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We beg to call the attention of readers of the Review to the above 
illustration of the MELOTTE CREAM SEPARATOR, awarded 
in competition, as announced in another page of this issue, and 
take the opportunity of complementing the winner on his success. 

R. A. LISTER S CO. Limited 

58 - 60 STEWART STREET, m »* TORONTO 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


i. 


Solution of Run-Down Soil Problems 
in a Nut Shell 

To prevent your farm from running - down, 
you must save every ounce of the manure pro- 
duced by the stock, and distribute this manure 
on the soil while fresh, with a Corn King, or 
Cloverleaf spreader. 

That is the solution of run-down soil problems in a nutshell, and if carried out will 
effect a cure in the worst case of soil depletion. 

The Corn King spreader is of the return apron type, and the Cloverleaf of the 
endless apron type. Each style is made in a number of sizes, among which will be 
found a machine exactly suited to your requirements. 

Each style of these spreaders is described and illustrated in separate catalogs. 
The catalogs, in addition to illustrations and descriptions of the machines, contain 
a lot of valuable information on soil fertility. 

You will naturally want a spreader that you can depend upon — one that will 
not kill your horses, yourself, or your help. An inspection of one of these spreaders 
will convince you that it is the machine to buy. 

The International local agent will explain every one of the excellent features of 
the machine he handles. Write for catalog. 

Eastern Canadian Branches:— LON DON, MONTREAL, OTTAWA, ST. JOHN, HAMILTON. 

INTERNATIONAL HARVESTER COMPANY OF AMERICA 

(Incorporated) 

CHICAGO, U. S. A. 



BartK of Montreal 

ESTABLISHED 1817. 

Incorporated by Act of Parliament. 


Capital (all paid up), 
Rest, 

Undivided Profits, - 


$14,400,000.00 

11,000,000.00 

903,530.20 


Head Office, 


Montreal 


BOARD OF DIRECTORS: 

Rt. Hon. Lord Strathcona and Mount Royal, G.C.M.G., Honorary President 
Hon. Sir George A. Drummond, K.C.M.G., President 
E. S. Clouston, Esq., Vice-President. 

A. T. Paterson, Esq., E. B. Greenshields, Esq., Sir William C. Macdonald, R. B. Angus, Esq. 
James Ross, Esq., R. G. Reid, Esq., Hon. Robt. Mackay. 

E. S. CLOUSTON, General Manager. 


The Bank of Montreal has Branches and Agencies all over the Dominion and in Foreign 
Countries. Its customers are guaranteed prompt and courteous attention. 

H. LOCKWOOD, Manager at Guelph. 


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THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


11. 



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hi. 


WORK LESS 

Accomplish More 



That is the secret of success nowadays. You 
have had experience with hired men— you know that 
many times in order to get anything done right you 
have to do it yourself. There are too many odd jobs 
around the farm for you to do them all. There is the 
sheller, grinder, churn, separator, pump, saw, grind- 
stone, fanning mill, washing machine, and many 
other machines to operate. You can’t do it all. 

You can, however, if you get an I. H. C. gasoline 
engine to assist you. 

One of these engines will furnish cheap, absolutely 
reliable power for these and a hundred other jobs. 
The engine works practically without attention, so 
that you will be able to accomplish twice as much 
as formerly and you won’t have to work as hard. 

That means you are going to make more money 
out of farming and that is what you are farming for. 

I. H. C. vertical engines made in 2, 3 and 25- 
horse power. 

Horizontal (portable and stationary) in 4, 6, 8, 
10, 12, 15 and 20-horse power. 

Gasoline tractors in 10, 12, 15 and 20-horse power. 

Famous air-cooled engines in 1 and 2-horse power. 

Also, Famous sawing, spraying and pumping out- 
fits. A complete line of Famous self-contained en- 
gines mounted on skids or ready for mounting by the 
purchaser. 

Call on International local agent for catalog and 
particulars or write the home office. Valuable book, 
“Three Hundred Years of Power Development,” sent 
on request. 

Eastern Canadian Branches: London. Montreal, Otta- 
wa, St. John, Hamilton. 

International Harvester Company of America 

(incorporated) 

CHICAGO, U. S. A, 


OFF ICIAL CALENDAR department 

OF 

EDUCATION 

December: 

18. Provincial Normal Schools close, first term. 

22. High Schools, first term, and Public and Separate Schools close 

24. Last day for notice of formation of new School sections to be posted by Town- 
ship Clerks. (Six days before last Wednesday in December). 

25. Christmas Day. (Friday). 

High School Treasurers to receive all moneys collected for permanent improve- 
ments. (On or before 25th December). 

New Schools and alterations of School boundaries go into operation or take 
effect. (Not to take effect before 25th December). 

By-law for disestablishment of Township Boards takes effect. (Not until 
25th December). 

30. Annual meetings of supporters of Public and Separate Schools. (Last Wednes- 
day in December, or day following, if a holiday). 

30. Reports of Principals of County Model Schools to Department, due. (Before 
31st December). 

Reports of Boards of Examiners on Third-Class Professional Examination, to 
Department, due. (Before 31st December). 

31. Protestant Separate School Trustees to transmit to County Inspectors names 
and attendance during the last preceding six months. (On or before 31st 
December). 

Trustees’ Reports to Truant Officer, due. (Last week in December). 

Auditors’ Report of cities, towns and incorporated villages to be published by 
Trustees. (At end of year). 



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IV. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 




Scientific Apparatus 
and Supplies 

Microscopes, All Styles. 

Microscope, Dissecting $2 50 

Magnifier, Tripod 45 

Linen Tester, Magnifier ......... 25 

Dissecting Set, 5 instruments in 
case 1 25 

Biological Lantern Slides, Conrad 
Series. 

We carry a complete stock of 
Chemical and Physical Apparatus and 
Supplies, Art Supplies, Manual Train- 
ing - Supplies, Maps, Globes, Charts, 
Atlases, etc. 

Write for catalogue of the line you 
are interested in. 

The Geo. M. Hendry Co. 

Limited 

Successors to the Steinberger Hendry 
Co. and the Dominion School 
Supply Co., Ltd. 

20 Temperance St. - Toronto, Ont. 


Windmills ! 



Towers girted 
every five feet 
apart and double 
braced. 

Grain Grinders. 
Pumps. 

Tanks. 

Gas and Gasoline 
Engines. 

Concrete Mixers. 

Write for 
Catalogues. 


Goold,Shapley&Muir Go. 

LIMITED 

BRANTFORD, CANADA 


Does Your Pen Corrode? If so, why not try 

River Series, The Flowing Pen ? 

They are finished in best possible manner, making them almost non-corrosive, and 
our customers say they last three or four times longer than any other they have ever used. 
Send eight cents for samples of twenty different styles and be convinced. 

CANADIAN AGENTS 

THE BENSON JOHNSTON CO. LIMITED, 

Office Furniture and Supplies. STRATFORD, ONT. 



PRtCE25CENTS' 
AT ALL DEALERS 
PREPAID35CENTS 



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v. 



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VI. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW . 






x 


THE WHITE HOUSE 

JAMES RAMSEY 


66 


Guelph’s Ladies’ Store 


We Make a Specialty of Ladies * 
Ready =to= Wear Goods and Millinery 

Ready to- Wear — We are agents in Guelph for the celebrated 
“Northway Garments.” These garments have the best style and are 
the best fitting and best finished of any garments made in Canada. 

Millinery- -Our Millinery is showing a very large variety of trimmed 
Hats, and every conceivable kind of trimming and untrimmed hats. 


* 


| JAMES RAMSEY. THE WHITE HOUSE 

*£♦ Y 


Business in Force Over 


Assets Over 


$51,000,000 Januar y lst ’ 1908 $12,000,000 

IT PAYS TO INSURE IN 



GEO. CHAPMAN, Gen. Agent 

8 DOUGLAS STREET GUELPH, ONT. 


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Vol. XXI. DECEMBER, 1908. No. 3 


Page 

Frontispiece 

Rome — By President Creelman 117 

The Farmer’s Wood Lot — By Reverend T. W. Pyles, D.C.L . , F.L.S. 122 

Canadianism — By Professor Reynolds 127 

A Trip Through Holland — By Professor Harcourt 130 

Agriculture : 

Canandian Agriculture — Past, Present and Future — By Honorable John Dryden . 134 

Observations on Breeding — By Professor Arkell 138 

Experimental : 

The So-Called “Alaska” Wheat — By Professor Zavitz 14 1 

The Treatment of Seed Grain for Smut — By J. IV. Eastham 144 

Horticulture : 

The Rural Scenery of Ontario — By D. H. Jones , B.S.A 148 

Christmas Fruits from Florida — By H. H. Hume 154 

Editorial 161 

College Life 165 

Athletics 171 

Old Boys 178 

Macdonald. ... 183-193 


Agriculture for Women — Christmas in South Africa — A California Christmas 
—Christmas in Germany — Christmas in Paris — A Texas Christmas — Among 
Ourselves. 


ADVERTISING. 

Cream Separators and Appliances— Cover — Page xl. 

Railways, Banks, Insurance — Pages i., vi., xiii., xiv., xv., xvi. 

Live Stock, and Stock Foods — Page xx. xxi., xxxv i . 

Manufacturers — Cover — Pages i. , iii. , iv., v, , ix., xii., xvii., xviii., xxiii.,xxv., xxviii., xxx. 
xxxiii., xxxv., xxxvii. 

Engines and Farm Machinery — Cover — Page ii., v., xii., xiv., xix. 

Newspapers, Printers and Publishers — Pages x. xv., xviii. xix. 

Guelph Business Houses — Pages vi., xxii., xxiii., xxvi., xxvii., xxix., xxx., xxxi., xxxii. 
xxxiii., xxxiv., xxxv., xxxvi., xxxvii., xxxviii., xxxix 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW is published by the Students of the Ontario Agricultural College, 
Guelph, Canada, monthly during the College year. 

ANNUAL SUBSCRIPTION : Students $1,00. Ex-Students 50 cents. Single copies 
15 cents. Advertising rates on application. 







PROFESSOR DAY 


PROFESSOR ZAVT 

^TaOR I CULTURE 


PROFESSOR REED 

VETERINARY SCiENCjL 


ANiWAL. HUSBANDRY 


PROFESSOR EVANS 

MANUAL TRAINING 


PROFESSOR M$CREAK 

BOTANY 


PROFESSGRGAMBl 

SOIL CHEMISTRY 




PROFESSOR EOT< 

ENGLISH 


PROFESSOR HARCOI 

| CHEMISTRY 


PROFESSOR BETHIN E 

I ENTOMOLOGY 


PROFESSOR GRAHAM 

POULTRY 


J W. CROW,BS.A. 

HORTICULTURE 


H-H- LE DREW.B.S. A; 

ECONOMICS | 


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DAIRY HUSBANDRY 


EJ.ZAVrrZ,BA v M'S'F] 

FORESTRY J 


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PROFESSOR EDWARDS 
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LANDSCAPE GARDENING 


DEPARTMENTAL HEADS AT O. A. COLLEGE. 


THE O.A.C. REVIEW 

THE DIGNITY OF A CALLING IS ITS UTILITY. 


VOL. XXI. DECEMBER, 1908. No. 3 


Rome* 

BY PRESIDENT CREELMAN. 


I TALY is a wonderful country. 
Rome is more wonderful than 
Italy. How’s that, you say. Well, 
let us see. 

“See Naples and die,” you hear, and 
you “sail away to Naples Bay,” and 
you take a look for yourself. It is 
a wonderful city, surely. Its glorious 
blue bay, its red tiled roofs, its green 
country round, and its crimson sunsets, 
certainly lend color to the story, that 
“Seeing Naples one has seen it all.” 
But you soon see all that is to be seen 
and you move on. 

Florence is dignified and clean. The 
waters of the Arno sweep past and are 
gone. Michael Angelo looks down from 
his marble height on the hillside and 
sighs for the good old days. The Med 
ici family, dictators here for centuries, 
now rest forevermore. Dante’s pen is 
stopped and Savonarola’s voice is 
stilled. Merchants go about their 
trade and the schools and colleges 
flourish and teach of mighty deeds of 
centuries ago. 

Venice is proud of her Canova and 
boasts of Byron’s sojourn here; Pisa’s 
tower leaneth ever, and the plains of 


Lombardy still flow with milk and 
honey dew. 

And all these cities, and many more, 
tell of their heroes and painters and 
poets, some of the fifteenth, some of 
the fourteenth, and some as far remote 
as the twelfth century itself. 

Now you approach the Eternal City. 

“Then from the very soil of silent 
Rome 

You shall grow wise, and walking, live 
again 

The lives of buried peoples, and be 
come 

A child by right of that Eternal Home, 
Cradle and grave of Empires, on whose 
walls 

The Sun himself, subdued to reverence, 
falls.” 

You have been enjoying yourself in 
the country and the minor cities. 
Guitars and mandolins and fancy dress 
were everywhere. “Let joy be uncon 
fined” ; on, on to Rome. 

And then there falls on you a great 
calm, and “All the air a solemn stillness 
holds.” No Twentieth Century this, 
nor yet of one thousand years ago. 


1 18 


THE O. A 


C. REVIEW. 


Hush! You find yourself upon the 
Appian Way, where Saul of Tarsus 
walked, and maybe Peter, too ; past the 
Church of “Quo Vadis;” past the baths 
of Caracalla ; past the Catacombs of 
Saint Calixtus; past the Temple of 
Bacchus; past the Tomb of Cecelia 
Matella, that beautiful woman who 
died before the Herald Angels sang, 
“Peace on Earth, Good Will to Men.” 
And yet, this old tomb stands in the 
form of a great round tower, “And 
with 2,000 years of ivy grown.” No 
Twelfth Century story this, but right 
back to the beginning of things Chris 
Han, into Pagan Times, before “Nero 
perished by the justest doom.” 

“And from thence, when the breth 
ren heard of us, they came to meet us 
as far as Appii Forum and the Three 
Taverns, whom when Paul saw, he 
thanked God and took courage.” Acts 
xxviii., 15. 

And so Paul walked into Rome, 
just here, and on past where the Tri 
vimphal Arch of Titus now stands, 
commemorating the destruction of 
Jerusalem. The Jews still believe that 
they will some day enter Rome and 
recover their golden candlesticks. 
Perhaps by way of New York. And 
here, beside the House of Ceasar , asso 
ciated with the notion of imperial 
splendor in every European language, 
Julius hands over the prisoner Paul to 
Burrus, the Chief of the Police, in due 
time to be brought before the Emperor. 

And so Rome seems greater than 
Italy — older, grander, holier, sacred 
ground, Mother of all the Race. 

Strange to say, once inside the city 
one has the feeling that he has been 
there before. Many persons have so 
expressed themselves. It must be that 
we have become so used to seeing 
pictures of St. Peter’s, and the Colise 


um, and the Temple of Vesta, and the 
Pantheon, and the Castle Angelo, and 
the Statue of Garibaldi, that when we 
behold the things themselves, they 
seem, indeed, to have a familiar look. 

It is not my intention to describe 
even the common sights of Rome. 
One must see them oneself, with the 
decay and crumbling and falling apart, 
with the cracks and leanings and fallen 
glory, with the masonry and cobble 
stones and odors ; one cannot take 
them second hand. 

“When in Rome do as the Ameri 
cans do,” seems to be the corrected 
version of the old adage. You do not 
find the citizens climbing to the top 
of St. Peter’s, or travelling out to St. 
Paul’s, or ferreting each bypath in the 
catacombs. These diversions are left 
to the English-speaking tourists, all of 
whom are more or less dubbed, “Am 
erican.” 

And so we find ourselves in Rome — 
alive to new impressions and yet keen 
ly on the lookout for signs of Old 
Rome, as we learned of it in history, 
and in Shakespeare. I could recall a 
description I had often read in a pub 
lie school reader, as a little lad in a 
country school : 

“To his rude manners, his supersti 
tious mind, and his haughty demeanor, 
the Romans added a sternness of spirit 
which at times deserves no better name 
than cruelty. Their history abounds in 
anecdotes of magistrates who sentence 
their sons to death, of generals who de 
vote themselves to death to save their 
armies, of noble youths who throw 
away their lives to propitiate the of 
fended gods, or who hold their right 
hands in the flames to prove to an 
alien king that torture has no terrors 
for a Roman. “Callousness to human 
suffering was a Roman virtue,” and 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


the pages of history are red with Ro 
man slaughterings. 

“As faithful as a Roman sentinel” 
is the world’s highest tribute to fidelity 
and in truth, the Pompeian soldier who 
was pelted to death at his post by the 
fiery hail of Vesuvius grandly typifies 
the steadfastness of the Roman char 
acter.” 

This was our idea of the Roman 
citizen, and when in April last a mer 
chant sold us a string of Roman pearls 
for ten francs, and our neighbor one 
of the same, for half as much, we rea 
lized that times had changed, and that 
commercial ways had come to Rome. 

One should spend a winter in Rome 
to do it justice. I was there a week, 
and so was enabled to see only the 
Seven Hills and a few things in be 
tween. 

Rome is not clean. You recollect 
that Mark Antony did not say, 
Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend 
me your noses. One nose is quite 
enough in Rome, and too many in 
Naples, where the only thing you do 
not smell is something good. But the 
water is good and some say the wine 
is better. The air comes clear and 
sweet from the Alban Hills, and the 
farmers bring in fresh vegetables 
every morning, all the year round. 

Of course, one is badly handicapped 
in visiting a foreign country when one 
does not know the language of the na 
tives. Nowadays, however, a man 
must get off the planet entirely if he 
would find a country where English is 
not known. Strangely, slang is the 
first thing the Italian learns of English. 
We were in a street car one day when 
a small black-eyed, macaroni-eating, 
Italian gammon came in to sell illus 
trated post cards. He was good na 
tured but persistent, and I had finally, 


ll 9 

to get rid of him, to put my hand out 
and push him along the aisle. As he 
reached the end of the car he turned, 
and catching my eye, exclaimed, — 
“Skidoo,” “twenty-three for you;” and 
so the English language is getting hold 
of the children of Sunny Italy. 

When I returned, I was asked, what 
impressed you most in Rome? The 
question is hard to answer, and yet I 
was, indeed, almost carried away with 
the antiquity of things. In America 
the average man cannot tell you the 
maiden name of his grandmother, and 
can scarcely point to a single monu 
ment, in shape of stone, or wall, or hab 
itation, that antidates the birth of that 
same ancestor. What then of the days 
of the Vestal Virgins, of Ceasar and 
Pompey and Nero, and all? Here they 
lived and here are the very homes they 
lived in ; here are their tables and 
shelves and beds ; their fountains and 
pictures and couches and all. One is 
inclined to cry with Byron : 

“O Rome! My country! City of soul ! 
soul ! 

The orphans of the heart must turn to 
thee, 

Lone mother of dead empires ! and 
control 

In their shut breasts their petty misery. 
What are our woes and suffrance? 
Come and see 

The cypress, hear the owl, and plod 
your way 

O’er steps of broken thrones and tern 
pies. Ye 

Whose agonies are evils of a day — 

A world is at our feet as fragile as 
our clay. 

The Niobe of nations! There she 
stands 

Childless and crownless, in her voice 
less woe, 


120 


TH E O. A. C. REVIEW. 


An empty urn within her withered 
hands, 

Whose sacred dust was scattered long 
ago: 

The Scipios’ tomb contains no ashes 
now : 

The very sepulchres lie tenantless 


Of their heroic dwellers; dost thou 
flow, 

Old Tiber! through a marble wilder 
ness ? 

Rise with thy yellow waves, and man 
tie her distress ” 


A WINTER’S NIGHT. 

Shadowy white, 

Over the fields are the sleeping fences, 

Silent and still in the fading light, 

As the wintry night commences. 

The forest lies 

On the edge of the heavens, bearded and brown : 

He pulls still closer his cloak, and sighs, 

As the evening winds come down. 

The snows are wound 
As a winding sheet on the river’s breast, 

And the shivering blast goes wailing round. 

As a spirit that cannot rest. 

Calm sleeping night ! 

Whose jewelled couch reflects the million stars 
That murmur silent music in their flight — 

O, naught thy fair sleep mars. 

And all a dream— 

Thy spangled forest in its frosty sleep, 

Thy pallid moon that sheds its misty beam 
O’er waters dead and deep. 


— Wilfred Campbell. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


1 2 1 


The Farmer s Wood Lot. 

BY REVEREND THOMAS W. FYLES, D.C.L., F.L.S. 

[For about thirty years Dr. Fyles has been an active member of the Entomological 
^Society of Ontario. He was a member of the Council from 1882 to 1883, delegate to the 
Royal Society of Canada in 1890, 1894 and 1895, member of the Editing Committee of 
“The Canadian Entomologist” since 1889, and President of the Society from 1890 to 1901. 
He has also been President of the Quebec Branch of the Society since its formation, in 
1897. 

The following is a portion of a paper read at the recent annual meeting of the Ento- 
mological Society of Ontario; the whole will be published in its forthcoming annual re- 
port. — Ed.] 



REVEREND THOMAS W. FYLES. 


■“How dear to this heart are the scenes 
of my childhood, 

When fond recollection presents 
them to view : 

The orchard, the meadow, the deep 
tangled wildwood, 

And ev’ry loved spot that my in 
fancy knew. 

Many a man who, in early life, left 
his father’s homestead to try his for 


tune far away, has listened to the song 
of “The Old Oaken Bucket” with keen 
emotion. 

It is the nature of man to 

“look before and after, 

and sigh for what is not.” 
and, in his leisure moments, when 
wearied with the turmoil of the busy 
world, the fancy of the exile from 
home will often revert to the scenes 
of his early life. 

Among the cherished recollections 
of such an one will be the Wood Lot, 
with its stately trees, its pleasant 
glades, its cool retreats. 

He will think of its hazel copses, its 
blackbeny tangles, its furred and fea 
thered denizens, its wealth of flowers. 

He can call to mind its appearance 
in the early summer when all the trees 
of the wood rejoiced before the Lord, 
when the delicate green of the young 
foliage was relieved by the yellow cat 
kins of the birches and the darker hues 
of the pines. 

The glories of its autumn tints will 
also present themselves to his fond re 
membrance, the splendid crimson and 
gold of its maples, the Indian yellow 
of its beeches, the rich rosy bronze of 
its oaks. 

It will seem to him as if the wood 
land were wont to don its richest robes, 


122 


THE O. A. 


C. REVIEW. 


to bid adieu to summer with befitting 
state. 

There he learned to admire the inex 
haustible resources of the Divine Crea 
tor, revealed on every hand, and the 
marvellous — to speak paradoxically — 
diversity in uniformity under which no 
two leaves of one tree agree exactly 
in all points of outline and venation 

Then, it may be, his thoughts will 
revert to his early companions, and 
their frolics in the woods and sugar 
house. He can recall the names, the 
features, the characteristics of his 
early friends-; and he may wonder whi 
ther their several paths in life have led 
them. 

But dearest of his fond recollections 
— dear and yet sorrowful — will be the 
remembrance of the home circle. He 
will think of his parents now laid to 


“It is true,” our friend may say to 
himself, “that the farm was less pro 
ductive than it had been, that the 
prices of produce were low, and the 
general outlook somewhat gloomy ; 
but observation has since taught me, 
that, as the population has increased, 
the prices of produce have risen, that 
new railways have given access to bet 
ter markets, that such noble institu 
tions as the Ontario Agricultural Col 
lege at Guelph, and the Macdonald 
College at Ste. Anne de Bellevue, have 
made known that more can be done 
with, and made from, the land than 
our fathers were aware of. If I could 
have had the advantage of a training 
such as these colleges afford, my am 
bition would have been aroused, and I 
would have stayed by the land and 
made it profitable. And what nobler 



The children have gone to the city. 
The old people are left behind. 


rest, it may be, in a selected spot of business can a man undertake? The 

their own land; and he will perhaps cultivation of the soil was the work 

view, with shame and regret, his con appointed for Adam by his Maker, 
duct in leaving the old folk to carry The occupations of the farmer have 

on the farm, in their declining years, not unfitted men for high endeavors, 

without the aid of his youthful energy Stock raising was the business of 
and strong right arm. Abraham, the father of the faithful, the 




THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


123 


friend of God ; the prophet Amos was 
a herdsman ; it was from the sheep 
fold that God took his servant David 
away, that he might feed Jacob his 
people, and Israel his inheritance. It 
was from the plough that Cincinnatus 
was called to the Dictatorship ; and 
the poet Horace delighted in his Sabine 
farm.” 

But, leaving our city man to his cogi 
tations, let us now make some obser 
vations on the Wood Lot for ourselves. 

The aristocracy, so to speak, among 
the trees are the lordly pine, the sturdy 
hemlock, the stately yellow birch, and 
the bass-wood beloved by bees. These 
rise, straight and tall, amid the numer 
ous spruces, balsams, tama 
racks, elms, maples, beeches, 
poplars and balm-of-Gileads. 

Among all these fine and 
useful trees are others of smal 
ler growth, are thorns, horn 
beams, amelanchiers and 
moosemisses. 

Stand with me in such 
wood, and see the tall pines, 
with their spreading layers of 
foliage rising tier above tier; 
the graceful balsams, like 
church spires pointing heaven 
ward; the vase-like contour of the elms. 

I dare say you noticed when we 
entered the Wood Lot that a sentinel 
crow sounded an alarm ; and now a 
dead silence seems to have fallen on 
the woodland. Let us sit on this log 
till the inhabitants of the wood have 
regained confidence. Meanwhile I will 
say a few words about the crows. 

The crows build frequently in spruce 
trees. The dense foliage of these trees 
hides their nests. I had the curiosity 
to climb to a nest some years ago, and 
I was rewarded for my pains, for a 
strange nest I found it. The builders 


had stolen a whole length of clothes 
line, and with great ingenuity had 
wound the cord round and round, and 
between the young branches of the 
tree, making a very firm basis for their 
nest. 

You all know that the first egg of a 
pullet is sometimes very small ; the 
mother crow whose nest I invaded, 
must have been a yearling bird, for 
there was in the nest, one very diminu 
tive egg, with others of the usual size. 

Oh, our patience is meeting with its 
reward — the birds and animals are no 
longer silent. There is an oriole wend 
ing its way to its nest that we saw 
suspended from the extremity of an 


BALTIMORE ORIOLE. 

Icterus galbula. 

elm bough on the verge of the wood, 
and yonder, near the top of that tall 
hemlock stump, a golden-winged 
woodpecker (Colaptes auratus) is busy 
enlarging a hole in which to make its 
nest. What a litter he is making! 
“The carpenter “is known by his clips.” 
Now he flies away. Observe the grace 
ful curves of his flight, and notice his 
peculiar call, which suggested the com- 
mon name by which he is known 
“Wake-up.” 

See yonder in the maples a pair of 
grey squirrels. What a frolic they are 
having! Chasing each other as if they 



124 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


were “playing tag" — their long tails 
extended, or curved gracefully over 
their backs. Those tails serve them 
for winter blankets. The little crea 
tures in their snug retreats, during the 


GREY SQUIRREL, 
cold weather, lie closely curled, and 
wrapped by their soft tails and are 
heedless of wind and storm. They are 
sportive enough now; by-and-bye 
when autumn is well advanced, they 
will be busy collecting beechnuts, 
acorns and butternuts for their winter 
supplies. 

The butternuts are truly to the squir 
rels Juglans — Jovis glans — Jupiter’s 
nuts — the provision made by Provid 
ence for their winter’s need. 

On the other side of us a red squir 
rel is scolding — “chuck, chuck.” I 
have lost my liking for this little ani 
mal ever since I saw one of its kind 
tearing to . pieces the callow young 
from a bird’s nest that it had discov 
ered. 

Yonder runs the prettily striped 
ground-squirrel or “chipmunk.” 

The chipmunk and field mice are 
very mischievous. Towards Spring 
when their Winter stores of provisions 
have run short, and when the snow 
next the earth has melted, leaving 


runways amidst the buried brush, the 
little animals follow these passages till 
they come to the young maples, that 
the farmer has been preserving to 
form a second growth sugary. They 
gnaw the bark of 
the trees near the 
ground. After a long- 
winter I have seen 
scores of young- 
trees that had been 
completely girdled 
and destroyed by 
them. If a young 
orchard is near the 
creatures are apt to 
serve the fruit trees 
in the same way. 
Lengths of stove 
pipe unhooked at the 
sides, and placed around the bases of 
the trees, and then hooked together 
again, are a safeguard against the 
spoilers. 

From our seat on the log we can ob 
serve many interesting things. Yonder 
runs a ruffled grouse or partridge. It 
probably has its nest at the foot of 
some neighboring tree. The nest is but 
a slight hollow in a dry spot. The bird 
lays many eggs. She sits close ; and 
her color and markings so resemble 
her surroundings that she is seldom 
noticed by a passer-by. Her young 
can run as soon as they are hatched. 


ORTHOSOMA BRUNNEUM. 

Representatives of the insect world 
are on the wing, or sunning themselves 
on the foliage. There is Poligonia 





THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


125 


Faumus , the most beautiful of our 
Graptade. Notice the rich mottling of 
its under side. There, too, is Basil 
archia arthcmis , one of the first of our 
butterflies. The dark purple of its 
upper surface is banded with pure 
white and adorned with orange spots 
and blue crescents. The larvae of these 
lovely butterflies feed upon the elm 
and wallow, and they do little, if any, 
harm. 

But we must not dwell upon the in 
offensive insects, however beautiful. 
Let me draw your attention for a mo 
ment to creatures that work in dark 
ness to the injury of the trees. Some 
of these belong to the Hymenoptera 
Tremex Columba, Uroceros albicornis , 
U. cyaneus, U. flavicorius. They are 
large handsome, but formidable look 
ing flies. Their larvae tunnel in vari 
ous trees, and do much damage. For 
tunately their numbers are kept down 
by several species of even more dan 



gerous-looking ichneumons; Thalessa 
atrata, T. lunator, T. nortion, etc. The 
larvae of these follow up the larvae of 
the others and devour them. Many a 
tragedy, that we know not of, is done 
in the darkness. 

The larvae of many beetles are 
borers. I dare say that this log on 


which we are sitting is bored through 
and through by the larvae of Orthos 
oma brunneum. 

We do not greatly wonder that lar 
vae of some of the four-winged flies, 
and some of the beetles should bore 
in timber ; but it does seem remark 
able that larvae of some of our moths 
should do the same. 

Turning our attention to the trees 
again. There is a white cedar. Cedar 
is not plentiful on the eastern town 
ship farms. The man who owns a 
cedar swamp owns a mine of wealth, 
for cedar is of great value for shingles. 
There are, however, extensive tracts 
of cedar elsewhere. 

Cedar, to the lumber firms, is almost 
twice as remunerative as spruce. 

The white birch is another valuable 
tree. The spools which are of use all 
over the world are made from its 
wood. 

There are districts in which the 
white birch (or “Bouleau,” as the 
French call it) grows abundantly. 
Such a tract is that from Matane to 
Cap Chat, on the south coast of the 
St. Lawrence. 

Observe that small tree with bios 
soms resembling hops. It is the hop 
hornbeam or iron wood (Ostrua vir 
ginica). Young trees of this kind and 
young ash trees furnish the farmer 
with levers firm and good. 

Even the bushes around us are 
worthy of our attention. There is the 
moose-wood, also called wicopy (Dirca 
palustris). You cannot break a stick 
of it — the rind is too tough ; but the 
wood when peeled is remarkably brit 
tie. The farmers when short of string 
use strips of the bark, which is pliant 
as well as tough for tying up the 
mouths of their sacks of grain. 

As we make for home, let us con 


126 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


sider the condition of things in some 
parts of the country. 

It is grevious to see the way in 
which farms are often mismanaged. 
Men with little means, and less judg 
ment, buy farms “on time/' at more 
than their value. To meet their pay 
ments these men have to part with 
everything that will bring money. 
They have not wherewithal to pur 
chase sufficient stock; and they sell the 
hay off their land year after year — im 
poverishing the farms more and more. 
They cut down their woods, and sell 
the maple for fuel, and the spruce for 
pulp-wood. Where there are chemical 
works within reach the denudation of 
the land goes on rapidly, for hardwood 
is in demand for the distillation 
of wood-alcohol and other wood 
for feeding the furnaces in the 


works. By-and-bye the farm will be 
so unproductive that the owner will 
have to leave it. 

Our people should seize every suit 
able opportunity for . tree-planting' 
They should put in trees for wind 
breaks to their homesteads and 
orchards, shade-trees for their road 
sides, ornamental trees for their 
lawns and parks, young fruit trees 
to supply the gaps in their orchards, 
young maples to keep up their sugar 
woods, useful trees in every waste 
spot. 

In conclusion I would impress upon 
your minds the advice of an old 
North Countryman : — 

“Be aye stickin’ in a tree 
’Twill be up’ards creepin’ 

While ye’ are a-sleepin’. 


THE FROSTED PANE. 

One night came winter noiselessly, and leaned 
Against my window-pane. 

In the deep stillness of his heart convened 
The ghosts of all his slain. 

Leaves, and ephemera, and stars of earth, 

And fugitives of grass,— 

White spirits loosed from bonds of mortal birth, 
He drew them on the glass. 


— Charles G. D. Roberts. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


127 


GanadianisnrL 

BY PROFESSOR REYNOLDS. 


O Child of Nations, giant-limbed, 
Who stand’st among the nations, 
now, 

Unheeded, unadorned, unhymned, 
With unanointed brow, — 

How long the ignoble sloth, how long 
The trust in greatness not thine own ? 
Surely the lion’s brood is strong 
To front the world alone ! 

But thou, my country, dream not thoul 
Wake, and behold how night is 
done, — 

How on thy breast, and o’er thy brow, 
Bursts the uprising sun ! — Roberts. 

T HERE seems to be in these days 
a searching of spirit among 
many Canadians, making for 
nationhood. To the making of 
a nation there goes unquestion 
ably not merely a political organ 
ization, such as we have in Can 
ada, pronouncing the different prov 
inces one dominion ; but also, and 
chiefly, a national spirit, resulting in 
the uniting of aim and purpose. How 
ever diverse in character the individ 
uals of a nation may be, nevertheless 
a single spirit may be said to actuate 
the national councils, otherwise it can 
not be a nation. 

Against the growth of such a na 
tional spirit in Canada many factors 
have operated, and are still operating. 
Among these may be mentioned the 
following : 

The country is young. Back of the 
present generation there is compara 
tively little in the way of history or 
tradition, the knowledge and recollec 


tion of which may form a common 
bond of sympathy for Canadians. 

The country is wide and the various 
provinces are separated by great physi 
cal barriers. This great extent of the 
country and the physical separations 
result in creating a number of separate 
units, each with its own local needs, 
and problems, and each being more or 
less uninterested in the situation of the 
others. British Columbia has its prob 
lem of Asiatic immigration; the Mari 
time Provinces have their problem of 
American trade and connection in its 
relation to confederation. When one, 
in travelling from British Columbia, 
has passed the mountains, a new coun 
try is reached with new physical as 
pects, new conditions, and, in a mea 
sure, new ideals. 

The people are not indigenous. 
With the exception of a more or less 
rapidly decreasing number of native 
people, the inhabitants of Canada are 
of foreign extraction. Either they or 
their immediate ancestors have come 
from some foreign land, bringing with 
them the political and social ideals, the 
folk-lore, the customs and traditions 
of that foreign land. To complicate 
this situation, not one land only, nor 
even a few, but many such foreign 
lands are represented in our popula 
tion. 

Here, then, we have the facts ; a 
newly organized country of vast ex 
tent, sparsely settled, presenting insis 
tent material problems of development, 
the distinct members or provinces of 
which are, for the most part, divided 


128 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


by great physical barriers ; a popula 
tion not indigenous but composed of 
diverse races, each race having its own 
imported language, and social and 
political ideals. What forces are to 
unify these separate entities into a 
nation with a well defined national 
consciousness? 

In discussing this topic I wish to 
be as brief and specific as possible, 
and, for this reason, am enumerating 
the points formally. As to the unify 
ing forces, these may be mentioned as 
the chief : 

Constructive statesmanship. It is 
the business of statesmen, in the high 
est sense of the word, not merely to 
devise and enact laws for the govern 
ment of the country, and not at all to 
persuade voters and to carry elections ; 
but it is the business of statesmen in 
Canada to discover and expound those 
great political interests that all of the 
provinces have in common. Such 
great common interests may exist and 
not be clearly apprehended by the 
ordinary mind or visible to the ordin 
ary view. Statesmen must discover 
and announce and cultivate those 
common sympathies that breed a na 
tional spirit. 

Patriotic organizations are at the 
present day large and important fac 
tors in the development of a Canadian 
national spirit. These organizations 
may be the means of collecting and 
spreading masses of information re 
specting Canada. Information as to 
the extent, the resources, the needs, the 
problems of our country, is the first 
essential to a reasonable and perma 
nent national spirit. What we want 
to cultivate in Canada is not that 
patriotism which indulges in the 
"blind hysterics of the Celt,’ but a de 
cent self-respect, and a just pride in 


the opportunities, political and social, 
which the country affords. 

Among such organizations the Can 
adian Clubs which have recently 
sprung up all over Canada are serving 
a very useful purpose. They are for 
the most part conducted in a liberal 
and temperate spirit and gratify the 
natural curiosity of its members to 
know, not only their own country, but 
other countries as well. Speaking for 
the Guelph Canadian Club and its 
meetings for the last two years, I may 
say that a young Canadian could have 
no better education, as a Canadian, 
than to have heard the addresses that 
have been delivered at the various 
meetings of the Club. 

It is the business of the country’s 
literature to put in durable and beau 
tiful forms the various phases of the 
country’s life and thought, and to inter 
pret for its citizens those great moral 
ideals that may be only partially felt 
by them. In so far as Canada may be 
said to have national ideals and aims, 
only so far is a national literature 
possible. Our Canadian literature is 
of slow growth, and, unfortunately, 
there is in Canada too little encourage 
ment for gifted Canadians to reside 
within her borders and to find there 
inspiration as well as a means of sus 
tenance. 

When a distinct national conscious 
ness shall arise in Canada and possess 
every representative Canadian, what 
forms shall it take? 

It must embody faith and courage. 
Only by possessing faith can we be 
true children of the men and women 
who came to this land as pioneers and 
made homes for themselves and for us. 
In the patriarchal sense these men and 
women “went out not knowing whither 
they went,” and in that sense they 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


129 


exhibited patriarchal faith. It is that 
faith coupled with the courage to 
meet difficulties as they arise that has 
made Canada up to the present mo 
ment, and it is that faith and courage 
with which we must face the difficul 
ties that still lie ahead : 

“Wild and wide are my borders, stern 
as death is my sway, 

And I wait for the men who will win 
me — and I will not be won in a 
day; 

And I will not be won by weaklings, 
subtile, suave, and mild, 

But by men with hearts of vikings, 
and the simple faith of a child ; 
Desperate, strong and resistless, un 
throttled by fear or defeat, 

Them will I gild with my treasure, 
them will I glut with my meat.” 

It must be imbued with the largest 
measure of personal and political lib 
erty. Individually there must be full 
opportunity for every Canadian ; and 
nationally, virtual independence of 
outside control. 

There must exist a spirit of broad 
tolerance, — a tolerance, within reason 
able limits, of religious and political 
creeds, and even of social habits. In 
no other spirit can the diverse peoples 
of this country be made one in feeling 
and in purpose. Religious intolerance 
and sectarianism in Canada have ‘been 


the most serious set-back toward devel 
opment of Canadianism. 

It must be marked by a love of 
nature, especially nature in her moun 
tain, lake, and wild wood aspects, and 
a constant disposition to refresh the 
physical life and the spirit by dwelling 
amid such scenes in the leisure mo 
ments of a busy life. 

Even as I watched the daylight how it 
sped 

From morn till eve, and saw the light 
wind pass 

In long pale waves across the flashing 
grass, 

And heard through all my dreams, 
wherever led, 

The thin cicada singing overhead, 

I felt what joyance all this nature has, 
And saw myself made clear as in a 
glass, 

How that my soul was for the most 
part dead. 

O light, I cried, and heaven, with all 
your blue, 

O earth, with all your sunny fruitful 
ness, 

And ye, tall lilies, of the wind-vexed 
field, 

What power and beauty life indeed 
might yield, 

Could we but cast away its conscious 
stress, 

Simple of heart becoming even as you. 

— Lampman. 


130 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


A Trip Through Holland. 

BY PROFESSOR HARCOURT. 


T O a person who has always lived 
on high rolling land, such as 
we have in this Province. Hoi 
land, with its level surface, is an ex 
ceedingly interesting country. From 
the time we were children and familiar 


with the school book story of the 
heroic action of the little boy who 
saved his country from being sub 
merged by stopping a leak in one of 
the numerous dykes which surround 
the country, we have been interested 
in this strange land. 

It is probably the lowest country in 
the world, the greater part of it lying 
many feet below the sea level. The 
safety of the entire kingdom, therefore, 
depends upon the dykes, or embank 
ments, by which the encroachment of 
the sea is prevented. In many places 
these vast and costly structures are 
equally necessary to prevent inunda 
tion by the rivers, the beds of which 
are gradually raised by alluvial de 
posits. 

Most of the Dutch towns, as well 
as the open country, are intersected in 


every direction by canals, which are 
rendered doubly interesting by the 
numerous curious barges which are 
continually moving backward and for 
ward upon them, and by the fact that 
not only the surface of the water, but 
the beds of these canals are fre 
quently considerably above 
the level of the surrounding 
country. Amsterdam itself is 
said to be made up of ninety 
islands connected by three 
hundred bridges. 

These canals apparently 
serve a threefold purpose : 
First, as highways for the pur 
pose of traffic, and even on 
the smaller canals or ditches 
boats replace wagons as 
vehicles of the farm ; second, as 
drains, by which the superfluous 
water pumped into them by the 
hundreds of large windmills, is re 
moved from the cultivated land ; and 
third, as enclosures for houses, fields, 
and gardens, being as commonly used 
for this purpose as fences are in this 
country. 

As might be expected, this reclaimed 
land is extremely fertile, and the na 
tural fertility is further augmented by 
the fact that the farmer has almost 
perfect control of the water supply. 
For, if in wet weather, too much water 
is present, it can be quickly removed 
by means of water wheels; while in 
dry weather a thorough system of irri 
gation is always available. Conse 
quently, when we take into considera 
tion the fact that the farms are small, 



THE MEETING PLACE OF FIRST HAGUE 
CONFERENCE. 



THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


BRINGING PRODUCE TO MARKET, 
and that the people are hard workers 
and thrifty, it is not surprising that 
this country should be noted for its 
horticultural and dairy interests. 

Possibly in no other country in the 
world are vegetables grown to such 
perfection, and it is famous also for 
the production of bulb plants. About 
the end of April or the beginning of 
May, whole fields of hyacinths, tulips, 
crocuses, anemones, lilies, etc., grouped 
in every variety of color and diffusing 
the most delicious perfumes may be 
seen, more especially in the neighbor 
hood of the city of Haarlem. It was 
not our good fortune 
to have seen these 
fields in all their 
glory, for they were 
past their best when 
we visited them, but 
we could imagine 
what they must 
have been at the 
height of the season. 

Of the dairy inter 
ests and the fine 
Holstein cattle wad 
ing in the most lux 
uriant of pastures, 
much has been writ 


ten and I shall not 
stop to discuss 
these ; for what ap 
pealed to me was 
the evident Dutch 
love for cleanliness, 
which apparently 
sometimes amounts 
almost to a mono 
mania ; and the pic 
turesque costumes 
which may be seen 
everywhere but 
more especially in 
the country dis 
tricts. 

To see these costumes to advantage, 
it is necessary to visit some of the out 
lying villages where they are still worn 
as an everyday dress. Some of the 


most interesting of these costumes are 
worn by the fisher-folk ot the islands 
of the Zuiderzas, those of the island of 
Marken are particularly noted and the 
island is frequently visited by tourists. 
The quaintness of the costumes and 
the antics of tne children, who, like 
those of other countries, are ever 
ready to do something for money, are 
a continual source of amusement to the 
visitor. 


HOLLAND COSTUMES. 


J 3 2 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


The children of both sexes are to make what they could out of them 
dressed alike, until they are eight in a legitimate way. There were 
years of age. Up to this time they stores where all kinds of curios illus 
wear skirts and the only way to dis trative of the life of the people were 
tinguish the boys from the girls is by offered for sale, and the children will 
a marking on the back of the heavy ingly sat or stood for the camera man, 



TYPICAL MILKING SCENE. 


hood worn on the head. After the 
boys get out of their skirts, they, and 
the full grown men, wear great wide 
knickerbockers and broad brimmed 
hats. After a girl has reached the age 
of eighteen, her hair is cut, only two 
curls, one on each side of the face, are 
left, and these are removed when she 
is married. All the people, men, 
women, and children, wear big wooden 
shoes, and make a great clatter as 
they walk or run over the cobble stone 
paved streets. 

The houses are small and built of 
wood, many of them are set up on piles 
for in the stormy weather of winter 
the island is frequently covered with 
water. The interior of the houses we 
were allowed to inspect was scrupu 
lously clean and profusely decorated 
with Delft china and polished brass. 

It was quite evident that the people 
of this island were accustomed to the 
visits of tourists and were prepared 


but woe betide him if he has no pen 
nies for them when he is through. 

The villages of Volendam, Mouni 
kendam, and Broek are all interesting 
for their costumes, and the latter place 
especially for the almost exaggerated 
cleanliness of the houses and streets. 
Yet, with all the evident care which 
is taken in keeping the houses clean, 
the visitor is apt to go away with an 
uncomfortable feeling that there is still 
an untidyness or a something about 
many of the little narrow streets along 
the canals which leaves an unpleasant 
impression on the mind. This, I think, 
is because the houses are, generally 
speakingi small and old, the land is 
low lying, and the water in the canals, 
especially in the smaller ones, is black 
looking and not so clean as one would 
like to see it. But there is abundant 
evidence that these thrifty people da 
all in their power to make their homes 
comfortable and clean. 



THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


133 


Another feature of Holland which 
was very interesting to me was a trip 
through the country on some of the 
many canals. To the visitor it was 
very strange to sail along these water 
ways, the bottom of which was in 
many cases above the level of the 
surrounding country, and to find that 
to get out or into Amsterdam harbor 
one must lock down or up, as the case 
may be, some five or six, or even a 
greater number, of feet. It was only 
after seeing these actual conditions 
that I began to appreciate the magni 
tude of the work by which this land 
has been reclaimed from the ocean. 

The change of scenery as you 
pass along these canals has to be 
seen to be fully appreciated. On 
every hand, ditches full of water divide 
the land into fields, in which luxuriant 
crops grow or fine herds of famous 
black and white cattle of the country 
pasture. On the ditches, too, may be 
seen little boats loaded with the pro 


duce of the farm or carrying materials 
from the buildings out to the fields. 
At trequent intervals along the banks 
of the canal, huge windmills are 
passed, which operate the pumps or 
waterwheels that pour great streams 
of water of the ditches into the canals, 
and others that furnish the power for 
grinding grain, sawing timber, manu 
facturing paper, etc. On the roadway, 
along the bank of the canal, men and 
women may be seen pushing carts 
loaded with farm produce, sometimes 
the cart is drawn by a dog that appar 
ently enjoys his work. These and 
many other equally interesting scenes 
are continually coming into view as 
you pass along these wonderful 
canals. 

Much might be written of the char 
acteristics of these honest, thrifty peo 
pie, who have reclaimed most of their 
country from the sea, but space will 
not permit and such will have to be re 
served for some future time. 



WINDMILL PUMPING WATER INTO 
CANAL. 


I.S4 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 




Agriculture 




Canadian Agriculture^-Past, Present 

and Future. 

BY HONORABLE JOHN DRYDEN. 


T HE writer now stands at the 
close of the second generation 
of those who have engaged in 
Canadian Agriculture. My father, as 
a young man, commenced by attacking 
the growing forest. When he bravely 
set forth as a destroyer of the original 
trees, his only object was to obtain 
land. None existed in Old Ontario 
without this covering of the forest. 
The trees, therefore, must first be de 
stroyed before the land could be util 
ized as a farm, so with muscle and will, 
the axe was applied with a merciless 
stroke. Pine and maple, birch and 
elm, hemlock and cedar were at the 
outset ruthlessly destroyed by fire in 
order that the original settler might 
utilize the land. After the timber had 
thus been destroyed, there were still 
left the stumps, which served as a 
bar to further cultivation, until they 
had sufficiently decayed to allow them 
to be drawn out, roots and all, and 
piled ready for the fire. 

In this destruction of the original 
forest, the settler soon learned the 
best method in falling the trees so as 
to save labor and burn them to the best 
advantage. In many cases the trees 
were thrown into large winrows sav 
ing much labor, and producing greater 


heat at the time of burning, when later 
on the fire was started. 

As we think of it to-day, it seems a 
great sacrifice of original wealth. 
What immense value would be placed 
now on a thousand acres of this fine 
timberland? Strange to say, few of 
the original settlers ever expected to 
see the country entirely filled up in 
their day. At first the progress was 
very slow, only now and again one or 
two being added, when suddenly from 
Great Britain and Ireland they began 
to come in hundreds, and the best 
lands in the counties bordering on the 
great lakes were taken up within a 
few years. Generally, these were the 
choicest settlers, bringing with them 
to the new country much of intelli 
gence, integrity and hope, coupled with 
a strong resolution to patiently wait 
until they could carve out their new 
homes. They readily adapted them 
selves to their new surroundings, and 
their children grew up Canadians, 
skilled in the use of the axe, and the 
torch, so with thousands striking at 
the same time, it was astonishing how 
soon the face of the country was 
changed. 

I was born on the farm now known 
as “Maple Shade,” in 1840, too late to 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


135 


take any part in destroying the ori 
ginal forest, but in time to have a part 
in the finishing touches needed to re 
move the last of the stumps. 

The agriculture of that day was 
necessarily meagre. Implements were 
few and very crude at that. The three 
cornered drag or harrow was the prin 
cipal piece of machinery used in culti 


followed, and years later peas, then 
corn and roots were added. 

As machinery could, not be utilized, 
all sowing and harvesting were done 
by hand. The hand sickle was used 
with great skill by those early settlers. 
Afterwards the cradle followed and 
was considered a great addition to the 
harvesting machinery. 



THE LATE JAMES DRYDEN, 
Father of Honorable John Dryden, and one 
of Ontario County’s Earliest Settlers. 


vating for some years, as naturally the 
stumps could not be removed. 

Oxen provided the only’ motive 
power on every farm, and were in use 
for many years after horses were in 
troduced, each proving a complement 
to the other. 

Fall wheat was invariably the first 
crop grown, and the lands first settled 
were those suitable to this crop. Oats 


Threshing was done mostly by the 
tramping of horses or oxen, on a hard, 
smooth earthen or plank floor. In ad 
dition the flail soon came into common 
use for this work, and later a very crude 
threshing machine driven by horse 
power, with no apparatus for separat 
ing straw and grain, which process 
was necessarily done by hand. This 
machine was very crude indeed, but it 


1 36 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


was very soon improved, and these im 
provements have continued to the pre 
sent time, culminating in the machine 
of to-day, which seems alive with in 
telligence, as it draws the grain to its 
mouth, cuts the bands and carefully 
separates straw and grain, blowing 
the latter into the granary bin, and 
packing the straw in the mow. 

The first settlements were near the 
Great Lakes, as affording a ready out 
let for the produce ; but soon the rush 
of settlers compelled the selection of 
farms far inland. To those the prob 
lem of transportation was by far the 


ways were projected in various direc 
tions, and this work still continues 
making a veritable network of iron 
tracks over which the yearly products 
are now carried to the best markets. 

About 1862 the writer began, as a 
representative of the second genera 
tion, to guide the further development 
of agriculture on his farm. He found 
it largely as nature left it. The forest 
had been removed, but if portions were 
naturally wet, they were still in that 
condition. The old rail fences had de 
caved and must be replaced. A second 
campaign was instituted, replacing the 



THE FIRST DWELLING HOUSE AT 
MAPLE SHADE. 

The birthplace of Honorable John Dryden. 


most important which presented itself 
at that time. As soon as the fall of 
snow was sufficient, hundreds of horse 
teams could often be seen following 
each other to the lake front. It was 
not a case of choice but one of neces 
sity. The need of the time was the 
iron horse. 

The writer, when a boy at the old 
Grammar School in Whitby, saw the 
first locomotive which came east from 
Toronto over the Grand Trunk. Soon 
after the completion of this line, rail 


old snake fences by straight ones, posts 
and rails being largely used or in some 
cases lumber, culminating in the wire 
netting of to-day. Every field was at 
tacked in turn with under drainage, 
where it was needed. Some portions 
required to be covered at regular in 
tervals, thus year by year this work 
was prosecuted with diligence, until 
to-day the whole farm of 420 acres 
presents the same condition of surface, 
and a stranger would not know that 
nature had left the lands in a very dif 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


137 


ferent condition. This, I take it, has 
been the rightful work of the second 
generation of farmers in Ontario. The 
third generation is now being installed 
and starts with the advantage of this 
extra work being completed, leaving 
only cultivation and tillage demanding 
their attention. But each generation 
meets its own difficulties. Weeds 
never heard of by our fathers now fill 
the soil and impose ever increasing 
labor to keep them down. If all 
farmers were equally energetic, the 
difficulties would be lessened, but with 
a neighbor allowing “sow thistles” to 
go to seed over on the other side of 
the fence, how can they be kept 
out? 

The first generation of farmers paid 
little attention to live stock, having no 
facilities for taking them through the 
winter. It required a considerable ad 
ditional capital outlay to provide the 
necessary shelter and conveniences as 
well as to purchase foundation stock. 
Gradually, however, these have been 
supplied until many farmers dispose of 
their surplus grain entirely through 
the live animal. This plan increases 
the supply of stable manure which is 
now essential in increasing the fertility 
of the soil. Improved breeds of all 
classes of animals have since been in 
troduced, so that the largest returns 
possible are being secured. These live 
animals really carry on their backs the 
value of much of the grain grown, and 
stepping on the car for shipment they 
represent also the value of much of 
the labor expended on the farms pro 
ducing them. More and more will the 
'grain grown in Canada, be Sold in this 
way. In order that the largest returns 
may be obtained, the best breeds 
must be utilized and selection from 
these rigorously carried on. In no 


other way can the best results b,e 
reached. The sale of grain through the 
live animal will guarantee continu 
ous recuperation of the soil so 
that with a thorough system of 
cultivation the soil of the best 
farms will never lose its strength 
for production. 

Great and rapid advances have been 
brought about in two generations, but 
the world still moves forward, and we 
may expect still greater changes to 
take place. In the great cities the 
“motor” is driving many of the horses 
from the streets. The writer believes 
that not many years will pass before 
the motor will find its place on the 
farm. The steam plow is now used 
extensively on the great prairies of the 
west, but we believe a lighter machine 
covering much less area will be in use 
here. In the heat of the summer 
months when cultivation is most effec 
tive, the strain on horse flesh is most 
severe. How happy would a farmer 
be if he had an iron horse which would 
not sweat nor tire, but might be forced 
through twelye to fifteen hours per 
day when the work would prove most 
effective. This I prophesy is the next 
great innovation in Canadian agricul 
ture. The perfection already attained 
in the motor engine warrants us in this 
forecast. One man with four or five 
plows working through the entire day 
would outrun five other men and teams 
on neighboring land. The machine 
eats only when it works, while the 
horses eat always whether at work or 
play. This will prove to be one of the 
great advances of the present genera 
tion. It will tend to a more perfect 
and skillful agriculture affording time 
for many things which cannot now be 
reached. This generation must expend 
more labor on the land than the last 


138 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


if it is to maintain its strength for pro 
duction. The virgin soil is all gone, 
and henceforth the production will de 
pend largely on the tillage and natural 
fertilization. 

An increasing demand will be felt for 
our Canadian fruits. Some portions of 
Canada excel in fruit production. Let 
those owning such lands fear not to 
enter upon this branch of agriculture, 
for greater and still greater will the 
demand grow. Fruit, dairy products 
and live stock may be largely increased 


in Canadian agriculture without any 
danger of loss. 

We who are witnessing the closing 
days of the second generation may 
leave with those who are commencing 
the work of the third, the solution of 
such problems as now face them. They 
are mostly educated, resolute and pro 
gressive, and we believe will meet 
every new difficulty with skill and wis 
dom,' changing methods if need be, but 
ever maintaining the ascendancy of 
Canadian Agriculture. 


Observations on Breeding. 

BY PROFESSOR H. S. ARKELL, MACDONALD COLLEGE. 


One learns much that yields food 
for thought in the study of his cattle. 
Why is it that individuals differ so 
widely in the response they make to 
feed? I speak as an amateur in the 
art of animal breeding. One yields 
milk, and continues so to do through 
a long milking period, as though milk 
production were the constitutional 
habit of her system ; it seems the most 
natural thing in the world for her, and 
even under adverse conditions the 
habit still remains. Another presents 
a fine appearance at calving, makes a 
good beginning, then lags in the race, 
and the final return measures not at 
all above the average. In the one, the 
influence of all internal agencies seems 
to be toward the conversion of feed 
into milk, in the other there is a lack 
of harmony somewhere amongst these 
vital forces and there seems to be an 


impediment that hinders and obstructs. 
The system of the one is free, that of 
the other is bound, constitutionally so. 
I can phrase it in no better way. In 
the one instance the breeder works and 
as it were co-operates with nature, in 
the other, at best he finds an uphill 
fight and makes but a lean return. 

What may be the explanation? I 
take it that if we could unravel the 
mystery of heredity and the science of 
breeding we should find our answer. 
These still, however, present problems 
that are not yet solved, but, neverthe 
less, I am convinced that, practically, 
we may learn many things. May we 
emphasize first the importance of in 
dividual animals? May we not often 
fail to give due credit to the excel 
lence of individuals in the herd? I be 
lieve that one cow may be worth more 
to her owner, looking toward herd im 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


139 




Shorthorn Cow Wilker (imp.), 84502, owned by Macdonald 
College, Quebec, showing a decided development of 
the milking type in the Shorthorn. 

provement, than all the rest of his 
cattle put together. Milk production 
is more than an acquired character 
istic, it is a property that may be latent 
or active in the blood. When we find 
an individual with all the natural vital 
forces of her constitution in such har 
mony that she responds freely and 
without restraint to the efforts of her 
owner to make her yield a generous 
return, he cannot afford to have those 
vital, potent agencies dissipated waste 
fully by indiscriminate breeding, but 
must seek to introduce them into the 
blood of others of his cattle looking to 
the improvement of another genera- 
tion. The history of a 
breed may be written as a 
biography of the influence 
of its outstanding ani 
mals, and if we would 
breed wisely we must 
find and use the scat 
tered individuals that 
excel. 

The thought has come 
to me that we may com 
pare the progress of breed 
ing to the passage of a 
stream of water. Into it 
comes at various intervals 
the slow stagnant water 


of a level countryside. 
The stream is even more 
lifeless than before. Such 
is the union of blood in 
cattle where there is no 
dominant characteristic, 
but mediocrity. It marks 
rather recession than pro 
gress, for mediocrity can 
scarce maintain, even 
through its volume, what 
has already been attained 
and lacks altoegther the 
power to renew and im 
prove. Then, again, the 
stream may receive a tributary, 

whose source lies away in the 

mountains, and the clear swift 

torrent of the upland pours its 

power and energy into the trubid river 
which feels the influence of its life for 
miles and miles. Of such is the ap 
pearance here and there of individuals 
that excel. 

Let me make my moral clear. Sires 
are all too frequently used in a herd 
that yield nothing to it of vital energy 
or of individual strength. Their dams 
and their sires’ dams were but drudges 
that could barely pay their way. 
Their ancestry was of a negative sort 


Pleasant Valley Jilt, Grand Champion Shorthorn Female 
C. N. E., Toronto, 1908, Prop. Geo. Amos & Son, 
Moffat, Ont. A type in which Beef Production has 
been highly developed. 


140 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


with no positive element in it and their 
blood was as lifeless as the waters of 
the stagnant river. On the other hand 
a sire may be used that will bring the 
herd to life again. He has behind 
him the heritage of intense life, and 
his blood is as virile and fresh 
as the sparkle of a mountain tor 
rent. There is power in blood 
and we must find the individuals 
that possess it. 

But whence came this power? We 
have yet to emphasize the importance 
of pedigree. Pedigree is almost value 
less unless the animals appearing in 
it be known, and it is my own belief 
that only the near ancestors are of 
much importance. In the Old Testa 
ment dispensaiton, the sins of the 
fathers were visited upon the children 
not farther than the third or fourth 
generation, and I question whether in 
cattle breeding the virtues of the par 
ents are manifested for a much longer 
period. It is true that irregular char 
acteristics will appear for many gen 
erations after any introduction of for 
eign blood, but when a type is fixed, 


the influence of remote ancestors will 
scarce merit consideration. On a 
well-established breed, I take it that a 
pedigree has very little value except 
as it obtains it through the merit of 
the top crosses. 

In the pedigrees of milking cattle, it 
is again the performance of the dams 
(with all that it signifies of active 
nutrition and secretion), that counts 
for a very great deal. Together with 
this is the happy union of strains 
through the mating of sire and dam. 
May we define the “nick’’ in breeding 
as the ability of the breeder to keep 
the blood of his cattle fresh and virile 
and in that way prepotent. Too great 
similarity or consanguinity of blood 
relationship must eventually end in 
stagnation and deterioration. It may 
be that there are possibilities of out 
cross which will yet find favor, though 
now condemned. Shall it be men- 
tioned, however, as a final word that 
there are few agencies which will so 
assist in preserving the activity of 
blood as a vigorous existence and a 
natural, unpampered life. 



COLLEGE CATTLE. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


141 




Experimental ^ 


The So-Called "Alaska" Wheat. 

BY PROFESSOR ZAVITZ. 


W E have recently read sensation 
al articles regarding the pro 
duction of heat from ashes, 
of molasses from cornstalks and of 
sugar from sawdust. Even more re 
cently, we have read improbable ac 
counts and amusing statements re 
garding the ‘'Protection Wheat” in 
Ohio, the “Miracle Wheat” in Virgin 
ia, and the “Alaska Wheat” in Idaho. 
These wheats have all been selling at 
high prices, and the last named variety 
in particular has received a very large 
amount of free advertising through the 
public press of the United States and 
of Canada. As probably more has 
been said about the Alaska wheat than 
either of the others, the present article 
will deal with this variety entirely. 

It is stated that the Alaska wheat 
was found growing wild amongst the 
rocks in Alaska in the year 1903, and 
that since that time it has been grown 
on the farms in Idaho with wonderful 
results. The promoters claim that it 
has yielded 222 bushels of No. 1 hard 
wheat to the acre in large tracts, and 
even more in favored places, that it is 
resistant to both frost and hail, that it 
will thrive in a temperature of 140 de 
grees, and that for the best results it 
matters but little whether it is sown in 
the autumn or in the spring of the 
year. This reminds one of the de 
scription given a few years ago of the 


wonderful “Corn Wheat” in Idaho, 
which was going to revolutionize 
American agriculture, or of the no 
torious “Sachaline Fodder Plant” from 
Russia, which would withstand both 
fire and water, and which would grow 
to a height of fourteen feet in three 
years, and thereby enable the cattle to 
stand in the shade of the plant when 
eating the crop. The corn wheat 
turned out to be a well known old 
variety of but little value in America, 
and the Sachaline is practically useless 
for Ontario, as it freezes down nearly 
every spring, and as the cattle refuse 
to eat the plants at any stage of 
growth, which seldom exceeds three 
feet in height. 

In order to. obtain as full informa 
tion as possible regarding the Alaska 
wheat, the writer communicated with 
the Agricultural Colleges in the States 
of Idaho and Washington and also 
with the originators and producers of 
the Alaska wheat. 

The Professor of Agronomy at the 
Idaho Agricultural College wrote, 
under date of August 27th, 1908, that 
he saw no reason for doubting that 
the Alaska is the ordinary Miracle or 
Egyptian wheat ( Tritlcum turgidum), 
of which Eldorado and Seven Headed 
are two of the varieties. He also 
stated that the very best fields of 
Alaska wheat in Idaho this year did 


142 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 



Alaska Wheat. Club Wheat. Alaska Wheat. 

COMPARISON OF HEADS OF ALASKA AND CLUB VARIETIES OF WHEAT. (NA- 


TURAL 

not exceed 35 bushels to the acre, and 
that others gave considerably less than 
this amount. 

The Director of the Agricultural Ex 
periment Station of the State of Wash 
ington wrote on August 26th, 1908, as 
follows : 

“I will say that the- wheat in ques 
tion is undoubtedly the same thing as 
tlie old Miracle or Seven Headed 
wheat.” 

The Miracle wheat is a winter vari 
ety in Ontario, and has a branching 
head of good size. This wheat was 
grown at the Ontario Agricultural Col 
lege previous to 1893. As it gave com 
paratively poor results, however, it 
was dropped at that time. It produced 
20.6 bushels of grain per acre in 1891, 
and 27.7 bushels per acre in 1892. 


SIZE). 

The Seven Headed variety of wheat 
also possesses a branching head. It 
has been grown as a spring wheat at 
the Ontario Agricultural College each 
year since 1896. There is certainly a 
close resemblance between the Alaska 
wheat, as grown in the United States, 
and the Seven Headed wheat, as 
grown in Ontario. The reader will 
observe this close resemblance in the 
illustrations accompanying this article. 

The Wild Goose variety of the rna 
caroni wheats and the Red Fife variety 
of the flour wheats are amongst the 
best known spring wheats grown in 
Ontario. In endeavoring to ascertain 
the real value of any other kind of 
spring wheat, it seems natural for us 
to compare the newer introduction 
with these two varieties which are al 




THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


H3 



Seven-Headed. Red Fyfe. Wild Goose. , Seven-Headed. 

COMPARISON OF HEADS OF RED FIFE, WILD GOOSE AND SEVEN-HEADED 
VARIETIES OF WHEAT. (NATURAL SIZE). GROWN AT ONTARIO AGRICUL- 
TURAL COLLEGE IN 1908. 



144 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


ready quite well known throughout 
the Province. For the sake of this 
comparison, the attention of the reader 
is referred to the results here pre 
sented. The following table gives the 
number of bushels per acre in each of 
thirteen years of the Red Fife, the 
Wild Goose, and the Seven Headed 
varieties of spring wheat grown in the 
Experimental. Department of the On 


tario Agricultural College. 


Year. 

Red 

Fife. 

Wild 

Goose. 

Seven 

Headed. 

1896 

157 

20.4 

2-5 

1897 

20.3 

23.I 

6.5 

1898 

34.2 

43.3 

24.7 

1899 

39-2 

44-5 

26.4 

1900 

46.3 

dS -4 

394 

1901 

24.1 

32.1 

22.2 

1902 

3 i -9 

33-5 

25.0 

I9O3 

43 - 5 

47 ; 1 

34-3 

1904 

22.2 

47 -i 

33-2 

T 9°5 

35-9 

41.5 

30.8 

1906 

33-9 

36.0 

28.2 

1907 

28.0 

33-2 

19.1 

1908 

36.3 

25.6 

24-5 


The average yield per acre for each 
variety for the thirteen years was as 
follows: Red Fife, 31.7 bushels ; Wild 
Goose, 37 bushels;' and Seven Pleaded, 
24.4 bushels. It will be observed that 
the Seven Headed gave a yield of al 
most forty bushels per acre in 1900, 
which was at least five bushels per 
acre greater than the highest yields of 
the Alaska wheat in Idaho in 1908. It 


will also be observed that the Seven 
Headed variety gave a yield of less 
than seven bushels per acre in each of 
two years. The yield in 1908 was 24.5 
bushels per acre, which is practically 
the same as the average production for 
the thirteen year period. It will be 
seen that both the Miracle winter 
wheat and the Seven Headed spring- 
wheat have given comparatively poor 
yields in Ontario. The writer wrote 
to the promoters of the Alaska wheat 
with the hope of securing some of the 
seed for sowing in the experimental 
grounds at the College, but was unable 
to purchase a small quantity for experi 
mental purposes. The present crop 
was advertised at twenty dollars per 
bushel. 

Farmers, who pay high prices for 
the so-called new varieties of farm 
crops before the Experiment Stations 
are allowed to thoroughly investigate 
the matter, have themselyes to blame. 
The writer believes that there are not 
many farmers in Ontario who are led 
astray by the sensational advertising 
of farm crops with the object of en 
riching the promoters of these new 
and wonderful varieties. The Govern 
me lit of Ontario is doing much to pro 
tect the farmers by its extensive sys 
tern of experimental work conducted 
at the Ontario Agricultural College, 
and through the medium of the Ex 
perimental Union. 


The Treatment of Seed Grain for Smut* 


BY J. W. EASTHAM, B.Sc. 


Although the number of species of 
fungi which have been observed on 
our various grain crops is considerable, 
those which are usually responsible for 


serious damage can be included in two 
groups, according to whether the dis 
ease produced is of the nature of a 
“rust” or a “smut.” Smuts are dis 


THE O. A. 


C. REVIEW. 


H5 


tinguished by the fact that the para 
site at one stage of its life in the in 
vaded tissues of the host produces a 
powdery mass of brown or black 
spores; sometimes, as in the case of 
corn smut, of large size. 

The smut fungi which attack grain 
crops differ considerably, but not only 
in the appearance they present during 
their spore-producing stage, and in the 
way they affect the host plant, but also 
in the manner in which they gain en 
trance to the tissues of that host. 
In the case of the loose smut of oats 
and barley, and the stinking smut or 
“bunt” of wheat, the spores adhere to 
the seed grain and are sown with it. 
In the soil they germinate under the 
same conditions as the grain and pro 
duce minute secondary spores (con 
idia), which in their turn are capable 
of sending out a delicate fungus thread. 
Such a thread, or hypha, can penetrate 
the external tissues of a plant and 
take up its abode amongst its internal 
cells. Here it grows and spreads form 
ing a network of fine threads (the my 
celium) which keeps near the growing 
tip of the plant. While the ears are 
forming large quantities of nutriment 
is being conveyed to them and the 
fungus now seizes the opportunity, 
preys upon the food intended for the 
young grain, and uses it for the form 
ation of the myriads of spores so char 
acteristic of a smutted plant. In the 
cases, just mentioned, infection is only 
possible during the seedling stage, talc 
ing place in all probability through the 
first leaf-sheath. Should the plant es 
cape infection at this critical period it 
would appear that the outside tissues 
become too resistant to be afterwards 
attacked. 

In the case of the loose smut of 
wheat the spores from the smutted 


ears are carried by the wind into the 
flowers of other wheat plants. Here 
the spore germinates and produces a 
hypha which penetrates into the young- 
seed, so that the fungus is established 
ready for its work of destruction be 
fore the seed is sown. The spores of 
corn smut, on the other hand, produce 
a germ thread capable of infecting the 
young tissues of the corn plant at any 
stage in the growth of the latter and 
at any point, so that leaf, stem, tissue 
and cob may alike suffer. 

These differences in the life-histories 
of the various forms have an important 
practical bearing. With the first men 
tioned kinds it is evident that, if we 
can by any means destroy the spores 
which adhere to the seed sown without 
injuring the seed, we greatly reduce 
the possibility of a smutted crop. The 
plants, as we have seen, are not vulner 
able above the level of the ground and 
of the number of spores carried by the 
wind to the soil only a very few are 
likely to be placed in positions favor 
able for an attack on the grain. Es 
pecially is this the case with stinking- 
smut of wheat, where the spores re 
main for the most part enclosed in the 
wall of the grain. It is indeed doubtful 
whether spores which have spent the 
winter in or on the soil are capable 
of injury at all. In the case of the 
loose smut of wheat, the fungus is es 
tablished in the seed before the latter 
is harvested and it is easy to see that 
any measures taken to destroy the 
fungus are almost certain to act injuri 
ously on the germ of the seed. With 
corn smut, again, since infection may 
occur at any place where the tissues 
are still sufficiently delicate, no method 
of treating the seed can be of value. 

Seed treatment of some kind to les 
sen the injury due to smuts has been 


146 


THE O. A. 


C. REVIEW. 


carried on for a long time, having 
been directed particularly against stink 
ing smut. Over a hundred years ago, 
before the nature of the disease was 
at all understood, it was noticed that 
the presence of spores amongst seed 
grain was associated with the disease 
in the crop produced by it. It was also 
found that washing with water or treat 
ment with various substances dimin 
ished subsequent loss. 

In Morton’s Cyclopaedia of Agricul 
lure (1851) the following substances 
are mentioned as finding employment 
in different localities 1 against stinking 
smut, viz. : Salt, hot milk of lime, ar 
senic, chloride of lime, corrosive sub 
limate, and verdigris. Since then 
many other substances have been ex 
perimented with amongst which we 
may mention potassium per manga n 
ate, lysol, sulphuric acid, potassium sul- 
phide, formalin and picric acid. Patent 
preparations have also been placed on 
the market, notably one with the made 
name of “Ceres Powder,” which has 
found considerable sale in Europe 
though probably little in America. 
Treatments have also been devised 
which do not depend upon the action 
of a chemical substance, but upon the 
effect of a sufficiently high tempera 
ture in destroying the vitality of the 
spores. Such was the hot water 
method advocated by the Danish ex 
perimentor Jensen, which consists in 
placing the grain for a few minutes in 
water kept at a temperature of about 
132 degrees F. By this means the 
spores are killed whilst the grain is 
uninjured. This hot water treatment 
is unquestionably very effective if 
properly carried out, but in practice 
the successful management of -the 
necessary details is somewhat difficult. 

A little consideration will show 


where the real difficulty of such 
methods lies. A seed and a fungus 
spore are after all quite similar in their 
nature. Composed of the same essen 
tial materials, and responding in simi 
lar fashion to various external condi 
tions. By means of chemical sub 
stances, or changed physical condi 
tions, it is easy to produce an injurious 
effect strong enough to destroy the 
spore. To do so without seriously 
injuring the seed is a more delicate 
matter. 

The first method to receive careful 
attention was the bluestone or copper 
sulphate one, which consists in soaking 
the grain in a weak solution — a half 
to one per cent. — of copper sulphate 
or in “sprinkling” it with a somewhat 
stronger solution of the same chemical. 
Subsequent treatment of the seed with 
lime water is usually recommended to 
prevent the loss of germinating power, 
which is found to ensue if the unalt- 
ered solution acts for too long a time. 
This process was carefully investi 
gated and its merits established by a 
number of workers about the middle 
of the last century, but it did not be 
come widely practised at that time. 
In 1888 Jensen published his re 
searches on hot water as a smut-pre 
ventive, and although his advocacy of 
this line of treatment did not lead to 
its general adoption, it called attention 
to the possibility of successful treat 
ment, and led to a much extended use 
of the bluestone method. In 1895 the 
use of formalin was first recommended 
by a German experimenter, Gunther, 
and from its efficacy and ease of appli 
cation, it has become very widely used. 
Seed is either immersed or sprinkled, 
the strength of the solutions recom 
mended varying considerably. 

Recently an extended series of ex 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


147 


periments on the effects of various 
treatments on the germinating power 
of grain has been carried out by Dr. 
Burmester, and the results published 
(Leitschift fur Pfenzerkrankheiten 
July, 1908). A summary of these re 
suits in the experiments with blue 
stone and formalin may be of interest, 

Bluestone Method. 

Oats soaked for 14 hours in J / 2 % 
solution had their germinating power 
reduced over 40%. With subsequent 
lime treatment the loss, however, was 
very little. Sprinkling with 1% solu 
tions, caused a decrease in germinat 
ing power of 10%, whilst with 2% 
solutions the damage rose to 30%. 

Barley, similarly treated, showed a 
loss of 6% only; whilst with lime treat 
merit, the loss was practically none. 
Sprinkling with above strengths of 
solution, caused losses of 2%, and 16% 
respectively. 

Wheat of two kinds was used, viz. . 
Criewener, and Strabe’s Bearded. 
Soaking the former 14 hours in y 2 % 
and 2% solutions, lowered the germ in 
ation 29% and 62% respectively; lime 
treatment reducing* these figures to 
18% and 47%. Sprinkling with 1% 
and 2% solutions, caused losses amount 
ing to 19% and 50% respectively. 
Strabe’s wheat with ]/ 2 % solution 
showed a loss of 7%, and after lime 
treatment, 5% only. Sprinkling with 
1.4% strength, caused a loss of 8%. 

Of the grains used in the above 
tests, barley appears to be the least 
susceptible to injury, whilst oats are 
very sensitive to copper salts. In the 
case of the wheats the great differ 
ence between the two varieties in the 
degree of injury sustained is probably 


due to differences in the damage to the 
grain caused by thrashing. Obviously 
damaged grains were rejected, but 
minute injuries not visible to the eye 
would be sufficient to admit the solu 
tion to the germ in injurious amounts. 
The effect of the subsequent treatment 
with lime in reducing the loss of vital 
ity in the seed is very clearly shown 
by the preceding figures. 

Formalin Method. 

It had been previously found that 
soaking for two hours in 1% solutions 
was enough to destroy all smut spores. 
In the following tests the g*rain was 
soaked for four hours in 1% and 3% 
solutions. With the former strength, 
Cpewener wheat — so sensitive to blue 
stone — showed a loss of only 2% whilst 
barley and oats showed none at all. 
With the 3% solution the diminution of 
germinating power was 27, 15 and 11% 
for the respective grains. 

These figures show that soaking in 
a T% solution twice as long as is neces 
sary to kill all spores is practically 
harmless .to oats and barley. Wheat 
111a y suffer some injury but to a much 
smaller extent than is incurred by the 
bluestone method, even if the latter be 
followed by application of lime. 

All the treatments above mentioned 
were found to be thoroughly effective 
in preventing smut. 

None of the other methods tested 
gave results of the same value as 
those from bluestone and formalin, and 
the reputation which the latter has 
gained in agricultural practice does 
not. seem likely to suffer by compari 
son with any of the methods so far de 
vised 


1 4 8 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 




Horticulture 




The Rural Scenery of Ontario* 

BY D. H. JONES, B.S.A. 



“How bless' d, delicious scenes! the eye 
that greets 

Thy open beauties or thy love retreats ; 
The unwearied sweep of wood thy 
cliffs that scales ; 

The never ending waters of thy vales. ’ 
— Wordsworth. 

CtT HAVE been in Switzerland, in 
France, in England and in 
Scotland, yet never have I viewed 
a scene that I consider superior to this 
that stretches now before us.” So said 
a traveler to the writer not very long 
ago as we stood together overlooking 
a broad sweeping valley, the far side of 
which steadily rose to the distant 
horizon. Prosperous farmsteads inter 


spersed with woodland were scattered 
all along its gentle slopes, and here 
and there were herds of cattle grazing, 
making altogether a rural picture of 
enduring charm. 

The scene referred to is not very far 
from the City of Guelph, and though 
perhaps the opinion expressed concern 
ing its merits might be questioned by 
other travelers, it surely is a scene 
worthy of praise and one to be much 
prized by those who live in its vicinity. 
The selective powers of an East, a 
Murray or an Aumonier could readily 
make of it a canvas worthy of the line 
at the Royal Academy Exhibition or 
the Paris salon. And this particular 



THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


149 



landscape is not by any means the only 
one such in Ontario. All that is need 
ed is the seeing eye and the interpreta 
tive hand and the many, many scenic 
beauties of the country would be 
brought before our notice in such a 
way as to enforce our recognition of 
their intrinsic merit. 


which, wherever he may go, man will 
not find a scene of greater charm or 
more romantic beauty. While sailing- 
through the thousand isles at daybreak 
in the summer, when the glorious 
golden glow of dawn is stealing over 
the earth, one may without a stretch 
of the imagination feel himself to be 
in an enchanted land. Overhead, the 
deep blue of departing night, with 
here and there a fading star just glim 
mering through the ether, the blue 
paling* toward the horizon through 
many pearly tints and 
mixing with the 
amber and the orange 
of advancing day ; 
the placid waters all 


True we have 
not in the prov 
ince any mighty 
mountain chains 
or solitary peaks 
that tower away into the skies, with 
clouds enveloping their forms. But if 
we have not a Rocky Mountain range, 
or a Mont Blanc, or a Mount Stephen 
to draw sight-seeing travelers to our 
midst in search of the sublime in 11a 
ture, we have their ecjual in scenic 
majesty — the monarch of the water 
falls of all the world — the booming, 
rumbling, roaring Niagara, tumbling 
for-ever and for-ever over the dread 
precipice at our soutnern door. We 
have, too, upon our southern boundary 
the Lake of the Thousand Isles, than 


around seen in vistas through the 
islands which with every hue seen 
overhead are mirrored in their depths ; 
the castellated buildings of the mag- 
nates of our land that rise above or 
show between the thickly foliaged 
trees, and the little rustic dwellings of 
less pretentious men that jut out at 
the water’s edge — these all together 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


150 



combine to make a panoramic view, 
which once seen is never to be forgot 
ten ; reminding one somewhat of Coler 
idere’s Kubla Khan. 


“And here are gardens bright with sinu 
oils rills. 

Where blossoms manv an incense bear 


more and more each year by jaded city 
dwellers in search of rest and recrea 
tion. 

Such, however, is not the scenery on 
which we wish to lay most stress. Our 
rural scenery is not so much that 
which is reserved as a tourists’ para 
dise as that which is found in close 
proximity to our dwelling places. And 
here again Ontario is well blessed. 
Although our immediate forbears have 
in many instances been vandalistic in 
their onslaught on our virgin forests, 
and have left too few of those magni 
ficent trees, which or 
iginally existed in 
profusion, to beautify 
and give dignity to 
the landscape, yet 


for 


And here are 
ests ancient 
the hills, 

Enfolding sunny 
spots of green 
ery. 

Twenty miles meandering 
mazy motion 

Twixt wooded isles the stately 
ran.” 


river 


Again in Muskoka, and the Abitibi, 
and around the Georgian Bay, we have 
such scenery as may not be found else 
where — scenery possessing a charm, a 
wildness, a ruggedness with its rocks, 
its rapids, its lakes and trees, peculiar 
to itself and which is being sought after 


here and there occasionally we see 
them, and in places comparatively 
early settled we find some splendid 
samples of second growth spreading 
their vigorous limbs in dignity and 
stateliness. 

Who that has driven along the road 





THE O. A 


C. REVIEW. 


! 5 2 

that runs from Guelph to Hamilton 
and has not been delighted with the 
magnificient sweeps of landscapes that 
open to the view as one rises to some 
point of vantage on the undulating 
road. Down through Aberfoil and 
Morriston and on through Freelton 
until we reach the steep descent which 
leads us to the bay. As we zig zag 
down the hill and look before us, we 
are greeted with a view that, bathed 
in evening glow would have provided 
Turner with an ecstacy, and undoubted 
ly the scene would have found its way 
into his Liber Studiorum and given an 
original fit to hang alongside any in the 
National Gallery. It would have been 
a second “Crossing the Brook.'’ On 
either side we see well wooded broken 
hills, and as we turn a corner in the 
road the bay lies stretched before us, 
and on the further side the hill of Ham 
ilton rises above the city, somewhat 
dim in the evening light and city’s 
smoke, and a glimpse beneath the rail 
way bridge to the left gives a vista 
stretching far away over the lake ap 
parently to infinity — -just such a scene 
as Turner loved. 

Who that has wandered through the 
glen at Rosedale or has sauntered 
along the banks of the Don in the 
neighborhood of Toronto, or has even 
seen pictures or photographs of scenes 
found in these places and has not been 
forced to admire the beauty abounding 
in them ? These are all within the 
reach of every resident in Toronto on a 
summer half holiday, and undoubtedly 
there is many a one familiar with these 
places who has felt as Wordsworth 
did when he penned his Tintern 
Abbey: 

“These forms of beauty have not been 
to me 


As is the landscape to a blind man's 
eye : . 

But oft, in lonely rooms, and ’mid the 
din 

Of towns and cities, I have owed to 
them. 

In hours of weariness, sensations 
sweet, 

Felt in the blood, and felt along the 
heart ; 

And passing even into my purer mind, 
V ith tranquil restoration.” 

In the neighborhood of Niagara, too, 
the Falls are not by any means the 
only scene of beauty. From the top 
of Oueenston Heights views may be 
obtained that should prove an inspira 
tion to the poet, the painter, and the 
patriot. The orchards, the elms; the 
oaks, the luscious fields of growing 
grass and grain, stretching for miles as 
far as the eye can see produce a land 
scape the opulence of which, would be 
difficult to surpass. As we travel from 
Hamilton round by Galt, what pic 
turesque broken country greets our 
eye! and if we make the journey in the 
fall, when the maple trees are all 
aflame with crimson, russet and gold, 
then it is that we are fortunate and 
our sensp of color effects is appealed 
to to its full capacity. 

And such quality of scenery is not 
confined to the places named ; but in 
almost every quarter of the Province it 
obtains. 

And then our pastorals! How com 
mon it is to find a picturesque herd of 
cattle grazing, or a flock of sheep tak 
ing their fill in the juicy water meadow 
or on the shady hillside, providing a 
picture that only needs a Jacques, a 
Cooper or an Anton Mauve to make 
it famous in the galleries of the land ; 
or a Gray, or a Wordsworth, or a 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


153 


Lamp man to make it famous in our 
books of song. 

Yes, Ontario has a rural scenery of 
which it should be proud. True, many 
places have been despoiled, and ugli 
ness may be said to characterise some 
sections — the neighborhood of Petrolia 
for instance — yet on the whole the 
scenery that greets the eye through 
out the Province is of a character to 
satisfy and delight. And when we 
learn with Coleridge 


“That Nature ne'er deserts the wise 
and pure; 

No plot so narrow, be but nature 
there. 

No waste so vacant, but may well em 
ploy 

Each faculty of sense, and keep the 
heart 

Awake to love and beauty,” 

we shall prize our rural scenery much 

more than we usually do. 



154 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


Christmas Fruits From Florida 

BT H. H. HUME, VICE-PRESIDENT AND SECRETARY, GLEN SAINT MARY NURS- 
ERIES, FLORIDA. 

[Note. — Upon leaving- the O. A. C. in 1S98, Mr. Hume spent some time at Ames, 
Iowa, from there he went to Florida, in 1899, as Horticulturist at the State Experimental 
Station and Professor of Horticulture at the .University of Florida. In 1904 he was 
appointed Professor of Horticulture at North Carolina State University, which professor- 
ship he resigned about two years ago to accept his nresent position. As a writer, lecturer 
and investigator of Horticultural problems Professor Hume has won an enviable reputa- 
tion. During his connection with the Florida Experiment Station he edited some eight- 
teen bulletins on various subjects. His work on citrus fruits is recognized as one of the 
standard works' on orange culture. — Editor.] 


f 



H. H. HUME. 


T HE Christmas season makes a 
break in the usual routine of 
daily living. It is a time when 
most of us look for the unusual in one 
form or another, — something different. 
I used to, and did not fail to find an 
unusually large stocking, one scarcely 
intended for my slim shanks. And on 
Christmas morn, lo ! my forethought 
was rewarded by finding the ample 
stocking filled to overflowing with 
fruits and nuts seldom or never seen 
at other seasons of the venr. 


Where did they come from ? W hy 
Santa Claus brought them, of course. 
To my youthful mind. Santa Claus 
was an extraordinary individual, and 
his garden a wonderland wherein those 
strange fruits grew. And what was an 
orange tree like? Did pineapples grow 
on pine trees? How big was a banana 
tree? What are those funny looking 
nuts? These and a dozen and one 
other questions were asked at the 
usual small boy rate of four or five a 
minute. Certainly the answers were 
either very vague or they made little 
or no impression on my mind, for I 
grew up with very hazy ideas concern 
ing some of those Christmas fruits. In 
deed it was not until in after years, 
when I visited the Santa Claus gar 
dens in many different places that 
most of the mysteries were made en 
tirely clear. Some of them linger still, 
for something of the childhood days, 
and something of the child, remains 
with all of us to gain ascendency once 
more in the declining years. Our 
metamorphosis is never quite complete, 
something of the past state still re 
mains. 

A goodly assortment of fruits finds 
its way to the market at Christmas 
time, and as new lands are laid under 
tribute and new fruits are brought to 
notice, the list is constantly being in 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


155 



HARVESTING AND PACKING PINEAPPLES. 


creased. It now includes the orange, 
pomelo, kumquat, banana, persimmon, 
pineapple, grape, pomegranate, straw 
berry, sapodilla, cactus, fig, date and 
raisin (grape), to say nothing of the 
king of all fruits, — the apple. Among 
the nuts, pecans, filberts, almonds, wal 
nuts and Bertholletias are the most 
common. To supply these several 
fruits and nuts, many lands send their 
contributions, for the demand is great 
and ever increasing. It is a note 
worthy fact, however, that while not 
more than one or two in the above 
list are indigenous to North America, 
yet nearly all of them, and of course 
many more maturing at other seasons, 
are grown in the United States. 

Not all the fruits just mentioned can 
be grown in Florida, still the Florida 
list is sufficiently large and varied to 


grace the Christmas table of the most 
fastidious. Those most commonly 
seen are the citrus fruits, (orange, 
pomelo, kumquat), pineapple, persim 
mon and pecan nut. 

Pineapples. 

Of all the fruits of American origin 
none surpasses, nay, none equals the 
pineapple, fresh from the plant. Jean 
de Eery said long ago that it was fit to 
be picked only by the hand of a Venus 
and exclaimed in 1578 “Ananas plus 
excellent fruit de V Amerique.” There- 
fore it seems most fitting that we tell 
of the Florida pineapple fields first. 

In making a survey of certain por 
tions of the lower East Coast of Flori 
da, years ago, the surveyors entered in 
their notes that the white sandy land 
over which they walked, was not 
worth the annual taxes levied in those 


THE O. A. 


C. REVIEW. 


156 

early clays. That it was good for any 
thing did not appear possible. Sand 
as white as Canadian snow, covered 
with a sparse growth of scrub pine, 
certainly seemed to justify the estimate 
put upon it. They are about 99% 
silicon, so poor that you could hardly 
raise an umbrella on them and Vyet the 
introduction of the pineapple in 1864 
has given to these lands a new value, 
and to-day they are among the most 
valuable in Florida. 

Pineapples were at one time grown 
in a number of different places in in 
terior Florida, but this industry has 
disappeared, killed, the former grow 
ers say, by excessive express rates, 
and the bulk of the crop is now pro 
ducecl by open field culture between 
Fort Pierce and Miami. Through this 
section one may ride for miles through 
pineapple fields. They occupy a nar 
row strip of ridge land, from to 1 T 4 
miles wide, bounded by swampy or 
low ground on the west and by the 
Indian River or some inlet on the east 
side. The fields are regularly laid out 
in beds, with paths or alleys between. 
The plants are ordinarily set 20x20 ft. 
or 24x20 ft., and about 15,000 plants 
per acre. 

To support the crop on this poor 
soil, large amounts of commercial fer 
tilizer are used. In fact it is not far 
from the truth to sav that these lands 
receive the maximum amount of fer 
tilizer annually used on any crop any 
where. The applications total upwards 
of 4,000 pounds each year. Herein is 
the secret of it ; the sand supplies a 
foothold for the plant (the drainage 
must be and is good) and the fertilizer 
sack supplies the necessary food. 

The fields are set with slips or suck 
ers broken from the older fruiting 
plants, and these come into bearing 


about twenty months (a little more or 
less) from the time of setting out. Set 
in August or September, the first crop 
from slips is produced a year from the 
following June and July. On well 
managed plantations ninety-five per 
cent, of the plants will bear fruit the 
first season. Red Spanish which some 
mistaken writers have likened to the 
Ben Davis apple is the principal 
variety. 

The main crop is produced in June 
and July, though some fruit is usually 
found throughout the year. The win 
ter crop, because of the lack of heat 
and sunshine, does not equal the sum 
mer crop in quality or lusciousness. 

In gathering the crop, two men 
usually work together. One with his 
lower extremities protected by stout 
canvas leggings, makes his way among 
the spiny leaves through the beds, 
break! or cuts off the fruit and tosses 
it to his co-worker in the alley, who 
places it in his basket or box. It is 
then taken to the packing house, where 
the fruit is packed in half barrel crates. 
Each fruit is wrapped in paper and 18, 
24, 30, or 36 fruits are usually placed 
in the crates. 

Pomelo. 

The Christmas breakfast, according 
to the' way of thinking of many people, 
is incomplete without this' tonic and 
appetizing fruit. I do not call to mind 
that anyone has ever separated the bit 
ter principle of the pomelo, but in its 
purity it must be as bitter as quinine. 
When one gets bold of a poor stunted 
specimen, it is not likely lie will eat 
much of it unless he feels he needs 
medicine. One is likely to swallow al 
most anything on occasions of that 
kind. But the well grown fruit, 
brought to maturity in the heat of 
Florida's sun is a delightful blending 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


157 



3. POMELO BLOSSOMS. 

of acid, sweet and bitter, that whets 
one’s appetite for the more substantial 
part of his breakfast. 

Pomelos are known as grape-fruit in 
most of the markets. The name has 
been applied because of the grape-like 
clusters in which the fruit is frequently 
borne. The trees are much like orange 
trees, but with larger, brighter leaves 
and the trees grow to larger size. The 
crop of fruit on well grown trees is 
often very large — measured in boxes, 
fifteen to twenty. So completely is the 
crop covered by the foliage that one 
would think there was hardly any. 


1. POMELO TREE IN FRUIT. 

2. GRAPE-LIKE CLUSTERS OF TRUMPH 

POMELO. 

This inside fruit is usually the best and 
brightest. It looks as though it were 
made of wax. Good specimens mea 
sure from four to five inches in diamet 
er, and from forty-eight to eight}" 
fruits are required to fill the Florida 
orange box, contents two cubic feet. 

Pomelo trees of the best varieties, 
such as Duncan, McCarty, Marsh 
Seedless, Walters and Triumph are 
grown on Sour Orange, Rough Lemon, 
citrus trifoliata and grape-fruit stocks. 
For general planting throughout citrus 
regions to-day, Sour Orange stock is 
more commonly used for all citrus 
fruits than any other one, I might even 
say than of all others put together. In 
Florida there are many old seedling- 
trees, their planting dating back to a 
time when they were set out, not for 
fruit, but as curiosities. 

It is only about twenty-five years 
since the Florida orange grower wak 
ened up to the fact that the fruit had 
a commercial value. To-day from one 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 



158 

third to one-half of all the trees set are 
grape-fruit. In this quarter of a cen 
tury we have seen an unknown fruit 
become the American breakfast fruit 
par excellence, and from being regarded 
as a novelty it has taken a place among 
the staple fruits of the country. Florida 
introduced it and the fruit produced in 
the state still leads the market. 

Kumquats. 

Unusual among the citrus fruits is 
the Kumquat. It is the newest of the 
citrus fruits in America, for it did not 
find its way to Europe until 1846, and 
appears to have come to America 


about four years later. It cannot be 
considered a staple fruit, but its unique 
ness and high ornamental value gives 
it first rank as a novelty. 

Kumquats grow, not on trees but on 
bushes, which reach a height of ten or 
twelve feet. In the blooming season 
they are almost white with flowers and 
in autumn the dark green leaves and 
innumerable small golden fruit make 
a beautiful combination. They are 
grown and cultivated much as other 
citrus fruits are, being set about fifteen 
feet apart each way. 

The fruit is gathered by clipping it 


1. FRUITING BRANCH OF KUMQUATS. 

CRATES READY 


2. TREE IN FRUIT. 3. KUMQUAT 
FOR SHIPMENT. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


159 


from the bushes with two or three 
leaves attached to each one. They are 
packed in quart baskets, the bottoms 
being filled with fruit thrown in loose 
ly, while the tops are tightly faced 
with fruit, the green leaves peeping 
out between. They are then packed in 
strawberry crates of twenty-four or 
thirty-two quarts. The fruit is used 
for table decorations and is the most 
valuable of all the citrus fruits for this 
purpose. 

There are three varieties of Kum 
quats. The To variety is not unlike a 
small fancy Mandarin orange in gen 
eral appearance, but the juice is very 
acid. I remember some years ago, a 
plate of them was sitting on my 
laboratory table when the Professor of 
Mathematics came in. He always en 
joyed coming in, for in season there 
was plenty of fruit about. He had 
never seen To Kumquats before and 
took them for Mandarins, remarking 
how good they looked. “Why, help 
yourself, old man,” I remarked and 
went on with my work. A little after, 
on glancing around, I beheld him sit 
ting motionless on his chair, a half 
eaten To in his hand, and the tears 
streaming from both eyes. Not much 
wonder. It analyses about 7% citric 
acid, and makes good ade. The other 
varieties, Marumi (round), and Na 
garni (oblong), are quite different from 
To. The skin is aromatic and spicy, 
the inner lining or rag sweet and the 
pulp, when well ripened, rather acid. 
They are eaten rind and all and the 
combination of flavors is very pleasant. 
No other citrus fruit can be used in 
just this way. 

The demand for the fruit at the 
Christmas season is good, but the fruit 
must be marketed carefully, a few 
crates here and there. It is an easy 


matter to break a Kumquat market as 
the writer knows from experience. 

Oranges. 

From the time of the first Spanish 
settlements, Florida soil has contribut 
ed its quota of the golden orange to 
the Christmas festivities. The industry 
has passed through many vicissitudes 
of frost and drought, but still remains 
the most important in the State. 

Whether from the famous groves of 
the Indian River, from the West 
coast, or the interior, the quality, when 
the fruit is properly grown, is unsur 
passed. An orange, as you know, is a 
reflection of the care and fertilizer 
given the tree. Variety counts for 
something, of course, but not so much 
as intelligent cultivation. Consequent 
ly there are about as many variations 
in quality as there are variations in the 
individuals who grow them. At one 
time the most of the oranges were 
grown in the central counties of the 
State ; conditions have changed, how 
ever, and orange growing has shifted 
southward. 

The cultivation of an orange grove 
is not unlike that of an apple orchard, 
but if the apple methods were applied 
in detail to an orange grove, troubles 
of various kinds would show up. The 
dormant season in Florida is from No 
vember until the end of February, this 
is followed by a dry season extending 
up until about the middle of May or 
first of June. Then the rainy season 
begins and if it behaves in a normal 
way rain falls almost every day until 
about the end of August. The general 
rule in handling a Florida grove is to 
cultivate frequently during the dry 
season, allow a cover crop to shade the 
ground in the rainy season and turn 
this under between the middle of No 
vember and the first of December. This 


i6o 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 



3. A FANCY BOX OF FLORIDA ORANGES. 

last is essential as a protection against 
cold. Fertilizer is usually applied in 
February and again in June. 

In many sections the presence of 
the rust-mite makes it necessary to 
spray the fruit with a sulphur spray 
during the summer months to secure 
bright fruit. Some prefer the russet 
fruit, alleging that it is sweeter. May 
be so, our viewpoint changes with our 
thoughts or vice versa. 

The preparation of a crop of oranges 
for market is a painstaking operation. 
The fruit is hand picked by clipping 


1. THE ORANGE SIZER IN OPERATION. 

2. PINEAPPLE ORANGES ON THE TREE. 

the fruit from the trees with shears 
especially made for the purpose. It 
must be handled with extreme care, 
neither bruised, dropped or injured in 
any way. If it is, decay rajpidly sets in. 

From the field, the fruit is hauled to 
the packing house on spring waggons. 
There it is sorted by hand into differ 
ent grades and the culls thrown out. 
It is then allowed to cure for two or 
three days. Afterward it is run through 
the sizer, which grades the fruit in 
different sizes. The diameters vary 
from three and one-half to two and 
seven-sixteenths inches, a different size 
and a different pack being made for 
every quarter, eighth or sixteenth of 
an inch between these diameters. Each 
size is packed by itself- and each fruit 
is wrapped as it is placed in the boxes. 
The boxes are packed snug and tight. 

With these and many other fruits 
Florida makes glad the hearts of the 
children, young and old at the holiday 
season. 


THE O. 


A. 


C. 


REVIEW. 


161 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW 


EDITORIAL STAFF. 

A. D. CAMPBELL, ’09, Editor. 

F. C. NUNNICK. ’10. Associate Editor. 


H. SIRETT, ’09, Agricultural. 

G. H. CUTLER, ’09, Experimental. 

A. G. TURNEY, ’09, Horticultural. 

J. D. TOTHILL, ’10, College Life. 

O. C. WHITE, ’10, Athletics. 

S. KENNEDY, ’10, Old Boys. 

C. F. BAILEY, ’0 9, 


P. E. LIGHT, ’ll, Locals. 

J. W. JONES, ’09, Staff Photographer. 

G. H. UNWIN, ’09, Artist. 

MISS B. WILLIAMS, Macdonald. 

MISS L. JULYAN, Assistant Macdonald. 
MISS E. M. WHITNEY, Locals. 
Business Manager. 


' / 

Editorial. 


This month we are pleased to give 
to our readers, what we have chosen to 
call a Christmas number. 
H Special This is the first time in 
IRumber. four years that a special 
issue at this season of the 
year has been attempted. During that 
period of time the men in charge felt 
it was not in the best interests of The 
Review that a special number should 
be issued. We are not in a position to 
say whether they felt rightly or 
wrongly, but we do know that in days 
gone by Ontario Agricultural College 
students, and especially The Review 
staffs, have laid for this college 
journal, foundations broad and deep; 
foundations on which it is a pleasure 
for present day Review staffs to erect 
superstructures which we hope will 
not be looked upon with discredit by 
our readers. 

For some months the students now 


in charge of The Review have felt it 
incumbent upon them to put forth an 
extra effort at this Christmas season. 
We say incumbent, for many reasons. 
In the first place the faculty of this 
college, with possibly a few exceptions, 
have given this periodical all the sup 
port that any body of men and women 
could possibly be expected to give. 
The whole student body are extremely 
loyal to their College organ, and The 
Review is indebted to many students 
who are connected with it, for favors 
shown from time to time. Moreover, 
we have among our contributors, and 
on our subscription list, a large num 
ber of ex-students to whom The Re 
view means much and, who, on the 
other hand, are most worthy sup 
porters. To many of these men their 
college paper is the tie that does most 
to keep them in close touch with their 
Alma Mater, and any action that will 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


162 

strengthen the tie that binds graduate 
and college, and that brings the college 
closer to the graduate is a laudable 
one. 

Then again this is the season for 
gifts and happy greetings. Christmas 
giving and receiving, with discretion 
and discrimination, are beautiful func 
tions. The Review has been enjoying 
prosperity and growth and rejoices 
that it is in a position at this time to 
put forth an effort to please the most- 
fastidious of its readers. It also wishes 
to take this opportunity of thanking 
its supporters for the very beneficent 
manner in which they have treated it 
during the past year, and extends to 
one and all of them, Christmas greet 
ings. 

For many years before the founding 
of the Ontario Agricultural College 
it was seen by 
IRetrOSpeCtive* some far-sighted 
men throughout 
the Province that agricultural educa 
tion was needed, if the fertility of the 
soil was to be maintained. It was also 
seen that if increased yields and 
cheaper production were to be ex 
pected, the farmers should understand 
more of the science of their profession. 
To the Hon. Sir John Carling, of Lon 
don, belongs the honor of having taken 
the first steps towards founding a 
School of Agriculture in the Province 
of Ontario. In 1873 the farm of 550 
acres was purchased by the Govern 
ment from F. W. Stone. 

The name decided upon was The 
Ontario School of Agriculture, and its 
motto was Practice with Science. It 
was formally opened in 1874 with 
Henry McCandless as Principal, a 
teaching staff of four, and with twenty 
eight students in attendance. 


Wm. Johnston, B. A., was Principal 
from 1875-1879. At his resignation 
the name was changed to the Ontario 
Agricultural College and Experimental 
Farm, and the chief executive was to 
be known as the President of the Col 
lege. James Mills, M. A., LL. D., 
was appointed to that office in 1879. 

During the first ten years there were 
additions made to the Museum, Na 
tural History and Chemical Depart 
ments. The Library was made more 
complete and the grounds were re 
modelled. The average attendance 
from 1874-1884 was one hundred and 
twenty-nine. 

During the next ten years many 
marked improvements were made ; new 
farm buildings were erected ; county 
students were admitted, and an Ad 
visory Board was appointed. A 
new Chemical Building also was 
added. 

In 1888 the barns were burned, but 
were immediately rebuilt. It was in 
this year that the College was affili 
ated with Toronto University, and on 
October 1st, the first degrees were 
granted to a class of five, among whom 
was our present President. In 1889 
the first Review appeared, and later 
on the Experimental Building and 
Gymnasium were built. 

Following these were additions to 
the Dairy and Horticultural Depart 
ments, improvements to the Main 
Building, new Greenhouses and Botani 
cal Laboratory, and in 1892 larger ad 
ditions to the Dairy Buildings. This 
period began with a teaching staff of 
eight and closed with a staff of four 
teen. The average attendance from 
1884-1894 was one hundred and fifty 
one. 

The next ten years witnessed many 
great changes at the college. First, new 
Poultry Buildings, then a new Chemi 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


163 



MISS LJULYAN [ fMlSSBAMUJAM$ 

ASST. MACDONALD MACDONALD 


P.E.LIGHT 

, LOCALS 


fl$SE#WHITNEV 

LOCALS / 


A.D.CAMPBEL.L 

EDITOR 


T.C.NUNNICK 

ASSOCIATE E.D», 


CJ, BAILEY 

BUSINESS MGR, 


KS I RETT GH CUTLER 

AGRICULTURE 


EXPERIMENTAL 


A.G TURNEY 

HORTICULTURE 


S. KENNEDY 

OLD BOYS 


G.H.UNWIN 

ARTIST 


J.D.TOTHILL 

COLLEGE LIFE 


O.C.WHITE 

athletics 


J.WJONES 


PHOTOGRAPHER 


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THE REVIEW STAFF, 1908. 


6 4 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


cal Building, an electric light plant 
installed, and additions to the Biologi 
cal Laboratory. Short Courses were 
started in 1899. A Cold Storage Build 
ing was added the next year. In 1902 
’03 the greatest additions were made. 
In 1902 the Massey Hall and Library, 
the Biological Building and Live Stock 
Pavilion were built. In 1903 the great 
est additions in the history of the col 
lege were made, viz. : Macdonald Hall 
and Institute. These are large build 
ings of red pressed brick, imposing in 
general appearance, commodious in 
their internal arrangement, elegant in 
finish and capable of accommodating- 
one hundred and thirty girls. The 
average attendance from 1894-1904 was 
two hundred and twenty-seven, and 
the Faculty of Instruction had in 
creased to twenty-four. In 1904 Presi 
dent Mills resigned to accept a posi 
tion on the Railway Commission at 
Ottawa. To him belongs the honor of 
having stood by the college for a quar- 
ter of a century, guiding it through 
storm and discouragement to the high 
position it had attained at the time of 
his resignation. Mr. G. C. Creelman, 
B. S. A., M. S., was appointed as his 
successor. During the same year 
many improvements about the Resid 
ence were made and the Consolidated 
School was built. 

The following year was one which 
will long be remembered by many at 
the College, it being the first time that 
the O. A. C. Judging Team won the 
Bronze Bull at the Chicago Interna 
ticnal Fat Stock Show. The Machin 


ery Hall was started the same year and 
completed in 1906. In 1907 there were 
new additions made to the Chemical 
Laboratory, College Residence, and 
Biological Building. A new water 
tower and coal shed were built. Last 
year was marked by a very important 
event, viz. : The coming over from 
Chicago of the Bull for the third time 
and to remain ; it having been won 
three years in succession. 

The year which is now drawing- to a 
close may well be said to be the banner 
year of the college in point of attend 
ance and usefulness. The Faculty of 
Instruction now numbers forty-six. 
The attendance is the largest in the 
history of the college, there being four 
hundred and twenty-one names on the 
roll. Additions are still being made in 
the way of buildings ; a new fruit and 
vegetable house was put up this year; 
the barns were remodelled, and a new 
incubator house is now under construe 
tion. Progress has been the watch 
word in the past, and as we look back 
over the years at the growth of the Col 
lege we realize that the future is 
largely the outcome of the past, and 
we can only look for a most prosper 
ous development of this Institution in 
years to come, since after years of 
varied experience it has become firmly 
established in the estimation of the 
class for which it was instituted, and 
it is to-day imparting a great deal of 
useful information to the farmers, is 
creating- a widespread interest in Agri 
culture, and is adding dignity to life 
and labor on the farm. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


165 




3V * College Life ^ 


“Nor shall the aerial powers 
Dissolve that beauty, destined to en 
dure, 

White, radiant, spotless, exquisitely 
pure, 

Through all vicissitudes, till genial 
Spring 

Has filled the laughing vales with wel 
come flowers.” 

— Wordsworth. 

The last month of the present 
year is upon us ere long to be sunk 
in oblivion, never again to be lived 
through by mortal man ; let us there 
fore make the most of it. The prevail 
ing atmosphere of the month is one of 
heartiness and good cheer, and it is 
to our interests to harmonize with 
these sentiments if we wish to make 
the most of life. The Christmas vaca 
tion is nigh at hand, when through the 
clouds of life there will be a moment 
ary gleam of sunshine to kindle our 
slumbering hearts to fire ; the bewitch 
ing charm of home will soothe our 
sorry hearts and cause us to speedily 
recuperate from the ill effects of over 
work( ?) Perhaps, too, there is some fair 
eyed damsel to be considered — but 
enough ! This comes not within the 
writer’s province. On the very thres 
hold of such luxury let us not lose 
courage at the scent of a few paltry ex 
aminations, but let us rather gather up 
our remaining strength for the final 
struggle — now is the psychological mo 
ment to do so — and assuredly we shall 
come out right side up. 


A Retrospection. 

This is the time of year when a 
self retrospection is not out of place. 
We come to this college in September 
with resolutions which, did they ma 
ture, would bring us all out at the 
head of our year, would make us lead 
ing lights in all the college societies, 
in fact would mould us into acolytes 
for the remaining members of college 
society to revere. These excellent 
resolutions, however, have not matured 
and in all probability never will ; we 
have either overestimated our own 
ability or underrated that of our asso 
ciates — and this is one of the numer 
ous idiosyncrasies of that highest 
type of vertebrate animal — ;( homo 
sapiens.’ The question, therefore, 
resolves itself into this — that 
though our resolutions have fallen 
short of fulfillment to some degree at 
least, yet, notwithstanding this, have 
we acquitted ourselves in a manner be 
fiitting to ourselves and to our college? 
There is no doubt but that the major 
ity of us have, yet there is ample food 
for reflection in this matter, and as 
this is the season of meditation let us 
‘take the bull by the horns,’ and ‘do 
it now.’ A self-examination of char 
acter is one of the most difficult prob 
lems with which we are confronted, yet 
it is essential to our wellbeing that we 
make one occasionally. 

One of the greatest aids to the 
moulding of character is to formulate 
in the mind’s eye some definite code of 
life and, whether our neighbors con 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


1 66 

sicler it good, bad, or indifferent, to live 
up to it. 

In conclusion I would again empha 
size the value of a retrospection and 
would bid those who have not yet 
formed their compendium of life to 
remember that all truly great men 
have been “Suaviter in modo, fortiter 
in res.” 

Growth of the College. 

As regards development our Alma 
Mater is well rid of her seed leaves and 
continues to grow, like a ‘milk-fed 
pumpkin.’ She is fast covering the 
ground on ‘College Heights’ and bids 
fair to envelope half the city. Already 
the keeping of boarding houses for 
students is an extensive business, and 
this despite the capacious residence. 
Every year sees an extra half dozen or 
so houses erected each of which is cap 
able of sheltering at least three or four 
students. This year is no exception to 
the rule, in fact the rate of building ap 
pears to be on the increase. Another 
factor in the growth of the college is 
the erection of private residences for 
members of the Faculty and we are 
pleased to note that here again we are 
well “up to the scratch.” We live in 
a country and an age of progression, 
and, therefore, it is not to be wondered 
at that we progress. In the past de 
cade the additions to the college have 
been so extensive that the subject fills 
an enquiring mind with wonder. I 
venture to assert, in conclusion, that 
after the lapse of another few years 
the institution will have so completely 
eclipsed itself in magnitude that it 
will be as strange a maze to us then as 
it was on our first introduction to it. 

The Cosmopolitan Nature of the 
Student Body. 

There can be no criterion of excel 


lence better than a world-wide reputa 
tion. It is a foregone conclusion that 
our college is cosmopolitan in nature, 
few of us, however, realize the extent 
to which this is true. In the accom 
panying plate are figured the coats of 
arms of all the different countries rep 
resented here. If we take a map of 
the world and look up these various 
countries we find that we have repre 
sentatives from the ‘uttermost regions 
of the earth :’ Guelph might be likened 
to a magnet of intense power to which 
particles of 'grit’ are being attracted 
from the four corners of the earth ! Is 
it then to be wondered at that we are 
proud of our “Fostering Mother of 
Learning!” Is it to be wondered at 
that we occasionally shock our neigh 
bors by uttering our own encomiums. 
Suffice it to say that this institution is 
the largest, the most cosmopolitan, the 
best Agricultural College in the world, 
and in these facts lie the legitimacy of 
the above expressed sentiments. 

Subtended is a list of the countries 
figured in the plate : 

The United States — The various 
States represented are : California, 
Connecticut, Illinois, Ohio, Maine, 
Massachusetts, New Jersey, New 
York, Pennsylvania, and Vermont. 

Japan, Spain, Belgium, Java, France, 
Germany, Uraguay, Mexico, Canada. 

Every province is represented, 
namely : Manitoba, Saskatchewan, 

British Columbia, Alberta, Nova 
Scotia and Quebec. 

The Orange River Colony: Trans 
vaal, Barbadoes, India, The Argentine, 
New Zealand, Jamaica, British Isles, 
including England, Wales, Scotland 
and Ireland. 

Our Four Presidents. 

In this issue we present to our 
readers photographs of the Presidents 



COATS OF ARMS OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES REPRESENTED AT O. A. COLLEGE. 



i68 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 




W. M. WADDELL, 
President of Union Literary Society. 


of four of the College Organizations, 
namely : The Literary Society, The 
Athletic Society, The Y. M. C. A., and 
The Philharmonic Society. 

We all know Waddell as President 
of the Literary Society, an able 
speaker himself, he has always been an 
ardent supporter of matters literary .- 
There is an old adage which says 
“small men accomplish big things.” 
and this is true of ‘Mac.’ We see him 
at his best filling the presidental chair 
at a union debate or other important 
function ; in fact he fills .it with such an 
easy grace and carries himself with 
such decorum that we half wonder how 
it is that he can deport himself in the 
other multifarious walks of college 
life so successfully. It matters not, 
however, where we find him, he is 
always the very impersonation of 
geniality and hospitality. He says 
little when not holding forth upon the 


platform but, being a deep thinker, 
what he does say is always worth list 
ening to. Under the present leader 
ship the “Lit.” is flourishing and, to 
cut a long story short we shall con 
elude by saying that we have the 
“right man in the right place.” 

Charlie Lawrence has been a sup 
porter of athletics ever since his ad 
vent to the college in ’05. Though he 
does not always adorn the football and 
hockey teams himself, yet it is not too 
much to say that a game is incomplete 
without Charlie, as a spectator at 
least, to cheer for the college, and 
instil into the players that spirit of 
“do or die,” which has so often led to 
victory. Again the executive ability 
of our worthy President must not be 
forgotten, — and who can criticize ill 
favorably the present business-like 
management of the Athletic Associa 
tion? Lastly, we would refer to 


C. A. LAWRENCE, 
President of Athletic Association. 



THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


169 


Charlie’s popularity ; though in case 
there is too much of the eulogistic in 
this note, I would say, in all deference 
to him, that he is at no pains to be 
popular — he simply cannot help it. 

In Angle we have a man fully quali 
fied for the dignified position in which 
we find him — President of the Young 
Men’s Christian Association. Since his 
coming to the college he has been an 
ardent supporter of all things having 
a spiritual bearing, and without doubt 
has accomplished a great work in ele 
vating the moral tone of the institu 
tion. “Paul” is a man of parts, in that 
he is alike enthusiastic in things of a 
literary trend, and in athletics, in addi 
tion to being a leader in his own par 
ticular sphere of work, and thus he has 
won for himself the respect and admir 
ation of the student body. We shall 
conclude by saying that when P. E. 



P. E. ANGLE, 
President of Y. M. C. A. 



A. MCLAREN, 

President of Philharmonic Society. 


Angle has bidden us a last farewell, the 
college Y. M. C. A. will indeed have 
lost a strong man. 

Alexander McLaren is President of 
the Philharmonic Society. This so 
ciety without a McLaren would be like 
a Hamlet without a ghost. For two 
years Mac has been President of this 
now flourishing organization. The 
college year ic)07-’o 8 saw it make 
steady and substantial growth, but the 
ambitions of its worthy President were 
not satisfied, and Mac returned to O. 
A. C. in the autumn of 1908 firmly 
determined to make this youngest of 
the college societies one of its best, and 
he has done it. Last year saw the 
compilation of a song book. This year 
an orchestra, which is already doing 
good work, was organized, and the 
Philharmonic concert is now an annual 
affair. O. A. C. student body owes 
much to Alexander McLaren. 


i ;o 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


“The Union Lit.” 

The second meeting of the Union 
Literary Society was held on Saturday 
evening, November 14th. This society 
embraces three sub-societies, the 
“Alpha,” “Delphic” and “Maple Leaf” 
respectively, among which there is an 
annual debating contest. At the last 
meeting the “Alpha” and “Delphic” 
societies debated, the “Delphic” win 
ning out; at this meeting the “Delphic” 
and “Maple Leaf” were in competition, 
the “Delphic Society again being vie 
torious, and thus winning the laurels 
of the series. 

The program for the evening was 
as follows : 

Clarionet solo — Mr. L. R. Martin. 

Address — Rev. G. W. Arnold. 

Vocal solo — Miss Sydney Aird. 

Debate — Resolved, “That Strikes 
and Labor Unions are Detrimental to 
the Welfare of a Nation.” 

Affirmative — Messrs. O. C. White 
and C. M. Leamonth. 

Negative — Messrs. J. E. Rettie and 
W. Dawson. o 

Piano solo- — Mr. R. Fraser. 

Reading — Selection by Dr. Drum 
mond — Mr. J. W. Jones. 

Presentation of Prizes — Cross Coun 
try Run — J. E. Howitt, M. S. A., Hon. 
Vice-President A. A. 

Judges’ decision — 

Critic’s remarks — 

God Save the King. 

The evening was eminently success 
ful from start to finish, and all con 
cerned are to be congratulated. The 
musical program was well up to the 
standard, the solos by Miss Aird being 
especially appreciated. Rev. W. G. 
Arnold, of Knox Church, gave an ex 
cellent address upon the “Art of Smil 
ing.” Mr. J. W. Jones surpassed him 


self as an interpreter of Dr. Drum 
mond’s poetry, and was vociferously 
encored. The debate, which was, of 
course the feature of the evening, was 
in every way excellent; Mr. O. C. 
White, as leader of the affirmative, de 
livered the speech of the evening. Mr. 
Leamonth made an able supporter of 
the affirmative, delivering a carefully 
thoughtout speech, which certainly 
had its merits ; Mr. Rettie, as leader 
of the negative, showed rather a lack 
of preparation, but, nevertheless, deliv 
ered a good straight-forward speech ; 
Mr. Dawson had an excellent speech, 
but made the fatal mistake of reading 
it, thereby losing in emphasis and de 
livery. As a fitting close to the even 
ing the winners of the “Cross Country 
Run” were awarded their prizes, an 
account of which contest is given else 
where. 

The Conversazione. 

It may seem rather premature, but 
just a word re the “Conversat.” This 
is the great social function of the year 
at this college, and we cannot afford 
to miss it. Whilst at this institution 
we are sometimes apt to overlook that 
all important social phase of our life, 
and when we have left the sheltering 
wings of our Alma Mater we realize 
but too keenly our mistake and alas, 
it is then too late. Therefore, come 
back next term prepared to take part 
in this conversazione, and make it a 
phenomenal success. Each year the 
conversat is better than its predeces 
sors, and this one is to be no exception 
— it is going to be the best social even 
ing that has ever been held at this col 
lege, and therefore, on no account per 
mit the opportunity to slip by without 
attending. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


171 




Athletics 




A Short History of the Development of Athletics 

at the College. 

BY W. J. SQUIRREL, B.S.A. 


T HE history of athletics at O. A. 
C. is almost as old as the his 
tory of the College itself, but the 
present state of perfection, to which 
these, in their various forms have been 
brought, was only arrived at after a 
long period of development. 

We find that between 1874 and 1882 
there is almost no mention of games of 
any kind being played, or of field 
sports having been held. Looking 
back to the early history of the 
College supplies us with the rea 
sons for this. The College course, 
during this time, occupied but two 
years. Students were required, for the 
first five years in the history of the 
institution, to work one-half a day, 
every day ; most of the remaining half 
day being taken up with lectures. 
Later this period for work was reduced 
to one-half day every other day. In 
the early days the student had very 
little time to devote to athletics. The 
lack of an organized Athletic Associa 
tion, a physical director and a gymnas 
ium in which to train, were prominent 
factors in keeping down the athletic 
spirit in the early college days. It was 
not then so generally recognized that 
for the student’s best development an 
athletic, as well as a mental training, 
was necessary. 


Rugby has been the most prominent 
game played, some of the most sue 
cessful teams being among the very 
first ones. 

The teams of 1884 and 1885 were 
perhaps as strong teams as ever 
represented the College. The year 
of 1888 also saw a first class 
team, and witnessed the defeat of Up 
per Canada College, Trinity College, 
Toronto Second Fifteen, and the 
Guelph Rugby team. This team, how 
ever, was not successful in defeating 
the Toronto First Fifteen, though they 
made a very creditable showing, being 
defeated by only ten points. 

Rugby continued to be played in 
1889 and 1890, but in 1891 gave way to 
Association football. The game was 
not again prominent until 1898. In 
this year Woodstock College was 
twice defeated, by scores of 18-10 and 
14-0. Galt won the first game of the 
season by a score of 10-0, but was de 
feated in the return match 19-0. The 
team of 1899 was not so successful, 
winning and losing to the Guelph city 
team. 

It was decided in 1903 to enter the 
intermediate series of the O. R. F. U. 
This was done, and while the team was 
successful in winning some of the 
games, thev were unable to win the 


172 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 



THE RUGBY TEAM. 


district in which they were entered. 
The team of 1904 had like success. 
Nineteen hundred and six witnessed 
the winning of the Western College 
Association trophy. 

The Rugby efforts of 1907 and 1908 
have not been crowned with success. 
This has been principally due, not to 
the inferiority of the teams, but to the 
strong company in which they found 
themselves placed. 

In summing up the Rugby situation, 
it is safe to say, that never was the en 
thusiasm greater, or the game more 
popular than it is at the present time. 
It is not so many years ago, that from 
three to five men of the first team 
turned up regularly to practice, and 
it was often difficult to get that number 
out. When we see as many as seventy 
men turning out for regular practise, 
prospects for the future of the game 
are bright indeed. 

Association football has never en 
joyed the popularity at this institution 


that Rugby has. This I think, has been 
due chiefly to the fact, that from raw 
material, it is easier to construct a fair 
Rugby team than it is to make a fair 
Association team. 

The game was played very little 
until 1890. In 1892 and 1893 several 
games were played, mostly with High 
School teams ; of the number played, 
the college teams were able to win 
about one-half. Perhaps some of the 
old boys of 1893 will recall the occas 
sion, when the team on leaving for 
Seaforth to play the High School team 
of that place for the Hough Cup, took 
a basket to bring the cup back in, and 
were trimmed by the score 7-1. 

The most successful association 
teams which have ever represented the 
College, were those of 1896 and 1897. 
These teams in two successive years, 
Avon the Intermediate Championship 
of the Western Football Association. 

The Association game is handicapped 
considerably by the short length of the 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


173 


spring term. This game is played in 
Ontario largely in the spring, and by 
the time the season opens most of the 
boys are away. But for this fact, we 
would have more Association football, 
as there is material here for a first 
class team. 

Hockey, which is a comparatively 
new game, compared with the two pre 
ceding ones, has been played every 
year, in the winter season, since 1894. 
The teams of 1894 and 1895 were com 
prised largely of eastern men and were 
able to hold their own with any of the 
teams west of Toronto. The College in 
1899, entered a team in the intermedi 
ate series of the O. H. A., in which 
series there were two other Guelph 
teams, the Victorias and Nationals. 
The team defeated the Victorias but 
lost the round to the Nationals. In 
1900 the College team amalgamated 
with the Victorias of Guelph, and a 
team known as the O. A. C. -Victorias 
was represented in the W. O. H. A. 
After playing the season through, the' 
team finished second, Berlin winning 
the championship. From 1900 until 
1906, hockey was largely confined to 
inter-year games. The years 1906 and 
1907 witnessed no championships, but 
meeting teams playing the brand of 
hockey which the inter-college teams 
do, has certainly raised the standard 
of hockey played here, above that of 
the last few years. 

It is to be hoped that the boys make 
use of all of their opportunities to play 
hockey. It is far superior to any other 
game played during the winter season. 

Cricket as a game, has been played 
here for many years. During the per 
iod extending from 1884 until 1892 the 
game was very popular, due to the 
large number of English students who 
were then in attendance at the college. 


From 1892 until 1903 very few games 
were played. We are glad to see, how 
ever, that in 1907 and 1908, the Guelph 
O. A. C. Cricket Club was able to win 
the championship of the Western On 
tario Cricket Association. Cricket, at 
no time in the history of the College, 
has appealed so strongly to the major 
ity of the students as has football. 
This is due, in some measure, to the 
fact that the game is played altogether 
during the summer season when very 
few are in attendance at the College. 

Baseball secured an earlier start at 
the college than any of the other 
games. It was played almost without 
interruption until 1902, but like Asso 
ciation football suffered severely from 
the change in the length of the college 
spring term. None of the other field 
games, can be said to be so strictly a 
local game as baseball. Very few games 
have been played with outside teams, 
those played being chiefly games with 
Guelph teams. Guelph, which has 
always been known as the best base 
ball town in Canada, we have never 
been able to defeat, but have nearly 
always been able to hold our own with 
the best teams in the Guelph City 
League. 

Tennis has been played at the Col 
lege for more than twenty years. The 
games played have been chiefly with 
Guelph representatives of that game. 
In these games the College players 
have been able to win about one-half. 
We have, however, on several occa 
sions had men here who outclassed 
any of Guelph’s players. 

Indoor baseball and basket ball are 
of very recent origin at the O. A. Col 
lege, having only been played the past 
six years. Teams representing the two 
games, so far, have been very success 
ful, winning a large majority of the 


174 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 



games played. These two games have 
been deservedly popular, and are 
games especially adapted for playing 
during the winter months. 

Track events and field sports have 
been held as far back as the seventies, 
but no organized Athletic Association 
was formed until 1892. The officers 
of the first Athletic Association were 
the following : 


stands as the College record. The sec 
ond athletic meet was held in the fall 
of 1892, W. Macdonald winning the 
all-round chanmpionship. P. B. Ken 
nedy, who won most of the runs dur 
ing this meet, afterwards developed 
into the best quarter and half mile 
runner in the big universities of the 
United States. 

A. Kipp, the all-round champion of 


THE TRACK TEAM. 


Hon. Pres... .Jas. Mills, M.A., LL.D. 

President H. L. Beckett 

Vice-President T. J. Hurley 

Sec. -Treasurer G. E. Day 

Banker A. McCallum 

| A. M. Soule 

Executive Com - P. B. Kennedy 

| S. Curzon 

. ( R. Harcourt 

Auditors - T _ _ 

( J. J. rerguson 

The first meet of the Association 

was held on June 4th, 1892, T. J. Hur 

ley winning the all-round champion 

ship. S. Curzon won the running long 

jump of 19 feet, 4 inches. This still 


1893 and 1894, was one of the best 
jumpers and shot putters that the asso 
ciation ever turned out. His record 
for putting the 16-pound shot stood as 
the college record until 1907. 

The champion of 1896, M. N. Ross, 
was the best high jumper the College 
has ever had, and his record, 5 feet 
5J2 inches, still stands. Mr. Ross was 
sent, by the Athletic Association, to 
the Varsity sports in Toronto in 1896 
and succeeded, not only in winning 
the high jump, but in breaking the Var 
sity record for that event as well. 

In more recent years we have E. C. 



THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


175 


Hallman, the winner of the lonp- runs 
on sports day at the O. A. College, 
going to Varsity and winning the mile 
run. Later running for Varsity 
against McGill, he broke the Inter-Var 
sity record, making the good time of 
4 minutes 46 seconds. The same year 
Mr. Hallman won the five mile open 
event at the Guelph Cross Country 
Run and Road Association. 

The champion of 1904, 1905, and 
1906 was W. Kerr of Ashburn. Mr. 
Kerr enjoys the distinction of being 
the only man who has been champion 
athlete on three different occasions ; 
and he certainly was one of the best 
all-round athletes who has ever at 
tended the College. 

The 1907 annual sports brought for 
ward the best weight man, in the per 
son of J. W. Jones, who has so far at 
tended the college. Mr. Jones was also 
successful in that year in winning the 
all-round championship. 

No medal for the all-round champ 
ionship was given in 1908, but champ 
ionship medals for each group of 
events. This departure from the old 
rule is a good one, as it gives the differ 
ent contestants a chance to specialize 
and makes record breaking a greater 
probability. This point was very fully 
justified by results in the 1908 sports; 
six new records being made. This is 
a greater number than has been made 
at any previous athletic meet. 

The holding of annual indoor sports 
is of quite recent date, all the meets 
having been held within the last ten 
years. Chas. Morteaux was the first 
indoor champion. 

If taken in the right spirit, there is 
no part of a college student’s education, 
which will make him more a manly 
man, and teach him self-control and 
self-reliance to a greater degree, than 
athletics. 


The Rugby Situation. 

At the beginning of the football sea 
son this year, we prophesied for our 
College a winning team. The fact that 
our boys were thrown out of the race 
in the preliminaries may lead some of 
our readers to believe that our pro 
phecy had no good foundation, and 
that a winning team is something we 
shall never possess. 

In justice to our manager, and our 
captain, Messrs. Coglan and Treherne, 
and to the team itself, which did every 
thing in its power to bring the honor 
to our institution that a football team 
may, we would say that they were un 
doubtedly the strongest team that has 
represented the College for many years, 
and that they got no further in the 
race than the preliminaries does not by 
any means indicate that they were un 
worthy to uphold our reputation in a 
league such as the one in which we 
were entered. 

In Varsity we were up against the 
strongest team in the league, one that 
had the benefit of a good football 
coach, and a daily practice with a sen 
ior team, from which they could draw 
extra strength when occasion de 
manded. When we realize the 
strength of the team our boys were 
pitted against, we may more easily 
understand why they failed to live up 
to our expectations. Had we been 
drawn against any other team in the 
league with the possible exception of 
McMaster, we would undoubtedly have 
gotten into the finals, but as it was 
we were unfortunate to have as 
our first opponents the undisputed 
champions of the league, and they, 
supplemented by some of their senio-r 
men. 

We cannot have the benefit of a 
practice with senior company every 
day, nor can we draw extra strength 


176 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


from them for important matches, but 
we believe that it is within our power 
to obtain a competent coach, and this 
is the only means by which we may 
ever expect to have a finished team. 

No captain can at the same time, 
both play with and train a team prop 
erly, and we cannot look for Mr. 


Knauss to give us a winning team 
unless he has more assistance than has 
been given to captains of this and 
former years. A coach is what we 
need, and when that problem has been 
solved, and we are supplied with an 
experienced player who could devote 
all his time to the training of the men, 
then and only then can we expect the 
best results from the material we pos 
sess. 

Rugby. 

Realizing that the organizing and 
training of several junior teams at a 
college is the only way by which to 
develop a strong first team, our foot 
ball directors this year assiduously set 
to work having that in view, with the 
result that we have had no less than 
five fully organized Rugby teams this 
fall. Each team has made a reputa 
tion for itself in that at some time or 


other during the season it has defeated 
the team ranking next above it. 

On Monday, October 19th, the third 
team which entered the City League, 
demonstrated its worth by defeating 
the Guelph Collegiate Institute, in a 
one-sided game, the score being 26-6. 
The game was a snappy one and ere 
ated a good deal of enthu 
siasm, but the G. C. I. 
boys were never in it with 
Clark’s fast bunch. Roger’s 
good kicking, together with 
fast following up by the 
other members of the team, 
kept the ball dangerously 
near G. C. I.’s line for the 
greater part of the game, 
and when the word “to 
buck” was given it was 
generally accepted as the 
signal for another touch 
down. 

The College team was as 
follows: Full back, S. Rogers; halves, 
King, Bell-Irving, Austin; quarter, 
Dawson ; scrimmage, Kinnear, Rice 
Baldwin; guards, Peart, Young; tac 
kies, Hoffman, Clark (Capt.) ; ends, 
Smith, Webster. 

The second, and the deciding game 
for the championship, was played on 
the exhibition grounds, Guelph, on 
Wednesday, October 28th, the Bankers 
being the victims, by a score of 16-0. 
In spite of the fact that the grounds 
were very wet and slippery, the Col 
lege team played a fast, sure game. 
The wings followed up very quickly 
giving their opponents no chance to 
return the ball, and when it came to 
bucking, the bankers were quite power 
less to stop them, Bell-Irving being in 
a great measure responsible for the 
gains College made in this way. 
Rogers played his usual cool, heady 



RUGBY TEAMS IN ACTION. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


177 


game, his kicking being very effective. 
The team as a whole are a well-bal 
anced aggregation, and are sure to 
give a good account of themselves. 

The winning of this game gives the 
College boys the city championship, 
and the cup. 

O. A. C. lineup was as follows : Rice, 
Baldwin, Kinnear, Young, Peart, 
Clark (Capt.), C. L. S. Palmer, Web 
ster, W. H. Smith, Dawson, Austin 
Bell-Irving, King, Rogers. 

O. A. C. Downs Central Y. M. C. A. 

Thanksgiving Day witnessed another 
decisive victory for the O. A. C., when 
they defeated the Central Y. M. C. A. 
of Toronto, by the score of 30-0. The 
game was rather too one-sided to be 
interesting, the Centrals being danger 
ous only once or twice during the 
whole game. 

The College team : Emmerson, Bald 
win, Young, Toole, Kennedy, McFay 
den, Hoffman, Rice, C. L. S. Palmer, 
Clark, Dawson, Austin, Bell-Irving, 
King, Rogers. 

O. A. C. II. ’s vs. Victoria College. 

The second team played their return 
match with Victoria College on Satur 
day, November 14th, on Victoria’s 
grounds. At no time was the result 
in doubt, and consequently our team 
did not exert themselves, or the score 
would undoubtedly have been much 
larger. As it was it stood 8-2 in favor 
of college. The game was very clean, 
there being only two penalties im 
posed, these on Victoria men. 

The following represented College : 
Rogers, King, Edgar, McFayden, Jack 
son (Capt.), Webster, McAleer, Moor 
house, Emmerson, Toole, Culp, Clev 
erly, Palmer, Kennedy. . Spares — 
Young, Bell-Irving. 

Association Football. 

The standing of the teams at the 


close of the season, in the City Associa 
tion Football League, places College at 
the head of the list, and thus they are 
winners of the handsome cup donated 
by Jock Smith, of the Bell Piano Com 
pany. 

This is the first year for some time 
that the O. A. C. has entered an asso 
ciation football team in any league, 
and by winning the series, and the 
cup, they have demonstrated that it is 
possible for us to carry on successfully 
both the rugby and the soccer game. 

Cross Country Run. 

The Annual Cross Country Run is 
an occurrence of no small importance 
in the cycle of athletic events that take 
place at our College every year. Keen 
competition and fast time has been the 
rule, and this year’s race held on Thurs 
day, November 9th, fulfilled the rule in 
both these respects. 

Seven men lined up for the start, 
Howell, Clemens, Shaw, White, E. W., 
Smith, Culp, and Duncan, and so well 
matched did they appear that no one 
ventured to predict the winner. Culp 
set the pace, and Smith stepped in be 
hind him with Shaw in third place, 
closely followed by the others, and 
they were running in this order at the 
end of the first lap. During the second 
round a regular blizzard arose, which 
though it did not materially affect the 
pace of the runners, made it very un 
comfortable for the spectators who 
were eagerly waiting to see who should 
first appear over the hill, just before 
the home stretch. A cheer from the 
second year announced the arrival of 
Culp, who finished strong and fresh, 
his time being thirty-three minutes 
forty-five seconds. Shaw followed 
closely. Smith, Duncan, Howell and 
Clemens arrived in the order named, 
White not completing the race. 


1 78 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 




Our Old Boys. 



Percy E. Reed, of Georgetown, is 
one of the successful graduates of the 
Ontario Agricultural College, who can 
say with pride not only “I was born 
and brought up on the farm” but also 
“I am a farmer.” After . receiving his 
commercial diploma from the George 
town High School, “Percy,” as he was 
know among the O. A. C. boys, entered 
the college in September, ’99, as one of 
the youngest members of the class of 
’03. While at the O. A. C. he took an 
active part in College life, and was one 
of the most popular students in his 
year. After completing the Diploma 
course, he returned to Halton county 
to the home farm, of which he is now 
proprietor. In his farming operations, 
Mr. Reed is making a specialty of 
dairying and horse breeding. He now 
has a fine herd of pure bred Jerseys, 
and as he ships sweet cream to Toron 
to, 30 miles distant, this breed is well 
adapted to his purposes. For some 
years “Percy E. Reed” has been a 
name frequently occuring in the lists 
of prize winners in both heavy and 
light horses at all the fall fairs in his 
vicinity. In light horses Mr. Reed has 
this season won first prizes in all 
classes, high-stepper, roadster, carriage 
and saddle. 

As our illustrations suggest, Mr. 
Reed has a homestead well equipped 
with a comfortable home, surrounded 
by wide lawns, and with large and 
well appointed barn and stables. Since 
becoming proprietor, he has put into 


practice many of the suggestions re 
ceived at the O. A. C. Under the direc 
tion of Mr. E. J. Zavitz he has on a 
hilly portion of the farm set out a 
forest plantation of 5,000 white pines 
and 3,000 black locusts. These are 
growing rapidly and promise soon to 
become a most valuable part of the 
farm. Since leaving the College Mr. 
Reed returned to take the winter 
course in Stock and Seed Judging. 
By occasional visits to the Chicago 
International, and by frequent visits to 
the Guelph Fat Stock Show, and to 
the College, Mr. Reed is keeping in 
close touch with all that is best in 
agricultural advancement. 

W. T. MacDonald, B. S. A., a gradu 
ate of ’03, has been appointed Profes 
sor of Animal Husbandry at the 
Washington State Agricultural Col 
lege, Pullman, Wash., to replace W. 
A. Linklater, who goes to Oklahoma. 
For some time after graduation Mac 
Donald was engaged in Farmers’ In 
stitute work in Minnesota, but gave 
up that work to accept a position on 
the Animal Husbandry Department 
at Oklahoma. 

G. S. Henry, B. A., an associate of 
1896, is farming on Yonge Street, a 
few miles north of Toronto. 

Twentieth Century Agriculture is 
not so closely allied to the lumber 
business as was agriculture of our 


179 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 



MS 


SCENES ON THE FARM OF A PROGRESSIVE EX-STUDENT, PERCY REED. 




i8o 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


pioneer forefathers, but there seems to 
be a community of interest sufficient 
to draw men from the one line of work 
to the other. As an instance of this 
might be cited the case of T. F. 
Patterson, ’96, who is engaged in lum 
bering in British Columbia, in com 
pany with his brothers. Tommy Gadd 
who took his associate diploma with 
the class of 1896, and was engaged in 
dairying in the West for some time, 
also forsook agriculture to become 
manager of a lumber concern. He has 
evidently made good, for his reputation 
as a business man stands high. 

Dr. Judson F. Clark is another grad 
uate of the same year who has taken 
up the commercial side of Forestry. 

After graduation Dr. Clark took a 
post graduate course in Forestry at 
Cornell. Obtaining his Ph.D., he was 
appointed assistant to Dr. Fernow, of 
the Cornell School of Forestry, and 
later Provincial Forester under the 
Crown Lands Department, Toronto. 
Some two years ago he resigned this 
position to manage a British Columbia 
Lumber Company. He paid the Col 
lege a visit this summer, and while 
here gave a very interesting address 
to the Canadian Club. 

The class of 1896 had the first spe 
cialists in Chemistry and Physics, 
among them being G. A. Smith. Hav 
ing received his B. S. A. degree he took 
up post-graduate work at Cornell, 
where he obtained his Master’s degree. 
He was assistant to Dr. Caldwell for 
some time, but later was appointed to 
a lucrative position with a paint manu 
facturing concern in Brooklyn, N. Y. 

C. L. Messecar took the Associate 
course with the class of 1882, returning 


to his father’s farm at the end of his 
second year. Feeling an inclination 
towards business he left the farm to 
take the agency of the Massey-Harris 
Company. He occupied this position 
successfully until his appointment as 
manager of the Brantford Cordage 
Company, which office he still holds. 

We had as one of the many visitors 
to the College this fall Fred Sissons, an 
Associate of 1896. Mr. Sissons is 
farming near Red Deer, Alta., and re 
ports very good 'crops in that district 
this year. He likes the West and is 
very enthusiastic over its prospects. 

T. H. Robertson, ’94~’96, better 
known as “Tiny,” went west and en 
gaged in lumbering in Forget, Sask., 
but sold out to go into the contracting 
business in Regina. His room-mate, 
while at College, Geo. Robertson, 
raises high-grade pure bred ^poultry at 
Ottawa, and occasionally judges poul 
try at the fall fairs. 

Jack Livingston, B.‘ S. A., ’00, is 
dairying in Vancouver, where he is a 
manufacturer of butter and cheese. 
Jas. Hollis, of the same class, is in 
Bermuda managing an estate. 

Mr. Mitchell, the principal of the 
Kingston Dairy School, has been ap 
pointed to the Professorship of Dairy 
ing at the Manitoba Agricultural Col 
lege, Winnipeg. He took the Dairy 
course here some years ago. 

P. S. McLaren, of McGarry P. O., 
is one of Lanark county’s most progres 
sive farmers. He does a good deal of 
experiment work with the cereal 
grains, Emmer in particular, and has 
one of the best herds in the Lanark 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


181 


County Cow Testing Association. He 
received his Associate diploma in 1889. 

D. A. McKenzie, B. S. A., ’08, has 
been appointed assistant to the Spe 
cialist in Agriculture at Lindsay. 

W. A. Kennedy, B. S. A., ’95, is 
farming near Fertile Valley, Sask., and 
has Alex. McPhadden, ’96, as one of 
his neighbors. 



We present on this page the unique 
spectacle of the chance reunion, after 
a separation of twenty years, of three 
graduates, all of whom have disting 
uished themselves in their widely diver 
gent paths of life. On the left is Mr. 
B. E. Paterson, of Winnipeg; in the 
centre is Mr. W. B. Sharman, Profes 
sor of Bible Study in Chicago Univer 
sity; the person to the right is Mr. G. 
Plarcourt, a brother of Professor Har 
court, of the Chemical Department, 


and now Deputy Minister of Agricul 
ture for the Province of Alberta. The 
photograph was taken as they stood 
in the portal of the Government 
buildings, Edmonton. 

Wheeler, ’oy, is in the Soil Survey 
Department of the United States De 
partment of Agriculture, and is work 
ing in Illinois. 

The Review extends its heartiest 
congratulations to Sid Curzon, and his 
brother Arthur, commonly known as 
“Tot,” upon their receipt of a legacy 
of some £25,000 sterling. 

Statistics tell us how wide spread 
tire the graduates of this College, and 
how widely extended is the range of 
their vocations, but we are most 
strongly impressed with this fact when 
ex-students keep dropping in from all 
parts of the globe for a short visit. 

T. H. Sharpe, B. S. A., ’03, was at 
the College this summer. He manages 
a banana plantation in Bermuda. 

W. C. McKillican, B. S. A., ’05, of 
the Seed Division, Alta., was here 
Thanksgiving Day. 

R. D. Craig, ’98, the manager of a 
British Columbia lumber firm, left his 
duties for a short time to visit the 
college. 

W. J. Thompson, ’96, spent a day 
here in company with his wife while on 
his way from Bermuda. He has 
charge of the Fertilizer Department of 
Swift & Co., Chicago. 

A. McKenny, ’oy, Agricultural Spe 
cialist in Essex county, gave us a call 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


182 

while on his way to the Fruit, Flower 
and Honey Show in Toronto. 

Frank Reed, Specialist in Agricul 
ture at Lindsay, has been appointed to 
the Seed Division of the Department 
of Agriculture in Saskatchewan, to 
replace Doc McFayden, who goes to 
the Barton Seed Co., of Warrington, 
England, to act as their Western rep 
resentative. 

B. E. Patterson, Poet and Philoso 
pher, Journalist and Parmer. “Pat” 
came from New Brunswick, was edu 
cated in Ontario, and is now doing 
business in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, 
Alberta, and British Columbia. In his 
travels he meets many ex-students of 
the College, and has always a kindly 
word .for* the old place. The Old 
Boys remember him as one who, dur 


ing his college career, wrote the Col 
lege songs and played the bones, and 
no- company in College, town or coun 
try round about was complete without 
B. E. Patterson. In his pilgrimage to 
Montreal every other year, he never 
fails to visit the O. A. C., and to spend 
a day or two with his old classmate, 
the President. 

It will be of interest to some of the 
ex-students of the College to know that 
the separator offered for the largest 
number of subscriptions obtained for 
the Review by Oct. 31st has been 
awarded to an old boy, Mr. I. I. Devitt, 
Freeman, Ont. The number of sub 
scriptions handed in by Mr. Devitt 
was eighty-one. Mr. W. M. Waddell, 
of ’09 class, was a close second, with 
seventy-six subscriptions. 



THE FIRST MAIN BUILDING OF O. A. C. THE PORCH IS STILL THE MAIN 

ENTRANCE. 



THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


183 



Agriculture for Women. 

BY MISS YATES. 

[The following article -was an address delivered before the annual meeting of the 


National Council of Women, in Ottawa, by ' 
of lectures at O. A. C. — Ed.] 

I N Canada, where so many women 
have nobly helped their husbands 
and sons to lay the foundations of 
successful farming, one certainly 
should feel under no obligation to 
apologize for a practical and abiding 
interest, in Agriculture. At the same 
time, there is no doubt that numbers of 
farmers' wives and daughters in this 
country are adopting an attitude of re 
sentment towards these pursuits, and 
as soon as circumstances permit, it 
seems pretty evident, in numbers of 
cases, that the men of the family back 
them up in the effort to be relieved of 
duties in the barn. 

One agricultural lecturer was asked 
at a big meeting whether his wife 
milked the cows. The answer, given 
in scathing tones, was, “My wife, sir, 
does nothing on the farm that a man 
can do for her.” 

Having a personal weakness for 
calves, I frequently make inquiries as 


iss Yates, who is at present taking a course 

to the number on hand, method of 
feeding, etc. More often than not, the 
ladies in the farm home look very 
bored, and say that they really don't 
know anything about it, and it is 
months since they were near the barn. 
This is all right perhaps, and no doubt 
proceeds from a chivalrous desire on 
the part of the men to keep their wo 
menkind as apart from their business 
interests as their city friends do, and 
in these days of cheese factories and 
creameries it has become more possible 
for the dairy interests to be managed 
by the men. However, it seems a 
great pity that any feeling that it is 
derogatory to the dignity of a woman 
to do outdoor work should have 
arisen. 

In the Old Country, the very highest 
in the land, from the Queen down 
wards, take an interest in such things, 
and there are colleges and training 
schools where educated gentlewomen 



184 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


go voluntarily to actually learn how 
to work at agricultural pursuits. These 
have, as is well known, an extraordin 
ary healthful influence upon even nerv 
ous and delicate girls. The interest 
keeps up, too, as years go on, and the 
passing of youth does not in any way 
affect ability to enjoy the work, and 
the progress connected with it, viz., 
Shows, Competitions, Clubs, etc. 

With the exception of a few cases, 
general farming has not been found to 
lend itself to the average woman’s 
ability. In my own opinion this is 
merely because of the lack of ordinary 
business knowledge common to the 
sex. The average woman could not 
take the head of any business satisfac 
torily, so it should cause no surprise 
that she is unable to manage a big 
farm. The number of successful ex 
ceptions only draws attention to the 
rule. But so far as small holdings are 
concerned, and in regard to the lighter 
branches of agriculture, and with the 
application of intensive methods of 
production, then, a woman of ordinary 
ability after sound training can materi 
ally add to the comfort and happiness 
of her life and surroundings. By the 
lighter branches of agriculture, I refer 
more especially to Horticulture, Poul 
try, Bees, and Small Fruit. 

In England, it is a gratification to 
their friends to be able to say that the 
Royal Horticultural Society’s gold 
medal has been won for several years 
by educated women. The year before 
last, the fortunate girl was a friend of 
my own. I should say that over one 
thousand candidates take the examin 
ation each year, and it is open to pro 
fessional gardeners. This year her 
great friend has won it, and the two 
have entered into a partnership on a 
small market garden just outside of 


London, with a six-hundred foot run 
of glass, the object being to supply 
first-class stuffs to the neighborhood. 
I hear this week that prospects are 
excellent and their trade brisk. They 
llow employ three men and are hard 
at work themselves. Tomatoes, cu 
cumbers, forced strawberries, mush 
rooms, violets, and wreath and bou 
quet-making being some of the 
branches of their work. England is 
looking on and wishing the firm of 
twin gold-medalists every success. 

Of Miss Cornelius Wheeler’s work 
at Cosham, I can only say that it has 
been established many years now on 
similar lines, and has been a brilliant 
success from the start. At its head 
there is, of course, sound commercial 
ability and the gift of leadership. 
Many others I could quote, and in my 
own profession of poultry. The out 
standing names of Miss Edwards and 
Miss Tammadge show definitely that 
we can succeed financially in the de 
lightful work on the land if we have 
perseverance, energy and business 
rectitude. The finest yield of peas in 
England this year was on Miss Brad 
ley’s model small holding in Kent. W e 
have it on authority from the Ontario 
Agricultural College, that the possi 
bilities of one acre may be even quad 
rupled by proper and intelligent culti 
vation. 

For those having had a first-class 
training, there has been no lack of 
suitable openings so far; in fact, it may 
be said that the difficulty has been to 
inspire the girls with sufficient con 
fidence to accept the responsiblity 
that invariably accompanies a high 
salary. 

It has been said that only twelve per 
cent, of the educated community is 
able to do the world’s work — the rest 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


185 


merely do the packing. This has been 
my experience, and it is one of the 
most disappointing features of trying 
to help women to earn their living. 

Apart from salaried positions, and 
especially for those women having 
some little means and desirous of 
adding to them, it may be said that 
few occupations offer such opportun 
ities for a happy independent life. 
Many women fail to realize that some 
commercial knowledge is necessary 
before undertaking any business what 
ever. Failing this, trouble leading to 
disaster frequently arises from mak 
ing insufficient provision for working 
capital — and then agricultural pursuits 
are pronounced unsuitable for women. 

Some of the difficulties connected 
with the life may be overcome by co 
operation. I refer to the sense of 
isolation, the monotony and the 
fatigue inseparable from living alone 
in the country. The best plan is for 
several to start together, and in this 
way a more comfortable put-up can be 
secured. The social advantages need 
not be enlarged upon, but it conduces 
no little to the enjoyment of life to 
meet an agreeable party at meal times 
and in the evening when work is over. 
I say agreeable, for women at work 
out of doors are not so apt to be irrit 
able and nervous as those living an in 
door life. 

The land may be used jointly for 
many purposes — fruit and poultry, 
dove-tailing well. Many appliances 
can be used in common and the stable 
can be worked jointly, to say nothing 
of a co-operative method of marketing 
which has been found to work very 
satisfactorily when tried. 

There is no reason whatever why 
this work should not be advantageous 


ly carried on here. Ontario seems to 
me particularly well adapted for it. 
The thriving system of Women’s In 
stitutes, managed so admirably by the 
Department of Agriculture, provides 
excellent opportunity for receiving fur 
ther instruction and for keeping in 
touch with the experimental work be 
ing done in the Province. Further, a 
plan is on foot to establish a co-oper 
ative small holding scheme where each 
member shall have ten acres of pro 
ductive land to work. If I may be 
allowed to recommend it, an account 
of this scheme would be of interest to 
the Quinquennial Meeting of the Inter 
national Council of Women, to be held 
in Canada, together with addresses 
from some of those women who have 
actually succeeded in making a finan 
cial success of some of the lighter 
branches of agriculture. Many girls 
could take up the work at home pro 
fitably. It has been estimated that one 
more egg per hen in this Province 
would run the Ontario Agricultural 
College and allow $75,000 per annum 
for improvements. 

In this vast country, the acquisition 
of territory has seemed of paramount 
importance, but it should be remem 
bered that the few acres well cultivated 
have their undoubted possibilities 
financially. The capture of the high- 
class market in England by Denmark 
has been accomplished by the small 
producers whose system might be glori 
ously emulated by the women of Can 
ada. How about women’s markets in 
our cities and towns — where the pro 
duce should be what it pretends to be, 
and Grade A is indeed Grade A, where 
petty trickery is unpractised and 
payment according to quality is the 
rule. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


1 86 


Ghristmas As Macdonald Girls Have Seen It. 


CHRISTMAS IN SOUTH AFRICA. 


Climatic conditions in South Africa 
are so different from what they are in 
England or Canada that it is almost 
impossible to keep Christmas day as 
it should be kept or enter thoroughly 
into all the pastimes and pleasures 
which that merry season brings to us. 
In the early days of Johannesburg it 
was thought to be quite enough to go 
for picnics and drive home late at 
night under a full summer moon, when 
the heat of the day was over. But, 
with the coming of more people from 
other lands, we all try to make the day 
as “Christmassy” as possible. We 
decorate our homes with holly and 
hang the mistletoe bough in likely 
places, but the good old African sun 
shines on warmly and the sky is a 
beautiful blue. Even if the seasons 
were reversed and Christmas came in 
wintertime, it would still be a bright 
sunny day, as dull skies in South 
Africa, in the Transvaal particularly, 
are very rare. The sun always shines, 
and the days are very cold and dry. 
One longs for rain, and sometimes it is 
six months before the clouds come up. 
People from England appreciate these 
dry conditions, and by some the 
climate is considered absolutely per 
feet. 

We play tennis all the year round, 
not on turf, but on hard gravel courts, 
and on Christmas day this game is the 
chief form of amusement. Along the 
reef the different mines have their 
annual sports’ day, as it is one of the 
two holidays which falls to the lot of 


the miner, and naturally he is not slow 
to take advantage of it. Cricket is also 
played a great deal and everyone takes 
an interest in the many exciting- 
matches played at the Wanderers’ 
Club, the playground of Johannesburg* 
sportsmen. 

One advantage perhaps of having a 
summer Christmas is that the churches 
are always exquisitely decorated, as 
flowers of all kinds bloom to perfection 
in Johannesburg and Pretoria, but it is 
strange to sing the glad Christmas 
hymns on a hot day, although the old 
familiar tunes ring out just as merrily. 
One Christmas eve a party of us went 
out to some of the mines and sang 
carols. We drove round to the differ 
ent houses on a mule wagon, and our 
singing was accompanied by two 
violins and a small harmonium, which 
was placed in the middle of the wagon. 
We grouped ourselves around, and as 
our way took us over many jolty roads, 
and in some cases mere tracks on the 
veldt, it proved to be most exciting. 
In spite of this, and the fine summer 
night, we lustily sang 

“When the snow lay on the ground, 
Deep and crisp and even,” 

and joyfully partook of the good cheer 
offered us at each house. Mince pies 
taste good even in summer time. Those 
of us who have spent Christmas in 
South Africa will look forward to our 
first Canadian Christmas with pleas 
ure, at the prospect of spending it 
under such different conditions. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


187 


A CALIFORNIA CHRISTMAS. 

By E. Bryant. 


“How are you going to have your 
Christmas this year, Pete/’ asked 
Pinte Bill, “hot or cold?” 

Now Bill was a Californian, and he 
knew. 

“Just medjum, Bill, just medjum.” 

And so I ask you how you want your 
California Christmas, and if you knew 
as much about the subject as Pete you, 
too, would say just “medjum.” 

You may go to Pasadena and enjoy 
the wonderful Rose Festival which is 
held there every Christmas day, or you 
may go to the high-peaked Sierras for 
a snow-shoeing expedition in the great 
silent forests. But best of all between 
these extremes you may find the real 
typical Californian Christmas. 

You will find it in the foot hills of 
the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Here 
Christmas dawns like a morning of 
spring with one difference, the Christ 
mas spirit is in the air. On the rolling 
hills the California holly is hanging in 
heavy red clusters on the drooping 
bushes, and the mistletoe is white-ber 
ried and full of suggestion of this glad 
time. In the woods there are tall ferns 
and spicy evergreens. The gardens 
are a glory of chrysanthemums, roses 
and violets. The forests are crowded 
with straight little fir trees, all waiting 
and eager to be “butchered to make 
a Roman holiday.” 

A little tree is selected, placed in the 
wagon and the remaining space is filled 
with holly, mistletoe and ferns. Scores 
of wagons are in the woods to-day, be 
ing filled with Christmas cheer, but 
when they are all filled and gone there 


will be plenty left, for nature is gener 
ous in California. 

Then away to “town” to get the 
necessary artificial decorations for the 
proper Christmas tree. The mining 
town is transformed into a gay little 
city. 

In the shops are chattering Indian 
women, haggling for gaily-colored 
calicos, while the men stand by, — their 
stolid faces just a little less rigid be 
cause it’s Christmas. People bustle 
eagerly along the streets with mysteri 
ous bundles. Little waifs peer into 
candy shops. Ice cream parlors are a 
scene of a great deal of business for the 
excitement necessitates frequent re 
freshment. 

At last the shopping is done, the 
tree is bedecked and all is in readiness 
for the evening’s fun. This will com 
mence about half-past eight, after the 
turke}^ and mince pies, which you saw 
in the pantry, have disappeared. 

It is growing very dusky and soon 
the moon will rise, so we saddle our 
horses and away for a moonlight ride 
before the uproar sets in. Up the 
moonlit trail rides a lonely horseman, a 
cowboy returning from town. He 
whistles softly to himself and tied 
behind the saddle are numerous 
suspicious-looking bundles. 

“Where are you off to, Bill?” 

“Home,” is the laconic reply, and 
noting your gaze at the bundles, “Tak 
in’ the wife and kids a few little toys,” 
and Bill rides on up the trail, happy 
because the Christrhas spirit has crept 
into his rough old heart, for Christmas 
is Christmas, even in No Man’s Land. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


1 88 

CHRISTMAS IN GERMANY. 

By Irene Robinson. 


Some few years ago it was the good 
fortune of the writer, along with a 
party of friends, to spend the holiday 
season in Germany — the very birth 
place of things Christmassy, from old 
Kriss Kringle himself down to the lit 
tie woolly lamb that he carries in his 
pack, bearing the label “made in Ger 
many.” 

It is the week before Christmas, and 
we find ourselves in the city of Berlin, 
and a wonderful Berlin it is ! For 
weeks preparations for the great holi 
day have been going on, and the very 
air breathes festivity. We cannot help 
feeling the infection of it all. Our 
blood flows faster, and by the time we 
reach the toy shops we are experienc 
ing again the happy thrills of child 
hood. 

And these toys ! Words fail to de 
scribe the wonders of form and color 
and mechanism. Nowhere in the wide 
world would we find them in just such 
wonderful masses — nowhere but in 
Germany, for Germany produces them. 

Leaving out the mechanical toys that 
require the appliances of a factory for 
their construction, they are made, for 
the most part, in the homes of the 
peasantry — whole families being often 
employed in this way. The art is 
handed down as a family secret from 
father to son. 

Should you go into the home of one 
of the German toymakers about No 
vember, you would find one room 
stacked from floor to ceiling with the 
year’s production of toys. This toy 
making is an interesting occupation, 
but not a paying one — a mere pittance 
being all the peasant gets for his work. 
The profit goes to the dealer and ex 
porter. 


On emerging from the shops into the 
streets, we find that what was once 
an open square is now a dense wood— 
a veritable forest of Xmas trees, ready 
for sale. Germany is prodigal of 
Christmas trees, one alone will not 
suffice for a family, but each individual 
in the household must have his special 
tree. 

The decoration of these trees is a 
matter involving much care and the 
usual amount of secrecy, without 
which half the charm would be lost. 
At the top of the tree is placed a small 
image of the child Christ, then come 
candles of various colors and all sorts 
of bright-colored ornaments. The sub 
stantial gifts are not hung* on the tree, 
but placed on a table nearby. 

Not the least item in the list of pre 
parations for this great festival are 
the “eats.” Now is the time for the 
housefrau to show her culinary skill, 
and this is done in no frugal way. 
Special cakes, candies, puddings, meats 
and wines all appear in abundance — • 
for the feasting must last at least a 
week. 

On the day before Xmas we said 
good-bye to Berlin, and with our party 
drove to the estate of one of our Ger 
man friends, where we were to spend 
Christmas day. The air was crisp and 
frosty, quite Canadian Christmas 
weather — which we were told — is rare 
in Germany, and as our sleigh sped 
over the snow any trace of longing we 
may have had for the homeland, dis 
appeared. 

Having arrived at the home of our 
friends we found the usual Christmas 
preparations in progress, and we were 
warmly welcomed into the midst of it 
all. The programme provided for our 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


189 


entertaintment was novel and interest 
ing. First came a visit to the tenantry 
of the estate in their own homes — this 
is an event long looked forward to, for 
the most friendly relations exist be 
tween landlord and tenant. Often 
several generations of one family will 
serve on the same estate. Besides 
these visits were the bringing of nice 
presents for all, and wonderful hamp 
ers of good things for the work of 
feasting. 

The children of the tenantry re 
turned this visit later in the day, and 
a merry throng they were as they 
assembled in the great hall — their faces 
bright with soap and happiness. They 
entertained us with song, recitations 
and gymnastic feats of various kinds— 
all specially prepared for the occasion. 
The entertainment over, each gretchen 
was made happy by the gift of a doll 
and each hans became the proud pos 
sessor of a knife, the virtue of which 
he at once proceeded to test. 

The children’s visit was followed by 
the house servants’ Christmas. The 
large servants’ hall was decorated for 
the occasion, and a special tree pro- 
vided for each, along with an abund 
ance of desirable gifts and good cheer 


was the order of the day. Last of all 
came the turn of the family and guests. 
We had been sitting around the open 
fire in the drawing-room telling stories 
and singing old German carols and 
songs, when our hostess invited us to 
the dining-room. At the door we 
stood spellbound, imagining for a 
minute that we were entering Fairy 
land. The twenty trees were hung with 
myriads of colored candles, which shed 
their soft light through the branches, 
making an effect of extraordinary 
beauty — long to be remembered. 

When we had become accustomed 
to being in Fairyland, we were anxious 
to find what the fairies had brought 
us, and we were soon busy opening 
our gifts. 

We Canadians were much amused at 
the expressions of surprise and plea 
sure from our German friends, over 
their gifts, being queer, guttural 
sounds — untranslatable, unanswerable. 
What a happy day it was ! and dear old 
Germany — how well she understands 
the art of merry-making and the joy 
of giving ! To her we owe a debt of 
gratitude for the beautiful myth of 
Santa Claus, and the joys and toys that 
go with it. 


CHRISTMAS IN PARIS, 

By E. Ellis. 


Christmas Eve of found us 

In Paris, in cheerful certainty of 
enjoying life, even more than is 
ordinarly possible, in the gay 
Capital where, the everyday rou 
tine, whatever one’s sphere of life, is 
crammed more full of charm than are 
the holidays and festivities of the 
dwellers of other cities. We made no 
settled plan — we were in the heart of 
Paris, the Quartier Latin, and assured 
of that indefinable Parisian atmosphere 


which endues the simplest form of 
pleasure with a charm far beyond its 
merits. 

The Reveillon? Yes, just the thing! 
With just the suggestion of dissipation, 
in the negotiation on foot of Parisian 
streets at midnight, so dear to the 
prosaic law-abiding British mind. 

A few moments, and we were down 
in the brilliantly lit boulevard, crowded 
with students, garbed in every variety 
of garments of cut and style, suffi 


190 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


ciently unique and pronounced to pro 
claim indisputably to the world that 
the pursuit of art and knowledge, by 
whatever path, had rendered them in 
different to the conventionalities and 
restrictions of the sartorial kingdom. 
Our way led us over the Seine, flowing, 
dark, broad and deep under its myriad 
bridges, past the grand cathedral of 
Notre Dame, where the pathetic 
figures of Adam and Eve, divided 
by an austere line of Saints and 
apostles, carved personification of 
Cause and Effect, set in a veritable 
embroidery of stone, gazed down upon 
us, hurrying past, not caring, a little 
superstitiously perhaps, to linger in 
the gloom which the close vicinity of 
the ill-omened morgue, with its ghastly 
tenants, crouched in the shadow of the 
mighty cathedral, seemed to give out 
to the night. The glittering streets, 
thronged with pleasure seekers, were 
soon reached. Vehicles and equipage, 
miracles of soundless and graceful 
movement darted or slowly passed 
along, their lamps gleaming like huge 
emeralds and rubies amongst the 
thousand diamond-rayed illuminations 
of stores and public buildings. 

The City of Light, indeed ! And 
such stores! Veritable Arabian N ights 
of the store world to him who could 
regard their wealth of art, beauty and 
riches with the controlled gaze of the 
museum haunter, whose reason re 
strains him from coveting the object 
purchasable only to the few. 

Now before us looms the great Par 
thenaic-columned Church of the Made 
line, and we are soon merged in the 
crowds of sightseers and worshippers 
swarming, like ants, up the wide, lofty 
flight of steps. A cordon of “sergeant 
de ville,” armed with sword and revol 
ver conspicuously displayed, drawn 
around the edifice, act as stern re 


minders of the pains and penalties 
which had followed and would follow 
again any demonstration from a Pari 
si an mob filled, at that time, with ran 
cour and ill-feeling against the priestly 
element. 

Our tickets examined under stern 
scrutiny, which only our faction — free 
conscience — enabled us to undergo 
without a tremor, we passed into the 
incense-laden, dimly-lit interior. 

The Elevation of the Host drew to 
a close ; the solemn chanting of priests 
and acolytes ceased, and, as the clock 
struck out the last note of mid-night, 
a voice, the most wonderful voice in 
Europe, rang out the famous Noel : 
“Minuit, Chretiens ! c’est l’heure 
solemnelle 

Ou rHomme-Dieu descendit parmi 
nous !” 

Before it, the hum, the stir, the gayety 
of spirits drawn from the gay streets, 
the church, the city seemed swept into 
nothingness, the curtain of centuries 
rolled back from before a starry East 
ern sky, the Babe, the tender Mother, 
the kneeling Kings, and the wonderful 
voice worthy, if voice could be worthy, 
of the glorious message : 

“Teuple, debout ! Chante la delivrance ! 
Noel! Noel! Voici le Redempteur !” 
With it, still pealing and reverberating 
through our being we stood once more 
in the streets, though feeling the ma 
terial exigencies of life presented by a 
deluge of rain, merging the newly 
aroused spirit into a wild anxiety to 
board hopelessly crowded ’buses and 
fiacre upon whose services, the deluge 
had set a premium ; to get home to the 
“reveillon,” feast, whether of black 
pudding, of mysterious composition, 
or pig, in every shape or form, the im 
agination or experience of “char 
enterie” could devise, or the more 
luxurious turkey, stuffed with chest 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


nuts and flanked by such indigestible 
accompaniments as are considered 
necessary to the true enjoyment of a 
nation’s festivities. 

Our flat beamed with its welcoming 
decorations of scarlet-berried and rich 
green holly, reflecting in its shiny sur 
face microscopic gleams of a dancing 
log-fire. A noble turkey on a well 
spread board suggested appetite of 
which, till then, we had been uncons 
cious; whilst smothering, by its tempt 
ing appearance, any doubts as to the 
gastronomic fitness of the hour. The 
feast proceeded joyously, terminating 
in the time-honored “plum pudding,” 
served in its indispensable accompani 
ment of purple flames, and unutterable 
suggestions of “le diable’s” agency 
from a horrified concierge who could 
only be induced to remove the dish 
after fortifying herself against the sup 
posed evil spirit by frequent and de 
vout “crossing.” 

A TEXAS 

By Helen 

O ! For that day of all the year 
when throughout the whole world, 
among rich or poor, old or young, 
black or white, in the frozen northland 
or the brilliant tropics, the spirit of 
Christmas reigns which makes that 
day the best. 

When I think of Christmas, the 
sound of popping fire-crackers, and the 
sight of mistletoe comes to me and I 
am at home in a little town far 
out on the prairies of Western 
Texas, and I hear that glad greet 
ing : “Christmas gift ! Christmas 

gift !” which wakens me on Christ 
mas morn. 

The day is perfect. Yesterday’s 
whistling “norther” has died down dur 
ing the night, and left the air sparkling 


191 

A few hours’ interval of sleep, and 
we were wandering away the rest of 
Christmas Day in the tarnished and 
jaded beauty of the Palace of Versailles 
through suites of rooms and corridors 
absolutely permeated with the dim 
sense of the presence of ghostly habit 
ants whose living passions, pleasures 
and pride had swayed Empires cen 
turies before ; through the hundred 
year old, quaintly and fantastically 
trimmed walks and altees of the 
gardens, by fountains still and silent, 
and statued groups of nymphs, fauns, 
satyrs and naiad, moss-grown and 
crumbling, in and out the minature 
farm dairy hamlet, pathetically quaint 
monument to the ill-fated Marie An 
toinette’s fancy to play milkmaid, 
whilst her husband mended watches, 
and the machinery of a nation fell to 
pieces around them. Then home 
ward and finis our first Christmas 
in Paris. 

CHRISTMAS. 

Millspaugh. 

and bright. The sun is shining as it 
can only shine in Texas, and the great 
blue dome of sky is half filled with 
billowy white clouds, drifting lazily 
southwards. Grandmother, who hails 
from the cold, frosty North remarks 
that in Texas it never seems like 
Christmas to her without snow, and 
the jingle of sleigh bells. I say let 
the snow come some other time than 
the twenty-fifth of December, for we 
couldn’t do justice to both snow and 
Christmas in one short day. So those 
white cloud banks are our snow, and 
instead of the sound of sleigh bells we 
have fire-crackers and torpedoes keep 
ing up a lively tune. 

The Christmas tree we gather 
around at noon — aunts, uncles and 


192 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


cousins are there with us — and all join 
in the giving and receiving of gifts, 
good-will and cheer. Even the “old 
black nigger,” Andy, comes in and re 
ceives each present that is handed him 
with a “Thank-you, Miss,” and a bow, 
and a shuffle accompanied by a broad 
grin that displays the whiteness of his 
teeth, and breaks the blackness of his 
face. We linger about the tree loving 
it for its deeper meaning and hoping 
that the next one will find us all to 
gether again. 

No sight is merrier than a crowd of 
happy people around a Christmas tree, 
unless it be the Christmas dinner-table, 
laden with the customary good things 
— the turkey being the monarch of the 
feast. The table is enlarged with un 
used, dusty leaves welcoming back the 
same dear faces to their old ac 
customed places — only this year there 
is one more, the only son brings home 
his bride. 

The remainder of the afternoon is 
merry and gay with visitors coming 
and going. Lilian runs over to show 
her new bracelet, and Virginia, her 
Concho pearl ring, the pearl of which 
her brother found in our river just be 
low old Fort Concho. Robert comes 
riding up, like the true cowboy he as 
pires to be, on his new horse. After 
cavorting around to show off Buck’s 
good points he nobly gives up the sad 
die and then we all take a trial lope 
around the block, riding double to 
save time. 

Here our inspection comes to an 
end by mother calling to us the time. 
So in we rush to dress for the dance 
that we are going to that evening at 
a ranch fourteen miles from town. The 
sound of the bugle announces the ap 
proach of the tally-ho, and after a fare 
well look in the mirror, and a “Hurry 


Up !” from the boys and girls, we are 
with them and hastening on to the 
next place, soon filling the tally-ho 
which is drawn by the four big fire 
horses. Some one remarks that the 
Bucket Brigade will have to “get 
busy” if there’s a fire to-night. 

At last we are off across the prairie 
in the glorious moonlight, and the 
limitless freedom of the plains makes 
one feel that “There’s nothing like the 
prairie when the wind is in your face, 
* * * ’Tis then you feel the won 

der and immensity of space.” 

We see the lights of the ranch in the 
distance, and finally reach there ready 
for all the fun that is in store for us. 
The house is decorated with huge 
bunches of mistletoe hung in conspicu 
ous doorways, and all sorts of unex 
pected places. The “house-warming” 
begins with good Mexican music for 
the dancers, and out doors Roman 
candles and sky-rockets are shot off, 
blazing across the sky and disappear 
ing on the horizon. 

The novel feature of the evening is 
“The Round-Up” when the big ranch 
man host calls out the figures of a 
country square dance, and fast and 
furious is the pace — 

“Doce Ladies, 

Gentlemen, all 
Get your partners 
And stampede the hall. 

Swing ! 

Swing your only dear !■ — - 
So it keeps up until all are breathless 
with hilarity. 

After “Home, Sweet Home,” is 
danced, and good-byes are said, we re 
turn to town happy, but too sleepy 
and tired to appreciate the beautiful 
breaking of dawn, and thus ends our 
Christmas celebration in the Lone Star 
State. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


193 


Among Ourselves. 


The Hallowe’en Reception. 

When the subject of a fancy dress 
promenade was brought before the Ex 
ecutive Committee of the school, they, 
after procuring the consent of the au 
t.horities, promptly placed the matter 
in the hands of two of their members, 
Miss Casey and Miss McKee. These 
efficient, and extremely capable young 
ladies at. once appointed committees, 
and in a very short time had things in 
working order. Their first and firm re 
solve was to make it an unusual, orig 
inal and interesting event, and most 
unlike anything ever seen at Macdon 
aid in the past. So they began with 
the programs, and they were distinctly 
a novel feature, long, narrow, yellow 
cards with the numbers printed in out 
standing black letters with the pertin 
ent heading, “ What’s Doing.” 

Immediately upon the opening of 
the entrance doors, an eager and ex 
pectant crowd of College men, profes 
sors and their wives poured in, to con 
gregate in the lower halls, and to seek 
for partners. As soon as the allotted 
time for this had elapsed, the opening 
number of the programme was an 
nounced. All the couples were re 
quested to march to the gymnasium, 
where the Grand Fageant took place, 
the chief features of which were a 
gracefully performed minuet, by the 
Misses Fuller, Rogers, Cooper, Rogers, 
McKeen and Bankier, who looked 
most lovely in beautiful gowns of the 
last century, and powdered hair, with 
Messrs. Coke, Tothill, Treherne. Kea 
gan, Douglas and Burke in knee 
breeches, periwigs and big-buckled 
shoes. Upon the platform were 
grouped the members of the Macdon 
aid and O. A. C. Faculty, and, as the 


varied scene passed beneath them, the 
three judges — President Creelman, 
Professor Reynolds and Mr. Kendall — 
selected from the many ingenious and 
original costumes those which, in 
their opinion were the most pleasing. 
The couples then roamed about 
through the crowd, amusing them 
selves, by attending the various enter 
tainments provided. A few of the 
most popular were the Palmist’s 
Booth, Oracular Salmon, and in the 
upper story— Nothing Doing. During 
the fourth promenade the word “Soph 
omore” was acted in the gymnasium, 
by means of charades. Toward the 
end of the program a trio, “Three 
Maids of Lee,” was charmingly rend 
ered by the Misses Fuller, Aird and 
Hartley, at the conclusion of which 
the prizes were presented by Mrs. 
Creelman to Miss Watson, as 
“Libby, gaun to the Kirk,” and Mr. 
Lewis, as a very realistic Teddy 
Bear. 

Every guest had been presented 
with a Soup Ticket, in the beginning 
of the evening, and when the time for 
refreshments arrived, the crowd col 
lected in Punkin Inn for coffee and 
sandwiches, and these tickets were ex 
changed for pumpkin tarts instead of 
the expected chicken broth. 

The evening wound up with a Pea 
nut Hunt throughout the building, and 
when the twenty-third promenade was 
announced the company dispersed, 
agreeing — we hope — that the anticipa 
tion was amply fulfilled by the realiza 
tion. 

The gymnasium was tastefully decor 
ated by the advanced class in Domes 
tic Art. The large screen at one end 
was most effective, forming a back 


194 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


ground of autumn leaves that showed 
up the central diamond across which 
in yellow corn cobs, was written the 
word “Hallowe’en.” Above the fire 
place niche was a corresponding declar 
ation, “Macdonald,” written in pine 
cones, a large lighted pumpkin taking 
the place of the central O. Above this 
were three sheaves of wheat in a green 
ground. Suspended from the archway 
were strings of apples and peppers, 
while inside were arranged pennants 
and cushions in graceful profusion. 
The rest of the long room was trans 
formed by lighted pumpkins and~ other 
seasonable decorations. 

Much credit is due the College men 
for the ingenuity of their costumes, 
and a vote of thanks extended to Miss 
Greist and to Mr. Kendall, who so 
ably assisted with the preparations. 

Literary Society. 

The first Literary Society meeting 
of Macdonald year was held on Satur 
day evening, October 24th, in the gym 
nasium, the President officiating. 

In an opening address, the President 
made it understood that all were ex 
pected to take their parts in helping 
on the work of the Society. 

A program of general interest was 
rendered. Miss Josephine Kilpatrick 
ably performed a very difficult piano 
solo, after which Miss Elizabeth Rob 
inson gave two readings, “That old 
Sweetheart of Mine,” and “Mary Ellen 
at the School of Expression.” A solo 
by Miss Aird, “Coo,” was given in 
her usual charming manner, and a vio 
lin duet by Misses Robertson and 
Rutherford was much enjoyed. 

With a violin obligato by Miss 
Rogers, Miss Fuller’s solo, “Thy Beam 
ing Eyes,” was also much appreciated. 


Y. W. C. A. 

For the Y. W. meeting of October, 
twenty-fifth, we were privileged to 
have with us Miss Kent, the President 
of last year, who gave a most interest 
ing and instructive address upon Silver 
Bay. A charmingly rendered solo by 
Miss Fuller was also enjoyed. 

Miss Ferguson addressed the meet 
ing the following Sunday evening very 
acceptably, upon “What is Worth 
While !” 

The last meeting was taken by Miss 
Dobson, the newly elected Vice-Presi 
dent, who gave an excellent address 
upon the opportunities which the col 
lege girl meets with in her daily life. 

For a short time every day during 
the past week a meeting was held by 
the girls in observation of the Week 
of Prayer, which was held throughout 
the world. 

The Manufacturers’ Luncheon. 

On Saturday, October 31st, one hun 
dred and seventy of the visiting mem 
bers of the Canadian Manufacturers’ 
Association gathered in the fire-lit 
drawing-rooms of the Hall, quite ready 
for their dinner, after a busy morning 
spent chiefly out-of-doors. 

Promptly at 1 130, luncheon was an 
nounced, and fhe guests passed into 
the dining-room, which, prettily decor 
ated with “mums,” looked very dainty 
and inviting. Here Miss Maddock’s 
waitress staff of thirty-seven Juniors 
proved their efficiency, for to them 
much of the success of the dinner is 
due, and after the coffee was served 
the blue and white gowned figures 
ranged themselves around the room to 
listen to the speeches, with which the 
meal concluded. 

The menu, under Miss Blyth’s 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


195 



MACDONALD GIRLS AT WORK. 


196 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


charge, was prepared entirely by the 
girls. 

The following lines, composed by 
one or two “waiting” homemakers, ex 
press clearly the feelings experienced 
by some of our maidens during that 
last quarter-hour. 

“Thirty-seven greenhorns standing in 
a row, 

At the end of dinner, when it’s time 
to go. 

Speeches still continue, will they never 
cease ? 

Thirty-seven greenhorns will soon be 
spots of grease.” 

Ground Hockey Notes. 

The past month has witnessed a 
great deal of solid work, and the in 
crease in skill and knowl 
edge of the game exhibited 
by some of the members is 
certainly remarkable. Much 
of the credit of this improve 
ment must be ascribed to 
our patient coach, Mr. A. M. 

Shaw, to whom our grati 
tude for his persevering en 
deavors, his cheerful super 
vision and his unflagging at 
tention to our interests, 
shall ever be most fully due. 

Regular practises have been held on 
Tuesday and Thursday afternoons and 
Saturday morning, the routine being 
varied by three rather irregular ones — 
on Tuesday, Oct. 20th, when the town 
girls came out and practised with us, 
and on Tuesday, Nov. 3rd, and Tues 
day, Nov. 10th, when eleven of the O. 
A. C. men and eleven Macdonald play 
ers divided up and two good fast 
games were the result. 

Matches — On Monday, Oct. 19th, 
the Hall vs. the College. Score 3 — 2. 
On Tuesday, Oct. 27th, Homemakers 
vs. the World. Score 1 — 5. 


The Guelph team was unable to ac 
cept the challenge sent by the Macdon 
aid Hall first eleven as the fitting- 
close to this first hockey season. 

Farewell ! 

From the Class of H. E. VII. 

To Miss Watson. 

To Miss Greist. 

To all our teachers and instructors. 

To the large bright sewing-rooms. 

To the laundry. 

To the Mechanical Building. 

To the comrades who for the past 
three months have surrounded us. 

To our pleasant life of learning at 
the Macdonald Institute, O. A. C., 
Guelph. 


Yet ere we drop our pen let us pic 
ture one final scene — an attentive class 
ranged around the long table of Room 
12 1, our beloved and honored mistress 
in her accustomed position at our 
head, — and let us pierce the veil that 
hangs before our eyes, and as each 
name on the roll falls in turn upon the 
silent air, take a wee glimpse into the 
future of her to whom our thoughts 
are called. Our laughing Sydney! We 
can see her in the years to come for 
ever slender in a brown directoire 
skirt. 

Here’s to Casey, our energetic bard. 



GROUND HOCKEY. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


We can see her in future consulting 
the misses under all circumstances, on 
all occasions, a most gracious hostess, 
ever hating man, but clinging to pussy 
cat and her teddy bear. 

Who does not love our Clarkie? A 
fine old granny she will make, seated 
in a comfy rocking chair, a dainty cap 
upon her snowy locks and instead of 
the proverbial knitting an embroidery 
hoop between her eager fingers. 

Sensible Effie ! It is easy to im 
agine the grateful creatures who will 
ever depend upon her for that last 
frantic, absolutely essential and im 
perative shoppng! 

Our kind and gentle bride, so soon 
to be established in her new home. Our 
best wishes accompany her there, to 
remain about her always. 

Leila, our assistant guide-chart, will 
never lack a new hat for each and 
every occasion, nor will those at home 
ever have to seek far for an accom 
plished seamstress. 

Cunning Baby Jo, our pet and play 


197 

thing, and yet wise enough withal ! We 
see her a responsible matron, fitly oc 
cupyng her appointed sphere. 

Willing, helpful Mildred will always 
fill a post of honor, and throughout 
future years will assuredly be serving 
someone as faithfully as she has served 
us in her difficult position as our 
official representative. 

A new Clara, roller skating days 
gone by, new pleasures and duties 
crowding in upon her, and the kettle 
singing brightly on the hob ! 

Edna, the thoughtful and reliable I 
A universal peacemaker, the joy and 
blessing of an entire countryside ! 

Happy Zoe will ever fill the fleeting 
moments. 

“Men may come and men may go,” 
but she’ll chat on forever ! 

Dear little Hazel ! May she never 
want for a strong protector to shield 
her from every care and worry! 

Silence once more, and once more, 
“Farewell.” 



MACDONALD DRAWING-ROOM. 


198 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


Signs of Christmas at the Hall. 

With All Apologies. 

’Twas the week before Christmas and all through the hall 
There was bustle of learning — enough for us all ! 

The boxes were placed by each doorway with care, 

As a sign that the holidays soon would be there, 

And the hour Avhen nightly each maid reached her bed, 

Was too late for a dream to find room in her head, 

For Miss Watson in wonder, and we in despair, 

Had just settled our minds to that fortnight of care. 

When over the hills, with the first fall of snow 
Came that warning of Yuletide we all of us know. 

The voice of St. Nicholas, breathing the joy 
Ot decking the tree and arranging each toy. 

Of filling the house with the green and the holly. 

Of planning surprises and everything jolly. 

What cynic can murmur, belief in his heart, 

That such visions as these are from wisdom apart? 

Yet a word of the comrades returning no more, 

For though voices are glad, there are hearts that are sore. 
There are eyes in whose depths a sad wistfulness rises 
At thought of the classmates, all ages, all sizes, 

At thought of the present so soon to be past, — 

May each find true friends Avhere her future is cast! 

So the days took their flight till the twentieth woke, 

How the moments then dragged ! Sure a saint ’twould provoke 
At last four o’clock — ‘‘Leave your studies and sport. 

Come, come all. Homemakers, Seamstresses, Short, 

Come Housekeepers, Normals, — good-bye to the Hall ! 

Noav dash aAvav, dash aAvay, dash aAvav all !” 

As atoms of dust from the broom bristles scatter. 

And cleanliness, calmness, succeed to the clatter, 

So off to the station these particles rushed, . 

To leaA^e a still campus, snoAA r -AA r hitened, snoAA r -hushed, 

But the carol rose clear ere they passed out of sight, 

“Merry Christmas to all, and to all a good-night.” 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


199 


Much Ado About Nothing. 


A Hockey Match. 

On Friday, October 16th, the ground 
hockey team of Macdonald Hall sent 
the following challenge to the Ontario 
Agricultural College : 

“The Macdonald Hall Hockey XI. 
challenges the O. A. C. team to a 
game of hockey, at 4:15 p.m. on Mon 
day, 19th, on the Macdonald Hall 
ground. 

“Handicap — The O. A. C. team to 
wear skirts not more than 3 inches 
from the ground, which must not be 
lifted in any way during the game.” 

And in due time received this reply : 

“The Ontario Agricultural College 
Ground Hockey XI. accepts the chal 
lenge so valiantly offered by the Mac 
donald Hall hockey team. And to this 
end will meet them in deadly conflict 
on the Macdonald hockey field on 
Monday, at 4:15 p.m., clothed in the 
necessary armour, in accordance with 
the terms of the challenge.” 

Memorable Monday at last came. 
Hundreds of beautifully dressed spec 
tators crowded around the side lines, 
cheering and waving colors. The 
game started, a scene ( !) which will 
never be forgotten either by those who 
watched or those who played. One 
distinctive feature of the game was the 
marvellous dexterity with which the 
* 0 . A. C. team managed their skirts. 
But perhaps the most noticeable thing 
of all was the perfect grace displayed 
by those willowy forms, especially 
when gliding across the entire hockey 
field in three strides ! In spite of sev 
eral interruptions for such necessities 
as water and hairpins, the game went 
on amid the hearty laughter and cheer 
ing of the crowds. 

A word of praise must here be given 


to those of the O. A. C. team who 
trimmed their merry widow hats with 
such exquisite taste. So beautifully 
were the hideous colors of red, purple 
and pink blended together that one 
might think that milinery was included 
in the course of studies at O. A. C. A 1 
so the dainty hosiery, twinkling now 
and then from beneath the rustling- 
draperies, showed off to perfection the 
young “ferry boats” which so elegant 
ly completed the effect. 

At half time, one of the more deli 
cate players (who was supposed to be 
goal, but was usually beyond the for 
ward line !) Was completely overcome 
by the rustling sensation of skirts and 
dropped in a faint on the ground. The 
nurse was called to his aid and not 
until a box of talcum powder and half 
a bottle of eau de cologne had been 
poured over his face did he regain 
consciousness. 

The game again started. The ref 
eree put the-O. A. C. goal off for not 
keeping his place ! Then their half 
back rudely obstructed the way of a 
Macdonald player, who was running 
up the field with the ball. He put his 
stick out to hit it and in so doing 
tripped his opponent. He was prompt 
ly put off for foul play ! So the game 
wore on. Until half a minute before 
time, the score was 2 — 2, but in that 
half minute the victory was won. Just 
as the whistle blew, the ball rolled 
majestically through the O. A. C. goal 
and Macdonald Hall held the day. 

Prayers in the Assembly Hall 
8.36 1-3 a.m. Signs of trouble from the 
platform, then a voice : 

“Girls, I don’t mind (Phil) harmoni 
ous noises, but I can’t endure the 


200 


the o. a. c. review. 


sounds that issued from this room last 
night !” 

At Philharmonic Practise. 

Conductor — I don’t want to go chas 
ing after (ladies, this doesn't refer to 
you) each member of the choir. 

Table 2. 

Just eight of us, down near the door, 
We ate till there was nothing more, 

When Nettie brought pie, 

Our spirits were high, 

But when Madam arose we were sore. 

Information Wanted — In physiology 
class after a careful explanation from 
Dr. R. how the blood makes its course 
to the heart. 

Student — -“Well Dr. R., but how 
does the blood remember which way 
it’s supposed to go !” 

-Cy 

Wanted — Miss G. M. would like a 
few lessons in bass to enable her to 
pronounce “present” at roll call with 
the correct intonation. 

At the Promenade on Hallowe’en. 

Mr. B — came up to Miss A — and 
stood admiringly in front of her for a 
few seconds, then said : 

“Miss A — ■, how nice you look, really 
I didn’t know you at first !” 

Miss W. — “Pardon me, but!! How 
are oysters on the half-shell cooked?” 

A. — “Are you going to dress in fancy 
dress on Hallowe’en?” 

B. — -“No, I’m going to dress as a 
gentleman.” 

A. — “Oh ! that will be sufficient dis 
guise !” 

^y 

Mr. W — , dressed as a pretty little 
girl, was sitting at the refreshment 


table. Suddenly a groan was heard 
and Mr. W — - said: “Oh! goodness, I’d 
better not eat too much to-night ; I’ve 
got a belt on.” 

Our stern Professor of English 
asked Miss W — what her reason was 
for putting a capital T for the word 
“two” when it came in the middle of a 
sentence. Miss W — ■ looked thought 
ful for a minute then answered, “Well, 

^Cy 

Table 7. 

S is for slumber — so late in the mo-rn- 
ing! 

To come down to breakfast, the laz) 
ones scorning. 

E is for everything, edible, eater, 

By each of the eight of us — govern 
ment treater ! 

V is for vacant, a feeling which may 
Thrice daily beset us — soon driven 
away. 

E's the essentially earnest "effect 

Produced by the meetings we must 
not neglect. 

N's for the night, which comes soon 
after tea — 

May your dreams be as pleasant, as 
pleasant can be ! 

I thought the effect was good.” Again 
when asked why she used the phrase 
“Since you professed no profession,” 
she said, “Because it sounds Irish!!” 

In Cooking Class. 

Miss H. — (tasting hot chili sauce, 
then cheering visibly) — “Oh, well, it 
won’t be so hot when it’s cold.” 

A Senior’s Dream. 

Senior — Starting up from sleep, 
“What ! Is it a dagger that I see before 
me?” “No! ’Tis a Dietary lacking in 
Proteid.” 


THE O. A. C. 


REVIEW. 


201 



man, and answers, in a low, sweet 
voice, hee-haw! hee-haw!) If any of 
you fellows need an insect for your 
collection, there’s a dandy! 

Eastham — Give me of your tobacco 
store, Stafford ! 

Staff. — What am I that I should be 
parasitised by you? 

Eastham — Well, you ought to give 
of your substance to your friends. 

Staff. — Begone, do they call fleas on 
a dog’s back, “friends?” 

Before the Masquerade — 

Student — Have you any spirit gum 
in stock, please? 

Clerk — I’m afraid we haven’t any 
left, but we have something just as 
good; try this Tutti Fruitti. 

You ask for an explanation? So, it 
was a red and blue who couldn’t be 
lieve that Tutti ruminate was a good 
thing to stick on false moustaches 


thing just as good.” 

Gentle Saunders (At Botany) — Sir, 
what term do we use to locate the 
gymnasium when it is situated below 
the receptacle? 

If one proverb tells us to “Strike 
while the iron’s hot,” why should an 
other advise us that “Second thoughts 
are best?” 

Scotty — Have you ever heard Gaelic 
spoken? 

—Yes. 

Scotty — There’s nothing like it. 

— I’m glad to hear it. 

Cleverly says its beastly crude to 
survey with a donkey level. 

Was it the Freshman’s experience 
which led him to speak of the judging 
pavilion as the stock judgment hall? 


202 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


Act i. — Scotty Lawson stood upon 
the sidewalk as four of the sweetest 
of Macdonald Hall, emerged from the 
station and called a cab. 

Act 2. — It was a shame to allow 
them to carry those heavy grips to the 
waiting vehicle. So Scotty choked 
down his native shyness and assisted. 

When each fair maid was safely 
stowed within, Scotty, with that quick 
intelligence not possessed by every 
wee, canny man, jumped up beside the 
driver, enroute for Macdonald Hall 

Act 3. — Four cramped, and tired 
maidens emerged from within the cab, 
as it drew up in front of the “abode 
of the beautiful,” each paid the price 
of her ride to the expectant Jehu, and 
then trotted toward the hall. Scotty 
meanwhile scrambles down from on 
high and proceeded to depart. 

Act 4. — The cabby contemplated the 
fares within his grimy paw, and then 
exclaimed to the last of the maidens — 
Hi ! there, aren’t you going to pay for 
this little boy? 

The President of Lit. (at Union 
Lit.) — Professor Dean has kindly con 
sented to act as critic this evening. If 
any of you become weary, have pa 
tience, the last car does not leave until 
a quarter to eleven, and the lights are 
on until midnight. 

Rettie (Union Debate) — Mr. Chair 
man, Ladies and Gentlemen, As the 
leader of the affirmative stated : “A 
house divided against itself cannot 
fall.” 

N.B. — Perhaps he was thinking of 
the college residence. Therefore ex 
cuse him, “O Kings.” 

“It’s not the coat that makes the 
man (it’s the socks.)” — Elmer Rice. 


Professor Reynold (English class) — 
Do you believe that there were clocks 
which struck the hours in Caesar’s 
time, or is this sentence another case 
of anachronism? 

King — Perhaps Shakespeare was re 
ferring to the sun striking the dial. 

Professor Dean (To second year 
dairy class) — I hope you will excuse 
any mistakes I may make in my lec 
ture this morning, but I have just 
taken two periods with the first year, 
and I’m not feeling well. 



ROSS CREELMAN AND HIS DONKEY. 


“These are the times that try man’s 
soul.” — The Editors. 

Romance in the life of Napoleon? — 
Yes. Of Shakespeare? Yes. Of Cae 
sar? Yes. Of Capt. Tommy Clarke? 
Yes. — It would seem that all of earth’s 
truly great have their softer moments. 

Tommy proved himself to be no ex 
ception to the rule, when he sat with 
smile-bathed visage upon the side line, 
whilst the Rugby team trampled their 
way to victory. The light of battle 
shone not in his eyes. For at his side 
there sat a maiden fair, who gazed at 
Tommy, and betwixt her sighs, he 
whispered nothings through her au 
burn hair. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


203 



* Tlpe J«ys ofr Xk)* ^TtijLdeTi>. 

"Before C V)t*»s>-T^as - OL/tvdC- QfVev GWv.it^av 


The Game of Rugga Feetball. 

By Monseur Dimlux. 

Mr. The Editeur, — It is sometime 
since that I write you of the game of 
baseball match, of its follies, its progi 
dies, its savageries. At that time it 
was empossible to figure myself a 
game more terrible, more ferocious. 
But regard then your game of Rugga 
Feetball ! Ma Foi ! Is it that your base 
ball is rude? Your feetball is brutale ; 
is it that your baseball is compliqued? 
Your feetball is one veritable enigma! 

Your baseball is a game of some 
savages, but your feetball is of more 
than that! Of some fanatiques? No! 
Of some lunatiques? No! Of some 
wild beasts? No! Of what then? Of 
some demons ! 

Me who speak you, I have seen it. 
Listen, I will tell you. One day I 
meet my Canadian friend ; but what 
damage? He has an eye poached, the 
head trussed, the arm in a scarf, his 
figure has cut and swelled itself. “Ciel, 
my dear friend,” I exclaim, “what has 
arrived? You have had an accident? 
Perhaps a coleesion on the railway 
road!” “It is then bicyclettes ?” “No!” 
A blow of lightning?” “No!” “How 
then?” “Oh! nothing, M’sieu, only 
Rugga !” How Rugga? I comprehend 
not feetball is a game, is it not? Yes 
M’sieu, and a joli good game, too.” 
“Joli! Majoi! sans doute ! To have 


the eye poached, it is joli n’est pas? To 
have the arm broked, it is joli, also ! 1 
know not your feetball, but I have 
no envie to play him. 

“I go with him to see the game. Be 
hold us arrived. There is a large field 
of herb, very humid, there are speck 
potatoes in thousands. At each end a 
gibet, gallows, what you call. At the 
middle some men all striped, they are 
some Hyaenas — some others all cov 
ered with spots — they are some Leop 
ards. Good ; the Hyaenas and the 
Leopards they shall fight one to the 
other.” 

I ask my friend what they are, the 
gallows? He say: 

“They are not gallows — goles. I ask 
how it spells itself. He tell me 'gaol/ 
I search it in the dictionary at my re 
turn. It is a prison. From the prison 
to the gallows is not but a step. 
Messieur, the Hyenas and the Leop 
ards arrange themselves, the pumpkin 
is in the middle. I ask my friend what 
is the big- man in the meadle with the 
whistle? He reply, ‘He is a Reverie!’ 
‘Ciel ! A Reverie is not but an idea ! 
Never I see soo much solid Reverie. 

“Then they play; upon one the other 
they jump. Then they are sorry and 
they hug of them around the throat. 
The Reverie he get jealous and blow 
of the whistle. 

“The pumpkin escape to the side 


204 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


line. The Reverie siggles again, the 
players surround it like the wall. 
Within it is dark; they cannot find the 
pumpkin. One fall down, for him also 
they feel; he utter a cry; they have 
found him — that is well. The 
Reverie siggles again, the peoples roar, 
the pumpkin rolls, the game is ovaire. 
The Reverie he run to the hotel, the 
people they catch him not. That is 
all. But what of Rugga? Is it a game? 
Who knows? Regard it for a moment 
as a game, the poor pumpkin — my 
heart bleeds for it. But on contraire, 
regard it as a race. The poor Reverie 
If he not win what become of him. I 
know not, but I have my idea.’’ 

P. C. O. 

lp| ^ 

Someone suggested to Ginger Smith, 
that he would make quite a hit at the 
masquerade as a bunch of carrots. But 
Ginger Smith didn’t turn up. 


The bell rang for study hour, and still 
they stayed. He suggested that he 
was keeping them from their studies, 
and still they stayed. He smashed the 
electric light bulb ; — they moved not. 
Exasperated beyond measure he took 
down his mandolin, remembering that 
music hath charms to sooth the savage 
beast. He struck a chord, which was 
not lost. There was a stampede for the 
door and with a satisfied smile, Gan 
dier lit his lamp and resumed his 
studies. 

Conjecturing how this world so long 
endured, 

With his co-operation unsecured.” 

— Cecil Schuyler. 

At the Masquerade. Freshman (ad 
dressing; fair maiden whom he believes 
to be his next partner) — Pardon me, 
but are you the last Rose of Summer? 





Whilst starting on one of the stock 
judging trips, four of the Agricultur 
ists overslept one morning, but the 
above sketch shows three of them as 
they overtook the train at Guelph 
Junction. The fourth man was too far 
behind to be within the range of the 
camera. 


Mr. McMeans believes that there is 
money in onions. Indeed, he asserts 
that down in the States, there are lots 
of men riding around in automobiles 
made out of onions. That is a strong 
statement, strong enough to make 
one’s eyes water. I wonder what ‘Mac’ 
means? 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


IX. 


METALLIC 

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Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering- advertisements. 



X. 


THE O. A. 


C. REVIEW. 


J. B. — Say! Jack, how would you 
like to go ski-ing? 

J. P. — I don’t want anything to do 
with girls, whatever. 

L. — White! I enjoyed that speech of 
yours very much indeed. 

White — Thanks. I’m afraid you 

could not hear very well. 

L. — No! I didn’t hear it at all. 

Prof. Reynolds — Mr. Shorthill, tell me 
the name of the bird of whom Shake 
speare speaks as “the bird of night,” 
sitting even at noon-day upon the mar 
ket place, hooting and shrieking. 

Shorthill — The nightingale. 

Freshman (looking, with admiration, 
at moose’s head in museum)— Say, but 
isn’t that a dandy moongoose. 


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SEND FOR OUR COMPLETE CHRISTMAS LIST 


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THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


xi. 


1 


EATON’S CHRISTMAS SUGGESTIONS 




S2-304A. Barbers’ Special Brand 
Razor; made of fine polished, tem- 
pered steel, hollow ground, med- 
ium beard ft, heavy Price $1. 



G3-105A. Shaving Se “Ebonoid,” 
china mug, fine badger lather 
brush, sterling mounted infancy 
lined paper covered box. Price 

of Set ,...$1.25 


S2-309A. Double Swing Razor Strop 

French finish, fine prepared leath- 
er, strong swivel and padded 
leather handle. Price 50c. 



C4-62A. Men’s Dressing Case, 

grained leather, rubber lined, con- 
tains hair brush, tooth powder 
jar, soap box, comb, nail file, but- 
ton hook, nail brush, tooth brush, 
pocket for wash cloth. Price $2 


G3-404A. “Ebonoid” Military Brush 
Set, sterling silver mounted, 11 
rows fine white bristles, size 2|x 
4 1-2 inches. Price of Set, $1.95 


G3-LXIA. Gentlemen’s Brush Set. 

This set contains two military 
brushes, comb and hat brush, 
with silver mountings, put up in 
fancy hinged box Extra special 
Price, set complete $2.40 




B 1-643 A. Men’s Wool Lined Kid Mitts; with strong 
elastic wrists as shown above, sizes 8 1-2 to 10. in 
dark tan. Very dressy. Price per pair 75c. 


B1-610A. Bucksk n Gloves a d Mitts; equipped with 
tight fitting elastic wool cuff. Medium or large sizes. 
Your choice of gloves or mitts. Price per pair, $1.00 


EATON’S 
PRICES 
SAVE YOU 
MONEY. 


T. EATON C9 


TORONTO 


LIMITED 

CANADA 


SATISFAC- 
TION OR 
YOUR 

MONEY BACK 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


Xll. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


— COCKSHUTT 
ENGINE GANG 



7-FURROW SIZE.. 


(Wood Platform, detached, showing Frame Construction.) 

The frame, 7 -furrow, as illustrated above, is large enough and already prepared 
for an eighth plow to be added at any time. The above style is also made in ten 
and twelve-furrow sizes. 

The Cockshutt Engine Gang has now for two seasons successfully stood the 
hardest tests in all the difficulties of traction plowing. It has received the enthusi- 
astic endorsation of every experienced traction plow man, practically all of whom 
have given up the plows they were using and bought the Cockshutt. 

For all information about Steam Plowing, write 

(Boekshutt Plow (Bo. Limited 

BRANTFORD, CANADA. 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 



The Grandest 
Mountain Peaks 
of the World 


Magnificent 


Alpine Club at work in the Canadian Rockies 


The Canadian Rockies 


Mountain Climbing m 


At Banff, Lake Louise, Field, Emerald Lake, Glacier, are splendid Chalets and Hotels. At these 
world famed resorts you may ride, hunt, climb, sketch, botanize, bathe in warm mineral springs, or go 
boating. Words fail to tell cf the beauty of this region which is one of the scenic marvels of the world. 


Reached by the superb trains of the 


CANADIAN PACIFIC RAILWAY 


ROBERT KERR, Passenger Traffic Manager, MONTREAL 


\/ rite for Challenge of the Mountains. 


I !..-.. . . .. 




XIV. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 




Goldie & McCulloch Co. 

Limited 

GALT, ONT. CANADA 


Extensive Manufacturers of 

Wheelock Engines, Goldie Corliss Engines 
Ideal High-Speed Steam Engines 
Heavy Duty, Tangye Frame, Piston Valve 
Saw Mill Engines 

Gondensers, Heaters, Pumps, Boilers, Tanks 
Flour and Oatmeal Mill Machinery 
Wood-Working Machinery 
Transmission and Elevating Machinery 
Safes, Vaults and Vault Doors 


All material and workmanship used by us is of the highest 
grade obtainable. 

Catalogues, prices and all necessary information will be cheer- 
fully sent to persons interested. 



GALT 



ocli 


ONTARIO 



CANADA 


Western Branch — 248 McDermott Ave., Winnipeg, Man. 
Quebec Agents — Ross & Greig, Montreal, Quebec. 

B. C. Selling Agents — Robt. Hamilton & Co., Vancouver, B.C. 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering- advertisements. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


XV. 


An limitation... 


is extended to our many friends to visit the 

HOME OF IRON STABLE FITTINGS 

and furnishings, wherein can be seen at any time 
full size open and box stalls fitted up in the most 
approved manner, when we would be pleased to 
meet you and explain the different ideas in the 
fitting up of an up-to-date stable 

— — THE 


Tisdale Iron Stable Fitting Co., Limited 

19 Temperance St. - Toronto 

Send for Catalogue Take Elevator to Show Room Telephone No. 814 


> WHERE THE O. A. C. REVIEW IS PRINTED 





Advertiser Job 

MANUFACTURERS 
OF HIGH - GRADE 

PRI NTING 

We go any place, any time, to get business. 

Long Distance Phone, One - Seven - Five. 


The London Advertiser Co. Limited 


LONDON, 


ONTARIO. 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


XVI. 


•Hir -«&-!? * * * 


77/£ O. A C. REVIEW. 


B® SK SB® °SB® SK SB® S 


Free Courses for 


# 




F armers 


# 

# 

<# 


# 

# 

# 

# 

# 


and Their Sons 


Dairying, 

Horticulture, 

Poultry Convention, 
Poultry Raising, 

Stock and Seed Judging, 


Jan. 4 to March 31, 1909. 
Jan. 26 to Feb. 6, 1909. 
February 8 to n, 1909. 
Jan. 12 to Feb. n, 1909. 
Jan. 12 to 23, 1909. 


# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 


NO EXAMINATIONS 


5 NO FEES 

# 

Reduced Rates on all Railroads 


# 




# 

# 


For further particulars write 

G. C. CREELMAN, B.S.A. M.S., President 


# 

# 




Please mention the O. A. .C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


XVII. 


MEN, LISTEN! 


You have seen the Macdonald buildings at Guelph, also 
the Massey Hall and Library. 

These we present as samples of our work. 

The smallest order receives the same attention that these 
buildings received. 

Let us submit estimate for that 
proposed house of yours. 

SPECIAL 

In addition to our full line of 
Builders’ Supplies we are now pre- 
pared to offer you the 


BEST BRICK MADE 

at a very low price. 

Let us convince you by samples 
and prices. 

3,000,000 feet of Lumber, Shingles 
and Lath in proportion, constantly 
on hand. 

We solicit your enquiries. 




Builders and Contractors 
BRANTFORD, - CANADA. 

40 YEARS ESTABLISHED. 



Please mention the O. A.- C. REVIEW when answering advertisements.' 


xviii. THE O. A. 

Sample Copy Free 

Would you like to have a sample 
copy of The Farmer’s Advocate 
and Home Magazine? 

The Best Agricultural 
and Home Paper 

on the American Continent. No 
progressive farmer can afford to 
be without it. Published weekly. 
Only $1.50 per year. Drop post 
card for free sample copy. 

Agents wanted. Address : 

“THE FARMERS’ ADVOCATE” 

Mention this paper LONDON, ONT. 


C. REVIEW . 

IT IS EASY 


TO START OPERATE 

UNDERSTAND 



Our 2 y 2 and 4^ H. P. Gasoline En- 
gines are models of perfection. Have 
few working parts, and are smooth run- 
ning. 

No fan, no tank, no freezing. 

We want to send you our catalogue 16 G. It 
explains all, and is free for the asking 

SCOTT MACHINE COMPANY, Ltd. 

LONDON, ONTARIO 


A Feeling of Security 


of absolute Reliability and Power is enjoyed by every owner 

of a 

Gilson Engine 

“GOES LIKE SIXTY” 

A mechanical masterpiece of the highest type, with 
our improved simple methods of air-cooling , governing and 
sparking . POSITIVELY GUARANTEED , bigqest value , free 
trial All sizes. Ask for Catalogue. 

GILSON MANUFACTURING CO. 

YRK ROAD, GUELPH, CANADA 



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THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


xix. 



POINTERS 
ON SOIL 

FERTILITY 


Amount of Manure Required 

It is, of course, impossible to give any definite rules on this point, 
but tests conducted by Agricultural Colleges, Government Experts 
and others have proved that a light coating applied by a Manure 
Spreader gives much better results than a heavy application by 
hand, thus causing a given amount of manure to cover much more 
land and acre for acre the land will yield more with the smaller 
amount applied with the spreader. 

Top Dressing* of Field Crops 

The Manure Spreader has made possible the top dressing of field 
crops which in a majority of cases gives the best results; for the 
first rain carries the fertilizing constitutents down into the soil 
directly to the roots of the plants, the top coating serves as a mulch 
to prevent drying out and also, in the case of fall sown crops, as a 
protection in winter. 

Manuring a Meadow 

This can be successfully accomplished by using a Massey-Harris 
Manure Spreader. It cannot be done satisfactorily by hand as the 
spreading would be very uneven and many large chunks would be 
left to find their way into the hay, rendering it almost, if not quite, 
unfit for use. 

On Pasture Land 

A light coating of manure can be applied with this Spreader so as 
to greatly improve the pasturage without causing the cattle to 
refuse to graze over it as would almost surely result from hand 
spreading. Many pastures which were almost worthless have 
been reclaimed in this way. 

Massey-Harris 
Co. Limited 
Toronto 
Canada 

Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 



XX. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


The Freshman Home for Christmas. 

Jack says to me last week, he did, 
“My boy, to-day I’ll show 
You, how a fellow ought to skate, 

If with the girls he’d go.” 

So then he fetched a pair of skates, 
And says, “Now follow me, 

And we went out in our back yard 
Where nobody could see, 

The rain had left a little pond 
That wasn’t very wide ; 

But it had froze up hard and tight 
And made a dandy slide, 

Then Jack he puts his old skates on, 
And says, “Get out the way !” . 

And struck out once ! * * * I’d hate 
to tell 

Just what I heard him say! 

But my! you should have seen him hit! 

I guess he split the ground, 

For chunks of ice flew in the air 
And landed all around. 

When he got up he rubbed himself, 
And whispered, “Hully gee ! 

They freeze ice slicker here than there 
Up at the O. A. C.” 

— By the Freshman’s Young Brother. 

Familiar Quotations. 

“A man he was and stern to view.” 

— Dean Frier. 

“Methinks he likes naught better 
than a girl.” — Paul Fisher. 

“This is the forest primeval.” 

— Willie Fairhead’s Hair. 

“I am not well ; else I would answer 
From a full-flowing stomach.” 

— King Fmmerson. 

“Oh, what may man within him hide, 
Though angel on the outward side.” 

— Shaw. 


Analysis Proves Nothing 

How to Test Herbageum on Dairy Cattle 


MILCH cows. 

Divide the herd as evenly as possible into- 
two groups, to be known as Group 1 
and Group 2. 

FIRST SEVEN DAYS. 

1. Feed each group their regular feed and 

note the cost of feed consumed by 
each group. 

2. Note the weight and value of milk pro- 

duced by each group. 

£ 3. Make comparative note of condition of 

^ each group. 

< SECOND SEVEN DAYS. 

1. To group No. 1 continue the regular 
feed. 

2. To group No. 2 continue the regular 
feed with the addition of one even 
tablespoonful (% of an oz.) of Her- 
bageum, twice daily to each cow. 

3. Note cost of feed (including Herba- 
geum) consumed by each group. 

4. Note the weight and value of milk 
produced by each group. 

5. Make comparative note of condition of 
each group, and keep the animals 
grouped as during the first seven 
days. 

FOR THIRTY DAYS. 

1. Continue exactly as during second 
seven days, but keep separate re- 
cord of 

(a) Feed (including Herbageum) 
consumed by eackgroup. 

(b) Weight and value of milk 
produced by each group. 

2. Make comparative note of condition of 
each group, and keep the animals 
grouped as during the first seven- 
days. 

NOTE RE QUALITY. 

In addition to the specific weight and 
value as above, careful note should be- 
made of the following: 

(a) Quality of -milk as shown by 
color, 'flavor and richness. 

'(b) Quality of milk as shown by 
color, flavor and solidity of the- 
butter. 

(c) Quality of milk as shown by 
time required in churning and 
gathering the butter. 

(d) General health and condition 
of animals during and at end 
of test. 

NOTE RE FOOD. 

If the test can be made with coarse foods, 
such as straw, cornstalks, and other 
roughage, it will show clearly that such 
food has more value to the stockman 
than is generally supposed, and that 
much less oil cake and other expensive 
meals are required to obtain the maxi- 
mum production. The regular daily use- 
of Herbageum will ensure maximum re- 
sults at the minimum of cost. 

OTHER TESTS. 

Equally good results with other classes of 
stock. Test it on Horses, Fat Cattle, 
Pigs, Sheep and Poultry. 


DC 

Hi 

0. 

0 
DC 
0. 

I- 

(0 

Lil 

h 

lil 

1 
h 


DC 

< 

D. 

Ill 

DC 

0. 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements.. 


THE O. 


A. C. REVIEW. 


xxi. 



Contains 183 Large Engravings 

This book cost us over $3,000 to produce. The 
cover is a beautiful live stock picture, litho- 
graphed in colors. The book contains 160 pages, 
size 6y 2 x9y 2 , gives history, description and illu- 
stration of the various breeds of horses, cattle, 
sheep, hogs, and poultry. Many stockmen say 
they would not take five dollars for their copy 
if they could not get another. The finely illu- 
strated veterinary department will save you 
hundreds of dollars, as it treats of all the ordin- 
ary diseases to which stock are subject and tells 
you how to cure them. 

MAILED FREE. POSTAGE PREPAID. 

Write for it at once and answer the following 
questions: 

1st — Name the paper you saw this offer in. 

2nd — How many head of stock do you own? 

ADDRESS AT ONCE. 

International Stock Food Co. 

TORONTO, CANADA, 

Sole Manufacturers of 

INTERNATIONAL STOCK FOOD 

THREE FEEDS FOR ONE CENT 

INTERNATIONAL STOCK FOOD, 3 FEEDS 
FOR ONE CENT, is a purely vegetable MEDIC- 
INAL, preparation composed of roots, herbs, 
seeds, barks, etc. It is equally good and very 
profitable to use with horses, colts, cattle, cows, 
calves, hogs, pigs, sheep or lambs, because it 
purifies the blood, tones up and permanently 
strengthens the entire system, keeps them 
healthy and generally aids digestion and as- 
similation, so that each animal obtains more 
nutrition from the grain eaten. In this way 
it will save you grain and MAKE YOU LARGE 
CASH PROFITS. You don’t spend money when 
you feed International Stock Food. You save 
money because the GRAIN SAVED will pay 
much more than the cost of the International 
Stock Food. Refuse all substitutes and get 
paying results by using only the genuine Inter- 
national Stock Food. 

THREE FEED S FOR ONE CENT 

Dan Patch Mailed Free 

. When you write for Stock Book mentioned 
above ask for a picture of Dan Patch 1:55, and 
it will be included free of charge. 

lnfernational Stock Food Co. 

TORONTO, CANADA. 



Uhe Royal 
Military College 


nr HERE are few national institutions of more 
value and interest to the country than the 
Royal Military College at Kingston. At the 
same time its object and the work it is accom- 
plishing are not sufficiently understood by the 
general public. 


The College is a Government institution, de 
signed primarily for the purpase of giving the 
highest technical instructions in all branches 
of military science to cadets and officers of 
Canadian Militia. In fact it is intended to take 
the place in Canada of the English Woolwich 
and Sandhurst and the American West Point. 


The Commandant and military instructors 
are all officers on the active list of the Imperial 
army, lent for the purpose, and in addition 
there is a complete staff of professors for the 
civil subjects which form such a large propor 
tion of the College course. Medical attendance 
is also provided. 

Whilst the College is organized on a strictly 
military basis the cadets receive in addition to 
their military studies a thoroughly practical 
scientific and sound training in all subjects 
that are essential to a high and general modern 
education. 


The course in mathematics is very complete 
and a thorough grounding is given in the sub 
jects of Civil Engineering. Civil and Hydrogra 
phic Surveying, Physics, Chemistry, French and 
English. 

The strict discipline maintained at the College 
is one of the most valuable features of the 
system. 


In addition the constant practice of gymnas 
tics, drills and outdoor exercise of all kinds, 
ensures good health and fine physical condition. 

Seven Commissions in His Majesty’s regular 
army are annually awarded as prizes to the 
cadets. 


Three Commissions in the Permanent Force 
will be given annually, should vacancies exist, 
to the graduating class, viz.: — Every year one 
in the Infantry; and each alternate year: 

One in the Engineers and one in the Horse 
Artillery. - ------- 

One in the Cavalry or Mounted Rifles 
and one in the Garrison Artillery. 

Further, every three years a Commission in 
the Ordnance Corps will be given to the gradu 
ating class. . , 

Three 2nd class clerkships, or appointments 
with equivalent pay, will be offered annually 
to the graduating class, such appointments to 
be 'in the following Departments, viz.: — Public 
Works, Railways and Canals, Inland Revenue, 
Agriculture and Interior. 

The length of the course is three years, m 
three terms of 9% months’ residence each. 

The total cost of the three years’ course, m 
eluding board, uniforms, instructional material, 
and all extras, is from $750 to $800. 

The annual competitive examination for ad 
mission to the College will take place at the 
headquarters of the several military districts 
in which candidates reside, in May of each year. 

For full particulars of this examination or 
for any other information, application should be 
made as soon as possible, to the Secretary oi 
the Militia Council, Ottawa, Ont. ; or to the 
Commandant, Royal Military College. Kingston. 
Ont. 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. • 



XXII. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW 




44 


Xmas Presents 


St 

#■ 


44 

44 

44 

44 

44 

44 

44 


44 

44 

44 

44 



IWie/i in doubt , buy 

CANDY 

The Ladies like Candy 
and they like the man 
who gives it : : : : 



“Sweets are sweeter when 
they’re pure, 

Buy from us and then 
you’re sure.” 



The 


# 

#> 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 

# 


Kandv Kitchen 




# 

# 

# 


# 


LOWER WYNDHAM ST., GUELREI, ONT. % 


m4K 


■ ac £ r^v ^ 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. xxiii. 

The People’s Store 


STUDENTS. 

We beg to extend to the students of the O. 
A. C. a hearty invitation to visit our store at 
any time, and should you wish to make any 
purchases we shall be glad to offer you our best 
efforts. We carry a big assortment of men’s up- 
to-date requirements, such as Men’s Ready-to- 
Wear Clothing, Shirts. Collars, Ties, Hats, Caps, 
Underwear, etc. We are also agents for the 
famous Broadway Ordered Clothing. We are at 
present showing a wide range of clothes in all 
the newest designs at prices much lower than 
for the ordinary kind. Suits made to your 
measure in first-class style and fit for $15.00. 
Satisfaction guaranteed every time. 


We will be pleased to submit samples and 
estimates for any special orders— such as 
College Caps, Penants, etc. 


LADY STUDENTS. 

We take much pleasure in extending to the 
lady students of the Macdonald Institute a 
cordial invitation to visit our store. 

You will find our place of business interesting 
as an evidence of modern dry goods. It would 
be impossible in this space to describe our im- 
mense stock of goods, but will only mention in 
a general way some of the departments. 

Dressmaking Department — Under the man- 
agement of Miss Stephenson, who has had a 
large experience in high class Dressmaking, 
and is an authority on correct styles. Prices 
moderate. 

Millinery Department — Now in full swing, 
with all the latest styles. 

Ladies’ Ready-to-Wear Department — Is now 
at its best. “Novi-Modi” Costumes, Swell Jac- 
kets direct from Berlin, Germany and London, 
England. Skirts and Blouse Waists in all the 
newest designs. A visit to our store will well 
repay you. 


BENOR, SCOTT & CO. 



Most Complete 
in 

Every Detail. 


Waterous Engine Works Company 

BRANTFORD, CANADA 

— Also manufacturers of — 

Sawmill and Pulp Machinery, High Speed Automatic 

Engines, Boilers, Etc. 



Dairy Outfit 


Estimates and Prices 
Furnished 
on Application. 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


XXIV. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


AN INVESTMENT 

as well as 

PROTECTION 


So says the Farmers’ Advocate in advising every up-to-date farmer 
to carry some form of Endowment Insurance. 

The Endowment Policy, after three years , has an actual Cash or 
Loan Value. 

The Endowment Policy protects both your family and yourself, and 
at the same time provides a fund for use in need at any time after three 
years. Secure information immediately. 

The Manufacturers Life Insurance Co y 

“No better life company in Qanada.” 


Gbe Graders ffianh of Canada 


ASSETS OVER THIRTY-THREE MILLIONS ($33,000,000). 



WYNDHAM STREET 


SPECIAL ATTENTION PAID TO FARMERS’ BUSINESS 


Loans Made. Deposits Received. 

The Most Favorable Rates and Terms Given. 

$1.00 Will Open an Account 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


XXV 



High speed properties in' a 
typewriter are the result of per- 
fect mechanical construction. 

The Underwood has won the 
speed championship of the world 
in eleven successive contests; and 
its speed possibilities have not 
been reached. 

It is the pioneer visible-writer, 
and the model for a score of imi- 
tators. 

UNITED TYPEWRITER CO. 

Limited 

Adelaide St . East, Toronto . 


— The — 
Metropolitan 
Bank 


Capital Paid Up - - $1,000,000 

Reserve and Surplus - - 1,241,532 

Total Assets Over - - 7,500,000 


SAVINGS DEPARTMENT 

INTEREST ALLOWED ON 
DAILY BALANCES 


Guelph Branch. 

T. G. McMASTER, Manager. 


1 King W ashing Machine 


Wholesale and Retail 
Dealers in 

LUMBER 
LATH and 
SHINGLES 

All kinds 

Bill Stuff, Etc. 



Manufacturers of 

DOORS 

SASH 

FRAMES 

All Kinds of 

BUILDING 

MATERIAL 


The h. A. CLEMENS Co. Limited 


MANUFACTURERS OF 

Washing Machines, Stair Building and Interior Fittings a Specialty. 
Phone 50. GUELPH, CANADA. 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 



THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 

^ IF YOU ^ 

APPRECIATE 
GOOD VALUE'S 

You will be sure to buy your 

SHIRTS, TIES, COLLARS, HATS 

AND FURNISHING GOODS 

Here. The choicest stock in the city. 

My Tailoring Department is one °f the most reliable in the trade. First-class, stylish 
clothing made to fit perfectly, and satisfaction always assured. See my stock of fine up-to- 
date goods. Only one price. Goods marked in plain figures. Be sure and give me a call 

R. E. NELSON 

Next Traders Bank. Men’s Furnishings 

Just above the Post Office. Hats and Fine Tailoring 




Dominion Bank 

GUELPH 

Total Assets - $49,000,000 


A General Banking Business 
Transacted. 

Savings Bank Department in 
connection with all offices of the 
Bank. 

Deposits of $1.00 and upwards 
received. 


Bankers for the O. A. C. 

Manager Guelph Branch 

H. C. SCHOLFIELD 



Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 



THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


XXVll. 


To Please Your Fancy 


- and the taste of all discriminating young men and women — is the aim of this 
store. To that end we exact as much of quality from the makers of our Young 
Men’s and Misses’ Apparel and Furnishings as we do from the producers of our 


most elaborate dress creations — and that 


YOUNG MEN will find in our celebrated 
20th Century Clothes the perfect embodi- 
ment of smart style and faultless tailoring, 
at the lowest prices good clothing can be 
sold for. And they will also find here 
Neckwear, Shirts, and other toggery of 
equal style-distinction. 


is saying a great deal ! 

YO UNG WOMEN of good taste cannot fail 
to appreciate the becoming styles for Misses 
shown in our display of Tailored Suits, Coats, 
Skirts, Waists and Dresses, ready-to-wear, 
designed especially for small figures, as well 
as the dainty neckwear and dress accessories 
exhibited here in rare profusion. 


Our moderate prices should quicken the drift of College Students 

towards this busy store. 

D. E. MACDONALD & BROS. 

GUELPH. 



Boys! Send Your Parcels 


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4 * 

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to the === = = 

BIG LAUNDRY 

And get the Discount. We allow 15% to College Boys. You will find 
that they will use you right, and if anything is wrong let us know. 


#> 

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Wagon Calls at the College Mondays and Wednesdays 

Guelph Steam Laundry | 

80 NORFOLK STREET # 



Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


XXV111. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


Mr. LeDrew (discussing Economic 
values) — Whilst I have no passion for 
relics or old furniture, if you were to 
bring to me an autograph of Shake 
speare, I would give my last copper to 
possess it. Why? Because I could sell 
it again for twice as much as I paid 
you for it. 

Freshman (to a Macdonald belle at 
the “At Home”) — What course are you 
taking? 

Young Lady — I am taking the Home 
Seeker’s course. 

Freshman — Are they going to give 
you a position when you graduate? 



makes butter keep better than 
other salts. 


Absolutely pure — prepared 
so that all the natural strength 
is preserved — dissolves evenly — 
salts thoroughly — giving a 
smooth, firm texture, a delicious 
tastiness, an even colour. 




SHIELDS 





Every O. A. C. student should have a shield of his Alma Mater. These beautiful 
shields are made in solid bronze, showing the college crest in relief, mounted on an oak 
base ( 16 x l6H ins). No more handsome piece of decoration could be found than 
one of these for a hall, den or dining room. . . The Priee Is $5.00. 

RYRIE BROS. LIMITED 134-138 YONGE ST. TORONTO 





THE LARGEST LINE 

GRINDERS 

IN CANADA 

In sizes to suit any power. These cuts show three classes . 

549. For use on the Farm. Three sizes. 

550. Farm use or custom work (stationary or for 
moving from place to place). 

551. Attrition Mills, for elevators, custom mills, etc. 
Finest work and greatest capacity. 

We have just what YOU need in these “Rapid-Easy” 
Grinders, which do more work with same power than 
others. Information, circulars, etc, upon request. 

J. FLEURY’S SONS, Aurora, Ont. 

Medals and diplomas: World’s Fair, Chicago and Paris 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


THE O. 


A . C. REVIEW. 


XXIX 


The Bond 
Hardware 

Co., Ltd. 

GUELPH 



Students’ 

headquarters 

FOR 

Sporting 

Goods 

ALSO 

Everything in Hardware 

“Our Prices Always Right” 


Foreign Advertisers 


in the O. A. C. Review 


Should seriously consider whether they can refrain from advertising in 

The Guelph Weekly Mercury 

The Weekly Mercury was established 1854, and has a sworn circulation 
of 4,844 copies per issue. Its clientele embraces the most progressive 
farmers and stock breeders in one of the oldest and best agricultural 
sections in Canada. 

An advertisement in the Weekly Mercury always brings paying results. 

j. j. mcintosh. 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


XXX. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


The lark was up to meet the sun and 
carol for his lay ; 

The farmer’s son took down his gun 
and at him blazed away; 

The busy bee arose at five and buzzed 
the meadows o’er; 

The farmer’s wife went for his hive 
and robbed him of his store ; 
The ant rose early his labors to begin ; 
The greedy swallows fleAv that way 
and took his lordship in. 

Oh, bee, bird and ant, be wise, in pro 
verbs take no stock — 

Like me, refuse to rise until half-past 
eight o’clock. 

— Schartow. 

Robinson (at union debate)— Mr. 
Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, the 
first half of the leader of the affirmative 
was chiefly composed of coal and iron. 


Lalontaine’s Establishment 


95-7 Quebec Street E., Guelph, Canada 



FURS 

To order, Furs 
repaired, re- 
modeled. Goods 
called for or de- 
livered, any part 
Canada or U.S. A 

Sole agents for 

The House of 
Hobberlin, 
Toronto 

Tailors to the 
Canadian 
Gentlemen 

Cannot be equal- 
ed for Price, 
Style and Finish 
Suits to order 
from $15.00 up. 
We also carry a 
full stock of 
Hats and Caps. 


Is there some- 
thing here you 
would likeP 

Roquefort or Cream 
Cheese 

Olives, Biscuits, Bovril 
Oysters, Fruit 
Chocolate 

Quality the first consideration at 

Benson Bros. 

GROCERS 


Soak it Kelly 



That is, soak the water into the milk 

THRO’ THE COW 

It’s the one way it can he done Honestly and 
Squarely. Our ‘'Woodward” Water Basins are 
made by us to put more profits into your pockets. 
They are doing it every day for hundreds They 
give the water in correct quantities at right periods. 
No swelling possible. Try it. 
WARNING — There is only one “Woodward” 

Ontario Wind Engine & Pump Co. 

LIMITED 

T O R O IN T O 




Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering- advertisements. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


XXXI 


F|NE A r* FINE 

Tailoring vJ* i\« v/« FURS 

We would like the boys to visit our store — UPPER WYNDHAM 
STREET. Civility being part of our business, and business to 
to us is a pleasure, you are not called on to buy, but should 
you require anything in our line you will surely get value at 
THE GOLDEN FLEECE. Style and endurance is what we aim 
at in Fine Tailoring, and we rarely miss the mark. 

Keleher & Hendley 

Model Merchant Tailors 

FINE FURS. Fur- Lined Coats a Specialty 



Do You Know 
T.&D. Clothes 


? ? ? 

They are right in every particular — hand- 

R some cloths, expert designing, thorough 
tailoring and full of that “snappy” style 
that makes a man look his best. A differ- 
ent suit for every man. The new styles are 

' ' CORNEL L" " OXFORD ' ' 

' ' VA RSITY ' ' ' ' CARLISLE ’ ' 

"YALE" " CAMBRIDGE '* 

"cMcGILL ' ' ' ' PRINCETON ' ' 

PRICED FROM $8.50 to $25 

(Made to your order if preferred) 

THORNTON & D01QLAS 

! LIMITED 

Men’s Clothiers and Furnishers 
LOWER WYNDHAM STREET. 


WE HAVE A VERY COMPLETE 
STOCK OF 

Entomological 

AND 

Botanical 

Supplies 

For Students. At Students’ Prices 


Alex. Stewart 

CHEMIST 

NEXT TO POST OFFICE 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW . 



jjffiS ORBINE 


Will reduce inflamed, strained, 
swollen Tendons, Ligaments, 
Muscles or Bruises, Cure the 

Tameness and Stop pain from a 
SpliutjSide Jione or Bone Spavin 
No blister, no hair gone. Horse can be 
used. Horse Book 2 D free. $2.00 a 
bottle at dealers or deivered. 

ABSOKBINE, JR., for mankind, $1. 
Reduces Strained Torn Ligaments, En- 
larged glands, veins or muscles — heals 
ulcers — allays pain. Book Free. 

F. YOUNG, P.D.F., 17? Monmouth St., Springfield, Mass. 

LYMAN, SONS As CO., Montreal, Canadian Agents. 


Marmora, Out., April 8, 1907. 
Dear Sir : 

In regard to your ABSORBINE, I 
cannot praise it enough for what it has 
done for me. I had a valuable horse 
with a big leg and I used one bottle, 
and it cured him completely. 

Yours truly, 


SKATES 


AND 

SKATE STRAPS 
HOCKEY STICKS PUCKS 
SHIN PADS 
ANKLE SUPPORTS 
GLOVES AND 
SPORTING GOODS OF 
ALL KINDS 

Excellent Values in Razors and 
Pocket Knives 


McMlLLAN BROS. 


Robert Jones, Sr. 


20 WYNDHAM ST. 


’PHONE 31. 


GUELPH 



We sell the best makes of Shoes, Thi 
Walk-Over, Geo. A. Slater INVICTUS, the 
Beresford, the ART, and many others. 

We AIM TO PLEASE. Give us a call. 


J. D. McKEE 

Phm. B. 


HEADQUARTERS FOR 

COLLEGE 
TEXT BOOKS 

We carry the largest and most complete stock 
of College Text Books in the city. 

We are agents for the Famous 

Waterman Fountain Pen 


KNECHTEL’S 

SHOE PARLOR 

Opposite the Winter Fair Building. 


J. D. McKEE, Phm. B. 

Phone 66 

18 WYNDHAM STREET, GUELPH. 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


xxxm 


THE 

AUTONOLA 



MAKES 
EVERYBODY 
A MUSICIAN 


Uht i)geU piano 

RECOGNIZED AS CANADA S BEST. 

Ask for our Free Catalogue No. 71. 

The Bell Piano and Organ Co. Ltd. 

GL7E-LPH, - - ONTARIO. 

CANADA’S LARGEST MAKERS. 



0. A. C. 

Students 

Will find the biggest Book- 
store in Guelph on Upper 
Wyndham Street. 


The Only 
Place 

That carries the full stock 
of all Text Books required 
at the College and Mac- 
donald Institute. 


PI MFI I PHONE 45 

W. L_. INE.L_l_L.Oj ABOVE POST OFFICE 


GO TO 

PETRIES 

DRUG STORE 


For Medicines and 
Toilet Articles 
Seed Bottles, Etc. 

Headquarters in Guelph for all kinds of 

Photographic Supplies 

Films developed and Prints made. Latest 
designs in Comic and Picture Post Cards. 
Remember the place 

Petrie’s Drug Store 

Lower Wyndham Street. 

Please mention the O. A. C. 



THE GHAMPION 


Gas and Gasoline Engine 

Sold on trial. Low Price. Information Free. 
Satisfaction or No Pay. 

WM. GILLESPIE 

98 East Front Street, Toronto 


REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


XXXIV. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


LENS GPINOING 



Ol 'ICK REPAIRS 


Tour Eyes-Our Glasses 

To those who have tried our glasses, no 
comment is necessary; to others we would 
say that the merits of our service are wor- 
thy of consideration. We grind our lenses 
on the premises by the latest electric lens 
grinding machinery- this insures absolute 
accuracy in our lenses. Your eyes will be 
examined by an expert optician -one whose 
whole time is devoted to optical work. 
If you have any trouble with your eyes 
while at your studies consult 

A. D. SAVAGE 

GUELPH’S EXCLUSIVE OPTICIAN 
Phone 571. 21 Wyndham St., Guelph 


The Leading 
Furniture Store 

Supplies the wants of the 
Students in Bookcases, 

Small Tables, Rocking 
Chairs, Handy Shelves, 

Etc. 

No order too large or too 
small to get our special 
attention. 

THE BARGAIN FURNI- 
TURE STORE. 

Grant & Armstrong 

Just above the Post Office. 



R. B. Kennedy 

Photographer 

The best place to get 
a good Group Photo- 
graph or a Portrait of 
yourself. £3 £3 £3 

RHONE! 498 

^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 

yi* y^ yi* yt^ yfc yfr yfr yi* yi* yfc 


SUCCESSOR TO 

SamLeefling 


SAY, BOYS! 

Patronize the Big 
Laundry. Only 
expert workmen 
employed. Work 
done by hand only 

College Calls Made Monday, 
Wednesday and Friday 

James R. Wong 

Phone 547 St. George’s Scj, 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


THE O. A. 


C. REVIEW. 


XXXV. 


CENTRAL 


Book Store 


Opposite where the Street Cars stop. 

Text Books, Exercise Books, Foolscap 
Writing Pads, 

Up-to-Date Note Papers and Envel- 
opes, Papetries, Etc., Etc., 

Bibles, Hymn Books. 

Books by Standard Authors, Poets, 
Prayer Books, 

In fact, everything- kept in a well-ordered 
Book Store. 

C. ANDERSON & CO. 


POTASH 


Is an indispensable ingredient of a 
Complete Fertilizer and has absolutely 
no substitute. 

POTASH may be had from all 
leading fertilizer dealers in the highly 
concentrated forms of 

MURIATE OF POTASH 

AND 

SULPHATE OF POTASH 

Copies of our publications which 
include “Tabulated Results of Fertili- 
zer Experiments,” “The Potato Crop in 
Canada,” “Fertilizers, Their Nature 
and Use,” “Fertilizers for Hay and 
Grain Crops,” “Fertilizers for Root 
Crops and Vegetables,” etc., will be 
mailed free to any address in Canada. 

THE DOMINION 

AGRICULTURAL OFFICES OF THE 
POTASH SYNDICATE 


Room 1105 Temple Bldg. Toronto, Canada 



Brown-Lee’s Scalprub 


REMOVES DANDRUFF 


Is Unequalled for the Cure of Dandruff, Scaly 
Eruptions and Itching of the Scalp. 

j It acts entirely different to the ordinary dandruff 
! cure, as it removes all the diseased skin and dandruff off 
the scalp in a very short time after commencing to use 
it, leaving the hair and scalp in a perfect, healthy con- 
dition. 

Stops itching of scalp in a few applications. 

It does not darken fair hair, is neither greasy nor 
sticky. 

Sometimes the hair is too oily, sometimes harsh and 
dry, but all points to a diseased scalp; the most common 
one is usually known as Dandruff, a disease which, if not 
stopped in time, ultimately destroys the hair altogether, 
j You should not neglect to keep the hair clean; it is not very 
| pleasant to see a gentleman’s coat collar whitened or a 
; lady’s hair powdered with dandruff. 

Brown-Lee’s Scalprub does not contain alcohol of any 
kind. Is easy to use. 

Sold by all druggists. 

PRICE 35 CENTS AND $1.00 PREPAID. 


SAMPLE FREE. 

< Brown - Lee Company , Limited 

GUELPH ONTARIO . 



TORONTO 


Will be pleased to handle your shipments of 
Poultry , Putter , Eggs , cApples, Honey, Beans 
and other farm produce, and they can get you 
as good prices as any other firm in Toronto. 
Correspondence solicited. 

The Dawson Commission Co. 

TORONTO. 

^ Stamps Furnished. 


... OUR ... 

GROCERIES 

Are always Fresh, Wholesome 
and Strictly First Class. 

JACKSON & SON 

17 Lower Wyndham. Telephone 112. 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


XXXVI. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


Our Business 

is cMens Wear 

Young Men, come here for up-to-date Clothing, 
Hats, Caps, and Furnishings. 

Oak Hall Clothing is sold in 2,000 stores in 
Canada. Come on in! 

Cummings’ Oak Hall Store 


XMAS 

Before purchasing your Xmas Gifts this 
season, it will pay you to call and see our 
well assorted, and carefully selected stock. 

Our stock of imported sterling siJver and 
ebony goods is unsurpassed. 

Every article purchased from us engraved 
free of charge. 

Ask the street car conductor to put you 
off at the 

Wellington Jewelry Hall 

UPPER WYNDHAM STREET. 

RICHARD S & SCARLETT 

Albert Reinhart 

Successor to A. Matthews 
Manufacturer of 

High-Class Minerals and 
Aerated Waters 

Syphon Soda Water a Specialty. 

DUNDAS ROAD, - GUELPH 


If You Want a First Class Job in 

PLUMBING, GAS, STEAM OR 
HOT WATER FITTING 

—GO TO— 

FREDERICK SMITH 

QUEBEC STREET. 

PROMPT ATTENTION TO ALL JOBBING 

PHONE 337. 

Please mention the O. A. C. 


PRINGLE 

Ufye Jeweler 

Entomological Supplies, 
Magnifying Glasses, all qualities 
Fountain Pens Rubber Stamps 

O* A. G. and Macdonald Institute 
College Pins* 


The Busy Bookstore 

Students will find here a full line of 
TEXT BOOKS AND SUPPLIES 
AT LOWEST PRICES. COM- 
PLETE LINES OF FOUNTAIN 
AND STYLOGRAPHIC PENS, 
INK, NOTE BOOKS, ETC. 

Scott & Tierney 

The Electric 
Boiler Compound Co. Ltd. 

GUELPH, ONT. 

Walker’s Electric Boiler Compound 

High Grade Lubricating Oils, Greases, Pack- 
ings, Belt Lacings, Flue Scrapers, Etc. 

CRYSTAL CREAM SEPARATOR OIL 

A SPECIALTY. 

SNOWDRIFT 
PEOPLES 
MAPLE LEAF 

Three well-known Brands of Flour 

Ask for them and be sure you get them. 

THE JAMES GOLDIE CO. LIMITED 

GUELPH, ONT. 


Telephone 499. 

REVIEW 7- when answering- advertisements. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


XXXVll. 


WATERS BROS. 

HAVE BOUGHT OUT 

The Chas. Chapman Co.’s, London 

COMPLETE STOCK OF 

NATURE STUDY SUPPLIES 

Entomological Pins, Insect Boxes, Collecting Cans, 
Nets, Spreading Boards, Cyanide and Seed Bottles, etc. 
Lowes.t Prices. Mail orders will receive careful and 
prompt attention. 

Waters Bros., 41 Wyndham St, Guelph 


STUDENTS 

Requiring Programmes, Invitations, 
Visiting Cards, Letterheads or print- 
ing of any kind will do well to see 
our samples and get our prices. 

Kelso Printing Co. 

TovelPs Block, Upstairs. 

Opposite Post Office. 



Agricultural Colleges 

At Guelph, Truro, St. Anne de Bellevue, Wid- 
nipeg, and the trade generally. 


NOTICE! GO TO THE 

hub Barber Shop 

T<wo doors <west of Queen's Hotel 
West Market Sq., Opp. Winter Fair Bldg. 

For something you do uot get every 
place, clean towels for everyone. First 
class work guaranteed. 

GEO. A. LEADSTON, Proprietor. 


LEE WING MCHUGH BROS. 

CHINESE LAUNDRY 26 Lower Wyndham St. 


The Best Work in the City. 

132 Quebec Street, Opposite Chalmers’ 
Church, Guelph, Ontario. 

TELEPHONE 508. 


Are prepared to supply students with 
the finest range of Pipes, Tobaccos, 
Cigars, Cigarettes, Pouches, Etc. 
at prices consistent with quality. 

Tue finest assortment of goods shown 
n the city. Come in and see us. 


H. Occomore & Co. 

SHEET METAL WORKERS 

Heating and Ventilating Contractors 
Dairy Supplies, Kitchen Furnishings 
Stoves, Rangers, Granite and Tinware 
A complete stock. 

126 Wyndham Street , - Guelph 

’Phone 328. 


HEADQUARTERS FOR 

HARDWARE 

AND SPORTING GOODS 
AT LOWEST PRICKS 

G. A. RICHARDSON 

Upper Wyndham St., Guelph 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering- advertisements. 


xxxviii. 


THE O. A. 


C. REVIEW. 


IMPORTED 

Clydesdale Stallions 

and Fillies, Hackneys, Shetland Ponies 

Your choice at moderate prices. 

For particulars apply to G. A. BRODIE, 
BETHESDA, Ont. 

Stations: Stouffville, G. T. R. 

Claremont, C. P. R. 

Gormley, C . N. R. 

Independent Telephone Service. 


Dress Oft Bespeaks the Man 


Then why not let your tailor give you the 
BENEFIT that a properly-dressed man has over 
his less favored competitor. 

We make the BEST for the LEAST money, 
and impart an INDIVIDUALITY to every man’s 
garments. 

Our new faJI goods are now to hand. Call and 
inspect them. 

d. f\. SGOTT 

Designer of Men’s Garments. 


Smith & Richardson 

COLUMBUS, ONT. 

IMPORTERS OF 

CLYDESDALE HORSES 

This year’s importation is by far the best 
bunch we ever landed, among them the Toronto 
and Ottawa winners. 

R. R. Stations — G. T. R., Oshawa and Brook- 
lin. C. P. R., Myrtle. 

Long Distance Phone at Residence. 


Dunrobin Stock Farm 

Clydesdales, Shorthorns, Yorkshires. 

A choice collection of the above line of stock 
always on hand. 

Donald Gunn & Son , Proprietors 

Beaverton P.O. and Station, G.T.R. and C.N.O.R. 

King Edward Barber Shop 

Headquarters for a first-class shave and hair 
cut or shoe shine. 

CHAS. BOLLEN, Proprietor 


Pine Grove Stock Farm 

Rockland, Ontario, Canada, 
BREEDERS OF 

SCOTCH SHORTHORNS 
and SHRO PS HIRES 

W. C. EDWARDS & CO. 

Limited, Proprietors. 

JAMES SMITH, Superintendent. 


College Men 


The Little Tailor Store 

A re usually particular 
about their appearance. 
They demand character in their clothes. 

We make the Kind of Suits and Overcoats 
that give a man that well dressed appearance 
so much desired. 

We make the clothes to fit the man; TAILOR 
individual style and shape into them — and our 


prices are right. 

R. J. STEWART 

Phone 456. Opp. Knox Church, Quebec St. 


Spragge’s Livery 

26 DOUGLAS STREET 

LIGHT LIVERY, HAGKS 

Carryalls, Tally Ho. 

SPECIAL RATES TO STUDENTS 

Phone 41a 


W. J. Stevenson Phone 143 Andrew Malcolm 


STEVENSON & MALCOLM CO. 

CONTRACTORS 


For Steam and Hot Water Heating 

Ventilation and Hydraulic Engineering 
Plumbing and Gas Fitting 

Specialties in Sanitary Appliances. 

Upper Wyndham Street Guelph, Ont. 


J. DRYDEN (EX SON 
Maple Shade farm. Brooklin, Ont. 

Home of the oldest and largest herd of Cruick- 
shank Shorthorns in America. 

Shropshire flock founded 1871. 

Stations — C. P. R , Myrtle, 3 miles. 

G. T. R., Brooklin, \ l /t miles. 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


THE O. A. 


C. REVIEW. 


XXXIX. 


D. M. FOSTER, L.D.S., D.D.S. 

DENTIST 

COR. WYNDHAM AND MACDONNELL STS. 

Over Dominion Bank. 

Telephone 14. 

BROADFOOT’S 

1 Red Cross 
Pharmacy 

Phone 381 - St. George’s Square. 

POST CARDS POST CARDS 

Everything right up to the handle in Post Cards. All 
the latest Magazines — Saturday Eyening Post, Ladies’ 
Home Journal, Daily and Sunday American Papers, Tor- 
onto Morning and Evening papers. 

Daly's , West St. George's Square 

NEXT DOOR TO RED CROSS. 

NOTICE 

The best and most convenient Barber Shop for 
O. A. C. Students. 

WM. COON, ST. GEORGE’S SQ. 

Street Cars every 15 minutes. Three chairs. 

No waiting. 

The New Flower Store 

Come in and see our stock of Chrysanthe- 
mums, Roses, Carnations, Smilax, etc. 

Cut Flowers a Specialty. 

GEO. DUNBAR, 99 Quebec St. East. 

The College Boys Always Go to The 

Opera House BarberShop 

First Class Work G. McPHARLANE 

Guaranteed. Proprietor. 

GUTHRIE & GUTHRIE 

Barristers , Solicitors and Notaries 
DOUGLASS ST., GUELPH 

The Burgess Studio 

HIGH-CLASS PORTRAITS 

Donald Guthrie, K.C. Hugh Guthrie, K.C. 

SPECIAL RATES TO STUDENTS. 

r. h. McPherson 

BARBER 

Hair Cut, 15c; Sat., 5c Extra. Shave 15c. 

Close 7 p.m. 

Upper Wyndham Street, Guelph. 

Stewart McPhie W. A. Mahoney 

MePHIE & MAHONEY 

ARCHITECTS 

Phones: Office, 215; Residence, 237. 
Telephone Building - Guelph, Canada. 

G LOTH ES 

Cleaned, Pressed and Repaired by Practical 

T ailor. 

Phone 496. We call for and deliver. 

GfiflS f\ KUTT 

FOR CHOICE GROCERIES 

GO TO 

J. A. McCRAE & SON 

43 Quebec Street. 

WYNDHAM ST., GUELPH. 

GUELPH AND ONTARIO 
INVESTMENT AND SAVINGS SOCIETY 

SAVINGS BANK DEPARTMENT 

Deposits of $1.00 and upwards taken. 

Highest current rates allowed. 

J. E. McELDERRY, Secretary-Treasurer. 

LEE LEE Sc GO 

Opera House Block 

HAND LAUNDRY 

Goods called for on Monday, and returned on 
Wednesday. We guarantee best work in Guelph. 

GITY SHOE STORE 

PRINTING 

Try us for Sporting Shoes of all kinds. 
Satisfaction guaranteed. 

W. L. K&IL, 

Finest Commercial ana Society Printing 

O. R. WALLACE 

Cor. WYNDHAM ST. and MARKET SQUARE. 

; Opera House Block, Guelph. Phone 458 


Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 


XI. 


THE O. A. C. REVIEW. 


$ $ 

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The Sales of the 



Remember the U. S. Cream Separator holds 
the world’s record for the most perfect 
separation in competition with the leading separators of the 
world, averaging .0138 in 30 consecutive runs. 


Send for our beautifully illustrated Catalogue “ No. 143 
and learn all about this standard machine. 

VERMONT FARM MACHINE CO., Bellows Falls, Vt. 

18 distributing warehouses in U, S. and Canada. 


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Please mention the O. A. C. REVIEW when answering advertisements. 






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Steele ■Brig&s 
«a»* Seeds 


Are Noted Everywhere 
for their 

PURITY AND RELIABILITY 

Send us your name for our splendid 

ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE FOR 1909 

It’s full of good things for the farm 
and garden. Also many valuable 
introductions which are sure to inter- 
est Farmers, Gardeners and Amateurs. 


Limited 


Toronto Hamilton Winnipeg 


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SAUCE FOR THE GOOSE 


i s 

SAUCE FOR THE GANDER 


De Laval 


ream 


Separators 


Used by 98 of the Professional 
Bolter Makers of the World. . . 


The De Laval Separator Co. 

173-17? William Street MONTREAL