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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE 

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION 

BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 



SERIES ON CALIFORNIA CROPS AND PRICES 



OLIVES 



H. R. WELLMAN 



BULLETIN 510 

MARCH, 1931 



CONTRIBUTION FROM THE 
GIANNINI FOUNDATION OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRINTING OFFICE 
BERKELEY, CALIFORNIA 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of California, Davis Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/olives510well 



OLIVES 1 

H. E. WELLMAN2 



SUMMARY 

The commercial production of olives in the United States is vir- 
tually confined to California. During the past decade there has been 
a substantial increase in the commercial production of olives in this 
state, rising from an average of 11,700 tons in 1921-1923 to an 
average of 19,500 tons in 1927-29. During the next few years, how- 
ever, only a small further increase in production is expected unless, 
of course, yields per acre are materially increased through better 
care of the orchards. Plantings of olives during recent years have 
been small. Most of the acreage of Mission and Manzanillo olives is 
now at about the age of full bearing. On the other hand, only about 
one-third of the acreage of large-type olives — Sevillano, Ascolano, and 
Barouni — is in full bearing. Practically all of the increase in total 
production during the next few years will, therefore, be in the large- 
type olives, which are used mainly for canning. During the three 
years 1926-27 to 1929-30 the combined pack of Sevillano, Ascolano, 
and Barouni olives constituted about 15 per cent of the total pack. 

During the past four years an average of 58 per cent of the com- 
mercial production of olives in the state was canned, 36 per cent 
pressed for oil, and 6 per cent shipped fresh and dried. 

California produces only a very small part of the edible olive oil 
used in this country. During* the past nine years about 98 per cent 
of the edible oil consumed in the United States was imported, mainly 
from Italy, Spain, and France. Prices of edible olive oil, although 
much above prices of other oils such as cottonseed, coconut, and corn, 
have at no time in the past decade been sufficiently high to return to 
California producers of oil olives. a satisfactory price. The low price 
received for oil olives, which has averaged $34 a ton during the past 
nine years, has been one of the important reasons for the generally 
low returns to growers of Mission and Manzanillo olives. 

At the present time there are no definite indications which point 
toward materially higher prices for oil olives during the next few 



1 Paper No. 16 The Giannini Foundation of Agricultural Economies. 

2 Extension Specialist in Agricultural Economics and Associate on the 
Giannini Foundation. 



4 University of California — Experiment Station 

years. World production of olive oil has been increasing" rapidly, and 
there is no evidence of a pronounced downward trend in the imme- 
diate future. The United States has long been the most important 
world market for olive oil. Another factor of importance is the com- 
petition between edible olive oil and other edible oils, such as corn 
and cottonseed, for salad dressing and cooking. A materially wider 
margin between the prices of olive oil and other oils than that which 
has prevailed in the past would tend to cause the lower-priced oils to 
be substituted for olive oil. 

During the past decade there has been a substantial increase in 
the shipments of canned ripe olives, from an average of 304,000 cases a 
year between 1920-21 and 1922-23, to an average of 638,000 cases a 
year between 1926-27 and 1928-29, which is an average increase of 
55,000 cases a year. This upward trend in shipments, however, did not 
result in a downward trend in prices, which is evidence that the trend 
of demand for canned ripe olives, as measured by quantity, has 
increased at the rate of about 55,000 cases a year. 

From 1926-27 to 1928-29 the packs of canned ripe olives increased 
even faster than shipments, and consequently there was a gradual 
accumulation of stocks on hand, rising from 105,000 cases on Novem- 
ber 1, 1927, to 260,000 cases on November 1, 1929. Although the pack 
in the crop year of 1929-30 amounted to only 635,000 cases or 230,000 
cases less than the 1928-29 pack, shipments in 1929-30 amounted to 
only 588,000 cases, so that the carryover on November 1, 1930, was 
47,000 cases larger than in the previous year. 

This large carryover of 307,000 cases on November 1, 1930, is the 
most serious factor in the present situation. With prices and packs 
equal to the average of the past three years it will take about five years 
to reduce the carryover to a nominal amount if the future increase in 
demand is no more rapid than it has been on the average during the 
past decade. However, if the packs during the next few years should 
be small or if the demand should increase more rapidly than in the 
past, the carryover could be disposed of in a much shorter time. 

By utilizing a larger proportion of the olives for oil the amount of 
olives canned could be materially reduced. This would tend to 
increase the prices of canning olives without causing a decrease in the 
prices of oil olives because California production of olive oil is such 
a small part of the national supply. Until the present large carry- 
over is reduced, such a procedure would be of distinct benefit to the 
industry. It cannot be accomplished, however, unless it is undertaken 
as an industry program and participated in by all factors in the 
industry. 



Bul. 510] Olives 5 

The possibility of expanding the markets for canned ripe olives is 
apparently very great. At the present time approximately 70 per 
cent of the canned ripe olives are consumed in the Pacific Coast states, 
which contain only 6.7 per cent of the nation's population. For the 
past year the olive industry has been carrying on a program designed 
to introduce canned ripe olives into the markets not now familiar 
with them. This program if carried on for a period of years offers 
strong possibilities of materially increasing the demand for canned 
ripe olives. That the demand can be expanded fast enough to relieve 
immediately the present situation, however, is doubtful. 

The available information on business conditions and employment 
in this country indicates that the 1930-31 pack will be marketed under 
conditions materially less favorable than the average of the past 
three years. The recent decreased demand for canned ripe olives, 
however, is likely to be only temporary. There are no fundamental 
factors yet apparent which would indicate that the upward trend in 
demand, which occurred during the past decade, will not continue 
for some years at least. Indications are that the future trend of 
demand over a period of years will increase faster than the future 
trend of supply. It is, of course, impossible to determine exactly 
when the demand will exceed the supply at the present level of prices. 
The probability is, however, that such a condition will occur within 
the next four or five years. Prices may then be expected to improve. 
Each rise in prices, however, will tend to bring into operation two 
sets of forces which will retard a further rise in prices. An increase 
in prices will tend to reduce consumption in the established markets 
and at the same time, by encouraging the olive growers to take better 
care of their orchards, will tend to increase the supply. 

Judging from the information now available it appears that there 
will be a gradual upward trend in prices of olives beginning within 
the next four or five years. While several things may happen which 
would hasten or delay this expected improvement in prices, only a 
very unusual condition could prevent average returns to growers 
from being materially higher in from seven to ten years hence than 
the level of recent years. 

THE GENERAL SITUATION 

Acreage and Production, California. — The region in which olives 
have been grown successfully for commercial production in the United 
States is practically limited to California. According to the Four- 
teenth Census of the United States there were 1,613,000 olive trees in 



(i 



University of California — Experiment Station 



this country in 1920, of which 99 per cent were in California. The 
only other state in which olives are produced on a commercial basis 
is Arizona. During recent years the olive industry in that state has 
been on the decline. 

In California there has been a substantial increase in the produc- 
tion of olives during the past decade. The annual production from 
1921 to 1929 is shown in figure 1. During the three years 1921-1923 

COMMERCIAL PRODUCTION OF OLIVES IN CALIFORNIA, 1921-1929 




1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 
Crop year (beginning in the year given) 



1928 1929 



Fig. 1. — Between 1921-1923 and 1927-1929 the commercial production of olives 
in California increased 67 per cent. 

Data for years 1921-1924 from California Crop Reporting Service, for years 
1926-1929 from table 3. 



the average annual production amounted to 11,700 tons as against 
an average of 19,500 tons during the three years 1927-1929, an 
increase of 7,800 tons, or 67 per cent. 

This increase in production was chiefly the result of heavy 
plantings during the period 1915-1920. An olive tree does not come 
into commercial bearing until six or seven years of age and does not 
reach full bearing until twelve or fifteen years of age. The number 
of trees of nonbearing age in 1920 amounted to 687,000 as against 



Bul. 510] 



Olives 



122,000 in 1910 (table 1). Of the total number of trees in 1920, 43 
per cent were of nonbearing age, whereas in 1910 only 13 per cent 
were of nonbearing age. 

TABLE 1 

Number of Olive Trees in California, 1910 and 1920 





1910 


1920 




Bearing 
age 


Nonbearing 
age 


Total 


Bearing 
age 


Nonbearing 
age 


Total 


State 


1,000 trees 
836 
177 
129 
443 
87 


1,000 trees 
122 
23 
45 
48 
6 


1,000 trees 
958 
200 
174 
491 
93 


1 ,000 trees 
911 
246 
282 
344 
39 


1,000 trees 

687 

295 

292 

93 

7 


1 ,000 trees 
1,598 


Sacramento Valley 

San Joaquin Valley 

Southern California 


541 
574 

437 
46 







The number of olive trees per acre ranges from 40 to 80. The average number of trees per acre for the 
state is about 60. 

Source of data: U. S. Dept. Commerce. Census of the United States, 1910 and 1920. 

Most of the plantings of olives since 1915 have been in the Sacra- 
mento and San Joaquin valleys. In 1920 these two valleys contained 
86 per cent of the total number of trees of nonbearing age, while 
southern California contained only 14 per cent. 

At the present time southern California is only of minor impor- 
tance in the production of olives. During the three years 1927-1929 
less than 10 per cent of the total production in the state was produced 
in that section. Between 1910 and 1920 there was a decrease of over 
20 per cent in the bearing acreage of olives in southern California. 
Since 1920 there has been a further decline. Low prices, irregular 
yields, and subdivision have resulted in neglect, abandonment, or 
removal of many orchards. 

TABLE 2 
Estimated Olive Acreage, Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, 1930 





Mission 


Manzanillo 


Sevillano 


Ascolano 


Others 


Total 




acres 
8,540 
3,660 
300 
4,580 

5,950 
3,820 
2,130 

14,490 


acres 

1,345 

125 

1,220 

5,150 
3,730 
1,420 

6,495 


acres 
2,100 

120 
1,680 

300 

750 
620 
130 

2,850 


acres 
170 
55 

120 

740 
330 
410 

915 


acres 

410 

110 

20 

280 

200 

60 

140 

610 


acres 
12,570 
4 070 


Butte 




2,000 




6,500 
12,790 




Tulare 


8,560 




4,230 
25,360 


Total north of Tehacbapi 



Source of data: Surveys made by the California Crop Reporting Service, Farm Advisors and canners. 



s 



University of California — Experiment Station 



The estimated acreage of olives in the Sacramento and San Joaquin 
valleys is segregated by varieties in table 2. Of the total acreage 
north of the Tehachapi 57 per cent is planted to Missions, 26 per cent 
to Manzanillos, 11 per cent to Sevillanos, and 4 per cent to Aseolanos. 

Although the plantings of olives during recent years have been 
very small, there will probably be a further small increase in the total 
production of olives in the state due to the increase in ag*e of the 
trees. A considerable proportion of the acreage of large-type olives 
is not in full bearing. In Tehama County over one-third of the 
Sevillano acreage is nonbearing, while an additional third has not 
reached the age of full bearing. In other sections of the state most 
of the acreage of large-type olives consists of grafts on Mission and 
Manzanillo stock. These grafts are still young. 

Utilization of California Olives. — California olives are used pri- 
marily for canning and oil, although some are dried and others are 
shipped fresh to eastern markets. The estimated quantities used in 
these ways during the four years of 1926-27 to 1929-30 are given in 
table 3. Of the average annual production of 17,700 tons during 
this four-year period, 58 per cent were canned, 36 per cent pressed 
for oil, and 6 per cent shipped fresh and dried. 

TABLE 3 

Utilization of the California Olive Crops, 1926-1929 







Pressed 


Shipped fresh 




Crop year 


Canned 


for oil 


and dried 


Total 


Nov. to Oct. 


1 


2 


3 


4 




tons 


tons 


tons 


tons 


1926-27 


7,200 


3,900 


1,100 


12,200 


1927-28 


11,200 


6,500 


900 


18,600 


1928-29 


13,300 


6,000 


1,200 


20,500 


1929-30 


9,800 


8,800 


900 


19,500 



Sources of data: 

Col. 1: Canned pack figures of table 4 converted to tons on the basis 

of 65 cases per ton. 
Col. 2: Olive-oil-production figures of table 12 converted to tons, 

using the figures given in table 16, col. 2. 
Col. 3: Estimated from records of canners. 



The large-type olives — Sevillano, Ascolano, and Barouni — are used 
almost entirely for canning. The oil content of these varieties is so 
small that it does not pay to press for oil even the small sizes and 
culls. On the other hand, the small sizes and culls of the Mission and 
Manzanillo varieties are used mainly for oil, and except with canners 
having special markets for small canned ripe olives, the general prac- 
tice is to can only the olives of medium size or larger. 



Bul, 510] 



Olives 



CANNED OLIVES 



The pack of canned ripe olives in California for the crop years of 
1919-20 to 1929-30 is shown in figure 2. During" the first part of this 



CANNED EIPE OLIVE PACK, CALIFORNIA, 1919-20 TO 1929-30 



U) 


o 


o 


o 


in 


lO 


to 


«H 


CM 



o 


o 


CO 


lO 


o 


t- 


CM 


to 


-* 


«* 


c- 


CO 




Fig. 2. 



-During the past decade there has been a substantial increase in 
the pack of canned ripe olives in California. 

Data from the California Olive Association. 



period there was a steady increase in the pack from 150,000 cases in 
1920-21 to 675,000 cases in 1923-24. The very large pack in 1923-24 
was the result of an unusually large crop. In July, 1924, there was 
an outbreak of botulinus which caused a very great decrease in the 
demand for canned ripe olives. Prices broke severely and the carry- 
over at the end of the year was undoubtedly very large. This together 
with the very small crop in 1924-25 resulted in a pack in that year 
of only 187,000 cases. During the next four years the pack increased 
rapidly, reaching a total of 865,000 cases in 1928-29. In 1929-30 for 
the first time in five years the pack was smaller than in the preceding 
year. 

The very rapid increase in the pack from 1926-27 to 1928-29 was 
not accompanied by an equally rapid increase in shipments. In figure 



10 



University of California — Experiment Station 



3 the black portion of the bars represents the pack, the single cross- 
hatched portion the carryover from the previous year's pack, the 
white portion the quantity in hands of packers at the end of the year, 



CALIFORNIA EIPE OLIVE PACK, CARRYOVER, AND CONSUMPTION 




1,000 



800 



3 600 



CARRYOVER FROM PREVIOUS YEAR 
□ NOT CONSUMED AT END OF YEAR 
B PACK 
ES SHIPMENTS 



400 



200 



Average 
1921-1923 

Crop year (ending in the year given) 

Fig. 3. — The trend of shipments of canned ripe olives has been increasing at 

the rate of about 55,000 cases a year. 

Data from table 4. 



TABLE 4 

Production, Carryover,, and Shipments of Canned Ripe Olives, 1926-1927 to 

1929-30 



Crop year 
Nov. to Oct. 


Pack 


Carryover from 
previous year 


Available for 
shipment 


Carryover into 
following year 


Shipments 


1926-27 


1,000 cases 
470 
728 
865 
635 


1,000 cases 
110 
105 
204 
260 


1,000 cases 

580 

833 

1,069 

895 


1,000 cases 
105 
204 
260 
307 


1,000 cases 
475 
629 
809 
588 


1927-28 


1928-29 .... 


1929-30 





Source of data: California Olive Association. 



and the double cross-hatched portion the shipments. On November 
1, 1927, the carryover amounted to 105,000 cases, on November 1, 
1929, to 260,000 cases, and on November 1, 1930, to 307,000 cases. 



Bul, 510] Olives 11 

Prior to 1926 data on carryover are not available and consequently 
it is impossible to calculate the actual shipments for the earlier years. 
The average shipments for the periods 1920-21 to 1922-23 and 1923- 
24 to 1925-26, however, can be approximated. These approximations 
are represented by the wide double cross-hatched bars in figure 3. 

In determining the trend of shipments during the past decade the 
period 1923-24 to 1925-26 should be omitted because of the abnormal 
conditions prevailing at that time. The average annual shipments 
during the years 1920-21 to 1922-23 and 1926-27 to 1928-29, how- 
ever, provide a satisfactory basis for estimating the trend of con- 
sumption. Between the two periods mentioned shipments increased 
from an average of 304,000 cases a year to an average of 638,000 cases 
a year, an increase of 334,000 cases in six years, which is an annual 
average increase of about 55,000 cases a year. 

It is of considerable significance that this increase in the trend 
of shipments was not the result of a downward trend of prices. Con- 
fidential records of packers indicate that the prices received during 
the three years 1926-27 to 1928-29 averaged about the same as those 
received during the three years 1920-21 to 1922-23. This is evidence 
that there has been a real increase in the demand for canned ripe 
olives, and measured by quantity the trend of demand has increased 
at the rate of 55,000 cases a year. 

The increase in the actual shipments between 1926-27 and 1928-29 
averaged about 167,000 cases a year, which is three times as large 
as the estimated increase in the trend of shipments. The large 
increase in the actual shipments was the result of a number of factors. 
In 1926-27 the markets for canned ripe olives were still suffering 
from the botulinus scare and consequently, shipments in that year 
were about 100,000 cases below normal. The following year, however, 
the market had fully recovered and the actual shipments practically 
coincided with the estimated trend. In 1928-29 actual shipments 
exceeded the estimated trend by 120,000 cases. This was in part the 
result of excellent business conditions and in part the result of lower 
prices of Sevillano olives. In 1929-30 shipments were about 156,000 
cases below normal and prices received by packers were lower than 
in 1928-29. 

The generally unsatisfactory market conditions for ripe olives in 
1930 was largely the result of depressed business conditions and 
unemployment. The Federal Reserve Board index of factory employ- 
ment in the United States declined steadily from 103 in September, 
1929, to 83 in August, 1930. The low level of buying power of con- 
sumers resulted in a considerable slackening in the demand for canned 



12 University of California — Experiment Station 

ripe olives. While some improvement in business conditions and 
employment may be expected during- 1931, it is not likely that condi- 
tions will be as favorable for selling the 1930-31 pack as they were 
during- the 1927-28 and 1928-29 marketing seasons. 

Although there has been a temporary decline in the demand for 
canned ripe olives, there is no reason for believing that the trend of 
demand during the coming years will not continue to rise. How fast 
it will rise will be determined by many factors which cannot now be 
measured or foreseen. 

If the future trend of demand does not rise more rapidly than in 
the past, however, it will be several years before prices can be expected 
to improve, unless of course the packs are materially below the average 
of the past three years. During the three years of 1927-28 to 1929-30 
the packs averaged 740,000 cases a year, of which 630,000 cases were 
Mission and Manzanillo olives and 110,000 cases were large-type olives. 
With the level of prices to growers that prevailed during recent years 
no material change in the supply of Mission and Manzanillo olives 
available for canning is expected. On the other hand, there will 
probably be an increase in the production of large-type olives of about 
70 per cent, or about 80,000 cases, when the present acreage comes 
into full bearing five to seven years hence. If this prospective increase 
in supply were the only depressing factor in the situation, however, 
prices could be expected to improve quickly because the trend of 
demand is rising at a more rapid rate. A much more serious factor 
is the carryover on November 1, 1930, of 307,000 cases. With the 
trend of demand increasing at the rate of 55,000 cases a year it will 
take about five years for the increase in demand by itself to reduce 
the carryover to a nominal amount. 

The carryover can, of course, be reduced to a nominal amount in a 
much shorter time if the packs should be materially below the average 
of the past three years or if the demand should increase at a faster 
rate than it has during the past decade. 

Even with the total production of olives in this state during" the 
next few years equal to or greater than the average production of the 
past three years, the amount of olives canned could be reduced pro- 
vided the industry would agree to do so. The returns to growers for 
olives pressed for oil, while much below the cost of production, are con- 
siderably above the cost of picking' and hauling. Consequently, the 
manufacture of olive oil offers an outlet for surplus olives of the 
Mission and Manzanillo varieties. Doubling or even trebling of the 
olive oil manufactured in this state would have but little influence 
on the price received because California production constitutes such 



Bul. 510] 



Olives 



13 



a small proportion of the total quantity of olive oil consumed in this 
country. Thus by utilizing' a larger proportion of the crop for oil, 
the price of canning olives could be increased without resulting in a 
corresponding decrease in the price of oil olives. Until the present 
carryover is reduced such a procedure would be of distinct benefit to 
the industry. It cannot be accomplished, however, unless it is under- 
taken as an industry program and participated in by all factors in 
the industry. 

Even though the packs should average somewhat larger than those 
of the past three years, there is still the possibility, but not the cer- 
tainty, that prices might improve within the next two or three years 
on account of a more rapid increase in demand than that which 
occurred during the past decade. For the past year the olive industry 
has been carrying on a program designed to introduce canned ripe 
olives into markets not now familiar with them. Records of several 
large packers show that during the four years 1926 to 1929 approxi- 
mately 70 per cent of the canned ripe olives were consumed in the 
Pacific Coast states and nearly all of the remainder in eastern mar- 
kets by people of southern European origin. It is evident, therefore, 
that the possibility of expanding the market for canned ripe olives 
is very great. That the market can be expanded sufficiently to absorb 
the excessive carryover within the next year or two without the 
expenditure of a very large amount of money, however, is much less 
certain. 

TABLE 5 
Pack of California Canned Ripe Olives by Sizes, 1929-30 



Size 


Cases 


Per cent 
of total 


Small and midgets 


179,882 
156,502 
111,502 
48,758 
27,155 
19,596 
22,874 
20,643 

586,912 


30.7 


Medium 


26.7 


Large 

Extra large 


19.0 
8.3 


Mammoth 

Giant 

Jumbo 


4.6 
3 3 
3 9 
3 5 


Total* 


100 



*Does not include 48,000 cases which were not segregated by 

s. 

Source of data: California Olive Association. 



Sizes of Olives. — The size distribution of the 1929-30 pack of ripe 
olives is shown in table 5. In that year 30.7 per cent of the pack con- 
sisted of small-size olives, 26.7 per cent was of Medium size, 31.9 per 



14 University of California — Experiment Station 

cent Large to Mammoth, and 10.7 per cent Giants and larger. Similar 
data on the pack by sizes of olives are not available for the earlier 
years. Records of several large packers, however, indicate that an 
unusually large proportion of the small sizes were canned in 1929-30. 
The size-grades of canned ripe olives established by the California 
Olive Association in 1925 are as follows: 3 

Average number of 
Name of size-grade olives per pound 

Medium 113 

Large 98 

Extra large 82 

Mammoth 70 

Giant 60 

Jumbo 50 

Colossal 40 

All olives smaller than medium are designated as " Seconds." 

Small olives are packed primarily for sale to people of southern 
European origin. In order to compete with imported ripe olives, 
which are largely consumed by these people, it is necessary to sell 
domestic canned ripe olives at low prices. As long as the sale of 
small olives is confined to this class of trade it provides an outlet for 
additional canned olives at prices somewhat higher to growers than 
could be obtained for oil olives, and does not materially affect the 
prices of the larger sizes. However, when small olives are offered to 
the trade which also buys the larger olives, it tends to reduce the 
quantity of larger olives that can be sold. If all of the small olives 
that are available for canning were canned, it is probable that the 
price to growers for small olives would be below that paid for oil 
olives and in addition the prices of the larger sizes would be reduced. 

Mission and Manzanillo olives seldom run larger than the Mam- 
moth size, while less than one-fourth of the Ascolano olives and almost 
none of the Sevillano olives smaller than Giants are canned. 

The size distribution of Mission and Manzanillo olives for the 
years 1926-27 to 1929-30 is given in table 6. On the average 3 per 
cent of the total crop delivered has been Mammoth, 11 per cent Extra 
Large, 19 per cent Large, 20 per cent Medium, and 47 per cent Small 
and oil olives. 

Data on sizes for Sevillano olives, the most important of the large- 
type olives, are given in table 7. During the four years 1926-27 to 



3 Recently some packers have adopted three size-grades for Mission and Man- 
zanillo olives and two size-grades for large-type olives, thus reducing the number 
of size-grades from seven to five. 



But, 510] 



Olives 



15 



1929-30 the average size of the Sevillano olives used for canning" was 
43 per cent Colossal, 38 per cent Jumbo, and 19 per cent Giant. 



TABLE 6 

Estimated Percentages of Sizes of Mission and Manzanillo Olive Crops, 

1926-27 to 1929-30 



Year 


Mammoth 


Extra large 


Large 


Medium 


Small and 
oil 


Total 


1926-27. .. 


per cent 
3 
5 

2 
1 
3 


per cent 
18 
12 
10 
4 
11 


per cent 
23 
20 
23 
13 
19 


per cent 
21 
15 
21 
21 
20 


per cent 
35 
48 
44 
61 
47 


per cent 
100 


1927-28 


100 


1928-29 


100 


1929-30 .... 


100 


Average 1926-27 to 1929-30 .... 


100 



Source of data: Compiled from records of canners. 



TABLE 7 



Estimated Percentages of Sizes of Sevillano Olives Canned 1926-27 to 

1929-30 



Year 


Colossal 


Jumbo 


Giant 


Total 


1926-27 


per cent 
61 
37 
40 
33 

43 


per cent 
27 
46 
44 
36 

38 


per cent 
12 
17 
16 
31 

19 


per cent 
100 


1927-28 

1928-29 


100 
100 


1929-30 


100 


Average 1926- 
27 to 1929-30 


100 



Source of data: Compiled from records of canners. 



TABLE 8 

Average Prices per Ton Paid to Growers for Mission and Manzanillo Olives, 

1921-22 to 1929-30 



Year 


Mammoth 


Extra large 


Large 


Medium 


Small and oil 


1921-22 

1922-23 


dollars 
225 
230 
225 
190 
185 
215 
215 
210 
210 


dollars 
160 
170 
165 
145 
135 
155 
155 
150 
150 


dollars 
100 
115 
110 
80 
85 
105 
105 
115 
110 


dollars 
60 
70 
65 
50 
60 
60 
65 
75 
70 


dollars 
36 
40 


1923-24 

1924-25 


34 
39 


1925-26 


38 


1926-27 


40 


1927-28 


35 


1928-29 

1929-30 


40 
38 



Source of data: Compiled from records of canners. 



16 



University of California — Experiment Station 



Prices Paid to Growers. — Prices of Mission and Manzanillo olives 
for the years 1921-22 to 1929-30 are given in table 8. During* the four 
years 1926-27 to 1929-30 growers received an average price of $213 a 
ton for Mammoth, $153 a ton for Extra Large, $109 a ton for Large, 
$68 a ton for Medium and $38 a ton for small and oil olives. As shown 
in table 6, only a small proportion of the crop consists of Mammoth 
and Extra Large olives which bring high prices, while a large pro- 
portion of the crop consists of small and oil olives which bring low 
prices. Consequently, the price per ton for all Mission and Manza- 
nillo olives has been low, averaging only $75 a ton during the past 
four years. 

Sevillano olives have brought much higher prices per ton than 
Mission and Manzanillo. The prices paid to growers for the years 
from 1921-22 to 1929-30 are given in table 9. During the past two 
years prices per ton have averaged for Colossal $305, for Jumbo $125, 



TABLE 9 

Average Prices per Ton Paid to Growers for Sevillano Olives, 1921-22 to 

1929-30 



Year 


Colossal 


Jumbo 


Giant 


1921-22 


dollars 
325 
350 
400 
400 
410 
410 
410 
305 
305 


dollars 
220 
225 
250 
250 
225 
225 
225 
125 
125 


dollars 
100 


1922-23 


100 


1923-24 


110 


1924-25 


110 


1925-26... 


110 


1926-27 


110 


1927-28 


110 


1928-29 


60 


1929-30 


60 







Source of data: Compiled from records of canners. 



and for Giant $60. The average price for these three sizes of Sevil- 
lanos has been $190 a ton, a distinct contrast to the average price of 
$75 a ton for all sizes Missions and Manzanillos. However, growers 
receive no returns for cull Sevillano olives. 

Prior to 1928-29 prices of Sevillano olives were considerably 
higher than they have been for the past two years, as is shown in table 
9. The rapidly increasing production of Sevillano olives resulted in 
a reduction in their prices of $105 a ton for Colossal, $100 a ton for 
Jumbo, and $50 a ton for Giant. This large reduction in the price 
of Sevillano olives is probably, in part, responsible for a small decline 
in the prices of Mammoth and Extra Large Mission and Manzanillo 



Bul, 510] 



Olives 



17 



olives (see table 8). Sevilla.no olives compete more with the larger 
sizes of Mission and Manzanillo olives than they do with the smaller 
sizes. 

United States Imports of Olives. — Importations of olives into the 
United States during the three years 1927-1929 average 7,665,000 
gallons as against an average of 6,343,000 gallons during the previous 
three years, an increase of 21 per cent. Judging from the import 
valuations this increase in supply did not result in a decrease in price. 
The average import price during the three years 1924-1926 was 71 
cents a gallon, while during the three years 1927-1929 the average 
import price was 72 cents a gallon. It is probable that the demand 
for imported as well as domestic olives was abnormally low during 
the three years 1924-1926 and that the increase in demand between 
1924-1926 and 1927-1929 largely reflects a recovery rather than a 
long-time upward trend. Since 1927 there is little evidence that 
there has been further increase in demand. The increase in imports 
during the past three years resulted in lower prices. In 1927 the 
average import price was 85 cents a gallon, in 1928, 69 cents a gallon, 
and in 1929, 61 cents a gallon. 

During the three years 1927-1929 approximately 89 per cent of 
the total United States imports of olives came from Spain, about 7 
per cent from Italy, and about 3 per cent from Greece. 

TABLE 10 

United States Imports of Olives for Consumption, 1924-1929 



Calendar year 


Green in 
brine 


Pitted and 
stuffed 


Ripe in 
brine 


Ripe dried 


Total 


1924 

1925 


gallons 
3,903,694 
2,815,758 
3,077,108 
3,160,191 
4,793,202 
4,849,539 


gallons 

1,858,339 

1,567,027 

2,040,107 

1,894,784 

2,474,416 

2,500,767 


gallons 
1,620,641 
1,231,630 
756,597 
146,896 
237,716 
311,066 


gallons* 
31,845 
103,351 
22,879 
813,471 
853,875 
958,628 


gallons 
7,414,519 
5,717,766 
5,896,691 
6,015,342 
8,359,209 
8,620,000 


1926 


1927 

1928 


1929 



*Pounds converted to gallons on basis of 6 pounds per gallon. 
Source of data: 

U. S. Dept. Commerce, Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States. 

The quantities of the various types of olives imported into the 
United States during the six years 1924-1929 are given in table 10. 
Of the average annual imports of 7,665,000 gallons during the three 
years of 1927-1929, 56 per cent were green olives in brine, 30 per 
cent pitted and stuffed olives, 11 per cent dried ripe olives, and 3 per 
cent ripe olives in brine. During the past six years there have been 
substantial increases in the imports of green olives in brine, pitted 



18 University of California — Experiment Station 

and stuffed olives, and dried ripe olives. On the other hand, imports 
of ripe olives in brine have experienced a large decrease. 

Importations of dried ripe olives and ripe olives in brine, which 
constituted about 14 per cent of the total imports during the three 
years 1927-1929, probably compete most seriously with domestic 
canned ripe olives. Imported ripe olives are consumed largely by 
people of southern European origin and consequently compete with 
small sizes from California, which are packed primarily for that 
trade. 

Although imported green olives differ radically in taste and food 
value from California canned ripe olives, they probably compete to 
some extent since they are both used as a relish. Among those people 
who are familiar with both types of olives the consumption of green 
olives probably precludes the consumption of as many ripe olives as 
would otherwise be consumed, and vice versa. The type of olive that is 
used appears to depend largely upon taste and habit and to only a 
minor extent upon price. 

TABLE 11 
United States Import Duties on Olives 



Green olives in brine 

Pitted and stuffed olives. 

Ripe olives in brine 

Dried ripe olives 



Tariff Act of 1922 



rate of duty 

20 cents a gallon 

30 cents a gallon 

20 cents a gallon 

4 cents a pound 



Tariff Act of 1930 



rate of duty 

20 cents a gallon 

30 cents a gallon 

30 cents a gallon 

5 cents a pound 



Source of data : 

U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur. Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Statistical 
classification of imports into the United States with rates of duty. 

The rates of duty on olives imported into the United States under 
the tariff acts of 1922 and 1930 are given in table 11. No changes 
were made in the import duties on green olives in brine and pitted 
and stuffed olives. The import duty on ripe olives in brine, however, 
was increased 50 per cent while that on dried ripe olives was increased 
25 per cent. 

OLIVE OIL 

United States Production and Imports of Olive Oil. — The produc- 
tion of edible olive oil in this country constitutes only a small part of 
that consumed here. During the nine years 1921-1929 the average 
annual supply amounted to 10,357,000 gallons, of which 10,171,000 
gallons, or 98.2 per cent, were imported. 



Bul, 510] 



Olives 



19 



Both domestic production and imports have increased during 
the past decade (table 12). The average annual production in this 
country during the three years 1921-1923 amounted to 167,000 gal- 
lons as against an average of 193,000 gallons during the three years 

TABLE 12 
United States Imports and Production of Edible Olive Oil, 1921-1929 



Year* 


General 
imports 


Foreign 
exports 


Net 
imports 


Domestic 
production 


Total 
supply 


Percentage of 

total supply 

imported 




1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


per cent 


1921 


6,628 


26 


6,602 


200 


5,802 


97 1 


1922 


8,158 


9 


8,149 


160 


8,309 


98 1 


1923 


10,292 


9 


10,283 


140 


10,423 


98.7 


1924 


10,158 


15 


10,143 


220 


10,363 


97.9 


1925 


12,057 


46 


12,011 


120 


12,131 


99 


1926 


10,467 


14 


10,453 


251 


10,704 


97 7 


1927 


10,003 


17 


9,986 


140 


10,126 


98 6 


1928 


11,059 


19 


11,040 


222 


11,262 


98 


1929 


12,906 


30 


12,876 


219 


13,095 


98.3 



*Imports are for the calendar year, domestic production for the year ending October 31. 

Sources of data: 

Imports from U. S. Dept. Commerce, Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States, 
annual issues. Pounds converted to gallons on the basis of 7.5 pounds per gallon. 

Domestic production: Years 1921-1925 estimates based on records of canners and data collected 
by U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur. of the Census; years 1926-1929 from California Olive Association. 

TABLE 13 

United States General Imports of Edible Olive Oil by Countries of Origin, 

1921-1929 



Calen- 










Algeria 






dar 


Italy 


Spain 


France 


Greece 


and 


Other 


Total 


year 










Tunis 


countries 






gallons 


gallons 


gallons 


gallons 


gallons 


gallons 


gallons 


1921 


3,108,749 


1,230,942 


626,570 


1,294,568 




367,270 


6,628,099 


1922 


4,450,669 


2,053,050 


1,013,572 


526,454 


26,199 


88,275 


8,158,219 


1923 


6,629,651 


2,493,736 


891,713 


192,076 


32,090 


52,795 


10,292,061 


1924 


7,098,110 


1,871,863 


780,842 


216,547 


136,470 


54,361 


10,158,193 


1925 


8,264,481 


2,072,887 


1,000,040 


371,627 


306,221 


41,590 


12,056,846 


1926 


7,386,924 


2,262,087 


591,211 


27,830 


108,971 


90,436 


10,467,459 


1927 


6,281,344 


2,519,268 


801,295 


135,449 


207,572 


58,434 


10,003,362 


1928 


7,191,487 


3,025,701 


605,787 


63,622 


91,168 


81,411 


11,059,176 


1929 


9,578,934 


2,201,588 


685,127 


156,525 


244,227 


40,033 


12,096,434 



Source of data: U. S. Dept. Commerce, Foreign Commerce and Navigation of the United States, 
annual issues. Pounds converted to gallons on the basis of 7.5 pounds per gallon. 

1927-1929, an increase of 16 per cent. During the same period net 
imports increased from an average of 8,345,000 gallons to an average 
of 11,301,000 gallons, an increase of 35 per cent. 

The principal foreign countries from which the United States 
receive edible olive oil are given in table 13. During the three years 



20 



University of California — Experiment Station 



1927-1929 an average of 67.9 per cent of the total imports came from 
Italy, 22.8 per cent from Spain, 6.2 per cent from France, 1.6 per 
cent from Algeria and Tunis, and 1.0 per cent from Greece. These 
countries combined supplied 99.5 per cent of the total imports. 

The increase in the general imports of 2,964,000 gallons between 
1921-1923 and 1927-1929 was mainly from Italy, Spain, Algeria, and 
Tunis. There was a substantial decline in imports from Greece and 
a small decline in imports from France. 



ESTIMATED CONSUMPTION OF EDIBLE OLIVE OIL IN THE UNITED 

STATES AND AVERAGE ANNUAL WHOLESALE PRICES OF 

EDIBLE OLIVE OIL AT NEW YORK, 1921-1929 




1921 



1922 



1923 



1924 



1925 1926 



1927 



1928 1929 



Fig. 4. 



-There has been an upward trend in both price and consumption of 
edible olive oil in this country during the past decade. 

Data from table 14. 



Increased Demand for Olive Oil. — The demand for olive oil in 
this country has experienced a substantial increase during the past 
decade as evidenced by the fact that both consumption and prices have 
risen. In figure 4 the annual consumption of edible olive oil is repre- 
sented by the shaded bars, the average annual wholesale price at New 
York by the solid line. Between 1921-1923 and 1927-1929 consump- 
tion increased from 8,549,000 gallons to 11,384,000 gallons, an increase 
of 33 per cent. During the same period average wholesale prices at 
New York rose from an average of $1.90 a gallon to an average of 
$2.18 a gallon, an increase of 15 per cent. 



Bul, 510] 



Olives 



21 



TABLE 14 

Estimated Consumption of Edible Olive Oil in the United States and Average 
Annual Wholesale Prices of Edible Olive Oil at New York, 1921-1929 



Calendar 
year 


Total 
supply 


Stocks on 
hand begin- 
ning of year 


Available 

for 

consumption 


Stocks on 

hand at end 

of year 


Estimated 
consumption 


Wholeslae 
price per 
gallon at 

New York 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 




1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


dollars 


1921 


6,802 


918 


7,720 


872 


6,848 


2.15 


1922 


8,309 


872 


9,181 


1,049 


8,132 


1.79 


1923 


10,423 


1,049 


11,472 


805 


10,667 


1 75 


1924 


10,363 


805 


11,168 


551 


10,617 


2.02 


1925 


12,131 


551 


12,682 


936 


11,746 


2 01 


1926 


10,704 


936 


11,640 


486 


11,154 


1 91 


1927 


10,126 


486 


10,612 


641 


9,971 


2 13 


1928 


11,262 


641 


11,903 


522 


11,381 


2.27 


1929 


13,093 


522 


13,615 


815 


12,800 


2.15 



Sources of data: 

Col. 1: table 12. 

Cols. 2 and 3: U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur. of the Census reports on animal fats and oils. 
Pounds converted to gallons on the basis of 7.5 pounds per gallon. 

Col. 6: U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur. Labor Statistics, Wholesale prices in the United States. 

One of the important causes of the increased demand for olive oil 
was the large increase in the use of salads and the increasing popu- 
larity of oil dressings. Edible olive oil is also used for cooking and 
medicinal purposes and in the packing of sardines, but no definite 
information is available on the increase in demand for these purposes. 

Competition Between Olive Oil and Other Fats and Oils. — A 
detailed analysis of the competition between olive oil and other fats 
and oils is beyond the scope of this bulletin. Only a statement of the 
general situation can be given here. The United States Tariff Com- 
mission points out that "modern improvement in refining, bleaching, 
and deodorizing processes have enhanced the edible qualities of several 
vegetable oils to such a degree that they have been increasingly used 
as salad or cooking oils. ' ' Corn and cottonseed oils, which have aver- 
aged around 85 cents a gallon in New York as compared with an 
average of $1.95 a gallon for olive oil, have displaced olive oil for 
salad purposes to a considerable extent among those buyers with 
whom price is an important consideration. There is, of course, a large 
class of buyers who prefer olive oil to other salad oils and who are 
willing to pay a large premium for it. On the other hand, another 
class will buy olive oil only when its price is not too far above that 
of the other salad oils. Any material rise in the price of olive oil in 
comparison with the price of other salad oils will cause this class to 
reduce their purchases. 



22 



University of California — Experiment Station 



While there is considerable competition between olive oil and other 
fats and oils, it is probable that the competition is not so keen as it 
is between such oils as coconut, corn, and cottonseed. A comparison 
of the wholesale prices of these oils is shown in figure 5. It will be 
noted that there is a marked similarity in the direction and extent of 
the price movements of coconut, corn, and cottonseed oils. These oils 
have many properties in common and consequently one oil can be 
easily substituted for another. This substitution tends to maintain the 
prices of these oils within narrow limits. On the other hand, because 



WHOLESALE PRICES PER GALLON OF EDIBLE OILS AT NEW YORK 



3.50 






















I 






















\ 












OLIV 


E? 








V\ 












^ 


^ 












2.00 


\ 




















/ 








c 


?z> . 


m * 


Iliv"> 














\ 

• 

• • 

• • 

• • 




CO 


:onut^ 


•"V 


• 
^c 


OTTONSE 


ED 


• 






V 
























r 






1 " 









1921 1922 1923 1924 



1925 1926 1927 1928 



1929 1930 



Fig. 5. — The price of edible olive oil fluctuates to a considerable extent 
independently of the prices of other edible oils. 



Data from table 15. 



of the peculiar properties of olive oil, its price fluctuates to a con- 
siderable extent independently of the prices of other oils, But as the 
margin between the price of olive oil and other oils widens, there is 
an increasing' tendency to substitute the lower-priced oils for olive oil. 
This substitution acts as a brake on a further widening of the margin. 
Prices Paid to California Growers for Oil Olives. — The prices 
which growers have received for oil olives from 1921-22 to 1929-30 
are given in table 16. During this nine-year period prices have aver- 
aged $34 a ton. These low prices have constituted a considerable 
drag* on the olive industry in this state and have been felt particu- 
larly by those growers who have had a considerable proportion of their 
crop go into oil. Sufficient facts are not available to indicate accu- 
rately the future trend of olive-oil prices. But unless the imports of 



Bul, 510] 



Olives 



23 



TABLE 15 

Wholesale Prices per Gallon of Edible Oils at New York, 1921-1930 





January 


April 


July 


October 


January 


April 


July 


October 


Year 


dollars 


dollars 


dollars 


dollars 


dollars 


dollars 


dollars 


dollars 




Olive oil 


Cottonseed oil 


1921 


3.40 


2 00 


2 25 


1.75 


63 


045 


0.65 


66 


1922 


1.60 


1 80 


1.80 


1 80 


65 


86 


080 


69 


1923 


1.79 


1.80 


1.73 


1.70 


81 


088 


77 


90 


1924 


1.76 


2 00 


2 00 


2.15 


83 


76 


91 


85 


1925 


2 15 


2 00 


2.00 


2 00 


84 


83 


86 


74 


1926 


2 00 


1.85 


1.85 


2 00 


0.85 


0.93 


1 13 


66 


1927 


2 00 


2 15 


2 15 


2 15 


64 


0.68 


71 


0.82 


1928 


2 50 


2 25 


2 20 


2.25 


0.76 


74 


76 


74 


1929 


2.25 


2 25 


2 25 


2 00 


77 


76 


72 


0.70 


1930 


2 00 


2 00 


1.75* 


1.75* 


63 


65 


0.60 


61 




Coconut oil 


Corn oil 


1921 


98 


0.79 


83 


81 


90 


73 


68 


84 


1922 


74 


72 


70 





70 


81 


0.98 


94 


0.82 


1923 


77 


83 


0.81 





77 


0.92 


1.02 


91 


98 


1924 


0.78 


77 


74 





84 


1 00 


91 


0.97 


99 


1925 


94 


94 


092 


1 


02 


1 08 


1.01 


97 


1 02 


. 1926 


99 


94 


96 





84 


94 


98 


1.20 


1 02 


1927 


0.81 




79 





86 


81 


84 


87 


92 


1928 


81 


81 


78 





77 


93 


90 


90 


90 


1929 


80 


74 


68 





70 


90 


0.90 


89 


86 


1930 


0.68 


0.68 


0.63 





59 


86 


86 


77 


78 



*These quotations are considerably above prices quoted buyers of edible olive oil on the Pacific Coast. 
Sources of data: 

Olive and cottonseed oil prices from U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur. of Labor Statistics. Wholesale 
prices in the United States. 

Coconut and corn oil prices from New York Journal of Commerce, average of Saturdays' quo- 
tations. 

TABLE 16 

Average Prices Paid Growers for Oil Olives, 1921-22 to 1929-30 



Year 
Nov. to Oct. 


Price 

in dollars 

per ton 


Number of gallons 

of olive oil obtained 

from a ton of olives 




/ 


2 


1921-22 

1922-23 


35 
38 
34 
34 
33 
34 
35 
33 
32 


38 
39 


1923-24 


34 


1924-25 


34 


1925-26 


40 


1926-27 


36 


1927-28 


34 


1928-29 . 


36 


1929-30 


35 







Sources of data: 

Col. 1 : Compiled from records of canners. 
Col. 2: U.S. Dept. Commerce, Bur. of the Census reports 
on animal and vegetable fats and oils. 



24 



University of California — Experiment Station 



olive oil are greatly reduced by means of a very high tariff, it does 
not appear that prices of olive oil will rise high enough to raise the 
olive industry in this state to a profitable level. 

Import Duties on Olive Oil. — The rates of duty on olive oil 
imported into the United States under the tariff acts of 1922 and 1930 
are given in table 17. It will be noted that there was an increase in 
the duty on edible olive oil in packages weighing less than 40 pounds 
from 7.5 cents a pound to 9.5 cents a pound, but no increase in the 
duty on edible olive oil in bulk, which remains at 6.5 cents a pound. 
The present differential of 3 cents a pound between the import duties 
of olive oil in small packages and olive oil in bulk, therefore, repre- 
sents a duty on containers based on the weight of the oil. 



TABLE 17 

United States Import Duties on Olive Oil 





Tariff Act 
of 1922 


Tariff Act 
of 1930 


Olive oil, edible: 

In packages weighing less than 40 pounds 

Other 

Olive oil, inedible, for mechanical or manufacturing pur- 
poses : 

Sulfured or foots , 

Other 


rate of duty 

7.5 cents a pound 
6.5 cents a pound 

free 
free 


rate of duty 

9.5 cents a pound 
6.5 cents a pound 

free 
free 



Source of data: 

U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur. Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Statistical classification of im- 
ports into the United States with rates of duty. 

Inedible olive oil is admitted free of duty. The volume of inedible 
olive oil imported into the United States, however, has little effect 
upon the California olive industry since practically all of the olive oil 
produced in this state is edible. 

World Production of Olive Oil. — The production of olive oil, 
including inedible, in the leading olive-oil-producing countries of the 
world from 1921 to 1929 is given in table 18. World production 
during the three years of 1921 to 1923 averaged 199,940,000 gallons a 
year as against an average of 282,813,000 gallons a year during the 
three years of 1927 to 1929, an increase of 82,873,000 gallons, or 41 
per cent. The increase in production in Spain alone amounted to 
60,071,000 gallons, which is 73 per cent of the total increase. 

Although the United States received about three times as much 
edible olive oil from Italy as from Spain during the three years of 
1927 to 1929 the total production of olive oil in Spain during the same 



Bul, 510] 



Olives 



25 



period was twice as large as in Italy. Of the average annual world 
production of 282,813,000 gallons between 1927 and 1929, 51 per cent 
was produced in Spain, 23 per cent in Italy, 9 per cent in Greece, and 
6 per cent in Portugal. 

TABLE 18 
Production of Olive Oil in Leading Countries, 1921-1929 



Year 


Spain 


Italy 


Greece 


Portugal 


Algeria 


Tunis 


France 


Others 


Total 




1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1,000 gals. 


1921 


81,144 


42,664 


13,128 


6,803 


6,823 


9,995 


2,777 


9,446 


172,780 


1922 


84,984 


74,391 


28,811 


8,524 


7,484 


5,347 


2,641 


9,139 


221,321 


1923 


87,849 


52,253 


15,659 


12,771 


9,489 


6,467 


4,236 


16,995 


205,719 


1924 


98,528 


61,287 


30,418 


11,599 


6,865 


6,467 


2,352 


11,884 


229,400 


1925 


96,290 


39,361 


18,758 


11,271 


6,301 


9,995 


2,037 


8,273 


192,306 


1926 


67,641 


49,827 


18,058 


4,630 


4,232 


11,763 


2,352 


13,059 


171,562 


1927 


195,662 


42,387 


21,283 


26,614 


7,086 


4,707 


2,481 


13,032 


313,252 


1928 


56,261 


63,493 


29,416 


7,573 


6,595 


13,227 


2,347 


18,587 


197,499 


1929 


182,267 


84,702 


21,773 


17,200 


6,787 


17,640 


2,053 


5,267 


337,689 



Source of data: 

U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Agr. Econ. Foreign Crops and Markets, annual issues on fats and oils. 
Pounds converted to gallons on the basis of 7.5 pounds per gallon. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author of this bulletin wishes to express his thanks and indebt- 
edness to the following organizations which have generously con- 
tributed from their data and their time : California Cooperative Crop 
Reporting Service ; Bureau of Agricultural Economics, United States 
Department of Agriculture; Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Com- 
merce, United States Department of Commerce ; California Olive Asso- 
ciation; and many canners throughout the state. Mr. Bert Smith, 
Assistant Farm Advisor, Butte County, and Mr. Grant Merrill, 
Assistant Farm Advisor, Tehama County, have furnished valuable 
information on the acreage of olives by varieties. 



26 



University of California — Experiment Station 



Appendix of Tables 



TABLE 19 
Acreage and Production of Olives in Spain, 1909-10 to 1929-30 





Acreage 


Production 










Year 




Total 


For oil 


Olive oil 




1 


8 


3 


4 




1,000 acres 


tons 


tons 


1,000 gals. 


1909-10 


3,447 


1,541,340 


1,468,534 


70,480 


1010-11 


3,499 


688,518 


667,003 


31,896 


1911-12 


3,567 


2,446,573 


2,341,112 


123,982 


1912-13 


3,577 


391,682 


383,170 


18,519 


1913-14 


3,590 


1,638,982 


1,559,524 


78,020 


1914-15 


3,619 


1,302,291 


1,259,280 


61,072 


1915-16 


3,662 


1,954,253 


1,904,153 


95,858 


1916-17 


3,675 


1,263,896 


1,223,722 


60,881 


1917-18 


3,718 


2,433,548 


2,369,850 


125,761 


1918-19 


3,853 


1,547,444 


1,494,783 


75,016 


1919-20 


3,884 


1,998,580 


1,941,562 


98,882 


1920-21 


3,883 


1,832,447 


1,797,622 


93,170 


1921-22 


3,987 


1,678,906 


1,642,003 


81,144 


1922-23 


3,986 


1,697,047 


1,661,278 


84,984 


1923-24 


4,013 


1,778,399 


1,740,855 


87,849 


1924-25 


4,090 


1,923,272 




98,528 


1925-26 


4,149 


2,059,359 




96,290 


1926-27 


4,186 


1,422,701 




67,641 


1927-28 


3,979 


3,876,329 


3,831,147 


195,662 


1928-29 


4,416 


1,070,201 


1,048,415 


56,261 


1929-30 


4,492 


3,682,719 


3,634,261 


182,267 



Sources of data: 

Cols. 1 and 2: International Institute of Agriculture. International 
Yearbooks of Agricultural Statistics. 

Col. 3: U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Agr. Econ. Foreign News on Fats 
and Oils. 

Col. 4: U.S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Agr. Econ. Foreign Crops and Markets. 



Bul, 510] 



Olives 



27 



TABLE 20 
Acreage and Production of Olives in Italy, 1909-10 to 1929-30 





Acreage 


Production 




Total 


Unmixed 


Mixed 


Olives 


Olive oil 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 




1,000 acres 


1,000 acres 


1,000 acres 


tons 


1,000 gals. 


1909-10 


5,794 






1,685,637 


67,606 


1910-11 


5,761 


1,435 


4,326 


1,031,488 


37,132 


1911-12 


5,794 


1,361 


4,433 


1,491,324 


63,990 


1912-13 


5,714 


1,354 


4,360 


672,073 


25,307 


1913-14 


5,661 


1,344 


4,317 


1,076,600 


46,018 


1914-15 


5,678 


1,374 


4,304 


1,188,280 


47,128 


1915-16 


5,704 


1,454 


4,250 


1,025,690 


39,995 


1916-17 


5,708 


1,464 


4,244 


1,424,392 


54,472 


1917-18 


5,686 


1,450 


4,236 


1,381,072 


55,872 


1918-19 


5,670 


1,442 


4,228 


1,900,806 


76,345 


1919-20 


5,669 


1,446 


4,223 


888,564 


30,142 


1920-21 


5,664 


1,431 


4,233 


1,344,806 


53,864 


1921-22 


5,658 


1,428 


4,230 


1,032,084 


42,664 


1922-23 


5,709 


1,435 


4,274 


1,739,981 


74,391 


1923-24 


5,706 


1,429 


4,277 


1,258,827 


52,253 


1924-25 


5,643 


1,422 


4,221 


1,494,719 


61,287 


1925-26 


5,670 


1,433 


4,237 


964,292 


39,361 


1926-27 


5,669 


1,431 


4,238 


1,384,489 


49,827 


1927-28 


5,633 


1,406 


4,227 


1,110,303 


42,387 


1928-29 


5,754 


1,418 


4,336 


1,558,487 


63,493 


1929-30 


5,572 






1,903,4)5 


84,702 



Sources of data: 

Cols. 1, 2, 3, 4: International Institute of Agriculture. International Yearbooks of Agricultural 
Statistics. 

Col. 5: U. S. Dept. Agr., Bur. Agr. Econ. Foreign Crops and Markets. 

TABLE 21 

Production of Olives in the Leading Olive-producing Countries of the 
World, 1922-23 to 1929-30 



Country 



Spain 

Italy 

Algeria. 

Tunis 

France 

French Morocco. 
Syria and 

Lebanon 

Greece 

Cyprus 

Tripoli 

United States 



1922-23 



tons 
697,047 
739,981 
123,458 
116,844 
49,508 
55,115 

141,095 

2,699 
4,437 
10,000 



1923-24 



tons 
1,778,399 
1,258,827 
156,256 
122,356 
79,421 
65,036 



4,361 
17,000 



1924-25 



tons 

1,923,272 

1,494,719 

156,286 

121,253 

44,202 

78,264 

31,967* 
51,868 

9,421 
22,046 

6,500 



1925- 



tons 
,059,359 
964,292 
190,021 
187,391 
28,926 
88,184 



18,457 

2,518 

25,353 

14,000 



1926-27 



tons 
1,422,701 
1,384,489 
112,973 
220,460 
36,494 
22,046 



15,439 
3,521 



12,200 



1927-28 



tons 

3,876,329 

1,110,303 

207,030 

88,184 

52,797 

66,689 

56,177 
16,343 
25,900 
11,023 
18,600 



1928-29 



tons 
1,070,201 
1,558,487 

248,018 
57,294 
55,115 

44,403 

54,067 

2,800 



20,500 



1929-30 



tons 
3,682,719 
1,903,475 



19,500 



*Syria only. 
Source of data: 

International Institute of Agriculture, International Yearbooks of Agricultural Statistics, except 
those for United States, which are from figure 1 .