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Xi  v^-r 

immlii  liiiiii  1 

3  blOS  QB5  575  312 

■  M 



American  Edition 







American  Edition 



E.  W.  WEST 

PART    I 

the  bundahis,  bahman  ya5t,  and 
shAyast  lA-shAyast 












i.    The  Parsi  Scriptures ix 

2.  The  Pahlavi  Language  and  Literature  xi 

3.  The  Bundahu xxii 

4.  The  Selections  of  Za</-sparam     .....  xlvi 

5.  The  Bahman  Yaxt I 

6.  The  Shayast  la-shayast lix 

7.  Concluding  Remarks Ixvii 


bundahia i 

Selections  of  Zad-sparam 153 

Bahman  Yast 189 

Shayast  la-shayast 237 

Index 407 

Errata 434 

Transliteration  of  Oriental  Alphabets  adopted  for  the  Trans- 
lations of  the  Sacred  Books  of  the  East         .        .         .      435 







i.  The  Parsi  Scriptures. 

HOUGH  we  must  look  to  the  Avcsta  for  information 
regarding  the  main  outlines  of  the  Parsi  religion,  it  is  to 
Pahlavi  writings  we  must  refer  for  most  of  the  details 
relating  to  the  traditions,  ceremonies,  and  customs  of  this 
ancient  faith,  which  styles  itself  emphatically  'the  good 
religion  of  the  Mazdayasnians,'  and  calls  its  laity  bah  din  an. 
or  'those  of  the  good  religion.'  In  the  fragments  of  the 
Avcsta  which  still  exist,  we  may  trace  the  solid  foundations 
nf  the  religion,  laid  by  philosophic  bards  and  lawgivers  of 
old,  with  many  a  mouldering  column  and  massive  fragment 
of  the  superstructure  erected  upon  them  by  the  ancient 
priesthood    These  are  the  last  remnants  of  the  faith  held 

Cyrus,  the  anointed  of  the  Lord  (Isaiah  xlv.  i),  the 
righteous  one  (Is.  xli.  a),  or  eagle  (Is.  xlvi.  n ),  whom  He 
called  from  the  east,  and  the  shepherd  who  performed  His 
pleasure  (Is.  xliv.  28) ;  scattered  fragments  of  the  creed 
professed  by  Darius  in  his  inscriptions,  when  he  attributes 
his  successes  to  'the  will  of  Auramazda  ;'  and  mouldering 
of  the  comparatively  pure  religion  of  oriental  '  bar- 
barism,' which  Alexander  and  his  civilising  Greek  successors 
were  unable  wholly  to  destroy,  and  replace  by  their  own 
idolatrous  superstitions.  While  in  the  Pahlavi  texts  we  find 
much  of  the  mediaeval  edifice  built  by  later  Persian  priest- 
craft upon  the  old  foundations,  with  a  strange  mixture  of 
old  and  new  materials,  and  exhibiting  the  usual  symptom 
of  declining  powers,  a  strong  insistence  upon  complex  forms 
and  minute  details,  with  little  of  the  freedom  of  treatment 
and  simplicity  of  outline  characteristic  of  the  ancient  bards. 


To  understand  the  relationship  between  these  two  classes 
of  Parsi  sacred  writings,  it  must  be  observed  that  the  Avesta 
and  Pahlavi  of  the  same  scripture,  taken  together,  form  its 
Avesta  and  Zand,  terms  which  arc  nearly  synonymous  with 
1  revelation  and  commentary.'  Both  words  are  derived  from 
verbal  roots  implying  'knowledge;'  Avesta  being  the  Pahlavi 
avistak,  which  may  most  probably  be  traced  to  the  past 
participle  of  a,  '  to,'  +  vid,  'to  know,'  with  the  meaning  of 
'  what  is  announced'  or  ' declaration  ;'  and  Zand,  being  the 
Pahlavi  form  of  A  v.  zaiwti  (traceable  in  the  word  azaiwtijr), 
must  be  referred  to  the  root  zan,  'to  know,'  with  the  meaning 
of  *  knowledge,  understanding1.'  European  scholars,  misled 
probably  by  Muhammadan  writers,  have  converted  the 
phrase  '  Avesta  and  Zand '  into  '  Zend-Avesta,'  and  have 
further  identified  Zand  with  the  language  of  the  Avesta. 
This  use  of  the  word  Zand  is,  however,  quite  at  variance 
with  the  practice  of  all  Parsi  writers  who  have  been  inde- 
pendent of  European  influence,  as  they  apply  the  term 
Zand  only  to  the  Pahlavi  translations  and  explanations  of 
their  sacred  books,  the  original  text  of  which  they  call 
Avesta.  So  that  when  they  use  the  phrase  '  Avesta  and 
Zand'  they  mean  the  whole  of  any  scripture,  both  the  Avesta 
text  and  Pahlavi  translation  and  commentary.  And  the 
latter,  being  often  their  only  means  of  understanding  the 
former,  has  now  become  of  nearly  equal  authority  with  the 
Avesta  itself.  It  is  probable,  indeed,  that  the  first  Zand 
was  really  written  in  the  Avesta  language,  as  we  find  many 
traces  of  such  Avesta  commentaries  interpolated  both  in 
the  Avesta  and  Pahlavi  texts  of  the  Parsi  scriptures ;  but 
this  is  rather  a  matter  of  European  inference  than  of  Parsi 
belief.  The  later  (or  Pahlavi)  Zand  appears  also,  in  many 
places,  to  be  merely  a  translation  of  this  earlier  (or  Avesta) 
Zand,  with  additional  explanations  offered  by  the  Pahlavi 

Regarding  the  sacredncss  of  these  Pahlavi  translations, 
m  the  eyes  of  the  Parsis,  there  can  be  no  manner  of  doubt, 
so  far  as  they  cannot  be  shown  to  be  inconsistent  with  the 

1  Sec  Ilaug's  K&says  un  the  Sacred  Language,  Writings,  and  Religion  of  the 
Parsi*,  xcond  edition,  London,  1878  ;  pp.  lit,  121. 



writings  of  priests  and  other  devout  Parsisof  post-Muham- 
madan  times,  among  the  latest  of  which  is  one  dated  A.  Y. 
250  (A.D.  881).  Any  fragments  of  Pahlavi  composition  of 
later  date  than  A.D.  1000,  must  be  considered  merely  as 
modern  imitations  of  a  dead  language,  and  cannot  be  quoted 
as  authorities  for  the  use  of  any  particular  Pahlavi  words  or 

With  regard  to  the  origin  of  the  word  Pahlavi,  or  lan- 
guage of  Pahlav,  many  suggestions  have  been  offered ;  but 
the  most  probable  explanation1  is  that  which  connects  it 
with  the  Parthva  of  the  cuneiform  inscriptions,  the  land  of 
the  Parthians  known  to  the  Greeks  and  Romans,  and  of  the 
Pahlavas  mentioned  by  Sanskrit  writers ;  the  change  of 
Parthva  into  Pahlav  being  very  similar  to  that  of  Av. 
Mithra  into  Pcrs.  Mihr.  No  doubt  the  language  of  the 
Parthians  themselves  was  not  Pahlavi,  but  they  were  the 
actual  rulers  of  Persia  for  some  centuries  at  the  time  when 
the  Pahlavi  language  was  forming  there;  and,  being  formid- 
able to  their  neighbours,  it  is  not  surprising  that  their  name 
became  identified  with  everything  Persian,  in  the  same  way 
as  the  Roman  name  has  been  applied  by  the  Persians,  not 
only  to  the  later  Greek  empire  of  Constantinople,  but  even 
to  the  earlier  conqueror,  Alexander  the  Great. 

Strictly  speaking,  the  mediaeval  Persian  language  is  only 
called  Pahlavi  when  it  is  written  in  one  of  the  characters 
used  before  the  invention  of  the  modern  Persian  alphabet, 
and  in  the  peculiarly  enigmatical  mode  adopted  in  Pahlavi 
writings.  Whenever  it  is  transcribed,  either  in  Avesta 
characters,  or  in  those  of  the  modern  Persian  alphabet,  and 
freed  from  this  peculiarity,  it  is  called  Pazand. 

The  peculiar  mode  of  writing  Pahlavi,  here  alluded  to, 
long  made  the  character  of  the  language  a  standing  puzzle 
for  European  scholars,  and  was  first  satisfactorily  explained 
by  Professor  Haug,  of  Munich,  in  his  admirable  Essay  on 
the  Pahlavi  Language  already  cited. 

Like  the  Assyrians  of  old,  the  Persians  of  Parthian  times 
appear  to  have  borrowed  their  writing  from  a  foreign  race. 

1  Sec  Jiang's  Essay  on  the  Pahlavi  Language,  Slultgart,  1870;  pp.  33-37. 

But,  whereas  the  Semitic  Assyrians  adopted  a  Turanian 
syllabary,  these  later  Aryan  Persians  accepted  a  Semitic 
alphabet-  Besides  the  alphabet,  however,  which  they  could 
use  for  spelling  their  own  words,  they  also  transferred  a 
certain  number  of  complete  Semitic  words  to  their  writings, 
as  representatives  of  the  corresponding  words  in  their  own 
language.  These  Semitic  representatives  (the  number  of 
which  might  at  any  time  be  increased  or  diminished  at  the 
ction  of  the  writer)  were  probably  never  very  numerous, 
and  not  more  than  four  hundred  of  them  are  to  be  found  in 
the  Pahlavi  writings  now  extant ;  but,  as  they  represent 
nearly  all  the  commonest  words  in  the  language  (excepting 
those  specially  relating  to  religious  matters),  they  often 
constitute  more  than  half  the  bulk  of  a  Pahlavi  text. 

The  use  of  such  Semitic  words,  scattered  about  In  Persian 
sentences,  gives  Pahlavi  the  motley  appearance  of  a  com- 
pound language ;  more  especially  as  Persian  terminations 
are  often  added  to  the  Semitic  words.  But  there  arc  good 
reasons  for  supposing  that  the  language  was  never  spoken 
as  it  was  written.  The  spoken  language  appears  to  have 
been  purely  Persian  ;  the  Semitic  words  being  merely  used 
as  written  representatives,  or  logograms,  of  the  Persian 
words  which  were  spoken.  Thus  the  Persians  would  write 
malkan  malka.  'king  of  kings,'  but  they  would  read 
shahan  shah.  This  is  still  the  mode  in  which  most  Parsis 
read  their  Pahlavi  literature ;  and  it  is  only  by  assuming  it 
to  have  been  their  universal  practice,  in  former  times,  that 
we  can  account  for  the  total  and  immediate  disappearance 
of  the  Semitic  portion  of  the  Pahlavi.  from  their  language, 
when  the  Persians  adopted  their  modern  alphabet.  As  the 
Semitic  words  were  merely  a  Pahlavi  mode  of  writing  their 
Persian  equivalents  (just  as  '  viz.'  is  a  mode  of  writing 
'  namely '  in  English),  they  disappeared  with  the  Pahlavi 
writing,  and  the  Persians  began  at  once  to  write  all  their 
words,  with  their  new  alphabet,  just  as  they  pronounced 

In  the  meantime,  the  greater  part  of  the  nation  had 
become  Muhammadans,  and  a  new  influx  of  Semitic  words 
commenced.,  but  of  a  very  different  character.     The  Semitic 



portion  of  the  Pahlavi  writing  was  nearly  pure  Chaldee,  and 
was  confined  (as  already  stated)  to  the  graphic  representa- 
tion of  most  of  the  simplest  and  commonest  words  uncon- 
nected with  religion  :  but  it  seems  to  have  formed  no  part 
of  the  spoken  language,  at  all  events  in  later  times.  Whereas 
the  Semitic  portion  of  modern  Persian  is  borrowed  from 
Arabic,  and  includes  most  words  connected  with  religion, 
science,  and  literature  ;  in  fact,  every  class  of  words  except 
that  which  was  usually  Semitic  in  Pahlavi  writings ;  and 
these  Arabic  words  form  an  essential  part  of  the  spoken 
language,  being  as  indispensable  to  the  modern  Persian  as 
words  of  Norman-French  origin  are  to  the  English. 

In  Pahlavi  writings,  moreover,  besides  the  four  hundred 
Semitic  logograms  already  mentioned,  we  also  find  about 
one  hundred  obsolete  forms  of  Iranian  words  used  as  logo- 
grams ;  much  in  the  same  way  as  '  ye '  may  be  used  for 
'  the,'  and  '  Xmas '  for  '  Christmas '  in  English.  The  use  of 
all  these  logograms  was,  however,  quite  optional,  as  their 
usual  Persian  equivalents  might  be  substituted  for  any  of 
them  at  any  time,  according  to  each  particular  writer's  taste 
and  discretion.  But  whenever  they  are  employed  they  form 
what  is  called  the  Iluzvarii-  portion  of  the  Pahlavi;  while 
the  other  words,  intended  to  be  pronounced  as  they  are 
spelt,  form  the  Pazand  portion. 

Many  attempts  have  been  made  to  explain  the  word 
Huzv&rij,  but  it  cannot  be  said  that  any  satisfactory 
etymology  has  yet  been  proposed.  Like  the  word  Pahlavi 
it  seems  hardly  to  occur  in  any  old  Pahlavi  text,  but  only 
in  colophons,  chapter-headings,  and  similar  notes  of  modern 
writers  ;  it  seems,  therefore,  more  reasonable  to  trace  it  to 
modern  Persian  than  direct  to  any  more  ancient  source.  Its 
Pahlavi  form.huzvari  j  or  aiizvari^n,  appears  to  represent 
the  modern  Persian  u  z  v  a  r  i s,  which  is  rarely  used ;  the  usual 
Persian  form  of  the  word  being  zuvarij.  Now  zuvirij  is 
precisely  the  form  of  an  abstract  noun  derived  from  the 
crude  form  of  a  verb  zuvaridan,  which  has  been  admitted 
into  some  Persian  dictionaries  on  the  authority  of  Golius  \ 

1  See  Castelli  Lexicon  Ilcptnglotton,  I 'are  altera,  London,  1669. 


with  the  meaning  '  to  grow  old,  to  become  thread-bare.'  If 
such  a  verb  really  exists  in  Persian,  although  its  meaning 
may  imply  '  decrepitude  or  decay  '  rather  than  '  antiquity  or 
obsoleteness.'  yet  its  abstract  noun  would  not  be  altogether 

E  inapplicable  to  the  logograms  used  in  Pahlavi,  which  are, 
in  fact,  last  remnants  of  older  writings. 
The  word  Pazand  is  probably  derived  from  A  v.  paiti- 
zanti,  with  the  meaning  '  re-explanation,'  that  is,  a  further 
interpretation  of  the  Pahlavi  Zand  in  the  Persian  vernacular. 
This  term  is  applied  not  only  to  the  purely  Persian  words 
in  Pahlavi  texts,  but  also  (as  already  noticed)  to  translitera- 
tions of  the  said  texts,  cither  in  A  vesta  or  modern  Persian 
characters,  in  which  all  the  Huzvari.?  words  arc  replaced  by 
their  Pazand  equivalents.  These  transliterations  form  what 
are  called  Pazand  texts ;  they  retain  the  exact  idiom  and 
construction  of  the  Pahlavi  original,  and  represent  the  mode 
in  which  it  was  read.  It  may  be  remarked,  however,  that 
all  such  Pazand  texts,  as  have  been  examined,  seem  to  have 
been  written  in  India,  so  that  they  may  be  suspected  of 
representing  some  corrupt  Gu^arati  pronunciation  of  Persian, 
rather  than  the  peculiar  orthography  of  any  period  of  the 
Persian  language. 

This  theory  of  the  origin  and  development  of  Pahlavi 
writing  could  hardly  be  upheld,  unless  we  could  trace  the 
same  artificial  mixture  of  Huzvarixand  Pazand  in  all  acces- 
sible Pahlavi  records,  from  their  earliest  appearance  to  the 
present  time.  This  we  are  able  to  do,  even  in  the  scanty 
materials  afforded  by  the  legends  on  the  provincial  Persian 
coins  of  the  third  century  B.  c.  and  second  century  a.  d. 
already  mentioned.  But  we  can  trace  it  with  greater  cer- 
tainty not  only  in  the  coin  legends,  but  also  in  the  rock 
inscriptions  of  the  earlier  Sasanian  kings  (a.  i>.  226-388 ).  in 
the  latest  of  which  we  find  the  written  language  differing 
very  slightly  from  that  contained  in  the  manuscripts  pre- 
served by  the  Parsis  of  the  present  day,  although  the 
characters  differ  very  much  in  form.  And,  finally,  in  the 
legends  on  the  coins  of  the  later  Sasanian  kings  (a.  D.  388- 
and  on  seals  of  their  times,  we  find  even  this  difference 
in  the  shapes  of  the  letters  disappearing  by  degrees.     In 


fact,  all  the  materials  at  our  disposal  tend  to  show  that 
Hmvftfls  has  been  an  essential  constituent  of  all  Pahlavi 
writings  from  the  time  of  Alexander's  successors  to  that  of 
the  disuse  of  Pahlavi  characters ;  but  we  have  no  reason  to 
suppose  that  the  spoken  language  of  the  great  mass  of  the 
Persian  people  ever  contained  the  Semitic  words  which 
they  thus  used  as  HuzvanV  in  their  writings. 

Although  the  use  of  HuzvarLr,  until  explained  recently, 
rendered  the  nature  of  the  Pahlavi  language  very  obscure, 
it  added  very  little  to  the  difficulty  of  understanding  the 
Pahlavi  texts,  because  the  meaning  of  nearly  every  Huz- 
Vflrii  logogram  was  well  known  ;  being  recorded  in  an 
old  glossary  preserved  by  the  Parsis,  in  which  every 
logogram  is  explained  by  its  proper  Pazand  equivalent. 
The  extant  copies  of  this  old  glossary  generally  contain 
the  Hu/.varij  and  Pazand  words  written  in  the  Pahlavi 
character,  together  with  their  traditional  pronunciation, 
either  in  A  vesta  or  modern  Persian  letters  ;  there  is,  there- 
fore, no  particular  difficulty  in  reading  or  translating  the 
Huzvarij  portion  of  a  Pahlavi  text,  although  doubts  may 
often  be  entertained  as  to  the  accuracy  of  the  traditional 

The  real  difficulty  of  reading  Pahlavi  texts  lies  in  the 
Pazand  portion  (so  far  as  it  may  be  unexplained  by 
existing  vocabularies),  and  is  chiefly  occasioned  by  the 
ambiguity  of  some  of  the  Pahlavi  letters.  The  alphabet 
used  in  Pahlavi  books  contains  only  fourteen  distinct 
letters,  so  that  some  letters  represent  several  different 
sounds  ;  and  this  ambiguity  is  increased  by  the  letters 
being  joined  together,  when  a  compound  of  two  letters 
is  sometimes  exactly  like  some  other  single  letter.  The 
complication  arising  from  these  ambiguities  may  be  under- 
stood from  the  following  list  of  the  sounds,  simple  and 
compound,  represented  by  each  of  the  fourteen  letters  of 
the  Pahlavi  alphabet  respectively: — 

41  a,  a,  h,  kh.  J  b.  Q  p,  f.  f»  t,d.  £2^  *i g,  e,  v.  \  r, 
1.  S  z-  ■»  s,  yi,  yad,  yag,  ya^,  di,  dad,  dag,  da^-,  gi,  gad, 
gag,  gag,  g\t  ^ad,  ^ag,  gag.     -^  sn>  s>  A  yall»  yakh,  ih,  ikh, 



lah.  dakh,  ga,  gah,  gakh,  g&,  £"*h.  gaUU     ^ gh.     ^  k. 

^m.     la.v.w,  6,6,r,L     ^  y,  i,  e,  d,  g,^. 

From  this  list  it  is  easy  to  sec  the  confusion  produced 
by  the  letter  j»  s  being  exactly  like  the  letter  j  y  doubled, 
and  by  the  letter  H(J  sh  being  identical  with  a  com- 
i  of  3  y  and  .u  a;  and  there  arc,  in  fact,  some 
compounds  of  two  letter*  which  have  from  ten  to  fifteen 
sounds  in  common  use,  besides  others  which  might  pos- 
sibly occur.  If  it  be  further  considered  that  there  are 
only  three  letters  (which  arc  also  consonants,  as  in  most 
Semitic  languages)  to  represent  five  long  vowels,  and  that 
there  are  probably  five  short  vowels  to  be  understood, 
the  difficulty  of  reading  Pahlavi  correctly  may  be  readily 

When  Pahlavi  writing  was  in  common  use  this  difficulty 
was  probably  no  more  felt  by  the  Persians,  than  the  com- 
plexity of  Chinese  characters  is  felt  as  an  evil  by  a  Chinese 
mandarin,  or  the  corrupt  system  of  English  orthography 
by  an  educated  Englishman.  It  is  only  the  foreigner,  or 
learner,  who  fully  appreciates  the  difficulty  of  understand- 
ing such  cumbrous  systems  of  writing. 

With  regard,  however,  to  their  Hu/.varij  logograms  the 
ins  seem  to  have  experienced  more  difficulty.  As 
the  actual  sounds  of  these  Semitic  words  were  rarely 
pronounced,  in  consequence  of  their  Pazand  equivalents 
being  substituted  in  reading,  there  must  have  been  some 
risk  of  their  true  pronunciation  being  forgotten.  That 
this  risk  was  understood  by  the  Persians,  or  Parsis,  is 
proved  by  the  existence  of  the  Kuzv&rir-P&zand  gU 
already  described,  which  was  evidently  compiled  as  a 
record  both  of  the  pronunciation  and  meaning  of  the 
Huzvarii  logograms.  But  its  compilation  does  not  appear 
to  have  been  undertaken  until  the  true  pronunciation  of 
some  of  these  logograms  had  been  already  lost.  Thus, 
although  the  traditional  readings  of  most  of  the  Semitic 

ion   of  the    Huzvarij  can  be  readily  traced   to 
known    Chaldce  words,  there   arc   yet    many   other   such 
readings   which    are    altogether   inexplicable    as    Semitic 

[S3  b 



words.  In  most  such  cases,  however.  European  scholars 
have  found  that  the  Huzv&rfc  word  can  be  easily  read  in 
some  other  way  which  at  once  connects  it  with  some- 
ordinary  Chaldce  equivalent.  It  may,  therefore,  be  reason- 
ably assumed  that  the  compilers  of  the  glossary  had  in 
some  instances  lost  the  correct  pronunciation  of  these  old 
Semitic  words,  and  that,  in  such  cases,  they  adopted  (as 
a  Parsi  would  probably  do  at  the  present  day)  the  most 
obvious  reading  of  the  letters  before  them,  which  thence- 
forth became  an  artificial  word  to  be  handed  down  to 
posterity,  by  successive  generations  of  writers,  with  all 
the  authority  of  old  tradition. 

In  the  same  manner  the  artificial  pronunciation  of  the 
Iranian  portion  of  the  HuzvarLr  may  be  explained.  The 
compilers  of  the  glossary  found  a  number  of  words  in 
the  Pahlavi  texts,  which  were  written  in  some  obsolete 
or  contracted  manner ;  they  knew  the  meanings  of  these 
words,  but  could  not  trace  the  true  readings  in  the  altered 
letters;  they,  therefore,  adopted  the  most  obvious  rca<l 
of  the  written  characters,  and  thus  produced  another  scries 
of  artificial  words,  such  as  anhoma  for  auharmazd, 
yahan  for  yazdan,  madonad  for  malnok,  shatan  for 
shatr6,  &c. 

Naturally  enough  the  Parsis  are  loth  to  admit  the 
possibility  of  any  error  in  their  traditional  readings  of 
Huzvarij,  and  very  few  of  them  have  yet  adopted  the 
views  of  European  scholars  further  than  to  admit  that 
they  are  ingenious  hypotheses,  which  still  require  satis- 
factory proof.  They  are  quite  right  in  demanding  such 
proof,  and  they  may  reasonably  argue  that  the  conflicting 
opinions  of  various  European  scholars  do  not  tend  to  in- 
crease the  certainty  of  their  explanations.  But,  on  the 
other  hand,  they  are  bound  to  examine  all  proofs  that 
may  be  offered,  and  to  consider  the  arguments  of  scholars, 
before  utterly  rejecting  them  ift  favour  of  their  own  pre- 
conceived notions  of  traditional  authority. 

Fortunately,  we  possess  some  means  of  ascertaining  the 
ancient  pronunciation  of  a  few  HuzvarLr  words,  independent 
of  the  opinions  of  comparative  philologists,  in  the  inscrip- 

I.  a,  A.  2.  b.  5.  p,  f.  4-  t.rV.  5.  k,g,  v.  6.  kh.  h. 
7.  d.  N.  r,v, \v, 0,6.  q.  z.  10.  s.  11.  sh,.y.  12.  k.  13  g. 
14.  1,  r.  1  ",.  m.  16.  n.  17.  y.  i,  e.  18.  doubtful,  Erring 
equivalent  to  Chaldcc  N  —  ;tnd  to  I'ahl.  MS.  -man  L. 

Comparing  this  list  of  sounds  with  that  of  the  sounds  of 
the  manuscript  alphabet  (pp.  xvi,  xvii)  it  is  evident  that  the 
inscriptions  must  afford  a  means  of  distinguishing  a  from 
kh,  8  from  any  binary  compound  of  y,  d,  g,  or  g,  sh  from 
any  compound  of  y,  d,  g.  or^-  with  &,  h,  or  kh,  n  from  v,  r, 
or  1,  and  y,  d,  g  from  each  other:  all  which  letters  and 
compounds  arc  left  in  doubt  by  the  manuscript  alphabet. 
Unfortunately  we  do  not  possess  trustworthy  copies  of 
some  of  the  inscriptions  which  arc  evidently  the  most 
important  from  a  linguistic  point  of  view  - ;  but  such 
copies  as  have  been  obtained  supply  corrections  of  tra- 
ditional misreadings  of  about  twenty-five  Huzvam  logo- 
grams, and  at  the  same  time  they  confirm  the  correctness 
of  three  traditional  readings  which  have  been  called  in 
question  by  most  European  scholars,  So  far,  therefore, 
the  inscriptions  would  teach  the  l'arsis  that  the  decisions 
of  comparative  philologists  are  not  likely  to  be  right  more 
than  seven  times  out  of  eight,  even  when  they  arc  tolerably 

The  Chalda:o-Pahlavi  character  appears   to  have  soon 

1  Whether  ihe  sound  of  (his  letter  can  ever  be  satisfactorily  settled  remains 
il(jiil>ilul.  I.f.y,  in  his  Heilrage,  cited  on  p.  xi,  considers  it  to  be  the  Semitic 
rt,  on  palseographtcal  grounds ;  but  there  are  serious  objections  to  all  the  identi- 
fications that  have  been  proposed. 

'  The  Sasanian  inscriptions,  of  which  new  and  correct  copies  arc  most  ur- 
gently wanted,  arc:  — t.  An  inscription  of  thiily-oiie  lines  high  up  in  the  left 
»idc-coiiipartincnt  behind  the  king'i  of  the  centre  bas-rclicf  of  Naqr-i  Ka^ab, 
near  Persepoli*.  i.  Two  inscriptions,  of  eleven  and  twelve  lines  respectively, 
on  the  stone,  of  the  edifice  near  the  south-west  corner  of  the  great  platform  at 
P—poUi,  south  of  the  Hall  of  Columns  [see  Oust  lev's  Travels  in  Persia,  vol.  S. 
;  and  plate  42).  3.  All  the  fragments  of  the  Pal  Kill!  inscription,  of  which 
probably  not  more  than  half  have  yet  been  copied. 

Of  the  very  long  inscription   behind  the  king's  horse  in  the  bns-rclicf  of 

1  Rnstam,  OODtOialag  more  than  srventy  lines  very  much  damaged,  a  copy 

token  by  Westcrgaara'  in  1N43,  with  bis  usual  .nx-in  biy  gives  nearly  all 

that  is  legible.     And  of  the  tli^libad  and  shorter  inscriptions,  little  or  nothing 

rcnmlai  <io«i>tfid 

gone  out  of  use,  after  the  establishment  of  the  Sasanian 
dynasty,  as  the  latest  known  inscription,  in  which  it  occurs, 
is  that  of  Pai  KQH,  which  contains  the  name  o! 
harmazd  I  (a.  I>.  271-272);  while  the  long  inscriptions 
of  Naq.v-i  Ra^ab  and  Naqj-i  Rustani,  which  contain  the 
name  of  Varahran  II  (a.  D.  175-383),  are  engraved  only 
in  Sas3nian-Pahlavi.  From  these  facts  it  seems  probable 
that  Chakheo- Pahlavi  went  out  of  use  about  A.  D.  275. 
The  Sasanian  characters  continue  to  appear,  with  very- 
little  alteration,  upon  the  coins  until  the  end  of  the  fifth 
century,  when  most  of  them  begin  to  assume  the  cursive 
form  of  the  manuscript  Pahlavi,  which  appears  to  have 
altered  very  slightly  since  the  eighth  century. 

The  oldest  I'ahlavi  manuscript  known  to  be  extant, 
consists  of  several  fragments  of  papyrus  recently  found  in 
a  grave  in  the  Fayum  district  in  Egypt,  and  now  in  the 

;l    Museum  at  Berlin;    it  is  supposed   to  have   been 
written  in  the  eighth  century.     Next  to  this,  alter  a 
interval,  cume  four  manuscripts  written  on  Indian  paper, 
all  by  the  same  hand,  in  a.u    1303    13*41    t'» ••  >'  are  two 
copies  of  the  Yasna  and   two  of  the  Vcndidad,  containing 

vvesta  with  its  Zand,  or  Pahlavi  translation  and  com- 
mentary; two  of  these  old  MSS.  are  now  preserved  in 
Kopcuhagen,  one  in  London,  and  one  in  Horn  bay.  Next 
to  these  in  age  are  two  MSS.  of  miscellaneous  Pahlavi 
texts,  written  probably  about  fifty  years  later;  one  01 
these  is  now  in  Kopenhagen  and  one  in  Bombay.  Another 
Mb.  o!  nearly  the  same  age  is  also  a  miscellaneous  col- 
lection of  Pahlavi  texts,  written  in  A.  D.  13^7,  and  nov 
Munich;  where  there  is  also  one  of  the  oldest  Pazand- 
Sanskrit  MSS.,  a  copy  of  the  Ar^a-Viraf-namak,  written 
in  A.U   1410.     Another  Pazand-Sanskrit  MS.,  a  copy  of 

Khurdah  Avesta,  of  about  the  same  age,  exists  m 
Bombay.  Pahlavi  and  P&Z&nd  manuscripts  of  the  sixteenth 
ecntuiy  are  rather  more  numerous. 

aiavi   literature  reached  the  zenith  of  its  prosperity 
about  thirteen  centuries  ago,  when  it  included  the  W 
literature   of  Persia.      Seventy   years    later   its  destruction 
menced  with  the   fall  01   the  Sasanian  dynasty  (a.  D. 

636-651))  and  the  subsequent  adoption  of  the  modern  Per- 
sian alphabet  gave  it  its  death-blow.  The  last  remnants  of 
Pahlavi  writings  are  now  contained  in  the  few  manuscripts 
still  preserved  by  the  Tarsi's  in  Western  India,  and  their 
almost-extinct  brethren  in  Persia.  A  careful  estimate  of 
the  length  of  these  remnants,  so  far  as  they  are  known  to 
Europeans,  has  shown  that  the  total  extent  of  existing 
1'ahlavi  literature  is  about  thirty-six  times  that  of  the 
Bundahlf,  as  translated  in  this  volume.  One-fifth  of  this 
literature  consists  of  translations  accompanying  Avcsta 
texts,  and  the  remaining  four-fifths  are  purely  Pahlavi 
works  which  are  nearly  all  connected  with  religion.  How 
much  of  this  literature  may  have  descended  from  Sasanian 
times  can  hardly  be  ascertained  as  yet ;  in  fact,  it  is  only 
very  recently  that  any  trustworthy  data,  for  determining 
the  age  of  a  few  Pahlavi  writings,  have  been  discovered, 
as  will  be  explained  hereafter,  when  considering  the  age 
of  the  Bundahijr. 

3.    The  Bundahlj. 

The  term  Bund  ah  is,  'creation  of  the  beginning,'  or 
'  original  creation,'  is  applied  by  the  Parsis  to  a  Pahlavi 
work  l  which,  in  its  present  state,  appears  to  be  a  collection 
of  fragments  relating  to  the  cosmogony,  mythology,  and 
legendary  history  taught  by  Mazdayasnian  tradition,  but 
which  cannot  be  considered,  in  any  way,  a  complete 
treatise  on  these  subjects.  This  term  is  applicable  enough 
to  much  of  the  earlier  part  of  the  work,  which  treats  of 
the  progressive  development  of  creation  under  good  and 
evil  influences  ;  but  it  is  probably  not  the  original  name 
of  the  book.  Its  adoption  was  no  doubt  partly  owing  to 
the  occurrence  of  the  word  bun-dahii-n,  or  bun-dahijnih, 
twice  in  the  first  sentence,  and  partly  to  its  appropriateness 
to   the  subject.     But  the  same  sentence  seems  to  inform 


1  When  this  work  forms  part  of  a  collection  of  Pahlavi  tests,  the  whole 
manuscript  i»  sometimes  called  'the  Rieat  Bundahw.'  There  alsoex.i*ts  a  Sad- 
der Bundahi-t,  or  BundahLr  of  a  hundred  chapters,  which  t*  a  comparatively 
modem  compilation,  detailing  the  chief  customs  and  religious  laws  of  the  Par>is 
in  a  hundred  sections. 



book,  or  revelation  generally.  The  concluding  chapters 
give  the  genealogies  of  the  legendary  Persian  kings  and 
heroes,  and  of  ZaratG-rt  and  certain  priests,  together  with 
an  epitome  of  Persian  chronology  from  the  creation  to  the 
Muhammadan  conquest. 

As  the  work  now  stands  it  is  evidently  of  a  fragmentary 
character,  bearing  unmistakable  marks  both  of  omissions 
and  dislocations  ;  and  the  extant  manuscripts,  as  will  be 
seen,  differ  among  themselves  both  as  to  the  extent  and 
arrangement  of  the  text.  Many  passages  have  the  appear- 
ance of  being  translations  from  an  Avesta  original,  and 
it  is  very  probable  that  we  have  in  the  Bundahb  either 
a  translation,  or  an  epitome,  of  the  Damda*/  Nask,  one  of 
the  twenty-one  books  into  which  the  whole  of  the  Zoroas- 
trian  scriptures  are  said  to  have  been  divided  before  the 
time  of  Darius.  This  may  be  guessed  from  a  comparison 
of  the  contents  of  the  Bundahhs  with  those  of  the  Da.mdu.7 
Nask,  which  are  detailed  in  the  Dint-va^arkar^  as  fol- 
lows1:— 'It  contained  an  explanation  of  the  spiritual 
existence  and  heaven,  good  and  evil,  the  material  existence 
of  this  world,  the  sky  and  the-  earth,  and  everything  which 
Auharmazd  produced  in  water,  fire,  and  vegetation,  men 
and  quadrupeds,  reptiles  and  birds,  and  everything  which 
is  produced  from  the  waters,  and  the  characteristics  of  all 
things.  Secondly,  the  production  of  the  resurrection  and 
future  existence ;  the  concourse  and  separation  at  the 
A'invat/  bridge ;  on  the  reward  of  the  meritorious  and 
the  punishment  of  sinners  in  the  future  existence,  and 
such-like  explanations.'  Moreover,  the  Damda*/  Nask  is 
twice  quoted  as  an  authority  in  the  Selections  of  7Ad- 
sparam  (IX,  i,  16),  when  treating  of  animals,  in  nearly  the 
same  words  as  those  used  in  the  Bundalm. 

The  first  manuscript  of  the  Bundahb  seen  in  Europe 
was  brought  from  Surat  by  Anquetil  Duperron  in  1761, 
and  he  published  a  French  translation  of  it  in  his  great 
work   on   the   Zend-Avesta    in    1771 2.     This    manuscript, 

1  See  Haug's  Essays.  Sec,  second  edition,  pp.  X37,  ia8. 
»  Zend-Avesta,  ouvrage  de  /.otoabtrc,  Sec,  par  Anquetil  Duperron  ; 
1 77 1.    Tome  iccondc,  pp.  343-423,  Jtoun-dehcscli. 



which  is  now  in  the  National  Library  at  Pans,  was  a 
modern  copy,  written  A.D.  1734,  and  contained  a  miscel- 
laneous collection  oi  Pahlavi  writings  besides  the  Bundahb. 
And  Anquetils  translation,  though  carefully  prepared  in 
accordance  with  the  information  he  had  obtained  from  his 
Parsi  instructor,  is  very  far  from  giving  the  correct  meaning 
of  the  original  text  in  many  places. 

In  JM20  the  very  old  codex  from  which  Anquetils  MS. 
had  been  copied  was  brought  to  Europe,  from  Bombay, 
by  the  Danish  scholar  Rask,  and  was  subsequently  de- 
posited in  the  University  Library  at  Kopenhagen.  This 
most  important  codex,  which  will  be  more  particularly 
described  under  the  appellation  of  K.20,  appears  to  have 
been  written  during  the  latter  half  of  the  fourteenth  century  ; 
and  a  facsimile  of  the  Pahlavi  text  of  the  Bundalm,  which 
it  contains,  was  very  carefully  traced  from  it,  lithographed, 

■  and  published  by  Wcstergaard  in  i.S 51 
lu  a  review  of  this  lithographed  edition  of  the  Pahlavi 
text,  published  in  the  Gdttinger  Gelehrtc  Anzeigen  in 
1854 -,  Haug  gave  a  German  translation  of  the  first  three 
chapters  of  the  Bundahu.  And  Spiegel,  in  his  Traditional 
Literature  of  the  Partis-1,  published  in  i860  a  German 
translation  of  many  passages  in  the  BundahLr,  together  wuh 
a  transcript  of  the  Pahlavi  text  of  Chaps.  I,  II,  III,  and 
XXX  in  Hebrew  characters.  But  the  complete  German 
translation  of  the  BundahU  by  Windischmann,  with  his 
commentary  on  its  contents,  published  in  his  Zoroastrian 
.studies*  in  1663,  was  probably  the  most  important  step 
in  advance  since  the  time  of  Anquetil,  and  the  utmost 

Buadehesh,  Liber  Pcblvicas.  L  vcumissituo  codicc  Havniensi  deacripsil, 
Jo**  iiocnjiuimc*  icjjit  Sajnuu  Primi  adjecii,  N.  L.  \\'e*tergaard ;  Havni*, 

1  Ueber  .lie  Pchlcwi-Sprache  nnd  den  Bundcbrih,  von  Martin  llaug  ; 
tingni,  1854. 

*  l>ic  Traditiondlc  Litcmlur  <lcr  Par  sen  in  ihicm  Zutammeiibange  nil 
•aftanzenden  LkcnUatu,  dai^citclk  von  Fr.  Spiegel;  Wioo,  i860. 

*  Zoru*>tr.cbc  Studicn.  Abhandlungenrur  Mylhologie  uiid  Sagcngeschicbte 
de»  aJten  Iran,  von  ft.  Windiscbmann  <nach  dero  Tode  des  Vcrlaweri  beraui- 
gegrbea  voo  Fr.  Spiegel]  ;  Berlin,  1S63. 

that  could  be  done  on  the  authority  of  a  single  MS.  which 
is  far  from  perfect. 

In  1N66  another  very  old  codex,  containing  the  Pahlavi 
texts  of  the  Bundahfr  and  other  works,  was  brought  to 
Luropc  by  Haug,.  to  whom  it  hud  been  presented  at  Surat 
64.  It  is  now  in  the  State  Library  at  Munich,  and 
will  be  more  minutely  described  under  the  appellation  of 
M6.  In  this  codex  the  Bundahi.v  is  arranged  in  a  different 
order  from  that  in  K20,  and  Chaps.  XXVIII,  XXIX,  and 
XXXI-XXXIII  are  omitted. 

A  second  complete  German  translation  of  the  Bundahij. 
with  a  lithographed  copy  of  the  Pahlavi  text,  a  trans- 
literation of  the  text  in  modern  Persian  characters,  and 
a  glossary  of  all  the  words  it  contains,  was  published  by 
Justi  in  t86S  '.  Its  author,  having  had  access  to  other 
MSS.  (descended  from  Mo)  at  London  and  Oxford,  was 
able  to  rectify  many  of  the  deficiencies  in  Windischmann's 
translation  ;  but,  otherwise,  he  made  but  little  progress  in 
elucidating  difficult  passages. 

Other  European  writers  have  published  the  result  of 
their  studies  of  particular  parts  of  the  Bundahij,  but  it 
does  not  appear  that  any  of  them  have  attempted  a  con- 
tinuous translation  of  several  chapters. 

Whether  the  existence  of  previous  translations  be  more 
of  an  assistance  than  a  hindrance  in  preparing  a  new  one, 
may  well  be  a  matter  of  doubt.  Previous  translations  may 
prevent  oversights,  and  in  difficult  passages  it  is  useful 
to  sec  how  others  have  floundered  through  the  mire ;  but, 
on  the  other  hand,  they  occasion  much  loss  of  time,  by 
the  necessity  of  examining  many  of  their  dubious  render- 
ings before  finally  fixing  upon  others  that  seem  more 
satisfactory.  The  object  of  the  present  translation  is  to 
give  the  meaning  of  the  original  text  as  literally  as  pos- 
sible, and  with  a  minimum  of  extra  words  ;  the  different 
renderings  of  other  translators  being  very  rarely  noticed, 
unless  there  be  some  probability  of  their  being  of  service 

1  lior   lluiu'.tlicsh,  mm  er&tcn  Male  hcrau&gegeben,  lianscribitt,  ubcrselrt, 
und  mit  Ulosar  vcrschca,  von  Ferdinand  Justi;  Leipzig,  1868. 


to  the   reader.     Some  doubtful   words  and  passages  still 
all  attempts  at  satisfactory  solution,  but  of  these  the 
reader  is  warned  ;    and,  no  doubt,  a  few  oversights  and 
mistake!  will  be  discovered. 

With  regard  to  the  original  text,  we  have  to  recover 
it  from  four  manuscripts  which  are,  more  or  less,  inde- 
pendent authorities,  and  may  be  styled  K20.  K  20  b,  Mfi. 
and  TD.  The  first  three  of  these  have  evidently  descended, 
either  directly  or  through  one  or  more  intermediate  copies, 
from  the  same  original  ;  but  the  source  of  TD,  so  far  as 
it  can  be  ascertained,  seems  to  have  been  far  removed  from 
that  of  the  others.  All  the  other  MSS.  of  the  Bundahij. 
which  have  been  examined,  whether  Pahlavi  or  Pazand, 
are  descended  either  from  K20  or  M6,  and  are,  therefore, 
of  no  independent  authority. 

K20  is  the  very  old  codex  already  mentioned  as  having 
been  brought  from  Bombay  by  Rask  in  1X20,  and  is  now 
No.  20  of  the  collection  of  Avesta  and  Pahlavi  MSS.  in 
the  University  Library  at  Kopenhagcn.  It  consists  now 
of  173  folios  of  very  old  and  much-worn  Indian  paper  of 
large  octavo  size,  but  five  other  folios  are  certainly  missing, 
besides  an  uncertain  number  lost  from  the  end  of  the 
volume.  This  MS.  contains  twenty  Pahlavi  texts,  written 
twenty  lines  to  the  page,  and  some  of  them  accompanied 
by  Avesta  ;  the  Bundahir  is  the  ninth  of  these  texts,  and 
occupies  fols.  88-129.  °f  which  fol.  121  is  missing.  Three 
of  the  texts,  occurring  before  the  Bundahir,  have  dated 
colophons,  but  the  dates  are  A.Y.  690,  720,  and  700,  all 
within  36  folios  ;  it  is,  therefore,  evident  that  these  dates 
have  been  copied  from  older  MSS. ;  but  at  the  same  time 
the  apj>carance  of  the  paper  indicates  that  the  actual  date 
of  the  MS.  cannot  be  much  Later  than  A.  V.  720  (a.d.  1351), 
and  there  are  reasons  for  believing  that  it  was  written 
several  years  before  A.Y.  766  (A.D.  1397),  as  will  be  ex- 
plained in  the  description  of  Mo\  Owing  to  its  age  and 
irative  completeness  this  MS.  of  the  Bundahir  is 
certainly  the  most  important  one  extant,  although  com- 
parison with  other  MSS.  proves  that  its  writer  was  rather 
careless,  and  frequently  omitted  words  and  phrases.     The 



loss  of  fol.  121,  though  it  has  hitherto  left  an  inconve- 
nient gap  in  the  text  (not  filled  up  by  other  MSS.),  is 
more  than  compensated  by  the  three  extra  chapters  which 
this  MS.  and  its  copies  have  hitherto  alone  supplied.  The 
text  on  the  lost  folio  was  supposed  by  Anquclil  to  have 
contained  a  whole  chapter  besides  portions  of  the  two 
adjacent  ones ;  this  is  now  known  to  be  a  mistake,  An- 
quctil's  Chap.  XXVIII  being  quite  imaginary;  the  end  of 
Chap.  XXVII  has  long  been  supplied  from  other  MSS., 
but  the  beginning  of  the  next  chapter  has  hitherto  been 

Only  two  copies  of  K20  appear  to  be  known  to  Eu- 
ropeans ;  the  best  of  these  is  the  copy  brought  from  Surat 
by  Anquetil,  No.  7  of  his  collection  of  manuscripts,  now 
in  the  National  Library  at  Paris;  this  was  written  in  A.  D. 
1 734,  when  K20  appears  to  have  been  nearly  in  its  present 
imperfect  state,  though  it  may  have  had  some  15  folios 
more  at  the  end.  This  copy  seems  to  have  been  carefully 
written  ;  but  the  same  cannot  be  said  of  the  other  copy, 
No.  21  in  the  University  Library  at  Kopenhagcn,  which 
is  full  of  blunders,  both  of  commission  and  omission,  and 
can  hardly  have  been  written  by  so  good  a  Pahlavi  scholar 
as  Daslur  JJarab,  Anquetil's  instructor,  although  attributed 
to  him. 

K'iob  consists  of  nineteen  loose  folios',  found  by 
Westergaard  among  some  miscellaneous  fragments  in  the 
collection  of  A vesta  and  Pahlavi  MSS.  in  the  University 
Library  at  Kopenhagcn,  and  now  forming  No.  20  b  in  that 
collection.  The  first  two  folios  arc  lost,  but  the  third  folio 
commences  with  the  Pahlavi  equivalent  of  the  words 
•  knew  that  Aharman  exists '  (Bund.  Chap.  I,  8),  and  the 
text  continues  to  the  end  of  Chap.  XI,  1,  where  it  leaps  at 
once  (in  the  middle  of  a  line  on  the  fifteenth  folio)  to 
Chap.  XXX,  1,5,  'one  brother  who  is  righteous,'  whence 
the  text  continues  to  the  end  of  Chap.  XXXI,  15,  which 
is  followed  by  Chaps.  XXXII,  XX XIV,  as  in  K20.     Tins 

'  I  am  indebted  to  the  late  Professor  N.  L.  Westcrjjaard  for  all  ixiloi  motion 
about  this  MS.,  and  also  for  a.  tracing  of  the  Pahlavi  text  of  so  much  of  Chap. 
XXXI  as  is  contained  m  it. 



MS.  is  not  very  old.  and  contains  merely  a  fragment  of 
the  text:  but  its  value  consist*  in  its  not  being  a  de- 
scendant of  cither  K20  or  M6,  as  it  clearly  represents  a 
third  line  of  descent  from  their  common  original.  It  agrees 
1  Kia  in  the  general  arrangement  of  its  chapters,  so 
go,  and  also  in  containing  Chap.  XXXI;  but 
it  differs  from  it  in  some  of  the  details  of  that  chapter, 
and  agrees  with  M6  in  some  verbal  peculiarities  elsewhere ; 
it  has  not.  however,  been  collated  in  any  other  chapter. 
The  00188100  of  nearly  twenty  chapters,  in  the  centre  of 
the  work,  indicates  that  SOfflC  One  of  the  MSS.  from  which 
it  is  descended,  had  lost  many  of  its  central  folios  before 
it  was  copied,  and  that  the  copyist  did  not  notice  the 
deficiency ;  such  unnoticed  omissions  frequently  occur  in 
Pahlavi  manuscripts. 

M6  is  the  very  old  codex  brought  to  Europe  by  Haug 
in  iNfin.  and  now  No.  6  of  the  Haug  collection  in  the 
State  Library  at  Munich.      It  consists  of  240  folios  of  very 

I  old,  but  well-preserved,  Indian  paper  of  large  octavo  size 
(to  which  thirteen  others,  of  rather  later  date,  have  been 
prefixed)  bound  in  two  volumes.  This  MS.  contains  nine- 
teen Pahlavi  texts,  written  from  .seventeen  to  twenty-two 
lines   to  the  page,  and   some  of  them  accompanied  by 

I. \ vesta;  eleven  of  these  texts  are  also  found  in  K 20,  and 
the  BundahLf  is  the  fourteenth  of  the  nineteen,  occupying 
,9  of  the  second  volume.     Two  of  the  other  texts 
have  dated  colophons,  the  dates  being  fifty  days  apart  in 
766  (a.i...  1397),  and  as  there  are   i.",o  folios  between 
the  two  dates  there  is  every  probability  that  they  arc  the 
actual    dates   on    which    the    two   colophons   were    written. 
arrangement  of  the  Bundahu  in  this  MS.  is  different 
from    that   in    K20.  giving  the   chapters    in    the    following 
laps. XV  XXIII,]  XIV.  XXIV  XXV1I.XXX, 
XII,  XXX  IV,  and  omitting,  haps.  XX  VIII.  XXIX, and 
XI.     These  omissions  and  the  misplacement  of  Chaps. 
1    XIV  render   it  probable  that   the  MS.,  from  which  the 
iahir  in   Mo   was  copied,  was  already  in  a  state  of 
decay ;    and  this  supposition  is  confirmed  by  upwards  of 
peculiar  mistakes,  scattered  over  most  parts  of  the 

text  in  M6,  which  are  evidently  due  to  the  illegibility  of 
the  original  from  which  it  was  copied,  or  to  its  illegible 
words  having  been  touched  up  by  an  ignorant  writer, 
instances  of  which  are  not  uncommon  in  old  Pahlavi  MSS. 
Eliminating  these  errors,  for  which  the  writer  of  M6  cannot 
be  held  responsible,  he  seems  to  have  been  a  more  careful 
copyist  than  the  writer  of  K20.  and  supplies  several  words 
and  phrases  omitted  by  the  latter.  The  close  corres- 
pondence of  K20  and  M<5  in  most  other  places,  renders  it 
probable  that  they  were  copied  from  the  same  original, 
in  which  case  K20  must  have  been  written  several  years 
earlier  than  M6,  before  the  original  MS.  became  decayed 
and  difficult  to  read.  It  is  possible,  however,  that  K20 
was  copied  from  an  early  copy  of  the  original  of  M6 ; 
in  which  case  the  date  of  K20  is  more  uncertain,  and  may 
even  be  later  than  that  of  M6". 

Several  MSS.  of  the  BundahLr  descended  from  M6  are 
in  existence.  One  is  in  the  MS.  No.  121  of  the  Ouseley 
collection  in  the  Bodleian  Library  at  Oxford,  and  contains 
the  chapters  in  the  following  order: — Chaps.  XV-XXIII, 
I-VII,  ^(to'AragriveO.XII-XlV.XXIV-XXVU.XXX, 
VII,  IS— XI ;  followed  by  Sis.  Chap.  XX,  4-17,  also  derived 
from  M6\  Another  is  in  the  library  of  Dastur  Jamaspji  Mino- 
chiharji  at  Bombay,  and  contains  the  chapters  also  in  a 
dislocated  state  (due  to  the  misplacement  of  folios  in  some 
former  MS.)  as  follows :— Chaps.  XV-XXIII,  I-XI,  5  (to 
•and  the  evil  spirit '),  XII,  2  (from  '  Si£idav')-Xn,  12  (first 
word),  XI,  5  (from  'produced  most  for  Khvaniras')-XII,  2 
(to  '  ami  Kdndras,  Mount '),  XXX,  32  (from  '  the  renovation 
arises  in')-XXX,  33,  XXXII,  XXXIV,  Sis.  Chap.  XVI II, 
Bund.  Chaps.  XII.  12  (from  *  Aira/>XIV,  XXIV-XXVII, 
XXX.  A  third  is  in  the  library  of  Dastiir  Noshirvanji 
Jamaspji  at  Poona,  and  contains  the  text  in  the  same  order 
as  M6.  A  fragment  of  the  Pahlavi  text  of  the  Buodahi 
also  descended  from  M6,  occupies  eight  folios  in  the  Addi- 
tional Oriental  MS.  No.  22,378  in  the  Library  of  the  British 
Museum  ;  it  contains  Chaps.  XVIII,  XIX,  17,  and  XX,  1-2 
(to  *  one  from  the  other'). 

There  arc  also  several  Pazand  manuscripts  of  the  Bun- 



dahfr,  written  in  Avesta  characters,  and  likewise  derived 
from  M6.  One  of  the  best  of  these  is  No.  iz  of  the  collec- 
tion of  Avesta  and  Pahlavi  MSS.  in  the  India  Office  Library 
at  London  ;  it  is  old,  and  has  the  date  A.Y.  936  (a.d.  1567) 
in  a  Pahlavi  colophon  on  fol.  til,  but  this  may  have  been 
copied  from  an  older  MS.;  its  contents  are  arranged  as 
follows :— Chaps.  XVllI-XXIII,  I  XIV,  XXIV  XXVI  I. 
XXX.  XXXII,  XXXIV,  followed  by  several  short  Pazand 
texts,  only  part  of  which  are  derived  from  M6,  and  the  last 
of  them  being  left  incomplete  by  the  loss  of  the  folios  which 
originally  formed  the  end  of  the  volume  ;  instead  of  these 
lost  folios  others,  containing  Chaps.  XV-XVII,  have  been 
added  and  bound  up  with  the  rest.  Another  MS.,  Na  7 
in  the  same  collection,  which  is  dated  A.Y.  1  174  (a.Ij.  1N05), 
is  a  modern  copy  derived  from  No.  22  through  one  or  more 
intervening  MSS. x ;  it  contains  precisely  the  same  text,  but 
with  many  variations  in  orthography,  indicative  of  the  very 
uncertain  character  of  Pazand  spelling.  Two  fragments  of 
the  Pazand  text  arc  also  contained  in  the  MSS.  No.  121  at 
'  ixford,  already  mentioned  ;  they  consist  of  Chaps.  V,  3-7 
have  known  the  secret')  and  XXV,  1M-22. 
Another  fragment,  evidently  copied  from  an  old  MS.,  is 
found  on  fols.  34,  3.",  of  the  Rivayat  MS.  No.  8  of  the  col- 
lection in  the  India  Office  Library ;  it  consists  of  Chap. 
XVIII.  i-H. 

The  Pazand  text  of  the  Hundahlv,  derived  from  M6,  is 
also  written  in  Persian  characters  in  M7  (No.  7  of  the  Ilaug 
collection  at  Munich),  dated  A.V.  117K  (\.n.  iSoy).  It  is 
interlined  by  Persian  glosses,  word  for  word,  and  consists 
of  Chaps.  XVIII-XXIII.  I  XIV.  XXIV  XXVII,  and 
XXX  on  fols.  Hi -1 19,  with  Chaps.  XV-XVII  on  fols.  120- 
a  repetition  of  Chap.  XV  and  part  of  XVI  on  fols. 
23  d  Chap.  XXXII  on  fol.  232. 

Thus  far,  it  will  be  noticed,  we  have  two  good  indepen- 
dent authorities,  K20  and  M6,  for  ascertaining  the  text  of 
the  Bundahi-j  in  the  fourteenth  century,  so  far  as  Chaps.  I- 


•  Thu  h  pco»wl  by  an  omission  in  foL  40,  which  clearly  Indicates  trie  lots  of 
a  folio  in  an  intermediate  MS. 


i'\i il  ,\vi   TEXTS. 

XXVII,  XXX,  XXXII,  and  XXXIV  are  concerned  ;  and 
we  have  also,  in  K20D,  a  second  authority  for  so  much  of 
Chap.  XXXI  as  occurs  in  K20;  hut  for  Chaps.  XXVIII 
and  XXIX  we  have  nothing  but  K20  to  rely  on,  and  part  of 
Chap.  XXVIII  is  lost  in  that  manuscript.  Such  was  the 
unsatisfactory  state  of  that  part  of  the  text  until  Dec.  I 
when  information  about  the  MS.  TD  was  received,  followed 
by  further  details  and  a  copy  of  Chaps.  XXVIII,  XXIX, 
and  XXXI-XXXIII  in  Oct.'iH7K  '. 

TD  is  a  manuscript  of  the  Bundatm  which  contains  a 
much  more  extensive  text  than  the  MSS.  already  described, 
but  whether  it  be  an  extension  of  the  hitherto-received  text, 
or  the  received  text  be  an  abridgement  of  this  longer  one. 
is  likely  to  be  a  matter  of  dispute  among  Pahlavi  scholars 
until  the  whole  of  the  new  text  has  been  thoroughly 
examined.  At  any  rate,  the  contents  of  this  MS.,  combined 
with  those  of  some  MSS.  of  the  Da«r/istan-i  Dinik,  afford  a 
means  of  fixing  the  date  of  this  recension  of  the  Bundahi.c, 
as  will  be  seen  hereafter. 

This  MS.  belongs  to  a  young  Mobad  named  Tehmuras 
Dinshawji  Anklcsaria  fan  Bombay,  and  was  brought  from 
Persia  a  few  years  ago  by  a  Mobad  named  Khodabakhsh 
I.irod  A  bad  an.  It  occupies  the  first  103  folios  of  the 
volume  containing  it,  and  is  followed  by  n?  more  folios 
containing  the  Nirangistan.  The  first  original  folio,  which 
contained  the  text  as  far  as  Chap.  I,  5  (to  ' endless  light '), 
has  been  lost  and  replaced  by  another  (which,  however,  is 
now  old)  containing  some  introductory  sentences,  be 
the  missing  text.  The  last  original  folio  of  the  Bundahu, 
containing  the  last  five  lines  of  the  last  chapter,  has  also  been 
Hid  replaced  by  another  modern  folio,  which  contains 
the  missing  text  followed  by  two  colophons,  both  expressing 
approval  of  the  text,  and  asserting  that  the  MS.  was  written 
by  Gopatshah  Ktistam  Bondar.    The  first  of  these  coloplx  m& 

'  1  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Khurshedji  Kustamji  Cams,  of  Bombay  (.who  U  well 
known  (nt  live  interest  he  lakes  in  all  matters  milling  to  the  ancient  customs 
and  history  of  his  felIow-countrymen\  for  obtaining  this  information,  and  10  tin- 
owner  of  the  M.S.  foi  his  liberality  in  supplying  me  willi  all  the  details  and 
extracts  mentioned  in  the  text. 




is  undated,  but  gives  the  testimony  of  Dastiir  Riistam : 
Gortasp  Art/ashir,  who  is  known  to  have  written  anal 
MS.  dated  A.Y.  1068  (a.D.  1699).  The  second  colophon  is 
by  Dastur  Jamsh&**  Jamasp  Hakim,  and  is  dated  ay.  1 1 1 3 
(a.D.  1743)1  which  was  probably  the  date  when  this  last 
folio  was  supplied  to  complete  the  old  defective  MS. 

With  regard  to  the  age  of  the  older  part  of  this  MS.  we 
can  arrive  at  an  approximation  in  the  following  manner: — 
A  valuable  MS.  of  the  Da*/istan-i  Dinik,  which  also  belongs 
toTchmuras  Dinshawji,  was  written  (according  to  a  colophon 
which  it  contains)  by  G6patshah  Rustdrn*  Bandar  Malka- 
mari/an  in  the  land  of  Kirman,  who  was  evidently  the  same 
person  as  the  writer  of  TD.  Another  MS.  of  the  DkJiaXkn-i 
Dinik  was  written  by  Marcapan  Fr&/un  Vahr6m  Riistam 
viar  Malka-man/an  Dln-ayar,  also  in  the  land  of  Kirroia, 
in  A.Y.  941  (a.d.  1572).  Comparing  these  two  genealogw 
together  it  seems  evident  that  G6patshah  was  a  brother  01 
Vahrom,  the  grandfather  of  Marsapan,  and,  therefore,  a 
grand-uncle  ipan  himself.     Allowing  for  these  tm 

generations,  it  is  probable  that  Gopatshah  wrote  TDaboK 
a.  V.  900  (say  A.  D.  1 530) ;  although  instances  have  occxn* 
in  which  a  son  has  written  a  MS.  at  an  earlier  date  tfca 
that  of  one  written  by  his  father. 

The  introductory  sentences  on  the  first  restored  Urn  tr 
ently  a  modern  addition  to  the  text,  after  it  had  Kama. 
the  name  of  Bundahlr ;  but  they  seem  to  haiehH^a^^ 
from   some   other    MS.,  as  the   copyist  appaa  a 
hardly  understood  them,  having  written  then 
beginning  of  the  text,  without  i 
iodern.  but  that  may  bedar  J 
uagc  is  dilTjcult.  but   nur  * 



glorious,  omniscient,  wise,  powerful,  and  supreme,  by  what 
is  well-thought,  well-said,  and  well-done  in  thought,  word, 
and  deed,  and  the  good  augury  of  all  the  celestial  angels 
and  terrestrial  angels  upon  the  virtuous  creation,  I  beseech. 

'Written  at  the  second  fortunate  conjunction  (akhtar) 
in  the  high-pricstship  (dasturih)  of  the  God-devoted,  all- 
sagacious  cultivator  of  righteousness,  the  lover  of  good  works 
who  is  God-discerning,  spirit -surveying,  and  approved  by 
the  good,  the  high-priest  of  the  good  religion  of  the  Maz- 
dayasnians,  the  glorified  !  Spendyarf  son  of  Mah-vindaf/,  son 
of  Rustdm,  son  of  Shatrdyar. 

'The  writing2  of  the  Hundahij  was  set  going  by  the 
coming  of  the  Arabs  to  the  country  of  Iran,  whose  hetero- 
doxy (duj-dinth)  and  ignorance  have  arisen  from  not 
understanding  the  mysteries  of  Kayan3  orthodoxy  (hQ- 
din6ih)  and  of  those  revered  by  the  upholders  of  the 
religion.  From  their  deep  seats  it  draws  the  purport  of 
benedictions,  and  from  dubious  thinking  of  actions  it 
drazus  words  of  true  meaning,  the  disclosure  of  which  is 
entertaining  knowledge. 

1  On  account  of  evil  times,  even  he  of  the  undecayed 
family  of  the  Kayans  and  the  Kayan  upholders  of  the 
religion  arc  mingled  with  the  obedient  and  just  of  those 
heterodox ;  and  by  the  upper  class  the  words  of  the 
orthodox,  uttered  in  assembled  worship,  are  considered  as 
filthy  vice.  He  also  whose  wish  was  to  learn  propriety 
(vara^)  through  this  treatise  (farhang),  might  provide  it 
for  himself,  from  various  places,  by  trouble  and  day  and 
night  painstaking,  but  was  not  able.' 

The  text  of  Chap.  I  then  commences  (without  any  inter- 
mediate stop)  with  the  words  zak  zand-ikasih,  'that 
knowledge  of  tradition.'  As  the  whole  text  of  the  Bundalm 
occupies  about  203  pages  in  TD,  and  each  page  contains 

1  Literally,  •  immortal-soullcd,'  a  term  implying  generally  that  the  person  is 
dead  ;  but  it  acems  to  have  been  applied  to  King  Khusrft  I  (NVishirYan)  during 
his  lifetime.    The  time  when  this  priest  lived  has  yet  to  be  discovered. 

"  Reading  zektibun-i,  equivalent  to  Paz.  nivt»-i;  the  M.S.  has  zak 

'  The  hrro  tribe  or  princely  race  of  the  Kayanian  dynasty,  from  which  later 
1'crsian  rulers  have  fancied  themselves  descended. 



*I3.  The  ninth  conflict  the  celestial  angels  waged  with 
the  evil  spirit  ;  three  lines. 

*I4.  Tenth,  the  stars  practised  non-intermeddling  (agu- ;  i  page. 

*  1 5,  On  the  species  of  those  creations  ;  2$  pages. 

16.  On  the  nature  of  lands;  i£  page;  see  Chap.  XI. 

17.  On  the  nature  of  mountains  ;  4 1  pages;  see  Chap.  XII. 

18.  On  the  nature  of  seas;  aj  pages  ;  see  Chap.  XIII. 
ly.  On  the  nature  of  rivers;  5^  pages;  see  Chaps.  XX, 


20.  On  the  nature  of  lakes  ;  i$  page;  see  Chap.  XXII. 

21.  On  the  nature  of  the  five  classes  of  animals ;  5!  pages  ; 
see  Chap.  XIV. 

22.  On  the  nature  of  men  ;  7  4  pages  ;  see  Chap.  XV  \ 

23.  On  the  nature  of  generation  of  every  kind  ;  5  pages  ; 
sec  Chap.  XVI. 

24.  On  the  nature  of  plants  ;  34  pages  ;  see  Chap.  XXVII. 

25.  On  the  chieftainship  of  men  and  animals  and  every 
single  thing;  2 J  pages;  sec  Chap.  XXIV. 

26.  On  the  nature  of  fire  ;  4JJ  pages  ;  sec  Chap.  XVII. 
♦27.  On  the  nature  of  sleep  ;  2  J  pages. 

*28.  On  the  nature  of  wind  and  cloud  and  rain  ;  9$  pages. 
*2Q.  On  the  nature  of  noxious  creatures  ;  4k  pages*. 
♦30.  On  the  nature  of  the  wolf  species  ;  2  pages. 

3 1 .  On  things  of  every  kind  that  are  created  by  the 
spirits3,  ami  the  opposition  which  came  upon  them;  7 $ 
pages;  see  Chaps.  XVIII,  XIX. 

32.  On  the  religious  year;  4  pages;  see  Chaps.  XXV, 

*$$.  On  the  great  exploits  of  the  celestial  angels;  174 

34.  On  the  evil-doing  of  Aharman  and  the  demons  ; 
7  pages,  as  in  Chap.  XXVIII. 

1  TD  contains  half  a  page  more  near  the  beginning,  and  a  page  and  a  half 
more  at  the  end. 

•  Probably  Chap.  XXJII  of  the  translation  forms  a  part  either  of  ihii  chapter 
or  the  next. 

•  This  word  is  donbtful. 



*55-  On  the  body  of  man  and  the  opinion  of  the  world  ' : 
7  pages. 

36.  On  the  spiritual  chieftainship  of  the  regions  of  the 
-'• ;  g  \  pages,  as  in  Chap.  XXIX. 
*  37,  On  the  A'invad  bridge  and  the  souls  of  the  departed ; 
,5|  pages. 

♦38.  On  the  celebrated  provinces  of  the  country  of  Iran, 
the  residence  of  the  KayAns  ;  5  pages  a. 

*39.  On  the  calamities  of  various  millenniums  happening 
to  the  country  of  Iran  ;  8|  pages  •. 

4C.  On  the  resurrection  and  future  existence;  6 J  pages; 
see  Chap.  XXX. 

41.  On  the  race  and  offspring  of  the  Kayans  ;  8§  pages, 
as  in  Chaps.  XXXI-XXXIII. 

42.  On  the  computation  of  years  of  the  Arabs;  i\  pages; 
see  Chap.  XXXIV. 

Comparing  this  list  of  contents  with  the  text  in  Kio, 
as  published  in  Wcstergaard's  lithographed  facsimile  edi- 
tion, it  appears  that  TD  contains,  not  only  fifteen  extra 
chapters,  but  also  very  much  additional  matter  in  the 
chapters  corresponding  to  Chaps.  I,  II,  V.  XVI,  XXVIII, 
and  XXXI  of  the  translation  in  this  volume,  and  smaller 
additions  to  those  corresponding  to  Chaps.  Ill,  IV,  XV, 
XVII.  and  XXXIV.  The  arrangement  of  the  chapters  in 
TD  is  also  much  more  methodical  than  in  the  Indian 
v,  especially  with  regard  to  Chaps.  XX.  XXI,  XXII, 
and  XXVII,  which  evidently  occupy  their  proper  position 
in  TD  ;  and  so  far  as  Chap.  XX  is  concerned,  this  arrange- 
ment is  confirmed  by  the  insertion  of  its  first  sentence 
between  Chaps.  XIII  and  XIV  in  the  Indian  MSS.,  which 
indicates  that  the  whole  chapter  must  have  been  in  that 
position  in  some  older  copy.  In  fact,  the  Indian  MSS. 
must  probably  be  now  regarded  merely  as  collections  of 

'  The  meaning  it  doubtful  and  must  depend  upon  the  context. 

•  Thii  chapter  begins  witli  a  translation  cif  the  first  largnrd  of  the  Vendidad, 
and  concludes  with  an  account  of  buildings  erected  by  various  kings. 

staining  an  account  of  the  kings  reigning  in  the  various  millenniums,  and 
caoclnding  similar  to  those  to  the  Bahmnn  Yait. 



extracts  from  the  original  work ;  this  has  been  long 
suspected  from  the  fragmentary  character  of  the  text 
they  contain,  but  it  could  hardly  be  proved  until  a  more 
complete  text  had  been  discovered. 

Whether  TD  may  be  considered  as  a  copy  of  the  text 
as  it  stood  originally,  or  merely  of  an  after  recension  of 
the  work,  can  hardly  be  determined  with  certainty  until 
the  whole  contents  of  the  manuscript  have  been  carefully 
examined  ;  it  is,  therefore,  to  be  hoped  that  its  owner  will 
be  induced  to  publish  a  lithographed  facsimile  of  the  whole, 
after  the  manner  of  Westergaard's  edition.  So  far  as 
appears  in  the  lengthy  and  valuable  extracts,  with  which 
he  has  kindly  favoured  me,  no  decided  difference  of  style 
can  be  detected  between  the  additional  matter  and  the 
text  hitherto  known,  nor  any  inconsistencies  more  striking 
than  such  as  sometimes  occur  in  the  Indian  MSS.  On  the 
other  hand,  it  will  be  noticed  that  heading  No.  25  in  the 
list  of  contents  seems  to  be  misplaced,  which  is  an  argu- 
ment against  the  text  being  in  its  original  state ;  and  the 
style  of  the  BundahLr  is  so  much  less  involved  and  obscure 
than  that  of  the  Selections  of  Za</-sparam  (see  Appendix 
to  the  Bundahij),  which  treat  of  some  of  the  same  subjects, 
that  it  may  be  fairly  suspected  of  having  been  written 
originally  in  a  different  age.  But  the  writer  of  the  text, 
as  it  appears  in  TD,  calls  Za*/-spararn  '  one  of  his  con- 
temporaries (see  Chap.  XXXIII,  10,  ti  of  the  translation); 
it  may,  therefore,  be  suspected  that  he  merely  re-edited 
an  old  text  with  some  additions  of  his  own,  which,  how- 
ever, are  rather  difficult  to  distinguish  from  the  rest.  No 
stress  can  be  laid  upon  peculiarities  of  orthography  in  TD, 
as  they  are,  in  all  likelihood,  attributable  to  copyists  long 
subsequent  to  Za^-sparam's  contemporaries. 

Any  future  translator  of  the  Bundahij  will  probably 
have  to  take  the  text  in  TD  as  the  nearest  accessible 
approach  to  the  original  work  ;  but  the  present  translation 
is  based,  as  heretofore,  upon  the  text  in  K20,  corrected 
in  many  places  from  M6,  but  with  due  care  not  to  adopt 

1  He  writes  the  name  ZiZ-spntbam. 



readings  which  seem  due  to  the  illegibility  of  the  original 
from  which  M6  was  copied,  as  already  explained.  In 
Chaps.  XXVIII,  XXIX,  XXXI,  XXXII,  and  XXXIII, 
however,  TD  has  been  taken  as  a  principal  authority, 
merely  checked  by  K20,  and  having  its  additional  passages 
carefully  indicated;  and  in  Chap.  XXXI,  K2ob  has  also 
been  consulted. 

Since  the  present  translation  was  printed,  any  lingering 
doubts,  as  to  the  genuineness  of  the  text  in  TD,  have  been, 
in  a  great  measure,  dissipated  by  the  discovery  that  a  small 
fragment '  of  an  old  MS.  of  the  BundahLr,  which  has  long 
been  in  Europe,  is  evidently  a  portion  of  a  text  of  similar 
character  to  TD,  and  of  exactly  the  same  extent.  This 
small  fragment  consists  of  two  folios  belonging  to  an  old 
MS.  brought  from  Persia  by  the  late  Professor  Westergaard 
in  1843-44,  and  which  is  evidently  the  codex  mentioned  by 
him  in  the  preface  to  his  Zend-Avesta,  p.  8,  note  3.  These 
two  folios,  which  are  numbered  130  and  131  in  Persian 
words,  now  form  the  commencement  of  this  old  mutilated 
MS.,  of  which  the  first  129  folios  have  been  lost.  They 
contain  very  little  more  than  one  page  of  the  Bundahu  text, 
namely,  the  last  sentences  of  the  last  chapter  (corresponding 
to  Bund.  XXXIV,  7-9),  followed  by  a  colophon  occupying 
less  than  two  pages.  This  fragment  of  the  text  contains 
some  additional  details  not  found  in  the  Indian  MSS.,  as 
well  as  a  few  other  variations  of  no  great  importance.  It 
may  be  translated  as  follows : — 

'[....  Sahm a  was  in  those  reigns  of  Aftzdbd,  Kavat/, 
and  Mantu^ihar.]  Kai-Kayils,  till  his  going  to  the  sky, 
»eventy-nve  years,  and  after  that,  seventy-five  years,  alto- 
gether a  hundred   and  fifty  years;    Kai-KhQsr6bo   sixty 

*  I  am  indebted  to  Professor  G.  Hoffmann,  of  Kiel,  for  directing  my  atten- 
tion to  this  fragment,  and  also  for  kindly  sending  me  a  facsimile  of  it.  It  had 
been  recognised  as  a  portion  of  the  Bundahu  by  Dr.  Andreas  some  years  ago, 
and  probably  by  the  owner  of  the  MS.,  the  late  Professor  Westergaard,  long 
before  that. 

»  See  Bond.  XXXI,  27.  As  the  beginning  of  this  sentence  is  lost,  its  trans- 
lotion  is  uncertain.  Details  not  found  in  K20  and  M6  are  here  enclosed  in 
brackets,  and  words  added  by  the  translator  to  complete  the  sense  are  printed 
in  italics. 



years;  Ka?-L6harasp  a  hundred  and  twenty  years;  Kai- 
VLrtasp,  till  the  coming  of  the  religion,  thirty  years  ;  [total 
(mar)  one  thousand  years1.  Then  the  millennium  reign 
came  to  Capricornus,  and  Zaratuhajt2  the  Spitaman,  with 
tidings  (petkhambarih)  from  the  creator  Auharmazd,  came 
to  King  Vijtasp  ;  and  Vijrtasp  was  king,]  after  receiving  the 
religion,  ninety  years. 

'Vohuman,  son  of  Spcnd-da//.  a  hundred  and  twelve  years ; 
Humai.  daughter  of  Vohuman,  thirty  years;  Darai.  son  of 
A'ihar-asa//,  that  is,  of  the  daughter  of  Vohuman,  twelve 
years  ;  Darai.  son  of  Darai,  fourteen  years  ;  and  Alexander 
the  Ruman a  fourteen  years. 

•  The  Ajkanians  should  bear  the  title  in  an  uninterrupted 
sovereignty  two  hundred  and  so  many4  years;  and  Artakh- 
shatar,  son  of  Papak,  and  the  number  of  the  Sasanians  bear 
it  four  hundred  and  sixty  years,  until  the  withering  Arabs 
obtained  a  place6  [as  far  as  the  year  447  of  the  Persians  ; 
now  it  is  the  Persian  year  527] •.' 

The  colophon,  which  follows,  states  that  the  MS.  was 
finished  on  the  thirteenth  day  of  the  ninth  month  A.V.  936 
(A.u.  1567).  and  was  written  by  Mitr6-apan,jw/  of  Anoshak- 
ruban,  son  of  Rustam.  This  MS.  is,  therefore,  of  nearly  the 
same  age  as  TD  ;  but  there  has  been  no  opportunity  of 
collating  the  fragment  of  it,  which  is  still  extant,  with  the 
corresponding  portion  of  TD.  That  it  was  a  MS.  of  the 
same  character  as  TD  (that  is,  one  containing  the  same  text 
as  K20,  but  with  much  additional  matter)  appears  clearly 

i  rum  the  beginning  of  l'rci/iin's  reign,  when  ihe  millennium  of  Sagittarius 
'  The  uiual  way  of  spcllinp;  Emtfift  in  old  MSS.,  excepting  Kjo  and  ■  few 

*  Here  written  correctly  Alaksandar-i  Arum.ii. 

'  Reading   va  and;  as  the   final   letter  is  d   and  not  d  it  cannot  l>e 
na»«'/iu«  ra riant  of  nivorf,  'ninety.' 

*  The  words  are.  vad  ffaik  ayaft  khfirko-i  Tistkanu,  but  the  exact 
meaning  u  mthcr  doubtful. 

"  The  hut  date  is  doubtful,  a*  the  Pahlavi  text  gives  the  ciphers  on. 
•five  rind  twrnty-seven,"  omitting  that  for  'hundred."  These  Persian  dates 
tnuit  cither  have  been  added  by  some  former  copyist,  or  Chap.  XXXIV  must 
have  been  apprnded  to  the  Kundahir  at  a  later  date  than  the  ninth  century, 
when  the  preceding  genealogical  chapters  were  probably  added  to  the  original 
work  (m  p.  xliil).     The  Persian  year  yt~  was  A.  D.  1158. 


from  the  fragment  translated  above.  Regarding  its  original 
extent,  it  is  possible  to  make  an  approximate  estimate,  by 
calculating  the  quantity  of  text  which  the  129  lost  folios 
must  have  contained,  from  the  quantity  actually  existing  on 
folio  130.  According  to  this  calculation,  the  original  extent 
of  the  text  of  the  Bundaht'j  in  this  MS.  must  have  been 
very  nearly  30,000  words ;  and  it  is  remarkable  that  a 
similar  calculation  of  the  extent  of  the  text  in  TDf  based 
upon  the  actual  contents  of  ten  folios  out  of  103,  gives 
precisely  the  same  result.  This  coincidence  is  a  strong 
argument  in  favour  of  the  absolute  identity  of  the  text  lost 
from  Wcstergaard's  M.S.  with  that  actually  existing  in  TD; 
it  shows,  further,  that  the  original  extent  of  the  BundahLr 
may  now  be  safely  estimated  at  30,000  words,  instead  of  the 
13,000  contained  in  K20  when  that  MS.  was  complete. 

That  this  fragment  belonged  to  a  separate  MS.,  and  is 
not  the  folio  missing  from  the  end  of  TD,  is  shown  not 
only  by  its  containing  more  of  the  text  than  is  said  to  be 
missing,  but  also  by  the  first  folio  of  the  fragment  being 
numbered  130,  instead  of  103,  and  by  its  containing  fifteen 
lines  to  the  page,  instead  of  seventeen,  as  would  be  necessary 
in  ordtr  to  correspond  with  TD. 

Regarding  the  age  of  the  Bundahix  many  opinions  have 
been  hazarded,  but  as  they  have  been  chiefly  based  upon 
minute  details  of  supposed  internal  evidence  evolved  from 
each  writers  special  misinterpretation  of  the  text,  it  is 
unnecessary  to  detail  them.  The  only  indication  of  its 
age  that  can  be  fairly  obtained  from  internal  evidence. 
is  that  the  text  of  the  Bundahij  could  not  have  been 
completed,  in  its  present  form,  until  after  the  Muham- 
madan  conquest  of  Persia  (a.  I).  651).  This  is  shown  not 
only  by  the  statements  that  the  sovereignty  '  went  to  the 
Arabs'  (Chap.  XXXIV,  9),  that  'now,  through  the  invasion 
of  the  Arabs,  they  (the  negroes)  arc  again  diffused  through 
the  country  of  Iran'  (Chap.  XXIII,  3),  and  that  'whoever 
keeps  the  year  by  the  revolution  of  the  moon  mingles 
summer  with  winter  and  winter  with  summer  (Chap.  XXV, 
19,  referring  probably  to  the  Muhammadan  year  not 
corresponding  with  the  seasons),  but  also,  more  positively 

by  the  following  translation  of  an  extract  from  Chap.  39 

'And  when  the  sovereignty  came  to  Yazdakarrf  he 
exercised  sovereignty  twenty  years,  and  then  the  Arabs 
rushed  into  the  country  of  Iran  in  great  multitude.  Yaz- 
dakardTdid  not  prosper  (la  jakafto)  in  warfare  with  them, 
and  went  to  Khurasan  and  Turkistin  to  seek  horses,  men, 
and  assistance,  and  was  slain  by  them  there.  The  son  of 
Yazdakan/  went  to  the  Hindus  and  fetched  an  army  of 
champions  ;  before  it  came,  conducted  unto  Khurasan,  that 
army  of  champions  dispersed.  The  country  of  Iran  re- 
mained with  the  Arabs,  and  their  own  irreligious  law  was 
propagated  by  them,  and  many  ancestral  customs  were 
destroyed ;  the  religion  of  the  Mazdayasnians  was  weakened, 
and  washing  of  corpses,  burial  of  corpses,  and  eating  of 
dead  matter  were  put  in  practice.  From  the  original 
creation  until  this  day  evil  more  grievous  than  this  has 
not  happened,  for  through  their  evil  deeds — on  account 
of  want,  foreign  habits  (Aniranih),  hostile  acts,  bad  de- 
crees, and  bad  religion  — ruin,  want,  and  other  eviU  have 
taken  lodgment.' 

None  of  these  passages  could  have  been  written  before 
the  Muhammadan  conquest ;  but  the  writer,  or  editor,  of 
the  text  as  it  appears  in  TD,  supplies  the  means  of  ap- 
proximating much  more  closely  to  the  date  of  his  work, 
in  a  passage  in  Chap.  41  of  TD,  in  which  he  mentions  the 
names  of  several  of  his  contemporaries  (see  Chap.  XXXIII, 
10,  1 1).  Among  these,  as  already  noticed,  he  mentions 
4  Za^-sparham  son  of  Yudan-Yim,'  who  must  have  been 
the  writer  of  the  Selections  of  Za</-sparam,  a  translation 
of  which  is  added  as  an  appendix  to  the  Bundahij  in  this 
volume.  This  writer  was  the  brother  of  Man  acinar  son 
of  Yudan-Yim,  who  wrote  the  D&rtstan-i  Dmik  \  and  from 
colophons  found  in  certain  MSS.  of  the  Daalstan  (which 
will  be  more  particularly  described  in  the  next  section  of 
this  introduction)   it  appears  that  this   Manu^ihar  was 

1  It  is  quite  possible  that  Maniutfhar  was  also  the  reviser  of  the  Bundahu ; 
see  the  note  on  Dat/aklh-i  Athovahino  in  Chap.  XXXIII,  10. 



high-priest  of  Pars  and  Ktrman  in  A.  Y.  250  (A.  D.  881). 
This  date  may,  therefore,  be  taken  as  a  very  close  ap- 
proximation to  the  time  at  which  the  Bundahix  probably 
assumed  the  form  we  find  in  TD  ;  but  that  MS.,  having 
been  written  about  650  years  later,  can  hardly  have  been 
copied  direct  from  the  original.  Whether  that  original 
was  merely  a  new  edition  of  an  older  Pahlavi  work,  as 
may  be  suspected  from  the  simplicity  of  its  language,  or 
whether  it  was  first  translated,  for  the  most  part,  from  the 
Avesta  of  the  DamdiL/  Nask,  in  the  ninth  century,  we 
have  no  means  of  determining  with  certainty.  Judging, 
however,  from  Chap.  I,  1,  the  original  Bundalm  probably 
ended  with  the  account  of  the  resurrection  (Chap.  XXX), 
and  the  extra  chapters,  containing  genealogical  and  chro- 
nological details  (matters  not  mentioned  in  Chap.  I,  1 ). 
together  with  all  allusions  to  the  Arabs,  were  probably 
added  by  the  revising  editor  in  the  ninth  century.  The 
last,  or  chronological,  chapter  may  even  have  been  added 
at  a  later  date. 

A  Gu^rati  translation,  or  rather  paraphrase,  of  the 
BundahLr  was  published  in  1819  by  Edal  Darab  Jamshed 
Jamasp  Asa,  and  a  revised  edition  of  it  was  published  by 
Peshutan  Rustam  in  1877'.  In  the  preface  to  the  latter 
edition  it  is  stated  that  the  translator  made  use  of  two 
MSS.,  one  being  a  copy  of  a  manuscript  written  in  Iran 
in  A.  Y.  776  by  Rustamji  Meherwanji  Matyaban  She- 
heriar2,  and  the  other  a  MS.  written  in  India  by  Dasttir 
Jamshcdji  Jamaspji  in  A.  Y.  11393.  It  is  also  mentioned 
that  he  was  four  years  at  work  upon  his  translation.  The 
editor  of  the  new  edition  states  that  he  has  laboured  to 

1  Bondehw  ketab,  iane  duniani  awal-thi  tc  akhcr  sudhi  pedics-ni  sahniit-ui 
hakikaf.  bi^i-fir  sudharineMapawanar.Pcfchutanbin  Ktitam  ;  Mtiwbai,  1877. 

'  There  1*  nu  doubt  whatever  that  the  writer  ol  the  preface  is  referring  to 
M6,  although  hit  description  U  incorrect.  MO  was  written  at  Bhro*  in  India 
A.v.  766  by  Pcshotan  Ram  Kimritn  hhaharyar  NeTyfoangShahmard  Shahaiyir 
Bihtam  Aurmardyir  Ramyar ;  but  some  portion  of  it  (probably  not  the  Bun- 
dmbi/)  was  copied  from  a  MS.  written  A.Y.  618  (A.D.  U49)  by  Ruatam  Mihir- 
ipia  Marapin  Dahim-ayar,  who  must  be  the  copyist  mentioned  in  the  preface 
to  the  Gujarat  1  translation. 

»  This  u  probably  the  copy  derived  from  M6,  and  mentioned  in  p.  xxx  as 
being  now  in  the  library  of  Dastilr  Jamaspji  Minochiharji. 

improve  the  work  by  collecting  all  the  further  information 
he  could  find,  on  the  various  subjects,  in  many  other 
Pahlavi  works.  The  result  of  all  this  labour  is  not  so 
much  a  mere  translation  of  the  Hundalm,  as  a  larger  work 
upon  the  same  subject,  or  a  paraphrase  more  methodically 
arranged,  as  may  be  seen  from  the  following  summary  of 
its  contents : — ■ 

The  headings  of  the  fifty-nine  chapters,  which  form 
the  first  part  of  the  work,  are  : — Ahuramazd's  covenant, 
account  of  the  sky.  of  the  first  twelve  things  created,  of 
Mount  Albor^,  of  the  twelve  signs  of  the  zodiac,  of  the 
stars,  of  the  soul,  of  the  first  practices  adopted  by  the 
creatures  of  the  evil  spirit  Ahereman,  of  Ahereman's  first 
breaking  into  the  sky,  of  Ahereman's  coming  upon  the 
primeval  ox,  of  Ahereman's  arrival  in  the  fire,  of  Ahere- 
man's coming  upon  Gaiomard,  of  the  coming  of  Ahura- 
mazd  and  Ahereman  upon  Gaiomard  at  the  time  of  his 
creation,  of  the  lustre  residing  in  both  spirits  ;  further 
account  of  the  arrangement  of  the  sky,  another  account 
of  all  the  mountains,  of  depressions  for  water,  of  great  and 
small  rivers,  of  the  eighteen  rivers  of  fresh  water,  of  the 
seven  external  and  seven  internal  liquids  in  the  bodies  of 
men,  of  the  period  in  which  water  falling  on  the  earth 
arrives  at  its  destination,  of  the  three  spiritual  rivers,  of 
the  star  Tehestar's  destroying  the  noxious  creatures  which 
Ahereman  had  distributed  over  the  earth,  of  the  prophet 
Zarathost's  asking  the  creator  Ahuramazd  how  long  these 
noxious  creatures  will  remain  in  the  latter  millenniums, 
of  driving  the  poison  of  the  noxious  creatures  out  of  the 
earth,  of  the  divisions  of  the  land,  of  the  creator  Ahura- 
mazd's placing  valiant  stars  as  club-bearers  over  the  heads 
of  the  demons,  of  all  the  things  produced  by  the  passing 
away  of  the  primeval  ox,  of  the  282  species  of  beasts  and 
birds,  of  the  bird  named  A'amro^,  of  the  bird  named 
Kaiiapad  and  ihe  hollow  of  Var^amkard,  of  the  birds 
are  enemies  opposed  to  the  demons  and  fiends,  of  the 
bitter  and  sweet  plants  among  the  fifty-five  kinds  of  grain 
and  twelve  kinds  of  herbs,  of  the  flowers  of  the  thirty  days, 
of  the  revolution  of  the  sun  and  moon  and  stars,  and  how 




night  falls,  and  how  the  day  becomes  light,  of  the  seven 
regions  of  the  earth,  of  depressions,  of  the  creatures  of  the 
sea,  of  the  flow  and  ebb  of  the  tide,  of  the  three-legged 
ass.  of  the  Gahambars,  of  Kapithvan,  of  the  revolution  of 
the  seasons,  of  the  production  of  mankind  from  the  passing 
away  of  Gaiomard,  of  the  production  of  offspring  from  the 
seed  of  men,  of  all  fires,  of  all  the  clever  work  produced 
in  the  reign  of  King  Jamshcd  and  the  production  of  the 
ape  and  bear,  of  the  production  of  the  Abyssinian  and 
negro  from  Zohak,  of  the  splendour  and  glory  of  King 
Jamshcd,  of  the  soul  of  Kersasp,  of  Kcrsasp's  soul  being 
the  first  to  rise,  of  the  names  of  the  prophet  Zarathost's 
pedigree,  of  his  going  out  into  the  world,  of  his  children, 
of  the  orders  given  by  Ahereman  to  the  demons  when  the 
creator  Ahuramazd  created  the  creatures,  of  the  weeping 
and  raging  of  the  evil  spirit  Ahereman,  of  the  weeping  of 
the  demon  of  Wrath  in  the  presence  of  Ahereman  when 
the  prophet  Zarathost  brought  the  religion,  of  the  compu- 
tation of  twelve  thousand  years. 

The  headings  of  the  thirteen  chapters,  which  form  the 
second  part,  arc: — Account  of  the  last  millenniums,  of 
the  appearance  of  Horedar-bami,  of  his  going  out  into  the 
i  the  appearance  of  Ilo^cdar-mah,  of  So^ios,  of  the 
fifty-seven  years,  of  giving  the  light  of  the  sun  to  men 
on  the  day  of  the  resurrection,  of  the  rising  again  of  the 
whole  of  mankind  on  that  day,  of  the  resurrection,  of  the 
means  of  resurrection,  of  the  annihilation  of  the  evil  spirit 
cman  and  the  demons  and  fiends  on  the  day  of 
resurrection,  of  the  creator  Ahuramazd's  making  the  earth 
and  sky  one  after  the  resurrection,  of  the  proceedings  of 
all  creatures  after  the  resurrection. 

The  third  part  contains  an  abstract  of  the  contents  of 
the  hundred  chapters  of  the  Sad-dar  Bundalm,  and  con- 
cludes with  an  account  of  the  ceremonial  formula  practised 
when  tying  the  kusti  or  sacred  thread-girdle. 



4.  The  Selections  of  Zaz>-sparam. 

In  some  manuscripts  of  the  Da^istan-i  Dinik  the  ninety- 
two  questions  and  answers,  which  usually  go  by  that  name, 
are  preceded  and  followed  by  Pahlavi  texts  which  are  each 
nearly  equal  in  extent  to  the  questions  and  answers,  and 
treat  of  a  variety  of  subjects,  somewhat  in  the  manner  of 
a  Rivayat  Of  the  texts  which  follow  the  questions  and 
answers  the  following  are  the  principal : — 

Incantations  for  fever,  &c.  ;  indications  afforded  by 
natural  marks  on  the  body;  about  the  hamistakan  ('the 
ever-stationary,'  or  neutral  state  of  future  existence)  and 
the  different  grades  in  heaven;  copy  of  an  epistle1  from 
Herbad  Manu^ihar  son  of  Yudan-Yim a,  which  he  ad- 
dressed to  the  good  people  of  Sirkan  3,  about  the  decisions 
pronounced  by  Herbad  Za^-sparam  son  of  Yudan-Yim ; 
copy  of  a  letter  from  Herbad  Manuj^ihar  son  of  Yudan- 
Yim  to  his  brother,  Herbad  Za</-sparam,  on  the  same 
subject,  and  replying  to  a  letter  of  his  written  from 
Nivshapuhar ;  copy  of  a  notice  by  Herbad  Manfl^ihar, 
son  of  Yudan-Yim  and  high-priest  (ra</)  of  Pars  and 
Kirman,  of  the  necessity  of  fifteenfold  ablution  on  account 
of  grievous  sin,  written  and  sealed  in  the  third  month  A.Y. 
250  (A.  D.  881)  ;  memoranda  and  writings  called  'Selections 
of  Za«/-sparam  son  of  Yudan-Yim,'  the  first  part  treating 
of  many  of  the  same  subjects  as  the  Bundahb-,  together 

1  This  long  qVi.tlu  contains  one  statement  which  is  important  in  it$  bearing 
upon  the  age  of  certain  Pahlavi  writings.  It  states  that  Ntshahpfihar  was  in 
the  council  of  Anoiiink-niban  Khfisro,  king  of  kings  and  son  of  KavW,  also 
that  he  was  Mobad  of  Mobads  and  a  commentator.  Now  this  is  the  name  of 
a  commentator  tjuote-d  in  the  Pahlavi  Vend.  Ill,  151.  V,  1 1 1.  VI IT,  64,  and  very 
frequently  in  the  NIrangistin;  it  is  also  a  title  applied  to  Anfl-Vtr&f  (see  AV. 
1>  35 5-  These  facts  seem  to  limit  the  age  of  the  last  revision  of  the  Pahlavi 
Vcndidad,  and  of  the  composition  of  the  Pahlavi  Nlrangistan  and  An/a-Virif- 
n&mak  to  the  time  of  King  KhiWo  Noshirvdn  (a.n.  531-579?.  The  statement 
depends,  of  course,  upon  the  accuracy  of  a  tradition  three  centuries  old,  as 
this  epistle  must  have  been  written  about  A.D.  880. 

'  Some  Parsis  rend  this  name  CCsbnajam,  others  Yudin-dnm. 

*  Mr.  Tehmuras  Dinshawjl  thinks  this  is  the  place  now  called  Siryan,  about 
thirty  parnsang*  south  of  Kirman,  on  the  road  to  Bandar  Abbas,  which  is  no 
doubt  the  case. 



Ddrnddrf  Nask  appears  pretty  evident  from  ZaV-sparam's 
remarks  in  Chap.  IX,  i,  16  of  his  Selections. 

The  first  part  of  these  Selections  consists  of  '  sayings 
about  the  meeting  of  the  beneficent  and  evil  spirits,'  and 
the  first  portion  of  these  'sayings'  (divided  into  eleven 
chapters  in  the  translation)  is  chiefly  a  paraphrase  of 
Chaps.  I-XVII  of  the  Bundahij (omitting  Chaps.  II,  V,  and 
XVI).  It  describes  the  original  state  of  the  two  spirits, 
their  meeting  and  covenant,  with  a  paraphrase  of  the 
Ahfinavar  formula  ;  the  production  of  the  first  creatures, 
including  time ;  the  incursion  of  the  evil  spirit  and  his 
temporary  success  in  deranging  the  creation,  with  the  reason 
why  he  was  unable  to  destroy  the  primitive  man  for  thirty 
years ;  followed  by  the  seven  contests  he  carried  on  with 
the  sky,  water,  earth,  plants,  animals,  man,  and  fire,  respec- 
'iv  ly,  detailing  how  each  of  these  creations  was  modified 
in  consequence  of  the  incursion  of  the  evil  spirit.  In  the 
account  of  the  first  of  these  contests  the  Pahlavi  translation 
of  one  stanza  in  the  Gathas  is  quoted  verbatim,  showing  that 
the  same  Pahlavi  version  of  the  Yasna  was  used  in  the  ninth 
century  as  now  exists.  The  remainder  of  these  *  sayings,' 
having  no  particular  connection  with  the  Bundahu,  has  not 
been  translated. 

With  regard  to  the  Pahlavi  text  of  the  Selections,  the 
present  translator  has  been  compelled  to  rely  upon  a  single 
manuscript  of  the  Da<tfist£n-i  Dinik,  brought  by  Wester- 
gaard  from  Kirman  '  in  1843,  and  now  No.  35  of  the  collec- 
tion of  Avesta  and  Pahlavi  MSS.  in  the  University  Library 
at  Kopenhagen ;  it  may,  therefore,  be  called  K35.  This 
MS.  is  incomplete,  having  lost  nearly  one-third  of  its  original 
bulk,  but  still  contains  1 81  folios  of  large  octavo  size,  written 
fifteen  to  seventeen  lines  to  the  page ;  the  first  seventy-one 
folios  of  the  work  have  been  lost,  and  about  thirty-five  folios 
are  also  missing  from  the  end  ;  but  the  whole  of  the  ninety- 
two  questions  and  answers,  together  with  one-third  of  the 

1  Thai  it,  so  far  as  the  late  Professor  Westergaard  could  remember  in  1878, 
when  he  kindly  lent  mc  the  MS.  for  collation  with  my  copy  of  the  text,  already 
obtained  from  more  recent  MSS.  in  Bombay,  the  best  of  which  turned  out  to  be 
a  copy  of  K35. 

texts  which  usually  precede  them,  and  three-fifths  of  those 
which  usually  follow  them,  are  still  remaining.  This  MS. 
has  lost  its  date,  but  a  copy1  of  it  exists  in  Bombay  (written 
when  it  was  complete)  which  ends  with  a  colophon  dated 
A.V.  9.41  (A.D.  1.572),  as  detailed  in  p.  xxxiii;  this  may  cither 
be  the  actual  date  of  that  copy,  or  it  may  have  been  merely 
copied  from  K35,  which  cannot  be  much  older.  The  latter 
supposition  appears  the  more  probable,  as  this  colophon 
seems  to  be  left  incomplete  by  the  loss  of  the  last  folio  in 
the  Bombay  copy,  and  may,  therefore,  have  been  followed 
by  another  colophon  giving  a  later  date. 

This  copy  of  K35  was,  no  doubt,  originally  complete,  but 
has  lost  many  of  its  folios  in  the  course  of  time  ;  most  of 
the  missing  text  has  been  restored  from  another  MS.,  but 
there  are  still  twelve  or  more  folios  missing  from  the  latter 
part  of  the  work  ;  it  contains,  however,  all  that  portion  of 
the  Selections  which  is  translated  in  this  volume,  but  has, 
of  course,  no  authority  independent  of  K35.  The  other 
MS.  in  Bombay,  from  which  some  of  the  missing  text  was 
recovered,  is  in  the  library  of  Dastur  Jamaspji  Minochiharji ; 
it  is  a  modern  copy,  written  at  different  periods  from  forty 
to  sixty  years  ago,  and  is  incomplete,  as  it  contains  only 
fourth  of  the  texts  which  usually  follow  the  ninety-two 
questions  and  answers,  and  includes  no  portion  of  the  Selec- 
tions of  Za//-sparam. 

Aaothei  MS.  of  the  Da</istan-i  Dinik  and  its  accompani- 
ments, written  also  at  Kirman,  but  two  generations  earlier 
than  K35  (say,  about  A.D.  1.530),  has  been  already  mentioned 
(see  p.  xxxiii).  It  is  said  still  to  contain  227  folios,  though 
its  first  seventy  folios  are  missing  ;  it  must,  therefore,  begin 
very  near  the  same  place  as  K35,  but  extends  much  further, 
as  it  supplies  about  half  the  text  still  missing  from  the 

1  The  fact  of  in  being  a  copy  of  K35  is  proved  by  strong  ci'cumstaivlial  evi- 
dence In  the  fir  contains  several  false  readings  which  are  clearly 
dw  to  aus-shaixn  letter*  and  accidental  marks  in  K35,  so  that  it  is  evidently 
descended  Jrotu  lhal  M&  Bui  it  is  further  pfOTsd  to  have  been  copied  direct 
from  that  MS.,  by  the  last  words  in  thirty-two  of  its  pages  having  been  marked 
with  interlined  circles  in  K35  ;  the  crele  having  been  the  copyist*!  mark  for 
isd«og  his  place,  when  beginning  a  new  page  after  turning  over  his  folios. 

C5]  d 



Bombay  copy  of  K35,  though  it  has  lost  about  fourteen 
at  the  end.  This  MS.  must  be  cither  the  original 
from  which  K35  was  copied,  or  an  independent  authority  of 
equal  value,  but  it  has  not  been  available  for  settling  the 
text  of  the  Selections  for  the  present  translation. 

5.  The  Bah  man  Ya^t. 

The  Bahman  Yart,  usually  called  the  '  Zand  of  the 
Vohuman  Yajt,'  professes  to  be  a  prophetical  work,  in 
which  ACiharmazd  gives  ZaratCut  an  account  of  what 
was  to  happen  to  the  Iranian  nation  and  religion  in  the 

It  begins  with  an  introduction  (Chap.  I)  which  states 
that,  according  to  the  StiWgar  Nask,  ZaratCut  having  asked 
Auharmazd  for  immortality,  was  supplied  temporarily  with 
omniscient  wisdom,  and  had  a  vision  of  a  tree  with  four 
branches  of  different  metals  which  were  explained  to  him 
as  symbolical  of  four  different  periods,  the  times  of  Vutasp, 
of  Att/akhshir  the  Kayanian,  of  Khusro  N6shirvan,  and  of 
certain  demons  or  idolators  who  were  to  appear  at  the  end 
of  a  thousand  years.  It  states,  further,  that  the  commen- 
taries of  the  Vohuman,  Horvada//,  and  Asth/J  Ya.rt s  men- 
tioned the  heretic  Mazdak,  and  that  Khusro  Noshirvan 
summoned  a  council  of  high-priests  and  commentators,  and 
ordered  them  not  to  conceal  these  Yajts,  but  to  teach  the 
commentary  only  among  their  own  relations. 

The  text  then  proceeds  (Chap.  II)  to  give  the  details  of 
the  commentary  on  the  Vohuman  Yajt  as  follows  : — Zara- 
ttlrt,  having  again  asked  Auharmazd  for  immortality,  is 
refused,  but  is  again  supplied  with  omniscient  wisdom  for  a 
week,  during  which  time  he  sees,  among  other  things,  a  tree 
with  seven  branches  of  different  metals,  which  arc  again 
explained  to  htm  as  denoting  the  seven  ages  of  the  religion, 
its  six  ages  of  triumph  in  the  reigns  of  VLrtasp,  of  Ar<r/akhshir 
the  Kayanian,  of  one  of  the  Axkanian  kings,  of  Araakhshir 
Papakan  and  Shah  pur  I  and  II,  of  Vahrarn  G6r,  and  of 
Khusro  Noshirvan,  and  its  seventh  age  of  adversity  when 



Iran  is  to  be  invaded  from  the  cast  by  hordes  of  demons  or 
idolators  with  dishevelled  hair,  who  are  to  work  much  mis- 
chief, so  as  to  destroy  the  greater  part  of  the  nation  and 
mislead  the  rest,  until  the  religion  becomes  nearly  extinct. 
The  details  of  this  mischief,  written  in  a  tone  of  lamentation, 
constitute  the  greater  part  of  the  text,  which  also  notices 
that  the  sovereignty  will  pass  from  the  Arabs,  Rumans,and 
these  leathern-belted  demons  (Turks)  to  other  Turks  and 
non-Turanians  who  are  worse  than  themselves. 

Distressed  at  this  narrative  Zaratfot  asks  ACiharmazd 
(Chap.  Ill,  i)  how  the  religion  is  to  be  restored,  and  these 
demons  destroyed?  He  is  informed  that,  in  the  course  of 
tune,  other  fiends  with  red  banners,  red  weapons,  and  red 
hats,  who  seem  to  be  Christians,  will  appear  in  the  north- 
west, and  will  advance  cither  to  the  Arvand  (Tigris)  or  the 
Euphrates,  driving  back  the  former  demons  who  will  assem- 
ble all  their  allies  to  a  great  conflict,  one  of  the  three 
great  battles  of  the  religions  of  the  world,  in  which  the 
wicked  will  be  so  utterly  destroyed  that  none  will  be  left 
to  pass  into  the  next  millennium. 

Zaratujt  enquires  i  III,  12)  how  so  many  can  perish,  and 
i  formed  that,  after  the  demons  with  dishevelled  hair 
appear,  Hushe</ar,  the  first  of  the  last  three  apostles,  is 
born  near  Lake  Frazdan  ;  and  when  he  begins  to  confer  with 
Auharmazd  a  Kayan  prince  is  born  in  the  direction  of 
A'inistan  (Samarkand),  who  is  called  Vahram  the  Var^dvand, 
and  when  he  ta  thirty  years  old  he  collects  a  large  army  of 
Hindu  (Hactrian)  and  A'ini  (Samarkandian)  troops,  and 
advances  into  Iran,  where  he  is  reinforced  by  a  numerous 
army  of  Iranian  warriors,  and  defeats  the  demon-races  with 
immense  slaughter,  in  the  great  conflict  already  mentioned, 
so  that  there  will  be  only  one  man  left  to  a  thousand 

The  writer  then  proceeds  to  describe  the  supernatural 
agencies  employed  to  produce  this  result :  how  the  evil 
spirit  (III,  :4)  comes  to  the  assistance  of  the  demon- 
worshippers  :  how  Auharmazd  sends  his  angels  to  Kangde.s, 
to  summon  Peshyotanu,  the  immortal  son  of  VLrtasp,  with 
his  disciples,  to  re-establish  the  sacred  fires  and  restore  the 

d    2 



religious  ceremonies  ;  and  how  the  angels  assist  them  against 
the  evil  spirits,  so  that  Vahram  the  Var^avand  is  enabled 
to  destroy  the  fiendish  races,  as  already  detailed,  and 
Peshyotanu  becomes  supreme  high-priest  of  the  Iranian 

Finally,  the  writer  gives  some  details  regarding  the  mis- 
sions of  the  last  three  apostles,  returning  for  that  purpose 
(III,  44)  to  the  birth  of  II  usluv/ar.  the  first  of  the  three,  whose 
millennium  witnesses  both  the  invasion  and  the  destruction 
of  the  fiendish  races.  Husho/ar  proves  his  apostolic  au- 
Ih  lily,  to  the  satisfaction  of  Var^avand  and  the  people,  by 
making  the  sun  stand  still  for  ten  days  and  nights.  His 
mission  is  to  *  bring  the  creatures  back  to  their  proper 
state; '  and  it  is  not  till  near  the  end  of  his  millennium  that 
Peshydtanu  appears,  as  before  described.  As  this  millen- 
nium begins  with  the  invasion  of  the  fiendish  races  and  the 
fall  of  the  Sasanian  dynasty,  it  must  have  terminated  in  the 
seventeenth  century,  unless  it  was  to  last  more  than  a 
thousand  years.  A  very  brief  account  is  then  given  of 
the  millennium  of  Hushe</ar-mah,  the  second  of  the  three 
apostles,  whose  mission  is  to  make  '  the  creatures  more 
progressive '  and  to  destroy  '  the  fiend  of  serpent  origin  ' 
(A^-i  Dahak).  During  his  millennium  (which  appears  to  be 
now  in  progress)  mankind  become  so  skilled  in  medicine 
that  they  do  not  readily  die ;  but  owing  to  their  toleration 
of  heretics  the  evil  spirit  once  more  attains  power,  and 
releases  A^:-i  Dahak,  from  his  confinement  in  Mount  Dima- 
vand,  to  work  evil  in  the  world,  till  Auharmazd  sends  his 
angels  to  rouse  Kcresasp  the  SAman,  who  rises  from  his 
trance  and  kills  hz-\  Dahak  with  his  club  at  the  end  of  the 
millennium.  Afterwards,  Sdshyans,  the  last  apostle,  appears 
to  'make  the  creatures  again  pure;'  when  the  resurrection 
takes  place  and  the  future  existence  commences. 

Whether  this  text,  as  now  extant,  be  the  original  com- 
mentary or  zand  of  the  Vohuman  Yajt  admits  of  doubt, 
since  it  appears  to  quote  that  commentary  (Chap.  II,  1)  as 
an  authority  for  its  statements  ;  it  is,  therefore,  most  pro- 
bably, only  an  epitome  of  the  original  commentary.  Such 
an  epitome  would  naturally  quote  many  passages  verbatim 


from  the  original  work,  which  ought  to  bear  traces  of  trans- 
lation from  an  A  vesta  text,  as  its  title  zand  implies  a 
Pahlavi  translation  from  the  Avcsta  (sec  p.  x).  There  are, 
in  fact,  many  such  traces  in  this  epitome,  as  indicated  by 
the  numerous  sentences  beginning  with  a  verb,  the  mode  of 
addressing  Auharmazd,  the  quotation  of  different  opinions 
from  various  commentators,  and  other  minor  peculiarities. 
Some  of  these  might  be  the  result  of  careful  imitation  of 
other  commentaries,  but  it  seems  more  likely  that  they  arc 
occasioned  by  literal  translation  from  an  original  Avcsta 
text.  In  speculating,  therefore,  upon  the  contents  of  the 
Ilahman  Yart  it  is  necessary  to  remember  that  we  are  most 
probably  dealing  with  a  composite  work,  whose  statements 
may  be  referred  to  the  three  different  ages  of  the  Avcsta 
original,  the  Pahlavi  translation  and  commentary,  and  the 
Pahlavi  epitome  of  the  latter;  and  that  this  last  form  of  the 
text  is  the  only  old  version  now  extant. 

With  regard  to  the  age  of  the  work  we  have  the  external 
evidence  that  a  copy  of  it  exists  in  a  manuscript  (K20) 
written  about  five  hundred  years  ago,  and  that  this  copy  is 
evidently  descended  from  older  manuscripts  as  it  contains 
several  clerical  blunders  incompatible  with  any  idea  of  its 
being  the  original  manuscript,  as  witness  the  omissions  noted 
in  Chaps.  II.  10,  13,  14,  22,  17,  45,  III,  30,  32,  the  misplace- 
ment of  II,  18,  and  many  miswritings  of  single  words. 
Owing  to  the  threefold  character  of  the  work,  already 
noticed,  the  internal  evidence  of  its  age  can  only  apply  to 
its  last  recension  in  the  form  of  an  epitome,  as  an  oriental 
editor  (to  say  nothing  of  others)  generally  considers  himself 
at  liberty  to  alter  and  add  to  his  text,  if  he  docs  not  under- 
stand it,  or  thinks  he  can  improve  it.  That  this  liberty 
has  been  freely  exercised,  with  regard  to  these  professed 
prophecies,  is  shown  by  the  identification  of  the  four  pro- 
phetical ages  of  the  SttWgar  Nask  in  the  first  chapter  of 
the  Rahman  Yart  being  different  from  that  given  in  the 
Dinkan/.  The  Dinkan/  quotes  the  Stiw/gar  Nask  (that  is, 
its  Pahlavi  version)  as  identifying  the  iron  age  with  some 
period  of  religious  indifference  subsequent  to  the  time  of 
Atar6-pa^  son  of  Maraspend,  the  supreme  high-priest  and 

prime  minister  of  Shahpur  II  (a.  D. 309-379);  but  the  Bahman 
Yart  (Chap.  I,  5)  quotes  the  Nask  as  identifying  the  same 
age  with  the  reign  of  an  idolatrous  race  subsequent  to  the 
time  of  Khusrd  Noshirvan  (A.D.  .131-579).  This  example 
is  sufficient  to  show  that  the  compiler  of  the  extant  epitome 
of  the  Bahman  Ya^t  commentary  largely  availed  himself  of 
his  editorial  license,  and  it  indicates  the  difficulty  of  dis- 
tinguishing his  statements  from  those  of  the  former  editors. 
At  the  same  time  it  proves  that  the  epitome  could  not  have 
been  compiled  till  after  Iran  had  been  overrun  by  a  foreign 
race  subsequent  to  the  reign  of  Khusrd  Ndshirvan.  It  is 
remarkable  that  the  compiler  does  not  mention  any  later 
Sasanian  king,  that  he  does  not  allude  to  Muhammadanism, 
and  speaks  of  the  foreign  invaders  as  Turanians  and  Chris- 
tum.s,  only  mentioning  Arabs  incidentally  in  later  times ; 
at  the  same  time  the  foreign  invasion  (which  lasts  a  thou- 
sand years)  is  of  too  permanent  a  character  to  allow  of 
its  having  reference  merely  to  the  troublous  times  of 
Xnshirvan's  successor. 

Perhaps  the  most  reasonable  hypotheses  that  can  be 
founded  upon  these  facts  are.  first,  that  the  original  zand 
or  commentary  of  the  Bahman  Yast  was  written  and  trans- 
lated from  the  Avesta  in  the  latter  part  of  the  reign  of 
Khusrd  Noshirvan,  or  very  shortly  afterwards,  which  would 
account  for  no  later  king  being  mentioned  by  name ;  and, 
secondly,  that  the  epitome  now  extant  was  compiled  by 
some  writer  who  lived  so  long  after  the  Arab  invasion  that 
the  details  of  their  inroad  had  become  obscured  by  the  more 
recent  successes  of  Turanian  rulers,  such  as  the  Ghaznavis 
and  Sal^uqs  of  the  eleventh  and  twelfth  centuries.  It  is 
hardly  possible  that  the  epitomist  could  have  lived  as  late 
as  the  time  of  Cingiz  Khan,  the  great  Mongol  conqueror 
(A.  D.  1206-1227),  as  that  would  bring  him  within  150  years 
of  the  date  of  the  extant  manuscript  of  his  work,  which  has 
no  appearance  of  being  an  immediate  copy  of  the  original  ; 
but  the  rule  of  the  Sal^Qqs  would  certainly  have  afforded 
him  sufficient  materials  for  his  long  description  of  the  iron 
age.  The  Avesta  of  the  Bahman  Yajt  was  probably  com- 
piled from  older  sources  (like  the  rest  of  the  Avesta)  during 



the  reigns  of  the  earlier  Sasanian  monarchs  ;  but  it  was.  no 
doubt,  very  different  in  its  details  from  the  epitome  of  its 
commentary  which  still  exists. 

These  hypotheses,  regarding  the  threefold  origin  of  the 
present  form  of  this  Yajt,  derive  some  confirmation  from 
the  inconsistencies  in  its  chronological  details ;  especially 
those  relating  to  the  periods  of  the  invaders'  reign  and  of 
Hushtv/ars  birth.  The  Zoroastrians  have  for  ages  been 
expecting  the  appearance  of  H(lshc</ar,  the  first  of  their 
laaf  three  apostles,  but  have  always  had  to  postpone  their 
expectations  from  time  to  time,  like  the  Jews  and  other 
interpreters  of  prophecy  ;  so  that  they  are  still  looking 
forward  into  the  future  for  his  advent,  although  his  millen- 
nium has  long  since  expired  according  to  the  chronology 
adopted  in  the  Bahman  Ya^L  This  chronology,  of  course, 
represents  the  expectations  of  Zoroastrians  in  past  times, 
and  seems  to  express  three  different  opinions.  First,  we 
have  the  statement  that  the  last  great  battle  of  the  demon  - 
races  is  to  take  place  at  the  end  of  Zaratiiit's  millennium 
(sec  Chap.  I  IF,  9),  when  the  wicked  will  be  so  destroyed 
(compare  III,  22,  23)  that  none  will  pass  into  the  next 
millennium  (III,  11),  which  is  that  of  Hushed'ar  (III,  43). 
And  that  the  reign  of  evil  is  to  precede  the  end  of  ZaratiUt's 
millennium  is  evidently  assumed  also  in  Chap.  II,  41,  6$. 
Such  opinions  may  reasonably  be  traced  to  the  original 
Avesta  writer,  who  must  have  expected  only  a  short  reign 
of  evil  to  arise  and  fall  near  the  latter  end  of  Zaratftjt's 
millennium,  which  was  still  far  in  the  future,  and  to  be 
followed  by  the  appearance  of  HusheWar  to  restore  the 
•  good'  religion.  Secondly,  we  are  told  (I,  5,  II,  22,  24,  31) 
that  the  invasion  of  the  demon-races,  with  its  attendant 
evils,  is  to  take  place  when  Zaratujt's  millennium  is  ended  ; 
on  their  appearance  HusheWar  is  born  (III,  13),  and  when 
he  is  thirty  years  old  (compare  III,  14  with  III,  44)  Vahram 
the  Vaiyavand  is  also  born,  who  at  the  age  of  thirty  (III,  17) 
advances  into  Iran  with  an  innumerable  army  to  destroy  the 
invaders.  Such  statements  may  be  attributed  to  the  original 
Pahlavi  translator  and  commentator  who,  writing  about 
A.D.  570-59Q,  would  have  before  his  eyes  the  disastrous 

reign  of  AOharmazd  IV,  the  son  and  successor  of  Khnsrd 
Noshirvan,  together  with  the  prowess  of  the  famous  Persian 
general  Bahram  A'dpin,  which  drove  out  all  invaders.  This 
writer  evidently  expected  the  reign  of  the  demon-races  to 
last  less  than  a  century,  but  still  at  some  period  in  the  near 
future ;  merely  illustrating  his  theme  by  details  of  the 
disasters  and  wars  of  his  own  time.  Thirdly,  we  find  it 
stated  (III,  44)  that  HusheWar  will  be  born  in  1600,  which 
seems  to  mean  the  sixteen  hundredth  year  of  Zaratujt's 
millennium,  or  six  hundredth  of  his  own  (say  A.  I).  1193- 
1235V  also  that  the  reign  of  the  demon-races  is  to  last  a 
thousand  years  (III,  34).  and  that  Peshy6tanu  docs  not 
come  to  restore  the  religion  till  near  the  end  of  the  millen- 
nium (III,  51);  it  also  appears  (III,  49)  that  Var^avand 
occupies  a  prominent  position  when  HGsh«Lv/ar  comes  from 
his  conference  with  Auharniazd  at  thirty  years  of  age  (III, 
44,  45),  Such  details  were  probably  inserted  by  the  com- 
piler of  the  epitome,  who  had  to  admit  the  facts  that  the 
reign  of  the  demon-races  had  already  lasted  for  centuries, 
and  that  Hushe//ar  had  not  yet  appeared.  To  get  over 
these  difficulties  he  probably  adopted  the  opinions  current 
in  his  day,  and  postponed  the  advent  of  Hushcv/ar  till  the 
beginning  of  the  next  century  in  his  millennium,  and  put 
off  the  destruction  of  the  wicked,  as  a  more  hopeless  matter, 
till  near  the  end  of  the  millennium.  Both  these  periods 
are  now  long  since  past,  and  the  present  Zoroastrians  have 
still  to  postpone  the  fulfilment  of  the  prophecies  connected 
with  their  last  three  apostles,  or  else  to  understand  them 
in  a  less  literal  fashion  than  heretofore. 

For  the  Pahlavi  text  of  the  Bahman  Yajt  the  translator 
has  to  rely  upon  the  single  old  manuscript  K20,  already 
described  (p.  xxvii),  in  which  it  occupies  the  13 \  folios 
immediately  following  the  Bundahis  ;  these  folios  are  much 
worn,  and  a  few  words  have  been  torn  off  some  of  them, 
but  nearly  all  of  these  missing  words  can  be  restored  by  aid 
of  the  Pazand  version.  The  Pahlavi  text  is  also  found  in 
the  modern  copies  of  K20  at  Paris  and  Kopenhagcn,  but 
these  copies  (P7  and  K21}  have  no  authority  independent 
of  K20.     In  India  this  text  has  long  been  exceedingly  rare, 

and  whether  any  copy  of  it  exists,  independent  of  K  20,  is 

The  Pazand  version  is  more  common  in  Tarsi  libraries, 
but  contains  a  very  imperfect  text.  Of  this  version  two 
modern  copies  have  been  consulted  ;  one  of  these  occupies 
foU.  3K-62  of  a  small  manuscript,  No.  22  of  the  Haug  col- 
lection in  the  State  Library  at  Munich  ;  the  other  is  a  copy 
of  a  manuscript  in  the  library  of  the  high-priest  of  the  Parsis 
in  Bombay.  Roth  these  MSS.  are  evidently  descended 
from  the  same  original,  which  must  have  been  a  very  imper- 
fect transliteration  of  a  Pahlavi  text  closely  resembling  that 
of  K20,  but  yet  independent  of  that  MS.,  as  a  few  words 
omitted  in  K.20  arc  supplied  by  these  Pazand  MSS.  (see 
•.  II,  13,  14,  22,  &c.)  To  a  certain  extent,  therefore, 
these  Pazand  MSS.  are  of  some  assistance  in  settling  the 
of  a  few  sentences,  but  the  greater  part  of  their  con- 
is  so  imperfect  as  to  be  utterly  unintelligible ;  they 
not  only  omit  Chaps.  I,  i-K,  II,  17,  30-32,40, 111,9, 12>  l7~ 
44,  ~tH-6$  entirely,  but  also  words  and  phrases  from  nearly 
every  other  section  of  the  text.  Adhering  scrupulously  to 
the  Pahlavi  original  for  a  few  consecutive  words,  and  then 
widely  departing  from  it  by  misreading  or  omitting  all 
difficult  words  and  passages,  this  Pazand  version  is  a  com- 
plete contrast  to  the  Pazand  writings  of  Nerydsang,  being 
of  little  use  to  the  reader  beyond  showing  the  extremely 
low  ebb  to  which  Pahlavi  learning  must  have  fallen,  among 
the  Parsis,  before  such  unintelligible  writings  could  have 
been  accepted  as  Pazand  texts. 

There  is  also  a  Persian  version  of  the  Bahman  Yajt,  a 
copy  of  which,  written  A.D.  1676,  is  contained  in  a  large 
Kivayat  MS.  No.  29,  belonging  to  the  University  Library 
at  Bombay.  According  to  the  colophon  of  this  Persian 
on  it  was  composed  in  A.D.  14^6  by  Rustam  Isfendiyar 
of  V'azd,  from  an  Avesta  (l'azand)  MS.  belonging  to  his 
brother  J  am  shed.  This  Persian  version  contains  less  than 
three  per  cent,  of  Arabic  words,  and  is  more  of  a  paraphrase 
than  a  translation,  but  it  adheres  very  closely  to  the  meaning 
I  ahlavi  text  from  Chaps.  I,  1  to  III,  9,  where  a  dis- 
location occurs,  evidently  owing  either  to  the  displacement 

of  two  folios  in  an  older  MS,,  or  to  the  second  page  of  a 
folio  being  copied  before  the  first,  so  that  §§  10-14  follow 
§§  15-22.  From  the  middle  of  §  22  the  folios  of  the  older 
MS.  seem  to  have  been  lost  as  far  as  the  end  of  Htish&/ar's 
millennium  {§  51),  lo  which  point  the  Persian  version  leaps, 
but  the  remainder  of  this  paraphrase  is  much  more  diffuse 
than  the  Bahman  Yart,  and  is  evidently  derived  from  some 
other  Pahlavi  work. 

This  conclusion  of  the  Persian  version  describes  how 
adversity  departs  from  the  world,  and  ten  people  are 
satisfied  with  the  milk  of  one  cow,  when  Hushe</ar-mah 
appears  and  his  millennium  commences.  On  his  coming 
from  his  conference  with  Auharmazd  the  sun  stands  still 
for  twenty  days  and  nights,  in  consequence  of  which  two- 
thirds  of  the  people  in  the  world  believe  in  the  religion. 
Meat  is  no  longer  eaten,  but  only  milk  and  butter,  and  a 
hundred  people  are  satisfied  with  the  milk  of  one  cow. 
Husha/ar-mah  destroys  the  terrible  serpent,  which  ac- 
companies apostasy,  by  means  of  the  divine  glory  and 
Avesta  formulas  ;  he  clears  all  noxious  creatures  out  of  the 
world,  and  wild  animals  live  harmlessly  among  mankind; 
the  fiends  of  apostasy  and  deceit  depart  from  the  world, 
which  becomes  populous  and  delightful,  and  mankind 
abstain  from  falsehood.  After  the  five-hundredth  year  of 
Hushe</ar-mah  has  passed  away,  Soshyans  (Sasdn)  appears, 
and  destroys  the  fiend  who  torments  fire.  The  sun  stands 
still  for  thirty  days  and  nights,  when  all  mankind  believe 
in  the  religion,  and  the  year  becomes  exactly  360  days. 
Dahak  escapes  from  his  confinement,  and  reigns  for  a  day 
and  a  half  in  the  world  with  much  tyranny;  when  Soshyans 
rouses  S&m  Nariman,  who  accepts  the  religion  and  becomes 
immortal.  Sam  calls  upon  Dahak  to  accept  the  religion, 
but  the  latter  proposes  that  they  should  together  seize 
upon  heaven  for  themselves,  whereupon  Sam  kills  him. 
All  evil  having  departed  from  the  world  mankind  become 
like  the  archangels,  and  the  resurrection  takes  place,  which 
is  described  with  many  of  the  same  details  as  arc  mentioned 
in  Bund.  XXX. 

Accompanying  this  Persian  version  in  B29  is  another 



fragment  from  the  same  source,  which  treats  of  the  same 
subjects  as  the  third  chapter  of  the  Bahman  Y&ft,  but  is 
differently  arranged.  It  confines  itself  to  the  millennium 
of  H0she</ar,  and  may  possibly  be  some  modification  of  the 
contents  of  the  folios  missing  from  the  version  described 
above.  After  some  introductory  matter  this  fragment  con- 
tains a  paraphrase  (less  accurate  than  the  preceding)  of 
Chap.  Ill,  23-49  of  the  Bahman  Yost ;  it  then  proceeds  to 
state  that  Hushu/ar  destroys  the  wolf  race,  so  that  wolves, 
thieves,  highway  robbers,  and  criminals  cease  to  exist. 
When  Hushed'ar's  three-hundredth  year  has  passed  away 
the  winter  of  Malkos  arrives  and  destroys  all  animals  and 
vegetation,  and  only  one  man  survives  out  of  ten  thousand ; 
after  which  the  world  is  repcopled  from  the  enclosure  made 
by  Yim.  Then  comes  the  gathering  of  the  nations  to  the 
great  battle  on  the  Euphrates,  where  the  slaughter  is  so 
great  that  the  water  of  the  river  becomes  red,  and  the  sur- 
I  wade  in  blood  up  to  their  horses'  girths.  Afterwards, 
the  Kaydn  king,  Vaig4vand,  advances  from  the  frontiers  of 
India  and  takes  possession  of  Iran  to  the  great  delight  of 
the  inhabitants,  but  only  after  a  great  battle  ;  and  then 
Peshyotanii  is  summoned  from  Kangdes  to  restore  the 
religious  ceremonies. 

A  German  translation  of  some  passages  in  the  Bahman 
Yart,  with  a  brief  summary  of  the  greater  part  of  the  re- 
mainder, was  published  in  i860  in  Spiegel's  Traditionclle 
Literatur  der  Parscn,  pp.  1*8-135. 

6.   The  Shayast  la-shayast. 

Another  treatise  which  must  be  referred  to  about  the 
same  age  as  the  Bundahfr,  though  of  a  very  different  cha- 
racter, is  the  Shayast  la-shayast  or  '  the  proper  and  impro- 
per/ It  is  a  compilation  of  miscellaneous  laws  and  customs 
regarding  sin  and  impurity,  with  other  memoranda  about 
ceremonies  and  religious  subjects  in  general.  Its  name  has, 
no  doubt,  been  given  to  it  in  modern  times  ',  and  has  pro- 

■  Bot  pexhap*  before  the  compilMhm  of   the  prow   Sad-dax   Bundahii,  or 
Bondahu  0f  *  hundred  chapters,  which  Kern*  to  refer  to  the  ShiyaU  li-ahiyart 



bably  arisen  from  the  frequent  use  it  makes  of  the  words 
shaya*/, '  it  is  fit  or  proper,'  and  la  shayarf, '  it  is  not  fit 
or  proper.'  And,  owing  to  its  resemblance  to  those  Persian 
miscellanies  of  traditional  memoranda  called  RivAyats,  it 
has  also  been  named  the  Pahlavi  RivAyat,  though  chiefly 
by  Europeans. 

It  consists  of  two  parts,  which  are  often  put  together  in 
modern  MSS.,  and  bear  the  same  name,  but  arc  widely 
separated  in  the  oldest  MSS.  These  two  parts,  consisting 
respectively  of  Chaps.  I-X  and  XI-XIV  in  the  present 
translation,  are  evidently  two  distinct  treatises  on  the  same 
and  similar  subjects,  but  of  nearly  the  same  age.  That 
they  were  compiled  by  two  different  persons,  who  had  access 
to  nearly  the  same  authorities,  appears  evident  from  Chaps. 
XI,  1,2.  XII,  ii,  13-16,  18,  20  being  repetitions  of  Chaps. 
1, 1,  2,  X,  4,  20-23,  7,  31,  with  only  slight  alterations  ;  such 
repetitions  as  would  hardly  be  made  in  a  single  treatise  by 
the  same  writer.  Minor  repetitions  in  the  first  part,  such 
as  those  of  some  phrases  in  Chaps.  II,  65,  IV,  14,  repeated 
in  Chap.  X,  24,  33,  might  readily  be  made  by  the  same 
writer  in  different  parts  of  the  same  treatise.  To  these  two 
parts  of  the  Shayast  lA-shayast  a  third  part  has  been  added 
in  the  present  translation,  as  an  appendix,  consisting  of  a 
number  of  miscellaneous  passages  of  a  somewhat  similar 
character,  which  are  found  in  the  same  old  MSS.  that  con- 
tain the  first  two  parts,  but  which  cannot  be  attributed 
cither  to  the  same  writers  or  the  same  age  as  those  parts. 

The  first  part  commences  with  the  names  and  amounts 
of  the  various  degrees  of  sin,  and  the  names  of  the  chief 
commentators  on  the  Vendidad.  It  then  gives  long  details 
regarding  the  precautions  to  be  taken  with  reference  to 
corpses  and  menstruous  women,  and  the  impurity  they  occa- 
sion ;  besides  mentioning  (Chap.  II,  ^3-35)  the  pollution 

in  its  opening  words,  us  follow*  : — '  This  book  is  on  "  the  proper  and  im- 
proper"  which  is  brought  out  from  the  good,  pure  riligiou  of  the  Mazda- 
yamians  ; '  though  this  term  may  possibly  relate  lo  its  own  contents.  There  is 
also  a  Persian  tienlue  called  SliiyaVt  na-shayast,  which  gives  a  good  deal 
Of  information  obtained  from  the  Persian  Rivayats,  and  copies  of  which  nrc 
contained  in  the  MSS.  Nos.  56  and  1 16  of  the  Ooscley  collection  in  the  Bodleian 
Library  at  Oxford. 

caused  by  a  serpent.  It  next  describes  the  proper  size 
and  materials  of  the  sacred  thread-girdle  and  shirt,  giving 
some  details  about  the  sins  of  running  about  uncovered  and 
walking  with  one  boot,  and  thence  proceeding  to  the  sin  of 
unseasonable  chatter.  Details  are  then  given  about  good 
works,  and  those  who  can  and  cannot  perform  them  :  in 
which  reference  is  made  to  Christians,  Jews,  and  those  of 
other  persuasions  (Chap.  VI,  7).  The  next  subjects  treated 
of  arc  reverencing  the  sun  and  fire,  the  sin  of  extinguishing 
fire,  confession  and  renunciation  of  sin,  atonement  for  sins, 
especially  mortal  sins,  both  those  affecting  others  and  those 
only  affecting  one's  own  soul ;  with  a  digression  (Chap.  VII I, 
3)  prohibiting  the  rich  from  hunting.  The  remainder  of  this 
first  treatise  is  of  a  miscellaneous  character,  referring  to  the 
following  subjects : — The  Hisar  of  time,  priests  passing  away 
in  idolatry,  the  discussion  of  religion,  ceremonies  not  done 
aright,  throwing  a  corpse  into  the  sea,  evil  of  eating  in  the 
dark,  the  four  kinds  of  worship,  when  the  angels  should 
be  invoked  in  worship,  the  ephemeral  nature  of  life,  proper 
looseness  for  a  girdle,  when  the  sacred  cake  set  aside  for  the 
guardian  spirits  can  be  used,  maintaining  a  fire  where  a  woman 
is  pregnant,  providing  a  tank  for  ablution,  the  Gathas  not 
to  be  recited  over  the  dead,  food  and  drink  not  to  be  thrown 
away  to  the  north  at  night,  unlawful  slaughter  of  animals, 
how  the  corpse  of  a  pregnant  woman  should  be  carried, 
forgiveness  of  trespasses,  evil  of  walking  without  boots, 
when  the  sacred  girdle  is  to  be  assumed,  breaking  the  spell 
of  an  inward  prayer,  ten  women  wanted  at  childbirth,  and 
how  the  infant  is  to  be  treated,  sin  of  beating  an  innocent 
person,  evil  of  a  false  judge,  men  and  women  who  do  not 
marry,  a  toothpick  must  be  free  from  bark,  acknowledging 
the  children  of  a  handmaid,  advantage  of  offspring  and  of 
excess  in  almsgiving,  prayer  on  lying  down  and  getting  up, 
Avesta  not  to  be  mumbled,  doubtful  actions  to  be  avoided 
or  consulted  about,  evil  of  laughing  during  prayer,  crowing 
of  a  hen,  treatment  of  a  hedgehog,  after  a  violent  death 
corruption  docs  not  set  in  immediately,  necessity  of  a  dog's 
gaze,  putrid  meat  and  hairy  cakes  or  butter  unfit  for  cere- 
monies, when  a  woman  can  do  priestly  duty,  &c. 

The  second  part  also  commences  with  the  names  and 
amounts  of  the  various  degrees  of  sin,  followed  by  the  pro- 
per meat- offerings  for  various  angels  and  guardian  spirits. 
Next  come  miscellaneous  observations  on  the  following 
subjects : — The  simplest  form  of  worship,  necessity  of  sub- 
mitting to  a  high-priest,  advantage  of  a  fire  in  the  house, 
sin  of  clothing  the  dead,  presentation  of  holy-water  to  the 
nearest  fire  after  a  death,  nail-parings  to  be  prayed  over, 
advantage  of  light  at  childbirth,  offerings  to  the  angels, 
maintaining  a  fire  where  a  woman  is  pregnant  and  a  child 
is  born,  a  toothpick  must  be  free  from  bark,  acknowledging 
the  children  of  a  handmaid,  advantage  of  offspring  and  of 
excess  in  almsgiving,  evil  of  drawing  well-water  at  night, 
food  not  to  be  thrown  away  to  the  north  at  night,  advantage 
of  prayer  at  feasts,  treatment  of  a  hedgehog,  praying  when 
washing  the  face,  the  proper  choice  of  a  purifying  priest,  no 
one  should  be  hopeless  of  heaven,  necessity  of  a  wife  being 
religious  as  well  as  her  husband,  the  ceremonies  which  are 
good  works,  and  the  cause  of  sneezing,  yawning,  and  sigh- 
ing. These  are  followed  by  a  long  account  of  the  mystic 
signification  of  the  G&thas,  with  some  information  as  to  the 
errors  which  may  be  committed  in  consecrating  the  sacred 
cakes,  and  how  the  beginning  of  the  morning  watch  is  to  be 

The  third  part,  or  appendix,  commences  with  an  account 
of  how  each  of  the  archangels  can  be  best  propitiated,  by  a 
proper  regard  for  the  particular  worldly  existence  which  he 
specially  protects.  This  is  followed  by  a  statement  of  the 
various  degrees  of  sin,  and  of  the  amount  of  good  works 
attributed  to  various  ceremonies.  Then  come  some  account 
of  the  ceremonies  after  a  death,  particulars  of  those  who 
have  no  part  in  the  resurrection,  the  duty  of  submission  to 
the  priesthood,  whether  evil  may  be  done  for  the  sake  of 
good,  the  place  where  people  will  rise  from  the  dead, 
Aeshm's  complaint  to  Aharman  of  the  three  things  he  could 
not  injure  in  the  world,  the  occasions  on  which  the  Ahuna- 
var  formula  should  be  recited,  and  the  number  of  recitals 
that  arc  requisite,  &c.  And,  finally,  statements  of  the 
lengths  of  midday  and  afternoon  shadows,  blessings  invoked 

from  the  thirty  angels  and  archangels  who  preside  over  the 
days  of  the  month,  and  the  special  epithets  of  the  same. 

With  regard  to  the  age  of  this  treatise  we  have  no  precise 
information.  All  three  parts  are  found  in  a  MS.  (M6) 
which  was  written  in  A.D.  I$9J  (see  p.  xxix),  and  nearly 
the  whole  is  also  found  in  the  MS.  K20,  which  may  be  a 
few  years  older  (see  p.  xxvii).  and  in  which  the  first  part  of 
the  Shayast  la-shayast  is  followed  by  a  Persian  colophon 
dated  AY.  700  (a. n.  1331),  copied  probably  from  an  older 
MS.  The  text  in  both  these  old  MSS.  seems  to  have  been 
derived  almost  direct  from  the  same  original,  which  must 
have  been  so  old  when  M6  was  written  that  the  copyist 
•  1  some  words  illegible  (see  notes  on  Chaps.  VIII,  w;, 
X,  34.  XII,  14.  15,  &c).  Now  it  is  known  from  a  colophon 
that  a  portion  of  M6,  containing  the  book  of  Ar^a-Virilf 
and  the  tale  of  Gdrt-i  Fryano,  was  copied  from  a  MS. 
written  in  A. D.  1249  ;  and  we  may  safely  conclude  that  the 
Shayast-la-shayast  was  copied,  cither  from  the  same  MS., 
or  from  one  fully  as  old.  So  far,  therefore,  as  external  evi- 
dence goes,  there  is  every  reason  to  suppose  that  the  whole 
of  the  Shayast  l<l-shayast,  with  its  appendix  ',  was  existing 
in  a  MS.  written  about  630  years  ago. 

But  internal  evidence  points  to  a  far  higher  antiquity 
for  the  first  two  parts,  as  the  compilers  of  those  treatises 
evidently  had  access,  not  only  to  several  old  commentaries, 
but  also  to  many  of  the  Nasks.  which  have  long  been  lost. 
Thus,  the  first  treatise  contains  quotations  from  the  com- 
mentaries of  Afarg,  Gdgdjasp,  Kushtand-bu^eV/,  Mfe/olc- 
mah.  Roshan.  and  Soshyans,  which  are  all  frequently 
quoted  in  the  Pahlavi  translation  of  the  Vendidad  (see  Sis. 
4,  notes) ;  besides  mentioning  the  opinions  of  Man/- 
htid.  tng,  Nosal  Burc-Mitrd,  and  Vand-Auharmazd, 

who  arc  rarely  or  never  mentioned  in  the  Pahlavi  Vendidad. 
It  also  quotes  no  less  than  eleven  of  the  twenty  Nasks  or 
books  of  the  complete  Mazdayasnian  literature  which  are 
no  longer  extant,  besides  the  Vendidad,  the  only  Nask  that 
still  survives  in  the  full  extent  it  had  in  Sasanian  times. 

The  Nasks  quoted  arc  the  Sturfgar  (Sis.  X,  8),  the  Bagh 
(X,  26),  the  Damt'a//  (X,  22),  the  Pa^6n  (IX,  tf)t  the  Ratur- 
t.iiiih  (X,  29\  the  A'tfr&rt  (X,  28),  the  Spend  (X,  4),  the 
Niha</um  (X,  3,  as,  »$),  the  DObasrQ^e^  (X,  13X  the  Hus- 
•n  (X,  21),  and  the  Saka^um  (X,  25),  very  few  of  which 
are  mentioned  even  in  the  Pahlavi  Vendidad.  The  second 
treatise  mentions  only  one  commentator,  Vand-Auharmazd, 
but  it  quotes  eight  of  the  Nasks  no  longer  extant ;  these 
are  the  StiVgar  (Sis.  XII,  32),  the  Damda^  (XII,  r>,  *5), 
the  Spend  (XII,  3,  11,  1.5,  29),  the  Bag-yasno  (XII,  17), 
the  NihiWam  (XII,  15,  16),  the  Husparam  (XII.  1,  7,  M. 
31,  XIII,  17),  the  Sakad'um  (XII,  2,  io,  12,  XIII,  30),  and 
the  Ha</6kht  (XII,  19,  30,  XIII,  6,  10). 

Of  two  of  these  Nasks,  the  Bagh  and  Har/dkht,  a  few 
fragments  may  still  survive  (see  notes  on  Sis.  X,  26,  Hang's 
Essays,  p.  134,  B.  Yt.  Ill,  25),  but  those  of  the  latter  Nask  do 
not  appear  to  contain  the  passages  quoted  in  the  Shayast 
,'iyast.  With  regard  to  the  rest  we  only  know  that  the 
Damda/41",  Husparam,  and  Saka*/um  must  have  been  still  in 
existence  about  A.  t».  88 1,  as  they  are  quoted  in  the  writings 
of  Zart'-sparam  and  Manujvtihar,  sons  of  Yudan-Yim,  who 
lived  at  that  time  (see  pp.  xlii,  xlvi) ;  and  the  NihA//um 
and  Husparam  are  also  quoted  in  the  Pahlavi  Vendidad. 
It  is  true  that  the  Dinkar^/  gives  copious  information  about 
the  contents  of  all  the  Nasks,  with  two  or  three  exceptions  ; 
and  the  Dinkar*/  seems  to  have  assumed  its  present  form 
about  A.  i>.  900  (see  Bund.  XXXI II,  n,  notes);  but  its  last 
editor  was  evidently  merely  a  compiler  of  old  fragments, 
so  there  is  no  certainty  that  many  of  the  Nasks  actuilly 
existed  in  his  time. 

Thus  far,  therefore,  the  internal  evidence  seems  to  prove 
that  the  two  treatises  called  Shayast  la-shayast,  which  con- 
titute  the  first  two  parts  of  the  present  translation,  are 
more  than  a  thousand  years  old.  On  the  other  hand,  they 
cannot  be  more  than  three  centuries  older,  because  they 
frequently  quote  passages  from  the  Pahlavi  Vendidad 
which,  as  we  have  seen  (p.  xlvi,  note  1),  could  not  have  as- 
sumed its  present  form  before  the  time  of  Khusr6  N6shir- 
van  (a.D.  531-579)-     As  they  contain  no  reference  to  any 



interference  of  the  governing  powers  With  the  religion  or 
thood,  it  is  probable  that  they  were  written  before  the 
Muhammadan  conquest  (A.  D.  636-651),  although  they  do 
not  mention  the  existence  of  any  '  king  of  the  kings,'  the 
usual  title  of  the  Sasanian  monarchs.  And  this  probability 
is  increased  by  there  being  no  direct  mention  of  Muham- 
madanism  among  the  contemporary  religions  named  in 
Chap.  VI.  7,  unless  we  assume  that  passage  to  be  a  quota- 
tion from  an  earlier  book.  We  may.  therefore,  conclude, 
with  tolerable  certainty,  that  the  Pahlavi  text  of  the  first 
two  parts  of  the  present  translation  of  the  Sluyast  Ik- 
shayast  was  compiled  some  time  in  the  seventh  century 
but,  like  the  BundahLr  and  Rahman  Yart,  it  was,  for  the 
most  part,  a  compilation  of  extracts  and  translations  from 
far  older  writings,  and  may  also  have  been  rearrang  d 
shortly  after  the  Muhammadan  conquest. 

The  fragments  which  are  collected  in  the  appendix,  or 
third  part  of  the  present  translation,  are  probably  of  various 
ages,  and  several  of  them  may  not  be  more  than  seven  cen- 
turies old.  The  commentator  Cakht-afri^,  whose  work 
(now  lost)  is  quoted  in  Chap.  XX,  II,  may  have  lived  in 
the  time  of  Kh£isr6  Noshirvan  (see  B.  Yt  I,  7).  And 
Chap.  XX I  must  certainly  have  been  written  in  Persia,  as 
the  lengths  of  noonday  shadows  which  it  mentions  are  only 
suitable  for  32°  north  latitude.  As  regards  the  last  two 
chapters  we  have  no  evidence  that  they  are  quite  five  cen- 
turies old. 

For  the  Pahlavi  text  of  the  Shayast  la-shayast  and  its 
appendix  we  have  not  only  the  very  old  codex  M6  (see 
p.  xxix)  for  the  whole  of  it,  but  also  the  equally  old  codex 
1  for  all  but  Chaps.  X  V-XVTI.'XX,  XXII, 
and  XXIII  in  the  appendix.  In  M6  the  first  two  parts  are 
separated  by  twenty  folios,  containing  the  Farhang-i  Oim- 
khaduk,  and  the  second  part  is  separated  from  the  first 
three  chapters  of  the  appendix  by  four  folios,  containing 
the  Patit-i  KMd ;  the  next  three  chapters  of  the  appendix 
are  from  the  latter  end  of  the  second  volume  of  Mr»,  Chap. 
XXI  is  from  the  middle  of  the  same,  and  the  last  two  chap- 
ters are  from  some  additional  folios  at  the  beginning  of  the 



r\HI.AVI   texts. 

first  volume.     In  K20  the  first  two  parts  are  separated  by 

the    Farh; 


ninety-two  folios,  contami 
Bundahij,  Bahman  Yajt,  and  several  other  Pahlavi  and 
Avcsta  texts;  Chap.  XVIII  prcccxlcs  the  first  part,  Chap. 
XIX  precedes  the  second  part,  and  Chap.  XXI  is  in  an 
earlier  part  of  the  MS. 

Derived  from  K20  arc  the  two  modern  copies  P"  and 
K21  {sec  p.  xxviii).  Derived  from  M6  are  the  modern 
copy  of  the  first  two  parts  in  Mo  (No.  9  of  the  Haug  col- 
lection in  the  State  Library  at  Munich),  a  copy  of  Chaps. 
XIV,  XV  in  Li 5  (No.  15  of  the  collection  of  Avesta  and 
Pahlavi  MSS.  in  the  India  Office  Library  at  London),  a 
copy  of  Chap.  XX,  4-17  in  O121  (No.  121  of  the  Ouscley 
collection  in  the  Bodleian  Library  at  Oxford,  see  p.  xxx), 
and  a  copy  of  Chap.  XVIII  in  Dastur  Jamaspji's  MS.  of 
the  BundahLy  at  Bombay.  While  an  independent  Pahlavi 
version  of  Chap.  XXIII  occurs  in  a  very  old  codex  in  the 
library  of  the  high-priest  of  the  Parsis  at  Bombay,  which 
version  has  been  used  for  the  text  of  the  present  transla- 
tion, because  that  chapter  is  incomplete  in  M6. 

Pazand  versions  of  some  of  the  chapters,  chiefly  in 
appendix,  are  to  be  found  in  some  MSS.,  but  all  derived 
apparently  from  M6.  Thus,  in  the  Pazand  MSS.  L7  and 
L22  (Nos.  7  and  22  in  the  India  Office  Library  at  London, 
see  p.  xxxi),  written  in  Avesta  characters,  Chaps.  XVIII, 
XX.  XV  follow  the  last  chapter  of  the  Bundalm,  and  Chap. 
XIV  occurs  a  few  folios  further  on.  And  in  the  Pazand 
MS.  M7  (No.  7  of  the  Haug  collection  in  the  State  Library 
at  Munich),  written  in  Persian  characters,  the  following 
detached  passages  occur  in  a  miscellaneous  collection  of 
extracts  (fols.  j  26-1 33)  .—Chaps.  XX,  14-16,  X,  18,  19, 
IX,  9,  10,  XX,  19,  13,4,5- VIII,  2,  4-14,  XX.  11.  A  Per- 
sian version  of  Chap.  XVIII  also  occurs  in  Mj  (No.  5  of 
the  same  collection)  on  fol.  54, 

It  docs  not  appear  that  the  Shayast  la-shayast  has  ever 
been  hitherto  translated  into  any  European  language1,  nor 

1  Except  Chap.  XVIII,  which  was  translated  into  German  by  Justi,  as  ihe 
last  chapter  of  his  translation  of  the  Bundahu  (see  p.  xxvi). 



is  any  Persian  or  Gu^arati  translation  of  it  known  to  the 
present  translator,  though  a  good  deal  of  the  matter  it  con- 
tains may  be  found  in  the  Persian  Rivayats,  but  generally 
D  in  a  different  form.  Owing  to  the  technical  charac- 
ter of  the  treatise,  it  is  hazardous  for  any  one  but  a  Parsi 
priest  lo  attempt  to  translate  it,  so  that  errors  will,  no 
doubt,  be  apparent  to  the  initiated  in  the  present  transla- 
tion. At  the  same  time  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that  the 
laws  and  customs  mentioned  in  the  text  were  those  current 
in  Persia  twelve  centuries  ago,  which  may  be  expected  to 
differ,  in  many  details,  from  those  of  the  Parsis  En  India  at 
the  present  day.  This  is  a  consideration  which  a  Parsi 
translator  might  be  too  apt  to  ignore  ;  so  that  his  thorough 
knowledge  of  present  customs,  though  invaluable  for  the 
decipherment  of  ambiguous  phrases,  might  lead  him  astray 
when  dealing  with  clear  statements  of  customs  and  rules 
now  obsolete  and,  therefore,  at  variance  with  his  precon- 
ceived ideas  of  propriety. 

7.    Concluding  Remarks. 

The  Pahlavi  texts  selected  for  translation  in  this  volume 
are  specimens  of  three  distinct  species  of  writings.  Thus, 
the  Bundahij  and  its  appendix,  which  deal  chiefly  with 
cosmogony,  myths,  and  traditions,  may  be  roughly  com- 
pared to  the  book  of  Genesis.  The  Bahman  Yast,  which 
professes  to  be  prophetical,  may  be  likened  unto  the  Apoca- 
lypse. And  the  Shayast  la-shayast,  which  treats  of  reli- 
gious laws  regarding  impurity,  sin,  ritual,  and  miscellaneous 
matters,  bears  some  resemblance  to  Leviticus.  But,  though 
thus  dealing  with  very  different  .subjects,  these  texts  appear 
to  have  all  originated  in  much  the  same  manner,  a  manner 
which  is  characteristic  of  the  oldest  class  of  the  Pahlavi 
writings  still  extant.  All  three  are  full  of  translations  from 
old  Avesta  texts,  collected  together  probably  in  the  latter 
days  of  the  Sasanian  dynasty,  and  finally  rearranged  some 
time  after  the  Muhammadan  conquest  of  Persia  ;  so  that, 
practically,  they  may  be  taken  as  representing  the  ideas 
entertained  of  their  prehistoric  religion  by  Persians  in  the 

e  2 



sixth  century,  but  modified  so  far  as  to  suit  the  taste  and 
exigencies  of  the  tenth. 

But,  notwithstanding  the  wide  range  of  subjects  embraced 
by  these  texts,  it  would  be  rash  for  the  reader  to  assume 
that  they  afford  him  sufficient  information  for  forming  a 
decided  opinion  as  to  the  character  of  the  Parsi  religion. 
The  texts  translated  in  this  volume  contain  barely  one- 
eleventh  part  of  the  religious  literature  extant  in  the  Pah- 
lavi  language,  without  taking  the  Pahlavi  versions  of  existing 
Avesta  texts  into  account,  which  latter  are  even  more 
important  than  the  former,  from  a  religious  point  of  view, 
as  they  arc  considered  more  authoritative  by  the  Parsis 
themselves.  What  proportion  the  literature  extant  may 
bear  to  that  which  is  lost  it  is  impossible  to  guess  ;  but, 
omitting  all  consideration  of  the  possible  contents  of  the 
lost  literature,  it  is  obvious  that  the  remaining  ten-elevenths 
of  that  which  is  extant  may  contain  much  which  would 
modify  any  opinion  based  merely  upon  the  one-eleventh 
here  translated.  What  the  untranslated  portion  actually 
contains  no  one  really  knows.  The  best  Pahlavi  scholar 
can  never  be  sure  that  he  understands  the  contents  of 
a  Pahlavi  text  until  he  has  fully  translated  it ;  no  amount 
of  careful  reading  can  make  him  certain  that  he  does  not 
misunderstand  some  essential  part  of  it,  and  were  he  to 
assert  the  contrary  he  would  be  merely  misleading  others 
and  going  astray  himself.  How  far  the  translations  in  this 
volume  will  enable  the  reader  to  judge  of  the  Parsi  religion 
may  perhaps  be  best  understood  by  considering  how  far 
a  careful  perusal  of  the  books  of  Genesis,  Leviticus,  and 
the  Revelation,  which  constitute  one-eleventh  part  of  the 
Protestant  Bible,  would  enable  him  to  judge  of  Christianity, 
without  any  further  information. 

But,  though  these  translations  must  be  considered  merely 
as  a  contribution  towards  a  correct  account  of  mcdi.eval 
Zoroastrianism,  the  Bundahij  does  afford  some  very  defi- 
nite information  upon  one  of  the  fundamental  doctrines  of 
that  faith.  The  Parsi  religion  lias  long  been  represented  by 
its  opponents  as  a  dualism  ;  and  this  accusation,  made  in 
good    faith   by   Muhammadan   writers,  and   echoed    more 



eternity  of  evil  as  Christianity  does,  and  that  Christianity 
has  been  content  to  leave  all  its  other  ideas  about  the  devil 
in  a  very  hazy  and  uncertain  form,  while  Zoroastrianism 
has  not  shrunk  from  carrying  similar  ideas  to  their  logical 
conclusion.  If,  therefore,  a  belief  in  Aharman,  as  the  author 
of  evil,  makes  the  Tarsi  religion  a  dualism,  it  is  difficult  to 
understand  why  a  belief  in  the  devil,  as  the  author  of  evil, 
docs  not  make  Christianity  also  a  dualism.  At  any  rate, 
it  is  evident  from  the  Bundahtf  that  a  Christian  is  treading 
on  hazardous  ground  when  he  objects  to  Zoroastrianism  on 
the  score  of  its  dualism. 

Another  misrepresentation  of  the  Parsi  religion  is  shown 
to  have  no  foundation  in  fact,  by  a  passage  in  the  Selections 
of  Za</-sparam.  Several  writers,  both  Greek  and  Armenian, 
contemporaries  of  the  Sasanian  dynasty,  represent  the  Per- 
sians as  believing  that  both  Auharmazd  and  Aharman  were 
produced  by  an  eternal  being,  who  is  evidently  a  personifi- 
cation of  the  Avesta  phrase  for  '  boundless  time.'  This 
view  was  apparently  confirmed  by  a  passage  in  Anquctil 
Dupcrron's  French  translation  of  the  Vendidad  (XIX, 
32-34),  but  this  has  long  been  known  to  be  a  mistrans- 
lation due  to  Anquetil's  ignorance  of  Avesta  grammar ;  so 
that  the  supposed  doctrine  of  'boundless  time'  being  the 
originator  of  everything  is  not  to  be  found  in  the  Avesta 
still  it  might  have  sprung  up  in  Sasanian  times.  But  the 
Selections  of  Za^-sparam  (I,  24)  distinctly  state  that  Auhar- 
mazd produced  the  creature  Zorvan  (precisely  the  term  used 
in  the  phrase '  boundless  time '  in  the  Avesta).  Here  '  time,' 
although  personified,  is  represented  as  a  creature  of  Auhar- 
mazd, produced  after  the  first  appearance  of  Aharman  ; 
which  contradicts  the  statement  of  the  Greek  and  Armenian 
writers  completely,  and  shows  how  little  reliance  can  be 
placed  upon  the  assertions  of  foreigners  regarding  matters 
which  they  view  with  antipathy  or  prejudice. 

With  reference  to  the  general  plan  of  these  translations 
of  Pahlavi  texts  a  few  remarks  seem  necessary.  In  the  first 
place,  it  will  be  obvious  to  any  attentive  reader  of  this 
introduction  that  a  translator  of  Pahlavi  has  not  merely  to 
translate,  but  also  to  edit,  the  original  text ;  and,  in  some 



cases,  he  has  even  to  discover  it.  Next,  as  regards  the 
translation,  it  has  been  already  mentioned  (p.  xxvi)  that 
the  translator's  object  is  to  make  it  as  literal  as  possible ; 
in  order,  therefore,  to  check  the  inevitable  tendency  of  free 
translation  to  wander  from  the  meaning  of  the  original 
text,  all  extra  words  added  to  complete  the  sense,  unless 
most  distinctly  understood  in  the  original,  are  italicised  in 
the  translation.  And  in  all  cases  that  seem  doubtful  the 
reader's  attention  is  called  to  the  fact  by  a  note,  though  it 
is  possible  that  some  doubtful  matters  may  be  overlooked. 

The  notes  deal  not  only  with  explanations  that  may  be 
necessary  for  the  general  reader,  but  also  with  various 
readings  and  other  details  that  may  be  useful  to  scholars ; 
they  are,  therefore,  very  numerous,  though  some  passages 
may  still  be  left  without  sufficient  explanation.  References 
to  the  Vcndidad,  Yasna,  and  Visparad  are  made  to  Spiegel's 
Ion  of  the  original  texts,  not  because  that  edition  is  supe- 
rior, or  even  equal,  in  accuracy  to  that  of  Westergaard,  but 
because  it  is  the  only  edition  which  gives  the  Pahlavi 
translations,  because  its  sections  are  shorter  and,  therefore, 
reference  to  them  is  more  definite,  and  because  the  only 
English  translation  of  the  Avcsta  hitherto  existing '  is 
based  upon  Spiegel's  edition,  and  is  divided  into  the  same 

No  attempt  has  been  made  to  trace  any  of  the  myths 
or  traditions  farther  back  than  the  Avesta,  whence  their 
descent  is  a  fact  that  can  hardly  be  disputed.  To  trace 
them  back  to  earlier  times,  to  a  supposed  Indo-Iranian 
personification  or  poetic  distortion  of  meteorological  phe- 
nomena, would  be,  in  the  present  state  of  our  knowledge, 
merely  substituting  plausible  guesses  for  ascertained  facts. 
In  many  cases,  indeed,  we  have  really  no  right  to  assume 
that  an  Avesta  myth  has  descended  from  any  such  Indo- 
Iranian  origin,  as  there  have  been  ample  opportunities  for 
the  infiltration  of  myths  from  other  sources,  yet  unknown, 

«  Bleeck's  AvcMa ;  the  Religions  Books  of  the  Parsers ;  from  Professor 
Spiegel's  German  Translation;  London,  1S64.  No:  ranch  reliance  on  be 
placed  opon  the  correctness  of  this  transition,  owing  to  defects  in  the 
German  one. 

among  the  many  nations  with  which  the  religion  of  the 
Avesta  has  come  in  contact,  both  before  and  since  the 
time  of  Zaraturt.  For,  notwithstanding  the  ingenious  rhe- 
toric of  the  expounders  of  myths,  it  is  still  as  unsafe,  from 
a  scientific  point  of  view,  to  disbelieve  the  former  existence 
of  Zaraturt  as  it  is  to  doubt  that  of  Moses,  or  any  other 
practically  prehistoric  personage,  merely  because  mythic 
tales  have  gathered  about  his  name  in  later  times,  as  they 
always  do  about  the  memory  of  any  individual  who  has 
become  famous  or  revered. 

In  many  cases  the  original  Pahlavi  word  is  appended,  in 
parentheses,  to  its  English  equivalent  in  the  translation. 
This  has  been  done  for  the  sake  of  explanation,  when  the 
word  is  technical  or  rare,  or  the  translation  is  unusual.  For, 
with  regard  to  technical  terms,  it  has  been  considered  best, 
in  nearly  all  cases,  to  translate  them  by  some  explanatory 
phrase,  in  preference  to  filling  the  translation  with  foreign 
words  which  would  convey  little  or  no  distinct  meaning  to 
the  general  reader.  Some  of  these  technical  terms  have 
almost  exact  equivalents  in  English,  such  as  those  trans- 
lated '  resurrection  '  and  '  demon,'  or  can  be  well  expressed 
by  descriptive  phrases,  such  as  '  sacred  twigs '  and  '  sacred 
cakes.'  Other  terms  are  only  approximately  rendered  by 
such  words  as  'archangel'  and  'angel;'  others  can  hardly 
be  expressed  at  all  times  by  the  same  English  words,  hut 
must  change  according  to  the  context,  such  as  the  term 
variously  rendered  by  'worship,  ceremonial,  prayer,  or 
rites.'  While  the  meaning  of  some  few  terms  is  so  tech- 
nical, complicated,  or  uncertain,  that  it  is  safer  to  use 
the  Pahlavi  word  itself,  such  as  Tanapuhar,  Frasast,  Geti- 
khari*/,  Dvardah-homast,  &c. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  nearly  all  the  technical  terms  that 
have  been  translated,  with  the  English  equivalents  generally 
used  to  express  them: — Afrin,  'blessing;'  aharmok, 
'apostate,  heretic;'  aharubo,  'righteous;'  aharubo-da</, 
'alms,  almsgiving;'  akdin6,  'infidel;'  ameshdspend, 
'archangel;'  armext,  'helpless  ;'  ast-h6m  and,'  material;' 
a usofri*/,  'propitiation,  offering;'  bagh6-bakht6,  'divine 
providence;'    baresom,   'sacred    twigs   or   twig-bundle;' 

baresomdan,  'twig  stand;'  dakhmak  (Huz.  khazan), 

*  depository*  for  the  dead  ;'  dashtanistan.  'place  for  men- 
struation;' dino,  'religion,  revelation,  religious  rites;' 
drayan-^u yi\rnih,  'unseasonable  chatter;'  drcvand, 
'  wicked  ;  •  drdno,  '  sacred  cake  ;'  dru^-,  '  fiend  ; '  frasha- 
karr/,  'renovation  of  the  universe;'  fravahar,  'guardian 
spirit ;'  fravarr/ik  an,  'days  devoted  to  the  guardian  spirits;' 
ganrAk  mainok,  'evil  spirit;'  garrij-n,  'confession  of 
sin  : '  gas,  '  period  of  the  day,  time  ; '  gAsanbar,  *  season- 
festival  ;'  gasno, '  feast  ;'  gAuj-dAk  (Av.  g&us  hudhrtu), 
4  meat-offering,  sacred  butter  ;'  ^avuZ-rastakan, '  the  he- 
terodox ;'  g\v  (Av.  gAuj  £"ivya),  'sacred  milk  ;'  gAmes, 
'bull's  urine;'  hamemal,  'accuser;'  hamre</,  'direct  pol- 
lution, contagion  ; '  hararak, '  inillennium  ; '  hikhar,  'bo- 
dily refuse;'  kAr, 'duty;'  keshvar, 'region  ;'  khayebit, 
'destroyer;'  khrafstar,  'noxious  creature  ;'  khvettik-das, 

*  next-of-kin  marriage;'  kirfak,  'good  works;'  kustik, 
'  sacred  thread-girdle  ;'  magh, '  stone  ablution-seat ;'  mai- 
nok,  'spirit ; '  marg-ar^-an,  '  worthy  of  death,  mortal  sin  ;' 
myazd, '  feast, sacred  feast ;'  nasal,  'corpse,  dead  matter;' 
nasli  katak.'  corpse  chamber  ;'  nirang,  'religious  formula, 
ritual;'  nlrangistAn,  'code  of  religious  formulas  ;'  ni\  ;t- 
yi/n,  'salutation;'    padam,  'mouth-veil;'    pa</iyu;ih, 

*  ablution,  ceremonial  ablution  ;'  pahl  um  ahvAn, '  best  ex- 
istence:' pait  re</,' indirect  pollutiun,  infection  ;'  parAh6m, 
'  h6m-juice ;'  parik,  'witch;'  patitih,  '  renunciation  of 
sin; '  patiyarak,  'adversary  ;'  poryor/keshih,*'  primitive 
faith  ; '    ta.d,  '  chief,  spiritual  chief,  primate,  high-priest  ; ' 

resurrection;'  satftih,  'the  three  nights;' 
jcda, '  demon  ;'  shapik,  '  sacred  shirt  ;'  shnayixn,  '  pro- 
pitiation, gratification;'  shn G man,  '  dedication  formula, 
propitiation  ;'  sp£nAk  mainok,'  beneficent  spirit ;'  tanu-i 
pasin6,  'future  existence;'  to^fon,  'retribution;'  t6ra-i 
k h ad u-d a </,' primeval  ox;'  va^-,' inward  prayer;' vi.g-Ari.rn, 

*  atonement  for  sin  ; '  vishatf-dubai  ijnih, '  running  about 
uncovered  ; '  yasnd,  '  ritual ; '  yajt,  '  prayers,  ritual,  form 
of  prayer,  worship,  consecration  ;'  yajtanS, '  to  consecrate, 
solemnize,  propitiate,  reverence;'  yatuk,  '  wizard  ;'  yaz- 
dan, '  angels,  sacred  beings,  celestial  beings,  God  ;'  yasi^n, 

[53  f 

'  ceremonial,  ceremony,  sacred  ceremony,  ceremonial  wor- 
ship, worship,  reverence,  rites,  prayer-,'  yedato, '  angel  ;' 
zand,  'commentary;'  zuhar  or  zor,  'holy-water;'  zot, 
'  officiating  priest.' 

With  regard  to  the  orthography  of  Pahlavi  names  and 
words,  advantage  has  been  taken  of  the  system  of  trans- 
literation adopted  for  this  series  of  Translations  of  the 
Sacred  Books  of  the  East,  by  making  use  of  italics  for  the 
purpose  of  distinguishing  between  certain  Pahlavi  letters 
which  were  probably  pronounced  very  nearly  alike.  Thus, 
besides  the  usual  letters  )  for  v  and  S  for  z,  the  Pahlavi 
letter  Q_  is  often  used  to  denote  those  same  sounds  which, 
in  such  cases,  arc  represented  by  the  italic  letters  v  and 
s.  An  extension  of  the  same  mode  of  distinction  to  the 
letters  1  and  r  would  be  desirable,  but  has  not  been 
attempted  in  this  volume  ;  these  two  letters  arc  usually 
written  ),  but  in  a  few  words  they  are  represented  by  )  or 
by  S,  in  which  cases  they  would  be  better  expressed  by 
the  italics  /  and  r.  Some  attempt  has  been  made  to  adhere 
to  one  uniform  orthography  in  such  names  as  occur  fre- 
quently, but  as  there  is  no  such  uniformity  in  the  various 
languages  and  writings  quoted,  nor  even  in  the  same  manu- 
script, some  deviations  can  hardly  be  avoided. 

In  conclusion  it  may  be  remarked  that  a  translator  of 
Pahlavi  generally  begins  his  career  by  undervaluing  the 
correctness  of  Pahlavi  texts  and  the  literary  ability  of  their 
authors,  but  he  can  hardly  proceed  far  without  finding 
abundant  reason  for  altering  his  opinion  of  both.  His 
depreciatory  view  of  Pahlavi  literature  is  generally  due 
partly  to  want  of  knowledge,  and  partly  to  his  trusting 
too  much  to  the  vile  perversions  of  Pahlavi  texts  usually 
supplied  by  Pazand  writers.  But  as  his  knowledge  of 
Pahlavi  increases  he  becomes  better  able  to  appreciate 
the  literary  merits  of  the  texts.  If  the  reader  should  have 
already  formed  some  such  low  estimate  of  the  ability  of 
Pahlavi  writers,  it  may  be  hoped  that  these  translations 
will  afford  him  sufficient  reason  for  changing  his  opinion ; 
if  not,  they  will  have  signally  failed  in  doing  those  writers 




[5]  B 


i.  For  all  divisions  into  chapters  and  sections  the  translator  is 
responsible,  as  the  original  text  is  written  continuously,  with  very 
few  stops  marked. 

2.  Italics  are  used  for  any  English  words  which  are  not  ex- 
pressed, or  fully  understood,  in  the  original  text,  but  are  added  to 
complete  the  sense  of  the  translation. 

3.  Oriental  words  are  usually  'spaced.'  Italics  occurrinj:  in 
them,  or  in  names,  are  intended  to  represent  certain  peculiar  Ori- 
ental letters.  The  italic  consonants  d,  n,  v  may  be  pronounced 
as  in  English  ;  but  g  should  be  sounded  like  y,  hv  like  wh,  k  like 
ch  in  'church,'  n  like  ng,  s  like  sh,  z  like  French  j.  For  further 
information,  see  '  Transliteration  of  Oriental  Alphabets  adopted  for 
the  Translations  of  the  Sacred  Books  of  the  East'  at  die  end  of 
the  volume. 

4.  In  Pahlavi  words  all  ctrcumflexed  vowels  and  any  final  6  are 
expressed  in  the  Pahlavi  original,  but  all  other  vowels  arc  merely 

-,.  In  the  translation,  words  in  parentheses  are  merely  explana- 
tory of  those  which  precede  them. 

6.  Abbreviations  used  arc : — Av.  for  Avcsta.  Y)Li.  for  Da</i- 
slfin-i  Dfnik.  Huz.  for  Huzvarii.  Mkh.  for  Mainyo-i-kharrf,  ed. 
West.  Pahl.  for  Pahlavi.  Paz.  for  PSzand.  Pers.  for  Persian. 
Sans,  for  Sanskrit.  Vend,  for  Wndidad,  ed.  Spiegel.  Visp.  for 
Visparad,  ed.  Sp.  Yas.  for  Yasna,  ed.  Sp.  Yu  for  Yajt,  ed. 

7.  The  manuscripts  mentioned  in  the  notes  are  : — 

K20  (about  500  years  old),  No.  20  in  the  University  Library  at 

K2ob  (uncertain  date),  a  fragment  of  the  text,  No.  20b  in  the 
same  library. 

M6  (written  a.d.  1397),  No.  6  of  the  Haug  Collection  in  the 
Stale  Library  at  Munich. 

TD  (written  about  a.d.  1530),  belonging  to  Mobad  Tehmuras 
Dinshawji  Anklesaria  at  Bombay. 


Chapter  I. 

o.  In  the  name  of  the  creator  Auharmazd. 

i.  The  Zand-akas  ('  Zand-knowing  or  tradition- 
informed  ')',  which  is  first  about  Auharmazd's  original 
creation  and  the  antagonism  of  the  evil  spirit 2,  a?ui 
afterwards  about  the  nature  of  the  creatures  from 
the  original  creation  till  the  end,  which  is  the  future 
existence  (tanu-I  paslno).  2.  As  revealed  by  the 
gion  of  the  Mazdayasnians,  so  it  is  declared  that 
Auharmazd  is  supreme  in  omniscience  and  goodness, 

*  The  Pazand  and  most  of  ihe  modern  Pablavi  manuscripts 
have,  'From  the  Zand-akas, '  but  the  word  min,  'from,'  floes  not 
occur  in  the  old  manuscript  K20,  and  is  a  modern  addition  to 
M6.  From  this  opening  sentence  it  would  appear  that  the  author 
of  the  work  gave  it  the  name 

*  The  Avesta  Angra-mainyu,  die  spirit  who  causes  adversity  or 
anxiety  (sec  Darmesteter's  Ormazd  et  Ahriman,  pp.  92-95);  the 
Pablavi  name  is,  most  probably,  merely  a  corrupt  transliteration  of 
ihe  Avesta  form,  and  may  btr  read  Ganrak-mainflk,  as  the  Avesta 
Spenta-mainyu,  the  spirit  who  causes  prosperity,  has  become 
Spfnak-malndk  in  Pahlavi.  This  latter  spirit  is  represented  by 
Auharmazd  himself  in  the  BundahU.  The  Pahlavi  word  for 'spirit,' 
which  is  read  madonad  by  the  Parsis,  and  has  been  pronounced 
minavad  by  some  scholars  and  minoi  by  others,  is  probably  a 
corruption  of  maindk,  as  its  Sasanian  form  was  mind.  If  it  were 
not  for  the  exua  medial  letter  in  ganrak,  and  for  the  obvious 
partial  transliteration  of  spenak,  it  would  be  preferable  to  read 
ganak,  'smiting.'  and  to  derive  it  from  a  supposed  verb  gandan,  'to 
smite'  (Av.ghna),  as  proposed  by  most  Zendists.  A  Parsi  would 
probably  suggest  gandan,  'to  stink.' 

B  2 


and  unrivalled  !  in  splendour ;  the  region  of  light  is 
the  place  of  Auharmazd.  which  they  call  'endless 
light,'  and  the  omniscience  and  goodness  of  the 
unrivalled  Auharmazd  is  what  they  call '  revelation5/ 
3,  Revelation  is  the  explanation  of  both  spirits 
together;  one  is  he  who  is  independent  of  unlimited 
time3,  because  Auharmazd  and  the  region,  religion, 
and  time  of  Auharmazd  were  and  are  and  ever 
will  be;  while  Aharman4  in  darkness,  with  backward 
understanding  and  desire  for  destruction,  was  in  the 
abyss,  and  it  is  /ie  who  will  not  be ;  and  the  place 
of  that  destruction,  and  also  of  that  darkness,  is 
what  they  call  the  '  endlessly  dark.'  4.  And  between 
them  was  empty  space,  that  is,  what  they  call  *  air/ 
in  which  is  now  their  meeting. 

5.  Both  are  limited  and  unlimited  spirits,  for  the 
supreme  is  that  which  they  call  endless  light,  and 
the  abyss  that  which  is  endlessly  dark,  so  that  be- 
tween them  is  a  void,  and  one  is  not  connected  with 

1  Reading  aham-kai,  'without  a  fellow-sovereign,  peerless,  un- 
rivalled, independent.'  This  rare  word  occurs  three  times  in  §§  2. 
3,  and  some  Pazand  writers  suggest  the  meaning  '  everlasting '  (by 
means  of  the  Persian  gloss  hami-tali),  which  is  plausible  enough, 
but  hamnkt  would  be  an  extraordinary  mode  of  writing  the  very 
common  word  ham  at,  '  ever.' 

a  The  word  din6  (properly  d£n6),  Av.  da6na,  being  traceable 
to  a  root  at,  '  to  sec,'  must  originally  have  meant  *  a  vision '  (see 
Haug's  Essays  on  the  Religion  of  the  Parsis,  2nd  ed.  p.  152,  note  2), 
whence  the  term  has  been  transferred  to  '  religion  'and  all  religious 
observances,  rules,  and  writings ;  so  it  may  be  translated  either  by 
*  relipion  '  or  by  '  revelation.' 

*  This  appears  to  be  the  meaning,  but  the  construction  of  §  3  is 
altogether  rather  obscure,  and  suggestive  of  omissions  in  the  text. 

4  The  usual  name  of  the  evil  spirit ;  it  is  probably  an  older  cor- 
ruption of  Angra-mainyu  than  Ganrak-ma?n6k,  and  a 
technical  term,     lis  Sasanian  form  was  Aharmani. 

the  other;  and,  again,  both  spirits  are  limited  as  to 
their  own  selves.  6.  And,  secondly,  on  account  of 
the  omniscience  of  Auharmazd,  both  things  are  in 
the  creation  of  Auharmazd,  the  finite  and  the  infinite  ; 
for  this  they  know  is  that  which  is  in  the  covenant 
of  both  spirits.  7.  And,  again,  the  complete  sove- 
reignty of  the  creatures  of  Auharmazd  is  in  the 
future  existence,  and  that  also  is  unlimited  for  ever 
and  everlasting;  and  the  creatures  of  Aharman  will 
perish  at  the  time  when  l  the  future  existence  occurs, 
and  that  also  is  eternity. 

8.  Auharmazd,  through  omniscience,  knew  that 
Aharman  exists,  and  whatever  he  schemes  he  in- 
fuses with  malice  and  greediness  till  the  end ;  and 
because  He  accomplishes  the  end  by  many  means, 
He  also  produced  spiritually  the  creatures  which 
were  necessary  for  those  means,  and  they  remained 
three  thousand  years  in  a  spiritual  state,  so  that  they 
were  unthinking2  and  unmoving,  with  intangible 

9.  The  evil  spirit,  on  account  of  backward  know- 
ledge, was  not  aware  of  the  existence  of  Auharmazd; 
and,  afterwards,  he  arose  from  the  abyss,  and  came 
in  unto  the  light  which  he  saw.  10.  Desirous  of 
destroying,  and  because  of  his  malicious  nature.  li« 

1  Substituting  amat,  'when,'  for  mun,'  'which,'  two  Huzvarix 
forms  which  arc  frequently  confounded  by  Pahlavi  copyists  be- 
cause their  Pazand  equivalents,  ka  and  kc,  are  nearly  alike, 

*  Reading  arainiVar  in  accordance  with  M6,  which  has  amirn- 
b  Chap.  XXXIV.  1,  where  the  same  phrase  occurs.  Windi-ch- 
mann  and  Jusii  read  amuitar,  '  uninjured,  invulnerable,'  in  both 
places.  This  sentence  appears  to  refer  to  a  preparatory  creation  of 
embryonic  and  immaterial  existences,  the  prototypes,  fravashis, 
spiritual    t  as,   or   guardian    angels    of  the  spiritual  and 

material  creature*  afterwards  produced. 

rushed  in  to  destroy  that  light  of  Auharmazd  unas- 
sailed  by  fiends,  and  he  saw  its  bravery  and  glory 
were  greater  than  his  own  ;  so  he  fled  back  to  the 
gloomy  darkness,  and  formed  many  demons  and 
fiends ;  and  the  creatures  of  the  destroyer  arose  for 

1 1.  Auharmazd.  by  whom  the  creatures  of  the  evil 
spirit  were  seen,  creatures  terrible,  corrupt,  and  bad, 
also  considered  them  not  commendable  (biirzisnlk). 
12.  Afterwards,  the  evil  spirit  saw  the  creatures  of 
Auharmazd  ;  they  appeared  many  creatures  of 
light  (vayah),  enquiring  creatures,  and  they  seemed 
to  him  commendable,  and  he  commended  the  crea- 
tures and  creation  of  Auharmazd. 

1 3.  Then  Auharmazd,  with  a  knowledge1  of  which 
way  the  end  of  the  matter  would  6e,  went  to  meet 
the  evil  spirit,  and  proposed  peace  to  him,  and  spoke 
thus :  '  Evil  spirit !  bring  assistance  unto  my  crea- 
tures, and  offer  praise !  so  that,  in  reward  for  it, 
ye  (you  and  your  creatures)  may  become  immortal 
and  undecayi  ng,  hungerless  and  thirstless.' 

14.  And  the  evil  spirit  shouted  thus2:  '  1  will  not 
depart,  I  will  not  provide  assistance  for  diy  crea- 
tures, I  will  not  offer  praise  among  thy  creatures, 
and  I  am  not  of  the  same  opinion  with  thee  as  to 
good  things.  I  will  destroy  thy  creatures  for  ever 
and  everlasting;  moreover,  I  will  force  all  thy 
creatures  into  disaffection  to  thee  and  affection  for 
myself.'  15.  And  the  explanation  thereof  is  this. 
that  the  evil  spirit  reflected   in   this  manner,   that 

1  The  Huz.  khavttunast  stands  for  the  Paz.  danist  with  ihi- 
uieaning,  here,  of '  what  is  known,  knowledge,'  as  in  Persian. 

"  Literally,  '  And  it  was  shouted  by  him,  the  evil  spirit,  thus  : ' 
the  usual  idiom  when  the  nominative  follows  the  verb. 

CHAPTER    I,    II-20. 

Atiharmazd  was  helpless  as  regarded  him1,  therefore 
He  proffers  peace ;  and  he  did  not  agree,  but  bore 
on  even  into  conflict  with  Him. 

16.  And  Auharmazd  spoke  thus:  'You  are  not 
omniscient  and  almighty,  O  evil  spirit!  so  that  it  is 
not  j>ossiblc  for  thee  to  destroy  me,  and  it  is  not 
possible  for  thee  to  force  my  creatures  so  that  they 
r.  ill  not  return  to  my  possession.' 

17.  Then  Auharmazd,  through  omniscience,  knew 
that:   If  I   do  not  grant  a  period  of  contest,  then  it 

be  possible  for  him  to  act  so  that  he  may  be 
able  to  cause  the  seduction  of  my  creatures  to  him- 
self. As  even  now  there  are  many  of  the  inter- 
mixture of  mankind  who  practise  wrong  more  than 
right  18.  And  Auharmazd  spoke  to  the  evil  spirit 
thus:  'Appoint  a  period!  so  that  the  intermingling 
of  the  conflict  may  be  for  nine  thousand  years.'  For 
he  knew  that  by  appointing  this  period  the  evil 
spirit  would  be  undone. 

19.  Then  the  evil  spirit,  unobservant  and  through 
ignorance,  was  content  with  that  agreement ;  just 
like  two  men  quarrelling  together,  who  propose  a 
time  thus  :  Let  us  appoint  such-and-such  a  day  for  a 

20.  Auharmazd  also  knew  this,  through  omni- 
science, that  within  these  nine  thousand  years,  for 
three  thousand  years  everything  proceeds  by  the  will 
of  Auharmazd,  three    thousand   years    there  is  an 

rmingling  of  the  wills  of  Auharmazd  and  Ahar- 
man,  and  the  last  three  thousand  years  the  evil 
spirit  is  disabled,  and  they  keep  the  adversary  away 2 
from  the  creatures. 

1  The  words  din  val  stand  for  dfin  valman. 

1  That  is,  '  the  adversary  is  kept  away.'     In  Pahlavi  the  third 



21.  Afterwards,  Auharmazd  recited  the  Ahunavar 
thus:  Yatha  ahu  vairyd  ('as  a  heavenly  lord  is  to 
be  chosen'),  &C.1  once,  and  uttered  tin-  twenty-one 
words2;  He  also  exhibited  to  the  evil  spirit  His 
own  triumph  in  the  end,  and  the  impotence  of  the 
evil  spirit,  the  annihilation  of  the  demons,  and  the 
resurrection  and  undisturbed  future  existence  of  the 
creatures  for  ever  and  everlasting.  22.  And  the  evil 
spirit,  who  perceived  his  own  impotence  and  the 
annihilation  of  the  demons,  became  confounded,  and 
fell  back  to  the  gloomy  darkness ;  even  so  as  is 
declared  in  revelation,  that,  when  one  of  its  (the 
Ahunavar's)  three  parts  was  uttered,  the  evil  spirit 
contracted  his  body  through  fear,  and  when  two 
parts  of  it  were  uttered  he  fell  upon  his  knees,  and 
when  all  of  it  was  uttered  he  became  confounded 

person  plural  is  the  indefinite  person,  as  in  English.  These  9000 
years  are  in  addition  to  the  3000  mentioned  in  §  8,  as  appears  more 
clearly  in  Chap.  XXXI V,  1. 

1  This  is  the  most  sacred  formula  of  the  Parsis,  which  they  have 
to  recite  frequently,  not  only  during  the  performance  of  their  cere- 
monies, hut  also  in  connection  with  most  of  their  ordinary  dulie* 
and  habits.  It  is  neither  a  prayer,  nor  a  creed,  but  a  declaratory 
formula  in  metre,  consisting  of  one  stanza  of  three  lines,  containing 
twenty-one  Avesta  words,  as  follows :  — 

Yatha  ahfi  v.iiryo,  athil  ratur,  asha*/  k\d  b&Jft, 
Vanglvus  dazda  mananghfl,  xkyaothnanSm  anghius  mazd&i, 
KhshathremH  ahurai  a,  yim  dregubyo  dada«f  vastarem. 
And  it  may  be  translated  in  the  following  manner :  '  As  a  heavenly 
lord  is  to  be  chosen,  so  is  an  earthly  master  (spiritual  guide),  for 
the  sake  of  righteousness,  to  be  a  giver  of  the  good  thoughts  of 
the  actions  of  life  towards  Mazda;  and  the  dominion  is  for  the 
lord  (Ahura)  whom  he  (Mazda)  has  given  as  a  protector  for  the 
poor '  (see  Haug's  Essays  on  the  Religion  of  the  Parsis,  and  ed. 
pp.  125,  141). 

*  The  word  marik  must  mean  '  word '  here,  but  in  some  other 
places  it  seems  to  mean  '  syllable '  or  '  accented  syllable.' 


and  impotent  as  to  the  harm  he  eaused  the  creatures 
of  Auharmazd,  and  he  remained  three  thousand 
years  in  confusion1. 

.  Auharmazd  created  his  creatures  in  the  con- 
fusion of  Aharman ;  first  he  produced  Vohuman 
('  good  thought '),  by  whom  the  progress  of  the 
creatures  of  Auharmazd  was  advanced. 

24.  The  evil  spirit  first  created  -  Mitokht  ('  false- 
hood'), and  then  Akoman  ('evil  thought). 

25.  The  first  of  Auharmazd's  creatures  of  the 
world  was  the  sky,  and  his  good  thought  (Vohu- 
man), by  good  procedure 3,  produced  the  light  of 
the  world,  along  with  which  was  the  good  religion 
of  the  Mazdayasnians  ;  diis  was  because  the  renova- 
tion (frashakard')4  which  happens  to  the  creatures 
was  known  to  him.      26.  Afterwards  arose  An/ava- 

1  This  is  the  first  third  of  the  9000  years  appointed  in  §§  18,  20. 
and  the  second  3000  years  mentioned  in  Chap.  XXXIV,  1. 

*  li  is  to  consider  daVan  (Huz.  yehabQntan),  when 
traceable  to  Av.  da=Sans.  dha,  as  meaning  4  to  create,'  but  it  can 
l*ardly  be  proved  that  it  means  to  create  out  of  nothing,  any  more 
than  any  other  of  the  Avesta  verbs  which  it  is  sometimes  con- 
venient to  translate  by '  create/  Before  l>asing  any  argument  upon 
the  use  of  this  word  it  v  ill.  therefore,  be  safer  to  substitute  the 
word  'produce'  in  all  cases. 

may  be  translated,  '  and  from  it  Vohuman,  by  good  pro- 
cedure,' Ac.  The  position  here  ascribed  to  Vohuman,  or  the  good 
thought  of  Auharmazd.  bears  some  resemblance  to  that  of  the  Word 
in  John  i.  1-5,  but  with  this  essential  difference,  that  Vohuman  is 
merely  a  creature  of  Auharmazd,  not  identified  with  him ;  for  the 
latter  idea  would  be  considered,  by  a  Parsi,  as  rather  inconsistent 
wilh  strict  monotheism.  The  'light  of  the  world'  now  created 
must  be  distinguished  from  the  *  endless  light '  already  existing  with 
Afiharmazd  in  §  a. 

4  The  word  frashakarrf,  'what  is  made  durable,  perpetuation/ 
is  applied  to  the  renovation  of  the  universe  which  is  to  take  place 
about  the  time  of  the  resurrection,  as  a  preparation  for  eternity. 

hist,  and  then  Shatvalr6,  and  then  Spendarma*/,  and 
then  Horvadarf,  and  then  Amerodad!'1. 

27.  From  the  dark  world  of  Aharman  were  Ak6- 
man  and  Andar,  and  then  Sovar,  and  then  Nakahc//. 
and  then  Taircz'  and  ZairU**. 

28.  Of  Auharmazd's  creatures  of  the  world,  the 
first  was  the  sky ;  the  second,  water ;  the  third, 
earth ;  the  fourth,  plants ;  the  fifth,  animals ;  the 
sixth,   mankind. 

Chapter  II. 

o.  On  the  formation  of  the  luminaries. 

1.  Auharmazd  produced  illumination  between 
sky  and  the  earth,  the  constellation  stars  and  those 
also  not  of  the  constellations 3,  then  the  moon,  and 
afterwards  the  sun,  as  I  sltall  relate. 

1  These  five,  with  Vohflman  and  AQharmazd  in  his  angelic  capa- 
city, constitute  the  seven  Ameshaspends,  '  undying  causers  of  pros- 
perity, immortal  benefactors/  or  archangels,  who  have  charge  of 
the  whole  material  creation.  They  are  personifications  of  old  A  vest  a 
phrases,  such  as  Vohu-mano,  'good  thought;'  Asha-vahixta, 
'perfect  rectitude;'  Khshathra-vairya,  'desirable  dominion;* 
Spenta-drmaiti,  'bountiful  devotion;'  Haurvata</,  'complete- 
ness or  health  ; '  and  AmeretaV,  'immortality.' 

*  These  six  demons  are  the  opponents  of  the  six  archangels 
respectively  (see  Chap.  XXX,  ao) ;  their  names  in  the  Avesta  are, 
Akem-mand,  'evil  thought  ;'  Indra,  Sauru,  Naunghaithya,  Tauru, 
Zairifo  (sec  Vendidad  X.  17,  18  Sp.,  and  XIX,  43  W.),  which  have 
been  compared  with  the  Vedic  god  Indra,  .Sarva  (a  name  of  .Siva), 
the  Nasatyas,  and  Sans,  tura,  'diseased,'  and  ^aras,  'decay,' 
respectively.    For  further  details  regarding  them,  see  Chap.  XXVIII, 


*  The  word  akhtar  is  the  usual  term  in  Pahlavi  for  a  constella- 
tion of  the  zodiac ;  but  the  term  ap&kh  tar, ;  away  from  the  akhtar,' 
means  not  only  '  ihe  north,'  or  away  from  the  zodiac,  but  also  'a 

CHAPTER    I,  2  7-n,  4.  I! 

2.  First  he  produced  the  celestial  sphere,  and  the 
constellation  stars  are  assigned  to  it  by  him  ;  espe- 
cially these  twelve  whose  names  are  Varak  (the 
Lamb).  Tdra  (the  Bull),  Dd-patkar  (the  Two-figures 
or  Grmini),  Kala^ang  (the  Crab),  Stt  (the  Lion). 
KhtLrak  (Virgo),  Tar£ruk  (the  Balance),  Gazdum 
(the  Scorpion),  Nimasp  (the  Centaur  or  Sagittarius), 
Vahik  '  (Capricornus),  Dul  (the  Watcrpot),  and 
Mahik  (the  Fish)  ;  3.  which,  from  their  original 
creation,  were  divided  into  the  twenty-eight  sub- 
divisions of  the  astronomers  *,  of  which  the  names 
are  Padevar,  Pesh-Parvlz,  Parviz,  Paha,  Av&sar. 
Bern,  Rakhvadf,  Taraha,  Avra,  Nahn,  Miyan,  Av- 
dem,  Mashaha,  Spur,  H  usru,  Srob,  Nur,  Gel,  Garafra, 
Vara/rt,  Gtfu,  Gol,  Muru,  Bunda,  Kahtsar,  Vaht, 
Miyan,   Kaht3.     4.  And  all   his  original  creations, 

pbnet,'  which  is  in  the  zodiac,  but  apart  from  the  constellations. 
The  meaning  of  akhtar,  most  suitable  to  the  context  here,  appears 
to  be  the  general  term  *  constellation.' 

1  Wnttcn  Naluutk  here,  both  in  K20  and  M6,  which  may  be 
compared  with  Pers.  nahiz,  '  the  leading  goat  of  a  flock  ; '  but  the 
usual  word  for  'Capricornus'  is  Vahik,  as  in  Chap.  V,  6.  None  of  the 
other  names  of  the  signs  of  the  zodiac  are  written  here  in  Pazand, 
but  u  may  be  noted  that  if  the  ah  in  Vahik  were  written  in  Pazand 
(that  is,  m  A  vesta  characters),  the  word  would  become  the  same  as 
Nahixlk  in  Pahlavi. 

■Literally,' fragments  of  the  calculators,'  khur'/ak-i  hamarikdn. 
These  subdivisions  arc  the  spaces  traversed  daily  by  the  moon 
among  the  stars,  generally  called  '  lunar  mansions.' 

'  All  these  names  are  written  in  Pazand,  which  accounts  for 
their  eccentric  orthography,  in  which  both  K20  and  M6  agree  very 
closely.  The  subdivision  Parviz  is  evidently  the  Pers.  parvgn, 
which  includes  the  Pleiades,  and  corresponds  therefore  to  the 
Sanskrit  Nakshatra  Kr  it  tiki  This  correspondence  leads  to  the 
identification  of  the  first  subdivision,  Padevar,  with  the  Nak 
Arvint.  The  Pazand  names  are  so  corrupt  that  no  reliance  can 
he  placed  upon  them,  and  the  first  step  towards  recovering  the  true 



residing  id  the  world,  are  committed  to  diem  l  :  50 
that  when  the  destroyer  arrives  they  overcome  the 
adversary  and  their  own  persecution,  and  the  crea- 
tures are  saved  from  those  adversities. 

5.  As  a  specimen  of  a  warlike  army,  which  is 
destined  for  battle,  they  have  ordained  every  single 
constellation  of  those  6480  thousand  small  stars  as 
assistance ;  and  among  those  constellations  four 
chieftains,  appointed  on  the  four  sides,  are  leaders. 
6.  On  the  recommendation  of  those  chieftains  the 
many  unnumbered  stars  are  specially  assigned  to  the 
various  quarters  and  various  places,  as  the  an 
strength  and  appointed  power  of  those  constella- 
tions. 7.  As  it  is  said  that  TiJtar  is  the  chieftain  of 
the  east,  Satav£s  the  chieftain  of  the  west,  Vanand 
the  chieftain  of  the  south,  and  Hapt6k-ring  the 
chieftain  of  the  north  \    8.  The  great  one  which  they 

Pahlavi  names  would  be  to  transliterate  the  Plzand  back  into  Pah- 
lavi  characters.  The  ninth  subdivision  is  mentioned  in  Ch.ap.VU,  1 
by  the  name  Avrak. 

1  That  is,  to  the  zodiacal  constellations,  which  are  supposed  to 
have  special  charge  of  the  welfare  of  creation. 

*  Of  these  four  constellations  or  stars,  which  are  said  to  act  as 
leaders,  there  is  no  doubt  that  Hapt6k-ring,  the  chieftain  of  the 
north,  is  Ursa  Major ;  and  it  is  usually  considered  that  Ttxtar,  the 
chieftain  of  the  cast,  is  Sirius ;  but  the  other  two  chieftains  are  not 
so  well  identified,  and  there  may  be  some  doubt  as  to  the  proper 
stations  of  the  eastern  and  western  chieftains.  It  is  evident,  how- 
ever, that  the  most  westerly  stars,  visible  at  any  one  lime  of  the 
year,  arc  those  which  set  in  the  dusk  of  the  evening ;  and  east  of 
these,  all  the  stars  are  visible  during  the  night  as  far  as  those  which 
rise  at  daybreak,  which  are  the  most  easterly  stars  visible  at  that 
time  of  the  year.  Tfrlar  or  Sirius  can,  therefore,  be  considered 
the  chieftain  of  the  eastern  stars  only  when  it  rises  before  day- 
break, which  it  does  at  the  latter  end  of  summer;  and  Hap  1 6k- 
ring  or  Ursa  Major  is  due  north  at  midnight  (on  the  meridian  below 
the  pole)  at  about  the  same  time  of  the  year.    These  stars,  there- 

CHAPTER    ir,  5-8. 


call  a  Gah  (period  of  the  day),  which  they  say  is  the 
great  one  of  the  middle  of  the  sky,  till  just  before 
the  destroyer  came  was  the  midday  (or  south)  one  of 
the  five,  that  is,  the  Kapftvin '« 

fore,  fulfil  ihe  conditions  necessary  for  being  chieftains  of  the  east 
and  north  at  the  end  of  summer,  and  we  must  look  for  stars  capable 
of  being  chieftains  of  the  south  and  west  at  the  same  season.  Now, 
when  Ursa  M.ijor  is  near  the  meridian  below  the  pole,  Fomalhaut 
is  the  most  conspicuous  star  near  the  meridian  in  the  far  south, 
and  is  probably  to  be  identified  with  Vanand  the  chieftain  of  the 
south.  And  when  Sirius  rises  some  time  before  daybreak,  Antares 
(in  Scorpio)  sets  some  time  after  dusk  in  the  evening,  and  may 
well  be  identified  with  Satav&s  the  chieftain  of  the  west.  Assuming 
that  there  has  been  a  precession  of  the  equinoxes  equivalent  to 
two  hours  of  time,  since  the  idea  of  these  chieftains  (which  may 
perhaps  be  traced  to  Ave9ta  limes)  was  first  formed,  it  may  be 
calculated  that  the  time  of  year  when  these  leading  stars  then  best 
fulfilled  that  idea  was  about  a  month  before  the  autumnal  equinox, 
when  Ursa  Major  would  be  due  north  three-quarters  of  an  hour 
after  midnight,  and  Fomalhaut  due  south  three-quarters  of  an  hour 
before  nidnight,  Sirius  would  rise  three  hours  before  the  sun,  and 
Antares  would  set  three  hours  after  the  sun.  In  the  Avesta  these 
leading  stars  are  named  Tutrya,  Satavaesa,  VanaMt,  and  Hapt6i- 
ri«ga  (see  Tfrtar  Yt.  o,  8,  9,  12,  32,  Ac,  Rashnu  Yt.  26-28, 

1  This  translation,  though  very  nearly  literal,  must  be  accepted 
with  caution.  If  the  word  mas  be  not  a  name  it  can  hardly  mean 
anything  but  'great;'  and  that  it  refers  to  a  constellation  appears 
from  Chap.  V,  1.  The  word  kh6msak  is  an  irregular  form  of  the 
Hn  khomrya.  *  five,'  and  may  refer  either  to  the  five  chieftains 
(including  '  the  great  one')  or  to  the  five  Gahs  or  periods  of  the 
day,  of  which  Rapltvin  is  the  midday  one  (see  Chap.  XXV,  9). 
The  object  of  the  text  seems  to  be  to  connect  the  Rapilvin  Gah 
with  some  great  mid-sky  and  midday  constellation  or  star,  possibly 
Regulus,  which,  about  r.c  960,  must  have  been  more  in  the  day- 
than  any  other  important  star  during  the  seven  months  of 
s.urntner,  the  only  time  that  the  Raptlvfo  Gah  can  be  celebrated 
(see  Chap.  XXV.  -\-\\\.  Jtutl  has,  'They  call  that  the  great  one  of 
:ace,  which  is  great  in  the  middle  of  the  sky  ;  they  say  that 
before  the  enemy  came  it  was  always  midday,  that  is,  Raplivin.' 

9*  AClharmazd  performed  the  spiritual  Yasim  cere- 
mony with  the  archangels  (amesh6spendan)  in  the 
Rapitvin  Gah,  and  in  the  Yadm  he  supplied  every 
means  necessary  for  overcoming  the  adversary '. 
10.  He  deliberated  with  the  consciousness  (b6d) 
and  guardian  spirits  (fravahar)  of  men4,  and  the 
omniscient  wisdom,  brought  forward  among  men, 
spoke  thus  :  '  Which  seems  to  you  the  more  advanta- 
geous, when3  I  shall  present  you  to  the  world  ?  that 
you  shall  contend  in  a  bodily  form  with  the  fiend 
(dru^),  and  the  fiend  shall  perish,  and  in  the  end 
I  shall  have  you  prepared  again  perfect  and  im- 
mortal, and  in  the  end  give  you  back  to  the  world, 
and  you  will  be  wholly  immortal,  undecaying.  and 
undisturbed ;  or  that  it  be  always  necessary  to  pro- 
vide you  protection  from  the  destroyer?' 

ii.  Thereupon,  the  guardian  spirits  of  men  be- 
came of  the  same  opinion  with  the  omniscient  wis- 
dom about  going  to  the  world,  on  account  of  the 
evil  that  comes  upon  them,  in  the  world,  from  the 
fiend  (dru^)  Aharman,  and  their  becoming,  at  last, 
again  unpersecuted  by  the  adversary,  perfect,  and 
immortal,  in  the  future  existence,  for  ever  and  ever- 

Windischmann  has  nearly  the  same,  as  Loth  follow  ihe  P.izand 
MSS.  in  reading  homijak  (as  a  variant  of  hamirak),  'always,' 
instead  of  khumsak. 

1  Or '  adversity.' 

*  These  were  among  the  fravashis  already  created  (see  Chap. 

5  Reading  amat,  '  when,'  inslead  of  mfin,  *  which  '  (sec  note  to 
Chap.  I,  7). 

CHAPTER    II,  9— III,   5. 

Chapter  III. 

1.  On  the  rush  of  the  destroyer  at  the  creatures 
it  is  said,  in  revelation,  that  the  evil  spirit,  when  he 
saw  the  impotence  of  himself  and  the  confederate ' 
(ham-dast)  demons,  owing  to  the  righteous  man2, 
became  confounded,  and  seemed  in  confusion  three 
thousand  years.  2.  During  that  confusion  the  arch- 
fiends3 of  the  demons  severally  shouted  thus  :  '  Rise 
up.  thou  father  of  us !  for  we  will  cause  a  conflict  in 
the  world,  the  distress  and  injury  from  which  will 
become  those  of  Auharmazd  and  the  archangels.' 

3.  Severally  they  twice  recounted  their  own  evil 
deeds,  and  it  pleased  him  not ;  and  that  wicked  evil 
spirit,  through  fear  of  the  righteous  man,  was  not 
able  to  lift  up  his  head  until  the  wicked  6eh  4  came, 
at  the  completion  of  the  three  thousand  years. 
4.  And  she  shouted  to  the  evil  spirit  thus  :  '  Rise 
up,  tJiou  father  of  us!  for  I  will  cause  that  conflict 
in  the  world  wherefrom  the  distress  and  injury  of 
Atiharmazd  and  the  archangels  will  arise.'  5.  And 
she  twice  recounted  severally  her  own  evil  deeds, 
and  it  pleased  him  not ;  and  that  wicked  evil  spirit 

•  The  Pazand  MSS.  have  garfiist,  for  the  Huz.  h£mnunast, 
•  trusted.'     Windischmann  and  Justi  have  '  all.' 

»  Probably  Gay6mar</. 

1  The  word  kamdrakSn  is  literally  'those  with  an  evil  pate,' 
and  is  derived  from  A  v.  ka  me  red  ha,  'the  head  of  an  evil  being/ 
also  applied  to  *  the  evil  summit '  of  Mount  Arezura  (Vend.  XIX, 
140,  142),  which  is  supposed  to  be  at  the  gate  of  hell  (see 
Chaf'.  XII,  *).  Tint  the  chief  demons  or  arch-fiends  are  meant, 
appears  more  clearly  in  Clap.  XXVIII,  12,  44,  where  the  word 
is  kamarikan. 

The  personification  of  the  impurity  of  menstruation. 

rose  not  from   that  confusion,   through  fear  of  the 
righteous  man. 

6.  And,  again,  the  wicked  G£h  shouted  thus  : 
'Rise  up,  thou  father  of  us!  for  in  that  conflict  I 
will  shed  thus  much  vexation l  on  the  righteous 
man  and  the  labouring  ox  that,  through  my  deeds, 
life  will  not  be  wanted,  and  I  will  destroy  their  living 
souls  (nism6)2;  I  will  vex  the  water,  I  will  vex  the 
plants,  I  will  vex  the  fire  of  Auharmazd,  I  will 
make  the  whole  creation  of  Auharmazd  vexed.' 
7.  And  she  so  recounted  those  evil  deeds  a  second 
time,  that  the  evil  spirit  was  delighted  and  started 
up  from  that  confusion ;  and  he  kissed  Geh  upon 
the  head,  and  the  pollution  which  they  call  men- 
struation became  apparent  in  Geh. 

8.  He  shouted  to  Gth  thus  :  '  What  is  thy  wish  ? 
so  that  I  may  give  it  thee/  And  6*eh  shouted  to 
the  evil  spirit  thus  :  'A  man  is  the  wish,  so  give  it 
to  me.' 

9.  The  form  of  the  evil  spirit  was  a  log-like 
lizard's  (vazak)  body,  and  he  appeared  a  young 
man  of  fifteen  years  to  Cell,  and  that  brought  the 
thoughts  of  Ceh  to  him  s. 

1  The  word  vdsh  or  vish  may  stand  either  for  besh,  'distress, 
vexation,'  as  here  assumed,  or  for  vish,  '  poison,'  as  translated  by 
Windischmann  and  Justi  in  accordance  with  the  Paz.  MSS. 

*  That  this  is  the  Huzvdrfr  of  r Oban,  'soul,'  appears  from  Chap. 
XVj  3-51  where  both  words  are  used  indifferently;  but  it  is  not 
given  in  the  Huz.-Paz.  Glossary.  It  is  evidently  equivalent  to 
Chald.  nijma,  and  ought  probably  to  have  the  traditional  pronun- 
ciation nisman,  an  abbreviation  of  nismman. 

*  This  seems  to  be  the  literal  meaning  of  the  sentence,  and  is 
confirmed  by  Chap.  XXVIII,  r,  but  Windischmann  and  Justi 
understand  that  the  evil  spirit  formed  a  youth  for  Gdh  out  of  a 
toad's  body.  The  incident  in  the  text  may  be  compared  with 
Milton's  idea  of  Satan  and  Sin  in  Paradise  Lost,  Book  II,  745-765. 

CHAPTER    III,  6-l6. 


10.  Afterwards,  the  evil  spirit,  with  the  confede- 
rate demons,  went  towards  the  luminaries,  and  he 
Kfctt  the  sky ;  and  he  led  them  up,  fraught  with 
malicious  intentions.  11.  He  stood  upon  one-third  l 
of  the  inside  of  the  sky,  and  he  sprang,  like  a  snake, 
out  of  the  sky  down  to  the  earth. 

1  2.  In  the  month  FravanAn  and  the  day  Auhar- 
uiazd  2  he  rushed  in  at  noon,  and  thereby  the  sky  was 
as  shattered  and  frightened  by  him,  as  a  sheep  by 
a  wolf.  13.  He  came  on  to  the  water  which  was 
arranged3  below  the  earth,  and  then  the  middle 
of  this  earth  was  pierced  and  entered  by  him. 
14.  Afterwards,  he  came  to  the  vegetation,  then  to 
the  ox,  then  to  Gayoman/,  and  then  he  came  to 
tire*;  so,  just  like  a  fly,  he  rushed  out  upon  the 
whole  creation ;  and  he  made  the  world  quite  as 
injured  and  dark*  at  midday  as  though  it  were  in 
liark  night.  15.  And  noxious  creatures  were  dif- 
\  by  him  over  the  earth,  biting  and  venomous, 
such  as  the  snake,  scorpion,  frog  (kalvak),  and 
lizard  (vazak),  so  that  not  so  much  as  the  point 
of  a  needle  remained  free  from  noxious  creatures. 
16.   And   blight*   was   diffused    by   him   over   the 

1  Perhaps  referring  10  the  proportion  of  the  sky  which  is  over- 
spread by  the  darkness  of  night.  The  whole  sentence  is  rather 

1  The  vernal  equinox  (see  Chap.  XXV,  7). 

'   Literally.  '  and  it  was  arranged.' 

•  For  the  detaflfl  Of  these  visitations,  see  Chaps.  VI-X. 
'•  Reading  khust  16m;  but  it  may  be  hangUtum,  'most  turbid. 


•  The  word  makha,  'blow,  stroke,'  is  a  Huzvdru  logogram  not 
found  in  the  glossaries;  M6  has  dar,  '  wood,'  but  this  may  be  a 
misreading,  due  to  the  original,  from  which  M6  was  copied,  being 
difficult  to  read. 

[5]  <= 

vegetation,  and  it  withered  away  immediately,  i  /. 
And  avarice,  want,  pain,  hunger,  disease,  lust,  and 
lethargy  were  diffused  by  him  abroad  upon  die  ox 
and  Gay omar</. 

1 8.  Before  Ais  coming  to  the  ox,  Auharmazd 
ground  up  the  healing  fruit1,  which  some  call '  blnak.* 
small  in  water  openly  before  Us  eyes,  so  that  Us 
damage  and  discomfort  from  the.  calamity  (zanisn) 
might  be  less ;  and  when  it  became  at  the  same 
time  lean  and  ill,  as  Us  breath  went  forth  and  it 
passed  away,  the  ox  also  spoke  thus :  '  The  cattle 
are  to  be  created,  and  their  work,  labour,  and  care 
are  to  be  appointed;' 

19.  And  before  his  coming  to  G&ydmar^,  Aul 
mazd  brought  forth  a  sweat  upon  Gay6man£  so 
long  as  he  might  recite  a  prayer  (v&^)  of  one  stanza 
(vLfcast);  moreover,  Auharmazd  formed  that  sweat 
into  the  youthful  body  of  a  man  of  fifteen  years, 
radiant  and  tall.  20.  When  Gay6marrtf  issued  from 
the  sweat  he  saw  the  world  dark  as  night,  and  the 
earth  as  though  not  a  needle's  point  remained  free 

from  noxious  creatures ;  the  celestial  sphere  was 
in  revolution,  and  the  sun  and  moon  remained  in 
motion,  and  the  world's  struggle,  owing  to  the 
clamour  of  the  Mazlnikdn  demons2,  was  with  the 

And  the  evil  spirit  thought   that   the  crea- 



tures  of  Auharmazd  were  all  rendered  useless  except 

1  The  word  mivang  is  an  unusual  form  of  mi vak,  'fruit.' 
is  probably  10  be  traced  to  an  Av.  mivangh,  which  might  mean 
1  fatness,'  as  Windischmann  suggests. 

*  TheMazainya  dafivaofihe  A  vesta,  and  MSzenda  ran  demons, 
or  idolators,  of  Persian  legends. 

Gayomara/;  and  Asto-vida^'  with  a  thousand  demons, 

P causers  of  death,  were  let  forth  by  him  on  G&ydmard. 
22.  But  his  appointed  time  had  not  come,  and  he 

-i6-vida^)  obtained  no  means  of  noosing  (4  vizi - 
d'and)  him;  as  it  is  said  that,  when  the  opposition 
of  the  evil  spirit  came,  the  period  of  the  life 
rule  of  Gay6mar^  was  appointed  for  thirty  years. 
23.  After  the  coming  of  the  adversary  he  lived 
thirty  years,  and  Gaydmarr/  spoke  thus  :  'Although 
the  destroyer  has  come,  mankind  will  be  all  of  my 
race  ;  and  this  one  thing  is  good,  when  they  perform 
duty  and  ^ood  works.' 

24.  And,  afterwards,  he  (the  evil  spirit)  came  to 
fire,  and  he  mingled  smoke  and  darkness  with   it. 
25.  The  planets,  with  many  demons,  dashed  against 
the  celestial  sphere,  and  they  mixed  the  constella- 
tions ;  and  the  whole  creation  was  as  disfigured  as 
though  fire  disfigured  every  place  and  smoke  arosr 
over   //.       26.    And    ninety   days    and  nights   the 
heavenly  angels  were  contending  in  the  world  with 
the  confederate  demons  of  the  evil  spirit,  and  hurled 
tkem  confounded  to  hell ;  and  the  rampart  of  the  sky 
was  formed  so  that  the  adversary  should  not  be  able 
to  mingle  with  it. 

*7«  Hell    is  in  the   middle  of  the  earth;    there 

Here  the  evil  spirit  pierced  the  earth-  and  rushed 

'n  Upon  it,  as  all  the  possessions  of  the  world  were 

The  demon  of  death,  Asto-vfdhtku  in  the  Avcsia  (Vend  IV, 
$7*    V,  25,   31),  who  is  supposed  'to  cast  a  halter  around  the 
tc^«  of  the  dead  to  drag  then  to  hell,  but  if  their  good  works 
f  exceeded  their  sins  they  throw  off  the  noose  and  go  to  fi- 
g's Essays,   and  ed.  p.  321).      This  name  is  misread  Asti- 
*&*</  bv  Pizand  writers. 
1    See  §,3. 

C  2 

changing  into  duality,  and  persecution,  contention, 
and  mingling  of  high  and  low  became  manifest. 

Chapter  IV. 

i.  This  also  is  said,  that  when  the  primeval  ox1 
passed  away  it  fell  to  the  right  hand,  and  G&ydmar</ 
afterwards,  when  he  passed  away,  to  the  left  hand. 
2.  Gd-yfirvan  \  as  the  soul  of  the  primeval  ox  came 
out  from  the  body  of  the  ox,  stood  up  before  the  ox 
and  cried  to  Auharmazd,  as  much  as  a  thousand 
men  when  they  sustain  a  cry  at  one  time,  thus : 
'  With  whom  is  the  guardianship  of  the  creatures 
left  by  thee,  when  ruin  has  broken  into  the  earth, 
and  vegetation  is  withered,  and  water  is  troubled  ? 
Where  is  the  man3  of  whom  it  was  said  by  thee 
thus :  I  will  produce  him,  so  that  he  may  preach 
carefulness  ? ' 

3.  And  Auharmazd  spoke  thus:  'You  are  made 
ill  \  O  G6.rurvan !  you  have  the  illness  which  the 
evil  spirit  brought  on  ;  if  it  were  proper  to  produce 
that  man  in  this  earth  at  this  time,  the  evil  spirit 
would  not  have  been  oppressive  in  it.' 

1  Literally,  '  the  sole-created  ox  '  from  whom  all  the  animals  and 
some  plants  are  supposed  to  have  proceeded  (see  Chaps.  X  and 
XIV),  as  mankind  proceeded  from  Gay6mar</.  It  is  the  ox  of 
tftt  primitive  creation,  mentioned  in  Chap.  Ill,  14,  18. 

*  The  spiritual  representative  of  the  primeval  ox,  called  G*ur- 
urva,  '  soul  of  the  bull,'  in  the  A  vesta,  of  which  name  G&rurvan  is 
a  corruption.  The  complaint  of  G&rGrvan  is  recorded  in  the 
Gathas,  the  oldest  part  of  the  Avesta  (see  Yas.  XXIX). 

•  Referring  to  ZaraiQxt. 
4  In  Kao,  'You  are  ill.' 

CHAPTER    IV,    I-V,   I. 


4.  Forth  GoxOrvan  walked  to  the  star  station 
(p&yak)  and  cried  in  the  same  manner,  and  forth  to 
the  moon  station  and  cried  in  the  same  manner,  and 
forth  to  the  sun  station,  and  then  the  guardian  spirit 
of  ZarattLrt  was  exhibited  to  her,  and  Afiharmazd 
said  thus  ' :  '  I  will  produce  for  the  world  him  who 
will  preach  carefulness.'  5.  Contented  became  the 
spirit  Goiurvan,  and  assented  thus :  '  I  will  nourish 
the  creatures  ;'  that  is,  she  became  again  consenting 
to  a  worldly  creation  in  the  world. 

Chapter  V. 

1.  Seven  chieftains  of  the  planets  have  come  unto 
the  seven  chieftains  of  the  constellations',  as  the 
planet  Mercury  (Tfr)  unto  TLvtar,  the  planet  Mars 
(Vahram)  unto  Hapt6k-rlng,  the  planet  Jupiter 
(Auharmazd)  unto  Vanand,  the  planet  Venus  (A  na- 
\\\d)  unto  Sataves,  the  planet  Saturn  (K&van)  unto 
the   great  o?ie  of  the  middle  of  the  sky,  G6Xihar3 

'  As  ihe  text  stands  in  ihe  MSS.  it  means, '  and  then  the  guardian 
spirit  of  Zaraiuxt  demonstrated  to  her  thus ; '  but  whether  it  be 
intended  to  represent  the  fravahar  as  producing  the  creature 
b  doubtful.  The  angel  06s,  who  is  identified  with  Gfourvan,  is 
anally  considered  a  female,  but  this  is  hardly  consistent  with  being 
the  soul  of  a  bull  (see  Chap.  X,  1 ,  2),  though  applicable  enough  to 
a  representative  of  the  earth.  In  the  Selections  of  ZsLf-sparam,  II, 
6,  however,  this  mythological  animal  is  said  to  have  been  a  female 
(see  Appendix  to  Bundahir). 

:  Five  of  these  are  mentioned  in  Chap.  II,  7,  8,  to  which  the 
sun  and  moon  are  here  added. 

•  As  this  name  stands  in  the  MSS.  it  may  be  read  GQr^-dar  (as 
En  the  Piz.  MSS.),  Gflrtfhar,  or  DurXfhar;  the  reading  is  very  un- 
certain, and  Windischmann  suggests  Gurg-*ihar,  'wolf  progeny' 
(compare  vehrko-*iihra  in  Ardabahwt  Yart  8).    Ashooting  star. 

and  the  thievish  (dflfgun)  Mu^par ',  provided  with 
tails,  unto  the  sun  and  moon  and  stars.  2.  The  sun 
has  attached  Muypar  to  its  own  radiance  by  mutual 
agreement,  so  that  he  may  be  less  able  to  do  harm 

3.  Of  Mount  Alburz-  it  is  declared,  that  around 
the  world  and  Mount  Terak3,  which  is  the  middle  of 
the  world,  the  revolution  of  the  sun  is  like  a  moat  4 
around  the  world ;  it  turns  back  in  a  circuit s  owing 
to  the  enclosure  (var)  of  Mount  Albunr  around 
Terak.  4.  As  it  is  said  that  it  is  the  T£rak  of 
Alburs  from  behind  which  my  sun  and  moon  and 
stars   return  again e.     5.    For  there  are  a  hundred 

or  meteor,  is  probably  meant  (see  Chap,  XXX,  18,  31),  and  as  it  is 
the  special  disturber  of  the  moon,  it  may  be  Go-*fhar(Av.  gao- 
iithra,  'of  ox-lineage'),  a  common  epithet  of  the  moon;  the 
Pahlavi  letter  k  being  often  written  something  like  the  compound 
rk ;  and  this  supposition  is  confirmed  by  the  G6k-£ihar  of  TD  in 
Chap.  XXVIII,  44. 

'  This  is  written  Mfij-par!k  in  TD  in  Chap.  XXVIII.  44,  and 
seems  to  be  the  mux  pairika  of  Yas.  XVII,  46,  LXV1I,  23,  as 
noticed  by  Windischmann  ;  it  is  probably  meant  here  for  a  comet. 
as  it  is  attached  to  the  sun.  The  zodiacal  light  and  milky  way  have 
too  little  of  die  wandering  character  of  planets  to  be  considered 
planetary  opponents  of  the  sun  and  moon. 

•  The  hara  berezaiti,  'lofty  mountain-range/ of  die  A  vesta, 
which  is  an  ideal  representative  of  the  loftiest  mountains  known  to 
the  ancient  Iranians,  the  Alburz  range  in  Mazendar&n,  south  of  die 
Caspian.     See  Chaps.  VIII,  2,  XII,  1,  3. 

•  The  Ta6ra  of  Yas.  XLI,  24,  Ram  Yt.  7,  ZamySd  Yt.  6.  See 
Chap.  XII,  2,  4. 

•  The  word  maya-gir  is  a  Huz.  hybrid  for  av-gir,  'a  water- 
holder,  or  ditch.' 

•  The  word  may  be  either  ave^-ak  or  khavi^ak,  with  this 

•  This  appears  to  be  a  quotation  from  the  Rashnu  Yart,  25. 
The  Muz.  word  for  '  month '  is  here  used  for  the  '  moon.' 

and  eighty  aj>ertures  (ro^ln)  in  the  east,  and  a  hun- 
dred and  eighty  in  the  west,  through  Alburr;  ana' 
the  sun,  every  day,  comes  in  through   an  aperture. 
and  goes  out  through  an  aperture  ' ;  and  the  whole 
connection   and   motion  of  the  moon  and  constel- 
lations and  planets  is  with  it :    every  day  it  always 
illumines  (or  warms)  three  regions  (kcshvar) 2  and 
a  half,  as  is  evident  to  the  eyesight.     6.  And  twice 
in  ever)'  year  the  day  and  night  are  equal,  for  on  the 
original  attack3,  when  *  it  (the  sun)  went  forth  from 
its  first  degree  (khurafak),  the  day  and  night  were 
equal,  it  was  the  season  of  spring;  when  it  arrives 
at  the  first  degree  of  Kala/'ang  (Cancer)  the  time  of 
day  is  greatest,  it  is  the  beginning  of  summer  ;  when 
it  arrives  at  the  sign  (khOr^ak)  Tara^k  (Libra)  the 
day  and    night   are   equal,   //  is  the   beginning  of 
autumn  ;  when  it  arrives  at  the  sign  Vahik  (Capri- 
corn) the  night  is  a  maximum,  it  is  the  beginning  of 
winter ;   and  when  it  arrives  at  Varak  (Aries)  the 
night  and  day  have  again  become  equal,  as  when  it 

1  Tbis  mode  of  accounting  for  the  varying  position  of  sunrise 
and  sunset  resembles  that  in  the  Book  of  Enoch,  LXXJ,  but  only 
six  eastern  and  six  western  gates  of  heaven  are  there  mentioned, 
and  the  sun  changes  its  gates  of  entrance  and  exit  only  once  a 
month,  instead  of  daily. 

*  Sec  \  9  and  Chap.  XF. 

'  The  reading  of  this  word  is  doubtful,  although  its  meaning  is 
tolerably  clear.  The  Paz.  MSS.  read  har  d6,  'both;'  Justi  reads 
ardab, '  quarrel ;'  and  in  the  Selections  of  ZaV-sparam  it  is  written 
arrfik.  It  seems  probable  that  the  word  is  kharah, '  attack,'  which 
being  written  exactly  like  ardfe  (Av.  ashya,  see  Yas.  LVI,  i,  i)  has 
bad  a  circumflex  added  to  indicate  the  supposed  d,  and  this  false 
reading  has  led  to  the  more  modern  form  lr«/ik  (Pers.  ard,  'anger'). 
But  probabilities  in  obscure  matters  are  often  treacherous  guides. 

4  Reading  amat,  'when/  instead  of  mun,  'which,'  throughout 
the  sentence  (sec  note  to  Chap.  I,  7). 

went  forth  from  Varak.  7.  So  that  when  it  comes 
back  to  Varak,  in  three  hundred  and  sixty  days  and 
the  five  Gatha  days1,  it  goes  in  and  comes  out 
through  one  and  the  same  aperture ;  the  aperture 
is  not  mentioned,  for  if  it  had  been  mentioned  the 
demons  would  have  known  the  secret,  and  been 
able  to  introduce  disaster. 

8.  From  there  where  the  sun  comes  on  on  the 
longest  day  to  where  it  comes  on  on  the  shortest  day 
is  the  east  region  Savah ;  from  there  where  it  comes 
on  on  the  shortest  day  to  where  it  goes  off  on  the 
shortest  day  is  the  direction  of  the  south  regions 
Fradadafsh  and  Vidaaafsh  ;  from  there  where  it  goes 
in  on  the  shortest  day  to  where  it  goes  in  on  the 
longest  day  is  the  west  region  Arzah ;  from  there 
whore  it  comes  in  on  the  longest  day  to  there  where 
it  goes  in  on  the  longest  day  are  the  north  regions 
Vorubarjt  and  Vdru^am  '-.  9.  When  the  sun  comes 
on,  it  illumines  (or  warms)  the  regions  of  Savah, 
Fradarfafsh,  Vidaa'afsh,  and  half  of  Khvanlras-; 
when  it  goes  in  on  the  dark  side,  it  illumines  the 
regions  of  Arzah,  V6rubar^t,  VorCifarft,  and  one 
half  of  Khvanlras ;  when  it  is  day  here  it  is  night 

1  The  five  supplementary  days  added  to  the  last  of  the  twdvr 
months,  of  thirty  days  each,  to  complete  the  year.  For  these  days 
no  additional  apertures  are  provided  in  Albfirs,  and  the  sun  appears 
to  have  the  choice  of  either  of  the  two  centre  apertures  out  of  the 
180  on  each  side  of  the  world.  This  arrangement  seems  to  indi- 
cate that  the  idea  of  the  apertures  is  older  than  the  rectification  of 
the  calendar  which  added  the  five  Gatha  days  to  an  original  year 
of  360  days. 

*  This  sentence  occurs,  without  the  names  of  the  keVshvars  or 
regions,  in  the  Pahl.  Vend.  XIX,  19.  For  the  kfishvars  see 
Chap.  XI. 

*  Often  corrupted  into  Khanfras  in  the  MSS. 

CHAPTER    V,   7-VII,  I. 



Chapter  VI. 

1.  On  the  conflict1  of  the  creations  of  the  world 
with  the  antagonism  of  the  evil  spirit  it  is  said  in 
revelation,  that  the  evil  spirit,  even  as  he  rushed  in 
and  looked  upon  the  pure  bravery  of  the  angels  and 
his  own  violence 2,  wished  to  rush  back.  2.  The 
spirit  of  the  sky  is  himself  like  one  of  the  warriors 
ho  has  put  on  armour ;  he  arrayed  the  sky  against 
the  evil  spirit,  and  led  on  in  the  contest,  until 
Auharmazd  had  completed  a  rampart  around, 
stronger  than  the  sky  and  in  front  of  the  sky. 
3.  And  his  guardian  spirits  (fravahar)  of  warriors 
and  the  righteous,  on  war  horses  and  spear  in  hand, 
were  around  the  sky ;  such-like  as  the  hair  on  the 
head  is  the  similitude  (angunl-attak)  of  those  who 
hold  the  watch  of  the  rampart.  4.  And  no  passage 
was  found  by  the  evil  spirit,  who  rushed  back ;  and 
he  beheld  the  annihilation  of  the  demons  and  his 
own  impotence,  as  Auharmazd  did  his  own  final 
triumph,  producing  the  renovation  of  the  universe 
for  ever  and  everlasting. 

Chapter  VII. 

1.  The  second  conflict  was  waged  with  the  water, 
because,  as  the  star  Ti^tar  was  in  Cancer,  the  water 
which  is  in   the  subdivision  they  call  Avrak  ■  was 

*  This  ia  the  doubiful  word  translated  '  attack  '  in  Chap.  V.  0 
(tee  the  note  there) ;  it  also  occurs  at  the  beginning  of  each  of  the 
following  four  chapters. 

*  Reading  z6rth ;  but  it  may  be  zurih,  *  falsity.' 
■  The  ninth  lunar  mansion  (sec  Chap.  II,  3)  corresponding  with 

the  middle  of  Cancer.     Tlrtar  (Sirius)  being  in  Cancer  probably 



pouring,  on  the  same  day  when  the  destroyer  rushed 
in,  and  came  again  into  notice  for  mischief  (avarak) 
in  the  direction  of  the  west.  2.  For  every  single 
month  is  the  owner  of  one  constellation  ;  the  month 
Tir  is  the  fourth  month  l  of  the  year,  and  Cancer  the 
fourth  constellation  from  Aries,  so  it  is  the  owner  of 
Cancer,  into  which  Tlftaf  sprang,  and  displayed  the 
characteristics  of  a  producer  of  rain  ;  and  he  brought 
on  the  water  aloft  by  the  strength  of  the  wind. 
3.  Co-operators  with  Ttetar  were  Vohuman  and 
the  angel  Hdm,  with  the  assistance  of  the  angel 
Burf  and  the  righteous  guardian  spirits  in  orderly 

4.  Tistarwas  converted  into  three  forms,  the  form 
of  a  man  and  the  form  of  a  horse  and  the  form  of  a 
bull  ■ ;  thirty  days  and  nights  he  was  distinguished 
in  brilliance ;l,  and  in  each  form  he  produced  rain  ten 
days  and  nights;  as  the  astrologers  say  that  every 
constellation  has  three  forms.  5.  Every  single  drop 
of  that  rain  became  as  big  as  a  bowl,  and  the  water 
stood  the  height  of  a  man  over  the  whole  of  this 
earth  ;  and  the  noxious  creatures  on  the  earth  being 
all  killed  by  the  rain,  went  into  the  holes  of  the 


means  that  it  rises  about  the  same  time  as  the  stars  of  Cancer,  as 
is  actually  the  case. 

1  See  Chap.  XXV,  20. 

1  See  Tfxtar  Yt.  13,  1 6,  18,  where  it  is  stated  thai  Tijiar  ass 
the  form  of  a  man  for  the  first  ten  nights,  of  a  bull  for  the  sec 
ten  nights,  and  of  a  horse  for  the  third  ten  nights.     Also  in  Vend. 
XIX,  126  Tfotar  is  specially  invoked  in  his  form  of  a  bull. 

*  Or  it  may  be  translated,  '  he  hovered  in  the  light,'  as  Windisch- 
rnann  and  Justi  have  it. 

*  In  comparing  the  inundation  produced  by  Tistar  with  the 
Noachian  deluge,  it  must  be  recollected  that  the  former  is  repre- 
sented as  occurring  before  mankind  had  propagated  on  the  earth. 

6.  And,  afterwards,  the  wind  spirit,  so  that  it  may 
not  be  contaminated  (gumlkht),  stirs  up  the  wind 
and  atmosphere  as  the  life  stirs  in  the  body ;  and 
the  water  was  all  swept  away  by  it,  and  was  brought 
out  to  the  borders  of  the  earth,  and  the  wide-formed ' 
ocean  arose  therefrom.  7.  The  noxious  creatures 
remained  dead  within  the  earth,  and  their  venom 
and  stench  were  mingled  with  the  earth,  and  in 
order  to  carry  that  poison  away  from  the  earth 
TLrtar  went  down  into  the  ocean  in  the  form  of  a 
white  horse  with  long  hoofs*. 

8.  And  Apadsh3.  the  demon,  came  meeting  him 
in  the  likeness  of  a  black  horse  with  clumsy  (kund) 
hoofs;  a  mile  (parasang)4  away  from  him  fled 
Tlrtar,  through  the  fright  which  drove  him  away. 
\nd  Ttetar  begged  for  success  from  Auhnrmazd, 
and  Auharma/.d  gave  him  strength  and  power,  as  it 
is  said,  that  unto  Tlrtar  was  brought  at  once  the 
strength  of  ten  vigorous  horses,  ten  vigorous  camels, 
ten  vigorous  bulls,  ten  mountains,  and  ten  rivers*. 
10.  A  mile  away  from  him  fled  Apa6sh,  the  demon, 
through  fright  at  his  strength ;  on  account  of  this 
they  speak  of  an  arrow-shot  with  Tlrtar's  strength  in 
the  sense  of  a  mile. 

1  The  term  farakhu-kar</,  'wide-formed,'  is  a  free  Pahlavi 
translation  of  Av.  vouru-kasha,  'wide-shored,'  or  'having  wide 
abysses,'  applied  to  the  boundless  ocean  (see  Gup.  XIII,  1). 

*  For  the  Avcsta  account  of  litis  expedition  of  Tfctar,  sec  T if tar 
Vl  20-29. 

*  Miswritten  Apav/  or  Apava;  in  Pazand,  by  all  MSS.  in  this 
chapter,  but  see  Chap.  XXVI II,  39. 

4  The  word  parasang  is  here  used  for  Av.  hathra,  which  was 
about  an  English  mile  (see  Chap.  XXVI,  1). 
■  A  quotation  from  Trrtar  Yt.  25. 




1 1.  Afterwards,  with  a  cloud  for  ajar  (khumb) — 
thus  they  call  the  measure  which  was  a  means  of  the 
work — he  seized  upon  the  water  and  made  it  rain 
most  prodigiously,  in  drops  like  bulls'  heads  and 
men's   heads,  pouring  in  handfuls  and  pouring  in 

armfuls,  both  great  and  small.  1 2.  On  the  produc- 
tion of  that  rain  the  demons  Aspen^argak  ■  and 
Apa6sh  contended  with  it,  and  the  fire  Vazbt2 
turned  its  club  over ;  and  owing  to  the  blow  of  the 
club  Aspen^argak  made  a  very  grievous  noise,  as 
even  now,  in  a  conflict  with  the  producer  of  rain,  a 
groaning  and  raging3  are  manifest.  13.  And  ten 
nights  and  days  rain  was  produced  by  him  in  that 
manner,  and  the  poison  and  venom  of  the  noxious 
creatures  which  were  in  the  earth  were  all  mixed  up 
in  the  water,  and  die  water  became  quite  salt,  be- 
cause there  remained  in  the  earth  some  of  those 
germs  which  noxious  creatures  ever  collect. 

14.  Afterwards,  the  wind,  in  the  same  manner  as 
before,  restrained  the  water,  at  the  end  of  three  days, 
on  various  sides  of  the  earth  ;  and  the  three  great 
seas  and  twenty-three  small  seas4  arose  therefrom, 
and  two  fountains  (Yashmak)  of  the  sea  thereby 
became  manifest,  one  the  A"&6ast  lake,  and  one 
the  S6vbarfi,  whose  sources  are  connected  with  the 


1  Mentioned  in  Vend.  XIX,  135,  thus:  '  ihou  shouldst  propi- 
tiate the  fire  Vazixta,  the  smiter  of  the  demon  Speng-aghr.i.'  It  is 
also  written  Spcn^argak  in  Chap.  XVII,  1,  and  Aspen^ardga  in 
Chap.  XXVIII,  39. 

*  That  is,  the  lightning  (see  Chap.  XVII,  1). 

*  Or,  '  a  tumult  and  flashing.'  Justi  has '  howling  and  shrieking ;" 
the  two  words  being  very  ambiguous  in  the  original. 

*  See  Chap.  XIII,  6. 
6  See  Chap.  XXII,  1-3. 

CHAPTER    VII,    I  I  -VIII,   2. 


fountain  of  the  sea.  15.  And  at  its  north  side1 
two  rivers  flowed  out,  and  went  one  to  the  east  and 
one  to  the  west ;  they  are  the  Arag  river  and  the 
Veh  river ;  as  it  is  said  thus :  *  Through  those  finger- 
breadth  tricklings  do  thou  pour  and  draw  forth  two 
such  waters,  O  Aftharmazd ! '  16.  Both  those  rivers 
wind  about  through  all  the  extremities  of  the  earth, 
and  intermingle  again  with  the  water  of  the  wide- 
formed  ocean.  17.  As  those  two  rivers  flowed  out. 
and  from  the  same  place  of  origin  as  theirs,  eigh- 
teen* navigable  rivers  flowed  out,  and  after  the 
other  waters  have  flowed  out  from  those  navigable 
streams  they  all  flow  back  to  the  Arag3  river  and 
Veh  river,  whose  fertilization  (khvapardarih)  of 
the  world  arises  therefrom. 

Chapter  VIII. 

o.  On  the  conflict  which  the  evil  spirit  waged  with 
the  earth. 

I.  As  the  evil  spirit  rushed  in,  the  earth  shook4, 
and  the  substance  of  mountains  was  created  in  the 
earth.     2.   First,   Mount  Alburc  arose;   afterwards, 

1  Probably  meaning  the  north  side  of  the  Arfidvfvsur  fountain 
of  the  sea,  which  is  said  to  be  on  the  lofty  Hugar,  a  portion  of 
Alburx,  from  the  northern  side  of  which  these  two  semi- mythical 
river*  are  said  to  flow  (see  Chaps.  XII,  5,  XX,  1). 

'  See  Chap.  XX,  a. 

1  Here  written  Argng,  but  the  usual  Pahlavi  reading  is  Arag ; 
the  nasal  of  the  Av.  Rangha  being  generally  omitted  in  Pahlavi,  as 
other  nasals  are  sometimes;  thus  we  often  find  sag  for  sang, 
•  atone.' 

•  The  word  gudntd  is  a  transposition  of  ^undlc/,  a  graphical 
variant  o\ g\inb\d, 4  shook.' 

the  other  ranges  of  mountains  (kofaniha)  of  the 
middle  of  the  earth ;  for  as  Alburj  grew  forth  all 
the  mountains  remained  in  motion,  for  they  have  all 
grown  forth  from  the  root  of  Albur*.  3.  At  that 
time  they  came  ftp  from  the  earth,  like  a  tree  which 
has  grown  up  to  the  clouds  and  its  root l  to  the 
bottom  j  and  their  root  passed  on  that  way  front  one 
to  the  other,  and  they  are  arranged  in  mutual  con- 
nection. 4.  Afterwards,  about  that  wonderful  shak- 
ing out  from  the  earth,  they  say  that  a  great  moun- 
tain is  the  knot  of  lands ;  and  the  passage  for  the 
waters  within  the  mountains  is  the  root  which  is 
below  the  mountains ;  they  forsake  the  upper  parts 
so  that  they  may  flow  into  it,  just  as  the  roots  of 
trees  pass  into  the  earth;  a  counterpart  (anguni- 
aitak)  of  the  blood  in  the  arteries  of  men,  which 
gives  strength  to  the  whole  body.  5.  In  numbers  -, 
apart  from  Alburn,  all  the  mountains  grew  up  out  of 
the  earth  in  eighteen  years s,  from  which  arises  the 
perfection  *  of  men's  advantage. 

Chapter  IX. 

1.  The  conflict  waged  with  plants  was  that  when" 
they  became   quite   dry.     2.  Amerdda^  the   arch- 

1  M6  has  raMk,  but  this  and  many  other  strange  words  are 

it»ly  due  to  the  copyist  of  that  MS.  having  an  original  before 

him  which  was  nearly  illegible  in  many  places. 

*  Or, '  as  it  were  innumerable;'  the  word  amar  meaning  both 
'  number '  and  '  innumerable.' 

■  See  Chap.  XII,  1. 

*  The  word  must  be  farh&khtag5n,  'proprieties,'  both  here  and 
in  Chap.  IX,  6,  as  farhnkhti  m  is  an  ungrammatical  form. 

1  Reading  a  mat,  '  when,'  instead  of  mun,  '  which'  (see  the  note 
to  Chap.  I.  7). 

CHATTER    VIII,   3-X,    I. 


ingel,  as  the  vegetation  was  his  own,  pounded  the 
plants   small,   and   mixed   them  up  with   the  water 
which  Tl5tar  seized,  and  Ttrtar  made  that  water  rain 
down  upon  the  whole  earth.    3.  On  the  whole  earth 
plants  grew   up  like  hair  upon  the  heads  of  men. 
4.  Ten  thousand '  of  them  grew  forth  of  one  special 
description,    for   keeping    away   the   ten    thousand 
species  of  disease  which  the  evil  spirit  produced  for 
the   creatures;    and  from    those   ten    thousand,    the 
100,000  species2  of  plants  have  grown  forth. 
5.  From  that  same  germ  of  plants  the  tree  of  all 
BB*  was  given  forth,  and  grew  up  in  the  wide- 
formed  ocean,  from  which  the  germs  of  all  species  of 
plants  ever  increased.     6.   And  near  to  that  tree  of 
lil  germs  the  Gokan/tree4  was  produced,  for  keeping 
way  deformed  (duspa^)  decrepitude;  and  the  full 
^*"ftction  of  the  world  arose  therefrom. 

o.  On  the  conflict  waged  with  the  primeval  ox. 

J.  As  it  passed  awa\  8,  owing  to  the  vegetable 
r*nciple  (^Iharak)  proceeding  from  every  limb  of 
^^  ox.  fifty  and  five  species  of  grain 8  and  twelve 
'Varies  of  medicinal  plants  grew  forth  from  the 
^rth,  and   their  splendour  and  strength  were  the 

Chapter  X. 

*  See  Chap.  XXVII,  a. 

'  Here  120,000  are  mentioned,  but  see  Chap.  XXVII,  a,  and 
Selections!  of  ZSrf-sparam.  VIII,  3. 

*  Or,  •  of  all  seeds'  (see  Chap.  XVIII.  9V 

*  The  whitc-H6m  Uee  (see  Chaps.  XVIII,  1-6,  XXVII,  4). 

Chap.  IV,  1. 

See  Chaps.  XIV,  I,  XXVII,  I. 

seminal  energy  (t6khmlh)  of  the  ox.  2.  Delivered 
to  the  moon  station ',  that  seed  was  thoroughly  puri- 
fied by  the  light  of  the  moon,  fully  prepared  in 
every  way,  and  produced  life  in  a  body.  3.  Thence 
arose  two  oxen,  one  male  and  one  female ;  and. 
afterwards,  two  hundred  and  eighty-two  species  of 
each  kind2  became  manifest  upon  the  earth.  4.  The 
dwelling  (manlst)  of  the  birds  is  in  the  air,  and  t 
fish  are  in  the  midst  of  the  water. 

Chapter  XI. 

1.  On  the  nature  of  the  earth  it  says  in  revela- 
tion, that  there  are  thirty  and  three  kinds 3  of  land. 
2.  On  the  day  when  Tlrtar  produced  the  rain,  when 
its  seas  arose  therefrom,  the  whole  place,  half  taken 
up  by  water,  was  converted  into  seven  portions; 
this  portion4,  as  much  as  one-half,  is  the  middle, 
and  six  portions  are  around ;  those  six  portions 
are  together  as  much  as  Khvaniras.     3.  The  name 

1  See  Chap.  XIV,  3.  In  the  Man  Yt.  o,  7,  blessings  are  in- 
voked for  ' the  moon  of  ox  lineage' (gao/iihra)  in  conjunction 
with  the  'sole-created  ox  and  the  ox  of  many  species.'  In  the 
Avesta  the  gender  of  these  two  primeval  oxen  appears  doubtful. 
owing  probably  to  the  dual  gen.  masc.  of  their  epithets  being  of  the 
same  form  as  a  sing.  gen.  fern. 

2  That  is,  of  each  sex.  See  Chap.  XIV,  13.  27.  In  all  three 
occurrences  of  this  number  K20  has  272,  but  all  oilier  MSS.  have 
282  (except  M6  in  this  place  only). 

*  K2ob  has  thirty-two  kinds.' 

*  That  is,  Khvaniras;  or  it  may  be  'one  portion,'  as  hi 

is  often  used  for  a 6,  'one,'  because  the  Pazand  form  of 
both  words  is  e. 

CHAPTER    X,  2-XI,  5. 



keshvar  ('zone  or  region')  is  also  applied  to  them, 
ami  they  existed  side  by  side  (kash  kash)1;  as  on 

e  east  side  o(  this  portion  (Khvaniras)  is  the 
Savah  region,  on  the  west  is  the  Arzah  region ;  the 
two  portions  on  the  south  side  arc  the  Fradartafsh 
and  Vlda^afsh  regions,  the  two  portions  on  the  north 
side  are  the  V6rubam  and  VdrQ^am  regions,  and 
that  in  the  middle  is  Khvaniras.  4.  And  Khvaniras 
has  the  sea,  for  one  part  of  the  wide-formed  ocean 
wound  about  around  it;  and  from  Vorubarst  and 
Vdrti^arst  a  lofty  mountain  grew  up  ;  so  that  it  is 
not  possible  for  any  one  to  go  from  region  to 
region  *. 

5.  And  of  these  seven  regions  every  benefit  was 
created  most  in  Khvaniras,  and  the  evil  spirit  also 
produced  most  for  Khvaniras,  on  account  of  the 
superiority  (sarlh)3  which  he  saw  in  it.  6.  For  the 
Kayanians  and  heroes  were  created  in  Khvaniras; 
and  the  good  religion  of  the  Mazdayasnians  was 
created  in  Khvaniras,  and  afterwards  conveyed  to 
the  other  regions;  S6shyans4  is  born  in  Khvaniras, 
who  makes  the  evil  spirit  impotent,  and  causes  the 
resurrection  and  future  existence. 

1  Possibly  an  attempt  to  connect  the  term  kfcshvar  with  kash  ; 
but  the  sentence  may  also  be  translated  thus  \  '  and  I  hey  formed 
ranous  districts  like  this  portion  ;  on  the  east  side  is  the  Savah 
region,'  &c. 

•  In  the  Pahlavi  Vend  I,  4a,  and  in  the  Main>6-i-khar</,  IX,  6, 
it  is  added,  '  except  with  the  permission  of  the  angels '  or  the 

•  So  in  M6  ;  but  K20  has  za</&rth,  which  would  imply, 'for  the 
destruction  of  what  he  saw  of  it.' 

•  Always  spelt  so  m  the  Bundahi*  MSS.  K20  and  M6,  and 
corrupted  into  S6shyd9  in  P&zand ;  but  it  is  more  usually  written 
SAshins  in  other  Pahlavi  works,  and  its  Avcsta  form  is  Saoshxis 
(see  Chap.  XXXII,  8). 

[5]  D 

Chapter  XII. 

i.  On  the  nature  of  mountains  it  says  in  revela- 
tion, that,  at  first,  the  mountains  have  grown  forth 
in  eighteen  years;  and  Alburn  ever  grew  till  the 
completion  of  eight  hundred  years ;  two  hundred 
years  up  to  the  star  station  (pdyak),  two  hundred 
years  to  the  moon  station,  two  hundred  years  to  the 
sun  station,  and  two  hundred  years  to  the  endless 
light '.  2.  While  the  other  mountains  have  grown 
out  of  Albfir~,  in  number  2244  mountains,  and  are 
Hugar  the  lofty2,  Terak  of  Alburs,  A'akW-i-Daitik. 
and  the  Arerur  ridge,  the  Ausind6m  mountain. 
Mount  Aparsen  which  they  say  is  the  mountain  of 
Pars,  Mount  Zari^  also  which  is  Mount  Minus. 
Mount  Atra£,  Mount  Kaf,  Mount  Vaa'gcs,  Mount 
AushdiUtar,  Mount  Aresur-bum,  Mount  RoytVn- 
h6mand,  Mount  Padashkhvargar  which  is  the 
greatest  in  Khvarlh,  the  mountain  which  they  call 
A'ino,  Mount  Rc-vand,  Mount  D&rspet  the  Bakyir 
mountain,  Mount  K  a  bed-si  ka  ft,  Mount  Sfyak-mui- 
mand,  Mount  Vafar-homand,  Mount  Spcndya^/  and 
K6ndrasp,  Mount  Asnavand  and  K6ndras,  Mount 

1  These  are  the  four  grades  of  the  Mazdayasnian  heaven. 

1  In  all  the  geographical  details,  mentioned  in  the  BundahLr, 
there  is  a  strange  mixture  of  mythical  tradition  with  actual  fact. 
The  author  of  the  work  finds  names  mentioned  in  the  Avesta,  by 
old  writers  of  another  country,  and  endeavours  to  identify  them 
with  places  known  to  himself;  much  in  the  same  way  as  attempts 
have  been  made  to  identify  the  geographical  details  of  the  garden 
of  Eden.  Most  of  the  names  of  these  mountains  occur  in  the 
Zamy&d  Yajt,  or  in  other  parts  of  the  Avesta,  as  will  be  noticed 
in  detail  further  on.  The  number  2244  is  also  mentioned  in  §  7 
of  that  Yajt.  A  very  able  commentary  on  this  chapter  will  be 
found  in  Windischmann's  Zoroaslrichc  Studicn,  pp.  1-19. 


CHAPTER    XII,    1-6.  jM 

SUidav \  a  mountain  among  those  which  are  in 
Kangdes*,  </  which  they  say  that  they  are  a  comfort 
and  delight  of  the  good  creator,  the  smaller  hills. 

3.  I  will  mention  them  also  a  second  time ;  Al- 
burn3 is  around  this  earth  and  is  connected  with  the 
sky.  4.  The  TSrak 4  of  Alburs  is  that  through 
which  the  stars,  moon,  and  sun  pass6  in,  and 
through  it  they  come  back.  5.  Hugar  the  lofty*  is 
that  from  which  the  water  of  Aredvlvsur7  leaps 
down  the  height  of  a  thousand  men.  6.  The  Atk- 
sindcim  ■    mountain    is    that   which,    being   of  ruby 

1  The  Av.  Sttidava  of  Zamyad  Yi 

•  See  Chap.  XXIX.  4.  10;  ihe  name  is  here  written  Kandes  in 
K20.  In  M6  the  word  is  k6f,  '  mountain,'  which  is  almost  iden- 
tical in  form ;  if  this  be  the  correct  reading,  the  translation  will  be, 
'  a  mountain  among  those  in  the  mountain  which  they  say  is  agree- 
able and  the  delight,'  &c.  This  mountain  is,  however,  probably 
intended  for  the  Av.  Awtare-kanglia,  '  within  Kangha/  of  Zamyad 

:  The  Haraiti-barer  of  Zamyad  Vt.  i  |  but  it  is  more  usually 
called  Hara  berezaiti  (see  Chip   V,  31. 

•  A  central  peak  of  the  mythic  AlbAr*.  around  which  the  heavenly 
bodies  are  said  to  revolve  (see  Chap.  V.  3).  It  is  the  Av.  Tafira, 
mentioned  in  Yas.  XLI,  34.  Ram  Yt.  7,  Zamyad  Yt.  6. 

I  M6,  but  Kao  has  '  go  in.' 
'  This  appears  to  be  another  peak  of  the  mythic  Alburr,  pro- 
bably in  the  west,  as  it  is  connected  with  Sataves,  the  western  chief- 
tain of  the  constellations  (see  Chaps.  XXI Y,  17.  and  II,  7).  It  is 
iheAv.  Hukairya  bcrezo, of  Yas.  LXIV,  14,  Abfin  Yt.  3,  25.  96,  Gdr 
Yt.  B,  t.  88,  Rashnu  Yt.  24,  Fravardln  Yl  6,  Ram  Yt.  1 

•   Chap.  XIII,  3-5. 

•  In  Auhannazd  Yt.  31  and  Zamyad  Yt  a,  66,  an  Ushidhao 
mountain  is  mentioned  as  having  many  mountain  waters  around  it, 
but  this  seems  to  be  a  near  neighbour  of  the  Ushidarena  mountain 
(see  4«5).  The  details  in  the  text  correspond  with  the  description 
of  the  Hmdva  mountain,  given  in  Tutar  Yt.  32,  thus:  us  Hindva</ 
paiti  gardirf  y6  hixtaiti  maidhim  zrayangh6  vouru-kashahe, 
'up  on  the  Hmdva  mountain,  which  stands  amid  the  wide-shored 

D  2 

(khun-ahino),  of  the  substance  of  the  sky1,  is  in 
the  midst  of  the  wide-formed  ocean,  so  that  its 
water,  which  is  from  Hugar.  pours  clown  into  it  (the 
ocean).  7.  A'akaaf-i-Daltlk  ('the  judicial  peak')  is 
that  of  the  middle  of  the  world,  the  height  of  a  hun- 
dred men,  on  which  the  A'tnvar  bridge 2  stands  ;  and 
they  take  account  of  the  soul  at  that  place.  8.  The 
Aresur3  ridge  [of  the  Alburj  mountain]  is  a  summit 
at  the  gate  of  hell,  where  they  always  hold  the  con- 
course of  the  demons.  9.  This  also  is  said,  that, 
excepting  Alburn,   the  Aparsen 4   mountain    is   the 


ocean ;'  and  the  Pahlavi  name,  AGsindom,  has  probably  arisen  from 
ilic  us  HindvaV  of  this  passage,  as  suggested  by  Justi.  (See 
Chaps.  XIII.  5,  and  XVIII,  10,  if.) 

'  The  sky  is  considered  to  be  a  true  firmament,  or  hard  and 
indestructible  dome. 

1  The  A"invat6-peretu  of  the  Avesta,  mentioned  even  in 
Gathas.  In  the  Pahlavi  Vend.  XIX,  101,  it  is  stated  that  »tbq 
pass  across  by  the  Kinwrf  bridge,  whose  two  extremities  are  their 
own  heavenly  angels,  one  stands  at  .A'akaV-i-Daitik,  and  one  at 
AlbQrs ; '  the  former  mountain  seems  not  to  be  mentioned  in  the 
Avesta,  but  the  bridge  is  the  path  of  the  soul  to  the  other  world; 
if  righteous  the  soul  passes  by  it  easily  over  Alburz  (the  confines 
Of  this  world)  into  paradise,  but  if  wicked  it  drops  off  the  bridge 
into  hell. 

3  See  Vend.  Ill,  23,  XIX,  140.  The  words  in  brackets  may 
perhaps  be  inserted  by  mistake,  but  they  occur  in  all  MSS.  exa- 
mined, and  there  is  nothing  inconsistent  with  tradition  in  supposing 
Arczur  to  be  the  extreme  northern  range  of  the  mythic  AlbQrs 
which  surrounds  the  earth,  being  the  place  where  demons  chiefly 

*  Justi  adopts  the  reading  Harparscn,  which  occurs  in  Kao  four 
times  out  of  eleven,  but  is  corrected  thrice.  Windischmann  suggests 
that  this  mountain  is  the  Av.  jkyata  (or  ijkata)  upairi-sa&na  of 
Yas.  X,  29,  and  Zamyad  Yt.  3,  which  the  Pahlavi  translator  of  the 
Yasna  explains  as  '  the  Parsen  crag.'  It  seems  to  be  a  general 
name  for  the  principal  mountain  ranges  in  the  south  and  cast  of 
Iran,  as  may  be  seen  on  compaiing  this  passage  and  Chap.  XXIY, 

greatest ;  the  Aparsen  mountain  they  call  the 
mountain  of  Pars,  and  its  beginning  is  in  Sagas  tan  ' 
and  its  end  in  Khtiflstan.  10.  Mount  Manfc*  is 
great ;    the    mountain    on    which    Manfclihar   was 

1 1.  The  remaining  mountains  have  chiefly  grown 
from  those ;  as  it  is  said  that  the  elevation  (afsarih) 
of  the  districts  had  arisen  most  around  those  three 
mountains3.  12.  Mount  Aira/*  is  in  the  middle 
from  Hama^an  to  Khvarirem,  and  has  grown  from 
Mourn  Aj>arsen.  13.  Mount  [A'lno]*,  which  is  on  its 
east,  on  the  frontier  of  TOrkistan,  is  connected  also 
with  Aparsen.  14.  Mount  Kaf*  has  grown  from 
the   same    Mount    Aparsen.      15.    Mount  Aushday- 

*8,  with  Chap.  XX,  \(>.  17.  21.  22,  where  the  Haro,  Hetumand, 
Man-,  and  Halkh  rivers  arc  said  10  spring  from  Mount  Apirsfin ; 
but  its  application  to  the  southern  range  is  perhaps  due  to  the 
etymological  attempt,  in  the  text,  to  connect  it  with  Pars.  The 
Selections  of  Z.W-sparam,  VII,  7,  have  Alni^tan  for  Khu^tstln. 

1  This  name  can  also  be  read  Sistan. 

1  In  §  2  it  is  also  called  Zartf,  hut  in  Zamyad  Vt.  1  Zeredho  and 
ArecuV>-manusha  are  mentioned  as  neighbouring  mountains.      The 

■word  '  great '  is  omitted  in  M/i. 
1  That  is,  around  the  ranges  of  Albfns.  AparAl,  .md  Manux. 
4  Perhaps  intended  for  the  I  of  Zamyad  Yt.  2.     The  de- 

scription would  apply  to  any  of  the  mountains  near  NtsapOr. 

1  This  name  is  omitted  in  the  MSS.,  but  is  taken  from  6  2  as 
by  Justi.  Perhaps  it  may  be  connected  with  '  the  country 
of  Sfait'  (Chap.  XV,  29),  which  is  explained  as  being  /TintstSn, 
probably  the  land  of  Samarkand,  which  place  was  formerly  called 
JHn,  according  to  a  passage  in  some  MSS.  of  Tabari'6  Chronicle, 
quoted  in  Ouselcys  Oriental  Geography,  p.  29R. 

•  Not  Kaf.  nor  is  it  mentioned  in  the  Pahlavi  Vend.  V,  57,  as 
supposed  by  Justi;  the  kaf  k6p  arayarf  of  Spiegel  s  edition  of  the 
Pahlavi  text  being  a  misprint  for  kafak6  para y at/,  '  it  traverses  a 
fissure '  (see  Hang's  Essays,  2nd  ed.  p.  326,  note  2). 

tiLr '  is  in  Sagastan.  16.  Mount  Aresur*  is  that 
which  is  in  the  direction  of  Arum.  17.  The  Padash- 
khvargar3  mountain  is  that  which  is  in  Taparistan 
ami  tin-  side  of  Gilan.  18.  The  Revand4  mountain 
is  in  Khurasan*,  on  which  the  Burdn  fire*  was  esta- 
blished ;  and  its  name  Revand  means  this,  that  it  is 
glorious.  19.  The  Va<VgeV  mountain  is  that  which 
is  on  the  frontier  of  the  Va^/gesians  ;  that  quarter  is 
full  of  timber  and  full  of  trees.  20.  The  Bakyir s 
mountain  is  that  which  Frasiyaz/  of  Tur  used  as 
stronghold,  and  he  made  his  residence  within  it 
and  in  the  days  of  Yim 9  a  myriad  towns  and  cities 
were  erected  on  its  pleasant  ana'  prosperous  ter- 
ritory.      21.  Mount  Kabed-^ikaft ,0  (' very  rugged') 





1  The  Av.  Ushi-darena  of  Yas.  I,  41,  II.  54.  HI.  55.  IV.  4 
XXII,  31,  XXV,  22,  Auharmazd  Yt.  31,  Vi.  o,  2.  97. 

'  Called  Aresur-bflui  in  §  2,  which  name  stands  for  ihc  sixth 
and  seventh   mountains,  Erezuro  and  Bumyd,  in  Zamyad  Yl 
The  land  of  Arum  was  the  eastern  empire  of  the  Romans. 

3  Evidenily  the  mountain  range  south  of  the  Caspian,  now  call 
Albfirs ;  but  whether  this  actual  Alburs  is  to  be  considered  a  part 
of  the  mythic  AlbGrr  is  not  very  clc;ir. 

*  The  Av.  Raevmis,  *  shining,'  of  Zamyad  Yt.  6.  It  is  also 
called  the  Ridge  of  Vixtasp  (see  §  34). 

*  Or,  '  the  east:  •  See  Chap.  XVII,  8. 
7  The  Av.  Vaiti-gaeso,  the  twelfth  mountain  in  Zamyad  Yt.  2  : 

HadghSs  in  Persian. 

a  In  §  3  it  is  Bakyir,  which  Jusii  thinks  is  another  name  for 
Mount  Darspet  ('white  poplar');  the  latter  name  not  being  re- 
peated here  makes  this  supposition  probable. 

*  K20  has  rum  and  1U6  has  lanman,  but  both  explained  by 
the  Paz.  gloss  Yim,  which  is  also  the  reading  of  the  Paz.  MSS.  Ii 
the  gloss  be  rejected  the  most  probable  translation  would  be,  '  and 
in  our  days  Shalro-rSm  (or  raniim).  the  victorious,  erected  on  it  1 
myriad  towns  and  cities.' 

19  Windischmann  suggests  that  this  may  be  intended  for  the  Av. 
jkyata  or  ukata  mentioned  in  the  note  on  Aparsen  in  §  9. 


CHAPTER    XII,    16-28. 


hat  in  Pars,  out  of  the  same  Mount  Aparsen. 
22.  Mount  Sfyak-h6mand  ('  being  black')  and  Mount 
Vafar-homand  ('  having  snow ')  \  as  far  as  their 
Kavul  borders,  have  grown  out  of  it  (Aparsen) 
towards  the  direction  of  K\x\6.  23.  The  Spend- 
y§d*  mountain  is  in  the  circuit  (var)  of  Revand3. 
24.  The  Kondrasp4  mountain,  on  the  summit  of 
which  is  Lake  Sovbar J,  is  in  the  district  (or  by  the 
town)  of  Tus.  25.  The  Kondris  °  mountain  is  in 
Airan-vc^.  26.  The  Asnavand 7  mountain  is  in 
Ataro-jiatakan.  27.  The  R6yim-hdmand  8  ('  having 
growth  )  mountain  is  that  on  which  vegetation  has 

28.  Whatever9  mountains  are  those  which  are  in 
every   place   of   the   various    districts    and   various 

1  The  Av.  Syimaka  and  Vafrayrru  of  ZamySd  Yt  5  ;  and  pro- 
bably the  Sivah-k6h  and  Safed-k6h  of  Afghanistan.  With  regard 
to  Alno,  see  the  note  on  §  13.     The  former  mountain  is  called 

••ik-mul-mand,  '  having  black  hair,'  in  §  2,  which  h  certain! 
more  grammatical  form  than  Sfvak-homand. 

"  The  Av.  Spc«i6data  of  Zamyad  Yt  6. 

'  The  term  var  often  me.uis  '  l.ikf,'  but  we  are  not  informed  of 
any  Lake  Revand,  though  a  mountain  of  ih.u  name  is  described  in 
I  18  ;  so  it  m  ible  to  take  var  here  in  its  wider  sense  of 

'  enclosure,  circuit,  distru  1 ' 

•  The  Av.  Kadrva-aspa  of  Zamyad  Yt.  6. 

•  See  Chap.  XXII,  3.     All  MSS.  have  SObar  here. 

■he  cirmmflex  be  used  in  Pablavi  to  indicate  not  only  the 
consonant  d,  but  also  the  vowel  1,  e  when  it  follows  a  vowel,  as 
seems  probable,  this  name  can  be  read  Koiras ;  in  any  case,  it  is 
evidently  intended  for  tlie  Av.  Kaoirisa  in  Zamyad  Yt.  6.  It  is 
written  K6ndras  in  §  2. 

■  The  Av.  Asnavtm  of  Zamyad  Yt.  5,  Atash  Nyay.  5,  Siioz.  9. 
See  also  Chap.  XVII,  7. 

■  The  Av.  Raoidhito,  the  eighth  mountain  of  Zamyad  Yt.  2. 

•  So  in  M6  and  the  Piz.  MSS.,  but  K20  ha*,  'The  country 

countries,  and  cause  the  tillage  and  prosperity  there- 
in, are  many  in  name  and  many  in  number,  and 
have  grown  from  these  same  mountains.  29.  As 
Mount  Ganava//,  Mount  Aspar6.£\  Mount  Pahargar, 
Mount  Dimavand,  Mount  Ravak,  Mount  ZarJn, 
Mount  Gesbakht,  Mount  Dava</,  Mount  Mi^ln,  and 
Mount  Marak  \  which  have  all  grown  from  Mount 
A  parson,  of  which  the  other  mountains  are  enume- 
rated. 30.  For  the  Dava//2  mountain  has  grown 
into  KhOf  Istan  likewise  from  the  A  parson  mountain. 
31.  The  Dimavand3  mountain  is  that  in  which 
Bevarasp  is  bound.  32.  From  the  same  Padashkh- 
vargar  mountain  unto  Mount  Kflmtr4,  which  they 
call  Mount  Mad6fryaaf  ('  Come-to-help ') — that  in 
which  Vistasp  routed  Ar^asp — is  Mount  Ml\an-i- 
da^t  ('  mid-plain ') &,  and  was  broken  off  from  that 
mountain  there.  33.  They  say,  in  the  war  of  the  reli- 
gion, when  there  was  confusion  among  the  Iranians 
it  broke  off  from  that  mountain,  and  slid  down  into 
the  middle  of  the  plain  ;  the  Iranians  were  saved  by 

1  This  list  is  evidently  intended  to  include  the  chief  mountains 
known  to  the  author  of  the  Buiulahij,  which  he  could  not  identify 
with  any  of  those  mentioned  in  the  Avesta. 

2  This  is  the  I'dzand  reading  of  the  name,  on  which  very  little 
reliance  can  be  placed  ;  the  Pahlavi  can  also  he  read  Dina*/,  and  it 
may  be  the  Dcana  mountain,  12,000  feet  high,  near  Kaxki-zard. 

*  See  Chap.  XXIX,  9.  This  volcanic  mountain,  about  20,000 
feet  high  and  near  Teheran,  still  retains  this  ancient  Persian  name, 
meaning  '  wintry.'  It  is  the  chief  mountain  of  the  I'adashkhvirgar 
range,  which  the  BundahLr  evidently  considers  as  an  offshoot  of 
the  Aparsfin  ranges. 

4  The  present  name  of  a  mountain  between  Niripur  and  the 

6  The  name  of  a  place  about  midway  between  AstarabSd  and 
Nijapur.  This  mountain  is  called  M^fn  in  §  29,  probably  from  a 
place  called  Mezinan  in  the  same  neighbourhood. 

it,  and  it  was  called  '  Comc-to-help '  by  them.  34. 
The  Ganava*/1  mountain  is  likewise  there,  on  the 
Ridge  of  Virtasp  (pO^t-i  Vinlspan)*  at  the  abode 
of  the  Bur.dn-Mitr6  fire,  nine  leagues  (parasang)  to 
the  west.  35.  Ravak  Bi^an  *  is  in  Zravakarf';  this 
place,  some  say,  is  Zrava</,  some  call  it  Blsan,  some 
Kalak  ;  from  this  the  road  of  two  sides  of  the  moun- 
tain is  down  the  middle  of  a  fortress ;  for  this  reason, 
that  is.  because  it  is  there  formed,  they  call  Kalak 
a  fortress;  this  place  they  also  call  within  the  land 
of  Sarak.  36.  Mount  Asparq^-  *  is  established  from 
the  country  of  Lake  A'ifc&ist6  unto  Pars.  37.  Pahar- 
gar  ('  the  Pahar  range ')  is  in  Khurasan.  38.  Mount 
Marak  6  is  in  iJiran.  39.  Mount  Zarin  is  in  Tiirkis- 
tan.     40.  Mount  Bakht-tan 7  is  in  Spahan. 

41.  The  rest,  apart  from  this  enumeration,  which 
they  reckon  as  fostering  hills  of  the  country  in  the 
•ligion  of  the  Mazdayasnians,  are  the  small  hills, 
those  which  have  grown  piecemeal  in  places. 

Chaptkr  XIII. 

1 .  On  the  nature  of  seas  it  says  in  revelation,  that 
the  wide-formed  ocean  keeps  one-third  of  this  earth 
on  the  south  side  of  the  border  of  Alburn8,  and  so 

1  The  Pers.  Kan&bad,  or  Gunabad,  is  near  frumin. 

'  Another  name  for  Mount  R£vand  (§  18).     Sec  Chap.  XVII,  8. 

•  Probably  in  KifU 

•  The  mountain  ranges  of  western  Persia,  including  the  Mount 
Zagros  of  classical  writers. 

•  See  Chap.  XXII,  2. 

•  Probably  the  Merkhinah  range  in  northern  Laristan. 
The  Bakhtiyari  range  in  the  province  of  Ispahan. 

•  Or  perhaps  better  thus :    '  the   wide-formed  ocean  is  in   the 

wide-formed  is  the  ocean  that  the  water  of  a  thou- 
sand lakes  is  held  bv  it,  such  as  the  source  Aredviv- 
sflr  l,  which  some  say  is  the  fountain  lake.  2.  Every 
particular  lake  is  of  a  particular  kind 2,  some  are 
great,  and  some  are  small ;  some  are  so  large  that 
a  man  with  a  horse  might  compass  than  around  in 
forty  days3,  which  is  1700  leagues  (parasang)  in 

3.  Through  the  warmth  and  clearness  of  th 
water,  purifying  more  than  other  waters,  everything 
continually  Hows  from  the  source  Arcdvivsur.  4.  At 
the  south  of  Mount  Alburn  a  hundred  thousand 
golden  channels  are  there  formed,  and  that  water 
goes  with  warmth  and  clearness,  through  the  chan- 
nels, on  to  H Cigar  the  lofty4 ;  on  the  summit  of  that 
mountain  is  a  lake0 ;  into  that  lake  it  flows,  becomes 
quite  purified,  and  comes  back  through  a  different 
golden  channel.  5.  At  the  height  of  a  thousand 
men  an  open  golden  branch  from  that  channel  is 
connected  with  Mount  Ausinddm  *  amid  the  wide- 
formed  ocean  ;  from  there  one  portion  flows  forth  to 
the  ocean  for  the  purification  of  the  sea,  and  one 
portion  drizzles  in  moisture  upon  the  whole  of  this 
earth,  and  all  the  creations  of  Auharmazd  acquire 


direction  of  the  south  limit  of  AlbQrs,  and  |K>sscsscs  one-third  of 
this  earth.' 

1  The  Av.  Ardvf  sura  of  Aban  Vt.  1,  Ac. 

'  Literally,  *  for  every  single  lake  tktrt  is  a  single  kind ; '  but 
we  may  perhaps  read  IS,  '  not,'  instead  of  the  very  similar  rfit, 
1  for,'  and  translate  as  follows :  '  every  single  lake  is  not  of  one 
kind ; '  which  expresses  very  nearly  the  same  meaning. 

3  Compare  Aban  Yt.  10 1. 

1  See  Chap.  XII,  5. 

a  Lake  Urvis  (sec  Chap.  XXII.  11). 

*  See  Chaps.  XII,  6,  and  XVIII,  10,  11. 

CHAPTER    XIII.  2-1  I. 


tealth  from  it,  and   it  dispels  the   dryness  of  the 

6.  Of  the  salt  seas  three  are  principal,  and  twenty- 
three  are  small.  7.  Of  the  three  which  are  principal, 
one  is  the  Putik,  one  the  KamriV,  and  one  the 
iSahi-bun.  8.  Of  all  three  the  Putik  '  is  the  la; 
in  which  is  a  flow  and  ebb,  on  the  same  side  as  the 
wide-formed  ocean,  and  it  is  joined  to  the  wide- 
formed  ocean.  9.  Amid  this  wide-formed  ocean,  on 
the  Putik  side,  it  has  a  sea  which  they  call  the  Gulf 
(var)  ofSatav£s2.  10.  Thick  and  salt  the  stench  a 
wishrs  to  ljo  from  the  sea  Putik  to  the  wide-formed 
ocean  ;  with  a  mighty  high  wind  therefrom,  the  Gulf 
of  Sataves  drives  away  whatever  is  stench,  and 
whatever  is  pure  and  clean  goes  into  the  wide- 
formed  ocean  and  the  source  Arfidvivsur ;  and  that 
flows  back  a  second  time  to  Putik*.  II.  The  con- 
trol* of  this  sea  (the   Putik)  is  connected  with  the 

1  The  Av.  Puitika  of  Vend.  V,  52,  57,  and  evidently  the  Periian 

■  So  called  from  the  constellation  Sataves  (§  12),  see  Chap.  II,  7. 

The  details  given  in  the  text  are  applicable  to  the  Gulf  and  Sea 

°f"    Tmin,  the  Arabian  Sea  of  Europeans.      The  description  of 

^^aGulf,  given  in  the  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  57,  which  is  rather  obscure, 

as  follows:    'In  purification  the  impurities  flow,  in  the  purity 

vater,  from  the  sea  Putik  into  the  wide-formed  ocean ;    at  the 

-**Jthernmo5t  side  the  water  stands  back  in  mist,  and  the  blue  body 

Sataves  stands  back  around  it.     PQtik  stands  out  from  the  side 

Satavc  where  /'/  is.     From  which  side  it  stands  is  not 

to  me.     The  water  comes  to  Sataves  through  the  bottom; 

•a»e  say  that  it  traverses  a  fissure.' 

*  Perhaps  a  better  reading  would  be  sturg  Bur-i  gftndakih, 
.  ^*e  intense  saltncss  which  is  stench.'  The  author  appears  to  have 
^^-<1  some  vague  idea  of  the  monsoon. 

*  Or,  perhaps,  'the  other  (the  stench)  flows  back  to  POtik.' 

*  Heading  band;    but  it  may  be  b6d,  'consciousness,  sensi- 




moon  and  wind ;  it  comes  again  and  goes  down,  in 
increase  and  decrease,  because  of  her  revolving. 
12.  The  control'  also  of  the  Gulf  of  Sataves  is 
attached  to  the  constellation  Sataves,  in  whose  pro- 
tection are  the  seas  of  the  southern  quarter,  just  as 
those  on  the  northern  side  are  in  the  protection  of 
Haptok-ring2.  13.  Concerning  the  flow  and  ebb  it 
is  said,  that  everywhere  from  the  presence  of  the 
moon  two  winds  continually  blow,  whose  abode  is  in 
the  Gulf  of  Sataves,  one  they  call  the  down-draught, 
and  one  the  up-draught;  when  the  up-draught  bknfi 
it  is  the  flow,  and  when  the  down-draught  blows  it 
is  the  ebb3.  14.  In  the  other  seas  tiiere  is  nothing 
of  the  nature  of  a  revolution  of  the  moon  therein. 
and  there  are  no  flow  and  ebb.  15.  The  sea  of 
Kamru^4  is  that  which  they  pass  by,  in  the  north, 
in  Taparistan  ;  that  of  .Vahi-bun  A  is  in  Arum. 

16.  Of  the  small  seas  that  which  was  most  whole- 

1  See  p.  43,  note  5. 
*  See  Chap.  II,  7. 

'  This  is  not  a  confused  attempt  to  explain  the  tides  as  the  effe^1 
of  the  land  and  sea  breezes,  as  might  be  suspected  at  first,  but 
reasonable  conclusion  from  imaginary  facts.  Assuming  that  ti,£" 
mod  always  blows  eastward  and  westward  from  the  moon,  it  fol- 
lows that  as  the  moon  rises  an  easterly  wind  must  blow,  which  miO 
be  supposed  to  drive  the  flood  tide  westward  into  the  Persian  Gul^  * 
until  the  moon  passes  the  meridian,  when  the  wind,  changing  **■** 
the  west,  ought  10  drive  the  ebb  tide  eastward  out  of  the  Gal'* 
thus  accounting  for  one  flow  and  ebb  every  day,  dependent  on  tl»^ 
position  of  the  moon. 

4  Evidently  the  Caspian,  which  lies  north  of  Taparistan,  a  pr*>~ 
since  including  part  of  Mazendaran. 

6  Or  perhaps  6rahf-bun,  meaning  probably  the  Mediterranean  *>r 
Kuxine,  if  not  both  of  ihem ;  the  author  appears  merely  to  ha*'^ 
heard  of  the  existence  of  such  a  sea  in  Asia  Minor  (Arum).  In  tntf 
Selections  of  Za</-sparam,  VI,  14,  it  is  called  G£han-bun. 

CHAPTER    XIII,   I2-XIV.  2. 



some1  was  the  sea  Kyansfh*,  tuck  as  is  in  Sagas- 
tan  ;  at  first,  noxious  creatures,  snakes,  and  lizards 
azagh)  were  not  in  it,  and  the  water  was 
sweeter  than  in  any  of  the  other  seas;  later  (dad'i- 
gar)  //  became  salt :  at  the  closest,  on  account  of  the 
stench,  it  is  not  possible  to  $40  so  near  as  one  league. 
so  very  great  are  the  stench  and  saltness  through  the 

I  violence  of  the  hot  wind.     17.  When  the  renovation 
of  the  universe  occurs  it  will  again  become  sweet  \ 
Chapter  XIV. 
I.  On   the   nature  of  the  five  classes  of  animals 
(gdspend)    it   says    in   revelation,   that,   when    the 
primeval  o  I  away  \  there  where  the  marrow 

came  out  grain  grew  up5  of  fifty  and  five  species, 
**«/ twelve*  species  of  medicinal  plants  grew;  as  it 
^ys,  that  out  of  the  marrow  is  every  separate  crea- 
ture, every  single  thing  whose  lodgment  is  in  the 
Harrow7.      2.    From  the  horns  arose  peas  (ml^iik), 

1    Comparing  nistum  with  Pen.,  '  healthy.' 

The  Av.  KIsu  of  Vend.  XIX,  18,  and  Zamyad  Yl.  66,  92  (sec 
"•o  Chap*.  XX,  34,  and  XXI,  7).  A  brackiifa  lake  and  swamp  now 
a*led  Himun,  'the  desert,'  or  Zarah,  'the  sea,'  and  which  formerly 
"J|»tained  fresher  water  than  it  does  now. 

The   MSS.  here    add   the  first   sentence  of  Chap.  XX,  and 
^fe  is  every  reason  lo  believe  that  Chaps.  XX-XXII  originally 
0c^tipied  this  position,  between  XIII  and  XIV,  (see  the  list  of  the 
lt>r»  tents  of  TD  in  the  Introduction.) 
See  Chaps.  IV,  i,  and  X,  1. 
1    All  MSS.  have  lakhvar,  'again,'  but  this  is  probably  a  blunder 
**  lilt,  'up.' 

K20   lias  'fifteen'  here,  but  'twelve'  in  Chaps.  X,  1,  and 

Kao   has  'of  every   single   thing  the   lodgment  is    in    the 

from  the  nose  the  leek,  from  the  blood  the  grape- 
vine '  from  which  they  make  wine — on  this  account 
wine  abounds  with  blood — from  the  lungs  the  rue- 
like herbs,  from  the  middle  of  the  heart2  thyme  for 
keeping  away  stench,  and  every  one  of  the  others 
as  revealed  in  the  A  vesta. 

3.  The  seed  of  the  ox  was  carried  up  to  the  moon 
station  ■ ;  there  it  was  thoroughly  purified,  and  pro- 
duced the  manifold  species  of  animals4.  4.  First, 
two  oxen,  one  male  and  one  female,  and,  afterwards, 
one  pair  of  every  single  species  was  let  go  into  the 
earth,  and  was  discernible  in  Atran-v&f  for  a  Hasar 
('  mile ').  which  is  like  a  Parasang  ('  league') 5 ;  as  it 
says,  that,  on  account  of  the  valuableness  of  the  ox, 
it  was  created  twice,  one  time  as  an  ox,  and  one 
time  as  the  manifold  species  of  animals.  5.  A  thou- 
sand days  and  nights  they  were  without  eating,  and 
first  wrater  and  afterwards  herbage  (aurvar)  were 
devoured  by  them. 

6.  And,  afterwards,  the  three  classes  (kar^ak)  of 
animals  were  produced  therefrom,  as  it  says  that 
first  were  the  goat  and  sheep,  and  then  the  canul 

1  Prolxibly  k.Wuk-i  raz  may  mean  '  the  pumpkin  and  grape.' 

1  Reading  dfl ;  but  the  word  may  also  he  read  sar,  'the  bead,' 
or  jigar,  'the  liver.' 

■  Sec  Chap.  X,  2. 

*  This  translation  suits  both  text  and  context  very  well,  but 
gdspend  pur-sarc/ak  is  evidently  intended  for  the  Av.  giux 
pouru-saredhd,  '  the  ox  of  many  species,'  of  Mah  Yt.  o,  7,  and 
Strdz.  12. 

a  Reading  mun  a6  parasang  humanak;  if  3  be  read  for  a  6 
the  translation  must  be,  '  three  of  which  are  like  a  Parasang,'  for 
a  Hasar  cannot  be  equal  to  three  Parasangs  (sec  Chaps.  XVI,  7. 
and  XXVI).  The  phrase  in  the  text  probably  means  merely  that 
a  Hlsar  is  a  measure  for  long  distances,  just  as  a  Parasang  is. 

CHATTER    XIV,   3— J  3. 


and  swine,  and  then  the  horse  and  ass.  7.  For, 
first,  those  suitable  for  grazing  were  created  there- 
from, those  are  now  kept  in  the  valley  (la I) ;  the 
second  created  were  those  of  die  hill  summits  (sar- 
i  d£~)  \  which  are  wide-travellers,  a//</ habits  {niha- 
dak)  are  not  taught  to  them  by  hand;  the  third 
created  were  tlu>--t-  dwelling  in   the  water. 

8.  As  for  the  genera  (khaduinak),  the  first  genus 
is  that  which  has  the  foot  cloven  in  two,  and  is  suit- 
able for  grazing:  of  which  a  camel  larger  than  a 
horse  Bfl  small  and  new-born.  9.  The  second  genus 
is  ass-footed,  of  which  the  swift2  horse  is  the  largest. 
and  the  ass  the  least.  10.  The  third  genus  is  that 
of  the  five-dividing  paw,  of  which  the  dog  is  the 
largest,  and  the  civet-cat  the  least.  1 1 .  The  fourth 
genus  is  the  flying,  of  which  the  griffon  of  thn  < 
natures3  is  the  largest,  and  the  chaffinch  4  the  least. 
12.  The  fifth  genus  is  that  of  the  water,  of  which 
the  Kar  fish*  is  the  largest,  and  the  Nemadu"  the 

13.  These  five  genera  arc  apportioned  out  into 

Jusii  reads  gSr?sa£,  the  Av.  gairisha-fco,  'moumain-frcquent- 

*'  of  TLiar  \  t.  36  ;  but  this  is  doubtful. 

'   Pahl.  zibal=Pers.  stbtt 

'  The  Pi*,  sin  - 1  Be  avina  is  the  Pahl.  sSn-i  3  khaduinak  of 
Chap.  XXIV,  1 1.  2i).  the  Sin  bird  or  Simurgh  of  Persian  legends, 
the  Av.saena.  The  word  avina  is  a  Paz.  misreading  cither  of 
if  oak,  ■  kmd.  sort,'  or  of  an^anak,  '  dividing.'  The  mixture  of 
Plaand  and  Pahlavi  in  this  and  some  other  chapters  is  rather  per- 
plexing, but  ill*.-  Pazand  misreadings  can  usually  be  corrected  after 
transliterating  them  back  into  Pahlavi  characters. 

•  Reading  va  taru  (Pcrs.  tar). 

»&  XVIII,  3.  and  XXIV,  i.v 

1  U  t:u  1  word  be  written  in  Pahlavi  letters  it  may  be 

va  niagan,  which  may  stand  for  va  magil,  'and  the  leech ; ' 
this  is  very  uncertain. 

two  hundred  and  eighty-two1  species  (san/ak'i. 
14.  First  are  five  species  of  goat,  the  ass-goat  *,  the 
milch-goat,  the  mountain-goat,  the  fawn,  and  the 
common  goat.  15.  Second,  five  species  of  sheep, 
that  with  a  tail,  that  which  has  no  tail,  the  dog- 
sheep,  the  wether,  and  the  Kurbk  sheep,  a  sheep 
whose  horn  is  great;  it  possesses  a  grandeur3  like 
unto  a  horse,  and  they  use  it  mostly  for  a  steed 
(bara),  as  it  is  said  that  Manui/ihar  kept  a  Kuriik 
as  a  steed.  16.  Third,  two  species  of  camel,  the 
mountain  one  and  that  suitable  for  grazing  ;  for  one 
is  fit  to  keep  in  the  mountain,  and  one  in  the  plain ; 
they  are  one-humped  and  two-humped.  17.  Fourth, 
fifteen  species  of  ox,  the  white,  mud-coloured 4,  red, 
yellow,  black,  and  dappled,  the  elk,  the  buffalo, 
the  camel-leopard  ox,  the  fish-chewing s  ox,  the 
Fars  ox,  the  Ka^au,  and  other  species  of  ox. 
18.  Fifth,  eight  species  of  horse,  the  Arab,  the 
Persian,  the  mule8,  the  ass,  the  wild  ass  (gor),  the 
hippopotamus  (asp-i  avi),  and  other  species  o( 
horse.  19.  Sixth,  ten  species  of  dog,  the  shephei 
dog,  the  village-dog  which  is  the  house-protector., 
the   blood-hound,    the   slender  hound7,   the   water— 

1  K20  alone  has  272  (see  Chap.  X,  3). 

■  The  khar-bfiz  (sec  Chap.  XXIV,  2). 

J  Supposing  se  koh  to  he  a  PSz.  misreading  of  Pahl.  xukuh  - 
Justi's  translation  is  :  'it  inhabits  the  three  mountains,  like  ll»^ 

*  Paz.  ashgun  is  evidently  for  Pahl.  hargun. 

8  Transcribing  the  Paz.  mahi  khu  ushitn  into  Pahlavi  it  nayT 
be  read  mahikdn-khvashan  (khashan?). 

•  Instead  of  ihese  first  three  species  M6  has  '  the  white,  black  • 
yellow,  bay,  and  chestnut.'     K20  omits  '  the  ass'  by  mistake. 

T  These  first  four  species  are  the  Av.  pasux-haurvd,  vif* 
haurvft,  v6hunazg6,  and  Uuruno  of  Vend.  V,  92-98,  XIII, 
21,  26-74,  117,  164,  165. 

CHAPTER    XIV.    14-22. 


beaver'  which  they  call  the  water-dog,  the  fox,  the 
ichneumon  (rasu),  the  hedgehog  which  they  call 
'thorny-back,'  the  porcupine2,  and  the  civet-cat ;  of 
which,  two  species  are  those  accustomed3  to  bur- 
rows, one  the  fox  and  one  the  ichneumon  ;  and  those 
accustomed  to  jungle  are  such  as  the  porcupine 
which  has  spines  on  i/s  back,  and  the  hedgehog 
which  is  similar.  20.  Seventh,  five  species  of  the 
black  *  hare  ;  two  are  wild  species,  one  dwelling 
in  a  burrow3  and  one  dwelling  in  the  jungle. 
21.  Eighth,  eight  species  of  weasel;  one  the  mar- 
ten, one  the  black  marten,  the  squirrel,  the  Bei 
ermine*,  the  white  ermine,  and  other  species  of 
weasel.  22.  Ninth,  eight  species  of  musk  animals; 
one  is  that  which  is  recognised  by  Us  musk7,  one 

1  The  Av.  bawrij  upapoof  Aban  Yt.  129. 
1  The  word  indra  has  usually  been  taken  as  a  Pdz.  misreading 
tfthe  Pitt,  afldrak  (Av.  udra,  'otter/  of  Vend.  XIII,  48,  167. 
,69i  XIV,  2\  hut  'his  would  be  more  probably  read  arulr.v 
**  I'ahl.  sugar,  'porcupine,'  is  just  as  likely  to  be  misread 
*^a,  and  its  meaning  suits  the  context  better. 

TTie  Pdz.  amokhtexn,  which  is  an  ungrammatical  form,  is 
:Uly  a  misreading  of  the  Pahl.  amQkhtag&n. 
*V.20  has  seya,  M6  has  zySgi  best.    Perhaps  some  old  copyist 
ta  correcied  siyak-g6sh  into  khar-gosh,  and  so  both  the  epi- 
**  bavc  crept  into  the  text,  the  word  '  black  '  being  superfluous. 

-ading  khan-manijt,  the  Paz.  khu  being  an  obvious  mis- 
raKr»g  of  khan. 

"l^hc  Piz.  bez  is  written  bedh  in  the  Pazand  MS.  (the  z  in 

W»  Wing  shaped  something  like  dh),  and  Justi  supposes  it  repre- 

Ihe  Arabic  abyadh  or  baidb.3,  '  white,'  and  is  explained  by 

^*r$.  saped,  'white,'  which  follows;  but  there  is  nothing  in 

Ti*t*u  to  indicate  that  the  second  name  is  an  explanation  of  QtC 

&*•    It  is  more  probable  that  b*z  represents  the  Pers.  bi^ad, 

h,  rnfous,  variegated,'  an  epithet   quite   applicable   to  the 

"toinc  in  its  summer  fur. 

T  Or,  '  is  known  as  the  musk  animal.' 

[5]  E 

the  musk  animal  with  a  bag  in  which  is  their 
pleasant  scent,  the  Bi^-musk  •  which  eats  the  Bii- 
herb,  the  black  musk  which  is  the  enemy  of  the  ser- 
pent that  is  numerous  in  rivers,  and  other  species  of 
musk  animals.  23.  Tenth,  one  hundred  and  ten 
species  of  birds;  flying  creatures  (vey  =  val)  such 
as  the  griffon  bird  '-,  the  Karript  \  the  eagle,  the 
Kahrkas*  which  they  call  the  vulture,  the  crow, 
the  Arda,  the  craw,  and  the  tenth*  is  the  bat 
24.  There  are  two  of  them  which  have  milk  in  the 
teat  and  suckle  their  young,  the  griffon  bird  and  the 
bat  which  flies  in  the  night ;  as  they  say  that  the 
bat  is  created  of  three  races  (sar^ak),  the  race 
(dyina)  of  the  dog,  the  bird,  and  the  musk  ani:- 
for  it  flies  like  a  bird,  has  many  teeth  like  a  dog, 
and  is  dwelling  in  holes  like  a  musk-rat.  25.  These 
hundred  and  ten  species  of  birds  are  distributed  into 
eight  groups  (khadulnak),  mostly  as  scattered 
about  as  when  a  man  scatters  seed,  and  drops 
seed  in  his  fingers  to  the  ground,  large,  middling, 
and  small.     26.  Eleventh  °,  fish  were  created  of  ten 

1  A   kind   of  musk-rat;  the  btj  it  eats  is  said  to  be  die  N. 
pellus  Moysis. 

*  Pahl.  s£n6  mGruk,  the  sfmurgh  of  Persian  tradition,  and 
Av.  meregho  safcno  of  Bahrain  Yi.  41. 

*  See  Chap.  XIX,  16.  *  See  Chap.  XIX,  25. 

•  Counting  the  '  flying  creatures  '  and  '  the  vulture '  as  distinct 
species,  '  the  bat '  is  the  tenth.     It  has  been  generally  supposed 
that  we  should  read  'eleventh,'  and  consider  the  bats  as  an  eleventh 
group,  especially  as  the  MSS.  call  the  next  group  (the  fish) 
'twelfth;'  but  this  view  is  contradicted  by  the  remarks  aboti 
bats  being  mingled  with  those  about  the  birds,  and  also  by  Za//- 

puram  in  his  Selections,  Chap.  IX,  14  (see  A  pp.  to  Bund.),  not 
mentioning  any  group  of  bats  among  the  other  animals. 

•  All  the  MSS.  have  '  twelfth,'  but  they  give  no  '  eleventh  '  nor 
thirteenth,"  though  they  have  'fourteenth'  in  §  29.     These  irre- 

CHAPTER    XIV,  23-29. 


pecies  :  first,  the  fish  Afi*1,  the  Arzuva,  the  Ar- 
zuka.  the  Marzuka,  and  other  Avesta  names2. 
27.  Afterwards,  within  each  species,  species  within 
species  are  created,  so  the  total  is  two  hundred  and 
eighty-two  species 3. 

28.  Of  the  dog  they  say  that  out  of  the  star 
station,  that  is,  away  from  the  direction  of  the  con- 
stellation Haptdk-rlng,  was  given  to  him  further  by 
a  stage  ( st)*  than  to  men,  on  account  of  his 
protection  of  sheep,  and  as  associating  with  sheep 
and  men ;  for  this  the  dog  is  purposely  adapted ', 
as  three  more  kinds  of  advantage  are  given  to  him 
to  man,  he  lias  his  own  boots,  his  own  cloth- 
rag*,  and  may  wander  about  without  self-exertion. 
29.    The    twelfth7    is   the   sharp-toothed    beast    of 

as  tli 


Jtrtarilics  seem  to  indicate  that  part  of  this  chapter  has  been  omitted 
by  same  old  copyist. 

•  See  Chaps.  XVIII.  5,  and  XXIV,  13. 

1  None  of  these  names  are  found  in  the  portion  of  the  Avesta 
ftow  extant. 

'  Kao  alone  has  272  (see  Chap.  X,  3).  The  actual  total 
number  of  species  mentioned  is  186,  leaving  ninety-six  for  the 
'aperies  within  species.'  Z;W-sparam  in  his  Selections,  Cliap.  IX. 
*4»  differs  from  the  numbers  given  in  the  text  merely  in  giving  ten 
*P«ci«  of  ox.  instead  of  fifteen  ;  so  the  total  of  his  details  is  181, 
k*ving  101  sub-species  to  make  up  his  grand  total  of  282  (see 
APp.  to  Bund.) 

*  Ayfi^ist  (compare  Sans,  yo^ana)  was  probably  from  fifteen 
sixteen  English  miles,  as  it  consisted  of  sixteen  hasar,  each 

*  one  thousand  steps  of  the  two  feet  (see  Chap.  XXVI,  1).  This 
**Mence  seems  to  imply  that  on  account  of  the  useful  qualities 
'  the  dog  he  has  a  part  of  the  lowermost  grade  of  paradise 
•dotted  to  him,  further  from  the  demon-haunted  north  than  that 
**Viaed  to  the  men  whose  inferior  order  of  merit  does  not  entitle 
"Ctn  to  enter  the  higher  grades  of  paradise. 

1  Reading  dhang-hfim  and,  'having  a  purpose.' 

'  Compare  Vend.  XIII,  106. 

T  All  the  MSS.  have  ■  fourteenth,'  but  they  give  no  '  thirteenth. 

E  2 

which  the  leader  of  the  flock  is  in  such  great  fear, 
for  that  flock  of  sheep  is  very  badly  maintained 
which  has  no  dog. 

30.  Auharmazd  said  when  the  bird  Varesha !  was 
created  by  him,  which  is  a  bird  of  prey,  thus :  '  Thou 
art  created  by  me,  O  bird  Varesha !  so  that  my  vexa- 
tion may  be  greater  than  my  satisfaction  with  thee, 
for  thou  doest  the  will  of  the  evil  spirit  more  than 
that  of  me ;  like  the  wicked  man  who  did  not  be- 
come satiated  with  wealth,  thou  also  dost  not 
become  satiated  with  the  slaughter  of  birds ;  but  if 
thou  be  not  created  by  me,  O  bird  Varesha !  thou 
wouldst  be  created  by  him,  the  evil  spirit,  as  a 
kite  *  with  the  body  of  a  Varpa 3,  by  which  no 
creature  would  be  left  alive.' 

31.  Many  animals  are  created  in  all  these  species 
for  this  reason,  that  when  one  shall  be  perishing 
through  the  evil  spirit,  one  shall  remain. 

Chapter  XV. 

1.  On  the  nature  of  men  it  says  in  revelation, 
that  Gaydmardf,  in  passing  away4,  gave  forth  seed; 
that  seed  was  thoroughly  purified  by  the  motion  of 

1  No  doubt  '  a  hawk  '  (Pers.  vfuah  or  baxah),  as  mentioned  by 
Justi;  Av.  varc  would  become  va  or  ba  in  Persian. 

8  Compare  gunk  with  Peri,  varik,  varka,  varkak,  varkal 
vargah,  'an  eagle,  falcon,  kite,  or  hawk.' 

1  Transcribing    the    Paz.    varpa   6yi    into    Pahlavi     w 
varpa k-ac,  which  is  very  nearly  the  same  in  form  as  varf*ak-a$, 
'a  hut  or  cottage'  (Pers.  gurtAah-g);  so  the  formidable  bird 
which  the  evil  spirit  might  have  created  was  '  a  kite  with  a  bod) 
like  a  cottage.' 

*  See  Chap.  IV,  I. 

CHAPTER    XIV,  30-XV,  4.  53 


the  light  of  the  sun,  and  Nerydsang1  kept  charge  of 
two  portions,  and  Spendarmaaf  *  received  one  por- 
tion. 2.  And  in  forty  years,  with  the  shape  of  a 
one-stemmed  Rtvas-///7«/a,  and  the  fifteen  years  of 
its  fifteen  leaves,  Matrd  and  Matrdyad 4  grew  up 
from  the  earth  in  such  a  manner  that  their  arms 
rested  behind  on  their  shoulders  (ddsh),  and  one 
joined  to  the  other  they  were  connected  together 
and  both  alike.  3.  And  the  waists  of  both  of  them 
were  brought  close  and  so  connected  together  that  it 
was  not  clear  which  is  the  male  and  which  the  female, 
nd  which  is  the  one  whose  living  soul  (nismd)  of 
Auharmazd  is  not  away5.  4.  As  it  is  said  thus: 
'Which  is  created  before,  the  soul  (nism6)  or  the 
body  ?  And  Auharmazd  said  that  the  soul  is 
created  before,  and  the  body  after,  for  him  who  was 

t1  Av  Nairyo-sangha  of  Yas.  XVII,  68,  LXX,  02,  Vend  XIX, 
it.  iii,  XXII,  22,  &c. ;  the  angel  who  is  said  to  be  AQharmazd's 
Rial  messenger  to  mankind. 

*  The  female  archangel  who  is  supposed  to  have  special  charge 
of  the  earth  (see  Chap.  I,  26). 

*  A  plant  allied  to  the  rhuharb,  the  shoots  of  which  supply  an 
acid  jnice  used  by  the  Persians  for  acidulating  preserves  and  drinks. 

4  These  names  are  merely  variants  of  the  Mashya  and  Mashydi 
of  ibe  latter  part  of  this  chapter  (nom.  dual,  m.  and  f.,  of  Av. 
mashya,  •mortal').  This  is  shown  by  the  PandnSmak-i  Zarat&rt, 
sayrog:  'and  my  human  nature  is  from  Matrdth  and  Matrd- 
yiotti,  from  which  first  generation  and  seed  from  Gayflman/"  I 
bare  sprung.'  And  the  names  are  also  found  in  the  more  Persian 
forms  Maharfh  and  Mahariyrioyih  (sec  the  note  to  §  22).  Windisch- 
roann  considered  the  meaning  to  be  that  '  they  grew  up  on  the  day 
Mitr6  of  the  month  KttrA/  that  is,  the  sixteenth  day  of  the  seventh 
month  of  the  Parsi  year ;  this  is  not  confirmed,  however,  by  Z&d- 
sparam  in  his  Selections,  Chap.  X,  4  (sec  App.  to  Dund.) 

*  That  is,  whether  they  had  souls  or  not.  That  nismd  is  the 
Huzvarix  for  ruban,  'soul,'  appears  clearly  in  §  4,  where  both 
words  are  used  for  the  same  thing. 



created ;  it  is  given  into  the  body  that  it  may  pro- 
duce activity,  and  the  body  is  created  only  for 
activity ; '  hence  the  conclusion  is  this,  that  the  soul 
(ruban)  is  created  before  and  the  body  after. 
5.  And  both  of  them  changed  from  the  shape  of  a 
plant  into  the  shape  of  man,  and  the  breath  (nismo) 
went  spiritually  into  them,  which  is  the  soul  (ruban | ; 
and  now,  moreover,  in  that  similitude  a  tree  had 
grown  up  whose  fruit  was  the  ten  varieties  of 
man '. 

6.  Auharmazd  spoke  to  Mashya  and  Mash 
thus :  '  You  are  man,  you  arc  the  ancestry  of  the 
world,  and  you  are  created  perfect  in  devotion  *  by 
me ;  perform  devotedly  the  duty  of  the  law,  think 
good  thoughts,  speak  good  words,  do  good  deeds, 
and  worship  no  demons ! '  7.  Both  of  them  first 
thought  tliis,  that  one  of  them  should  please  the 
other,  as  he  is  a  man  for  him ;  and  the  first  deed 
done  by  them  was  this,  when  they  went  out  they 
washed 3  themselves  thoroughly ;  and  the  first 
words  spoken  by  them  were  these,  that  Auharmazd 
created  the  water  and  earth,  plants  and  animals,  the 
stars,  moon,  and  sun,  and  all  prosperity  whose 
origin  and  effect  are  from  the  manifestation  of 
righteousness4.  8.  And,  afterwards,  antagonism 
rushed    into    their    minds,    and    their    minds    were 

1  This  evidently  refers  to  another  tree,  which  is  supposed  to  have 
produced  the  ten  varieties  of  human  monsUosities  (see  §  31). 

*  This  would  be  a  translation  of  the  Avesta  phrase,  '  die  best  of 
Armani  (the  spirit  of  the  earth).' 

*  Comparing  m kgtd  with  Pers.  ma^td  ;  but  the  verb  is  very  am- 
biguous, as  it  may  mean,  '  they  feasted  themselves,'  or  '  they  made 

4  The  last  phrase  appears  to  be  quoted  from  the  Pahlavi  Hax/okht 
Nask,  I,  2. 

CHAPTER    XV,  5-I3. 


thoroughly  corrupted,  and  they  exclaimed  that  the 
evil  spirit  created  the  water  and  earth,  plants  and 
animals,  and  the  other  things  as  aforesaid.  9.  That 
false  speech  was  spoken  through  the  will  of  the 
demons,  and  the  evil  spirit  possessed  himself  of 
this  first  enjoyment  from  them  ;  through  that  false 
speech  they  both  became  wicked,  and  their  souls 
are  in  hell  until  the  future  existence. 

10.  And  they  had  gone  thirty  days  without  food  ', 
covered  with  clothing  of  herbage  (giyah) ;  and  after 
the  thirty  days  they  went  forth  into  the  wilderness, 
came  to  a  white-haired  goat,  and  milked  the  milk 
from  the  udder  with  their  mouths.  11.  When  they 
had  devoured  the  milk  Mashya  said  to  Mashydi 
thus :  '  My  delight  was  owing  to  it  when  I  had  not 
devoured  the  milk,  and  my  delight  is  more  de- 
lightful now  when  it  is  devoured  by  my  vile  body.' 
12.  That  second  false  speech  enhanced  the  power 
of  the  demons,  and  the  taste  of  the  food  was  taken 
away  by  them,  so  that  out  of  a  hundred  parts  one 

rrt  remained. 
1 3.  Afterwards,  in  another  thirty  days  and  nights 
they  came  to  a  sheep,  fat2  and  white-jawed,  and 
they  slaughtered  it ;  and  fire  was  extracted  by  them 
out  of  the  wood  of  the  lote-plum3  and  box-tree, 
through  the  guidance  of  the  heavenly  angels,  since 
both  woods  were  most  productive  of  fire  for  them  ; 

1  Reading  akhuri.rn  instead  of  the  khurun  of  all  BASS,  which 
is  baldly  intelligible.  Perhaps  av-khunrn,'  drinking  water,'  ought 
10  be  read,  as  it  is  alluded  to  in  Chap.  XXX.  1. 

1  Comparing  gefar  with  Av.  garewa  and  Pera.  ^arb,  but  tin 
identification  may  not  be  correct. 

*  The  kGnar,  a  thorny  tree,  allied  to  the  jujube,  which  bears  a 

:um-like  fruit. 

and  the.  fire  was  stimulated  by  their  mouths ;  and 
the  first  fuel  kindled  by  them  was  dry  grass,  kend&r. 
lotos,  date  palm  leaves,  and  myrtle ;  and  they  made 
a  roast  of  the  sheep.  14.  And  they  dropped  three 
handfuls  of  the  meat  into  the  fire,  and  said  :  '  This  is 
the  share  of  the  fire '.'  One  piece  of  the  rest  they 
tossed  to  the  sky,  and  said :  '  This  is  the  share  of 
the  angels.'  A  bird,  the  vulture,  advanced  and 
carried  some  of  it  away  from  before  them,  as  a  dog 
ate  the  first  meat.  15.  And,  first,  a  clothing  of 
skins  covered  them  ;  afterwards,  it  is  said,  woven 
garments  were  prepared  from  a  cloth  woven  -  in  the 
wilderness.  16.  And  they  dug  out  a  pit  in  the 
earth,  and  iron  was  obtained  by  them  and  beaten 
out  with  a  stone,  and  without  a  forge  they  beat  out 
a  cutting  edge3  from  it;  and  they  cut  wood  with 
it,  and  prepared  a  wooden  shelter  from  the  sun 

1 7.  Owing  to  the  gracelessness  which  they  prac 
tiscd,  the  demons  became  more  oppressive,  and  they 
themselves   carried   on   unnatural    malice   betv 
themselves;    they  advanced  one  against  the  other, 
and    smote    and     tore     their    hair    and    cheeks 
18.  Then  the  demons  shouted  out  of  the  darknes 


1  Most  of  this  sentence  is  omitted  in  Sao  by  mistake. 

2  Reading  kh£f-i-i  tarf,  which  Pahlavi  words  might  be  cash**" 
misread  ashabS  tad,  as  given  in  Pizand  in  the  text.  That  Pix— - 
ladha  stands  for  Pahl.  tarfak  (Pers.  tadah,  'spun,  woven')  i^" 
quite  certain. 

8  Or  'an  axe/  according  as  we  read  t£kh  or  tash.  The  order" 
of  the  foregoing  words,  bari  tapSk-i, '  without  a  forge,'  appear*- 
10  have  been  reversed  by  mistake. 

*  Reading  r&d  as  equivalent  to  Pers.  rut,  'face,'  but  it  ouche 
to  be  rod.  Perhaps  the  word  is  1  fit, 'bare,' and  the  translation 
should  be,  '  tore  their  hair  bare.' 

CHAPTER    XV,  I4-24.  57 

thus :  '  You  are  man  ;  worship  the  demon !  so  that 
your  demon  of  malice  may  repose.'  19.  Mashya 
went  forth  and  milked  a  cow's  milk,  and  poured  it 
out  towards  the  northern  quarter ;  through  that  the 
demons  became  more  powerful,  and  owing  to  them 
they  both  became  so  dry-backed  that  in  fifty  win- 
ters they  had  no  desire  for  intercourse,  and  though 
they  had  had  intercourse  they  would  have  had  no 
children.  20.  And  on  the  completion  of  fifty  years 
the  source  of  desire  arose,  first  in  Mashya  and  then 
hy6l,  for  Mashya  said  to  Mashy6i  thus : 
When  I  see  thy  shame  my  desires  arise.'  Then 
Mashyoi  spoke  thus  :  '  Brother  Mashya !  when  I 
*e  thy  great  desire  I  am  also  agitated  '.'  21.  After- 
wards, it  became  their  mutual  wish  that  the  satis- 
faction of  their  desires  should  be  accomplished,  as 
^ey  reflected  thus :  '  Our  duty  even  for  those  fifty 
>ears  was  this.' 

*2.  From  them  was  born  in  nine  months  a  pair, 
^Je  and  female ;  and  owing  to  tenderness  for  oflf- 
Pfi  tig3  the  mother  devoured  one,  and  the  father  one. 
>  .And,  afterwards,  Auharmazd  took  tenderness 
**  offspring  away  from  them,  so  that  one  may 
lou*-ish  a  child,  and  the  child  may  remain. 
2"%~.  And  from  them  arose  seven  pairs,  male  and 

l  merely  a  paraphrase  of  the  original. 

^*r,  'the  deliciousness  of  children'  (shirinih-i    farzand). 

Y***    \us, '  owing  to  an  eruption  on  the  children  the  mother  de- 

******  one/  Ac. ;  but  the  legend  of  devouring  the  first  children  is 

tffl  Daore  clearly  mentioned  in  the  Pahlavi  Rivayat,  which  forms 

6*  ftr*t  book  of  the  I>Wisian-i  Dfatk  (preceding  the  ninety-two 

<f*|tion$  and  answers  to  which  that  name  is  usually  applied)  as 

LfoBo%*:  Maharihva  Mahariyadyfh  dusharam  rii  MldiltA 
Urxand-i  nafxman  bara  vajtamQnd,  'Mashya  and  Mas! 
toOttgh  affection,  at  first  ate  up  their  own  offspring.' 



female,  and  each  was  a  brother  and  sister-wife ; 
from  every  one  of  them,  in  fifty  years,  children  were 
born,  and  they  themselves  died  in  a  hundred  years. 

25.  Of  those  seven  pairs  one  was  Slyakmak,  the 
name  of  the  man,  and  Na^dk  1  of  the  woman  ;  and 
from  them  a  pair  was  born,  whose  names  were  Fra- 
vak    of  the   man    and    Ff&vftkatn    of  the    woman. 

26.  From  them  fifteen  pairs  were  born,  every  single 
pair  of  whom  became  a  race  (sarrtfak) ;  and  from 
them  the  constant  continuance  of  the  generations 
of  the  world  arose. 

27.  Owing  to  the  increase  (zayi.yn)  of  the  whole 
fifteen  races,  nine  races  proceeded  on  the  back  of 
the  ox  Sarsaok  ■  through  the  wide-formed  ocean, 
to  the  other  six  regions  (keshvar),  and  stayed 
there ;  and  six  races  of  men  remained  in  Khvaniras. 
28.  Of  those  six  races  the  name  of  the  man  of  one 
pair  was  T&s  and  of  the  woman  Ta^jak,  and  they 
went  lo  the  plain  of  the  T&sik£n  (Arabs) ;  and  of 
one  pair  H6shyang3  was  the  name  of  the  man  and 
Guxak  of  the  woman,  and  from  them  arose  the 
Airanakan  (Iranians) ;  and  from  one  pair  the  Ma- 
zendarans4  have  arisen.  29.  Among  the  number 
(pa van  ae  mar)  were  those  who  are  in  the  coun- 

1  Or 'Virile' 

*  See  Chaps.  XVII,  4,  XIX,  13  ;    the  name  is  here  writi 
Srisaok  in  the  MSS.,  and  is  a  Pazand  reading  in  all  three  places. 

"  Av.  Haoshyangha  of  Ab&n  Yt.  21,  Gfl*  Yt.  3,  Fravardin  V; 
137,  Ram  Yt.  7,  Ashi  Yt.  24,  26,  ZaimAd  Yt.  :f>.  His  usual 
epithet  is  paradhata  (Pahl.  pej-da^/),  which  is  thus  explained  in 
the  Pahlavi  Vend.  XX,  7:  'this  early  law  (pfij-d&rfih)  was  this.. 
that  he  first  set  going  the  law  of  sovereignty.'  For  this  reason 
he  is  considered  to  be  the  founder  of  the  earliest,  or  Perdddian, 
dynasty.     See  Chaps.  XXXI,  1,  XXXIV,  3,  4. 

*  The  people  of  the  southern  coast  of  the  Caspian,  th.-  M  fcj 
ainya  da&va,  •  M&zainyan  demons  or  idolators/  of  the  Avcsta. 

tries  of  Surak  \  those  who  are  in  the  country  of 
Ancr2,  those  who  are  in  the  countries  of  Tur,  those 
who  are  in  the  country  of  Salm  which  is  Arum, 
those  who  are  in  the  country  of  Sent,  that  which  is 
A'inistan,  those  who  are  in  the  country  of  Dai s,  and 
those  who  are  in  the  country  of  Slnd4.  30.  Those, 
indeed,  throughout  the  seven  regions  are  all  from 
the  lineage  of  Fravak,  son  of  Siyakmak,  son  of 

31.  As  there  were  ten  varieties  of  man f',  and 
lifteen  races  from  Fravak,  there  were  twenty-five 
races  all  from  the  seed  of  Gay6mar</;  the  varieties 
are  such  as  those  of  the  earth,  of  the  water,  the 
breast-cared,  the  breast-eyed,  the  one-legged,  those 
also  who  have  wings  like  a  bat,  those  of  the  forest, 
with  tails,  and  who  have  hair  on  the  body  \ 

1  Not  Syria  (which  is  Suristan,  see  Chap.  XX,  10),  but  the 
i-urik  of  the  Pahlavi  Vend.  1,  14,  which  translates  Av.  Sughdha, 
the  land  east  of  the  Oxus  (sec  Chap.  XX,  8).    Windischmann  reads 

as  Piz.  Erik. 

*  Probably  for  Av.  anairya, '  non-Aryan,'  which  seems  specially 
applied  to  die  lands  east  of  the  Caspian. 

*  The  countries  of  Tur,  Salm,  Sen!,  and  Dal  are  all  mentioned 
successively  in  Fravardin  Yi.  143,  144,  in  their  Avesia  forms 
Tuirya,  Sairima,  Saini,  and  Dahi.  The  country  of  Tur  was  part 
of  the  present  Turkistan,  that  of  Salm  is  rightly  identified  with 
Arum  (the  eastern  Roman  Empire,  or  Asia  Minor)  in  the  text ;  the 
country  of  Sfinl  (miswrilten  Send),  being  identified  with  A'inistan, 
was  probably  the  territory  of  Samarkand,  and  may  perhaps  be 
connected  with  Mount  A'ln6  (sec  Chap.  XII,  2,  13) ;  and  the  land 

'  Dai  must  be  sought  somewhere  in  the  same  neighbourhood. 

*  Bactna  or  any  part  of  north-western  India  may  be  intended ; 
brahmans  and  Buddhist-s  existed  (as  they  did  in  Bactria) 

considered  a  part  of  India  in  Sasanian  limes. 

*  Grown  on  a  separate  tree  (see  §  5). 

*  Only  seven  varieties  of  human  monsters  are  here  enumerated, 


I.  On  the  nature  of  generation  it  says  in  revela- 
tion, that  a  woman  when  she  comes  out  from  men- 
struation, during  ten  days  and  nights,  when  they  go 
near  unto  her,  soon  becomes  pregnant.  2.  When 
she  is  cleansed  from  her  menstruation,  and  when  the 
time  for  pregnancy  has  come,  always  when  the  seed 
of  the  man  is  the  more  powerful  a  son  arises  from 
it ;  when  that  of  the  woman  is  the  more  powerful,  a 
daughter;  when  both  seeds  are  equal,  twins  and 
triplets.  3.  If  the  male  seed  comes  the  sooner,  it 
adds  to  the  female,  and  she  becomes  robust ;  if  the 
female  seed  comes  the  sooner,  it  becomes  blood,  and 
the  leanness  of  the  female  arises  therefrom. 

4.  The  female  seed  is  cold  and  moist,  and  its 
flow  is  from  the  loins,  and  the  colour  is  white,  red, 
and  yellow ;  and  the  male  seed  is  hot  and  dry,  its 
flow  is  from  the  brain  of  the  head,  and  the  colour  is 
white  and  mud-coloured  (hajgun).  5.  All1  the 
seed  of  the  females  which  issues  beforehand,  takes  a 
place  within  the  womb,  and  the  seed  of  the  males 
will  remain  above  it,  and  will  fill  the  space  of  the 
womb;  whatever  refrains  therefrom  becomes  blood 
again,  enters  into  the  veins  of  the  females,  and  at 
the   time   any   one   is   born    it   becomes   milk   and 

for  the  last  three  details  seem  to  refer  to  one  variety,  the  monkeys. 
The  Pars!  MS.  of  miscellaneous  texts,  M7  (fol.  120),  says,  'The 
names  of  the  ten  species  of  men  are  the  breast-eyed,  the  three-eyed, 
the  breast-eared,  the  clcphant-eared,  the  one-legged,  the  web- 
footed,  the  leopard-headed,  the  lion-headed,  the  camel-headed, 
and  the  dog-headed.' 
1  M6  has  '  always.' 


nourishes  him,  as  all  milk  arises  from  the  seed  of 
the  males,  and  the  blood  is  that  of  the  females. 

6.  These  four  things,  they  say,  are  male,  and 
these  female:  the  sky,  metal,  wind,  and  lire  are  male, 
and  are  never  otherwise ;  the  water,  earth,  plants, 
and  fish  are  female,  and  are  never  otherwise  ;  the 
remaining  creation  consists  of  male  and  female. 

7.  As  regards  the  fish  1  it  says  that,  at  the  time  of 
excitement,  they  go  forwards  and  come  back  in  the 
water,  two  and  two,  the  length  of  a  mile  (hdsar), 
which  is  one-fourth  of  a  league  (parasang),  in  the 
running  water  ;  in  that  coming  and  going  they  then 
rub  their  bodies  together,  and  a  kind  of  sweat  drops 
out  betwixt  them,  and  both  become  pregnant. 

Chapter  XVII. 

1.  On  the  nature  of  fire  it  says  in  revelation,  that 
ire  is  produced  of  five  kinds,  namely,  the  fire 
Berezi-savang 2.  the  fire  which  shoots  up  before  Au- 
harmazd  the  lord ;  the  fire  Vohu-fryan 3,  the  fire 
which  is  in  the  bodies  of  men  and  animals  ;  the  fire 
UrvazLrt*,   the    fire  which   is  in   plants;    the   fire 


1  Kjo  has  'the  male  fish,'  which  is  inconsisteni  with  die  pre- 
ceding sentence. 

*  These  A  vest  a  names  of  the  five  kinds  of  fire  are  enumerated 
in  Yas.  X  V* 1 1 ,  63-67,  and  the  Pahlavi  translation  of  that  passage 
interchanges  the  attributes  ascribed  to  the  first  and  lift  1 1  in  the  text, 
thus  it  calls  the  first  '  the  fire  of  sublime  benefit  in  connection  with 
Yaxahran  (Bahrain).'     Sec  also  Selections  of  Za«/-sparam,  XI,  1. 

1  '  The  fire  of  the  good  diffuser  (or  offerer),  that  within  the 
bodies  of  men'  (Pahl.  Yas.  XVII,  64). 

The  fire  of  prosperous  (or  abundant)  life,  that  within  plants' 
(Pahl.  Yas.  XVII,  65). 

VazLct l,  the  fire  which  is  in  a  cloud  which  stands 
opposed  to  Spenjrargak  in  conflict ;  the  fire  Spgnirt 2. 
the  fire  which  they  keep  in  use  in  the  world,  like- 
wise the  fire  of  Vahram  '.  2.  Of  those  five  fires  one 
consumes  both  water  and  food,  as  that  which  is  in 
the  bodies  of  men  ;  one  consumes  water  and  con- 
sumes no  food,  as  that  which  is  in  plants,  which  live 
and  grow  through  water;  one  consumes  food  and 
consumes  no  water,  as  that  which  they  keep  in  use 
in  the  world,  and  likewise  the  fire  of  Vahram  j  one 
consumes  no  water  and  no  food,  as  the  fire  Vazi.ct 
;.  The  Berezi-savang  is  that  in  the  earth  and  moun- 
tains and  other  things,  which 4  Auharmazd  created, 
in  the  original  creation,  like  three  breathing  souls 
(nismo);  through  the  watchfulness  and  protection 
due  to  them  the  world  ever  develops  (vakhsh £*/*). 

4.  And  in  the  reign  of  Takhmdrup*,  when  men 
continually  passed,  on  the  back  of  the  ox  Sarsaok 6, 
from    Khvanlras    to   the   other  regions,  one   night 


'  'The  fire  VSzijt,  that  which  smites  the  demon  Spery/argl' 
(Pahl.  Yas.  XVII,  66).     See  Chap.  VII,  1 2. 

'  '  The  propitious  fire  which  stands  in  heaven  before  Aftha 
mazd  in  a  spiritual  state'  (Pahl.  Yas.  XVII,  67). 

»*  The  Bahrfm  fire,  or  sacred  fire  at  places  of  worship. 
'  M6  has  min,  instead  of  mfln,  which  alters  the  translation. 
bat  not  the  meaning.  This  appears  to  be  a  different  account  of 
the  fire  Berezi-savang  to  that  given  in  §  1,  but  it  merely  implies 
that  it  is  fire  in  its  spiritual  state,  and  the  name  can,  therefore,  be 
applied  to  any  natural  fire  which  can  be  attributed  to  supernatural 
afcncr,  such  as  burning  springs  of  petroleum,  volcanic  eruptions, 
tfais  fatuus,  phosphorescence  of  the  sea,  &c. 

1  The  second    P&rd.tdian    monarch   (see  Chaps.   XXXI,   2,   3, 

Srisaok  in  the  MSS.  in  Chap.  XV,  27 ;  where  it  also 
that  the  sea  was  '  the  wide-formed  ocean.'     See  likewise 

CHAPTER    XVII,  2-7. 


amid  the  sea  the  wind  rushed  upon1  the  fireplace — 
the  fireplace  in  which  the  fire  was,  such  as  was  pro- 
vided in  three  places  on  the  back  of  the  ox — which 
the  wind  dropped  with  the  fire  into  the  sea;  and  all 
those  three   fires,   like  three   breathing  souls,   con- 
tinually shot  up  in  the  place  and  position  of  the  fire 
on  the  back  of  the  ox,  so  that  it   becomes  quite 
light,    and   the    men    pass    again   through    the   sea. 
5.   And  in  the  reign  of  Yima  every  duty  was  per- 
formed more  fully  through  the  assistance  of  all  those 
three  fires;  and  the  fire  Frdbak*  was  established  by 
him  at  the  appointed  place  (da</-g&s)  on  the  Gad- 
man-h6mand  (glorious)  mountain  in  KhvArircm*. 
*hich  Vim  constructed  for  them ;  and  the  glory  of 
^im  saves  the  fire  Frdbak  from  the  hand  of  Dahak"'. 
6   In  the  reign  of   King  Virtasp,  upon   revelation 
from    the    religion ',    it    was    established,    out    of 
^/ivari-em.  at  the  Roshan  (shining)  mountain  in 
*£vulistan,  the  country  of  Kavul  (Kabul),  just  as  it 
rerMains  there  even  now. 

7-  The  fire  Gusasp,  until  the  reign  of  Kai-Khus- 

r^fc»  "*.  continually  afforded  the  world   protection   in 

jnanner  aforesaid*;  and 'when  Kai-Khusrolv  was 

Compare  staft  with  Pcrs.  jit  aft  an,  'to  hasten.' 
The    third    Pejdadian   monarch   (see   Chaps.    XXXI,    3,    4, 

-^IlO  written  Frdbo,  Frob.l.  lV.Mk.  or  Fmhag. 

The  Av.  //r&irizem  of  Mihir  Yt.  14,  a  province  east  of  the 

It  15  doubtful  whether  va  gadman,  'and  the  glory,'  or  nismd, 
**  soul,   reason"  (see  Ctaf*  XXIII,  f,  XXXIV,  4),  should  be 
w**!     And  it  may  even  be  that  '  the  fire  Frobak  saves  the  soul  of 
^V  Ac     For  Dahak  see  Chaps.  XXXI,  6,  XXXIV,  5. 
'  upon  declaration  from  revelation.' 
'  Here  written  Kal-Khusr6bi. 
'  In  $  3.  The  '  three  breathing  souls '  of  spiritual  fire  are  sup- 

extirpating   the    idol-temples   of    Lake    /  !   it 

settled  upon  the  mane  of  his  horse,  and  drove  away 
the  darkness  and  gloom,  and  made  it  quite  light,  so 
that  they  might  extirpate  the  idol-temples;  in  the 
same  locality  the  fire  Gu.rasp  was  established  at  the 
appointed  place  on  the  Asnavaml  mountain2. 

8.  The  fire  Burrtn-Mitro,  until  the  reign  of  King 
Vwtasp,  ever  assisted3,  in  like  manner,  in  the  world, 
and  continually  afforded  protection ;  and  when  the 
glorified  *  Zaratun  was  introduced  to  produce  con- 
fidence in  the  progress  of  the  religion,  King  Vistasp 
and  his  offspring  were  steadfast  in  the  religion 
of  God6,  and  Virtasp  established  this  fire  at  the 
appointed  place  on  Mount  Revand,  where  they  say 
the  Ridge  of  VLrt&sp  (pust-i  Vinaspan)  is*. 

9.  All  those  three  fires  are  the  whole  body  of  the 
fire  of  Vahram,  together  with  the  fire  of  the  world, 
and  those  breathing  souls  are  lodged  in  them;  a 
counterpart  of  the  body  of  man  when  it  forms  in  the 
womb  of  the  mother,  ami  a  soul  from  the  spirit- 
world  settles  within  it,  which  controls  the  body  while 
living ;  when  that  body  dies,  the  body  mingles  with 
the  earth,  and  the  soul  goes  back  to  the  spirit. 

posed  to  be  incorporated  in  its  three  earthly  representatives 
fires  Fr6bak,  Gfuasp,  and  BQrsin-Miir6  respectixely. 

1  That  is.  of  the  province  around  that  lake  (see  Chap.  XXII,  2] 

•  See  Chap.  XII,  26.    Compare  Selections  of  Zo«/-sparam,  V I 

•  Taking  v&gtd  as  equivalent  to  Pers.  guzul;  but  it  may  be 
equivalent  to  Pers.  vazid,  'grew,  shot  up.' 

'    The  epithet  anoshak-ruban  (Pers.  noshirvan)  means  lite- 
rally '  immortal-souled.' 

•  Or,  '  of  the  angels,'  which  plural  form  is  often  used  to 

•  See  Chap.  XII,  18,  34. 

CHAPTER    XVir,  8-XVIII,  5. 

Chapter  XVIII. 

I.   On  the  nature  of  the  tree  they  call  Gdkaraf1  it 
says  in  revelation,  that  it  was  the  first  day  when  the 
tree  they  call  Gokarc/grew  in  the  deep  mud  *  within 
the  wide-formed  ocean  ;  and  it  is  necessary  as  a  pro- 
ducer of  the  renovation  of  the  universe,  for  they  pre- 
tre  its  immortality  therefrom.     2.  The  evil  spirit 
formed   therein,  among   those   which   enter  as 
opponents,  a  lizard  3  as  an  opponent  in  that  deep 
water,  so  that  it  may  injure  the  Horn 4.     3.  And  for 
keeping  away  that  lizard,   Auharmazd  has  created 
there  ten  Kar  fish  ■  which,  at  all  times,  continually 
^rcle  around  the  H6m,  so  that  the  head  of  one  of 
tfiose  fish  is  continually  towards  the  lizard.     4.  And 
Aether  with   the  lizard    those  fish  are  spiritually 
^d  •,  that  is,  no  food  is  necessary  for  them  ;  and  till 
***£    renovation  of  the  universe  they  remain  in  con- 
ation.    5.  There   are   places   where   that   fish   is 

-A  corruption  of  the  Av.  gaokcrcna  of  Vend.  XX,  17,  Auhar- 
**=<*   Yl  30.  Haptan  Yt.  3.   Siroz.  7.     In  the  old  MSS.  of  the 
^^Aahix  the  form  gdkarc/  occurs   thrice,  gokarn  once,  and 
&°S  *~  v  once. 

heading  gil,  'mud.'     Windischmann  and   Justi  prefer  gar, 
**-» main,'  and  have  'depth  of  the  mountain.' 
~^~hat  the  writer  of  the  BundahLr  applies  the  term  vazagh  to  a 
'^  rather  than  a  frog,  appears  from  the  *  log-like  lizard's  body  ' 


~aThat  i*,  the  Gokarrf  tree,  which  is  the  white  Horn  (see  Chap. 

*"he  Av.  kard  masyd  of  Vend.  XIX,  140,  Bahrain  Yt.  29, 
Dfo     Vt  is  sec  also  Chap.  XXIV,  13. 

iischmann  and  Justi  prefer  translating  thus:  'Moreover, 
ti*  lizard  is  the  spiritual  food  of  those  fish;1  but  tin's  can  hardly 
**  reconciled  with  the  Pahlavi  text. 

[ff]  v 



written  of  as  *  the  Am  '  of  the  water ; '  as  it  says 
that  the  greatest  of  the  creatures  of  Auharmazd 
is  that  fish,  and  the  greatest  of  those  proceeding 
from  the  evil  spirit  is  that  lizard ;  with  the  jaws 
of  their  bodies,  moreover,  they  snap  in  two  what- 
ever of  the  creatures  of  both  spirits  has  entered 
between  them,  except  that  one  fish  which  is  the 
Vas  of  Pan/asa^varan 2.  6.  This,  too,  is  said,  that 
those  fish  are  so  serpent-like3  in  that  deep  water, 
they  know  the  scratch  (  of  a  needle's  point 
by  which  the  water  shall  increase,  or  by  which  it 
is  diminishing. 

7.  Regarding  the  Vis  of  PanXasa</varan  it  is 
declared  that  it  moves  within  the  wide-formed 
ocean,  and  its  length  is  as  much  as  what  a  man, 
while  in  a  swift  race,  will  walk  from  dawn  till 
when  the  sun  goes  down  ;  so  much  that  it  does 
not  itself  move*  the  length  of  the  whole  of  it1- 
great  body.  8.  This,  too,  is  said,  that  the  crea- 
tures of  the  waters  live  also  specially  under  il 

9.  The  tree  of  many  seeds  has  grown  amid  the 
wide-formed  ocean,  and  in  its  seed  are  all  plants 
some  say  it  is  the  proper-curing,  some  the  energetic: — 
curing,  some  the  all-curing  \ 

1  Sec  Chaps.  XIV,  26,  and  XXIV,  13. 

1  The  Av.  vistm  yam  pawHsadvaram   of  Wis.  XI. I.   27- 

'  Transcribing   the   Paz.  m&radu  into  Pahlavi  we  have  in.»  r 
fiyin,  'snake's  manner.'     Compare  the  text  with  Bahram  Yt.  29. 

*  K20  omits  the  words  from  'walk*  to  'move.' 

5  This  is  the  tree  of  the  sain  a  or  Simurgh,  as  described  i*1 
Rashnu  Yt.  17,  and  these  three  epithets  are  translations  of  Its  thr^r 
titles,  hubii,  eredhwd-bif,  and  v!sp6-bij.  See  also  ChftJ* 
XXVII,  2,  3. 


CHAPTER    XVIII,    6-XIX,    I. 




10.  Between1  these  trees  of  such  kinds'  is  formed 
the  mountain  with  cavities,  9999  thousand  myriads 
number,  each  myriad  being  ten  thousand. 
11  i  uto  that  mountain  is  given  the  protection 
of  the  waters,  so  that  water  streams  forth  from 
there,  in  the  rivulet  channels,  to  the  land  of  the 
seven  regions,  as  the  source  of  all  the  sea-water  in 
the  land  of  the  seven  regions  is  from  there  •• 

Chapter  XIX. 

1.  Regarding  the  three-legged  ass*  they  say,  that 
it  stands  amid  the  wide-formed  ocean,  and  its  feet 
are  three,  eyes  six,  mouths*  nine,  ears  two,  and  horn 

1  This  must  have  been  the  original  meaning  of  the  Huz.  dSn 
Mn  in  the  Sasanian  inscriptions)  before  it  was  used  as  a  synonym 
oTP&z.  andar,  'within.'  The  mountain  is  between  the  white-Horn 
frfce  and  the  tree  of  many  seeds. 

'  Transcribing  thePdz.  otnoh  into  Pahlavi  we  have  an-gunak, 
**t  kind  ;'  or  the  word  may  be  a  miswriting  of  PSz.  find, '  there.' 
This  description  of  the  mountain  seems  to  identify  it  with  the 
*»tndom  mountain  of  Chaps.  XII,  6.  and  XIII,  5. 

"The  Av.  k  har  a.  '  which  is  righteous  and  which  stands  in  the 

'<lle  of  the  wide-shored  ocean'  (Yas.  XLI,  28).     Darmesteter, 

Ormazd  ct  Ahriman  (pp.  148-r 51),  considers  this  mytho- 

l^nl    monster   as  a  meteorological   myth,   a   personification    of 

°*-»cis  and  storm  ;  and,  no  doubt,  a  vivid  imagination  may  trace  a 

""■ting  resemblance  between  some  of  the  monster's  attributes  and 

^^in  fanciful    ideas   regarding   the   phenomena  of  nature;    the 

QintOYjUy  is  to  account  for  the  remaining  attribute!,  and  to  be  sure 

***  these  fanciful  ideas  were  really  held  by  Mazd.iyasnians  of  old. 

'tf*Hl>er  plausible  view  is  to  consider  such  mythological  beings  as 

ta^ign  gods  tolerated  by  the  priesthood,  from  politic  motives,  as 

tf^cts  worthy  of  reverence  ;  even   as   the  goddess  AnShita  was 

icteraieti  in  the  form  of  the  angel  of  water. 

1  This  is  the  traditional   meaning  of  the  word,  which  (if  this 

F  2 

one,  body  white,  food  spiritual,  and  it  is  righteous 
2.  And  two  of  its  six  eyes  arc  in  the  position  of 
eyes,  two  on  the  top  of  the  head,  and  two  in  the 
position  of  the  hump1;  with  the  sharpness  of  those 
six  eyes  it  overcomes  and  destroys.  3.  Of  the  nine 
mouths  three  arc  in  the  head,  three  in  the  hump. 
and  three  in  the  inner  part  of  die  flanks  ;  and  each 
mouth  is  about  the  size  of  a  cottage,  and  it  is  itself 
as  large  as  Mount  Alvand 2.  4.  Each  one  of  the 
three  feet,  when  it  is  placed  on  the  ground,  is  as 
much  as  a  flock  (gird)  of  a  thousand  sheep  comes 
under  when  they  repose  together ;  and  each  pas- 
tern 3  is  so  great  in  its  circuit  that  a  thousand  men 
with  a  thousand  horses  may  pass  inside.  5.  As  for 
the  two  ears  it  is  Mazendaran  which  they  will  en- 
compass. 6.  The  one  horn  is  as  it  were  of  gold 
and  hollow,  and  a  thousand  branch  horns  *  have 
grown  upon  it,  some  befitting6  a  camel,  some  be- 
fitting a  horse,  some  befitting  an  ox,  some  befitting 
an  ass,  both  great  and  small.  7.  With  that  horn  it 
will  vanquish  and  dissipate  all  the  vile  corruption 
due  to  the  efforts  of  noxious  creatures. 

meaning  be  correct)  ought  probably  to  be  read  y6ng,  and  be 
traced  to  Av.  ^eaungh  (Yas.  XXVIII,  11).  In  the  MSS.  the 
word  is  marked  as  if  it  were  pronounced  gund,  which  means 'a 

1  The  hump  is  probably  supposed  to  be  over  the  shoulders,  as 
in  the  Indian  ox,  and  not  like  that  of  the  camel. 

1  Near  HamadSn,  rising  feet  above  the  sea,  or  6000 
above  HamadSn.  It  may  be  one  of  the  Av.  Aurva»t6  of  Zamyid 
Yt.  3.     The  Pazand  MSS.  read  Huuavand. 

s  Literally,  'the  small  of  the  foot,'  khur</ak-i  ragelman. 

4  Or,  'a  thousand  cavities  (srubo,  Pers.  surub,  'cavern')  have 
grown  in  it.' 

•  Reading  ziyak;  compare  Pers.  ziytdan,  'to  suit,  befit.' 

renovation  of  the  universe  they  prepare  H  ush  (the 
beverage  producing  immortality)  from  it.  [4.  It  is 
said,  that  life  is  in  the  hand  of  that  foremost  man,  at 
the  end  of  his  years  \  who  has  constructed  the  most 
defences  around  this  earth,  until  the  renovation  of 
the  universe  is  requisite. 

15.  Regarding  the  bird  Aamroj  •  it  says,  that  it 
is  on  the  summit  of  Mount  Albunr ;  and  every  three 
years  many  come  from  the  non- Iranian  districts  for 
booty  (gir*/)3,  by  going  to  bring  damage  (zlyan)  on 
the  Iranian  districts,  and  to  effect  the  devastation  of 
the  world  ;  then  the  angel  Buig*4,  having  come  up 
from  the  low  country  of  Lake  Arag5,  arouses  that 
very  bird  K&mrbs,  a?ui  it  flies  upon  the  loftiest  of 
all  the  lofty  mountains,  and  picks  up  all  those  non- 
Iranian  districts  as  a  bird  does  corn. 

16.  Regarding  Karript0  they  say,  that  it  knew 
how  to  speak  words,  and  brought  the  religion  to 
the  enclosure  which  Yim  made,  and  circulated  it: 
there  they  utter  the  A  vesta  in  the  language  of 

1  Transcribing  the  Paz.  jvadyi  into  Pahlavi  we  have  .rnaifh, 
'  term  of  years.'     The  whole  sentence  is  very  obscure. 

*  Written  JTamr&j-  in  Chap.  XXIV,  29.  It  is  the  Av.  A'amraox 
(gen.  of  A'amru)  of  Fravardin  Yt.  109.    See  also  Chap.  XXVII,  3. 

*  Or,  '  to  an  assembly.' 

*  The  Av.  Bere^ya  of  Yas.  I,  21,  II,  27,  III,  35,  'a  spirit  co- 
operating with  the  Ushahina  Gah,  who  causes  the  increase  of 
herds  and  corn.' 

*  Or,  4of  the  district  of  Arag'  (see  the  note  on  Chap.  XII,  23). 
Although  no  Lake  Arag  is  described  in  Chap.  XXII,  some  of  the 
epithets  referring  to  its  Avesta  equivalent  Rangha  are  more  appli- 
cable to  a  lake  than  to  a  river,  as  in  Rahram  Yt.  29.  Possibly  the 
low  lands  between  the  Caspian  and  Aral,  or  on  the  shores  of  the 
Caspian,  are  meant. 

*  The  Av.  vis  kampia  of  Vend.  II,  139,  where,  however,  vu 

CHAPTER    XIX,  I4-23. 


1 7.  Regarding  the  ox-fish  they  say.  that  it  exists 
in  all  seas ;  when  it  utters  a  cry  all  fish  become 
pregnant,  and  all  noxious  water-creatures  cast  thnr 

18.  The  griffon  bird1,  which  is  a  bat,  is  noticed 
(kar*/)  twice  in  another  chapter  (baba). 

19.  Regarding  the  bird  Ash6zu^t  *,  which  is  the 
bird  Zobara3-vahman  and  also  the  bird  60k  *,  they 

i  hat  it  has  given  an  A  vesta  with  its  tongue  ;  when 
it  speaks  the  demons  tremble  at  it  and  take  nothing 
away  there;  a  nai\-/>aring;  when  it  is  not  prayed 
over  (afsudT),  the  demons  and  wizards  seize,  and 
like  an  arrow  it  shoots  at  and  kills  that  bird. 
20.  On  this  account  the  bird  seizes  ami  devours 
a  r\a\\~paring  when  it  is  prayed  over,  so  that  the 
demons  may  not  control  its  use ;  when  it  is  not 
prayed  over  it  does  not  devour  it,  and  the  demons 
arc  able  to  commit  an  offence  with  ii. 

21.  Also  other  beasts  and  birds  are  created  all  in 
opposition  to  noxious  creatures,  as  it  says,  that  when 
the  birds  and  beasts  are  all  in  opposition  to  noxious 
creatures  and  wizards,  «3v.a  22.  This,  too,  it  says, 
that  of  all  precious'  birds  the  crow  (valagh)  is  the 
most  precious.     23.  Regarding  the  white  falcon  it 

docs    not   mean    'bird.'   and    the    1'ahlavi    translator    calls    it    'a 
quadruped.'     In  tbf  Pahl.  Visp.  J.  1,  '  the  Kampt  is  the  chief  of 
flying  creatures,'  and  the   BundahLr  also  takes  it  as  a  bird  (see 
Chap*.  XIV.  13,  XXIV,  11). 

1  See  Chaps.  XIV.  n.  23,  24,  XXIV,  It,  29. 

*  The  Av.  Ashd-zujta  of  Vend.  XVII,  26,  28. 

*  Compare  Pers.  sulah,  'a  sparTOw  or  lark." 
4  Compare  Pers.  jak,  'a  magpie.' 

*  This  quotation  is  evidently  left  incomplete. 

*  The  Pahlavi  word  is  ambiguous;  it  may  be  read  zil,  'cheap, 
common,'  or  it  may  be  zagar  =  yakar,  'dear,  precious,'  but  the 



says,  that  it  kills  the  serpent  with  wings.  24.  The 
magpie  (kasklnak)  bird  kills  the  locust,  and  is 
created  in  opposition  to  it.  25.  The  Kahrkas  \ 
dwelling  in  decay,  which  is  the  vulture,  is  created 
for  devouring  dead  matter  (nasal) ;  so  also  are  the 
crow  (valak) 2  and  the  mountain  kite. 

26.  The  mountain  ox,  the  mountain  goat,  the 
1,  the  wild  ass,  and  other  beasts  devour  all 
snakes.  27.  So  also,  of  other  animals,  dogs  are 
created  in  opposition  to  the  wolf  species,  and  for 
securing  the  protection  of  sheep ;  the  fox  is  created 
in  opposition  to  the  demon  Khava ;  the  ichneumon 
is  created  in  opposition  to  the  venomous  snake 
(garsak)  and  other  noxious  creatures  in  burrows; 
so  also  the  great  musk-antma/  is  created  in  opposi- 
tion ■  to  ravenous  intestinal  worms  (ka</ilk-danak 
garsak).  28.  The  hedgehog  is  created  in  opposi- 
tion to  the  ant  which  carries  off  grain4,  as  it  says, 
that  the  hedgehog,  every  time  that  it  voids  urine 
into  an  ant's  nest,  will  destroy  a  thousand  ants  ] 
when  the  grain-carrier  travels  over  the  earth  it  pro- 

latter  seems  most  probable,  although  the  crow  is  perhaps  as 
'common'  as  it  is  'precious,'  as  a  scavenger  in  the  East.  Singu- 
larly enough  Pers.  arzan  is  a  synonym  to  both  words,  as  it  mes 
both  '  cheap '  and  '  worthy.' 

'  The  Av.  kahrkasa  of  Vend.  Ill,  66,  IX,  181,  A  ban  Yt.  61, 
Mihir  Yt.  129;  ils  epithet,  'dwelling  in  decay,' 
is  evidently  intended  as  a  translation  of  the  Av.  zarenumainix, 
applied  to  it  in  Bahram  Yt.  33,  Din  Yt.  13. 

8  The  text  should  prohably  be  valak-i  sfyak  va  sar-i  gar, 
'the  black  crow  and  the  mountain  kite,'  which  are  given  as  different 
birds  in  Shayast-la-shayast,  II,  5. 

•  K20  omits  the  words  from  this  'opposition'  to  the  next  one. 

'  The  mor-i  danak-kash  is  the  Av.  maoirijr  dand-karsh< 
of  Vend.  XIV,  14,  XVI,  28,  XVIII,  146. 


duces  a  hollow  track  :  ;  when  the  hedgehog  travels 
over  it  the  track  goes  away  from  it,  and  it  becomes 
leveL  29.  The  water-beaver  is  created  in  opposition 
to  the  demon  which  is  in  the  water.  30.  The  con- 
clusion is  this,  that,  of  all  beasts  and  birds  and 
fishes,  every  one  is  created  in  opposition  to  some 
noxious  creature. 

31.  Regarding  the  vulture  (karkas)  it  says,  that, 
even  from  his  highest  flight,  he  sees  when  flesh  the 
size  of  a  fist  is  on  the  ground ;  and  the  scent  of 
musk  is  created  under  his  wing,  so  that  if,  in  de- 
vouring dead  matter,  the  stench  of  the  dead  matter 
comes  out  from  it,  he  puts  his  head  back  under  the 
wing  and  is  comfortable  again.  32.  Regarding  the 
Arab  horse  they  say,  that  if,  in  a  dark  night,  a  single 
hair  occurs  on  the  ground,  he  sees  it. 

$$.  The  cock  is  created  in  opposition  to  demons 
and  wizards,  co-operating  with  the  dog ;  as  it  says 
in  revelation,  that,  of  the  creatures  of  the  world, 
those  which  are  co-operating  with  Sr6sh 2,  in  de- 
stroying the  fiends,  are  the  cock  and  the  dog. 
34.  This,  too,  it  says,  that  it  would  not  have  been 
managed  if  I  had  not  created  the  shepherd's  dog, 
which  is  the  Pasui-haurva 3,  and  the  house  watch- 
dog, the  Vij-haurva 3 ;  for  it  says  in  revelation,  that 
the  dog  is  a  destroyer  of  such  a  fiend  as  covetous- 

1  Comparing  sQrak  with  Pers,  suragh  in  preference  to  sQrakh 
orafilakb,  •  a  hole.' 

'  Av.  Sraosha,  the  angel  who  is  said  specially  to  protect  the 
world  from  demons  at  night;  he  is  usually  styled  'the  righteous,' 
and  is  the  special  opponent  of  the  demon  ASshm,  '  Wrath '  (see 
Chap.  XXX,  29). 

1  These  are  the  Avesta  names  of  those  two  kinds  of  dog  (see 
Chap.  XJV,  19). 

ness,  among  those:  which  arc  in  the  nature  (altlh)  of 
man  and  of  animals.  35.  Moreover  it  says,  that,  in- 
asmuch as  it  will  destroy  all  the  disobedient,  when 
it  barks  it  will  destroy  pain  ■  ;  and  its  flesh  and  fat 
are  remedies  for  driving  away  decay  and  pain  from 
men  2. 

36.  Auharmazd  created  nothing  useless  whatever, 
for  all  these  (kola  ae)  are  created  for  advantage; 
when  one  does  not  understand  the  reason  of  them, 
it  is  necessary  to  ask  the  Dastur  ('  high-priest '),  for 
his  five  dispositions  (khuk)3  are  created  in  this 
way  that  he  may  continually  destroy  the  fiend  (or 

Chapter   XX. 

1.  On  the  nature  of  rivers  it  says  in  revelation, 
that  these  two  rivers  flow  forth  from  the  north,  part 
from  Alburs  and  part  from  the  Alburn  of  Auhar- 

1  Or  it  may  be  thus:  'For  it  says  thus:  Wherewith  will  it  de- 
stroy? When  il  barks  it  will  destroy  the  assembly  (girt/)  of  all  d»c 

8  This  is  the  most  obvious  meaning,  but  Spiegel  (in  a  note  to 
Windischmann's  Zoroastrische  Studien,  p.  95)  translates  both  this 
sentence  and  the  next  very  differently,  so  as  to  harmonize  with 
Vend.  XIII,  78,  99. 

*  The  five  dispositions  (khim)  of  priests  arc  thus  detailed  in  old 
Pahlavi  MSS. :  '  First,  innocence  ;  second,  discreetness  of  thoughts, 
words,  and  deeds ;  third,  holding  the  priestly  office  as  that  of  a  very 
wise  and  very  true-speaking  master,  who  has  learned  religion  atten- 
tively and  teaches  il  truly  ;  fourth,  celebrating  the  worship  of  God 
(yazdan)  with  a  ritual  (nirang)  of  rightly  spoken  words  and 
scriptures  known  by  heart  (11  arm  naskiha):  fifth,  remaining  day 
and  night  propitiatingly  in  his  vocation,  struggling  with  bifl 
resistance  (hamgstar),  and,  all  life  long,  not  turning  away  from 
steadfastness  in  religion,  and  being  energetic  in  his  vocation.' 

mazd1;  one  towards  the  west,  that  is  the  Arag2; 
and  one  towards  the  cast,  that  is  the  Veh  river. 
2.  After  them  eighteen  liven  flowed  forth  from 
the  same  source,  just  as  the  remaining  waters  have 
flowed  forth  from  them  in  great  multitude  ;  as  they 
say  that  they  flowed  out  so  very  fast,  one  from  the 
other,  as  when  a  man  recites  one  Ashem-vohu  3  of  a 
series  (pa^isar).  3.  All  of  those,  with  the  same 
water,  are  again  mingled  with  these  rivers,  that  is, 
the  Arag  river  and  Veh  river.  4.  Both  of  them 
continually  circulate  through  the  two  extremities  of 
the  earth,  and  pass  into  the  sea  ;  and  all  the  regions 
feast  owing  to  the  discharge  (zah&k)  of  both,  which, 
after  both  arrive  together  at  the  wide-formed  ocean, 
returns  to  the  sources  whence  they  flowed  out ;  as 
it  says  in  revelation,  that  just  as  the  light  comes  in 
through  Albur*  and  goes  out  through  Alburn*,  the 

1  So  in  K20,  and  if  correct  (being  only  partially  confirmed  1>> 
the  fragment  of  this  chapter  found  in  all  MSS.  between  Chaps.  XIII 
and  XIV)  mil  reading  implies  that  the  rivers  are  derived  partly 
from  the  mountains  of  Alburs,  and  partly  from  the  celestial  Alburn, 
or  the  clouds  in  the  sky.  M6  has  'flow  forth  from  the  north  part 
of  the  eastern  Alburz.' 

■  For  furdier  details  regarding  these  two  semi-mythical  rivers 
see  H  8,  9. 

*  The  sacred  formula  most  frequently  recited  by  the  Parsis,  and 
often  several  limes  in  succession,  like  the  Pater-noster  of  some 
Christians;  it  is  not,  however,  a  prayer,  but  a  declaratory  formula 
;n  *  [  '  (which  phrase   is   often   used  as  its 

le  in  I'.  of  twelve  Areata  words,  as  follows  : 

m  vohu  vahijtem  aslt, 
ujti  astf;  una  ahmai 
hyai/  ashai  vahulai  ashem. 
And  \\  may  be  translated  in  the  following  manner:  '  Righteousness 
is  the  best  good,  a  blessing  it  is;  a  blessing  be  to  that  which  ii 
■eousness  to  perfect  rectitude'  (Asha-vahiila  the  archangel). 

•  See  Chap.  V,  5. 



water  also  comes  out  through  Alburn  and  goes  away- 
through  Alburn.  5.  This,  too,  it  says,  that  the 
spirit  of  the  Arag  begged  of  Auharmazd  thus:  'O 
first  omniscient  creative  power '  I  from  whom  the 
Veh  river  begged  for  the  welfare  that  thou  mightest 
grant,  do  thou  then  grant  it  in  my  quantity ! '  6. 
The  spirit  of  the  Veh  river  similarly  begged  of 
Auharmazd  for  the  Arag  river ;  and  on  account  of 
loving  assistance,  one  towards  the  other,  they  flowed 
forth  with  equal  strength,  as  before  the  coming  of 
the  destroyer  they  proceeded  without  rapids,  and 
when  the  fiend  shall  be  destroyed  -  they  will  again 
be  without  rapids. 

7.  Of  those  eighteen  principal  rivers,  distinct 
from  the  Arag  river  and  Veh  river,  and  the  other 
rivers  which  flow  out  from  them,  I  will  mention  the 
more  famous3:  the  Arag  river,  the  \\h  river,  the 
Diglat 4  river  they  call  also  again  the  Veh  river', 
the  Frat  river,  the  Daltlk  river,  the  Dargam  river, 
the  Zondak  river,  the  Har6i  river,  the  Marv  river, 
the  Hetumand  river,  the  Akh6shir  river,  the  Navada' 
river,  the  Zij-mand  river,  the  Khve^and  river,  the 
Balkh  river,  the  Mehrva  river  they  call  the  Hendva 
river,  the  Sped 7  river,  the  Rad  8  river  which  they  call 
also  the  Koir,  the  Khvarae  river  which   they  call 

'  So  in  M6,  but  K20  has,  'First  is  the  propitiation  of  all  kinds.' 

•  Literally,  '  when  they  shall  destroy  the  fiend.' 
3  For  details  regarding  these  rivers  sec  the  sequel. 
'  The-  Paz.  Deyrid  is  evidently  a  misreading  of  Pahl.  Diglat 

Digrat,  which  occurs  in  §  12. 

8  So  in  K20,  but  M6  (omitting  two  words)  has,  'they  call  also 
the  Didgar.' 

•  No  further  details  are  given,  in  this  chapter,  about  this  river, 
but  it  seems  to  be  the  river  Nahvtak  of  Chap.  XXI,  6,  the  Natvtak 
of  Chap.  XXIX,  4,  9. 

7  K20  has  '  Spend.'  •  Called  Tort  in  §  24. 

CHAPTER    XX,  5-9. 


also  the  Mesrgan,  the  Harhaz  !  river,  the  Teremet 
river,  the  Khvanaldij-  river,  the  Dara^a  river,  the 
Kaslk  river,  the  S£d*  ('shining')  river  Peda-meyan 
or  Aatru-meyan  river  of  Mokarstan. 

8.  I  will  mention  them  also  a  second  time  :  the 
A  rag*  river  is  that  of  which  it  is  said  that  it  comes 
out  from  Alburn  in  the  land  of  S&rak -"',  in  which 
they  call  it  also  the  Ami ;  it  passes  on  through  the 
land  of  Spetos,  which  they  also  call  Mesr,  and  they 
call  it  there   the   river   Nivfl.     9.  The  Veh7   river 

'  Miswritwn  Araz  in  PAxand,  both  here  and  in  §  27. 

1  M6  has  Khvanainidir,  but  in  K20  it  is  doubtful  whether  the 
extra  syllable  (which  is  interlined)  is  intended  to  be  inserted  or 
substituted  ;  the  shorter  form  is,  however,  more  reconcilable  with 
the  Pahlavi  form  of  Vendesex  in  §  29. 

'  As  there  is  no  description  of  any  S&d  river  it  is  probably  only 
an  epithet  of  the  PSda-meyan  or  Afatru-meyan  (pfcV.ik  being  the 
asval  Pahlavi  equivalent  of  Av,  Aithrd).  Justi  suggests  that  Mo- 
karstan (Mokarsta  riWin  M6)  stands  for  Pers.  Moghulstan,  'the 
country  of  the  Moghuls,"  bad  this  Ifl  ■loubtful. 

*  .Sometimes  written  Arang  or  Arfing,  but  the  nasal  is  usually 
omitted;  it  is  the  Av.  Rangha  of  A  ban  Yt.  63,  Rashnu  Yt.  18, 
Rim  Yt.  27,  which  is  described  more  like  a  lake  or  sea  in  Vend. 

,  Bahrain  Yt.  29.  This  semi-mythical  river  is  supposed  to 
encompass  a  great  part  of  the  known  world  (see  Chap.  VII,  16), 
and  the  Bundahlr  probably  means  to  trace  its  course  down  the  Amu 
(Ozus)  from  Sogdiana,  across  the  Caspian,  up  the  Aras  (Araxcs) 
or  the  Kur  (Cyrus),  through  the  Euxinc  and  Mediterranean,  and 
op  the  Nile  to  the  Indian  Ocean.  The  Amu  (Oxus)  is  also  some- 
times considered  a  part  of  the  V€&  river  or  Indus  (see  §4  22,  28). 

•  Sogdiana  (see  Chap.  XV,  29),  the  country  of  the  Amu  river. 
1  The  combination  of  the  three  names  in  this  clause,  as  Justi 

renders  it  probable  that  we  should  read,  4  the  land  of 
pt,"  which  is  called  Misr,  and  where  the  river  is  the  Nile. 
The  letter  S  in  Par.  Spfitos  is  very  like  an  obsolete  form  of  Av.  g, 
or  it  may  be  read  as  Pahl.  ik  or  ig,  so  the  name  may  originally 
hare  been  GpStos  or  Ikpetos;  and  the  Paz.  Niv,  if  transcribed  into 
Pahlavi.  can  also  be  read  Nil. 
T  The  'good'  river,  which,  with  the  Arag  and  the  ocean,  completes 

passes  on  in  the  east,  goes  through  the  land  of 
Sind1,  ««/  flows  to  the  sea  in  Hindustan,  and  they 
call  it  there  the  Mehra2  river.  10.  The  sources  of 
the  Frat3  river  are  from  the  frontier  of  Arum,  they 
feed  upon  it  in  Suristan,  and  it  flows  to  the  Diglat 
river ;  and  of  this  Frat  it  is  *  that  they  produce  irri- 
gation over  the  land.  1 1.  It  is  declared  that  Manu- 
j/'ihar  excavated  the  sources,  and  cast  back  the 
water  all  to  one  place,  as  it  says  thus  :  '  I  reverence 
the  Frat,  full  of  fish,  which  Manu.<£thar  excavated 
for  the  benefit  of  his  own  soul,  and  he  seized  the 
water  and  gave  to  drink'.'  12.  The  Diglat8  river 
comes  out  from  Salman7,  and  flows  to  the  sea  in 
Khu;'istan.       13.   The    Daitik8   river   is    the   river 

the  circuit  of  the  known  world,  and  is  evidently  identified  with  the 
Indus;    sometimes  it  seems  also  to  include  the  AraU  (Oxus),  as 
Bactria  was  considered  a  part  of  India ;  thus  we  find  the  Dalkh  and 
Teremet  rivers  flowing;  into  the  Vfih  (sec  §§  22,  28). 
1  See  §  20. 

•  No  doubt  the  Mchrvj  or  Hendva  river  of  §  7,  and  the  Mihrfin 
of  Ouseley's  Oriental  Geography  of  the  pseudo  Ibn  'Hauqal, 
1 1>.  1 48-1 55,  which  appears  to  combine  the  Satlijf  and  lower  Indus. 
The  final  n  is  usually  omitted  by  the  Bundahu  after  4  in  Pazand 
words.     This  river  is  also  called  Kasak  (see  §  30). 

■  The  Euphrates,  which  rises  in  Armenia  (part  of  the  eastern 
empire  of  ihe  Romans),  traverses  Syria,  and  joins  the  Tigris. 

•  Or,  "and  its  convenience  is  this;'  a  play  upon  the  words 
far  hat  and  FrSt,  which  are  identical  in  Pahlavi. 

8  Referring  probably  to  canals  for  irrigation  along  the  course  of 
the  Euphrates. 

•  The  Tigris  (Arabic  Diktat),  Hiddekel  of  Gen.  It,  14.  Dan. 
x.  4,  and  perhaps  the  Av.  tighrif  of  Ttitar  Yt.  6,  37  ;  misread 
Deuid  in  Pazand. 

7  The  country  of  Salm  (see  Chap.  XV,  20),  son  of  FreVQn  (see 
Chap  XXXI.  9,  10).  The  name  can  also  be  read  DflmAn,  which 
is  the  name  of  a  place  in  the  same  neighbourhood. 

8  The  Av.  DSitya  of  Vend.  XIX,  5,  AAharmazri  Yt.  2\,  Alwu 
Yt.  H2,G6\r  Yt.  29.     The  'good  d&itya  of  Airyana-vae^ft"  is  also 

which  comes  out  from  Alrin-ve^-,  and  goes  out 
through  the  hill-country  ]  ;  of  all  rivers  the  noxious 
creatures  in  it  are  most,  as  it  says,  that  the  Daitik 
river  is  full  of  noxious  creatures.  14.  The  Darg&m 
river  is  in  Sude.  15.  The  Zend2  river  passes 
through  the  mountains  of  Pan^istan,  and  flows  away 
to  the  Haro  river.  16.  The  Haro3  river  flows  out 
from  the  Aparsen  range*.  17.  The  Hetumaml ' 
river  is  in  SagastSn,  and  its  sources  are  from  the 
AparsSn  range;  this  is  distinct  from  that  which 
Fraslyaz/  conducted  away6.  18.  The  river  Akhoshir 
s  in  Kiimli'.     19.  The  Zbrnand8  river,  in  the  direc- 

icntioned  in  Vend.  I,  6.  II.  42,  43.  AbSn  Yt.  17,  104,  R5m  Yt.  2, 
this  may  not  be  a  river,  though  the  phrase  has,  no  doubt,  led  to 
locating:  the  river  Daftfk  in  Air&n-v&g. 

1  Piz.  gopest&n  in  Kao,  which  is  evidently  Pahl.  k6fistln,  but 
DOC  the  Kohistan  of  southern  Persia.  M6  has  '  the  mountain  of 
Pan^istan,' which  must  be  incorrect,  as  according  to  §§  1 5.  >  (>.  Ihil  i> 
in  north-cast  Khurasan,  and  too  far  from  Air;in-v6^  in  Alard-patakan 
(Adax-bfypan),  see  Chap.  XXIX,  12.  Justi  proposes  to  read  Gur- 
/tstin  (Georgia),  and  identifies  the  Daitik  with  the  Araxes.  But, 
adhering  to  the  text  of  K20,  the  Daitik  rises  in  Adar-bT^an  and 
departs  through  a  hiil-country,  a  description  applicable,  not  only 
to  the  Araxes,  but  also  more  particularly  to  the  Sated  Rfid  or 
white  river;  although  this  river  seems  to  be  mentioned  again  as 
ube  Sped  or  Spend  river  in  §  23. 

*  Written  Z6ndak  in  §  7.  This  can  hardly  be  the  Zcndali  river 
of  Ispahan,  but  is  probably  the  Te^end  river,  which  flows  past 
Mesbhed  into  the  Heri  river. 

1  liri,  which  flows  past  Herat. 
4  See  Chap.  XII,  9. 

1  The  Etymandcr  of  classical  writers,  now  the  Hfilmand  in  Af- 
Tiic  Av.  Ha&iuriial  of  Vend.  I.  50,  XIX,  130,  ZaniyJJ 
Yt-  66,  is  the  name  of  the  country  through  which  it  flows. 
ittf  34  and  Chap.  XXI,  6. 
9  The  district  about  Damaghan. 

*  Perhaps  the  Zarafian. 



tion  of  Soghd,  flows  away  towards  the  Khvej^and 
river,  20.  The  Khve^and1  river  goes  on  through 
the  midst  of  Samarkand  and  Pargana,  and  they  call 
it  also  the  river  Ashard.  21.  The  Marv*  river,  a 
glorious  river  in  the  east3,  flows  out  from  the  A  par- 
sen  range.  22.  The  Balkh  river  comes  out  from 
the  Aparsen  mountain  of  Bamlkan  *,  and  flows  on  to 
the  Veh5  river.  23.  The  Sped0  river  is  in  Ataro- 
patakan ;  they  say  that  Dahak  begged  a  favo 
here  from  Aharman  and  the  demons.  24.  The  Tort* 
river,  which  they  call  also  the  Koir,  comes  out  from 

1  This  is  evidently  not  the  small  affluent  now  called  the  Khu^nd, 
but  the  great  Syr-darya  or  Iaxartes,  which  flows  through  the  pro- 
vinces of  Farghanah  and  Samarkand,  past  Kokand,  Khu^and,  and 
Tashkand,  into  the  Aral.      The    Paz.  Ashard   represents   P; 
Khshart,  or  Ashirt  (Iaxartes). 

1  The  Murghdb. 

a  Or,  '  in  Khurasan,' 

*  Bamian,  near  which  the  river  of  Balkh  has  its  source. 

*  Justi  observes  that  it  should  be  '  the  Arag  river;'  but  accord- 
ing to  an  Armenian  writer  of  the  seventh  century  the  Persians 
called  the  Oxus  the  Veh  river,  and  considered  it  to  be  in  India, 
because  Buddhists  occupied  the  country  on  its  banks  (see  Garrcz 
in  Journal  Asiatique  for  1869,  pp.  161-198).  It  would  seem, 
therefore,  that  the  Oxus  was  sometimes  (or  in  early  times)  con- 
sidered a  part  of  the  Arag  (Araxes),  and  sometimes  (or  in  later 
times)  a  part  of  the  V$h  (Indus). 

*  So  in  M6,  but  K20  has  '  Spend,'  both  here  and  in  §  7.  The 
name  of  this  river  corresponds  with  that  of  the  Safed  Rud,  although 
the  position  of  that  river  agrees  best  with  the  account  given  of  the 
Dttttk  in  §  13. 

T  Compare  Ram  Yt.  19,  20.  K20  has  '  there,'  instead  of  'here.' 
8  Called  Rad  in  §  7  (by  the  loss  of  the  first  letter  of  the  original 
Pahlavi  name) ;  by  its  alternative  name,  Koir,  Justi  identifies  it  as 
the  KQr  in  Georgia,  flowing  into  the  Caspian,  or  sea  of  V« 
the  Av.  Vehrkana  (Hyrcania)  of  Vend.  I,  42,  which  is  Gurgan  in 

the  sea  of  Glklan  ',  and  flows  to  the  sea  of  Vergan a. 

25.  The  Zahavayi 3  is  the  river  wkich  comes  out 
from  Ataro-patakan,  and  flows  to  the  sea  in  Pars. 

26.  The  sources  of  the  Khvarae  4  river  are  from 
Spahan  • ;  it  passes  on  through  Khu^lstan,  flows  forth 
to  the  Diglat  •  river,  and  in  Spahan  they  call  it  the 
Mesrkan  :  river.  27.  The  Harhaz  8  river  is  in  Tapa- 
ristan,  and  its  sources  are  from  Mount  Dimavand. 

28.  The  Teremet*  river  flows  away  to  the  Veh  river. 

29.  The  Vendesey  10  river  is  in  that  part  of  Pars 
which  they  call  Sagastan.  30.  The  K&sak  u  river 
comes  out  through  a  ravine  (kaf)  in  the  province  of 
Tus  '*,  and  they  call  it  there  the  Kasp  river ;  more- 

1  M6  has  Paz.  Keyaseh,  but  this  is  in  Sagastan  (see  Chap. 
XIII,  io> 

*  Tbe  MSS.  have  Verga,  but  the  final  nasal  after  a  is  often 
omitted  in  Fazand  readings  in  the  Bundalm. 

*  Not  mentioned  in  §  7.  Possibly  one  of  the  rivers  Zab,  which 
rise  on  the  borders  of  Adarbi^an,  flow  into  the  Tigris,  and  so  reach 
the  Persian  Gulf,  the  sea  on  the  coast  of  Pars.  Or  it  may  be  the 
Shin-in,  another  affluent  of  the  Tigris,  which  flows  through  the 
district  of  Zonal). 

*  The  Kuran,  ujxjn  which  the  town  of  Shdstar  was  founded  by 
ooe  of  the  early  Sasanian  kings,  who  also  dug  a  canal,  east  of  the 
town,  so  as  to  form  a  loop  branch  of  the  river;  this  canal  was 
called  NaLr-i  M.isruqan  by  Oriental  geographers  (see  Rawlinson, 
Journal  Roy.  Geogr.  Soc.  vol.  ix.  pp.  73—75). 

*  Ispahan  in  Persian. 

*  Mis  written  Dayrid  in  Pazand  (see  §  12). 

T  Written  in  Pazmd  without  tbe  final  n,  as  usual.  This  is  the 
old  name  of  the  canal  forming  the  eastern  branch  of  the  Kuran  at 
Shustar ;  it  is  now  called  Ab-i  Gargar. 

"  Flows  into  the  Caspian  near  Amul. 

*  Probably  tbe  river  which  flows  into  the  Amfl  (Oxus)  at  Tar- 
max;  but,  in  that  case,  the  Oxus  is  here  again  identified  with  the 
Veh  (Indus)  as  in  §  22,  instead  of  the  Arag  (Araxes)  as  in  §  8. 

died  Khvanaid'w.  or  Khvanainidii,  in  §  7. 
u  Called  Kasik  in  §  7.  "  Close  to  Meshhed. 

[Si  G 



over,  the  river,  which  is  there  the  Veh,  they  call  the 
Kasak  ' ;  even  in  Slnd  they  call  it  the  Kasak.  31. 
The  P6rtak-m!yan -,  which  is  tlie  river  A'atru-miyan, 
is  that  which  is  in  Kangdes- 8.  32.  The  Dira^a 
river  is  in  Airan-ve^-,  on  the  bank  (bar)  of  which 
was  the  dwelling  of  P6rushasp,  the  father  of  Zara- 
tu^t  *.  33.  The  other  innumerable  waters  and  rivers, 
springs  and  channels  are  one  in  origin  with  those  8 ; 
so  in  various  districts  and  various  places  they  call 
them  by  various  names. 

34.  Regarding  Fr&siya^'  they  say,  that  a  thou- 
sand springs  were  conducted  away  by  him  into  the 
sea  Kyansih 7,  suitable  for  horses,  suitable  for 
camels,  suitable  for  oxen,  suitable  for  asses,  both 
great  and  small 8 ;  and  he  conducted  the  spring 
Zarinmand  (or  golden  source),  which  is  the  Hetu- 
mand  9  river  they  say,  into  the  same  sea;  and  he 
conducted  the  seven  navigable  waters  of  the  source 
of  the  Va&ieni ,0  river  into  the  same  sea,  and  made 
men  settle  there. 

1  Or,  •this  same  VC-li  river  they  call  ihere  the  Kasak;  even  in 
Sfinf  they  call  it  the  Kasak;'  Seni  is  apt  to  be  miswritten  Send 
or  Stod  (see  Chap.  XV,  29). 

*  See  §  7.  The  latter  half  of  both  names  can  also  be  read 
m&han,  mahd,  or  mahan.  Pe*shy6tan,  son  of  Viitasp,  seems  to 
have  taken  a  surname  from  this  river  (see  Chap.  XXIX,  5). 

■  See  Chap.  XXIX,  10. 

*  See  Chaps.  XXIV,  15,  XXXII,  1,  a. 

■  Or,  *  are  from  those  as  a  source.' 

•  The  MSS.  have  '  P6rushasp,'  but  compare  §  17  and  Chap, 
XXI,  6.     The  two  names  are  somewhat  alike  in  Pahlavi  writing. 

7  See  Chap.  XIII,  16. 

■  Compare  Chap.  XIX,  6.  K20  omits  the  words  '  suitable  for 
asses  '  here. 

•  Another  HCtumand  according  to  §  17.  Possibly  a  dried-up 
bed  of  that  river. 

10  K20  has  Vataeni ;  k  an  J  t  being  much  alike  in  Pazand.    The 

Chapter   XXI '. 

i.  In  revelation  they  mention  seventeen  2  species 
of  liquid  (maya).  as  one  liquid  resides  in  plants3; 
second,  that  which  is  flowing  from  the  mountains, 
that  is,  the  rivers;  third,  that  which  is  rain-water; 
fourth,  that  of  tanks  and  other  special  constructions; 
fifth,  the  semen  of  animals  and  men  ;  sixth,  the  urine 
of  animals  and  men* ;  seventh,  the  sweat  of  animals 
and  men ;  the  eighth  liquid  is  that  in  the  skin  of 
animals  and  men  ;  ninth,  the  tears  of  animals  and 
men  ;  tenth,  the  blood  of  animals  and  men  ;  eleventh, 
the  oil  in  animals  and  men,  a  necessary  in  both 
worlds6;  twelfth,  the  saliva  of  animals  and  men, 
with  which  they  nourish  the  embryo  ° ;  the  thirteenth 
is  that  which  is  under  the  bark '  of  plants,  as  it  is 
said  that  every  bark  has  a  liquid,  through  which  a 
drop  appears  on  a  t\vi^r  (tekh)  when  placed  four 
finger-breadths  before  a  fire 8 ;  fourteenth,  the  milk  of 
animals  and  men.     2.  All  these,  through  growth,  or 

'navigable  (nivtak)  waters'  may  be  'the  N&vada  river'  of  §  7, 
'the  river  Nibviak'  of  Chap.  XXI,  6,  and  Nafvtak  of  Chap. 
XXIX.  4.  5- 

*  This  chapter  is  evidently  a  continuation  of  the  preceding  one. 

*  Only  fourteen  are  mentioned  in  the  details  which  follow. 

'  Most  of  these  details  are  derived  from  the  Pahl.  Yas.  XXXVIII, 
7-9,  13,  14;  and  several  varieties  of  water  are  also  described  in 
Yas.LXVlI,  .-,. 

*  This  sixth  liquid  is  omitted  by  K20. 

*  Departed  souls  are  said  to  be  fed  with  oil  in  paradise. 

*  K20  omits  the  word  pus,  '  embryo.' 

"    The  meaning  'bark'  for  Paz.  ay  van  is  merely  a  guess;  An- 
quetil  has  'sap'  (compare  Pers.  avfna,  'juice  '),  but  this  is  hardly 
consistent  with  the  rest  of  the  sentence, 
cc  Chap.  XXVII,  25. 

G  2 



the  body  which  is  formed,  mingle  again  with  the 
rivers,  for  the  body  which  is  formed  and  the  growth 
are  both  one. 

3.  This,  too,  they  say,  that  of  these  three  rivers, 
that  is,  the  A  rag  river,  the  Marv  river,  and  the 
Veh  '  river,  the  spirits  wrere  dissatisfied,  so  that  they 
would  not  flow  into  the  world,  owing  to  the  defile- 
ment of  stagnant  water  (arme\ct)  which  they  beheld, 
so  that  they  were  in  tribulation  through  it  until  Zara- 
turt  was  exhibited  to  them,  whom  1  (Auharmazd) 
will  create,  who  will  pour  sixfold  holy-water  (zor) 
into  it  and  make  it  again  wholesome;  he  will  preach 
carefulness*.  4.  This,  too,  it  says,  that,  of  water 
whose  holy-water  is  more  and  pollution  less,  the 
holy-water  has  come  in  excess,  and  in  three  years  it 
goes  back  to  the  sources a ;  that  of  which  the  pollu- 
tion and  holy-water  have  both  become  equal,  arrives 
back  in  six  years;  that  of  which  the  pollution  is 
more  and  holy-water  less,  arrives  back  in  nine  years. 
5.  So,  also,  the  growth  of  plants  is  connected,  in  this 
manner,  strongly  with  the  root4;  so,  likewise,  the 
blessings  (ifrin)  which  the  righteous  utter,  come 
back,  in  this  proportion,  to  themselves. 

6.  Regarding  the  river  Nahvtak  *  it  says,  that 
Frasiy&z'  of  Ttir   conducted    it   away ;   and  when  • 

1  K20  has  *  HSiumand,'  but  M6  has  '  6apir,'  the  Huz.  equiva- 
lent of '  V6h,'  which  is  more  probable. 

*  Or,  'abstinence/rom  impurity'. 

'  The  source  Arfidvivsur  (see  Chap.  XIII,  3,  10). 

*  Thai  is,  by  the  sap  circulating  like  the  waters  of  the  earth. 
The  greater  part  of  this  sentence  is  omitted  in  K20. 

*  Probably  'the  Navadd'  and  'navigable  waters'  of  Chap.  XX, 
7,  34,  and  Nafvtak  of  Chap.  XXIX,  4,  5. 

*  Reading  amat,  'when,'  instead  of  mun,  'which'  (see  note 
to  Chap.  I,  7). 

HusheWar1   comes  it   will  flow   again  suitable  for 
horses;    so,    also,   will   the    fountains   of   the   sea 
usih  2.     7.   Kyansih  2  is  the  one  where  the  home 
(^lnak)  of  the  Kayan  race  is. 

Chapter    XXII. 

1.  On  the  nature  of  lakes  it  says  in  revelation, 
that  thus  many  fountains  of  waters  have  come  into 
notice,  which  they  call  lakes  (var) ;  counterparts  of 
the  eyes  (lashm)  of  men  are  those  fountains  (Yash- 
mak) of  waters ;  such  as  Lake  Ae/-ast,  Lake  Sdvbar, 

c  Khvarirern  3.  Lake  Frazdan,  Lake  Zarinmand, 
Lake  Asvast,  Lake  Husru,  Lake  Satav£s,  Lake 
L'  rvis. 

2.  I  will  mention  them  also  a  second  time  :  Lake 
Ae/ast  *  is  in  Atar6-patakan,  warm  is  the  water  and 
opposed  to  harm,  so  that  nothing  whatever  is  living 
in  it ;  and  its  source  is  connected  with  the  wide- 
formed  ocean  \  3.  Lake  Sdvbar  is  in  the  upper 
district  and  country-  on  the  summit  of  the  mountain 
of  Tus s ;  as  it  says,  that  the  SiW-bahar 7  ('  share  of 
benefit ')  is  propitious  and  good  from  which  abound- 

m  KhGrsh&far,  as  usual  in  Hum1ahLr(see  Chap.  XXXII,  8). 
'-   Written  Kaylseh  in  Pazand  (see  Chap.  XIII,  16). 
'  Mx.  Khvirazm  both  here  and  in  §  4. 

•  Av.  A'aejfcwta  of  Aban  Yt.  49,  G6r  Yt.  18,  ik  22,  Ashi 
Yt.  ;,  Wt  9.  The  present  Lake  Urumiyah  in  Adarbf^Sn, 
which  is  called  Khe^est,  or  Attest,  by  'llamdu-I-lah  Mustauff. 

•  Implying  thai  the  water  is  salt. 

•  The  Kondrasp  mountain  (see  Chap.  XII,  24).  This  lake  is 
probably  a  small  sheet  of  water  on  the  mountains  near  Meshhcd. 

T  Evidently  a  punning  etymology  of  the  name  of  this  lake. 



t&g  liberality  is  produced.  4.  Regarding  Lake  Khva- 
rbem *  it  says  that  excellent  benefit  is  produced 
from  it,  iliat  is,  Arshirang2  the  rich  in  wealth,  the 
well-portioned  with  abounding  pleasure.  5.  Lake 
Fra/.dan  3  is  in  Sagastan  ;  they  say,  where  a  generous 
man,  who  is  righteous,  throws  anything  into  it,  It 
receives  it;  when  not  righteous,  it  throws  it  out 
again ;  its  source  also  is  connected  with  the  wide- 
formed  ocean.  6.  Lake  Zarlnmand  is  in  Hamadan  *. 
7.  Regarding  Lake  Asvast  it  is  declared  that  the 
undefiled6  water  which  it  contains  is  always  con- 
stantly flowing  into  the  sea,  so  bright  and  copious  ■ 
that  0H€  might  say  that  the  sun  had  come  into  it  and 
looked  at  Lake  Asvast,  into  that  water  which  is 
requisite  for  restoring  the  dead  in  the  renovation 
of  tii£   universe.     8.  Lake    Husru7   is  within   fifty' 

1  The  province  of  Khvariscm  was  between  the  Aral  and  Caspian, 
along  the  ancient  course  of  the  Oxus  (sec  Chap.  XVII,  5).  This 
lake  has  been  identified  with  the  Aral. 

•  Av.  ashij-  vanguhi,  'good  rectitude,'  personified  as  a  female 
angel  whose  praises  are  celebrated  in  the  Ashi  Y«t ;  in  later 
times  she-  has  been  considered  as  the  angel  dispensing  wealth  and 
possessions.  She  is  also  called  Ard  (Av.  areta,  which  is  synony- 
mous with  asha),  see  Chap.  XXVII,  24. 

'  The  '  Frazdanava  water '  of  Aban  Yt.  108  and  Farhang-i  Oim- 
khaduk,  p.  17.  Justi  identifies  it  with  the  Ab-istadah  ('standing 
water')  lake,  south  of  Ghazni.  It  is  here  represented  as  a  salt 

4  K20  adds,  'they  say.'  This  lake  cannot  be  the  spring  Zarln- 
mand of  Chap.  XX,  34. 

•  Paz.  avnasti  transcribed  into  Pahlavi  isavinastag,  'unspoiled,' 
the  equivalent  of  Av.  anahita  in  Yas.  LXIV,  1,  16,  Yisp.  1.  18. 

•  K20  has  '  glorious '  as  a  gloss  to  *  copious.' 
7  The  Av.  Haosravaugha  of  Siroz.  9,  *  the  lake  which  is  named 

Husrav<;u '  of  Zamyad  Yl.   56.     It  may  be  either  Lake  Van 
Lake  Sevan,  which  are  nearly  equidistant  from  Lake  Ururniyah. 
'  .M6  has  ■  four  leagues.' 

leagues  (parasang)  of  Lake  Ae/ast.  9.  Lake  (or, 
rather,  Gulf)  Sataves x  is  that  already  written  about, 
between  the  wide-formed  ocean  and  the  Putlk.  10. 
It  is  said  that  in  KamindAn  is  an  abyss  (zafar), 
from  which  everything  they  throw  in  always  comes 
back,  and  [twill  not  receive  it  unless  alive  (g anvar) ; 
when  they  throw  a  living  creature  into  it,  it  carries 

^£f  down     men  say  that  a  fountain  from  hell  is  in  it. 
1 1.  Lake  Urvis  is  on  Hujjar  the  lofty8. 

Chapter    XXIII. 
1.  On  the  nature  of  the  ape  and  the  bear  they 
say,  that  Yim,  when  reason  (n is  1116)  departed  from 
him  3,  for  fear  of  the  demons  took  a  demoness  as 
wife,   and  gave  Yimak,   who  was   his  sister,   to   a 
demon  as  wife ;    and  from    them    have   originated 
the    tailed    ape    and    bear    and    other    species   of 

2.  This,  too,  they  say,  that  in  the  reign  of  A2-1 
Dahak  *  a  young  woman  was  admitted  to  a  demon, 
and  a  young  man  was  admitted  to  a  witch  (parik), 
and  on  seeing  them  they  had  intercourse ;  owing  to 
that  one  intercourse  the  black-skinned  negro  arose 
from  them.  3.  When  FreWun 5  came  to  them  they 
fled  from  the  country  of  Iran,  and  settled  upon  the 
sea-coast ;  now,  through  the  invasion  of  the  Arabs, 
they  are  again  diffused  through  the  country  of  Iran. 

: ...XIII,  9-1.,. 

•  See  Chaps.  XI I.  5,  XIII,  4. 

•  See  Chap.  XXXI V,  4.       This  is  ihe  Jamshed  of  the  Shah- 
a&mah.     Perhaps  for  ■  reason '  we  should  read  '  gloi\ .' 

•  See  Chaps.  XXXI.  6,  XXXIV,  5. 

•  See  Chap.  XXXIV,  6. 

Chapter   XXIV. 

i.  On  the  chieftainship  of  men  and  animals  and 
every  single  thing  it  says  in  revelation,  that  first  of 
the  human  species  Gay6mar^  was  produced,  brilliant 
and  white,  with  eyes  which  looked  out  for  the  great 
one,  him  who  was  here  the  ZaratuJtr6tum  (chief 
high-priest) ;  the  chieftainship  of  all  things  was  from 
Zarattijt '.  2.  The  white  ass-goat 2,  which  holds  its 
head  down,  is  the  chief  of  goats,  the  first  of  those 
species  created  a.  3.  The  black  sheep  which  is  fat 
and  white-jawed  is  the  chief  of  sheep ;  it  was  the 
first  of  those  species  created  3.  4.  The  camel  with 
white-haired  knees  and  two  humps  is  the  chief  of 
camels.  5.  First  the  black-haired  ox  with  yellow 
knees  was  created ;  he  is  the  chief  of  oxen.  6. 
First  the  dazzling  white  (arus)  horse,  with  yellow 
ears,  glossy  hair,  and  white  eyes,  was  produced  ;  he 
is  the  chief  of  horses.  7.  The  white,  cat-footed  * 
ass  is  the  chief  of  asses.  8.  First  of  dogs  the  fair 
(arus)  dog  with  yellow  hair  was  produced  ;  he  is  the 
chief  of  dogs.     9.  The  hare  was  produced   brown 

1  So  in  all  MSS.,  but  by  reading  mun,  •  who/  instead  of  min, 
'  from,'  we  should  have,  '  him  who  was  here  the  chief  high-priest 
and  chieftainship  of  all  things,  who  was  Zaratuxt.'  The  Pahlavi 
Visp.  I,  i,  gives  the  following  list  of  chiefs  :  '  The  chief  of  spirits  is 
Aflharmazd,  the  chief  of  worldly  existences  is  Zaratuxt,  the  chief  of 
water-creatures  is  the  Kar-fish,  the  chief  of  /<«K/-animals  is  the 
ermine,  the  chief  of  flying-creatures  is  the  Karxipt,  the  chief  of  the 
wide-travetlers  is  the  ...  ,  the  chief  of  those  suitable  for  grazing 
is  the  ass-goat.' 

*  Sec  Chap.  XIV,  14. 

'  It  is  doubtful  whether  the  phrase,  '  the  first  of  those  species 
created/  belongs  to  this  sentence  or  the  following  one. 

4  Or,  *  cat-legged.' 

(bur);  he  is  the  chief  of  the  wide-travellers.  10. 
Those  beasts  which  have  no  dread  whatever  of  the 
hand  are  evil.  1 1,  First  of  birds  the  griffon  of  three 
natures '  was  created,  not  for  here  (this  world),  for 
the  Kardpt 8  is  the  chief,  which  they  call  the  falcon 
i /ark),  that  which  revelation  says  was  brought  to 
the  enclosure  formed  by  Yim.  12.  First  of  fur 
animals  the  white  ermine  was  produced ;  he  is  the 
chief  of  fur  animals ;  as  it  says  that  it  is  the  white 
ermine  which  came  unto  the  assembly  of  the  arch- 
angels. 1 3.  The  Kar-fish,  or  Aris3,  is  the  chief  of 
the  wat< th natures.  14.  The  Daitlk  '  river  is  the 
chief  of  streams.  15.  The  Dara^a0  river  is  the 
chief  of  exalted  rivers,  for  the  dwelling  of  the  father 
of  Zaratuxt  was  on  its  banks6,  and  Zaratujt  was 
born  there.  16.  The  hoary  forest7  is  the  chief  of 
-.ts.  17.  H Cigar  the  lofty8,  on  which  the  water 
of  Aredvtvsur  flows  and  leaps,  is  the  chief  of  sum- 
mits, since  it  is  that  above  which  is  the  revolution 
of  the  constellation   Sataves",   the   chief  of  reser- 

'  The  Simurgh  (see  §  29  and  Chap.  XI V,  11,  23,  24).  In  Mkh. 
I.XII,  37-39,  it  is  mentioned  as  follows:  'And  SfnamrQ's  rcsting- 
pbee  tB  on  the  tree  which  is  opposed  to  harm,  of  all  seeds ;  and 
always  when  he  rises  aloft  a  thousand  twigs  will  shoot  forth  from 
thai  tree;  and  when  he  alights  he  will  break  off  the  thousand  twigs, 
and  he  sheds  their  seed  therefrom.' 

■  See  Chap.  XIX,  16.     In  §  29  JTaxnrfa  is  said  to  be  the  chief. 

•  See  Chaps.  XIV,  12,  26,  XVIII,  3-6. 

•  See  Chap.  XX,  13. 

•  See  Chap.  XX,  32. 

•  The  MSS.  have  *  in  Balkh '  instead  of  *  on  the  banks.' 
r  The  arfls-i  razur  is  the  Av.  spaetitem  razurcm  of  Rim 

Yi.  3»- 

•  See  Chap.  XII,  5. 

•  See  Chap.  II 



voirs  l.  1 8.  The  H6m  which  is  out-squeezed  is  the 
chief  of  medicinal  plants8.  19.  Wheat  is  the  chief 
of  large-seeded  3  grains.  20.  The  desert  wormwood 
is  the  chief  of  unmedicinal 4  plants.  21.  The  sum- 
mer vetch,  which  they  also  call  'pag'  (gavirs),  is 
the  chief  of  small-seeded  grains5.  22.  The  Kustik 
(sacred  thread-girdle)  is  the  chief  of  clothes-  23. 
The  Bazayvana  ■  is  the  chief  of  seas.  24.  Of  two 
men,  when  they  come  forward  together,  the  wiser 
and  more  truthful  is  chief. 

25.  This,  too,  it  says  in  revelation,  that  A&har- 
mazd  created  the  whole  material  world  one  abode, 
so  that  all  may  be  one ;  for  there  is  much  splendour 
and  glory  of  industry  in  the  world.  26.  Whatsoever 
he  performs,  who  practises  that  which  is  good,  is 
the  value  of  the  water  of  life 7 ;  since  water  is  not 
created  alike8  in  value,  for  the  undefiled  water  of 
Ar£dvlvsur  is  worth  the  whole  water  of  the  sky  and 
earth  of  Khvanlras 9,  except  the  Arag  river' °,  created 
by  Auharmazd.     27.  Of  trees  the  myrtle  and  date, 

1  The  meaning  of  Paz.  go  bard  is  doubtful,  but  it  is  here  taken 
as  standing  for  Pahl.  gdbalan,  equivalent  to  the  plural  of  Pers. 
g6l  or  kfll,  'a  reservoir  ;'  SatavSs  being  a  specially  '  watery'  con- 
stellation (see  Ttrtar  Yt.  o).  Justi  traces  gobaran  to  Av.  gufra, 
and  translates  it  by  '  protecting  stars' 

1  Paz.  khvad  and  ba£aga  evidently  stand  for  Pahl.  ha</  (Av. 
huta)  and  bezashk. 

•  Compare  Av.  aj-d&nunaim-Aa  yavananam  (Tiitar  Yt.  29). 

•  Paz.  aba£ag&  stands  for  Pahl.  abezashk. 
■  Compare  Av.  ka«u-danunam-^avastranlm(Tiftar  Yt.  29). 

•  Justi  identifies  this  with   Lake  Van,  but  perhaps  Lake  S 
may  be  meant. 

7  Or,  '  its  value  is  water.'     K20  omits  the  word  'water.' 
"  Reading  ham  instead  of  hamak,  'all.' 

•  Sec  Chap.  XI,  2-6. 
10  See  Chap.  XX,  8. 

CHAPTER    XXIV,    18-XXV,   3. 


on  which  model,  it  is  said,  trees  were  formed,  are 
worth  all  the  trees  of  Khvantras,  except  the  Gdkarrf 
tree '  with  which  they  restore  the  dead. 

28.  Of  mountains  Mount  A  parson's  beginning  is 
in  Sagastan  and  end  in  Khu^lstan,  some  say  it  is  all 
the  mountains  of  Pars,  and  is  chief  of  all  mountains 
except  Alburn.  29.  Of  birds  A*amr652  is  chief,  who 
is  worth  all  the  birds  in  Khvaniras,  except  the  grif- 
fon of  three  natures.  30.  The  conclusion  is  this, 
that  every  one  who  performs  a  great  duty  has  then 
much  value. 

Chapter   XXV. 

i.  On  matters  of  religion8  it  says  in  revelation 
thus :  '  The  creatures  of  the  world  were  created  by 
me  complete  in  three  hundred  and  sixty-five  days/ 
that  is,  the  six  periods  of  the  Gahanbars  which  are 
completed  in  a  year.  2.  It  is  always  necessary  first 
to  count  the  day  and  afterwards  the  night,  for  first 
the  day  goes  off,  and  then  the  night  comes  on  *. 
3.  And   from    the   season   (g&s)   of  Meafok-shem  -\ 

■  See  Chap.  XVIII,  1-4. 

■  Sec  Chap.  XIX,  15,  where  it  is  written  A'arnrflx.     Tliis  §  is  at 
variance  with  $11,  which  gives  the  chieftainship  to  Karjipt. 

'  That  is,  *on  the  fxriodsfvr  observance  of  religious  duties.' 

*  The  Jewish  and  Muhammadan  practice  is  just  the  contrary. 

•  The  Av.  maidhyd-shema  of  Yas.  I,   27,  II,  36,  III,  41, 

I,  3.  II,  1,  Afringan  Gahanbar  a,  8.  It  is  the  second 
season-festival,  held  on  the  five  days  ending  with  the  105th  day  of 
the  Paxsi  year,  which  formerly  corresponded  approximately  to  mid- 
summer, according  to  the  Bundahij.  Later  writings  assert  that  it 
commemorates  the  creation  of  water. 



which  is  the  auspicious  *  day  Khur  of  the   month 
Tir s,  to  the  season  of  Me^iyarem  3,  which  is   the 

1  A  dispute  as  to  the  meaning  of  this  word  formed  no  small 
part  of  the  Kabisah  controversy,  carried  on  between  the  leadt 
the  two  rival  sects  of  Parsis  in  Bombay  about  fifty  years  ago. 
Dastur  Edalji  DarSbji,  the  high-priest  of  the  predominant  sect  (who 
adhered  to  the  traditional  calendar  of  tin  Indian  Parsis),  insisted 
that  it  meant  '  solar/  or  *  belonging  to  the  calendar  rectified  for 
solar  time  by  the  intercalation  of  a  month  every  120  years ; '  Mulla 
1'iruz,  the  lii-h-i  nost  of  the  new  sect  (who  had  adopted  the  calendar 
of  the  Persian  Parsis,  which  is  one  month  in  advance  of  the  other), 
asserted  that  the  word  had  no  connection  with  intercalation,  but 
meant  '  commencing,'  or  '  pertaining  to  New-year's  day,'  as  trans- 
lated into  Sanskrit,  by  NSry6sang,  in  Mkh.  XL IX,  27.  Anquctil 
translates  it  either  as  '  inclusive '  or  '  complete  ; '  Windischmann 
simply  skips  il  over;  and  Justi  translates  it  everywhere  as  'in- 
clusive.' Dastur  Edalji  reads  the  word  vehLjakf  or  veht^ak; 
NSryosang  has  vahyza;  Mulut  Firuz  reads  nSiJakik  in  the  Bun- 
dahir,  but  vchi^akfk  in  the  Dfnkar</,  where  the  word  also  occurs; 
Justi  has  n;ii£akik.  The  meaning  'inclusive'  suits  the  context  in 
nearly  all  cases  in  the  Bundahu-,  but  not  elsewhere ;  if  it  had  that 
meaning  the  most  probable  reading  would  be  vikhc^akfk  or 
m  ik  lie^aki  k, '  arising,  leaping  over,  including.'  It  is  nearly  always 
used  in  connection  with  dates  or  periods  of  litne,  and  must  be  some 
epithet  of  a  very  general  character,  not  only  applicable  to  inter- 
calary periods,  but  also  to  New-year's  day  and  dates  in  general ; 
something  like  the  Arabic  epithet  mubSrak,  '  fortunate,'  so  com- 
monly used  in  Persian  dates.  Dastur  Edalji  compares  it  with  Pers. 
bth  rak  or  bih  tarak, '  intercalary  month,' which  is  probably  a  corrup- 
tion of  it;  and  this  suggests  veh,  'good,'  as  one  component  of  the 
epithet.  The  word  may  be  read  veh-yaaakik,  'for  reverencing 
the  good/  but  as  veh,  'good/  is  an  adjective,  this  would  be  an 
irregular  form;  a  more  probable  reading  is  veh-i^akik,  'for 
anything  good,'  which,  when  applied  to  a  day,  or  any  period  of 
time,  would  imply  that  it  is  suitable  for  anything  good,  that  is,  it  is 
'auspicious.'  Sometimes  die  wordis  written  vehi^ak,  v6hi*akik, 
or  vfihiiS ;  and  epithets  of  similar  forms  in  Pahlavi  arc  applied  by 
the  writers  of  colophons  to  themselves,  but  these  should  be  read 
vakliesak  or  nijivak,  'lowly,  abject.' 

8  The  eleventh   day  of  the  fourth   month,  when   the   festival 

•  The  Av.  maidhySirya  of  Yas.  I,  30,  II,  39,  III,  44,  Visp.  I. 

auspicious  day  Vahram  of  the  month  Din1 — the 
shorter/  day — the  night  increases  ;  and  from  the  sea- 
son of  M&/iyarem  to  the  season  of  MeV6k-shem  the 
night  decreases  and  the  day  increases.  4.  The 
summer  day  is  as  much  as  two  of  the  shortest2 
winter  days,  and  the  winter  night  is  as  much  as  two 
of  the  shortest  summer  nights*.  5.  The  summer 
day  is  twelve  Hasars,  the  night  six  Hasars ;  the 
winter  night  is  twelve  Hasars,  the  day  six  ;  a  Hasar 
being  a  measure  0/  time  and,  in  like  manner,  of  land  \ 
6.   In  the  season  of  Hamespamadayem *,  that  is,  the 

6,  II.  1,  Af.  Gahan.  2,  1 1.  It  is  the  fifth  season-festival,  held  on 
the  five  days  ending  with  the  290th  day  of  the  Parsi  year,  which 
formerly  corresponded  approximately  to  midwinter,  according  to 
the  Bundahix.  Later  writings  assert  that  it  commemorates  the 
creation  of  animals. 

1  The  twentieth  day  of  the  tenth  month,  when  the  festival  ends. 

1  The  word  kah-ait  is  merely  a  hybrid  Huzvam  form  of  kahist, 
'  shortest/  which  occurs  in  the  next  phrase. 

"  This  statement  must  be  considered  merely  as  an  approxima- 
tion. The  longest  day  is  twice  the  length  of  the  shortest  one  in 
latitude  490,  that  is,  north  of  Paris,  Vienna,  and  Odessa,  if  the 
length  of  the  day  be  computed  from  sunrise  to  sunset ;  and,  if 
twilight  be  included,  it  is  necessary  to  go  still  further  north.  In 
Adzxhtgin,  the  northern  province  of  Persia,  the  longest  day  is 
about  14  \  hours  from  sunrise  to  sunset,  and  the  shortest  is  about 
9!  hours. 

*  According  to  this  passage  a  hasar  of  time  is  one  hour  and 
twenty  minutes ;  it  is  the  Av.  hath  ra  of  the  Farhang-i  Oim-khaduk 
(p.  43,  ed.  Hoshangji),  which  says,  •  of  twelve  Hasars  is  the  longest 
day,  and  the  day  and  night  in  which  is  the  longest  day  are  t 
of  the  longest  Hasars,  eighteen  of  the  medium,  and  twenty-four  of 
the  least — an  enumeration  of  the  several  measures  of  the  Hasar.' 
For  the  h&sar  measure  of  land,  see  Chap.  XXVI. 

■  So  in  K20,  but  this  name  is  rarely  written  twice  alike ;  it  is 
the  Av.  hamaspathmaedaya  of  Yas.  I,  31,  II,  40,  HI,  45,  Visp. 
I,  7.  II,  1,  Af.  Gahan.  2,  12.  It  is  the  sixth  season- festival,  held 
on  the  five  Gatha  days  which  conclude  the  Parsi  year,  just  before 

five  supplementary  days  at  the  end  of  the  month 
Spendarma**',  the  day  and  night  are  again  equal. 

7.  As  from  the  auspicious  day  Auharmazd  of  the 
month  Fravaiv/in  to  the  auspicious  day  Aniran  of 
the  month  Mitro '  is  the  summer  of  seven  months, 
so  from  the  auspicious  day  Auharmazd  of  the  month 
Avan  to  the  auspicious  month  Spendarma//.  on  to 
the  end  of  the  five  supplementary  days ',  is  the 
winter  of  five  months.  8.  The  priest  fulfils  the 
regulation  (valar)  about  a  corpse  and  other  things, 
by  this  calculation  as  to  summer  and  winter.  9.  In 
those  seven  months3  of  summer  the  periods  (gas) 
of  the  days  and  nights  are  five — since  one  cele- 
brates the  Rapitvin — namely,  the  period  of  day- 
break is  Havan,  the  period  of  midday  is  Rapitvin, 
the  period  of  afternoon  is  Auzerln,  when  the  ap- 
pearance of  the  stars  has  come  into  the  sky  *  until 
midnight  is  the  period  of  Aibisrutem,  from  mid- 
night until  the  stars  become  imperceptible  is  the 
period  of  Aushahln6.  10.  In  winter  are  four  periods, 
fox  from  daybreak  till  Auz&rin  is  all  Havan,  and  xhe 
rest  as  1  have  said;  and  the  reason  of  it  is  this,  that 
the  appearance0  of  winter  is  in  the  direction  of  the 

the  vernal  equinox,  according  to   the  Bundahw.     Later  writings 
assert  that  il  commemorates  the  creation  of  man. 

•  That  is,  from  the  first  day  of  the  first  month  to  the  last  day  of 
the  seventh  month. 

■  That  is,  from  the  first  day  of  the  eighth  month  to  the  last  of 
the  five  Gatha  days,  which  are  added  to  the  twelfth  month  to  com- 
plete the  year  of  365  days. 

•  All  MSS.  have  '  five  months '  here. 

•  K20  has  '  when  the  stars  have  come  into  sight' 

•  The  Avesta  names  of  the  five  Gahs  are  Havani,  Rapithwina, 
Uzayeirina,  Aiwisruthrema,  and  Ushahina. 

•  P.iz,  ashnrij  is  evidently  a  misreading  of  Pahl.  Sshkarth. 

north*  where  the  regions  Vdrubam '  and  Vorufanrt 
are :  the  original  dwelling  of  summer,  too,  is  in  the 
south,  where  the  regions  Frada^afsh  and  Vida</afsh 
are  :  on  the  day  Auharmazd  of  the  auspicious  month 
A  van  the  winter  acquires  strength  and  enters  into 
the  world,  and  the  spirit  of  Rapitvin  goes  from 
above-ground  to  below-ground,  where  the  spring 
(khani)  of  waters  is,  and  diffuses2  warmth  and 
moisture  in  the  water,  and  so  many  roots  of  trees  do 
wither  with  cold  and  drought.  II.  And  on  the 
auspicious  day  Ataro  of  the  month  Din  3  the  winter 
arrives,  with  much  cold,  at  Airan-ve;r;  and  until  the 
end.  in  the  auspicious  month  Spcndarmart',  winter 
advances  through  the  whole  world  ;  on  this  account 
they  kindle  a  fire  everywhere  on  the  day  Atar6  of 
the  month  Din,  and  it  forms  an  indication  that 
winter  has  come.  12.  In  those  five  months  the 
water  of  springs  and  conduits  is  all  warm  *,  for  Ra- 
pitvin keeps  warmth  and  moisture  there,  and  one 
does  not  celebrate  the  period  of  Rapitvin.  13.  As 
the  day  Auharmazd  of  the  month  Fra van/in  ad- 
vances it  diminishes  the  strength  which  winter 
possesses,  and  summer  comes  in  from  its  own 
original  dwelling,  and  receives  strength  and  do- 
minion. 14.  Rapitvin  comes  up  from  below-ground, 
and  ripens  the  fruit  of  the  trees ;    on  this  account 

1  Sec  Chaps.  V,  8,  XI,  3.  The  north,  being  opposed  to  the 
south  or  midday  quarter,  is  opposed  to  the  midday  period  of 
Rapitvin,  which,  therefore,  disappears  as  winter  approaches  from 
the  north. 

•  If,  instead  of  khan!  for  khanik,  '  spring,'  we  read  ahu-i, 
•  lord  of,'  the  translation  will  be,  '  so  that  the  angel  of  waters  may 
diffuse,'  &c 

■  The  ninth  day  of  the  tenth  month. 

*  That  is,  warmer  than  the  air,  as  it  is  cooler  in  summer. 

the  water  of  springs  is  cold  in  summer ',  for  Rapitvin 
is  not  there;  and  those  seven2  months  one  celebrates 
the  Rapitvin,  and  summer  advances  through  the 
whole  earth.  15.  And  yet  in  the  direction  of  Hin- 
dustan, there  wfwre  the  original  dwelling  of  summer 
is  nearer,  it  is  always  neither  cold  nor  hot ;  for  in  the 
season  which  is  the  dominion  of  summer,  the  rain 
always  dispels  most  of  the  heat,  ami  it  does  not 
become  perceptible ;  in  the  winter  rain  does  not  fall, 
and  the  cold  does  nor  become  very  perceptible8. 
16.  In  the  northern  direction,  where  the  preparation 
of  winter  is,  it  is  always  cold4;  for  in  the  summer 
mostly,  on  account  of  the  more  oppressive  winter 
there,  it  is  not  possible  so  to  dispel  the  cold  that 
one  might  make  it  quite  warm.  17.  In  the  middle 
localities  the  cold  of  winter  and  heat  of  summer 
both  come  on  vehemently. 

18.  Again,  the  year  dependent  on  the  revolving 
moon  is  not  equal  to  the  computed  year  on  this 
account,  for  the  moon  fl  returns  one  time  in  twenty- 
nine,  and  one  time  in  thirty  days,  and  there  are  four 

1  K20  has  '  winter '  by  mistake. 

'  K20  lias  '  six,'  and  M6  •  five,'  instead  of  '  seven.' 

*  This  is  a  fairly  accurate  account  of  the  effect  of  the  monsoons 
over  the  greater  part  of  India,  as  understood  by  a  foreigner  unac- 
quainted with  the  different  stale  of  mailers  in  a  large  portion  of 
the  Madras  provinces. 

*  M6  has  khurasAn  instead  of  Srayisn,  'preparation,'  which 
alters  the  sense  into  '  that  is,  Khurasan,  of  which  the  winter  is  always 

8  The  MSS.  have  the  Huzvaiir  term  for  '  month,'  which  is 
sometimes  used,  by  mistake,  for  'moon.'  It  is  doubtful  whkfc 
word  the  author  intended  to  use  here,  but  it  is  usual  to  count  the 
days  of  a  lunar  month  from  the  first  actual  appearance  of  the  new 
moon,  which  usually  occurs  a  full  day  after  the  change  of  the 

hours  (zaman)  more  than  such  a  one  of  its  years'1  ; 
as  it  says,  that  every  one.  deceives  where  they  speak 
about  the  moon  (or  month),  except  when  they  say 
that  it  comes  twice  in  sixty  days.  19.  Whoever 
keeps  the  year  by  the  revolution  of  the  moon 
mingles  summer  with  winter  and  winter  with 
summer \ 

20.  This,  too,  it  says,  that  the  auspicious  month 
Fravanrtn,  the  month  Arrtavahi-st,  and  the  month 
HorvabW8  are  spring ;  the  month  Tfr,  the  month 
Amerida*/,  and  the  month  Shatvalr6  are  summer ; 
the  month  Mitri,  the  month  A  van.  and  the  month 
Atari  are  autumn ;  the  month  Din,  the  month 
Vohuman,  and  the  month  Spendarma^  are  winter4. 
21.  And  the  sun  comes  from  the  sign  (khur^ak)  of 
Aries,  into  which  it  proceeded  in  the  beginning, 
back  to  that  same  place  in  three  hundred  and  sixty- 
five  days  and  six  short  times  (hours),  which  are  one 
year.  22.  As  every  three  months  it  (the  sun)  ad- 
vances through  three  constellations,  more  or  less, 
the  moon  comes,  in  a  hundred  and  eighty  days, 
back  to  the  place  out  of  which  it  travelled  in  the 

'  Meaning,  probably,  that  the  lunar  year  is  four  hours  more 
than  twelve  months  of  29  and  30  days  each,  alternately.  It  should 
be  8  hours,  48  minutes,  and  37  seconds.  The  sentence  seems 
defective,  but  it  is  evident  from  §  21  thai  zaman  means  'hour.' 

"  That  is,  the  lunar  year  being  eleven  days  shorter  than  the 
solar  one,  its  months  arc  constantly  retrograding  through  the 

■  Generally  written  Avardarf  in  Pazand,  and  Khurdad  in  Persian. 
•  The  names  of  the  months  arc  selected  from  the  names  of  the 

days  of  the  month  (see  Chap.  XXVII,  24),  but  are  arranged  in  a 
totally  different  order. 

■  Probably  meaning,  that   the  new  moon   next   the  autumnal 

[5]  It 

Chapter   XXVI. 

i.  A  Hasar1  on  the  ground  is  a  Parasang  of  one 
thousand  steps  of  the  two  feet.  2.  A  Parasang  *  is 
a  measure  as  much  as  a  far-seeing  man  may  look 
out,  see  a  beast  of  burden,  and  make  known  that  // 
is  black  or  white.  3.  And  the  measure  of  a  man  is 
eight  medium  spans3. 

equinox  is  to  be  looked  for  in  the  same  quarter  as  the  new  moon 
nearest  the  vernal  equinox,  the  moon's  declination  being  nearly 
the  same  in  both  cases. 

1  Av.  hfithra  of  Vend.  II,  65,  VIII,  280,  287,  291,  TfrtM  Vt. 
23,  29.  The  statements  regarding  the  length  of  a  Hasar  are 
rather  perplexing,  for  we  arc  told  that  it  '  is  like  a  Parasang ' 
{Chap.  XIV,  4),  'the  length  of  a  Hasar  is  one-fourth  of  a  Para- 
sang '  (Chap.  XVI,  7),  and  that '  a  medium  Hasar  on  the  ground, 
which  they  also  call  a  Parasang,  is  a  thousand  steps  of  tin- 
feet  when  walking  with  propriety '  (Farhang-i  Oim-khadtik,  ed. 
Hosh.  p.  4a).  To  reconcile  these  statements  we  must  con 
that  the  Hasar  is  like  a  Parasang  merely  in  the  sense  of  being 
a  long  measure  of  distance,  that  it  is  really  the  mi  lie  passus  or 
mile  of  the  Romans,  and  that  it  is  a  quarter  of  the  actual  Parasang. 
At  the  same  time,  as  it  was  usual  to  call  a  Hasar  by  the  name  of  a 
Parasang,  we  are  often  left  in  doubt  whether  a  mile  or  a  league  is 
meant,  when  a  Hasar  or  Parasang  is  mentioned.  The  Farhang-i 
Oim-khaduk  (p.  41)  also  mentions  other  measures  of  distance, 
such  as  the  ta-frar  (Av.  taAara)  of  two  Hasars,  the  asvast  (or 
ae"ast)of  four  Hasars,  the  dashmest  (Av.  dakhshmaili)  of  eight 
Hasars,  and  the  vO^Sst  (Av.  yi^aiasti  or  yu^aiasti)  of  sixteen 

'  A  Parasang  is  usually  from  3  J  to  4  English  miles,  but  perhaps 
a  Hasar  is  meant  here. 

■  Reading  vitast-i  miyanak  instead  of  vitast  damana 
The  Farhang-i  Oim-khadflk  (p.  41)  mentions  three  kinds  of  spans, 
the  Av.  vitasti  (Vend.  VIII,  243,  245,  XVH,  13)  of  twelve  finger- 
breadths  (angust),  or  about  9  inches,  which  is  a  full  span  between 
the  thumb  and  little  finger  (the  one  mentioned  in  the  text);  the  Av. 
dLcti  (Vend.  XVII,  13)  of  ten  finger-bread  I  hs,  or  about  7  \  inches, 
which  is  a  span  between  the  thumb  and  middle  finger ;  and  the 


Chapter   XXVII. 

1.  On  the  nature  of  plants  it  says  in  revelation, 
that,  before  the  coming  of  the  destroyer,  vegetation 
had  no  thorn  and  bark  about  it;  and,  afterwards, 
when  the  destroyer  came,  it  became  coated  with 
bark  and  thorny1,  for  antagonism  mingled  with 
every  single  thing ;  owing  to  that  cause  vegetation 

!so  much  mixed  with  poison,  like  B\s  the  height 
of  hemp  (kand)J,  that  is  poisonous,  for  men  when 
they  eat  it  die. 

2.  In  like  manner  even  as  the  animals,  with  grain 
of  fifty  and  five  species  and  twelve  species  of  medi- 
cinal plants,  have  arisen  from  the  primeval  ox s,  ten 
thousand*  species  among   the  species   of  principal 

Ay.  ozasti  (PahL  lala-ajt)  of  eight  finger-breadths,  or  about  6 
;o«;hrs,  which  is  a  span  between  the  thumb  and  fore-finger.  Oiher 
measures  mentioned  by  the  same  authority  are  the  p5!  (Av.  padha, 
Vcr.d.  IX,  Eg,  20,  29),  '  foot,'  of  fourteen  finger-breadths,  or  about 
10 J  inches;  the  gam  (Av.  gSya,  Vend.  Ill,  57,  &c),  '  step,'  which 
[be  Vendfdad  is  three  paT/  or  about  2  feel  7$  inches,  'and  in 
other  places  is  said  to  be  two  frarSst'  (Av.  frariithni  in  Vend. 
VII,  76,  79,  87);  so  the  frSrSst,  which  is  probably  the  distance 
from  the  neck  to  the  extended  elbow,  is  half  a  gam,  or  from  15  to 
16  inches.  Two  other  measures  arc  mentioned  in  Vend.  VII,  79, 
.  he  Av.  frabazu,  '  fore-arm  or  cubit'  from  elbow  to 
finger-ends,  which  is  about  18  inches  (or  it  may  be  a  half  fathom) ; 
and  Av.  vfbSzu,  which  is  probably  the  'fathom/  or  extent  of  the 
xtro  arms  out-stretched,  from  5$  to  6  feet. 

1  M6  has  '  poisonous,'  but  is  evidently  copied  from  an  original 
almost  illegible  in  some  places. 

1  Perhaps  'hemp  the  height  of  BiV  would  better  express  the 
Pahtavi  words,  but  Biz  (Napcllus  Moysis)  is  often  mentioned  as  a 
poisonous  plant.  The  phrase  may  also  be  translated  '  like  Bts  and 
tall  hemp." 

I  hap.  XIV,  1. 
1  6  has  'a  thousand,'  but  marks  an  omission.    See  Chap.  IX,  4. 
H  2 

plants,  and  a  hundred  thousand  species  among 
ordinary  plants  have  grown  from  all  these  seeds  of 
the  tree  opposed  to  harm ',  the  many-seeded,  which 
has  grown  in  the  wide-formed  ocean.  3.  When  the 
seeds  of  all  these  plants,  with  those  from  the  pri- 
meval ox,  have  arisen  upon  it,  every  year  the  bird  - 
strips  that  tree  and  mingles  all  the  seeds  in  tho 
water;  Tlstar  seizes  than  with  the  rain-water  and 
rains  them  on  to  all  regions.  4.  Near  to  that  tree 
the  white  H6m,  the  healing  and  undefiled,  has 
grown  at  the  source  of  the  water  of  Aredvivsflr3; 
every  one  who  eats  it  becomes  immortal,  and  they 
call  it  the  G6kar^4  tree,  as  it  is  said  that  Hdm  is 
expelling  death  fl ;  also  in  the  renovation  of  the  uni- 
verse they  prepare  its  immortality  therefrom  ° ;  and 
it  is  the  chief  of  plants 7. 

5.  These  are  as  many  genera  of  plants  as  exist : 
trees  and  shrubs,  (vu\t-trees,  corn,  flowers,  aromatic 
herbs,  salads,   spices,  grass,   wild  plants,    medicinal 

1  See  Chaps.  IX,  5,  XVIII,  9,  XXIX,  5. 

*  The  apparently  contradictory  account  in  Chap.  IX,  2,  refers 
only  to  the  first  production  of  maiiiial  plants  from  their  spiritual 
or  ideal  representative-.  The  bird  here  mentioned  is  Aamrdx  (see 
Chaps.  XIX,  15,  XXIV,  29),  as  appears  from  the  follu 
passage  (Mkh.  LXII,  40-42):  'And  the  bird  Aamr6x  for  ever 
sits  m  1h.1t  vicinity  ;  and  his  work  is  this,  that  he  collects  that  seed 
which  sheds  from  the  tree  of  all  seeds,  wbicfi  is  opposed  to  harm, 
and  conveys  /'/  there  where  Tf.«ar  seizes  the  water,  so  that  Tklar 
may  seize  the  water  with  that  seed  of  all  kinds,  and  may  rain  /"/  on 
the  world  with  the  rain.' 

8  Sec  Chaps.  XII,  5,  XIII,  3-5. 

♦  Here  written  Gokarn  in  all  MSS.     See  Chaps.  IX,  6,  XVI 1 1 
1,  2. 

•  That  is,  in  Yas.  IX,  where  Haoma  is  entitled  duraosha. 

•  See  Chap.  XXIV,  27. 
7  See  Chap.  XXIV,  18. 

plants,  gum  plants,  and  all  producing  '  oil,  dyes,  and 
clothing.  6.  I  will  mention  them  also  a  second 
time  :  all  whose  fruit  is  not  welcome  as  food  of  men. 
and  are  perennial  (salvar),  as  the  cypress,  the  plane, 
the  white  poplar,  the  box,  and  others  of  this  genus, 
they  call  trees  ami  shrubs  (dar  va  dirakht).  7. 
The  produce  of  everything  welcome  as  food  of  men, 
that  is  perennial,  as  the  date,  the  myrtle,  the  lote- 
plum  !,  the  grape,  the  quince,  the  apple,  the  citron, 
the  pomegranate,  the  peach,  the  fig,  the  walnut,  the 
almond,  and  others  in  this  genus,  they  call  fruit 
(mivak).  8.  Whatever  requires  labour  with  the 
spade3,  and  is  perennial,  they  call  a  shrub  (dirakht). 
9.  Whatever  requires  that  they  take  its  crop 
through  labour,  and  its  root  withers  away,  such  as 
wheat,  barley,  grain,  various  kinds*  of  pulse,  vetches, 
and  others  of  this  genus,  they  call  corn  (gdtdkk). 
JO.  Ev ery  plant  with  fragrant  leaves,  which  is  culti- 
vated by  the  hand-labour  of  men,  and  is  perennial 
(hamvar),  they  call  an  aromatic  herb  (si  pa  ram).  1 1. 
Whatever  sweet-scented  blossom  arises  at  various 
seasons  through  the  hand-labour  of  men,  or  has 
a  perennial  root  and  blossoms  in  its  season  with 
new  shoots  ami  sweet-scented  blossoms,  as  the  rose, 
the  narcissus,  the  jasmine,  the  dog-rose  (nestarun), 

1  Comparing  this  list  with  the  subsequent  repetition  it  appears 
probable  chat  hamak  bara  is  a  corruption  of  aesam  bdd  (see 
f§  19,  ai),  and  that  we  ought  to  read  'gum  plants,  woods,  scents, 
and  plantt  for  oil,  dyes,  and  clothing.'  M6  has  'oil  and  dyes  for 
cloth  1 

»  The  k una r  (sec  Chap.  XV,  13). 

■  The  Piz.  pehani  (which  is  omitted  in  K2o)is  evidently  a  mis- 
reading of  Paid,  pashang,  '  a  hoe-like  sp;ul< .' 

•  M6  add*  Paz.  g-ivina  (l'ahl.  gGnak)  to  gvt</gvtd  mungan, 
without  altering  the  meaning  materially. 

the  tulip,  the  colocynth  (kavastik),  the  pandanus 
(kedi),  the  £amba,  the  ox-eye  (heri),  the  crocus, 
the  swallow-wort  (zarda),  the  violet,  the  karda, 
and  others  of  this  genus,  they  call  a  flower  (gul). 
12.  Everything  whose  sweet-scented  fruit,  or  sweet- 
scented  blossom,  arises  in  its  season,  without  the 
hand-labour  of  men,  they  call  a  wild  plant  (vahar 
or  nihal).  13.  Whatever  is  welcome  as  food  of 
cattle  and  beasts  of  burden  they  call  grass  (giyah). 
14.  Whatever  enters  into  cakes  (pes-parakiha) 
they  call  spices  (avzarlha).  15.  Whatever  is  wel- 
come in  eating  of  bread,  as  torn  shoots  '  of  the  cori- 
ander, water-cress  (kakl.f),  the  leek,  and  others  of 
this  genus,  they  call  salad  (tdrak)8.  16.  Whatever 
is  like  spinning 3  cotton,  and  others  of  this  genus, 
they  call  clothing  plants  (^amak).  17.  Whatever 
lentil*  is  greasy,  as  sesame,  dushd&ng,  hemp. 
zandak6,  and  others  of  this  genus,  they  call  an 
oW-seed  (rokan6).  18.  Whatever  one  can  dye 
clothing  with,  as  saffron,  sapan-wood,  zalava. 
vaha,  and  others  of  this  genus,  they  call  a  dye- 
plant  (rag).     1 9.  Whatever  root,  or  gum 8,  or  wood 

1  Reading  stdk  darirf;  Justi  has  'baked  shoots;'  Anquetil  h*S 
'the  three  foil  owing ; '  M6  has  st&k  va  karafs,  'shoots  and 

*  Or  tarak  in  §  5,  Pers.  tarah. 

'  Reading  Huz.  neskhunan,  'twisting,' but  the  word  is  doubtful; 
Justi  has  '  sitting  on  the  plant  j  which  is  a  rather  singular  description 
for  cotton. 

4  Reading  ma£ag;  Anquetil,  Windischmann,  and  Justi  read 
mazg,  'marrow,'  but  this  il  usually  written  otherwise. 

1  Perhaps    for   z6t6,  'olive,'  as  Anquetil   supposes,  and   Ji 

*  Reading  tuf  (compare  Pers.  tuf,  'saliva'). 

CHAPTER    XXVII,    1 2-24. 

is  scented,  as  frankincon.se1,  varan*,  kust,  sandal- 
wood, cardamom a,  camphor,  orange-scented  mint, 
and  others  of  this  genus,  they  call  a  scent  (bdd). 
2a  Whatever  stickiness  comes  out  from  plants4 
they  call  gummy  (zart'ak).  21.  The  timber  which 
proceeds  from  the  trees,  when  it  is  either  dry  or  wet. 
they  call  wood  (<£lba).  22.  Every  one  of  all  these 
plants  which  is  so,  they  call  medicinal  (d&ruk)5. 

23.  The  principal  fruits  are  3/"  thirty  kinds  (kha- 
dtilnak),  and  ten  species  (sar^/ak)  of  them  are  fit 
to  eat  inside  and  outside,  as  the  fig,  the  apple,  the 
quince,  the  citron,  the  grape,  the  mulberry,  the  pear. 
and  others  of  this  kind ;  ten  are  fit  to  eat  outside. 
6ue  not  fit  to  eat  inside,  as  the  date,  the  peach,  the 
white  apricot,  and  others  of  this  kind ;  those  which 
are  fit  to  eat  inside,  but  not  fit  to  eat  outside,  are 
the  walnut,  the  almond,  the  pomegranate,  the  cocoa- 
nut*,  the  filbert7,  the  chesnut8,  the  pistachio  nut, 
the  vargan,  and  whatever  else  of  this  description 
are  very  remarkable. 

24  •  This,  too,  it  says,  that  every  single  flower  is 
appropriate  to  an  angel  (amesh6spend)10,  as   the 

1  Pi*,  kendri  for  Pahl.  kundur  probably. 
5   lu>ti  compares  Pers.  barghaxt. 

■  Pi*,  kakura  may  be  equivalent  to  Pers.  qaqulah,  •carda- 
moms,' or  to  Pers.  kakul  or  kdkul,  'marjoram.' 
1  K20  omits  a  line,  from  here  to  the  word  'either.' 

•  The  line  which  contained  this  sentence  is  torn  off  in  K20. 

•  Piz.  anarsar  is  a  misreading  of  Pahl.  anargil  (Pers.  nargil. 
•  cocoa-nut '). 

T  Piz.  pen  dak,  a  misreading  of  Pahl.  funduk. 

•  Paz.  shahbr6d,  a  misreading  of  Pahl.  shahbulut;  omitted 
in  M' 

•  M6  begins  a  new  chapter  here. 

'•  These  are  the  thirty  archangels  and  angels  whose  names  are 
led  to  the  thirty  days  of  the  Parsi  month,  in  the  order  in 

white1  jasmine  (saman)  is  for  Vohuman,  the  myrtle 
and  jasmine  (yasmin)  are  Auharmazd's  own,*  the 
mouse-ear  (or  sweet  marjoram)  is's  -  own, 
the  basil-royal  is  Shatvair6's  own,  the  musk  flower 

is  SpendarnWs,  the  lily  is  Horvada<r"s,  the  £amba 
is  Amer6daa?'s,  D\n-f>avan-A  tarv  has  the  orange- 
scented  mint  (va</rang-b6d),  Atard  has  the  mari- 
gold* (adargun),  the  water-lily  is  A  van's,  the  white 
marv  is  Khurshe^'s,  the  ranges4  is  M&h's,  the 
violet  is  Tir's,  the  meren''  is  06s 's.  the  karda  is 
Din-pa van-Mitr6's,  all  violets  arc  Mitro's,  the  red 
chrysanthemum  (kher)  is  Srosh's,  the  dog-rose 
(nestran)  is  Rashnu's,  the  cockscomb,  is  Fravar- 
dxris,  the  sisebar  is  Vahram's,  the  yellow  chrysan- 
themum is  Rim's,  the  orange-scented  mint  is  VjWs6, 
the  trigonella  is  Dln-pavan-Dtn's,  the  hundred- 
petalled  rose  is  Din's,  all  kinds  of  wild  flowers 
(vahdr)  are  Ard's1,  hst&d  has  all  the  white  H6m8, 
the  bread-baker's  basil  is  Asman's,  Zamyaaf  has  the 
crocus,    Maraspend    has    l/ie  flower*   of  Ardashir, 

which  they  are  mentioned  here,  except  thai  Aulurmazd  is  the  fust 
day,  and  Vohuman  is  the  second. 
1  M6  has  'yellow.' 

*  Synonymous  with  the  Arrfavahijl  of  Chap.  I,  26. 
'  Anquetil,  Windischmann,  and  Justi  have  'the  poppy. 

*  M6  has  Paz.  Ig  as  only  the  first  part  of  the  word,  and  Justi 
translates  it  by  '  red  lac,'  which  is  not  a  plant.  Transcribing 
the  Pdzand  into  Pahlavi,  perhaps  the  nearest  probable  word  is 
rand,  'laurel/ 

'  M6    has    Paz.  mfinr;    Anquetil    has  'vine    blossom,'  and    i: 
followed    by    Windischmann    and   Justi,    but    the    word    is    ve: 

*  The  remainder  of  this  chapter  is  lost  from  K20. 
7  This  female  angel  is  also  called  Arshuang($ce  Chap.  XXII,  4). 

*  See  §  4. 

*  M6  leaves  a  blank  space  for  the  name  of  the  flower  ;  peri 
it  is  the  tnarv-i  Ardashlran. 

:  liia 

Aniran  has  this  Hdm  of  the  angel  Horn  \  of  three 

25.  It  is  concerning  plants  that  every  single  kind 
with  a  drop  of  water  on  a  twig  (teh)  they  should 
hold  four  finger-breadths  in  front  of  the  fire2;  most 
of  all  it  is  the  lotos  (kunar)  they  speak  of. 

Chapter  XXVI I  P. 

[1.  On  the  evil-doing  of  Aharman  and  the  demons 
it  says  in  revelation,  that  the  evil  which  the  evil 
spirit  has  produced  for  the  creation  of  Auharmazd  it 
is  possible  to  tell  by  this  winter  4 ;  and  his  body  is 
that  of  a  lizard  (vazagh) 5  luhosc  place  is  filth  (kal/'l. 
2.  He  does  not  think,  nor  speak,  nor  act  for  the 
welfare  (naduklh)  of  the  creatures  of  Auharmazd; 
and  his  business  is  unmercifulness  and  the  destruc- 
tion of  this  welfare,  so  that  the  creatures  which 
Auharmazd  shall  increase  he  will  destroy ;  and  his 
eyesight  (£ashm  mlhlsn)*  does  not  refrain  from 
doing  the  creatures  harm.     3.  As  it  says  that,  '  ever 

1  Reading,  in  Pahlavi,  Hdm  yedato  ae  hdm. 

■  Sec  Chap.  XXI.  1.  Referring  to  the  necessity  of  drying  fire- 
wood before  potting  it  on  the  fire.  The  kunSr  is  specially  men- 
tioned, as  one  of  the  first  fire-woods  used  by  mankind,  in  Chap. 
XV,  .3. 

1  Chaps.  XXVIII,  XXIX,  and  XXXI  are  omitted  in  M6  and 
all  MSS.  descended  from  it,  whether  Pahlavi  or  1'azand;  and, 
owing  to  the  loss  of  a  folio  from  Kao  before  any  of  its  extant 
copies  were  written,  the  first  quarter  of  Chap.  XXV  III  has  hitherto 
been  missing,  but  is  here  supplied  (enclosed  in  brackets)  from  TD, 
a  MS.  belonging  to  Mobad  Tahmuras  Dinshaw  (see  Introduction). 

*  Winter  being  one  of  the  primary  evils  brought  upon  creation 
by  Angra-mainyu  (see  Vend.  1,  8-12). 

■  See  Chap.  Ill,  9.  *  Referring  to  'the  evil  eye.' 



since  a  creature  was  created  by  us,  I,  who  am 
Auharmazd,  have  not  rested  at  ease,  on  account  of 
providing  protection  for  my  own  creatures;  and 
likewise  not  even  he,  the  evil  spirit,  on  account  of 
contriving  evil  for  the  creatures.'  4.  And  by  their 
devotion  to  witchcraft  (yatuk-dindlh)  he  seduces 
mankind  into  affection  for  himself  and  disaffection 
to  Auharmazd  ',  so  that  they  forsake  the  religion 
of  Auharmazd,  and  practise  that  of  Aharman.  5. 
He  casts  this  into  the  thoughts  of  men,  that  this 
religion  of  Auharmazd  is  nought,  and  it  is  n< 
necessary  to  be  steadfast  in  it.  6.  Whoever  gives 
that  man  anything,  in  whose  law  (daaf)  this  saying 
is  established,  then  the  evil  spirit  is  propitiated  by 
him,  that  is,  he  has  acted  by  his  pleasure. 

7.  The  business  of  Ak6man  -  is  this,  that  he  gave 
vile  thoughts  and  discord  to  the  creatures.  8.  The 
business  of  the  demon  Andar  is  this,  that  he  con- 
strains the  thoughts  of  the  creatures  from  deeds  of 
Virtue,  just  like  a  leader  who  has  well-constrained 
(sardar-i  khup  afsar</6) ;  and  he  casts  this  into 
the  thoughts  of  men,  that  it  is  not  necessary  to 
have  the  sacred  shirt  and  thread- girdle.  9.  The 
business  of  the  demon  Savar3,  that  is  a  leader  of 
the  demons,  is  this,  that  is,  misgovernment,  oppres- 
sive anarchy,  and  drunkenness.  10.  The  business  of 
the  demon  Naiktyas4  is  this,  that  he  gives  discon- 
tent to  the  creatures ;  as  it  says,  that  should  this  one 

1  Compare  Chap.  I,  14. 

1  The  six  arch-fiends  of  this  paragraph  are  those  mentioned  in 
Chaps.  I,  27,  XXX,  29. 

8  Written  SAvar  in  Chap.  I,  27. 

'  Written  Nakahcrf  in  Chap.  I,  27,  Naiktyax  when  repeated  in 
this  sentence,  and  Paz.  NiSftnghas  in  Chap.  XXX,  29. 

give  anything  to  those  men  whose  opinion  (daaf)  is 
this,  that  it  is  not  necessary  to  have  the  sacred  shirt 
and  ////vW-oirtlle,  thru  Andar,  Savar.  and  Naiktyas 
are  propitiated  by  him.  1 1.  The  demon  Taprer; l  is 
he  who  mingles  poison  with  plants  and  creatures ; 
as  it  says  thus :  ■  Tapr£c  the  frustrates  and  ZalrU- 
the  maker  of  poison.'  1 2.  All  those  six.  it  is  said, 
are  arch-fiends2  of  the  demons;  the  rest  arc  co- 
operating and  confederate  with  them.  1 3.  This. 
too,  it  says,  that]3  should  one  give  [anything  to]  a 
man  who  says  [that  it  is  proper  to  have  one  boot], 
and  in  his  law  walking  with  one  boot  [is  established. 
then]4  the  fiend  Tapror  is  propitiated  [by  him]. 

14.  The  demon  Tar6matfl  [is  he  who]  produces 

disobedience;  the  demon  Mitokht c  is  the  liar  (dr6- 

.£-an)  of  the  evil  spirit7;  the  demon  Ara.dc*  ('malice') 

e  spiteful  fiend  of  the  evil  eye.     15.   Theirs  are 

the  same fl  appliances  as  the  demon  Aeshm's 10.  as  it 

1   Written  Ta!ret>  in  Chap.  I.  27.  'See  Cb.ip.  III.  2. 

:  From  ihis  point  the  Pahlavi  text  is  extant  in  K20,  except  some 
illegible  words,  the  translation  of  which  (supplied  from  TD)  is  here 
enclosed  in  brackets. 

•  Anquetil,  misled  by  the  lacuna  in  his  MS.,  thought  that  there 
was  a  change  of  subject  here,  and  began  a  new  chapter  at  this 
fomt.  On  this  account  the  numbers  of  his  chapters  are  hence- 
forth one  in  excess  of  those  in  this  translation. 

■  Written    Tarflkmatfi    in   TD,  and   identified    with    Naunghas 
(Niik!yas)  in  Chap.  XXX.  29  ;  a  personification  of  the  Av.  : 
maiti,  •disobedience.'  of  Y.»s.  XXXIII.  4.  LIX,  8. 

•  A  personification  of  the  Av.  mithaokhta,  'false-spoken,'  of 
Yas.  UX,  8,  Vend.  XIX,  146.  Visp.  XXIII.  9,  Zamyad  Yt.  96. 

•  TD  has  dru^  gumanikfh,  'the  fiend  of  scepticism.' 

•  Av.  araska  of  Yas.  IX,  18,  Ram  Yt.  16,  personified. 

•  The  word  hdmanam  in  K20  is  a  false  Huzvarir  reading  of 
\ am,  owing  to  the  copyist  reading  am,  'I  am;'  TD  has  ham- 

fzar,  'having  like  means.' 
*•  Or  Khashm,  'wrath;'  so  written  in  K20,  but  it  is  usually 

says  that  seven  powers  are  given  to  Aeshm  l,  that 
he  may  utterly  destroy  the  creatures  therewith ; 
with  those  seven  powers  he  will  destroy  seven 
the  Kayan  heroes  in  his  own  time,  but  one  will 
remain.  16.  There  where  Mltokht  ('falsehood') 
arrives,  Ara^k  ('  malice ')  becomes  welcome,  [and 
there  where  Arask  is  welcome]3  Aeshm  la; 
foundation  \  and  there  where  Aeshm  has  a  founda- 
tion6 many  creatures  perish,  and  he  causes  much 
non-Iranianism"5.  17.  Aeshm  mostly  contrives  all 
evil  for  the  creatures  of  Auharmazd,  and  the  evil 
deeds  of  those  Kayan  heroes  have  been  more  com- 
plete through  Aeshm,  as  it  says,  that  Aeshm, 
impetuous  assailant,  causes  them  most T. 

18.  The  demon   Vizaresh  8   is   he  who   struggles 
with   the  souls  of  men  which  have  departed,  those 


Aeshm  elsewhere  ;  the  Av.aSshma  of  Vend.  IX,  37,  X,  23,  27,  &c. 
The  Ashmodeus  of  the  Book  of  Tobit  appears  to  be  the  Av.  A£shm5 
daOvo,  '  demon  of  wrath.' 

1  TD  has  '  there  were  seven  powers  of  Aeshm.' 

•  TI>  has  *  six,' which  looks  like  an  unlucky  attempt  to  amend 
a  correct  text.  Tradition  tells  us  that  only  five  K.ivans  reigned 
(see  Chap.  XXXIV,  7),  and  ihc  Shahnamah  also  mentions 
wush  (Paul.  Kai-Siyuvukhsbj,  who  did  not  reign  ;  but  eight  Kav.ins, 
l>esides  L6haiasp  and  Virtasp,  who  were  of  collateral  descent  (see 
Chap.  XXXI,  28),  are  mentioned  in  the  Avesta,  whence  the  author 
of  the  liundahi.T  would  obtain  much  of  his  information  (see  Fra- 
vardfn  Yt.  132,  Zamyad  Yt.  71,  74). 

s  The  phrase  in  brackets  occurs  only  in  TD. 

•  Reading  bunak  as  in  TD;  K20  lias  'sends  down  a  root.' 

•  So  in  TD  ;  K20  has  '  where  Aeshm  keeps  on.' 

•  That  is,  '  many  foreign  customs/ 
7  The  word  vSsh,  '  most,'  is  only  in  TD. 

•  So  in  TD;  K20  has  Vuj6sh.      He  is  the  A  v.    Vfzaresha 
Vend.  XIX,  94,  who  is  said  to  convey  the  souls  of  the  departed  to 
the  Amva</  bridge. 

days  and  nights  '  when  tliey  remain  in  the  world  ; 
he  carries  them  on,  terror-stricken,  and  sits  at  the 
gate  of  hell.  19.  The  demon  Uda  2  is  he  who,  when 
a  man  sits  in  a  private  place,  or  when  he  eats  at 
meals,  strikes  his  knee  spiritually  on  his  back3,  so 
that  he  bawls  out  [and  looks  out,  that  chattering 
he  may  eat,  chattering]  he  may  evacuate  (rled),  and 
chattering  he  may  make  water  (m£z£</),  so  that  he 
may  not  attain  [unto  the]  best  existence  *. 

[20.  The  demon  Akatush''  is  the  fiend  of  perver- 
sion (nikiraylh).  who  makes  the  creatures  averse 
<niklra!)  from  proper  things;  as  it  says,  that  who- 
ever has  given  anything  to  that  person  (tanu) 
whose  opinion  (da*/)  is  this,  that  it  is  not  necessary 
to  have  a  hi^h-priest  (dastdbar).  then  the  demon 
Aeshm  is  propitiated  by  him.  21.  Whoever  has 
given  anything  to  that  person  whose  opinion  is  this, 
and  who  says,  that  it  is  not  necessary  to  have  a 
snake-killer  (m&r-van),  then  Aharman,  with  the 
foregoing  demons,  is  propitiated  by  him ;  this  is 
said  of  him  who,  when  he  sees  a  noxious  creature, 
does  not  kill  it.  22.  A  snake-killer  (m&r6-gn6)6 
is  a  stick  on  the  end  of  which  a  leathern  thong  is 


1  TD  has  4  those  three  nights.'  referring  to  the  period  that  the 
soul  is  said  to  remain  hovering  about  the  IhhJv  after  death  (see 
HidBkhC  Nask,  cd  Haug,  II.  i~x 8,  III,  1-171. 

1  So  in  K20;  TD  has  AQe/ak  (see  I'ahl.  Vend  XVIII.  70). 

'  TD  has  merely  'strikes  a  slipper  (pa</in-posb)  spiritually," 
that  is,  invisibly,  for  the  purpose  of  startling  the  man. 

•  The  short  phrases  in  brackets  are  taken  from  TD  to  supply 
words  torn  off  from  K20,  which  passes  on  to  Chap.  XXIX  at  this 
point,  but  TD  supplies  a  continuation  of  Chap.  XXVIII,  which  is 
added  here,  and  enclosed  in  brackets. 

»  The  Av.  Akatasha  of  Vend  X.  23  Sp»,  XIX,  43  W. 
I'ahLm  Vend  XV 111.  5,  6. 


BUN  DA  I!!.?. 

provided  ;  and  it  is  declared  that  every  one  of  the 
good  religion  must  possess  one,  that  they  may 
strike  and  kill  noxious  creatures  and  sinners  more 
meritoriously  with  it. 

2;,.  Zarman  ]  is  the  demon  who  makes  decrepit 
(du.?partr),  whom  they  call  old  age  (pirih).  24. 
A'ishmak  -  is  he  who  makes  disastrous  (vazandak), 
and  also  causes  the  whirlwind  ■  lohich  passes  over 
for  disturbance.  25.  The  demon  Varen64  is  he 
who  causes  illicit  intercourse,  as  it  says  thus: 
'  Varend  the  defiling  (al a i).'  26.  The  demon  Bush- 
asp  \  is  she  who  causes  slothfulness ;  Se;r  is  the 
fiend  (dru£")  who  causes  annihilation ;  and  the 
demon   Niyaz  is  he  who  causes  distress. 

27.  The  demon  Az°  ('greediness')  is  he  who 
swallows  everything,  and  when,  through  destitution, 
nothing  has  come  he  eats  himself;  he  is  that 
neudishness  which,  although  the  whole  wealth  of 
the  world  be  given  up  to  it,  does  not  fill  up  and  is 
not  satisfied  ;  as  it  says,  that  the  eye  of  the  covetous 
is  a  noose  (gam and),  and  in  it  the  world  is  nought. 
28.    Pus7  is   the   demon    who   makes  a   hoard,   and 

1  A  personification  of  the  Av.  zaurva  or  Vend.  XIX,  43  \V., 
Yas.  IX,  18  Sp.,  G6f  Yt.  10,  K5m  Yt.  16. 

*  The  reading  of  this  name  is  uncertain. 

*  The  small  whirlwinds,  which  usually  precede  a  change  of  wind 
in  India,  arc  commonly  known  by  the  name  of  shaifan,  which 
indicates  that  such  whirling  columns  of  dust  are  popularly  attri- 
buted to  demoniacal  agency. 

*  A  pereontti  BtSon  of  A  v.  varena,  'desire.'  in  an  evil  sense. 

*  Av.  BushySsta  of  Vend.  XI,  28,  29.  36,  37,  XVIII,  38, 
The  names  of  the  three  demons  in  this  sentence  are  Persian  words 
for  'sloth,'  '  trouble,'  and  '  want.' 

*  Av.  Azi  of  Vend.  XVTII,  45.  50,  Yas.  XVII,  46,  LXVTI,  22, 
AxtSd  Vt.  t. 

7  Compare  Pers.  payu-r,  'covetous.'  and  piyOs,  'avarice.' 
is  evidently  the  demon  of  misers,  and  Az  that  of  the  selfish. 


does  not  consume  it,  and  does  not  give  to  any  one ; 
as  it  says,  that  the  power  of  the  demon  Az  is  owing 
to  that  person  who.  not  content  with  his  own  wife, 
snatches  away  even  those  of  others. 

29.  The  demon  Nas '  is  he  who  causes  the  pollu- 
tion and  contamination  (nisruitih),  which  they  call 
nasi!  ('dead  matter').  30.  The  demon  Friftar 
('deceiver')  is  he  who  seduces  mankind.  31.  The 
demon  Spazg2  ('slander')  is  he  who  brings  and 
conveys  discourse  (milaya),  and  it  is  nothing  in 
appearance  such  as  he  says ;  and  he  shows  that 
mankind  fights  and  apologizes  (avakhshlneV),  indi- 
vidual with  individual.  32.  The  demon  Arast3  ('un- 
true') is  he  who  speaks  falsehood.  23-  The  demon 
Aighash  *  is  the  malignant-eyed  fiend  who  smites 
mankind  with  his  eye.  34.  The  demon  But  °  is  he 
whom  they  worship  among  the  Hindus,  and  his 
growth  is  lodged  in  idols,  as  one  worships  the  horse 
as  an  idol*.  35.  Ast.VvidrW7  is  the  evil  flyer  (v. 
saritar)  who  seizes  the  life;  as  it  says  that,  when 

1  Av.  Nasu  of  Vend.  V,  85-106,  VI,  65,  72,  74,  79,  VII,  2-27, 
70.  VIII,  46,  48,  13J-228,  IX,  49-117,  &c 

•  Av.  spazga  of  Ardabahirt  Vt.  8,  II,  15. 

•  Always  written  like  a  nasi. 

•  Av.  aghashi  of  Vend.  XX,  14,  20,  24,  which  appears  to  be 
•  the  evil  eye ; '  but  see  $  36. 

•  Av.  lifiiti  of  Vend.  XIX,  4.  6,  140,  who  must  be  identified  with 
Per*,  but,  *an  idol,'  Sans,  bhuta,  'a  goblin,'  ami  not  with  Buddha. 

•  Reading  afar  vakhsh  pavan  buiiha  mahmdno,  *lgun 
bat  asp  parast£</5,  which  evidently  admits  of  many  variations, 
bat  the  meaning  is  rather  obscure. 

Here  written  Asti-vidsU/(sce  Chap.  Ill,  ai).     Vend.  V,  25,  31 
tsys.  'Asto-vi.  ||  him  (the  dying:  nun);  Vayu  (the  flying 

demon*  conveys  him  bound  ; '  from  which  it  would  appear  that 
Ast6-vida</  and  'the  evil  flyer'  were  originally  considered  as  dis- 
trict demons. 

his  hand  strokes  a  man  it  is  lethargy,  when  he  casls 
//  on  the  sick  one  it  is  fever,  when  he  looks  in  his 
eyes  he  drives  away  the  life,  and  they  call  it  death. 
36.  The  demon  of  the  malignant  eye  (sur-^ashmih) 
is  he  who  will  spoil  anything  which  men  see,  when 
they  do  not  say  '  in  the  name  of  God'  (yazdan). 

37.  With  every  one  of  them  are  many  demons 
and  fiends  co-operating,  to  specify  whom  a  second 
time  would  be  tedious  ;  demons,  too,  who  are  furies 
(khashmakan),  are  in  great  multitude  it  is  said. 
38.  They  are  demons  of  ruin,  pain,  and  growing  old 
(/.varan),  producers  of  vexation  and  bile,  revivers  of 
grief  (nivagih),  the  progeny  of  gloom,  and  bringers 
of  stench,  decay,  and  vileness,  who  are  many,  very 
numerous,  and  very  notorious ;  and  a  portion  of  all 
of  them  is  mingled  in  the  bodies  of  men,  and  their 
characteristics  are  glaring  in  mankind. 

39.  The  demon  Apaosh  '  and  the  demon  Aspen- 
^argak  -  are  those  who  remain  in  contest  with  the 
rain.  40.  Of  the  evil  spirit s  are  the  law  of  vileness, 
the  religion  of  sorcery,  the  weapons  of  tiendishness, 
and  the  perversion  (kh&mlh)  of  God's  works;  and 

1  Av.  Apaosha  of  Ti-ttar  Yt.  21,  22,  27.  28,  Aftad  Vt.  2,  6;  see 
also  Chap.  VII,  8,  10,  12. 

*  Here  written  Aspen^ardga,  but  see  Chaps.  VII,  12,  XVII.  1 
He  is  the  Av.  Spemjaghra  of  Vend.  XIX,  135,  and,  being  a  demon, 
is  not  to  be  confounded  with  the  demon -worshipper,  Spiw^uruxka, 
of  Go*  Yt.  31,  Asbi  Yt.  51. 

■  The  '  evil  spirit,'  Ganr&k-mafnok,  seems  to  be  here  treated  as 
a  demon  distinct  from  Aharman,  which  is  inconsistent  with  what 
is  stated  in  §§  1-6,  and  is  contrary  to  general  opinion.  This 
inconsistency  would  indicate  the  possibility  of  thtfl  continuation  of 
Chap.  XXVIII  in  TD,  or  a  portion  of  it,  having  been  added  by 
an  editor  in  later  times  (although  it  is  difficult  to  discover  any 
difference  of  style  in  the  language),  if  we  did  not  find  a  similar  con- 
fusion of  the  two  names  in  Chap.  XXX,  29,  30. 

his  wish  is  this,  that  is :  '  Do  not  ask  about  me,  and 
do  not  understand  me!  for  if  ye  ask  about  and 
understand  me,  ye  will  not  come  after  me1.'  41. 
This,  too.  it  says,  that  the  evil  spirit  remains  at  the 
distance  of  a  cry,  even  at  the  cry  of  a  three-year-old 
cock  (kuldng),  even  at  the  cry  of  an  ass,  even  at 
the  cry  of  a  righteous  man  when  one  strikes  him 
involuntarily  and  he  utters  a  cry1.  42.  The  de- 
mon Kundak3  is  he  who  is  the  steed  (barak)  of 

Various  new  demons  arise  from  the  various 
new  sins  the  creatures  may  commit,  and  are  pro- 
duced for  such  purposes;  who  make  even  those 
planets  rush  on  which  are  in  the  celestial  sphere,  and 
they  stand  very  numerously  in  the  conflict.  44. 
Their  ringleaders  (kamarlkan)  are  those  seven 
planets,  the  head  and  tail  of  G6£ihar,  and  Mu^par  * 

1  Compare  Mkh.  XL,  24-28:  'The  one  wish  that  Mdrmezd, 
the  lord,  desires  from  men  is  this,  that  "  ye  shall  understand  me 
(Honnezd).  since  every  one  who  shall  understand  me  comes  after 
me,  and  strives  for  my  satisfaction."  And  the  one  wish  that  Ahar- 
nua  desires  from  men  is  this,  that  "  ye  shall  not  understand  me 
(Ahannan),  since  whoever  shall  understand  me  wicked,  his  actions 
proceed  not  after  me.  and,  moreover,  no  advanr  friendship 

come  to  me  from  that  man."  ■ 

1  The  sentence  is  rather  obscure,  but  it  seems  to  imply  that  such 
cries  keep  the  evil  spirit  at  a  distance  ;  it  it,  however,  just  possible 
that  it  means  that  the  cry  of  the  evil  spirit  can  be  heard  as  fax  as 
such  cries. 

•  Av.  Kunda  of  Vend.  XI,  »8,  3fi,  XIX.  138. 

'  TD  has  Gok-*ihar  and  Mux-parik  here,  but  see  Chap.  V,  1, 
where  these  beings  arc  included  among  the  seven  planetary  leaders, 
and  not  counted  in  addition  to  them.  This  is  another  inconsis- 
tency which  leads  to  the  suspicion  that  this  continuation  of  the 
compter  may  have  been  written  by  a  later  hand.  According  to 
ihis  later  view,  the  sun  and  moon  must  be  included  among  those 
malevolent  orbs,  the  planets. 

[5]  I 

provided  with  a  tail,  which  are  ten.  45.  And  by 
them  these  ten  worldly  creations,  that  is,  the  sky, 
water,  earth,  vegetation,  animals,  metals,  wind,  light, 
fire,  and  mankind,  are  corrupted  with  all  this  vile- 
ness ;  and  from  them  calamity,  captivity,  disease. 
death,  and  other  evils  and  corruptions  ever  come  to 
water,  vegetation,  and  the  other  creations  which 
exist  in  the  world,  owing  to  the  fiendishness  of 
those  ten.  46.  They  whom  I  have  enumerated  are 
furnished  with  the  assistance  and  crafty  (afzar 
h6mand)  nature  of  Aharman. 

47.  Regarding  the  cold,  dry,  stony,  and  dark 
interior  of  mysterious  (tarik  den  afra.^-peVak) 
hell  it  says,  that  the  darkness  is  fit  to  grasp  with 
the  hand1,  and  the  stench  is  fit  to  cut  with  a  knife; 
and  if  they  inflict  the  punishment  of  a  thousand 
men  within  a  single  span,  they  (the  men)  think  in 
this  way,  that  they  are  alone  ;  and  the  loneliness  is 
worse  than  its  punishment 2.  48.  And  its  connec- 
tion (band)  is  with  the  seven  planets,  be  it  through 
much  cold  like  Saturn3  (Kevan),  be  it  through 
much  heat  like  Aharman  ;  and  their  food  is  brim 
stone  (gandak),  and  of  succulents  the  lizard  (va- 
zagh),  and  other  evil  and  wretchedness  (patyan).] 


1  Compare  Mkh.  VII,  31 :  'and  always  their  darkness  is  such- 
like as  though  it  be  possible  to  grasp  with  the  hand.' 

9  Compare  Arcfi-VIraf-namak  (LIV,  5-8) :  'As  close  as  the  ear 
to  the  eye,  and  as  many  as  the  hairs  on  the  mane  of  a  horse,  so 
close  and  many  in  number,  the  souls  of  the  wicked  stand,  but  they 
see  not,  and  hear  no  sound,  one  from  the  other;  every  one  thinks 
thus,  "  I  am  alone."  ' 

•  Or,  '  with  more  cold  than  Saturn.' 

CHAPTER    XXV11I.  45-XXIX,  2. 


Chapter   XXIX  ». 

1.  On  [the  spiritual  chieftainship2  of  the  regions 
of  the  cart/i]  it  says  in  revelation,  that  every  one  of 
those  six  chieftainships3  has  one  spiritual  chief; 
as  the  chief  of  Arzah  is  Ashashagahafl'-e  //^awd^an*, 
the  chief  of  Savah  is  Hoa/.arodathhri-hana  Pare\rt- 
yar6s,  the  chief  of  FraoWafsh  is  Sptt6h/-i  Aftspo- 
sinan  •,  [the  chief  of  Vidaflafsh  is  Airte-rasp  Atispo- 
sfnan7,]  the  chief  of  V6r&barrt  is  Huvasp",  the 
chief  of  V6rti^ar5t  is  A'akhravak 9.     2.   ZarattYrt  is 

1  For  ihis  chapter,  which  is  numbered  XXX  by  previous  trans- 
lators, we  have  to  depend  only  on  K20  and  TD  (see  the  note  on 
the  beading  of  Chap.  XXVIII) ;  and  the  words  enclosed  in  brackets 
are  supplied  from  TD,  being  either  illegible  or  omitted  in  K20. 

-rhaps  'patriarchate'  or  'episcopate'  would  be  a  better 
translation  of  ra</ih,  and  'patriarch'  or  'bishop'  of  ra*x\  in  this 
chapter,  as  the  chief  high  -priest  (das  tur-i  dasturan)and  his  office 
are  evidently  meant  by  these  words. 

1  Of  the  six  other  regions,  distinct  from  this  one  of  Khvaniras. 
tee  Chap.  XI,  3-4. 

•  TD  has  AshashSg,h«/-g  aigh  NSvandan;  both  MSS.  giving 
these  names  in  a  barbarous  Pazand  form  which  cannot  be  relied 
on.  Perhaps  this  Daxtur  is  the  A  v.  Ashavanghu  Bivaadangha  of 
Fravardin  Yr.  no. 

•  TD  has  Hoazarokakhhr-hana  Parcrtyro,  all  in  Pazand  in  both 
MSS.,  except  Huz.  hand,  which  stands  for  PSz.  e,  here  used  for 
the  idhafat  i.  Perhaps  this  Dastur  is  the  Av.  (rard-danghu  Pairir- 
tira  of  Fravardin  Vt.  1 10. 

•  So  in  TD;  Kao  has  Plz.  Spaitanid-i  Huspasnyan.  This 
Dastur  is,  no  doubt,  the  A  v.  (gen.)  SpituLr  Uspasnaoj  of  Fravardin 
Yt.  M 

'  Omitted  in  K2o,  but,  no  doubt,  this  Dastur  is  the  Av.  F.rez- 
rispa  Uspisnu  of  Fravardin  Yt.  121. 

•  Av.  Hvaspa  of  Fravardin  Yt.  122. 

•  So  in  both  MSS.  As  in  the  case  of  each  of  the  preceding  two 
pair  of  regions,  two  consecutive  names  of  Dasturs  have  been  taken 
from  the  Fravardin  Yart,  it  may  be  supposed  that  the  names 

1  2 



spiritual  chief  of  the  region  of  Khvanlras,  and  also 
of  all  the  regions ;  he  is  chief  of  the  world  of  the 
righteous,  and  it  is  said  that  the  whole  religion  was 
received  by  them  from  Zaratust l. 

3.  In  the  region  of  Khvanlras  are  many  places, 
from  which,  in  this  evil  time  of  violent  struggling 
with  the  adversary,  a  passage  (vinfarg)  is  con- 
structed by  the  power  of  the  spiritual  world 
(maindklh).  and  one  calls  them  the  beaten  tracks1 
of  Khvanlras. 

4.  Counterparts  of  those  other  regions J  are  such 
places  as  Kangdes,  the  land  of  Stfukavastan,  the 
plain  of  the  Arabs  (Ta-slkan).  the  plain  of  P&yansal, 
the  river  Naivtak  4,  Alran-ve^,  the  enclosure  (var) 
formed  by  Yim,  and  Kajmir  in  India5.  5.  And 
one  immortal  chief  acts  in  the  government  of  each 

taken  for  this  third  pair  of  regions  will  also  he  consecutiw. 
this  Dastur  must,  therefore,  be  identified  with  the  Av.  A'athwaraspa 
of  Fravardni  Yt.  122. 

1  TD  has  '  Zaratujrt  is  chief  of  this  region  of  Khvaniras,  and  also 
of  the  whole  world  of  the  righteous;  all  chieftainship,  also,  is  from 
Zaraturt.  so  that  the  whole  religion,'  &c. 

1  Justi  has  'zones,  climates;'  but  transcribing  Paz.  h  aba  van  hi 
back  into  Pahlavi  we  have  a  word  which  may  be  read  khaban  5h5, 
pi.  of  khaban,  'a  trampling-ptace'  (comp.  Pers.  khabidan).  TD 
has  khvabt.rnd-ga\s,  which  has  the  same  meaning. 

1  Meaning,  probably,  that  they  resemble  the  six  smaller  regions 
in  being  isolated  and  difficult  of  access;  in  other  words,  either 
mythical,  or  independent  of  Iranian  rule. 

*  So  in  TD,  which  also  omits  the  second,  third,  and  fourth  of 
these  isolated  territories.     In  K20  we  might  read  ra«/  va  Ichfl 
'  chief  and  lord,'  as  an  epithet  of  AtrSn-ve^-.     This  river  must  be 
the  Nahviak  of  Chap.  XXI,  6. 

3  Reading  Kajmtr-i  andar  Hindu,  but  TD  has  Karmir-i 
andaruno;  perhaps  the  last  word  was  originally  aniranak,  in 
which  case  we  should  read  '  the  non-Iranian  Ka^mir.' 

CHAPTER    XXIX,    6-IO. 


assistance  of  Sdshyans,   on   the   production  of  the 
renovation  of  the  universe. 

7.  Regarding  Sam '  it  says,  that  he  became  im- 
mortal, but  owing  to  his  disregard  of  the  Mazda- 
yasnian  religion,  a  Turk  whom  they  call  Niha^-2 
wounded  him  with  an  arrow,  when  he  was  asleep 
there,  in  the  plain  of  Pesyansa! ;  and  it  had  brought 
upon  him  the  unnatural  lethargy  (bushasp)  which 
overcame  him  in  the  midst  of  the  heat  '.  8.  And 
the  glory  (far)  of  heaven  stands  over  him*  for  the 
purpose  that,  when  As-i  Dahak 6  becomes  unfettered 
(a rasa k).  he  may  arise  and  slay  him;  and  a  myriad 
guardian  spirits  of  the  righteous  are  as  a  protection 
to  him.  9.  Of  Dahak,  whom  they  call  Bdvarasp, 
this,  too,  it  says,  that  Fre^On  when  he  captured 
Dahak  was  not  able  to  kill  him,  and  afterwards 
confined  him  in  Mount  Dimavand fl ;  when  he  be- 
comes unfettered,  Sam  arises,  and  smites  and  slays 

110.  As  to  Kangde?,  it  is  in  the  direction  of  the 
east,  at  many  leagues  from  the  bed  (var) T  of  the 
!  This  is  noi  Sam  the  grandfather  of  Rustam,  but  the  Av.  Sama, 
who  appears  to  have  been  an  ancestor  of  Keres&spa  (see  Yas.  IX, 
30),  called  .Sam,  grandfather  of  Garrisp,  in  a  passage  interpolated 
in  some  copies  of  the  Shahnamah  (compare  Chap.  XXXI,  26,  27). 
Here,  however,  it  appears  from  the  Bahman  Yart  (III,  59,  60) 
that  Keresaspa  himself  is  meant,  he  being  called  Sama  Keresaspa 
in  Fravardln  Yt.  6i,  136. 

1  It  can  also  be  read  Nihdt'  or  Wy5g  in  K20,  and  Nihav  or 
Nihan  in  TD. 

1  TD  has  '  as  he  lay  in  the  midst  of  die  heat.' 

•  TD  has  'and  the  snow  (vafar)  has  settled  (nishast)  over 

»  See  Chaps.  XXXI,  6,  XXXIV,  5. 

»  See  Chap.  XII,  31. 

r  TD  has  a^var,  'above,'  instead  of  min  var,  'from  'he  bed.' 



wide-formed  ocean  towards  that  side.  1 1.  The  plain 
of  Pe^yansal  is  in  Kavulistan,  as  it  says,  that  the 
most  remarkable  upland  (balist)  in  Kavulistan  is 
where  Peryansal  is ;  there  it  is  hotter,  on  the  more 
lofty  elevations  there  is  no  heat l,  1 2.  Airan-ve^  is 
in  the  direction  of  Ataro-patakan  \  1 3.  The  land 
of  Saukavastan  is  on  the  way  from  Turkistan  t" 
ATinistan,  in  the  direction  of  the  north.  14.  [The 
enclosure] :'  formed  by  Yim  is  in  the  middle  of  Pars, 
in  Sruva4;  thus,  they  say,  that  what  Yim  formed 
(Yim-karv/)  is  below  Mount  Yimakan*.  15.  Kaimlr 
is  in  Hindustan. 

Chapter  XXX6. 

1.  On  the  nature  of  the  resurrection  and  future 
existence  it  says  in  revelation,  that,  whereas  Mashva 
and  Mashyui,  who  grew  up  from  the  earth  7,  first 
fed  upon  water,  then  plants,  then  milk,  and  then 
meat,  men  also,  when  their  time  of  death  has  come, 
first  desist  from  eating  meat,  then  milk,  then  from 

1  Or,  '  the  hottest  there,  through  the  very  lofty  elevation,  is  nc 

8  Pers.  Adarbfcin. 

*  The  word  var  is  omitted  in  K20. 
4  TD  has  Pahl.  Srubak. 

ft  Or  it  may  be  read  Damakan,  but  TD  has  Aamakan.     It  can 
hardily  be  Damaghan,  as  that  is  a  town  and  district  in  Khur.' 
Justi  also  suggests  the  district  of  GamagSn  in  Pars,  and    think' 
Sruva  means  'cypress  wood,'  there   being  a   Salvastan   between 
Shiraz  and  Fas! 

•  This  chapter  is  found  in  all  MSS.,  and  has  been  numbered 
XXXI  by  former  translators. 

7  See  Chaps.  XV,  2-16,  XXXIV,  3. 

CHAPTER    XXIX,    I  I  -XXX.   5. 


bread,  till  when '  they  shall  die  they  always  feed 
upon  water,  2.  So,  likewise,  in  the  millennium  of 
Hushertar-mah  *',  the  strength  of  appetite  (az)  will 
thus  diminish,  when  men  will  remain  three  days 
and  nights  in  superabundance  (strlh)  through  one 
taste  of  consecrated  food.  3.  Then  they  will  desist 
from  meat  food,  and  eat  vegetables  and  milk ;  after- 
wards, they  abstain  from  milk  food  and  abstain  from 
table  food,  and  are  feeding  on  water;  and  for 
ten  years  before  S6shyans3  comes  they  remain 
without  food,  and  do  not  die. 

.4.  After  Sdshyans  comes  they  prepare  the  raising 
of  the  dead,  as  it  says,  that  Zaraturt  asked  of  Auhar- 
mazd  thus:  'Whence  does  a  body  form  again, 
which  the  wind  has  carried  and  the  water  conveyed 
(\2iZ\d)  *  ?  and  how  does  the  resurrection  occur  ? ' 
5.  Auharmazd  answered  thus :  '  When  through  me 
the  sky  arose  from  the  substance  of  the  ruby 6,  with- 
out columns,  on  the  spiritual  support  of  far-com- 
passed light ;  when  through  me  the  earth  arose, 
which  •   bore    the    material   life,   and    there    is   no 

*  Reading  amat,  '  when,'  instead  of  raun, '  which '  (sec  the  note 
on  Chap.  I 

'  Written  KhursheVar-mih,  or  KhGrsheV-mah,  in  the  Bundalm 
gee  Chap.  XXXII,  8,  and  Bahman  Yl  HI,  52,  53. 

1  See  Chaps.  XI,  6,  XXXII,  8,  Bahman  Yl  III,  62. 

'  Compare  (Vend.  V,  26)  '  the  water  carries  him  up,  the  water 
carries  Jom  down,  the  water  casts  him  away.' 

*  Compare  Mkh.  IX,  7. 

*  All  MSS.  have  m in,  'out  of,'  but  translators  generally  suppose 
it  should  be  mOn,  'which,'  as  the  meaning  of  'brought  out  of 
material  life'  is  by  no  means  clear.  Perhaps  the  two  phrases 
saight  be  construed  together,  thus :  '  there  is  no  other  roaintainer 
of  the  worldly  creation,  brought  from  the  material  life,  than  iu' 
Windtschmann  refers  to  Fravardin  Yt.  9. 



assembly  whatever  righteous  man  was  friend  of  a 
wicked  one  in  the  world,  and  the  wicked  man  com- 
plains of  him  who  is  righteous,  thus :  *  Why  did  he 
not  make  me  acquainted,  when  in  the  world,  with 
the  good  deeds  which  he  practised  himself?'  if  he 
who  is  righteous  did  not  inform  him,  then  it  is 
necessary  for  him  to  suffer  shame  accordingly  in 
that  assembly '. 

12.  Afterwards,  they  set  the  righteous  man  apart 
from  the  wicked;  and  then  the  righteous  is  for 
heaven  (garo^man),  and  they  cast  the  wicked  back 
to  hell.  13.  Three  days  and  nights  they  inflict 
punishment  bodily  in  hell,  and  then  he  beholds 
bodily  those  three  days'  happiness  in  heaven8.  1. 
As  it  says  that,  on  the  day  when  the  righteous  mc 
is  parted  from  the  wicked,  the  tears  of  every  one, 
thereupon,  run  down  unto  his  legs.  15.  When, 
after  they  set  apart  a  father  from  his  consort  (ham- 
bar),  a  brother  from  his  brother,  and  a  friend  from 


•  In  the  Art/a-Yiraf-namak  (Chap.  LXVII1)  it  is  related  that 
Arda-Viraf  saw  the  souls  of  a  husband  and  wife,  that  of  the  husband 
destined  for  heaven,  and  that  of  the  wife  for  hell ;  but  the  wife 
clung  to  her  husband  and  asked  why  they  should  be  separated, 
and  he  told  her  it  was  on  account  of  her  neglect  of  religious  duties; 
whereupon  she  reproached  him  for  not  teaching  and  chastising  her. 
'  And,  afterwards,  the  man  went  to  heaven  and  the  woman  to  hell. 
And  owing  to  the  repentance  of  that  woman  she  was  in  no  other 
affliction  in  hell  but  darkness  and  stench.  And  that  man  sat  in 
the  midst  of  the  righteous  of  heaven  in  shame,  from  not  converting 
and  not  teaching  the  woman,  who  might  have  become  virtuous  in 
his  keeping/ 

1  As  an  aggravation  of  his  punishment  in  hell.  It  has  generally 
been  supposed  that  this  last  phrase  refers  to  the  reward  of  the 
righteous  man,  but  this  cannot  be  the  case  unless  akhar  be  taken 
in  the  sense  of  'other,'  which  is  unlikely;  besides,  beholding  the 
happiness  of  others  would  be  no  reward  to  an  Oriental  mind. 

his  friend,  they  suffer,  every  one  for  his  own  deeds, 
and  weep,  the  righteous  for  the  wicked,  and  the 
wicked  about  himself;  for  there  may  be  a  father 
who  is  righteous  and  a  son  wicked,  and  there  may 
be  one  brother  who  is  righteous  and  one  wicked. 
16.  Those  for  whose  peculiar  deeds  it  is  appointed, 
such  as  Dahak  and  Frastyav  of  Tur,  and  others  of 
this  sort, as  those  deserving  death  (marg-ar^anan), 
undergo  a  punishment  no  other  men  undergo ;  they 
call  it '  the  punishment  of  the  three  nights  V 

17.  Among  his  producers  of  the  renovation  of  the 
universe,  those  righteous  men  of  whom  it  is  written  a 
that  they  are  living,  fifteen  men  and  fifteen  damsels, 
will  come  to  the  assistance  of  Sdshyans.  18.  As 
Go&har5  falls  in  the  celestial  sphere  from  a  moon- 
beam on  to  the  earth,  the  distress  of  the  earth 
becomes  such-like  as  that  of  a  sheep  when  a  wolf 
falls  upon  it.  19.  Afterwards,  the  fire  and  halo4 
melt  the  metal  of  Shatvaird,  in  the  hills  and  moun- 
tains,  and  it   remains    on   this  earth  like  a   river. 

1  According  to  the  Pahlavi  Vend.  VII,  136  (p.  96,  Sp.)  it  appears 
a  person  who  has  committed  a  marg-ar^ln  or  mortal  sin, 
without  performing  pattt  or  renunciation  of  sin  thereafter,  remains 
in  bell  till  the  future  existence,  when  he  is  brought  out,  beheaded 
three  times  for  each  mortal  sin  unrepented  of,  and  then  cast  back 
into  bell  to  undergo  the  punishment  tishram  khshafnam  ('of  the 
three  nights')  before  he  becomes  righteous;  some  say,  however, 
that  this  punishment  is  not  inflicted  for  a  single  mortal  sin.  This 
period  of  three  nights'  punishment  is  quite  a  different  matter  from 
the  three  nights'  hovering  of  the  soul  about  the  body  after  death. 

'  See  Chap.  XXIX,  5,  6.  As  the  text  stands  in  the  MSS.  it  is 
uncertain  whether  the  fifteen  men  and  fifteen  damsels  are  a  portion 
of  these  righteous  immortals,  or  an  addition  to  them. 

•  Probahly  a  meteor  (see  Chap.  V,  1). 

•  Reading  khirman  ;  M6  has  'the  fire  and  angel  Airman  (Aw 
iman)  melt  the  metal  in  the  lulls,'  &c. 

20.  Then  all  men  will  pass  into  that  melted  metal 
and  will  become  pure  ;  when  otie  is  righteous,  then  it 
seems  to  him  just  as  though  he  walks  continually  in 
warm  milk ;  but  when  wicked,  then  it  seems  to  him 
in  such  manner  as  though,  in  the  world,  he  walks 
continually  in  melted  metal. 

21.  Afterwards,  with  the  greatest  affection,  all 
men  come  together,  father  and  son  and  brother  and 
friend  ask  one  another  thus  :  '  Where  has  it !  been 
these  many  years,  and  what  was  the  judgment  upon 
thy  soul?  hast  thou  been  righteous  or  wicked?' 
22.  The  first  soul  the  body  sees,  it  enquires  of  it 
with  those  words  (guft).  23.  All  men  become  of 
one  voice  and  administer  loud  praise  to  Auharmazd 
and  the  archangels. 

24.  Auharmazd  completes  his  work  at  that  time, 
and  the  creatures  become  so  that  it  is  not  necessary 
to  make  any  effort  about  them ;  and  among  those 
by  whom  the  dead  are  prepared,  it  is  not  necessary 
that  any  effort  be  made.  25.  S6shyans,  widi  his 
assistants,  performs  a  Y&sim  ceremony  in  preparing 
the  dead,  and  they  slaughter  the  ox  Hadhayo*8  in 
that  Yasi^n  ;  from  the  fat  of  that  ox  and  the  white 
H6m3  they  prepare  Hush,  and  give  it  to  all  men, 
and  all  men  become  immortal  for  ever  and  ever- 
lasting. 26.  This,  too,  it  says,  that  whoever  has 
been  the  size  of  a  man,  they  restore  him  then  with 
an  age  of  forty  years ;  they  who  have  been  little 
wJien  not  dead,  they  restore  then  with  an  age  of 
fifteen  years ;  and  they  give  every  one  his  wife,  and 

1  K20  has  'have  I;'  probably  h6manSh,  'hast  ihou,'  was  the 
original  reading. 

1  See  Chap.  XIX,  r3. 
»  See  Chap.  XXVII,  4. 

show  kit*  his  children  with  the  wife ;  so  they  act  as 
now  in  the  world,  but  there  is  no  begetting  of 

27.  Afterwards,  S6shyans  and  his  assistants,  by 
order  of  the  creator  Auharmazd,  give  every  man 
the  reward  and  recompense  suitable  to  his  deeds; 
this  is  even  the  righteous  existence  (ait)  where  it  is 
said  that  they  convey  him  to  paradise  (vahi^t),  and 
the  heaven  (garddfman)  of  Auharmazd  takes  up 
lody  (kerp)  as  itself  requires;  with  that  assist- 
ance he  continually  advances  for  ever  and  ever- 
lasting. 28.  This,  too,  it  says,  that  whoever  has 
performed  no  worship  (yan),  and  has  ordered  no 
Getl-kharfr/1,  and  has  bestowed  no  clothes  as  a 
us  gift,  is  naked  there ;  and  he  performs  the 
worship  (ya.ft)  of  Auharmazd,  and  the  heavenly 
angels2  provide  him  the  use  of  his  clothing. 

1  The  ! 

1  The  Sad-dar  Hundahu  says  that  by  Gelf-kharW  '  heaven  is 
in  the  world,  and  one's  own  place  brought  to  hand  in 

iven.'  The  Rivayat  of  Dastur  Barzu  (as  quoted  in  MS.  29  of 
Bombay  University  Parsi  Collection)  gives  the  following  details  in 
Persian:  'To  celebrate  G<hi-kharid  it  is  necessary  that  two  h6r- 
rtefts)  perform  the  Nabar,  and  with  each  khshnuman 
which  th-  1  is  fit  and  necessary  that  both  h&rbads  have 

had  the  Nabar ;  and  the  first  day  they  recite  the  N6nabar  ya si, 
and  consecrate  the  Nona  bar  dr6n  and  the  Nonibar  afrfngan 
which  they  recite  in  each  Gah ;  in  the  Havan  Gah  it  is  nrfll" 
to  recite  fravarane"  (as  in  Yas.  Ill,  24  W.  to  end),  ahurahe" 
rnasdau  rafivatdfasin  Auharmazd  Yt.  o,to)frasastaya£*a,  then 
Yas.  III.  25  \\\,  XVII,  1-55  Sp.,  ashem  vohu  thrice,  afrtnami 
khshathryan  (as  in  AfrinpAn  I.  h,  to  end).  The  second  day 
the  Srosh  yajt  and  Srosh  dr6n  and  afrfngan  are  to  be  recited; 
and  the  third  day  it  is  necessary  to  recite  the  Sfr6zah  yajt,  the 
ah  drdn  and  afringan  dahman;  and  it  is  needful  to  recite 
the  second  and  third  afringans  in  each  Gah,  and  each  day  to 
consecrate  the  barsom  and  drOn  afresh  with  seven  twigs,  so  that 
it  may  not  be  ineffective.* 

■  Paz.  gehan  is  probably  a  misreading  of  Pahl.  yazdan,  as 



29.  Afterwards,  Auharmazd  seizes  on1  the  evil 
spirit,  Vohuman  on  Akoman  2,  Ashavahi-ft  on  Andar3, 
Shatvaird  on  Savar,  Spendarmaflf  on  Taromat 
who  is  Naunghas4,  Horvadartf  and  Amerdda^  on 
Talrez>  and  ZairU,&,  true-speaking  on  what  is  evil- 
speaking,  Srdsh  u  on  Aeshm  7.  30.  Then  two  fiends 
remain  at  large,  Aharman 8  and  A29;  Auharmazd 
comes  to  the  world,  himself  the  Z6ta  and  Srosh 
the    Raspl10,   and   holds   the    KtistI    in   Ins    hand; 



neither  '  the  spirit  of  the  world,'  nor  '  the  spirit  of  the  Gahs '  is 
likely  phrase.     It  is  possible,  however,  that  mafnfik  gehan  is 
a  misreading  of  min  afvyah&n,  '  from  the  girdle,'  anil 
translate  as  follows:  'and  out  of  its  girdle  (that  is,  the  kusti  of 
the  barsom  used  in  llic  ceremony)  he  produces  die  effect  of  his 

I  Instead  of  vakhdflnd,  'seize  on,'  we  should  probably  read 
v&nend,  '  smite,'  as  in  the  parallel  passages  mentioned  below. 

•  Compare  ZamySd  Yt.  96.  Each  archangel  (see  Chap.  1,  2; 
26)  here  seizes  the  arch-fiend  (see  Chaps.  T,  27,  XXVIII.  7-1; 
who  is  his  special  opponent 

•  Here  written  PSz.  Inder.     Compare  Pahlavi  Ya?.  XLYII, 
'  When  among  the  creation,  in  the  future  existence,  righteousne 
smites  the  fiend,  Ashavahijt  smiles  Indar.' 

•  Written  Nakahfo/  in  Chap.  1,  27,  and  Naikfyas  in  Chap. 
XX VIII,  10,  where  he  is  described  as  a  distinct  demon  from 
Tarfimat  in  XXVIII,  iA. 

5  Here  written  Tfir&w  and  Zari*. 

•  Av.  Sraosha,  a  personification  of  attentive  hearing  and  obe- 
dience, who  is  said  to  watch  over  the  world  and  defend  it  from 
the  demons,  especially  at  night;  see  Vend.  XVIII,  48,  51,  70, 
Yas.  LVI,  Sr6sh  Yt.  Hadokht,  &c. 

;  See  Chap.  XX VIII,  15-17. 

II  Comparing  §  ao  with  §  30  it  is  not  very  clear  whether 
author  of  the  Bundahir  considered  Aharman  and  the  evil  spirit  as 
the  same  or  different  demons;  compare  also  Chap.  XXVIII,  1- 
with  40,  41. 

•  See  Chap.  XXVIII,  27. 
10  The  Zdta  is  the  chief  officiating  priest  in  all  ceremonies,  at 

the  RSspi  is  the  assistant  priest 



defeated  by  the  Kusti  *  formula  the  resources  of  the 
evil  spirit  and  A.2  act  most  impotently,  and  by  the 
passage  through  which  he  rushed  into  the  sky  *  he 
runs  back  to  gloom  and  darkness.  31.  Gd>6lhar3 
burns  the  serpent  (mar) 4  in  the  melted  metal,  and 
the  stench  and  pollution  which  were  in  hell  are 
burned  in  that  metal,  and  it  (hell)  becomes  quite 
pure.  32.  He  (Auharmazd)  sets  the  vault*  into 
which  the  evil  spirit  fled,  in  that  metal;  he  brings  the 
land  of  hell  back  for  the  enlargement  of  the  world 6 ; 
the  renovation  arises  in  the  universe  by  his  will,  and 
the  world  is  immortal  for  ever  and  everlasting. 
33.  This,  too,  it  says,  that  this  earth  becomes  an 
less 7,    slopelcss    plain ' ;    even    the    mountain  \ 

'  The  words  zak  g.hani,  for  In  geb&ni,  are  probably  I  mis- 
ig  of  a  Ivy  ah. in, '  the  kQstt  or  sacred  thread-girdle,'  which  is 
round  the  waist  in  a  peculiar  manner,  during  the  recital  of 
a  particular  formula,  in  which  AQharmazd  is  blessed  and  Aharman 
and  the  demons  are  cursed. 

*  See  Chap.  Ill,  10-1 2.  *  See  §  18  and  Chap.  V,  1. 

*  Probably  referring  to  As,  which  means  both  *  greediness '  and 
•  serpent.'  It  is,  however,  possible  to  read  '  Gdifhar  the  serpent 
bums  in '  &c,  and  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  G6£ihar  is  repre- 
sented as  a  malevolent  being. 

■  Or,  perhaps,  *  hiding-place.'  Comparing  K20  and  M6  together 
the  word  seems  to  be  alom,  which  may  be  compared  with  Heb. 
a**  «a  vault,'  or  Chald.  #&**<  'a  porch;'  it  may,  however,  be 
vildm,  which  may  be  traced  to  D7y  '  to  conceal/  In  the  old 
MSS.  it  is  certainly  not  sholman,  'hell,'  which  is  an  emendation 
due  to  the  modem  copy  in  Paris. 

•  Or,  '  to  the  prosperity  of  the  world.' 

T  Former  translators  read  anhikhar,  *  undefiled,'  but  this  does 
not  suit  the  Pahlavi  orthography  so  well  as  anhasar, 'iceless* 
(compare  Pers.  hasar,  khasar,  or  khasdr,  'ice');  cold  and  ice, 
being  produced  by  the  evil  spirit,  will  disappear  with  him. 

"  Paz.  AmSvan  is  a  misreading  of  Pahl.  hamun,  so  the  reading 
is  an j? p  (compare  Pers.  jfb)  hSmun.    Mountains,  being  the  work 

the  evil  spirit,  disappear  with  him. 

•  Aaki</-i-DaMk,  sec  Chap.  XII,  7. 



whose  summit  is  the  support  of  the  A'lnvar  bridge, 
they  keep  down,  and  it  will  not  exist. 

Chapter  XXXP. 

o.  On  the  race  and  genealogy  of  the  Kayans. 

i.  Hoshyang*  was  son  of  Fravak,  sou  of  Slyak- 
mak 3,  son  of  Mashya 4,  son  of  Gay6man£  [2.  Takh- 
m6rup*  was  son  of  Vlvanghau*.  son  of  Yanghaa'7,  son 
of  Hdshyang.  3.  Yim,]8  Takhm6rup,  Spltur9,  and 
Narsih10,  whom  they  also  call '  the  Rashnu  of  A^nu",' 

1  For  this  chapter,  which  is  numbered  XXXII  by  previous  trans- 
lators, we  have  todejiend  only  on  K20,  TD,  and  K2ob  (a  fragment 
evidently  derived  from  the  same  original  as  K20  and  M6,  but 
through  some  independent  line  of  descent). 


So  in  K2or  but  usually  Hdshang  (see  Chaps.  XV,  28,  XXXIV, 


■  See  Chap.  XV,  25,  30. 

*  See  Chaps.  XV,  2-24,  30,  XXXIV,  3. 

•  Av.  Takhm6-urupa  of  Ram  Yt.  1  x,  Zamyad  Yt.  28,  Afrfn  Zarat. 
;  written  Takhmdrup  in  TD,  which  is  the  only  MS.  in  which  the 

passage  enclosed  in  brackets  is  found,  the  omission  of  which  by 
K20  was  suspected  by  Windischmann  (Zoroastriche  Studicn,  p.  199). 
This  king  is  the  TahmuTas  of  the  Shihnimah.     See  also  Ci 
XVII,  4,  XXXIV,  4. 

4  Av.  Vivan^rwu  of  Yas.  IX,  n,  20,  XXXII,  8,  Vend.  I 
94,  Fravardin  Yt.  130,  Zamyad  Yt.  35. 

T  As  this  PSzand  name  or  title  begins  with  a  medial  y,  its  initial 
vowel  is  probably  omitted  (see  p.  141.  note  8). 

•  Av.  Yima  or  Yima  khshagta  of  Vend.  II,  Ac,  the  Jam 
the  Shahnamah  (see  Chaps.  XVII,  5,  XXXIV,  4). 

•  Av.  Spityura  of  Zamyad  Yt.  46. 

10  Here  written  NSrsf  in  K20  and  K20D,  and  N6sih  in  TD;  but 
see  §  5  and  Chap.  XXIX,  6.  Windischmann  suggests  that  he  may 
be  the  Av.  Aoshnara  pouru-^ira  of  Fravardfn  Yt  131,  A  f.  ZaraL  2. 

11  An  epithet  equivalent  to  '  the  Minos  of  China  ; '  Rashnu  being 
the  angel  of  justice,  who  is  said  to  weigh  the  meritorious  deeds  of 



were  all  brothers.  4.  From  Yim  and  Yimak  \  who 
was  his  sister,  was  born  a  pair,  man  and  woman,  and 
they  became  husband  and  wife  together;  Mlrak  the 
Aspiyan  *  and  Ziyanak  Zardahim  were  their  names, 
and  the  lineage  went  on.  5.  Spitur  was  he  who, 
with  Dahak,  cut  up  Yim s ;  Narsih  *  lived  then 5  also, 
whom  they  call  Nesr-gyavan fl ;  they  say  that  such 
destiny  (gadman)  is  allotted  to  him7,  that  he  shall 
pass  every  day  in  troubles,  and  shall  make  all  food 
purified  and  pure. 

6.  Dahak  •  was  son  of  Khrutasp,  son  of  Zalnigav, 

the  departed  soul  against  its  sins.     Neiiber  word  is,  however,  quite 
certain,  as  rashnuk  may  stand  for  rasnfk,  'spear,'  and  has  also 
been  translated  by  'light*  and  'hero;'  .ATinS,  moreover,  was  probably 
doc  China,  but  Samarkand  (see  Chaps.  XII,  13,  aa,  XV,  29). 
1  See  Chap.  XXIII.  1. 

•  At.  Alhwyana  of  A  ban  Yt.  33,  GcV  Yt.  13,  Fravardtn  Yt.  131, 
Zamydd  Yt.  36,  Ac.,  where  it  is  the  family  name  of  Three* taona,  who 
is  aaid  to  be  a  son  of  Athwya  in  Yas.  IX,  23,  24.  In  the  text  this 
name  seems  to  be  used  rather  as  a  title  than  a  patronymic,  and  in 
:  7  :t  appeart  to  be  a  family  surname. 

•  As  stated  in  ZamySd  Yt.  46. 

•  Here  written  Narsak  in  K20  and  K2ob,  and  N6sih  in  TD. 
TD  has  '  together/  instead  of  'then.' 

•  So  in  K20,  hut  K2ob  has  Narst-gySvan,  and  TD  has  Nfisfh- 
rlyivintk  (or  ntySzdntk).  Perhaps  we  may  assume  the  epithet  to 
have  been  ntg1r-v1yav3n>k  (or  ntySzanfk),  'one  with  a  bewil- 
dering (or  longing)  glance.' 

T  Justi  supposes  this  clause  of  the  sentence  refers  to  Yim  and 
the  disease  which  attacked  his  hand.  If  this  be  the  case  it  may  be 
trmnahued  as  follows:  'they  say  afghash  is  produced  on  liis  hand 
(radman),  so  that,'  ftc. ;  afghash  being  a  disease,  or  evil,  men- 
tioned in  Vend.  XX.  14,  20.  24 ;  compare  Chap.  XXVIII,  33, 

•  Or  Az-i  Dahak,  the  Av.  Azi  Dahaka,  'destructive  serpent,'  of 
Yas.  IX.  25,  Vend.  I,  69,  AbSn  Yt.  29,  34,  Bahram  Yt.  40,  Zamyad 
Yt.  46-50.  A  name  applied  to  a  foreign  dynasty  (probably  Semitic) 
personified  as  a  single  king,  which  conquered  the  dominions  of 

rtm  (see  Chap.  XXXIV,  5). 

k  2 

son  of  Virafrang,  son  of  Taj,  son  of  Fravak,  son  of 
Siyakmak  ' ;  by  his  mother  Dahak  was  of  Udal  -,  son 
of  Bayak,  son  of  Tambayak,  son  of  Owokhm s,  #w  of 
Pairi-urva£sm  *,  son  of  Gadhwithw a,  son  of  Drfi^as- 
kan1,  jw*  of  the  evil  spirit. 

7.  Fr&#ln  the  Aspiyan  T  ara  j  son  of  Pur-t6ra 9  the 
Aspiyan,  son  of  SOk-tora  *  the  Aspiyan,  son  of  Bor- 
tdra  the  Aspiyan,  son  of  Siyak-tdra  the  Aspiyan,  son 
of  Sp&/-tdra  the  Aspiyan,  son  of  Gefar-tdri  the 
Aspiyan,  son   of   Ramak-tdra  the  Aspiyan,  son  of 

1  For  the  last  ihree  names,  see  Chap.  XV,  25,  28. 

*  Pahl.  Atidin  TD;  compare  'the  demon  Uda'  of  Chap.  XXVIII. 
19.  The  following  two  names  look  like  cfear'  and  'gloom-fear,' 
both  appropriate  names  for  demons. 

s  TD  has  P&z.  OwOikh;  compare  Av.  aoiw  ra,  'a  species  of  night- 
mare,' observing  that  r  and  6  are  often  written  alike  in  Pahlavi. 

4  TD  and  K2ob  have  Paz.  Fairi-urva-urvaesm,  and  K20  has 

4  TD  has  Paz.  Gawithw. 

*  So  in  TD,  but  K20  has  Paz.  Drua-i  ayaskd,  and  Kaob  has 
Dru^-i  ayaska.  It  corresponds  to  Av.  dru^aska  in  Vend.  XIX,  139, 
Viitasp  Yt.  26.  This  genealogy  appears  to  trace  Dahak 's  maternal 
descent  through  a  series  of  demons. 

1  Av.Thraetaona.son  of  Athwya,  but  generally  called  'the  Athwji- 
nian,'  who  slew  the  destructive  serpent  (aai  dahaka),  see  Yas.  IX. 
24,  25,  Vend.  I,  69,  Aban  Yt.  33,  61,  G&r  Yt.  r3,  FravardTn  Yt.  131, 
Bahram  Yt.  40,  Ram  Yt.  23,  Ashi  Yt.  33,  Zamyad  Yt.  36,  92,  Af. 
Zarat.  2.     In  the  ShShnimah  he  is  called  Feridun  son  of  Abtin. 

*  This  name  is  omitted  in  K20,  but  occurs  in  the  other  two  MSS.; 
it  is  a  hybrid  equivalent  10  Paz.  Pur-gsu  and  Av.  Pouru- 
gtfu,  which  is  a  title  of  an  Athwy&nian  in  Af.  Zarat.  4,  Virtasp  Yt. 
2.  This  genealogy  consists  almost  entirety  of  such  hybrid  names, 
which  have  a  very  artificial  appearance,  though  suitable  enough  for 
a  race  of  herdsmen,  meaning,  as  they  severally  do,  'one  with  abun- 
dant oxen,  with  useful  oxen,  with  the  brown  ox,  with  the  black  ox, 
with  the  white  ox,  with  the  fat  ox,  and  with  a  herd  of  oxen/ 

1  So  in  TD,  but  the  other  two  MSS.  have  Siyak-tdri,  which  is 
probably  wrong,  as  the  same  name  occurs  again  in  this  genealogy- 

Vanfragheni *  the  Aspiyan,  son  of  Yim,  son  of 
Vlvanghau ;  as  these,  apart  from  the  Aspiyan  Pur- 
t6ri,  were  ten  generations,  they  every  one  lived  a 
hundred  years,  which  becomes  one  thousand  years; 
those  thousand  years  were  the  evil  reign  of  Dahak. 
8.  By  the  Aspiyan  Pur-tdrA  was  begotten  Frerfun, 
who  exacted  vengeance  for  Yim  ;  together  with  him* 
also  were  the  sons  Barm&yun  and  Katayun,  but 
FreVun  was  fuller  of  glory  than  they. 

9.  By  FreVun  three  sons  were  begotten,  Salm  and 
Tu£"  and  Alrti*3;  and  by  Atrt£  one  son  and  one 
pair  *  were  begotten ;  the  names  of  the  couple  of 
sons  were  Vanidar  and  Anastokh fi,  and  the  name  of 
the  daughter  was  Guzak6.  10.  Salm  and  Tu^slew 
them  all,  K\x\k  and  his  happy  sons,  but  Freafan  kept 
the  daughter  in  concealment,  and  from  that  daughter 
a  daughter  was  born 7 ;  they  became  aware  of  it, 
and  the  mother  was  slain  by  them.  II,  Fre*/un 
provided  for  the  daughter8,  also  in  concealment,  for 

•  In  TD  this  name  can  be  read  Vanfr6kLm  or  Vanfr6kg5n. 

•  TD  has  'as  well  as  him.'  Kaob  omits  most  of  this  sentence 
by  mistake. 

•  These  sons,  asWindischmann  observes,  are  not  mentioned  in  the 
extant  Avesta,  but  their  Avesta  names,  Sairima,  Tuirya  or  Tura,  and 
Airya  or  Airyu,  may  be  gathered  from  the  names  of  the  countries  over 
which  tbey  are  supposed  to  have  ruled  (see  Fravardln  Yt.  143). 

'  TD  has  '  two  sons  and  one  daughter.' 
1  TD  has  Antfir  and  Anastabo. 

•  Or  Gfl^ak,  in  TD ;  the  odier  MSS.  have  Paz.  Gar#a  here,  but 
Gtixak  in  f  14;  it  is  identical  with  the  name  of  Hflshyang's  sister 
and  wife  in  Chap.  XV,  28.  In  the  PSzand  £amasp-namah  the 
name  of  Fr&ron's  daughter  is  written  Virak. 

•  Reading  min  zak  dukht  dukht-i  zid,  as  in  K.2ob  and  TD; 
tome  uncertainty  arises  here  from  the  words  dukht,  'daughter,' 
and  dva</,  'pair,'  being  written  alike  in  Pahlavi. 

•  TD  has  ban  man,  '  daughter,'  indicating  that  the  word  in  K20 
must  be  read  dukht,  and  not  dvaJ,  'pair.' 

ten  generations,  when  Manuj-i  Khurshe^-vinik  was 
born  from  his  motlier,  [so  called  because,  as  he  was 
born,  some  of]1  the  light  of  the  sun  (khurshe^)  fell 
upon  his  nose  (vfnlk).  12.  From  Manuj-i  Khiir- 
she^-vinik  and  his  sister s  was  Manu^-khurnar,  and 
from  Manta-khurnar  [and  his  sister]  was  Manu^C'Ihar 
born3,  by  whom  Salm  and  Thg  were  slain  in  revenge 
for  AirlM  13.  By  Manu^/tlhar  were  Yds,  NcWar5, 
and  Durasrob 6  begotten. 

14.  Just  as  Manux&har  was  of  ManuJ-khurnar,  of 
Manto-khurnak  \  who  was  Mam-sozak \  of  Atrak,  of 
Thritak,  of  Bltak,  of  Fraztifak,  of  Zurak  9,  of  Fragu- 
zak,  of  Guzak,  of  AirU%  of  Fr&dbn,so  Frasiyaz/,0a><tf 

1  The  phrase  in  brackets  occurs  only  in  TD;  and  the  whole 
passage  from  'vinik'  to  *sun'  is  omitted  in  K20,  evidently  by 

*  TD  has  '  from  Manflj  and  his  sister,"  and  Kaob  has  '  from 
Manu>huAihar  and  Alanfo-khursh&d.' 

•  The  words  in  brackets  occur  only  in  TD,  and  Kaob  has  '  from 
Manuj-khQrnar  also  was  Man(k-khu>nak,/ro/n  M-inta-khurnak  was 
Man&rAihar  born,'  but  this  introduction  of  an  extra  generation  is 
not  confirmed  by  the  list  of  names  in  §  14.  The  term  khArnak  (or 
khQrnak)  seems  to  be  merely  a  transcript  of  the  Avesta  word  of 
which  khurshcV-vfnik,  'sun-nose,'  is  a  translation.  The  other 
term  kh  Qrnar  can  also  be  read  khurvar,  but  K.2Q  has  Paz.  Arar- 
nar.  ManQ^XMiar  is  the  Av.  Manuj/fithra  of  Fravardin  Yt.  131, 
where  he  is  styled  the  Airyavan,  or  descendant  of  Airy  a  (Airtt). 

'  TD  has  '  and  vengeance  exacted  for  AiriX-.' 
1  See  Chap.  XXIX,  6. 

*  P&z.  Durasro,  but  ihe  Pahlavi  form,  given  in  tl»e  text,  occurs 
in  §  31  and  Chap.  XXXJI,  1  in  TD,  which  MS.  omits  this  §  by 

7  The  same  as  ManHr-i  khfirshfirf-vinik,  as  noted  above. 

8  This  Pizand  epithet  seems  to  mean  'mother-burning,'  and 
may  have  some  connection  with  the  legend  mentioned  in  $  11. 
TD  has  mftn  am  Gu^ak,  'whose  mother  was  GC^ak.' 

•  Kaob  omits  the  five  names  from  Airak  to  Zdrak. 
I#  Av.  Frangrasyan,  the  Turyan,  of  Yas.  XI,  21,  Aban  Yt.  41, 


of  Pashang,  of  Zae\fm *,  of  Turak,  of  Spa£nyasp,  of 
Durdshasp,  of  T0£\  of  Fr&ifon.  15.  He  (Frasiya^) 
as  well  as  KarseVaz  2,  whom  they  call  Kadan  8,  and 
Aghrenu/4  were  all  three  brothers. 

[16  :\  Pashang  and  Vlsak  were  both  brothers.  17. 
By  Vlsak  were  Piran8,  Hum£n,  Sin7,  and  other 
brothers  begotten.  18.  By  Frasfyaz/  were  Frasp-i 
A'Clr.  .San,  She^ak 8,  and  other  sons  begotten ;  and 
Vispan-frya9,  from  whom  Kai-Khusr6b  was  born, 
was  daughter  of  Fraslyaz/,  and  was  of  the  same 
mother  with  Frasp-i  A'ur.  19.  From  Frasp-i  A"ur 
were  Surak,  Asurtk,  and  other  children  ;  andhy  them 
were  Khvast-alrikht,  Yazdan-alrikht,  Yazdaiwara/tf, 
Freh-khunx'.La-vahak10,  and  others  begotten,  a  recital 
of  whom  would  be  tedious. 

20.  By  Aghr£ra^  was  Gdpatshah  "  begotten.  21. 
When  Fr£slyaz>  made  Manfi&fthar,  with  the  Iranians, 
captive  in  the  mountain-range  (gar)  of  Padashkh- 

Yl  18,  22,  Ashi  Yt.  38,  42,  Zamy&d  Yt.  56-63,  82,  93 ;  called 
Afrasiyab  in  the  Shahndmah. 
1   Zddram  in  the  Shahndmah. 
1  Garsfvaz  in  the  Shahnamah. 

■  TO  has  PahL  KIdan. 

•  Se«  Chap.  XXIX,  5. 

•  The  remainder  of  this  chapter  is  found  only  in  TD. 

•  Plrin  Vtsah  is  Afrasiyab's  chief  general  in  the  Shihnamah, 
and  Human  and  I'ilsam  are  his  brothers. 

r  This  name  is  very  ambiguous  in  Pahlavi,  as  it  can  be  read 
many  other  ways. 

•  ShSdah  in  the  Shahnamah. 

•  She  is  called  Farangis  in  the  Shihnamah. 
*•  The  reading  of  several  of  these  names  is  more  or  less  unccr- 

but  the  object  of  the  author  is  evidently  to  apply  opprobrious 
to  all  the  male  descendants  of  Afriaiyib. 

■  TD  has  G6pat-malka  here,  as  also  in  Cliap.  XXIX,  5,  where 
is  said  to  be  a  title  of  AghreW  (always  written  Agr£ra</  in  TD). 

var\  and  scattered  ruin  and  want  among  them, 
Aghrera*/  begged  a  favour  of  God  (yazdan),  and 
he  obtained  the  benefit  that  the  army  and  cham- 
pions of  the  Iranians  were  saved  by  him  from  that 
distress.  22.  Frastyaz>  slew  Aghr£rarf  for  that 
fault;  and  AghreiW,  as  his  recompense,  begat 
such  a  son  as  G6patshah. 

23.  Aftz6b6  the  Tuhmaspian2,  Kanak-i  BarzUt, 
ArawLsanasp,  and  Va£taW-i  Raghinoi*/  were  the 
three  sons  and  the  daughter  of  Agaimasvdk  »,  the  son 
of  N6^ar,  son  of  Manu^har,  who  begat  Auzdbo. 
24.  Kavfidf1  was  a  child  in  a  waist-cloth  (kuspfi^); 
they  abandoned  him  on  a  river,  and  he  froze  upon 
the  door-sills  (kava</akan);  Auz6bd  perceived  and 
took  him,  brought  him  up,  and  settled  the  name  of 
the  trembling  child. 

25.  By  Kava*/  was  Kat-Aplveh  begotten ;  by 
Kal-Apiveh  were  Kat-Arsh,  Kal-Vyarsh,  Kal-Pisan, 
and  Kat-Katis  begotten;  by  Kal-Kaus  was  Siya- 
vakhsh  begotten  ;  by  Siyavakhsh  was  Kal-Khusrob1 

1  The  mountains  south  of  the  Caspian  (see  Chap.  XII,  17). 
'  Av.  Uzava  TQmSspana  of  Fravardin  Yt.  131,  called  Zav,  o: 
Zab,  son  of  Tahmasp,  in  the  Shahnamah. 

*  None  of  these  names,  which  TD  gives  in  Pazand,  are  to  be 
found  in  the  portion  of  the  Avesta  yet  extant. 

*  Av.  Kavi  Kavata  of  Fravardin  Yt.  132,  Zamy&d  Yt.  71,  called 
Ka?-Qubad  in  the  Shahnamah.  There  appears  to  be  an  attempt, 
in  the  text,  to  derive  his  name  from  the  '  door-sill '  on  which  he  U 
said  to  have  been  found. 

*  The  Avesta  names  of  these  seven  other  Kayans  are,  respectively, 
Kavi  Aipi-vanghu,  Kavi  Arshan,  Kavi  BySrshau,  Kavi  Pisanangh, 
Kavi  Usadhan,  Kavi  Syavarshan,  and  Kavi  Husravangh  (see  Fra- 
vardm  Yt.  13a,  Zamyad  Yt.  71,  74);  omitting  the  third,  they  are 
called,  respectively,  ArmJn,  Arij,  Partn,  Kal-KSvus,  Siy&vush,  and 
Kai-Khusro  in  the  Shahnamah.  TD,  omitting  the  first  letter,  has 
Sino  for  Pisin ;  it  also  writes  Kat-Kayuks  and  Kai-Khusr6vt. 


CHAPTER    XXXI,    2  2~30. 


jotten.  26.  Keresasp !  and  Aurvakhsh 2  were 
both  brothers.  27.  Athrat3  was  son  of  Sahm,  son 
of  Turak,  son  of  Spa6nyasp,  son  of  Durdshasp 4,  son 
of  Tilf.  *?«  of  Fr&flin.  28.  Loharasp*  war  row  of 
AAzAv*.  w»  of  Manur,  son  of  Kal-Plsln7,  son  of 
Kai-Aptvgh.  son  of  Kat-Kavaflf.  29.  By  Kai- 
Loharasp  were  VLttasp,  Zarlr 8,  «  »tf*  other  brothers 
begotten  ;  by  VLrtasp  were  Spend-da*/3  and  Peshyd-  "begotten  ;  and  by  Spend-da^were  Vohflman  u, 
Ataro-tarsah,  Mitrd-tarsah,  and  others  begotten. 

30.  Artakhshatar  descendant  of  Papak — of  whom 
his  mother  was  daughter — was  son  of  Sasan 12,  son  of 

1  Av.  KercsAspa  of  Yas.  IX,  31,  36,  39,  Vend.  I,  36,  Aban  Yt. 
I  nvardln  Yt.  61,  136,  Ram  Yt.  27,  Zamyad  Yt.  38-44,  Af. 
ZaraL  3  ;  he  is  called  Garrasp  in  the  Shahnamah. 

1  Av.UrvakhshayaofYas.IX,3i,Ram  Yt.  28,  Af.Zarat.  3.  These 
brothers  were  sons  of  Thrita  or  Athrat,  mentioned  in  the  next  §. 

Av.  Thrita  of  the  Sama  race  (see  Yas.  IX,  30,  Vend.  XX,  ix) 
and  father  of  Keresdspa,  whose  genealogy  is  given  in  a  passage 
iterpolatcd  in  some  copies  of  the  Shihnamah  as  follows  :  Garrasp, 
Airat,  .Sam,  Turag,  .Stdasb,  Tur,  Jamshed. 

•  Written  D&rdshap  in  TD,  both  here  and  in  §  14. 

•  Av.  Aurv«u/-aspa  of  Aban  Yt.  105,  VirfSsp  Yt.  34,  46,  called 
Luhr&sp  in  the  Shahnamah. 

•  Reading  doubtful. 

;  Written  Ka-Pisin  here,  but  he  is  the  same  person  as  Kaf- 
Pisin  of  $  25  ;  the  latter  part  of  the  name  is  written  both  Pisanangh 
and  Pisina  in  the  A  vesta. 

•  Probably  Zargar  (being  Av.  Zairivairi  of  Aban  Yt.  11  a,  117. 
Fravardtn  Yt.  101),  but  called  Zartr  in  the  Shahnamah. 

•  Av.  Spem6-data  of  Fravardfn  Yt.  103,  Vutisp  Yt  25,  called 
Iifcndryir  in  the  Shahnamah. 

••  See  Chaps.  XXIX,  5.  XXXII,  5. 

n  Called  Bahman  in  the  Shahnamah, and  ArrfishJr  the  Kayanian 
in  Bahman  Yl  II.  17  ;  the  successor  of  his  grandfather  VirtSsp  (sec 
Chap.  XXXIV,  8). 

"  The  text  is  rather  obscure,  but  the  Kamamak  of  Arc/ashir-i 
Pipakin  states  clearly  that  Ardashtr  was  son  of  Sasan   by  the 

Veh-afrtaf  and  '  Zarlr,  son  of  Sasan.  son  of  Artakhsha- 
tar  who  was  the  said  Vohuman  son  of  Spend-da*/. 

31.  The  mother  of  Kat-Aplveh  was  Farhank1, 
daughter  of  him  who  is  exalted  on  the  heavenly 
path 3,  Urvaaf-gai-frart  *,  son  of  Rak,  so?t  of  Dilrasrob. 
son  of  ManfoX'ihar.  32.  This,  too,  it  says,  that  the 
glory5  of  Fre^/un  settled  on  the  root  of  a  reed 
(kanya)  in  the  wide-formed  ocean;  and  N6ktarga*. 
through  sorcery,  formed  a  cow  for  tillage,  and  begat 
children  there ;  three  years  he  carried  the  reeds 
there,  and  gave  them  to  the  cow,  until  the  glory 
went  on  to  the  cow  ;  he  brought  the  cow,  milked  her 
milk,  and  gave  it  to  his  three  sons;  as  their  walking 
was  on  hoofs,  the  glory  did  not  go  to  the  sons,  but 
to  Farhank.  ^^.  N6ktarga  wished  to  injure1  Far- 
hank,  but  Farhank  went  with  the  glory  away  from 

daughter  of  Papak,  a  tributary  ruler  of  PSrs  under  Ardavin,  the 
last  of  the  Ajkaniyan  monarchs. 

1  *  So  in  the  Pahlavi  text,  which  therefore  makes  VCh-lfric/  a 
woman's  name  (like  Pers.  Beh-afrfn);  but  this  is  doubtful,  as  the 
MSS.  often  confound  va,  'and,'  and  i,  '  son  of.' 

a  In  the  Shahn&mah  Farhang  is  mother  of  Kat-Kivus.  The 
Pahlavi  name  can  also  be  read  Faranak,  the  name  of  the  mother 
of  Feridun  in  the  Shdhnamah. 

•  Paz.  vldharg-SfrS-rtaka,  which  looks  more  like  an  epithet 
than  a  name. 

4  Or,  perhaps,  '  Urvaif-ga  son  of  FriLrt.' 

8  The  divine  glory  which  was  supposed  to  accompany  all  legiti- 
mate sovereigns  of  Iran,  from  the  lime  of  Hflshyang  even  to  that 
of  the  Sasanian  dynasty  ;  it  is  the  Av.  /H'arenangh  of  the  Zamyad 
Yart,  and  is  said  to  have  fled  to  the  ocean  for  refuge  during  the 
reign  of  foreign  dynasties  and  wicked  kings  (see  Ab&n  Yt.  4a, 
Zamyad  Yt.  51,  56,  59,  62). 

•  The  last  syllable  is  so  written,  in  Pazaml,  in  §  33. 
T  Reading   hang-t<fano,    'to   injure,'  instead  of  khun£-«/ano, 

which  may  mean  *to  embrace;'  the  difference  between  the  two 
words  being  merely  the  letter  i. 




CHAPTER   XXXI,    31-38. 


the  fierce  (tib)  father,  and  made  a  vow  (patyastak) 
thus :  '  I  will  give  my  first  son  to  Aushbam  K*  34. 
Then  Aushbam  saved  her  from  the  father ;  and  the 
first  son,  Kal-Aplveh,  she  bore  and  gave  to  Aush- 
bam. was  a  hero  associating  with  Aushbam,  and 
travelled  in  Aushbam's  company. 

35.  The  mother  of  Auzdbd  was  the  daughter 
of  Namun  the  wizard,  when  Namak8  was  with 

36.  And,  moreover,  together  with  those  begotten 
>y  Sam  *  were  six  children  in  pairs,  male  and  female  ; 

the  name  of  one  was  Damnak,  of  one  Khusr6v,  and 
of  one  Margandak,  and  the  name  of  each  man  and 
woman  together  was  one.  37.  And  the  name  of  one 
besides  them  was  Dastan  * ;  he  was  considered  more 
eminent  than  they,  and  Sagansih a  and  the  southern 
quarter  were  given  to  him  ;  and  Avar-shatr6 8  and 
the  governorship  were  given  by  him  to  Avarnak. 
38.  Of  A  var-shatr6  this  is  said,  that  it  is  the  district 
of  Avarnak,  and  they  offered  blessings  to  Srdsh  and 
Ar</avahiit  in  succession;  on  this  account  is  t/ieir 
possession  of  horses  and  possession  of  arms ;  and 
on  account  of  firm  religion,  purity,  and  manifest  joy, 
good   estimation  and   extensive   fame   are    greatly 

1  This  name  means  'the  dawn;'  perhaps  it  may  be  identified 
with  Av.  Usinemangh  or  Usenemangh  of  Fravardin  Yt.  113,  140, 
whose  wife  Fnrni  may  possibly  be  the  Far  hank  (or  Franak)  of  the 

■  So  in  TD,  but  it  is  probably  only  a  variant  of  Namlln. 

*  The  grandfather  of  Rustam  (see  §  41).     In  the  Aveata  he  is 
tally  called  Sirna  Keresaspa  with  the  tide  Nairirnanau ;  while 

in  the  Shilmamah  Sam  is  son  of  Narinian. 

*  Another  name  for  Zal,  the  father  of  Rusiam,  in  the  ShShnamah. 

*  The  same  as  Sagastan. 

*  Or,  perhaps,  '  the  upper  district.' 



among  them.  39.  To  Damnak  the  governorship  of 
Asuristan  was  given  ;  sovereignty  and  arranging  the 
law  of  sovereignty,  wilfulness  and  the  stubborn  de- 
fects they  would  bring,  were  among  them.  40.  To 
Sparnak l  the  governorship  of  Spahan 2  was  given ; 
to  Khusrov  the  governorship  of  RSi  s  was  given  ;  to 
Margandak  the  kingdom,  forest  settlements,  and 
mountain  settlements  of  Padashkhvargar  were 
given;  where  they  travel  nomadically,  and  then 
are  the  forming  of  sheep-folds,  prolificness,  easy 
procreation,  and  continual  triumph  over  enemies. 
41.  From  Dastan  proceeded  Ru^astam  *  and  Huza 
varak  *.] 

Chapter    XXXII8. 

1.    On  the  kindred  of  P6rushasp7,  son  of  Palti- 
r&sp',  son  of  Aurvadasp 9,  son  of  Hae^a^/asp ,0,  son  of 

1  He  would  seem  not  to  have  been  a  son  of  Sam,  as  he  is  not 
mentioned  before.     The  reading  of  all  these  names  is  uncertain. 
1  The  Pahlavi  form  of  Ispahan. 

•  Av.  Ragha  of  Yas.  XIX,  51,  Vend.  I,  60,  whose  ruins  are  near 
the  modern  Tcher&n. 

•  The  usual  Pahlavi  form  of  Rustam. 

•  Or  Auzvarak;  Rustam's  brother  is  called  Zavarah  in  the 

•  This  chapter,  which  is  numbered  XXXIII  by  previous  trans- 
lators, is  found  in  all  MSS.,  but  in  TD  it  forms  a  continuation  of 
the  preceding  chapter,  beginning  with  the  name  P6rushasp. 

T  Av.  Pourushaspa  of  Yas.  IX,  42,  43,  Vend.  XIX,  15,  22,  143, 
Aban  Yt.  18,  &c. 

•  Kzo  has  Paz.  Spitarsp,  and  M6  has  Paz.  Pirtrasp  (see  note  on 
Chap.  XXXIII,  1).     The  reading  in  the  text  is  doubtful. 

•  Omitted  in  K20  and  TD. 
,0  Av.  HafiWaspa  of  Yas.  XLV,  15,  LII,  3. 

CHAPTER    XXXI,    39-XXXII,    3. 


AakhshnQs  l,  son  of  Paillrasp,  son  of  Hardarm  2,  son 
of  Hardar 3,  son  of  Spltaman  *,  son  of  Vidart  \  son  of 
Ayazem,  *<w  of  Rafan",  son  of  Durasr6b7,  son  of 
Manflfiihar8.  2.  As  Paltirdsp  had  two  sons,  one 
Pdrushasp  and  one  Ar&sti ",  by  Porushasp  was  Za- 
ratujt  begotten  for  a  sanctuary  of  good  religion ,0, 
<w»</by  Arasti  was  MeVy6k-mahn  begotten.  3.  Zara- 
ttkst,  when  he  brought  the  religion,  first  celebrated 

1  Windischmann  suggest*  Av.  Aakhshn6ir  (gen.)  of  Fravardin 

I  K20  has  Paz.  Harm  and  TD  has  Haraku/dnno. 

•  TD  lias  Hara?<fcr,  or  Ardi</.ir. 

•  Or  Spftam  (as  the  last  syllable  is  the  patronymical  suffix),  Av. 
Spitama,  the  usual  patronymic  of  Zaratuxt. 

•  May  be  read  Vadixt  in  TD. 

•  Possibly  the  same  person  as  Rak  in  Chap.  XXXI,  31 ;  but 
see  XXXIII,  3. 

T  So  in  TD,  but  Paz.  Durasrun  in  K20,  M6. 

•  This  genealogy  is  somewhat  differently  given  in  the  Va^arkar«/-i 
DTnlk  (pp.  28,  39).  as  published  in  Bombay  by  Dastur  Peshotanji 
Bebramji  Sanjana  in  1848;  and  is  extended  back,  through  the 
generations  mentioned  in  Chap.  XXXI,  1,  2,  7, 14,  to  Gdy<A»mar</,  as 
follows :  '  P6rushaspd  son  of  Paitfrasp,  and  Araspd  son  of  PahirSsp, 
Urvandasp,  Hae£a</asp.  Alkhshnux,  PaCtirasp,  Hardrxn.  H  am  tar, 
Spttimaso,  Va&lixt,  Nayazem,  Ra^un,  DGrdsrob,  Mdnuxflhar 
sovereign  of  Iran,  Manux-kh&rnar,  Maniu-kliQrndk,  NSrydsang, 
VuxW-dfn,  Vtzak,  Airyak,  Aithritak,  Ibitak,  Frazuak,  Zixak, 
Frasizak,  Izak,  Airi/i,  Fre^Qn  lord  of  Khvanfras.  Pfir-t6ra  the 
Asplkin,  :  i  the  Asplkin,  S6g-t6ra  the  Asplkan,  G6far-t6ra 
the  Asplkan,  Vand-i-fravixn  the  Aspikan,  Vim  lord  of  the  seven 
region*,  VfvanghaG,  Ayangha^/,  Anangha*/,  Takhmdrup,  Hdshang 
the  Pisdid,  lord  of  the  seven  regions.  Fravak,  Siyamak,  Mashv6 
whose  wife  was  Mashyak.  Gdy6kmar</  the  fust  man,  and  father  of 
all  mankind  in  the  material  world.' 

•  Av.  Aiastaya  of  D  Yt.  95 ;  TD  has  Arastih. 

M  The  Pazand  words  darga  hidainix  appear  to  be  merely  a 
misreading  of  Pahl.  dargas-i  hftdindih. 

II  Av.  Maidhyo-muungha  of  Yas.  L,  19,  Fravardin  Yt.  95,  106. 
He  is  said  to  have  been  Zaratuxt's  first  disciple. 


worship1  and  expounded  in  Alran-ve^-,  and  M&A6k- 
mah  received  the  religion  from  him.  4.  The 
Mdbads*  of  Pars  are  all  traced  back  to  this  race 
of  Manu5&har. 

5.  Again,  I  say,  by  Zaratu-rt'  were  begotten  three 
sons  and  three  daughters*;  one  son  was  IsaflVastar', 
one  Aurvata^-nar*.  and  one  Khurshe,rf-£ihar 7 ;  as 
Isa^v&star  was  chief  of  the  priests  he  became 
Mdbad  of  M6bads,  and  passed  away  in  the  hui 
dredth  year  of  the  religion ;  Aurvata*/-nar  was  an 
agriculturist,  and  the  chief  of  the  enclosure  formed 
by  Yim 8,  which  is  below  the  earth  ;  Khursh£</-£lhar 
was  a  warrior,  commander  of  the  army  of  Pdshyd- 
tanu,  son  of  Vistasp,  and  dwells  in  Kangdez8;  and 
of  the  three  daughters  the  name  of  one  was  Fren.of 
one  Srit,  and  of  one  P6ru£ist9.  6.  Aurvata</-nar  and 
Khurshe1  acinar  were  from  a  serving  (>fcakar)  wife10, 
the  rest  were  from  a  privileged  (pa^akhshah)  wife. 

1  Reading  fr&gy  a  s\\  but  it  maybe  frS^  ga*t,  'wandered  forth.' 

•  The  class  of  priests  whose  special  duty  is  to  perform  all  reli- 
gious rites  and  ceremonies. 

1  This  paragraph  is  quoted,  with  a  few  alterations,  in  the  Va^ar- 
kar^-i  Dinik,  pp.  21-23. 

•  K20  omits  the  'three  daughters'  here,  by  mistake. 

•  Av.  Isarf-vastra  of  Yas.  XXIII,  4,  XXVI,  17,  Fravardin  Yt. 

•  Av.  Urvata<f-nara  of  Vend.  II,  T43,  Fravardin  Yt.  98. 
and  M6  have  Aurvaruuz'-nar,  and  TD  has  Aurvatarf-nar. 

■  Av.  Hvarc-Xilhra  of  Fravardin  Yt  98  ;  TD  has  Khur-JIhar. 

1  See  Chap.  XXIX,  5.  Windischmann  and  Jusli  consider  the 
clause  about  PeshydtanQ  as  inserted  by  mistake,  and  it  is  omitted 
in  the  Va^arkar</-i  Dinik  (p.  21);  it  is  found,  however,  in  all  MSS. 
of  the  Bundahix. 

•  These  daughters  are  the  Av.  Fr/ni,  Thriti,  and  Pouru-Aista  of 
Fravardin  Yt.  139;  the  last  is  also  mentioned  in  Yas.  LII,  3. 

10  The  following  is  a  summary  of  the  Persian  descriptions  of  I 
five  kinds  of  marriage,  as  given  in  the  Riviyats: — 

A  padshah  ('ruling,  or  privileged')  wife  is  when  a  man  ma 



CHAPTER   XXXII,    4-7. 

7  '.  By  IsadVdstar  was  begotten  a  son  zvhosc  name 
was  Ururvijfa a,  and  they  call  him  Aranf-i  Bira^an  3 
(* fore-arm  of  brothers')  for  this  reason,  that,  as  they 

with  the  parents'  consent,  an  unbetrothcd  maiden  out  of  a  family, 
and  she  and  her  children  remain  his  in  both  worlds. 

A  yQkan  or  ayuk  ('only  child')  wife  is  an  only  child,  married 
with  the  parents'  consent,  and  her  first  child  belongs  to  them; 
after  its  birth  she  becomes  a  padshSh  wife.  She  is  entitled  to  one- 
third  of  her  parents'  property  for  giving  up  the  child. 

A  satar  ('adopted')  wife  is  when  a  man  over  fifteen  years  of 
age  dies  childless  and  unmarried,  and  his  relatives  provide  a  maiden 
»uh  a  dowry,  and  marry  her  to  another  man ;  when  half  her  chil- 
dren belong  to  the  dead  man,  and  half  to  the  living,  and  she  herself 
is  the  dead  man's  wife  in  the  other  world. 

A  iakar  or  iakar  ('serving')  wife  is  a  widow  who  marries 
again  ;  if  she  had  no  children  by  her  first  husband  she  is  acting  as 
a  tatar  wife,  and  half  her  children  by  her  second  husband  belong 
to  her  first  one ;  and  she  herself,  in  any  case,  belongs  to  her  first 
husband  in  the  other  world. 

A  khfld-xara!  or  khud-sarai  ('self-disposing')  wife  is  one 
who  marries  without  her  parents'  consent ;  she  inherits  no  property 
from  ber  parents  until  her  eldest  son  has  given  her  as  a  padsh&h 
wife  10  his  father. 

'  Instead  of  this  sentence  the  Va^arkarvM  Dtntk  (pp.  21,  22)  has 
the  following,  which  appears  to  rest  upon  a  misinterpretation  of 
the  text:— 

•  And  Zaratuxt  the  righteous  had  three  wives ;  all  three  were  in 
the  life  time  of  Zaraturt,  and  all  three  wives  were  living  throughout 
the  lifetime  of  Zaraturt;  the  name  of  one  was  Hv6v,  of  the  second 
Urvy,  of  the  third  Arni^-baredfl.  And  from  Urvi^,  who  was  a 
privileged  wife,  four  children  were  bom;  one  was  the  son  Isa«f- 
vistar,  and  the  three  daughters,  namely,  Frfin,  Sritak,  and  Pdru&st  ■ 
these  four  were  from  Urvi^.  And  from  the  wife  Arny/-bareda  two 
sons  were  bom,  one  Aurvart-nar,  and  die  second  KhursheV-Mhar ; 
and  Arrri^'-bareda  was  a  serving  wife,  and  the  name  of  the  former 
husband  of  Arni^-bareda  was  Mitrd-ayar.  And  from  Hvflv,  who 
was  a  privi'eged  wife,  wen  three  sons,  namely,  HushfcVar,  Hush- 
Mar-mih,  and  Soshans,  as  it  says,'  &c.  (as  in  §  8). 

■  TD  has  Pahl.  Aurvarvfcak  or  Khururupak. 

»  So  in  TD. 

were  from  a  serving  wife,  she  then  delivered  them 
over  to  Isa^vdstar  through  adoption.  8.  This,  too. 
one  knows,  that  three  sons  of  Zaratu>t,  namely. 
HusheWar,  HusheWar-mah  \  and  Soshyans2,  were 
from  Hv6v3;  as  it  says,  that  Zaratdrt  went  near 
unto  Hv6v  three  times,  and  each  time  the  seed  went 
to  the  ground;  the  angel  Nery6sang*  received  the 
brilliance  and  strength  of  that  seed,  delivered  it 
with  care  to  the  angel  Anahl^6,  and  in  time  will 
blend  it  with  a  mother.  9.  Nine  thousand,  nine 
hundred,  and  ninety-nine,  and  nine  myriads*  of 
the  guardian  spirits  of  the  righteous  are  intrusted 
with  its  protection,  so  that  the  demons  may  not 
injure  it1. 

10.    The  name  of  the  mother  of  Zaraturt  was 
Dughda s,  and  the  name  of  the  father  of  the  moth 
of  Zaratuit  was  Frahimrava 9. 


1  Av.  Ukhshya;/-ereta  and  Ukhshya</-neniangh  of  Fravardin 
Yt.  128. 

*  Av.  Saoshy&s  of  Vend.  XIX,  1 8,  Fravardin  Yt.  129,  &c.  Sec 
Chaps.  XI,  6,  XXIX,  6,  XXX,  3,  4,  7,  17,  25.  27. 

8  Av.  HvSvi  of  Fravardin  Yt.  139,  Din  Yt.  15 ;  the  Pahlavi  form 
of  the  name,  as  given  once  in  TD,  is  Huvaobo. 

4  See  Chap.  XV,  1. 

s  Av.  anahita  of  Aban  Yt.  t,  Ac;  a  female  personification  of 
'unsullied*  water,  known  generally  by  the  epithet  ardvi  sura 
(the  ArSdvivsur  of  Chap.  XIII),  and  whose  name  is  also  applied 
to  the  planet  Venus  (see  Chap.  V,  1). 

•  So  in  M6;  other  MSS.  have  '9,999  myriads,'  but  see  Fr 
vardfn  Yt.  62. 

T  This  last  phrase,  about  the  demons,  is  omitted  in  TD  and 
Va^arkar^-i  Dinik. 

•  The  Avesla  word  for  '  daughter.' 

*  TD  has  Paz.  Fereahimruv  ana. 



[Chapter  XX  XI I  P. 

o.  The  family  of  the  M6bads  ('  priests '). 

i.    Bahak*  was  son   of  Hubakht,  son  of  Ataro- 

bondak,  son  of  Mahda*/,   son   of  Me^ydk-mah,  son 

of  Frah-vakhsh-vinda/^a,  son  of  M&fyok-mah,  son  of 

Ka^*.  son  of  M&/y6k-mah,  son  of  Arastlh,  son  of 

Paitirasp5.     2.   As   Bahak   was   Mdbad  of  Mobads 

^h-priest)  unto  ShahpCihar0.  son  of  Auharmazd, 
v<>  K$d  was  the  great  preceptor  (farmartfar)  unto 

Ataro-pa^'  was  son  of  Maraspend,  son  of  Da</- 
Wa,  son  of  Darflrar/,  $0//  of  Hudino,  son  of  Atar6- 
da</,  son  of  Manu.r£ihar,  #w  of  Vohuman-^Ihar,  son  of 
Fryan6 •,  son  of  Bahak  '",  w»  of  Fr&z'un,  son  of  Fra- 

This  chapter  is  found  only  in  TD,  where  it  forms  a  continua- 

of  the  preceding,   and  affords  a  means  (see   §§  10,  11)  for 

lining  the  age  of  the  recension  of  the  text  contained  in  that 

As  nearly  all  the  names  are  written  in  Pahlavi  letters,  die 

ronunciation  of  many  of  them  is  merely  a  matter  of  guess. 

Here  written  Bdhak,  but  it  is  Bahak  or  Bak  in  §  2 ;  compare 
Bahak  in  §  3,  and  Av.  Buungha  of  Fravardin  Yt.  1 24. 

*  Compare  Av.  Frashavakhsha  of  Fravardin  Yt.  109. 
■  Compare  Av.  Kita  of  Fravardin  Yt.  124- 

*  See  Chap.  XXXII.  2,  for  the  last  three  generations;  TD  has 
Pirtarasp  here,  like  the  variant  of  M6  in  Chap.  XXXII,  1. 

*  The  Sasanian  king  Shapur  II,  who  reigned  a.  d.  309-379. 

1  According  to  the  chronology  of  the  Bundahir  (Chap.  XXXIV, 
S.  9),  Darai  lived  only  some  four  centuries  before  Shapur  II,  for 
which  period  only  seven  generations  of  priests  are  here  provided. 
This  period,  moreover,  is  certainly  about  three  centuries  less  than 
the  truth. 

was  prime  minister  of  Shapur  II. 

*  Compare  Av.  Fry  ana  of  Yas.  XLV,  12. 

"  This  name  is  repeated  in  TD,  probably  by  mistake  (compare 
Bahak  in  §4  1 

[5]  L 

shaltar1,  son  of  P6rushasp,  son  of  Vtnasp,  son  of 
Nivar,  son  of  Vakhsh,  son  of  Vahulhros,  son  of  Fra.u. 
**«  of  Gak2,  5dw  of  Vakhsh,  son  of  Fryan,  jot  of 
Ra^an,  son  of  Durasr6b,  50//  of  Manuj£ihar s. 

4.  Mitrd-vara^  was  son  of  Nigas-afziW-dak,  5<?«  of 
Shlrtashosp,  son  of  Parrtva,  son  of  Urva^-ga,  .raw  of 
Taham,  son  of  Zarlr,  5#m  of  Durasrdb,  son  of  Manu54. 
5.  Durnamik  was  son  of  Zagh,  w«  of  Majvak,  jaw  of 
Ndflfer 5,  aw  of  Manta/fthar. 

6.  Mitrd-akavfc/  M  S0«  of  Marrtan-veh 6,  «?«  of 
Afrdbag-vinda</,  son  of  Vinda^-i-pedftk,  j0»  of  Vae- 
bukht7,  son  of  Bahak,  son  of  V46-bukht.  7.  The 
mother  from  whom  1  was  born  is  Humal,  daughter 
of  Freh-mah,  who  also  was  the  righteous  daughter  * 

1  This  is  probably  a  semi-Huzvaru  form  of  Frashoxtar. 

*  Perhaps  this  name  should  be  read  along  with  the  next  one,  so 
as  to  give  the  single  Pazand  name  •Slcina.r  or  •Slu'var. 

■  See  Chap.  XXXII,  i,  for  the  last  three  generations.  According 
to  this  genealogy  Alaroparf'-i  Maraspendan  was  the  twenty-third  in 
descent  from  Manfutfhar,  whereas  his  contemporary,  Bahak  (§  1), 
was  twenty-second  in  descent  from  the  same. 

1  No  doubt  Manu\f£!har  is  meant ;  if  not,  we  must  read  Mantu- 
durnamfk  in  connection  with  §  5. 

fl  Here  written  Niaar,  but  see  Chaps.  XXIX,  6,  XXXI,  13. 

*  Here  written  Man/-v£h,  but  see  §  8. 
7  Here  written  A6-vukhtt  but  see  §  8 ;  it  may  be  Vis-bukht,  or 


■  The  text  is  amfrfar  munaj  li  a^aj  zerkhun*/  Humoi 
dukht-i  Freh-mah-i/t  ahar6b  vfikht  (dukht?).  We  might 
perhaps  read  '  Freh-mah  son  of  A'aharOb-bukht,'  but  it  seems  more 
probable  that  §§  7.  8  should  be  connected,  and  that  the  meaning 
intended  is  that  HOmai  was  daughter  of  Freh-mah  (of  a  o 
family)  and  of  Puyirn-shaV  (of  another  family);  she  was  also  the 
mother  of  the  editor  of  that  recension  of  the  Hundahir  which  is  con- 
tained in  TD  ;  but  who  was  his  father  ?  The  singularly  unnecessary 
repetition  of  the  genealogy  of  the  two  brothers,  Mitm-akavW  and 
I'uyun-shaV,   in    §§  6,  8,  leads  to  the  suspicion  lhal  if  tl>e  latter 


of  Mah- 

of  Mah-bdndak, 

i  of  Mah-bukht. 
8.  Ptiyijn-sha</  is  son  of  Marfan- veh,  son  of  Afrdbag- 
v'xndkd.  son  of  VindsuZ-i-pedak,  son  of  Vae-bQkht,  son 
of  Bahak,  son  of  Va6-bflkht. 

9.  All  the  other  M6bads  who  have  been  renowned 
in  the  empire  (khu</aylh)  iccrc  from  the  same 
family  it  is  said,  and  were  of  this  race  of  ManiLy- 
/ihar '.  10.  Those  Mobads,  likewise,  who  now 
exist  are  all  from  the  same  family  they  assert,  and 

I,  too,  they  boast,  whom  they  call  -  '  the  administra- 
tion of  perfect  rectitude'  (Dartaklh-i  AshdvahLrtd) 3. 

I I.  Yddan-Yim  son  of  Vahram-sha^,  son  of  Zaratfot, 
Atar6-parf  son  of  Maraspend,  son  of  Za^-sparham  *, 

were  his  mother's  father,  the  former  was  probably  his  own  father 
or  grandfather.  Unfortunately  the  text  makes  no  clear  statement 
on  the  subject,  and  §  to  affords  further  material  for  guessing 
otherwise  at  his  name  and  connections. 

•  Compare  Chap.  XXXII,  4. 

•  Reading  va  It*  laband-i  karitfind. 

•  This  looks  more  like  a  complimentary  title  than  a  name,  and 
if  the  editor  of  the  TD  recension  of  the  Bundahix  were  the  son  or 
grandson  of  Mitr6-akav?</  (§  6)  we  have  no  means  of  ascertaining 
his  name ;  but  if  he  were  not  descended  from  Mitro-akdvW  it  is 
possible  that  §§  10,  n  should  be  read  together,  and  that  he  was 
the  son  of  Yfld&n-Yim.  Now  we  know,  from  die  heading1  and 
colophon  of  the  ninety-two  questions  and  answers  on  religious 
•objects  which  are  usually  called  the  Dacfistan-i  Dfnik,  and  from 
the  colophons  of  other  writings  which  usually  accompany  that 
work,  that  those  answers  were  composed  and  certain  epistles  were 
written  by  Mantu^lhar,  son  of  YudSn-Yim,  who  was  high-priest  of 
Pin  and  Kirman  in  a.y.  250  (a.  d.  881),  and  apparently  a  more 
important  personage  than  his  (probably  younger)  brother  Za//- 
spaxham,  who  is  mentioned  in  §  1 1  as  one  of  the  priests  contem- 
porary with  the  editor  of  the  TD  recension.  1 1  this  editor,  therefore, 
were  a  son  of  Yudan-Yim  (which  is  a  possible  interpretation  of  the 
text)  he  was  most  probably  this  same  MlnfaJChtf,  author  of  the 
Dii&tan-i  Dfnfk  (see  the  Introduction.  §  4). 

name  is   very  probably  superfluous,  Z4</-sparham 

L  2 



Zarf-sparham  son  of  Yud&n-Yim  \  Atar6-pa^  son  of 
Hamldf2,  Ash6vahi^t  son  of  Freh-Srdsh,  and  the 
other  Mobads  have  sprung  from  the  same  family. 

12.  This,  too,  it  says,  that  'in  one  winter  I  xuiti 
locate  (^"dkl nam)  the  religion  of  the  Mazdayasnians, 
which  came  out  into  the  other  six  regions.'] 

having  been  written  twice  most  likely  by  mistake.  This  Ataro-pW 
son  of  MSraspend  was  probably  the  one  mentioned  in  the  following 
extract  from  the  old  Persian  Kivayat  MS.,  No.  8  of  ihe  collection 
in  the  Indian  Office  Library  at  London  (fol.  14a  a): — 

'The  book  Dinkarrf  which  the  dasturs  of  the  religion  and  the 
ancients  have  compiled,  likewise  the  blessed  Adarb&d  son  of  Mah- 
rasfend,  son  of  Asavahist  of  the  people  of  the  good  religion,  in  the 
year  three  hundred  of  Yazda^ard  Shahryar,  collected  some  of  the 
more  essential  mysteries  of  the  religion  as  instruction,  and  of  these 
he  formed  this  book.'  That  is,  he  was  the  last  editor  of  the  Dinkar</, 
which  seems  to  have  remained  unrevised  since  his  time,  as  the 
present  copies  have  descended  from  the  MS.  preserved  by  his 
family  and  first  copied  in  a.y.  369. 

1  Zi^-sparham  was  brother  of  the  author  of  the  Da<ristan-i  Dinik 
be  was  high-priest  at  Sirkan  in  the  south,  and  evidently  had 
to  the    Bundabi-r,  of  part  of  which   he   wrote   a   paraphrase  (see 
Appendix).     His  name  is  usually  written  Za</-sparam. 

'  In  the  history  of  the  Dinkarrf,  given  at  the  end  of  its  third 
book  (see  Inirod.  to  Farhang-i  Oim-khaduk,  p.  xxxiv),  we  are  told 
as  follows : — 

'After  that,  the  well-meaning  Ataro-pat/  son  of  H£mir/.  who 
was  the  leader  of  the  people  of  the  good  religion,  compiled,  with 
the  assistance  of  God,  through  inquiry,  investigation,  and  much 
trouble,  a  new  means  of  producing  remembrance  of  the  Maz- 
dayasnian  religion.'  He  did  this,  we  are  further  told,  by  collecting 
all  the  decaying  literature  and  perishing  tradition*  into  a  work 
'  like  the  great  original  Dtnkar</,of  a  thousand  chapters'  (manik-i 
zak  rabS  bun  Din6-kartd  1000-darako).  We  thus  le.irn  from 
external  sources  that  the  group  of  contemporary  priests,  mentioned 
in  the  text,  was  actively  employed  (about  a.d.  900)  in  u  attempted 
revival  of  the  religious  literature  of  the  Mazdayasnians,  to  wl.i 
owe  either  the  revision  or  compilation  of  such  works  as  the  Din- 
kart/,  Da</istan-i  Dinik,  and  Bundahir. 

CHAPTER    XXXIII,    I2-XXXIV,    4. 


Chapter  XXXIV1. 
o.  On  the  reckoning  of  the  years 2. 

1.  Time  was  for  twelve  thousand  years;  and  it 
revelation,  that  three  thousand  years  was  the 
duration  of  the  spiritual  state,  where  the  creatures 
were  unthinking,  unmoving,  and  intangible3;  and 
three  thousand  years4  was  the  duration  of  Gay dmarrf. 
with  the  ox,  in  the  world.  2.  As  this  was  six  thou- 
sand years  the  series  of  millennium  reigns5  of 
Cancer,  Leo,  and  Virgo  had  elapsed,  because  it  was 
six  thousand  years  when  the  millennium  reign  came 
to  Libra,  the  adversary  rushed  in,  and  G&ydmar^ 
lived  thirty  years  in  tribulation8.  3.  After  the  thirty 
years7  Mashya  and  Mashyoi  grew  up;  it  was  fifty 
years  while  they  were  not  wife  and  husband  8,  and 
they  were  ninety-three  years  together  as  wife  and 
husband  till  the  time  when  H6shyang9  came. 

4.  HOshyang«/<w  forty  years10, Takhmorup11  thirty 
years,  Yim  till  his  glory12  departed  six  hundred  and 

1  This  chapter  is  found  in  all  the  MSS. 

•  TD  adds  '  of  the  Arabs  (Tasikan).' 
1  See  Chap.  I,  8.  *  See  Chaps.  I,  22,  III,  1. 

*  This  system  of  a  millennium  reign  for  each  constellation  of  the 
zodiac  can  hardly  have  any  connection  with  the  precession  of  the 
equinoxes,  as  the  equinoxes  travel  backwards  through  the  zodiac. 
whereas  these  millennium  reigns  travel  forwards. 

I*  See  Chap.  Ill,  21-23. 
r  That  is,  forty  years  after  the  thirty  (see  Chap.  XV,  2). 
•  See  Chap.  XV,  19,  20.  ■  See  Chaps.  XV,  28,  XXXI,  1. 

'  K10  omits,  by  mistake,  from  '  together '  in  §  3  to  this  point. 
11  See  Chap.  XXXI,  2. 
"  So  in  K20,  but  M6  has  nismd,  'soul,  reason,'  as  in  Chap. 
XXIII,  1  ;  the  word  'glory'  would  refer  to  the  supposed  divine 
glory  of  the  Iranian  monarch*  (see  Chap.  XXXI,  32). 

sixteen  years  and  six  months,  and  after  that  he 
was  a  hundred  years  in  concealment.  5.  Then  the 
millennium '  reign  came  to  Scorpio,  and  Dahak : 
ruled  a  thousand  years.  6.  After  the  millennium 
reign  came  to  Sagittarius,  Frerfun 3  reigiud  five  hun- 
dred years ;  in  the  same  five  hundred  years  of 
FreWun  were  the  twelve  years  of  Alri£ ;  Minu^'lhar l 
was  a  hundred  and  twenty  years,  and  in  the  same 
reign  of  Manu^'ihar,  when  he  was  in  the  mountain 
fastness  (dushkhvar-gar) s,  were  the  twelve  years 
of  Frastyav ;  Z6b  °  the  Tuhmaspian  was  five  years. 

7.  Kal-Kabad'7  was  fifteen  years;  Kat-Kaus,  till 
he  went  to  the  sky,  seventy-five  years,  and  seventy- 
five  years  after  that,  altogether  a  hundred  and  fifty 
years;  Kal-Khflsrdv  sixty  years;  Kat-Ldrasp"  a 
hundred  and  twenty  years ;  Kai-VLstasp,  till  the 
coming  of  the  religion,  thirty  years9,  altogether  a 
hundred  and  twenty  years. 

8.  Vohuman 10  son  of  Spend-di^  a  hundred  and 

1  The  seventh  millennium,  ruled  by  Libra,  is  computed  by  Wind- 
ischmann  as  follows:  30  +  40I+50  +  93  +  40  +  30+616I+  100= 
1000.  The  eighth  millennium,  ruled  by  Scorpio,  is  the  thousand 
years  of  Dahak. 

s  See  Chap.  XXXI,  6.  »  See  Chap.  XXXI.  T-.  1 

4  See  Chap.  XXXI,  12-14.  9  See  Chap.  XXXI,  21. 

•  Written  AGz6b6  in  Chap.  XXXI,  33,  24. 

7  Usually  written  Kat-Kava<f  in  Pahlavi  (see  Chap.  XXXI,  24,  25) 

•  Also  written  KaJ-L6harasp  (see  Chap.  XXXI,  28,  29). 

•  This  is  the  end  of  the  ninth  millennium,  ruled  by  Sagittarius, 
which  is  computed  by  Windischmann  as  follows :  5004- » 20  4-  5  + 
15+150  +  604-  120  +  30=  1000. 

"  See  Chap.  XXXI,  29,  30,  where  he  is  said  to  have  been  also 
called  Artakhshatar,  which  seems  to  identify  him  with  Artaxerxes 
Longimanus  and  his  successors  down  to  Artaxerxes  Mncmon  ;  so 
that  Humai  may  perhaps  be  identified  with  Parysatis,  and  Darii 
A1har-a2at/4n  with  Artaxerxes  Ochus,  as  Darii  1  Darayan  must  be 

twelve  years ;  Humat,  who  was  daughter  of  Vohu- 
man,  thirty  years ;  Darai  son  of  ■ATihar-lsa/z'  \  that 
is,  of  the  daughter  of  Vohuman,  twelve  years  ;  Daral 
son  of  Daral  fourteen  years ;  Alexander  the  Ruman  - 
fourteen  years. 

9.  The  Aikanians  bore  the  title  in  an  uninter- 
rupted (a-arubak)  sovereignty  two  hundred  and 
eighty-four  years3,  Ardashir  son  of  Papak  and  the 
number  of  the  Sasanians  four  hundred  and  sixty 
years4,  and  then  it  went  to  the  Arabs. 

Darius  Codomannus,  while  the  reign  of  Kaf-Vijtasp  seems  intended 
10  cover  the  period  from  Cyrus  to  Xerxes. 

1  A  surname  of  Huraaf. 

1  Sikandar-i  Arumfik,  that  is,  Alexander  the  Roman  (of  the 
eastern  or  Greek  empire),  as  Pahlavi  writers  assume. 

1  This  period  is  nearly  two  centuries  too  short. 

'  The  actual  period  of  Sasauian  rule  was  425  years  (a.  v.  226- 
651).  According  to  the  figures  given  in  the  text,  the  tenth  millen- 
nium, ruled  by  Capricornus,  must  have  terminated  in  the  fourth 
year  of  the  last  king,  Yazdakarrf.  This  agrees  substantially  with  the 
Bahman  Yart,  which  makes  the  millennium  of  Zaral&rt  expire 
some  time  after  the  reign  of  Khtlsr6  Ndshirvan  ;  probably  in 
the  time  of  Khusrd  Parviz,  or  some  forty  years  earlier  titan  the 
fourth  year  of  YazdakarJ.  According  to  the  text  wc  must  now 
be  near  the  end  of  the  first  quarter  of  the  twelfth  and  last  mil- 



PARS  AND  kirmAn, 

A.D.   88l. 

Part  I,  Chapters  I-XI. 
(Paraphrase  of  Bundahis,  I-XVII.) 


1-5.  (The  same  as  on  p.  a.) 

6.  Abbreviations  used  are: — Av.  for  A  vesta.  Bund,  for  Bun- 
dahlr,  as  translated  in  this  volume.  B.  Yt.  for  Bahman  Yart,  as 
translated  in  this  volume.  Haug*s  Essays,  for  Essays  on  the  Sacred 
Language,  Writings,  and  Religion  of  the  Parsis,  by  Martin  Haug, 
and  edition.  Mkh.  for  Mainyd-i-khart/,  ed.  West.  Pers.  for 
Persian.  Vend,  for  Vendtd&d,  ed.  Spiegel.  Yas.  for  Yasna,  ed. 
Spiegel.    Yt  for  Yart,  ed.  Westergaard. 

7.  The  MS.  mentioned  in  the  notes  is  K35  (written  probably 
a.d.  157a),  No.  35  in  the  University  Library  at  Kopenhagen. 




They  call  these  memoranda  and  writings  the 
Selections  (^i^aktha)  of  Zd^-sparam,  son  of  Yudan- 

Chapter  I. 

o.  In  propitiation  of  the  creator  Auharmazd  and 
all  the  angels — who  are  the  whole  of  the  heavenly 
and  earthly  sacred  beings  (yazdan) — are  the  sayings 
of  Herbad  Za^-sparam,  son  of  Yudan-Yim,  who  is  of 
the  south  ',  about  the  meeting  of  the  beneficent  spirit 
and  the  evil  spirit. 

r.  It  is  in  scripture  thus  declared,  that  light  was 
above  and  darkness  below,  and  between  those  two 
was  open  space.  2.  Auharmazd  was  in  the  light, 
and  Aharman  in  the  darkness a ;  Auharmazd  was 
aware  of  the  existence  of  Aharman  and  of  his 
coming  for  strife ;  Aharman  was  not  aware  of  the 
existence  of  light  and  of  Auharmazd3.  3.  It  hap- 
pened to  Aharmant  in  the  gloom  and  darkness,  that 

1  ZSd'-sparam  appears  to  have  been  dastur  of  Sirkan,  about 
thirty  parasangs  south  of  Kinniin,  and  one  of  the  most  southern 
districts  in  Persia  (sec  Ouscley's  Oriental  Geography,  pp.  138,  139, 

141,  I43-M5)- 
1  See  Bund.  I,  2-4. 
•  Or  'of  the  light  of  Auharmazd'  (compare  Bund.  I,  8,  9). 




talking  humbly  (fi 


the  borders. 
and  meditating  other  things  he  came  up  to  the  top. 
and  a  ray  of  light  was  seen  by  him  ;  and  because  of  its 
antagonistic  nature  to  him  he  strove  that  he  might 
reach  it,  so  that  it  might  also  be  within  his  absolute 
power.  4.  And  as  he  came  forth  to  the  boundary, 
accompanied  by  certain  others1,  Auharmazd  came 
forth  to  the  struggle  for  keeping  Aharman  away 
from  His  territory;  and  He  did  it  through  pure 
words,  confounding  witchcraft,  and  cast  him  back  to 
the  gloom. 

5.  For  protection  from  the  fiend  (dru/)  the  spirits 
rushed  in,  the  spirits  of  the  sky,  water,  earth,  plants, 
animals,  mankind,  and  fire  He  /tad  appointed,  and 
they  maintained  it  (the  protection)  three  thousand 
years.  6.  Aharman,  also,  ever  collected  means  in 
the  gloom ;  and  at  the  end  of  the  three  thousand 
years  he  came  back  to  the  boundary,  blustered 
(patista^),  and  exclaimed  thus:  '  I  will  smite  thee, 
I  will  smite  the  creatures  which  thou  thinkest  have 
produced  fame  for  thee — thee  who  art  the  beneficent 
spirit — I  will  destroy  everything  about  them.' 

7.  Auharmazd  answered  thus  :  ■  Thou  art  not  a 
doer  of  everything,  O  fiend 2 ! " 

8.  And,  again,  Aharman  retorted  thus  :  '  I  will 
seduce  all  material  life  into  disaffection  to  thee  and 
affection  to  myself3.' 

9.  Auharmazd  perceived,  through  the  spirit  of 
wisdom,  thus  :  '  Even  the  blustering  of  Aharman  is 
capable  of  performance,  if  I  do  not  allow  disunion 

1  Reading   pavan    Aatlrano    ham-ianft,    but    the    phrase   is 
somewhat  doubtful,  and  rather  inconsistent  with  Bund.  I,  10. 
1  Bund.  I,  16.  s  Bund.  1   i4. 

(la  barinlnam)  during  a  period  of  struggle.'     10. 
And  he  demanded  of  him  a  period  for  friendship1, 

t  was  seen  by  him  that  Aharman  does  not  rely 
upon  the  intervention  of  any  vigorous  ones,  and  the 

tence  of  a  period  is  obtaining  the  benefit  of  the 
mutual  friendship  and  just  arrangement  of  both  ; 
and  he  formed  it  into  three  periods,  each  period 
being  three  millenniums,  u.  Aharman  relied  upon 
//.  and  Auharmazd  perceived  that,  though  it  is  not 
possible  to  have  Aharman  sent  down,  ever  when  he 
wants  he  goes  back  to  his  own  requisite,  which  is 
darkness;  and  from  the  poison  which  is  much 
diffused  endless  strife  arises-. 

i2.  And  after  the  period  was  appointed  by  him, 
he  brought  forward  the  Ahhnavarformu/a  ■/  and  in 
his  Ahunavar  these4  kinds  of  benefit  were  shown  : — 
i.v  The  first  is  that,  of  all  things,  that  is  proper 
which  is  something  declared  as  the  will  of  Auhar- 
mazd ;  so  that,  whereas  that  is  proper  which  is 
declared  the  will  of  Auharmazd,  where  anything 
exists  which  is  not  within  the  will  of  Auharmazd,  it 
is  created  injurious  from  the  beginning,  a  sin  of  a 
distinct  nature.     14.  The  second  is  this,  that  who- 

-  shall  do  that  which  is  the  will  of  Auharmazd, 
bis  reward  and  recompense  arc  his  own  ;  ami  of  him 

1  shall  not  do  that  which  is  the  will  of  Auhar- 
mazd, the  punishment  at  the  bridge0  owing  thereto 

1  Bund.  I,  17,  18. 

1  Or  '  the  poison  of  the  serpent,  which  is  much  diffused,  becomes 
endless  strife.' 

*  Bund.  I,  ai. 

1  The  word  in,  '  those/  however,  is  probably  a  miswriting  of 
the  cipher  for  '  three.' 

5  The  ATinvarf  or  A'invar  bridge  (see  Bund,  XII,  7). 



is  his  own  ;  which  is  shown  from  \\\\s*  fortnufa;  and 
the  reward  of  doers  of  good  works,  the  punishment 
of  sinners,  and  the  tales  of  heaven  and  hell  are  from 
it.  15.  Thirdly,  it  is  shown  that  the  sovereignty  of 
Auharmazd  increases  that  which  is  for  the  poor,  and 
adversity  is  removed ;  by  which  it  is  shown  that 
there  are  treasures  for  the  needy  one,  and  treasures 
are  to  be  his  friends  ;  as  the  intelligent  creations  are 
to  the  unintelligent,  so  also  are  the  treasures  of  a 
wealthy  person  to  a  needy  one,  treasures  liberally 
given  which  are  his  own.  16.  And  the  creatures  of 
the  trained  hand  of  Auharmazd  are  contending  and 
angry  (ar^tk),  one  with  the  other,  as  the  renovation 
of  the  universe  must  occur  through  these  three 
things.  17.  That  is,  first,  true  religiousness  in  one- 
self, and  reliance  upon  a  man's  original  hold  on  the 
truly  glad  tidings  (nav-barham),  that  Auharmazd 
is  all  goodness  without  vileness,  and  his  will  is  a 
will  altogether  excellent;  and  Aharman  is  all  vile- 
ness without  goodness.  iS.  Secondly,  hope  of  the 
reward  and  recompense  of  good  works,  serious  fear 
of  the  bridge  aw/ the  punishment  of  crime,  strenuous 
perseverance  in  good  works,  and  abstaining  from 
sin.  19.  Thirdly,  the  existence  of  the  mutual  assist- 
ance of  the  creatures,  or  along  with  and  owing  to 
mutual  assistance,  their  collective  warfare  ;  it  is  the 
triumph  of  warfare  over  the  enemy  which  is  one's 
own  renovation2. 

1  The  MS.  has  hQman,  '  well-meditating,'  instead  of  denman. 
1  this;'  but  the  two  words  are  much  alike  in  Pahlavi  writing. 

*  This  commentary  on  the  Ahunavar,  or  Yatha-ahfi-vairyo 
formula,  is  rather  clumsily  interpolated  by  ZaV-sparam,  and  is 
much  more  elaborate  than  the  usual  Pahlavi  translation  and  expla- 
nation of  this  formula,  which  may  be  translated  as  follows : — 

SELECTIONS    OF    ZAZKSPARAM,     I,     1 5-24.  1 59 

20.  By  this  formula  he  (Aharman)  was  con- 
founded, and  he  fell  back  to  the  gloom  ' ;  and  Auhar- 
mazd  produced  the  creatures  bodily  for  the  world ; 
first,  the  sky ;  the  second,  water  ;  the  third,  earth  ; 
the  fourth,  plants;  the  fifth,  animals;  the  sixth. 
mankind2.  21.  Fire  was  in  all,  diffused  originally 
through  the  six  substances,  of  which  it  was  as  much 
the  confiner  of  each  single  substance  in  which  it  was 
established,  it  is  said,  as  an  eyelid  when  they  lay  one 
down  upon  the  other. 

22.  Three  thousand  years  the  creatures  were 
possessed  of  bodies  and  not  walking  on  tlicir  navels ; 
mid  the  sun,  moon,  and  stars  stood  still.  23.  In  the 
mischievous  incursion,  at  the  end  of  the  period, 
Aiiharmazd  observed  thus:  'What  advantage  is 
there  from  the  creation  of  a  creature,  although 
thirstless,  which  is  unmoving  or  mischievous?'     24. 

'As  is  the  will  of  the  living  spirit  (as  is  the  will  of  Auharmazd) 
JO  should  be  the  pastor  (so  excellent  should  he  be)  owing  to 
whatsoever  are  the  duties  and  good  works  of  righteousness  (the 
duties  and  good  works  should  be  as  excellent  as  the  will  of  Auhar- 
mazd). Whose  is  the  gift  of  good  thought  (thai  is,  the  reward 
end  recompense  good  thought  gives,  it  gives  also  unto  him)  which 
among  living  spirits  is  the  work  of  Afiharmazd  (that  is,  they  would 
do  that  which  Aflharmazd  requires) ;  there  arc  some  who  say  it  is 
thus :  Whose  gift  is  through  good  thought  (that  is,  the  reward  and 
recompense  which  they  will  give  to  good  thought,  they  would  give 
also  unto  him);  Ataro-pa//  son  of  ZaratQjt  said  that  by  the  gift  of 
good  thought,  when  among  living  spirits,  they  comprehend  tin 
doing  of  deeds.  The  sovereignty  is  for  Afiharmazd  (that  is,  the 
sovereignty  which  is  his,  AGharmazd  has  kept  with  advantage) 
who  gives  necessaries  [or  comfort,  or  clothing]  to  the  poor  (that 
is,  they  would  make  intercession  for  them).' 

Additional   phrases   are   sometimes   inserted,   and  some  words 
altered,  but  U»c  above  is  the  usual  form  of  this  commentary. 

1  Bund.  1.  22.  3  Bund.  I,  28. 

And  in  aid  of  the  celestial  sphere  he  produced  the 
creature  Time  (zdrv&n)  x\  and  Time  is  unrestricted, 
so  that  he  made  the  creatures  of  Auharmazd  moving 
distinct  from  the  motion  of  Aharman's  creatures,  for 
the  shedders  of  perfume  (b6t-dart'an)  were  standing 
one  opposite  to  the  other  while  emitting  it.  25.  And, 
observantly  of  the  end,  he  brought  forward  to 
Aharman  a  means  out  of  himself,  the  property  of 
darkness,  with  which  the  extreme  limits  (virunakoi 
of  Time  were  connected  by  him,  an  envelope  (p6st6) 
of  the  black-pated  and  ash-coloured  kind.  26.  And 
in  bringing  it  forward  he  spoke  thus  :  '  Through 
their  weapons  the  co-operation  of  the  serpent  ( 
dies  away,  and  this  which  is  thine,  indeed  thy  own 
daughter,  dies  through  religion ;  and  if  at  the  end  of 
nine  thousand  years,  as  it  is  said  and  written,  is  a 
time  of  upheaval  (madam  kar^an6),  she  is  up- 
heaved, not  ended." 

27.  At  the  same  time  Aharman  came  from  accom 
panying  Time  out  to  the  front,  out  to  the  star 
station;  the  connection  of  the  sky  with  the  star 
station  was  open,  which  showed,  since  it  hung  down 
into  empty  space,  the  strong  communication  of  the 
lights  and  glooms,  the  place  of  strife  in  which  is  the 
pursuit  of  both.  2S.  And  having  darkness  with  him- 
self he  brought  it  into  the  sky,  and  left  the  sky  so 
to  gloom  that  the  internal  deficiency  in  the  sky 
extends  as  much  as  one-third  2  over  the  star  station 

1  This  is  the  Av.  zrvSna  a  kar ana, 'boundless  time  or  antiquity.' 

of  Vend.  XIX,  33,  44.      He  is  a  personification  of  duration  and 

and  is  here  dittinctly  staled  to  be  a  creature  of  Auharmazd 

This  throws  some  doubt  upon  the  statements  of  Armenian  writ 

who  assert  that  the  two  spirits  sprang  from  Zrv&na. 

!  Compare  Bund.  Ill,  n. 

SELECTIONS    OF   zAfl-SPARAM,    I,    25 -II,    6.         l6l 

Chapter    II. 

1.  On  the  coming  in  of  Aharman  to  the  creatures 
it  is  thus  declared  in  revelation,  that  in  the  month 
Fravan/in  and  the  day  Auharmazd,  at  noon  \  he 
came  forth  to  the  frontier  of  the  sky.  2.  The  sky 
sees  him  and,  on  account  of  his  nature,  fears  as 
much  as  a  sheep  trembles  at  a  wolf;  and  Aharman 
came  on,  scorching  and  burning  into  it  3,  Then  he 
came  to  the  water  which  was  arranged  below  the 
earth  *,  and  darkness  without  an  eyelid  was  brought 
on  by  him ;  and  he  came  on,  through  the  middle  of 
the  earth,  as  a  snake  all-leaping  comes  on  out  of  a 
hole;  and  he  stayed  within  the  whole  earth.  4. 
The  passage  where  he  came  on  is  his  own,  the  way 
to  hell,  through  which  the  demons  make  the  wicked 

5.  Afterwards,  he  came  to  a  tree,  such  as  was  of  a 
single  root,  the  height  of  which  was  several  feet,  and 

MS  without  branches  and  without  bark,  juicy  and 
sweet ;  and  to  keep  the  strength  of  all  kinds  of  trees 
in  its  race,  it  was  in  the  vicinity  of  the  middle  of  the 
earth ;  and  at  the  selfsame  time  it  became  quite 
withered s. 

6.  Afterwards,  he  came  to  the  ox,  the  sole- 
created  *,  as  it  stood  as  high  as  Gay6mar^  on  the 

■  Bund.  Ill,  13. 

i"  Bund.  Ill,  12. 
■  Bund.  Ill,  14.  i*. 
*  The  primeval  ox,  or  first-created  representative  of  animals,  as 
Gayi-">mar<y  was  of  mankind;  from  which  two  representatives  all 
mankind  and  animals  are  said  to  have  been  afterwards  developed. 
There  seems  10  have  been  some  doubt  as  to  the  sex  of  this  mytho- 
logical ox  ;  here  it  is  distinctly  stated  to  have  been  a  female,  but  from 
Bond.  X,  1,  ?,  XIV.  3,  it  would  appear  to  have  been  a  male,  and  this 
seems  io  be  admitted  by  Dlrf-sparam  himself,  in  Chap.  IX,  7. 



bank  of  the  water  of  Daitih  1  in  the  middle  of  the 
earth  ;  and  its  distance  from  Gaydmaft/  being  as 
much  as  its  own  height,  it  was  also  distant  from  the 
bank  of  the  water  of  Daitih  by  the  same  measure; 
and  it  was  a  female,  white  and  brilliant  as  the  moon. 
7.  As  the  adversary  came  upon  it  Auharmazd  gave 
it  a  narcotic,  which  is  also  called  '  bang,'  to  eat,  and 
to  rub  the  *  bang '  before  the  eye 8,  so  that  the 
annoyance  from  the  assault  of  crimes  may  be  less: 
it  became  lean  and  ill,  and  fell  upon  its  right  breast3 

8.  Before  the  advance  to  Gay6man£  who  was 
then  about  one-third  the  height  of  Zaratu^t,  and  was 
brilliant  as  the  sun,  Auharmazd  forms,  from  the 
sweat 4  on  the  man,  a  figure  of  fifteen  years,  radiant 
and  tall,  and  sends  it  on  to  Gay6man/ ;  and  he  also 
brings  his  sweat6  on  to  him  as  long  as  one  Yatha- 
ahu-vairy6"  is  being  recited.  9.  When  he  issued 
from  the  sweat,  and  raised  his  eyes,  he  saw  tin- 
world  when  it  was  dark  as  night 7 ;  on  the  whol«* 
earth  were  the  snake,  the  scorpion,  the  lizard 
(vazak),  and  noxious  creatures  of  many  kinds  ;  and 
so  the  other  kinds  of  quadrupeds  stood  among  thr 

1  The  Dahik  river  (see  Bund.  XX,  13). 

*  This  is  a  misunderstanding  of  the  corresponding  phrase 
Bund.  Ill,  18.     The  narcotic  here  mentioned  is  usually  prepared 
from  the  hemp  plant,  and  is  well  known  in  India  and  the  neigh- 
bouring countri'    . 

*  See  Bund.  IV,  1. 

*  The  word  which,  as  it  stands  in  the  MS.,  looks  like  homande, 
is  here  taken  as  a  transposition  of  min  khvSe,  in  accordance  with 
Bund.  Ill,  19  ;  but  it  may  be  a  variant  of  anum&c,  '  embryo,'  in 
which  case  the  translation  should  be,  '  forms  an  embryo  into  the 
shape  of  a  man  of  fifteen  years/ 

*  Or  it  may  be  'sleep,'  both  here  and  in  §  9. 

*  See  Bund.  I,  21.  T  Bund.  HI,  ao. 


SELECTIONS  OF  ZAD-SPAR'AM,    II,    "-IV,    I.        1 63 

reptiles ;  every  approach  of  the  whole  earth  was  as 
though  not  as  much  as  a  needle's  point  remained,  in 
which  there  was  no  rush  of  noxious  creatures.  10. 
There  were  the  coming  of  a  planetary  star  into 
planetary  conjunction,  and  the  moon  and  planets  at 
sixes  and  sevens  ■ ;  many  dark  forms  with  the  face 
and  curls  of  As-i  Dah&k  suffered  punishment  in  com- 
pany with  certain  non-Iranians;  and  he  was  amazed 
at  calling  the  wicked  out  from  the  righteous. 

1 1.  Lastly,  he  (Aharman)  came  up  to  the  fire,  and 
mingled  darkness  and  smoke  with  it 2. 

Chapter   III. 

1 .  And  Gorurvan,  as  she  was  herself  the  soul  of 
the  primeval  ox,  when  the  ox  passed  away,  came  out 
from  the  ox,  even  as  the  soul  from  the  body  of  the 
dead,  and  kept  up  the  clamour  of  a  cry  to  Auhar- 
mazd  in  such  fashion  as  that  of  an  army,  a  thousand 
strong,  when  they  cry  out  together3.  2.  And  Au- 
harmazd,  in  order  to  be  much  more  able  to  keep 
watch  over  the  mingled  creatures  than  in  front  of 
G&yoman/,  went  from  the  earth  up  to  the  sky.  3. 
And  G6xurvan  continually  went  after  him  crying, 
and  she  kept  up  the  cry  thus :  '  With  whom  may  the 
guardianship  over  the  creatures  be  left  by  thee  ? ' 

Chapter   IV. 

1  This  was  the  highest  predominance  of  Ahar- 
man, for  he  came  on,  with  all  the  strength  which  he 

!  Literally,  '  in  fours  and  fives.' 
"  Bund.  Ill,  24. 

M  2 

I  Bund.  IV,  2. 

had.  for  the  disfigurement  of  the  creatures ;  and  he 
took  as  much  as  one-third  of  the  base  of  the  sky '. 
in  a  downward  direction,  into  a  confined  and  captive 
state,  so  that  it  was  all  dark  and  apart  from  the 
light,  for  it  was  itself,  at  the  coming  of  the  adversary, 
his  enemy  among  the  struggles  for  creation.  2.  And 
this  is  opposing  the  renovation  of  the  universe,  for 
the  greatest  of  all  the  other  means  of  the  fiend, 
when  he  has  come  in,  are  of  like  origin  and  strength 
this  day,  in  the  sleep*  of  the  renovation,  as  on  that 
when  the  enemy,  who  is  fettered  on  coming  in,  is 
kept  back. 

3.  Amid  all  this  struggling  were  mingled  the  in- 
stigations of  Aharman,  crying  thus :  *  My  victory 
has  come  completely,  for  the  sky  is  split  and  dis- 
figured by  me  with  gloom  and  darkness,  and  taken 
by  me  as  a  stronghold  ;  water  is  disfigured  by  me, 
and  the  earth,  injured  by  darkness,  is  pierced  by  me  ; 
vegetation  is  withered  by  me,  the  ox  is  put  to  death 
by  me,  Gay6mardf  is  made  ill  by  me,  and  opposed  to 
those  revolving3  are  the  glooms  and  planets  ar- 
ranged by  me ;  no  one  has  remained  for  me  to  1 
and  pervert  in  combat  except  Aiiharmazd,  and  of 
the  earth  there  is  only  one  man,  who  is  alone,  what 
is  he  able  to  do  ? ' 

4.  And  he  sends  Asto-vida^4  upon  him  with  the 
thousand    decrepitudes    (atizvarano)  and  disc 

1  Compare  Bund.  Ill,  11.  The  involved  style  of  Za</-sparaiu  is 
particularly  conspicuous  in  this  chapter. 

8  The  word  seems  to  be  khvSpijno. 

8  Meaning  probably  the  zodiacal  signs,  but  the  word  is  doubtful, 
being  spelt  vardijnlno  instead  of  var</ij*n&n5.  A  very  small 
alteration  would  change  it  into  var6!jnan6,  'believers,'  but  there 
were  no  earthly  believers  at  the  time  alluded  to. 

*  Sec  Bund.  Ill,  at,  and  XXVIII,  35. 

which  are  his  own.  sicknesses  of  various  kinds,  so  that 
they  may  make  him  iil  and  cause  death.  5.  Gayo- 
man/  was  not  secured  by  them,  and  the  reason 
was  because  it  was  a  decree  of  appointing  Time 
in  the  beginning  of  the  coming  in  of 
.Aharman,  that:  'Up  to  thirty  winters  I  appoint 
Gftyfaanrf  unto  brilliance  and  preservation  of  life.' 
6.  And  his  manifestation  in  the  celestial  sphere  was 
through  the  forgiveness  of  criminals  and  instigators 
of  confusion  by  his  good  works,  and  for  that  reason 
no  opportunity  was  obtained  by  them  during  the 
extent  of  thirty  years. 

7.  For  in  the  beginning  it  was  so  appointed  that 
the  star  Jupiter  (Auharmazd)  was  life  towards  the 
creatures,  not  through  its  own  nature,  but  on 
account  of  its  being  within  the  control  (band)  of 
the  luminaries1;  and  Saturn  (Kevan)  was  death 
towards  the  creatures.  8.  Both  were  in  their 
supremacy  (ballst)-  at  the  beginning  of  the  crea- 

1  These  luminaries  are  the  fixed  stars,  especially  the  signs  of  the 
zodiac,  to  whose  protection  the  good  creation  is  committed  (sec 
Bund.  II,  0-4);  whereas  Jupiter  and  all  other  planets  are  supposed 
10  be.  by  nature,  disturbers  of  the  creation,  being  employed  by 
Aharman  for  that  purpose  (see  Mkh.  VIII.  17-21,  XII,  7-10, 
XXIV,  8,  XXX VI li 

1  The  most  obvious  meaning  of  balist  is  'greatest  altitude,' 
and  this  is  quite  applicable  to  Jupiter  when  it  attains  its  highest 
northern  declination  on  entering  Cancer,  but  it  is  not  applicable 
to  Saturn  in  Libra,  when  it  has  only  its  mean  altitude.  At  the 
vernal  equinox,  however,  which  was  the  time  of  the  beginning 
mentioned  in  the  text,  when  Aharman  invaded  the  creation  (see 
Chap.  II,  1),  Libra  is  in  opposition  to  the  sun,  and  Saturn  in  Libra 
i  !*•  at  its  nearest  approach  to  the  earth,  and  would,  therefore, 
attain  its  maximum  brightness ;  while  Jupiter  in  Cancer  would  be 
at  its  greatest  altitude  and  shining  with  four-fifths  of  its  maximum 
brightness.  Both  planets,  dicrcforc,  were  near  their  most  con- 
■us  position  (which  would  seem  to  be  the  meaning  of  b&ltst 

1 66 


tures,  as  Jupiter  was  in  Cancer  on  rising,  that  which 
is  also  called  (7ivan  ('living) l,  for  it  is  the  place  in 
which  life  is  bestowed  upon  it ;  and  Saturn  was  in 
Libra,  in  the  great  subterranean,  so  that  its  own 
venom  and  deadliness  became  more  evident  and 
more  dominant  thereby.  9.  And  it  was  when  boUi 
shall  not  be  supreme  that  Gayoman/  was  to  com- 
plete his  own  life,  which  is  the  thirty  years  ■  Saturn 
came  not  again  to  supremacy,  that  is,  to  Libra.  io. 
And  at  the  time  when  Saturn  came  into  Libra. 
Jupiter  was  in  Capricornus 3,  on  account  of  whose 
own  lowness  \  and  the  victory  of  Saturn  over 
Jupiter,  Gayomantf  suffered  through  those  very 
defects  which  came  and  are  to  continue  advancing, 
the  continuance  of  that  disfigurement  which  Ahar- 
man  can  bring  upon  the  creatures  of  Auharmazd. 

here),  and  might  each  be  supposed  to  be  exercising  ils  maximum 
astrological  influence,  so  that  the  presumed  deadly  power  of  Saturn 
would  be  neutralised  by  the  supposed  reviving  influence  of  Jupiter. 
1  This  reading  suits  the  context  best,  but  the  name  can  also  be 
read  Snahan,  and  in  many  other  ways.  It  may  possibly  be  the 
tenth  lunar  mansion,  whose  name  is  read  Nahn  in  Bund.  II,  3, 
by  FfaBUd  writers,  and  which  corresponds  to  the  latter  part  of 

*  Saturn  revolves  round  the  sun  in  about  20  years  and  167 
days,  so  it  cannot  return  into  opposition  to  the  sun  (or  to  it? 
maximum  brightness),  at  or  near  the  vernal  equinox,  in  less  than 
thirty  years. 

*  That  is.  while  Saturn  performs  one  revolution  round  the  sun, 
Jupiter  performs  two  and  a  half,  which  is  very  nearly  correct,  as 
Jupiter  revolves  round  the  sun  in  about  11  years  and  315  days. 
Therefore,  when  the  supposed  deadly  influence  of  Saturn  has 
returned  to  its  maximum,  the  supposed  reviving  influence  of  Jupiter 
is  at  its  minimum,  owing  to  the  small  altitude  of  Capricornus,  and 
no  longer  counterbalances  the  destructive  power  of  Saturn. 

4  There  seems  to  be  no  other  reasonable  translation,  but  the 
MS.  has  la  instead  of  rat,  and  ni-rkasp  instead  of  nixlp. 

Chapter  V. 

i.  When  in  like  manner,  and  equally  oppressively, 
as  his  (Auharmazd's)  creatures  were  disfigured,  then 
through  that  same  deterioration  his  own  great  glory 
was  exhibited ;  for  as  he  came  within  the  sky  •  he 
maintains  the  spirit  of  the  sky.  like  an  intrepid  war- 
rior who  has  put  on  metal  armour-;  and  the  sky  in 
its  fortress3  spoke  these  hasty,  deceitful  words  to 
Aharman,  thus:  '  Now  when  thou  shalt  have  come 
in  I  will  not  let  thee  back;'  and  it  obstructed  him 
until  Auharmazd  prepared  another  rampart,  that  is 
stronger,  around  the  sky,  which  is  called  '  righteous 
understanding'  (ash 6k  akasth).  2.  And  he  ar- 
ranged the  guardian  spirits*  of  the  righteous  who 
are  warriors  around  that  rampart,  mounted  on  horses 
and  spear  in  hand,  in  such  manner  as  the  hair  on 
the  head ;  and  they  acquired  the  appearance  of 
m  guards  who  watch  a  prison  from  outside,  and 
would  not  surrender  the  outer  boundaries  to  an 
enemy  descended  from  die  inside. 

Immediately,  Aharman  endeavours  that  he 
may  go  back  to  his  own  complete  darkness,  but 
he  found  no  passage;  and  he  recapitulated,  with 
seeming  misgiving,  his  fears  of  the  worthiness 
which  is  to  arise  at  the  appearance  of  the  renova- 
tion of  the  universe  at  the  end  of  the  nine  thousand 


4.  As  it  is  said  in  the  G&thas,  thus 5 :    '  So  also 

1  See  Chap.  III.  9,  *  Compare  Bund.  VI,  2. 

'  Or  'zodiacal  signs,'  for  bfir^o  means  both. 
'  Bund.  VI,  3,  4. 
*  This  quotation  from   the  Gathas  is  from  the  Pahlavi  Yas. 
XXX,  4,  and  agrees  with  the  Pahlavi  text,  given  in  Dastfir  Jim- 

both  these  spirits  have  approached  together  unto 
that  which  was  the  first  creation — that  is,  both 
spirits  have  come  to  the  body  of  Gay6mar^.  What- 
ever is  in  life  is  so  through  this  purpose  of  Auhar- 
mazd,  that  is :  So  that  I  may  keep  it  alive ;  what- 
ever is  in  lifelessness  is  so  through  this  purpose 1  of 
the  evil  spirit,  that  is  :  So  that  I  may  utterly  destroy 
it ;  and  whatever  is  thus,  is  so  until  the  last  in 
the  world,  so  that  they  (both  spirits)  come  also  on 
to  the  rest  of  mankind.  And  on  account  of  the 
utter  depravity  of  the  wicked  Ikeir  destruction  is 
fully  seen,  and  so  is  the  perfect  meditation  of  him 
who  is  righteous,  the  hope  of  the  eternity  of 

5.  And  this  was  the  first  contest2,  that  of  the  sky 
with  Aharman. 

Chapter  VI. 

1.  And  as  he  (Aharman)  came  secondly  to  the 
water,  together  with  him  rushed  in,  on  the  horse 
Cancer,  he  who  is  the  most  watery  Ti^tar ;  the 
equally  watery  one,  that  is  called  Avrak 3,  gave 
forth  a  cloud  and  went  down  in  the  day ;    that  is 

aspji's  old  MS.  of  the  Yasna  in  Bombay,  very  nearly  as  closely 
as  Spiegel's  edition  does.  It  appears,  therefore,  that  Da</-sparim 
used  the  same  I'ahlavi  translation  of  the  Yasna  as  the  Parsis  do 
at  the  present  day. 

1  The  MS.  here  omits  the  words  'through  this  purpose,'  by 

*  The  word  arrfk,  which  Da</-sparam  uses  instead  of  the 
kharah,  'conflict,'  of  Bund.  V,  0,  VI,  1,  &c,  may  be  connected 
with  Pers.  drd,  'anger.' 

•  The  ninth  lunar  mansion  (see  Bund.  II,  3,  VII,  1). 


declared  as  the  movement  of  the  first-comers  of  the 
creatures.  2.  Cancer  became  a  zodiacal  constella- 
tion (akhtar);  it  is  the  fourth  constellation  of  the 
zodiac  for  this  reason,  because  the  month  Tir  is  the 
fourth  month  of  the  year  \ 

3.  And  as  TlJtar  begged  for  assistance,  Vohu- 
man  and  H6m  are  therefore  co-operating  with  him 
in  command,  Burf  of  the  waters  and  the  water  in 
mutual  aid,  and  the  righteous  guardian  spirits  in 
keeping  the  peace.  4.  He  was  converted  into  three 
forms,  which  are  the  form  of  a  man,  the  form  of  a 
bull,  and  the  form  of  a  horse ;  and  each  form  was 
distinguished  in  brilliance  for  ten  nights,  and  lets  its 
rain  fall  on  the  night  for  the  destruction  of  noxious 
creatures.  5.  The  drops  became  each  separately 
like  a  great  bowl  in  which  water  is  drawn ;  and  as 
to  that  on  which  they  are  driven,  they  kill  all  the 
noxious  creatures  except  the  reptiles "-,  who  entered 
into  the  muddiness  of  the  earth. 

6.  Afterwards,  the  wind  spirit,  in  the  form  of  a 
man,  became  manifest  on  the  earth  ;  radiant  and  tall 
he  had  a  kind  of  wooden  boot  (mukv6-a£-i  darlno) 
on  his  feet ;  and  as  when  the  life  shall  stir  the  body, 
the  body  is  advancing  with  like  vigour,  so  that  spirit 
of  the  wind  stirs  forth  the  inner  nature  of  the  atmo- 
spheric wind,  the  wind  pertaining  to  the  whole  earth 
is  forth,  and  the  water  in  its  grasp  is  flung  out  from 
it  to  the  sides  of  the  earth,  and  its  wide- formed 
ocean  arose  therefrom. 

7.  It  (the  ocean)  keeps  one-third  of  this  earth  •', 

1   Band.  VII,  2-6  is  paraphrased  in  §§  2-6. 

*  Reading  neksund    bara    min    khasandakano   instead  of 
the  MS.  bara  nasund  min  khasandakano. 

*  Compare  Bund.  XIII,  1,  2. 


and  among  its  contents  are  a  thousand  sources  and 
fountains,  such  as  are  called  lakes  (var) ;  a  thousand 
water-fountains,  whose  water  is  from  the  ocean, 
come  up  from  the  lakes  and  are  poured  forth  into 
it.  8.  And  the  size  of  some  of  all  the  lakes  and  all 
the  fountains  of  water  is  as  much  as  a  fast  rider  on 
an  Arab  horse,  who  continually  compasses  and  can- 
ters around  them,  will  attain  in  forty  days,  which  is 
1900 '  long  leagues  (parasang-i  akarik),  each 
league  being  at  least  20,000  feet. 

9.  And  after  the  noxious  creatures  died  *,  and  the 
poison  therefrom  was  mixed  up  in  the  earth,  in 
order  to  utterly  destroy  that  poison  Ti»tar  went 
down  into  the  ocean;  and  Apaosh,  the  demon, 
hastened  to  meet  him,  and  at  the  alarm  of  the  first 
contest  Ti5tar  was  in  terror  (pan/).  10.  And  he 
applied  unto  Auharmazd,  who  brought  such  power 
unto  Tirtar  as  arises  through  propitiation  and  praise 
and  invoking  by  name  "',  ami  they  call  forth  such 
power  unto  Ttatar  as  that  of  ten  vigorous  horses, 
ten  vigorous  camels,  ten  vigorous  bulls,  ten  moun- 
tains when  hurled,  and  ten  single-stream  rivers 
when  together.  II,  And  without  alarm  he  drove 
out  Apa6sh,  the  demon,  and  kept  him  away  from 
the  sources  of  the  ocean. 

12.  And  with  a  cup  and  measuring  bowl,  which 
possessed  the  diligence  even  of  a  guardian  spirit 
(fravahar),  he  seized  many  more  handfuls  of  water, 


1  Bund.  XIII,  1  has  1700,  but  as  neither  number  is  a  multiple  of 
forty  in  round  numbers,  it  is  probable  that  both  are  wrong,  Bad 
that  we  ought  to  read  1600. 

1  Bund.  VII,  7-14  is  paraphrased  in  §§  9-14. 

1  The  Av.  aokhid-namana  yasna  ofTijtar  Yt.  1 1,  23,  24. 

and  made  it  rain  down  ■  much  more  prodigiously, 
for  destruction,  drops  as  large  as  men's  heads  and 
bulls*  heads,  great  and  small.  13.  And  in  that  cloud 
and  rain  were  the  chastisement  and  beating  which 
Ttrtar  and  the  fire  Yazi-vt  inflict ai  on  the  opposition 
of  Apaosh;  the  all-deciding (vispd-vU'ir)  fire  V&zfet 
struck  down  with  a  club  of  fire,  all-deciding  among 
the  malevolent  (kebarano). 

14.  Ten  days  and  nights  there  was  rain,  and  its 
darting 3  was  the  shooting  of  the  noxious  creatures ; 
afterwards,  the  wind  drove  it  to  the  shore  of  the 
wide-formed  ocean,  and  it  is  portioned  out  into 
three,  and  three  seas  arose  from  it ;  they  are  called 
the  Pultik,  the  KaminV/,  and  die  Gehan-bun ».  15. 
Of  these  the  Puidk  itself  is  salt  water,  in  which  is 
a  flow  and  ebb4;  and  the  control  of  its  flow  and 
ebb  is  connected  with  the  moon,  and  by  its  con- 
tinual rotation,  in  coming  tip  and  going  down,  that 
of  the  moon  is  manifested.  16.  The  wide-formed 
ocean  stands  forth  on  the  south  side  as  to  (pavan) 
Alburn*,  and  the  Pultik  stands  contiguous  to  it,  and 
amidst  it  is  the  gulf  (var)  of  Satav£s,  whose  con- 
nection is  with  Sataves,  which  is  the  southern 
quarter.  17.  In  the  activity  of  the  sea,  and  in  the 
increase  and  decrease  of  the  moon,  whose  circuit 

the  whole  of  Iran,  are  the  flow  and  ebb  ;  of  the 

Or  perhaps  'made  ihc  cloud  rain,'  if  madam  varanlni*/ 
for  arar  var5nini</. 

*  Reading  partSr  instead  of  the  MS.  pat 0 tip,  'powerful  fury.' 

*  Thw  b  a  variant  of  the  .Sahi-bun  or  Gahi-bOn  of  Bund.  XIII. 
:  the  other  two  names  differ  but  little  from  those  given  in 

Burnt  XIII.     In  the  MS.  Puitik  occurs  once,  and  Puitik  twice. 

*  Compare  $4  15-1  s  w;th  Bond.  XI 11,  8-14. 
3  Compare  Bund.  XIII,  1. 

curving  tails  in  front  of  the  moon  two  issue  forth, 
and  have  an  abode  in  Sataves;  one  is  the  up- 
drag  and  one  the  down-drag;  through  the  up-«i 
occurs  the  flood,  and  through  the  down-drag  occurs 
the  ebb3.  18.  And  Sataves  itself  is  a  gulf  (var) 
and  side  arm  of  the  wide-formed  ocean,  for  it  drives 
back  the  impurity  and  turbidness  which  catne  from 
the  salt  sea,  when  they  an-  continually  going  into 
the  wide-formed  ocean,  with  a  mighty  high  wind5, 
while  that  which  is  clear  through  purity  goes  into 
the  Aredvisur  sources  of  the  wide-formed  ocean, 
19.  Besides  these  four3  there  are  the  small  m 

20.  And,  afterwards,  there  were  made  to  flow  froi 
Alburn,  out  of  its  northern  border,  two  rivers5,  which 
were  the  Arvand c — that  is,  the  Digltt,  and  the  flow 


'  This  is  even  a  more  mechanical  theory  of  the  tides  than  that 
detailed  in  Bund.  XIII,  13.  Whether  the  'curving  tails'  (ga^ak 
dunbak)  are  the  '  horns '  of  the  crescent  moon  is  uncertain. 

■  By  an  accidental  transposition  of  letters  the  MS.  has  atan'., 
'  fire,'  instead  of  vat 6, '  v  b 

■  The  ocean  and  three  principal  seas. 
*  Said  to  be  twenty-three  in  number  in  Bund.  XIII,  6. 
»  Bund.  VII,  15,  16,  XX,  1. 
1  This  appears  to  be  a  later  identification  of  the  Arag, 

or  ArSng  river  of  Bund.  XX  with  the  Tigris,  under  its  name  A 
which  is  also  found  in  the  Bahman  Vftrt  (III,  ti,  38)  and  the 
Afrin  of  the  Seven  Amcshaspends  (§  9).  The  Bundahb  (XX,  8] 
seems  to  connect  the  Arag  (Araxes?)  with  the  Oxus  and  Nile,  and 
describes  the  Diglat  or  Tigris  as  a  distinct  river  (Bund.  XX,  »). 
This  difference  is  one  of  the  indications  of  the  BundahLr  having 
been  so  old  a  book  in  the  time  of  ZaV-sparam  thai  he  sometimes 
misunderstood  its  meaning,  which  could  hardly  have  been  the  case 
if  it  had  been  written  by  one  of  his  contemporaries.  As  the  Fv 
empire  has  several  times  included  part  of  Egypt,  the  Nile  must 
have  then  been  well  known  to  the  Persians  as  the  great  western 
river  of  their  world.  The  last  time  they  had  possession  of  pan 
of  Egypt  was,  for  about  half  a  century,  in  the  reigns  of  Kh 

SELECTION?    OF   zAZKSPARANf,    VI,     18-VII,     I.      17; 

of  that  riv-  to  those  of  the  setting  sun  (val 

fr6</-yehevun<r*an6) — and  the  Veh  •  was  the  river 
of  the  first-comers  to  the  sun  ;  formed  as  two  horns 
they  went  on  to  the  ocean.  21.  After  them  eigh- 
teen a  great  rivers  came  out  from  the  same  AlbCir^ ; 
and  these  twenty  rivers,  whose  source  is  in  Alburn, 
go  down  into  the  earth,  and  arrive  in  Khvanlras. 

22.  Afterwards,  two  fountains  of  the  sea  are 
opened  out  for  the  earth 3,  which  are  called  the 
Ae^-ast* — a  lake  which  has  no  told  wind,  and  on 
whose  shore  rests  the  triumphant  fire  Gusnasp' — ■ 
and,  secondly,  the  S6var°  which  casts  on  its  shores 
all  turbidness,  and  keeps  its  own  salt  lake  clear  and 
pure,  for  it  is  like  the  semblance  of  an  eye  which 
casts  out  to  its  edges  every  ache  and  every  im- 
purity; and  on  account  of  its  depth  it  is  not  reached 
I  to  the  bottom,  for  it  goes  into  the  ocean  ;  and  in  its 
vicinity  rests  the  beneficial  fire  Bur~in-Mitrd7. 
93,  And  this  was  the  second  contest,  which  was 
with  the  water. 

Chapter  VII. 

1.  And  as  he  (Aharman)    came   thirdly   to   the 
earth,  which  arrayed  the  whole  earth  against  him — 

Kfchirvin,  AGharraazd  IV,  and  Khusro  Parvlz;  but  since  the 
early  pan  of  the  seventh  century  the*  Tigris  has  practically  been 
their  extreme  western  limit ;  hence  the  change  of  the  old  Arag  or 
Arang  into  the  very  similarly  written  Arvand,  a  name  of  the 

•  S<*  Bund.  XX.  9.  ■  Bund.  XX,  2,  7. 

»   Bund.  VII,  14.  *  Bund.  XXII,  2. 

■  Written  GGi-asp  in  Bund.  XVII,  7,  and  GOrnasp  in  B.  Yt.  Ill, 
30.  40,  tthilc  the  older  form  Vimlsp  occurs  in  B.  Yt.  Ill,  10. 

■  The  Sovbar  of  Bund.  VII,  14.  XII,  24,  XXII,  3. 

■  Bund.  XVII,  8. 



since  there  was  an  animation  of  the  earth  through 
the  shattering — Alburn  grew  up1,  which  is  the 
boundary  of  the  earth,  and  the  other2  mountains, 
which  are  amid  the  circuit  of  the  earth,  come  up 
2244  in  number8.  2.  And  by  them  the  earth  war 
bound  together  and  arranged,  and  on  them  was  the 
sprouting  and  growth  of  plants,  wherefrom  was  the 
nourishment  of  cattle,  and  therefrom  was  the  great 
advantage  of  assistance  to  men. 

3.  Even  so  it  is  declared  that  before  the  coming 
of  the  destroyer  to  the  creatures,  for  a  thousand 
years  the  substance  of  mountains  was  created  in  the 
earth — especially  as  antagonism  came  on  the  earth. 
and  settled  on  it  with  injury — and  it  came  up  over 
the  earth  just  like  a  tree  whose  branch  has  grown  at 
the  top,  and  its  root  at  the  bottom.  4.  The  root  of 
the  mountains  is  pissed  on  from  one  to  the  other, 
and  is  arranged  in  connection  with  them,  and  through 
it  is  produced  the  path  and  passage  of  water  from 
below  to  above,  so  that  the  water  may  flow  in  it  in 
such  manner  as  blood  in  the  veins,  from  all  parts  of 
the  body  to  the  heart,  the  latent  vigour  which  they 
possess.  5.  And,  moreover,  in  six  hundred  years4, 
at  first,  all  the  mountains  apart  from  Alburn  were 
completed.  6.  Alburs  was  growing  during  eight 
hundred  years*;  in  two  hundred  years  it  grew  up  to 

'  Bund.  VIII,  1-4  is  paraphrased  in  §§  1-4. 

*  The  MS.  has  fivano,  'waters,'  instead   of  avarlk,  'other,' 
which   alters  the   meaning   into,  '  which    is   the  boundary  of 
waters  of  the  earth,  and  the  mountains/  &c. 

*  Bund.  XII,  2. 

*  Bund.  VIII,  5,  and  XII,  I,  have  'eighteen  years.'      As 
numbers  are  written  in  ciphers  it  would  be  easy  for  cither  to 
corrupted  into  the  other. 

*  Bund.  XII,  1. 

SELECTIONS  of  zab-spakam,  vn,   2-12.        175 

the  star  station,  in  two  hundred  years  up  to  the 
moon  station,  two  hundred  years  up  to  the  sun 
station,  and  two  hundred  years  ap  to  the  sky.  7. 
After  Alburn  the  Aparsen  mountain  '  is  the  greatest, 
as  it  is  also  called  the  ■  ('  up-growth ') 
mountain,  whose  beginning  is  in  Sagastan  and  its 
end  unto   Pars  and  to  A'lnlstan3. 

8.  This,  too,  is  declared,  that  after  the  great  rain 
in  the  beginning  of  the  creation4,  and  the  wind's 
sweeping  away  the  water  to  the  ocean,  the  earth  is 
in  seven  portions 6  a  little  above  it,  as  the  compact 
earth,  after  the  rain,  is  torn  up  by  the  noise  and 
wind  in  various  places.  9.  One  portion,  moreover, 
as  much  as  one-half  the  whole  earth,  is  in  the  middle, 
and  in  each  of  the  six  portions  around  is  as  much  as 
Sagastan ;  moreover,  as  much  as  Sagastan  is  the 
measure  of  what  is  called  a  keshvar  ('region  )  for 
the  reason  that  one  was  defined  from  the  other  by  a 
kesh  ('furrow').  10.  The  middle  one  is  Khvanlras, 
of  which  Pars  is  the  centre,  and  those  six  regions 
are  like  a  coronet  (az/lsar)  around  it.  \  1.  One  part 
of  the  wide-formed  ocean  wound  around  it,  among 
those  six  regions  ;  the  sea  and  forest  seized  upon 
the  south  side,  and  a  lofty  mountain  grew  up  on  the 
north,  so  that  they  might  become  separate,  one  from 
the  other,  and  imperceptible. 

1 2.  This  is  the  third  contest,  about  the  earth. 

•  The  Apdrscn  of  Bund.  XII,  9. 

•  Whiten  Apu-royun,  as  if  it  were  an  Arabic  hybrid  meaning 
•  father  of  growth.' 

•  Bund  XII,  9,  XXIV,  28,  have  Khu^istan  instead  of  Afnistan  : 
the  latter  appears  to  be  an  old  name  of  the  territory  of  Samarkand 
(sec  note  to  Bund.  XII,  13). 

•  Literally, '  creature.' 

•  Bund.  XI,  2-4  is  paraphrased  in  §$  8-1 1. 

Chapter  VIII. 

i.  As  he  (Aharman)  came  fourthly  to  the  plants — 
which  have  struggled  (kukhshi-aito)  against  him 
with  the  whole  vegetation — because  the  vegetation 
was  quite  dry  \  Amer6da^,  by  whom  the  essence  of 
the  world's  vegetation  -  was  seized  upon,  pounded  it 
up  small,  and  mixed  it  up  with  the  rain-water  of 
Ti.ftar.  2.  After  the  rain  the  whole  earth  is  discerned 
sprouting,  and  ten  thousand 3  special  species  and  a 
hundred  thousand*  additional  species  (levatman 
sar^ako)  so  grew  as  if  there  were  a  species  of  every 
kind ;  and  those  ten  thousand  species  are  provided 
for  °  keeping  away  the  ten  thousand 3  diseases. 

3.  Afterwards,  the  seed  was  taken  up  from  those 
hundred  thousand  species  of  plants,  and  from  the 
collection  of  seed  the  tree  of  all  germs,  amid  the 
wide-formed  ocean,  was  produced,  from  which  all 
species  of  plants  continually  grow.  4.  And  the 
griffon  bird  (sen6  murilvo)  has  his  resting-place 
upon  it ;  when  he  wanders  forth  from  within  it,  he 
scatters  the  dry  seed  into  the  water,  and  it  is  rained 
back  to  the  earth  with  the  rain. 

5.  And  in  its  vicinity  the  tree  was  produced  ivhich 
is  the  white  H6m,  the  counteractor  of  decrepitude, 

1  This  chapter  is  a  paraphrase  of  Bund.  IX. 

*  Or,  perhaps, '  the  worldly  characteristics  of  vegetation.' 

*  Written  like  'one  thousand,'  but  see  the  context  and  Bund. 

IX.  4. 

4  In  Bund.  IX,  4,  the  MSS.  have  '  120,000/  which  is  probably 
wrong,  as  Bund.  XXVII,  2,  agrees  with  the  text  above. 

*  The  MS.  has  bari  instead  of  pavan,  a  blunder  due  probably 
to  some  copyist  reading  the  Huzvarir  in  Persian,  in  which  language 
bill  (=bara)  and  bah  (=pavan)  arc  written  alike.  In  Pazand 
they  are  usually  written  be  and  pa,  respectively. 

SELECTIONS   OF    zAd-SPARAM,  VIII,  I-IX,  2.         177 

the  reviver  of  the  dead,  and  the  immortalizer  of  the 

6.  This  was  the  fourth  contest,  about  the  plants. 

Chapter  IX. 

1.  As  he  (Aharman)  came  fifthly  to  cattle — which 
struggled  against  him  with  all  the  animals — and 
likewise  as  the  primeval  ox 1  passed  away,  from  the 
nature  of  the  vegetable  principle  it  possessed,  fifty- 
five2  species  of  grain  and  twelve  species  of  medi- 
cinal plants  grew  from  its  various  members ;  and 
forasmuch  as  they  should  sec  from  which  member 
each  one  proceeds,  it  is  declared  in  the  Damdarf 
Nask 3.     2.  And  every  plant  grown  from  a  member 

1  Sec  Chaps.  II,  6,  III,  1,  and  Bund.  IV,  1,  X,  1,  XIV,  1. 

1  The  MS.  has  '  fifty-seven  '  in  ciphers,  but  Bund.  X,  1,  XIV,  1. 
XXVII,  2,  have  '  fifty-five  '  in  words. 

*  This  was  the  fourth  nask  or  'book '  of  the  complete  Marda- 
yasnian  literature,  according  to  the  Dinkart/,  which  gives  a  very 
short  and  superficial  account  of  its  contents.  Hut,  according  to 
the  Dinl-va^arkard  and  the  RivSyats  of  KAmah  Bahrah,  Narfman 
H6shang,  and  Barzu  Qiydmu-d-dtn,  it  was  the  fifth  nask,  and  was 
called  Dvdzdah-liamast  (or  homast).  For  its  contents,  as  given  by 
the  DfnJ-va^arkard,  see  Haug's  Essays,  p.  127.  The  RivSyat  of 
Kamah  Bahrah,  which  has  a  few  more  words  than  the  other 
Rivayats.  gives  the  following  account  (for  the  Persian  text  of  which, 
see  '  Fragmens  rt iatifs  a  la  religion  de  Zoroastrc,'  par  Olshauscn 
et  Jules  Mohl):— 

•  Of  the  fifth  the  name  is  Dvazdah-homast,  and  the  interpreta- 
tion of  this  is  "the  book  about  help"  (dar  imdad,  but  this  is 
probably  a  corruption  of  dlmdSd).  And  this  book  has  thirty-two 
sections  (kardah)  that  the  divine  and  omnipotent  creator  sent 
down,  in  remembrance  of  the  beginning  of  the  creatures  of  the 
superior  world  and  inferior  world,  and  it  is  a  description  of  the 
whole  of  them  and  of  that  which  God,  the  most  holy  and  omnipo- 
tent, mentioned  about  the  skv,  earth,  and  water,  vegetation  and 

[5]  N 



promotes  that  member,  as  it  is  said  that  there  where 
the  ox  scattered  its  marrow1  on  to  the  earth,  grain 
afterwards  grew  up,  corn-  and  sesame,  vetches*  and 
peas  ;  so  sesame,  on  account  of*  its  marrow  quality, 
is  itself  a  great  thing  for  developing  marrow.  3. 
And  it  is  also  said  that  from  the  blood  is  the  vine 5, 
a  great  vegetable  thing — as  wine  itself  is  blood — 
for  more  befriending  the  sound  quality  of  the  blood. 
4.  And  it  is  said  that  from  the  nose  is  the  pulse 
(may.r  or  masah)  which  is  called  ddnak,  and  was  a 
variety  of  sesame  (samaga)6,  and  it  is  for  other  noses. 

fire,  man  and  quadrupeds,  grazing  and  flying  artima/s,  and  what 
he  produced  for  their  advantage  and  use,  and  the  like.  Secondly, 
the  resurrection  and  htavenly  path,  the  gathering  and  dispersion, 
and  the  nature  of  the  circumstances  of  the  resurrection,  as  regards 
the  virtuous  and  evil-doers,  through  the  weight  of  every  action  they 
perform  for  good  and  evil.' 

This  description  corresponds  very  closely  with  what  the  Bun- 
dahir  must  have  been,  before  the  addition  of  the  genealogical  and 
chronological  chapters  at  the  end ;  and  Da^-sparam  mentions  in 
his  text  here,  and  again  in  §  1  c">,  pimciiIlH  regarding  the  D3mda«/ 
which  also  occur  in  the  Bunriahir  (XIV,  2,  14-18,  21-24).  There 
can  be  very  little  doubt,  therefore,  that  the  Bundahir  was  originally 
a  translation  of  the  D&mdaV,  tfadlgb  probably  abridged;  and  the 
text  translated  in  this  volume  is  certainly  a  further  abridgment  of 
the  original  Bundahu,  or  Zand-Skas.  Whether  the  Avesta  text  of 
the  DSmdS</  was  still  in  existence  in  the  time  of  DSrf-sparam  is 
uncertain,  as  he  would  apply  the  name  to  the  Pahlavi  text.  At  the 
present  time  it  is  very  unusual  for  a  copyist  to  write  the  Pahlavi 
text  without  its  Avesta,  when  the  latter  exists,  but  this  may  not 
always  have  been  the  case. 

1  Or  'brains.' 

*  Supposing  the  MS.  gal61ag  is  a  corruption  of  gallak  (Pers. 

'  Assuming  the  MS.  allino  or  arvanS  to  be  a  corruption  of 
altim  or  araano. 

*  Reading  rit  instead  of  la.  '  Compare  Bund.  XIV,  2. 
8  EiUier  this  sentence  is  very  corrupt  in  the  MS.  or  it  cannot  be 

SELECTIONS    OF    zAd-SPARAM,    IX,  3~IO.  1 79 

5.  And  it  is  also  said  that  from  the  lungs  are  the  rue- 
like herbs '  which  heal,  and  are  for  the  lung-disease 
of  cattle.  6.  This,  rooted  amid  the  heart,  is  thyme, 
from  which  is  Vohuman's  thorough  withstanding  of 
the  stench  of  Ak6man*,  and  it  is  for  that  which 
proceeds  from  the  sick  and  yawners. 

7.  Afterwards,  the  brilliance  of  the  seed,  seized 
upon,  by  strength,  from  the  seed  which  was  the  ox's, 
they  would  carry  off  from  it,  and  the  brilliance  was 
intrusted  to  the  angel  of  the  moon 3 :  in  a  place 
therein  that  seed  was  thoroughly  purified  by  the 
light  of  the  moon,  and  was  restored  in  its  many 
qualities,  and  made  fully  infused  with  life  (.fanvar- 
h6mand).  8.  Forth  from  there  it  produced  for 
Airan-ve^-,  first,  two  oxen,  a  pair,  male  and  female  *, 
and,  afterwards,  other  species,  until  the  completion 
of  the  282  species5;  and  they  were  discernible  as 
far  as  two  long  leagues  on  the  earth.  9.  Quadrupeds 
walked  forth  on  the  land,  fish  swam  in  the  water. 
and  birds  flew  in  the  atmosphere  ;  in  every  two,  at 
the  time  good  eating  is  enjoyed,  a  longing  (1^- 
dah&n)  arose  therefrom,  and  pregnancy  and  birth. 

10.  Secondly,  their  subdivision  is  thus: — First, 
they  are  divided  into  three,  that  is,  quadrupeds 
walking  on  the  earth,  fish  swimming  in  the  water, 

reconciled  with  the  corresponding  ctause  of  Bund.  XIV,  2. 
Altering  d6nak  and  gunak  into  gandanak,  and  rarnagS  into 
jamardar,  wc  might  read,  'from  the  nose  is  mSyj,  which  is 
called  the  leek,  and  the  leek  was  an  onion ;'  but  this  is  doubtful, 
and  leaves  the  word  mayr  unexplained. 

1  The  MS.  has  g6spendSn6,  'cattle,'  instead  of  sipandin5, 
*  nie  herbs.' 

5  See  Bund.  I,  24,  27.  XXVIII,  7,  XXX,  tg. 

'  Bund.  X.  2.  XIV,  3.  ■  Bund.  X,  3,  XIV,  4. 

'  Bund.  X,  3.  XIV,  13. 

N  2 

and  birds  flying  in  the  atmosphere.  1 1.  Then,  into 
five  classes ',  that  is,  the  quadruped  which  is  round- 
hoofed,  the  double-hoofed,  the  five-clawed,  the  bird, 
and  the  fish,  whose  dwellings  are  in  five  places,  and 
which  are  called  aquatic,  burrowing,  oviparous,  wide- 
travelling,  and  suitable  for  grazing.  12.  The  aquatic 
are  fish  and  every  beast  of  burden,  cattle,  wild 
beast,  dog,  and  bird  which  enters  the  water ;  the 
burrowing  are  the  marten  (samur)  and  musk  ani- 
mals, and  all  other  dwellers  and  movers  in  holes  ; 
the  oviparous  are  birds  of  every  kind ;  the  wide- 
travelling  sprang  away  for  help,  and  are  also  those 
of  a  like  kind ;  those  suitable  for  grazing  are  what- 
ever are  kept  grazing  in  a  flock. 

13.  And,  afterwards,  they  were  divided  into 
genera,  as  the  round-hoofed  are  one,  which  is  all 
called  'horse;'  the  double-hoofed  are  many,  as  the 
camel  and  ox,  the  sheep  and  goat,  and  others 
double-hoofed ;  the  five-clawed  are  the  dog,  hare, 
musk  animals,  marten,  and  others ;  then  are  the 
birds,  and  then  the  fish.  14.  And  then  they  were 
divided  into  species 2,  as  eight  species  of  horse,  two 
species  of  camel,  ten 3  species  of  ox,  five  species  of 
sheep,  five  species  of  goat,  ten  of  the  dog,  five  of  the 
hare,  eight  of  the  marten,  eight  of  the  musk  animals, 
1 10  of  the  birds,  and  ten  of  the  fish ;  some  are 
counted  for  the  pigs,  and  with  all  those  declared  and 
all  those  undeclared  tliere  were,  at  first,  282  species4; 
and  with  the  species  within  species  there  were  a 
thousand  varieties. 

1  Bund.  XIV,  8-12. 

1  Bund.  XIV,  13-23,  26,  27. 

1  r.iind.  XIV,  17  says  'fifteen,'  which  is  probably  correct. 

*  Only  181  species  are  detailed  or  'declared'  here. 

15-  The  birds  are  distributed1  into  eight  groups 
(rlstako),  and  from  that  which  is  largest  to  that 
which  is  smallest  t/iey  are  so  spread  about  as  when  a 
man,  who  is  sowing  grain,  first  scatters  abroad  that 
of  heavy  weight,  then  that  which  is  middling,  and 
afterwards  that  which  is  small. 

1 6.  And  of  the  whole  of  the  species,  as  enume- 
rated a  second  time  in  the  Damda^  Nask*,  and 
written  by  me  in  the  manuscript  (nipik)  of  'the 
summary  enumeration  of  races3' — this  is  a  lordly4 
summary — the  matter  which  is  shown  is,  about  the 
species  of  horses,  the  first  is  the  Arab,  and  the  chief 
of  them5  is  white  and  yellow-eared,  and  secondly 
the  Persian,  the  mule,  the  ass,  the  wild  ass,  the 
water-horse,  and  others.  1 7.  Of  the  camel  tliere  are 
specially  two,  tfiat  far  the  plain,  and  the  mountain 
one  which  is  double-humped.  18.  Among  the  species 
of  ox  are  the  white,  mud-coloured,  red,  yellow,  black, 
and  dappled,  the  elk,  the  buffalo,  the  camel-leopard  •, 
the  ox-fish,  and  others.  19.  Among  sheep  are  those 
having  tails  and  those  which  are  tailless,  also  the 
wether  and  the  Kumk  which,  because  of  its  tram- 
pling the  hills,  iis  great  horn,  and  also  being  suitable 

•  Bund.  XIV,  25. 

'  Sec  §  1  ;  the  particulars  which  follow  are  also  found  in  Bund. 
XIV,  14-18,  21-24,  showing  that  the  Bundahu  must  be  derived 
from  the  Damd&A 

1  The  title  of  this  work,  in  Pahlavi,  is  Tokhm-aufmarij- 
nih-i  hangar*/ Ik 5,  hut  it  is  not  known  to  be  extant. 

*  Reading  marak  (Chaldec  K"?.9)»  but  tms  's  doubtful,  though 
the  Iranian  final  k  is  often  added  to  Semitic  HuzvarLr  forms  ending 
with  a.  It  may  be  minak,  'thinking,  thoughtful/  or  a  corruption 
of  manik,  'mine,'  in  which  last  case  we  should  translate,  '  this  is 
a  summary  of  mine.' 

*  Bund.  XXIV,  6. 

•  Literally,  '  camel-ox-leopard.' 



for  ambling,  became  the  steed  of  Manfo/'ihar.  20. 
Among  goats  are  the  ass-goat,  the  Arab,  the  faun 
(varlko),  the  roe,  and  the  mountain  goat.  21. 
Among  martens  are  the  white  ermine,  the  black 
marten,  the  squirrel,  the  beaver  (khaz),  and  others. 
22.  Of  musk  animals  with  a  bag,  one  is  the  Bfsh- 
musk — which  eats  the  Bish  poison  and  does  not  die 
through  it,  and  it  is  created  for  the  great  advantage 
that  it  should  eat  the  Btsh,  and  less  of  it  should 
succeed  in  poisoning  the  creatures — and  one  is  a 
musk  animal  of  a  black  colour  which  they  desired 
(ay ft  ft 5)  who  were  bitten  by  the  fanged  serpent — 
as  the  serpent  of  the  mountain  water-courses  (mako) 
is  called — which  is  numerous  on  the  river-banks; 
one  throws  the  same  unto  it  for  food,  which  it  eats, 
and  then  the  serpent  enters  its  body,  when  his1 
serpent,  at  the  time  this  happens,  feeds  upon  the 
same  belly  in  which  the  serpent  is,  and  he  will 
become  clear  from  that  malady.  23.  Among  birds 
two  were  produced  of  a  different  character  from  the 
rest,  and  those  are  the  griffon  bird  and  the  bat, 
which  have  teeth  in  the  mouth,  and  suckle  their 
young  with  animal  milk  from  the  teat. 
24.  This  is  the  fifth  contest,  as  to  animals. 

Chapter  X. 

1.  As  he  (Aharman)  came  sixthly  to  Gay6mar^ 
there  was  arrayed  against  him,  with  Gayoman/,  the 

1  This  appears  to  be  the  meaning  here  of  amat  zak  garsakd, 
but  the  whole  sentence  is  a  fair  sample  of  Da</-sparam's  most 
involved  style  of  writing.  By  feeding  the  black  musk  animal  with 
snakes  the  effect  of  a  snake-bite,  experienced  by  the  feeder,  is 
supposed  to  be  neutralized. 

SELECTIONS    OE    ZA/)-SPARAM,    IX,    BO— X,    5-         1 83 

pure  |>ropiiious  liturgy  (mansarspend),  as  heard 
from  Gayomarrt';  and  Auharmazd,  in  pure  medita- 
tion, considered  that  which  is  good  and  righteous- 
]  as  destruction  of  the  fiend  (dru^-6).  2.  And 
when  he  (Gaydmaft*')  passed  away  eight  kinds  of 
mineral  of  a  metallic  character  arose  from  his 
various  members ;  they  are  gold,  silver,  iron,  brass, 
tin.  lead,  quicksilver  (afginako),  and  adamant;  and 
on  account  of  the  perfection  of  gold  it  is  produced 
from  the  life  and  seed. 

.;.  Spendarma^  received  the  gold  of  the  dead 
Gaydmar*/1,  and  it  was  forty  years  in  the  earth.  4. 
At  the  end  of  the  forty  years,  in  the  manner  of  a 
'R.W^s-piant,  Mashya  and  Mashydi  •  came  up,  and, 
one  joined  to  the  other,  were  of  like  stature  and 
mutually  adapted a ;  and  its  middle,  on  which  a  glory- 
came,  through  their  like  stature  *,  was  such  that  it 
was  not  clear  which  is  the  male  and  which  the 
female,  and  which  is  the  one  with  the  glory  which 
Auharmazd  created.  5.  This  is  that  glory  for  which 
man  is,  indeed,  created,  as  it  is  thus  said  in  revela- 

1  Compare  Bund.  XV,  1. 

1  The  MS.  has  Mashai  Mashaye,  but  see  Bund.  XV,  6.  The 
A  vesta  forms  were  probably  mashya  mashydi  (or  mashyc),  which 
are  regular  nominatives  dual,  masculine  and  feminine,  of  mashya, 
*  mortal,'  and  indicate  that  ihey  were  usually  coupled  together  in 
some  part  of  the  A  vesta  which  is  no  longer  extant.  Pazand 
writers  have  found  it  easy  to  read  Mashyani  instead  of  Mashy6i. 

"  Reading  ham-barno  ham-dakhJk,  but  whether  this  is  more 
likely  to  be  the  original  reading  than  the  ham-hadi.fn  va  ham- 
dasak  of  Bund.  XV,  2,  is  doubtful.  The  last  epithet  here  might 
also  be  read  ham-sabik,  'having  the  same  shirt,'  but  this  is  an 
improbable  meaning. 

I  It  is  evident  that  ham- band  i/nth,  •mutual  connection/  in 
accordance  with  Bund.  XV,  3,  would  be  preferable  to  the  ham- 
bamoih,  '  like  stature,'  of  this  text. 

tion :  '  Which  existed  before,  the  glory l  or  the 
body  ? '  And  Auharmazd  spoke  thus :  '  The  glory 
was  created  by  me  before ;  afterwards,  for  him  who 
is  created,  the  glory  is  given  a  body  so  that  it  may 
produce  activity,  and  its  body  is  created  only  for 
activity.'  6.  And,  afterwards,  they  changed  from 
the  shape  of  a  plant  into  the  shape  of  man  -,  and  the 
glory  went  spiritually  into  them. 

Chapter  XI. 

i.  As  he  (Aharman)  came  seventhly  to  fire,  which 
was  all  together  against  him,  the  fire  separated  into 
five  kinds 3,  which  are  called  the  Propitious,  the 
Good  diffuscr,  the  AurvazLst,  the  Vazirt,  and  the 
Supremely-Avw/Wns^.  2.  And  it  produced  the  Pro- 
pitious fire  itself  in  heaven  (garo^man) ;  its  mani- 
festation is  in  the  fire  which  is  burning  on  the 
earth,  and  its  propitiousness  is  this,  that  all  the 
kinds  are  of  its  nature.  3.  T/w  Good  diffuser  is  that 
which  is  in  men  and  animals  *,  and  its  business  con- 
sists in  the  digestion  of  the  food,  the  sleeping  of  the 

1  The  old  word  nismft,  '  soul  '(see  Bund.  XV,  3,  4).  has  become 
corrupted  here  (by  the  omission  of  the  initial  stroke)  into  gadmam, 
'  glory.'  This  corruption  may  be  due  cither  to  DaV-sparam  not 
understanding  the  word  (in  which  case  the  Bundahu-  must  have 
been  an  old  book  in  his  time),  or  else  to  some  later  copyist  con- 
founding the  old  word  for  '  soul '  with  the  better-known  4  glory ' 
of  the  Iranian  sowreigns. 

«  Bund.  XV,  5. 

*  Bund.  XVII,  1.  Three  of  the  Avcsta  names  are  here  trans- 
lated, die  first  two  being  the  Spdnirt  and  Vohu-fryan,  which  are 
the  fifth  and  second  in  the  Bundahij,  and  the  fifth  being  the  Berezt- 
savang,  which  Is  the  first  in  the  BundahLr. 

•  See  Bund.  XVII,  2. 

body,  and  the  brightening  of  the  eyes.  4.  The 
AOrvazlit  is  that  which  is  in  plants,  in  whose  seed 
it  is  formed,  and  its  business  consists  in  piercing  the 
earth,  warming  the  chilled  water l  and  producing  the 
ualities  and  fragrance  of  plants  and  blossoms  there- 
from, and  elaborating  the  ripened  produce  into 
many  fruits.  5.  And  the  Vazlrt  is  that  which  has 
its  motion  in  a  cloud,  and  its  business  consists  in 
destroying  the  atmospheric  gloom  and  darkness,  and 
making  the  thickness  of  the  atmosphere  fine  and 
propitious  in  quality,  sifting  the  hail,  moderately 
warming  the  water  which  the  cloud  holds,  and 
making  sultry  weather  shower}'.  6.  The  Supremely- 
benefiting,  like  the  sky,  is  that  glory  whose  lodg- 
ment is  in  the  Behram  fire  a,  as  the  master  of  the 
house  is  over  the  house,  and  whose  propitious 
power  arises  from  the  growing  brightness  of  the 
fire,  the  blazing  forth  in 8  the  purity  of  the  place,  the 
praise  of  God  (yazdano),  and  the  practice  of  good 
works.  7.  And  its  business  is  that  it  struggles  with 
the  spiritual  fiend,  it  watches  the  forms  of  the 
witches — who  walk  up  from  the  river4,  wear  woven 
clothing,  disturb  the  luminaries  by  the  concealment 
of  stench,  and  by  witchcraft  injure  the  creatures — 
and  the  occurrences  of  destruction,  burning,  and  cele- 
bration of  witchcraft,  especially  at  night;  being  an 
assistant  of  Srdsh  the  righteous. 


1  Reading  mayS-i  afsar</ini</5  taftano  instead  of  the  seem- 
ingly unmeaning  maya  ajard'tnf</5  aftano  of  the  MS. 

'  The  VerehrSn6  iitSsh,  or  sacred  fire  of  the  fire-temp' 

'  Reading  pa  van  instead  of  bar  &  (see  p.  176,  note  5). 

*  Or  'sea'  (dar!ySf6).  This  long-winded  sentence  is  more 
involved  and  obscure  in  the  original  than  in  the  translation. 

1 86  APPENDIX    TO    THE    BUKDA1II& 

8.  And  in  the  beginning  of  the  creation  '  the  whole 
earth  was  delivered  over  into  the  guardianship  of 
the  sublime  Frobak  fire,  the  mighty  Gilmasp  fire, 
and  the  beneficial  Bur*ln-Mitr6  fire  •,  which  are  like 
priest,  warrior,  and  husbandman.  9.  The  place  of 
the  fire  Fr6bak  was  formed  on  the  Gadman-h6mand 
('glorious')  mountain  in  Khvarbem  3,  the  fire  G115- 
naspa/05on  theAsnavand  mountain  in  Ataro-patakan, 
and  the  fire  Bursin-Mitro  on  the  Revand  mountain 
which  is  in  the  Ridge  of  VLrtasp,  and  its  mat< 
manifestation  in  the  world  was  the  most  complete. 

10.  In  the  reign  of  Hdshang*,  when  men  were 
continually  going  forth  to  the  other  regions  (k£sh- 
var)  on  the  ox  Sruvd  c,  one  night,  half-way,  white 
admiring  the  fires,  the  fire-stands  which  were  pre- 
pared in  three  places  on  the  back  of  the  ox,  and  in 
which  the  fire  was,  fell  into  the  sea,  and  the  sub- 
stance of  that  one  great  fire  which  was  manifest,  is 
divided  into  three,  and  they  established  it  on  the 
three  fire-stands,  and  it  became  itself  three  glories 
whose  lodgments  are  in  the  Frobak  fire,  the 
GCUnasp  fire,  and  the  Bunrin-Mitrd*. 

1  Literally, '  creature.' 

1  The   epithets  of  these   three  sacred   fires  are,   respectively, 
var^an,  tagikd,  and  pGr-suf/o  in  Pahlavi. 
»  See  Bund.  XVII,  5,  7,  8. 

*  Bund.  XVII,  4  says,  '  in  the  reign  of  Takhm6rup,'  his 

1  Sarsaok  or  Srisaok  in  the  Bund.ihu. 

*  The  remainder  of  'the  sayings  of  Za</-sparam,  about  the 
meeting  of  the  beneficent  spirit  and  the  evil  spirit,'  have  no 
special  reference  to  the  Bundalw.  They  treat  of  the  following 
matters  : — 

Tlie  coming  of  the  religion,  beginning  in  the  time  of  Frasiyitf 
and  Mftttfatfhtr,  with  an  anecdote  of  Kai-us  and  the  hero  Srtt6 
(Av.  Thrita).    The  manifestation  of  die  glory  of  Zaratfm  before 


SELECTIONS    OF    zAz>-SPARAM,    XI,    8-IO.         187 

The   begetting  of  Zaratujt  through  the  drinking  of 

hdm-juice  and  cow's  milk  infused,  respectively,  with  his  guardian 

spirit  and  glory,  as  declared  in  the  manuscript  on  'the  guidance 

of  worship.'     The  connection  of  Zaratuxt  with  Auharmazd,  traced 

k  through  his  genealogy  as  far  as  Gaydman/.     The  persistent 

endeavours  of  the  fiends  to  destroy  ZaratGjt  at  the  time  of  his  birth, 

and   how  they  were   frustrated.     His   receiving  the  religion   from 

Auharmazd,  with  another  anecdote  of  Kai-us  and  Srit6,  and  of 

Zaraturt's  exclamation   on  coming  into  the  world.     The  enmity 

borne  to  him  by  five  brothers  of  the  Karapdn  family,  and  how  it 

was  frustrated ;  his  own  four  brothers,  and  some  of  his  wonderful 

deeds.     The  worthiness  of  his  righteousness;   his  compassionate 

and  liberal  nature ;   his  giving  up  worldly  desires ;  his  pity ;  his 

food  selection  of  a  wife;  and  what  is  most  edifying  for  the  soul. 

What  occurred  when  he  was  thirty  years  old,  and  his  being  COD* 

d  by  the  archangel  Vohuman  to  the  assembly  of  the  spirils. 

The  questions  asked  by  Zarattm,  and  Auharmazd's  replies  thereto. 

The  seven  questions  he  asked  of  the  seven  archangels  in  seven 

different  places,  in  the  course  of  one  winter.     [Westergaard's  MS. 

^io  enf^s  m  lne  middle  of  the  second  of  these  questions.]     The 

five  dispositions  of  priests,  and  the  ten  admonitions.     The  three 

preservatives  of  religion,  with  particulars  about  the  Gathas  and  the 

connection  of  the  Ahunavar  with  the  Nasks.     ZaralQrl's  obtaining 

one  disciple,  MeVydk-mfih.  in  the  first  ten  years,  and  the  acceptance 

of  the  religion  by  Vixulsp  two  years  afterwards. 

The  second  of  the  writings  of  Z.W-sparam  consists  of  his  ' 
fogs  about  the  formation  of  men  out  of  body,  life,  and  soul;'  and 
the  third  (which   is  imperfect  in  all   known  MSS.)  contains   his 
'sayings  about  producing  the  renovation  of  tht  univcrzt' 




THIS    WORK    SEEMS    TO    BE    AN    EPITOME. 


1-5.  (The  same  as  on  p.  2.) 

6.  Abbreviations  used  are: — A  v.  for  Avesta.  Bund,  for  Bun- 
dahu,  as  translated  in  this  volume.  Datf.  for  DSt/ist&n-i  Dtnik. 
Gr.  for  Greek.  Haug's  Essays,  for  Essays  on  the  Sacred  Language, 
Writings,  and  Religion  of  the  Parsis,  by  Martin  Haug,  and  edition. 
Huz.  for  Huzvarif.  Pahl.  for  Pahlavi.  Paz.  for  Pazand.  Pers. 
for  Persian.  Sans,  for  Sanskrit.  Sis.  for  Shayast  14-shayast,  as 
translated  in  this  volume.  SZS.  for  Selections  of  Za</-sparam,  as 
translated  in  this  volume.  Vend,  for  Vendidad,  ed.  Spiegel.  Yas. 
for  Yasna,  ed.  Spiegel.     Yt.  for  Yart,  ed.  Westergaard. 

7.  The  manuscripts  mentioned  in  the  notes  are : — 

K20  (about  500  years  old),  No.  20  in  the  University  Library  at 

Paz.  MSS.  (modern),  No.  22  of  the  Haug  Collection  in  the  State 
Library  at  Munich,  and  a  copy  of  one  in  the  library  of  the  high- 
priest  of  the  Parsis  at  Bombay. 

Pers.  version  (composed  a.d.  1496,  copied  a.  d.  1679)  m  a 
Rivayat  MS.,  No.  29  of  the  University  Library  at  Bombay. 


CriArTER   I. 

o.  May  the  gratification  of  the  creator  Auhar- 
mazd,  the  beneficent,  the  developer,  the  splendid, 
and  glorious,  and  the  benediction  of  the  archangels, 
which  constitute  the  pure,  good  religion  of  the  Maz- 
dayasnians,  be  vigour  of  body,  long  life,  and  pros- 
perous wealth  for  him  whose  writing  I  am '. 

i.  As*  it  is  declared  by  the  Sturt^ar  Mask*  that 

1  Or,  possib  iom  1  am  written.'  the  meaning  of  mQn 

yekttbflnihem  being  not  quite  clear.  In  fact,  the  construction 
of  the  whole  of  this  initial  benediction  is  rather  obscure. 

1  It  is  possible  that  this  is  to  he  read  in  connection  with  Chap. 
II.  i,  with  the  meaning  that  'as  it  is  declared  by  the  StfWgar  Nask 
that  Zarat&rt  asked  for  immortality  from  A&harmazd,  so  in  the 
VohGman  Yart  commentary  it  is  declared  that  he  asked  for  it  a 
second  time.'  This  introductory  chapter  is  altogether  omitted  in 
both  the  Paz.  MSS.  which  have  been  examined,  but  it  is  given  in 
the  Pere.  version.  It  is  also  omitted  in  the  epitome  of  the  Rahman 
Yart  contained  in  the  Dabistan  (see  Shea's  translation,  vol.  i. 
pp.  264-271). 

1  This  was  the  first  nask  or  'book'  of  the  complete  Mazdayas- 
nian  literature,  according  to  the  Dtnkarc/,  which  calls  it  StWkar; 
but  according  to  the  Dinf-va^rkar*/  and  the  RivSyats  it  was  the 
second  nask,  called  StQdgar  or  Istfidgar.  For  its  contents,  as 
riven  by  the  Dfot-vafBj-kaxd  (which  agrees  with  the  account  in  the 
Rivivats),  sec  Haug's  Essays,  p.  126.  In  die  Dinkarrf,  besides 
a  short  description  of  this  Nask,  given  in  the  eighth  book,  then  is 
also  a  detailed  account  of  the  contents  of  each  of  its  fargarrfs,  or 
chapters,  occupying  twenty-five  quarto  pages  of  twenty-two  lines 
each,  in  the  ninth  book.     From  this  detailed  statement  it  appears 



Zaratust  asked  for  immortality  from  Auharmazd, 
then  ACiharmazd  displayed  the  omniscient  wisdom 
to  Zaratilst,  and  through  it  he  beheld  the  root  of  a 
tree,  on  which  were  four  branches,  one  golden,  one 
of  silver,  one  of  steel,  and  one  was  mixed  up  with 
iron.  2.  Thereupon  he  reflected  in  this  way,  that 
this  was  seen  in  a  dream,  and  when  he  arose  from 
sleep  Zaratust  spoke  thus  :  '  Lord  of  the  spirits  and 
earthly  existences !  it  appears  that  I  saw  the  root  of 
a  tree,  on  which  were  four  branches.' 

3.  Auharmazd  spoke  to  Zaratujt  the  Spitaman1 
thus :  '  That  root  of  a  tree  which  thou  sawest,  and 
those  four  branches,  are  the  four  periods  which  will 

that  the  passage  mentioned  here,  in  the  text,  constituted  the 
seventh  fargarrf  of  the  Nask,  the  contents  of  which  are  detailed  as 
follows  :— 

4  The  seventh  fargaiv/,  TS-ve-rat6  (Av.  ta  ve  urv&tS,  Yas.  XXXI, 
1),  is  about  the  exhibition  to  Zaratujt  of  the  nature  of  the  four 
periods  in  the  Zaratfiitian  millennium  (hazangrok  zim,  "thousand 
winters  ").  First,  the  golden,  that  in  which  Auharmazd  displayed 
the  religion  to  Zar.ufm.  Second,  the  silver,  that  in  which  Vijtasp 
received  the  religion  from  Zaratilst.  Third,  the  steel,  the  period 
within  which  the  organizer  of  righteousness,  Atar6-parfson  of  Mar- 
spend,  was  born.  Fourth,  the  period  mingled  with  iron  is  this, 
in  which  is  much  propagation  of  the  authority  of  the  apostate  and 
other  villains  (sarttar5n6),  along  with  destruction  of  the  reign 
of  religion,  the  weakening  of  every  kind  of  goodness  and  virtue, 
and  the  departure  of  honour  and  wisdom  from  the  countries  of 
Iran.  In  the  same  period  is  a  recital  of  the  many  perplexities  and 
torments  of  the  period  for  that  desire  (girdyfh)  of  the  life  of  the 
good  which  consists  in  seemliness.  Perfect  is  the  excellence  of 
righteousness  (Av.  ashem  vohQ  vahixtem  asti,  Yu.  XXVII, 

i4.  w.y 

Jf  this  be  a  correct  account  of  the  contents  of  this  fargar//,  the 
writer  was  evidently  consulting  a  Pahlavi  version  of  the  Nask, 
composed  during  the  later  Sasanian  limes. 

1  Generally  understood  to  mean  '  descendant  of  Spitama,'  who 
was  his  ancestor  in  the  ninth  generation  (sec  Bund.  XXXII,  1). 

CHAPTER    I,     2-6. 


come.  4.  That  of  gold  is  when  I  and  thou  con- 
verse, and  King  Vist&sp  shall  accept  the  religion, 
and  shall  demolish  the  figures  of  the  demons,  but 
they  themselves  remain  for1  .  .  .  concealed  pro- 
ceedings. 5.  And  that  of  silver  is  the  reign  of 
<Aiv/akhshir*  the  Kay&n  king  (Kai  shah),  and  that 
of  steel  is  the  reign  of  the  glorified  {anoshak- 
rflban)  Khusrd  son  of  K&v&df 9,  and  that  which  was 
mixed  with  iron  is  the  evil  sovereignty  of  the  de- 
mons with  dishevelled  hair  4  of  the  race  of  Wrath  5, 
and  when  it  is  the  end  of  the  tenth  hundredth 
winter  (satd  zim)  of  thy  millennium,  O  ZaratfXft 
the  Spitaman!' 

6.   It  is  declared  in  the  commentary  (zand)*  of 
the  Vohuman  Ya^t,  Horvada*/  Ya^t.  and  Ast&d  Yajt 

1  A  word  is  lost  here  in  K20  and  does  not  occur  in  the  other 
copies  and  versions,  nor  can  it  be  supplied  from  the  similar  phrase 
in  Chap.  II,  16.  The  meaning  of  the  sentence  appears  to  be 
that  Vuiasp  destroyed  the  idols,  but  the  demons  they  represented 
aill  remained,  in  a  spiritual  state,  to  produce  evil. 

s  See  Chap.  II,  17. 

1  Khusrd  Ndsbirvan  son  of  Qubdd,  in  modern  Persian,  who 
feigned  in  a.d.  S3 1-579.     Kdvat/  is  usually  written  Kav&/. 

'  The  epithet  vi^ar</-vars  may  also  mean  ' dressed-h.iir/  hut 

the  term  in  the  text  is  the  more  probable,  as  the  Persian  version 

translates  it  by  kush&dah  mui,  'uncovered  hair.'     That  it  is  not 

a  name,  as  assumed  by  Spiegel,  appears  clearly  from  the  further 

details  given  in  Chap.  II,  25. 

•  Or,  '  the  progeny  of  Aeshm,'  the  demon.  Wrath  is  not  to  be 
understood  here  in  its  abstract  sense,  but  is  personified  as  a  demon. 

uncertain  whether  the  remainder  of  this  sentence  belongs  to 
this  §  or  the  next. 

•  If  there  were  any  doubt  about  zand  meaning  the  Pahlavi 
translation,  this  passage  would  be  important,  as  the  Avesta  of  the 
Horvadat/  (Khordad)  and  Ks\Ad  Yaits  is  still  extant,  but  contains 

nothing  about  the  heretic  Mazdik  or  Mazdalt  (see  Chap.  II,  21). 

No  Avesta  of  the  Vohuman  Yart  is  now  known. 




that,  during  this  time,  the  accursed  Mazdlk  son  of 
Bamdart',  who  is  opposed  to  the  religion,  comes  into 
notice,  and  is  to  cause  disturbance  among  those  in 
the  religion  of  God  (yazdan).  7.  And  he,  the 
glorified  one1,  summoned  Khusr6  son  of  Mah-da^ 
and  Da^-Auharmazd  of  Nishapur,  who  were  high- 
priests  of  Atard-patakan,  and  Atar6-frdbag  the  un- 
deceitful  (akadba),  Atard-pa<  Atar6-Mitr6,  and 
Bakht-afrii/  to  his  presence,  and  he  demanded  of 
them  a  promise '-',  thus :  '  Do  not  keep  these  Yajts 
in  concealment,  and  do  not  teach  the  commentary 
except  among  your  relations  ■/  8.  And  they  made 
the  promise  unto  Khusrd. 

Chapter  II. 

1.  In  the  Vohuman  Yart  commentary  (zand)  it  is 
declared 4  that  Zaratiln  asked  for  immortality  from 

1  Thai  is,  Kbusr6  Ndshirvfln.  As  the  names  of  his  priests  and 
councillors  stand  in  K20  they  can  hardly  be  otherwise  distributed 
than  they  are  in  the  text,  but  the  correctness  of  the  MS.  is  open  to 
suspicion.  Da7/-Auharmazd  was  a  commentator  who  is  quoted  in 
Chap.  Ill,  16,  and  in  die  Fahl.  Yas.  XI,  22;  Atard-frflbag  was 
another  commentator  mentioned  in  Sis.  I,  3 ;  and  Atar6-pa7/  and 
Bakht-afrW  are  names  well  known  in  Pahlavi  literature,  the  former 
having  been  borne  by  more  than  one  individual  (see  Sis.  I,  3,  4). 

*  The  Pers.  version  says  nothing  about  this  promise,  but  states 
that  Khu.srO  sent  a  message  to  the  accursed  Mazdak,  requiring 
him  to  reply  to  the  questions  of  this  priestly  assembly  on  pain  of 
death,  to  which  he  assented,  and  he  was  asked  ten  religious 
questions,  but  was  unable  to  answer  one ;  so  the  king  put  him 
to  death  immediately. 

'  A  similar  prohibition,  addressed  to  ZaranVrt,  as  regards  the 
A  vesta  text,  is  actually  found  in  the  Horvada*/  Yt.  to. 

*  This  seems  to  imply  that    this  text   is  not  the    commentary 

CHAPTER    I,    7-1 1,    3. 


.Auharmazd  a  second  time,  and  spoke  thus:  '  I  am 
Zaratu.rt,  more  righteous  and  more  efficient  among 
these  thy  creatures,  O  creator !  when  thou  shalt 
make  me l  immortal,  as  the  tree  opposed  to  harm  -, 
and  Gdpatshah,  G6rt-i  Fryan,  and  ./fttrok-miyan 
son  of  VLrtasp,  who  is  P&shydtanu,  were  made*.  2. 
"When  thou  shalt  make  me  immortal  they  in  thy 
good  religion  will  believe  that  the  upholder  of 
religion,  who  receives  from  Auharmazd  his  pure  and 
good  religion  of  the  Mazdayasnians,  will  become 
immortal ;  then  those  men  will  believe  in  thy  good 

3.  Auharmazd  spoke4  thus:  'When  I  shall  make 
thee  immortal,  O  Zaratdrt  the  Spitaman!  then  Tur-i 
Bra</arvash  the  Karap*  will  become  immortal,  and 

itself,  but  merely  an  epitome  of  it.  The  Paz.  MSS.  which  have  been 
examined,  begin  with  this  chapter. 

1  Or,  'when  I  shall  become;'  the  verb  is  omitted  by  mistake  in 

*  Three  of  these  immortals  are  mentioned  in  Bund.  XXIX,  £ 
and  G6rt-i  Fryan  is  included  in  a  similar  enumeration  in  Da</. 
(Reply  89).     The  tale  of  G6it-i  Frydn  (Av.  Yflut6  y6  Fryananam, 

i&n  Vt.  81  and  Fravardin  Yt.  120)  has  been  published  with 
'The  Book  of  Arda-Vfraf,'  ed.  Hoshangji  and  Haug. 

*  Or,  '  became ;'  most  of  this  verb  is  torn  oflf  in  K20. 

*  The  verb  is  placed  before  its  nominative  in  the  Pahlavi  text, 
both  here  and  in  most  similar  sentences,  which  is  an  imitation  of 
the  A  vesta,  due  probably  to  the  text  being  originally  translated 
from  an  A  vesta  book  now  lost,  or,  at  any  rate,  to  its  author's  wish 
that  it  might  appear  to  be  so  translated.  In  such  cases  of  inverted 
construction,  when  the  verb  is  in  a  past  tense,  the  Pahlavi  idiom 
often  requires  a  pronominal  suffix,  corresponding  to  the  nominative, 
U>  be  added  to  the  first  word  in  the  sentence;  thus,  gftfto*  A  ft  ha  r- 
mazd,  or  afax  gftft  Aftharmazd,  does  not  mean  'Aftharmazd 
spoke  to  him  (or  said  it),'  but  merely  'Aftharmazd  spoke  '  (lit. '  it  was 
said  by  him.  Aftharmazd '). 

*  According  to  an  untranslated  passage  in  the  Selections  of 
Zai/-sparam,  mentioned  in  the  note  on  p.  187,  this  is  the  name  of 

O  2 

when  Tur-i  Brartforvash  the  Karap  shall  become 
immortal  the  resurrection  and  future  existence  are 
not  possible.' 

4.  Zaraturt  seemed  uneasy  about  it  in  his  mind 
and  Auharmazd,  through  the  wisdom  of  omniscienc 
knew  what  was  thought  by  Zaratust  the  Spitaman 
with    the    righteous  spirit,    and    he*  took   hold    of 
Zaraturt's  hand.     5.  And  he,  Auharmazd  the  pr 
pitious   spirit,    creator   of  the   material   world,   th 
righteous  one,  even  he  put  the  omniscient  wisdom, 
in  the  shape  of  water,  on  the  hand  of  Zaratt'ut,  and 
said  to  him  thus  :  '  Devour  it.' 




one  of  the  Jive  brothers  in  the  family  of  sorcerers,  who 
were  enemies  of  Zaratuxt  during  his  childhood.  Their  names,  as 
written  in  SZS.,  may  be  read  as  follows, '  Brav/arvakhsh,  Bnu/r6yixn5, 
Tur  Bragrosh,  Az&n5,  and  Nasm,'  and  the  first  is  also  called  '  Tflr-i 
ivakhsh;'  they  are  described  as  descendants  of  the  sister  of 
ManujAihar.  In  the  seventh  book  of  the  Dinkar*/  a  wizard,  who 
endeavours  to  injure  Zaratuxt  in  his  childhood,  is  called  '  Tur-i 
l!i  j(/r6k-resh,  the  KarapS,'  and  was  probably  the  third  brother, 
whose  name  {thus  corrected)  indicates  hr6-raSs  ha  as  its  A  vesta 
form.  Karap  or  Karapan  in  all  these  passages  is  evidently  the 
name  of  a  family  or  caste,  probably  the  Av.  karapand  which  Haug 
translates  by  '  performers  of  (idolatrous)  sacrificial  rites,'  in  connec- 
tion with  Sans,  kalpa,  'ceremonial  ritual'  (see  Haug's  Essays, 
pp.  289-291). 

1  K20  has  'among  the  spirits ;'  the  word  minion  having  become 
mainokan  by  the  insertion  of  an  extra  stroke. 

1  Reading  afax  instead  of  minax  (Huz.  of  a^-ax,  '  from  or  by 
him,'  which  is  written  with  the  same  letters  as  a  fax,  'and  by  him  1, 
not  only  here,  but  also  in  §$  5,  7.  9.  The  copyist  of  K20  was  evi- 
dently not  aware  that  afax  is  a  conjunctive  form,  but  confounded 
it  with  the  prepositional  form  a^ax,  as  most  Parsis  and  some  Euro- 
pean scholars  do  still.  The  Sasanian  inscriptions  confirm  the 
reading  a  fax  for  the  conjunctive  form ;  and  NifyOa&g,  the  learned 
Parsi  translator  of  Pahlavi  texts  into  Pazand  and  Sanskrit  some 
four  centuries  ago,  was  aware  of  the  difference  between  the  two 
forms,  as  he  transcribes  them  correctly  into  Paz.  vax  and  asax. 

CHAPTER    IT,    4-12. 


6.  And  Zaratu.u  devoured  some  of  it ;  thereby  the 
omniscient  wisdom  was  intermingled  with  Zarai 
and  seven  days  and  nights  Zaratfct  was  in  the 
wisdom  of  Afiharmazd.  7.  And  Zaratfijt  beheld  the 
men  and  cattle  in  the  seven  regiOQfl  of  the  earth, 
where  the  many  fibres  of  hair  of  every  one  are,  and 
whereunto  the  end  of  each  fibre  holds  on  the  back. 
8.  And  he  beheld  whatever  trees  and  shrubs  .there 
■mere,  and  how  many  roots  of  plants  were  in  the 
earth  of  Spendarma*/,  where  and  how  they  had 
grown,  and  where  they  were  mingled. 

9.  And  the  seventh  day  and  night  he  (Auhar- 
mazd)  took  back  the  omniscient  wisdom  from 
Zaraturt,  and  Zaralibt  reflected  in  this  way,  that 
I  have  seen  it  in  a  pleasant  dream  produced  by 
Auharmazd,  and  I  am  not  surfeited  with  the  dream. 
10.  And  he  took  both  hands,  rubbed  his  body 
(kerp)  again,  and  spoke1  thus :  '  I  have  slept  a  long 
time,  and  am  not  surfeited  with  this  pleasant  dream 
produced  by  Atiharmazd.' 

1 1 .  Afiharmazd  said  to  the  righteous  Zaratfist 
thus :  '  What  was  seen  in  the  pleasant  dream  pro- 
duced by  Afiharmazd  ? ' 

12.  Zaratfirt  spoke  thus:  'O  Afiharmazd,  propi- 
tious spirit !  creator  of  the  material  world,  righteous 
creator!  I  have  seen  a  celebrity  (khunl</)  with 
much  wealth,  whose  soul,  infamous  in  the  body,  was 
hungry  (gurs)8  and  jaundiced  and  in  hell,  and  he  did 
not  seem  to  me  exalted ;  and  1  saw  a  beggar  with 
no  wealth  and  helpless,  and  his  soul  was  thriving 
(farpfh)  in  paradise,  and3  he  seemed  to  me  exalted. 

•  This  verb  is  omitted  in  Kao  by  mistake. 

•  Or  else  '  dirty.* 

•  Reading  afam  instead  of  mi  nam,  both  here  and  in  §  14  ;  the 


13.  [And  I  saw  a  wealthy  man  without  children,  and 
he  did  not  seem  to  me  exalted ;] '  and  I  saw  a 
pauper  with  many  children,  and  he  seemed  to  me 
exalted.  14.  And  I  saw  a  tree  on  which  were  seven 
branches,  one  golden,  one  of  silver,  one  brazen,  one 
of  copper,  [one  of  tin]2,  one  of  steel,  and  one  was 
mixed  up  with  iron.' 

15.  Auharmazd  spoke  thus:  '  O  Zaratfot  the 
Spltaman !  this  is  what  I  say  beforehand,  the  one 
tree  which  thou  sawest  is  the  world  which  I,  Auhar- 
mazd, created ;  and  those  seven  branches  thou 
sawest  are  the  seven  periods  which  will  come. 
16.  And  that  which  was  golden  is  the  reign  of  King 
Viitasp,  when  I  and  thou  converse  about  religion, 
and  Vijtasp  shall  accept  that  religion  and  shall 
demolish  the  figures  of  the  demons,  and  the  demons 
desist  from  demonstration  into  concealed  proceed- 
ings ;  Aharman  and  the  demons  rush  back  to  dark- 
ness, and  care  for  water,  fire,  plants,  and  the  earth 
of  Spendarmaflf3  becomes  apparent.  17.  And  that 
which  was  of  silver*  is  the  reign  of  Ar*/asblr5  th« 

copyist  of  K20  having  confounded   these   two  words,  like  those 
mentioned  in  the  note  on  §  4. 

1  The  passage  in  brackets  is  omitted  in  K20,  but  is  supplied 
from  the  Paz.  MSS.,  being  evidently  necessary  to  complete  the 
contrast.     It  occurs  also  in  the  Pers.  version. 

*  Supplied  from  the  Paz.  and  Pers.  versions,  being  omitted  here 
in  K  20,  though  occurring  in  §  20. 

*  The  female  archangel  who  has  charge  of  the  earth  (see  Bund. 

*  The  Paz.  MSS.  omit  the  description  of  the  silver  age. 

*  Usually  identified  with  Artaxerxes  Longimanus,  but  his  long 
reign  of  1 12  years  may  include  most  of  the  Achaemenian  sovereigns 
down  to  Artaxerxes  Mnemon,  several  of  whom  are  called  Aha- 
suerus  or  Artaxerxes  in  the  biblical  books  of  Ezra  and  Esther.  S< 
Bund.  XXXI,  30,  XXXIV,  8. 

Kayan  (Kai),  whom1  they  call  Vohuman  son  of 
Spend-da//-,  who  is  he  who  separates  the  demons 
from  men,  scatters  them  about,  and  makes  the  reli- 
gion current  in  the  whole  world.  18.  And  that 
which  was  brazen3  is  the  reign  of  Anzakhshir  *,  the 
arranger  and  restorer  of  the  world,  and  that  of  King 
Shahpur,  when  he  arranges  the  world  which  I, 
Auharmazd,  created;  he  makes  happiness  (bukhta- 
klh)  *  prevalent  in  the  boundaries  of  the  world,  and 
goodness  shall  become  manifest ;  and  Atar6-pa^  of 
triumphant  destiny,  the  restorer  of  the  true  religion, 
with  the  prepared  brass ",  brings  this  religion,  to- 
gether with  the  transgressors,  back  to  the  truth. 
19.  And  that  which  was  of  copper  is  the  reign  of 
the  Askanian  king7,  who  removes  from  the  world 

1  Reading  m  On,'  whom,'  instead  of  araat,  '  when  '  (see  the  note 
on  Bund.  I,  7). 

■  Contracted  here  into  SpendaV,  as  it  is  also  in  Bund.  XXXIV,  8 
in  the  old  MSS.  This  name  of  the  king  is  corrupted  into  Bahman 
son  of  Isfendiyir  in  the  Shdhnamah. 

■  This  brazen  age  is  evidently  out  of  its  proper  chronological 
order.  The  Pazand  and  Persian  versions  correct  this  blunder  by 
describing  the  copper  age  before  the  brazen  one  here,  but  they 
place  the  brazen  branch  before  the  copper  one  in  §  14,  so  it  is 
doubtful  how  the  text  stood  original  h. 

•  Anakhshatar  son  of  Papaki  and  ShahpGhari  son  of  Artakh- 
shatar  are  the  Sasanian  forms  of  the  names  of  the  first  two 
monarchs  (A.n.  226-271)  of  the  Sasanian  dynasty,  whose  reigns 
constitute  this  brazen  age. 

•  Literally,  '  deliverance  from  sin  '  or  '  salvation '  by  one's  own 
good  works,  and,  tliereforc,  not  in  a  Christian  sense. 

•  Referring  to  the  ordeal  of  pouring  molten  brass  on  his  chest, 
undergone  by  Atar6-pa</  son  of  Maraspend,  high-priest  and  prime 
minister  of  Shapur  I,  for  the  purpose  of  proving  the  truth  of  his 
religion  to  those  who  doubted  it. 

•  It  is  uncertain  which  of  the  Axkauiau  sovereigns  is  meant,  or 
whether  several  of  the  dynasty  may  not  be  referred  to.     The  Greek 

the  heterodoxy  (^avi^-rastaklh)  which  existed, 
and  the  wicked  Akandgar-i  Kilisyakih1  is  utterly 
destroyed  by  this  religion,  and  goes  unseen  and 
unknown  from  the  world.  20.  And  that  which  was 
of  tin  is  the  reign  of  King  Vahram  G6r-\  when  he- 

successors  of  Alexander  were  subdued  in  Persia  by  A.rk  (Arsaces  I), 
who  defeated  Seleucus  Callinicus  about  b.c.  236.  But  the  third 
book  of  the  Dinkar</(iii  a.  passage  quoted  by  llaug  in  his  Essay  on 
the  Pahlavi  Language)  mentions  Valkha-f  (Vologeses)  the  Ajk. 
as  collecting  the  Avesta  and  Zand,  and  encouraging  the  Mazda- 
I  in  religion.  This  Valkhar  was  probably  Vologeses  I,  a  con- 
temporary of  Nero,  as  shown  by  Darmesteter  in  the  introduction 
to  his  translation  of  the  Vendidad. 

1  I  am  indebted  to  Professor  J.  Darmesteter  for  pointing  out 
that  NSryosang,  in  his  Sanskrit  translation  of  Yas.  IX,  75.  explains 
Kakuiyak.i/;  u  'those  whose  faith  is  the  Christian  religion;'  the 
original  Pahlavi  word  in  the  oldest  MSS.  is  Kilisayaik,  altogethc 
a  misunderstanding  of  the  Avesta  name  Keresani,  which  it  trans- 
lates, but  sufficiently  near  the  name  in  our  text  to  warrant  the 
iption  that  NeryGsang  would  have  translated  Kilisyakih  by 
'Christianity;'  literally  it  means  ' ecclesiastic ism,  or  the  church 
religion'  (from  Pers.  kilisy£,  Gr.  fadujvfe).  Akandgar  is  probably 
a  miswriting  of  Alaksandar  or  Sikandar ;  though  Darmesteter 
suggests  that  Skandgar  (Av.  skendd-kara,  Pers.  jikandgar), 
1  causer  of  destruction,'  would  be  an  appropriate  punning  title  for 
Alexander  from  a  Persian  point  of  view.  The  anachronisms 
involved  in  making  Alexander  the  Great  a  Christian,  conquered  by 
an  A.tkdnian  king,  are  not  more  startling  than  the  usual  Pahlavi 
statement  that  he  was  a  Roman.  To  a  Persian  in  Sasanian  times 
Alexander  an  the  representative  of  an  invading  enemy  which  had 
come  from  the  countries  occupied,  in  those  limes,  by  the  eastern 
empire  of  the  Christian  Romans,  which  enemy  had  been  subdued 
in  Persia  by  the  A jkanian  dynasty ;  and  such  information  would 
naturally  lead  to  the  anachronisms  just  mentioned  The  name 
Kilisyakih  is  again  used,  in  Chap.  Ill,  3,  5,  8,  to  denote  some 
Christian  enemy. 

*  This  Sasanian  monarch  (a.  d.  420-439),  after  considerable 
provocation,  revived  the  persecution  of  the  heretics  and  foreign 
creeds  which  had  been  tolerated  by  his  predecessor,  and  this 
conduct  naturally  endeared  him  to  the  priesthood. 

CHAPTER    II,    20-24. 


makes  the  sight '  of  the  spirit  of  pleasure  manifest, 
and  Aharman  with  the-  wizards  rushes  back  to  dark- 
ness and  gloom.  21.  And  that  which  was  of  steel  is 
the  reign  of  King  Khusro  son  of  K£va//*,  when  he 
keeps  away  from  this  religion  the  accursed  Mazdik  3, 
son  of  Bamddr/,  who  remains  opposed  to  the  religion 
along  with  the  heterodox.  22.  And  that  which  was 
mixed  with  iron  [is  the  reign  of  the  demons  with 
dishevelled  hair  *  of  the  race  of  Wrath,  when  it  is 
the  end  of  the  tenth  hundredth  winter  of  thy  mil- 
lennium], O  Zaratfct  the  Spitaman  ! ' 

23.  Zaratujrt  said  thus:  '  Creator  of  the  material 
world  !  O  propitious  spirit!  what  token  would  you 
give  of  the  tenth  hundredth  winter?' 

24.  Auharmazd  spoke  thus:  '  Righteous  Zaratun! 
I  will  make  it  clear :  the  token  that  it  is  the  end  of 
thy  millennium,  and  the  most  evil  period  is  coming, 
is  that  a  hundred  kinds,  a  thousand  kinds,  a  myriad 
of  kinds  of  demons  with   dishevelled   hair,  of  the 

1  Reading  ven&p  (1'ers.  btnab),  but  it  may  be  va  dav5^,  in 
which  case  the  phrase  must  be  translated  as  follows :  *  when  he 
makes  the  spirit  of  pleasure  and  joy  manifest' 

*  See  Chap.  I,  5.     The  characteristic  of  the  steel  age,  like  that 
be  tin  one,  was   the  persecution  of   heretics  who   had   been 

tolerated  by  die  reigning  monarch's  predecessor. 

*  Generally  written  Mazdak,  a  heretic  whose  teaching  was  very 
popular  in  the  time  of  King   KfivfW  (or  Kav&</,  a.  d.  487-531). 

doctrine  appears  to  have  been  extreme  socialism  built  upon  a 
Mazdayasnian  foundation.  He  was  put  to  death  by  Khusro  I,  as 
hinted  in  the  text.  It  is  remarkable  that  none  of  the  successors  of 
Khusro  Noshirvan  are  mentioned  in  the  Bahman  Yart,  so  that  a 
Parsi,  who  even  did  not  believe  in  the  verbal  inspiration  of  the  book, 
might  possibly  consider  the  remainder  of  it  as  strictly  prophetical. 

*  The  passage  in  brackets  is  omitted  in  K20  by  mistake,  and  is 
here  supplied  from  Chap.  I,  5,  in  accordance  with  the  P5z.  and 
Pers.  versions. 

race  of  Wrath,  rush  into  the  country  of  Iran  (Airan 
shatro)  from  the  direction  of  the  east l,  which  has 
an  inferior  race  and  race  of  Wrath.  25.  They  have 
uplifted  banners,  they  slay  those  living  in  the  world2, 
they  have  their  hair  dishevelled  on  the  back,  and 
they  are  mostly  a  small  and  inferior  (nit  urn)  race, 
forward  in  destroying  the  strong  doer ;  O  Zaratftrt 
the  Spitaman  '  the  race  of  Wrath  is  miscreated  (vi- 
shiW)  and  its  origin  is  not  manifest.  26.  Through 
witchcraft  they  rush  into  these  countries  of  Iran 
which  I,  Aftharmazd,  created,  since  they  burn  and 
damage  many  things ;  and  the  house  of  the  house- 
owner,  the  land  of  the  land-digger,  prosperity,  nobi- 
lity, sovereignty,  religion3,  truth,  agreement,  security, 
enjoyment,  and  every  characteristic  which  I,  Auhar- 
mazd,  created,  this  pure  religion  of  the  Mazda- 
yasnians,  and  the  fire  of  Vahram,  which  is  set  in 
the  appointed  place,  encounter  annihilation,  and  the 
direst  destruction  and  trouble  will  come  into  notice. 
27.  And  that  which  is  a  great  district  will  become 
a  town;   that  which  is  a  great  town,  a  village;  that 


1  Or  'of  Khurasan."  It  is  difficult  to  identify  these  demons 
with  the  Arabs,  who  came  from  the  west,  though  a  dweller  in 
Kirman  might  imagine  that  they  came  from  Khurasan.  In  fact, 
hardly  any  of  the  numerous  details  which  follow,  except  their  long- 
continued  rule,  apply  exclusively  to  Muhamrnadans.  It  appears, 
moreover,  from  §  50  and  Chap.  Ill,  8,  that  these  demons  are 
intended  for  Turks,  that  is,  invaders  from  Turkistan,  who  would 
naturally  come  from  the  east  into  Persia. 

'  Reading  g6han-zivo  zcktclund,  but  die  beginning  of  the 
latter  word  is  torn  off  in  K20,  and  the  other  versions  have  no 
equivalent  phrase.  The  Pazand  substitutes  the  phrase  ■  blaci 
banners  and  black  garments.' 

*  This  word,  being  torn  off  in  K20,  is  supplied  from  the  Yi 

which  is  a  great  village,  a  family;  and  that  which  a 
a  [great]1  family,  a  single  threshold.  28.  O  ZaratGrt 
Spltaman!  they  will  lead  these  Iranian  countries 
of  Auharmazd  into  a  desire  for  evil,  into  tyranny 
and  misgovernment,  those  demons  with  dishevelled 
hair  who  are  deceivers,  so  that  what  they  say  they 
do  not  do,  and  they  are  of  a  vile  religion,  so  that 
what  they  do  not  say  they  do.  29.  And  their  assist- 
ance and  promise  have  no  sincerity,  there  is  no 
law,  they  preserve  no  security,  and  on  the  support 
they  provide  no  one  relies ;  with  deceit,  rapacity, 
and  misgovernment  they  will  devastate  these  my 
Iranian  countries,  who  am  Auharmazd. 

30.  *  And  at  that  time,  O  ZaratvUt  the  Spltaman  ! 
all  men  will  become  deceivers,  great  friends  will 
become  of  different  parties,  and  respect,  affection, 
hope  *,  and  regard  for  the  soul  will  depart  from  the 
world ;  the  affection  of  the  father  will  depart  from 
the  son :  and  that  of  the  brother  from  his  brother ; 
the  son-in-law  will  become  a  beggar  (kid yak  or 
kasik)  from  his  father-in-law3,  and  the  mother  will 
be  parted  and  estranged  from  the  daughter. 

31.  'When  it  is  the  end  of  thy  tenth  hundredth 
winter,  O  Zaratust  the  Spltaman!  the  sun  is  more 
unseen  and  more  spotted  (vasangtar);  the  year, 
month,  and  day  are  shorter;  and  the  earth  of  Spen< 
darmad'   is   more   barren,    and    fuller   of    highway* 

1  This  word  is  omiued  in  Kao,  but  supplied  from  the  Pazand. 
The  whole  section  is  omitted  in  the  Pers.  version. 

a  This  word,  being  torn  off  in  K20,  is  doubtfully  supplied  from 
the  Pers.  paraphrase.     The  Pnz.  MSS.  omit  §§  30-32. 

"  Or,  perhaps,  'parents-in-law;'  the  original  is  khflsruinS, 
followed  by  some  word  (probably  naff  man)  which  is  torn  off  in 
K20.     The  Pcrs.  version  gives  no  equivalent  phrase. 

men  * ;  and  the  crop  will  not  yield  the  seed,  so  that 
of  the  crop  of  the  corn-fields  in  ten  cases  seven  will 
diminish  and  three2  will  increase,  and  that  which 
increases  does  not  become  ripe3;  and  vegetation, 
trees,  and  shrubs  will  diminish  ;  when  one  shall  take 
a  hundred,  ninety  will  diminish  and  ten  will  increase, 
and  that  which  increases  gives  no  pleasure  and 
flavour.  32.  And  men  are  born  smaller,  and  their 
skill  and  strength  are  less ;  they  become  more  de- 
ceitful and  more  given  to  vile  practices ;  they  have 
no  gratitude  and  respect  for  bread  and  salt,  and  they 
have  no  affection  for  their  country  (desak). 

33.  'And  in  that  most  evil  time  a  boundary  has 
most  disrespect4  where  it  is  the  property  of  a  suf- 
fering man  of  religion ;  gifts  are  few  among  their 
deeds,  and  duties  and  good  works  proceed  but  little 
from  their  hands;  and  sectarians  of  all  kinds  arc 
seeking  mischief  for  them 6.  34.  And  all  the  world 
will  be  burying  and  clothing  the  dead,  and  burying 
the  dead  and  washing  the  dead  will  be  by  law ;  the 
burning,  bringing  to  water  and  fire,  and  eating  of 
dead  matter  they  practise  by  law  and  do  not  abstain 
from.  35.  They  recount  largely  about  duties  and 
good  works,  and  pursue  wickedness  and  the  road  to 
hell ;  and  through  the  iniquity,  cajolery,  and  craving 
of  wrath  and  avarice  they  rush  to  hell. 

36.  '  And  in  that  perplexing  time,  O  Zaratu^t  the 

1  Or,  'tax-collectors;'  Pahl.  tangtar  va  r&s-vanagtar. 

*  In  K20  'va  3'  is  corrupted  into  the  very  similar  va  v&i, 
'  and  a  portion.' 

s  Literally,  '  white.' 

*  Reading  anararm  instead  of  hand  Szarm. 
1  That  is,  for  the  Iranians  in  general,  who  are  the  'they'  in 

ft  32-35- 

CHAPTER    II,    32-36. 


Spitaman  ! — the  reign  of  Wrath  with  infuriate  sjxear' 
and  the  demon  with  dishevelled  hair,  of  the  race  of 
Wrath, — the  meanest  slaves  walk  forth  with  the 
authority  of  nobles  of  the  land ;  and  the  religious, 
who  wear  satrcd  t A  read-girdles  on  the  waist,  are 
then  not  able  to  perform  their  ablution  (pa^/lya^lh). 
for  in  those  last  times  dead  matter  and  bodily  refuse 
become  so  abundant,  that  atu  who  shall  set  step  to 
step  walks  upon  dead  matter;  or  when  he  washes 
in  the  barashnum  ccrtmony,  and  puts  down  a  foot 
from  the  stone  seat  (magh)8,  he  walks  on  dead 
matter ;  or  when  he  arranges  the  sacred  twigs  (bare- 
s6m)  and  consecrates  the  sacred  cakes  (drdntV)  in 
their  corpse-chamber  (nasat  katak)3  it  is  allowable. 

1  The  Av.  ASshmo  khrvfdrur.  'Adshma  the  impetuous 
assailant'  (see  Bund.  XXVIII,  1 5— 17);  this  demon's  Pahlavi 
epithet  is  partly  a  transcription,  and  partly  a  paraphrase  of  the 
A  vesta  term. 

8  According  to  Daslur  Hoshangji  (Zand-Pahlavi  Glossary,  p.  65) 
the  term  magh  is  now  applied  to  the  stones  on  which  the  person 
-  going  purification  has  to  squat  during  ablution  in  the  barash- 
num ceremony.  Originally,  however,  Av.  mag  ha  appears  to  have 
meant  a  shallow  hole  dug  in  the  earth,  near  or  over  which  the 
person  squatted  upon  a  seat,  either  of  stone  or  some  other  hard 
material  (see  Vend.  IX).  The  term  for  the  hole  was  probably 
extended  to  the  whole  arrangement,  including  the  seat,  whkli 
latter  has  thus  acquired  the  name  of  niagh,  although  magh  and 
maghik  still  mean  4a  channel  or  pit'  in  Persian. 

*  The  Av.  kata  of  Vend.  V,  36-40;  a  special  chamber  for  the 
temporary  reception  of  the  corpse,  when  it  was  impossible  to 
remove  it  at  once  to  the  dakhma,  owing  to  the  inclemency  of 
the  weather.  It  should  be  large  enough  for  standing  upright,  and 
for  stretching  out  the  feet  and  hands,  without  touching  either  walls 
or  ceiling;  that  is,  not  less  than  six  feet  cube.  The  text  means 
that  those  times  will  be  so  distressing,  that  it  will  be  considered 
lawful  to  perform  the  sacred  ceremonies  even  in  a  place  of  such 
concentrated  impurity  as  a  dead-house  not  actually  occupied  by 
a  corpse. 



37.  Or,  in  those  last  times,  it  becomes  allowable 
perform  a  ceremonial  (ya^ri^n)  with  two  men,  so  that 
this  religion  may  not  come  to  nothing  and  collapse1; 
there  will  be  only  one  in  a  hundred,  in  a  thousand, 
in  a  myriad,  who  believes  in  this  religion,  and  even 
he  does  nothing  of  it  though  H  be  a  duty2;  and  the 
fire  of  Vahram.  which  will  come  to  nothing  and 
collapse,  falls  off  from  a  thousand  to  one  care-taker, 
and  even  he  does  not  supply  it  properly  with  fire- 
wood and  incense  ;  or  when  a  man,  who  has  per- 
formed worship  and  does  not  know  the  Nlrangistan3 
(•  code  of  religious  formulas '),  shall  kindle  it  with 
good  intentions,  it  is  allowable. 

38.  '  Honourable '  wealth  will  all  proceed  to  those 
of  perverted  faith  (k£vt^-kdshan);  it  comes  to  the 
transgressors,  and  virtuous  doers  of  good  works, 
from  the  families  of  noblemen  even  unto  the  priests 
(mOg-marrt'an),  remain  running  about  uncovered; 
the  lower  orders  take  in  marriage  the  daughters 
of  nobles,  grandees,  and  priests ;  and  the  nobles, 
grandees,  and  priests  come  to  destitution  and  bon- 
dage. 39.  The  misfortunes  of  the  ignoble  will  over- 
take greatness  and  authority,  and  the  helpless  and 
ignoble  will  come  to  the  foremost  place  and  advance- 
ment; the  words  of  the  upholders  of  religion,  and 
the  seal  and  decision  of  a  just  judge  will  become  the 

1  The  Paz.  MSS.  add,  ■  and  helplessness.' 

*  The  Paz.  MSS.  add,  'and  the  prayers  and  ceremonies  that 
he  orders  of  priests  and  disciples  they  do  not  fulfil.' 

J  The  name  of  a  work  which  treats  of  various  ceremonial  details, 
and  appears  to  be  a  portion  of  the  Pahlavi  translation  of  the  seven- 
teenth or  HQsp&ram  Nask,  containing  many  Avcsta  quotauo 
which  are  not  now  to  be  found  elsewhere. 

'  The  I'az.  MSS.  have  misread  asir  damik,  'underground,1 
instead  of  Ssarmik. 


CHAPTER    II,    37-41. 


words  of  random  speakers  (and£2o-g6kan)  among1 
the  just  and  even  the  righteous ;  and  the  words  of 
the  ignoble  and  slanderers,  of  the  disreputable  and 
mockers,  and  of  those  of  divers  opinions  they  con- 
sider true  and  credible,  about  which  they  take  x  an 
oath,  although  with  falsehood,  and  thereby  give 
false  evidence,  and  speak  falsely  and  irreverently 
about  me,  Auharmazd.  40.  They  who  bear  the 
title  of  priest  and  disciples  wish  evil  concerning* 
one  another;  he  speaks  vice  and  they  look  upon 
vice ;  and  the  antagonism  of  Aharman  and  the 
demons  is  much  brought  on  by  them ;  of  the  sin 
which  men  commit,  out  of  five 3  sins  the  priests  and 
disciples  commit  three  sins,  and  they  become  ene- 
mies of  the  good,  so  that  they  may  thereby  speak  of 
bad  faults  relating  to  one  another;  the  ceremonies 
they  undertake  they  do  not  perform,  and  they  have 
no  fear  of  hell. 

41.  '  And  in  that  tenth  hundredth  winter,  ivhick  is 
the  end  of  thy  millennium,  O  righteous  Zaratitft ! 
all  mankind  will  bind  torn  hair,  disregarding  reve- 
lation4,  so   that   a  willingly-disposed  cloud   and   a 

1  Literally, '  devour  an  oath,'  which  Persian  idiom  was  occasioned 
by  the  original  form  of  oath  consisting  in  drinking  water  prepared 
in  a  particular  manner,  after  having  invoked  all  the  heavenly 
powers  to  bear  witness  to  the  truth  of  what  had  been  asserted 
(see  the  Saugand-namah). 

1  Reading  rSt  instead  of  la, 'not.'  The  whole  section  is  omitted 
by  the  Paz.  MSS.,  possibly  from  politic  motives,  as  the  language  is 
plain  cnouirli. 

*  Tlie  Persian  paraphrase  has  'eight.' 

4  Referring  probably  to  the  injunctions  regarding  cutting  the 
hair  and  paring  the  nails,  with  all  the  proper  precautions  for  pre- 
venting any  fragments  of  the  hair  or  nails  from  lying  about,  as  given 
in  Vend.  XVII.  One  of  the  penalties  for  neglecting  such  precau- 
tions is  supposed   to  be  a  failure   of  the  necessary  rains.     The 




righteous  wind  are  not  able  to  produce  rain  in  its 
proper  time  and  season.  42.  And  a  dark  cloud 
makes  the  whole  sky  night,  and  the  hot  wind  an< 
the  cold  wind  arrive,  and  bring  along  fruit  and  se( 
of  corn,  even  the  rain  in  its  proper  time;  and  it  does 
not  rain,  and  that  which  rains  also  rains  more 
noxious  creatures  than  water;  and  the  water  of 
rivers  and  springs  will  diminish,  and  there  will  be 
no  increase.  43.  And  the  beast  of  burden  and  ox 
and  sheep  bring  forth  more  painfully  ■  and  awk- 
wardly, and  acquire  less  fruitfulness ;  and  tfteir  hair 
is  coarser  and  skin  thinner;  the  milk  does  not  in- 
crease and  has  less  cream  (-£arbLu) ;  the  strength 
of  the  labouring  ox  is  less,  and  the  agility  of  the 
swift  horse  is  less,  and  it  carries  less  in  a  race. 

44.   '  And  on   the   men   in  that  perplexing  time, 
O  Zaratust    the    Spitarnan !    who   wear    the    sacr.d 

//itrad-gmWe  on  the  waist,  the  evil-seeking  of  mis- 
..  __j    _-.._k    ^r   !«._   r_i :..j ..   1 

government  and  much  of  its  false  judgment  have 
come  as  a  wind  in  which  their  living  is  not  possible, 
and  they  seek  death  as  a  boon ;  and  youths  and 
children  will  be  apprehensive,  and  gossiping  chitchat 
and  gladness  of  heart  do  not  arise  among  them. 
45.  And  they  practise  the  appointed  feasts  (^am6) 
of  their  ancestors,  the  propitiation  (aus6friflf)  of 
angels,  ami  the  prayers  and  ceremonies  of  the  season 
festivals  and  guardian  spirits,  in  various  places,  jfCt 
that  which  they  practise  they  do  not  believe  in  un- 
hesitatingly ;  they  do  not  give  rewards  lawfully,  and 


words  anastak  dfno*    can  also  be  translated  by  'despising  the 


1  Tlic  word  appears  to  be  dar^aktar.  but  is  almost  illegible  in 

K20;  it  may  possibly  be  kulaktar,  'more  scantily/  as  the  Paz. 

MSS.  have  kddaklar  bahcV,  'become  smaller.' 

CHAPTER    II.    42-49. 


bestow  no  gifts  and  alms,  and  even  those  [they 
bestow] '  they  repent  of  again.  46.  And  even  those 
men  of  the  good  religion,  who  have  reverenced  the 
good  religion  of  the  Mazdayasnians,  proceed  in  con- 
formity with  (bar-hamak8  those  ways  and 
customs2,  and  do  not  believe  their  own  religion. 
47.  And  the  noble,  great,  and  charitable  •  who  are 
the  virtuous  of  their  own  country  and  locality,  will 
depart  from  their  own  original  place  and  family  *  as 
idolatrous ;  through  want  they  beg  something  from 
the  ignoble  and  vile,  and  come  to  poverty  and  help- 
lessness ;  through  them  *  nine  in  ten  of  these  men 
will  perish  in  the  northern  quarter. 

48.  'Through  their  way  of  misrule  everything 
comes  to  nothingness  and  destitution,  levity  and 
infirmity ;  and  the  earth  of  Spendarma^  opens  its 
mouth  wide,  and  every  jewel  and  metal  becomes 
exposed,  such  as  gold  and  silver,  brass,  tin.  and 
lead.  49.  And  rule  and  sovereignty  come  to  slaves, 
such  as  the  Turk  and  non-Turanian  (Atur)  of  the 
army8,    and    are    turbulent    as   among   the    moun- 

1  This  verb  is  omitted  in  Kao. 

■  It  is  rather  doubtful  whether  their  own  customs  are  meant,  or 
those  of  their  conquerors. 

3  Ordahakan  may  mean  'the  skilful.' 

*  Reading  du</ak  instead  of  ruVak.  At  first  sight  the  mis- 
wriring  of  r  for  d  seems  to  indicate  copying  from  a  text  in  the 
modern  Persian  character,  in  which  those  two  letters  are  often 
much  alike;  but  it  happens  that  the  compounds  du  and  ru  also 
resemble  one  another  in  some  Pahlavi  handwriting. 

*  Whether  through  poverty  and  helplessness,  or  through  the 
conquerors,  is  not  quite  clear. 

'  Wry  little  reliance  can  be  placed  upon  the  details  of  thi3  sen- 
tence, but  it  is  difficult  to  make  any  other  complete  and  consistent 
translation.  Darmesteter  suggests  the  reading  h6n6,  'army,'  but 
another  possible  reading  is  Khv6n  (Av.  /foyaona),  the  old  name 

[5]  'p 

taineers  l ;  and  the  A'int 2,  the  Ka^uli,  the  Soft!,  the 
Ruman  (Arumayak),  and  the  white-clothed  Kar- 
mak 3  then  attain  sovereignty  in  my  countries  of  Iran, 
and  their  will  and  pleasure  will  become  current  in  the 
world.  50.  The  sovereignty  will  come  from  those 
leathern-belted  ones4  and  Arabs  (Tasigan)  and 
Rumans  to  them,  and  they  will  be  so  misgoverning 
that  when  they  kill  a  righteous  man  who  is  virtuous 
and  a  fly,  it  is  all  one8  in  their  eyes.  51.  And  the 
security,  fame,  and  prosperity,  the  country  and 
families,  the  wealth  and  handiwork,  the  streams, 
rivers,  and  springs  of  Iran,  and  of  those  of  the  good 
religion,  come  to  those  non-Iranians;  and  the  army 
and  standards  of  the  frontiers  come  to  them,  and  a 
rule  with  a  craving  for  wrath  advances  in  the  world. 
52.  And  their  eyes  of  avarice  are  not  sated  with 
wealth,  and  they  form  hoards  of  the  world's  wealth, 
and  conceal  litem  underground  ;  and  through  wicked- 
ness they  commit  sodomy,  hold  much  intercourse 
with  menstruous  women,  and  practise  many  unna- 
tural lusts. 


of  some  country  probably  in  Turkist&n,  as  Ar^fisp,  the  opponent  of 
Vijtasp,  is  called  'lord  or  king  of  Khyfln '  in  the  Ya</k,1r-i  Zai 
(see  also  Got  Yt.  30,  31,  Ashi  Yt.  50,  51,  Zamydd  Yt.  87). 

1  Or, '  as  the  mountain-holding  Khudarak.'  Darmestctcr  suggests 
that  Khudarak  may  be  an  '  inhabitant  of  Khazar.' 

'  Probably  the  people  of  Samarkand,  which  place  was  formerly 
called  A'in  according  to  a  passage  in  some  MSS.  of  Tabarfs 
Chronicle,  quoted  in  Ouseley's  Oriental  Geography,  p.  298.  See 
also  Bund.  XII,  22. 

1  The  K&buli  and  Byzantine  Ruman  are  plain  enough ;  not  so 
the  Sofii  and  Karmak  (Kalmak  or  Krimak). 

*  That  is,  the  Turks,  as  appears  more  clearly  from  Chap.  III. 
8,  9.  The  Arabs  are  mentioned  here,  incidently,  for  the  first  time, 
and  again  in  Chap.  III.  9,  51. 

8  Literally,  *  both  are  one.' 

CHAPTER    II,    5O-57. 


53.  '  And  in  that  perplexing  time  the  night  is 
brighter ',  and  the  year,  month,  and  day  will  di- 
minish one-third  ;  the  earth  of  Spendarma</  arises, 
lad  suffering,  death,  and  destitution  become  more 
severe  in  the  world.' 

54.  Auharmazd  said  to  Zaratuit  the  Spitaman  : 
'  This  is  what  I  foretell :  that  wicked  evil  spirit, 
when  it  shall  be  necessary  for  him  to  perish,  be- 
comes more  oppressive  and  more  tyrannical.' 

55.  So  Auharmazd  spoke  to  Zaratust  the  Spita- 
man thus :  '  Enquire  fully  and  learn  by  heart  * 
thoroughly !  teach  it  by  Zand,  Pasand,  and  explana- 
tion !  tell  it  to  the  priests  and  disciples  who  speak 
forth  in  the  world,  and  those  who  are  not  aware  of 
the  hundred  winters,  tell  //  then  to  them !  so  that, 
for  the  hope  of  a  future  existence,  and  for  the  pre- 
servation of  their  own  souls,  they  may  remove  the 
trouble,  evil,  and  oppression  which  those  of  other 
religions  cause  in  the  ceremonies  of  religion  (din 6 
yesnan).  56.  And,  moreover,  I  tell  thee  this,  O 
Zaratuft  the  Spitaman !  that  whoever,  in  that  time, 
appeals  for  the  body  is  not  able  to  save  the  soul, 
for  he  is  as  it  were  fat,  and  his  soul  is  hungry  and 
lean  in  hell ;  whoever  appeals  for  the  soul,  his  body 
is  hungry  and  lean  through  the  misery  of  the  world, 
and  destitute,  and  his  soul  is  fat  in  heaven.' 

57.  Zaratuit  enquired  of  Auharmazd  thus:  'O 
Auharmazd,  propitious  spirit!  creator  of  the  mate- 
rial world  who  art  righteous ! ' — He  is  Auharmazd 
through  righteous  invocation,  and  the  rest  through 

1  The  Paz.  version  adds,  '  the  motion  of  the  sun  is  quicker.' 
8  Literally,  '  make  easy.' 

P  2 

praise :  some  say  '  righteous  creator1 ! ' — '  O  creator ! 
in  that  perplexing  time  are  they  righteous  ?  and  are 
there  religious  people  who  wear  the  sacred  thread- 
girdle  (kustlk)  on  the  waist,  and  celebrate  religious 
rites  (dln6) 2  with  the  sacred  twigs  (bares 6m)  ?  and 
does  the  religious  practice  of  next-of-kin  marriage 
(khv£tuk-das)  continue  in  their  families?' 

58.  Auharmazd  said  to  Zaraturt  thus:  4  Of  the 
best  men  is  he  who,  in  that  perplexing  time,  wears 
the  sacred  thread- girdle  on  the  waist,  and  celebrates 
religious  rites  with  the  sacred  twigs,  though  not  as  in 
the  reign  of  King  Virtdsp.  59.  Whoever  in  that 
perplexing  time  recites  I  ta-i/Z-yazam  (A v.  itha  &d 
yazamaide\  Yas.Vand  XXXV II)*  and  one  Ashem- 
vohO  4,  and  has  learned  it  by  heart,  is  as  though, 
in  the  reign  of  King  Vutasp,  it  were  a  Dvardah- 
homast8    with    holy-water    (z6har).       60.     And    by 

1  This  interpolated  commentary  is  a  pretty  clear  indication  that 
the  writer  is  translating  from  an  A  vesta  text. 

*  Both  Paz.  and  Pers.  have  drdnd.  'sacred  cakes.' 

5  The  third  ha  or  chapter  of  the  Yasna  of  seven  chapters.  It 
worships  AQharmazd  as  the  creator  of  all  good  things. 

*  See  Bund.  XX,  2. 

5  For  the  following  explanation  of  the  various  kinds  of  hfimast 
I  am  indebted  to  DastOr  Jamaspji  Minochiharji  Jamasp-Asa-na  of 
Bombay:  — 

There  are  four  kinds  of  hfimast  recited  by  priests  for  the  atone- 
ment of  any  sin  that  may  have  been  committed  by  a  woman  during 
menstruation,  after  her  purification : — 

1.  Hflmast  consists  of  prayers  recited  for  144  days,  in  honour 
of  the   twelve  following   angels:    AQharmazd,  Tlrlar,   KhGrshSd, 
Mill,  Aban,  Adar.  Khurdad,  Amerdad,  Spendarmad,  Bad,  Srdsh, 
and  Arda-fravash.     Kach  angel,  in  turn,  is  reverenced  for  tweh 
days  successively,  with  one  Yasna  each  day. 

2.  Khaduk-h6mSstt  'one  h6mSst,'  differs  from  the  last  merely 
in  adding  a  Vendidad  every  twelfth  day,  to  be  recited  in  the  Ush- 


CHAPTER    II,    58-62. 


whomever  prayer  is  offered  up,  and  the  Gatha- 
hymns  are  chanted,  it  is  as  though  the  whole  ritual 
had  been  recited,  and  the  Gatha-//j'W//s  consecrated 
by  him  in  the  reign  of  King  Vi^tisp.  61.  The  most 
perfectly  righteous  of  the  righteous  is  he  who 
remains  in  the  good  religion  of  the  Mazdayasnians, 
and  continues  the  religious  practice  of  next-of-kin 
marriage  in  his  family.' 

62.  Auharmazd  said  to  the  righteous  Zaraturt : 
'  In  these  nine  thousand  years  which  I,  Auharmazd, 
created,  mankind  become  most  perplexed  in  that 
perplexing  time ;  for  in  the  evil  reigns  of  A*-i 
Dahak  and  Frasiyay  of  Tur  mankind,  in  those  per- 
plexing times,  were   living  better  and  living  more 

ahin  Gah  (12  p.m.  to  6  a.m.)  in  honour  of  the  angel  whose  propi- 
tiation ends  that  day. 

3.  Dah-hdmast,'ten  hdmasts/ differs  from  the  preceding  merely 
in  having  a  Vendidad,  in  addition  to  the  Yasna,  every  day. 

4.  Dvazdah-h6mast,  'twelve  h6masts/  are  prayers  recited  for 
264  days  in  honour  of  twenty-two  angels,  namely,  the  twelve  afore- 
said and  the  following  ten:  Bahman,  Ardibahut,  Shahrivar,  Mihir, 
Bahrain,  Ram,  Din.  Rashnfl,  G6j,  and  Artad.  Each  angel,  in 
turn,  is  reverenced  as  in  the  last. 

The  celebration  of  hdmast  costs  350  rupfs,  that  of  khaduk- 
b6mast  42a  rupis,  that  of  dah-bomast  1000  rQpis,  and  that  of 
dvazdah-hdmast  2000  rupis;  but  the  first  and  third  are  now  no 
longer  used.  The  merit  obtained  by  having  such  recitations  per- 
formed is  equivalent  to  1000  tanSpQhars  for  each  Yasna,  10,000 
for  each  Visparad,  and  70,000  for  each  Vendidad  recited.  A  tana- 
puhar  is  now  considered  as  a  weight  of  1200  dirhams,  with 
which  serious  sins  and  works  of  considerable  merit  are  estimated ; 
originally  it  must  have  meant  a  sin  which  was  '  inexpiable '  by 
ordinary  good  works,  and,  conversely,  any  extraordinary  good 
work  which  was  just  sufficient  to  efface  such  a  sin. 

The  amount  of  merit  attaching  to  such  recitations  is  variously 
slated  in  ditTerent  books,  and  when  recited  with  holy-water  (that  is, 
with  all  their  ceremonial  rites)  they  are  said  to  be  usually  a 
hundred  times  as  meritorious  as  when  recited  without  it. 



numerously,  and  their  disturbance  by  Aharman  and 
the  demons  was  less.  63.  For  in  their  evil  reigns, 
within  the  countries  of  Iran,  there  were  not  seven  l 
towns  which  were  desolate  as  they  will  be  when  it  is 
the  end  of  thy  millennium.  O  Zaraturt  the  Spita- 
man  !  for  all  the  towns  of  Iran  xvill  be  ploughed  up 
by  their  horses'  hoofs,  and  their  banners  will  reach 
unto  Padfashkhvargar 2,  and  they  will  carry  away 
the  sovereignty  of  the  seat  of  the  religion  I  approve 
from  there ;  and  their  destruction  comes  from  that 
place,  O  Zaraturt  the  Spltaman !  this  is  what  1 

64.  Whoever3  of  those  existing,  thus,  with  rever- 
ence unto  the  good,  performs  much  worship  for 
Auharmazd,  Auharmazd,  aware  of  it  through  right- 
eousness, gives  him  whatsoever  Auharmazd  is  aware 
of  through  righteousness,  as  remuneration  and  re- 
ward of  duty  and  good  works,  and  such  members  of 

1  So  in  the  Pazand,  but  *  seventeen'  in  Persian;  in  K20  the 
word  is  partly  illegible,  but  can  be  no  other  number  than  xiba, 
'  seven.' 

'  The  mountainous  region  south  of  the  Caspian  (see  Bund. 
XII.  2.  17). 

*  This  section  is  the  Pahlavi  version  of  an  A  vesta  formula  which 
is  appended  to  nearly  two-thirds  of  the   has  or  chapters  of  the 
Yasna,  and,  therefore-,  indicates  the  close  of  the  chapter  at   this 
point.    The  version  here  given  contains  a  few  verbal  deviations 
from  that  given  in  the  Yasna,  but  none  of  any  importance.     The 
A  vesta  text  of  this  formula  is  as  follows : — 
Y£nh6  hatam  fia//,  y&sng  paitt, 
vangho  mazdou  ahuro  vafitha,  ash;W  h&H, 
ysiunghamAi,  lasX-a  tausAa  yazamaidG. 
And  it  may  be  translated  in  the  following  manner : — 

f  Of  whatever  male  of  the  existences,  therefore.  Ahuramazda 
better  cognizant,  through  righteousness  in  worship,  and  of  what- 
ever females,  both  those  males  and  those  females  we  reverence.' 

CHAPTER    II,    63-ni.    3.  215 

the  congregation,  males  and  females,  I  reverence; 
and  the  archangels,  who  arc  also  male  and  female, 
they  are  good. 

Chapter  III. 

1.  Zaratuxt  enquired  of  Auharmazd  thus :  '  O 
Auharmazd,  propitious  spirit !  creator  of  the  mate- 
rial world,  righteous  otie!  whence  do  they  restore 
this  good  religion  of  the  Mazdayasnians  ?  and  by 
what  means  will  they  destroy  these  demons  with 
dishevelled  hair1,  of  the  race  of  Wrath?  2.  O 
creator!  grant  me  death!  and  grant  my  favoured 
ones  death !  that  they  may  not  live  in  that  per- 
plexing time ;  grant  them  exemplary  living !  that 
they  may  not  prepare  wickedness  and  the  way  to 

3.  Auharmazd  spoke  thus  :  '  O  Zaraturt  the  Spita- 
man !  after  the  ill-omened a  sovereignty  of  those  of 
the  race  of  Wrath s  there  is  a  fiend,  SheWaspih  *  of 
the  Kilisyaklh,  from  the  countries  of  Salman 8;'  Mih- 

'  The  Paz.  MSS.  insert,  ■  and  black  clothing '  here. 

■  literally,  '  black-marked,'  or  possibly,  '  black  standard.' 

»  The  PSz.  MSS.  add, 'the  leathern-belted  Turks,'  that  is,  people 
of  TurkistSn. 

•  This  fiend  appears  to  be  a  personification  of  Christianity  or 
1  ecclesiastkism '  (KilisySkih,  see  Chap.  II,  19),  and  the  writer 
seems  to  place  his  appearance  some  time  in  the  middle  ages, 
probably  before  the  end  of  the  thirteenth  century  (see  the  note  on 
Darmesteter  suggests  that  SherfSsp  may  have  been  intended 
as  a  modern  counterpart  of  BSvarisp  (Az-i  Dahak),  the  ancient 
tyrant ;  and  that  this  Christian  invasion  may  be  a  reminiscence  of 
the  crusades. 

§  I  have  formerly  read  MQsulm&n  instead  of  min  Salmin, 
and  hence  concluded  that  the  text  must  have  been  written  long 



vand-da*/  said  that  these  people  are  Ruman  (Aru- 
mayik),  and  R6shan l  said  that  they  have  red 
weapons,  red  banners,  and  red  hats  (kulah).  4.  '  It  is 
when  a  symptom  of  them  appears,  as  they  advance, 
O  Zaratust  the  Spltaman !  the  sun  and  the  dark 
show  signs,  and  the  moon  becomes  manifest  of 
various  colours;  earthquakes  (bum-gusand),  too, 
become  numerous,  and  the  wind  comes  more  vio- 
lently ;  in  the  world  want,  distress,  and  discomfort 
come  more  into  view;  and  Mercury  and  Jupiter 
advance  the  sovereignty  for  the  vile 2,  and  they  are 
in  hundreds  and  thousands  and  myriads.  5.  They 
have  the  red  banner  of  the  fiend  SheV/aspih  of  Kili- 
syakih,  and  they  hasten  much  their  progress  to  these 
countries  of  Iran  which  I,  Auharmazd,  created,  up 
to  the  bank  of  the  Arvand  V  some  have  said  *  the 
Fratfi  river,  'unto  the  Greeks  (Yunan)  dwelling  in 
AsOristan;'   they  are  Greeks  by  strict  reckoning c, 

after  the  Muhammadan  conquest  of  Persia;  but  this  reading  is 
irreconcilable  with  the  context.  The  position  of  Salman  (A v. 
Sat  rim  a)  is  defined  by  Bund.  XX,  12,  which  places  the  sources  of 
the  Tigris  in  that  country. 

1  The  name  of  a  commentator,  or  commentary,  often  quoted 
in  the  Pahlavi  Vendidad,  and  other  texts.  M&hvand-daV  is  men- 
tioned in  the  Pahlavi  Yasna  (see  Sis.  I,  4). 

J  The  Paz.  MSS.  state  that '  Mercury  and  Jupiter  beat  down  the 
strength  of  Venus.' 

■  Here  written  A  rang,  Arand,  or  Arvad,  but  as  it  is  Arvand  in 
§§  2i,  38,  that  reading  seems  preferable,  the  difference  between 
the  two  names  in  Pahlavi  being  merely  a  single  stroke.  The 
Arvand  is  the  Tigris,  and  the  Arang  probably  the  Araxes  (see 
SZS.  VI,  20,  Bund.  XX,  8). 

•  Literally,  ' there  are  and  were  some  who  said;'    this  phrase 
occurs  several  times  in  the  latter  part  of  this  lexL 
8  The  Euphrates. 

■  Or,  4of  strict  reckoning,'  reading  sakht  amSr,  but  both 
reading  and  meaning  are  very  uncertain.     As  it  stands  in  K20  it 

CHAPTER    III,    4-9. 


and  their  Assyrian  dwelling  is  this,  that  they  slay  the 
Assyrian  people  therein,  and  thus  they  will  destroy 
their  abode,  some  have  said  the  lurking-\\o\zs 
(grestak)  of  the  demons. 

6.  'They  turn  back  those  of  the  race  of  Wrath  ■  in 
hundreds  and  thousands  and  myriads  ;  and  the  ban- 
ners, standards,  and  an  innumerable  army  of  those 
ons  with  dishevelled  hair  will  come  to  these 
countries  of  Iran  which  I,  Auharmazd,  created.  7. 
And  the  army  of  the  invader2  is  an  extending  enemy 
of  the  Turk 3  and  even  the  Karm  *,  be  it  with  ban- 
ners aloft  when  he  shall  set  up  a  banner,  be  it 
through  the  excessive  multitude  which  will  remain — 
like  hairs  in  the  mane  of  a  horse — in  the  countries 
of  Iran  which  I.  Auharmazd,  created. 

8.  'The  leathern-belted  Ttirk  and  the  Ruman 
She^aspih  of  Kilisyakih  come  forth  with  simul- 
taneous movement",  and  in  three  places,  with 
similar  strife,  there  was  and  will  be  three  times 
a  great  contest  (ar^ih),  O  Zaratu^t  the  Spitaman ! 
9.  One  in  the  reign  of  Kal-Kaus",  when  through 

may  be  sakht  ^umal, '  extreme  beauty/  or  Sakhtimiir  (the  name 
of  a  place),  or  this  may  stand  for  sakht  if  mar,  'severe  misfor- 
tune ;'  and  other  readings  are  possible. 

1  It  is  not  quite  clear  which  party  will  turn  the  other  back. 

'  Literally,  'extender/  that  is,  one  engaged  in  extending  his 
own  dominions. 

1  The  remainder  of  this  §  (except  the  verb  '  remain  ')  is  I'dzand 
written  in  Persian  characters  in  Kao. 

'  Possibly  the  Karmak  of  Chap.  II,  49.  In  §  20  the  Kurt/  and 
Karma n  (or  Karms)  may  refer  to  the  Turk  and  Karm  of  this  §,  so 
it  is  doubtful  whether  Turk  or  Kurd  is  meant. 

5  Or,  'for  the  encounter/  pavan  ham-rasunih. 

•  See  Bund.  XXXI,  25,  XXXIV,  7.  The  letters  are  here  joined 
together,  so  as  to  become  Kai-gaQs,  and  this  form  of  the  name  is 


the  assistance  of  demons  it  teas  with  the  archangels ; 
and  the  second  when  thou,  O  Zaratu-st  the  Spita- 
man  f  receivedst  the  religion  and  /tads/  thy  con- 
ference, and  King  VLrtisp  and  Ar^asp1,  miscreated 
by  wrath,  were,  through  the  war  of  the  religion,  in 
the  combat  of  Sp&^-rasur  ("  the  hoary  forest a "),' 
some  have  said  U  was  in  Pars;  'and  the  third  when 
it  is  the  end  of  thy  millennium,  O  Zaratu.rt  the  Spita- 
man  I  when  all  the  three,  Turk,  Arab,  and  Ruman, 
come  to  this3  place,'  some  have  said  the  plain  of 
Nlsanak  *.  10.  'And  all  /hose  of  the  countries  of 
Iran,  which  I,  Auharmazd,  created,  come  from  their 
own  place  unto  Pa^ashkhvargar 6,  owing  to  those 
of  the  race  of  Wrath,  O  ZaratCLrt  the  Spltaman !  so 
that  a  report  of  something  of  the  cave  dwellings, 
mountain  dwellings,  and  river  dwellings  of  these 
people  will  remain  at  Paafoshkhvargar  and  Pars ; 
some  have  said  the  fire  VLrnasp e,  on  the  deep  Lake 
A'^ast  which  has  medicinal  water  opposed  to  the 
demons,  is  there  (in  Pa^/ashkhvargar  ?)  as  it  were 
conspicuous,'  some  have  said  'originating7,'  'so  that 

often  read  Kihfls  or  Kahos  in  Pazand  (see  Mkh.  VIII,  27,  XXVII, 
54,  LVII,  21).    The  Paz.  MSS.  omit  §  9. 

1  See  Bund.  XII,  33,  33- 

■  See  Bund.  XXIV,  16. 

•  Perhaps  'one'  is  meant,  as  hana,  'this/  i3  sometimes  substi- 
tuted for  a£,  '  one,'  both  being  read  t  in  Pazand. 

*  The  reading  of  this  name  is  quite  uncertain. 

*  Sec  Chap.  II,  63.  The  whole  of  the  final  clause  of  this 
section,  about  the  fire  Vunasp,  is  inserted  parenthetically  at  this 
point  in  the  Pahlavi  text. 

•  Elsewhere  called  Gujnasp,  Gftmasp,  or  Guxasp  (see  SZS. 
VI,  22). 

T  The  most  obvious  reading  of  this  word  is  mahik,  '  fish,"  which 
can  hardly  be  reconciled  with  the  context.  The  view  here  taken 
is  that  the  writer  was  translating  from  an  Avesta  text,  and  met 

the)-  may  use  it  anew,  and  the  fire  may  become 
shining  in  these  countries  of  Iran  which  I.  Atihar- 
mazd,  created,  u.  For  when  one  shall  be  able  to 
save  his  own  life,  he  has  then  no  recollection  of 
wife,  child,  and  wealth,  that  they  may  not  live,  in 
that  perplexing  time.  O  Zaratfot !  yet  the  day  when 
the  hundredth  winter  becomes  the  end  of  thy  mil- 
lennium, which  is  that  of  Zaraturt,  is  so  that 
nothing  wicked  may  go  from  this  millennium  into 
that  millennium  V 

with  the  word  £ithra,  which  means  both  p&Yak,  'clear.'  and 
tokhmak,  'originating,'  hut  to  express  the  latter  meaning  he  used 
the  synonym  mayakik,  which  can  be  written  exactly  like  mahik. 
Owing  to  the  involved  character  of  this  section  it  is  not  very  clear 
in  Englh-h,  but  it  is  still  more  obscure  in  the  Pahhivi  text,  in  which 
the  whole  of  this  clause  about  the  fire  is  inserted  parenthetically 
after  the  first  mention  of  Pa</ashkhvargar. 

1  This  last  clause  may  be  read  several  ways,  and  it  is  by  no 
means  easy  to  ascertain  clearly  the  chronological  order  of  the 
events  which  are  jumbled  together  in  this  last  chapter.  But  it 
would  appear  that  ZaratGjt's  millennium  was  to  end  at  a  lime 
when  the  religion  was  undisturbed,  and  just  before  the  incursion 
of  the  demons  or  idolators,  the  details  of  which  have  been  given 
in  Chap.  II,  aa— III,  1 1,  and  which  is  the  first  event  of  MusheVar's 
millennium  (see  §  13).  Now  according  to  Bund.  XXXIV,  7-9, 
the  interval  from  '  the  coming  of  the  religion,'  in  the  reign  of  Kaf- 
Vinasp,  to  the  end  of  the  Sasanian  monarchy  was  90+  112  +  30 
+  12  +  14+  14  +  284  +  460=  1016  years.  If  by  *  the  coming  of 
the  religion  '  be  meant  the  time  when  received  it,  as  he 
was  then  thirty  years  old,  he  must  have  been  born  1046  years 
before  the  end  of  the  Sasanian  monarchy  (a.h.  651),  and  the  end 
of  his  millennium  must  have  been  in  a.  d.  605,  the  sixteenth  year 
of  Khusro  Parviz,  when  the  Sasanian  power  was  near  its  maximum, 
and  only  a  score  of  years  before  it  began  suddenly  to  collapse. 
This  close  coincidence  indicates  that  the  writer  of  the  Rahman 
Yart  must  have  adopted  the  same  incorrect  chronology  as  is  found 
in  the  Bundahu.  If,  however,  '  the  coming  of  the  religion  '  mean 
its  acceptance  by  Vijt&sp,  which  occurred  in  Zaratujt's  fortieth  or 

2  20 


12.  Zaratu-ft  enquired  of  Auharmazd  thus:  'O 
Auharmazd,  propitious  spirit !  creator  of  the  material 
world,  righteous  one!  when  they  are  so  many  in 
number,  by  what  means  will  they  be  able  to 
perish  !  ? ' 

1 3.  Auharmazd  spoke  thus  :  '  O  Zaratilst  the  Spi- 
taman  !  when  the  demon  with  dishevelled  hair  of 
the  race  of  Wrath  comes  into  notice  in  the  eastern 
quarter,  first  a  black  token  becomes  manifest,  and 
Hush&/ar  son  of  Zaratust  is  born  on  Lake  Frazdan  -. 
14.  It  is  when  he  comes  to  his  conference  with  me  \ 
Auharmazd,  O  Zaratust  the  Spftamdn ! '  that  in  the 
direction  of  A'inistan  4,  it  is  said — some  have  said 
among  the  Hindus—'  is  born  a  prince  (kal);  it  is  his 
father,  a  prince  of  the  Kayan  race,  approaches  the 

forty-second  year,  his  birth  must  have  been  ten  or  twelve  years 
earlier,  and  his  millennium  must  have  ended  a.d.  593-595.  But 
according  to  the  imperfect  chronology  of  Bund.  XXXIV  the  tenth 
millennium  of  the  world,  that  of  Capricornus,  commenced  with  4  the 
coming  of  the  religion,'  and  ended,  therefore,  in  a.d.  635,  the 
fourth  year  of  Yazdakarrf,  the  last  Sasanian  king,  when  the  Muham- 
madans  were  just  preparing  for  their  first  invasion ;  so  the  millen- 
nium of  Aquarius  is  very  nearly  coincident  with  that  of  Hush&for, 
and  may  probably  be  intended  to  represent  it.  It  appears,  there- 
fore, that  the  millennium  of  HOshec/ar  is  altogether  past,  having 
extended  from  a.d.  593-635  to  a.d.  1593-1635. 

1  The  Paz.  MSS.  omit  §  12.  The  writer  having  detailed  the  evils 
of  the  iron  age,  now  returns  to  its  commencement  in  order  to  describe 
the  means  adopted  for  partially  counteracting  those  evils. 

1  See  Bund.  XXII.  5,  XXXII,  8.  The  ?&z.  MSS.  add, '  they 
bring  him  up  in  Zdvulistan  and  Kavulistan  ;'  and  the  Pers.  version 
says,  '  on  the  frontier  of  Kabulistan.'  With  regard  to  the  time  of 
HOsheVar's  birth,  see  §  44.  His  name  is  always  written  Khfir- 
slu'v/ar  in  K20. 

'  The  Paz.  and  Pers.  versions  say,  '  at  thirty  years  of  age/  as  in 


*  Possibly  Samarkand  (see  Chap.  II,  49,  note  2). 

women,  and  a  religious  prince 

his  name  Vahram  the  Vaiyavand ','  some  have  said 
Shahpur.  15.  '  That  a  sign  may  come  to  the  earth, 
the  night  when  that  prince  is  born,  a  star  falls  from 
the  sky ;  when  that  prince  is  born  the  star  shows  a 
signal.'  16.  It  is  Dart'-Auharmazd 2  who  said  that 
the  month  A  van  and  day  Vaaf3  is  his  father's  end  ; 
*  they  rear  him  with  the  damsels  of  the  king,  and  a 
woman  becomes  ruler. 

17.  'That  prince  when  he  is  thirty  years  old' — 
some  have  told  the  time — 'comes  with  innumerable 
banners  and  divers  armies,  H  indu  and  A'lnl  *,  hav- 
ing uplifted  banners — for  they  set  up  their  banners 
— having  exalted  banners,  and  having  exalted 
weapons  ;  they  hasten  up  with  speed 6  as  far  as  the 
Veil  river  *« — some  have  said  the  country  of  Bambo  • — 
*as  far  as  Bukhar  and  the  Bukharans  within  its  bank, 

1  Bahram  the  illustrious  or  splendid  (Av.  vare^anghanfi/,  com- 
pare Pers.  var^),  an  epithet  applied,  in  the  A  vesta,  to  the  moon, 
Tutrya,  the  scriptures,  the  royal  glory  of  the  Kayanians,  the  Ka- 
yanians themselves,  and  the  hero  Thrita.  This  personage  may 
possibly  be  an  incarnation  of  the  angel  Bahram,  mingled  with  some 
reminiscences  of  the  celebrated  Persian  general  Bahram  Aupin  ; 
but  see  §§  32.  49. 

•  A  commentator  who  is  quoted  in  the  Pahkwi  Yas,  XI,  aa ;  see 
abo  Chap.  I,  7. 

'  The  22nd  day  of  the  eighth  month  of  the  Parsi  year,  corres- 
ponding to  October  7th  when  the  year  began  at  the  vernal  equinox, 
as  the  Rundahix  (XXV,  6,  7,  20,  21)  describes. 

•  That  is,  Bactrian  and  Samarkandian. 

1  Or,  'light  up  with  glitter,'  according  as  we  read  ta^end  or 
nd.  The  Paz.  MSS.  omit  §§  17-44,  except  one  or  two  iso- 
lated phrases. 

'  Spiegel  was  inclined  to  identify  this  name  with  Bombay,  but 
this  is  impossible,  as  the  MS.  K20  (in  which  the  name  occurs}  was 
written  some  two  centuries  before  the  Portuguese  invented  the 
name  of  Bombay.     Its  original  name,  by  which  it  is  still  called  by 

O  Zaraturt  the  Spltdman!  18.  When  the  star  Jupi- 
ter comes  up  to  its  culminating  point  (balist)1  ami 
casts  Venus  down,  the  sovereignty  comes  to  the 
prince.  19.  Quite  innumerable  are  the  champions, 
furnished  with  arms  and  with  banners  displayed,' 
some  have  said  from  Sagastdn,  P&rs,  and  Khurasan, 
some  have  said  from  the  lake  of  Pa/*ashkhv&rgar a, 
some  have  said  from  the  Hiratts3  and  K6histdn, 
some  have  said  from  Taparistan4 ;  and  from  those 
directions  'every  supplicant  for  a  child5  comes  intoc 
view.  20.  It  is  concerning  the  displayed  banners 
and  very  numerous  army,  which  were  the  armed 
men,  champions,  and  soldiers  from  the  countries  of 
Iran  at  Pa^ashkhvirgar — whom  /  told  thee7  that 
they  call  both  Kun/  and  Karman — it   is  declared 

its  native  inhabitants,  being  MumbaT.  The  locality  mentioned  in 
the  text  is  evidently  to  be  sought  on  the  banks  of  the  Oxus  near 
Bukhara ;  the  Oxus  having  been  sometimes  considered  the  upper 
course  of  the  Arag,  and  sometimes  that  of  the  Veh  (see  Bund.  XX, 
22,  note  5).  It  is  hardly  probable  that  either  Bami  (Balkh)  or 
Bamiyan  would  be  changed  into  Bambo,  and  the  only  exact  repre- 
•i ni.itive  of  this  name  appears  to  be  Bamm,  a  town  about  120 
miles  S.  E.  of  KirmSn ;  this  is  quite  a  different  locality  from  that 
ioned  in  the  text,  but  it  is  hazardous  to  set  bounds  to  the 
want  of  geographical  knowledge  displayed  by  some  of  the  Pahlavi 

1  Compare  SZS.  IV,  8.  Here  the  triumph  of  Jupiter  over  Venus 
appears  to  be  symbolical  of  the  displacement  of  the  queen  dowager 
by  her  son. 

1  That  is,  from  the  southern  shore  of  the  Caspian. 

1  Reading  Hiriyan,  but  this  is  doubtful,  as  it  may  be  '  from  the 
citadels  (arigano),  or  defiles  (khalakano),  of  Kohistan." 

*  See  Bund.  XII,  17,  XUI,  15. 

6  That  is,  every  man  able  to  bear  arms. 

4  Reading  pavan,  'into,'  instead  of  bar5,  'besides'  (see  SZS. 
VIII,  2,  note  5). 

7  See  §  10,  but  as  nothing  is  said  there  about  Kurd  or  Karman, 
it  is  possible  that  the  writer  meant  to  say,  'of  whom  I  told  thee, 

that  they  will  slay  an  excessive  number,  in  com- 
panionship and  tinder  the  same  banner,  for  these 
countries  of  Iran. 

21.  'Those  of  the  race  of  Wrath  and  the  extensive 
army a  of  SheWaspih,  whose  names  are  the  two-legged 
wolf  and  the  leathern-belted  demon  on  the  bank  of 
the  Arvand 2,  wage  three  battles,  one  in  Sp&/-rarur 3 
and  one  in  the  plain  of  Nlranak;'  some  have  said 
that  it  was  on  the  lake  of  the  three  races,  some 
have  said  that  it  was  in  Maruv 4  the  brilliant,  and 
some  have  said  in  Pars.  22.  'For  the  support  of 
the  countries  of  Iran  is  the  innumerable  army  of  the 
east ;  its  having  exalted  banners 5  is  that  they  have  a 
banner  of  tiger  skin  (b6par  post),  and  their  wind 
banner  is  white  cotton";  innumerable  are  the  mounted 
troops,  and  they  ride  up  to  the  lurkin°;-\\o\es '  of  the 
demons ;  they  will  slay  so  that  a  thousand  women 
can  afterwards  see  and  kiss  but  one  man. 

and  whom  they  tall  boih  Kurd  and  Karman.'  It  is  more  probable, 
however,  that  he  is  referring  to  §  7. 

1  Compare  §  7.  The  'extensive  army'  and  'two-legged  wolf 
are  terms  borrowed  apparently  from  Yas.  IX,  62,  63. 

'  That  is.  'the  rapid'  (Av.  aurvan</).  The  oilier  names  of 
this  river,  Tigris  and  Hiddekel,  have  the  same  meaning.     See 

«  6.  38. 

!  See  §  9,  of  which  this  is  a  recapitulation,  but  the  first  of  the 
three  battles  is  here  omitted  by  mistake. 

1  Marv  in  the  present  Turkistan. 

1  Referring  to  §  17. 

•  Supposing  that  bandok  may  be  equivalent  to  Pers.  ban  dak, 
but  the  usual  Pahlavi  term  for  '  cotton  '  is  pumhak  (Pers.  pun  bah). 

T  Reading  grestak  as  in  §  f„  but  the  word  can  also  be  read 
dar  dit/ak,  'gate  watch-tower.'  It  is  possible  that  the  druf  6 
geredha,  '  pit  of  the  fiend,'  of  Vend.  Ill,  24,  may  be  here  meant; 
the  gate  of  hell,  whence  the  demons  congregate  upon  the  AresQr 
ridge  (Uund.  XII,  8). 



23.  '  When  it  is  the  end  of  the  time  \  O  Zarattot 
the  Spitaman  !  those  enemies  will  be  as  much  de- 
stroyed as  the  root  of  a  shrub  when  it  is  in  the  night 
on  which  a  cold  winter  arrives,  and  in  this  night  it 
sheds  its  leaves ;  and  they  will  reinstate  these 
countries  of  Iran  which   I,  Auharmazd,  created". 

24.  '  And  with  speed  rushes  the  evil  spirit,  with 
the  vilest  races  of  demons  and  Wrath  with  infuriate 
spear 3,  and  comes  on  to  the  support  and  assistance 
of  those  demon- worshippers  and  miscreations  of 
wrath,  O  Zaratujt  the  Spitaman !  25.  And  I,  the 
creator  Auharmazd,  send  Nery6sang  the  angel  and 
Srdsh  the  righteous*  unto  Kangdes".  which  the 
illustrious  Siyavakhsh  *  formed,  and  to  A'itro-mlyan  7 
son  of  Virtisp,  the  glory  of  the  Kayans.  the  just 
restorer  of  the  religion,  to  speak  thus:  "  Walk  forth. 
O  illustrious  Peshy6tanu  !  to  these  countries  of  Iran 
which  I,  Auharmazd,  created:  consecrate  the  fire 
and  waters  for  the  Hartfokht 8  and  Dvardah-hom&st ! 

1  Compare,  '  anil  at  the  time  of  the  end '  (Dan.  xi.  40).  The 
writer  appears  to  be  here  finally  passing  from  a  description  of  the 
past  into  speculations  as  to  the  future,  which  he  has  hitherto  only 
casually  indulged  in. 

'  The  supernatural  means  supposed  to  be  employed  for  the 
destruction  of  the  wicked  and  the  restoration  of  the  good  are 
detailed  in  the  following  paragraphs. 

1  See  Chap.  II,  36. 

*  The  two  angels  who  are  the  special  messengers  of  AOhar- 
mazd  to  mankind  (see  Bund.  XV,  r,  XXX,  29).  This  message 
was  expected  to  be  sent  to  P£shy6tanQ  near  the  end  of  HushSfifar's 
millennium  (sec  $51). 

r-  See  Bund.  XXIX,  10. 
8  See  Bund.  XXXI,  25. 
'  A  title  of  PfcshyStanu,  written  Altrd-maino'  in  Bund.  XXIX,  5. 

•  This  was  the  twentieth  nask  or  '  book  '  of  the  complete  Maz- 
dayasnian  literature,  according  to  the  Dinkan/;  but  the  Dint- 
va^arkar</ and  the  Rivayats  make  it  the  twenty-first,  and  say  very 

CHAPTER    III,    23-25. 


that  is,  celebrate  them  with  die  fire  and  waters,  and 
such  as  is  appointed  about  the  fire  and  waters ! " 

little  atxmt  its  contents  (sec  Haug's  Essays,  pp.  133,  134).  The 
Pinkaiv/.  in  its  eighth  book,  gives  the  following  account  of  this 
Nask  :— 

4  The  H5</okht  as  it  exists  has  three  divisions  among  its  133 
sections.  The  first  has  thirteen  (twelve?)  sections,  treatises  upon 
the  nature  of  the  recital  of  the  Ahnnavar,  which  is  the  spiritual 
benefit  from  chanting  it  aloud,  and  whatever  is  on  the  same 
subject.  Admonition  about  selecting  and  keeping  a  spiritual  and 
worldly  high-priest,  performing  every  duty  as  to  the  high-priest, 
and  maintaining  even  those  of  various  high-priests.  On  the  twenty- 
one  chieftainships  of  the  spirits  in  Auharmazd,  and  of  the  worldly 
existences  in  Zaratfut.  among  which  are  the  worship  of  God  and 
the  management  of  the  devout.  On  the  duty  requisite  in  each  of 
the  five  different  periods  of  the  day  and  night,  and  the  fait  at  the 
celestial  bridge  of  him  who  shall  be  zealous  in  the  celebration  of 
the  season-festivals ;  be  who  docs  not  provide  the  preparations  for 
the  feast  of  the  season-festivals,  and  who  is  yet  efficient  in  the  other 
worship  of  God.  On  how  to  consider,  <;W  what  to  do  with,  a  leader 
of  the  high-priest  class  and  a  man  of  the  inferior  classes  ;  he  who 
atones  for  unimportant  sin,  and  he  who  does  not  atone  even  for 
that  which  is  important,  and  whatever  is  on  the  same  subject.  On 
the  apparatus  with  winch  ploughed  land  (?)  is  prepared.  On  the 
manifestation  of  virtuous  manhood,  and  the  merit  and  advantage 
from  uttering  good  words  for  blessing  the  eatmg  and  drinking  of 
food  and  drink,  and  rebuking  the  inward  talk  of  the  demons.  On 
the  recitations  at  the  five  periods  of  the  day,  and  the  ceremonial 
invocation  by  name  of  many  angels,  each  separately,  and  great 
information  on  the  same  subject  j  the  worthiness  of  a  man  re- 
strained by  authority,  the  giving  of  life  and  body  to  the  angels,  the 
good  rulers,  and  their  examination  and  satisfaction ;  the  blessing 
and  winning  words  which  are  most  successful  in  carrying  off  the 
affliction  which  proceeds  from  a  fiend.  On  all-pleasing  crcativo 
ness  and  omniscience,  and  all  precedence  {?).  leadership,  foresight  (?), 
worthy  liberality,  virtue  (?),  and  every  proper  cause  and  effect  of 
righteousness ;  the  individuality  of  righteousness,  the  opposition  to 
the  demons  of  Auharmazd's  opinion,  and  also  much  other  informa- 
tion in  the  same  section. 

*  The  middle  division  has  102  sections,  treatises  on  spiritual  and 
worldly  diligence,  the  leadership  of  the  diligent,  and  their  mighlv 

[5]  Q 



26.  'And  N£rydsang  proceeds,  with  Srosh  the 
righteous,  from  the  good  A'akdrt'-i-Daitik '  to  Kang- 
dez,  which  the  illustrious  Slyavakhsh  formed,  and 
cries  out  from  it  thus:  "Walk  forth.  O  illustrious 
PeshyotanA  !  O  A'ttro-miyan  son  of  Viytasp,  glory  of 
the  Kayans,  just  restorer  of  the  religion  !  walk  forth 
to  these  countries  of  Iran  which  I,  Auharmazd, 
created !  restore  again  the  throne  of  sovereignty  of 
the  religion ! " 

27.  'Those  spirits  move  on,  and  they  propitiate 
them;  with  holy-water  th<-  illustrious  lYr-diyntantj 
celebrates  the  Dvardah-homast,  with  a  hundred  and 
fifty  righteous  who  are  disciples  of  Peshyotanu,  in 
black    marten    fur,  and   they  have   garments   as   it 

:  of  the   good   spirit.      28.   They  walk    up  with 
the  words:  "Humat,  hukht,  huvarit2,"  and  consecrate 

means,  all  former  deeds  of  righteousness ;  righteousness  kindling 
the  resolution  is  the  reward  of  merit,  each  for  each,  and  is  ach] 
by  it  for  rhat  of  which  it  is  said  that  //  it  the  H.Wokht  which  is  the 
maintaining  of  righteousness,   so  that   they  may  make  righteous- 
ness more  abiding  in  the  bod)'  of  a  man. 

'  The  last  division  hat  nineteen  sections  of  trusty  remedies,  that 
is,  remedies  whose  utterance  aloud  by  the  faithful  is  a  chief  resource 
among  the  creatures  of  God ;  also  the  nature  of  sayings  full  of 
humility,  well-favoured,  most  select,  and  adapted  for  that  of  which 
it  is  said  that   I   reverence  that  chief,   the  excellent  and  eminent 

■kht,  of  which  they  trust  in  the  sustaining  strength  of  ■ 
word  of  Zaraturf.     Perfect  is  the  excellence  of  righteousness  (Av. 
ashem  vohQ  vahinem  astT).' 

According  to  tradition  three  chapters  of  this  Ngfk  are  still  extant, 
being  the  Ya^t  fragments  XXI,  XXII  of  Westers  aard's  edition  of 
the  Avesta  Texts ;  but  they  do  not  correspond  to  any  part  of  the 
description  iu  the  Dinkarc/.     For  a  description  of  Dv;uduh-h< 
see  Chap.  II,  59. 

1  See  Bund.  XII,  7. 

1  That  is,  'good  thoughts,  good  words,  and  good  deeds/  a 
formula  often  uttered  when  commencing  an  important  action. 

chapter  iir,  26-3  r. 


the  fire  of  the  waters  ;  with  the  illustrious  Ha</6kht 
they  bless  me,  Auharma/.d.  with  the  rchangels; 
and  after  that  it  demolishes  one-third  of  the  opposi- 
tion. 29.  And  the  illustrious  Peshydtanu  walks 
forth,  with  the  hundred  and  fifty  men  who  wear 
black  marten  fur,  and  they  celebrate  the  rituals 
nan)  of  the  Gadman  -  humand  ("glorious ")  fire, 
which  they  call  the  R6shan6-kerp  ("luminous 
form")1,  which  is  established  at  the  appointed  place 
(di'iti '.'-^as),  the  triumphant  ritual  of  the  Fr6ba  fire. 
Horvada/tf,  and  Ameroda*/,  ami  the  ceremonial  (ya- 
zlsn)  with  his  priestly  co-operation  ;  they  arrange 
and  pray  over  the  sacred  twigs ;  and  the  ritual  of 
Horvada^  and  Amerdda^,  in  the  chapter  of  the 
code  of  religious  formulas  (nlrangistan)5  demo- 
lishes three-thirds  of  the  opposition.  30.  Peshyd- 
tanu son  of  VLrtasp  walks  forth,  with  the  assistance 
of  the  Froba  fire,  the  fire  Gu-rnasp,  and  the  fire 
Burdn-Mitro  *,  to  the  great  idol-temples,  the  abode 
of  the  demons*;  and  the  wicked  evil  spirit,  Wrath 
with  infuriate  spear6,  and  all  demons  and  fiends, 
evil  races  and  wizards,  arrive  at  the  deepest  abyss 
of  hell ;  and  those  idol-temples  are  extirpated  by  the 
exertions  of  the  illustrious  PeshyotanQ. 

31.  'And  I,  the  creator  Auharmazd,  come  to 
Mount  Hukalryaaf0  with  the  archangels,  and  I  issue 

1  See  Bund.  XVII,  g,  6.  This  appears  to  be  an  allusion  10  the 
removal  of  the  sacred  fire  by  VixtSsp,  from  the  'glorious'  moun- 
tain in  Khvarisem  to  the  'shining'  mountain  in  Kavulisdn. 

*  See  Chap.  II,  37. 

'  Regarding  these  three  manifestations  of  the  sacred  fire,  see 
Bund.  XVII,  3-9,  SZS.  XI,  8-10. 

4  Supplying  the  word  jSdaan.  'the  demons,'  in  accordance  with 
f§  36,  37  ;  there  being  clearly  some  word  omitted  in  K20. 

•  See  Chap.  II,  36.  •  Hugar  the  lofty  in  Bund  XII,  2,  5. 

Q  2 



orders  to  the  archangels  that  they  should  speak  to 
the  angels  of  the  spiritual  existences  thus  :  "  Proceed 
to  the  assistance  of  the  illustrious  Peshyotanu  !"  32. 
Mitr6  of  the  vast  cattle-pastures,  Srdsh  the  vigorous, 
Rashn  the  just,  Vahram  l  the  mighty,  AstAdthe  vic- 
torious, and  the  glory  of  the  religion  of  the  Mazda- 
yasnians,  the  stimulator  of  religious  formulas  (nl- 
rang),  the  arranger  of  the  world,  proceed2  to  the 
assistance  of  the  illustrious  Peshy6tanu,  through  the 
order  of  which  I,  the  creator,  have  just  written  -. 

33.  '  Out  of  the  demons  of  gloomy  race  the  evil 
spirit  cries  to  Mitro  of  the  vast  cattle-pastures  thus  : 
"  Stay  above  in  truth 4,  thou  Mitr6  of  the  vast  cattle- 
pastures  ! " 

34.  '  And  then  Mitr6  of  the  vast  cattle-pastures 
cries  thus  :  "Of  these  nine  thousand  years'  support, 
which  during  its  beginning  produced  Dahak  of  evil 
religion,  Frasiy£z/  of  TQr,  and  Alexander5  the  Rii- 
man,  the  period  of  one  thousand  years  of  those 
leathern-belted  demons  with  dishevelled  hair  is  a 
more  than  moderate  reign  to  produce B." 

35.  'The  wicked  evil  spirit  becomes  confounded 
when  he  heard  this;  Mitr6  of  the  vast  cattle-pas- 
tures will  smite  Wrath  of  the  infuriate  spear  with 

]  The  fact  that  the  angel  Vahram  goes  in  his  spiritual  form  to 
the  assistance  of  P£shv6tanu,  rather  militates  against  the  idea  that 
he  also  goes  in  the  form  of  VahrSm  the  Var^avand. 

*  This  verb  is  omitted  by  mistake  in  K20. 

*  Literally,  '  arrh/e  at  the  writing.' 

*  Or,  ■  stand  up  with  honesty  I ' 

5  The  latter  two  names  are  here  written  FrasSs  and  Alasandar. 

*  From  this  it  appears  that  the  writer  expected  the  evil  reign  of 
the  unbelievers  to  last  a  thousand  years,  that  is,  till  the  end  of 
HusheVar's  millennium,  about  a.  d.  1593-1635,  which  corresponds 
very  closely  with  the  reign  of  the  great  Shah  'Abbds. 

(TER    III,    32-39. 


stupefaction  ;  and  the  wicked  evil  spirit  flees,  with 
the  miscreations  and  evil  progeny  he  flees  back  to 
the  darkest  recess  of  hell.  36.  And  Mitro  of  the 
vast  cattle-pastures  cries  to  the  illustrious  P6shy6- 
tanu  thus :  "  Extirpate  and  utterly  destroy  the  idol- 
temples,  the  abode  of  the  demons !  proceed  to  these 
countries  of  Iran  which  I,  Auharmazd,  created! 
restore  again  the  throne  of  sovereignty  of  the 
religion  over  the  wicked !  when  they  see  thee  they 
will  be  terrified." 

37.  'And  the  illustrious  Pe'shyOtanft  advances,  and 
the  fire  Fr6bd,  the  fire  Guirtasp,  and  the  triumphant 
fire  Bunrin-Mitrd  will  smite  the  fiend  of  excessive 
strength  ;  he  will  extirpate  the  idol-temples  that  are 
the  abode  of  demons ;  and  they  celebrate  the  cere- 
monial (,  arrange  the  sacred  twigs,  solemnize 
the  Dvardah-h6mast,  and  praise  me,  Auharmazd, 
with  the  archangels;  this  is  what  I  foretell1.  38. 
The  illustrious  Pcshyotanu  walks  forth  to  these 
countries  of  Iran  which  If  Auharmazd,  created,  to 
the  Arvand  and  Veh  river l  \  when  the  wicked  see 
him  they  will  be  terrified,  those  of  the  progeny  of 
gloom  and  those  not  worthy. 

39.  *  And  regarding  that  Vahram  the  Var^&vand  it 
is  declared  that  he  comes  forth  in  full  glory,  fixes 
upon  Vandi/z'-khim 3  ("a  curbed  temper"),  and  having 
intrusted  him  with  the  seat  of  mobadship  of  the 

*  Or,  perhaps,  '  what  1  said  before,'  being  already  narrated  in 
§  29  as  performed  by  Pcshyotanu  before  advancing  far  into  Iran. 

1  The  Tigris  and  the  Oxus — Indus  (see  §§  5,  21). 

1  Probably  a  title  of  P&shy6tanU ;  a  more  obvious  translation 
would  be,  '  restrains  a  curbed  temper,  and  is  intrusted,'  &c,  but 
it  is  hardly  probable  that  the  warrior  prince  Vahram  could  become 
a  priest.  It  is  Vahram's  business  to  restore  the  empire,  leaving 
FfcshydtanQ  to  restore  the  religion. 



mobads  l,  and  the  seat  of  true  explanation  of  the 
religion,  he  restores  again  these  countries  of  Iran 
which  I,  Auharmazd,  created  ;  anil  he  drives2  away 
from  the  world  covetousness,  want,  hatred,  wrath, 
lust,  envy,  and  wickedness.  40.  And  the  wolf 
period  goes  away,  and  the  sheep  period  comes  on ; 
they  establish  the  fire  Froba,  the  fire  Gu.rna.sp,  and 
the  fire  Bursln-Mitro  again  at  their  proper  places, 
and  they  will  properly  supply  the  firewood  and 
incense  ;  and  the  wicked  evil  spirit  becomes  con- 
founded and  unconscious,  with  the  demons  and  the 
progeny  of  gloom.  41.  And  so  the  illustrious  P£shyd- 
tanu  speaks  thus :  "  Let  the  demon  be  destroyed, 
and  the  witch  be  destroyed !  let  the  nendishness 
and  vilcness  of  the  demons  be  destroyed !  and  let 
the  gloomy  progeny  of  the  demons  be  destroyed ! 
The  glory3  of  the  religion  of  the  Mazdayasnians 
prospers,  and  let  it  prosper !  let  the  family (  of  the 
liberal  and  just,  who  are  doers  of  good  deeds, 
prosper  !  and  let  the  throne  of  the  religion  and 
sovereignty  have  a  good  restorer !  "  42.  Forth 
comes  the  illustrious  PeshyotanG,  forth  he  comes 
with  a  hundred  and  fifty  men  of  the  disciples  who 
wear  black  marten  fur,  and  they  take  the  throne  of 
their  own  religion  and  sovereignty.' 

43.  Auharmazd  said  to  Zaraturt  the  Spitaman : 
'  This  is  what  I  foretell,  when  it  is  the  end  of  thy 
millennium  it  is  the  beginning  of  that  of  1 1  ushedfar  B. 

1  The  supreme  high-priesthood,  or  primacy. 

8  Merely  a  guess,  as  the  verb  varafsfirfis  difficult  to  understand. 

*  K20  has  nism6,' soul,' but  the  very-similarly  written  gadm.ui, 
'glory,'  is  a  more  likely  reading  here  (see  §  32). 

*  Reading  diWak  instead  of  ru«/ak,  as  in  Chap.  II,  47. 

8  The  writer  having  detailed  the  supernatural  means  employed 
for  restoring  the  religion,  now  returns  to  the  birth  of  Hush&fer 

CHAPTER   III,  4O-46. 


44.  Regarding  HusheVar  it  is  declared  that  he  will 
be  born  in  16001,  and  at  thirty  years  of  age  In- 
comes to  a  conference  with  me,  Auharmazd,  and 
receives  the  religion.  45.  When  he  comes  away 
from  the  conference  he  cries  to  the  sun  with  the 
swift  horse  *,  thus  :   "  Stand  still !  " 

46.  '  The  sun  with  the  swift  horse  stands  still  ten 

(§  *3)  for  ihe  purpose  of  mentioning  some  of  his  actions,  and 
making  the  chronology  of  his  millennium  rather  more  dear. 
Nothing  is  said  here  about  his  miraculous  birth,  the  details  of 
which  are  given  in  the  seventh  hook  of  the  Dinkar*/  very  much 
as  they  arc  found  in  the  Persian  Rivdyats.  The  Dinkan/  states 
that  thirty  years  before  the  end  of  Zarat Cut's  millennium  a  young 
maiden  bathing  in  certain  water,  and  dunking  it,  becomes  preg- 
nant through  the  long-preserved  seed  of  ZaratuMt  (see  liund. 
XXXII,  B,  9),  and  subsequently  gives  birth  to  HfliheVsbr. 

1  There  seems  to  be  no  other  rational  way  of  understanding  this 
number  than  by  supposing  that  it  represent-  the  date  of  IIush6- 
<far's  birth,  counting  from  the  beginning  of  Zaratuit's  millennium. 
According  to  this  view  Hflthfofcl  was  to  be  born  in  the  six  hun- 
dredth year  of  his  own  millennium,  and  not  at  its  beginning,  as 
§  13  seems  to  imply,  nor  nearly  thirty  years  earlier,  as  the  Dinkarrf 
asserts.  As  the  beginning  of  his  millennium  may  he  fixed  about 
a- D-  593_635  (sec  DO*  on  §  11),  the  writer  must  have  expected 
him  to  be  born  about  a.  d.  1 193-1235  ;  a  time  which  was  probably 
far  in  the  future  when  he  was  writing.  And  as  Vabram  the  Var- 
^dvand  was  to  be  born  when  Bfiib&ftl  was  thirty  years  of  age 
(compare  §§  14,  44),  and  was  to  march  into  Iran  at  the  age  of 
thirty  (§  17),  the  great  conflict  of  the  nations  (§§  8,  19-22)  was 
expected  to  begin  about  a.  d.  1253-1295,  and  to  continue  till  near 
the  end  of  the  millennium,  about  a.  n.  1593-1635,  when  Pc-.-Ono- 
tanu  was  expected  to  appear  (§  51)  and  to  restore  the  'good' 
ion  (§§  26,  37,  42).  An  enthusiastic  Parsi  interpreter  of 
prophecy  might  urge  that  though  this  period  did  not  witness  any 
revival  of  his  religion,  it  did  witness  a  restoration  of  the  Persian 
empire  under  Shah  'Abbas,  and  also  the  first  beginning  of  British 
power  in  India,  which  has  been  so  great  a  benefit  to  the  scanty 
remnant  of  his  fellow-countrymen. 

8  The  usual  epithet  of  the  sun  in  the  A  vesta. 



days  and  nights;  and  when  this  happens  all  the 
people  of  the  world  abide  by  the  good  religion  of 
the  Mazdayasnians.  47.  Mitro  of  the  vast  cattle- 
pastures  cries  to  Hush&Zar,  son  of  Zaratu5t,  thus: 
"O  HusliLv/ar,  restorer  of  the  true  religion!  cry  to 
the  sun  with  the  swift  horse  thus  :  '  Move  on  ! '  for  it 
is  dark  in  the  regions  of  Arzah  and  Savah,  Frada- 
flfafsh  and  Vidaofafsh,  Vorubawt  and  Voru^arct,  and 
the  illustrious  Khvaniras  l." 

48.  '  HusheWar  son  of  Zarattirt  cries,  to  the  sun  he 
cries,  thus  :  ,c  Move  on  ! "  49.  The  sun  with  the  swift 
horse  moves  on,  and  Var^avand2  and  all  mankind 
fully  believe  in  the  good  religion  of  the  Mazda- 

50.  Auharmazd  spoke  thus :  '  O  Zarat&rt  the 
Spit&man !  this  is  what  I  foretell,  that  this  one 
brings  the  creatures  back  to  their  proper  state. 
51.  When  it  is  near  the  end  of  the  millennium 
Peshyutanu 3  son  of  Vtftasp  comes  into  notice,  who 
is  a  Kayan  that  advances  triumphantly ;  and  those 
enemies  who  relied  upon  fiendishness,  such  as  the 
Turk,  Arab,  and  Ruman,  and  the  vile  ones  who 
control4  the  Iranian  sovereign  with  insolence  and 
oppression  and  enmity  to  the  sovereignty,  destroy 
the  fire  and  make  the  religion  weak ;  and  they  con- 
vey their  power  and  success  to  him  and  every  one 
who  accepts  the  law  and  religion  willingly ;    if  he 

1  The  seven  regions  of  the  earth  (see  Bund.  XI,  2,  3). 
It  is  just  possible  to  read,  '  the  sun  with  the  swift  horse,  the 
splendid,  moves  on,  and  all  mankind  fully  believe,'  &c.  But  if  the 
reading  in  the  text  be  correct  it  effectually  disposes  of  the  idea  of 
VAhrain  being  an  incarnation  of  the  angel,  as  an  angel  would 
require  no  miracle  to  make  him  believe  in  the  religion. 

:  See  §§  25-30 

4  This  verb  is  doubtful,  as  most  of  the  word  is  lorn  off  in  Iwo. 

CHAPTER    III,  4/-55. 


accept  it  unwillingly  the  law  and  religion  ever  destroy 
him  l  till  it  is  the  end  of  the  whole  millennium. 

52.  'And,  afterwards,  when  the  millennium  of 
Hushert'ar-mah  comes,  through  H ushertar-mah  -  the 
creatures  become  more  progressive,  and  he  utterly 
destroys  the  fiend  of  serpent  origin 3 ;  and  Peshyo- 
tanu  son  of  Virtasp  becomes,  in  like  manner,  high- 
priest  and  primate  (ra*/)  of  the  world4.  53.  In  that 
millennium  of  Hushedar-mah  mankind  become  so 
versed  in  medicine,  and  keep  and  bring  physic  and 
remedies  so  much  in  use,  that  when  they  are  con- 
fessedly at  the  point  of  death  they  do  not  thereupon 
die,  nor  when  they  smite  and  slay  them  with  the 
sword  and  knife*. 

54.  '  Afterwards,  one  begs  a  gift  of  any  description 
out  of  the  allowance  of  heretics,  and  owing  to 
depravity  and  heresy  they  do  not  give  it.  55.  And 
Aharman  rises  through  that  spite "  on  to  the  moun- 

1  This  appears  to  be  the  meaning,  but  ihc  latter  part  of  the 
sentence  is  not  very  clear. 

*  See  Bund.  XXXII,  8.  The  name  is  written  KhurshfcV-mah 
in  K20.  The  D!nkar</  yives  the  same  account  of  the  miraculous 
birth  of  II  GshScrar-mah  as  of  the  first  HusheVar  (see  note  on  §  43); 
it  also  repeats  the  legend  of  the  sun  standing  still,  but  for  the 
longer  period  of  twenty  days ;  all  which  details  are  also  found  in 
the  Persian  Rivayats. 

■  Av.  asUithra;  such  creatures  are  mentioned  in  An/avahLrt 
Yt.  8,  10,  11,  15;  As-i  Dah&k,  'the  destructive  serpent,'  is 
probably  meant  here  (sec  §§  56-61). 

*  As  in  the  previous  millennium.  According  to  the  chronology 
deduced  from  §44  the  millennium  of  HusheVar-mah,  which  corre- 
sponds to  the  twelfth  and  last  millennium  of  Bund.  XXXIV,  is  now 
near  the  middle  of  its  third  century. 

The  sentence  is  either  defective  or  obscure,  but  this  appears 
to  be  its  meaning. 

*  The  evil  spirit  is  encouraged,  by  an  act  of  religious  toleration, 
apparently,  to  recommence  his  manoeuvres  for  injuring  mankind. 



tain  of  Dimavand  \  which  is  the  direction  of  Beva- 
rasp,  and  shouts  thus  :  "  Now  it  is  nine  thousand 
years,  and  FrCv/un  is  not  living;  why  do  you  not 
rise  up,  although  these  thy  fetters  arc  not  re- 
moved, when a  this  world  is  full  of  people,  and  they 
have  brought  them  from  the  enclosure  which  Vim 
formed 3  ?  " 

56.  '  After  that  apostate  shouts  like  this,  and  be- 
cause of  it,  A>i  Dahak  4  stands  up  before  him,  but, 
through  fear  of  the  likeness  of  Freafan  in  the  body 
of  Frerf'un,  he  does  not  first  remove  those  fetters 
and  stake  from  his  trunk  until  Aharman  removes 
them.  57.  And  the  vigour  of  As-i  Dahak  increases, 
the  fetters  being  removed  from  his  trunk,  and  his 
impetuosity  remains  ;  he  swallows  down  the  apos- 
tate on  the  spot*,  and  rushing  into  the  world  to 
perpetrate  sin,  he  commits  innumerable  grievous 
sins  ;  he  swallows  down  one-third  of  mankind, 
cattle,  sheep,  and  other  creatures  of  Auharmazd  ;  he 
smites  the  water,  fire,  and  vegetation,  and  commits 
grievous  sin. 

58.  '  And,  afterwards,  the  water,  fire,  and  vegeta- 
tion stand  before  Auharmazd  the  lord  in  lamenta- 
tion, and  make  this  complaint :  "  Make  Fre^un  alive 
again  !  so  that  he  may  destroy  Az-i  Dahak ;  for  if 
thou,  O  Auharmazd  !  dost  not  do  this,  we  cannot 

1  Here  written  Dimbhavand  (see  Bund.  XII,  31). 
'  Reading  amat,  'when,'  instead  of  mun,  'which'  (see  the  note 
on  Bund.  I,  7). 

5  The  var-i  Yim  karcf  (see  Bund.  XXIX,  14).  The  men  and 
creatures  who  are  supposed  to  be  preserved  in  this  enclosure  are 
expected  to  replenish  the  world  whenever  it  has  been  desolated  by 
wars  and  oppression. 

*  Whose  surname  is  BSvarisp  (see  Bund.  XXIX,  9). 

6  The  Paz.  MSS.  end  here. 

CHAPTER    III,    56-63. 


exist  in  the  world  ;   the  fire  says  thus :  I  will  not 
heat ;  and  the  water  says  thus  :   I  will  not  How." 

59.  'And  then  I,  Auharmazd  the  creator,  say  to 
Srdsh  and  Neryosang  the  angel  :  "  Shake  the  body 
of  Keresasp  the  Saman,  till  he  rises  up  ! " 

60.  'Then  Srosh  and  Neryosang  the  angel  go  to 
Krresasp1;  three  times  they  utter  a  cry,  and  the 
fourth  time  Sam  rises  up  with  triumph,  and  goes  to 
meet  A^-i  Dahak.  61.  And2  Sam  does  not  listen 
to  his  words,  and  the  triumphant  club  strikes  him 
on  the  head,  and  smites  and  kills  him;  afterwards, 
desolation  and  adversity  depart  from  this  world, 
while  I  make  a  beginning  of  the  millennium3.  62. 
Then  Sdshyans4  makes  the  creatures  again  pure, 
and  the  resurrection  and  future  existence  occur.' 

63.  May  the  end  be  in  peace,  pleasure,  and  joy, 
by  the  will  of  God  (yazdano) !  so  may  it  be  !  even 
more  so  may  it  be  ! 

1  Also  called  in  this  same  section  ;  he  was  lying  in  a  trance 
in  the  plain  of  P&rySnsaf  (see  Bund.  XXIX,  7-9). 

*  Reading  afa-r  instead  of  m  in  ax  (see  Chap.  II,  4,  note  2). 

1  The  thirteenth  millennium,  or  first  of  the  future  existence, 
when  Sfohvans  appears.  The  Dinkar*/  and  the  Persian  Riv.'i- 
yats  recount  the  same  legends  regarding  the  miraculous  birth  of 

.  and  of  the  sun  standing  still  (for  thiity  days),  as  th 
with  regard  to  HGshe«rar  (see  note  on  §  43), 

•  See  Bund.  XXXII,  «. 








1-5.  (The  same  as  on  p.  2.) 

6.  Abbreviations  used  are  1 — Af.  for  Afringan.  Av.  for  A  vesta. 
AV.  for  the  Rook  of  ArrfS-Virilf,  cd.  Iloshangji  and  Haug.  Bund, 
for  Bundahix,  as  translated  in  this  volume.  B.  Yt.  for  Ba:i,  as  translated  in  this  volume.  Cliald.  for  Chaldee.  Farh. 
Okh.  for  Farhang-i  Oim-khadGk,  cd.  Hoshangji  and  Haug.  Haug's 
Essays,  for  Essays  on  the  Sacred  Language,  Writings  and  Reli- 
gion of  the  Parsts,  by  Martin  Haug.  2nd  edition,  IIuz.  for  IIuz- 
v&m.  Lev.  for  Leviticus.  Mkh.  for  Mainyo-i-kharar,  cd.  V 
Ntr.  for  NtrangistSn.  Pahl.  for  Pahlavi.  P.iz.  for  PAzand.  Per.*. 
for  Persian.  Sis.  for  ShayasL  1  j-ihayast,  as  here  translated.  SZS. 
for  Selections  of  Z.W-sparam,  as  translated  in  this  volume.  W.  for 
Westergaard.  Vend  for  Vendidad,  ed.  Spiegel.  Vis  p.  for  Vispa- 
rad,  ed.  Spiegel.  Yas.  for  Yasna,  cd.  Spiegel.  Yl  for  Yan,  cd. 

7.  The  manuscripts  mentioned  in  the  notes  are : — 

B29  (written  a.d.  1679),  a  Rivayat  MS.,  No.  29  of  the  Univer- 
sity Library  at  Bombay. 

Kso  (about  500  yean  old),  No.  20  in  the  University  Library  at 

L7,  L15,  L32,  &c.  are  MSS.  No.  7,  15,  22,  Sec.  in  the  India 
Office  Library  at  London. 

M5  (written  a.d.  1723),  No.  5  of  the  Haug  Collection  in  the 
State  Library  at  Munich. 

M6  (written  a.d.  1397).  No.  6  of  the  same  Collection. 

M-»  (modern),  No.  0  of  the  same  Collection. 

TD  (written  about  a.d.  1530).  a  MS.  of  the  Bundahij  belonging 
to  Mobad  Tehmuras  Dmahawji  Auklesaria  at  Bombay. 


Part  I. — The  Original  Treatise. 

Chapter   I. 

o.  In  the  name  of  God  (yazd&n)  and  the  good 
creation  may  there  be  the  good  health,  long  life, 
and  abundant  wealth  of  all  the  good  and  tin-  right- 
doers  specially  for  him  whose  writing  I  am1. 

i.  As  revealed  by  the  A  vesta,  it  is  said  in  the 
Veodsdad  ■  that  these  seven  degrees  (payak)  of  sin 

1  See  the  note  on  B.  Yt.  I,  o. 

'  Referring  to  Vend.  IV,  54—1x4,  where  seven  classes  of  assault 
and  their  respective  punishments  arc  detailed.  In  our  text  1 
classes  of  sin  are  named,  although  only  scan  dcgXMI  are  men- 
tioned; the  second  and  third  classes  being  apparently  arranged 
together,  as  one  degree  of  sin  in  §  2.  Or  the  inconsistency 
have  arisen  from  the  addition  of  the  F'arman,  a  rlass  of  sin  or  crime 
not  mentioned  in  the  Vendidad,  unless,  indeed,  it  be  the  farman 
spukhtanS,  'neglect  of  commandment'  (referring  probably  to 
priest's  commands),  of  Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  15.  The  other  seven 
classes  are  thus  described  in  Pahl.  Vend.  IV,  54-57,  79.  85,  93, 
99.  106  : — 

'By  the  man  whose  weapon  (or  blow)  is  upraised  for  sir: 
a  man,  that  which  is  his  Agerept  is  thus  implanted  in  him.  When 
it  has  moved  forward — that  is,  he  makes  it  advance — //  is  thus  his 
Av6imt,  that  is,  Avoirbt  is  implanted  in  him  and  the  Agerepl 
merges  into  it,  some  say  that  it  does  not  exist.  When  he  comes 
on  to  him  with  thoughts  of  malice — that  is,  he  places  a  hand  upon 
him — /'/  is  thus  his  AredQ*.  that  is,  Aredflr  is  implanted  in  him  and 
the  Avdirlrt  merges  into  it,  some  say  that  it  does  not  exist.  At 
the  fifth  Arediu  the  man  even  becomes  a  TanSpfihar ;  things  at 



are  mentioned  in  revelation,  which  are  Farman, 
Agerept,  Avdirtit1,  Aredfo,  Kh6r,  Basdt,  Yat,  and 
Tanapuhar2.      2.  A  Farman  is  the  weight  of  four 

sunrise  (arar-khflrsheVfh)  and  in  the  forenoon  (£aitfh  =  Hstfh) 
are  no  more  apart.  .  .  .  Whoever  inflicts  the  Aredfij  blow  on  a 
man  it  is  one-fifth  of  a  wound  (r<?sh).  .  .  .  Whoever  inflicts  that 
which  is  a  cruel  Kh6r  ('  hurt ')  on  a  man  it  is  one-fourth  of  a 
wound.  .  .  .  Whoever  inflicts  that  which  is  a  bleeding  KhAr  on 
a  man  it  is  one-third  of  a  wound.  .  .  .  Whoever  shall  give  a 
man  a  bone-breaking  Kh6r  it  is  half  a  wound.  .  .  .  Whoever  strikes 
a  man  the  blow  which  puts  him  out  of  consciousness  shall  give  a 
whole  wound/ 

This  description  does  not  mention  Basat  and  YSt,  unless  they 
be  the  two  severer  kinds  of  Khflr  ;  but  Bazai  occurs  in  Paid.  Vend. 
IV,  1 15,  V,  107,  XIII,  38,  though  Yat  seems  not  to  be  mentioned 
in  the  Vendidad.  AredG.r  occurs  again  in  raid.  Vend.  Ill,  151, 
and  Khar  in  Pahl.  Vend.  Ill,  48,  XIII,  38,  and  Yas.  LVI,  to,  2. 

1  Also  written  avoirut,  avfrijt,  aivirijt,  avokirirt,  and  avak6riit  in 
other  places. 

*  Five  of  these  names  arc  merely  slight  alterations  of  the  Av. 
Agcrcpla,  avaoirirta,  areduj,  Avara,  and  tanuperctha(pcre- 
tdtanu  or  pesh6tanu).  The  last  seven  degrees  are  also  noticed 
in  a  very  obscure  passage  in  Farh.  Okh.  pp.  36,  37  (correcting  the 
teXl  Irom  the  old  MSS.  Mfi  and  K20)  as  follows: — 

'  Agerept,  "seized,"  is  that  when  they  shall  take  up  a  weapon 
for  smiting  an  innocent  person  ;  A  v6i  rfit,  "  turning,"  is  that  when 
one  turns  the  weapon  upon  an  innocent  person ;  when  through 
sinfulness  one  lays  the  weapon  on  a  sinner  the  name  is  Aredflj; 
for  whatever  reaches  the  source  of  life  the  name  is  Khfir;  one 
explains  Ba-.ii  as  "smiting,"  and  Yat  as  "going  to,"  and  iht  soul 
of  man  ought  to  be  with  standing,  as  a  counterstroke  is  the  penalty 
for  a  Yat  when  it  has  been  so  much  away  from  the  abode  of  life. 
Ju  like  manner  Agerept,  Avoirlit,  AredUr,  Kh6r,  Basai,  and  YSt 
are  also  called  good  works,  which  are  performed  in  like  propor- 
tions, and  are  called  by  the  names  of  weights  and  measures  in  the 
same  manner.  Of  peshotanuj  tanum  pairy6it£  the  meaning  is 
a  Tanapuhar ;  as  they  call  a  good  work  of  three  hundred  a  Tani- 
puhar,  on  account  of  the  three  hundred  like  proportions  of  the 
same  kind,  the  meaning  of  its  name,  Tanapuhar,  thereupon  enters 
into  sin.  ...  A  Kh6r  is  just  that  description  of  wound  from  which 

CHAPTER     I,    2. 


stirs,  and  each  sttr  is  four  dirhams  (^(i^an) l  ;  of 
Agcrcpt  and  Av6irl.rt  that  which  is  least  is  a 
scourging  (tarano),  and  the  amount  of  them  which 
was  specially  that  which  is  most  is  said  to  be  one 
dirham8;  an  Aredu*  is  thirty  stirs*;  a  Kh6r  is 
sixty  stirs;  a  Basal  is  ninety  stirs;  a  Y&t  is  a  hun- 
dred and  eighty  stirs ;  and  a  Tanapuhar  is  three 
hundred  stirs  *. 

tbt  Mood  comes,  irrespective  of  where,  how,  how  much,  and  wherc- 
with  it  is  inflicted ;  if  is  that  which  is  a  wound  from  the  beginning, 
and  that  which  will  result  therefrom.' 

The  application  of  this  scale  of  offences  is,  however,  not  con- 
fined to  these  particular  forms  of  assault,  but  has  been  extended 
the  Avesta  was  compiled)  to  all  classes  of  sins,  and  also  to 
the  good  works  which  are  supposed  to  counterbalance  tli 

1  The  dirham  has  been  variously  estimated,  at  different  times, 
as  a  weight  of  forty-five  to  sixty-seven  grains,  but  perhaps  fifty 
grains  may  be  taken  as  the  meaning  of  the  text,  and  the  stir  may, 
therefore,  be  estimated  at  200  grains.  The  Greeks  used  both  these 
weights,  which  they  called  &paxw  and  ararnp. 

*  The  amounts  of  these  first  three  degrees  of  sin  are  differcutl. 
stated  in  other  places  (see  Chaps.  XI,  2.  XVI,  1-3,  5).  It  is  diffi- 
cult to  understand  why  the  amounts  of  Agercpt  and  Avoirut  should 
here  be  stated  as  less  than  that  of  FarmSn,  and  some  Parsts,  there- 
fore, read  vthast  (as  an  irregular  form  of  vist,  'twenty')  instead 
of  v4r-ast,  'is  most,'  so  that  they  may  translate  the  amount  as 
'twenty  dirhams;'  but  to  obtain  this  result  they  would  have  to 
make  further  alterations  in  the  Pahlavi  text.  In  a  p  q  noted 
by  Spiegel  (in  his  Traditionelle  Literatur  der  1'arsen,  p.  88)  from 
the  Rivayat  MS.  Pi 2,  in  the  Biblioth^que  Nation.ile  at  Paris,  it  is 
stated  that  Farm&n  is  seven  stirs,  Agerept  twelve  stfrs,  and  Avdi- 
rtrt  fifteen  sttrs.     Another  Rivayat  makes  the  Farman  eight  stirs. 

All  MSS.  have  A  red  Q  s  si  30,  'an  Arcdik  is  thirty  (30),"  leaving 
it  doubtful  whether  dirhams  or  stirs  are  meant;    and   the 
mode  of  writing  is  adopted  in  Chap.  XI,  2. 

*  All  authorities  agree  about  the  amounts  of  the  last  five  degrees 
of  sin.     These  amounts  are  the  supposed  weights  of  the  several 

:i  the  golden  scales  of  the  angel  RashuQ  (see  AV.  V,  5),  when 
the  soul  is  called  to  account,  for  its  actions  during  life,  after  the 

C5]  R 

242  shAvast  lA-shayast. 

3.   In  the  administration  of  the  primitive   faith1 
there  are  some  who  have  been  of  different  opinions 

third  night  after  death  (see  Mkh.  II,  114-122).  Its  sins  are  sup- 
posed to  be  then  weighed  against  its  pood  works,  which  are  esti- 
mated by  the  same  scale  of  degrees  (sec  the  passage  already  quoted 
from  Farh.  Okh.  in  p.  240,  note  2),  and  it  is  sent  direct  to  heaven,  or 
hell,  or  an  intermediate  place,  according  as  the  good  works  or  sins 
preponderate,  or  are  both  equal.  In  the  Avesta  of  the  Vendidad, 
however,  whence  these  degrees  are  derived,  wc  find  them  forming 
merely  a  graduated  scale  of  assaults,  extending  from  first  lifting 
the  hand  10  smite  even  unto  manslaughter ;  and  for  each  of  these 
seven  degrees  of  assault  a  scale  of  temporal  punishments  is  pre- 
scribed, according  to  the  number  of  times  the  offence  has  been 
committed.  These  punishments  consist  of  a  uniform  series  of 
lashes  with  a  horse-whip  or  scourge,  extending  from  a  minimum 
of  five  lashes  to  a  maximum  of  two  hundred  (see  Vend.  IV, 
58-114);  each  degree  of  assault  commencing  at  a  different  point 
on  the  scale  of  punishments  for  the  first  offence,  and  gradually 
rising  through  the  scale  with  each  repetition  of  the  offence,  so  that 
the  more  aggravated  assaults  attain  the  maximum  punishment  by 
means  of  a  smaller  number  of  repetition*.  Thus,  the  punishments 
prescribed  for  Agerepta,  from  the  first  to  the  eighth  offence,  are  5, 
10,  15,  30,  50,  70,  oo,  and  200  lashes  respectively;  those  for  Ava- 
oirirta,  from  the  first  to  the  seventh  offence,  extend  on  the  same 
scale  from  10  to  200  lashes ;  those  for  Aredor,  from  the  first  to 
the  sixth  offence,  are  from  15  to  200  lashes ;  those  for  a  bruised 
hurt  (Ai'ara),  from  the  first  to  the  fifth  offence,  are  from  30  to  200 
lashes ;  those  for  a  bleeding  hurt,  from  the  first  to  the  fourth 
offence,  are  from  50  to  200  lashes ;  those  for  a  hone-breaking 
hurt,  from  the  first  to  the  third  offence,  are  from  70  to  200  lashes ; 
and  those  for  a  hurt  depriving  of  consciousness  or  life,  for  the 
first  and  second  offences,  are  yo  and  200  lashes.  The  maximum 
punishment  of  200  lashes  is  prescribed  only  when  the  previous 
offences  have  not  been  atoned  for,  and  it  is  to  be  inflicted  in  all 
such  cases,  however  few  or  trifling  the  previous  assaults  have 

1  In  M6  p6ry6rfk6shih,  but  p6ry6</keshan,  'of  those  of  the 
primitive  faith,'  in  K20;  from  the  Av.  paoi  ryd^kafisha  of  Yas. 
I,  47,  111,  65,  IV,  53,  XXII,  33,  Fravardin  Yt  o,  oo,  156,  Af. 
Rapithwin,  a.     It  is  a  term  applied  to  what  is  considered  as  the 

CHAPTER    I,    3. 


about  it,  for  Gogfoasp 1  spoke  otherwise  than  the 
teaching2  (£a*tak)  of  Ataro-Auharmazd 3,  and  Sosh- 
yans4  otherwise  than  the  teaching  of  Ataro-frobag 
Nosai 5,  and  Me//6k-mah*  otherwise  than  the  teaching 
of  G6g6iasp7,  and  Afarg B  otherwise  than  the  teaching 

true  Mazdayasnian  religion  in  all  ages,  both  before  and  after  the 
time  of  Zaratfot. 

1  One  of  the  old  commentators  whose  opinions  are  frequently 
quoted  in  Pahlavi  books,  as  in  Chap.  II.  74,  82,  1 19,  Pahl.  Vend.  Ill, 
48,  138,  151,  IV,  35,  V,  ,4,  ,2I,  VI.  o,  64.  VII,  6,  136,  VIII,  64, 
236.  XV.  35,  48,  56,  67,  XVI.  5.  XVIII,  98,  124,  and  thirteen 
times  in  the  Nfrangistan.  His  name  is  sometimes  written  GAfttp 
(as  it  is  here  both  in  M6  and  K20)  and  sometimes  G6gori5sp. 

5  Probably  a  written  exposition  or  commentary  is  meant. 

•  This  commentator  is  mentioned  once  in  the  Nirangisdn  as 
Atari)  AuharmazdSn. 

•  This  commentator  is  mentioned  in  Chaps.  II,  56,  74.  8o,  118, 
119,  III,  13,  VI,  4.  5  ;  also  in  Pahl.  Vend.  Ill,  64.  69,  151,  IV.  6, 
V.  48,  80.  107.  131,  146.  153.  VI.  15,  64,  73,  VII.  4.  t.36,  168. 
VIII.  28,  59,  303,  IX,  184,  XIII,  20,  XVI,  7,  10,  17,  20-22,  27, 
XVIII,  98,  and  forty-six  times  in  the  Nirangisuin.  He  was  a  name- 
sake of  the  last  of  the  future  apostles  and  sons  of  Zaratdit  {see 
Bund.  XXXII,  8),  and  his  name  is  often  written  Soshans  and  read 
Saoshyds  or  Sosvoj  by  Pazand  writers. 

•  This  commentator  is  mentioned  once  in  the  Nirangistan,  and 
may  probably  be  the  Atari}- fiGbdg  of  B.  Yt.  I,  7  ;  compare  also 
Nosai   Burc-Mitro,  the  name  of  anoiher  commentator,  in  Chap. 

VIII,  18. 

•  This  commentator  is  mentioned  in  Chaps.  II,  1,  ir,  12.  89,  V, 
5,  6;  also  in  Pahl.  Vend.  Ill,  151,  V,  6,  58,  107,  VIII,  48,  no, 

IX.  132,  XIII,  99,  XIV,  37,  and  four  times  in  the  Nirangistdn. 
]U>  name  is  sometimes  written  Merfy6k-mah  or,  and 
be  was  a  namesake  of  ZattXtUfa  cousin  and  first  disciple  (see 
Bund.  XXXII,  2,  3).  The  Va^arkara'-i  Dinik  professes  to  have 
been  compiled  by  Me<Ac>k-in.lh,  but  there  appear  to  have  been 
lePenl  priests  of  this  name  (see  Bund.  XX  XI II,  1). 

7  Gcwasp  in  M6. 

•  This  commentator  is  mentioned  in  Chaps.  II,  2,  64,  73,  88, 
»'o.  v.  5.  6;  aIso  in  pahl-  Vend.  Ill,  48,  115,  V,  6,  14,  22,  58, 

K  2 



of  S6shyans.     4.  And   all    those    of  the    primitive 

faith   rely  upon  these  six1  teachings,  and  there  are 

some  who  rely  more  weakly  and  some  more  strongly 

upon  some  of  them. 

i46,  VI.  9,  VII,  6,  61,  93,  136.  VIII,  48.  64,  1 10.  250,  IX,  132. 
XIII.  99,  XIV,  14,  37,  XIX,  84,  Pahl.  Yas.  LX1V,  37,  once  in 
Farh.  Okh.,  and  thirty-eight  times  in  the  Ntrangt 

1  Both    MSS.   have  'three,'   although   four   teachings   and   six 

commentators  are  mentioned  in  the  previous  section,  and  a  fifth 

*  teaching '  is  mentioned  in   Chap.   II,  2.    The  original  reading 

more  probably  'six'  than  'four,'  as  a  Pahlavi  'six'  requires 

merely  the  omission  of  a  cipher  to  become  '  three,'  whereas  a  Pah- 

•our'  must  be  altered  to  produce  the  same  blunder. 

Several  other  commentators  are  mentioned  in  Pahlavi  books, 
as  Atar6-pa</,  son  of  Diu/-farukh,  twice  in  the  NtrangistSn ;  Aza</- 
m an/ nine  times  in  Nir. ;  Baroshand  Auharmazd  once  in  Nir. ;  Did 
Auharraazd  in  B.  Yt.  I,  7.  Ill,  16,  Paid.  Yas.  X.  57,  XI,  2a  ;  D5c/- 
larukh  in  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  112,  VI,  64,  and  twice  in  Nir. ;  DaV-i-vSh 
seventeen  times  in  Nir.;  Farukho  thrice  in  Nir.;  Kiratano-bu^,&/ 
in  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  Ho,  VI,  1  -„  IX,  184,  XII  I,  20,  he  is  called  the  Kir- 
manik  in  Pahl.  Vend.  IV,  35,  and  Dastur  Hoshangji  thinks  his  name 
is  merely  a  variant  of  the  next ;  KGshtano-bu^Gif  in  Sis.  II,  57,  81, 
1 1 8,  VI,  6,  VIII,  17,  Paid.  Vend.  Ill,  64,  69,  IV,  6,  V,  48,  VI,  53, 
6*.  73,  VIII,  28,  XVI,  17,  2i,  22,  27,  and  twenty-two  times  in 
Nir.;  Mah-AQbarmazd  in  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  82  ;  Mah-gfljaspo.  Mah- 
gojospo.  Mdh-gdsp5,  or  Mah-vasp  in  Pahl.  Yas.  IX,  33,  Pahl.  Vend. 
Ill,  138,  and  ten  times  in  Nir.;  Mahvand-di</  or  M5h-vind&<f  in 
l;  Vi.  Ill,  5,  Pahl.  Yas.  IX,  33,  X,  57,  XI,  22,  XIX,  27  ;  Marrf-mV 
in  Sis.  II,  86,  and  twice  in  Nir.,  whore  he  is  called  the  son  of  Da</- 
gun;  NerySsang  in  Sis.  VIII,  13,  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  22;  Nikhsha- 
puhar,  or  Nishapuhar  in  Pahl.  Vend.  Ill,  151,  V,  112,  VI,  71, 
VIII.  64,  XVI,  10,  17,  AV.  I,  35,  and  twenty-four  times  in  Nir.; 
Nfefif  Bfirs-Mitro  in  Sis.  VIII,  18;  Partk  or  PMk  in  Pahl.  Vend. 
Ill,  138,  V,  14,  134,  VII,  82,  93,  VIII,  64,  and  once  in  Nir. ; 
Ko-han  or  R<3shan6  (which,  as  the  .Sik.iiul-.mJjn.'nn  states,  was  the 
name  of  a  commentary  written  by  Roshan  son  of  Ataro-frob&g)  in 
Sis.  II,  39,  86,  107,  B.  Yt.  Ill,  3,  Pahl.  Yas.  IX,  5,  14,  Paid.  Vend. 
Ill,  48.  V,  112,  134,  176,  A  11,  93,  XVII,  11,  and  eleven  times  in 
Nir.;  disciples  of  Vakht-afrn/5  (possibly  the  Bakht-dfrW of  Sis.  XX. 
1 1,  B.  Yt.  1,7)  arc  mentioned  once  in  Nir. ;  Vand-Afiharmazd  in  Sis. 
II,  2,  6,  44,  XIV,  5,  Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  73  ;  and  Vch-dusi  once  in 

i.  For  in  the  third  fargara?  ('  chapter ')  of  the  Ven- 
didad  of  Metfrok-m&h1  it  is  declared  that  when  life  is 
resigned  without  effort2,  at  the  time  when  the  life 
departs,  when  a  dog  is  tied  to  his  foot,  even  then 
the  Nasuj3  rushes  upon  it,  and  afterwards,  when 
seen  by  it,  the  Nasi!?  is  destroyed  by  it  2.  This  is 
where  it  is  staled  which  is  the  dog  which  destroys 
the  Nasilf 4,  the  shepherd's  dog,  the  village-dog,  the 
blood-hound,  the  slender  hound0,  and  the  rukunik€; 

the  Nirangistan.  It  must,  however,  be  observed  that  the  reading 
of  some  of  these  names  is  very  uncertain. 

1  Alluding  probably  to  McVok-mah's  complete  commentary  on 
the  Vendidad  (now  no  longer  extant),  as  the  commentary  on  Pah!. 
Vend.  Ill,  48,  which  treats  of  Sag-dW  or  dog-gaze,  docs  not  men- 
tion M£<#)k-mah  or  any  of  the  details  described  here  in  the  text ; 
these  details,  however,  are  to  be  found  in  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  4. 

1  Reading  amat  bara  zor  ^an  darf.  This  phrase  occurs 
only  in  M6  (as  a  marginal  note)  and  in  the  text  of  its  descendants. 
Assuming  that  bar  a  may  be  a  miswriiing  of  pavan  (sec  p.  176, 
note  5),  we  might  read  amat  pavan  zor  shfiyarf,  'when  he  shall 
wash  with  holy-water.' 

1  The  '  corruption '  which  is  supposed  to  enter  a  corpse  shortly 
after  death,  whence  it  issues  in  the  form  of  a  fiend  and  seizes  upon 
any  one  who  touches  the  corpse,  unless  it  has  been  destroyed,  or 
driven  away,  by  the  gaze  of  a  dog,  as  mentioned  in  the  text  (com- 
pare Vend.  VIII,  38-48).  The  carcase  of  a  dog  is  considered 
equally  contagious  with  the  corpse  of  a  human  being,  and  when 
the  fiend  of  corruption  Nasfix  or  Nas  of  Bund.  XXVIII,  39)  has 
seized  upon  any  one.  it  can  be  driven  out  only  by  a  long  and 
troublesome  form  of  purification  described  in  Vend.  VIII,  11  t- 
228,  IX,  4-1 1 7. 

4  This  statement  is  now  to  be  found  in  Pahl.  Vend  VII,  4. 

•  See  Bund.  XIV,  19.  The  Persian  Rivayats  of  KamahBahrah 
and  Kaus  Kaman  (quoted  in  U29)  describe  these  dogs  as  '  the 
shepherd's  dog,  the  house-dog,  the  strange  or  tame  (ghartb)  dog, 
aud  the  puppy.' 

•  Probably  the  A  v.  sukuruna  of  Vend.  V,  100,  XIII,  48,  which 

and  as  to  the  rukunfk  there  have  been  divers 
opinions,  as  Vand-Atiharmazd  !  asserted,  from  the 
teaching  of  Afarg,  that  it  does  not  destroy  it.  3. 
The  dog  destroys  the  Nasu*  at  the  time  when  it 
sees  the  flesh,  and  when  it  sees  the  hair  or  nails  it 
does  not  destroy  *"/*.  4.  A  blind  dog  also  destroys 
it  at  the  time  when  it  places  a  paw 3  on  the  corpse  ; 
and  when  it  places  it  upon  the  hair  or  nails  it  does 
not  destroy  it*.  5.  The  birds  which  destroy  the 
Nasu?  are  three :  the  mountain  kite,  the  black  crow, 
and  the  vulture8;  the  bird,  moreover,  destroys  it  at 
the  time  when  its  shadow  falls  upon  it;  when  it  sees 
it  in  the  water,  a  mirror,  or  a  looking-glass,  it  does 
not  destroy  it c. 

is  translated  by  hQkar  or  hOkQr  in  the  Pahlavi  version.  This 
fifth  kind  of  dog  is  called  'the  blind  (kur)  dog'  in  the  Persian 
Rivayats ;  but  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  4  asserts  that  '  Sdshans  said  the 
rukunik  also  destroys  it,'  and  then  speaks  of  the  blind  dog  as 
in  §  4. 

1  See  the  note  on  Chap.  I,  4. 

'  This  la  also  stated  in  Pahl.  Vend.  Ill,  138. 

■  See  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  4. 

*  The  Persian  Rivayats  say  this  is  because  the  NasQ.r  is  con- 
cealed beneath  the  hair  and  nails  (compare  Vend.  VII,  70). 

*  These  are  the  birds  'created  for  devouring  dead  matter' 
(see  Bund.  XIX,  25).  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  4  substitutes  an  eagle 
(dalman)  for  the  vulture. 

8  This  sentence  is  probably  defective,  as  the  last  clause  evi- 
dently refers  to  the  dog's  gaze  (see  Pahl.  Vend.  Ill,  138),  and  not 
to  the  bird's  shadow ;  the  rule,  however,  is  applicable  to  both. 
Thus  the  Persian  Rivayats  state  that  if  the  bird's  shadow  falls  upon 
the  hair  or  the  nails  of  the  corpse,  or  if  the  bird's  shadow,  or  the 
dog's  gaze  falls  upon  a  corpse  in  the  water,  or  upon  its  reflection 
in  a  mirror,  the  Nasdr  is  not  destroyed.  DastQr  Jamaspji  is  of 
opinion  that  the  utility  of  the  bird's  shadow  is  intended  to  apply 
only  to  cases  of  death  in  uninhabited  places,  where  a  dog  is  not 
procurable.  As  all  three  birds  are  such  as  feed  upon  corpses,  it 
seems  probable  that  the  rule  as  to  their  utility  was  intended  to  pre- 

CHAPTER    II,  "3-7. 


6.  Vand-Auharmazd  said,  where  a  pregnant  woman 
is  to  be  carried  by  two  men1,  both  are  to  be  cleansed 
by  the  Barcshnum  ceremony*,  and  the  head  of  the 
corpse,  when  they  carry  it  away,  is  to  be  set  towards 
the  Dakhma3.     7.  And  on  account  of  contamination 

vent  any  neglect  of  corpses  found  in  wild  places,  where  some  of 
these  birds  would  be  sure  to  approach  and  let  their  shadows  fall 
upon  the  dead,  after  which  the  finder  of  the  corpse  would  suppose 
that  the  NasuM  was  destroyed  or  driven  away,  and  the  corpse  safer 
to  approach. 

1  This  is  an  exceptional  case,  when  not  more  than  two  men 
are  available;  the  usual  custom  (see  Chap.  X,  10)  is  to  employ 
four  men  and  two  dogs  (double  the  usual  number)  in  disposing  of 
the  corpse  of  a  pregnant  woman,  on  account  of  the  double  risk 
of  contamination,  owing  to  the  Nasu\r,  or  fiend  of  corruption, 
having  seized  upon  two  corpses  at  once.  In  consequence  of  the 
exceptional  nature  of  the  case,  the  mode  of  purification  is  also 

*  A  long  purification  ceremony  lasting  nine  nights,  and  described 
in  Vend.  IX,  1-145.  ^  name,  according  to  DastGr  Hoshangji, 
is  derived  from  the  first  word  of  the  instructions  for  sprinkling  the 
unclean  person,  which  commence  (Vend.  IX,  48)  as  follows:  Bare- 
shuum  he  vaghdhanem  paourum  paiti-hi/i*oir,  'sprinkle  in 
front  on  the  top  of  his  head.'  As  it  is  usual  to  quote  chapters  by 
their  initial  words,  the  initial  word  of  these  instructions  for  the  cere- 
mony became  a  name  for  the  ceremony  itself. 

1  The  building  in  which  the  dead  are  finally  deposited ;  here 
called  by  its  Huzvaru  name,  The  Dakhmas  used  by  the 
Parsis  in  India  arc  like  low  circular  towers  in  external  appearance, 
and  consist  of  a  high  wall  enclosing  a  larger  or  smaller  circular 
space  which  is  open  to  the  sky.  The  only  opening  in  the  wall  is 
a  small  doorway,  closed  with  an  iron  door.  In  the  centre  of  the 
circular  area  is  a  circular  well  a  few  feet  in  depth,  and  the  space 
around  it  is  paved  so  as  to  slope  gently  downwards  from  the 
enclosing  wall  to  the  brink  of  the  well.  This  paved  annular  area 
is  divided  (by  shallow  gutters  grooved  into  its  surface)  into  spaces, 
each  large  enough  for  one  corpse  to  be  laid  upon  it,  with  the  head 
towards  the  wall  and  the  feet  towards  the  well.  These  spaces  are 
arranged  in  two  or  more  concentric  rings  around  the  well,  and  the 
gutters  (which  isolate  each  space  on  all  four  sides)  drain  into  the 


(pa/Zvlshak)1  two  are  not  to  be  carried  atone  time, 
and  two  by  one  person  are  not  proper ;  one  dog  and 
one  person  are  proper2.  8.  Every  one  who  under- 
stands the  care  of  a  corpse  is  proper ;  two  boys  of 
eight  years  old,  who  understand  the  care,  are  proper ; 
a  woman  free  from  menstruation,  or  free  from  dead 

well.  After  a  sufficient  time  has  elapsed  the  dry  bones  are  said  to 
he  thrown  into  the  well,  and  when  the  well  is  full  the  Dakhma 
ought  to  be  finally  closeJ,  and  another  one  brought  into  use. 
These  Dakhmas  are  erected  upon  some  dry  and  barren  spot, 
remote  from  habitations  and  water;  upon  the  summit  of  a  hill, 
if  possible,  as  prescribed  in  Vend.  VI,  93,  and  usually  more  than 
a  mile  from  the  town.  In  Bombay  the  town  has  gradually 
approached  the  Dakhmas,  and  to  some  extent  surrounded  them, 
but  has  been  kept  away  from  their  immediate  vicinity  by  the 
judicious  measures  of  influential  Parsis,  who  have  acquired  all  the 
neighbouring  land,  and  refrain  from  building  on  it.  The  reason 
for  thus  exposing  their  dead  to  the  sun  and  carnivorous  birds  is 
that  the  P.irsis  consider  fire,  water,  and  earth  too  sacred  to  be 
defiled  by  corpses;  and  they  have  less  consideration  for  the  air. 
Next  to  burning,  the  Parsi  mode  of  disposing  of  the  dead  is  the 
most  rapid  and  effectual,  as  it  avoids  most  of  the  concentrated 
evils  which  must  accumulate  in  crowded  cemeteries  in  the  course 
of  time,  and  which  require  ages  to  dissipate.  As  it  is,  most  of  the 
offensive  effluvium  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  a  Dakhma  arises 
not  from  direct  contamination  of  the  air,  but  indirectly  through 
the  ground,  which  becomes  polluted,  in  the  course  of  time,  by 
impure  filirations. 

1  Dasiur  JamSspji  prefers  reading  patSshak,  and  thinks  it 
means  'necessity,'  as  in  cases  where  two  deaths  occur  nearly 
simultaneously  in  the  6ame  house,  when  both  corpses  cannot  be 
removed  the  same  day.  Such  a  meaning  might  suit  this  passage, 
but  the  word  occurs  again,  in  §  33  and  Chap.  IX,  7,  where  it  can 
refer  only  to  'contamination,'  and  the  etymology  of  pa</vishak 
(Av.  paiti  -f-vish)  is  plain  enough. 

*  That  is,  when  two  persons  cannot  be  found  to  carry  a  corpse, 
one  can  do  it  alone,  provided  he  holds  a  dog  hy  a  string.  This 
course  is  adopted,  Dastur  Jamaspji  says,  when  a  person  happens 
to  die  in  a  place  where  only  one  Parsi  is  available. 

matter ',  or  a  man,  with  a  woman  or  a  child  of  eight 
years  old,  is  proper. 

9.  It  is  not  to  be  carried  all  covered  up2,  for 
that  is  burying  the  corpse ;  to  carry  it  in  the  rain 
is  worthy  of  death*.  10.  When  clouds  have  been 
around  \  it  is  allowable  to  carry  it  away  from  the 
house ;  and  when  rain  sets  in  upon  the  road  it  is  not 
allowable  to  carry  it  back  to  the  house  ;  but  when  it 
is  before  a  veranda  (dahlis)  one  should  put  it  down 
there ;  that  is  allowable  when  he  who  owns  the 
veranda  is  apprehensive,  and  when  he  does  not 
allow  it  inside  ;  and,  afterwards,  it  is  to  be  carried 
away  to  its  place,  and  when  the  water  stands  the 
height  of  a  javelin  (nl^ak)  inside  5,  one  puts  it  down 
ami  brings  it  away  yet  again.  11.  MeV6k-mah  * 
says  that  there  should  be  a  shelter  (var)7  one  should 

1  In  the  terms  az>i-dashtan6  and  att-nasat  the  compound 
zv  is  written  in  an  obsolete  manner,  both  in  M6  and  K20.  The 
meaning  of  the  text  is  that  either  or  both  of  the  corpse-carriers 
may  be  any  Parsi  man,  woman,  or  child  who  understands  the 
proper  precautions.    Compare  Pah  I.  Vend.  VIII,  28. 

•  K20  has  '  when  curved  it  is  not  to  he  carried.* 

■  That  is,  it  is  a  mortal  sin  to  allow  rain  to  fall  upon  a  corpse 
before  it  is  deposited  in  the  Dakhma. 

•  Or  '  withheld,'  or  '  continuous,'  according  as  we  compare 
hamun  with  Pers.  amun  (am an),  aman,  or  ha  man. 

•  Inside  the  Dakhma  apparently.  The  meaning  seems  to  be, 
that  when  the  Dakhma  is  flooded  the  corpse  is  to  be  laid  down 
in  some  dry  place  in  its  vicinity  until  the  flood  has  abated.  But 
according  to  Pahl.  Vend.  VIII,  17,  it  is  allowable  to  throw  the 
corpse  in  when  the  Dakhma  is  full  of  WBtH 

■  See  Chaps.  I,  3,  II,  1.  Here,  again,  the  quotation  must  be 
from  his  complete  commentary,  as  it  is  not  extant  in  the  present 
Pahlavi  Vendidad. 

7  From  Av.  var,  'to  cover,  to  shelter;'  compare  Pers.  gullah, 
1  a  bower  or  shed.'  Nowadays  the  Parsis  have  a  permanent 
shelter  near  the  Dakhma.     Pahl.  Vend.  VIII,  17  says,  'to  carry 



fasten  above  that  place,  and  it  would  make  it  dry 
below ' ;  one  should  place  the  corpse  under  that 
shelter,  and  they  may  take  the  shelter  and  bring  it 

12.  From  the  fifth  fargan/  of  the  Vendidad  of 
M&/6k-maha  they  state  thus,  that  at  the  place 
where  one's  life  goes  forth,  when  he  shall  die  upon 
a  cloth,  and  a  hair  or  a  limb  remains  upon  the  bed- 
place  and  the  ground 3,  the  ground  conveys  the  pollu- 
tion, even  not  originating  with  itself  (ahambunU), 
in  like  manner  down  unto  the  water  *.  13.  And  when 
fie  is  on  a  bedstead,  and  its  legs  are  not  connected 
with  the  ground,  when  a  hair  or  a  limb  remains 
behind  on  the  bedstead,  it  does  not  convey  tJie  pol- 
lution down.  14.  When  he  shall  die  on  a  plastered 
floor  the  plaster  is  polluted,  and  when  they  dig  up 
that  plaster  and  spread  it  again  afterwards,  it  is 
clean.  15.  When  he  shall  die  on  a  stone,  and  the 
stone  is  connected  with  the  ground,  the  stone  will 
become  clean,  along  with  the  ground,  in  the  length 
of  a  year;  and  when  they  dig  up  the  place,  the 
stone  being  polluted  is  to  be  washed  at  the  time, 
16.  When  a  stone  is  connected  with  the  ground,  or 
is  separated,  and  one  shall  die  upon  it,  so  much  space 
of  the  stone  as  the  corpse  occupied  is  polluted8; 

an  umbrella  (aaargash)  from  behind,  or  to  hold  up  a  shelter,  is  of 
no  use.' 

1  Or, '  it  would  make  /'/  very  dry,'  if  \vc  read  art r, '  very,'  instead 
of  a^tr, '  below; '  these  two  words  being  written  alike  in  Pahlavi. 

*  Quoting  again  from  his  lost  commentary. 
'  Or,  perhaps,  *  floor.' 

4  This  translation  is  somewhat  doubtful,  but  the  text  seems  to 
imply  that  the  ground  is  polluted  as  deep  as  it  contains  no  water. 

*  K20  has  had,  'the  stone  is  all  polluted,  and  will  become  clean 
at  the  time  when  they  dig  /'/  up,  the  stone  is  all  polluted,  in  so 

CHAPTER    II,    12-19. 


when  they  shall  leave  it,  in  the  length  of  a  year  it 
will  become  clean  along  with  the  ground  ;  and  when 
they  dig  it  up,  the  stone  is  all  polluted,  and  is  to  be 
washed  at  the  time ;  when  the  stone  is  not  made 
even  with  the  ground,  above  the  ground  the  stone  is 
all  polluted,  and  is  to  be  washed  at  the  time. 

17.  Dung-fuel  and  ashes,  when  the  limbs  of  a 
menstruous  woman  come  upon  them,  are  both  pol- 
luted; and  the  salt  and  lime  for  washing  her  shift 
(kartak-shul)  are  to  be  treated  just  like  stone  '. 

18.  If  one  shall  die  on  a  terrace  roof  (ban)  -',  when 
one  of  his  limbs,  or  a  hair,  remains  behind  at  the 
edge  of  the  roof,  the  roof  is  polluted  for  the  size  of 
the  body  as  far  as  the  water ;  and  they  should  carry 
down  all  the  sacred  twigs  (baresom)5  in  the  house, 
from  the  place  where  the  pollution  is,  until  there  are 
thirty  steps  of  three  feet4  to  the  sacred  twigs,  so 
that  the  sacred  twigs  may  not  be  polluted ;  and 
when  his  hair  or  limb  has  not  come  to  the  eaves 
(parakdn)  the  roof  is  polluted  to  the  bottom  (tohik). 
19.  And  when  one  shall  die  on  a  rttd5  it  is  polluted 

much  space  as  the  corpse  occupied  it  is  polluted ; '  but  the  addi- 
tional matter  seems  to  be  struck  out.  Something  analogous  to  the 
details  in  this  paragraph  will  be  found  in  Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  9. 

1  This  section  would  be  more  appropriate  in  Chap.  III. 

1  Or  '  an  upper  floor ; '  Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  9  has,  '  when  he  shall 
die  on  an  upper  floor,  when  nothing  of  him  remains  behind  at  the 
partitions  (pardakan),  the  floor  is  polluted  as  far  as  the  balcony 
(firkup)  and  the  balcony  alone  is  dean ;  when  anything  of  him 
remains  behind  at  the  partitions,  the  floor  is  polluted  as  far  as  the 
balcony,  the  ground  is  polluted  as  far  as  the  water,  about  the  balcony 
alone  it  is  not  clear.' 

1  See  note  on  Chap.  Ill,  32. 

*  The  gSm,  'step,'  being  2  feet  7$  inches  (see  note  on  Bund. 
XXVI,  3)  these  thirty  steps  are  about  79  English  feet. 

1  Meaning  uncertain ;  the  word  looks  like  Huzvarir,  but  it  is 
possible  to  read  r!</-ac  instead  of  rita-i. 


shAyast  La-shaYaST. 

for  the  size  of  the  body  as  far  as  the  water ;  in  the 
length  of  a  year  it  will  become  clean  alo7ig  with  the 
ground  20.  A  built  bridge  is  liable  just  like  a 
terrace  roof.  21.  When  one  shall  die  on  the  terrace 
roof  of  a  trellised  apartment  (varam),  that  is  also 
liable  just  like  a  terrace  roof.  22.  When  he  shall 
die  in  a  trellised  apartment,  when  one  of  his  limbs, 
or  a  hair,  does  not  remain  on  the  borders  (parakan), 
it  does  not  convey  the  pollution  down,  but  when  any 
of  him  remains  behind  it  conveys  it  down ;  it  is 
allowable  when  they  dig  it  up1,  and  one  also  spreads 
it  again  afterwards,  and  it  is  clean. 

23.  When  one  shall  die  by  strangulation  and  a 
rope  in  a  crowd,  when  there  is  no  fear  of  his  falling 
down  they  should  not  carry  him  down  ;  and  when 
there  is  a  fear  of  his  falling  down,  when  that  fear  is 
as  regards  one  side  of  him,  they  should  carry  him 
down  on  that  side ;  and  when  he  has  fallen  down 
they  should  carry  him  down  in  such  place  as  he  has 
fallen.  24.  When  one  is  seated  upright  and  shall 
die,  when  there  is  fear  of  his  falling  on  one  side  they 
should  carry  him  down  on  that  one  side,  and  when 
there  is  fear  on  all  four  sides,  then  on  all  four  sides  ; 
and  when  he  has  fallen  down  they  should  carry  him 
down  in  such  place  as  lie  has  fallen  *. 

25.  And  when  one  shall  die  on  a  tree,  when  its 

1  That  is,  the  floor  of  the  apartment ;  which  would  probably  be 
formed  of  earth  beaten  down,  which,  in  India,  is  nearly  always 
overspread  with  diluted  cow-dung  to  hinder  cracks  in  the  smooth 
surface.  A  better  class  of  floor  is  spread  with  lime  plaster  on 
a  stony  surface. 

'  The  object  of  these  rules  is  evidently  to  avoid  disturbing  the 
corpse  more  than  is  absolutely  necessary,  provided  there  be  no 
fear  of  its  polluting  more  of  the  ground  by  falling  upon  it. 

CHAPTER    II,    20-32. 


bark  is  green  and  there  is  no  fear  of  falling  off,  they 
should  not  carry  him  down  ;  and  when  there  is  fear 
of  it,  they  should  carry  down  the  whole  of  the  body 
(tanu  masai).  26.  And  when  the  bark  of  the  tree 
is  Withered,  when  there  is  fear  of  it  and  when  tliere  is 
no  fear  of  it,  they  should  carry  it  down.  27.  When 
he  shall  die  on  a  branch  of  a  tree  which  is  green, 
when  there  is  no  fear  of  his  falling  off  they  should 
not  carry  him  down.  28.  And  when  there  is  fear  of 
it,  or  it  is  a  branch  of  a  withered  tree,  when  also,  a 
hair  originating  with  him,  or  a  limb,  remains  behind 
on  the  particular  tree,  they  should  carry  down  the 
whole  of  the  body1.  29.  And  when  it  does  not  re- 
main behind  him  on  the  particular  tree,  but  when 
there  is  fear  of  its  falling  off,  they  should  not  carry  it 
below  (vad  fr6d)\ 

30.  When  a  corpse  (nasai-i)s,  from  outside  of  it, 
remains  behind  on  a  jar  (khumbo)  in  which  tliere 
may  be  wine,  the  jar  is  polluted,  and  the  wine  is 
clean.  31.  And  when  one  shall  die  inside,  in  the 
wine  in  the  jar,  if  not  even  a  hair  or  a  curl  originat- 
ing with  him  remains  behind  on  the  jar,  the  wine  is 
polluted  and  the  jar  not  polluted  *.      32.  When  it  is 

1  K20  has  a  portion  of  §  30  inserted  here  by  mistake. 

1  The  object  of  these  rules  is  likewise  to  prevent  the  risk  of  the 
corpse  defiling  more  of  the  ground  than  is  absolutely  necessary  by 
falling  upon  it,  as  it  might  do  by  the  breaking  of  a  dead  branch. 

■  Nasdi  (Av.  nasu)  means  not  only  a  corpse  or  carcase  of 
a  human  being,  dog,  or  other  animal  of  the  good  creation,  but 
also  any  portion  of  such  corpse  or  carcase ;  that  is,  solid  '  dead 
matter'  in  general,  as  distinguished  from  dirt  or  refuse  from  the 
living  body,  or  any  liquid  exudation  from  a  corpse  or  carcase, 
which  is  called  hfkhar  (Av.  hikhra). 

*  Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  9  states,  that  '  when  ont  shall  die  on  a  jar  of 
wine,  the  jar  is  useless,  and  the  wine  becomes  just  as  though  its 



a  jar  in  which  there  is  oil  \  and  dead  matter  (nasal), 
from  outside  of  it,  remains  behind  on  it,  this  is  even 
as  though  it  remains  inside  it,  because  the  oil  comes 
outside  and  goes  back  to  the  inside,  and  both  are 
polluted,  the  jar  and  the  oil ;  and  even  on  making 
the  jar  dry  -  it  is  not  fit  to  put  anything  in. 

33.  When  a  serpent  (garsak)  is  in  ajar  in  which 
there  is  wine,  both  are  useless  and  polluted,  for  it 
makes  them  contaminated  (paafvishak).  34.  And 
when  corn  shall  be  in  it,  the  jar  is  polluted  and  the 
corn  clean ;  and  when  nothing  originating  widi  the 
serpent  inside  the  jar  remains  behind  on  the  jar,  so 
much  of  the  corn  as  includes  the  serpent,  and  upon 
which  the  touch  (malign)  of  the  serpent  has  gone — 
because  the  touch  of  the  serpent's  seed  might  be 
the  death  of  one — is  to  be  taken  out  and  to  be 
thrown  away.  35.  And  when  hair  or  dead  matter, 
even  not  originating  with  the  serpent,  remains  be- 
hind on  the  jar,  the  jar  is  polluted,  but  is  service- 
able (shaya//)  on  making  it  dry3. 

36.   Brick,    earth,   and    mortar    are    separated    by 

course  (ravixn)  had  been  within  three  steps  of  the  corpse.  And 
when  he  shall  die  in  the  wine,  when  nothing  of  him  remains  behind 
on  the  jar,  the  jar  is  proper  on  making  it  dry  '  (or,  perhaps,  '  the 
jar  is  fit  for  bran-flour '). 

1  Or  'clarified  butter;'  in  this  case  the  'jar1  is  probably  a 
globular  vessel,  or  carboy,  made  of  hide,  through  which  ihe  oil, 
or  liquid  butter,  penetrates  so  far  as  to  keep  the  outer  surface 
greasy,  which  accounts  for  the  remark  about  the  oil  passing  in  and 
out.  Such  vessels,  called  Jabar,  are  commonly  used  for  oil  and 
liquid  butter  in  India. 

*  Assuming  that  kh(j;ckar  stands  for  khu-tk-kar,  as  it  does  in 
Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  71 ;  otherwise  we  should  have  to  read  thus:  'and 
the  jar  is  not  even  fit  to  put  any  bran-flour  in.' 

s  Again  assuming  as  in  §  32  ;  otherwise  we  must  read  thus : 
'but  is  fit  for  bran-flour  (khtukar).' 

their  own  substance  (pa van  mindavam-i  na fa- 
in an),  and  are  connected  with  the  ground  ;  being 
separated  by  their  own  substance  is  this,  that  so 
much  space  as  dead  matter1  comes  upon  is  pol- 
luted ;  being  connected  with  the  ground  is  this,  that 
they  would  convey  the  pollution  down  unto  the 
wanr.  37.  Dung-fuel,  ashes,  flour,  and  other  pow- 
dered things  are  connected  with  their  own  sub- 
stance, and  are  separated  from  the  ground;  being 
connected  with  their  own  substance  is  this,  that 
when  dead  matter  comes  upon  them  the  whole  of 
them  is  polluted ;  and  being  separated  from  the 
ground  is  this,  that  when  dead  matter  comes  upon 
them  it  does  not  make  the  ground  polluted  '-'. 

38.  At  a  house  in  which  the  sacred  ceremony 
(  is  prepared,  and  a  dog  or  a  person  passes5 
away  in  it,  the  first  business  to  be  done  is  this,  that 
the  fire  is  to  be  preserved  from  harm  ;  moreover,  if 
it  be  only  possible  to  carry  the  fire  so  that  they 
would  earn,'  it  away  within  three  steps  of  the 
corpse  *,  even  then  it  is  to  be  carried  away,  and  the 

1  Or  'a  corpse ; '  K20  has  '  stands  upon,*  The  meaning  is  that 
these  substances  do  not  communicate  the  contamination  throughout 
iheir  own  substance,  but  only  downwards  to  the  ground,  which  con- 
veys it  farther  down,  so  far  as  it  contains  no  water. 

*  That  is,  these  substances  communicate  the  contamination 
throughout  their  own  substance,  but  not  down  to  the  ground. 

*  The  verb  vi«/ar</an&  (Huz.  vabrflntanfi),  'to  cross  over,  to 
pass  away'  (Av.  vi  +  tar,  Pers.  guDHa.rtan),  can  only  be  used 
when  referring  to  the  death  of  good  people  or  animals ;  but  the 
verb  mtir</an&  (Huz.  ycmituntanS),  'to  die,  to  expire'  (Av. 
m3r,  Pers.  murdan),  can  be  used  generally,  though  usually  applied 
10  the  vicked  and  to  evil  creatures.  Pah  I.  Vrend.  V,  134  contains 
nearly  the  same  text  as  §§  3H,  39. 

*  Under  ordinary  circumstances  fire  must  not  be  brought  within 
thirty  steps,  or  about  79  English  feet,  of  a  corpse  (see  Vend.  VI II, 



wall  is  not  to  be  cut.  39.  Roshan '  said  that  an 
<  irthea  <•  is  to  be  cut  into,  but  a  mortar  one  is 
not  to  be  cut;  below  and  above  no  account  is  taken 
of  damaging  (b6d6z&dih)'£  the  wall3.  40.  To  bring 
the  fire  within*  the  three  steps  from  the  corpse  is  a 
Tanapuhar  sin ;  and  when  exudation  happens  to  the 
corpse,  it  is  worthy  of  death5.  41.  The  prepared 
food  in  that  house  is  all  useless,  and  that  which  is 
not  prepared  is  usable  in  the  length  of  nine  nights 

1 7).  But  the  spirit  of  the  Mazdayasnian  law  is  reasonable,  anil, 
although  strict,  it  allows  for  practical  difficulties  and  chooses  the 
least  of  two  evils  in  a  more  judicious  manner  than  might  be 
expected  (a  fact  which  it  would  be  well  for  Parsis  and  others  to 
observe  in  doubtful  cases).  Here,  breaking  through  the  wall  of  a 
house  is  considered  a  greater  evil  than  the  possible  pollution  of 
the  fire  by  passing  at  a  distance  of  three  steps,  or  eight  English 
feet,  from  a  corpse. 

1  The  name  of  a  commentator,  or  commentary,  often  quoted  in 
Pahlavi  translations  (see  the  note  on  Chap.  I,  4). 

1  Literally,  'destroying  the  consciousness/  or  'injuring  the 
existence.'  BoVozSrf  or  bA</y6za«f  is  a  particular  kind  of  sin 
which  appears  to  consist  chiefly  of  the  ill-treatment  of  animals  and 
injury  of  useful  property.  It  is  mentioned  in  Paid.  Yas.  XXIX, 
ib,  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  107,  XIII,  38,  Farh.  Okh.  pp.  32,  33  ;  and  in 
some  editions  of  the  Khurdah  A  vesta  it  is  defined  as  selling  stolen 
men  or  animals  into  misery,  or  one's  own  domestic  cattle  to  die 
butcher,  also  spoiling  and  tearing  up  good  clothing,  or  wasting 
and  spoiling  good  food. 

3  The  meaning  is,  that  if  it  became  necessary  to  break  Uirough 
the  wall  in  order  to  remove  the  fire  unpolluted,  the  sin  committed 
through  damaging  the  wall  will  not  be  punished  cither  in  this 
world  or  the  next 

*  That  is,  nearer  than  three  steps,  which  is  considered  to  be 
the  minimum  distance  at  which  any  degree  of  purity  can  be 

6  A  marg-arg- £n  sin,  on  committing  which  the  sinner  is  required 
to  place  his  life  at  the  disposal  of  the  high-priest  (see  Chap.  VIII, 
a»  5,  <>)  21).  It  is  usually  considered  equivalent  to  fifteen  Tani- 
puhars  (see  Chap.  I,  i,  2). 

or  a  month  \  42.  Clothing  also  in  like  manner,  ex- 
cept that  which  one  wears  on  the  body ;  that,  even 
in  that  time,  is  not  clean,  since  it  remains  in  use. 
43.  And  the  holy-water  (zohar) 2,  too,  which  is 
taken  and  remains  in  that  place,  is  to  be  carried 
away  immediately  to  the  water ;  also  the  sacred 
milk  (f  iv)a  and  butter  (jfum)4  in  like  manner.  44. 
Of  the  prayer5  clothing  Vand-Auharmazd  8  said  that 
it  is  usable  in  the  length  of  nine  nights  or  a  month  ; 
the  writer7  (daplr)  said  that  it  is  when  they  perform 
the  washing  of  hands,  and  wash  it  thoroughly,  it 
will  become  clean  at  the  time. 

45.  If  in  a  house  there  are  three  rooms  (gun^i- 
nak),  and  one  shall  die  in  the  entrance  place 
(dargds),  if  it  be  so  that  they  may  set  the  door 
open,  and  the  corpse  comes  to  this  side,  only  this 

•  According  to  the  season  of  the  year,  the  period  of  uncleanness 
being  nine  nights  in  the  five  winter  months,  and  a  month  in  ihe 
seven  summer  months  (see  Vend.  V,  129). 

■  Av.  zaothra;  this  holy-u  a>-:  is  consecrated  by  the  priest 
reciting  certain  prayers  while  holding  the  empty  metal  cups  in  his 
hands,  while  filling  them  with  water,  and  after  filling  them  (see 
Hang's  Essays,  p.  397). 

•  The  Av.  gduj  ^tvya,  'product  of  the  living  cow,'  which  is 
kept  in  a  metal  saucer  during  the  ceremonies,  and  used  for 
sprinkling  the  sacred  twigs  (bares6m),  and  for  mixing  with  the 
holy-water  and    H6m-juice  in   the  mortar  (see   Haug's  Essays, 

pp.  403,  405.  4°6)- 

•  Compare  Pers.  ttom,  'fat;'  it  is  the  Av.  gaux  hudhau,  'pro- 
duct of  the  well-yielding  cow,'  a  small  piece  of  which  is  placed 
upon  one  of  the  sacred  pancakes,  or  wafers  (drdn),  during  the 
ceremonies  (see  Haug's  Essays,  pp.  396,  407). 

•  Reading  yan;  but  it  may  be  ga*t,  'changed.' 

•  See  the  note  on  Chap.  I,  4. 

7  There  appear  to  be,  as  yet,  no  means  of  ascertaining  the 
name  of  the  writer  of  the  Sh&yast  la-shayast,  who  gives  his  own 
opinion  here. 

C5]  s 


shAyast  la-shAyast. 

side  is  polluted ;  and  if  the  corpse  comes  to  that 
side,  only  that  side  is  polluted ;  when  it  comes  to 
both  sides  at  once  (aeva/').  only  the  entrance  place 
is  polluted  alone,  both  the  dwelling-rooms  (khanak) 
are  clean. 

46.  And  the  vault  of  the  sacred  fires1  alone  does 
not  become  polluted. 

47.  If  one  shall  die  in  a  wild  spot  (va^kar),  pre- 
pared food  which  is  within  three  steps  is  all  useless, 
and  beyond  four  steps  it  is  not  polluted.  48.  Pre- 
pared food  is  this,  such  as  bread,  boiled  and  roast 
meat,  and  prepared  broth  2. 

49.  And  the  ashes  (var)  of  the  sacred  fire'  be- 
come in  a  measure  polluted. 

50.  Should  they  carry  in  the  fire  into  that  housr 
in  which  the  length  of  nine  nights  or  a  month  is 
requisite  for  becoming  clean,  there  is  a  sin  of  one 
Tanapuhar4  through  carrying  it  in,  and  one  Tana- 
puhar  through  kindling  it ;  and  every  trifling  crea- 
ture {khur  or  khul)  which  shall  die  and  shall  remain 
causes  a  sin  of  one  Tanapuhar.  51.  Also  through 
carrying  water  in,  there  is  a  sin  of  one  Farman  ;  and 
to  pour  water  on  the  place  where  any  one's  life 
departs  is  a  sin  of  one  Tanapuhar,  and  to  pour  it 
on  a  different  place  is  a  sin  of  one  Yat.     52.  And  to 

1  Literally,  «thc  vault  of  the  fires  of  V4hram.'  Pahl.  Vend. 
V,  134  says  'the  vault  of  the  fires  is  liable  just  like  an  empty 
house.'     Both  this  section  and  §  49  seem  out  of  place. 

1  See  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  134. 

a  Literally,  '  the  produce  of  the  fire  of  VShrSm,'  a  term  for 
'ashes,'  which  is  used  in  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  150  along  with  the 
equivalent  phrase,  'clothing  of  the  fire  '  (see  Chap.  Ill,  27). 

*  See  Chap.  I,  1,  2  for  the  degrees  of  sin  mentioned  in  §§  50, 
5>>  53- 

CHAPTER    H,    46-56. 

undergo  ablution '  inside  the  wie/ean  house  is  all  non- 
ablution.  53.  And  whoever  goes  into  it  needlessly, 
his  body  and  clothes  are  to  be  every  time  thoroughly 
washed,  and  his  sin  is  one  Tanapuhar  ;  and  when  he 
goes  in  needfully  it  is  neither  good  work  nor  sin2. 

54.  And  this  pollution  is  all  in  the  sharp  account 
(tikhak  a  mar)  when  the  life  departs3;  the  only 
thing  which  amounts  to  polluting  is  contact  with  the 
flesh,  and  even  with  the  hair  and  nails.  55.  Of  the 
contact  which  is  stated  in  the  Avesta4,  the  account 
is  that  it  is  from  one  side,  and  it  ever  cleaves  to 
one;  the  curse  (garrixn)6  which  is  stated  in  the 
Avesta  advances  from  all  four  sides.  56.  Soshyans ,: 
said  it  is,  until  its  exhibition  to  a  dog,  just  as  it  In- 
comes at  the  time  when  its  life  departs  ■ ;  a  priest,  a 

1  That  is,  the  ceremonial  ablution  <p;Wiy;t;.'ih),  or  'washing, 
with  water,  the  hands  and  arms  up  to  the  etbows,  the  face  as  far 
as  behind  the  cars,  and  the  feet  up  to  the  ankles,'  whilst  a  certain 
form  of  prayer  b  recited  (sec  AV.  p.  r48,  note). 

*  Here  again,  as  in  §  38,  the  strict  letter  of  the  law  is  relaxed  in 
case  of  necessity. 

*  Meaning,  apparently,  that  any  pollution  is  taken  into  account. 
as  a  sin.  in  the  investigation  the  soul  has  to  undergo  upon  entering 
the  other  world.  Much  of  this  paragraph  will  be  found  in  Pahl. 
Vend.  V,  107. 

*  Referring  to  Vend.  V,  82-107,  which  gives  an  account  of  the 
number  of  persons  through  whom  the  pollution  of  a  corpse  or 
carcase  will  pass,  which  is  in  proportion  to  the  importance  of  the 
dead  individual.  The  statement  here  made  is  that  the  infection, 
passing  from  one  to  the  other,  enters  each  person  only  on  one 
side,  but  the  demon  of  corruption  attacks  them  on  all  sides. 

*  Meaning,  probably,  the  Nas&r,  or  demon  of  corruption  (see  §  1), 
who  is  said  to  rush  upon  all  those  polluted  as  detailed  in  Vend.  V, 

*  See  Chap.  I,  3. 

'  That  is,  until  seen  by  the  dog  the  corpse  remains  pervaded 
by  the  demon  of  corruption  and  hazardous  to  approach  (see 
§§  «-<)• 

S  2 

26o  SUA  VAST    LA-SHAY  AST. 

warrior,  and  a  husbandman  are  no  use,  for  merely 
a  dog  is  stated.  57.  Kushtano-biye^1  said  the 
account  is  at  the  time  when  its  life  departs ;  and 
that  which  Kushtand-buj^eV/  specially  said  is,  '  when 
anything  is  inside  it  (the  place)  the  pollution  is  as 
far  as  to  the  place  where  diat  thing  stands.'  5S. 
When  a  dog,  or  a  goat,  or  a  pig  is  requisite 
(darvai)2  it  is  proper,  for  the  pollution  does  not 
attack  further  there  ;  and  the  pollution  of  a  child  in 
the  womb   is  along  with  the  mother. 

59.  The  direct  pollution  of  a  hedgehog  3  cleaves 
to  one,  and  not  the  indirect  pollution.  60.  Direct 
pollution  (hamreaO*  is  that  when  the  body  is  in 
contact  with  a  corpse,  and  indirect  pollution  (pait- 

1  See  Chap.  I,  4,  note.  This  name  is  nearly  always  written 
Kusluano-bu#e</  in  Sis.  in  K20  and  M6;  it  is  not  mentioned  in 
Pahl.  Vend.  V,  107,  although  the  details  here  quoted  are  there 
given  in  part 

*  The  meaning  is  not  quite  clear,  but  this  sentence  is  probably 
to  be  read  in  connection  with  the  preceding  one,  as  implying  that 
where  such  domestic  animals  are  kept  they  can  be  used  for  stopping 
the  infection,  as  effectually  as  any  inanimate  object.  The  pig  is 
here  mentioned  as  a  common  domestic  animal,  but  Parsis  have 
long  since  adopted  the  prejudices  of  Hindus  and  Muhammadans 
as  regards  the  uncleanness  of  the  pig. 

'  As  Vend.  V,  108-ua  says  the  same  of  the  dog  urupi,  it 
would  seem  that  the  writer  of  our  text  considered  the  urupi  to  be 
a  hedgehog  (zfizak);  the  Pahlavi  translation  of  the  Vendidad 
renders  it  by  rapuk  or  ripQk,  which  appears  to  be  merely  an 
approximate  transcript  of  the  Avesta  word;  traditionally,  this  is 
read  raspuk  and  compared  with  Pers.  rasu.  '  ichneumon ; '  its 
identification  with  the  hedgehog  is  certainly  doubtful,  although  it 
appears  to  be  admitted  in  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  112,  where  the  same 
words  are  used  as  in  this  section. 

*  The  technical  terms  hamrgt/and  paltreV,  for  contagion  and 
infection,  are  merely  corruptions  of  A  v.  ham-raethwayeiti  and 
paiii-raCthwayfiiti.  The  definition  of  the  latter  one  is  omitted 
in  K20  by  mistake. 

CHAPTER    II,    57-63. 


red')  is  that  when '  one  is  in  contact  with  him  who 
touched  the  corpse  ;  and  from  contact  with  him  who 
is  the  eleventh-  indirect  pollution  cleaves  to  one  in 
the  same  manner.  61.  The  indirect  pollution  of  an 
ape 3  and  a  menstruous  woman,  not  acting  the  same 
way,  remains.  62.  The  shepherd's  dog,  and  like- 
wise the  village-dog,  and  others  also  of  the  like  kind 
carry  contamination  to  eight4;  and  when  they  shall 
carry  the  carcase  down  on  the  ground  the  place*  is 
clean  immediately  ;  and  that,  too,  which  dies  on  a 
balcony  (dskup),  until  they  shall  carry  it  down  to 
the  bottom,  is  polluted  for  the  length  of  a  year. 

63.  Whoever  brings  dead  matter  (nasal)  on  any 
person  is  worthy  of  death  ;  he  is  thrice  worthy  of 

1  Reading  amat,  '  when,'  instead  of  mQn.  *  which'  (see  note  to 
Bund.  I   7). 

'  Vend.  V,  86,  87  limits  the  pollution  to  the  eleventh  person 
infected,  in  the  extreme  case  of  the  corpse  having  been  a  priest; 
but  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  107  quotes  the  opinion  of  Soslians  that  until 
a  dog  has  gazed  at  the  corpse  the  pollution  extends  to  the  twelfth, 
hut  only  the  first  ten  require  the  ceremonial  purification  of  the 
harcfchnfirn,  the  others  being  cleansed  by  ordinary  washing  with 
bull's  urine  and  water. 

i  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  107  stales,  however,  that  'every tiling  of  the 
ape  (knpik)  is  just  like  mankind.'  The  meaning  of  §  61  is  very 
uncertain,  as  the  text  can  be  both  read  and  translated  several  ways, 
and  none  of  them  are  very  satisfactory. 

•  That  is,  in  the  case  of  the  shepherd's  dog  (see  Vend.  V,  92,  93) ; 
the  carcases  of  other  d<  on  the  indirect  pollution  of  fewer 

persons,  in  proportion  to  their  inferior  importance ;  but  Pahl. r. 
V,  107  states,  v-iih  regard  to  this  importance,  that  when  'in  doubt, 
every  man  is  to  be  considered  as  a  priest,  and  every  dog  as  a  shep- 
I  dog,'  so  as  to  be  on  the  safe  side,  by  exacting  the  maximum 
amount  of  purification  in  all  doubtful  cases. 

1  The  Pahlavi  text  leaves  it  doubtful  whether  the  place,  the 
people,  or  the  carcase  becomes  clean,  but  the  first  is  the  most 


siiAyast  la-si  iAyast. 

death '  at  the  time  when  a  dog  has  not  seen  the 
corpse  (nasal)  ;  and  if  through  negligence  of  ap- 
pliances and  means  [kkr  va  tuba  no)  he  disturbs  it. 
and  disturbs  it  by  touching  it,  he  knows  that  it  is  a 
sin  worthy  of  death  ;  and  for  a  corpse  that  a  dog 
has  seen,  and  one  that  a  dog  has  not  seen,  the  ac- 
countability is  to  be  understood  to  be  as  much  2,  ami 
for  the  death  and  sickness3  of  a  feeble  man  and  a 
powerful  one.  64.  Afarg  has  said  there  is  no  ac- 
count of  appliances  and  means  \  for  it  is  not  allow- 
able to  commit  a  sin  worthy  of  death  in  cases  of 
death  and  sickness. 

65.  When  they  move  a  corpse  which  a  dog  has 
not  seen  with  a  thousand  men,  even  then  the  bodies 
of  the  whole  number  are  polluted4,  and  are  to  be 
washed  for  them  with  ceremony  (pljak)".  66.  And 
for  that  which  a  dog  has  seen,  except  that  one  only 
when  a  man  shall  move  it  all 7  by  touching  it,  his 
washing  is  then  not  to  be  with  ceremony.  67.  And 
when  he  is  in  contact  and  does  not  move  it,  he  is  to 
be  washed  with  bull's  urine   and  water.     68.   And 

1  That  is,  he  has   committed  a  sin  equivalent  to  three  mortal 
>ins  (marg-ar^Sn). 

-  Reading  ves  as  equivalent  to  vS s. 

*  Reading  rakhtakih  (compare  Pers.  rakhtah, '  sick,  wounded'). 

*  This  opinion  of  Afarg  (see  Chap.  I,    )  is  also  quoted  in  Pahl. 
Vend.  Ill,  48. 

0  This  statement  is  repealed  in  Chap.  X,  33. 

*  That  is,  with  the  liareshnum  ceremony. 
7  This  exception  (which  is  repeated  in  §§  68,  71)  seems  to  imply 

thai  §§  66,  68,  71  refer  to  the  collection  of  any  fragments  of 
a  corpse  found  in  tin-  wilderness,  or  in  water;  and  the  exemption 
from  the  troublesome  purification  ceremony  in  such  cases,  is  pro- 
bably intended  to  encourage  people  to  undertake  the  disagreeable 
duty  of  attending  to  such  fragments. 

CHAPTER    II,    64-7I. 


when  he  shall  move  with  a  stake  (dar)1  a  corpse, 
which  a  dog  has  not  seen,  except  that  one  only 
when  he  shall  move  it  all,  the  washing  for  him  is 
not  to  be  with  ceremony. 

69.  And  when  a  man  shall  move  a  corpse,  which 
a  dog  has  not  seen,  by  the  hand  of  another  man,  he 
who  moves  it  by  the  hand  of  a  man,  and  he  also 
whose  own  hand's  strength  docs  it  are  polluted  in 
the  bodies  of  both;  and  it  is  the  root  of  a  Tanapu- 
har  -  sin  for  him  himself  and  of  a  Tanapuhar  for  the 
other  one,  for  this  reason,  because  his  own  body  and 
that  also  of  the  other  are  both  made  polluted 
through  sinfulness.  70.  And  when  there  is  not  in 
him,  nor  even  originating  with  him  (ahambuni>fc), 
the  strength  of  him  whose  own  hand  it  is,  it  is  just 
as  though  he  would  move  it  (the  corpse)  with  a 
stake*;  and  he  who  held  it  in  the  way  of  contact 
with  his  hand  is  to  be  washed  with  ceremony  ;  and 
it  is  the  root  of  a  Tanapuhar  sin  for  him  whose 
own  hand  it  is,  and  of  a  Kh6r4  for  himself.  71. 
When  he  shall  move  a  corpse  by  the  hand  of  a  man, 
and  the  corpse  is  of  those  which  a  dog  has  seen — 
except  that  one  only  when  he  shall  move  it  all fl — 
the  washing  for  him  is  not  to' be  with  ceremony. 

1  The  interposition  of  the  stake,  or  piece  of  wood,  prevents  the 
direct  attack  of  the  Nasfij,  or  demon  of  corruption,  which  has  not 
been  driven  away  by  a  dog.  That  inanimate  objects  are  supposed 
10  stop  the  progress  of  the  pollution  appears  from  §  57. 

*  See  Chap.  I,  1,  2.  A  sin  is  figuratively  said  to  take  root  in 
the  body,  when  it  has  to  be  eradicated,  or  figuratively  dug  up. 

■  See  §  68.  If  he  employs  another  man  to  move  the  corpse 
merely  because  he  is  physically  unable  to  do  it  himself,  he  escapes 
widi  less  pollution  than  when  he  is  able  to  do  the  work  himself; 
but  die  man  employed  suffers  the  same  in  both  cases. 

1  See  Chap.  I,  1,  2.  •  Sec  §  66. 


shAyast  la-shAyast. 

72.  When  one  is  going  by  a  place  at  night,  and 
comes  back  there  on  the  morrow,  and  a  corpse 
lies  there,  and  he  does  not  know  whether  the  evil 
(du.?)  was  there  when  he  came  by1,  or  not,  it  is  to 
be  considered  by  him  that  it  was  not  there. 

73.  Of  a  flock  in  which  is  a  sheep  by  whom  dead 
matter  is  eaten,  of  a  forest  in  which  is  a  tree  with 
which  dead  matter  is  mingled,  and  of  a  firewood- 
stand  (aesamdan)  in  which  is  a  stick  of  firewood 
with  which  grease  is  mingled,  Afarg  said  that  it  is 
not  proper  to  make  the  flock  and  the  forest  fruitful, 
and  the  firewood  is  useless 8. 

74.  About  a  door  on  which  a  corpse  impinges  ;  as 
to  die  door  of  a  town  and  city  they  have  been  of  the 
same  opinion,  that  it  is  to  be  discarded  by  his  com- 
rades (hamkar)3;  as  to  a  door  which  is  mostly  closed 
(bacltum)4   they  have   been    of  different  opinions, 

1  Literally,  '  when  I  came  by  ; '  the  usual  Persian  idiom  in  such 

■  This  statement  of  Afarg's,  so  far  as  it  relates  to  greasy  fire- 
wood, will  be  found  in  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  14. 

*  Or,  '  by  the  community.'  The  same  rule  is  mentioned  in  Pahl. 
Vend.V,  14. 

*  There  is  some  uncertainly  about  this  word.  It  is  not  the 
Pers.  badtum,  'worst,  vilest,'  because  that  is  written  va</tum  or 
vat  dm  in  Pahlavi  j  besides,  the  rule  must  apply  to  other  than  the 
vilest  doors,  otherwise  it  would  not  harmonize  with  §  75.  It  is  not 
a  miswriting  of  nitflm,  'lowest, most  debased,'  for  the  same  reason, 
and  because  it  OCCUR  elsewhere.  It  is  not  a  miswriting  of  beUman, 
a  possible  variant  of  bSta,  'a  house'  (although  'a  house-door' 
would  suit  the  context  very  well),  because  it  occurs  also  in  Pahl. 
Vend.  V,  14,  XI,  10,  in  which  latter  place  it  is  clearly  an  adjective 
partially  translating  Av.  b«-ndv6.  And  it  would  be  hazardous  to 
connect  it  with  Pers.  hi  dun,  '  outside,'  which  seems  merely  a  cor- 
ruption or  misreading  of  birOn.  The  view  taken  here  is  that 
badtflm  stands  for  bandium,  'most  shut  up,'  the  nasal  being 
often  dropped  in  Pahlavi,  as  in  sag  for  sang,  ' stone,'  Ac. 

■•ITER    II,  72-78. 


Gdgorasp1  said  that  discarding  it  by  his  comrades 
is  likewise  proper,  and  Sushyans  said  that  it  is  not 
proper;  and  as  to  other  doors  they  have  been 
of  the  same  opinion,  that  it  is  not  proper.  75. 
The  door  of  one's  own  chief  apartment  (shah-gas) 
is  fit  for  that  of  the  place  for  menstruation  (da^tan- 
istan),  and  that  of  the  place  for  menstruation  is  fit 
for  that  of  the  depository  for  the  dead  (khazano) 2, 
and  that  of  the  depository  of  the  dead  is  not  fit  for 
any  purpose  whatever3;  that  of  the  more  pleasant 
is  fit  for  that  of  the  more  grievous. 

76.  Any  one  who,  through  sinfulness,  throws  a 
corpse  into  the  water,  is  worthy  of  death  on  the 
spot4;  when  he  throws  only  one  it  is  one  sin  worthy 
of  death,  and  when  he  throws  ten  at  one  time  it  is 
then  one  sin  worthy  of  death  ;  when  he  throws  tiiem 
irately  it  is  a  sin  worthy  of  death  for  each  one. 
77.  Of  the  water,  into  which  one  throws  dead  matter, 
the  extent  of  pollution  is  three  steps  of  three  feet  in 
the  water  advancing,  nine  steps  of  three  feet  in  the 
water  passed  over,  and  six  steps  of  three  feet  in  the 
water  alongside '' ;  six  steps  of  three  feet  in  the  depth 
of  the  water,  and  three  steps  of  three  feet  in  the 
water  pouring  over  the  dead  matter  are  polluted  as 
regards  the  depth  B.  78.  When  it  is  thrown  into  the 
midst  of  a  great  standing  water,  in  like  manner,  the 
proportion  it  comes  is  ever  as  much  as  it  goes,  and 

1  See  Chap.  I,  3. 

*  The  Huz.  equivalent  of  Paz.  dakhmak  (see  §  6). 
8  See  Pahl.  Vend.  V,  14. 

•  Compare  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  66.  8  See  Vend.  VI,  80. 

1  That  is,  the  pollution  extends  about  eight  English  feet  up-stream 
and  !>,  sixteen  feel  sideways  and  downwards,  and  twenty- 
four  feet  down-stream.  Some  of  the  latter  part  of  the  sentence  is 
omitted  in  K20  by  mistake. 



is  the   proportion   of  it  they   should   always  carry 
away  with  the  dead  matter** 

79.  And  when  a  man  comes  forth,  and  a  corpse 
lies  in  the  water,  when  he  is  able  to  bring  it  out, 
and  it  is  not  an  injury  to  him,  it  is  not  allowable  to 
abandon  it  except  when  he  brings  it  out2.  80. 
Soshyans  s  said  that,  when  it  is  an  injury,  it  is  allow- 
able when  *  he  does  not  bring  it  out ;  and  when  it  is 
not  an  injury,  and  he  does  not  bring  it,  his  sin  is  a 
Tanapuhar6.  81.  Kiishtano-bfl^&tf*  said  that  even 
in  case  of  injury  it  is  not  allowable  to  abandon  if, 
except  when  he  brings  it  out;  when  he  does  not 
bring  it  he  is  worthy  of  death.  82.  And  G6g6xasp 7 
said  that  it  is  even  in  case  0/"  injury  not  allowable, 
except  when  he  brings  it  out;  and  when,  in  case  of 
injury,  he  does  not  bring  it  out  his  sin  is  a  Tan&- 
puhar;  and  when  it  is  no  injury  to  him,  and  he  does 
not  bring  it,  he  is  worthy  of  death. 

83.  And  when  he  shall  wish  to  bring  it  his  cloth- 
ing is  to  be  laid  aside ■,  for  it  makes  the  clothing 

1  The  sentence  is  obscure,  but  ibis  seems  to  be  the  meaning ; 
that  is,  when  a  corpse  or  any  dead  matter  is  thrown  into  a  pond 
or  tank,  the  pollution  extends  sixteen  feet  from  it  in  all  directions ; 
and  that  quantity  of  water  ought  to  be  drawn  off,  in  order  to 
purify  the  lank  (see  Vend.  VI,  65-71).  As  the  corpse,  in  nearly 
all  cases,  must  be  either  at  the  bottom  or  on  the  surface,  the  quan- 
tity of  polluted  water  to  be  drawn  off  must  be  a  hemispherical 
mass  sixteen  feet  in  radius,  or  about  forty-eight  tons  of  water. 

a  See  Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  64,  where  it  states  that  bringing  it  out 
is  a  good  work  of  one  TanapQhar,  and  leaving  it  is  a  sin  of  the 
same  amount. 

*  See  Chap.  I,  3. 

*  Reading  amat,  '  when,'  instead  of  mfln,  'which'  (see  Bund. 
I,  7,  note). 

*  See  Chap.  I,  1,  2.  '  See  Chap.  I,  4,  note. 

7  See  Chap.  I,  3.  «  See  Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  64. 

CHAPTER    II,    79-87. 


polluted,  and  whatever  he  is  first  able  and  best  able 
to  bring  is  to  be  brought  out  by  him.  84.  When,  too, 
he  is  able  to  bring  it  out  through  the  breadth  of  the 
water,  then  also  it  is  to  be  brought  out  so 1 ;  and 
when  he  is  not  able,  it  is  to  be  brought  out  through 
the  length  of  the  water;  and  showing  it  to  a  dog 
and  the  two  men  are  not  to  be  waited  for-. 

85.  And  it  is  to  be  carried  by  him  so  much  away 
from  the  neighbourhood  of  the  water  that,  when  he 
puts  it  down,  the  water  which  comes  out  dropping 
from  the  corpse  does  not  reach  back  to  the  water; 
for  when  the  water  which  comes  out  from  the  corpse 
reaches  continuously  back  to  the  water  he  is  worthy 
of  death  ;  and  after  that  (min  zak  fra;r)  it  is  to  be 
shown  to  a  dog,  and  it  is  to  be  carried  away  by  two 
men.  86.  And  when  he  wishes  to  throw  it  out  from 
the  water,  Man/-bti<tfa  said  it  is  allowable  to  throw  it 
out  thus,  so  that  the  water  of  the  dripping  corpse 
does  not  reach  continuously  back  to  the  water; 
Koshan  said  it  would  be  allowable  to  throw  it  out 

87.  To  drag  it  over  the  water  is  allowable,  to 
grasp  and  relinquish  it  Is  not  allowable  *;  and  when 
it  is  possible  to  act  so  that  he  may  convey  it  from 
a  great  water  to  a  small  water,  when  the  water  is 

1  So  that  less  water  may  be  polluted  by  the  corpse  taking  the 
shortest  route  through  it ;  but  if  that  be  impossible  it  must  come 
out  quickly,  at  any  I 

*  That  is,  the  otherwise  indispensable  dog's  gaze  and  two 
bearers  must  be  dispensed  wiih,  if  not  at  hand,  in  order  to  save 
lime,  until  the  corpse  is  out  of  the  water  (see  §  85}. 

3  It  might  be,  'there  was  a  man  who  said,'  but  Man/-bu</  occurs 
in  the  Nirangistan  as  the  name  of  a  commentator  (see  Chap.  I,  4, 

•  See  Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  64  for  this  prohibition. 


shAyast  lA-siiAyast. 

connected  it  is  allowable,  and  when  separated  it  is 
not  allowable.  SS.  Afarg1  said  it  is  allowable  to 
drag  it  below  through  the  water,  but  to  drag  it  over 
is  not  allowable,  for  this  has  come  on  the  water  as  a 
danger*,  and  that  has  not  come  on  it  as  a  danger. 
89.  Me^6k-mahJ  said  it  is  allowable  to  drag  it 
above,  but  to  drag  it  below  is  not  allowable,  for  the 
danger  has  gone  out  across  the  water,  and  the 
danger  is  not  now  to  be  brought  upon  it;  and  on 
that  which  is  below,  0/1  which  the  danger  has  not 
come,  the  danger  will  at  last  arrive. 

90.  When  he  goes  into  the  water  he  is  to  go  into 
it  with  this  idea,  that  •should  there  be  many  below, 
then  I  will  even  bring  all ; '  for  whoever  goes  in  not 
with  this  idea,  and  shall  disturb  any  other  one  which 
lies  there,  will  become  polluted3.  91.  And  if  the 
corpse  Ik-  heavy  and  it  is  not  possible  to  bring  it  out 
by  one  person,  and  he  goes  out  with  this  idea,  that 
'  I  will  go  and  prepare  means,  and  bring  this  corpse 
out  of  the  water;'  and  when  through  sinfulness4  he 
does  not  go  back  his  body  is  polluted  and  worthy  of 

1  See  Chap.  I,  3. 

8  Or  '  fear.*  The  difference  of  opinion  between  the  two  com- 
mentators on  this  question  in  casuistry,  appears  to  have  arisen  from 
Afarg  regarding  the  water  merely  as  the  representative  of  a  spirit, 
who  might  be  endangered  or  frightened  by  the  source  of  impurity 
becoming  more  visible  when  above  die  water,  while  MeV6k-mah 
considered  the  water  in  its  material  aspect,  and  wished  to  save  it 
from  the  further  pollution  consequent  upon  drawing  the  corpse 
through  more  of  it. 

8  Sec  Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  64. 

*  These  rules  generally  distinguish  clearly  between  offences 
committed  '  through  sinfulness,'  that  is,  wilfully,  and  those  arising 
from  accidental  inability ;  more  stress  being  laid  upon  the  inten- 
tion than  upon  the  action. 

CHAPTER    IIr    88-95- 


death,  and  when  he  is  unable  to  go  back  he  is  not 

92.  When  the  corpse  is  so  decomposed  (piWak), 
when  it  is  thus  necessary  to  bring  it  out,  that  he 
must  cut  off"  various  fragments,  even  after  he  cuts 
them  off  they  are  to  be  brought  out ;  and  for  every 
fragment  his  hands  and  knife  are  to  be  washed  with 
bull's  urine  (g6m£2),  and  with  dust  and  moistun- 
(nam  bo)  they  ax  ft  clean'.  93.  And  they  arc  to  be 
torn  off2  by  him,  and  for  every  single  fragment  which 
he  brings  out  his  good  work  is  one  Tanapuhar. 

94.  And  when  rain  is  falling  the  corpse  lies  in  the 
water ;  to  take  it  from  the  water  to  deposit  it  in  the 
rain  is  not 3  allowable. 

95.  Clothing  which  is  useless  \  this  is  that  in  which 
they  should  carry  a  corpse,  and  that  even  when  very 
much  or  altogether  useless ;  of  that  on  which  they 
shall  decompose6  (bard  vish upend),  and  of  that  on 
which  the  excretions  (hikhar)  of  the  dead  come,  so 
much  space  is  to  be  cut  away  ■,  and  the  rest  is  to  be 

1  See  Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  64  for  §§  92,  93. 

1  Or  '  twisted  off ; '  ihe  Uuz.  neskhflntan&  must  be  traced  to 
Chald.  npa  ■  to  pluck  out,  to  tear  away,'  and  seems  to  have  a  similar 
meaning  in  Pahlavi ;  its  Paz.  equivalent  vikhtan&  (Av.  vi^)  ought 
to  be  compared  rather  with  Pcrs.  kfkhtan,  'to  bruise  or  break,' 
than  with  bekhtan  or  pekhun.  'to  twist.' 

3  This  negative  is  omitted  in  M6  by  mistake, 
-mpare  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  3a. 

*  Or  'go  to  pieces;'  that  this  is  the  meaning  of  vishiipfcnd 
appears  clearly  from  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  123,  but  a  Persian  gloss  in 
the  modern  MS.  M9  explains  it  as  '  deposit  fragments  from  the 
beak  of  a  bird,'  meaning,  of  course,  fragments  of  dead  matter 
dropped  by  a  carrion  bird. 

•  As  useless,  being  incapable  of  purification ;  such  cuttings  are 
to  be  buried,  according  to  the  Avesta  of  Vend.  VII,  33,  though  the 
Pahlavi  commentary  explains  that  they  are  to  be  thrown  away. 



thoroughly  washed  for  the  six-months'  period*.  96. 
That  which  a  menstruous  woman  has  in  wear  {mah - 
m&nih)2  is  to  be  discarded  in  like  fashion. 

97.  The  clothing  which  is  to  be  washed  for  the 
six-months'  period  is  such  as  is  declared  in  the 
A  vesta8.  98.  If  the  clothing  be  leathern  it  is  to 
be  thoroughly  washed  three  times  with  bulls  urine 
(qomer),  every  time  to  be  made  quite  dry  with  dust, 
and  to  be  thoroughly  washed  three  times  with  water, 
and  to  be  laid  out  three  months  in  a  place  to  be 
viewed  by  the  sun  ' ;  and  then  it  is  proper  for  an 
unclean  person  (armejt)5  who  has  not  performed 

1  Khshva.r-maQg6k  is  merely  a  corruption  of  the  Av.  khshvar 
mtfunghO,  'six  months,'  of  Vend.  VII,  36,  where  this  form  of 
cleansing  is  thus  described :  '  If  {the  clothing)  be  woven,  they 
should  wash  /'/  out  six  times  wilh  bull's  urine,  they  should  scour 
/'/  six  times  with  earth,  they  should  wash  it  out  six  limes  with 
water,  they  should  fumigate  it  six  months  at  the  window  of  the 

*  See  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  32. 
8  Thai  is,  woven  clothing,  as  declared  in  Vend.  VII,  36  {quoted 

above  in  note  1). 

*  See  Vend.  VII,  35. 
8  A  Persian  gloss  defines  armfijt  as  'a  woman  who  has  brought 

forth  a  dead  child,'  and  this  is  the  general  opinion ;  but  that  seems 
to  be  only  a  particular  example  of  an  unclean  person  who  would 
be  included  under  the  general  term  arme-rt,  for  according  to  Pahl. 
Vend.  IX,  133,  137,  141  a  man  when  only  partially  purified  must 
remain  apart  in  the  place  for  the  arm£jt  (Av.  airima,  compare 
Sans,  il  or  ri)  for  a  certain  time.  Neryosang,  in  his  Sanskrit 
translation  of  Mkh.  (XXXVII,  36,  XXXIX,  40,  LI,  7),  explains 
a r men  as  '  lame,  crippled,  immobility  ; '  it  also  means  '  stagnant.' 
when  applied  to  water;  and  its  primitive  signification  was,  probably, 
*  most  stationary,'  an  appropriate  term  for  such  unclean  persons  as 
are  required  to  remain  in  a  particular  place  apart  from  all  otherB. 
as  well  as  for  helpless  cripples,  and  insane  persons  under  restraint 
(see  Chap.  VI,  1).  The  meaning  'most  polluted'  would  hardly 
apply  to  tank  water. 


worship,  or  it  is  proper  for  a  menstruous  woman.  99. 
Other  clothing,  when  hair  is  on  U\  is  liable  \\isl  like 
woven  cloth  (ta*/ak) ;  all  the  washing  of  wool,  floss 
silk,  silk,  hair,  and  camel's  hair  is  just  like  that  of 
woven  cloth;  and  woven  clothing  is  to  be  washed 
six  banes  \ 

100.  Wool  which  is  connected  together,  when  one 
part  is  twisted  over  another,  and  a  corpse  rests  l 
upon  it,  is  all  polluted  on  account  of  the  connection  ; 
and  when  fleece  (mesh)  rests  upon  fleece,  then  so 
much  space  as  the  corpse  rests  upon  is  polluted. 
101.  When  one  shall  die  upon  a  rich  carpet  (bup) 
when  the  carpet  is  on  a  coarse  rug  (nam art')  and 
is  made  connected,  the  rug  and  carpet  are  both  pol- 
luted, and  when  separated  the  rug  is  clean.  102. 
When  several  cushions  are  heaped  (ni£\d)  one 
upon  the  other,  and  arc  not  made  connected,  and 
dead  matter  comes  upon  them,  they  have  been 
unanimous  that  only  that  one  is  polluted  on  which 
the  dead  matter  came.  103.  A  cushion  together 
with  wool4  is  liable  just  like  a  carpet  with  a  rug6. 
104.  Of  several  cushions  which  are  tied  down  to- 
gether, when  dead  matter  comes  to  the  tie,  both  are 
polluted,  the  cord  and  the  cushions ;  and  when  the 
dead  matter  comes  to  a  cushion,  and  does  not  come 
to  the  tie.  the  cushions  are  all  polluted  on  account 
of  the  connection,  and  the  tie  is  clean  t. 

1  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  3 5  says  '  when  a  single  hair  is  on  it.' 

*  As  mentioned  in  a  note  on  §  95. 

*  Literally,  '  impinges.'  Mere,  as  in  many  other  places,  '  dead 
matter*  may  be  read  instead  of '  corpse,'  as  nasaf  means  both  or 
either  of  them. 

4  That  is,  laid  upon  wool. 

•  See  §  101. 

•  See  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  27. 



105.  A  pregnant  woman  who  devours  dead  matter 
through  sinfulness  is  polluted  and  worthy  of  death, 
and  there  is  no  washing  for  her1;  and  as  for  the 
child,  when  it  has  become  acquainted  with  duties 
(pi-rak-shinas),  ashes'*  and  bull's  urine  are  for  its 
eating  and  for  its  washing.  106.  As  for  a  child  who 
is  born  of  solitary  carriers  of  the  dead*,  although  its 
father  and  mother  may  both  have  devoured  dead 
matter  through  sinfulness,  that  which  is  born  is 
clean  on  the  spot,  for  it  does  not  become  polluted 
by  birth. 

107.  Roshan4  said  that  every  one.  who,  through 
sinfulness,  has  become  polluted  by  means  of  dead 
matter,  is  worthy  of  death,  and  his  polluted  body 
never  becomes  clean ;  for  this  one  is  more  wretched 
than  the  fox  which  one  throws  into  the  water  living, 
and  in  the  water  it  will  die.  108.  One  worthy  of 
death  never  becomes  clean  ;  and  a  solitary  carrier  of 
the  dead  is  to  be  kept  at  thirty  steps  from  ceremonial 
ablution  (partly  a  2>lh). 

109.  Whichsoever  of  the  animal  species  has  eaten 
their  dead  matter5,  its  milk,  dung,  hair,  and  wool  are 
polluted  the  length  of  a  year  ;  and  //"pregnant  when 
it  has  eaten  /'/,  the  young  one  has  also  eaten  *7,  and 
the  young  one  is  clean  after  the  length  of  a  year 
from  being  born  of  the  mother.  1 10.  When  a  male 
which  has  eaten,  it  mounts  a  female,  the  female  is 
not  polluted.     111.  When  dead  matter  is  eaten  by  it, 

1  That  is,  she  cannot  be  purified. 

*  Reading  var  (sec  note  on  §  49). 

*  Carrying  a  corpse  by  a  single  person  being  prohibited  (see 
§§  7.  8) ;  but  why  he  is  supposed  to  devour  it  is  not  clear. 

'  See  Chap.  1,  4,  note. 

B  Compare  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  192. 

CHAPTER    II,     IO5-I  l6. 


and  even  while  it  is  not  digested  it  shall  die,  it  is 
liable  just  like  a  leathern  bag  (anb&n)  in  which  is 
dead  matter. 

112.  Gold,  when  dead  matter  comes  upon  it,  is  to 
be  once  thoroughly  washed  with  bull's  urine  (g6- 
m£z),  to  be  once  made  quite  dry  with  dust,  and  to 
Ik-  once  thoroughly  washed  with  water,  and  it  is 
clean  '.  113.  Silver  is  to  be  twice  thoroughly  washed 
with  bull's  urine,  and  to  be  made  quite  dry  with 
dust,  and  is  to  be  twice  thoroughly  washed  with 
water,  and  it  is  clean  *,  1 14.  And  iron,  in  like  man- 
ner, three  times,  steel  four  times,  and  stone  six 
times  '.  1 1 5.  Afarg  said  :  '  Should  it  be  quicksilver 
(at'glnak)*  it  is  liable  just  like  gold,  and  amber 
(kahrupa!)  just  like  stone,  and  all  jewels  just  like 
iron.'       116.  The    pearl    (murvirlaTi6,   amber,   the 

'  The  purification  here  detailed  is  prescribed  Tor  golden  vessels 
in  Vend.  VII,  186. 

*  This  is  the  purification  prescribed  for  silver  vessels  in  Vend. 
VIL  74  W.  ;  it  is  found  in  the  Vendidad  Sadah,  but  is  omitted 
(evidently  by  mistake)  in  the  Vendidad  with  Pahlavi  translation, 
and  has,  therefore,  been  omiilcd  in  Spiegel's  edition  of  the  texts. 
By  this  accidental  omission  in  the  MSS.  silver  is  connected  with 
ihe  purification  for  stone  (see  §  114). 

'  See  Vend.  VII,  75  W.,  much  of  which  is  omitted  in  the  Ven- 
didad with  Pahlavi  translation,  and  in  Spiegel's  edition  (see  the 
preceding  note),  the  sixfold  washing  of  stone  being  erroneously 
■applied  to  silver  (see  Vend.  VII,  187  Sp.),  owing  to  this  omission 
of  the  intervening  text.  It  appears  from  this  section  that  the  Av. 
haosafna,  which  has  usually  been  translated  as  'copper,'  was 
undcrslood  to  be  pGlap</.  'steel,'  by  the  Pahlavi  translators. 

*  Or  '  a  mirror'  (Pers.  abginah),  but  the  word  is  evidently  used 
for  a  metal  in  SZS.  X,  2,  and  very  likely  here  also. 

*  Most  of  the  substances  mentioned  in  f§  115,  116  are  detailed 
in  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  188,  where  it  is  state  that  'as  to  the  pearl 
ihert  have  been  different  opinions,  some  say  that  it  is  liable  just 
like  gold,  some  say  that  it  is  just  like  the  other  jewels,  and  some 
say  that  there  is  no  washing/br  /'/.' 

t5]  T 



ruby  (yakand)  gem,  the  turquoise1,  the  agate  (slia- 
pak),  coral-stone  {vasa^in  sag),  bone,  and  other 
substances  (gohar)  which  are  not  particularly  men- 
tioned, are  to  be  washed  just  like  wood 2 ;  and  when 
they  are  taken  into  use  there  is  no  washing3,  and 
when  they  are  not  taken  their  washing  is  once.  1 1  7. 
Of  earthen  and  horny  articles  there  is  no  washing  . 
and  of  other  substances  which  are  not  taken  for 
use  the  washing  is  once,  and  they  are  declared  out 

of  use. 

118.  Firewood,  when  green,  is  to  be  cut  off  the 

length   of  a  span  (vitast),   one  by   one,   as   many 

sticks  as  there  are — and  when  dry  one  span  and  two 

finger- fireadt/ts  * — and   is  to  be   deposited   in  some 

place  the  length  of  a  year,  and  water  is  not  to  be 

dropped  upon   it;   and   it  is  drawn   out  after  the 

length  of  a  year ;  S6shyans 5  said  that  it  is  proper 

as  firewood  for  ordinary  fires,  and  Kushtano-bu^ei/6 

said  that  it  is  just  as  declared  in  the  A  vesta  :  '  The 

1  This  is  doubtful ;  the  word  can  he  read  pirTnak,  and  has  the 
Pers.  gloss  pfruzah, '  turquoise,'  in  some  MSS.  ll  read  pilinak  it 
might  |R-ih:ips  he  taken  for  'ivory.'  Hut  in  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  188 
it  is  vafarin6,  'snowy,'  and  the  reading  there  seems  to  be  '  jet* 
black  attd  snow-white  stone-coral ; '  so  here  the  original  meaning 
may  have  been  'snow-white  and  jet-black  coral-stone.' 

•  Vend.  VII,  188  says  that  4  earthen  or  wooden  or  porcelain 
vessels  are  impure  for  everlasting.' 

"  Meaning,  apparently,  that  they  cannot  be  purified  for  imme- 
diate use. 

1  That  is,  one-sixth  longer  than  v. hen  green,  the  vitast  being 
twelve  finger-MW/Ar,  or  nine  inches  (see  Bund.  XXVI,  3,  note). 
The  purification  of  firewood,  here  prescribed,  is  simply  drying  it 
for  a  year  in  short  lengths;  but  Vend.  VII,  72-82  requires  it  also 
to  be  sprinkled  once  with  water,  and  to  be  cut  into  longer  pieces. 

•  See  Chap.  I,  3. 

•  See  Chap.  I,  4,  note. 

CHAPTER  II,    1 1  7-1 22. 


washed  one,  even  then,  is  proper  in  dried  clothing '.' 
119.  About  corn2  they  have  been  unanimous  that 
so  much  space  is  polluted  as  the  dead  matter  comes 
upon ;  and  of  that  which  is  lowered  into  pits 3,  or 
is  wanted  to  be  so,  and  of  that  which  is  scattered 
(a(sid)  at  such  a  place  there  are  different  opinions: 
S6shyans  said  :  '  Should  it  be  of  such  a  place  it  is 
polluted  as  much  as  the  dead  matter  has  come  upon 
it;'  and  G6g6*asp4  said:  'Should  it  be  so  it  is 
all  polluted,  and  the  straw  is  all  polluted.' 

120.  A  walnut5,  through  its  mode  of  connection, 
is  all  polluted,  and  the  washing  of  both  its  shell  and 
kernel  (pdst  va  mazg)  is  just  like  that  of  wood. 
12  1.  A  pomegranate  also  is  of  such  nature  as  a 
walnut.  122.  As  to  the  date,  when  its  stalk"  is  not 
connected  the  date  is  polluted  and  the  stalk  and 
stone  (astak)  are  clean  ;  the  washing  of  the  date  is 
just  like  thai  of  corn ;  and  when  it  is  touched  upon 
the  stalk,  when  the  stalk,  stone,  and  date  are  con- 
nected, the  whole  is  polluted ;  as  to  the  date  when 
not  connected  with   the   stalk,  and  touched  at  the 

1   Something  similar  is  said  in  Pahl.  Vend.  VI.  71. 

■  According  to  Vend.  VII,  83-93  polluted  corn  and  fodder  are 
to  be  treated  like  polluted  firewood,  but  lo  be  cut  into  pieces  of 
about  double  the  length. 

*  Reading  deng6pan  farostak;  the  practice  of  storing  corn 
in  dry  pits  underground  is  common  in  the  Kast  and  in  some  pans 
of  Europe.  In  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  93  it  is  dfcn  gdpan  Svist,  'con- 
cealed in  pirs." 

•  See  Chap.  I,  3. 

*  Pahl.  Vend.  VII.  93  classes  the  almond  with  the  walnut  as 
a  connected  fruit,  and  the  date  with  the  pomegranate  as  a  sepa- 
rated one. 

•  The  word  is  kfirapak  or  kurazak,  but  its  meaning  is 

T  2 



stalk,  the  date  is  clean,  and  the  washing  of  the 
stone  is  just  like  that  of  wood.  123.  The  pome- 
granate, citron,  quince,  apple,  pear,  and  other  fruit, 
when  in  bearing  and  the  rind  (pazarn.fnd)  is  per- 
ceptible on  it,  when  dead  matter  comes  upon  it  there 
is  no  pollution  of  it ;  and  when  the  rind  (paza- 
nimio)  is  not  perceptible  on  it,  its  washing  is  just 
like  that  of  corn  ;  and  rind  is  ever  with  the  citron  '. 
124.  For  meat,  butter,  milk,  cheese,  and  preserves 
(rtf'&r)  there  is  no  washing2. 

Chapter  III. 

1.  The  clothing  of  a  menstruous  woman  which 
they  shall  take  new  for  her  use  is  polluted,  and  that 
which  is  in  use  is  not  polluted  \  2.  When  a  bed- 
chamber (shaV-aurvan)  is  overspread,  and  a  carpet 
limp)  is  laid  upon  it  and  a  cushion  on  the  two*,  and 

1  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  93  says,  'fruit  whose  rind  (pazar1)  exists  is 
also  just  like  that  in  a  pod  (kuvak),  and  for  that  which  does  not 
remain  in  a  rind,  when  pollution  shall  come  upon  it,  there  is  no 
(teaming  whatever.  Afarg  said  that  there  is  ever  a  rind  (paza- 
Vitn6)  with  the  citron.' 

*  Pahl.  Vend.  VII,  93  says,  '/or  everything  separated  there  is 
a  washing,  except  meat  am/ milk.'  Articles  for  which  there  is  no 
l  .idling  cannot  be  purified. 

*  Pahl.  Vend.  XVI,  5  says,  *  when  in  the  place  she  remains  in 
for  the  purpose,  she  does  not  make  the  clothing  she  wan  on  her 
body  polluted,  it  remains  for  use  within  the  place.'  The  meaning 
is,  probably,  that  clothing  already  set  apart  for  the  purpose  does  not 
become  further  polluted,  .so  as  to  be  unfit  for  her  use.  It  appears 
also  (Pahl.  Vend.  XVI,  5)  that  on  the  spot  where  menstruation 
first  appears,  not  even  the  twigs  uplifted  in  the  sacred  ceremony 
are  polluted,  unless  the  circumstances  are  abnormal. 

1  I'his  phrase,  about  the  carpet  and  cushion,  is  omitted  in  K20 
by  mistake. 

CHAPTER    II,     I23-!N,    6. 


a  woman  sits  upon  it  and  menstruation  occurs,  when 
she  puts  a  foot  from  the  cushion  on  to  the  carpet; 
and  from  the  carpet  out  into  the  bed-chamber,  the 
carpet  and  bed-chamber  are  both  polluted,  for  they 
arc  taken  newly  for  her  use,  but  of  the  cushion  there 
is  DO  pollution  for  this  reason,  because  it  is  in  use. 
j»  And  when  she  sits  on  the  cushion  so  that  she 
shall  have  both  the  carpet  and  cushion  in  use,  the 
bed-chamber  is  polluted  by  itself;  and  when  all  three 
shall  be  in  use  there  is  no  pollution  whatever  \ 

4.  Just  as  she  knows  that  it  is  menstruation,  in  the 
place  she  is  in  for  the  purpose2,  first  the  necklace, 
then  the  ear-rings,  then  the  head-fillet  (/'am bar), 
and  then  the  outer  garments  (f  amak)  are  to  be  put 
off  by  her.  5.  When  in  the  place  she  remains  in 
for  the  purpose,  even  though  she  may  remain  a  very 
long  time  for  that  purpose,  yet  then  the  outer  gar- 
ments are  clean,  and  there  is  no  need  of  leather 
covering  and  leather  shoes3. 

6.  When  she  knows  for  certain  (aevar)  that  it  is 
menstruation,  until  the  complete  changing  (guhari- 
dan&)  of  all  her  garments,  and  she  shall  have  sat 
down  in  the  place  for  menstruation  4,  a  prayer  is  to 

1  ^§  2i  3  are  merely  corollaries  from  §  1. 

•  Or,  possibly,  '  on  the  spot  skt  is  in  on  the  occasion ;  *  although 
it  would  appear  from  §  g  that  the  place  referred  to  is  the  dash t an - 
is  tan,  or  place  of  retirement  for  the  unclean. 

•  Reading  ma*k  va  jalmfhft,  but  both  reading  and  meaning 
axe  doubtful.  The  first  word  may  be  muikS,  'musk,'  and  the 
other  can  be  read  sharmgSh,  but,  if  so,  the  construction  of  the 
sentence  is  defective,  as  it  stands  in  the  MSS. 

4  The  dashtanistan,  a  comfortless  room  or  cell  provided  in 
every  Parsi  house  for  unclean  persons  to  retire  to,  where  they 
can  see  neither  sun,  moon,  stars,  fire,  water,  sacred  vessels,  nor 
righteous  men  ;  it  ought  to  be  fifteen  steps  (39$  feet)  from  fire. 



be  retained  inwardly1.  7.  When  worship  is  cele- 
brated a  prayer  is  to  be  retained  ■  inwardly,  and 
should  menstruation  occur  the  prayer  is  to  be 
spoken  out  by  her.  8.  When  in  speaking  out  the 
prayer  should  menstruation  occur,  both  afterwards, 
when  the  time  was  certain  (azdguman),  and  now 
she  is  certain3-  9.  WThen  she  retains  a  prayer  in- 
wardly, and  a  call  of  nature  arises,  there  is  no  need 
for  her  to  speak  out  the  prayer,  for  the  formula  for 
the  call  is  to  be  spoken  by  her  *. 

10.  Hands  sprinkled  in  ceremonial  ablution  (pa^i- 
yaf),  when  a  menstruous  woman  sees  tliern,  become 
quite  unclean  (apa^iya^)  by  her  look6,  and  even 
when  she  looks  hastily,  and  does  not  see  the  sacred 
twigs  (baresdm),  it  is  the  same.  11.  And  on  the 
subject  of  a  house  (khanak-i  baba),  when  a  men- 
struous woman  is  above  in  it,  and  the  sacred  twigs 

water,  and  the  sacred  twigs,  and  three  steps  (8  feet)  from  righteous 
men  (see  §  33  and  Vend.  XVI,  1-10). 

1  This  kind  of  prayer  {Av.  vs. A,  'a  word  or  phrase/  Pahl.  vkg, 
Pers.  baz)  is  a  short  formula,  the  beginning  of  which  is  to  be 
muttered  in  a  kind  of  whisper,  or  (according  to  the  Pahlavi  idiom) 
it  "is  to  be  taken'  and  'retained'  inwardly  (as  a  protection  while 
eating,  praying,  or  perfoiiniug  other  necessary  acts)  by  stnedy 
abstaining  from  all  conversation,  until  the  completion  of  the  act, 
when  the  prayer  or  va^  '  is  to  be  spoken  out,'  that  is,  the  conclusion 
of  the  formula  is  to  be  utlered  aloud,  and  the  person  is  then  free 
to  speak  as  he  likes.  Different  formulas  are  used  on  different 

*  K20  has,  •  she  retains  a  prayer.'     See  Pahl.  Vend.  XVI,  5. 

*  The  meaning  is,  however,  uncertain. 

4  The  Pahlavi  text  is  as  follows :  Amat  v.t^-  yakhsenuneJ,  pc- 
jfnkar  (Pers.  pexyar)  baril  yatune</,  ax  xag  gfjftano  kir  loit 
mamanaj  nask-i  pavan  famLrn  yemalelunun5.  Compare  Pahl 
Vend.  XVI,  5. 

See  Pahl.  Vend.  XVI,  10. 

stand  right  below,  if  even  fully  fifteen  steps  below, 
even  then  the  sacred  twigs  are  unclean  (ap&trtyaf) '; 
bat  when  not  right  below  fifteen  steps  are  plenty. 

12.  Prepared  food  which  is  within  three  steps  of  a 
menstruous  woman  is  polluted  by  her,  and  food  which 
sin*  delivers  up  (bara  pardazcV)  from  her  morning 
:)  is  not  fit  for  the  evening  meal  (jam), 
nor  that  which  she  delivers  up  from  her  evening 
meal  for  the  morning  meal ;  it  is  not  fit  even  for  tin- 
same  woman  ■ ;  and  water  which  is  within  three 
steps  of  her,  when  they  shall  put  it  into  a  pail 
(dubal)  or  ablution-vessel  (pa</lya&dan),  and  shall 
do  it  widiout  handling  (ay  ad  man),  is  fit  for  the 
hands  in  ceremonial  ablution.  13.  When  she  touches 
the  bedding3  and  garments  of  any  one,  S6shyans* 
-  ml  that  so  much  space  is  to  be  washed  win  bull's 
urine  (gomej)  and  water ;  her  bedding  which  touches 
the  bedding  of  any  one  does  not  make  it  polluted. 

14.  A  menstruous  woman  who  becomes  clean  in 
three  nights  is  not  to  be  washed  till  the  fifth  day ; 
from  the  fifth  day  onwards  to  the  ninth  day,  when- 

1  Pahl.  Vend.  XVI,  10  says,  'everything,  when  at  the  right  dis- 
tance, is  proper,  except  only  that  one  case,  when  uncleanness  is 
above  and  cleanness  also  right  below  ;  although  it  be  even  much 
below,  yet  it  is  not  proper.'  In  such  a  case  the  prescribed  distance 
of  fifteen  steps  is  not  sufficient;  therefore,  ihe  dashtanistan 
should  be  on  the  ground  floor,  not  over  an  underground  water- 
tank,  nor  within  fifteen  steps  of  the  water  in  such  a  tank. 

*  Or,  possibly,  ham  nCnnan  may  mean  'a  companion  woman,' 
when  two  or  more  are  secluded  at  the  same  time.  Pahl.  Vend. 
XVI,  17  says,  'food  delivered  up  by  a  menstruous  woman  is  of  no 

hatever,  it  is  not  proper;  in  par /s  free  from  pollution  (gzv'id- 
paxnd),  in  those  likewise  it  is  not  proper;'  the  reading  gzvld- 
r-arnd  (proposed  by  Dastur  Kosbangji)  is,  however,  doubtful. 

*  Or  •clothing,'  vistarg. 

*  See  Chap.  I,  3. 



ever  she  becomes  clean,  she  is  to  sit  down  in  cleanli- 
ness one  day  for  the  sake  of  her  depletion  (tihik). 
and  then  she  is  fit  for  washing;  and  after  nine  nights 
the  depletion  is  no  matter1. 

15.  A  woman  who  has  brought  forth  or  miscarrird 
(nasai).  during  forty  days  sees  whenever  she  is  pol- 
luted ;  but  when  she  knows  for  certain  that  she  is 
free  from  menstruation  she  is,  thereupon,  to  be  asso- 
ciated with  meanwhile  (vaclaj),  from  the  forty  days  ■ 
onward  ;  but  when  she  knows  for  certain  that  there 
is  something  of  it,  she  is  to  be  considered  meanwhile 
as  menstruous. 

16.  A  menstruous  woman  when  she  has  sat  one 
month  as  menstruous,  and  becomes  clean  on  the 
thirtieth  day,  when  at  the  very  same  time  she  be- 
came quite  clean  she  also  becomes  again  men- 
struous, her  depletion  (tihik)  is  from  its  beginning, 
and  till  the  fifth  day  washing  is  not  allowable.  1 7. 
And  when  she  is  washed  from  the  menstruation, 
and  has  sat  three  days  in  cleanliness,  and  again  be- 
comes menstruous  as  from  the  beginning,  four  days 
are  to  be  watched  through  by  her,  and  the  fifth  day 
is   for  washing3.      18.  When   she   has  become  free 

1  See  Pahl.  Vend.  XVI,  22.  The  Hebrew  law  (Lev.  xv.  19) pre- 
scribes a  fixed  period  of  seven  days,  except  in  abnormal  cases. 

*  The  same  period  of  seclusion  as  appointed  by  the  Hebrew- 
law,  after  die  birth  of  a  man  child  (see  Lev.  xii.  2-4).  The  Avesta 
law  (Vend.  V,  135-159)  prescribes  only  twelve  nights'  seclusion, 
divided  into  two  periods  of  three  and  nine  nights  respectively,  as 
the  Hebrew  woman's  seclusion  is  divided  into  periods  of  seven  and 
thirty-three  days. 

3  The  substance  of  %%  t6,  17  is  given  in  Pahl.  Vend.  XVI,  22, 
but  in  language  even  more  obscure  than  here.  The  washing  men- 
tioned here  is  merely  for  the  first  menstruation ;  that  for  the  second 
one  being  prescribed  in  §  iS. 

CHAPTER    III,  15-22. 


from  the  second  menstruation  she  is  not  in  cleanli- 
ness for  nine  days  and  nights, — these  days  and 
nights  are  for  watching. — atid  then  she  is  to  be 
washed  :  when  the  nine  days  and  nights  are  com- 
pleted, on  the  same  day  washing  is  good  \ 

19.  Of  leucorrhaa  (liharak)*,  when  it  has  quite 
changed  colour,  that  which  comes  on  before  and 
also  that  which  is  after  menstruation,  the  pollution 
is  just  like  that  0/ menstruation. 

20.  When  she  has  become  so  completely  clean 
from  menstruation  that  her  washing  may  be  as 
usual  (dastdbarag  hae),  she  does  not  make  the 
sacred  twigs  (baresom),  nor  even  other  things, 
polluted  when  beyond  three  steps. 

21.  On  account  of  severe  cold  it  is  allowable  ^r 
her  to  sit  out  towards3  the  fire;  and  while  she 
washes  a  prayer  (va?)  is  to  be  taken  inwardly  by 
her4,  and  the  washing  of  her  hands,  except  with 
bull's  urine  (g6mes),  is  not  proper  till  then ;  and 
when  they  are  washed  by  her,  two  hundred  noxious 
creatures  are  to  be  destroyed  by  her  as  atonement 
for  sin. 

22.  A  woman  who  goes  beyond  the  period  of 
menstruation  5.  and,  afterwards,  sees  she  is  polluted, 
when   her  pregnancy   is  certain — except  when  her 

1  In  such  abnormal  cases  the  Hebrew  law    (Lev.    xv.    2;, 
prescribes  seven  dayV  seclusion  after  recovery. 

1  Av.Aithra,  see  explanation  of  £iharak-homand  (Av.  iithra- 
vant/)  in  Pahl.  Vend.  XVI,  1,  34. 

a  Dastur  Jamaspji  reads  val  bavan-i  Stash,  'to  the  part  of  the 
fire.'  From  what  follows  it  would  seem  doubtful  whether  this 
distant  approach  to  the  fire  is  allowable  until  she  is  ready  for 

See  §  6,  note. 

*  Or,  '  goes  up  from  ihe  place  of  menstruation.' 

miscarriage  (nasai  yehevuntano)  is  evident — is 
then  to  be  washed  with  bull's  urine  and  water; 
when  her  pregnancy  is  not  certain  she  is  to  be  con- 
sidered as  menstruous.  2?.  Some  say',  moreover, 
that  when  miscarriage  is  certainly  manifest  s/ie  is, 
meanwhile,  to  be  considered  as  menstruous.  24. 
Some  say  that  when  she  is  doubtful  about  the  mis- 
carriage she  is  to  be  washed  with  ceremony8. 

25.  And  for  any  one8  who  comes  in  contact  with  a 
menstruous  woman,  or  with  the  person  whom  it  is 
necessary  to  wash  with  water  and  bull's  urine,  it  is 
the  root  of  a  sin  of  sixty  stirs 4.  26.  And  for  whom- 
ever knowingly  has  sexual  intercourse  with  a  men- 
struous woman  it  is  the  root  of  a  sin  of  fifteen 
Tanapuhars  and  sixty  stirs  ■« 

27.  Of  a  menstruous  woman  who  sees  a  fire  the 
sin  is  one  FarmanB,  and  when  she  goes  within  three 
steps  *'/  is  one  Tanaptihar,  and  when  she  puts  a 
hand  on  the  fire  itself7  it  is  a  sin  of  fifteen  Tana- 
puhars ;  and  in  like  manner  as  to  the  ashes  *  and 
water  goblet9.     28.  When  she  looks  at  water  it  is  a 

1  Literally,  '  there  is  vne  who  says  thus.' 

1  See  Chap.  11,  65. 

1  Reading  aiJ  instead  of  adfnaj,  'then  for  him.' 

'  That  is,  the  sin  is  a  Klior  (see  Chap.  I,  2). 

6  According  to  the  Avesta  (Vend.  XV,  23,  24)  he  becomes  a 
I  it  liotanu  (Pahl.  tanapGbar).  The  Hebrew  law  (Lev.  xv.  24) 
makes  him  unclean  lor  seven  days. 

*  See  Chap.  J,  2.  That  it  was  sinful  for  her  to  look  at  fire, 
even  in  Avesta  times,  appears  from  Vend.  XVI,  8. 

T   Literally,  *  on  the  body  of  the  fire.' 

*  That  lib ujyd  means  '  ashes '  appears  from  Pali  I.  Vend.  V,  1 50 ; 
literally  it  is  Hu/varij  for  ■  clothing  or  covering,'  and  is  so  used 
in  Paid.  Vend.  VI,  106,  Vll,  122.  Meiapliurii  ally,  ashes  are  the 
clothing  of  the  fire. 

*  Reading  dubalak;   but  the   word  is  doubtful.     Possibly  it 

CHAPTER    III,  23-32. 


sin  of  one  Farman  ;  when  she  sits  in  water  it  is  a  sin 
of  fifteen  Tanapuhars;  and  when  through  disobe- 
dience she  walks  out  in  the  rain  every  single  drop 
is  a  sin  of  fifteen  Tanapuhars  for  her.  29.  And  the 
sun  and  other  luminaries  are  not  to  be  looked  at  by 
her,  and  animals  and  plants  are  not  to  be  looked  at 
by  her,  and  conversation  with  a  righteous  man  is 
not  to  be  held  by  her ;  for  a  fiend  so  violent  is  that 
fiend  of  menstruation  ',  that,  where  another  fiend 
does  not  smite  anything  with  a  look  (akhsh),  it 
smites  with  a  look. 

30.  As  to  a  house*  in  which  is  a  menstruous 
woman,  the  fire  of  that  house  is  not  to  be  kindled ; 
food  which  is  delivered  up  from  before  a  men- 
struous woman  is  not  proper  for  the  same  woman a. 
31.  A  tray-cloth  (khvano  ^amak)  which  stands 
before  Jier,  when  it  is  not  in  contact  with  her,  is  not 
polluted;  a  table-napkin  (pataskhur)  when  apart 
from  her  thigh,  and  contact  does  not  occur,  is 
proper  *. 

32.  When  one*  wishes  to  consecrate  the  sacred 
cakes  (drOn)0,  when  one  holds  up  the  sacred  twigs 

should  be  read  gobarak  fur  gav-bar,  'bull's  produce,'  referring 
10  ihe  bull's  urine  which,  with  ashes,  is  prescribed  (Vend.  V,  148) 
as  the  first  food  tor  a  woman  after  miscarriage. 
1  The  demoness  G'eh  (see  liund.  Ill,  3-0). 

•  By  khanak,  'house,  abode,'  mail  here  be  understood  merely 
the  woman's  place  of  seclusion.  K20  inserts  itajr  den  after 
m6n,  which  renders  it  possible  (by  assuming  another  preposition) 
to  translate  as  follows:  '  As  to  a  house  in  which  is  a  fire,  the  fire 
in  thai  house  is  not  to  be  kindled  by  a  menstruous  woman.' 

1  See§  It, 

*  Fit  to  use  again. 

*  Perhaps  we  t-liould  read  'she'  throughout  this  section,  as  a 
woman  can  perform  these  rites  among  women  (see  Chap.  X,  35). 

•  Tbedron  (Av.  draona,  corrupted  into  drQn  or  darun  by 


(bares 6m)1  from  the  twig-stand  (bares6m-dan), 
and  menstruation  occurs,  and  just  as  it  came  to 
ones  knowledge  one  puts  down  the  sacred  twigs  and 
goes  out,  the  sacred  twigs  are  not  polluted. 

writers)  is  a  small  round  pancake  or  wafer  of  unleavened 
bread,  about  the  size  of  the  palm  of  the  hand.  It  is  made  of 
wheaten  flour  and  water,  with  a  little  clarified  butter,  and  is  flexible. 
A  dron  is  convened  into  a  frasast  by  marking  it  on  one  side, 
before  frying,  with  nine  superficial  cuts  (in  three  rows  of  three 
each)  made  with  a  finger-nail  while  thrice  repeating  the  words 
bumat  hukht  huvarjt,  'well-thought,  well-saiil,  well-done,'  one 
word  to  each  of  the  nine  cuts.  Any  drAn  or  frasast  that  is  torn 
must  not  be  used  in  any  ceremony.  In  the  dr6n  ceremony  two 
dr6ns  are  pl.iced  separately  by  the  priest  upon  a  very  low  table 
before  him,  on  its  left  side,  the  nearer  one  having  a  small  piece  of 
butter  (gSu^  hudhau)  upon  it ;  two  frasasts  are  similarly  placed 
upon  its  right-hand  side,  the  farther  one  having  a  pomegranate 
twig  (urvarSm)  upon  it;  and  between  tliis  and  the  farther  dr6n 
an  egg  is  placed.  The  sacred  twigs  (barestim)  must  also  be 
present  on  their  stand  to  the  left  of  the  priest,  and  a  fire  or  lamp 
must  stand  opposite  him,  on  the  other  side  of  the  table.  The 
priest  recites  a  certain  formula  of  consecration  (chiefly  Yas.  Ill, 
i-VIJI,  9),  during  which  he  uplifts  the  sacred  twigs,  and  mentions 
the  name  of  the  angel,  or  of  the  guardian  spirit  of  a  deofeftflttd 
person,  in  whose  honour  the  ceremony  is  performed.  After  con- 
secration, pieces  are  broken  off  the  drdns  by  the  officiating  priest, 
and  are  eaten  by  himself  and  those  present,  beginning  with  the 
priests  (sec  Haul's  Essays,  pp.  396,  407,  408,  AV.  p.  147). 

1  The  bares6ni  (Av.  bar  esma)  consists  of  a  number  of  slender 
rods  or  t5i  (Pahl.  tak),  formerly  twigs  of  some  particular  trees, 
but  now  thin  metal  wires  are  generally  used.  The  number  of  these 
twigs  varies  according  to  the  nature  of  the  ceremony,  but  is  usually 
from  five  to  thirty-three.  These  twigs  are  laid  upon  the  crescent- 
shaped  tops  of  two  adjacent  metal  stands,  each  called  a  m4h-ru, 
'moon-face/  and  both  together  forming  the  baresom-dan  or 
'twig-stand.'  The  baresdm  is  prepared  for  the  sacred  rites  by 
the  recital  of  certain  prayers  by  the  officiating  priest,  during  which 
he  washes  the  twigs  with  water,  and  ties  them  together  with  a 
kfislik  or  girdle  formed  of  six  thread-like  ribbons  split  out  of 
a  leaflet  of  the  date-palm  and  twisted  together;  this  girdle,  being 

CHAPTER    TIF,    33 -IV,    I. 


33.  And  during  her  menstruation  she  is  to  be  so 
seated  that,  from  her  body,  there  are  fifteen  steps  of 
three  feet  to  water,  fifteen  steps  to  fire,  fifteen  steps 
to  the  sacred  twigs,  and  three  steps  to  a  righteous 
man  \  34.  And  her  food  is  to  be  carried  forth  in 
iron  or  leaden  vessels;  and  the  person  (valman) 
who  shall  carry  forth  the  food  stands  at  three  steps 
away  from  her2.  35.  When  worship  is  celebrated, 
every  time  at  the  dedication  (shnumane)3  of  the 
consecration  of  sacred  cakes  (dron  ya.rt)  it  is  to 
l>e  uttered  aloud  by  her ;  some  say  the  Itha  and 
Ashem-vohu 4. 

Chapter  IV. 

1.  A  sacred  thread^wiW^.  (kDstlk),  should  it  be 
made  of  silk  (parvand),  is  not  proper;  the  hair 
(pashm)   of   a   hairy   goat   and   a   hairy   camel    is 

passed  twice  round  the  twigs,  is  secured  with  a  right-handed  and 
left-handed  knot  on  one  side,  and  is  then  passed  round  a  third 
time  and  secured  with  a  similar  double  knot  on  the  other  side, 
exactly  as  the  kosttk  or  sacred  thread-girdle  is  secured  round  the 
waist  of  a  Parsi  man  or  woman  (sec  Haug's  Essays,  pp.  396-399). 

1  See  Vend.  XVI,  9,  10.  All  the  ceremonial  apparatus  must  be 
kept  as  far  removed  as  the  sacred  twigs. 

*  See  Vend.  XVI,  n-14,  which  states  that  the  food  is  to  be 
carried  forth  on  iron,  lead,  or  the  basest  metal. 

'  This  is  the  time  when  the  name  of  the  angel  or  spirit  is  men- 
tioned, in  whose  honour  the  cakes  are  consecrated  (see  §  32,  note 
CM  drdn,  and  Chap.  VII,  8). 

The  Itha  is  Yas.  V  (so  called  from  its  first  word),  which  forms 
a  part  of  the  dron  ya.rt  or  formula  of  consecration  (sec  §  32.  note 
on  drdn).  The  Ashcm-vohQ  is  probably  that  in  Yas.  VIII,  9, 
which  concludes  the  consecration.  The  same  details  are  given  in 
Pahl.  Vend.  XVI,  17.  These  prayers  also  form  a  portion  of  all 
ceremonial  worship,  including  the  YasUn. 



proper,  and  from  otlicr  hairy  creatures  (muylnd)  it 
is  proper  among  the  lowly  (nakh£*!k).  2.  The 
least  fulness '  necessary  for  it  is  exactly  three 
frnger-breadl/is  ;  when  it  is  exactly  three  finger- 
breadths  altogether3  from  one  side,  and  when  the 
rest  is  cut  off,  it  is  proper.  3,  When  one  retains  the 
prayer  inwardly  8  and  has  tied  his  girdle,  and  ties 
it  anew  once  again,  he  will  untie  that  which  he  has 
tied,  and  it  is  not  proper  *. 

4.  Cloth  of  thick  silk  brocade  (dipakS)  and 
figured  silk  (parnikano)  is  not  good  for  girdling3; 
and  cloth  of  hide  when  the  hair  is  stripped  from  it, 
of  wool,  of  hair,  of  cotton,  of  dyed  silk,  and  of  wood0 
is  proper  for  shirting  (^apikih).  5.  Four  finger- 
breadliis  of  shirt 7  is  the  measure  of  its  width  away 

'  Literally,  '  width ; '  that  is,  extra  width,  or  slackness  round  the 
waist,  as  the  girdle  sits  very  loosely  over  a  loose  shirt ;  or,  as  the 
text  implies,  the  slackness  ought  to  admit  three  fingers  together, 
projecting  edgeways  from  the  waist.  After  tying  it  so  loosely,  any 
unnecessary  length  of  string  may  be  cut  off,  when  the  girdle  is 
put  on  for  the  first  time.  The  necessary  looseness  is  again  men- 
tioned in  Chap.  X,  1. 

1  Literally,  'extreme  to  extreme;'  rAe.rman-a-rOS.rman  being 
Huzvarlr  for  sarasar. 

s  That  is,  has  begun  the  prayer  formula  (requisite  while  tying 
on  the  girdle)  with  a  bas  or  muttered  prayer  (see  Chap.  Ill,  6, 

*  The  meaning  appears  to  be  that  he  must  not  tie  the  girdle 
a  second  time  without  recommencing  the  prayer  formula. 

*  This  word,  ayibya&g.hanth,  is  chiefly  a  transcript  from  the 
Avesta  name  of  the  kustik  or  girdle,  aiwy/iunghana.  Probably 
garments  in  general  are  meant. 

*  Perhaps  darin  may  mean  cloth  of  hark,  hemp,  or  flax  here. 

7  The  sacred  shirt,  worn  by  Parsis  of  both  sexes  (young  children 
ttPCptBd)  in  India,  is  a  very  loose  tunic  of  while  muslin,  with  very 
short  loose  sleeves  covering  part  of  the  upper  arm.  It  is  called 
sadaro  (Pers.  sudarah)  in  Gu^arati,  and  shapik  (Pcrs.  shabi) 
in  Pahlavi. 

CHAPTER    IV,    2-9. 


from  each  side,  from  the  neck  to  the  skirt  (parlk) ; 
and  as  to  the  length  before  and  behind,  as  much  as 
is  proper  to  cover  up  is  good.  6.  So  much  length 
and  breadth,  when  it  is  double  or  thickened  l,  are 
not  proper  \  when  on  the  separation  (diirmanak)  of 
the  two  folds  one  remains  clothed  on  one  side,  both 
when  he  wears  the  girdle  (kustik),  and  when  he 
does  not  wear  the  girdle,  even  then  it  is  not  undress 

7.  When  a  shirt  of  one  fold  is  put  on,  and  the 
skirt  has  concealed  both  sides,  the  girdle  is  tied  over 
it.  and  it  is  proper.  8.  When  two  shirts  are  put  on. 
and  they  shall  tie  the  girdle  over  that  which  is 
above,  then  it  is  for  him  a  root  of  the  sin  owing 
to3  running  about  uncovered4. 

9.  By  a  man  and  woman,  until  fifteen  years  of 
age,  there  is  no  committal  of  the  sin  of  running 
about    uncovered4;    and   the    sin    of    unseasonable 

1  Assuming  that  ailabanV  stands  for  astabarw/;  the  Huz. 
aft  being  substituted  for  the  Paz.  asr.  The  text  appears  to  refer 
to  lined  or  stuffed  shirts,  such  as  would  be  very  suitable  for  the 
cold  winters  of  Persia,  like  the  clothing  padded  with  cotton  wool 
used  by  natives  of  the  cooler  parts  of  India  in  the  cold  season. 

*  That  is,  lhe  degree  of  nakedness  which  is  sinful  (see  §§  8-to). 
5  K20  has   la,  'not,'  instead  of  rSi,   'owing  to;'  this  would 

reverse  the  meaning  of  the  sentence,  but  it  is  not  the  usual  place 
for  the  negative  particle. 

*  Tliis  sin  is  called  visharf-dObSrijnih ;  it  is  mentioned  in 
Pahl.  Vend.  V,  167,  VII,  48,  but  not  described  there.  The  usual 
definition  of  the  sin  is  '  walking  about  without  the  sacred  thread- 
girdle;*  and  it  is  generally  classed  with  the  two  other  Parsi  sins  of 
•  walking  with  one  boot '  and  '  making  water  on  foot '  (see  AV. 
XXV,  g,  6) ;  sometimes  a  fourth  Parsi  sin,  'unseasonable  chatter,' 
is  associated  with  them,  as  in  the  text,  but  this  is  mppentd  to  be 
punished  in  a  different  manner  in  hell  (see  AY.  XXIII). 

*  Indicating  that  it  is  not  absolutely  necessary  10  wear  the  sacred 
thread-girdle  till  one  is  fifteen  years  old  (see  Chap.  X,  13). 



chatter 1  arises  after  fifteen  years  of  age 2.  i  o.  The 
sin  of  running  about  uncovered,  as  far  as  three 
steps,  is  a  Farman  each  step;  at  the  fourth  step  it 
is  a  Tanapuhar3  sin. 

i  [.  A  girdle  to  which  there  is  no  fringe  is  proper; 
and  when  they  shall  tie  a  woman's  ringlet  (gurs) 4  it 
is  not  proper. 

1 2.  Walking  with  one  boot &  as  far  as  four  steps  is 

1  This  sin  is  called  drSyan-^uyijnih,  literally,  'eagerness  for 
chattering,'  and  consists  in  talking  while  eating,  praying,  or  at  any 
other  time  when  a  prayer  (v'ig)  has  been  taken  inwardly  and  is  not 
yet  spoken  out ;  many  details  regarding  it  are  given  in  the  next 
chapter.  The  sin  consists  in  breaking  the  spell,  or  destroying  the 
effect,  of  the  vftg*. 

*  This  is  modified  by  Chap.  V.  1,2. 

"  See  Chap.  I,  1,  2.  These  particulars  are  deduced  by  the 
Pahlavi  commentator  from  Vend  .Will,  11,-,  which  refers,  how- 
ever, to  a  special  case  of  going  without  girdle  and  shirt.  Me  says 
(Pahl.  Vend.  XVIII,  116),  'so  that  as  far  as  the  fourth  step  it  is 
not  more  than  (ai)  a  Sr6sh6-£aranam,  and  at  the  fourth  step  it 
amounts  to  the  root  of  a  Tanapuhar  within  him  ;  some  say  that  he 
is  within  what  is  allowed  him  in  going  three  steps.  When  he  Waifa 
on  very  many  steps  it  is  also  not  more  than  a  Tanapuhar,  and 
when  he.  stops  again  /'/  is  counted  from  the  si.min^-poiiu'  (com- 
pare §  12). 

4  Probably  referring  to  the  possibility  of  tying  the  girdle  over 
a  woman's  hair,  when  hanging  loose  down  to  her  waist.  The 
present  custom  among  Parsi  women  in  India  is  to  cover  up  the 
whole  of  their  hair  with  a  white  handkerchief  tied  closely  over  the 
head  ;  but  whether  this  is  an  ancient  custom  is  uncertain. 

■  This  sin,  which  is  mentioned  in  Bund.  XX \  111,  13,  is  called 
ning  in  one  l>oot,'  and  is  usually  so  understood,  but  how  there 
can  be  any  risk  of  the  committal  of  so  inconvenient  an  offence  is 
not  explained.  Dasiur  lloshangji  thinks  that  aS-rafik,  'one boot,' 
was  formerly  written  avi-muk,  'without  boots;'  and  no  doubt 
avt  is  sometimes  written  exactly  like  khadu,  'one,'  (indie. 1 
possibly,  a  phonetic  change  of  avt  into  agvi).  Perhaps,  however, 
the  word  alludes  to  the  Persian  practice  of  wearing  an  outer  boot 

CHAPTER    IV,    IO-I4. 


a  Tanapnhar  siu,  when  with  one  l  movement ;  and 
after  the  fourth  step  as  much  as  one  shall  walk  is  a 
Tanapuhar ;  and  when  he  sits  down  and  walks  on 
the  sin  is  the  same  that  it  would  be  from  his  starting- 
point  (bunih);  and  there  were  some  who  said  it  is  a 
Tanapuhar  for  each  league  (para sang). 

13.  At  night,  when  they  lie  down,  the  shirt  and 
girdle  are  to  be  worn,  for  they  are  more  protecting 
for  the  body,  and  good  for  the  soul.  14.  When 
they  lie  down  with  the  shirt  and  girdle,  before  sleep 
one  shall  utter  one  Ashem-vohu  -,  and  with  every 
coming  and  going  of  die  breath  (vayo)  is  a  good 
work   of  three   Srosho-^aranams 3 ;    and   if  in   that 

(muk)  over  an  inner  one  of  thinner  leather,  when  walking  out  of 
doors;  so  that  the  sin  of  running  in  one  pair  of  boots'  would  be 
something  equivalent  to  walking  out  in  one's  stockings;  and  dria 
seems  all  the  more  probable  from  the  separate  account  of  walking 
•without  boots  or  stockings,'  avimu^ak,  given  in  Chap.  X.  12. 
But  whatever  may  have  been  the  original  meaning  of  the  word, 
-;  nowadays  understand  that  it  forbids  their  walking  without 
shoes ;  this  should  be  recollected  by  any  European  official  in 
India  who  fancies  that  Parsis  ought  lo  take  off  their  shoes  in  his 
presence,  as  by  bating  on  such  a  practice  he  is  compelling  them 
to  commit  what  they  believe  lo  be  a  serious  sin. 

1  Assuming  that  hand,  'this,'  stands  for  aft,  'one'  (see  p.  218, 
note  3).  The  amount  of  sinfulness  in  walking  improperly  shod 
appears  to  be  deduced  from  that  incurred  by  walking  improperly 
dressed  (see  $  10). 

1  See  Bund.  XX,  2.      The  same  details  are  given  in  Chap. 

X,  24. 

'  The  Av.  sraosh6-*arana  appears  to  have  been  a  scourge 

with  which  offenders  were  lashed  by  the  assistant  priests  (see  Vend. 

Ill,  125,  129,  IV.  38,  &c),  and  a  Sr6sh6-£ararum  was,  therefore, 

ally  one  lash  with  a  scourge.     As  the  gravity  of  an  offence 

was  measured  by  the  number  of  lashes  administered,  when  this 

term  was  transferred  from  the  temporal  10  the  spiritual  gravity  of 

red  as  the  unit  of  weight  by  which  sins  were 

estimated;  and,  by  a  further  process  of  reasoning,  the  good  works 

l5j  U 



sleep   decease   occurs, 


his    renunciation   of  sin 

Chapter  V. 

i.  Of  unseasonable  chatter3  that  of  children  of 
five  years  of  age  has  no  root ;  and  from  five  years 
till  seven  years,  when  one  is  under  the  tuition  of  his 

necessary  for  counterbalancing  sins  were  estimated  by  the  same 
unit  of  weight.  Regarding  the  amount  of  a  Sr6sh6-&iran5m  there 
is  much  uncertainty;  according  to  Chap.  XVI,  g  and  Pahl.  Vend. 
Yl.  i  -  it  is  the  same  as  a  Farman,  and  this  appears  to  be  the  case 
also  from  a  comparison  of  §  10  with  Pahl.  Vend.  XVIII,  116  (see 
note  on  §  10);  but  according  to  Chap.  XI,  2  it  is  half  a  Farman, 
and  the  Farman  is  also  probably  the  degree  meant  by  the  frequent 
mention  of  three  Sroshu-^aran&ms  as  the  least  weight  of  sin  or  good 
works  that  will  turn  the  scale  in  which  the  soul's  actions  are  weighed 
after  death  (see  Chap.  VI,  3).  This  uncertainty  may  perhaps  have 
arisen  from  ae\  '  one,"  and  the  cipher  3  being  often  written  ali! 
Pahlari.  But,  besides  this  uncertainty,  there  is  some  discordance 
between  the  various  accounts  of  the  actual  weight  of  a  Srdshd- 
Aaran&m,  as  may  be  seen  in  Chaps.  X,  24,  XI,  2,  XVI,  5.  As  a 
weight  the  Srdsho-X'aranam  is  not  often  mentioned  in  the  Pahlavi 
Vendidad,  for  wherever  it  translates  the  Av.  sraosh6-£arana  it 

means  '  lashes  with  a  scourge ; '   but  the  weight  of  one  Sr6sh6- 
faranam  is  mentioned  in  Pahl.  Vend.  VI,  15,  three  Src$sh6-/-aranams 
in  IV,  142,  VII,  136,  XVII,  11,  XVIII,  55,  116,  and  five  Sr6sh 
Xaranams  in  XVI,  8. 

1  Patitikih,  'the  dropping'  or  renunciation  of  ain,  is  effected 
by  confessing  serious  offences  to  a  high-priest,  and  also  by  the 
recitation  of  a  particular  formula  called  the  Patit,  in  which  every 
imaginable  sin  is  mentioned  wkh  a  declaration  of  repentance  of 
any  such  sins  as  the  reciter  may  have  committed.  The  priest 
ordains  such  atonement  as  he  thinks  necessary,  but  the  remi>>u>n 
of  the    sins   depends   upon  performance  of  the   atone- 

ment and  the  effectual  determination  to  avoid  such  sins  in  future 
(see  Chap.  VIII,  1,  2,  8). 

1  See  Chap.  IV.  y. 


father  and  innocent  \  it  has  no  root  in  him,  and 
when  sinful  it  has  root  in  the  father2.  2.  And  from 
eight  years  till  they  are  man  and  woman  of  fifteen 
years,  if  even  one  is  innocent  during  the  performance 
of  the  ritual  (ya^td),  but  is  able  to  say  its  Itha  and 
Ashem-vohu  3,  and  does  not  say  them,  it  is  the  root 
of  unseasonable  chatter  for  him4;  and  when  he  is 
able  to  perform  his  ritual  by  heart  (narm),  and  says 
only  the  Ithd  and  Ashem-vohu,  some  have  said  that 
such  is  as  when  his  ritual  is  not  performed  and  there 
is  no  offering  (yast6frt</),  and  some  fiave  said  that 
it  is  not  unseasonable  chatter. 

3.  Unseasonable  chatter  may  occur  at  every  cere- 
monial (ya.zi.yn6);  for  him  who  has  performed  the 
ritual  //  is  a  Tanapuhar  sin*;  for  him  who  has  not 
performed  the  ritual  it  is  less,  some  have  said  three 
Sr6shd-£aranamsa.  4.  The  measure  of  unseasonable 
chatter  is  a  TanSpuhar  sin ;  this  is  where  every 
ceremony,  or  every  morsel,  or  every  drop  purine  is 
not  completed  7.     5.  Of  the  unseasonable  chatter  of 

1  That  is,  intending  no  harm,  as  contrasted  with  9inful  or  wilful 
chatter  in  defiance  of  instruction. 

•  Because  the  father  is  supposed  to  be  responsible,  in  the  next 
world,  for  the  sins  of  the  child,  even  as  he  will  profit  by  its  good 
works  (see  Chaps.  X,  2a,  XII,  15). 

•  See  Chap.  Ill,  35. 

'  Inattention  to  prayers  evinced  by  improper  silence  is  thus  put 
upon  the  same  footing  as  inattention  evinced  by  improper  talking. 
l»ortion  of  the  sentence  is  omitted  in  K20. 

*  See  Chap.  I,  1,2.     It  is  a  greater  sin  in  the  officiating  priests 
in  the  other  persons  present  at  the  ceremony. 

*  Probably  a  Farman  sin  (see  Chap.  IV,  14,  note). 
1  Referring  to  the  three  principal  occasions  when  a  prayer  (va^) 

is  taken  inwardly  and  retained  until  the  completion  of  the  action ; 
during  which  time  it  is  unlawful  to  say  anything  but  the  prescribed 
prayers  (see  Chap.  Ill,  6,  note). 

U  2 

him  who  has  not  performed  the  ritual  Afarg1  said 
this  degree  is  slighter ;  M cWok-mah  l  said  both  are 
alike,  and  he  spoke  further  of  this,  since  for  him 
who  has  not  performed  the  ritual,  and  does  not 
attend  to2  saying  its  Ithd  and  Ashem-vohu,  it  is 
more  severe  than  for  him  who  has  performed  the 
ritual,  and  docs  not  attend  to  consecrating  its  sacred 
cake  (drdn).  6.  Mcrfuk-mah  said  that  it  (the  cere- 
monial)a  does  not  become  G<Sto-kharW*;  Afarg 
said  that  it  amounts  to  an  offering  (yastofrl^) r'  for 
every  one,  except  for  that  person  who  knows  the 
ritual  by  heart,  and  through  sinfulness  will  not  per- 
form it;  and  it  becomes  his  at  the  time  when, 
during  his  life  and  by  his  command,  it  is  recited 
with  this  intention,  namely :  '  I  wish  to  do  it,  my 
faith  (astobanih)   is  in  the  religion".' 

7.  The  deaf  and  dumb  when  it  is  not  possible  for 
him  to  say  an  Ashem  does  not  commit  unseasonable 
chatter7;  and  when  it  is  possible  for  him  to  say  an 
Ashem  he  shall  three  times  say  of  it,  'Ashem, 
ashem,  ashem ; '  and  if  it  be  possible  for  him  to  say 

1  See  Chap.  I,  3. 

a  Literally, '  believe  or  trust  to.' 

5  During  which  unseasonable  chatter  occurs. 

4  Generally  written  Getf-kharW  (see  Bund.  XXX,  28);  but,  per- 
haps, we  should  here  read  yastofriV,  'offering,'  though  ge*tdk- 
khartt/  occurs  in  Chap.  XII,  30. 

*  The  MSS.  have  merely  stofridT,  which  differs  from  the  fore- 
going  gStfl-khar ic/  only  in   one  Pahlavi   letter,  so  we   should 
probably  read  the  same  word  in  both  cases,  but  which  of  them  j 
ought  to  be  is  uncertain. 

•  Meaning,  apparently,  that  he  can   obtain  the  benefit  of  an 
past  ceremony,  forfeited  by  wilful  negligence,  by  repentance  a 
a  repetition  of  the  ceremony  during  his  lifetime. 

7  By  omitting  to  say  it  (see  §  2).  This  clause  of  the  sentence 
is  omitted  in  K20. 

CHAPTER   V,    6-VI,    2. 

*  itha '  and  '  ashem-vohu '  it  is  well,  and  when  it  is 
only  possible  for  him  to  say  '  itha '  it  matters  not '. 

Chapter  VI. 

i.  The  deaf  and  dumb  and  helpless  (arme.a)2, 
though  of  unblemished  conduct  and  proper  disposi- 
tion, is  incapable  of  doing  good  works,  and  from 
the  time  when  he  is  born  till  the  time  when  he  shall 
die,  all  the  duty  and  good  works  which  they  may 
perform  in  the  world  become  his  property  (nafa- 
man)  as  much  as  his  even  by  whom  they  are  per- 
formed ;  some  say  that  it  is  thus :  as  much  as  they 
belong  to  ZaratuJt\  2.  Though  he  does  not  do 
the  good  works  not  really  originating  with  (aham- 
buni/*)  him,  and  does  not  commit  the  sin  not  really 
originating  with  him,  it  is  better  than  though  he 
were  able  to  do  the  good  works  not  really  origin- 
ating with  him,  and  should  not  do  them;  but  should 
commit  the  sin  not  really  originating  with  ium , 
when,  afterwards,  he  passes  away,  and  then  also 
comes  to  his  account  as  to  sin  and  good  works, 
when  the  good  works  not  really  originating  with 
him  are  more  lu  is  in  heaven  (vahi^t),  when  the  sin 

1  Thai  is,  any  one  barely  able  to  speak  must  repeat  so  much  of 
the  indispensable  prayers  as  he  is  able  to  pronounce,  otherwise  he 
will  commit  sin. 

*  That  is,  any  one  compelled  to  remain  stationary  or  secluded, 
owing  lo  bodily  or  mental  infirmity  (see  Chap.  II,  98) :  an  idiot, 
or  insane  person,  is  probably  meant  here. 

*  This  comment  seems  to  imply  that  its  writer  was  translating 
from  an  Avesta  text,  and  here  met  with  a  word  which  some  persons 
thought  contained  a  reference  to  Zaratfat,  but  which  he  first  trans- 
lated so  as  to  suit  the  context;  perhaps  A  v.  zarazdaiti  may  be 



not  really  originating  with  him  is  more  he  is  in  hell, 
and  when  both  are  equal  he  is  among  the  ever- 
stationary  (hamtstakan) '.  3.  When  the  good  works 
are  three  Sr6sho-/£aranams  ■  more  than  the  sins  he 
is  in  heaven  (vahijt),  when  the  good  works  are  one 
Tanapuhar  more  he  attains  to  the  best  existence 
(pahlum  ahv£n) a,  when  his  ceremony  (ya^t)  is  per- 

1  That  is,  he  is  treated,  with  regard  to  the  actions  merely 
imputed  to  him,  precisely  as  all  oihers  are  with  regard  to  their 
own  actions.  With  reference  to  the  hamistakan,  An/a-Viriif 
slates  (AV.  VI,  2,  5-12)  that  on  his  journey  to  the  other  world  he 
'  saw  the  souls  of  several  people  who  remain  in  the  same  position,' 
and  he  was  informed  that  '  they  call  this  the  place  of  the  Hamts- 
takan ("those  ever-stationary''),  and  these  souls  remain  in  this 
place  till  the  future  existence  ;  and  I  hey  are  the  souls  of  those 
people  whose  good  works  and  sin  were  equal.  Speak  out  to  the 
worldlings  thus :  "  Consider  not  the  easier  good  works  with  avarice 
and  vexation !  for  every  one  whose  good  works  are  three  Si6sho- 
laranaras  more  than  his  sin  is  foi  heaven,  they  whose  sin  is  more 
are  for  hell,  they  in  whom  both  are  equal  remain  among  these 
Hamtstakan  till  the  future  existence."  And  their  punishment  is 
cold  or  heat  from  the  changing  of  the  atmosphere ;  and  they  have 
no  other  adversity.' 

1  Probably  equivalent  to  a  Fat  man  sin  (see  Chaps.  I,  1,  2, 
IV.  14,  note). 

1  This  appears  to  be  another  name  for  Gar6r/man,  '  the  abode 
of  song,'  which  is  the  highest  heaven,  or  dwelling  of  Auharmazd. 
The  lower  heaven  is  here  called  Vahixt,  which  is  a  general  term 
for  heaven  in  general.  AV.  VII-X,  XVII,  27,  and  Mkh.VIl,  9-12, 
20,  21  describe  four  grades  in  heaven  and  four  in  hell,  besides 
the  intermediate  neutral  position  of  the  Hamtstakan  (AV.  VI,  Mkh. 
VII,  18,  19).  The  four  grades  of  heaven,  proceeding  upwards, 
are  Humat  for  good  thoughts  in  the  station  of  the  stars,  Hukht 
for  good  words  in  the  station  of  the  moon,  Huvam  for  good 
deeds  in  the  station  of  the  sun,  and  Gar6«Anan  where  Auharmazd 
dwells  (Vend.  XIX,  121).  And  the  four  grades  of  hell,  proceeding 
downwards,  are  Dux-humat  for  evil  thoughts,  Duj-hukht  for  evil 
words,  Duj-huvam  for  evil  deeds,  and  the  darkest  hell  (Vend. 
XIX,  147)  where  the  evil  spirit  dwells.     The  pahlum  ahvan  of 

formed  l.  4.  S6shyans 2  said  that  to  come  into  that 
best  existence  it  is  not  necessary  to  perform  the 
ceremony,  for  when  his  good  works  are  one 3  Tana- 
puhar  more  than  the  sin  he  attains  to  the  best 
existence,  and  no  account  is  taken  of  performing  his 
ceremony ;  because  in  the  heavenly  existence  {ga- 
rd*/manlkih)  it  is  not  necessary  to  perform  a 
ceremony,  for  an  excess  of  good  works  must  attain 
Gard</mcm*.  5.  As  Sdshyans  said,  in  heaven 
(vahi.rt)  he  who  is  below  is  elevated  to  him  who  is 
above;  and  it  says  thus:  'Happy  indeed  art  thou, 
O  man !  who  art  in  any  way  near  unto  that  im- 
perishable existence  V 

6.  Kushtano-bu^eW*  said  that  an  infidel  (ak- 
dln6)7,  when  his  good  works  are  one  Tanapuhar 
more  than  his  sin,  is  saved  from  hell. 

the  text  is  merely  Uie  Pahlavi  form  of  Av.  vahijtem  ahflm 
(Vend.  VII,  133,  XVIII,  69,  XIX,  120,  Yas.  IX,  64),  whence  the 
term  vahixt  (Pers.  bahi.rt)  is  also  derived. 

1  That  is,  when  his  surviving  relatives  have  performed  the  proper 
religions  ceremonies  after  his  death. 

*  See  Chap.  I,  3. 

*  Reading  a£, '  one,'  and  supposing  that  tins  Paz.  form  has  been 
substituted  for  an  original  Huz.  khaduk,  '  one.'  This  supposition 
being  necessary  to  account  for  the  a&  preceding  its  noun,  instead 
of  following  it ;  and  without  it  we  ought  to  read  *  three  '  instead  of 
'  one,'  which  seems,  however,  hardly  reconcileablc  with  the  context 
(but  compare  Paid.  Vend.  VII,  136).  This  is  an  instance  of  the 
ambiguity  occasioned  by  a  S,  '  one,'  and  the  cipher  3  being  often 
written  alike  in  Pahlavi,  as  already  noticed  in  p.  289,  note  3.  The 
word  might  also  be  taken  as  the  conditional  verbal  form  afi,  '  shall 
be,'  but  in  that  case  it  is  likewise  misplaced. 

*  See  note  on  pahlum  ahvin  in  §  3. 

1  A  somewhat  similar  exclamation  to  that  in  Vend.  VII,  136. 
4  See  Chap.  I,  4,  note. 

7  That  is,  one  of  another  religion ;  not  an  apostate,  nor  an 

296  siiAyast  la-shayast. 

7.  Of  a  pure  law  (da</)  arc  we  of  the  good  reli- 
gion, and  we  are  of  the  primitive  faith  ;  of  a  mixed 
law  are  those  of  the  Slnlk  congregation ' ;   of  a  vile 

'  It  is  not  easy  to  identify  this  Sinik  vafkaiv/ih,  but  Professor 
J.  Darmesteter  suggests  that  the  term  may  have  been  applied  to  the 
Manicheans  settled  in  eastern  Turkist&n  and  western  China,  whence 
they  may  have  been  called  Sintk  (the  country  of  the  SSnf,  Av. 
SSini,  being  identified  with  A^intstdn  or  China  in  Bund.  XV,  29, 
because  TS\n  is  the  Arabic  name  of  the  latter).  This  is  con- 
firmed, to  some  extent,  by  a  passage  in  the  Dinkarrf  (see  Dastfir 
P&h6tan's  edition  of  the  Pahlavi  text,  p.  27),  where  three  foreign 
religions  are  mentioned,  that  of  the  Jews  from  Arum,  that  of  the 
Messiah  from  the  west,  and  that  of  Manih  from  Turkistdn.  Dar- 
mesteter further  points  out  the  following  passages  in  Barbier  de 
Mcynard's  French  translation  of  Mas'audi,  which  show  that  the 
Maniclieans  had  considerable  influence  in  eastern  Turkistiin  as  late 
as  a.d.  944  : — 

(Meynard,  I,  268) :  '.  .  .  the  Turks,  the  Khuzlu^,  and  the  Ta- 
ghazghaz,  who  occupy  th<  town  of  KfuSn,  situated  between 
Khurisan  and  China,  and  who  are  now  (A.n.  944)  the  most 
valiant,  most  powerful,  and  best  governed  of  all  the  Turkish  races 
and  tribes.  Their  kings  bear  the  title  of  trkh&n  ("sub-khin  r "), 
and  they  alone,  among  all  these  nations,  profess  the  religion  of 

Again,  after  stating  thai  the  Chinese  were  at  first  Samanians 
(Buddhists),  it  is  added  (Meynard,  II,  258):  'Their  kingdom  is 
contiguous  to  that  of  the  Taghazghaz,  who,  as  we  have  said  above, 
arc  Manichcans,  and  proclaim  the  simultaneous  existence  of  the 
two  principles  of  light  and  darkness.  These  people  were  living 
in  simplicity,  and  in  a  faith  like  that  of  the  Turkish  races,  when 
there  turned  up  among  them  a  demon  of  the  dualist  sect,  who 
showed  them,  in  tempting  language,  two  opposing  principles  in 
everything  that  exists  in  the  world,  such  as  life  and  death,  health 
and  sickness,  riches  and  poverty,  light  and  darkness,  union  and 
separation,  connection  and  severance,  rising  and  setting,  existence 
and  non-existence,  night  and  day,  &c.  Then,  he  spoke  to  them  of 
the  various  ailments  which  afflict  rational  beings,  animals,  children, 
idiots,  and  madmen;  and  he  added  that  God  could  not  be  re- 
sponsible for  this  evil,  which  was  in  distressing  contradiction  to 
the   excellence   which    distinguishes  his  works,  and   that  he  was 

CHASTER  VI,   7 -VII,    i. 


law  are  the  Zandik  '.  the  Christian   (Tarsak).  the 
Jew  (YahO*/),  and  others  of  this  sort  (xan&)  '. 

Chapter  VII. 

1.  The  morning  sun  it  is  necessary  to  reverence 
(ya^tano)  till  midday,  and  that  of  midday  it  is 
necessary  to  reverence  till  the  afternoon  time,  and 
that  of  the  afternoon  time  it  is  necessary  to  re- 
verence till  night 3 ;  whenever  one  is  quite  prepared 

above  any  such  imputation.  By  these  quibbles,  and  others  like 
them,  he  carried  away  their  minds,  and  made  them  adopt  his 

The  tenets  of  the  Manicheans  ought,  no  doubt,  to  have  been 
1  by  the  Zoroastrians  as  a  mixture  of  truth  and  error, 
just  as  those  of  the  Sinik  congregation  an  represented  to  be  in 
our  text;  but  such  tenets  being  an  heretical  offshoot  of  Zoroas- 
trianism,  it  argues  unusual  liberality  in  the  priests  if  they  preferred 
Manicheans  to  Christians,  that  it,  heretics  to  infidels. 

K20  has  altered  stnik  vajkar«/frh  into  nisfnfk  (or  vidinfk) 
xikaftih,  which  appears  to  be  an  attempt  to  bring  the  words 
within  the  limits  of  the  writer's  knowledge,  without  paying  much 
attention  to  their  collective  meaning. 

1  A  sect  which  (according  to  its  name)  probably  adhered  to  a 

•  certain  heretical  interpretation  (zarul)  in  preference  to  the  orthodox 
A vest  a  and  Zand.  Neryosang,  in  his  Sanskrit  version  of  Mkh. 
WW  I,  16,  explains  a  Zandik  as  one  who  'thinks  well  of  Ahar- 
man  and  the  demons.' 

■  Unless  this  paragraph  be  a  continuation  of  the  quotation  from 
Ku.shtan6-bu£c'</s  commentary,  which  seems  unlikely,  its  contents 
have  an  important  bearing  upon  the  age  of  the  Shay as t  la-shayasL 
As  it  does  not  mention  Muhammadanisni  by  name  it  could  hardly 
have  been  written  after  die  fall  of  the  Sasanian  dynasty,  when  that 
new  faith  had  become  much  more  important,  in  Persia,  than  those 
of  the  Christians  and  Jews. 

*  Referring  to  the  recitation  of  the  KhfirsheW  Nyayir,  or  '  saluta- 
tion of  die  sun,'  which  should  be  performed  thrice  a  day,  in  the 
in,  Rapitvin,  and  AGzerfn  Gahs,  or  periods  of  the  day  (see 



for  activity  (khve.ykfirih),  and  shall  then  do  rever- 
ence, it  is  proper.  2.  And  when  anything  of  that 
happens  which  indicates  when  it  is  not  proper  to 
wash  the  hands,  and  about  this  he  considers  that 
when  he  does  not  reverence  the  sun  it  will  stop1,  at 
the  time  previous  to  that  in  which  it  occurs  the  sun 
is  to  be  fully  reverenced  by  him,  and,  afterwards, 
when  his  hands  are  washed,  it  is  to  be  reverenced 
again ;  and  when  he  does  not  reverence  it,  except 
when  innocent  through  not  reverencing  it-,  then  it 
becomes  irreverence  (14  ya^t)  of  the  sun  for  him  3. 

3.  As  to  the  sun  it  is  better  when  one  reverences 
it  every  time  at  the  proper  period  (pa van  g&s-i 
nafsman);  when  he  does  not  reverence  it  for  once 
it  is  a  sin  of  thirty  sttrs  *.  4.  Reverencing  the  sun  is 
every  time  a  good  work  of  one  Tanapuhar s ;  and  so 
of  the  moon  and  fire  in  like  manner  \  5.  When  on 
account  of  cloudiness  the  sun  is  not  visible  (peofak), 
and  one  shall  reverence  it,  it  is  proper. 

Bund.  XXV,  9);  a  few  sentences  in  the  Nyayir,  or  formula  of 
salutation,  are  altered  to  suit  the  particular  Gah  in  which  it  is 

1  K20  has,  *it  will  protect  it;'  having  read  netrun£<f  instead  of 
ketruncV  in  its  original.  To  pray  with  unwashed  hands  would 
be  sinful  (see  Pahl.  Vend.  XIX,  84). 

a  That  is,  except  when  the  omission  is  to  avoid  a  worse  evil,  as 
in  the  instance  just  mentioned. 

■  Or,  perhaps, '  it  does  not  become  a  KhurshW  Yart  ("  a  formula 
of  praise  in  honour  of  the  sun  ")  for  him.'  This  Yajt  forms  a 
part  of  the  Nyayij. 

*  That  is,  an  Arcihu  sin  (see  Chap.  I,  2).  M6  has,  •  when  he 
does  not  reverence  it  again.' 

8  That  is,  a  good  work  sufficient  to  counterbalance  a  TanSpfihar 
sin,  which  puis  the  performance  of  a  Nyayu  on  the  fame  footing 
as  the  consecration  of  a  sacred  cake  or  dron  (see  Chap.  XVI,  6). 

'  The  moon  and  fire  have  each  a  separate  Nyavir. 

PTER    VII,    2-S. 


6.  And  while  one  does  not  reverence  the  sun,  the 
good  works  which  they  do  that  day  are  not  their 
own ;  some  say  that  of  the  good  works  which  they 
do  within  the  law  (d&d)  of  the  good  religion  he  has 
no  share.  7.  While  they  do  not  wash  dirty  hands 
any  good  work  which  they  do  is  not  their  own,  for 
while  one  does  not  utterly  destroy  corruption  (na- 
s&s) '  there  is  no  coming  of  the  angels  to  his  body, 
and  when  there  is  no  coming  of  the  angels  to  his 
body  he  has  no  steadfastness  in  the  religion,  and 
when  he  has  no  steadfastness  in  the  religion  no 
good  work  whatever  reaches  unto  him. 

8.  When  one  wishes  to  perform  the  propitiation 
(shnuman)2  of  fire,  it  is  allowable  to  perform  one 
4athr6 '  by  itself,  and,  when  two  ami  the  '  ma</  vls- 
paeiby6  atereby6,'  these  three  are  thus  the  pro- 
pitiation everywhere3;  some  say  that  it  would  be 
proper  to  perform  it  while  allowable,  except  that  of 
1  h«  heterodox. 

1  That  is,  the  demon  of  corruption,  who  is  supposed  to  enter 
and  reside  in  all  filth  of  the  nature  of  dead  matter,  until  expelled  or 
destroyed  by  cleansing. 

*  A  shnOman  or  khshnQman&  (Av.  khshnuman)  is  a  short 
formula  of  praise,  reciting  all  the  usual  titles  of  the  spirit  intended 
to  be  propitiated  by  it,  and  is  used  for  dedicating  the  prayers  or 
ceremony  specially  to  his  service  (see  Chaps.  Ill,  35,  X,  2,  XIV, 
3).  The  propitiatory  formulas  for  the  thirty  angels  and  arch- 
angels who  preside  over  the  days  of  the  month  constitute  the 
Sirozah,  or  form  of  prayer  '  relating  to  the  thirty  days.' 

■  The  propitiation  of  fire  (as  given  in  Siroz.  I,  9,  Ataj  Nyayix 
5,  6)  consists  of  five  sentences,  each  beginning  with  the  word 
Athro,  *  of  the  fire,'  and  the  last  sentence  also  contains  the  Midi 
ma«/  vispa6iby6  aterebyo,  'with  all  fires.'  The  meaning  of  the 
text  appears  to  be  that  it  is  allowable  to  use  only  one  of  these 
sentences  (probably  the  last),  but  if  two  are  used  besides  the  last 
they  are  amply  sufficient  for  practical  purposes. 



9.  Whoever  shall  extinguish  J  a  fire,  by  him  ten 
fires  are  to  be  gathered  together,  by  him  ten  punish- 
ments are  to  be  endured,  by  him  ten  ants  are  to  be 
destroyed-,  and  by  him  holy-water  (z6har)  is  to  be 
presented  to  the  sacred  fire  (itas-i  V  ah  ram). 

Chapter  VIII. 

1.  Sin  which  affects  accusers3  is  to  be  atoned  for 
(vi^  among  the  accusers,  and  that  relating  to 

'  Literally,  '  kill.' 

'  The  ant  being  a  creature  of  the  evil  spirit,  on  account  of  its 
carrying  away  corn. 

*  Vinas-i  hamSmalan,  'sin  relating  to  adversaries.'  Sins 
appear  to  be  divided  into  two  great  classes,  hamfimal  and 
rQbanfk.  A  ham6mal  sin  seems  to  be  any  secular  offence 
which  injures  some  person  or  animal  who,  thereupon,  becomes  a 
hamSmal,  'accuser'  (Av.  hamcrctha,  'opponent,'  Vas.  LV1,  x, 
10),  and  who  must  first  be  satisfied  by  atonement,  before  con- 
fession to  the  high-priest,  or  renunciation  of  sin,  can  be  of  any 
avail  for  removing  the  sin  (compare  Matthew  v.  23-26).  The 
Rivayats  assert  that  if  a  person  dies  without  atoning  for  a 
hamSmal  sin,  his  soul  will  be  stopped  at  the  Alnvarf  bridge  (see 
Uund.  XII,  7)  on  its  way  to  the  other  world,  and  kept  in  a  state  of 
torment  until  the  arrival  of  the  '  accuser,'  and  after  he  is  satisfied 
the  sinner's  soul  will  be  disposed  of,  in  the  usual  manner,  accord- 
ing to  the  balance  of  its  good  and  bad  actions.  It  is  also  probable 
tliat  only  a  man  of '  the  good  religion,'  or  an  animal  of  the  good 
creation,  can  be  an  'accuser.'  A  rubanfk  sin,  on  the  other  hand, 
seems  to  be  one  which  affects  only  the  sinner's  own  soul,  and  for 
which  the  high-priest  can  prescribe  a  sufficient  atonement.  It  is 
doubtful,  however,  whether  the  Parsis  nowadays  have  any  very 
clear  notions  of  the  exact  distinction  between  these  two  classes  of 
sins,  although  aware  of  U«eir  names,  which  arc  mentioned  in  their 
J'atit.  or  renunciation  of  sin.  The  explanations  given  in  some 
editions  of  their  Khurdah  Avesta,  or  prayer-book,  are  confined  to 
mentioning  certain  special  instances  of  each  class  of  sin ;   thus, 

the  soul  is  to  be  atoned  for  among  the  high-priests 
(ra^an),  and  when  they  do  whatever  the  high- 
priests  of  the  religion  command  the  sin  will  depart, 
and  the  good  works  which  they  may  thenceforth  do 
will  attain  completion  (a vaspdrlk).  2.  The  sin  of 
him  who  is  worthy  of  death  (marg-ar^an)  is  to  be 
confessed  (garjijno)  unto  the  high-priests,  arid  he 
is  to  deliver  lip  fa's  body1  ;  except  to  the  high-priests 
he  is  not  to  deliver  up  his  body. 

3.  On  account  of  the  dexterity  (farhang)  of 
horsemen  it  is  not  (heir  business  to  hunt  (nakhl'lr 
kar*/an6);  and  it  is  not  allowable  for  any  one  else 
to  hunt  for  game,  except  for  him  whose  wealth  is 
less  than  three  hundred  stirs*. 

murder,  seduction,  unnecessary  slaughter  of  cattle,  embezzlement, 
slander,  seizing  land  by  force,  and  a  few  other  evil  deeds  are 
to  be  haraemal  sins  :  while  unnatural  offences  and  intercourse 
with  women  of  another  race  and  religion  are  said  to  be  rubanik 
sins.  In  the  Fahlavi  Vendidad  these  classes  of  sins  are  rarely 
meniioned,  hut  hamemalXn  occurs  in  Pahl.  Vend.  Ill,  151,  IV, 
»3,  XIII,  38;  hamemalih  in  III,  119;  and  rUbanfk  in  XIII. 
38 ;  although,  perhaps,  not  always  in  the  sense  of  sin. 

1  By  committing  a  marg-ar^an  or  mortal  sin,  that  is,  a  sin 
worthy  of  death,  he  has  forfeited  his  life,  and  ought  to  place  it  at 
ihe  disposal  of  the  ra</,  or  high-priest. 

*  This  section,  intended  to  preserve  game  for  the  poor,  is  evi- 
dently out  of  place  here,  as  it  has  no  connection  with  the  context. 
With  reference  to  the  property  qualification  for  hunting,  it  appears, 
from  a  passage  in  the  Persian  MS.  M5  about  the  proper  dowry  for 
a  privileged  wife,  that  2000  dirhams  of  silver  were  worth  2300 
rtipfSj  and  that  3  dirhams  were  2}  tolas;  this  was  written  in  a.d. 
1723,  when  neither  the  rQpi  nor  the  tola  were  of  uniform  amount, 
though  now  the  rQpi  is  exactly  a  tola  weight  of  silver.  As  the  stir 
was  four  dirhams  (see  Chap.  I,  2),  three  hundred  stirs  would  have 
been  1380  rupts  or  1350  tolas  of  silver,  according  to  the  star 
mentioned  in  M5  ;  so  that  hunting  was  intended  to  be  confined 
to  those  whose  property  was  less  than  1350-1380  rupis;  but  how 


shAyast  lA-shayast. 

4.  The  ceremonial  worship  (  of  those 
worthy  of  death,  which  they  do  not  perform  by  way 
of  renunciation  of  sin  \  is  the  ceremonial  which  is 
demon  worship ;  and  when  the  officiating  priest 
(a£rpat)  does  not  know  it  the  merit  (kirfak)  of  the 
ceremonial  goes  to  the  store  (gan^)  of  the  angels, 
and  they  give  the  enjoyment  which  arises  from  that 
merit  in  the  spiritual  existence  to  the  soul  of  that 
person  who  has  at  once  (a£va^)  become  righteous 
in   mind. 

5.  When  the  mortal  sinner  (marg-ar^and)  has 
delivered  his  body  and  wealth  at  once  to  the  high- 
priests,  and  engages  mentally  in  renunciation  as  to 
the  sin  which  has  occurred,  and  the  high-priests  give 
him  their  decision  (dastobarih)  as  to  duty  and 
good  works,  the  duty  and  good  works  which  mere 
before  performed  by  him  come  back  to  him;  and 
when  they  inflict  punishment  for  three  nights",  he 
does  not  enter  hell.  6.  And  if  the  high-priest 
orders  the  cutting  off  of  his  head  he  is  righteous  on 
the  spot3,  and  the  three  nights'  (satuih)  ceremony  is 
to  be  celebrated  for   him,  and  the  account  of  the 

this  limitation  is  to  be  reconciled  with  the  fact  that  hunting  was  a 
favourite  pursuit  of  kings  and  nobles  does  not  appear,  unless  it  be 
considered  as  a  sacerdotal  protest  against  that  practice. 

'  That  is,  in  those  cases  when  they  do  not  have  the  f  asisa  per- 
formed as  an  atonement  for  sin,  by  order  of  the  high-priest  after 

'  This  appears  to  refer  to  temporal  punishment,  inflicted  by 
order  of  the  high-priest,  for  the  purpose  of  saving  him  from  the 
'  punishment  of  the  three  nights '  in  the  other  world,  mentioned  in 
Bond  XXX,  16. 

■  Reading  pavan  ^-Sn&k;  but  Mfi  marks  the  phrase  as  pavan 
dinak  (for  dtnS),  'through  the  decree,'  which  is  probably  an 

CHAPTER    VIII,   4-9-  503 

three  nights  (satulh)  does  not  affect  him  \  7.  And 
if  he  does  not  engage  in  renunciation  he  is  in  hell  till 
the  future  existence ;  and  in  his  future  body  they 
will  bring  him  from  hell,  and  for  every  mortal  sin 
they  will  cut  off  his  head  once,  and  the  last  time 
they  will  make  him  alive  again,  and  will  inflict 
(numayend)  three  nights1  severe  punishment2. 

8.  However  a  man  engages  ill  renunciation  of  sin 
the  duty  of  his  state  of  renunciation  (patltlh)  is  to 
be  engaged  therein  openly  and  mentally  in  renuncia- 
tion ;  the  duty  of  openness  is  this,  that  the  sin  which 
he  knows  has  assailed  him  3,  is  to  be  specially  con- 
fessed (bara  g6bi^no)  by  him;  and  the  mental 
duty  is  this,  that  he  engages  in  renunciation  with 
this  thought,  that  "henceforth  I  will  not  commit 
sin.'  9.  And  that  which  occurs  before  the  renuncia- 
tion, except  pious  alms,  it  is  well  for  him  not  to  be 
overlooked*  by  him,  and  not  to  be  kept*  secret  by 
him;  for  when  he  shall  overlook6,  or  shall  1 
secret,  about  sin  committed,  it  becomes  for  him  as 

1  That  is,  the  usual  ceremonies  after  death  are  not  10  be  with- 
held in  this  world,  and  his  soul  is  able  to  pass  through  the  usual 
investigation,  as  to  his  sins  and  good  works,  on  its  way  to  the 
other  world,  without  delay.  This  period  of  three  nights  (satuih, 
'the  triplet '),  winch  Pazand  writers  miscall  sed&j  or  sadis,  is  the 
time  during  which  the  soul  is  supposed  to  hover  about  the  body, 
before  finally  departing  for  the  other  world  (see  Mkh.  II,  114, 158- 
160,  AV.  IV,  9-14,  XVII,  2-9). 

"  The  same  statement  is  made  in  nearly  the  same  words  in 
Paid.  Vend.  VH,  136.  This  is  the  future  three  nights'  punishment 
for  impenitent  sinners,  mentioned  in  Bund.  XXX,  16. 

1  Literally,  '  which  he  knows  thus :  "  It  assailed  me  " ' 

•  Reading  avfcnunS,  but  the  word  can  also  be  read  khunln- 
ijno, '  to  be  made  celebrated,  to  be  boasted  of.' 

8  Literally,  4  carried  on,  borne  away.' 

•  Reading  aven£</,  but  it  may  be  khuufnee/,  'boast  of.' 



much,  some  say,  as  three  Sr6shd-/'aranams ' ;  some 
say  that  when  he  keeps  secret  about  a  sin  of  three 
Srdsh6-/t'ar,ui;"itHs  he  is  worthy  of  death  ;  some  say 
much  otherwise8.  10.  Atard-pa^  son  of  Zaratust3 
had  remarked  (peVaklni^)  to  a  disciple,  about  this 
duty,  thus :  '  Conform  to  the  renunciation  of  sin  ! ' 
and  one4  time  a  seem  wis  kept  by  him,  and  he 
ordered  him  thus:  'Henceforth  be  thou  never  appa- 
rent in  this  duty!'  and  after  that  he  looked  upon 
the  supplication  (avakhshth)  and  much  repentance 
of  that  disciple,  ;im\  even  then  he  did  not  become 
the  high-priest  (dastobar)  over  him. 

ii.  The  rule  is6  this,  that  of  those  who  would  be 
proper  for  this  priestly  duty  (dastdbarlh),  that 
person  is  proper  who  is  perfect  in  (narm)  the  com- 
mentary (zand)  of  the  law,  and  the  punishment  of 
sin  is  easy  for  him,  and  he  has  controlled  himself; 
some  say  thus :  '  By  whom  a  course  of  priestly 
studies  (aerpatastan)  is  performed.'  12.  And  the 
punishment  of  sin  being  easy  for  him,  and  his  having 
controlled  himself  are  proper ;  and  when,  in  danger 
before  a  menstruous  woman,  he  engages  in  renun- 
ciation it  is  proper. 

1  Probably  the  same  as  a  Farman  sin  (see  Chaps.  1, 1,  2,  IV,  14), 

*  Or  '  many  other  I/iings! 

9  This  Aut6-pa</-i  Zatatujtan  is  mentioned  in  a  manuscript 
about  500  years  old,  belonging  to  Daslur  Jamaspji,  in  Bombay,  as 
having  lived  for  160  years,  and  having  been  supreme  high-priest 
for  ninety  years :  he  is  also  mentioned  in  the  sixth  book  of  the 
Dfnkarrf.  He  may,  possibly,  have  been  the  Atar6-pa</  mentioned 
in  B.  Yt.  I,  7,  but  it  is  hazardous  to  identify  an  individual  by  a 
single  name  so  common  as  Atard-pa*/  used  to  be. 

*  Reading  ae",  '  one,'  instead  of  ban  a, '  this '  (see  p.  218,  note  3). 

*  Assuming  that  the  word  aMnak  has  been  omitted  at  die  begin- 
ning of  this  section  (see  Chap.  X,  1). 

CHAPTER    VIII,     IO-I4. 


13.  Ncryosang'  said  thus:  4  Thou  deemest  it 
most  surprising  that,  of  the  renunciation  0/  sin  with 
energy,  whatever  may  be  its  efficacy,  they  have 
been  so  much  of  the  same  *  opinion,  so  that  when- 
ever they  perform  renunciation,  however  they  per- 
form it,  and  before  whomever  they  perform  it, 
whenever  a  sin  is  not  even  mentally  originating 
with  one3  a  renunciation  should  be  performed  by 
him;  and  when  very  many  mortal  sins  (marg- 
ar^an)  are  committed  by  him,  and  he  engages 
mentally  in  renunciation  of  every  one  separately,  he 
is  not  on4  the  way  to  hell,  owing  to  his  renuncia- 
tion; and  if  there  be  one  of  which  he  is  not  in 
renunciation  the  way  to  hell*  is  not  closed  to  him. 
for  he  does  not  rely  upon  the  beneficence  (stW)  of 
Auharmazd,  and  it  is  allowable  to  appoint  a  priestly 
retribution  (ra^  tdgisn)  to  fully  atone  for  it.  and 
when  thou  appointest  a  priestly  retribution  for  it, 
and  dost  not  fully  atone,  it  is  allowable  to  inflict  it 
jusdy  and  strongly  (drubd).' 

14.  When   his   sin    is   committed    against   (den) 

1  This  cannot  be  the  learned  Parsi  translator  of  several  Pahlavi 
texts  into  Sanskrit,  who  bore  the  same  name,  and  is  supposed  to 
have  lived  in  the  fifteenth  century.  Being  quoted  in  the  Pahlavi 
Vendidad  (see  Chap.  I,  4,  note)  he  must  have  been  one  of  the 
old  commentators. 

'  K20  has  h6manam,  'I  am,'  instead  of  ham,  'the  same;'  a 
mistake  arising  from  reading  am,  *  I  am,'  for  ham. 

*  This  applies  to  all  cases  of  merely  imputed  sin,  such  as  those 
committed  by  children,  which  are  imputed  to  the  father,  and  for 
which  he  is  spiritually,  as  well  as  temporally,  responsible. 

*  Reading  pavan,  'on,'  instead  of  barS,  'out  of '(see  p.  176, 
note  5). 

*  Most  of  this  clause  is  omitted  in  K20  by  mistake. 

[5]  X 



that  the  head 

accusers1  it  will  be  necessary  to  act  so 
of  the  family  (mirak)  shall  not  become  evil-minded2, 
and  shall  not  divorce  the  wife  from  matrimony,  and 
they  shall  not  bring 3  him  on  unto  him ;  before  his 
accusers  he  is  to  be  engaged  in  renunciation,  and 
when  not,  he  is  to  be  engaged  in  renunciation  of  the 
sin  before  the  high-priests  (ra^an),  and  it  will 
become  debts,  and  debt  does  not  make  a  man 
wicked  * ;  its  effect  is  this,  that  in  the  future  exist- 
ence they  may  quite  forsake  him,  and  this  becomes 
a  great  shame,  and  they  disturb  (kaz/end)  his  enjoy- 
ment. 15.  As  to  the  sin  which  affects  the  accusers, 
when  the  female  has  atoned  for  it,  its  stem  (payak) 
is  atoned  for;  some  say  that  the  stem  (payakghih) 
has  no  root;  some  say  that  it  is  just  like  a  tree 
whose  leaves  wither  away. 

16.  Sin  relating  to  the  soul 8,  when  one  engages  in 
renunciation,  stays  away/)<?w  him  ;  when  it  shall  be 
fully  atoned  for  it  is  well,  and  when  he  does  not 
fully  atone  they  will  make  him  righteous  by  the 
three  nights  (satulh)  punishment.  17.  KushtancV 
bu^eV6  said  that  even  that  which  affects  accusers, 
when  one  engages  in  renunciation,  stays  away/)wrc 

1  Hamemalan  (see  §  1);  the  particular  instance  of  ham&mdl 
sin  here  referred  to  is  seduction. 

8  Reading  dthmfnan  instead  of  the  unmeaning  dfbmfySn  of 
the  MSS. 

*  Reading  yattyfinS  instead  of  the  unmeaning  yaftam  of  the 
MSS.;  a  being  often  written  very  much  like  m  in  Pahlavi. 

4  This  clause  about  the  ham£mal  sin  becoming  a  debt,  to  be 
settled  with  the  '  accuser,'  either  here  or  hereafter,  is  taken  from 
Pahl.  Vend.  Ill,  151. 

*  That  is,  rflbanik  sin  (sec  §  1,  note). 

*  See  Chap.  I,  4,  note. 

18.  Ndsdi  Burs-Mitrd1  spoke  these  three  sayings, 
that  is,  '  Next-of-kin  marriage  will  extirpate  mortal 
sins  (marg-ar^andn),  and  the  sacred  twigs  when 
their  ablution  is  such  as  renders  them  improper  for 
firewood,  and  a  man  when  his  wife  becomes  pregnant 
by  him.' 

19.  Whoever  commits  a  sin  against  (den)  water, 
and  kills  a  lizard,  or  other  noxious  water-creature, 
has  atoned  for  it;  also  when  thou  atonest  to  (d£n) 
fire  for  that  against  water  it  is  proper2,  and  when 
thou  atonest  to  water  for  that  against  fire  it  is 
proper ;  some  say  that  even  a  scorpion  is  proper  to 
be  killed.  20.  Ami  when  a  sin  of  one  Tanapfthar3 
is  committed  by  him,  and  he  shall  consecrate  a 
sacred  cake  (dr6n),  or  shall  accomplish  a  good  work 
of  one  Tandpuhar4,  it  has  atoned  for  it. 

21.  When  he  has  committed  a  mortal  sin  (marg- 
ar^Sn),  and  engages  mentally  in  renunciation,  and 
the  high-priest  (ra</)  knows  that,  though  he  ought 
to  give  up  his  body,  he  will  not  give  it  up,  it  is 
allowable  when  he  shall  kill  him ;  that  is,  because 
he  relies  upon  the  beneficence  (sbd)  of  Auharmazd. 
22.  Moreover,  from  the  rule  (mank)  '  yazemna5  ka.d 
na  haka^z"  ('  through  being  worshipped  what  then  at 

1  See  Chap.  I,  4,  note. 

1  A  blank  space  is  left  for  this  verb  in  M6,  indicating  that  that 
MS  was  copied  from  an  original  already  old  and  not  very  legible. 

■  See  Chap.  I,  1,  a. 

*  Consecrating  a  sacred  cake  is  a  Tanipuhar  good  work  (see 
Cliap.  XVI,  6).  The  theory  of  counterbalancing  sins  by  good 
works  of  the  same  weight  is  here  clearly  enunciated. 

0  Written  izimn  in  the  MSS.  This  quotation  appears  to  be, 
from  some  part  of  the  Avesta,  no  longer  extant,  and  being  only  the 
first  words  of  the  passage  its  exact  meaning  is  very  uncertain.  The 
section,  generally,  seems  to  refer  to  the  beneficence  of  Auharmazd. 

X  2 



once,'  &c.)  it  is  evident,  and  it  becomes  his  through 
ceremonial  ablution  of  the  hands ;  it  amounts  to  a 
whole  quarry  (kano)  of  good  works,  and  the  worship 
of  God  (yasisn-i  yazdano)  is  to  be  performed  for 
him  !.  23.  Ataro-pa*/2  son  of  Maraspend  said  that 
it  is  always  necessary  to  be  more  diligent  in  per- 
forming one's  worship  of  God  at  the  time  that  many 
mortal  sins  are  committed  ;  all  sins  being  admissible 
into  renunciation,  when  thou  shalt  atone  by  com- 
plete self-sacrifice  (pur-^an-da^iha),  and  when  one 
engages  in  renunciation  of  the  sin  from  its  root,  he 
becomes  free  from  the  sin  En  renunciation  of  which 
sin  he  engaged;  for  Auharmazd  will  not  leave  his 
own  creatures  unto  the  evil  spirit,  unless  on  the 
path  of  non-renunciation. 

Chapter  IX. 

1.  The  greater  Hasar  is  one  part  in  twelve  parts 
of  the  day  and  night,  and  the  lesser  Hasar  is  one 
part  in  eighteen  parts 3. 

1  It  seems  that  the  execution  of  the  sinner  after  repen;; 
is  here  considered  as  furnishing  him  with  a  store  of  good  works,  so 
that  it  is  allowable  to  perform  such  ceremonies  for  him,  after  death, 
as  are  usually  performed  for  righteous  men ;  the  reason  being 
given  in  §  23.  The  end  of  this  section  and  beginning  of  the  next 
are  omitted  in  K20. 

*  Whether  the  prime  minister  of  Shflpur  II,  or  the  last  editor  of 
the  Dinkar«/(see  Bund.  XXXIII,  3,  11),  is  not  clear. 

*  The  Hasar  is  not  only  a  measure  of  distance  (see  Bund. 
XXVI,  1),  but  also  a  measure  of  time  (see  Bund.  XXV,  5). 
According  to  the  text  here  the  greater  HSsar  must  be  two  hours, 
ami  the  lesser  Hasar  (which  is  not  mentioned  in  M6)  must  be  one 
hour  and  twenty  minutes.  But  Farh.  Okh.  (p-  43)  says,  'dvada- 
sang-hatbrem  asti  aghrem  ayare,"of  twelve  Hisars  is  the 

CHAPTER    VIII,    23-IX,    4. 


2.  The  priest  (asruk)  who  passes  away  in  idola- 
try '  (ausdayakih)  thou  hast  considered  as  desolate 
(vlran)2;  and  there  is  a  high-priest  (dastdbar)  who 
is  of  a  different  opinion,  there  is  one  who  says  he 
is  as  a  non-Iranian  (anairan)  country3.  3.  It  is 
declared  that,  when  a  supreme  high-priest  (zara- 
tuxtrotum)  passes  away  in  idolatry,  an  apostate 
(aharm6k)  will  be  born  in  that  dwelling,  and  a 
rumour  of  this  calamity  is  uttered4  by  that  supreme 

4.  In  order  to  be  steadfast  in  the  good  religion  it 
is  to  be  discussed  with  priests  and  high-priests,  and 
when  one  does  not  discuss  it  is  proper  that  he  do 
not  teach  it. 

longest  day;"  die  day  and  night  in  which  is  the  longest  day  are 
twelve  of  the  greatest  Ilusars,  eighteen  of  the  medium,  and  twenty- 
four  of  the  least;'  according  to  which  statement  there  are  three 
kinds  of  Hasar,  that  are  respectively  equivalent  to  two  hours,  one 
hour  and  twenty  minutes,  and  one  hour.  As  the  longest  day  is 
said  (Bund.  XXV,  4)  to  be  twice  the  length  of  the  shortest  day, 
and  the  greatest  Hasar  is  twice  the  length  of  the  least  one,  it  may 
be  conjectured  that  the  Hasar  varied  with  the  length  of  the  day, 
being  a  subdivision  (one-eighth)  of  the  time  the  sun  was  above  the 
horizon ;  this  would  account  for  the  greatest  and  least  Hisars, 

li  1  h  are  one-eighth  of  the  longest  and  shortest  days,  respectively; 
rut  it  does  not  account  for  the  medium  Hasar,  which  is  not  a 
mean  between  the  two  extremes,  but  one-ninth  (instead  of  one- 
eighth)  of  the  mean  day  of  twelve  hours,  if  the  Hasar  of  distance 
were  really  a  Parasang,  as  is  sometimes  stated,  the  connection 
between  it  and  the  Hasar  of  time  would  he  obvious,  as  the  average 
Hasar  of  one  hour  and  twenty  minutes  is  just  the  time  requisite  for 
ng  a  Parasang,  which  seems  indeed  to  be  stated  in  Farh.  Okh. 
p.  42. 

1  Or  it  may  be  '  passes  over  into  idolatry/ 

*  K20  lias  giran,  'grievous.' 

'  That  is,  he  reads  anafrin  instead  of  vf  ran  in  the  foregoing 

*  Or,  perhaps,  '  diis  calamity  is  at  once  announced.' 



5.  The  ceremonial  worship  (yasi^n)  which  they 
perform  in  a  fire-temple1,  when  not  done  aright,  does 
not  reach  unto  the  demons ;  but  that  which  they 
jierform  in  other  places,  when  they  do  not  perform 
it  aright,  does  reach  unto  the  demons ;  for  there  is 
no  medium  in  worship,  it  reaches  either  unto  the 
angels  or  unto  the  demons.  6.  Of  a  man  who  has 
relinquished  a  bad  habit,  and  through  his  good 
capabilities  engages  in  renunciation  of  sin 2,  the  good 
work  advances  unto  the  future  existence. 

7.  Any  one  who  shall  die  in  a  vessel  (kaxtlk)  it  is 
allowable,  for  fear  of  contamination  (paafvishak),  to 
throw  into  the  water ;  some  say  that  the  water  itself 
is  the  receptacle  for  the  dead  (khazanih). 

8.  This,  too,  is  declared:  *  When  in  the  dark  it  is 
not  allowable  to  eat  food  ;  for  the  demons  and  fiends 
seize  upon  one-third  of  the  wisdom  and  glory  of  him 
who  eats  food  in  the  dark  ; '  and  it  is  declared  by 
that  passage  (^Inak)  which  Auharmazd  spoke  to 
Zaratuit,  thus  :  'After  the  departure  of  the  light  let 
him  not  devour,  with  unwashed  hands,  the  water 
and  vegetables  of  Horvadai/and  Amerddad3;  for  if 
after  the  departure  of  the  light  thou  devourest,  with 
unwashed  hands,  the  water  and  vegetables  of  Hor- 
vadaof  and  Amerodad,  the  fiend  seizes  away  from 
thee   two-thirds   of  the    existing    original    wisdom 

1  Literally,  'in  ihe  dwelling  of  fires.'  The  fire  must  always  be 
sheltered  from  the  sun's  rays,  and  in  a  fire- temple  it  is  kept  in  a 
vaulted  cell,  with  a  door  and  one  or  two  windows  opening  into  the 
larger  closed  chamber  which  surrounds  it 

9  Kao  has,  'and  it  shall  happen  through  his  good  capabilities.' 
*  The  two  archangels  whose  chief  dunes  are  the  protection  of 
water  and  plants,  respectively  (sec  Chap.  XV,  5,  25-29,  Bund. 
IX.  2). 

CHAPTER   IX,   5-9. 


which,  when  he  seizes  it  away,  is  the  glory  and 
religion  which  are  auspicious  for  thee  that  clay,  so 
that  diligence  becomes  a  vexation  this  day 1.' 

9.  In  a  passage  of  the  fifth  fargartfof  the  Pasdn 
Nask*  it  is  declared  that  one  mentions  these  charac- 

1  This  passage  does  not  appear  to  be  now  extant  in  the  Avesta. 

1  This  was  the  sixth  nask  or '  book'  of  the  complete  Mazda- 
yasnian  literature,  according  to  the  D?nkar</,  which  calls  it  P&zi  or 
Pasag ;  but  according  to  the  I>In?-va^arkarc/  and  the  Rivayats  it 
was  the  seventh  nask,  called  Pa^arn.  For  its  contents,  as  given  by 
the  Dtnt-va^arkan/,  sec  Haug's  Essays,  pp.  128,  129.  The  follow- 
ing is  a  short  summary  of  the  account  of  it  given  in  the  eighth  book 
of  the  Dinkare/  (that  published  in  the  PahL-PSz.  Glossary,  pp.  184, 
185,  being  taken  from  the  fifteenth  nask,  whose  contents  were 
mixed  up  with  those  of  the  seventh  through  the  abstraction  of 
several  folios  from  the  Iranian  MS.  of  the  Dinkani  before  Mi 3,  or 
any  other  copy,  was  written  in  India): — 

The  Pari  (or  PSzag)  is  about  the  lawful  slaughtering  of  animals 
in  the  ceremonial  rites  of  fire  and  water  at  the  season-festivals ; 
also  where,  when,  and  how  the  festivals  are  to  be  celebrated,  their 
advantages,  and  the  duties  of  the  officiating  priests.  The  rotation 
of  days,  months,  and  years,  summer  and  winter,  the  ten  days  at  the 
end  of  the  winter,  when  the  guardian  spirits  visit  the  world,  and  the 
ceremonies  to  be  then  performed.  The  time  for  gathering  medicinal 
plants.  The  retribution  necessary  for  the  various  sins  affecting  the 
soul,  the  advantage  of  providing  for  such  retribution,  and  the  harm 
from  not  providing  it.  The  thirty-three  principal  chiefs  of  the 
spiritual  and  worldly  existences.  The  miracles  of  great  good  works, 
and  the  heinous  sinfulness  of  apostasy.  How  far  a  wife  can  give 
away  her  husband's  property,  and  when  it  is  lawful  for  him  to 
recover  it.  Whither  winter  flees  when  summer  comes  on,  and 
where  summer  goes  when  winter  comes  on.  The  amount  of 
disaster  (v6ii;hn)  in  one  century,  and  the  duration  of  everything 
connected  with  such  disaster.  The  summer  and  winter  months. 
the  names  of  the  twelve  months,  their  meaning,  and  the  angels  they 
are  devoted  to;  also  the  thirty  days  of  die  month,  and  the  five 
ii  days  at  the  end  of  the  year,  when  the  guardian  spirits  are  to 
be  reverenced. 

The  fifth  fargar«/,  quoted  in  the  text,  was  probably  that  portion 
of  the  Nask  which  described  the  duties  of  the  officiating  priests. 


teristics  of  four  kinds  of  worship  of  the  celestial 
beings  (yazdan) : — one  is  that  whose  Avesta  is  cor- 
rect, but  the  man  is  bad ;  the  second  is  that  whose 
Avesta  is  faulty  (ztfano)1,  but  the  man  is  good  ;  the 
third  is  that  whose  Avesta  is  correct,  and  the  man  is 
good ;  and  the  fourth  is  that  whose  Avesta  is  faulty 
and  the  man  is  bad.  10.  That  whose  Avesta  is 
correct,  but  the  man  bad,  the  archangels  will  ap- 
proach and  will  listen  to,  but  do  not  accept ;  that 
whose  Avesta  is  faulty,  but  the  man  good,  the  arch- 
angels and  angels2  will  approach,  but  do  not  listen 
to,  and  will  accept;  that  whose  Avesta  is  corrrn. 
and  the  man  good,  the  archangels  and  angels  will 
approach,  will  come  to,  will  listen  to,  and  will  ac- 
cept ;  that  whose  Avesta  is  faulty,  and  the  man  bad, 
they  do  not  approach,  do  not  listen  to,  and  do  not 

ii.  In  every  ceremonial  (yarijno),  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  ceremony3,  and  the  beginning  of  the 
sacred-cake  consecration  (dr6n)4,  the  angels  and 
guardian  spirits  of  the  righteous  are  to  be  invited  to 
the  ceremony.  12.  When  they  invoke  the  angrk 
they  will  accept  the  ceremony,  and  when   they  do 

1  K20  has  hGzvan,  'tongue,  speech,'  for  zifSn,  'faulty'  (com- 
pare Pers.  ztf,  'sin'),  in  all  occurrences  of  the  word. 

1  K20  omits  from  this  word  lo  'will  approach'  in  the  next 
clause  of  the  sentence. 

*  That  is,  shortly  before  beginning  the  regular  recitation  of  the 
Yasna,  the  angels,  in  whose  honour  the  ceremony  is  being  per- 
formed, are  invited  to  approach  by  reciting  their  proper  Khshnfi- 
mans,  or  propitiatory  formulas  {see  Chap.  VII,  8,  and  Haug's 
Essays,  p.  404). 

*  This  begins  with  Yas.  Ill,  r,  and  the  spirits  arc  to  be  invited 
by  adding  their  proper  Khshnumans  to  those  contained  in  Yas. 
111.  3-20  (see  Haug's  Essays,  p.  408). 

CHAPTER    IX,     IO-I2. 


not  invoke  them,  all  the  guardian  spirits  of  the 
righteous  are  to  be  invoked  at  the  beginning  of 
'  staomi ' ; '  and  when  not,  they  watch  until  the  zcords 
'  frashcV&irethram  saoshyawtSm  V  and  when  they 
shall  invoke  them  there  they  will  accept  the  cere- 
mony ;  and  when  not,  they  will  watch  until  the  wants 
'  vispau  fravashayd  ashaonam  yazamaid£  V  and 
when  they  shall  invoke  tium  there  they  will  accept4 
the  ceremony  j  and  when  not,  they  will  watch  until 
the  words  l  tausvfca  yazamaide 6 ; '  and  when  they  in- 
voke them  *  at  the  threefold  '  ashem  vohu  '  and  the 
icw^'damanam7.'  at  the  twice-/<?/^'aokhtd-namandV 
the   *ash&/  hai-aV  or  the  'yatumanahe  jfasaiti  1"/ 

1  This  may  be  al  the  '  staomi '  of  Yas.  XII,  6,  which  is  recited 
before  the  Yasna  is  commenced  ;  but  K20  alters  the  meaning  (by 
inserting  the  relative   panicle)  into  '  they  arc    to    be   invok. 
■  staomi,"   the    beginning  of  "  all    the    guardian    spirits   of   the 
righteous"  (Yas.  XXVI,  i).' 

•  Yas.  XXVI,  20. 

•  Yas.  XXVI,  34. 

4  K20  has,  '  shall  not  invoke,'  and  '  will  not  accept.' 

6  The  concluding  words  of  the  ydNhe"  hatim  formula,  probably 
of  that  one  at  the  end  of  Yas.  XXVII,  just  preceding  the  recital 
of  the  Gathas,  up  to  which  time  the  spirits  wait,  but,  if  not  invoked, 
they  are  then  supposed  to  ascend,  away  from  the  ceremony,  as 
mentioned  in  the  text. 

1  K20  has.  '  when  they  do  not  invoke  them.' 

T  Yas.  VIII,  10;  which  is  preceded  by  a  thrice-told  'ashem 
vohu,'  at  which  the  officiating  priest  tastes  the  sacred  cake,  being 
the  end  of  the  Dr6n  ceremony  (see  Haug's  Essays,  pp.  404,  408). 

'  Yas.  XXII,  33  (§§  14-33  being  recited  twice).  At  this  point 
the  officiating  priest  brings  out  the  mortar  for  pounding  the  H6m 
twigs  (see  Haug's  Essays,  p.  405);  Yas.  XXII  being  called  the 
beginning  of  the  Homast  in  the  Vijtasp  Yaxt  Sad  ah. 

1  Yas.  XXIV,  30,  when  the  officiating  priest  turns  the  mortar 
right  side  upwards. 

10  Yas.  VIII,  9,  which  is  practically  the  same  place  as  the  three- 
fold 'ashem  vohu'  '  before  mentioned. 

they  will  accept J ;  and  when  not,  they  go  up  the 
height  of  a  spear  (nlsak)  and  will  remain.  13.  And 
they  speak  thus :  '  This  man  does  not  understand 
that  it  will  be  necessary  even  for  him 2  to  go  from 
the  world,  and  our  prayer(apistan)  is  for  reminding 
men ;  it  is  not  that  our  uneasiness  arises  from  this, 
that  we  are  in  want  of  their  ceremony,  but  our  un- 
easiness arises  from  this,  that  when  they  do  not 
reverence  and  do  not  invoke  us,  when  evil  comes 
upon  them  it  is  not  possible  for  us  to  keep  it  away.' 
14.  'O  creator!  how  much  is  the  duration  in  life 
of  him  who  is  dead  ? '  And  Auharmazd  spoke  thus  : 
'As  much  as  the  wing  of  a  fly,  O  Zaratto  the  Splta- 
man !  or  as  much  as  the  hearing  a  wing  unto  a  sight- 
less one*! 

Chapter  X. 

1.  The   rule4  is  this,  that  a  sacred  thread-girdle 
(kustik)  be  three  fiugcr-oreadths  loose  transversely 


1  K20  has,  '  they  will  not  accept.' 

*  Literally,  *  for  me,'  which  seems  to  refer  to  the  man,  and  not 
to  the  spirits. 

'  This  appears  to  be  the  complete  translation  of  the  A  vesta  sen- 
tence partially  quoted  in  Pahl.  Vend.  VIII,  64 :  'yatha  makhshyau 
percnem,  yatha  va  perenahfi,'  &c.  The  last  clause  is  doubtful ; 
the  reading  adopted  here  is  £and  zak-i  shinavak-/'par  andarg 
a vcii ;ik,  as  nothing  more  satisfactory  suggests  itself;  it  might 
also  be  translated  by  'as  much  as  the  sound  of  a  wing  in  the 

4  Reading  Sinak;  Pazand  writers  convert  it  into  yak,  which 
can,  however,  have  the  same  meaning,  though  they  evidently  take 
the  word  to  be  Huz.  khadflk,  'one,'  which  is  written  precisely  like 
alnak  in  Pahlavi  characters.  Most  of  the  miscellaneous  state- 
ments, contained  in  the  latter  part  of  Sis.,  commence  with  this 

CHAPTER    IX,    I3-X,    3. 


(pavan    targun)1,    as   is    said   in    every   teaching 
(/£ajtak) 2,  and  when  it  is  less  it  is  not  proper. 

2.  The  rule  is  this,  that  the  sacred  cake  (dr6n), 
set  aside  at  the  dedication  formula  (shnumane)  on 
the  days  devoted  to  the  guardian  spirits 3,  is  to  be  used 
at  the  season-festivals,  the  Ndnabar*.  the  three 
nights'  ceremony1',  the  H6m-dr6n,  and  other  rites  of 
the  righteous  guardian  spirits ;  and  when  they  shall 
not  do  so,  according  to  some  teachings,  it  is  not 

3.  In  the  exposition  (£aJtak)  of  the  Niha//um 
Nask*  it  says  that  a  man  is  going  to  commit  rob- 

1  That  is,  round  the  waist  {sec  Chap.  IV,  1). 

*  That   is,  'interpretation    or   exposition'  (see  Chap.  I,  3, 

K20  has,  'and  by  every  teaching  it  is  proper.' 

■  These  fravar</tk3n  are,  strictly  speaking,  the  five  supple- 
mentary days  at  the  end  of  the  Parsi  year,  but  the  last  five  days  of 
the  last  month  are  usually  added  10  them,  so  as  to  make  a  period 
of  ten  days  at  the  end  of  the  year,  during  which  the  guardian 
spirits  of  the  departed  are  supposed  to  revisit  their  old  homes,  and 
for  whom  the  sacred  cake  is  set  aside. 

•  The  initiatory  ceremony  of  a  young  priest  (see  Chap.  XIII,  2). 
'  The  ceremonies  performed  by  the  survivors  for  three  nights 

after  a  death  (see  Chaps.  VIII,  6,  XVII,  3,  4). 

•  This  was  the  fifteenth  nask  or  'book'  of  the  complete  Maz- 
dayasnian  literature,  according  to  the  DJnkar*/,  which  calls  it  Niki- 
</um ;  but  according  to  the  Dini-va^arkanf  and  the  Riv&yats  it  was 
the  sixteenth  nask,  called  Niyarum.  For  its  contents,  as  given  by 
the  Dini-va^arkar*/,  see  Haug's  Essays,  p.  132.  The  following 
is  a  brief  summary  of  the  account  of  it  given  in  the  eighth  book 
of  the  Dinkan/,  where  it  occupies  twenty-five  quarto  pages  of  tltac 
work : — 

The  beginning  of  the  law  (did)  is  the  N!ka</um  of  thirty  far- 
ganrs.  The  section  Patkar-rat/istdn  ('the  arbitrator's  code')  is 
about  umpires  and  arbitration,  contracts  by  words  of  four  kinds 
and  by  signs  of  six  kinds ;  and  twelve  sorts  of  arbitrators  are 
described  in  four  sub-sections,  according  as  they  decide  by  hearing 
or  seeing,  and  with  regard  to  women  and  children,  foreigners  and 

hery, and  a  wall  falls  in  upon  him,  it  is  his  destroyer: 
when  a  man  strikes  at  him  he  is  his  adversary,  and 
both  are  in  sinfulness  ;  when  he  is  going  to  perform 
the  worship  of  God  (ya^i^n6-i  yazdan6)  both  of 
them  arc  in  innocence. 

4.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  a  woman  beconn 
pregnant,  as  long  as  it  is  possible,  the  fire  is  to  be 
maintained  most  carefully  in  the  dwelling,  because 
it   is   declared   in   the   Spend  Naskx  that  towards 


those  worthy  of  death.  The  second  section,  Zat/amistSn  ('the 
assault  code '),  is  a  treatise  on  assault  and  the  consequences  of 
assault,  pain,  blood,  and  unconsciousness;  on  blows  and  conflicts, 
man  with  man,  women  with  women,  and  child  with  child,  with 
their  proper  penalties;  also  the  murder  of  slaves  and  children. 
The  third  section,  R£shistan  ('  the  wound  code'),  is  a  treatise  on 
various  kinds  of  wounds  and  their  characteristics.  The  fourth 
section,  Hame'maMistan  ('the  accuser's  code'),  is  a  treatise  on 
accusation  and  false  accusation  of  various  specified  crimes,  on 
lying  and  slander,  the  care  of  pregnant  women,  impenitence  and 
various  offences  against  priests  and  disciples,  remitting  penalties, 
abetting  and  assisting  criminals,  mediation,  punishment  of  children, 
smiting  foreigners,  murder,  medical  treatment,  and  many  otl 
things  (see  Paid. -Paz.  Glossary,  p.  184,  where  they  are  erroneous!) 
ascribed  to  the  Fason  Nask,  owing  to  the  defective  text  of 
MS.  Mi 3).  The  fifth  section  contained  twenty-four  treatises  on 
miscellaneous  subjects  connected  with  crime  and  sin  (see  Pahl.- 
Paz.  Glossary,  pp.  184,  185), 

The  passage  mentioned  in  the  text  cannot  be  recognised  in  anj 
of  the  details  supplied  by  the  Dlnkan/. 

1  This  was  the  thirteenth  nask  or  'book'  of  the  complete  Maz- 
dayasnian  literature,  according  to  all  authorities,  but  is  called  Sfend 
in  the  Rivayats.  For  its  contents,  as  given  by  the  Dfni-vafarkarr/, 
see  Haug's  Essays,  pp.  131,  132.  The  following  is  a  summary 
of  the  short  account  of  it  given  in  the  eighth  book  of  the 
DJnkarrf  :— 

The  Spend  is  a  treatise  on  die  origin  and  combination  of  the 
existence,  guardian  spirit,  and  glory  of  Zaratuxt ;  on  his  generation 
and  birth ;  on  the  coming  of  the  two  spirits,  the  good  one  to  sus- 
tain, and  the  bad  one  to  destroy  him,  and  the  victory  of  the  good 





CHAPTER    X.    4,    5.  317 

Dukdav1,  the  mother  of  ZaratiLst,  when  she  whs 
pregnant  with  Zaratuit,  for  three  nights,  every 
night  a  leader  (khu</a)8  with  a  hundred  and  fifty 
demons  rushed  for  the  destruction  of  Zaratilvt,  but 
owing  to  the  existence  of  the  fire  in  the  dwelling 
they  knew  no  means  of  accomplishing  it. 

5.  The  rule  is  this,  that  they  have  a  tank  (md.f) 
for  the  disciples,  when  they  are  going  to  perform 
the  worship  of  God,  and  are  sprinkling  the  stone 
scat  (mag6k)  * ;  and  lest  they  should  make  a  wet 
place  by  that  sprinkling  through  taking  water  out 
from  it,  it  is  to  be  done  sitting;  for  in  the  Vendi- 
dad5   the    high-priests    have    taught,  about    making 

Spirit :  on  his  going,  at  thirty  years  of  age,  lo  confer  with  AOhar- 
mazd,  and  his  seven  conferences  in  ten  years;  on  the  seven 
questions  he  proposed  to  the  archangels  on  those  occasions; 
on  the  conveyance  of  the  omniscient  wisdom  into  him,  showing 
him  heaven  and  hell,  and  the  intermediate  place  of  those  'ever- 
stationary,'  the  account  taken  of  sin  and  good  works,  the  future 
existence,  and  the  fate  of  tlie  religion  on  earth  till  the  renovation 
of  the  universe,  with  die  coming  of  his  future  sons,  the  last  three 

1  The  Paz.  Dughda  of  flund.  XXXII,  to  would  indicate  Pahl. 
DQkdan,  but  the  Dtnkan/  has  Duk</iub&  and  Dukrfaubag 
(pointing  to  Av.  Dug  hd  ha  van),  and  the  Persian  forms  are 
Pughdu  and  Dujrhdavlh.  Here  the  name  is  Dukdavo,  which 
is  transposed  into  Du</kSv  in  Chap.  XII,  11  ;  it  must  liave  meam 
either  '  milk-maid '  or  *  suckler '  originally. 

*  K20  has  jeVa,  *a  demon/  and  in  Chap.  XII,  11,  where  this 
section  is  repeated,  the  word  can  be  read  either  jeda,  'a  demon,' 
or  shah,  4a  king  or  ruler;'  of  course  ■  an  arch-fiend  '  is  meant. 

*  M6  appears  to  have  '  sixty/  instead  of '  fifty/  but  sec  Chap. 
XII,  11. 

*  Or  magh,  on  which  they  squat  in  the  purification  ceremony 
(see  I!.  Yt.  II,  36). 

*  Referring  probably  to  Pahl.  Vend.  XVIII,  98  ;  the  ground  is 
not  to  be  wetted  further  than  the  length  of  the  fore-part  of  die  fool 
beyond  the  toes,  that  is.  not  more  than  a  hand's  breadth;    this 


water  when  standing  on  foot1,  that  the  measure  it 
refers  to  applies  to  everything  else,  not  even  of  a 
like  origin  ;  by  him  who  makes  water  the  Avesta 3 
for  making  water  is  to  be  uttered,  and  then  it  is  the 
root  of  a  Tanapuhar  sin 3  for  him,  and  when  he  does 
not  utter  it  he  is  more  grievously  sinful. 

6.  The  rule  is  this,  that  to  recite  the  Gathas 
over  those  passed  away  is  not  to  be  considered 
as  beneficial,  since  it  is  not  proper  to  recite  the 
three  Has4  which  are  the  beginning  of  the  AOnQ^at 
Gatha  whenever  one  is  on  the  road ;  whenever  one 
recites   them   over  a    man    in    the    house    t/iey    are 


7.  The  rule  is  this,  that  in  the  night  wine  and 
aromatic  herbs  (sparam)  and  anything  like  food  are 
not  to  be  cast  away  towards  the  north  quarter,  be- 
cause a  fiend  6  will  become  pregnant ;  and  when  one 
casts  them  away  one  Yatha-ahu-vairyd  ■  is  to  be 

measure  is  here  extended  to  washing  water,  hence  the  necessity  of 
squatting  during  such  ablutions. 

1  This  is  a  sin  which  is  usually  classed  with  '  running  about 
uncovered '  and  '  walking  with  one  boot '  (see  Chap.  IV,  8.  note). 

*  This  Avesta  is  prescribed  in  Vend.  XVIII,  97,  and  is  still  in 
constant  use;  it  consists  of  three  Ashem-vohfis  (sec  Bund.  XX,  2), 
two  Humatanams  (Yas.  XXXV,  4-6),  three  Hukhshalhrdtemiis 
(Ya&  XXXV,  13-15),  four  Ahunavars  (see  Bund.  I,  21),  and  one 
YcNhe-hatara  (see  B.  Yt.  II,  64). 

•  See  Chap.  I,  1,  2. 

*  The  three  chapters  (Yas.  XLU-XLIV)  which  begin  the  Uxta- 
vaiti  Gdtha  (Yas.  XLII-XLV). 

5  A  dru^,  or  fiend,  is  usually  considered  as  a  female  demon 
(see  Vend.  XVIII,  70—77);  and  the  demons  are  supposed  to  come 
from  the  north,  where  they  congregate  on  the  summit  of  Arczftr, 
at  the  gates  of  hell  (see  Vend.  XIX,  1,  140,  142,  Bund.  XII,  8). 

•  See  Bund.  I,  21.    This  statement  is  repeated  in  Chap.  XII,  18. 

CHAPTER   X,    6-1  I. 


8.  The  rule  is  this,  that  reverential  should  be 
the  abstinence  from  unlawfully  slaughtering  of  any 
species  of  animals ;  for  in  the  Stud'gar  Nask x  it  is 
said,  concerning  those  who  have  unlawfully  slaugh- 
tered animals,  the  punishment  is  such  that  each  hair 
of  those  animals  becomes  like  a  sharp  dagger  (tekh), 
and  he  who  is  unlawfully  a  slaughterer  is  slain.  9. 
Of  animals,  the  slaughtering  of  the  lamb,  the  goat 
|v;ihik),  the  ploughing  ox,  the  war-horse,  the  hare, 
the  bat  (/^Ihara^),  the  cock  or  bird  of  Vohuman, 
and  the  magpie  (kasklnak)  bird,  and  of  birds  that 
of  the  kite,  eagle  (humal),  and  swallow  is  most  to 
be  abstained  from. 

10.  A  pregnant  woman  who  passes  away  is  not  to 
be  carried  away  by  less  than  four  men  2,  who  are  at 
it  constantly  with  united  strength ;  for  with  other 
corpses,  after  a  dog's  gaze,  when  they  carry  them 
along  by  two  men  with  united  strength,  they  do  not 
become  polluted ;  but  for  a  pregnant  woman  two 
dogs  are  necessary,  to  whose  united  power  she  is  to 
be  exposed ;  and  they  carry  Iter  along  by  four  men 
with  united  strength,  and  they  do  not  become  pol- 
luted ;  but  when  they  carry  her  along  by  two  men 
they  are  to  be  washed  with  ceremony  (pi^ak)8. 

11.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  they  beg  forgive- 
ness for  a  person  (mar^um)  who  has  passed  away, 

1  See  B.  Yt.  1, 1.  The  passage  here  referred  to  is  probably  one 
in  the  middle  of  the  seventeenth  fargar«f  of  this  Nask,  which  is 
mentioned  as  follows,  in  the  ninth  book  of  the  Dinkarrf:  'And 
this  too,  namely,  those  who  unlawfully  slay  sheep  and  cattle,  which 
diminishes  their  life  and  glory.' 

*  This  is  the  usual  custom,  while  that  mentioned  in  Chap.  II,  6 
is  the  exceptional  case,  mentioned  at  the  end  of  this  section,  which 
necessitates  extraordinary  purification. 

•  That  is,  with  the  Bareshnum  ceremony  (see  Chap.  II,  6). 

such  a  prayer  is  more  significant  when  one  says  thus  : 
'Whenever  a  trespass  (vinas)  of  mine  has  occurred 
against  him,  you  will  take  account  of  it  along-  with 
those  of  his  which  have  occurred  against  me,  and 
the  trespasses  have  passed  away  one  through  the 
other ;  any  further  trespasses  of  his  -which  have  oc- 
curred against  me  are  then  made  a  righteous  gift 
by  me  V 

12.  The  rule  is  this,  that  one  should  not  walk 
without  boots  * ;  and  his  advantage  therefrom  is 
even  this,  that  when  a  boot  (mu^ak)  is  on  his  foot, 
and  he  puts  the  foot  upon  dead  matter,  and  does 
not  disturb  the  dead  matter,  he  does  not  become 
polluted  ;  when  a  boot  is  not  on  his  foot,  and  he  puts 
the  foot  upon  dead  matter,  and  does  not  disturb  it, 
he  is  polluted*,  except  when  he  knows  for  certain 
(aevar)  that  a  dog  lias  seen  it,  or  if  not  it  is  to  be 
considered  as  not  seen  by  a  dog  \ 

1 3.  The  rule  is  this,  as  revealed  in  the  Dubasru- 
gfbd  Naskh,  where  a  day  in  the  year  is  indicated, 

1  That  is,  I  pardon  them  in  charity. 

*  Or,  perhaps,  'without  stockings,"  avtmu^ak;  this  seems  to 
be  something  different  from  the  sin  of  afi-muk-dflbari.rn  ih, 
'  running  in  one  boot'  (see  Chap.  IV,  12). 

Without  these  words,  which  do  not  exist  in  the  MSS.,  the  se 
tence  seems  to  have  no  clear  meaning. 

4  And,  therefore,  still  containing  the  Nasoi,  or  fiend  of  corrup- 
tion, who  will  enter  into  any  one  who  merely  touches  the  dead 
matter,  without  disturbing  it,  and  can  be  driven  out  only  by  the 
tedious  and  troublesome  Bareshnum  ceremony. 

4  This  was  the  sixteenth  nask  or  '  book'  of  the  complete  Maz- 
dayasnian  literature,  according  to  the  Dinkan/,  which  calls  it 
DubasrG^f*/  or  DGbasrurf;  but  according  to  the  Dini-va,parkar</. 
which  calls  it  Dvasruzd,  and  the  Rivayats,  which  call  it  DvSsrfl^ad, 
DvJisrun^ad,  or  DvSsrub,  it  was  the  eighteenth  nask.  For  its  con- 
tents, as  given  by  the  Dfnt-va^'arkar*/,  see  Haug's  Essays,  pp.  13a, 
133.     The  following  is  a  brief  summary  of  the  account  of  it  given 


CHAPTER    X,    12-14. 


that  the  sacred  lAread-g\rd\e  of  every  one  who  shall 
be  one  day  more  than  fourteen  years  and  three 
months  old  is  to  be  tied  on — it  is  better  so  than 
when  he  remains  unto  fifteen  years,  and  then  ties  on 
the  girdle — who  is  more  cared  for,  that  way,  than  a 
five-months'  child  \  on  whom  they  should  put  it  in 
the  womb  of  its  mother. 

14.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  one  retains  a 
prayer  inwardly*  %  and  wind  shall  come  from  below, 
or  wind  shall  come  from  the  mouth,  it  is  all  one3. 

in  the  eighth  book  of  the  Dinkar</,  which  occupies  ten  quarto  pages 
of  that  work  : — 

Of  the  first  eighteen  sections  of  the  Dflbasru^  the  first  is  a 
treatise  on  thieves,  their  arrest,  imprisonment,  and  punishment, 
with  the  various  kinds  of  robbery ;  the  second  section  is  about  the 
irresponsibility  of  a  father  for  the  crimes  of  a  grown-up  son,  and 
of  a  husband  for  those  of  a  separated  wife,  about  the  time  for 
instructing  children,  and  when  they  first  become  responsible  for 
the  crime  of  giving  weapons  to  women,  children,  and  foreigners, 
about  warriors  plundering,  the  various  kinds  of  judges  and  their 
duties,  and  offences  against  accusers.  Of  the  twelve  next  sections 
one,  called  Pasu-r-horvistan  (' the  shepherd's  dog  code '),  is  about 
shepherd's  dogs,  their  duties  and  rights.  Of  the  last  thirty-five 
sections  the  first,  called  Sl6ristSn  ('  the  beast  of  burden  code'),  is 
about  the  sin,  affecting  the  soul,  of  unlawfully  beating  and  wow 
cattle  and  beasts  of  burden,  birds  and  fish ;  the  second  section, 
Ar^istan  ('the  value  code  ').  is  a  treatise  on  the  value  of  animate 
and  inanimate  objects;  the  third  section,  Arate>tarist&n  ('the 
warrior  code'),  is  a  treatise  on  warriors,  arms,  armies,  generals, 
battles,  plunder,  &c. ;  the  fourth  section  is  about  warm  baths,  fires, 
clothing,  winter  stores,  reaping  fodder  and  corn,  &c. 

The  passage  mentioned  in  the  text  was  probably  in  that  part  of 
the  second  section  which  referred  to  the  responsibility  of  children 
The  words  from  'as  revealed'  to  ' indicated '  are  omitted  in  K20, 

1   K20  has  '  nine-months'  child.' 

■  See  Chap.  Ill,  6. 

•  Literally,  '  both  are  one ; '  that  is,  in  either  case  the  spell  of 
the  skg  or  prayer  is  broken. 

[5]  Y 



Also  this,  that 


15.  Also  tnis,  tnat  ten  women  are  necessary  tor 
affording  assistance  to  a  woman  who  is  in  labour : 
five  women  for  directing  the  making  of  the  cradle 
(gavarak),  one  woman  should  be  opposite  the  left 
shoulder,  and  one  to  hold  the  right  shoulder,  one 
woman  to  throw  a  hand  on  her  neck,  one  woman  to 
hold  her  waist,  and  one  woman,  when  the  infant 
shall  be  born,  to  take  it  up  and  cut  the  navel  cord, 
and  to  make  the  fire  blaze  '.  16.  Three  days  and 
three  nights  no  one  is  to  pass  between  the  fire  and 
the  child,  nor  to  show  the  child  to  a  sinful  man  or 
woman;  they  are  to  triturate  a  little  sulphur  in  the 
sap  (may a)  of  a  plant,  and  to  smear  it  over  the 
child;  and  the  first  food  to  give  it  is  H6m-juice 
(parah6m)  and  aloes  (shapy&r). 

1 7.  The  rule  is  this,  that  in  case  any  one  shall 
beat  an  innocent  man,  until  the  pain  shall  cease  it 
becomes  every  day  the  root  of  a  Tanapuhar  sin2 
for  him. 

18.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  in  a  country  they 
trust  a  false  judge,  and  keep  him  among  their  su- 
periors, owing  to  the  sin  and  breach  of  faith  which 
that  judge  commits,  the  clouds  and  rain,  in  that 
country,  are  deficient,  a  portion  (bavan)  of  die  deli- 
ciousness,  fatness,  wholesomeness,  and  milk  of  the 
cattle  and  goats  diminishes3,  and  many  children  be- 
come destroyed  in  the  mother's  womb. 

19.  The  rule  is  this,  that  a  man,  when  he  does 
not  wed  a  wife,  does  not  become  worthy  of  death ; 
but  when    a   woman   does  not   wed   a   husband    it 

1  Literally,  '  make  the  fire  high.' 
9  See  Chap.  I,  i,  2. 

*  Most  of  these  evils  are  also  ascribed  (see  B.  Yt.  II,  41-43)  to 
neglect  of  the  precautions  prescribed  with  regard  to  hair-cuttings. 

CHAPTER    X,   15-21, 


amounts  to  a  sin  worthy  of  death ;  because  for  a 
woman  (litre  is  no  offspring  except  by  intercourse 
with  men,  and  no  lineage  proceeds  from  her;  but 
for  a  man  without  a  wife,  when  he  shall  recite  the 
A  vesta,  as  it  is  mentioned  in  the  Vendidad1,  /here 
may  be  a  lineage  which  proceeds  onwards  to  the 
future  existence. 

20.  The  rule  is  this,  that  a  toothpick  is  to  be  cut 
out  clear  of  bark  (p6st  pak) 2,  for  the  high-priests 
have  taught  that  when  one's  toothpick — made  for 
the  mouth  with  the  bark — shall  fall,  and  when  a 
pregnant  woman  puts  a  foot  upon  it,  she  is  appre- 
hensive about  its  being  dead  matter3. 

21.  The  rule  is  this,  that  in  accepting  the  child  of 
a  handmaid  (X-akar)4  discrimination  is  to  be  exer- 
cised; for  in  the  fourteenth  of  the  Nask  Husparam5 

1  This  reference  is  probably  to  the  circumstances  detailed  in 
Vend.  XVIII,  99-112,  but  the  Pahlavi  commentary  on  §§  1 11,  112 
of  that  passage  is  missing  in  all  MSS.  The  A vesta  to  be  recited 
n  such  cases  is  precisely  the  same  as  that  detailed  in  a  note 
on  §5. 

1  This  translation  is  in  accordance  with  Lhe  seventeenth  chapter 

of  the  prose  Sad-dar  Bundahij,  or  '  BQndahu-  of  a  hundred  chapters,' 

i  Pizand  work  of  later  times ;  but  the  text  here  might  be  translated 

cut  out  of  clean  skin,'  and  in  Chap.  XII,  13,  uhere  the  statement 

is  repeated,  the  word  used  is  also  ambiguous. 

'  The  Sad-dar  BQndahir  says,  '  the  fear  arises  that  the  infant 
may  come  to  harm.'  This  section  and  the  three  which  follow  are 
repeated  in  Chap.  XII,  13-16. 

'  This  might  mean  a  *akar,  or  'serving'  wife  (see  Bund. 
XXXII,  6),  but  the  further  details  given  in  Chap.  XII,  14,  where 
this  statement  is  repeated,  make  it  more  probable  that  a  concubine 
is  meant. 

'  As  this  was  the  seventeenth  nask  or  'book'  of  the  complete 
Mazdayasnian  literature,  according  to  all  authorities,  it  is  probable 
that  the  word  '  fourteenth,'  in  the  text  here,  refers  to  Borne  parti- 
cular chapter  or  fargar//",  most  likely  to  the  last  group  of  fourteen 

Y  2 



the  high-priests  have  taught  thus :  '  My  son  is  suit- 
able also  as  thy  son,  but  my  daughter  is  not  suitable 
also  as  thy  daughter.' 

sections,  mentioned  below,  in  the  summary  of  its  contents ;  and 
this  is  confirmed  by  anodicr  reference  in  Chap.  XII,  7.  This 
nask  is  called  Asparam  in  die  Rivayats,  and  Asparum  in  the 
Dini-va^arkar</;  for  its  contents,  as  given  by  the  latter,  see  Haug's 
Essays,  p.  133.  The  following  is  a  brief  summary  of  the  account 
of  it  given  in  the  eighth  book  of  the  Dtnkarrf,  where  it  occupies 
sixteen  quarto  pages  of  that  work : — 

Of  the  first  thirty  sections  of  the  Husparam,  one  is  the  Aerpa- 
tistdn  {'the  priest's  code'),  a  treatise  on  priesdy  studies,  priests, 
disciples,  and  their  five  dispositions.  One  section  is  the  Nfran- 
gistan  {'religious  formula  code'),  a  treatise  on  the  formulas  of 
worship,  the  Avesta  to  be  recited  by  the  officiating  priests  twice, 
thrice,  and  four  times,  the  five  periods  of  the  day  and  their  proper 
ceremonies,  the  season- festivals,  the  sacred  girdle  and  shirt,  cutting 
the  sacred  twigs,  reverencing  water,  the  families  of  ZaratQjt,  Hv6v, 
and  YLrtasp,  &c.  One  section  is  the  Goharikistan  ('quality 
code '),  a  treatise  on  nobility  and  superiority,  buying  and  selling, 
cattle,  slaves,  servants,  nnd  other  property,  houses  where  men  or 
dogs  have  been  sick,  dealings  with  foreigners.  &c.  And  other 
sections  are  about  appropriating  the  property  of  others,  obedient 
and  disobedient  wives,  foreign  wives,  advantages  of  male  and 
female  offspring,  breeding  of  cattle,  treatment  of  labourers  and 
children,  the  evil  eye,  judges,  the  origin  and  cultivation  of  corn,  the 
degrees  of  crime  and  punishment,  Ac.  Of  the  next  twenty  sec- 
tions, one  is  about  the  treatment  of  furious  cattle  and  mad  dogs, 
and  the  damage  they  may  do.  One  section  on  the  means  of 
accumulating  wealth,  the  giving  of  sons  and  daughters  in  marriage, 
the  goodness  of  charily  and  evil  of  waste,  the  five  best  actions 
and  the  five  worst,  unlawful  felling  of  trees,  the  sin  of  burying  the 
dead,  &c.  And  one  section  on  the  begetting,  birth,  and  treatment 
of  children.  Of  the  last  fourteen  sections,  one  is  a  treatise,  in  six 
fargan/s,  on  the  ownership  of  property  and  disputes  about  it, 
on  ones  own  family,  acquiring  wife  and  children,  adoption,  &c. 
And  a  section  of  seven  fargarc/s,  at  the  end,  is  a  treatise  on  the 
sufferings  of  men,  women,  children,  and  dogs,  on  the  connection 
of  owner  and  herds,  priest  and  disciple,  on  various  offences  and 
sins,  spiritual  and  worldly  healing,  physic  and  physicians,  astrology, 

CHAPTER    X,   2  2-24. 


22.  The  rule  is  this,  that  one  perseveres  much  in 
the  begetting  of  offspring,  for  the  acquisition  of 
abundance  of  good  works  at  once ;  because,  in  the 
Niha^um  Nask \  the  high-priests  have  taught  that 
the  duty  and  good  works  which  a  son  performs  are 
as  much  the  father's  as  though  they  had  been  clone 
by  his  own  hand;  and  in  the  Damda^  Naskz  it  is 
revealed  thus:  'Likewise,  too,  the  good  works,  in 
like  measure,  which  come  into  the  fathers  pos- 

23.  The  rule  is  this,  that  they  shall  give  to  the 
worthy  as  much  of  anything  as  is  proper  for  eating 
and  accumulating ;  because  in  the  Nihart'um  Nask* 
the  high-priests  have  taught  thus :  '  A  man  gives  a 
hungry  one  bread,  and  it  is  too  much,  yet  all  the 
good  works,  which  he  shall  perform  through  that 
superabundance,  become  as  much  his  who  gave  it  as 
though  they  had  been  done  by  his  own  hand.' 

24.  The  rule  is  this,  where  one  lies  down,  in  cir- 
cumstances of  propriety  and  innocence,  one  Ashem- 
vohu  is  to  be  uttered  \  and  in  like  manner  when  he 

proper  feeding  of  catlle,  horses,  sheep,  goats,  afid  pigs,  the 
duty  of  a  frontier  governor  during  a  foreign  invasion,  &c. 

The  passage  mentioned  in  the  text  was  probably  in  that  portion 
of  the  last  group  of  fourteen  sections  which  treated  of  wives, 
children,  and  adoption. 

1  See  5  3  ;  the  passage  mentioned  here  cannot  be  traced  in  the 
account  of  this  Nask  given  in  the  Dfokart/. 

•  See  SZS.  IX,  1.  The  passage  here  quoted  cannot  he  traced 
in  any  of  the  short  accounts  of  the  contents  of  this  Nask.  This 
section  is  repeated,  with  a  few  verbal  alterations,  in  Chap.  XII,  15. 

5  See  §  3  ;  the  passage  here  quoted  is  also  not  to  be  traced  in 
the  account  of  this  Nask  given  in  the  Dinkan/.  This  section 
is  repeated,  with  a  few  verbal  alterations,  in  Chap.  XII,  16. 

*  Compare  Chap.  IV,  14,  where  much  the  same  is  stated  as 
what  occurs  in  this  section. 

gets  up  well ;  when  he  does  so,  every  single  draw- 
ing of  the  breath  (vay6)  becomes  a  good  work  of 
three  Sr6sh6-£aranams,  that  is,  a  weight  of  ten 
dirhams  of  the  full  weight  of  four  mads1. 

25.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  an  action  or  a 
opinion    comes   forward,   and   one  does   not    know 
whether  it  be  a  sin  or  a  good  work,  when  possible 
it  is   to  be  abandoned  and  not  executed   by  him  ; 
as  it  says  in  the  Sakartftm  Nask'1  that  Zaraturt  has 



1  Reading  i  mad-4,  instead  of  va  maz-4;  the  word  mad  (s 
Pahl.-I'Sz.  Glossary,  p.  21)  being  Huz.  for  the  dSng  or  quarter 
dirham.  The  amount  of  the  Srdsho-foraniim,  as  deduced  from 
this  statement,  differs  from  those  given  in  Chaps.  XI.  2,  XVI.  5. 
and  must  be  awkwardly  fractional,  unless  the  sentence  be  altered 
into  lo^d^an  sang  ncm  zls  pflr  sang  yehevOnSt/,  'a  weight 
of  ten  dirhams  ami  a  half,  which  is  its  full  weight ; '  in  which  case 
one  Sr6sh6-£aranam  would  be  3 \  dirhams,  as  in  Chap.  XVI,  5. 

*  This  was  the  eighteenth  nask  or  'book'  of  the  complete 
Mazdayasnian  literature,  according  to  the  DJnkarrf;  but  according 
10  the  Dini-va^arkarrf  and  the  RivSyats  it  was  the  nineteenth  nask. 
railed  Askartim  or  Askaram.  For  its  contents,  as  given  by  the 
Pini-va^arkarJ,  see  Haug's  Essays,  p.  133.  The  following  is  a 
brief  summary  of  the  account  of  it  given  in  the  eighth  book  of  the 
Dinkarf/,  where  it  occupies  twenty  quarto  pages  of  that  work  : — 

Of  the  first  thirty  sections  of  the  SakaVum  one  is  a  treatise 
on  the  necessity  of  obedience  and  understanding  the  laws,  on  new- 
born infants  and  their  proper  treatment,  on  the  care  of  fire  and 
sharp-pointed  things,  on  race-courses,  the  use  of  water,  salt  and 
sweet,  warm  and  cold,  flowing  and  stagnant,  &c.  One  section  is 
the  Ha/iir/akanistSn  ('annoyances  code'),  a  treatise  on  irritating 
words  and  ill-Treatment  of  living  creatures  and  trees,  the  finding  of 
buried  treasure  at  various  depths  and  in  different  places,  &c.  And 
one  section  is  the  Ziyanakistdn  ('damage  code'),  a  treatise  on 
damage  to  animate  and  inanimate  objects.  Of  the  last  twenty-two 
sections,  one  is  the  Vakhshistin  ('  increase  code'),  a  treatise  on 
the  progress  of  growth,  breeding  of  cattle  and  other  animals,  plead- 
ings regarding  debts,  growth  of  corn,  &c.  One  section  is  the 
VaristAn  ('ordeal  code  '),  a  treatise  on  the  detection  of  witchcraft 
by  ordeal,  by  heat  and  cold,  &c.     One  section  on  asking  assistanc 

not  provided  about  everything  whatever,  but  three 
times  it  has  been  done  by  Zaraturt  about  this  duty, 
that  is,  so  that  the  Avesta  and  Zand,  when  one  has 
learned  it  thoroughly  by  heart1,  is  for  recitation,  and 
is  not  to  be  mumbled'  (^Qyi-fno),  for  in  mumbling 
(f{ii/an6)  the  parts  of  the  Ahunavar3  are  more 
chattering*.       26.  As  it  says  in   the   Bagh   Nask* 

and  rewarding  it,  on  the  unjust  judge  and  the  sagacious  one,  on 
daughters  given  in  marriage  by  mothers  and  brothers,  on  the  dis- 
obedient son,  &c.  And  one  section  on  the  spirits  of  the  earthly 
existences,  the  merit  of  killing  noxious  waler-crcaturcs,  the  animal 
world  proceeding  from  the  primeval  ox,  the  evil  spirit  not  to  be 
worshipped,  and  much  other  advice. 

The  passage  mentioned  in  the  text  appears  to  have  been  in  the 
first  section  of  this  Nask,  as  the  Dtnkarrf  says  it  treated,  among 
other  matters,  '  about  a  man's  examining  an  action  before  doing  it, 
and  when  he  does  not  know  whether  //  it  a  sin  or  a  good  work, 
when  possible,  he  is  to  set  it  aside  and  not  to  do  it.'  But  nothing 
it  aid  there  about  Zaratuyt,  and  what  is  said  here  seems  to  have 
very  little  connection  with  the  ■  rule '  laid  down  in  this  section. 

'  Literally,  '  made  it  quite  easy.' 

*  Literally, '  not  to  be  devoured  or  gnawed.' 

•  The  formula  commencing  with  the  words  Yatha  ah  ft  v  airy  6 
(see  Bund.  I,  21);  its  parts  or  bagha  arc  the  phrases  into  which 
it  may  be  divided  (see  Yas.  XIX,  4,  6,  9,  12). 

*  Reading  draftar,  'more  clamourous  or  chattering;'  but  the 
word  is  ambiguous,  as  it  may  be  daraktar,  'more  rending,'  or 
giraitar,  '  more  weighty,  more  threatening,'  &c. 

•  M6  has  Bak.  This  was  the  third  nask  or  'book'  of  the 
complete  Mazdayasnian  literature,  according  to  the  Dinkare/, 
which  calls  it  Bakd ;  but  according  to  the  Dfni-va^arkarrf 
and  the  Rivayats  it  was  the  fourth  nask.  For  its  contents,  as 
given  by  the  Dinf-va^arkan/,  see  Haug's  Essays,  p.  127.  In 
the  Dlnkar//,  liesides  a  very  brief  account  of  it,  in  the  eighth 
book,  which  states  that  it  was  a  treatise  on  the  recitation  of  the 
revealed  texts,  there  is,  in  the  ninth  book,  a  long  description  of 
the  contents  of  each  of  its  twenty-two  fargarc/s,  occupying  fifty 
quarto  pages  in  the  MSS.  of  the  Dinkan/.  From  this  it  appears 
that  tl>e  passage  quoted  in  our  text  probably  occurred  in  the  first 




tli us  :  '  Whoever  shall  mutter,  O  Zaraturt !  my  allot- 
ment of  the  Ahunavar ' — that  is,  shall  softly  take  it 
inwardly — and  shall  let  it  escape8  again — that  is, 
shall  utter  it  aloud — so  much  as  a  half,  or  one-third, 
or  one-fourth,  or  one-fifth,  his  soul  will  I  shield, 
I  who  am  Auharmazd,  from  the  best  existence — 
that  is,  I  will  keep  it  away — by  so  much  of  an 
interval  as  the  width  of  this  earth.' 

27.  The  rule  is  this,  that  one  is  to  proceed  with 
great  deliberation  when  he  does  not  know  whether 
it  be  a  sin  or  a  good  work,  that  is,  it  is  not  to  be 

28.  The  rule  is  this,  that  an  opinion  (andasak) 
of  anything  is  to  be  formed   through   consultation 

fargarn/.  It  also  occurs,  in  nearly  the  same  words,  in  Pahl.  Yas. 
XIX.  12-15,  and  as  Yas.  XIX  is  called  'the  beginning  of  the 
Bak.'tn '  in  some  MSS.,  it  is  possible  that  the  three  Has  (Yas. 
X1X-XXI)  which  relate  lo  the  three  short  Avesta  formulas  are 
really  the  first  tlmv  fnrganfi  of  the  Bagh  Nask,  which  are  said  to 
have  treated  of  the  same  subjects. 

1  The  text  is  corrupted  inio  min  zak-i  It,  Zaratti-rt!  b£jtjirfh-i 
min  Ahunavar  drQ^ist,  which  might  be  translated,  in  connection 
with  the  following  phrase,  thus:  'Of  my  vexation,  OZaraturtl  from 
the  Ahunavar,  ilje  most  fiendish  is  that  one  shall  softly  take  //,'  &c. 
But  very  slight  alterations  of  the  Pahlavi  letters  (in  accordance  with 
Pahl.  Yas.  XIX,  12)  convert  min  into  mun,  b£jtSrfh  into  bSkh- 
tarfh,  and  dru^ist  into  dren^-arf.  Instead  of  'allotment  of  the 
Ahunavar '  we  might  read  '  predestination,  or  providence,  from  the 
Ahunavar ; '  because  the  Pahlavi  translator,  by  using  the  word 
bakhlarih  or  bakhtarih,  appears  to  have  understood  the  Av. 
bagha  in  its  sense  of  'divinity,  providence,'  rather  than  in  that  of 
'  part,  portion.' 

•  Reading  rSntneV  or  rahoinea'.  The  Pahlavi  transl 
seems  to  think  the  sin  consists  in  breaking  the  spell  of  the  v&g  or 
inward  prayer  (see  Chap.  Ill,  6)  by  speaking  part  of  it  aloud ;  but 
the  original  Avesta  of  this  passage  attributes  the  sin  to  obscuring 
the  meaning  by  imperfect  recitation. 


CHAPTER    X,  27,  28. 

with  the  good  ;  even  so  it  is  revealed  in  the  AVrast 
Nask !  that  S|>endarma<?f  spoke  to  MantoXlhar  thus  : 
'Even  the  swiftest  horse  requires  the  whip  (tasA- 

1  This  was  the  twelfth  nask  or  *  book'  of  the  complete  Maz- 
dayasnian  literature,  according  to  the  Dfnkarrf,  which  calls  it 
A"\t/rasi6  or  A"iaY6\rt6 ;  but  according  to  the  DfnJ-va^-arkar*/  and 
the  Rivayats  it  was  the  fourteenth  nask  called  Girajt.  For  its 
contents,  as  given  by  the  Dfnf-va^arkar*/,  see  Haug's  Essays,  p.  131. 
The  following  is  a  summary  of  the  short  account  of  it  given  in 
the  eighth  book  of  the  Dinkar*/: — 

The  HTxdrdxtd  is  a  treatise  on  the  race  of  man ;  how  Auharmazd 
produced  the  first  man,  Gayomart/,  how  the  first  pair,  Mashya  and 
Mashydi,  arose,  with  their  progeny,  till  the  region  of  Khvantras  was 
lull,  when  they  supplied  the  six  surrounding  regions,  till  they  filled 
and  cultivated  the  whole  world.  The  P£fd£</ian  dynasty  of  H6- 
shang,  Takhmdru|  5,  and  Yim,  the  evil  reign  of  Dahjk,  descended 
from  Tas,  the  brother  of  Hoshang  and  father  of  the  Arabs,  then 
FreVOn  who  divided  Khvaniras  between  his  three  sons,  Salm,  Tdg; 
and  AM*,  who  married  the  daughters  of  Patsrotio"  (compare  Pahl. 
Vend.  XX,  4)  king  of  the  Arabs,  then  Mfln&rAfhar,  descendant 
(napo)  of  A?r?*,  the  penal  reign  of  Frilsiyap  ruler  of  Turan,  then 
Auz6b6  the  Tumaspian,  descendant  of  Manu^thar,  then  Kai- 
KavaV  and  the  penal  reign  of  KarsAspo.  The  Kayanian  dynasty 
of  Kai-Us,  Kai-Khusr6b  ion  of  Siy.ivakhsh,  with  many  tales  of  the 
specially  famous  races  of  Iran,  TOran,  and  Salman,  even  to  the 
reigns  of  Kat-L6harasp  and  Kat-Vutasp.  The  apostle  Zaratuxt, 
and  the  progress  of  time  and  events  from  the  reign  of  FreVun  till 
Zara tun's  conference  with  Auharmazd.  The  race  of  Manu-rXihar, 
No</ar,  and  others.  Avarethrabou's  (see  Fravardin  Yt.  106)  father, 
Atard-paV  son  of  Maraspend.  On  future  events  and  the  reign  of 
the  renovation  of  the  universe;  the  origin  of  the  knowledge  of 
occupation,  and  the  care  and  industry  of  the  period;  the  great 
acquaintance  of  mankind  with  the  putting  aside  of  injury  from  the 
adversary,  the  preservation  of  the  body,  and  the  deliverance  of  the 
soul,  both  before  and  after  the  time  of  Zaraturt. 

As  Man(Lr*ihar  is  several  times  mentioned  there  are  several 
places  in  this  Nask  where  the  statement,  quoted  in  the  text  as 
a  saying  of  Spendarma*/,  the  female  archangel  who  has  special 
charge  of  the  earth  (see  Chap.  XV,  5,  20-24,  and  Bund.  I,  26), 
may  have  occurred. 

nak),  the  sharpest  steel  knife  requires  the  whetstone 
(afsan),  and  the  wisest  man  requires  counsel  (ham- 

29.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  one  laughs  outright 
(bara  khandecV)  the  Avesta  and  Zand  are  not  to 
be  mumbled,  for  the  wisdom  of  Auharmazd  is  omni- 
xii<  nt3  and  good  works  are  a  great  exercise  of 
liberality,  but  an  extreme  abstinence  from  producing 
irritation  (hanfiafar-dahiinih) ;  because  in  the  Ra- 
tustaitih  Naskx  many  harsh  things  are  said  about 
the  severe  punishment  of  producers  of  irritation,  in 
the  spiritual  existence. 

30.  The  rule  is  this,  that  as  there  may  be  some 
even  of  those  of  the  good  religion  zu/io,  through 
unacquaintance    with    the    religion,   when  a  female 

fowl  crows  in  the  manner  of  a  cock,  will   kill   the 

:  This  was  the  seventh  nask  or  'book'  of  the  complete  Maz- 
dayasnian  literature,  according  to  the  Dfnkaiv/,  which  calls  it 
Ratfutaitf ;  but  according  to  the  Dinf-va^arkar./  and  the  Rivayats 
it  was  the  eighth  nask  called  Raturtit.  For  its  contents,  as  given 
by  the  Dfni-va^-arkar^,  see  Haug's  Essays,  p.  129.  The  following 
is  a  summary  of  the  short  account  of  it  given  in  the  eighth  book 
of  the  Dmkarc/: — 

The  Ratftffifitd  is  a  treatise  on  indispensable  religious  practices, 
the  reason  of  the  worthiness  and  superexcellenoe  in  a  purifying 
priest,  and  how  to  distinguish  worthiness  and  superexcellence  from 
unwonhincss,  in  the  priesthood  of  each  of  the  seven  regions  of  the 
earth ;  on  the  indication  and  manifestation  of  an  assemblage  of  the 
archangels,  the  formulas  and  means  to  be  employed  in  reverencing 
die  angels,  the  position  and  duties  of  the  two  officiating  priests  in 
the  ceremonies,  and  all  the  business  of  the  orderers  of  ceremoni 
with  their  various  duties ;  on  the  greatness  and  voluntariness 
good  works,  the   kinds  of  voluntariness,  and  the  proximity 
Aftharmazd  to  the  thoughts,  words,  and  deeds  of  the  materi 

It  is  uncertain  under  which  of  these  heads  the  passage  mentioned 
in  the  text  may  have  occurred. 

fowl,  so  those  of  the  primitive  faith l  have  said  that 
there  may  be  mischief  (vinastarih)  from  wizards  in 
that  dwelling,  which  the  cock  is  incapable  of  keeping 
away,  and  the  female  fowl  makes  that  noise  for  the 
assistance  of  the  cock  2,  especially  when  the  bringing 
of  another  cock  into  that  dwelling  is  necessary. 

31.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  one  sees  a  hedge- 
hog, then  along  with  it3  a  place  in  the  plain,  free 
from  danger,  is  to  be  preserved;  for  in  the  Ven- 
didad  *  the  high-priests  have  taught  that  it  is  when 
the  hedgehog  every  day  voids  urine  into  an  ant's 
nest  that  a  thousand  ants  will  die. 

32.  The  rule  is  this,  that  in  the  Vendidad6  seven 
kinds  of  things  are  mentioned,  and  when  they  are 
the  cause  of  a  man's  death,  until  the  forthcoming 
period  of  the  day  (gas-i  levin)  comes  on,  contami- 

1  Sec  Cbap.  I,  3. 

'  The  cock  is  considered  to  be  an  opponent  of  demons  and 
wizards  (see  Bund.  XIX,  33),  and  to  warn  men  against  the  seduc- 
tions of  the  demoness  of  lethargy  (see  Vend.  XVIII,  33-42,  52). 

1  Assuming  that  levatman  val  means  levatman  valman,  but 
the  reading  'he  takes  it  back  to  (lakhvar  val)  the  plain,'  which 
occurs  in  the  repetition  of  this  section  in  Chap.  XII,  20,  seems 

*  The  details  which  follow  are  to  be  found  in  Bund.  XIX,  28, 
but  they  appear  to  be  no  longer  extant  in  the  Pahlavi  Vendidad ; 
though  the  hedgehog  is  called  '  the  slayer  of  the  thousands  of  the 
evil  spirit,'  in  Vend.  XIII,  5,  of  which  passage  the  statement  in  our 
text  seems  to  be  an  illustration.    The  ant  is  considered  noxious. 

8  Vend.  VII,  5,  6,  where,  however,  eight  modes  of  death  are 
mentioned,  which  delay  the  arrival  of  the  Nasiu,  or  fiend  of  corrup- 
tion, till  the  next  period  of  the  day;  these  are  when  the  person 
has  been  killed  by  a  dog,  a  wolf,  a  wizard,  anxiety,  falling  into 
a  pit,  the  hand  of  man  as  sentenced  by  law,  illegal  violence,  or 
strangulation.  In  all  other  cases  it  is  supposed  that  the  fiend  of 
corruption  enters  the  corpse  immediately  after  death  (see  Vend. 
VII,  2-4). 



nation  (nisrujt)1  docs  not  rush  upon  him;  and  for 
this  reason,  this,  too,  is  weUfor  the  good,  that  is,  to 
show  a  dog  rightly  again  a  previous  corpse  in  the 
forthcoming  period  of  the  day  \ 

33.  The  rule  is  this,  that  by  those  who  attend  to 
a  corpse  among  the  pure  it  is  then  to  be  shown  to  a 
dog  very  observant  of  the  corpse  ;  for  when  even  a 
thousand  persons  shall  carry  away  a  corpse  which 
a  dog  has  not  seen,  they  are  all  polluted  3. 

34.  The  rule  is  this,  that  meat,  when  there  is 
stench  or  decomposition  not  even  originating  with 
it,  is  not  to  be  prayed  over  * ;  and  the  sacred  cake 
(dr6n)  and  butter  (gauj-dak)  which  are  hairy  are 
also  not  to  be  prayed  over 5. 

35.  A  woman  is  fit  for  priestly  duty  (z6tlh)  among 
women  5,  and  when  she  is  consecrating 7  the  sacred 

1  See  Bund.  XXVIII,  29. 

*  In  order  that  there  may  be  no  risk  of  the  fiend  of  corruption 
having  entered  the  corpse  after  it  was  first  exhibited  to  a  dog. 

*  This  statement  has  been  already  made  in  Chap.  II,  65. 

*  That  is,  it  is  not  to  be  used  in  any  religious  ceremony.  Small 
pieces  of  meat  are  consecrated,  along  with  the  sacred  cakes,  in  the 
DrAn  and  Afringan  ceremonies  at  certain  festivals. 

8  So  in  K20;  but  M6  has,  'the  sacred  cake  they  present,  even 
that  is  not  to  be  prayed  over.'  Although  M6  is  more  carefully 
written  than  K20,  it  seems  to  have  been  copied  from  an  original 
which  was  hardly  legible  in  some  places,  of  which  this  is  one. 
The  presence  of  a  hair  in  the  cake  or  butter  would  render  it  use- 
less for  religious  purposes. 

*  But  only  for  some  of  the  minor  priestly  offices,  such  as  conse- 
crating the  sacred  cake.  According  to  Avesta  passages,  quoted  in 
the  Nirangislan,  any  man  who  is  not  a  Tanapuhar  sinner  can  per- 
form certain  priestly  duties  for  virtuous  men,  and  any  woman  who 
is  not  feeble-minded  (kasu-khrathwa)  can  perform  them  for 

7  M6  has,  '  when  she  does  not  consecrate.' 

cake  (dron),  and  one  Ashem-vohti '  is  uttered  by 
her,  she  puts  the  sacred  twigs  (bares 6m)  back  on 
the  twig-stand,  brings  tlicm  away,  and  the  utterance 
of  another  one  is  good ;  when  she  says  it  is  not 
expedient  to  do  it  with  attention  before  a  meal,  it 
is  proper.  36.  The  sacred  cake  of  a  disreputable 
woman  is  not  to  be  consecrated,  but  is  to  be  ren- 
dered ineligible  (avi^lnakC). 

37.  When  one  places  a  thing  before  the  fire  ob- 
servantly, and  does  not  see  the  splendour  itself, 
*  tava  athr62'  is  not  to  be  said. 

38.  At  night,  when8  one  lies  down,  the  hands  are 
to  be  thoroughly  washed.  39.  That  which  comes 
from  a  menstruous  woman  to  any  one,  or  to  any- 
thing, is  all  to  be  thoroughly  washed  with  bull's 
urine  (g6me^)  and  water4. 

[40.  The  rule  is  this,  as  Atard-pa//  son  of  Mara- 
spend a  said  when  every  one  passed  away  : — *  The 
mouth-veil "  and  also  the  clothing   are   to   be  well 

1  See  Bund.  XX,  2  ;  ii  is  ralher  doubtful  whether  we  should 
read  '  one '  or  ■  two.' 

*  These  A  vesta  words,  meaning  '  for  thee,  the  fire,'  are  used 
when  presenting  anything  to  the  fire,  such  as  firewood  and  incense 
(see  7a*  VII,  3,  XXII,  io,  22,  Ac.) 

'  Reading  amat,  'when,'  instead  of  mfin,  'who'  (see  Bund. 
I,  7,  note). 

4  Here  ends  the  original  ShSyast  Ui-shayast.  §  40  is  found  only 
in  M6,  and  is  evidently  a  later  edition  to  that  MS.  by  another 
hand.  Then  follows  the  Farhang-i  Oim-khadfik,  both  in  M6  and 
K20  ;  this  is  an  old  Avesta-Pahlavi  Glossary  which  has  no  connec- 
tion with  Sis.,  although  it  may  be  of  the  same  age,  as  it  quotes 
many  Avesta  sentences  which  are  no  longer  extant  elsewhere,  and 
amongst  others  passages  from  the  Nihi/iun  Xask  (see  Sis.  X,  3) 
and  the  commentary  of  Afarg  {see  Sis.  I,  3). 

■  See  Bund.  XXXIII,  3. 

1  The  padam  (A v.  paitidana,  Paz.  pendm) '  consists  of  two 


set  apart  from  the  gifts  (dasaran),  so  that  his 
soul  may  become  easier.'  Completed  in  peace  and 

Part  II. — A  Supplementary   Treatise1. 

Chapter  XI. 

i.  The  degrees  of  sin  are  these",  such  as  a  Far- 
man.  Sr6sh6-^aranam,  Agerept,  Alvtritt,  AredlK 
Khdr,  Basai,  Yat,  and  Tandpuhar,  and  I  will  men- 
tion each  of  them  a  second  time.  2.  A  Farmfin  is 
the    weight   of  three   dirhams   of  four   mads3;    a 

pieces  of  white  cotton  cloth,  hanging  loosely  from  the  bridge  of 
the  nose  to  at  least  two  inches  below  the  mouth,  and  tied  with  two 
strings  at  the  back  of  the  head.  It  must  be  worn  by  a  priest 
whenever  he  approaches  the  sacred  fire,  so  as  to  prevent  his  breath 
from  contaminating  the  fire.  On  certain  occasions  a  layman  has 
to  use  a  substitute  for  the  pen 6m  by  screening  his  mouth  and  nose 
with  a  portion  of  his  muslin  shirt.'  (Haug's  Essays,  p.  243,  note  1 ; 
see  also  Pahl.  Vend.  XVIII,  1-4.) 

1  This  second  part  is  evidently  by  another  writer,  for  he  not 
only  repeats  several  passages  (Chaps.  XI,  I,  2,  XII,  IX,  13-16,  18, 
20),  which  are  given  in  the  first  pait,  but  he  also  writes  generally 
in  a  less  simple  style.  In  some  MSS.  of  Sis.  alone,  such  as  M9, 
the  second  part  immediately  follows  the  first,  as  in  this  translation ; 
indicating  that  if  has  been  accepted  as  a  part  of  the  same  work. 
Rut  in  M6  the  two  parts  are  separated  by  the  Farh.  Okh.,  occupy- 
ing twenty  folios;  and  in  K20  there  is  an  interval  of  ninety-two 
folios,  containing  the  Farh.  Okh.,  Bund.,  B.  Yt.,  and  several  other 

*  §§  1,  2  are  a  repetition  of  Chap.  I,  1,  2,  with  a  few  variations. 
The  number  of  degrees  is  here  raised  to  nine  by  the  addition  of 
the  Sr6sh6-^aranam  (see  Chap.X,  24),  which  is  written  Srdsha/ara- 
nam  in  both  these  sections. 

8  Reading  i  mdd-4,  instead  of  va  m-4  ;  the  mad  being  a 
quarter-dirham  (see  Chap.  X,  24,  note) ;  or  we  can  read  'weight  and 
quantity  (mayah)  of  three  dirhams.'     The  amount  of  the  Farnian 

Srnsho -A-.iranam  is  one  dirham  arid  two  mads;  three 
Sr6shd->£aranams  are  the  weight  of  four  dirhams 
and  two  mads  ' ;  an  Agerept  is  thirty-three  sttrs  • ;  an 
Alvirist  is  the  weight  of  thirty-three  dirhams;  an 
Aredtb  is  thirty  stirs*;  a  Khdr  is  sixty  stirs;  a 
Barai  is  ninety  stirs  ;  a  Yat  is  a  hundred  and  eighty 
stirs,  and  a  Tanapuhar  is  three  hundred  stirs. 

3.  Every  one  ought  to  be  unhesitating  and  una- 
nimous about  this,  that  righteousness  is  the  one 
thing,  and  heaven  (gar6^man)*  the  one  place. 
which  is  good,  and  contentment  the  one  thing 
more  comfortable. 

4.  When  a  sheep 8  is  slaughtered  and  divided,  its 
meat-offering  (gavus-dak)'  is  to  be  thus  pre- 
sented : — the   tongue,    jaw,    and   left    eye   are   the 

here  given  appears  to  agree  with  that  stated  in  Chap.  XVI,  1,  but 
differs  very  much  from  the  sixteen  dirhams  mentioned  in  Chap.  I,  2, 
and  the  twenty-eight  dirhams  quoted  by  Spiegel. 

1  That  is,  one  Srdsho-Aaran&m  is  one  dirham  and  a  half,  and 
three  of  them,  therefore,  are  four  dirhams  and  a  half;  the  mad 
being  a  quarter-dirham.  This  computation  differs  considerably 
from  the  amounts  stated  in  Chaps.  X,  24,  XVI,  5,  but  corresponds 
better  with  the  supposition  (see  Chap.  IV,  14,  note)  that  a  Sr6sh6- 
iaranam  is  one-third  of  a  Farman. 

1  Both  this  amount  and  the  next  are  evidently  wrong,  and  no 
doubt  the  Pahlavi  ciphers  have  been  corrupted.  Chap.  XVI,  5 
givei  'sixteen'  and  '  twenty-five'  stirs,  which  are  probably  correct, 
though  the  computation  in  Chap.  I,  2  is  very  different. 

1  Written  Areduj  30  sJ,  'an  Aredux  is  30  (thirty)/  as  in  Chap. 
I,  2 ;  with  which  also  all  the  remaining  amounts  correspond. 

*  See  note  on  pahlfim  ah  van  in  Chap.  VI,  3. 

1  Or 'goat1 

0  Av.  gauj  hudhau,  which  is  generally  represented  by  a  small 
piece  of  butter  placed  upon  one  of  the  sacred  cakes;  but  on 
certain  occasions  small  pieces  of  meat  are  used.  The  object  of 
this  section  is  to  point  out  what  part  of  the  animal  is  suitable  for 
use  in  a  ceremony  dedicated  to  any  one  of  the  angels,  or  spirits. 



angel  Hdm's1  own  ;  the  neck  is  Ashavahist's  2  o> 
the  head  is  the  angel  Vaes 3  own  ;  the  right  shoulder 
(arm)  is  Ardvlsur's4,  the  left  is  Drvasp's*;  the 
right  thigh  (hakht)  is  for  I  lie  guardian  spirit*  of 
Virtasp,  and  the  left  for  the  guardian  spirit  of  cTa- 
masp 7 ;  the  back  is  for  the  supreme  chief" ;  the  loin 
is  the  spirits'  own;  the  belly  is  Spendarma^'s  J ;  the 
testicles I0  a.refor  the  star  Vanand  u  ;  the  kidneys  are 

1  Av.  haoma,  the  angel  of  the  Horn  plant  (see  Yas.  IX-XI, 
Bund.  XVIII,  1-3,  XXY1I,  4,  24),  the  juice  of  which  is  used  in 
ceremonial  worship  by  the  Parsis. 

*  The  same  as  Ar«/avahlrt  (see  Bund.  I,  26). 

*  M6  has  '  Ram '  as  a  gloss ;  he  is  the  Vayo  of  the  Rim  Yt., 
'  the  good  Va6  '  of  Mkh.  II,  1 15,  who  assists  the  righteous  souls  in 
their  progress  to  the  other  world  ;  his  name,  R5m,  is  given  to  the 
twent}-first  day  of  the  Parsi  month  (see  Chap.  XXII,  21). 

4  Av.  Ardvf  sura  of  the  Aban  Yt.,  a  title  of  Anahita,  the  female 
angel  of  the  waters  (see  Bund.  XXXII,  8).  This  title  is  written 
ArSdvivsur  in  the  Bundahij,  and  applied  to  the  source  of  pure 
water  (Bund.  XIII) ;  while  the  name  Avan,  '  waters,'  is  given 
to  the  eighth  month  and  the  tenth  day  of  each  month  in  the  Parsi 

5  Av.  Drvaspa  of  the  Gflj  Yt.,  the  name  of  the  female  angel  of 
cattle,  called  Gorurvan  in  Bund.  IV;  her  alternative  name,  Gar, 
is  given  to  the  fourteenth  day  of  the  Parsi  month. 

"  The  word  fravash-i,  'the  guardian  spirit  of,'  is  evidently 
omitted  here,  as  it  occurs  with  the  next  name.  For  Vijtisp,  see 
Bund.  XXXI,  29,  XXXIV,  7. 

^  T  Av.  GSmaspa  of  Yas.  XIII,  24.  XLV,  if,  XLVIII,  9,  L,  18, 
Aban  Yt,  68,  &c,  the  prime  minister  of  Vutasp. 

1  Ratpdk  berfiza//  stands  for  ihe  Av.  rathwfl  berezat6  of 
Yas.  I,  46,  Ac.,  a  '  supreme  chief  who  is  often  associated  with 
the  chiefs  of  the  various  subdivisions  of  time,  and  seems  to  be 
Auharmazd  himself  (see  Yas.  LVT,  i,  10). 

1  The  female  archangel  who  has  charge  of  the  earth  (see  Chap. 
XV,  g,  20-24,  and  Bund.  I,  26). 

10  The  word  gund  has  here,  in  most  MSS.,  the  usual  Persian 
glo9s  dahan,  'mouth'  (see  Bund.  XIX,  i),  which  is  a  very  im- 
probable meaning  in  this  place. 

"  Probably  Fomalhaut  (see  Bund.  II,  7,  note). 

Haptolring's ' ;  the  ventricle  (naska^ako)2  is  for 
the  guardian  spirit  of  priests  ;  the  lungs  are  for  the 
guardian  spirit  of  warriors ;  the  liver  is  for  com- 
passion and  sustenance 3  of  the  poor ;  the  spleen  is 
Mansarspend's  * ;  the  fore-legs  (basal)  are  for  the 
waters  ;  the  heart  is  for  the  fires ;  the  entrail  fat  is 
An7ai-fravanr"s5;  the  tail-bone  (dunb-gairako)  is  for 
the  guardian  spirit  of  Zaratun  the  Spltaman c ;  the 
tail  (dunbak)  is  for  VaV  the  righteous;  the  right 
eye  is  in  the  share  of  the  moon8;  and  any"  that 
may  be  left  over  from  those  is  for  the  other  arch- 
angels. 5.  There  have  been  those  who  may  have 
spoken  about  protection,  and  there  have  been  those 
who  may  have  done  so  about  meat-offerings ;  who- 
ever has  spoken  about  protection   is  such   as  has 

'  Ursa  Major,  called  Haptok-ring  in  Bund.  II,  7. 

*  Translating  in  accordance  with  the  Persian  gloss  iustah, 
given  in  the  modern  MS.  Mo ;  but  nas-kar/ako  may  perhaps 
mean  '  the  womb.' 

1  Reading  sar-ayirno.  •maturity,'  the  usual  equivalent  of  Av. 
thraojta  (see  Yas.  XXXIV,  3),  and  not  srayi^no,  'chanting.' 

4  Av.  mathra  spenta,  'the  beneficent  sayings,  or  holy  word.' 
of  which  this  angel  is  a  personification  ;  his  name  is  often  cor- 
rupted into  Mahmspcnd  or  Maraspciid,  and  is  given  to  the  twenty- 
ninth  day  of  the  Parsi  month  (see  Chap.  XXII,  29). 

•  A  personification  of  the  A  v.  ashaonam  fravashayo,  'guar- 
dian angels  of  the  righteous'  (see  Fravardin  Yt.  1,  &c.\  whence 
the  first  month,  and  the  nineteenth  day  of  each  month,  in  the  Parsi 
year,  are  called  Fravardin. 

•  This  clause  and  the  next  are  omitted  in  K20. 

7  The  angel  of  the  wind,  whose  name  is  given  to  the  twenty- 
second  day  of  the  Parsi  month  (see  Chap.  XXXI,  22). 

■  Or  its  angel,  M.ih,  whose  name  is  given  to  the  twelfth  day  of 
the  Parsi  month. 

*  M6  has  va  a6-maman  =  va  a6£  (Pers.  \k,  'any');  K20  has 
kola  maman,  'whatever,'  and  omits  the  words  'maybe  left  over' 
and  '  other.' 

[5]  Z 

spoken  well,  and  whoever  has  spoken  about  mea 
offerings  has  not  spoken  everything  which  is  note- 
worthy '.  6.  When  one  shall  offer  up  2  what  pertains 
to  one  (khadukag)  on  account  of  another  it  is 
proper;  except  the  tongue,  jaw.  and  left  eye.  for 
that  those  are  the  angel  HdnVs  own  is  manifest 
from  the  passage :   '  H  izvam  frtTcnaoa? 3,'  &c. 

Chapter   XII. 

i.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  one's  form  ^wor- 
ship (ya^t)*  is  performed,  and  it  is  not  possible  for 
him  to  prepare  it,  the  practice  of  those  of  the  primi- 
tive faith5  is,  when  the  girdle  (alpiyailng)  is  twined 
about  a  sacred  twig-bundle  (baresom)*  of  seven 
twigs  (tak),  to  consecrate  a  sacred  cake  (dronu) 
thrice,  which  becomes  his  form  of  worship  that  is 
performed  one  degree  better  through  the  sacred 
cake ;  and  of  the  merit  of  a  threefold  consecration 

'  Meaning,  apparently,  that  to  pray  for  protection  as  a  favour  is 
better  than  to  pray  for  it  as  a  return  for  an  offering. 

s  K20  has  '  shall  give  up.' 

1  It  is  doubtful  if  this  passage  can  be  found  in  the  extant 
A  vesta;  but  a  passage  of  similar  meaning,  and  containing  the 
words  fr^renao'/  and  hizvo,  occurs  in  Yns.  XI,  16,  which  states 
that  '  the  righteous  father,  Ahuramazda,  produced  for  me,  Haoma, 
as  a  Draona,  the  two  jaws,  with  the  tongue  and  the  left  eve;'  and 
it  then  proceeds  (Yas.  XI,  17-19)  to  curse  any  one  'who  shall 
deprive  me  of  that  Draona,  or  shall  himself  enjoy,  or  shall  glvw 
away  what  the  righteous  Ahuramazda  gave  me,  the  two  jaws,  with 
the  tongue  and  the  left  eye.' 

*  A  Yajt  is  a  formula  of  praise  in  honour  of  the  sun,  moon, 
water,  fire,  or  some  other  angel,  as  well  as  a  terra  for  prayer 
worship  in  general. 

a  See  Chap.  I,  3.  •  See  Chap.  Ill,  32,  note. 

CHAPTER    XI,  6-XII.  J. 


of  the  sacred  cake  the  high-priests  have  specially 
taught,  in  the  Husparam  Nask\  that  it  is  as  much 
as  that  of  a  lesser  form  of  worship. 

2.  The  rule  is  this,  that  he  who  is  himself  more 
acquainted  with  religion  is  he  who  considers  him 
who  is  more  acquainted  with  religion  than  himself 
as  high-priest,  and  considers  him  as  high-priest 2  so 
that  he  may  not  destroy  the  bridge  of  the  soul  * ;  as 
it  says  in  the  Sakaafum  Nask 4  that  no  one  of  them, 
that  is  an  inattentive  (asrushd&r)  man  who  has 
no  high-priest,  attains  to  the  best  existence5,  not 
though  his  recitations  should  be  so  many  that  they 
have  made  his  duty  and  good  works  as  much  as  the 
verdure  (sapdak)  of  the  plants  when  it  shoots 
forth  in  spring,  the  verdure  which  Auharmazd  has 
given  abundantly. 

3.  The  rule  is  this,  that  they  keep  a  fire  *  in  the 
house,  because,  from  not  keeping  the  fire  properly, 
there  arise  less  pregnancy  of  women  and  a  weeping 
(av-dl^ano)  for  the  loss  of  strength  (tanu)  of 
men1;  and  the  chilled  charcoal  (angi^t)  and  the 
rest  wThich  are  without  advantage  (bar)  are  to  be 

1  See  Chap.  X,  21.  The  passage  mentioned  in  the  text  was 
probably  in  the  section  called  Nfrangistan. 

'  K20  omits  this  repetition. 

1  That  is,  may  not  render  the  passage  of  his  soul  to  heaven, 
over  the  A^inva</  bridge  (see  Bund.  XII,  7),  impossible,  owing  to 
the  sin  of  arrogance  in  this  world. 

*  See  Chap.  X,  15;  the  passage  alluded  to  was  probably  at 
the  beginning  of  the  Nask,  which  treated  of  '  the  reward  of  the 
precepts  of  religion,  and  the  bridge  of  the  destroyers  of  good 
preceptors,  adapted  to  their  destruction.' 

*  See  Chap.  VI,  3. 

*  K20  has  '  that  a  fire  is  to  be  properly  kept.' 

T  K20  has  'and  a  loss  of  the  strength  and  wealth  of  men.' 

2  2 

carried  away  from  the  fire ;  and  in  the  Spend  Nask  l 
it  is  revealed  that  a  fire,  when  they  shall  make  it 
quite  clean  from  its  chilled  charcoal,  has  as  much 
comfort  as  a  man  whose  clothing  they  should  make 

4.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  any  one  passes 
away  it  is  proper  to  render  useless 2  as  much  as  the 
smallest  mouth-veil3,  for  it  says  in  the  Vendidad  * 
that  ■  if  even  those  Mazdayasnians  should  leave  on 
him  who  is  dead,  in  parting  with  him,  as  much  as 
that  which  a  damsel  would  leave  in  parting  with  the 
/ood-bow\  (pa^/manako) —  that  is,  a  bag  (anba- 
nako-hana)6' — the  decree  is  this,  that  it  is  a  Tana- 


1  See  Chap.  X,  4  ;  the  passage  mentioned  was  probably  in  t 
part  of  the  Nask  which  described  the  protection  afforded  by  the 
fire  to  the  new-born  ZaratOrt. 

*  Probably  a  negative  is  omitted,  or  akarinu/ano  should 
translated  '  to  make  no  use  of.' 

s  See  Chap.  X,  40.     K20  has  'garment.' 

4  Always  written  Vadfkd&rf  in  this  second  part  of  Sis.,  except 
in  Chap.  XIII.  7  ;  whereas  in  the  first  part  it  is  written  in  its  un- 
corrupted  form  £avf</-d&f-di</  or  (7avi</-jgdS-d:W,  'the  law 
opposed  to  the  demons.'  The  passage  here  quoted  is  Pahl.  Vend. 
V,  171,  172,  with  one  or  two  variations. 

*  Standing  for  anbanak-a6,  which  is  corrupted  in  the  Vendidad 
MSS.  into  the  unintelligible  form  andanako-i,  so  that  this  old 
quotation  throws  a  rather  unexpected  light  upon  a  passage  in  the 
Vendidad  which  translators  would  be  almost  certain  to  misunder- 
stand. The  allusion  is  to  the  bags  used  by  a  menstrunus  woman, 
when  eating,  to  prevent  contamination  of  the  food.  The  Persian 
Rivayats  state  that  three  bags  (kisah)  are  made  of  two  thicknesses 
of  strong  linen,  one  bag  to  wear  on  each  hand,  and  the  third,  which 
is  larger,  to  hold  the  metal  food-bowl  and  water-goblet.  After 
thoroughly  v.  ubfng  her  hands  and  face,  she  puts  the  two  bags  on 
her  hands,  taking  care  that  they  do  not  touch  her  food,  or  clothes, 
or  any  other  part  of  her  body.  She  then  feeds  herself  with  a 
metal  spoon,  which  must  not  touch  her  nose ;  and  when  the  meaJ 

CHAPTER    XII,  4.  5. 


ptihar  sin1  at  root,  which  is  hell  ;  and  in  the  Vendi 
dad5   it  says   that   the   clothing   of  the   charitable 
(dahi.rn-h6mand)    soul,    and    even    the    clothing 
which    they   will    give   it,    are   out   of  almsgivings 

5.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  any  one  passes 
away,  after  keeping  fasting  the  three  ftigkis\  still 
the  presentation  of  holy-water  (z6har)  to  the  fire  is 
to  be  performed,  which  is  the  presenting  of  the 
holy-water  to  the  nearest  fire  ;  for  in  the  Ddmdd^ 
Nask*  it  is  revealed  that  when  they  sever  (te- 
brund)  the  consciousness  of  men  it  goes  out  to  the 
nearest  fire,  then  out  to  the  stars,  then  out  to  the 

is  finished  the  food-bowl  and  water-goblet  are  placed  on  the  large 
bag,  and  the  two  smaller  bags  inside  it,  till  wanted  again. 

1  See  Chap.  I,  1,  3. 

1  Tliis  passage  does  not  appear  to  be  now  extant  in  the 
Vendidad,  and  it  is  possible  to  read  Nask  Did  instead  of  Vadikdarf. 
The  Didi  or  DaVak  Nask  was  the  eleventh  nask  or  'book'  of 
the  complete  Mazdayasnian  literature,  according  to  tlie  Dmkan/, 
which  merely  says  that  its  'Avesta  and  Zand  are  not  communicated 
to  us  by  the  high-priest.'  According  to  the  Dint-va^nrkart/,  which 
calls  it  Khustd,  and  the  Rivayats,  which  call  it  Kha/t,  it  was  the 
twelfth  Nask,  and  they  give  its  contents  in  more  detail  than  usual 
(see  Haug's  Essays,  pp.  130,  131). 

*  Meaning  that  the  dead  require  no  clothing,  as  their  future 
bodies  will  be  clothed  out  of  the  garments  they  have  given  away 
in  charity.  The  resemblance  of  this  statement  to  that  contained 
in  Fiund.  XXX,  28,  which  must  have  been  abridged  from  the 
Dimdad  Nask  (sec  SZS.  IX,  1),  renders  it  possible  that  it  may 
have  been  taken  from  that  Nask. 

•  No  fresh  meat  is  to  be  cooked  or  eaten  for  the  first  three  days 
after  a  death  in  the  house,  according  to  the  Sad-dar  Bundahir, 
LXXVIU  (compare  Chap.  XVII,  1-3). 

■  See  SZS.  IX,  1.  The  passage  here  quoted  may  perhaps  be 
found  in  the  complete  text  of  the  Bundahur,  as  given  in  TD  (Chap. 
37  ;  see  Introduction,  p.  xxxvii). 

moon,  and  then  out  to  the  sun  ! ;  and  it  is  needful 
that  the  nearest  fire,  which  is  that  to  which  it  has 
come  out,  should  become  stronger  (z6r-homand- 

6.  The  rule  is  this,  that  they  should  not  leave  a 
ivaftrparing  unpraved  over  (anafsiWak),  for  if  it  be 
not  prayed  over  (afsand)3  it  turns  into  the  arms 
and  equipments  of  the  Mazanan  demons  * ;  this  is 
explicitly  shown  in  the  Vendidad*. 

7.  The  rule  is  this,  that  the  labour  of  child-birth 6 
is  not  to  be  accomplished  at  night,  except  while 
with  the  light  of  a  fire,  or  the  stars  and  moon,  upon 
///  for  great  opposition  is  connected  with  it.  and  in 
the  twentieth  of  the  Husparam  Nask1  it  is  shown 
that  over  the  soul  of  him  who  works  in  the  dark 
there  is  more  predominance  of  the  evil  spirit. 

8.  The  rule  is  this,  that  they  should  allow  the  egg 
and  other  food  8  for  those  gifts  and  favours  of  the 

1  A  righteous  soul  is  supposed  to  step  out  first  to  the  star 
station,  ihen  to  the  moon  staiion,  and  then  to  the  sun  station,  on 
its  way  to  GanVmSn,  the  highest  heaven  ;  but  if  its  righteousness  is 
imperfect  it  has  to  stop  at  one  of  these  three  stations,  which  are 
the  three  lower  grades  of  heaven  (see  note  on  pahlflm  ahvSn, 
Chap.  VI.  3). 

1  Or  'more  provided  with  zor,'  which  may  mean  'holy-water,' 
as  the  two  words  z6r  and  z6har  are  occasionally  confounded. 

*  Or,  perhaps,  '  if  they  shall  not  pray  over  ii* 

*  Sec  Bund.  Ill,  20,  XIX,  io,  20. 

•  Vend.  XVII,  29. 

•  Barman-zerkhunijnfh  may  also  mean  'begetting  a  son.' 

7  See  Chap.  X,  21.     The  word  'twentieth'  appears  to  refer  to 
the  second  group  of  twenty  sections,  one  of  which  treated  of 
begetting,  birth,  and  treatment  of  children. 

8  Referring  to  the  egg,  drons,  frasasts,  and  gdu*  hudht/u  or 
'meat-offering'  (which  may  be  either  butter  or  meat,  see  Cliaj 
XI,  4)  that  are  used  in  the  drftn  ceremony,  or  consecration  of  the 
sacred  cakes  (sec  note  on  dron,  Chap.  Ill,  32).     The  object  of 


CHAPTER    XII,  6-1  I. 


sovereign  moon  (madi-i  khu<&l)  and  the  other 
angels ;  if  so,  it  is  to  be  allowed  by  them  thus :  '  I 
will  consecrate  so  much  food  for  such  an  angel,'  and 
not  thus:  'One  sacred  cake  (dr6n6)  in  so  much 
food.'  9.  And  the  reason  of  it  is  this,  that  they  who 
shall  allow  thus  :  '  One  sacred  cake  out  of  so  much 
food,'  and  of  which  it  is  one  tiling  less,  even  though 
one  shall  consecrate  it  many  times,  still  then  he  kas 
not  repaid  ;  and  they  who  should  allow  thus :  '  I  will 
consecrate  so  much  food  for  such  an  angel,'  though 
one  shall  reverence  him  with  many  sacred  cakes,  it  it 
proper.  10.  And  in  the  twenty-two  sections  of  the 
Sakartfam  Naskx  grievous  things  are  shown  about 
those  who  do  not  make  offerings  (austdfrlo?)  unto 
the  angels. 

1 1.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  a  woman  becomes 
pregnant,  as  long  as  it  is  possible,  a  fire  one  cares 
for  well  is  to  be  maintained  in  the  house,  because  it 
is  revealed2  in  the  Spend  Nask  that  to  Dukdav3, 
the  mother  of  ZaratiVt.  when  she  was  pregnant  with 
Zaratust,  for  three  nights,  every  night  a  leader 
(shah) 4  with  a  hundred  and  fifty  demons  came  for 
the  destruction  of  ZaratQjt,  and  yet,  owing  to  the 
existence  of  the  fire  in  the  dwelling,  they  knew  no 
means  for  it. 

ihis  paragraph  is.  evidently,  to  reprove  niggardliness  in  6uch  offer- 
ings, and  to  prevent  their  being  mere  pretexts  for  feasting. 

1  Sec  Chap.  X,  25.  The  passage  alluded  to  here  was  probably 
in  that  section,  of  the  last  twenty-two,  which  treated  of  the  spirits 
of  the  earthly  existences,  one  portion  of  which  was  '  about  prepar- 
ing offerings  (aust6fr!t6)  to  the  angels.' 

'  M6  has  '  the  fire  of  Auharmazd  is  to  be  fully  maintained,  and 
it  is  revealed,'  Ac.  This  section  is  a  repetition  of  Chap.  X,  4,  with 
a  few  variations. 

*  Here  written  D(Wkav. 

*  Or  it  may  be  read  jfidi,  *a  demon,'  meaning  '  an  arch-fiend.' 

12.  The  rule  is  this,  where  a  child  is  born,  during 
three  days,  for  protection  from  demons,  wizards,  and 
witches,  a  fire  is  to  be  made  at  night  until  daylight, 
and  is  to  be  maintained  there  in  the  day,  and  pure 
incense  is  to  be  put  upon  it,  as  is  revealed  in  the 
thirtieth  of  the  Saka^um  Nosh  \ 

1 3.  The  rule  is  this 2,  that  from  a  toothpick  the 
bark3  is  to  be  well  cut  off,  for  there  are  sonic  of 
those  of  the  primitive  faith 4  who  have  said  that, 
when a  they  shall  make  it  for  the  teeth  with  the  bark 
on,  and  they  throw  it  away,  a  pregnant  woman, 
who  puts  a  foot  upon  it,  is  doubtful  about  its  being 
dead  matter. 

14.  The  rule  is  this,  that  it  is  well  if  any  one  of 
those  who  have  their  handmaid  (/Cakar)  in  coha- 
bitation (zanlh),  and  offspring  is  born  of  her,  shall 
accept  all  those  who  are  male  as  sons ;  but  those 
who  are  female  are  no  advantage,  because  an 
adopted  son  (sator)  is  requisite,  and  in  the  four- 
teenth  of  the    Husparam   Nask*   the   high-priests 

1  That  is,  in  the  first  thirty  sections  of  the  Nask  (see  Chap.  X, 
25) ;  the  passage  alluded  to  must  have  been  in  that  portion  which 
treated  of  new-born  infants  and  their  proper  treatment. 

•  §§  13-16  are  a  repetition  of  Chap.  X,  20-23,  with  a  few  varia- 

5  The  word  appears  to  be  tdpo  or  tuf6,  which  would  rather 
mean  '  scum  '  or  '  gum '  (see  Bund.  XXV II,  19),  unless  it  be  con- 
sidered a  miswriting  of  t6^6  or  t6zo,  which  would  mean  >  thin 
bark'  or  'bast/  It  can  also  be  read  tupar,  'a  leather  bag,'  and 
the  sentence  can  be  so  translated  as  to  imply  that  a  toothpick  should 
be  cut  out  of  a  leather  bag,  an  alternative  similar  to  that  suggested 
by  the  text  of  Chap.  X,  20. 

4  See  Chap.  I,  3. 

•  Reading  amat,  'when,'  instead  of  mun,  'who'  (see  Bund. 
I.  7.  note). 

•  See  Chap.  X,  21. 

CHAPTER    XII,   12-17. 


have  taught  thus :  *  My  son  is  suitable  also  as  thy 
son,  but  my  daughter  is  not  suitable  also  as  thy 
daughter;'  and  there  are  many  who1  do  not  appoint 
an  adopted  son  with  this  idea,  that:  'The  child  of 
a  handmaid  may  be  accepted  by  us  as  a  son.' 

1 5.  The  rule  is  this,  that  one  is  to  persevere  much 
in  the  begetting  of  offspring,  since  it  is  for  the  acqui- 
sition 2  of  many  good  works  at  once ;  because  in  the 
Spend3  and  Niha</um  Nasks4  the  high-priests  have 
taught  that  the  duty  and  good  works  which  a  son 
performs  are  as  much  the  father's  as  though  they 
had  been  done  by  his  own  hand ;  and  in  the 
Damda^ Nask *  it  is  revealed  thus:  '  Likewise,  too, 
the  good  works,  in  like  manner,  which  come  to  the 
father  as  his  own.' 

16.  The  rule  is  this,  that  what  they  shall  give  to 
the  worthy  is  as  much  as  is  proper  and  beyond,  for 
eating  and  accumulating ;  because  in  the  Nihaaftim 
Nask*  the  high-priests  have  taught  thus:  'When  a 
man  gives  bread  to  a  man,  even  though  that  man 
has  too  much  bread,  all  the  good  works,  which  he 
shall  perform  through  that  superabundance,  become 
as  much  his  who  gave  it  as  though  they  had  been 
done  by  his  own  hand.' 

17.  The  rule  is  this,  that  in  the  night  water  is 

1  The  writer  of  M6  evidently  found  his  original  illegible  at  this 
place,  as  he  wrote  .  .  .  maman  instead  of  mun  denraan. 

■  M6  has  '  performance,'  which  is  probably  a  misreading,  due  to 
the  original  of  that  MS.  being  partially  illegible. 

•  See  Chap.  X,  4.  This  Nask  is  not  mentioned  in  Chap.  X, 
23,  and  the  passage  here  alluded  to  is  not  10  be  traced  in  any  of 
the  short  accounts  of  its  contents. 

•  See  Chap.  X,  3,  22. 

•  See  SZS.  IX,  1,  and  Chap.  X,  22. 

■  Sec  Chap.  X,  3,  23. 



not  to  be  drawn1  from  a  well,  as  in  the  Bag-yasn63 
notice  is  given  about  the  uncleanness  (ayojdasarlh) 
of  well-water  at  night. 

18.  The  rule  is  this,  that  in  the  night  anything 
eatable  is  not  to  be  cast  away  to  the  north,  because 
a  fiend  will  become  pregnant ;  and  when  it  is  cast 
away  one  Yatha-ahu-vairyA 8  is  to  be  uttered.  19. 
Those  of  the  primitive  faith  4  who  used  to  act  more 
orthodox ical I y  (hu-rastakihatar),  when  food  was 
eaten  by  them  in  the  night,  for  the  sake  of  preserva- 
tion from  sin  owing  to  the  coming  of  strainings  and 
sprinklings  on  to  the  ground,  directed  a  man  to  chant 
the    Alninavar6    from    the    be<rinnin<»    of   the   feast 

1  K20  has  *  that  water  is  not  to  be  drawn  on  foot.' 

■  Probably  the  Bakan-yasto  is  meant,  which  was  the  fourteenth 
nask  or  '  book '  of  the  complete  Mazdayasnian  literature,  according 
to  the  Dlnkar?/;  but  according  to  the  Dtni-va^-arkar*/  and  the 
Rivfiyats  it  was  the  fifteenth  nask,  called  Bagban-ya^t.  For  its  con- 
as  given  by  the  Dinf-va^arkar^,  see  Haug's  Essays,  p.  132. 
The  following  is  the  account  of  it  given  in  the  eighth  book  of  the 

'The  Bakan-yasto"  is  a  treatise,  first,  on  the  worship  (vast 6)  of 
Atiharmazd,  the  most  pre-eminent  of  divinities  (bakan  arartQin). 
and,  secondly,  the  worship  of  the  angels  of  the  other  invisible  and 
visible  worldly  existences,  out  of  whom  are  even  the  names  of  die 
.  and  the  glory,  power,  triumph,  and  miraculousness  of  their 
life  also  is  extreme;  the  angels  who  are  invoked  by  name  in  their 
worship,  and  the  attention  and  salutation  due  to  them ;  the  worthi- 
ness and  dispensation  of  favour  for  worshippers,  and  the  business 
of  their  many  separate  recitations  unto  the  angels ;  the  business  of 
unlimited  acquaintance  with  knowledge  about  the  promoters  of  die 
treasures  of  the  period,  unto  whom  the  creator  AQharmazd  is  to 
intrust  them,  and  they  remain  to  cause  industry.  Perfect  is  the 
excellence  of  righteousness,' 

'  See  Bund.  I,  21.  This  section  is  a  repetition  of  Chap.  X,  7, 
with  a  few  variations. 

*  See  Chap.  I,  3. 

1  That  is,  the  Yatha-ahu-vairyd  (see  Bund.  I,  21). 

CHAPTER    XII,    l8-22. 


(myazd)  unto  the  end,  more  especially  at  the  feast 
of  the  season-festivals;  as  it  says  in  the  Hadokht 
Nask1,  that  of  the  sayings  which  are  spoken  out  the 
Ahunavar  is  that  which  is  most  triumphant. 

20.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  one  sees  a  hedge- 
hog he  takes  it  back  to  the  plain,  and  its  own  place 
is  to  be  preserved  free  from  danger ;  for  in  the  Ven- 
didad  the  high-priests  have  taught,  that  every  day. 
when  the  hedgehog  voids  urine  into  an  ant's  nest,  a 
thousand  ants  will  die*. 

21.  The  rule  is  this,  that  some  who  are  of  the 
good  religion  say,  where  one  is  washing  his  face,  one 
Ashem-vohu  ■  is  always  to  be  uttered,  and  that 
Ashem-vnhu  is  to  be  uttered  before  the  washing  ; 
for  when  he  utters  it  while  washing  his  face,  he  is 
doubtful  (var-h6mand)  about  the  water  coming  to 
his  mouth. 

22.  The  rule  is  this,  that  they  select  from  the 
purifiers4 — when  their  business  (mindavam)  is  as 
important  (raba)  as  purity  and  Impurity — him  with 
whom  the  control4  of  ablution  (pa</lyavth)s  and 
non-ablution  is  connected;  they  select  him  especially 

1  See  B.  Yt.  Ill,  25.  The  passage  here  quoted  must  have  been 
in  the  first  division  of  ihc  Nask. 

*  This  section  is  a  repetition  of  Chap.  X,  31. 

•  See  Bund.  XX,  2. 

*  The  y6rd5sarSn,  'purifiers'  (Av.  yaosdathrya),  are  those 
priests  who  retain  so  much  of  the  purifying  effect  of  the  Barcshnum 
ceremony  (see  Chap.  II,  (>)  as  to  be  able  to  assist  in  purifying 
others  by  means  of  the  same  ceremony.  When  that  effect  has 
passed  away  a  priest  can  no  longer  perform  the  sacred  rites,  until 
he  hag  again  undergone  the  nine  nights'  purification  of  the 

1  Reading  band,  but  it  may  be  hod,  'vitality,  essence.' 

•  See  Chap.  II,  52. 

with  regard  to  the  good  disposition  and  truthful 
speaking  of  the  man,  and  to  the  particular  work ; 
and  on  account  of  his  being  in  innocence  lie  is  to  be 
considered  more  righteous.  23.  As  in  the  Vendi- 
dad  l  it  says,  about  the  two  shares  of  righteousness, 
how  one  should  tell  that  he  is  '  a  righteous  man,  O 
Zaratujt  the  Spitaman  !  who  is  a  purifier,  who  should 
be  a  speaker  that  speaks  truly,  an  enquirer  of  the 
sacred  texts— that  is,  he  has  performed  his  ritual 
(ya^t) — a  righteous  one  who  specially  understands 
purification  from  the  religion  of  the  Mazdayas- 
nians,  that  is,  he  understands  its  religious  formulas 
(nlrang).'  24.  When  it  is  so  that  the  control  of 
their  ablution  is  connected  with  him,  so  that  they 
consider  what  pertains  to  the  purifying  bowl  (zak-i 
tajtik)  as  his,  and  ever  abstain  from  it,  though  the 
angels  hear  and  consider  them  as  clean,  and  they 
select  for  him  those  who  consecrate  the  water  and 
bulls  urine  (gOmes)  on  account  of  their  control  of 
purification  (yoj-dasarkarlh),  and  it  is  to  be  per- 
formed very  observantly  by  the  consecrators  at  the 
place  which  is  to  be  measured  with  a  measure  and 
very  exactly  (khilptar)2.  25.  And  the  purifier  is  so 
much  the  better  when  washed  again,  and  when  it 
is  by  some  one  through  whose  periodic  (zamanik) 

1  The  passage  here  quoted  is  from  Pahl.  Vend.  IX,  4-6. 

*  Referring  lo  the  Bareshnum-gah,  or  place  prepared  for  the 
BarcshnQm  ceremony  of  purification  with  bull's  urine  and  water, 
which  are  handed  to  the  person  undergoing  purification  by  an 
officiating  priest  (see  Chap.  II,  6).  The  place  is  marked  out  with 
furrows  in  the  ground,  and  furnished  with  stones  (magh)  to  squat 
upon  during  the  ablutions  (see  B.  Yt.  II,  36).  The  construction 
of  this  paragraph  is  very  obscure  in  many  places,  and  its  proper 
division  into  sentences  is,  therefore,  uncertain 

care  he  is  thus  done  ;  for  in  the  periodic  interval 
many  secret1  kinds  of  pollution  are  produced.  26. 
Of  the  celebrators  of  the  Vendidad  the  good  are 
they  who  shall  again  perform  the  Navasha^ar  rite ' ; 
for,  on  account  of  the  same  nicety  (narukih)  which 
is  written  above  by  me,  and  on  account  of  much  also 
that  is  secret,  which  has  happened  and  mostly 
arises  about  it.  there  is  no  harm  from  performing  it. 
27.  And  any  one  of  those  who  shall  receive  the 
water  and  bull's  urine  it  is  very  important  to  wash 
beforehand  (pavan  p^j)3;  because,  if  there  be  im- 
purity about  him  4,  and  he  puts  a  hand  to  the  cup 
(^amak),  the  water,  and  the  bull's  urine,  tluy  are 
unclean  (apaf/aco) '* ;  when  it  is  so  that  there  be 
some  one,  when  so,  it  is  better  that  they  always 
wash  his  eyelids  (moyak  gas),  and  to  wash  them 
by  the  clean  is  good. 

28.  The  rule  is  this,  that  thou  shouldst  not  con- 
sider even  any  one  hopeless  (anaim&</)  of  heaven, 

1  Reading  nih&n,  but  we  might  perhaps  read  'causes  (vahSn) 
of  pollution  of  many  kinds.'  The  meaning  of  the  section  is,  that 
it  is  neONMXJ  for  the  purifying  priest  to  maintain  his  own  purity 
by  frequently  undergoing  the  Bareshnum  ceremony  himself. 

'  Yaxt-i  NavashaVar  in  all  MSS.,  but  the  latter  word  is  most 
probably  a  corruption  of  A  v.  navakhshapara,  'a  period  of  nine 
nights,'  for  which  length  of  lime  the  Bareshnum  ceremony  must  be 
continued  (see  Vend.  IX,  144,  XIX,  80).  The  ' Navash;w/.u  rite' 
is,  therefore,  '  the  ceremony  of  the  nine  nights/  which  should  be 
frequently  undergone  by  the  priests  who  celebrate  the  Vendidad 

*  M6  has  pavan  pijak,  '  with  ceremony.' 

*  M6  lus  'then.1 

*  M6  has  '  one  knows  it  is  unto  the  cup  and  bull's  urine ; '  but 
■4  Mfi  was  evidently  copied  from  a  MS.  already  nearly  illegible  in 
some  places,  it  is  generally  safer  to  follow  K20,  except  when  M6 
supplies  words  omitted  by  the  more  careless  writer  of  K20. 

shAyast  lA-shAyast. 

and  they  should  not  set  their  minds  steadfastly  on 
hell ;  thereby  much  sinfulness  for  which  Utere  is  a 
desire  would  be  undesirable,  because  there  is  nothing 
which  is  a  sin  in  my  religion  for  which  there  is  no 
retribution,  as  it  says  in  the  Gathas 1  thus  : — '  Of 
those  who  are  aware  that  thou  art,  O  Auharmazd  !  is 
even  he  who  is  infamous  (raspak5)  ;  and  tin  y  know 
the  punishment  of  him  even  who  is  very  sinful.'  29. 
And  as  to  him  even  who  is  a  very  sinful  person, 
through  the  desire-  of  good  works  which  is  enter- 
tained by  him,  there  then  comes  more  fully  to  him 
the  joy  of  a  soul  newly  worthy  (nuk  shaya^) ;  as 
in  the  Spend  Nask*  it  was  shown  to  Zaraturt  about 
one  man,  that  all  his  limbs  were  in  torment,  and  one 
foot  was  outside ;  and  Zaratu5t  enquired  of  Auhar- 
mazd about  the  reason  of  it ;  and  Auharmazd  said 
that  he  was  a  man,  Davans4  by  name ;  he  was  ruler 
over  thirty-three"  districts,  and  he  never  practised 

1  The  passage  here  quoted  from  the  Gathas  will  be  found  in 
Pal.l.  Yas,  XXXII,  7. 

2  M6  has  merely  '  through  the  good  works  which  arc  practised 
by  him  ; '  but  K20  Inis  't  hamak'  inserted  at  this  point,  which 
seems  to  indicate  the  existence  of  the  nearly  identical  Pahlavi 
letters  kamak, '  desire,'  in  the  original  from  which  it  was  copied. 

*  So-  ( 'hap.  X,  4.  The  passage  here  quoted  was  no  douhi  con- 
tained in  that  part  of  the  Nask  which  treated  of  the  exhibition  of 
heaven  and  hell  to  ZaratCrt,  which  must  have  been  very  similar  to 
the  ArrfS-VirSf-namak,  in  which  most  of  the  details  of  this  story 
about  Davans  are  given  (see  AV.  XXXII). 

*  This  is,  no  doubt,  the  Av.  davas  of  Yas.  XXXI,  to,  which 
may  be  translated  '  hypocrite.'  The  Pahlavi  translation  of  the  line 
in  which  ihe  word  occurs  is  thus  rendered  in  Hang's  Essays  (p.  351): 
'  Auharmazd  does  not  allot  to  him  who  is  an  idler,  the  infidel  who 
is  any  hypocrite  (davas)  in  the  sacred  recitations.  In  the  good 
religion  it  is  asserted  that  oven  as  much  reward  as  they  give  to  the 
hypocrite  they  do  not  give  to  the  infidel.' 

•''   K20  has  '  thirty-four.' 

CHAPTER    XII,   29-51. 


any  good  work,  except  one  time  when  fodder  was 
conveyed  by  him  to  a  sheep  with  that  one  foot. 

30.  The  rule  is  this,  that  when  a  man  has  per- 
formed his  form  0/"  worship  (ya£t),  and  his  wife  has 
not  performed  it,  it  is  extremely  necessary  to  per- 
form the  suitable  form  of  worship,  or  to  order  a 
Geto-khari</  \  so  that  they  may  become  such  as  are 
dv.r  lling  more  closely  together  in  the  spiritual  exist- 
ence than  in  the  world  ;  and  in  the  Hadokht  Nash  * 
it  says  that  a  woman  (nairik)  who  shall  be  reverent 
(tarsak)  is  to  be  considered  as  much  as  she  who  is 
suitable  (zlyak). 

3 j.  The  rule  is  this,  that  these  five  ceremonies 
mi),  when  they  .shall  perform  them,  are  good 
works  J ;  when  one  does  not  perform  them,  and  the 
time  is  manifest  to  him,  and  when  he  shall  set  them 
aside  to  perform  them  out  of  the  proper  time,  they 
shall  go  to  the  bridge4  OS  sin  ;  the  ceremonies  which 
go  to  the  bridge  are  these,  and  in  the  Hilsparam 
Nash*  it  says  that  they  are  the  non-celebration  of 
the  rites  (la  yartanft)  of  the  season-festivals0,  the 

1  Here  written  getok-khari</,  but  see  Chap.  V,  6,  and  Bund. 
XXX,  28. 

•  See  B.  Yi.  Ill,  25 ;  but  the  passage  here  quoted  is  not  clearly 
indicated  in  the  accounts  we  have  of  the  contents  of  this  Nask. 

•  The  distinction  between  these  ceremonies  and  those  whose 
values  as  good  works  are  given  in  Chap  XVI.  6,  appears  to  be 
that  any  omission  In  performing  these  five  at  their  proper  times 
amounts  to  an  absolute  sin,  whereas  the  others  are  not  so  indis- 

'  That  is,  they  will  be  taken  into  account  at  the  judgment  on  the 
soul's  actions  at  the  A'invad'  bridge  (see  Bund.  XII,  7). 

■  See  Chap.  X,  21.  The  passage  here  quoted  was  probably  m 
the  section  called  Ntrangist&n. 

•  The  Gasanbars  or  Gahanbars  (see  Bund.  XXV,  1-6). 



Rapftvln  \  the  three  nights 2  after  a  death,  the  days 
devoted  to  the  guardian  spirits3,  and  the  sun  and 
moon  *. 

32.  The  rule  is  this,  that  at  every  one  of  these 
three  things,  which  come  through  hungry  living,  that 
sneezing,  yawning,  and  sighing,  one  is  to  speak 
out  a  Yatha-ahu-vairyo  and  one  Ashem-vohu  6 ;  and 
also  when  one  hears  the  sneezing  of  any  one,  to 
speak  in  like  manner  is  so  considered  as  an  action  of 
the  good  c ;  and  in  the  St(Wgar  Nask "  it  says  thus  : 
'"What  prepares  sneezing?  that  is,  through  what 
process  (kar)  does  it  come  ?  "  And  Auharmazd  said 
thus  :  "  Hungry  living,  O  Zaraturt!  because  the  rt 
medy  for  its  existence  is  the  Ahunavar,  O  Zaratu\st! 
and  righteousness  8." ' 

Chapter   XIII. 

o.    The  signification  of  the  Gathas*. 
1.  These  three  Ashem-vohus  (Yas.  XI,  end)  whicl 

1  The  midday  period  (see  Bund.  II,  8,  9,  XXV,  9-14). 

a  Sec  Chap.  VIII,  6.  »  See  Chap.  X,  2. 

4  See  Chap.  VII,  1-5.  "  See  Bund.  I,  at,  XX.  2. 

•  That  is,  it  is  commendable,  though  not  obligatory.  The 
practice  of  uttering  a  blessing  on  hearing  a  sneeze  is  still  common 
in  many  parts  of  Europe. 

7  See  B.  Yt.  1,  r.  The  passage  here  quoted  is  not  to  be  traced 
in  any  of  the  accounts  of  this  Nask, 

8  'The   Ahunavar   and   praise   of  righteousness'   would   be 
Pahlavi  equivalent  for  'the  Yatha-ahu-vairy6  and  Ashem-vohu.' 

•  Thnt  is,  the  mystical  meaning  or  influence  supposed  lo  attach 
to  various  parts  of  the  ancient  hymns,  or  to  the  manner  in  which 
they  are  chanted.  The  term  Gatha  or  'hymn'  (Pahl.  gas)  is 
applied,  in  this  chapter,  not  only  to  the  five  Gathas  properly 
called,  but  also  to  the  Yasna  of  seven  chapters,  and  apparently 


represent^  the  Fravaran£  (Yas.  XI,  end)  of  the 
preliminary  ritual  (pej  ntrang)  and  the  rotation 
of  these  three  Has  (4  chapters '),  the  Fravarane, 
Frastuy£,  and  Astuye — fravarane  being  the  begin- 
ning of  the  Fravaran£2  which  extends  as  far  as  fras- 
astayae^a3,  frastuye4,  the  beginning  of  the  Fras- 
tuye (Yas.  XII,  i— XI 1 1,  26)  which  extends  up  to  the 
Astuye,  and  astuye6,  the  beginning  of  the  Astaoth- 
waneme  (Yas.  XIII,  27-XIV,  end)  which  extends  as 
far  as  astaothwanem/a  daenayau  Mazdayas- 
noi.* —  also  represent  the  Vlsai-v<?-ameshd-spe«ta 
(Yas.  XV),  which  is  the  beginning  of  the  Stotan- 
yasnd  ('the  ritual  of  praisers')7,  and  these  three 
Has  of  the  Bagham  (Yas.  XIX- XX I). 

2.  In  the  exposition  (^asht^ak)  and  through  the 

other  portions  of  the  Yasna  written  in  the  Gat  ha  dialect  of  the 
A  vesta. 

1  This  appears  to  be  the  meaning,  but  the  construction  of  this 
section  is  altogether  very  obscure,  and  die  text  is  more  or  less 
corrupt  in  all  MSS.  In  the  celebration  of  the  Yasna  or  Yasirn  the 
officiating  priest  tastes  the  H6m  juice  during  the  recitation  of  Yas. 
XI  (see  I  laughs  Essays,  p.  404),  and  shortly  afterwards  he  com- 
mences the  preliminary  prayers  mentioned  in  the  text. 

9  Both  K20  and  M6  have  Freran  in  Pazand. 

I*  Both  K20  and  M6  omit  the  initial  f. 
4  M6  has  astuyfc. 
*  M6  omits  this  word. 
•  This  is  the  Avesta  name  of  the  Ha"  or  chapter  consisting  of 
Yas.  XIII,  27-XIV,  19;  as  Fraoreti  is  the  name  of  the  preceding 
Hi,  consisting  of  Yas.  XJI,  i-XIII,  26. 
7  Probably  consisting  of  the  three   115s,  Yas.  XV-XYII ;  in 
which  case,  the  meaning  seems  to  be  that  the  three  Ashem-vohfls, 
at  the  beginning  of  this  preliminary  ritual,  are  symbolical  of  each 
of  the  three  triplets  of  chapters  which  follow  them ;  first,  of  the 
Fravaranfi,    Fraoreti,  and  Astaothwanem  chapters ;    secondly,   of 
the  three  chapters  of  the  Stotan-yasno ;  and  thirdly,  of  those  of  the 
Baghan  Yart. 

[5]  a  a 





evidence  of  revelation  (dln6)  the  wise  of  those  o 
the  primitive  faith '  have  thus  said,  that  a  man  of 
fifteen  years 2,  and  a  son  and  brother  of  Mazdayas- 
nians — when  he  confesses  his  failings  (man dak)  to 
the  high-priests  (ra</£n),  and  they  shall  bring  him 
the  whip  and  scourge  a,  and  these  five  Gathas  *  are 
chanted  and  the  good  waters  consecrated  by  him, 
and  the  whole  of  the  renewed-birth  ceretnony  (navldf- 
z&rfih)8  is  performed  by  him  —  becomes  a  mature 
youth  and  not  a  child,  and  a  share  of  the  prayers  of 
initiation  (nipar)  and  of  the  fires  is  to  be  given 
over  to  him 6 ;  and  when  thus  much  is  not  performed 
by  him,  a  share  is  not  to  be  given.  3.  These  five7 
Githas  are  made  up  from  the  body  of  a  righteous 

1  Sec-  Chap.  I,  3. 

*  Referring  to  one  about  to  become  a  priest. 
1  The  Av.  axtra  and  sraosh6-*arana  of  Vend.  IV,  38-114, 

&c.  which  were  formerly  used  for  the  temporal  punishment  of 
sinners.  Whether  they  are  here  brought  to  the  neophyte  as  a  token 
of  his  admission  to  the  priesthood,  or  are  administered  to  him  as  a 
punishment  for  his  offences,  is  not  quite  clear. 

*  The  five  Gathas  arc  the  Ahunavaiti  (Yas.  XXVIII-XXXIV), 
the  Ujtavaili  (Yas.  XLII-XLV),  the  Spoitfi-ma'myu  (Ya&  XI.Vl- 
XL1X).  the  VohO-khshathra  (Yas.  L),  and  the  Vahixtoiiti  (Yas. 
LI  I) ;  these  collections  of  hymns  are  thus  named  from  the  words 
with  which  each  of  them  commences,  excepting  the  first,  which 
derives  its  name  from  the  Ahunavar  (see  Bund.  I,  21)  which  is 
written  in  the  same  metre. 

1  This  is  the  Pahlavi  form  of  the  Parsi  navazQdi,  a  term 
applied  to  the  whole  initiatory  ceremonial  of  a  nondbar,  or  newly 
initiated  priest ;  the  term  evidently  implies  that  the  ceremony  is 
considered  somewhat  in  the  light  of  '  regeneration.' 

■  That  is,  he  can  take  his  part  in  the  regular  priestly  duties, 
including  the  initiation  of  other  neophytes. 

:  Both  K20  and  M6  have  four  in  ciphers,  which  can  hardly  be 
right;  the  sentence  is  clear  enough,  but  the  idea  of  its  writer  is 
rather  obscure. 

CHAPTER    XIII,  3-5. 


4.  Ahya-yasa  (Yas.  XXVIII),  Khshmaibya  (Yas. 
XXIX),  and  A^-ta-vakhshya  (Yas.  XXX)  have, 
severally,  eleven  stanzas  (va/*6st),  because  eleven 
things  move  spiritually  within  the  bodies  of  men, 
as  life,  consciousness,  religion,  soul,  guardian  spirit, 
thought,  word,  deed,  seeing,  smelling,  and  hearing ; 
and  the  bodies  of  men  and  other  creatures  are 
formed  of  water,  fire,  and  wind1. 

5.  Ashem-Ahurem-mazdam  (Visp.  XV)  is  to  be 
raited*  three  times  before  the  coming  of  HusheWar, 
Hushe^/ar-mah,  and  Soshyans;  and  when  they  also 
recite  the  chapter  (h&d)  well,  and  by  line  (gas) 
and   stanza,  those   apostles  are   present3,    and   the 

1  These  first  three  chapters  of  the  Ahunavaiti  collection  o'"  hymns 
Are  here  supposed  to  symbolize  the  three  material  elements,  whose 
union  distinguishes  a  man's  body  from  inorganic  substances ;  while 
the  eleven  stanzas,  which  each  of  these  chapters  contain*,  symbolize 
the  eleven  immaterial  existences  said  to  be  contained  in  the  same 

*  This  is  doubtful,  as  no  verb  is  expressed,  and  the  word  b&r, 
'  lime,'  is  struck  out  in  M6,  so  it  is  possible  to  read  '  the  "  three 
foremost "  of  the  Asherrt-Ahurem-mazdam  are  the  coming  of  Hush- 
edar,'  Ac.  The  'three  foremost'  (3  IcvfnSg)  would  be  a  possible 
Pahlavi  translation  of  the  Av.  tur6  pa<»iry6  and  liira  paoirya  of 
XV.  4-6,  instead  of  the  actual  '  three  first'  (3-i  fraium),  as 
may  be  seen  from  Pahl.  Visp  VIII,  17,  20,  where  both  pgj{  = 
lc-vino)  and  fratOm  are  used  indifferently  for  Av.  paoiryd.  At 
any  rate  the  idea  embodied  in  the  text  is  that  these  '  three  first ' 
have  some  reference  to  the  three  future  apostles  of  the  Parsi 
religion  (see  Bund.  XXXII,  8,  B.  Yt.  \U,  13,  44.  52,  62).  In  fact, 
however,  they  seem  to  refer  to  the  first  three  chapters  of  the 
Ahunavaiti  Gatha,  immediately  after  which  this  chapter  (Visp.  XV) 
is  recited  in  the  full  Parsi  ritual ;  the  phrase  being  rendered  in  the 
I'  ilikn-i  translation  thus: — '  I  reverence  the  three  first  by  not  speak- 
ing out,  that  is,  I  do  not  say  anything  during  them,  and  not  wearing 
out,  that  is,  I  do  not  doze  away  during  them.' 

'  K20  has  '  arrive  early.' 

A  a  2 


country   becomes   more   flourishing   and   more   do- 
minant in  the  world. 

6.  The  twenty-two  stanzas  of  Ta-w-urvSta  (Yas. 
XXXI)  are  the  twenty-two  judgments  (da^istan) 
of  which  it  speaks  in  the  Ha^6kht  Nash1  thus: — 
'Anaom6  manangh&  daya  vispai  kva,  kva 
par6  ?  ('  where  are  tliey  to  be  produced  beyond 
every  thought  ?  and  where  before  ?')  '  Lodging  in 
the  judge,  that  while  he  has  twenty- two  judgments 
he  may  be  more  just ;' — so  that  when  they  pray  the 
Ta-vv>urvata  chapter  well,  and  recite  it  by  line  and 
stanza,  the  judges  possess  those  twenty-two  judg- 
ments more  correctly,  and  judiciousness  is  more 
lodging  in  them. 

7.  The  sixteen  stanzas  of  the  /ft/aetumaithi  chap- 
ter (Yas,  XXXII)2  are  lodging  in  warriors,  so  that 
it  becomes  possible,  during  their  good  protection,  to 
force  the  enemy  away  from  those  sixteen  countries 
which  the  Vendidad 3  mentions  in  its  first  fargan/. 

1  See  13.  Yi.  Ill,  25.  Both  the  Avcsla  text  here  quoted  and  the 
translation  suggested  must  be  received  with  caution,  as  the  MSS.  do 
rot  agree  in  the  three  central  words;  K20  has  manaNhfi  dya 
vispSi  kaua,  and  M6  has  manashS  kva  vtslH  kaia.  The 
former  reading  has  been  adopted,  with  very  slight  correction,  as  it 
seems  the  more  intelligible  ;  but  the  meaning  of  the  preceding 
word,  anaom<6,  is  far  from  certain.  The  writer  seems  to  have  been 
quoting  from  a  Pahlavi  version  of  the  Nask  which  contained  this 
A  vesta  quotation. 

1  This  Ha,  which  begins  with  the  words  zhvyfLkS.  hva.itus,  is 
not  called  by  its  initial  words,  as  the  preceding  chapters  are,  hut 
has  this  special  name  (see  the  prayers  at  the  end  of  it)  derived 
from  its  second  word,  and  which  is  corrupted  in  Pahlavi  into 

*  Here  written  Gavf^-jgda-daV  as  in  Sis.  Part  Ir  and  not  Va- 
dikdaW  as  in  other  parts  of  Sis.  Part  II  (see  §  19  and  Chap.  XII, 
4,  6,  20,  23,  26).     Vend.  I   contains  an  account  of  the  sixteen 

CHAPTER    XIII,  6-9, 


8.  The  fourteen  stanzas  of  Yatha-aif  (Yas. 
XXXIII)  are  for  this  reason,  because  seven  arch- 
angels are  more  diligent  in  activity  for  the  spirit, 
and  seven  archangels  •  for  the  world,  so  that  they 
may  attain  'to  heaven,  the  home  (m£h6n6)  of  Au- 
harmazd,  the  home  of  the  archangels,  the  home  of 
those  righteous  ones/  avi  gar6-nmanem,  mae- 
thanem  Ahurahe  mazdau,  maethanem  ame- 
shanSm  spe»tanam,  maethanem  anyaesham 
ashaonam*.  9.  The  three  repetitions  (danar)  of 
Y*-sfvLrtd  (Yas.  XXXIII,  n)3,  and  the  holding  up 
of  the  holy- water  (z6har)  at  these  repetitions,  are 
for  the  four  classes4,  and  for  this  reason  at  Ahurai 
mazdai  and  ashem^a   frada^s  the  holy-water  is 

'  best   of  regions  and  countries  '   where  the   Iranian   power  and 
religion  extended  at  an  early  date. 

1  The  seven  archangels  besides  their  spiritual  duties  have 
severally  charge  of  the  seven  worldly  existences,  man,  animals,  fire, 
metal,  earth,  water,  and  plants  (see  §  14  and  Chap.  XV).  But 
perhaps  we  should  read  '  angels,'  as  they  are  often  mentioned  as 
1  the  angels  of  the  spiritual  and  worldly  existences.' 

*  This  quotation,  of  which  the  Pahlavi  translation  is  first  given, 
and  then  the  A  vesta  text,  is  from  Vend.  XIX,  107. 

1  This  stanza  is  recited  thrice,  and  about  the  same  time  the 
officiating  priest  strains  the  H6m  juice,  and  prepares  10  pour  holy- 
water  into  the  mortar  in  which  the  Ildm  twigs  were  pounded  (see 
Haug*s  Essays,  pp.  402,  406). 

*  Or  '  professions '  of  the  community,  of  which  there  were  ori- 
ginally only  three,  the  priest,  warrior,  and  husbandman;  but  at 
a  later  date  the  artizan  was  added.  Both  K20  and  M6  have  '  four 
classes,'  but  this  is  inconsistent  with  the  '  three  repetitions.'  The 
Avesta  generally  knows  only  three  classes,  but  four  arc  mentioned 
in  the  Baghan  Yaxt  (Yas.  XIX,  46). 

■  That  is,  probably,  at  the  words  Ahurd  mazdausJa  in  the 
first  line,  and  ashtmH  fridac/  in  the  second  line  of  the  stanza  ; 
but  this  is  doubtful,  as  the  MSS.  give  the  words  corruptly,  in  a 
mixture  of  Av.  and  Pah!.,  as  follows:  pavan  Ahurai  mazdai 
aharayih-i  da</olh. 

to  be  held  level  with  the  heart  of  him  who  is  th< 
officiating  priest  (zot).  and  at  sraota1  it  is  to 
held  level  with  the  arm  of  him  who  is  the  officiating 
priest,  so  that  while  the  warriors  are  in  battle  with 
foreigners  (analran)  they  may  be  fuller  of  breath 
(va\6-girtar),  and  the  husbandmen  stronger-armed 
in  the  tillage  and  cultivation  of  the  world. 

10.  The  fifteen  stanzas  of  Ya-$kyaothana  (Yas. 
XXXI V)  are  for  this  reason,  because  it  is  given  ■ 
for  the  destruction  of  those  fifteen  fiends  who  are  dis- 
closed in  the  medical  part  (beshas)  of  the  Hart'okht 
Nask 3.  n.  The  four  repetitions  (bar)  of  Mazda-a//- 
m6i  (Yas.  XXXIV,  I5)4are  for  the  right  coming 
on  of  the  share  of  these  five  chieftainships  (rad'lh), 
the  house-ruler,  the  village-ruler,  the  tribe-ruler,  the 
province-ruler,  and  the  supreme  Zaratti.sts. 

12.  The  two  repetitions  of  Ahya-yasa  (Yas. 
XXVI II,  i) 6  are  for  this  reason,  that  the  sovereign 
(dahyupat)  may  not  at  once  seize  body,  conscious- 

1  The  first  word  in  the  third  line  of  the  stanza ;  but  this,  again, 
his  to  be  guessed  from  a  Pahlavi  version  in  the  MSS.  which  ma) 

icn  may 

be  read  va  va-sr6daan. 
■  Or  '  produced.' 
3  In  the  last  division  of  that  Nask  (see  B.  Yt.  Ill,  25,  note). 

*  This  last  stanza  of  the  Ahunavaiti  Gatha  is  recited  four 

*  See  Yas.  XIX,  50-53.  The  last  of  these  rulers  must  have  been 
the  supreme  pontiff  or  patriarch  of  the  province,  and  in  the  pro- 
vince of  Ragha  (Rages  or  Rat,  near  Teheran)  he  was  both  temporal 
and  spiritual  ruler. 

*  This  first  stanza  of  the  Ahunavaiti  Gatha  is  recited  twice,  not 
only  in  its  proper  place  (as  the  first  stanza  of  each  chapter  is,  in 
the  Gathas),  but  also  at  the  end  of  every  chapter  of  the  Ahunavaiti 
Gatha,  while  the  officiating  priest  sprinkles  the  sacred  twigs  with 
the  sacred  milk  or  gau.j  tfivya,  '  living-cow  produce '  (see  Haug's 
Essays,  pp.  405,  406). 



ness.  and  soul.  13.  Those  four  Yath&-ahu-vairy6s 
of  the  first  Gdtka  x  are  for  this  reason,  that  is,  so 
that  inferiors  may  become  more  tolerant  of  the 
commands  of  superiors,  and  good  thoughts,  good 
words,  and  good  deeds  be  more  domesticated  (mdh- 
m£ntar)  in  the  world,  and  the  fiend  more  powerless 
(apa</akh  shah  tar). 

14.  In  short  (ae-mar)-',  Ahya-y&sa"  is  as(pavan)3 
Auharmazd  and  the  righteous  man,  Khshmaibyd  as 
Vohuman  and  cattle,  A^-ta-vakhshyi  as  Arflfavahi$t 
and  fire,  T4-v^-urv4t4  as  Shatvaird4  and  metal,  the 
//z/adtumaithi  as  the  Gatha  of  Spendarma^  and  the 
earth,  Yathi-4w  as  Horvada/tf  and  water,  and  Y4- 
skyaothand  as  AmerOda*/  and  plants. 

15.  The  progress  which  is  in6  the  Ahunavaiti 
Gatha  the  house-rulers  should  carry  on  ;  that  which 
is  in  the  Ujtavaiti  Gatha  the  village-rulers  should 
carry  on ;  that  which  is  in  the  Spe«td-mainyu  ■ 
G£tha  the  tribe-rulers  should  carry  on ;  that  which 
is  in  the  Vohu-khshathra  G£tha  the  province-rulers 
should  carry  on  ;  that  which  is  in  the  Vahirtd-i$ti 
Gatha  the  supreme  ZaratCUts  should  carry  on;  and 

•  After  the  two  Ah)  a-yasas,  at  the  end  of  each  chapter  of  the 
Ahunavaiti  Gatha,  the  Yathi-ahQ-vairyd  formula  (see  Bund.  I,  21) 
is  recited  four  times. 

•  Or  *  to  sum  up.' 

•  It  is  not  quite  clear  how  pavan,  '  in,  on,  with,  by,  through,  as, 
for,'  &c,  should  be  translated  in  each  clause  of  this  section ;  but 
the  intention  is  evidently  to  compare  the  seven  chapters  of  the 
Ahunavaiti  Gatha  with  the  seven  archangels  and  the  seven  earthly 
creations  which  they  severally  protect  (see  Chap.  XV). 

4  Here  written  Shatrfvar. 

•  Meaning  probably  ■  the  prosperity  which  is  occasioned  by ; ' 
but  the  exact  signification  of  the  word  frak-sham  or  freh- 
kasham  (or  however  it  may  be  read)  is  uncertain. 

•  Spenddmat  or  Spendamat  in  PahlavL 



that  which  is  in  the  Yasna,  which  is  the  place  of 
righteous  blessing ',  these  four  classes  themselves 
should  carry  on. 

1 6.  Of  the  Yasna  of  seven  chapters  (Yas.  XXXV- 
XLI,  17)  the  beginning  section  (kar/Zako)  tias  nine 
stanzas;  and  its  beginning2  is  Humatanam  (Yas. 
XXXV,  4),  and  its  end  is  Humatanam  (Yas.  XLI, 
17  supl.) 

17.  The   six   stanzas  of  Ahya-thwa-dthrd   (Yas. 

XXXV I)  are  owing  to  the  six  hot  ordeals  (var), 
which,  in  the  Husparam  Naskzt  are  effected  by  /*a- 
thrayaim  athraiSrn4. 

18.  The  five  stanzas  of  Itha-adf-yazamaid£  (Yas. 

XXXVII)  are  thanksgiving  and  praise  for  the  pro- 
duction of  the  good  creations  by  AGharmazd. 

19.  The   five    stanzas    of    Imam-aaaf-zam    (Yas. 

XXXVIII)  are  owing  to  those  five  comforts  and 
five  discomforts  of  the  earth,  which,  it  is  declared  in 
the  third  fargar^  in  the  Vendidad 5,  are  accomplished 

1  That  is,  the  Yasna  of  seven  chapters  (Yas.  XXXV-XLI), 
which  is  called  simply  '  the  Yasna '  in  this  chapter.  This  last 
.  liuse,  which  is  omitted  in  M6,  connects  these  later  hymns  with 
the  four  classes  of  the  community  (see  §  9),  just  as  the  five  older 
hymns  arc  connected  with  the  five  chiefs  of  the  community  (see 
§  11)  in  the  former  clauses.  This  section  may  be  a  translation 
from  the  Avesta,  as  the  verbs  precede  their  nominatives. 

1  That  is.  the  beginning  of  the  Yasna  of  seven  chapters. 

3  See  Chap.  X,  21 ;  but  the  SakaVum  Nask  (see  Chap.  X,  25) 
is  probably  meant,  as  it  contained  a  section  on  ordeals  by  heat 
and  cold. 

*  These  Avesta  words  are  evidently  corrupt,  but  perhaps  '  a  quad- 
ruple fire  '  is  meant.     K20  has  £athr5yaim  athraiam. 

'  Here  written  VandikdaV  (see  §  7).  The  passage  here  cited  is 
not  a  quotation,  but  only  a  brief  summary  of  Vend.  Ill,  1-37 ; 
and  appears  to  have  been  derived  direct  from  the  Avesta,  without 
the  assistance  of  the  Pahlavi  version,  as  several  words  differ  from 
that  translation. 

thus : — '  The  first  comfort  of  the  earth  is  from  the 
land  on  which  a  righteous  man  walks  forth ;  the 
second  is  when  they  shall  make  the  dwelling  of  the 
good  and  fires  upon  it ;  the  third  is  when  they  sow 
corn  upon  it,  and  shall  take  heed  of  dead  matter ; 
the  fourth  is  when  all  beasts  of  burden  are  born 
upon  it ;  the  fifth  is  when  every  beast  of  burden  is 
on  it l ;  and  its  first  discomfort  is  from  the  Are2ur 
ridge  *  and  the  gate  of  hell ;  the  second  is  when 
they  dig3  it  up  for  a  dead  body ;  the  third  is  when 
one  constructs  a  depository  for  the  dead  (khazan)4 
upon  it ;  the  fourth  is  from  the  holes  of  its  noxious 
creatures  ;  the  fifth  is  when  they  shall  forsake  a  man 
in  affliction  (var^aklh)  upon  it,  who  is  righteous.' 

20.  The  five  stanzas  of  Itha  (Yas.  XXXIX)  are 
just  as  those  which  go  before. 

21.  The  four  stanzas  of  Ahu.-a//-paiti  (Yas.  XL) 
are  about  the  benefit  (arf-h6mandih)  which  is  on 
account  of  water,  earth,  plants,  and  animals. 

22.  The  six  stanzas  of  Stutd-gar6  (Yas.  XL1. 
1-17),  the  two  repetitions  of  Humatanam  (Yas. 
XXXV,  4-6),  and  the  three  repetitions  of  Hukhsh- 
athr6temai  (Yas.  XXXV,  13-15)  are  on  account  of 
the  existence  of  the  sons  of  Zaratust a. 

1  The  verb  is  probably  omiued  by  mistake,  and  we  ought  to 
read  '  voids  urine  upon  it,'  in  accordance  with  Vend.  Ill,  20. 
■  See  Bund.  XII,  8. 

*  Reading  kal£ndend  (Pers.  kalandand),  as  Vend.  Ill,  27 
refers  to  burial  of  the  dead,  and  the  same  idea  might  be  obtained, 
more  fancifully,  by  reading  kilt ndnd, '  they  turn  to  clay  '  (compare 
Pers.  gil,  'clay');  but  the  most  obvious  reading  is  karinSnd, 
'  they  cut,'  and  as  the  sentence  stands  it  woukl  imply  that  '  they 
cut  up  its  dead.' 

4  See  Chap.  II,  6. 

*  The  three  apostles  expected  in  the  future  (see  §  5  and  Bund. 
XXXII,  8).     It  is  doubtful  whether  these   three  passages  in  the 



23.  The  two  repetitions  of  Ashahya-aaaf-sairi ' 
(Yas.  XXXV,  22,  23)  are  for  the  laudation  of  right- 
eousness and  the  destruction  of  the  fiend.  24.  The 
two  repetitions  of  Y^Nhe-hatam 2  are  for  the  lau- 
dation of  Auharmazd  and  the  archangels,  and  the 
destruction  of  the  evil  spirit  and  the  miscreations 
(vishfWakan).  25.  The  two  repetitions  of'A  Thwui- 
staotarasta  (Yas.  XLI,  12-14)  are  *°r  ^e  laudation 
of  ceremonial  worship  (yarisnd)  and  the  sacred 
feast  (mazd). 

26.  The  two  repetitions  of  Atarem^a  (Visp.  XIX, 
1-8)4  are  for  the  laudation  of  the  Fr6bak  fire  and 
the  fire  Vazirt 5. 

27.  Of  the  sixteen  stanzas  of  the  Unavaiti  chapter 
(Yas.  XLII)f'  it  is  related  just  as  about  the  /foa£tu- 
maithi  chapter 7. 

Y.isna.  arc  here  intended  all  to  refer  to  the  same  subject,  but  no 
other  subject  is  mentioned  for  the  two  former.  Having  completed 
the  enumeration  of  the  sections  of  the  Yasna  of  seven  chapters, 
the  writer  is  now  proceeding  to  notice  those  passages  which  are 
recited  more  than  once  in  the  performance  of  the  ritual. 

1  M6  has  gairt,  *in  a  song,'  with  the  obsolete  g,  which  is  very 
like  s,  and  is  also  used  in  the  word  gar 6  in  §  22  ;  this  is  a  variant 
well  worth  consideration  by  translators  of  the  Avesta.  K20  has 
only  Ashahyd. 

8  This  formula  (see  B.  Yt.  II,  64)  is  recited  after  every  chapter 
of  the  Gathas,  but  does  not  appear  to  be  anywhere  recited  twice; 
so  the  words  2  danar,  '  two  repetitions/  may  perhaps  be  inserted 
here  in  the  wrong  place,  as  they  are  wanting  in  §  25. 

*  These  words  are  omitted  in  the  Pahlavi  text,  evidently  through 

•  Visp.  XIX,  XX  follow  Yas.  XLI  in  the  full  Parsi  ritual,  and 
the  first  of  them  is  recited  twice. 

5  The  Frdbak  is  the  oldest  sacred  fire  on  earth,  and  the  Vazirt 
is  the  lightning  (see  Bund.  XVII,  1,  5,  SZS.  XI,  5,  8-10). 

*  The  first  chapter  of  the  ILrtavaiti  Gatha  (see  §  2,  note  4),  so 
called  from  its  first  word  una. 

•  See  §  7. 

28.  The  twenty  stanzas  of  Taaf-thwa>peres&  (Yas. 
XLIII)  are  the  twenty  judgments  (da^istan)  be- 
tween the  beneficent  spirit  and  the  evil  spirit ;  and 
for  this  reason  they  should  every  time  utter  Ta^- 
thwd-peresa  again ',  because  they  should  utter  the 
original  judgment  again,  and  the  twentieth  time  the 
evil  spirit  becomes  confounded. 

29.  The  eleven  stanzas  of  Arf-fravakhshya  (Yas. 
XLIV)  are  made  up  from  the  six  chieftainships  2 
and  the  five  accomplishments  (farhang)  owing  to 
religion ;  one  is  thus,  not  to  do  unto  others s  all  that 
which  is  not  well  for  one's  self;  the  second  is  to  under- 
stand fully  what  is  well-done  and  not  well-done  ;  the 
third  is  to  turn  from  the  vile  and  their  conversation 
(andarag-guftand)  ;  the  fourth  is  to  confess  ones 
failings  to  the  high-priests,  and  let  them  bring  the 
whip ;  the  fifth  is  not  to  neglect  the  season-festivals 
at  their  proper  hour  (d6n  hasar),  nor  the  other 
things  which  go  to  the  bridge4;  and  the  six  chief- 
tainships are  not  his   property  who  has  not  these 

1  That  is,  the  first  line  (ta«/  thwa"  peresi  ercr  moi  vaoH 
Ahura!  "that  I  shall  ask  thee,  tell  it  me  right,  O  Ahura  ! ')  is 
repeated  at  the  beginning  of  each  of  the  first  nineteen  stanzas,  and 
the  first  stanza  being  recited  twice  (as  in  all  chapters  of  the  Gdthas) 
these  words  are  recited  twenty  times  before  the  last  stanza  is 
reached.  The  phrases  'and  for  this  reason'  and  'because  they 
should  utter  the  original  judgment  again '  arc  omitted  in  M6. 

'  These  cannot  be  the  same  'chieftainships'  (ra</Sh)  as  those 
mentioned  in  §  1 1,  of  which  there  are  only  five;  but  perhaps  they 
are  the  spiritual  chieftainships,  or  primacies,  of  the  six  other  regions 
of  the  earth  (see  Dund.  XXIX,  1). 

8  Assuming  that  atjan  stands  for  afiin. 

•  The  A"inva</  bridge,  or  route  of  the  soul  to  the  other  world  (see 
Chap.  XII,  31).  Part  of  these  fourth  and  fifth  clauses  is  omitted 
in  K20  by  mistake. 

five  accomplishments,   and   he  is  not   fit   even   for 

30.  The  nineteen  stanzas  of  Kam-nemoi-zam  ( Yas. 
XLV)  are  for  this  reason,  that  every  one  may  so 
persevere  in  his  own  duty  (khvesak&nih) ',  that 
while  those  are  our  nineteen  propitiations  (aujd- 
(r\tf)i,  which  it  says  in  the  Sakaa'um  Nask*  should 
be  my  own,  the  strength  and  power  of  the  angels 
shall  become  more  considerable,  and  the  destroyer 
more  perishable. 

31.  The  Ustavaiti  Gatha  is  a  Gatha  (gas)  of  four 
chapters  *,  and  each  stanza  of  five  lines  (gas),  except 
HaeXW-aspa-vakhshya  (Yas.  XLV,  T5)5.  32.  The 
two  repetitions  of  Usta-ahmai(Yas.  XL! I,  i)flare,  one 
as  a  retention  and  embrace  of  Auharmazd,  and  one 
as  a  destruction  of  the  fiends ;  and  U-rta-Ahurem- 
mazdam  (Visp.  XXI,  1-5)1  in  like  manner. 

33.  Spewta-mainyu  (Yas.  XLVI)  has  six  stanzas. 
Yezt-adais  (Yas.  XLVI  I)  twelve  stanzas,  Aaf-ma- 
yava  (Yas.  XLVI  1 1)  twelve  stanzas,  and  Ka^-moi- 
urva  (Yas.  XLIX)  eleven  stanzas.  34.  The  Spe/tta- 
mainyu   Gatha   is  a  Gatha  of  four  chapters  8,  and 

1  Or, it  maybe,  'through  his  own  intellect  (  hush),'  or 
merely  another  mode  of  writing  khvexkarih,  '  industry.' 

*  Considering  each  of  the  stanzas  as  an  offering  to,  or  propiti- 
ation of,  (Av.  usefriti)  the  angels. 

»  See  Chap.  X,  25. 
4  Those  detailed  in  §§  27—30. 

6  Which  stanza  has  only  four  lines.     Pahl.  gas  means  both  ir 
whole  hymn  and  also  each  line  of  the  hymn. 

*  The  first  stanza  of  the  Uxtavaiti  Gatha,  which  is  recited  twi< 
both  in  its  proper  place  and  at  the  end  of  each  chapter  of  ths 
Gatha  {see  §  12,  note). 

'  Visp.  XXI  follows  Yas.  XLV  in  the  full  Parsi  ritual,  and 
recited  twice. 

*  Those  detailed  in  §  33. 



each  stanza  of  four  lines;  it  is  made  up  from  the 
five  chieftainships  and  four  classes1.  35.  The  two 
repetitions  of  Spctfta-mainyu  (Yas.  XLVI,  i)2  are, 
one  for  the  laudation  of  the  beneficent  spirit  (spen- 
damat),  and  one  for  that  of  the  earth \ 

36.  One  Spe«tem-Ahurem-mazd2m  (Visp.  XXII, 
1-1 1)*  is  the  laudation  of  the  creatures  of  the  bene- 
ficent spirit,  and  one  is  the  destruction  of  the  crea- 
tures of  the  evil  spirit. 

37.  The  twenty-two  stanzas  of  the  Vohu-khshathra 
G&tha  (Yas.  L)  are  those  twenty-two  judgments 
which  are  lodging  within  judges,  as  written  above5. 
38.  The  two  repetitions  of  Vohu-khshathrem  (Yas. 
L,  i)*are,  one  the  laudation  of  living  (zindaklh). 
and  one  of  the  supreme  Zarattat. 

39.  One  Vohu-khshathrem  yazamaide  (Visp. 
XXIII,  1-9) 7  is  for  the  laudation  of  Shatvatrd  8, 
and  one  of  metal.     40.  The  two  repetitions  of  Avi- 

1  Sec  §§9,  11. 

1  The  first  stanza  of  the  Spewti-mainyQ  Galha,  which  is  recited 
twice,  both  in  ils  proper  place  and  at  the  end  of  each  chapter 
of  that  Gllha  (see  §  12,  note). 

■  It  seems  probable  that  the  Pahlavi  writer  has  here  confounded 
Spendamat,  '  the  beneficent  spirit,'  with  the  archangel  Spendarmarf 
who  has  special  charge  of  the  earth  ;  their  names  being  even  more 
alike  in  Pahlavi  than  in  English,  though  corrupted  from  the  distinct 
Avcsta  forms  spenta  mainyu  and  spenta  armaiti,  respectively. 

4  Visjx  XXII  follows  Yas.  XLIX  in  the  full  Parsi  ritual,  and  is 
recited  twice. 

6  See  §  6. 

6  The  first  stanza  of  the  Vohu-khshathra  G&tha,  which  is  recited 
twice,  both  at  the  beginning  and  end  of  the  chapter  (see  §  12, 

?  Visp.  XXIII,  1-9  follows  Yas.  L  in  the  full  Parsi  ritual,  and 
is  recited  twice. 

1  The  archangel  who  has  special  charge  of  metal  (see  §  14, 
Chap.  XV,  5,  14-19,  and  Bund.  I,  26,  XXX,  19);  the  name 
is  here  written  Shatrivar. 

ap5m  (Visp.  XXIV,  1-12)1  are,  one  for  the  lauda- 
tion of  waters,  and  one  of  plants. 

41.  The  nine  stanzas  of  the  Vahi5t6ini  (Yas.  LI  I) 
are  on  account  of  those  nine  things  which  are8  .  .  . 
the  supreme  Zaratustship  lodging  in  the  supreme 
ZaratCyts,  the  source  of  fountains,  the  bridge  over 
waters,  and  even  the  navigable  river,  the  righteous 
man,  and  the  righteous  woman.  42.  And  it  is  a 
Gatha  of  one  chapter,  and  each  stanza  of  four  lines, 
except  Itha-1-haithya-naro  (Yas.  LI  I,  6)s,  for  there  is 
always  one  lord  and  sovereign  in  the  world.  43. 
And  those  four  lines  are  for  this  reason,  because  it 
is  declared:  ^athruj"  hamayau  khshap6  dahma- 
ya</  par6  afrit6i^4,  'four  times  every  night  is  the 
"  blessing  of  the  holy"  (Yas.  LI X),' and  three  times 
Sr6shs,  twice  Bushasp0,  and  once  Aeshm7  will  come 

1  After  the  two  recitations  of  Visp.  XXIII,  1-9  there  follow 
Vend.  XV,  XVI,  and  Visp.  XXIII,  io,  and  then  Visp.  XXIV,  1-12 
is  recited  twice,  in  the  full  Tarsi  ritual,  followed  by  Visp.  XXV. 

•  Some  words  are  evidently  lost  here ;  M6  has  m  followed  by  a 
blank  space,  and  K20  has  madam,  'on.'  It  is  not  quite  certain 
whether  the  things  mentioned  are  to  be  reckoned  as  four,  five, 
or  six;  but  assuming  they  arc  five,  it  is  possible  that  the  four 
things  missing  in  the  text  are  the  four  remaining  chieftainships 
(see  §  1 1),  the  rulerships  of  the  house,  village,  tribe,  and  province 
lodged  in  the  rulers  of  the  same,  respectively. 

1  Which  stanza  has  five  tines,  and  is,  therefore,  here  considered 
symbolical  of  the  ruling  monarch,  or  pontiff. 

4  This  Avesta  passage  does  not  appear  to  be  extant  elsewhere, 
and  its  Pahlavi  translation,  given  in  the  text,  is  not  quite  correct; 
it  would  be  better  thus :  '  through  the  "  blessing  of  the  holy " 
four  times  every  night ;  *  dahma  afriti  (Pahl.  dahmSn  Sfrln6, 
'  blessing  of  the  holy  ')  is  the  technical  name  of  Yas.  L1X. 

•  See  Bund.  XIX,  33,  XXX,  29.     This  angel,  invoked  by  the 
'blessing'  (Yas.  LIX,  8),  comes  to  defend  mankind  against  tl 
wiles  of  Bushasp  and  Aeshm. 

•  The  demoness  of  sloth  (see  Bund.  XXVIII,  26). 
'  The  demon  of  wrath  (see  Bund.  XXVIII,  15-17,  20). 

CHAPTER    XIII,  41-49-  367 

to  the  material  world.  44.  And  the  five  lines  of  that 
one  stanza  (Yas.  LI  I,  6)  are  for  this  reason,  because 
the  assistants  of  the  supreme  Zaratu^t  are  five,  the 
house-ruler,  the  village- ruler,  the  tribe-ruler,  the 
province -ruler,  and  she  even  who  is  his  own  wife 
(narik)1.  45.  The  two  repetitions  of  VahiytA-Lsti* 
(Yas.  LI  I,  l)*  are,  one  for  the  laudation  of  sove- 
reigns, and  one  for  the  laudation  of  peace  (paaf- 

46.  The  two  repetitions  of  Vahtrtem-Ahurem- 
mazdam  (Visp.  XXVI)3  are,  one  for  the  laudation 
of  Auharmazd  and  the  archangels,  and  one  for  the 
destruction  of  the  fiends.  47.  The  four  repetitions  of 
the  Airyamana  (Yas.  LI  1 1)4  are  for  the  existence 
of  more  submission  (airman  ih)  in  the  house,  vil- 
lage, tribe,  and  province.  48.  The  four  repetitions 
of  Ava^-mizdem  (Visp.  XXVII)  are  for  the  healing 
of  those5  who  dwell  in  the  house,  village,  tribe,  and 

49.  The  section  (kar^ako)  whose  beginning  is 
Ta<£s6idhis  (Yas.  LVII,  1-9)"  is,  for  the  completion 

1  Though  bourn!  to  be  strictly  obedient  to  her  husband  or 
guardian,  a  Mazdayasnian  woman  occupied  a  more  honourable 
position  in  the  community  dun  was  sanctioned  by  any  other 
oriental  religion. 

'  The  first  stanza  of  the  VahixtdLrti  GStha,  which  is  recited 
twice,  both  at  the  beginning  and  end  of  the  chapter  (see  §  ra, 

»  Visp.  XXVI  follows  Yas.  LII  in  the  full  Parsi  ritual,  and 
is  recited  twice,  followed  by  Vend.  XIX,  XX. 

*  So  called  from  its  first  words  a  airyrmS;  it  is  recited  four 
times  after  Vend.  XX.  and  shortly  afterwards  Visp.  XXVII  is  also 
recited  four  times,  as  mentioned  in  §  48. 

1  M6  has  '  of  the  soul,'  which  is,  no  doubt,  a  blunder  due  to  the 
illegibility  of  the  MS.  from  which  it  was  copied. 

•  This  is  the  Fshusho-mSlhra  ('  a  spell  or  prayer  for  prosperity ') 

of  the  Gathas,  taught  as  pertaining  to  the  Gathas 
(gasanik  Hst). 

50.  The  beginning  of  the  Gathas  is  Ahya-yasa 
(Yas.  XXVIII,  i),  and  their  end  is  drigave  vahy6 
(Yas.  LI  I,  9,  end);  and  there  are  278  stanzas,  10 16 
lines,  5567  words  (va^'ak),  9999  marik,  and  16,554 
khur^ak  \  51.  For  the  lines  and  stanzas  of  the 
Gathas  were  collected  by  us,  and  were: — one  hundred 
stanzas  of  the  Ahunavaiti  Gatha  (Yas.  XXVIII- 
XXXIV),  of  which  each  stanza  is  three  lines;  forty 
stanzas  of  the  Yasna  of  seven  chapters  (Yas.  XXXV- 

of  Viap.  I,  28,  II,  30,  Yas.  LVI,  ix,  6,  LVIII,  13.  Whether  the 
remainder  of  Yas.  LVII  is  to  be  considered  as  pertaining  to  the 
Gathas  is  uncertain  ;  it  is  recited  in  seven  sections  by  the  assistant 
priest,  each  section  from  a  different  position  ;  these  seven  positions 
being  the  stations  of  the  seven  assistant  priests  who  are  sup- 
posed to  be  present  spiritually,  and  to  be  arranged  three  on  each 
side,  and  one  at  the  south  end,  of  the  ceremonial  area,  while  the 
chief  officiating  priest  occupies  the  north  end  (see  Haug's  Essays, 

P*  332). 

1  The  numbers  of  the  stanzas  and  lines  are  correct,  as  may 
be  seen  from  the  details  given  in  §  51.  Regarding  the  words 
there  is  the  uncertainty  as  to  what  constitutes  a  compound  word, 
but,  taking  each  compound  in  Westergaard's  edition  of  the  teste 
as  a  single  word,  the  total  number  of  words  in  the  roi6  lines 
is  about  6147  ;  and  this  could  be  reduced  to  5567  only  by  omit- 
ting the  Yasna  of  seven  chapters,  and  somewhat  relaxing  the  rule 
as  to  compound  words.  The  meaning  of  the  last  two  terms, 
marik  and  khur</ak,  is  doubtful,  but  they  are  certainly  not 
syllables  and  letters,  as  the  number  of  syllables  exceeds  13,000. 
In  other  places  (see  Bund.  I,  21)  mSrtk  usually  means  '  a  word,' 
but  that  meaning  is  expressed  by  the  term  va£ak  here.  If  the 
number  9999  be  correct,  marik  must  signify  some  particular  class 
of  syllable  which  would  include  about  three-fourths  of  the  whole 
number  of  syllables.  It  may  be  noted,  however,  that  Za</-sparamf 
in  the  particulars  he  gives  about  the  Gathas  (see  SZS.  XI,  10,  note  6), 
states  the  number  of  m&rtk  at  6666.  The  khu.r</ak  or  '  small ' 
things  are  probably  the  consonants. 

CHAPTER    XIII,    50-XIV,    I. 


XLI,  17),  of  which  each  stanza  is  three  lines;  sixty- 
six  stanzas  of  the  Ujtavaiti  Gatha  (Yas.  XLI1- 
XLV),  of  which  each  stanza  is  five  lines,  except 
Hae^a/^-aspa  (Yas.  XLV,  15),  for  that  one  is  four 
lines ;  forty-one  stanzas  of  the  Spewta-mainyu  Gatha 
(Yas.  XLVI-XLIX),  of  which  each  stanza  is  four 
lines;  twenty-two  stanzas  of  the  Vohu-khshathra 
(Yas.  L),  of  which  each  stanza  is  three1  lines;  and 
nine  stanzas  of  the  Vahlftoisti  (Yas.  LI  I),  of  which 
each  stanza  is  four  lines,  except  Itha-i  (Yas.  LI  I,  6), 
for  that  one  is  a  stanza  of  five  ; — the  amount  of  the 
foregoing2  is  278  stanzas3. 

Chapter    XIV*. 

0.  May  it  be  in  the  name  of  God  (yazdan)  and 
the  good  creation  ! 

1.  When  they  consecrate  a  sacred  cake  (drono), 
and  it  becomes  demon  worship5,  what  and  how 
many  things  are  not  proper  ? 

1  AH  MSS.  have  '  four,'  and  then  add  the  exception  about 
Itha-i  to  the  account  of  this  Gatha,  instead  of  mentioning  it  in  the 
details  of  the  Vahirt6ijti ;  which  blunder  is  here  corrected. 

*  Reading  kadtnon  yehevQnixno,  but  the  latter  word,  with 
part  of  the  cyphers  which  follow,  is  lorn  away  in  K20,  and  in  M6 
it  is  written  so  as  to  resemble  the  Avesta  letters  gnn  gun.  wind) 
are  unintelligible,  though  something  like  PahL  yehevunijn&; 
there  can,  however,  be  little  doubt  as  to  the  general  meaning 
of  the  pin 

1  The  number  of  lines  is  easily  computed  from  the  same  details, 
as  follows:  — 300  4- 120  4- 329  +  164  4- 66  4- 37  =  1016  lines,  as 
stated  in  §  50,  and  as  they  still  exist  in  the  Gatha  texts. 

4  This  chapter  is  also  found  in  L15,  fols.  1-4,  and  a  P3zand 
version  of  §§  1-3  exists  in  L22,  folg,  126, 127,  and  L7,  fols.  78,  79, 

*  That  is,  it  becomes  desecrated  through  some  fault  in  the  cere- 

[5]  J5b 



2.  The  decision  is  this : — Whoever  knowingly 
consecrates  a  sacred  cake  with  unpurified  sacred 
twigs  (bares6m-i  apA^iy&f)1,  or  with  a  twig- 
bundle  the  number  of  whose  twigs  (tak)  is  too  many 
or  too  few,  or  of  another  plant  not  proper  for  sacred 
twigs ;  or  holds  the  end  of  the  twig-bundle  to  the 
north  ■  and  utters  the  Avesta  attentively ;  or  who- 
ever consecrates  with  efficacy  unawares,  it  is  not  to 
be  considered  as  uttered  by  him.  3.  Nor  by  him 
who  advertently  or  inadvertently  takes  a  taste 
(/£ashnik),  not  from  the  sacred  cake  with  the  butter 
(gaus-dafi)8,  but  from  the  frasast;  or  takes  the 
prayer  (va^)4  inwardly  regarding  that  cake  (dr6no) 
before  the  officiating  priest  (zot)  takes  a  taste  from 
the  same  cake ;  or  shall  utter  the  length  of  a  stanza 
in  excess,  and  does  not  again  make  a  beginning  of 
the  consecration  of  tJie  sacred  cake ;  or  takes  up  the 

re  or 

mony,  for  any  ceremony,  which  is  too  imperfect  for  acceptance 
by  the  celestial  beings,  is  supposed  to  be  appropriated  by  the 
demons,  as  performed  for  their  benefit  (see  Chap.  IX,  5).  Demon 
worship  is  a  term  also  applied  to  many  other  evil  actions  which 
are  supposed  to  give  the  demons  special  power  over  the  perpetrator 
of  them. 

1  See  Chap.  Ill,  32,  note. 

■  The  supposed  direction  of  the  demons  (see  Chaps.  X,  7, 
18).  When  praying,  a  Parsi  must  face  either  the  sun,  or  a  fire 
lamp;  and  when  the  direction  of  the  sun  is  doubtful,  or  when  it  is 
nearly  overhead,  he  must  face  to  the  south,  even  when  he  is  in  so 
low  a  latitude  that  the  sun  may  be  somewhat  to  the  north  of  him. 

*  Which  usually  lakes  the  place  of  the  meat-offering  mentioned 
in  Chap.  XI,  4-6,  and  is  placed  upon  one  of  the  cakes  on  the  left 
side  of  the  table  during  consecration,  while  the  frasasts  are  the 
cakes  on  the  right-hand  side  of  the  table  (see  Chap.  Ill,  32,  note). 

*  That  is,  prepares  for  eating  by  muttering  the  portion  of  the 
grace  which  is  to  be  recited  in  a  low  murmur  before  eating  (see 
Chap.  Ill,  6,  note).     This  clause  is  omitted  in  K20. 

CHAPTER    XIV,    2-6. 


dedication  formula  (shnumanS)1  too  soon  or  too 
late ;  or  does  not  utter  the  Avesta  for  the  fire  when 
he  sees  the  fire. 

4.  This  is  how  it  is  when  the  period  of  the  day 
(gas)2  is  retained,  and  how  it  should  be  when  one 
may  relinquish  it;  that  is,  when  even  one  of  the 
stars  created  by  Auharmazd  is  apparent,  it  is  re- 
tained, and  when  not  it  is  relinquished.  5.  It  is 
Vand-Auharmazd a  who  said  that  when,  besides 
Tlrtar,  Vanand,  or  Sataves4,  one  of  the  zodiacal 
stars  (akhtarik)  is  apparent,  it  is  retained,  and 
when  not  it  is  relinquished.  6.  There  have  be