
Resource Development 


Land and Forest Service, Alberta Environment 


Forest Protection Division, Alberta Sustainable 
Resource Development 
Forest Management Division, Alberta 
Sustainable Resource Development 


Public Lands, Alberta Agriculture, Food and 
Rural Development 


Public Lands Division, Alberta Sustainable 
Resource Development 



Approval Statement 



The Notikewin Provincial Park Management Plan is the official plan of Alberta Environmental 
Protection, Natural Resources Service. 



The Plan is a commitment by the Northwest Boreal Region to the protection and management of 
resources in NotikewjnJ'rovincial Park and the provision of recreation opportunities within it. 



Pat Long, Regional Director 
Natural Resources Service 
Northwest Boreal Region 




Date /^A-l/ 3^Ao 



This plan is consistent with the provisions of the Provincial Parks Act and Regulations and with 
provincial policies, priorities and direction. 

orley Barrett, 
Assistant Deputy Minister 
Date /?^/aIi /S<^/ '2.<x Z' ' Alberta Environmental Protection 




Acknowledgements 

The Notikewin Provinci^L^ark Management Plan is recommended for approval and 
implemen^tieir y^^^y 

K—^ ^(f^^^l^ Ron Millson, Area Manager 

_ r / Natural Resources Service 

Dat e rfoiy 3^AJo Peace River Area 



\ c ■ r 

Date ^^IX^^ VO I OO Peace River Area 



^ Leslie Sullivan, Conservation Officer 

Natural Resources Service 



Thank you to those who reviewed the draft management plan, and to those members of the public 
who participated in its preparation by filling out the survey and attending the open house. Your 
interest and support for the park is appreciated. 



ii 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2015 



https://archive.org/details/notikewinprovincOOalbe 



Table of Contents 



1.0 INTRODUCTION 1 

1 . 1 . Purpose of Management Plan 1 

1.2. Public Involvement 1 

2.0 PARK OVERVIEW 1 

2.1 History OF Park 1 

2.2 Regional Setting and Access to Park 2 

2.3 Description of Park 2 

2.4 Visitor Use 4 

2.5 Significant Featifres of the Park 5 

3.0 ROLE IN ALBERTA'S PROTECTED AREAS NETWORK 6 

3.1 Provincial Objectives 6 

3.2. Natural Regions Framework 6 

3.3 Classification 9 

3.4 RiRPOSE of Notikewin Provincial Park 9 

3 . 5 Notikewin Provincial Park - NATifRAL Heritage Site 9 

3.6 Guiding Principles 10 

4.0 ZONING 10 

5.0 MANAGEMENT OBJECTIVES AND GUIDELINES 12 

5.1. Preservation 12 

5.2. Heritage Appreciation , 15 

5.3. Outdoor Recreation 16 

5.4. Heritage Tourism.... ■ 18 

6.0 SURROUNDING LANDS 19 

6. 1 Surrounding Land Use 19 

6.2 Dispositions 19 

6.3 Additions TO Park 19 

7.0 REGIONAL INTEGRATION 19 

7.1 Adjacent Land Users 19 

7.2 Local Community 20 

8.0 IMPLEMENTATION OF PLAN 20 

8. 1 Plan Implementation 20 

8.2 Plan Re VIEW 20 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 31 

APPENDIX A DESCRIPTION OF PARK 32 

APPENDIX B SUMMARY OF PUBLIC INPUT 38 

APPENDIX C MANAGEMENT ISSUES 39 

APPENDIX D PLANTS FOUND IN NOTIKEWIN PROVINCIAL PARK 40 

MAPS 

Notikewin Provincial Park map v 

Natural Regions of Alberta 8 

Zoning map 1 1 



iv 



NOTIKEWIN PROVINCIAL PARK 

Scole = 1:75 000 
25M Contour Inttrval 

%>due»<l from CMgNofCMa. NAD 83 **"'°" 




1.0 INTRODUCTION | 

Notikewin Provincial Park is located at the 
confluence of the Peace River and the Notikewin 
River in northwestern Alberta, north of Manning. 
At 9,696.76 hectares (about 97 square kilometers), 
it is presently the largest provincial park in the 
region. The park included a variety of undisturbed 
forests and wetlands, 6.4 kilometers of the lower 
section of the Notikewin River, and about 25 
kilometers of the west bank of the Peace River. 




The Peace River through Notikewin 
Provincial Park 



1.1. Purpose of Management Plan 



The purpose of this management plan is to provide 
management direction for the park for the next 1 0 
years. This management direction takes into 
account the park mandate, current Natural 
Resources Service policies, and public input. 

More specifically, this management plan will: 

• describe the park (Section 2); 

• place the park within the protected areas 
network of Alberta (Section 3); 

• identify issues and concerns about the park 
(Appendix C); 

• divide the park into zones (Section 4); 

• discuss objectives and management guidelines 
for the park (Section 5); 

• outline surrounding land use and regional 
cooperation (Section 6, 7); and 

• discuss implementation of the plan (Section 8). 



1.2. Public Involvement 



The preparation of a management plan must 
include involvement with those interested in the 
management of the park, such as park users, local 
communities, local resource industries, and other 
government agencies. Their input is incorporated 
into the management plan. 

Public involvement for the Notikewin Provincial 
Park management plan was done in several stages. 
Initially, concerns and issues about the park were 
identified through a visitor survey administered at 
the Manning Trade Fair in the fall of 1995, and a 
letter sent to stakeholders the following winter. The 
information gathered was used in the preparation of 
this draft management plan. 

In the next stage, the plan was reviewed by other 
agencies and individuals who have an interest in the 
park. Following their review, an open house was 
held to give the public the opportunity to review 
and comment on the plan. 



2.0 PARK OVERVIEW 



2.1 History of Park 



The Hawk Hills Unifarm Association and the 
Manning Fish and Game Association proposed to 
the province in 1 974 that about 3 quarters of land 
at the confluence of the Peace and Notikewin 
Rivers be incorporated into a provincial park. At 
that time, this land was an undeveloped municipal 
park, used by local residents for picnicking, fishing, 
camping, and as a base camp for hunting. 

In 1975, this area was announced as a proposed 
provincial park in the legislature. After studies 
confirming the suitability of the area based on its 
unique natural heritage features. Alberta 
Recreation and Parks proposed that land south of 
the Notikewin River also be considered for park 
land. 



1 



After many negotiations and considerable public 
input, the park was established by order in council 
in November 1979. A park master plan 
recommended that the south end of the park be the 
main focus of park use, and should include a 
campground, day use areas, and river access. 
However, based on public demand, limited funding, 
and better river access (although sometimes 
limited), only the north end of the park has been 
developed. 

The levels of development and use projected in this 
first master plan have never been realized. 
Remoteness of the park from large population 
centers, distance from the highway, the access road 
in the park and the rustic facilities are factors that 
may have contributed to low visitation. 

In spite of this, Notikewin Provincial Park remains 
a key protected area in the region. It contributes to 
Alberta's network of protected areas (see Section 
3) by protecting a large, relatively undisturbed area 
of the boreal forest natural region along a 
historically significant river. If will be managed as 
a natural heritage site, which means that 
management emphasis will be on protection of the 
natural resources and provision of recreation 
opportunities appropriate to the setting of this park. 

This management plan emphasizes the park's 
important role in protecting a large portion of 
relatively undisturbed boreal forest and its 
contribution to outdoor recreation. 



2.2 Regional Setting and Access to 
Park 



Notikewin Provincial Park is about 67 kilometers 
northwest of the town of Manning, the largest town 
in the area. Manning is 98 kilometers north of 
Peace River, and 257 kilometers north of Grande 
Prairie. Hawk Hills is the community nearest to the 
park. 

The park was surrounded by forest when it was 
first established, but since then most of the land 
around it has been cleared for farming. 
The park has 2 accesses. The main access, which 
leads to the north end where the park facilities are 



located, is north from Manning on Highway 35 
(MacKenzie Highway) for 35 kilometers, then east 
on Secondary Road 692 for 32 kilometers. The 
secondary road is paved to within 15 kilometers of 
the park. 

The other access, to the south end of the park, is 
east from Manning on paved Secondary Road 691, 
and then north to the park on gravel Secondary 
Road 74 1 . The distance from Manning to the park 
boundary using this access is about 53 kilometers. 
Once inside the park, the road becomes a truck 
trail, used to access private land along the river. 




Canada geese staging on the Notikewin River 



2.3 Description of Park 



2. 3. 1 Topography/G eomorph ology 
The deeply incised valleys of the Peace and 
Notikewin Rivers dominate the landscape of the 
park. Along the west bank of the Peace River, a 
series of 4 terraces drop to the river. Once old 
islands or point bars, these terraces formed as the 
river cut deeper and moved its course towards the 
east. 

The river is still changing. Several large, teardrop- 
shaped islands inside the northern river bend are 
relatively new formations. At the mouth of the 
Notikewin, an island and large silt and gravel bars 
have formed and reformed from deposits carried 
down the Notikewin. 

Away from the river valleys the park is undulating 
terrain, much of it wetlands. These wetlands 
include Crummy Lake and associated black spruce 



2 



bogs, a linear wetland' located on an upper terrace 
at the south end of the park, and smaller fens and 
bogs scattered throughout. 

2.3.2 Geoiogy/Soils 

Bedrock of the park area was laid during the late 
Cretaceous age. The deepest layer of bedrock is the 
Loon River Formation of silty shale and laminated 
siltstone. Above this is the sandstone Peace River 
Formation. Outcrops of this rock appear in both the 
Peace and Notikewin river valleys. The upper layer 
is the Shaftesbury Formation, composed of marine 
shale and silt beds. 

A glacier covered this area up to about 12,000 
years ago. The glacier deposited till, an unsorted 
mixture of rock and gravel, over the area. As the 
glacier receded, its meltwater formed Lake Peace. 
In many places the till is topped by lacustrine (lake- 
deposited) material from Lake Peace. 

Soils gradually formed overtop the surficial 
deposits. In the upland areas of the park soils are 
generally of high clay content with poor internal 
drainage, while soils along the river valleys are 
sandier. 

2.3.3 Vegetation/Wildlife 

Aspen is the dominant tree species in the park, and 
pure, even-aged aspen stands appear frequently. 
This dominance is maintained by periodic wildfires. 
The northern portion of the park was last burned in 
the 1 940s, and some of the southern part in the 
1950s. Generally white spruce becomes dominant 
in a dry mixedwood forest, but because of these 
fairly recent fires, white spruce are only beginning 
to repopulate. Balsam poplar often occurs in 
moister areas adjacent to wetlands and the river. 
Jack pine occurs in dry, open sites, especially on 
the upper terraces in the southern end of the park. 
A total of 28 1 vascular plant species and 30 moss 
and lichen species have been identified in the park 
(see Appendix D). This includes about 30 rare and 
uncommon species. 



This wetland, long and narrow in shape, was once a channel of the 
Peace River. It h:Ls a variety of bog. Ten ;uid swamp communities. 



The diversity of habitat within the park supports at 
least 26 mammal, 200 bird, 13 fish, 2 amphibians, 
and 1 reptile species. It is exceptional habitat for 
large ungulates such as moose, mule deer, and 
vvhitetail deer, and for black and grizzly bear. The 
ungulates browse along the river edges, the 
wetlands, and other open areas, and the terraces are 
a particularly important winter range for them. 
Black bear use the rivers as travel corridors, and 
the area provides good feeding of berries, meadow 
forbs, insects under rotting logs, etc. The river 
banks provide good denning sites. Coyotes and 
wolves range widely throughout, and ftir-bearing 
mammals such as beaver, muskrat, fisher, marten 
and weasel find suitable habitat along the rivers 
and in the wetlands. 

Crummy Lake is an important waterfowl area, and 
geese and cranes use it, as well as the river for 
staging in the fall. Species of grouse, owl, and 
woodpeckers find suitable habitat in the 
mixedwoods. Numerous species of small songbirds 
nest in the aspen and willow areas. 

Goldeye, northern pike and walleye are common 
fish species in the rivers. Wood frogs, boreal 
chorus frog and garter snakes occupy wetland edge 
habitats. 

For a more complete description of the natural 
environment of the park, see Appendix A. 

2. 3, 4 Cu Itural/H istorical Resources 
Little evidence has been found to date of early 
aboriginal use in what is now the park. The most 
substantial evidence was found in 1979, at a site at 
the foot of a creek. This yielded bone, charcoal, and 
fire-cracked rock, all evidence of an early 
aboriginal hearth. 

It is probable that in historic times the Beaver 
people inhabited the area and camped along the 
Notikewin River. The name Notikewin is firom a 
Cree word for battle, and the river was so named 
because some important battles between the Beaver 
and Cree Indians took place along its banks. 

European contact began with the voyage of 
Alexander Mackenzie up the Peace River in 1773. 



3 



The Northwest Company built Horseshoe House, a 
trading post, around 1803 to compete with the 
Hudson Bay Post at Dunvegan. This post was 
probably located just outside the southern end of 
the park, and may have been visited by David 
Thompson several times. Intermittently from about 
1866 to 1897 the Hudson's Bay Company operated 
a fur trading post, the Battle River House, on the 
east bank of the Notikewin where it enters the 
Peace. Archaeological surveys conducted in 1977 
identified a series of depressions that represent the 
remains of this post. The site, about 2.5 hectares, is 
privately owned. 

Other remnants of the flir trade era are two 
trapper's cabins. The remains of one trapper's 
cabin is in the day use area; the other cabin is in the 
southern end of the park and accessible only by the 
river. 

Steamboats began to ply the river from Dunvegan 
to Fort Vermilion about 1905, and continued until 
about 1945. The area around the park was used for 
little but hunting and trapping until the 1950s, 
when agricultural settlement began to expand north 
from Manning into the Hawk Hills area and into 
the Breaking Point area. Now the park is 
surrounded by agricultural land. 



2.4 Visitor Use 



2.4.1. Recreation Opportunities 

Sport fishing - People come to fish, particularly at 
the mouth of the Notikewin River, for mainly 
walleye and northern pike. 

Boating -The rivers offer the opportunity for 
boating activities such as motorboating, kayaking, 
or canoeing, although most of the present boating 
activity is associated with fishing. There is no 
formalized boat launch, and access to the river 
depends on water level, conditions of the gravel 
bars, etc. 

Day use - A picnic area contains about 10 sites 
with tables, fire pits and vault toilets. 



Camping - the park has 19 campsites. Services 
include firewood, water pump and vault toilets. 

Hiking - A two-kilometer interpretative trail starts 
at the trailer drop-off area and ends at a viewpoint 
overlooking the confluence of the Peace and 
Notikewin Rivers. The trail is called Asawapowin 
Trail, a Woodland Cree word for lookout. Other 
informal trails exist, including an old trail that 
leads the entire length of the park. 




VtcM' from Asawapowin Viewpoint 



Nature viewing - There are abundant opportunities 
for viewing the river, the vegetation, and the 
wildlife in the park. 

Berry picking - visitors are allowed to pick berries 
as long as there is no damage to vegetation, 
although they should be aware that bears also 
frequent the berry patches. 

The park is closed in winter, and offers no facilities 
or services in this season. 

2.4.2 Park Visitation 

Visitation rates at Notikewin have traditionally 
been low 

Average party size of campers in 1994/95 was 3.6. 
Most of the visitors to the park are local, but a few 
are Americans or Europeans looking for wilderness 
experiences. 



4 



Park Occupancy 




Occupied Campsite 
Nights" 


Day Use Party 
Visits 


1987 88 


115 


1225 


1988 /89 


137 


1055 


1989/90 


133 


1125 


1990 /91 


0* 


875 


1991 /92 


84 


625 


1992 /93 


64 


875 


1993 /94 


55 


850 


1994/95 


76 


800 


1995/96 


100 


1450 


1996/97 


33 


600 


1997/98 


29** 


1000 


1998/99 


72 


3000 (est.) 


1999/2000 


120 


Unavailable 


2000/2001 


97 


Unavailable 



*canipground closed due to flooding and road 
washout 

**campground flooding 

A visitor survey was administered in the region in 
late 1995-earIy 1996. From this survey, the 
majority of visitors (60%) went for the day; about 
15% camped overnight, and the rest did a bit of 
both. Fishing was the most popular activity in the 
park, followed closely by relaxing, camping and 
picnicking. Hiking and nature watching were also 
popular activities. 

Respondents to the survey felt the following were 
the most important attributes of the park: 

- its wilderness setting 

- the quiet and feeling of privacy in the park 

- access to river and a boat launch 

- availability of split, dry firewood 

They also felt that opportunities for outdoor 
recreation activities, the availability of cold potable 
water, night security, provision of hiking trails and 
the closeness of the park to people's homes were 
important. 

Not considered as important for this park were 
amenities such as hot showers and heated 
washrooms, electrical and sewer hookups, paved 
roads to and within the park, interpretation 
programs, and equipment rentals. 



2.5 Significant Features of tfie Park 



' Occupied campsite night - one site occupied tor one night. 
[)ay use party visit - person(s) in a vehicle entering for one 
day without staying overnight. 



Size of Park 

The park, at nearly 100 square kilometers, is more 
likely to be able to maintain species diversity than 
smaller parks. Thus this park plays a important 
role in the preservation objectives of the province. 

Peace and Notikewin Rivers 
The park borders the west bank of the Peace River 
for about 25 kilometers. This river drains the 
largest watershed of any river in Alberta, beginning 
in British Columbia and ending at Lake Athabasca, 
over 1,690 kilometers. The entire river is rich in 
natural, cultural/historical and recreational 
resources, and the park protects and commemorates 
a number of these resources. 

The Notikewin River is a meandering river flowing 
from the Clear Hills. About 6.4 kilometers of it 
flow through the park before it enters the Peace 
River. 

River Terraces 

In the bends of the Peace River the land slopes 
down in a series of four terraces, created by the 
changing course of the river over a long period of 
time. These terraces, the only protected terraces 
along the Peace, have a variety of unique 
vegetation communities. 
Slumping 

The steepness of the slopes, combined with soil of 
high clay content, provide conditions for slumping 
activity along both 
rivers. 



Peace River Islands 

The Peace River has 
carved seven larger 
islands and several 
smaller ones from the 
mainland, the 
northern-most islands 
relatively recently. 
The islands are 
further evidence of 
the river shifting its 
course. 




Ostrich ferns 



5 



Fern Island 

This island, at the mouth of the Notikewin River, 
supports a stand of mature balsam poplar with a 
continuous ground cover of ostrich fern. Such a 
large stand of ostrich fern is unusual in this region. 

Wildlife habitat 

TTie willow/shrub vegetation and the relatively open 
terraces, facing south and east, provide prime 
winter range for ungulates. Bears also frequent the 
park, especially in berry season. Many other 
animals and birds are also attracted to the variety 
of undisturbed habitats in the park. 

Diversity of Wetlands 

Wetlands in the park include bogs, fens, marshes, 
and swamps, with a variety of grasses, shrubs, 
trees and wildflowers. A linear wetland, located on 
an upper terrace in the south end of the park, is 
unusual in its location. 

Plant Diversity 

There is a high diversity of plant species in the 
park, including some species riot found in any other 
provincial park (See Appendix A for plant hst). 

Site of Historic Significance 
The park has historic value as site of both a North 
West Company and a Hudson Bay Company 
trading post. It is also the site of battles between 
the Cree and Beaver people. 

Ammonite Beds 

Ammonite fossils can be found along the banks of 
the Notikewin River. Ammonites were marine 
creatures, closely related to today's nautilus, which 
lived in the warm seas during the Jurassic to 
Cretaceous periods, the time of the dinosaurs. They 
had a coiled body structure with internal chambers, 
and ranged in size from 2 inches to 9 feet. 

Vistas 

The park offers dramatic views of the river valleys 
from the valley rim. The new Asawapowin 
Interpretative Trail offers access to a view of the 
confluence of the Peace and Notikewin Rivers. 



3.0 ROLE IN ALBERTA^S 
PROTECTED AREAS NETWORK 



3.1 Provincial Objectives 



Four broad objectives are the cornerstones of 
Alberta's network of protected areas. 

Preservation 
Preserve and protect a system of provincially 
significant natural landscapes incorporating the 
greatest possible diversity of natural heritage as 
well as landscape related prehistorical and 
historical resources. 

Heritage Appreciation 
Provide opportunities for exploration, 
understanding and appreciation of natural heritage 
supported by a range of interpretive and 
educational programs. 

Outdoor Recreation 
Provides auto access and backcountry 
opportunities for outdoor recreation to the extent 
that the activities are compatible with the 
preservation of natural heritage values. 

Heritage Tourism 
Provides opportunities for provincial, national and 
international visitors to explore and experience 
Alberta's natural heritage. 

Each existing or potential protected area is 
assessed for its contribution to these objectives. 
Two tools aid this assessment - the Natural 
Regions framework and classification. 



3.2. Natural Regions Framework 



The Alberta government is committed to 
protecting representative samples of Alberta's 
natural and cultural heritage. To help select which 
areas are the best samples, a framework based on 
natural features has been adopted. This 
framework is a hierarchy of natural regions, 
subregions, and natural history themes. Natural 
regions provide the "big picture" of Alberta's 



6 



landscapes, such as grasslands, mountains, and 
boreal forest. The subregions and natural history 
themes are subdivisions of the natural regions, and 
provide a more specific picture of smaller areas. 

There are six Natural Regions in Alberta - Boreal 
Forest, Rocky Mountain, Foothills, Canadian 
Shield, Parkland and 
Grassland. Differences 
between these regions are 
readily apparent by their 
distinct landform features 
and vegetation. (See 
Natural Regions map). 



Natural Regions 
if 

Natural Subregions 



Level 1 Themes 
Level 2 Themes 
Level 3 Themes 



Each of these Natural 
Regions has been divided 
into subregions based on criteria that may vary 
depending on the Natural Region. The Boreal 
Forest Natural Region is divided into six 
subregions that vary with the predominant forest 
cover, the topography (level, undulating , or hilly), 
and the mix of uplands and wetlands. 

Subregions are ftirther divided into Level 1, Level 
2, and Level 3 Natural History themes. Level 1 
themes are based on easily observed landforms of 
subregions, such as wetlands and protected slopes 
of valleys and ridges. 

Level 2 themes are more specific breakdowns of 
Level I themes. They refer to distinctive habitat 
types, vegetation, or highly visible geology 
features. Examples of wetland Level 2 themes in 
the Boreal Forest subregions are bogs, patterned 
fens, black spruce forests, or shrublands. 

Level 3 themes are finer breakdowns of Level 2 
themes. They include specific features such as 
rare plants and animals, and specific bedrock and 
landform types, for instance caves and waterfalls. 

The themes, because of their detail, are most 
usefiil for identifying the natural diversity within 
Alberta. Level 1 themes can usually be seen on 
aerial photography maps, while Level 2 and Level 
3 themes require detailed biophysical studies. 
Analysis of these themes can determine which 



sites in Alberta would be the best samples of our 
natural heritage. 

Notikewin Provincial Park is located in the Dry 
Mixedwood Subregion of the Boreal Forest 
Natural Region. Table 1 shows the natural 
history themes located in this park. 



Natural History Themes 
Notikewin Provincial Park 


B&r^si W&tt&i Ni^tsa^ R«gi^ 


l^itrntii W^i&ty Thmm 


Niffibttral S^iisie^ 11r&^3^ 


Non-ianay uplana- 
Ground Moraine 


Mixedwood forest* 
Deciduous forest* 


Non-Sandy Upland - 
Huniinocky Moraine 


White spruce forest* 
Mixedwood forest* 
Deciduous forest* 


Sandy upland- 
Sandy Plain 


Jack pine forest* 
Deciduous forest* 


Valley-Ridge - -Exposed 
Slope 


Shale** 
Sandstone** 


Valley Ridge- 
Protected Slope 


White Spruce forest* 
Mixedwood forest** 
Deciduous forest* 
Snrine** 


Valley Ridge- 
Floor/Streani 


White spmce forest* 
Black spmce forest** 
Mixedwood forest* 
Deciduous forest* 
River** 

Muskeg stream* 


Wetland - Mineral 


Marsh* 
Swainp* 

White spnice forest** 
Black spmce forest** 
Shmbbery* 


Wetland - Organic 


Bog** 

Non-patterned fen** 
Black spmcc forest** 
Tamarack forest** 
Shubbery** 
Graminoids** 


Lake 


Eutropic 



* indicates theme is well represented 

** indicates theme is somewhat represented 



7 



8 



/dibcrra 

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 



NATURAL REGIONS AND SUB-REGIONS 
OF ALBERTA 

0 50 100km 




BOREAL FOREST NATURAL REGION 
I I Central Mixedwood 
I I Dry Mixedwood 
I I Wetland Mixedwood 
WSM Sub-Arctic 
I . I Peace River Lowlands 
Boreal Highlands 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN NATURAL REGION GRASSLAND NATURAL REGION 

I I Alpine I I Dry Mixedgrass 

I ' ' ' I Sub-Alpine I I Foothills Fescue 

Montane I I Norttiern Fescue 

FOOTHIL LS NATURAL REGION I I Mixedgrass 

W:B " i Upper Foottiills 
I I Lower Foothills 



CANADI AN SHIELD NATURAL REGION 

I I Athabasca Plain 
□ I Kazan Uplands 

PARKLAND NATURAL REGION 

Foothills Parkland 
HH Peace River Parkland 
Central Parkland 



Produced by Alberta Parks Services, Management Support Division. 1994 



3.3 Classification 

Protected area legislation makes provision for seven 
classes of protected areas: 

• Ecological Reserves 

• Wilderness Areas 

• Wildland Parks 

• Provincial Parks 

• Natural Areas 

• Provincial Recreation Areas 

• Heritage Rangelands 

Each of these classes of protected areas 
contributes differently to the four goals of 
preservation, heritage appreciation, outdoor 
recreation and heritage tourism. 



3.4 Purpose of Notiliewin Provincial 
Park 



The purpose of Notikewin Provincial Park is: 

To protect a representative sample of the Dry 
Mixedwood Subregion of the Boreal Forest, and 
to provide opportunities for local visitors and 
tourists to experience the outdoors in a setting 
with few facilities and services. 

Notikewin Provincial Park contributes the 
following to the objectives of Parks and Protected 
Areas in Alberta. 

Preservation Objective 

• Makes a major contribution to the 
representation of the Dry Mixedwood 
Subregion of Alberta. It contains representative 
samples of nine Level I themes (out of 1 1 ) and 
3 1 Level 2 themes (out of 46) of this 
subregion. 

• Notikewin is a large park, about 97 square 
kilometers. Provincially protected areas of this 
size are important because they are the best 
possibilities for areas to exist without human 
activities that interfere with natural processes. 

Heritage Appreciation Objective 

• Offers visitors the opportunity to explore on 
their own a boreal forest, river valleys, and a 
diversity of vegetation and wildlife. 



• Contains remnants of the cultural history of the 
area. 

Outdoor Recreation Objective 

• Offers the opportunity to experience 
recreational activities in a natural setting. 

• Provides opportunities for camping experiences 
with only rustic facilities. 

Tourism Objective 

• Supports provision of nature-based tourism 
opportunities in the park. 

3. 5 No tikewin Pro vincial Park - 
Natural Heritage Site 



Notikewin Provincial Park will be managed as a 
natural heritage site. Natural heritage sites are 
intended to contribute primarily to the 
preservation objective, but usually make a 
significant contribution to heritage appreciation 
and may contribute to outdoor recreation and 
tourism. 

3.5.1 Role of Natural Resources Service 

To manage Notikewin Provincial Park as a 
Natural Heritage Site, Alberta Environmental 
Protection will: 

• Establish operating criteria for facility operation, 

maintenance and fees: 

• Maintain responsibility for promoting the 

province's natural, historical and cultural 
resources; 

• Be willing to provide educational and 

interpretative programming; 

• Provide security services; and 

• Retain overall responsibility for resource 

management. 

3.5.2 Role of Private Sector 

The role of the private sector in the management of 
Notikewin Provincial Park is outlined below. 

• The private sector is currently operating the 
campground in Notikewin Provincial Park 
through a facility operating agreement. This 
arrangement will continue. 



9 



The campground will continue to be operated 
and maintained at established provincial 
standards and fees. 

The facility operator may choose to upgrade 
existing facilities or to construct new facilities. 
This development would be approved by the 
department if consistent with publicly 
supported management plans and with the 
public's expectations of the park. This could be 
done widiout public review. 
Except for trails, facility development would 
only take place within the facility zone in the 
park. 

The private sector will be encouraged to 
become partners with the park in the delivery 
of protection, interpretation, site development 
and operation services. These partnerships 
could be with individuals, clubs, volunteers, 
and other members of the public. These kinds 
of partnerships have benefited the Parks and 
Protected Areas Program in the past, and will 
continue to do so. 



3.6 Guiding Principles 



The Government of Alberta has adopted the 
following principles that guide decision-making and 
program delivery in protected areas. 

Ecological Sustainability - Alberta's parks and 
protected areas will be managed to preserve 
environmental diversity and ecological integrity 
through perpetuation of species, biological diversity 
and the unimpeded functioning of ecological 
systems and processes. 

Ecosystem Management -A park or protected 
area is part of a larger ecosystem. Management of 
the natural resources in a park will be coordinated 
with the management of adjacent lands. 

Balancing Preservation and Use - Tlie parks and 
protected areas network will be managed to balance 
preservation and use. Different classes of protected 
areas accommodate varying degrees of human 
activities including outdoor recreation, based upon 
the degree of protection required for the areas' 
natural resources. 



Environmental Stewardship - Heritage 
appreciation services facilitate public awareness 

and understanding 
of Alberta's natural 
heritage, as well as 
the sharing of that 
knowledge to foster 
positive attitudes 
and actions towards 
our natural heritage 
and its preservation. 

Shared 

Responsibility - 

The Government of 
Alberta recognizes 
that stewardship of 
parks and protected 
areas is a shared 
responsibility. Partnerships that foster stewardship 
will be promoted with the private sector, other 
departments and governments. First Nations, 
volunteers, not for profit groups and individual 
citizens in the planning, management and 
operations of parks and protected areas. 




Pines growing on the 
terraces of the Peace River 



4.0 ZONING 



□ 



Zoning is a management tool that divides a 
landscape into units and identifies the intent and 
objectives of each unit. It is useful over a large 
landscape, because values may vary within it. For 
instance, preservation values may have a higher 
priority in some parts of the landscape, and 
recreation values a higher priority in others. 

A range of zones can be applied to a provincial 
park. Notikewin Provincial Park is divided into 4 
zones - preservation, historical/cultural, wildland 
and facility. 



10 



Preservation Zone 

Four areas within the park are designated as 
Preservation Zones: the linear bog complex. 
Crummy Lake and associated wetlands. Fern 
Island, and the ammonite beds. The 2 wetland 
areas provide excellent representation of Level 2 
Natural History Themes, and Fern Island and the 
ammonite beds are special features of the park. 

These areas will receive the highest level of 
protection in the park. Use of the ammonite beds 
will not be encouraged because it is located on a 
riverbank, an area sensitive to impacts. Only low 
impact, dispersed recreation activities such as 
hiking, cross-country skiing and nature 
observation are appropriate in the other areas in 
this zone. 

Historical/Cultural Zone 

Although the site of the trading post. Battle River 
House, is actually private property, it is designated 
a historical/cultural zone to emphasize its historical 
value. Use of this area will be restricted to heritage 
appreciation. 

Facility Zone 

The facility zone in Notikewin Provincial Park is a 
wide corridor from the park entrance down to the 
river, and includes the park operations area, the 
access road, the trailer parking area, the trail to the 
lookout, the boating access area, and the camp and 
day use sites. This zone will accommodate the 
greatest amount of use in the park. 

Wildland Zone 

All of Notikewin Provincial Park not included in 
the other zones is a wildland zone. In keeping with 
the intent of this zone to protect the landscape and 
provide opportunities for backcountry experiences, 
only non-motorized use of the zone will be allowed, 
and any facilities will be rustic. 



5.0 WAHAGEMENT 
OBJECTIVES AND 
GUIDELINES 



For the most part, the natural environment of the 
park is self-sustaining. Management guidelines will 
focus on sustaining the natural processes in the 
park, and on managing visitor use. 



5. 1 . Preserva Hon 



5.1.1. Preservation Objectives 

♦ To sustain the diversity of landscapes in the 
park, and their associated vegetation and 
wildUfe. 

♦ Special emphasis will be placed on protecting 
the representative, rare and special features of 
the Boreal Forest Natural Region present in the 
park. 

♦ To coordinate protection of Notikewin 
Provincial Park with adjacent landowners and 
other agencies. 

♦ To support and encourage scientific and 
educational activities that may increase 
understanding of the area. 

♦ To encourage stewardship of the park. 

5.1.2 Current Situation 

The park is representative of a diverse dry 
mixedwood boreal forest. Its large size contributes 
to maintaining its diversity with a minimum of 
human interference. Natural processes are not 
interfered with, with the exception of forest fire 
suppression. At present there are few impacts from 
outside which threaten its ecological integrity. 



The forest is of various types and age classes, 
ranging from pure stands of even-aged aspen to 
mature mixedwoods of aspen, balsam poplar and 
white spruce on the lower terraces and river 
islands 



12 



Some timber harvesting has occurred in the area 
before park establishment. The mature spruce not 
burned in the most recent wildfires, including those 
near the mouth of the Notikewin River, were 
harvested in the 1960s. Checkerboard Island was 
also logged of spruce in a cut block pattern, hence 
its name. In the late 1970s white spruce in the 
south end of the park were selectively removed. 

The diverse landscape continues to provide habitat 
for a variety of animals. Black bears frequent the 
park, and occasionally grizzly. Ungulates use the 
mix of habitats in the terrace complexes, especially 
in winter. 

5.1.3. Management Guidelines 

Cteology/Soils 

This includes landforms such as the terrace 
complexes, slump slopes, island sandbars, as well 
as soils. 

Slumping occurs along the river and creek banks. 
Facilities such as roads and trails will not be placed 
where they could aggravate or accelerate this 
natural process. 

Erosion of geomorphic or geologic features from 
human use, such as erosion along the hiking trail, 
will be monitored and erosion mitigated and/or 
prevented. 

Roads in the park are easily eroded because of the 
high clay content of the soil and the steepness of the 
grade. The northern access road is particularly 
susceptible to erosion. Roads will be monitored and 
maintained as necessary. 

Ammonite beds lie on the banks of the Notikewin. 
Because it is a special feature of the park it has 
been zoned a preservation zone to protect it from 
human disturbance. Fossils found in this area, or 
anywhere in the park, must not be removed. 

Aquatic Systems 

Tlie significant aquatic features are the Peace and 
Notikewin Rivers, Cnmimy Lake and associated 
upland wetlands, and the linear wetland. 



The rivers are the major natural and recreational 
components of the park, and their natural character 
and hydrological processes will not be interfered 
with. Flooding is a potential disturbance, but 
because the Bennett dam has reduced the 
fluctuations in seasonal water levels, floods are not 
as frequent or as severe as pre-dam conditions. 

Protection of the public will be foremost if a flood 
should occur, including evacuation of the park if 
flood warnings warrant. Monitoring of the water 
level is done regularly by B.C. Hydro, and Water 
Resources Service does flood forecasts for the 
Peace River. Tlie park will communicate regularly 
with these agencies concemmg flooding potential. 

Crummy Lake and associated wetlands, and the 
linear wetlands, will be allowed to evolve naturally. 

Vegetation 

Vegetation is the basis for wildlife habitat and 
contributes to the visual and recreational attraction 
of Notikewin Provincial Park. The park contains a 
diversity of trees, shrubs, wildflowers, mosses and 
lichens that are typical of the boreal forest. See 
Appendix D for list of vegetation species in the 
park. 

In general the forest communities will be allowed to 
succeed naturally. Only in the facility zone may 
vegetation be altered or removed if it is hazardous 
to visitors and facilities. 

A forest in a park can be managed to achieve 
specific objectives. Management actions could 
include prescribed burning and selective tree and 
stand removal. However, at this point the forest in 
Notikewin Provincial Park is a healthy sample of a 
diverse Dry Mixedwood forest, and there is no need 
to manage it. The forest will be monitored to detect 
changes that could be of concern. 

Notikewin Provincial Park contains a number of 
provincially and locally rare, endangered or 
sensitive plant species and communities. If they are 
located near campsites and trails they will be 
monitored to ensure their protection. 



13 




Choke Cherry (Prunus virginiana) grows 
in Notikewin Provincial Park 

Use of herbicides and pesticides for control of 
weeds and insects, rodents or other pests will 
follow park policy, and will only be used in the 
facility and access zones. The policy (Policy 8.8, 
Policies, Procedures and Directives Manual) states 
that use of herbicides/pesticides may be an 
appropriate option when public health or safety is 
threatened, facilities or natural vegetation are 
threatened, or to avoid the spread of weeds unto 
adjacent private lands. In other cases natural means 
of weed and insect control should be used. 

Forest Wildfires/Diseases 

All wildfires with the potential to negatively impact 
the ecological values and the facilities inside the 
park and/or resources on adjacent lands will be 
suppressed. 

A Fire Control Plan for the park, developed with 
Land and Forest Service, will be reviewed 
annually. The plan will include those items outlined 
in Policies, Procedures and Directives Manual 
8. 1 .9, as well as a fire history of the park and 
adjacent lands, and locations of rare/uncommon 
vegetation species. 

Because of fire suppression over a number of 
years, fuel load has built up in some areas of the 
park. This could be particularly hazardous in the 
facility areas. Fuel load in the facility zone and in 
the area surrounding it will be assessed. 
Appropriate methods for reducing fiiel load will be 
investigated, and could include selective horse 
logging and prescribed burns. 



Monitoring of insect and disease infestations will 
be carried out as required and control/eradication 
measures will be applied when the ecological 
values in the park and/or resource values on 
adjacent lands are at risk or threatened. 

Wildlife 

The focus of wildlife management will be the 
protection of habitat for the wide variety of wildlife 
in the park. Any management action will be 
considered for its effect on this habitat and 
consequently on the wildlife. 

The park is the natural habitat of black bears and 
occasionally grizzly bears. For the protection of 
both bears and humans, management will focus on 
prevention or reduction of bear-human encounters. 
This will be done by: 

- monitoring bear activity in the park ; 

- promoting bear awareness and keeping visitors 
informed about bear activity in the park. 
Visitors should be aware that fi-om July to 
September bears feed on the berry crop in the 
jack pine woods on the southern terraces, and 
on berries in the campground. 

- educating visitors about camping practices 
appropriate to bear country and about 
appropriate behavior around bears. 

Bears that become 
V- / l^pl-:- '"'~ '"V j^ conditioned to the 
~V .-u^.. park will be 

monitored closely. 
Some incidents, 
such as frequent 
sightings or 
displays of 
aggression, may 
result in the bear 
being removed from 
the park and/or 
destroyed. 
Conditioning of 

bears to humans often results in the death of the 
bear, so park visitors should discourage this 
through careful camping practices and appropriate 
behavior in the wilderness. 




14 



Bear/human conflicts will be dealt with as per park 
policy (Policy 8.3, Policies, Procedures and 
Directives Manual). 

Beaver whose activity threatens facilities will be 
removed. 

Cultural Resources 

One archaeological dig in the park, at the mouth of 
the creek parallel to the access road, was likely a 
site of successive occupation by aboriginal people. 
This site is subject to serious natural erosion that 
would destroy potential evidence of prehistory in 
this region. The site will be monitored for the 
effects of erosion, and appropriate action taken if 
the site is endangered. 

The few other archaeological digs in the park have 
yielded little prehistoric evidence, but the surveys 
have been too brief to give a good indication of the 
potential of the park (Le Blanc 1980). Any 
archaeological research will be encouraged in the 
park. If further development occurs, an 
archaeological survey will be conducted on the 
development site. 

One trapper's cabin and the site of the Hudson's 
Bay Company trading post are in, or close to, areas 
frequented by visitors. Park management will 
encourage visitors to continue to respect these 
remnants of our cultural heritage with signs 
explaining their heritage value. 

Visitors are asked to leave found artifacts in the 
park, and to report their findings to park staff. 



5. 2. Heritage Apprecia tion 



Heritage appreciation is a valuing of our heritage, 
both natural and cultural. Aids to heritage 
appreciation include interpretation, environmental 
education, and information. Interpretation refers to 
effective communication of our natural and cultural 
heritage in a way that helps people appreciate, 
understand and care for it. Interpretation can be 
done personally, for instance by a park ranger 
leading a nature walk, or impersonally through 



signs and displays. Environmental education is 
generally more formal, and usually tied in to school 
curriculums. Information helps visitors plan their 
visit to the park and makes it more enjoyable by 
creating awareness of park features and of park 
regulations. 

5.2.1. Heritage Appreciation Objectives 



♦ To encourage awareness, understanding and 
enjoyment of the natural and cultural features 
of the park, and to appreciate its value. 

♦ To foster understanding of the provincial 
protected areas network and the role of 
Notikewin Provincial Park within it. 

♦ To provide information to the public about 
Notikewin Provincial Park, 



♦ To encourage others to help protect and 
promote the park. 

5.2.2 Current Situation 

To date there has been little demand for heritage 
appreciation services in the park. Occasionally 
patrolling staff give informal presentations during 
the summer season. 

A self-guided trail, with interpretative signs posted 
at intervals to explain features of the boreal forest, 
has been developed. This trail leads from the trailer 
drop-off parking lot to a scenic lookout over the 
confluence of the Peace and Notikewin Rivers. The 
trail is named Asawapowin, a Cree word for 
lookout. This trail is a Watchable Wildlife trail. 

A new information sign will be placed at the trailer 
drop-off parking lot to inform visitors about the 
features of the park. Information cubes are already 
in place in the day use area and campground. They 
display information relating to public safety, facility 
and site orientation, regulations, and recreation and 
heritage appreciation opportunities. 



15 



5.2.3. Management Guidelines 

When staffing allows, personal interpretation 
services may be offered in the park on an informal 
basis, for instance informally organized guided 
walks. 

Visitors will also be encouraged to explore the 
natural heritage of the park on their own, as long as 
it is consistent with protection values. 

Depending on fiinding, a facility map will be 
produced for visitors to the park.. 

Directional signs on Secondary Road 692 leading 
to the north end of the park will be maintained. 

The campground operator and volunteers will be 
encouraged to provide heritage appreciation 
opportunities for visitors. 



5.3. Outdoor Recreation 



Within the protected areas network of Alberta, a 
range of outdoor recreation experiences are offered. 
For instance, camping opportunities range from 
random camping in wilderness parks to camping in 
parks with the full complement of facihties and 
services. Notikewin Provincial Park lies more to the 
wilderness part of the spectrum, offering the 
opportunity to experience wilderness in a boreal 
forest setting with the support of minimal rustic 
facilities. 

5.3.1. Objectives 

♦ To continue to provide wilderness-type 
recreation opportunities, with minimum 
facilities, in a relatively large, pristine 
provincial park. 

♦ To provide opportunities for private sector and 
volunteer involvement in the delivery of 
recreational services that are consistent with 
park objectives. 



5.3.2. Current Situation 

The most popular outdoor recreation opportunities 
in the park are fishing, picnicking, hiking, berry 
picking and camping. Boat access to the river is of 
great importance. However, there is no formal boat 
launch, and good access depends on river levels. 
There is one formal hiking trail in the park, but 
there are other old roads, trails and cutlines that 
would be suitable for hiking. 

The access road in the park has been subject to 
slumping and erosion over the years. The last 
serious problem occurred in 1990, when the road 
was closed much of the season due to severe 
flooding and erosion. The road was rebuilt, the 
creek straightened and larger culverts installed. 
Since then the road has remained in good condition. 
In very rainy weather some trailer units could have 
difficulty climbing the hill. 

The campground has been operated by a facility 
operator for the last 3 seasons. This arrangement 
will continue as long as contracts can be 
negotiated. If no contract bids were successfiil, the 
campground would be operated by Natural 
Resources Service per guidelines for a natural 
heritage site. 

5.3.3. Management Guidelines 

Park Roads/Parking Areas 

The north entrance will continue to be the main 
access to the park, since that is the location of the 
facilities. The internal park road will continue to be 
maintained for access to the river and the 
campsites. There are no present plans to pave the 
road, but it will be maintained in good graveled 
condition. If slumping and erosion becomes a 
serious problem in future, an alternate access route 
may have to be investigated. As per draft 
legislation, new roads may be considered in Natural 
Environment Provincial Parks to re-route or replace 
pre-existing roads that are in ecologically sensitive 
locations to reduce environmental impact. 

A parking lot is located at the top of the hill before 
the park road descends to the river. This provides 



16 



the opportunity for visitors to unhitch their 
trailers/units and leave them at the top if they do 
not wish to navigate the hill with them. Tliis area 
can also be used for camping, and is supplied with 
rustic camping facilities. 

Another parking lot is situated near the boat launch 
area on the shore of the Peace River. Toilet 
facilities are located in the day use area about 150 
meters from the parking lot. Some visitors have 
requested that toilet facilities be located closer to 
the boat launch area, but this is not feasible 
because of seasonal fluctuation of the water level 
and potential ice damage. 

The road in the south end of the park provides 
access for non-permanent residents to their private 
landholdings along the river. It is a dirt road 
suitable for trucks/utility vehicles. The landholder 
or his tenant also does minimum maintenance when 
necessary. 




Campsite in Notikewin Provincial Park 



Camping Facilities 

The camping facilities are located at the north end 
of the park. When the park was first established, 
development in the south end of the park was 
proposed, but because of public demand the north 
end was chosen for development. Visitor demand 
has not warranted the expense of developing and 
maintaining two campgrounds in the park, so the 
south end has not been developed. This could be 
considered in future if demand warranted it, but 
such a development would incur major costs, 
including improving the access road and building 



the campground. As well, the south end of the park 
is even more remote from a major highway than the 
north end, and it is doubtful that it would draw 
enough visitors to justify such a major expense. 

There are no electrical hookups in the park, and 
present use levels do not justify the expense of 
installation. 

Other Recreational Opportunities 
Small-scale developments which enhance the 
backcounty recreational opportunities in the park 
will be considered, as these are in keeping with the 
character of the park. The developments would be a 
joint project between the facility operator, 
volunteers and Natural Resources Service, and 
could include: 

developing a trail from the north end of the 
park to the south end. This could be a trail 
suitable for hiking and for equestrian use. 
Developing a backcountry campsite at the 
south end, and perhaps one halfway between 
the north and south ends. These could be used 
by hikers and by trail riders. 
Construction of a pedestrian suspension bridge 
across the Notikewin River to facilitate use of 
this proposed north/south trail. 

The park will support efforts of the facility 
operator to promote and deliver other recreational 
opportunities that are appropriate to the park. Any 
proposed development that was outside the 
guidelines of this approved management plan 
would need public review. 

Many local people visit the park for day use. The 
park will continue to offer opportunities for quality 
day use, and will work with the local communities 
to enhance their enjoyment, understanding and 
appreciation of the park. 

Boat launch opportunities on the river are presently 
subject to river conditions. Alberta Environmental 
Protection, Water Resources has studied the 
feasibility of installing a boat launch, and has 
found it cost-prohibitive. However, Natural 
Resources Service would entertain a partnership 
arrangement to maintain a low-cost river access. 



17 



Private sector parties 
will be encouraged to 
offer recreational 
opportunities in the 
park. These could 
include hiking and trail 
riding, boat tours, and 
playground units. 



Berrypicking is allowed in the park. However, be 
aware that bears frequent the berry patches during 
blueberry season. 




5.4. Heritage Tourism 



Notikewin Provincial Park is the only provincial 
park bordering the Peace River which offers a 
wilderness experience and a first-hand look at a 
mostly undisturbed boreal forest. 

5.4.1. Heritage Tourism Objectives 

♦ To promote the park for its setting and natural 
features, and as an area for wilderness-type 
outdoor recreation 

♦ To support tourism-related opportunities for 
heritage appreciation and outdoor recreation 
that are compatible with the character of the 
park. 

♦ To encourage the local community to take an 
active part in supporting and promoting the 
role of the park in regional tourism. 

♦ To ensure that the park's natural features 
remain sustainable so that backcountry tourism 
opportunities can be offered into the future. 

5.4.2 Current Situation 

Tourist use of the park is low, but the park has the 
potential to attract both Canadian and international 
tourists interested in wilderness travel and nature 
tourism. 

Up to now, little tourism promotion of the park has 
occurred, except for promotion in a regional parks 



magazine called Peace Country Times produced in 
1996, and in other park publications and brochures. 

Thus far the presence of the park has not 
contributed significantly to the economy of the 
area. However, the park provides opportunities for 
local businesses to operate appropriate commercial 
activities in the park. The campground operator is 
an example of this. 

5.4.3. Management Guidelines 

Tourism opportunities at Notikewin Provincial 
Park will focus on its naturalness and its 
opportunities for backcountry experiences. These 
are the features that will be emphasized in park 
promotion. 

Current information about the park will be made 
available in Manning at the tourist center and other 
appropriate spots. 

The park is willing to work closely with the local 
community, such as the town of Manning, the local 
M.D., Chamber of Commerce, and other 
appropriate groups to promote the park within the 
community and further abroad. 

The park will continue to be promoted in park 
publications such as Peace Country Times, in 
departmental brochures, and at trade fairs where 
the department is represented. 

Natural Resources Service is a partner of the 
Alberta North Tourism Association, and Notikewin 
Provincial Park is promoted in its widely 
distributed publications. The park is also promoted 
in a tourist initiative involving Montana and 
Alberta called the Heritage Passport Program. 

The park will continue to entertain proposals for 
appropriate business opportunities from local 
people. 



18 



6.0 Surrounding Lands 



Environment will consider purchasing the land to 
add to the park. 



6.1 Surrounding Land Use 



The park is nestled within two large bends of the 
Peace River, and consequently is bounded on the 
south, east and north by the river. Most of the west 
boundary, about 25 kilometers, abuts cultivated 
farmland. 

The park surrounds two pieces of privately owned 
land. One piece, about 133 hectares, is near the 
southern end of the park along the river, and is 
accessed by the south park road. Negotiations to 
obtain this land to add to the park have not been 
successful. 

The other piece of land is a small parcel along the 
Peace River near the mouth of the Notikewin River. 
This parcel of land was the site of the Hudson's 
Bay Company Battle River Post. 



6.2 Dispositions 



The only dispositions within the park are a power 
line and a North Peace Gas Coop pipeline into the 
maintenance area of the park. 

Any disposition activity in the park will be guided 
by the draft Natural Heritage Act and management 
guidelines (1998). Those which apply to Notikewin 
Provincial Park include: 

Surface access to new sub-surface mineral 
dispositions will not be allowed. 

New pipeline corridors are not permitted. 

Construction of new roads, pipelines, power 
lines and other utilities will be prohibited except to 
upgrade existing facilities or to re-route or replace 
pre-existing roads that are in ecologically sensitive 
locations. 



6.3 Additions to Park 



If the two pieces of privately owned land within the 
park become available for purchase. Alberta 



7.0 Regfional Integratton 

One of the principles of ecosystem management of 
protected areas is that they cannot be managed in 
isolation from the surrounding lands. What 
happens on lands around protected areas may have 
an impact inside. In turn, the presence of a 
protected area may affect management of land 
adjacent to it 

Notikewin Provincial Park recognizes this 
principle, and the importance of regional 
cooperation in making decisions about land use. It 
seeks to be a "good neighbour" with land owners 
and managers of adjacent lands, and with the local 
community. 



7.1 Adjacent Land Users 



An oil pipeline crosses the Peace River just to the 
north of the park. 

The forests across the river, except for about 7 
sections that are under Protective Notation for 
Alberta Environmental Protection, are part of the 
Forest Management Agreement (FMA) of 
Daishowa-Marubeni International Ltd (DMI). 
Parks will work with Land and Forest Service, who 
are the land managers, and DMI to ensure that the 
aesthetics of the river valley are considered in 
forest harvesting plans. 

The dry mixedwood forest within the park is 
relatively unaltered by human use, and with the 
exception of forest fires and diseases and pests, 
natural processes will continue without 
interference. Within these management constraints, 
the forest in the park could be used as a benchmark 
against which to compare forests outside the park 
altered by human use. Natural Resources Service 
supports use of the park in this way. 

The park will continue to practice a "good 
neighbour" policy with farmers adjacent to the 



19 



park, and with the private landholders within the 
park. 



7.2 Local Community 



Hawk Hills is the community nearest to the park, 
while Manning is the largest town in the region. 

The park is willing to work with the community of 
Hawk Hills to promote appropriate community use 
of the park, including special community events. 

The park is willing to support efforts by local 
groups, such as the Manning Chamber of 
Commerce, to promote tourism in the region, and 
tourism use of the park. 



8.0 IMPLEJMENWION OF PlMi 



8.1 Plan Implementation 



Implementation of the management plan will 
proceed through ongoing operations. Those 
developments which are proposed will proceed on a 
priority basis as budget resources allow. 



8.2 Plan Review 



This plan will be reviewed not later than ten years 
from its date of approval. A review can be initiated 
sooner if warranted. 

Natural Resources Service will initiate the plan 
review. Members of the local groups and agencies 
who helped in its preparation will be asked to 
participate in the review. The general public will 
also be given an opportunity to review the amended 
plan. 

The review will: 

Review the objectives and the effectiveness of 
the management guidelines outlined in this 
plan; 

Address issues that arise subsequent to the 
approval of this plan; and 
Revise those sections of the plan which need 
updating because of changing situations. 




20 



BreUOGRAPHY 



1 
J 



Acluiff, p. L. 1992 Natural Regions and Subregions of Alberta: A revised classification for protected areas 
management (Report No. 2). Edmonton: Alberta Tourism, Parks and Recreation, Alberta Parks Service. 

Alberta Enviromnental Protection 1994 Alberta Protected Areas System Analysis (Report No. 3). Edmonton; 
Environmental Protection 

Alberta Parks Service Policies, Procedures and Directives Manual Edmonton: Alberta Tourism, Parks and 
Recreation, Alberta Parks Service, Operations and Maintenance Division. 

Dodds, Brian and David Tomlinson 1979 Notikewin Provincial Park Master Plan. Calgary: Dodds Tomlinson & 
Associates Inc. 

Greenlea, G.M. 1977 Soil Survey of the Notikewin River Area and Interpretation for Recreational Use. 
Edmonton: 

Hood, William J. December 1977 Archaeological Assessment of Selected Provincial Parks - Northwestern 
Alberta. Edmonton: Archaeological Survey of Alberta. 

Jones, J. F. 1966 Geology and Groundwater Resources of the Peace River District, Northwestern Alberta. 
Edmonton: Research Council of Alberta. 

Le Blanc, R.J. 1980 Archaeological Work in Provincial Parks of Northwestern Alberta: 1979. Final Report. 
Edmonton: Archaeological Survey of Alberta. 

Loomis, S. and C. Bradley 1978 Notikewin Resource Inventory and Assessment Part One - Background 
Information^ Edmonton: Natural Resources Service. 

Mueller, Ursula, Lynn Bradley, and Ria Brown. 1976 Proposed Notikewin Park: Ecological Survey and Analysis 
for Park Development. Edmonton: Department of Recreation, Parks and Wildlife, Parks Planning Branch. 

Poneleit, S. A. 1979 Interpretive Concept Plan: Notikewin Provincial Park. Edmonton: Alberta Provincial Parks, 
Education and Interpretation Section. 

Recreation and Protected Areas Division 1994 Draft Petroleum and Natural Gas Exploration and Extraction in 
Alberta 's System of Protected Areas. Edmonton: Environmental Protection, Natural Resources Service. 

Recreation and Protected Areas Division 1995 Park User Statistics 1996/97 Edmonton: Natural Resources 
Service, Recreation and Protected Areas Division. 

Recreation and Protected Areas Division 1995 Special Places, A Spectrum of Categories: Intent and 

Management^ Draft Prepared for Discussion of the Special Places Coordinating Committee. Edmonton: 
Natural Resources Service, Recreation and Protected Areas Division. 

Sawyer, Geoff 1981 Notikewin Provincial Park: An Assessment of Historical Resources. Edmonton: Alberta 
Recreation and Parks, Visitor Services Planning. 

Wilson, I.R. 1980 Archaeological Reconnaissance of Special Facilities in Notikewan Provincial Park. Final 
Report. Calgary: Aresco Ltd. 



21 



Appen4Tx A Description of P^rk 



Topography/Geomorphology 

The dominant topographical feature of the park is the deeply incised valleys, to a depth of 150 meters, of 
the Peace and Notikewin Rivers. Two smaller creeks have also cut deep gorges. One of these, in the 
northwest portion of the park, bears the present access road down to the Peace River. The other creek 
enters the Notikewin River from the north about 2 km. from the confluence. The valley sides of the rivers 
and creeks are generally steep, and subject to frequent slumping. The uplands area of the park is gently 
undulating. 

The west bank of the Peace River inside the bends falls in a series of 4 terraces which are level to gently 
sloping, and which drop, steplike, down to the flats of the river. These terraces originated as point bars or 
islands inside the meander of the river when it was at a higher level. The river channel appears to be still 
migrating, having relatively recently cut off three large, teardrop -shaped islands inside the upper bend. 

At the mouth of the Notikewin, an island and large silt and gravel bars have formed from deposits carried 
by the Notikewin into the Peace River. 

Since the building of the W.A.C. Bennett Dam in 1972, water flows on the river have been regulated, 
resulting in lower seasonal fluctuations. This means a greater flow in fall and winter months, and a lesser 
flow in spring and summer. 

Geology and Soils 

Bedrock of the park area was laid during the Cretaceous age. The lowest layer of bedrock is the Peace 
River Formation of mostly sandstone that occurs along the Peace River valley. Outcrops of this formation 
occur within the park. Above this is the Shaftesbury Formation, composed of marine shale and silty beds. 
The majority of the park is underlain by this formation. 

Surficial deposits in the park consist of mostly lacustrine (lake-deposited) material derived from Lake 
Peace, a proglacial lake formed during the last glaciation which ended @ 10,000 years ago. This material 
overlays undulating moraine (glacial till). A band of alluvial (river deposited) and aeolian (wind formed) 
material lies near the edge of the upland as it nears the Peace River. 

Soils of the upland are generally an Orthic Gray Luvisol, derived from ground moraine parent material 
These soils have a high clay content and poor internal drainage. The soils of the valley slopes is mostly 
Orthic Eutric Brunisol, a sandy soil derived from fine textured till. This soil is easily eroded in the steep 
valleys. On the higher terraces, both types of soils have developed on sand and gravels, with a fairly stoney 
surface. The lower terraces consist of layered deposits of finely textured alluvium. A soil survey (Greenlee 
1979) contains more detailed information of the soils and surficial deposits of the park area. 

Climate 

The park area typically has short, cool summers and relatively long winters. Annual rainfall is about 
250mm., and annual snowfall about 1 .4m. Prevailing summer winds are from the west. 



22 



Vegetation/wildlife 

Aspen is the dominant tree species in the park. Its dominance has been maintained by periodic fires, 
evidenced by the appearance of frequent pure, even-aged stands. Balsam poplar often occurs in association 
with aspen, particularly in moist upland and terrace areas. Along the river flats and on the islands it is 
commonly found in association with paper birch. 

Fire is the dominant natural disturbance of the boreal forest. The last fire within the park that was of any 
size (over 200ha.) burned the southern quarter of the park, south of Crummy Lake, in 1955. In the 1940s 
the northern portion of the park was subject to fairly widespread burning (Loomis and Bradley 1978). 

Generally aspen succeeds to white spruce in a boreal forest, but because of the fairly recent fires white 
spruce are only beginning to repopulate. Parts of the lower terraces and the islands, which escaped recent 
fires, support lush mixedwoods of balsam poplar, paper birch, and white spruce. Jackpine occurs in dry, 
open sites, especially on the upper terraces in the southern end of the park. 

Wetlands in the park include Crummy Lake and associated black spruce bogs, a linear wetland of fen, bog 
and marsh, and other marshes located on an upper terrace at the south end of the park, and other fens and 
bogs scattered throughout the upland. 

A total of 281 vascular plant species and 30 moss and lichen species have been identified in the park. 

The diversity of habitat within the park supports at least 25 mammal, 200 bird, 13 fish, 2 amphibian, and 1 
reptile species. Large ungulates such as moose, and mule and whitetail deer, browse along the river edges, 
the wetlands, and other open areas in the park. The park is an important winter range for them. Black bear 
are abundant throughout, and grizzlies have been sighted. Coyotes and wolves range widely. Fur-bearing 
mammals such as beaver, muskrat, fisher, marten and weasel find suitable habitat along the rivers and in 
the wetlands. 

Crummy Lake is an important waterfowl area, and geese and cranes use the river for staging in the fall. 
Species of grouse, owl, and woodpeckers find suitable habitat in the mixedwoods. Numerous species of 
small songbirds nest in the aspen and willow areas. 

Of the fish, goldeye, northern pike and walleye are the most common. Wood frogs, boreal chorus fi-og and 
garter snakes occupy wetland edge habitats. 

Biophysical Units 

For the purposes of a more detailed description, this large and diverse park has been divided into the 
following biophysical units: rivers (open water, bars and shores, islands); valley sides (terrace complexes, 
slump slope complex, linear wetland); and upland (poorly drained uplands, well drained upland) (Loomis 
and Bradley 1978). Vegetation and wildlife are discussed under each of these units. 

Rivers 

Open water 

Aquatic vegetation in both the Peace and the Notikewin Rivers is minimal because of the swift currents. 
Thirteen species of fish are expected to be present in the Peace and Notikewin Rivers; the most common 
reported catches are northern pike and walleye. 



23 



Bars and Shores 

Transitory bars and shores are silt and gravel deposits on the upstream side of islands in the Peace River 
and at the mouth of the Notikewin, fonned because of fluctuating flow regimes. They are visible when river 
levels are low in summer and fall. 

Vegetation communities here are characterized by a sparseness of ground cover, but a diversity of plant 
species take advantage of the lack of competition because of periodic flooding. Many of them are 
introduced annual herbs, such as sweet clover, tansy mustard, common plantain, and annual hawksbeard. 
Colonizing grass species include quack grass, brome, Canada wild rye and foxtail barley. Sandbar willow 
and Mackenzie's willow are abundant on the inshore of beaches and on the high points of bars where 
flooding is less frequent. 

Most of the large mammals in the area come down to the rivers to drink, leaving their tracks as evidence. 
Canada geese nest in the sparse vegetation on the shores, and use the dry channels between the islands and 
the mainland as a staging area in the fall. Sandhill cranes have also been noted to use the sandbars during 
migration. Shorebirds include the spotted sandpiper. 

Islands 

The islands have been formed by the fluvial processes of the rivers. Vegetation on them exhibit a variety of 
successional stages, from pioneering sandbar willow communities to mature white spruce communities. 
Plant community succession on the islands has not been disrupted by fire as on the mainland, although 
stages probably correlate with depth of water table and flood frequency. 

The upstream ends of the larger islands and the smaller islands are dominated by willow communities. 
Species associated with these willows are common horsetail, hair grass, Indian hemp, evening primrose, 
hedge nettle and sow thistle. Farther inshore willows intermix with river alder and balsam poplar. Often 
large piles of debris from flooding disrupt the vegetation cover in this habitat. 

Above the flood line, the willow communities mix with varying proportions of wolf willow, dogwood, rose, 
river alder and young balsam poplar. The sparse herb cover includes horsetail, Canada wild rye, reed grass, 
veiny meadow rue, and sweet-scented bedstraw. As one goes farther inshore willows become less abundant 
and the balsam poplar increase in size. 

On larger islands mature balsam poplar are mixed with aspen, paper birch and white spruce. Shrubs 
include river alder and willow, dogwood, high-bush cranberry, rose, wild red raspberry. The herb 
understory includes common horsetail, woodland strawberry, dewberry, lily-of-the-valley, wintergreen, 
bishop's cap and twin flower. Fern Island, at the mouth of the Notikewin, is unique to the region in that it 
supports a mature balsam poplar stand with a cover of one meter high ostrich ferns. 

The larger islands support, mainly towards their downstream ends, mixedwood stands dominated by mature 
white spruce. In these stands with a tall, dense canopy the shrub and herb layers are sparse, although 
feather mosses thrive here on rotting deadfall. Logging has occurred on Checkerboard Island and, in the 
logged areas, marsh reed grass thrives. 

Many bird species use the varied habitats on these islands. Canada warblers, yellow warblers and song 
sparrows frequent the willow fringes. American redstarts, least flycatchers and Swainson's thrushes use the 
balsam poplar woods, and hermit thrushes, boreal chickadees, western tanagers, bay-breasted warblers and 
golden-crowned kinglets reside in the mature mixedwoods. Pileated woodpeckers are also present. 



24 



Moose and deer browse on the islands, as the dry channels between the mainland and many of the islands in 
late summer and fall allow easy access. 

Valley Side 

Terraces 

Vegetation on the terraces is complex because of the varying factors of slope, aspect, soil, drainage, and 
fire and biological interaction. 

The lower terraces immediately above the riverbanks largely support lush balsam poplar stands with 
understories of western shining willow, beaked willow, dogwood, Indian hemp, rose, and horsetail. In the 
depressions of old channels balsam poplar decreases and willow and rose increase. Birch, with an 
understory of wild sarsaparilla, enters the canopy on well-drained, sandy sites. White spruce on the lower 
terraces is associated with seepage areas and streams. 

Much of the middle terraces are aspen dominated, with variation in age and understory governed by the fire 
history and moisture regime. The sections burned within the last 50 years support pure dense stands of 
aspen. The shrub understory is composed of beaked willow, rose, snowberry, buffalo berry; common herbs 
are hairy wild rye, peavine, asters, veiny meadow rue and wild lily-of-the-valley. 

In areas of the middle and upper terraces which are not aspen dominated, vegetation can be correlated with 
the moisture regime. In fairly damp sites a mixedwood community of balsam poplar, paper birch, white 
spruce and aspen occurs. In these areas a dense shrub cover of rose, saskatoon, low-bush cranberry, 
spreading dogbane, buffaloberry and wild red raspberry can be found, while the herb cover includes hairy 
wild rye, fireweed, peavine, showy aster, wild sarsaparilla and wild lily-of-the-valley. 

Wet communities are sparse here, except for the linear wetland on an upper terraces in the southern end of 
the park. This unique wetland includes white spruce feathermoss woods, black spruce-sphagnum moss 
bogs and willow-sedge marshes. 

Dryer sites are associated with well-drained, sandy soils. Jackpine is the key component of this community 
type, alone or in association with aspen, balsam poplar and white spruce. Ground cover is often lichens and 
mosses, grasses include hairy wild rye and rice grass, herbs and low shrubs include cut-leaved anemone, 
wild lily-of-the-valley, bluebell, early blue violet, wild strawberry, northern bedstraw. 

The terraces provide the greatest diversity of habitat within the park for animals and birds. Mule deer and 
moose range throughout, with moose browsing fairly intensively on the willows along the riverbank in 
winter. Black bear frequent the area. Porcupine, snowshoe hare, red squirrel, chipmunk, and northern flying 
squirrel are also present. 

Hairy, downy and pileated woodpeckers and yellow-bellied sapsuckers, ruffed grouse, blue jay, red-eyed 
vireo, ovenbird, nighthawks, evening grosbeaks, purple finches, pine siskins, common flickers, red breasted 
nuthatch, hermit thrush, solitary vireo, and a variety of hawks are all seen on these terraces. 

Slump Slopes 

Slump slopes are formed as a result of incising by the rivers and movement of ground and surface water. 
Most of these areas are steep and composed of unstable soils, and in some places are subject to annual 
slumping. One slump area is the creek valley which contains the access road to the campsite. The banks of 



25 



the Notikewin are also slump areas, as well as the western bank of the Peace except for the terrace 
complexes. 

The small alluvial flats in this unit support lush stands of white spruce, balsam poplar and paper birch; 
most of the spruce on the flats along the Notikewin River has been logged. Generally the understory is rich 
with river alder, western shining willow, dogwood, baneberry, high and low bush cranberry and currants. 
Herbs include horsetail, wild sarsaparilla, woodland strawberry, wintergreen and bishop's cap. 

Most of the slopes and small terraces within the slump areas are covered in aspen and/or paper birch, with 
some white spruce. Generally a dense shrub understory includes beaked willow, river alder, pincherry, 
dogwood, beaked hazelnut, rose, snowberry, prickly red raspberry, saskatoon berry, Indian hemp, low-bush 
cranberry, buffaloberry and twining honeysuckle. A sparser herb cover could include hairy wild rye, showy 
aster, wild sarsaparilla, common horsetail, fireweed peavine, wild vetch, fairy bells, northern bedstraw, 
bunchberry, wintergreen, wild lily-of-the-valley and woodland strawberry. 

Clearings are common on steep south-facing slopes. Shrubs on these slopes - rose, saskatoon berry, 
snowberry spreading dogbane, choke cherry - are generally stunted. Grasses are abundant, and include 
bearded wheat grass, northern awnless brome, hairy wild rye, June grass and porcupine grass. 
Characteristic herbs are sagewort, smooth aster, goldenrod, northern bedstraw, bluebell, common yarrow, 
Pennsylvanian cinquefoil, and blue-eyed grass. In recent slump sites 4 species of sage, 2 species of wheat 
grass, showy locoweed and goldenrod are the chief colonizers. 

The mixedwoods on the lower sections of the slump areas harbor hairy woodpeckers, yellow-bellied 
sapsuckers, Swainson's thrushes, western wood peewees and yellow-rumped warblers. The aspen woods on 
the valley slopes also provide habitat for ruffed grouse, blue jays, oven birds and American redstarts. The 
large mammals of the park - black bear, moose, mule deer, wolves - range through the area. 

Linear Wetland 

The linear wetland is an abandoned drainage channel of post-glacial times. Beaver dams have created an 
assemblage of swamp, fen and bog wetlands here. 

Swamps are defined as wooded wetlands where standing to gently flowing water occurs seasonally or 
persists for long periods on the surface. Vegetation in these swamps is tall willows with an understory of 
mosses, sedges and marsh reed grass. Scattered shrubs and herbs characteristic of this community type are 
skunk currant, wild black currant, marsh marigold, tufted loosestrife, and common skullcap. 

Fens are peatlands which can be treed, shrubby or open. Water source is mineral rich ground water 
(alkaline), with slow internal drainage. These fens are hummocky with a thick mat of mosses and sedges. 
Characteristic herbs include marsh cinquefoil, dwarf raspberry and bedstraw. Predominant shrubs include 
swamp birch, bog willow, and flat-leaved willow. 

Bogs are peatlands of standing water, fairly acidic because rainwater maintains the water table. A portion 
of the wetlands in this area take on the characteristics of a bog as the hummocks are covered with 
sphagnum mosses and shrubs such as Labrador tea and bog cranberry. 

Scattered dry islands within the wetland support tall spruce and tamarack. Understory is northern green 
orchid, blunt-leaved orchid, and feathermosses and horsetails. 



26 



The wetlands provide habitat for an abundance of aquatic insects, wood frogs and boreal chorus frogs. 
Birds present include red-winged blackbird, rusty blackbird, Tennessee warbler, black and white warbler, 
yellowthroat, Lincoln's sparrow and swanip sparrow, common snipe, olive-sided flycatchers, boreal 
chickadees, ruby-crowned kinglets and red crossbills. Moose browse the willows, and beaver are present. 

Uplands 

Upland areas in the park are those lands to the west of the Peace River which are above the terraces and the 
slump slopes. This area is covered with ground moraine, and is subdivided into poorly-drained and well- 
drained uplands. 

Poorly-drained Uplands 

Basically, the poorly drained uplands contain a higher percentage of fine ground moraine materials; more 
them 50% of it is wetlands. It comprises most of the uplands in the park. 

In the drier sections, of these poorly-drained uplands aspen woods, spruce woods and mixed aspen and 
spruce woods predominate. The wetter depression areas are marshes, swamps and bogs, where black 
spruce, tamarack and willows are present. 

Crummy Lake is the largest depression in this unit, and is the only extensive body of open water. This 
shallow lake is ringed with floating moss mats, patches of cattails and northern reed grass. Farther inshore 
are herbs such as marsh cinquefoil, common skullcap, fleshy stitchwort, and water parsnip, and bog birch 
and willows. Surrounding Crummy Lake are extensive black spruce bogs. Typical understory vegetation is 
sphagnum moss with white patches of lichen, cotton grass, three-leaved Solomon's seal, Labrador tea, 
cloudberry, bog cranberry and small bog cranberry, and blueberry. 

Many other depressions in this unit support marshes, grassy wet areas which are periodically inundated 
with water up to a depth of 2 meters. Characteristic vegetation in these areas is tall sedges, northern reed 
grass, skullcap, yellow avens, stinging nettle and water parsnip. Less moist depressions support thickets of 
river alder and balsam poplar. The understory under the dense canopy in these thickets is sparse, consisting 
of wild sarsaparilla, tall mertensia, palmate-leaved coltsfoot and low-bush cranberry. Occasionally 
communities of white spruce encircle the thickets - they have escaped burning in recent fires. 

Aspen woods cover the largest area in this unit. The composition of these woods varies with age of stand 
(directly related to fire history) and drainage. Recently burned stands have a characteristic understory of 
rose, hairy wild rye, fireweed, peavine and showy aster. Older stands typically have some young white 
spruce, a sparse tall shrub layer of beaked willow, a moderately dense shrub layer of rose, prickly red 
raspberry, snowberry and low-bush cranberry, and a moderately dense herb layer of hairy wild rye, fringed 
brome, showy aster, sumiing raspberry, wild lily-of-the-valley, wild sarsaparilla and wild strawberry. 

Crummy Lake was dry in the late 1950s and was homesteaded, but since then it has become too wet for 
agricultural purposes and the land reverted to the crown. It supports an abundance of waterfowl including 
mallard, gadwall, America widgeon, blue-winged teal, ring-necked duck, common goldeneye, ruddy duck, 
and American coot. Other marsh birds include sora and long-billed marsh wren. Birds present in the 
wetlands include Say's phoebe, alder flycatcher, cedar waxwing, yellow warbler, rusty blackbird, fox 
sparrow, Lincoln's sparrow and swamp sparrow. The black spruce bogs have a lower diversity of fauna - 
the olive-sided flycatcher is characteristic. The aspen woods supports ruffed grouse, least flycatcher, 
western wood peewee, black-capped chickadee, red-eyed vireo, ovenbird and white-throated sparrow. Mule 
deer favor the more open deciduous areas over denser coniferous stands, and marten, fisher and weasel 
probably range throughout. 



27 



Well-drained Uplands 



This is a small unit of land between the Peace and Notikewin Rivers above the northern terrace complex. It 
is covered with a fairly homogeneous middle-aged aspen forest community. Understory consists of a dense 
shrub layer of buffaloberry, rose, lowbush-cranberry, snowberry and dogwood, and a thin herb layer of 
fireweed, northern bedstraw, bunchberry, twin flower, showy aster, wild sarsaparilla, wild lily-of-the-valley 
and tall mertensia. This area was probably burned in the early 1900s. 

Birds of the upland aspen woods are ruffed grouse, least flycatcher, black-capped chickadee, house wren, 
robin, red-eyed vireo, dark-eyed j unco and white-throated sparrow. Mule deer browse the open aspen 
woods. 



Appendix B Summary of Public Input 



At the beginning of the planning process, the public was asked for input through questionnaires and 
through letters sent to stakeholders. Forty questionnaires and 1 1 letters were returned. The following is a 
summary of this input, organized under the following headings. 

Roads 

• For many people the distance of the park from the highway is a deterrent for visiting the park. 

• The secondary road to the park is not completely paved; and the secondary road to the south end is 
not paved at all. This deters those with trailers, etc. who prefer to travel on pavement. 

• Many people feel the gravel access road down to the river is not reliable in wet weather. People are 
afraid to take campers, RVs down to the river for fear of not being able to get back up should there 
be rain. 

• Most visitors are day visitors. Some are worried about camping overnight because of bears. 
Facilities 

• Facilities such as hot showers, heated washroom buildings, sewer hookups, electrical hookups, on 
average were not as important to visitors as access to cold running water and dry split firewood. 
The most important attributes of the park were the wilderness setting, the quiet and feeling of 
privacy, access to river, and the opportunity for outdoor activities. 

• A boat launch was important in order to access the Peace River for boating and fishing. 

• Some suggested developing facilities at the south end of the park; others suggested that the south 
end remain undeveloped. 

Heritage Appreciation Services 

• Most respondents were interested in some interpretation or environmental education services, 
perhaps only occasionally. Interpretative trails interested the majority of people, followed by 
children's programs. However, others wondered if the expense of these services was worth it, or 
even necessary. 

Protection 

• Most respondents agreed that a main objective of the park should be protection of its natural 
environment, but this should be balanced with opportunities for visitor use. Some felt that the 
wilderness setting of the park was its most important feature, while others felt it was useless as a 
park because of its low visitation. 



28 



• Most felt that forest fires should not be allowed to bum freely. Controlled fire was an acceptable 
way to manage the forest. 

• The number of people who agreed and disagreed that insect infestations should be allowed to run 
their course were equal, as was the number who agreed and disagreed about the use of pesticides, 
tree removal, etc. to manage these infestations. 

• Most people felt that the presence of wildlife in the park is a sign of the quality of the natural 
environment. 

• Most also felt that the park is being protected successfijlly for the future. 
Promotion of the Park 

• Many people felt the park was not promoted enough, and that more local/regional/provincial 
promotion could possibly increase use of the park. There were others who felt that the distance 
from the highway, the rustic facihties, and the gravel roads were deterrents to visitors, and tourism 
to the area would be difficult to increase. 

• To increase interest among local people, special events and holding local functions at the park were 
suggested. 



Appendtx C Management Issues 



The following chart lists issues raised by the public during the public participation process and indicates 
where in the plan they are addressed. Often the issues are mentioned in several places, but the reference 
given is the main one: 



Issues 


Where it is addressed in management plan 


Backcountry facilities 


5.3 Outdoor Recreation. Page 16 


Bear management 


5.1 Preservation. Page 12 


Berry picking 


5.3 Outdoor Recreation. Page 16 


Boat launch 


5.3 CXitdoor Recreation. Page 16 


Community involvement/stewardship in 
park 


5.3 Outdoor Recreation Page 16 
7.2 Local Community. Page 20 


Entrepreneurial activities in park 


5.3 (Outdoor Recreation. Page 16 
5. 4. Heritage Tourism. Page 18. 


Forest management 

- fire management 

- use of pesticides 


5.1 Preservation. Page 12 


Infonnation about the park 


5.2 Heritage Appreciation Page 15 
5.4 Heritage Tourism. Page 18 


Interpretatiou/infonnation services 


5.2 Heritage Appreciation. Page 15 


Main objectives of park 


5.1 F'reservation. F'age 12 

5.2 Heritage Appreciation. Page 15 

5.3 Outdoor Recreation Page 16 

5.4 Heritage Tourism. Page 18 


Maintaining the natural enviromnent of 
park 


5.1. Preservation F'age 12 


Resource extraction 


6.2 Dispositions. F'age 19 


Roads in the park 


5.39 Outdoor Recreation. F'age 16 


Signs in park, on way to park 


5.2 Heritage Appreciation. Page 15 


Tourism promotion of park 


5.4 Heritage Tourism F'age 18 



29 



Appendix D Plants foMHCi in Nottkewirt Provincial Parte 



This list of vascular plants was compiled from: Mueller, Bradley and Brown 1973 Proposed Notikewin Park, 
Ecological Survey and Analysis for Park Development. This list has since been added to by park staff 
Other references were: 

EH. Moss 1959 Flora of Alberta. University of Toronto Press 

Budd, A.C. 1957 Wild Plants of the Canadian Prairies. Canada Dept. Agriculture 

D. Johnson, L. Kershaw, A. MacKinnon and J. Pojar. 1995 Plants of the Western Boreal Forest and Aspen 
Parkland. Lone Pine Press. 



Trees 


Balsam fir 


Abies balsamea. 


White birch 


Betula papyrifera 


Tamarack 


Larix laricina 


White Spmce 


Picea ^lauca 


Black spmce 


Picea mariana 


Jack pine 


Pinus banksiana 


Lodgepole pine 


Pinus contorta 


Balsam poplar 


Populus baisamifera 


Black poplar 


Populus trichocarpa 


Aspen 


Populus tremuloides 


Tall Shrubs 


Green alder 


A In us crispa 


River alder 


Alnus tenufalia 


Saskatoon berry 


Amclanchier alnifolia. 


Pin cherrv 


Prunus pensylvanica 


Peach -leaf willow 


Salix amy^daloidcs 


Beaked willow 


Salix bebbiana. 


Hoarv willow 


Salix Candida 


Pussy willow 


Salix discolor. 


Sandbar willow 


Salix interior 


Yellow willow 


Salix lutea 


Velvet-fniited willow. 


Salix maccalliana 


also MacCall's willow 




Mackenzie's willow 


Salix mackenzieana, also 




Salix rigida 


Basket willow 


Salix petiolaris 


Flat-leaved willow 


Salix planifolia 


Autumn willow 


Salix .serissima 




Salix spp. 


High-bush cranberry 


l ib urn urn trilobum 


Medium Shrubs 


Swamp birch 


Betula pumila 


Red osier dogwood 


( \)rnus stolonifera 


Beaked hazelnut 


(\)rvlus cornuta 


Silvcrbcrry. also Wolf- 


Flaeagn us comniutata 


willow 




Labrador lea 


Ledum i^rociildiidicu/n Oedcr 



Twining honeysuckle 


Lonicera dioica var. 
glaucescens 


Bracted honeysuckle 


Lonicera involucrata 


Chokecherry 


Prunus virginiana 


Skunk currant 


Ribes glandulosum 


Northern gooseberry 


Ribes hirtellum. 


Northern black currant 


Ribes hudsonianuni 


Briskly black currant 


Ribes lacustre 


Wild red currant 


Ribes triste 




Ribes sp. 


Prickly rose 


Rosa acicularis. 


Low prairie rose 


Rosa arkansana 


Common wild rose 


Rosa woodsii 


Wild red raspberry 


Rubus strigosus 


Myrtle leaved willow 


Salix myrtillifolia 


Bog willow 


Salix pedicellaris 


Canada buffaloberrv 


Shepherdia canadensis 


Buckbmsh 


Symphoricarpos occidentalis 


Snowberrv 


Symphoricarpos albus 


Common blueberry 


I' acciniuni myrtilloides 


Low bush cranberry 


Viburnum edule. 


Low Shrubs 


Common bearberry 


Arctostaphylos uva-ursi 


Creeping juniper 


Juniperus horizontalis 


Small bog cranberry 


Oxycoccos microcarpus 


Dwarf raspberry 


Rubus acaulis 


Cloudberry 


Rubus chamaemorus 


Dewberry 


Rubus pubescens 


Dwarf bilberry 


Vaccinium caespitosum 


Bog cranberry 


Vaccinium vitis-idaea 


Ferns 


Male feni 


Drvopteris fdix-mas 


Narrow spinulose shield 


Dryopteris spinulosa 


fern 




Ostrich fern 


Matteucia struthiopteris 


Horsetails 


Common horsetail 


Equisctum arvense 


Swamp horsetail 


Ecpiisctuni fJuviatile 


Conunon scouring-rush 


lujuiselum hycntale 



Common scouring-msh 


Equisetum hyemale 


Smooth scoiiring-rush 


Equisetum laevigatum 


Marsh horsetail 


Equisetum po lustre 


Meadow horsetail 


Equisetum pratense 


Dwarf scouring rush 


Equisetum scirpoides 


Variegated horsetail 


Equisetum variegatum 


Cliil)-m(>ssos 


Ground cedar 


Lycopodium complanatum 


Little club moss 


Selaginella densa 


Grasses, Sedges and Ru 


shes 


Slender-wheat grass 


Agropyron canlinum (L.) 
Beauv. 


Beardless wheat grass 


Agropyron inerme 


Quack grass 


Agropyron repens 


Bearded wheat grass 


Agropyron subsecundum 


Slender wheat grass 


Agropyron trachycaulum 


Hair grass 


Agrostis scabra 


Slough grass 


Beckmannia syzigachne 


Fringed brome 


Bromus ciliatus 


Awnless brome 


Bromus inermis 


Northern awnless brome 


Bromus pumpellianus 


Marsh reed grass 


Calamagrostis canadensis 


Northern reed grass 


Calamagrostis inexpansa 


Narrow reed grass 


Calamagrostis neglecta 


Pine grass 


Calamagrostis rubescens 


Water sedge 


Carex aquatilis 


Awned sedge 


Carex atherodes 


Golden sedge 


Carex aurea 


Brownish sedge 


Carex brunnescens 


Hair-like sedge 


Carex capillaris 


Two-stamened sedge, also 
lesser panicled sedge 


Carex diandra 


Two-seeded sedge 


Carex disperma 


Hay sedge 


Carex foenea 


Nortliem bog sedge, also 

vpl1r>\A/ hno Cf^rlop> 


Carex gynocrates 


Beaked sedge 


Carex rostrata 


Broom sedge 


Carex scoparia 




Carex spp. 


Tufted hair grass 


Deschampsia caespitosa 


Creeping spike-rush 


Eleocharis palustris 


Canada wild rye 


Elvmus canadensis 


Hairy wild rye 


Elvmus innovatus 


One-spike cotton-grass 


Eriophorum scheuchzeri 


Sheathed cotton-grass 


Eriophorum vaginatum 


Sweet grass 


Hierochloe odorata 


Foxtail barley 


Hordeum jubatum 


Alpine nish 


Juncus alpinus 


Wire aish 


Juncus balficus 


Toad nish 


Juncus bufonius 



White-grained mountain 


Oryzopsis asperifolia 


rice grass 




Northern rice grass 


Orvzopsis pungens 

> r r c 


Reed canary grass 


Phalaris arundinacea 


Conunon reed grass 

W 


Phragmites communis 


Timothy 


Phleum pratense 


Inland bluegrass 

S. 


Poa interior 


Kentucky bluegrass 


Poa pratensis 


Fowl bluegrass 


Poa palustris 




Poa sp. 


False melic 


Schizachne purpurascens 


Three-square rush 


Scripus americanus 


Small-fruited bulrush 


Scirpus microcarpus 


Common great bulrush 


Scirpus validus 


Porcupine grass 


Stipa spartea 


Arrow grass 


Triglochin maritima 


Water Plants 


Mares tail 


Hippuris vlugaris 


Common duckweed 


Lemna minor 




Lemna sp. 


Water smartweed 


Polygonum amphibium 


Long-spiked water 
smartweed 


Polygonum coccineum 


Common cattail 


Typha latifolia 


Forbs 


Common yarrow 


Achillea millefolium . 


Many-flowered yarrow 


Achillea sibirica 


Baneberry 


Actaea rubra. 


Nodding onion 


Allium cernum 


Fairy candelabra 


Androsace septentriorolis 


Canada anemone 


Anemone canadensis 


Cut-leaved anenome 


Anenome multifida 


Prairie crocus 


Anenome patens 


Broad-leaved pussytoes 


Antennaria neglecta. 


Small-leaved pussytoes 


Antennaria nitida 


Spreading dogbane 


Apocyunum 
andro.saemifolium 


Indian hemp 


Apocynum cannabinum 


Blue columbine 


Aquilegia brevistyla 


Hairy rock cress 


Arab is hir.su ta 


Wild sarsparilla 


Aral i a nudicaulis 


Blunt-leaved sandwort 


Arenaria lateriflora 


Sandwort 


Arenoria sp. 


Blunt-leaved sandwort 


Arenaria lateriflora 


Biennial sagewort 


Artemesia biennis 


Plains wormwood 


A rtemesia campe.stris 


Dragonwort 


Artemesia dracunculus 


Pasture sagewort 


A rteme.sia frigida 


Herriot's sage 


Artemesia herriotii 



31 



Long-leaved sage 


Attc tn Qsici lo n^ijo lici 




Artemesia sp. 


Lindley's aster 


Aster ciliolatus. 


Shovvy aster 


Aster conspicuus. 


Tiifted white prairie aster 


Aster ericoides L. var. 
commutatus, 2Aso Aster 
pansus 


Western willow aster 


Aster hesperius. 


Rush aster 


Aster junciformis 


Smooth aster 


Aster laevis var. geyri. 


Purple-stemmed aster 


Aster puniceus. 


Arctic aster 


Aster sibiricus 




Aster subspicatus Nees Var. 
subspicatus 


American milk vetch 


Astragalus frigidus var. 
americanus. 


Loose-flowered milk 
vetch 


Astragalus tenellus 




Astragalus sp. 


Nodding beggarticks 


Bidens cernua 


Bird-rape 


Brassica campestris 


Yellow marsh marigold 


Caltha palustris 


Common harebell 


Campanula rotundiflolia 


Shepherd's purse 


Capsella bursa-pastoris 


Purple Indian paint-brush 


Castilleja raupii 


Indian paint-brush 


Castilleja sp. 


Mouse-eared chickweed 


Cerastium arvense 


Lamb's quarters 


Chenopodium album 


Strawberry blite 


Chenopodium capitatun 


Oak-leaved goosefoot 


Chenopodium glaucum 


Narrow-leaved goosefoot 


Chenopodium leptophyllum 


Water-hemlock 


Cicuta douglasii 


Enchanter's nightshade 


Circaea alpina 


Blue clematis 


Clematis verticellaris var. 
Columbiana 


Northern bastard toad- 
flax, also Northern 
comandra 


Comandra livida, also 
Geocaulon tivedum 


Bastard toad-flax, also 
pale comandra 


Comandra pallida 


Bunchberry 


Cornus canadensis L. 


Golden corydalis 


Corydalis aurea 


Scapose hawksbeard 


Crepis runcinata 


Annual hawksbeard 


C rep is tec to rum 


Sparrow's egg lady 
slipper 


Cypripedium passerinum 


Tall larkspur 


Delphinium glacum 


Tansy mustard 


Descurainia sophia 


Fairy bells 


Disporum trachycarpum 


Fire weed 


Epilobium angustifolium 



Nortliem willowherb 


Epilobium glandulosum 


Northern daisy fleabane, 
also bitter fleabane 


Erigeron acris 


Horseweed 


Erigeron canadensis 


Smooth fleabane 


Erigeron glabellus 


Philadelphia fleabane 


Erigeron philadelphicus 




Erigeron pumilus 


Wormseed mustard 


Erysimum cheiranthoides 


Small-flowered rocket 


Erysimum inconspicuum 


Joe-pye weed 


Eupatorium purpureum var. 
maculatum 


Wild strawberry 


Fragaria glauca Var. 
virginiana 


Woodland strawberry 


Fragaria vesca 


Wild strawberry 


Fragaria virginiana 


Hemp nettle 


Galeopsis tetrahit 


Nortliern bedstraw 


Galium boreale 


Labrador bedstraw 


Galium labradoricum 


Small bedstraw 


Galim trifidum 


Sweet-scented bedstraw 


Galium triflorum 


Felwort 


Gentianella amarella 


Bickiiell's geranium 


Geranium bicknellii 


Yellow avens 


Geum allepicum 


Low cudweed 


Gnaphalium uligonosum 


Lesser rattlesnake- 
plantain 


Goodyera repens 


Northern green orchid 


Habenaria hyperborea 


Blunt-leaved orchid 


Habenaria obtusata 


Bracted orchid 


Habenaria viridis 


Northern hedysarum 


Hedysarum boreale 


Alpine hedysanun 


Hedysarum alpinum 


Canada hawkweed 


Hieracium canadense 


Narrow-leaved hawkweed 


Hieracium umbellatum 


Common blue lettuce 


Lactuca pulchella 


Yellow pea-vine 


Lathyrus ochroleucus 


Purple pea-vine 


Lathyrus venosus var. 
intonsus 


Western wood lily 


Lilium philadelphicum 


Twin flower 


Linnaea borealis 


Northern twayblade 


Listera borealis 


Heart-leaved twayblade 


Listera cordata 


Tufted loosestrife 


Lysimachia thyrsifolia 


Wild lily-of-the-valley 


Maianthemum canadense 


Alfalfa 


Medicago safiva 


Cow-wheat 


Melampyrum lineare 


White sweet clover 


Melilotus alba 


Yellow sweet clover 


Melilotus officianalis 


Wild mint 


.Menta arvensis 


Tall mertensia 


Mertensia paniculata 


Bishop's cap 


Mitella nuda 


One-flowered wintergreen 


Mone.ses unifolrn 



32 



Plains muhly 


Muhlenbergia cuspidata 


Bog muhly 


Muhlenbergia glomerata 


Yellow evening primrose 


Oenothera biennis 


Round-leaved orchid 


Orchis rotundifolia 


Reflexed loco-weed 


Oxytropis deflexa 


Showy loco-weed 


Oxytropis splendens 


G rass-of-Pamassus 


Parnassia palustris 


Labrador lousewort 


Pedicularis labradorica 


Lilac-flowered beard- 
tongue 


Pentstemon gracilis 


Palmate-leaved coltsfoot 


Petasites palmatus 


Arrow-leaved coltsfoot 


Petasites sagittatus 


Vine-leaved coltsfoot 


Petasites vitifolius 


Common plaintain 


Plantago major 


Common knotweed 


Polygonum aviculare 


Lady's thumb 


Polygonum persicaria 


Silverweed 


Potentilla anserina 


Rough cinquefoil 


Potentilla norvegica 


Marsh cinquefoil 


Potentilla palustris 


Prairie cinquefoil 


Potentilla pensylvanica 


Brook cinquefoil 
1 


Potentilla rivalus 




Potentilla sp. 


Common pink 
wintergreen 


Pyrola asarifolia 


White wintergreen 


Pyrola elliptica 


Lesser wintergreen 


Pvrola minor 


One-sided wintergreen 


Pyrola secunda 


Greenish-flowered 
wintergreen 


Pyrola virens 


Shore buttercup 


Ranunculus cymbalarias 


Yellow water crowfoot 


Ranunculus gmelinii 


Lapland buttercup 


Ranunculus lapponicus 


Macoun's buttercup 


Ranunculus macounii 


Celery-leaved buttecup 


Ranunculus sceleratus 


Yellow cress 


Rorippa islandica 


Golden dock 


Rumex maritimus 


Narrow-leaved dock 


Rumex mexicanus 


Western dock 


Rumex occidentalis 


Marsh ragwort 


Senecio congestus 


Rayless ragwort 


Senecio indecorus 


Balsam groundsel 


Senecio pauperculus 


Common groundsel 


Senecio vulgaris 


Tall hedge mustard 


Sisymbrium loeselii 


Common blue-eyed grass 


Sisyrinchium montanum 


Water parsnip 


Sium suave 


False Solomon's seal 


Smilacina racemosa 


Star-flowered Solomon's 
seal 


Smilacina stellata 


Three-leaved Solomon's 
seal 


Smilacina trifolia 


Goldenrod 


Solidago gigantea 



Goldenrod 


So I idago m issouriensis 


Smooth perennial sow 


Sonchus arvensis 


thistle 




Prickly sow thistle 


Sonchus asper 


Perennial sow thisUe 


Sonchus uliginasus 




Sonchus sp. 


Ladies tresses 


Spiranthes romanzoffiana 


Hedge netUe 


St achy s palustris 


Fleshy stitchwort 


Stellaria crassifolia 


Long-leaved chickweed 


Stellaria longifolia 


Long-stalked chickweed 


Stellaria longipes 


Common dandelion 


Taraxacum officinale 


Veiny meadow rue 


Thalictrum venulosum 


Northern starflower 


Trientalis borealis 


Starflower 


Trientalis europaea 


Common nettle 


Urtica gracilis 


American brooklime 


Veronica americana 


Hairy speedwell 


Veronica peregrina 


American vetch 


Vicia americana 




I 'icia sp. 


Early blue violet 


Viola odunca 


Bog violet 


Viola nephrophila 


Marsh violet 


Viola palustris 


Western Canada violet 


Viola rugulosa 


Mosses 




A ulacomnium sp. 


Wavy dicranum 


Dicranum undulatum 




Drepanocladus hypnum 




Drepanocladus sp. 


Stair-step moss 


Hylocomium splendens 




Plagiomnium sp. 


Red-stemmed feather 


Pleurozium schreberi 


moss 




Jimiper hair-cap moss 


Polytrichum Juniperinum 


Knight's pliun heatlier 


Ptilium crista-castrensis 


moss 






Tomenthypnum sp. 


Lichens 




A lectori a sp 


Powdered sunshine 


( 'etraria pinastri 




( 'etraria sp 


Raindeer lichen 


( ladma sp 




( ladonia alpestris 


Horn cladonia 


Cladonia cornuta 


Deformed cup 


Cladonia deformis 


Brown-foot cladonia 


Cladonia gracilis 


Whorled cup lichen 


Cladonia verticillata 


False pixie-cup 


( ladonia chlorophaea 




Parmelia sp. 


Freckle pelt 


Peltigera aphthoso 


Frog pelt 


Peltigera polydactyla 



33 



Rough pelt 


Peltigera scabrosa 




Ramalina sp. 




Stereocaulon sp. 




Usnea sp 


IMiscc'llaiKMUis 



False morel 




Tme morel 


Morchella sp 


Filamentous algae 




Bear's head fungus 


Hydnum sp 



Rare Plants in the Park 

Below is a table of rare plant species which have been identified in tJie park. These species are identified as rare 

and ranked by tlie Alberta Natural Heritage Inventory Center (ANHIC Plant Species of Special Concern July 

1998). Rankings are S= Alberta ranking, G=global ranking. 

G 1 S 1 - 5 or less occurrences or only a few remaining individuals 

02 S2 - 6-20 occurrences or with many individuals in fewer occurrences 

G3 S3 - 2 1-100 occurrences, may be rare and local throughout its range, or in a restricted range 

G4 S4 - apparently secure under present conditions, typically less than 100 occurrences but may be fewer with 

many large populations, may be rare in parts of its range, especially peripherally. 

G5 S5 - Demonstrably secure under present conditions, more than 100 occurrences, may be rare in parts of its 
range, especially peripherally. 

GU SU - Status uncertain often because of low search effort or cryptic nature of the element, possibly in peril, 
unrankable, more infonnation needed.. 



Common Name 



Beaked sedge 
Broom sedge 
Narrow-leaved 
goosefoot 

One-spike cotton grass 



Latin Name 



Carex rostrata 
Carex scoparia 
Chenopodium leptophyllum 

Eriophonim scheuchzeri 



General Loeation 



S2, G5 Wetlands 

S 1 , 05 Moist grounds 

SU, G5 Dry ground, often sandy areas 

S2S3, 05 Boggy ground 



34 



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