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E A. BERGMAN 





4d, US Air Express 
* Bdiion 10 cents 


Let Cypriots decide 


their future—makarios 
By FENNER BROCKWAY MP 


No. 1,106 September 6, 1957 








| iG 


A science lecturer 


A commission of enquiry sx countries concerned. 


FROM A CORRESPONDENT 
ON the night of June 11 this year Maurice Audin, a lecturer 
in science at the University of Algiers, was awakened and 
taken away by an army captain and six parachutists. They 


had no warrant for his arrest. 


interrogation. 


He was being taken away for 


He has not ‘been seen since, 


‘The parachutists claim that M. Audin at some time escaped from 
custody. Nearly three months have passed, however, since this Gestapo- 


‘type visit to his house and nothing has been heard of him apart from 
an account given by a fellow-prisoner that two days after the arrest of 


M. Audin he had seen him in a very pitiful state: he could hardly stand, 


his face was cruelly swollen, and his wrists were bleeding. 


The captain who had been responsible for taking M. Audin into 
custody had remarked that he might be released after a very short time 


‘The. Third. Japanese: 
» Conference : 


: Discussion that:leads' nowhere ! 


DEG Oeoeesee ee 


An editorial 


if WE demand. universal disarma- 


ment with controls accepted by 
If agreement 
on. universal, general disarmament is 
not yet possible, we demand a partial 
disarmament agreement.” 

This passage, from the decisions reached, 
“as a result of serious discussion,” by the 
Conference held in Tokyo last month 
Against Atomic and Hydrogen Bombs and 
for Disarmament, points to the futility of 
conferences where the delegates come 
together holding no views in common other 


than the now universal desire not to be 
this 


involved in. war, (See report on 
page.) 
The “serious discussions” in such a 


conference are directed, not to the prac- 
tical means of achieving the desired ends, 
but to painstaking negotiations to arrive 


at pronouncements from which all the 
practical significance has been eliminated, 
except that those present regard peace as 


“Cif he is reasonable.” It must be stressed here that he was not under 
‘arrest in order to be put on trial; only detained in order to assist the 
military authorities in their investigations. 


Athens, August 30 
_ BRITAIN is attempting to present the Cyprus 


question as one of Greek-Turkish differences, 
allowing Britain to assume the position of arbitrator 
in a matter on which she is really a 
litigant,” Archbishop Makarios said at 
a Press conference I attended today in 
Athens, 


““Any agreements on the future of 
the island in the absence of the Cypriot 
people cannot be binding on them, he 
said. 


“The ‘whole of the Cypriot people in- 
cluding the Turkish minority and excluding 
only the British occupation forces should 
decide.” f 

The minority should be guaranteed rights 
by international safeguards. 

On the subject of Cyprus as a base, the 
Archbishop said the people should decide 
after attaining democratic ‘self-government. 

Personally he was opposed to a base, || 
especially for aggressive purposes, The 

Archbishop evidently had in mind the 

recent use of Cyprus by Britain’ for | 

launching the attack on Egypt. 

Archbishop Makarios leaves tomorrow 
for the United Nations Assembly where the 
Cyprus issue will be discussed for the fourth 
time. i ae hd! ot 


Eleven days after M, Audin’s arrest his wife received an official 





intimation that he was being forcibly detained by the military authorities 


at Bouzareah. Enquiries at Bouzareah 
Camp disclosed that he had never been 
heard of there. 


ALLEGATIONS 


Madame Audin has now for the second 
time asked that the Commission for the 
Safeguarding of Rights and Individual 
Liberties shall enquire into the fate of her 
husband. This Commission’ of twelve 
members was set up by M. Mollet ‘in May 
last’ in’ response to a growing disquiet in 
public opinion as to the methods that were 
being adopted by the police and military 
authorities in Algeria. Some of the alle- 
gations that had been made in this respect 
had not been permitted to get by the grow- 
ing censorship of the Press that has oper- 
ated in France, .but- plenty had been pub- 
blished for the Commission to investigate, 
It was suggested on the setting up of the 
Commission that it would be able to clear 
the administration and prove that. these 
stories were in general false. That was four 
months ago, 

No report has yet been received. 


a good thing and war as a bad thing— 
which can be taken for granted at the 
Start. 

The Conference is called a World Con- 
ference. It cannot, however, really fulfil 
the function of a world conference because 
of its composition. There were 4,078 
“ delegates ” present from» 26 countries;; of 
these 97 came from 25 countries and 3,981 
from Japan, 


Real peace policy 

What this Conference has done is to 
demonstrate that the Japanese People feel 
very intensely on the ‘subject of nuclear 
weapons. They have registered this in the 
34 million signatrtres on. a petition calling 
for the banning of the H-bomb,. and in 
three successive “Wold Conferences.” 

We hope that this wii,' be the tast of these 
Conferences, 

They can provide a use Cul Opportunity 
for a small number of peop,‘¢ of different 
nations to meet each other. Bu't aS a con- 
tribution to formulating a real pea‘¢e Policy 
what they can provide has very litte rela- 
tionship to the effort and expenditure they’ 
require, 


We do not think Peace News 


can be 
accused “of §*4)' lank “ar —- - 


i hh £2" eee ey 


a 


“The ‘whole of the Cypriot people in- 
cluding the Turkish minority and excluding 
only the British \occupation forces should 
decide.” { 

The minority should be guaranteed rights 
by international safeguards. 

On the subject of Cyprus as a base, the 
Archbishop said the people should decide 
after attaining democratic self-government. 


Personally he was opposed to a base, |’ 
especially for aggressive purposes. The | 
Archbishop evidently had in mind the | 
Britain for | 


recent use of Cyprus by 

launching the attack on Egypt, 

Archbishop Makarios leaves tomorrow 
for the United Nations Assembly where the 
Cyprus issue will be discussed for the fourth 


time. 
PRESS INVITED 


The Greek Government has invited to 
Athens foreign editors of leading news- 
papers of Europe and America, They will 
see trade fairs and military demonstrations 
and for five days tour the Aegean Islands. 

But the principle purpose of the visit is 
to extend knowledge of the Greek attitude 
on Cyprus before the discussion of the 
issue by the UN Assembly. 

Sandwiched among the long list of dis- 
tinguished journalists are four names which 
seem irrelevant, There is Peter Benensen, 
member of Justice, British section of the 
International Commission of Jurists, And 
there are three British Labour MPs: Ken- 
neth Robinson, Lena Jager and myself. 

We have come to Athens because of 
sympathy with the demand of Cyprus for 
self-determination and desire to have 
authentic information about new deyelop- 
ments which give some hope of settle- 


ment, 
We shall not only attend Press con- 
ferences, We shall have private talks, 


Tonight, politicians and journalists attend 
the Balkan games in the stadium, Athletics, 
happily cross the Iron Curtain, Bulgaria, 
Rumania and Yugoslavia are taking part 
but, alas, there is now’a Cypriot curtain. 
Turkey will not be represented, 


Arrested in Amsterdam 


Garry Davis, who calls himself the first 
world citizen, has been arrested in Amster- 
dam, for entering Holland illegally in 
order to attend the World Federalists’ 
Conference after haying been refused a 
visa. 





Irish Pacifist Movement will hold a Public Meeting on 
Saturday, September 7, 8 p.m., at 6 Eustace Street, 
Dublin. Speaker : Professor Kathleen Lonsdale ‘‘ The 
Political Responsibility of the Scientist °’, 





Danilo Dolci — see page 2 





A Breton nationalist 


and the Algerian war 


A YOUNG Breton nationalist, Hervé 

Bougeant, is now being held in. the 
military jail at Vernon, Eure, France, A 
soldier in the French Army, just drafted for 
Algeria, he has written to the President. of 
the French Republic that ‘he refused to 
go to war against Algerian patriots, who 
are fighting for the freedom of their 
country.” 

In a recent letter to a Breton friend, 
Hervé Bougeant writes ; ‘“ When I consider 
our country (Brittany) and her language 
slowly dying, killed by these people in Paris, 
I feel I must say no! to them; never will 
I do for them that horrible piece of work: 
kill a nation.’ 


“TOKYO DECLARATION” 


MPHE Third World . Conference 

against Atomic. and Hydrogen 
Bombs and for Disarmament, meeting 
in Tokyo last month, issued a “ Tokyo 
Declaration ” on nuclear weapons and 
disarmament; an “appeal to the 
United Nations and the Governments 
of the World” and a list of recom- 
mended common actions for prohibit- 
ing nuclear bombs and securing dis- 
armament, 

The Tokyo Declaration issued after the 
Conference stated: 

“We regard jnuclear’ tests as a dangerous 
expression of preparations for. nuclear war, 
and hereby demand that Governments con- 
cerned conclude an international agreement 

[) |}ON BACK PAGE 








SHPUSP ERS SERA CEIQUIre PTO Ue Late Or ner 
husband. This Commission’ of twelve 
members was set up by M. Mollet ‘in May 
last in’ response to’ a growing disquiet in 
public opinion as to the methods that were 
being adopted by the police and military 
authorities in Algeria. Some of the alle- 
gations that had been made in this respect 
had not been permitted to get by the grow- 
ing censorship of the Press that has oper- 
ated in France, .but- plenty had been pub- 
blished for the Commission to. investigate, 
{t was suggested on the setting up of the 
Commission that it would be able to clear 
the administration and prove that these 
stories were in general false. That was four 
months ago, 
No report has yet been received. 


INVESTIGATIONS 


An International Commission set up by 
the International Committee against Con- 
centration Camps has not, however, found 
the obstacles in the way of enquiry as has 
apparently the official Commission. set up 
by the Government, and on July 27 it 
reported that it had found that outrages of 
a kind that might lead tothe condition in 
which M. Audin is reported to have been 
seen had certainly occurred. 


It would seem that other individual cases 
besides that of M. Audin have been sub- 
mitted to the Commission for investigation, 
but so far there is apparently no trace of 
any findings the Commission may have 
reached. Madame Audin has now renewed 
her complaint to this Commission, which is 
reported to be holding a meeting (its first?) 
this week, 


Madame Audin remarks that the men 
who took her husband away will know what 
has become of him. “If we are not yet 
living absolutely under a police State regime 
I have a right to demand the truth.” 


Red Cross Conference 


S of September 6 the Swiss Short Wave 

Service will broadcast each Friday at 
19.20 GMT special programmes about the 
forthcoming International Red Cross Con- 
ference in New Delhi, India, on draft rules 
for the limitation of the dangers incurred 
by the civilian population in time of war. 


During this Conference, from October 23 
to November 7, a special correspondent will 
give daily reports from New Delhi,, which 
will be broadcast immediately after the 
Home News, Wavelengths are HEU 33 
9656 ke, 31,04m, and HEI 3, 7210 ke, 
41.61 m, 


, Tr Leo SC Tee ~~ 


What this Conference has done jg to 
demonstrate that the Japanese People feel 
very intensely on the ‘subject of nuclear 
weapons. They have registered this in the 
34 million signatries on a_ petition calling 
for the banning of the H-bomb, and in 
three successive “ Wc'ld Conferences,” 

We hope that this wii,! be the-tast of these 
Conferences, 

They can provide a use Cul Opportunity” 
for a small number. of peop: ¢ Of different 
nations to meet each other. Bu't aS a con- 
tribution to formulating a real pea‘ce policy 
what they can provide has very litt,'e rela- 
tionship to the effort and expenditure they 
require, 

We do not think Peace News can be 
accused of a lack of sympathy for the 
victims who died at Hiroshima and Naga- 
saki, and with the many Japanese people 
who have shared the suffering left behind 
by what was done to these two cities, 

We hold that the Governments that were 
responsible for what was done at Hiroshima 
and Nagasaki were guilty» of appalling 
crimes. We should be glad to see some 
signs of repentance among those who were 
involved, 


Pearl Harbour 


What we are doubtful about is whether 
those who were the most direct. sufferers 
from these crimes will have much effect if 
they merely keep saying. that’ such crimes 
should not occur in the future. 

There were, for instance, many more than 
34,000,000 people in the world who held in 
strong abhorrence what’ the Japanese Gov- 
ernment decided to do-at Pearl Harbour. : 

The mere fact that hundreds of millions 
of people thought it wrong did not prevent 
the thing from happening. 

It is not only 34,000,000 Japanese, but 
some 2,500,000,000 people of all nations 
who do not want to. be atomised in a 
nuclear explosion. This is something we 
may take for granted without getting their 
Signatures or organising world conferences 
to declare it, 


Military preparation 


The Japanese people, who adopted a con- 
stitution abandoning military preparation, 
are becoming increasingly involved in. the 
military preparations of the Western 
Powers. 

The 3,981 Japanese present at the 
Tokyo Conference could do a great deal 
to prevent this if they were to refuse to 
participate in these preparations and were 
to direct their activities to persuading 
others also to refuse, 

mw ON BACK PAGE 


2—PEACE NEWS—September 6, 1957 


Johan Galtung, Norwegian sociologist and Vice-Chairman of the Norwegian section? of 
the War Resisters’ International gives his impressions of a visit to Danilo Dolci, exponent 


of non-violence and well known for hig work among the Sicilian poor 


DOLCI 


E is a huge man, relaxed, spectacled, with a very soft way of talking. His 


age is only 33, though his experiences have made him look older. 


When 


he speaks, it is without gestures and empty rhetoric, but with a very firm con- 


viction. 
by side. 


His sense of humour and some dry statistics find their place side 


This is Danilo Dolci—the young architect from Trieste, who has caused 


quite a sensation in Italy the last few years. 


Sicily to meet him and found him in 
his home and headquarters in one of 
the poorer streets of Partinico, a 
town of 40,000 inhabitants near the 
coast, westwards from Palermo. 
Never shall I forget the spirit of com- 
munity during the dinner he offered me. 


Dolci, his wife (the widow of a fisher- 
man killed by bandits), his 13 children (five 
brought into the marriage by his wife, six 
adopted because of their quite hopeless 
conditions, and two of his own), and some 
young men, fishermen from the district, 
students, social workers, teachers, who had 
volunteered to help Dolci in his work, 
were gathered round a table. A true and 
fine community feeling was present, Dolci 
did not preside over them, but was a very 
unauthoritarian focal point, 


Guided by intuition 


«Next day we visited Trappeto, the fishing 
village some miles from Partinico, where 
conditions are particularly bad. This is the 
place where Dole:’s father was once 
‘station-master, and the place to which 
‘Dolci returned one day in January, 1952, 
with 30 lire in his pocket, 

Since then he has never left the district 
except in order to publish his books, to 
collect money, visit the committees estab- 
lished in Italy’s larger towns to assist him 
and similar trips, 

We will not go into any detail to describe: 
the terrible conditions the poor people in 
this district, or in Sicily, and the entire 
Southern part of Italy for that matter, have 
to face. 


A United Nations commission — has 


declared the area to be “ under-deve- 
loped ”’—which is a rather heavy verdict. 





I had travelled halfway round 





(the triangle of hunger), there are always 
sufficient concrete tasks to be done within 
the limits set by the money collected. 


These tasks to some extent coincide with 
the programmes of the’ radical political 
parties or splinter parties, It is clear that 
Dolci initiates actions these parties should 
have initiated long ago, had it not been for 
the back-slide of our parliamentary demo- 
cracies: the amount of initiative lost in the 
struggle for political power, 


Identification 


Dolci has never satisfied himself with the 
work of a propagandist or living far from 
those he pretends to represent. Like 
Gandhi, he lives in the midst of the poor 
districts and has daily evidence of the 
struggle for life of people who perhaps can 
find employment only one month of the 
year. 


He has the real power of empathy, 
sharpened through the way he has chosen 
to live himself. And at the same time he 
is an excellent writer, able to express: him- 
self in prose and verse, in botlr Italiam and 
the local dialect. 


Careful investigations 


Cheap propaganda and cries: for justice 
alone do no work in the long run, Dolci’s 
actions have always been preceded by care- 
ful, almost scientific investigations. 


In his books “ Banditi a Partinico” and 
“JInchiesta a Palermo” are presented heaps 
of facts, interviews and detailed’ accounts: of 
living conditions, beliefs, etc. In one street 
at Partinico there are 350 families whose 
members have spent a total of f 3,000 years 


ee ee a 


AND GANDHI 


work. Of course, Dolci never dreams of 
achieving all this alone. 

His task is to take the first step, and to 
“stir sluggish consciences,” to quote 
Gandhi. 

In this way Dolci serves as a connection 
between the poorest and the politicians, 
whose task it is to'care for them, A con- 
tact afforded through elections every four 
years is not sufficient. Neither are Press 
propoganda and clever orators alone, 


Action and sacrifice 


A constructive programme was for 
Gandhi not a piece of paper he presented 
to others, but something’ he himself partici- 
pated in. This is the true identification with 
others, where planning is not enough, : but 
even participation is a part of the plan. 

Danilo has, with his own hands, partici- 
pated in the work at Borgo di Dio, and he 
himself went on the road with a shovel and 
a pick during February last year, 


Non-violence 


The fishermen at Trappeto have been in 
a particularly difficult position. , Rich 
people from the towns nearby have come 
to their fishing banks with modern equip- 
ment and deprived them of st of the 
fish. Although this has been prohibited by 
law, the laws have not been enforced by 
the police. 

To see one’s own daily bread disappear 
is bad enough: to see it when one’s own 
children are starving must be a true torture. 
The situation of the braccianti, the land: 
workers, is something parallel to this. No 
wonder that threats of violence have been 
used, and that banditry has flourished with 
a peculiar mixture of criminal elements yet 
with elements of social justice in it, 


Dolci’s position has been completely 
non-violent, not only in action, but also 
in words (which is a very Gandhian posi- 
tion), 

He led the fishermen down to a beach, 
where they fasted in common 24 hours, 
playing Bach records. The police came by 





has been realised, Last year, however, he 
fasted a fortnight, together with many of 
his friends, and received very many good 
comments in the Press, 


Fasts 


His fasts have, just like Gandhi’s, three 
purposes: to symbolise the compassion for 
those who fast always and involuntarily, to 
awaken fellow human beings in general and 
the authorities in particular, and to give 
occasion for; contemplation, 


His fasts have been severely Gtiticised, 
even by friends, who tell him that this 
Eastern form is not well suited for a poli- 
tical campaign in Europe. The fasts have, 
however, had an impact, particularly on the 
poor, who well understand this symbol. 


Dolci has announced that this year, in 
November, he will start fasting until an 
honest and serious attempt to make plans 
for the constructive work on a large scale 
in the whole area is made, and the real- 
isation of the plans have been promised 
beyond doubt. 

At the same time, there will be a meeting 
in Palermo of some planning experts, whom 
it is very important for Dolci to influence, 
or rather, to make them fully realise the 
extent of the present disaster. Dolci will 
need all the support he can get at that 
time and before. 

Who is Danilo Dolci? In short, he 
represents Gandhism in a Western form. 
Unlike Gandhi, he does not believe in the 
rather extreme anarchism Gandhi advo- 
cated, nor in his rejection of modern tech- 
nology (Dolci: ‘machines are not bad in 
themselves”), nor in Gandhi’s extremely 
ascetic life. 

Dolci will, if successful, mean more for 
the non-violent movement in Europe than 
all our books and our theorising. May I 
finish with an expression of my sincere 
reverence for this man, and the hope that 
he will get the support he needs to achieve 
his aims, 








« PROSp, 


ee ee | ee 
place where Dole:’s father was once 
‘Station-master, and the place to which 
iDolci returned one day in January, 1952, 
with 30 lire in his pocket, 


Since then he has never left the district 
except in order to publish his books, to 
collect money, visit the committees estab- 
dished in Italy’s larger towns to assist him» 
and similar trips, 

We will not go into any detail to describe 
the terrible conditions the poor people in 
this district, or in Sicily, and the entire 
Southern part of Italy for that matter, have 
to face, 


A United Nations commission | has 
declared the area to be “ under-deve- 
loped ”—which is a rather heavy verdict. 
People are not starving in the streets in 

Palermo’s slums, where one-fifth of the 
half a million population have to live. 


But the life expectancy is around 30 
years, hetero-sexual and homo-sexual pros- 
titution are flourishing, education is incon- 
spicuous, theft and murder belong to the 
daily course of events. Charming Italy is 
somewhat less charming in these parts. 

Instead of giving a chronology of Dolci’s 
achievements, we will rather examine some 
points where there is a close resemblance 
to Gandhi. 

This resemblance is even more interest- 
ing because Dolci cannot be said to copy 
Gandhi’s_ principles, He has not read 
Gandhi’s works, because approximately 
nothing has been translated into Italian. 
He has been guided by intuition and a 

strong belief in his fellow-men, including 
both supporters and antagonists, and has 
arrived at very much the same _ con- 
victions and actions that are important in 
“ Ghandism.” 


A minimum of belief 


Dolci does not advocate a complete 
theoretical system. His supporters (or 
“ friends,” as he would call them) belong 
to different religious and political camps. 

What they have in common is not easily 
stated in philosophical terms, and there is 
no need to pigeon-hole their beliefs either. 
When people around one live on the brink 
of starvation, always surrounded by poverty 
and illiteracy, one does not ask for belief, 
but action. 

The dignity of man, the duty of the 
rich to care for the poor, these are his 
beliefs. They who agree with him in his 
practical programme are invited to par- 
ticipate. 

In a desperate situation like the one they 
have to face down in il triangolo del fame 


ZAMS IS tHe 


sharpened through the way he has chosen 
to live himself. And at the same time he 
is an excellent writer, able to express: him- 
self in prose and verse, in both Italiam and 
the local dialect. 


Careful investigations 


Cheap propaganda and cries: for justice 
alone do no work in the long run. Dolci’s 
actions have always been preceded by care- 
ful, almost scientific investigations, 


In his books “ Banditi a Partinico” and 
“Inchiesta a Palermo” are presented’ heaps 
of facts, interviews and detailed! accounts; of 
living conditions, beliefs, etc. In one street 
at Partinico there are 350 families whose 
members have spent a total of 3,000 years 
in prison, but only about 600 years at 
school. 


It is further demonstrated that the Italian 
Government, in order to suppress the ban- 
ditry arising from the poverty, has an extra 
police budget in this district, more than 
sufficient to cover Dolci’s plan: to construct 
a dam to tame the Jato river and use the 
water for irrigation, 


Constructive programme 


Gandhi knew, and Dolci knows, that 
poverty is the worst enemy of the poor, 
because it so easily leads to apathy. Be- 
sides that, a one-sided urge for better con- 
ditions or for the abolition of this or that, 
will in the long run invoke a negative atti- 
tude even if the requests are met with 
sympathy and action. 

Men are more easily convinced by 
deeds than by words. Dolci has started 
many concrete institutions. He and his 
friends. have improvised small schools in 
the worst districts, where the children are 
too poor to attend an ordinary school. 
They have fought against illiteracy, 
Outside Trappeto, on a hill called Borga 

di Dio (God’s Castle) a home for orphans 
is erected, with regular education and free 
meals. At the same place is his Universita 
Populare, where adult education is given 
lectures and record concerts are attended, 
and there is a library—all free, 


The same is found in Partinico, in a very 
modest place, almost a stable. Dolci and 
his friends do not present themselves as 
teachers or lecturers, but rather as friends, 
giving their knowledge to those who need 
it. They open the doors to the pleasures 
the rich Italian culture can yield. 


But more plans are awaiting their realisa- 
tion—better, or rather at least, some 
medical care, the dam, work, work and more 


the police, 

To see one’s own daily bread disappear 
is bad enough: to see it when one’s own 
children are starving must be a true torture. 
The situation of the braccianti, the land: 
workers, is something parallel to this, No 
wonder that threats of violence have been 
used, and that banditry has flourished with 
a peculiar mixture of criminal elements yet 
with elements of social justice in it, 


a ee ee ee eer ee 


Dolci’s position has been completely 
non-violent, not only in action, but also 
in words (which is a very Gandhian posi- 
tion). 


He led the fishermen down to a beach, 
where they fasted in common 24 hours, 
playing Bach records. The police came by 
and asked them to vanish, but they refused. 
Why couldn’t they do in public what they 
virtually did the whole year—fasting ? 


Three days later the famous reverse strike 
took place. It was announced in the Press 
in large areas of Italy. Hundreds of un- 
employed, led by Dolci and his friends, went 
out to an abandoned road close to Partinico 
and started working. 

The police came (and the Press and photo- 
graphers!) and asked them to stop this 
completely peaceful demonstration, merely 
because it was against police regulations. 

The demonstrators refused, and Dolei lay 
down on the ground when they wanted to 
arrest him. He was carried away and im- 
prisoned at Palermo. There was no 
violence at all, though it was alleged later 
that the shovels and picks had been arms. 

It is unnecessary to say that the 53 days 
in prison were the best propaganda Dolci 
could obtain. The trial was quite a sensa- 
tion, as he was defended by the late Cala- 
mandrei, founder of the independent review 
Il Ponte, Firenze. He was not completely 
acquitted, but was rather symbolically fined. 


Civil disobedience 


Dolci is no anarchist, but he believes that 
there are laws and principles which are 
sometimes more important to obey than 
governmental laws. Neither is he afraid 
of prison, If Dolci had been sentenced 
to the eight months prison the attorney 
wanted, the moral content of his action 
would not have been different; most people 
would still have acquitted him, in their 
hearts. 

But, like Gandhi, Dolci will not use the 
weapon of civil disobedience except in ex- 
treme cases, and only when all possible 
legal means have been tried. 

In 1952 Dolci promised that he would 
fast one week a year till the dam project 


a ee 


Who is Danilo Dolci? In short, he 
represents Gandhism in a Western form. 
Unlike Gandhi, he does not believe in the 
rather extreme anarchism Gandhi advo- 
cated, nor in his rejection of modern tech- 
nology (Dolci: “machines are not bad in 
themselves”), nor in Gandhi’s extremely 
ascetic life. 

Dolci will, if successful, mean more for 
the non-violent movement in Europe than 
all our books and our theorising. May I 
finish with an expression of my sincere 
reverence for this man, and the hope that 
he will get the support he needs to achieve 
his aims, 











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Emancipate the 
coloured peoples 
—Pax Christi 


BY Dr. FRANCIS RONA 


A BOUT 460 members of the Inter- 
national Pax Christi movement— 
mostly from France and Germany, but 
some from eight other European 
countries, French Colonies and Protec- 
torates in Africa, China and Japan— 
considered the cultural and economic 
emancipation of ‘“non-Whites” at 
their. conference, in Maria-Zell, the 
Austrian pilgrimage town, recently. 
Originally this Catholic peace organisa- 
tion (not to be mistaken for the Polish 
“Pax” organisation denounced by the Pope 
as ‘Communist controlled,” nor the British 
Protestant sponsored Pax Christi move- 
ment) aimed at the reconciliation of the 
“arch-enemy” mations: Germany and 
France. It was founded by Bishop Pierre 
Maria Théas, of Lourdes when in the Com- 
pi¢gne Nazi Concentration Camp in 1944, 
and supported in post-war. years by several 
French and German bishops and by Abbé 
Pierre, the well-known social, worker in 
Paris, 


Gradually its basis was. broadened and 
Pax Christi became the officially acknow- 
ledged Peace movement of the Roman 
Catholic Church, led by its President 
Cardinal Feltin, and with branches in 
more than 12 countries, The Cardinal, 
as well as Bishops Théas, Schriffer (Ger- 
many), Rusch (Austria), Charriére (Swit- 
zerland), and Sunnens (Belgium), visited 
the Conference in Maria-Zell. 


The Minister of Education, Dr, Drimmel, 
greeted the guests in the name of the Aus- 
trian Government, and ‘desired “the termi- 
nation of the shameful discrimination of 
peoples who received from God a coloured 
skin. That is a great task for European 
Christians,” 


GROSS INEQUALITIES 


Bishop Rusch, vice-president of Pax 
Christi, stressed in his opening speech that 
over two-thirds of mankind belonged to the 
coloured. races, (Another speaker said: 
“We Whites are also coloured ’—some 
were sun-tanned). Bishop Rusch pointed 
out that they have their own cultural bases 
and foundations and the right to develop 
them. Christians must approach them in 
love and understanding. 

The tit 


Ed ciatth ty eaicral alice bani ee apa el 


BANNED FROM 
BRITISH AFRICA 


Because he was banned from five British East 
and Central African territories, US citizen George 
M. Houser, Executive Director of the American 
Committee on Africa, protested last week to their 
His case, as reported in last week’s 
Peace News, has been debated in the Federal Parlia- 
ment of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. 


Governments. 


DURING a fact-finding mission last month for ithe 
American Committee on Africa, Houser, a 


former staff member of the Fellowship 
of Reconciliation, attempted to enter 
the British territories after first acquir- 
ing the necessary entry visas. 


The: British visa offices in New York, 
Lagos, and Leopoldville had informed him 
that American citizens do- not require entry 
visas for the Central African Federation or 
Tanganyika. He obtained visas for Kenya 
and Uganda, 

In a letter to the heads of Government 
of the five territories, Houser revealed that, 
upon arriving by plane at the Northern 
Rhodesia border, he was turned back and 
informed that he was on the Prohibited 
Immigrant List. Apparently through an 
error by. an immigration officer he was per- 
mitted to enter Uganda. 
he was apprehended by immigration 
officers, notified that he was on the “ pro- 
hibited ” list for Uganda, Kenya and Tan- 
ganyika .as well, and forced to leave the 
country. To this date no reason has been 
given for prohibiting his entry. 


«*Multi-racial’” areas 


His letters urge the British governing 
authorities to review his case and to permit 
future entry, 


“ At the very least,” he said, “I request 
that I be informed of the reasons for my 
being declared ‘ prohibited’ I hope these 
reasons will be made public in order to 
prevent false speculation.” 


Mr, Houser revealed that he had been 
denied visas to enter all of these territories 
in 1954. He asked whether his anti-segre- 
gation activities in the United States were 
the basis for his prohibited status, 

“For my part,” he said, “I find it diffi- 
cult to explain the possible reasons for my 
prohibited status, 

“It seems more than coincidental that 
the only areas of Africa to which I have 
ever been refused entrance are British 


Later, however, , 





George Iiouser 

ernments jin’ barring ‘his entrance, Mr, 
Houser sa‘id, must inevitably raise in 
American minds the ‘question: “What 


have they to hide?” He noted that if 
the Governments of /East ‘and “Central 
Africa are: sincere in ‘their stated desires 
to achieve: a real “ partnership ” between 
the races, they should not prohibit the 
free travel of known ‘opponents of racism, 
Mr, Homser’s letter was addressed to the 
followmg heads of Government: Sir Roy 
Welensky, Prime Minister of the Federation 
of Rhodesia and Nyasalatid; Mr. Garfield 


-Fodd, Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia; 


Sir Evelyn Baring, Governor. of Kenya; Sir 
Frederick Crawford, Governor of Uganda; 
and Sir Edward 
Tanganyika, 

The American Committee on Africa is a voluntary 


non-partisan organisation of,American citizens, formed 
in’ 195%. - It functions a$ ‘a channel in the United 


States for accurate information on all. aspects of - 


African ilife and also informs Africans about the United 
States. : . 


Various forms of assistance to democratic forces in 
Africa ate provided by the Committee. 
,, mong members ‘of. the Executive, of which Domald 

arrington is Chairman, are; Roger N. Baldwin, Rep. 
“Martin Dworkis, 
Walser and Judge: J. Waties Waring. 

Members of the National Advisory Board include: 
Stringfeliow Barr, Mrs. Chester Bowles; Allan Knight 
Chalmers, Homer A, Jack, Clarence Pickett, Rep, A. 
Clayton Powell, A, Philip Randolph, Norman Thomas, 
Howard . Thurman, Channing: Tobias. and Willard 
‘{Lownsend. : 


WARN THE WORLD 
URGES BELGIUM 


BEtciuM wants the UN _ General 
-, Assembly to have on its agenda the 
subject of “collective action’ to inform and 
enlighten the peoples of the world as to the 
dangers of the armamenis race, and partic- 
ularly as to the destructive effects of nuclear 
weapons.” ‘ 

This is a new departure as regards 
Assembly agenda items, 

A draft resolution sent to the Secretary- 
General on’ Aug. 9 would have. the 


A. J. Muste;- Bayard Rustin, Gladys ; 


September 6, 1957—PEACE NEWS—3: 


His stand...and yours? 


“ As modern war will be 
so totally destructive, 
| feel it is particularly im- 
portant that | take a total 
stand against it.” 

We at Peace News last 
week were proud to be able 
to report the stand made 
by Tom Jones in a Midlands 
police court against the 
whole machinery of conscription. 

“1 think this stand | am making is the 
most effective witness | can make against 
war,” he told a Ministry of Labour official 
before his sentence of three months’ im- 
prisonment, 


Thanks to the Wolverhampton Express and 
Star, which faithfully reported Tom Jones’ 
stand, many in the Midlands will read the 
words | have quoted above. Peace News will 
have carried them to the four corners of 
the earth, and, as | write, ao doubt some- 
where someone is translating the Peace News 
teport for publication in another language. 

So while Tom Jones is in prison many will 
‘be reflecting on his action. 

Week by week Peace News makes known 
the fact that something can be done by 
every individual to stem the drift towards 





re 9 ‘ war. 
Twining, Governor of . 


You can make a real and practical contri-. 
bution by contributing to the Peace News 
Fund today, for only if we raise 
£2,280 by Dec. 314 
can ‘we be sure that Peace News will be 
_ able to continue’ publication as an 8-page 
Ad. paper in 1958. 
THE EDITOR. 
Contributions since Aug. 23: £95 7s, 2d). 
Total ‘since Jan. 1. F957 °2T,220° 95 Sa" 
Contributions gratefully acknowledged: 
B. S., Weymouth, £10 10s.; N. T., North 


‘London, 5s.; R. R., Prestwich, 2s.  6d.;, 
IR. W., Falmouth, 1s. 6d.; Anon, 5s, 
Please make cheques, etc., payable to. 


Peace News Ltd., and address them to Lady 
Clare Annesley, Joint Treasurer, Peace: 
News, 3 Blackstock Road, London; N.4. 


nts nila a 
First hospital 


since the war 


BRITAIN may build its first new general 

hospital since the end of World War 
If if plans for the rebuilding of London’s 
Charing Cross Hospital on a site at Fulham 
materialise, 





“Plans were tend. unite TEnoon Bad 


greeted tne guests in the name of tne Aus- 
trian Government, and desired “the termi- 
nation of the shameful discrimination of 
peoples who received from God a coloured 
skin. That is a great task for European 
Christians.” 


GROSS INEQUALITIES 


Bishop Rusch, vice-president of Pax 
Christi, stressed in his opening speech that 
over two-thirds of mankind belonged to the 
coloured races, (Another speaker said: 
“We Whites are also coloured ”—some 
were sun-tanned). Bishop Rusch pointed 
out that they have their own cultural bases 
and foundations and the right to develop 
them. Christians must approach them in 
love and understanding. 


The Bandung Conference showed that 
two-thirds of the world’s population desire 
to form an independent ‘“ Third Force” 
outside the power blocs, which fact has an 
historic importance, 


Professor Bettray (Vienna) reported 
that there are 22 Negro bishops and over 
2,000 Catholic Negro priests in Africa. 
He underlined the gross inequalities in 
incomes: ‘While the Whites have on 
the average a yearly income of $915 to 
spend, the figure for the Far East is only 
$55. Colonialism, materialism, and 
“paternal sympathies’ for coloured 
peoples have come to an end now.” 


The former member of the French Gov- 
ernment for the Cameroons, M, Louis P. 
Aujoulat, declared: “The West must enter 
into. discussions with the coloured peoples 
without reservations. If they are emanci- 
pated, if they can decide in complete free- 
dom, then they may accept the helping hand 
of the West,” 


The Pax Christi Conference showed a 
significant progress in the Catholic peace 
movement in the promotion of the unity 
of all races to ensure peace, justice and 
equality, 





“UNARMED” FOR DISCUSSION 


e CU NARMED-—Britain After Unilateral 

Disarmament” is the subject for dis- 
cussion at a Yorkshire Peace Pledge Union 
Week-end School and House Party at Holly- 
brook Guest House, Ilkley, on Sept, 28 
and 29, 

Lecturer will be Stuart Morris, General 
Secretary of the PPU. Charge is £1 6s, or 
for day visitors 1s, per lecture, is 

Booking forms from Ken Chadwick, 35, 
Berkeley Avenue, Leeds 8, 


future entry, a 
“ At the very least,” he said, “I request 
that I be informed of the reasons for my 
being declared ‘ prohibited” I hope these 
reasons will be made public in order to 
prevent false speculation.” 


Mr. Houser revealed that he had been 
denied visas to enter all of these territories 
in 1954. He asked whether his anti-segre- 
gation activities in the United States’ were 
the basis for his prohibited status, 

“For my part,” he said, “I find it diffi- 
cult to explain the possible reasons for my 
prohibited status, 

“It seems more than coincidental that 
the only areas of Africa to which I have 
ever been refused entrance are British 
areas usually referred to as ‘ multi-racial,’ 
Is it possible’ that my own background of 
activity in the United States against segre- 
gation has something to do with the 
decisions of the Governments of East and 
Central Africa?” 


Mr. Houser had no difficulty last month 
in entering the Belgian territories of Congo 
and Ruanda-Urundi and British-controlled 
Nigeria: On past occasions he has travelled 
freely through French territories as well. 

The action of the British Colonial Goy- 





Community boycotted 


Kononia COMMUNITY, religious 

pacifist |community near Americus, 
Georgia, whieh has been the victim of 
bombings, shootings, economic boycott and 
arson because of its inter-racial policy, is 
seeking to open'a pecan nut shelling plant 
as a means of economic survival. 

Whites in jthe area have demanded. that 
Koinonia magve away and have refused 
offers that both sides accept arbitration 
made by Koinonia, reports Richard Baker.: 

Two thousand pledges of $25 are asked 
for to raise $50,000. The money will be 
repaid within ten years at 4 per cent. 








interest. Persons wishing to help should 
write Koinonia Community, Route 2, 
Americus, Georgia, U.S.A. 


Negroes aré forced by local law enforce- 
ment officials to do no business with 
Koinonia. local bank will accept no 
more deposits of money from Koinonia, 
and the local jSears-Roebuck store has asked 
Koinonia not} to purchase from them since 
the incident at the Birdsey feed store, which 


was bombed for refusing to boycott 
Koinonia. ere has been no_ violence 


since, 


TT EM, 2X. Pip’ Randolph, Norman Thomas, 7: ~-, Yeymoutn, £10 [Os,5 


‘Howard . Thurman, 
‘Wownsend. 


WARN THE WORLD 
URGES BELGIUM 


BELGIUM wants the UN _ General 

-, Assembly to have on its agenda the 
subject of “collective action’ to inform and 
enlighten the peoples of the world as to the 
dangers of the armaments race, and partic- 
ularly as to the destructive effects of nuclear 
weapons.” \ 

This is a new departure as regards 
Assembly agenda items, 

A draft resolution sent to the Secretary- 
General on’ Aug. 9 would have. the 
Assembly consider that the entire world is 
exposed “to the danger of unprecedented 
devastation and that the peoples .of all 
countries should be made to realise. this” 
through “an effective and continuing pub- 
licity campaign on a world-wide scale,” 
under UN auspices and disregarding “all 
ideological of political considerations.” 

In its operative part, the draft resolution 
Suggests that.the Secretary-General should 
submit a plan for the publicity. campaign 
to the Assembly’s thirteenth session, and 
makes various proposals as to the scope of 
such a plan, 

The Assembly opens on Sept. 10. 


Channing: Tobias. and Willard 





; N. T., North 
London, 5s.; R. R., Prestwich, 2s. 6d.;. 
R. W., Falmouth, 1s, 6d,; Anon, 5s, 
Please make cheques, etc., payable to: 
Peace News Ltd., and address them to Lady 
Clare Annesley, Joint Treasurer, Peace: 
News, 3 Blackstock Road, London, N.4, 


er 
First. hospital 


since the war 


BRIN may build its first new general 

hospital since the end of World War 
Il if plans for the rebuilding of London’s 
Charing Cross Hospital on a site at Fulham 
materialise, 


“Plans were ready more than four years 
ago,” reported the Daily Telegraph, Aug, 
17, “but lack of a Government grant pre- 
vented a start being made,” 

KinanciaL. Footnore.—In the last ten 
Years since the end of the war Britain has 
Spent over £12,000,000,000 on arms, enough 
to build .and equip 6,000 hospitals. in 
Britain and the colonies at a Cost of 


£2,000,000. each. 





(=r nme miners 

Strength of Civil Defence Corps in England 
and Wales fell by 861 during the quarter 
ending June 30, 1957, “ mainly owing to 
weeding out out of inactive members,” 
states the Home Office. 


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4—PEACE NEWS—September 6, 1957 


After 5: months ; 


IHE four Western Powers represented on 

the Disarmament. Sub-Committee that 
has been meeting at Lancaster House in 
London tabled last’ week a complete state- 
ment of the proposals that had been 
agreed. upon among themselves, and Mr, 
Zorin for Russia immediately made clear 
that they are unacceptable. 


The whole five and a half months. in 
which the Committee has been meeting 
have» been spent in manceuvring around 
what has been essentially the same set of 
proposals. “The present document,” said 
Mr. Zorin, “contains the same round of 
questions which we have been discussing 
from the very beginning of our work.” 


We frankly do not understand why the 
Russian Government holds it to be desir- 
able to reject them; on the other hand, we 
are not under the illusion that the accept- 
ance of these proposals, so far as theit 
material consequences are concerned, would 
make any considerable difference in regard 
to future security in the world, 


The’ U.S. representative, Mr. Harold 
Stassen, for some reason that is not self- 
evident, still displays a certain optimism 
about the possible outcome of these talks, 
and there are those who think: that Mr, 
Zorin’s pronouncement may not be the end 
of this phase of the . discussions. The 
Sunday Times correspondent, for instance, 
remarks that “immediately after. Mr. 
Zorin’s attack on the West on Friday a 
Soviet spokesman told correspondents that 
it was not necessarily Russia’s last word.” 


At the time of writing the Sub-Com- 
mittee’s sittings have still to be brought to 
an end, and when they close the matter wil; 
come before the U.N. General Assembly in 
the form of a Report to the U.N, Disarma: 
ment Commission. It is possible that it is 
here that the Russian Government may 
make its next. move towards agreement, 


Not the way to 
disarmament 


ALTHOUGH we follow the proceedings 

in these talks with a high degree of 
interest, whether undertaken in the Sub- 
Committee or the Commission, we should 
perhaps make it clear that it is not because 
we build any great hopes for a_ real 


eee Ee eee ee ee Oe ae eee 




















>< 


iteeenny Tiny i 1 


\| I p . z h hess an 
| 


>—f HiT 


decided, said Mr, Sandys, 
impossible.” 

“We decided not to defend the whole 
country, but to defend only our bomber 
bases.” 


























“not to do the 


The Government of which Mr, Sandys ‘is 
a member, however, still talks about“ Civil 
Defence,” and is still. bringing pressure 
upon those municipalities: who have decided 
to do away with it, 


There is considerable need for a plain 
Editorial and Publishing office, 


3 Blackstock Road 
London, N.4 / 


Tel: STAmford Hill 2262 


Hi aad F 


wre | a} 


i al 


PEACE NEWS °3 


September 6, 1957 





wl yr 
ONT T 
il 


- - 


Dr 











statement of the Government’s Civil’ De- 


fence policy: an explanation in some detail 
of what such Civil Defence teams as are 
left alive in the face of an H-bomb attack 
will be expected to do. Perhaps it is in- 
tended to take them out of the towns and 
to use them as part of the preparations. for 
the defence of the bomber bases. 


A good slogan for St, Pancras might be: 
“Enlist for CD and enjoy the safety of a 
defended bomber base.” 


Distribution office for U.S.A. 
20, S. Twelfth St., 
Philadelphia 7, Pa. 


Reg’d as a newspaper, Entered 
as second class matter at 
Post Office, Philadelphia, Pa. 


CRUCIAL STAGE IN GHANA 


[THREE YEARS AGO Mr. Richard Wright, the distinguished 
American Negro author, toured the Southern half of the Gold 


Coast territories and then wrote a book, “ Black Power.” 


Mr. Wright 


was wholly in sympathy with the aspirations of the peoples of these 
lands towards independence, and he fully accepted Dr. Nkrumah’s 
party as the appropriate instrument for its achievement. 

As a result of his trayels, however, he was distressed by his sense of the 
inadequacy of many of the tribal chiefs and the extent to which their develop- 
ment was hampered by disabling superstitions. 


Even more important, he was troubled by the many evidences he found of 


a lack of energy and self-reliance among the people he met. 


He gives a number 


of instances where a man’s desire for development and advancement seemed to 
be instinctively equated in his mind with the assumption that there would inevit- 
ably be somebody somewhere who would take the necessary steps to realise his 


praiseworthy aspirations for him. 


* 


* 


ECAUSE of these things he concludes his book with a letter to Dr. 

Nkrumah in which he seems to be urging that when freedom from 
colonial domination has been secured a government on authoritarian 
lines shall be built and that the people of the country shall be harnessed 
by industrial conscription to the necessary great industrial effort. 


There seem now to be signs that Dr. Nkrumah is intending to act on this 
advice, or that Mr. Wright was saying what he knew to be already in Dr. 


Kkrumah’s mind. 


In the deporting of the three pressmen, Dr. Nkrumah was merely following 
the example set under the authoritarian rule exercised by colonial Powers in the 


territories which thev control bv farce: 


but not co freauently Dr Nkrumah 


Malaya refuses 
nuclear bases 
CONGRATULATIONS to Malaya on its 
independence, ‘together with the wish 
that Tunku Abdul Rahman’s recent declar- 
ation that the war against the Communists 
in the jungle “must be finished by the 
end of 1958” may be justified by events. 


The path of the first Government in a 
newly independent country is never easy. 
As long as independence remains the long 
struggled-against outcome of conditions in 
which it can no longer be withheld, it will 
be too much to expect the new rulers always 
to be wise and the newly independent 
people always to be aware of what demo- 
cracy and freedom really mean; and in 
Malaya’s case the multi-racialism of the 
population presents problems. of particular 
difficulty. 


In the meantime pacifists can congratu- 
late the new Malaya a second time—on a 
first act of wisdom, It has announced. its 
intention of staying outside the SEATO 
pact, which an overwhelming part of the 
eastern world looks upon as a highly sus- 


pect alliance, and of not allowing nuclear 
warfare bases on its territory. 


Will Yemen follow 
Syria? 


NSTEAD of fussing about the possible 

visit to Syria before the end of the 
present year of Marshal Bulganin and Mr. 
Khrushchov—which is not even certain yet 
and is, moreover, quite as legitimate’ as Mr. 
Loy Henderson’s to Turkey—our Press 
would do better to pay attention to the 
constantly recurring fighting in the unde- 
fined border zone between Yemen and the 
western part of the Aden Protectorate, 


Ever since the beginning of this year 
there has been, with only a few weeks’ 
interruption, a reciprocal bombardment of 
protest notes between the Yemen Govern- 
ment via its London Embassy and the 
Foreign Office—both sides declaring the 


. other side’s assertions and protests to be 


unacceptable as totally devoid of founda- 
tion and, occasionally, the very opposite of 
the truth, 


It is undisputed that there is ever-recur- 
ring fighting and that Venom jet planes are 
being used on the British side. But, 
whereas the Yemenis always claim that the 
scene of fighting has been on their side of 
the horder hecance their territarv hac heen 


ee ee ee a tit VUDrWOOUIII* 
mittee’s sittings have still to be brought to 
an end, and when they close the matter wil: 
come before the U.N, General Assembly ir 
the form of a Report to the U.N, Disarma: 
ment Commission. It is possible that it is 
here that the Russian Government may 
make its next move towards agreement, 


Not the way to 
disarmament 


ALTHOUGH we follow the proceedings 

in these talks with a high degree of 
interest, whether undertaken in the Sub- 
Committee or the Commission, we should 
perhaps make it clear that it is not because 
we build any great hopes for a_ real 
approach to disarmament by their means, 
The history of disarmament negotiations 
throughout the last century does not give 
any support to the hope that a permanent 
scaling down of armaments may be reached 
by such means, and it seems to us to be 
obvious today that an agreed and controlled 
disarmament by progressive stages among 
nations that face each other governed by 
policies compounded of menace and fear, is 
less possible than it has ever been because 
‘of the character of the weapons and the 
modern machinery of war. 


Some kind of agreement from the Lan- 
caster House talks would be of value for 
one reason only: it would be an. indicatior 
that the realisation that confronted the 
Powers in 1955 at Geneva—that world war 
was not only “ unthinkable,” but that if it 
were permitted to arrive it would be likely 
that there would be nobody left to think it 
—had not evaporated; and that a show of 
surface amity must be maintained until such 
time as the Governments have brought 
themselves to face the fundamental rethink- 
ing that is called for in the age of atomic 
power. 


A tribute 


PEAKING at a Press conference in 
Canberra recently, Mr, Duncan Sandys, 
British Minister of Defence, paid tribute to 
the people living in Britain for the readi- 
ness with which they have accepted the 
“harsh but inescapable” facts of the pre- 
sent situation in’ regard to preparation for 
war, 


Because it is known that it will be im- 
possible to prevent all enemy bombers 
carrying hydrogen bombs from getting 
through to Britain (to say nothing of inter- 
continental ballistic missiles), it has been 


a lack Of energy and seli-reliance among the people he met. He gives a number 
of instances where a man’s desire for development and advancement seemed to 
be instinctively equated in his mind with the assumption that there would inevit- 
ably be somebody somewhere who would take the necessary steps to realise his 
praiseworthy aspirations for him. 


~ * 
ECAUSE of these things he concludes his book with a letter to Dr. 
Nkrumah in which he seems to be urging that when freedom from 
colonial domination has been secured a government on authoritarian 


lines shall be built and that the people of the country shall be harnessed 
by industrial conscription to the necessary great industrial effort. 


There seem now to be signs that Dr. Nkrumah is intending to act on this 
advice, or that Mr, Wright was saying what he knew to be already in Dr. 
Kkrumah’s mind. 

In the deporting of the three pressmen, Dr, Nkrumah was merely following 
the example set under the authoritarian rule exercised by colonial Powers in the 
territories which they control by force; but not so frequently, Dr, Nkrumah 
should realise, in their own metropolitan areas, (apart from the Communist. or 
Fascist totalitarian States), 

This reservation eyen applies to France, whose record of suppression in 
regard to Algerian affairs is a very black one indeed. 


* * 


HAT we on our side have to realise, however, is that when we 

have released a people from the authoritarian tyranny that we 
have been imposing we cannot contrive at the same time to hand over 
the means and the capacity for the democratic conduct of affairs, the 
development of which we have been preventing, 

The two obstacles discussed by Mr. Wright in “ Black Power,” for instance, 
are something left over from British rule: on the one hand, through the failure 
to press forward with educational activities; and on the other, through the fact 
that the imposition of an external rule cannot provide the conditions in which 
self-reliance can be developed, 

Dr. Nkrumah has now announced that there will be compulsory national 
service—which, we take to be a form of industrial conscription—and the 
establishment of a territorial force. - 

We may be wrong, but. we cannot help linking the latter proposal with the 
setting up of a separate Ministry of the Interior under Mr. Krobo Edusei 
(described by Mr. Anthony Sampson of the Observer as “Ghana’s tough new 
Minister”), and with the menace in Dr, Nkrumah’s declaration: “If the facts 
were to come out, all the Opposition would be in gaol.” 


* * 
E have not concealed in Peace News our hope that self rule in 
Ghana will be given a wide and liberal interpretation and that 
the different tribal practices, languages and traditions that form part of 
the ways of living of the peoples of Ghana will not be “ centralised ” 
out of existence. 

Industrial conscription is not something we look upon with favour, but we, 
who have not to face their difficulties, must be chary in our criticism of the 
steps that Dr. Nkrumah’s Government may take to deal with them. 

There is little doubt, however, that Dr. Busia’s party is standing for certain 
values that it would be well for Ghana to retain, and that, incidentally, Dr. 
Nkrumah has eloquently defended in the past. 

We hope, therefore, that the comment by Dr, Nkrumah that we haye quoted 
above was merely an understandable expression of impatience in a period of 
tension, and that it does not mean that there is a danger that we may have to 
witness another single-party tyranny added to all the others that infest the world. 


LS A ESR GN NER tome 


fined border zone between Yemen and the 
western part of the Aden Protectorate, 


Ever since the beginning of this year 
there has been, with only .a few weeks’ 
interruption, a reciprocal bombardment of 
protest notes between the Yemen Govern- 
ment via its London Embassy and the 
Foreign Office—both sides declaring the 


_ other side’s assertions and protests to be 


unacceptable as totally devoid of founda- 
tion and, occasionally, the very opposite of 
the truth, 


It is undisputed that there is ever-recur- 
ring fighting and that Venom jet planes are 
being used on the British side. But, 
whereas the Yemenis always claim that the 
scene of fighting has been on their side of 
the border because their territory has been 
invaded, the British communiqués as in- 
variably assert that it has taken place on 
Protectorate territory invaded by the 
Yemenis, 


One significant admission, however, is 
contained in the British statements, They 
have mentioned more than once that “ dis- 
sident tribesmen bribed by the Yemen Goy- 
ernment and strengthened by Yemeni 
troops ” are the offenders. The term bribe 
does not mean much in a part of the world 
where bribing is looked upon as legitimate, 
and the bribe itself does not have to be 
more than the provision of a living ration. 


But an impartially organised opportunity 
for the free expression of the people’s will 
whether they want to belong to the wholly 
autocratic sheikdoms which enjoy the pro- 
tection of the British Government or the 
probably equally autocratic but far more 
distant authority of the Kingdom of Yemen 
is long overdue, 


Holding on grimly to the remnants of its 
vanishing power all over the Arabian world, 
the British Government is once again taking 
the simple but short-sighted course of try- 
ing to uphold the authority of a local auto- 
cracy, purblind to the longer-term conse- 
quences, 


To drive the Yemen into the Soviet camp 
cannot in the long run be to the advantage 
of either the Aden Protectorate or. of 
Britain herself, 


2 s 
Tailpiece 
“A clean bomb is one that kills you but 
doesn’t harm your pallbearers.” —- US 


columnist Frederick Othman. 


Alabama: Whites threaten total boycott 


GUY HARDWICK, Lieutenant-Gov- 
ernor of Alabama, has threatened 
a “total boycott” of Negroes if “ this 
outrageous civil rights bill becom 
law.” . 


A boycott by Southern Whites 
against Negroes comes naturally to 
them. In contrast, for the Negroes to 
boycott Southern Whites requires a 
complete change in their lives. 


The “ outrageous civil rights Bill” has 
now ‘been. passed by both the US Senate 
and the House of Representatives. It was 
originally designed to speed up desegrega- 
tion of schools and to ensure Negroes the 
vote, 


It is believed Lieutenant-Governor Hard- 
wick threatened the total boycott because 
he had visions of Federal troops marching 
south and enforcing desegregation with 
bayonets, 


Bayonets were used to enforce school 
desegregation in Clinton, Tennessee, last 
year. However, public. reaction, North 
and South, to tanks and bayonets forcing 
a social change on American citizens was 
so great that a repeat performance is not 
likely. 

Furthermore, Alabama need have little 
fear, Most of the teeth have been pulled 
from the civil rights Bill, 


WHITE BOYCOTT 


A WHITE boycott of Negroes would 

; not be entirely new. Over most of 
the South in recent years Negroes who 
favour integration, Negroes who belong to 
the National Association for the Advance- 
ment of Coloured People (NAACP) and 
Negroes who do not “know their place ” 
have been boycotted by Whites, 

Perhaps the White boycotts have not 
been as organised as the Negro boycotts. 


By RALPH BLACKWOOD, MA 


US race relations correspondent: 


If it is; learned in the South that a 
Negro is a member of the NAACP, his 
White employer fires him. If the Negro 
is an independent owner: of a grocery 
store, White store owners put pressure on 
the wholesalers and make: them refuse to 
sell to the Negro store owner, 

A Negro share-cropper favouring integra- 
tion is likely to find himself driven off the 
land. Teachers who favour integratiom are 
not employed by the White school boards 
which administer both Negro and White 
schools, 


SOCIAL PRESSURE 
HITES in the South ‘hold afl the 
political power, Whites control the 
Southern Press, they owm most of the land, 
and they control most of the jobs, They 
have almost total power and they have used 
it objectively. It has not been necessary, in 
many places, to organise a boycott against 
“ dissatisfied ’’ Negroes. 

Since the Civil War the Southern White 
has grown to accept a society of separate 
and dominant Whites as a necessary basis 
of life. When this traditional way of life 
is threatened, organisations and laws are 
not needed. . : 


The customs and mores of the White 


community result in immediate and power- 
ful social pressure against Negroes, who 
violate the taboos. 

No doubt the Southern White used social 
pressures long before Negroes suddenly dis- 
covered its effectiveness in Montgomery. 
Perhaps Negroes have learned some of their 
economics the hard way, by being boy- 
cotted, 


NEGRO BOYCOTT 
W HEN it. comes to boycotting, the 
Negro community has problems not 


faced by. Whites. . For Negroes to boy- 
cott Whites, the whole pattern of behaviour 
and values in the Negro community must 
be changed, i 

Traditionally, Southern Negroes do not 
oppose their White “superiors.” (All 
Whites are supposed to’ be superior to any 
Negro in the South.) According to tradi- 
tion, Negroes agree quickly with Whites, 
try to please them, and go to them for help 
in time of trouble, 


To carry out an effective boycott, 
Southern Negroes must reverse this: pat- 
tern of behaviour. Also they must re- 
verse the attitudes which Negroes; need 
to live safely in traditional Southern 
society. 

In order to avoid trouble, the Negro has 
to behave at all times as if all Whites are 
superior. In order to submit so completely 
he: ‘has. to ‘believe Whites are actually 
superior, 


SIGNIFICANCE 


UT the Negro boycotter has, to have 
a completely different set of attitudes 
toward himself and white men. 

The Montgomery bus boycott, the Tus- 
kegee boycott, and the recently . reported 
Rock Hill, South Carolina, bus boycott— 
all these Negro. boycotts take on. greater 
significance when we. realise how much 
change and growth they imply. ~ 

Southern Whites find boycotting easy 

‘because it is a natural extension of’ their 

old) way of life, values and habits. But 

Southern Negroes boycott because they 

have overcome their old way of life, their 

old values, and their old habits, 

Only if we realise how much Negroes 
have had to change to boycott Whites can 
we begin to understand the significance ‘of 
the -boycotts. 


HOW WE CAN HELP THE NEW NATIONS 


HEN a colony gains independence 

the people look. for immediate 
changes. They have sometimes been 
led to blame the previous imperialist 
administration for all their sufferings 
and expect their new self-governing 
administration to remove them rapidly. 
They expect higher standards of life, good 
houses, schools, hospitals and dispensaries. 
They may become disillusioned if reforms 


are nat cean canan 


The second method is illustrated by India. 
Democracy is generally maintained, The 
educated co-operation of the people is 
sought. Long-term economic plans are in- 
augurated, But two disadvantages are in- 
evitable. The changes will be slower. And 
capital investment must be accepted from 
richer countries. 

The acceptance of more gradual changes 
will depend on the understanding partici- 
pation of the people. Visitors to India say 


It is time’ we had an International 
Charter of Investment under. United 
Nations auspices setting a limit to the 
profits which private financiers can extort. 

_ It is time, too, that colonial administra- 
tions and the newly independent nations got 
together to prepare a Convention — laying 
down the conditions which they will require 
from. private investors. Much better that 
than competition in concessions !_ This Con- 
vention should insist on reasonablv short 





September 6, 1957—PEACE NEWS—5 


A bbbebtt ttt tPCT Tit tila, 


PEACE AND THE 
FUEL PROBLEM 


Britain and nuclear power 
BY JOHN B. SCORE 


See eeeeeo 


T the annual general meeting of the 
British Association last year, Sir 
George Thomson, Master of Corpus 
Christi, Cambridge, and President of 
the Mathematics and Physics Section, 
spoke of the relationship which will 
exist between atomic power and that 
available from oil and coal. 

He said that 40 million tons of the 
approximate 200 million of coal now con- 
sumed annually will be saved by the year 
1975. This would result from deriving 40 
per cent. of the increased’ generation of 
electricity from nuclear power. 

It will be noted that Sir George expressed 
this saving in terms of coal’ rather than oil. 
But for many years it has been obvious that 


. 


“our coalfields may begim to show signs of 


exhaustion before that date. ~And this 


-situation will doubtless be aggravated by 


the ever-increasing demands for more power 
to support an expandiig industry. 
* 

On the other hand, one must consider the 
recent tension which has ‘arisen over the 
question of oil in the Middle East, and the 
danger of a possible clash with the Rus-~ 
sians, who’ also covet these resources, as 
well asa warm water port and a share in 
the use of the Suez Canal. ; 


In view, therefore; of the fact that 
Britain’s dependence on trade routes ‘and 
oil supply constitutes one of the gravest 
weaknesses in her present economy, it is 
surely obvious that every effort: should be 
made to exploit the new source of nuclear 
power to the fullest extent, in order to sup-' 
plant as much as possible both foreign oil 
and our rapidly diminishing coal supply. 

Would not a large-scale top priority 
atom-derived electrical generating scheme, 
of which Calder Hall is a small sample, 
give us independence ‘where foreign oil is 
concerned ? 


The urgency of the need for substituting 
nuclear power for oil is further emphasised 
by the fact that many millions of sterling 
are even now in course. of investment in 
this country by major oil companies, and 


Negroes who do not “know their place” 
have. been boycotted by Whites. 

Perhaps the White boycotts have not 
been as organised as the Negro boycotts. 


cotted, 


NEGRO BOYCOTT 
(WHEN it. comes to boycotting, the 


Only. if we realise how much Negroes 
have had to change to boycott Whites can 
we begin to understand the significance ‘of 


Negro community has problems not. the -boycotts.- 





HEN a colony gains independence 
the people look. for immediate 
changes. They have sometimes been 
led to blame the previous imperialist 
administration for all their sufferings 
and expect their new self-governing 
administration to remove them rapidly. 
They expect higher standards of life, good 
houses, schools, hospitals and dispensaries. 
They may become disillusioned if reforms 
are not seen soon, 


From the point of view of the peoples 
of the colonies as well as of the conveni- 
ence of the imperial administration, there 
is something to be said for a short interim 
period, such as Ghana passed through 
before independence, and Nigeria and the 
West Indies are passing through now, when 
considerable powers of internal administra- 
tion rest with a democratically elected Gov- 
ernment, although full self-government has 
not been attained. 


Two courses 

During this period the representatives of 
the colonial peoples gain experience, they 
can begin to introduce reforms, and they 
can plan (often with expert civil service co- 
operation) for the future. Their people do 
not expect too much during this period 
because final authority still rests with the 
imperial power. Ghana used the time 
very effectively in educational and medical 
advance and in planning large economic 
schemes, such as the Volta River project. 


But expectations are always greater than 
can be realised. The newly independent 
countries have not the capital necessary for 
the formidable reforms which are required 
and desired. 

An independent government in these cir- 
cumstances can follow one of two courses, 
It can accept the Russian example, It can 
demand great sacrifices from its people to 
accumulate the necessary capital. It can 
impose modern large-scale agriculture on 
an unwilling peasantry by force. This 
method inevitably involves dictatorship and, 
as in the case of Russia, almost certainly 
harsh repression. The intention may be to 
remove the dictatorship as economic pro- 
blems are solved; but, again, as Russia 
under Stalin showed, dictators tend to cling 
to their power and erucl tyranny follows. 


The second method is illustrated by India. 
Democracy is generally maintained, The 
educated co-operation of the people is 
sought. Long-term economic plans are in- 
augurated, But two disadvantages are in- 
evitable. The changes will be’ slower. And 
capital investment must be accepted from 
richer countries, 

The acceptance of more gradual changes 
will depend ‘on the understanding  partici- 
pation of the people. Visitors to India say 
that this is happening. They tell of great 


(Wega AERA HEN gH FEN go typ AUN gg EN ER AE ENA FEN AFTRA OPN AFT HEN AD 


By Fenner Brockway MP 


CHAIRMAN OF THE MOVEMENT FOR 
COLONIAL FREEDOM 


(gut Mag pat ANE py AUN gg ATE DEEN Mg HHUA AAT ptt gt 


Community. projects in which the peasants 
voluntarily take part. They tell of vast 
power plants and of expanding irrigation 
schmes. They say that ten years after inde- 
pendence there is vitality and confidence 
among the people, enthusiasm for the task 
of construction, faith that it will succeed. 

In Ghana, the Mass Education’ move- 
ment, which teaches not only literacy but 
hygiene, child care, road making (so that 
isolated villages can be joined to the main 
lines of transport), has the character of a 
national social resurrection. The voluntary 
brigades of young workers, becoming 
trained in modern techniques, has the same 
quality of service. If this spirit can be 
maintained the necessary social revolution 
will be achieved by democratic means, 

Obtaining capital 

But India and Ghana, already independent, 
and Nigeria and the West Indies becoming 
independent, \still have to face the problem 
of obtaining) the capital they need from 
wealthier cotntries. There is the danger 










that a cut-throat competition will develop 
to get this capital, Some countries, like 
Northern Rhodesia, can offer high returns 


on capital invested in its copper mines. 
Other counties, which can ill afford them, 
have to offer high rates of interest to com- 
pete with the}large Rhodesian profits, Some 
colonial governments are offering exemp- 
tions from taxation and customs privileges. 
Financiers tend to hold the colonies to 
ransom, j 


HOW WE CAN HELP THE NEW. NATIONS 


‘It is time’ we had an International 
Charter of Investment under United 
Nations auspices setting a limit to the 
profits which private financiers can extort. 

_It is time, too, that colonial administra- 
tions and the newly independent nations got 
together to prepare a Convention — laying 
down the conditions which they will require 
from. private investors. Much better that 
than competition in concessions! This Con- 
vention should insist on reasonably short 
concessions at the end of which the gov- 
ernment of the territory would have the 
right to take over the enterprise concerned. 
It should insist on no racial discrimination, 
the training of the indigenous workers for 
skilled posts and management, progressively 
rising minimum wages, trade union recog- 
nition, good housing for the workers, good 
health services. The Gezira scheme in the 
Sudan shows such schemes to be practicable, 

This is a constructive plan which the 
Afro-Asian group of Governments, in- 
viting the co-operation of the British 
Colonial Office (which will not always be 
Tory) and the Caribbean Governments 
might consider. 


Public investment 


Far preferable to private investment 
would be public investment. Best of all 
would be a World Fund for under-deve- 
loped countries, such as the United Nations 
SUNFED scheme, which the American and 
British Governments are unfortunately still 
opposing. ‘The Labour Party’s pledge to 
devote one per cent, of Britain’s national 
income to aid under-developed countries, 
amounting to £160 millions a year, is an 
excellent national example. Agencies of the 
United Nations, like the World Health 
Organisation, UNESCO. and _ Technical 
Assistance, as well as the International Bank, 
point the way. But all are so ill-supported 
at present by the Governments of the more 
privileged. peoples that they cannot be 
decisive, . 

Fifty years ago the Labour Movement in 
Britain took root with the determination to 
end poverty in our own land. That has 
been. largely, though not fully, accomplished. 
We now need an international movement to 
end poverty in the world; 

Copyright in India and Africa reserved 

to author. 


Britain's dependence on trade routes and 
oil supply constitutes. one of the gravest 
weaknesses in her present economy, it is 
surely obvious that every effort: should be 
made to exploit the new source of nuclear 
power to the fullest extent, in order to sup- 
plant as much as possible both foreign oil 
and our rapidly diminishing coal supply. 
Would not a large-scale top priority 
atom-derived electrical generating scheme, 
of which Calder Hall is a small sample, 
give us independence Where foreign oil is 
concerned ? 


The urgency of the need for substituting 
nuclear power for oil is further emphasised 
by the fact that many millions of sterling 
are even now in course. of investment in 
this country by major oil. companies, and 
attempts are being made to involve the 
general. public in. these very extensive and 
expensive schemes. .. Twenty-five | million 
pounds is being. .invested in one project 
alone at Southampton. 


* 


I note that Sir George questioned the 
possibility of small atomic power units suit- 
able for propelling cars and aircraft, and 
he considered the problems of size and 
radiation insurmountable. One would like 
to know on what grounds ? 

With regard to size, could not apparatus 
be designed on a much smaller scale to 
utilise the power effect .of,. implosion— 
rather than explosion—an attenuated form 
of which latter is currently used to produce 
heat-power ? Are not the radiation effects 
of implosion very much less than the effects 
of nuclear explosion ? 

Is not this technique, already being ex- 
plored in America ? It would be interest- 
ing to know what, if anything, is being done 
in this country regarding research into 
implosion. ' 


* 


One must not overlook the fact that with 
the possibility of the advent .of atomic 
engines for all forms of surface and_ air 
traffic, and, atomic-derived electricity, oil 
companies would suffer a severe. financial 
setback, and one cannot avoid the suspicion 
that this possibility has seriously retarded 
research and development in the . whole 
nuclear field, 

Our emancipation from. oil is in fact a 
most urgent necessity for the preservation 
of British power and influence in. world 
affairs, 

Only by remaining free from both Ameri- 
can and Russian economic interference and 
pressure can we continue to be an inter- 
national force for peace, 


6—PEACE NEWS—September 6, 1957 


LETTERS — 











The well adopted by the North London Action Council for War on Want at Samaria, India 


Safe wells for Indfa 


I WISH to express to you and to your 
paner. the very sincere thanks of the 
North ¥ London Action Council for War on 
Want for your wonderful article on the 
well the Council has. adopted in Samaria 
village, 
“TY feel sure this will bring forth a kindly 
response from your generous readers, who, 
like your great paper, are: aware of the 
tremendous problems that face mankind in 
the quest for eternal peace. 

I would like to point out to your readers 
that this action by the Council is only a 
very small part of its real endeavour. 

The Council realises a war on want needs 
the help of every. individual and organisa- 
tion within the area, who can. afford to 
“give” (if only a very little). © 

There is, much we can do, once we are 
all aware, and can share in a great human 
partnership, which can bring reality to the 
saying: “ We are our brothers’ helpers.” 

I would like especially to point out that 
in the two-thirds of ‘the world’s population 
struggling to exist there is the sum total of 


900,000,000 children who have to live this 


pitiful and tragic existence. © 

Surely, if we call ourselves “ humane ” 
beings, we feel in our: consciences that all 
is not well with man’s mentality when he 
neglects and allows to suffer those who 
cannot help themselves and who look to. us, 
the elders, for succour. 


There is much that is being done to over- 
come world poverty, but a tremendous 
amount more could be done by “the man 
in the street” if he could only be helped 
to realise the need. 


wise 


which multiply according to the portion of 
extra money spent on consumer goods and 
services compared with that portion of the 
extra money saved, 

In the 1930s the multiplier effect was re- 
sponsible for setting into production other- 
idle resources. In non-economic 
language, lessening the dole queue. In the 
1950s there have been. few or no idle re- - 
sources: the scarce resources have been 
made still more scarce and dearer. 

Thus only in the latter period can we say 
that re-armament in this country has had 
an inflationary tendency.—_ JIM Le NOURY, 
4, The Grove, rarer eh Chesterfield, 
Derby, 


Y. concern has grown to alarm, not 


because you do not answer my ques- 
men- 


tion. about: the “economic fallacy ” 
tioned in your article (PN, July. 19), but 
because you entirely fail to see the point 
of my letter. Indeed, one sentence in your 
comments suggests that you. consider arma- 
ments are an addition to the world’s wealth. 


If that is your belief, what hope is there .of 
changing the workers’ attitude to arms pro- * 


duction ? 


Perhaps you were misled by the last para- 
graph in my letter, which merely re-stated 
what I think is true—that any addition to 
the total volume of incomes, regardless of 
what service or disservice the income repre- 
sents, is an addition to the value of the 
total goods available. Therefore an in- 
crease of 30 millions in soldiers pay adds 30 
millions to the value of goods available 
(That is the rough picture. I know there 
are such things as reinvestment in actually 
productive operations; but if we fail to 
grasp the relationship between goods and 


Bernard Llewellyn, former member of the Friends 


Relief Service who 


stwent to Korea with the Save 


The ees Fund gives an 
Impression of Syngman Rhee 


IN Seoul early this year I met the 
man who is perhaps the greatest 
living exponent of the old-fashioned 
type of patriotism—President Syng- 
man Rhee. I was surprised, on see- 
ing him face to face, to see ie old 
he was, for the photograplis 
lished of him are misleading, 


Multitudinous wrinkles creased his face and 
narrowed still further his ante eyes, 
and he moved with the slowness and 
something of the uncertainty of the very 
old. He looked tired and he looked old; 
but the years had not diminished his reso- 
lution to unite Korea, to wage unceasing 
war against the claims of the Communists, 
and to maintain, in a state of readiness, 
one of the largest armies in the world. 


That resolution is expressed every’ time he 
opens his mouth, The real question I 
could not answer was whether | he was 
now too old to do anything ql it 
Was all his talk merely a safety valve ? 

Syngman Rhee stands for most of ‘the atti- 
tudes the pacifist detests. Military power 
is the bedrock of his policy; his| concep- 
tion of Christianity does not go beyond 
“the strong man armed.” He occasion- 
ally seems a trifle astonished that his 
own eagerness to renew the fray and 
drive the Communists out of North Korea 
has sometimes embarrassed eyen the 
tough-talking Americans, 


od 


E has been called realistic bv 

those who regard South Korea 

as Asia’s last stronghold of anti-Com- 

munism, for nobody can accuse him of 

failing to be alert to the dangers of Soviet 

imperialism. . 

realistic ‘by those’ who fear a ‘recrudes- 

cence of Japanese expansionist policies on 
the mainland of Asia. 

Rhee burns with a fierce hatred of Russia, 


Communist China and Japan—his three 
closest neighbours. Many. call this 
emotional attitude (which: is understand- 
able in terms of Korean history) wisdom. 
But what kind of realism is this? How 
can Korea, geographically situated as she 
is, afford the luxury of such an emotion? 
Rhee talks. patriotically of his country’s 
longing for freedom and independence; 
but his policies render Korea ever more 
dependent on US: aid... -This aid flows’ in 


pub- 


And he has been called . 


sources into’ the Defence Budget; they 
see the daily deterioration of their cur- 
rency. They know they cannot afford 
heroics, 


But Rhee can. The old man who has iden- 
tified himself with Korea and has spent 
his life trying to win freedom for his. 
country is dedicated to the same patriotic 
fervour that fired his youth. He does not 
want peace; he wants the reunification of 
Korea—and he does not believe that will 
come without a struggle. Therefore let 
the struggle come in his lifetime, and let 
the Americans furnish his divisions with 
the atomic fire-power to match the arms 
build-up north of the _ thirty-eighth 
parallel, 

If the old man with the wrinkled eyes 
dreams, his are not peaceful dreams, All 
his life he has been angry at the people 
who have pushed his fellow-countrymen 
around. He would like to get his own 
back: It is not a good policy, it has no 
future. But it would make’ an old man’ 
feel very good indeed. 


VACCINE FOR HUNGARY 


In answer to an urgent request from the 
Minister of Health’ of Hungary, the 
World Health. Organisation, has obtained 
an export licence for salk vaccine from 
the United States Government to help 
control a threatening epidemic of polio- 
myelitis in Hungary... The © shipment, 
which was procured through WHO 
Regional Office for ‘the Americas, the. 
Pan-American Sanitary. Bureau, is suffi- 
cient for 29,000 injections. 








-THE-ADOPTION OF 


VEGETARIANISM 


is an essential step towards 
unity of life and world harmony 
READ 


THE VEGETARIAN 


WORLD 
FORUM 





ee Ee Ee ee Pee ee eee 


partnership, which can bring reality to the 
saying: “ We are our brothers’ helpers.” . 

I would like especially to point out that 
in the two-thirds of ‘the world’s population 
struggling to exist there is the sum total of 
900,000,000 children who have to live this 
pitiful and tragic existence. | yo 

Surely, if we call. ourselves ‘humane ” 
beings, we feel in our consciences that all 
is not well with man’s mentality when he 
neglects and allows to suffer those who 
cannot help themselves and who look to us, 
the elders, for succour. 


There is much that is being done to over- 
come world poverty, but a tremendous 
amount more could be done by “ the man 
in the street”. if he could only be helped 
to realise the need, 


This then is the work of the Council, who 
can send speakers, arrange exhibitions, give 
film shows and organise practical schemes 
of “action” for all those who wish to 
express their moral concern for what is 
really a moral obligation, 


I would be very pleased to give further 
practical details of how the Council and 
other bodies in this country and in other 
lands, tackle the war for peace—the war 
on want—NORMAN HAMILTON, 10, 
Candler St., London, N.15, 


Armaments and inflation 


WAR. P.. GWYNNE DAVIES’ letter in 
PN, August 16, says: “ Great expendi- 

ture on arms is always accompanied by 

inflation. . . .” That is not always. so. 

Inflation may be said to exist when the 
factors of production (land, labour and 
capital) are fully employed and there is a 
level of demand greater than that of the 
level of supply. Buyers compete with each 
other for goods, they exert pressure on 
sellers and thus push up prices. Money 
values fall heavily, 

When resources are fully employed and 
there is an increased demand for arms then 
such arms compete in the market with all 
other demands for goods’ and services. 

With a given level of supply arms can 
be inflationary in two senses. (1) If there 
is an increased demand, because of govern- 
ment policy, as compared to the level of 
demand for other goods and services, (2) 
If those in the armed forces and/or people 
manufacturing armaments get increased pay 
whilst other workers do not. 

This increased demand leads to what the 
economists call a “ multiplier effect ” on the 
economy. This sets into motion recurrent 
demands of additional goods and services 


MR MAY AGMLEE.  ANCeed, one sentence in your 
comments suggests that you consider arma- 
ments are an addition to the world’s wealth. 


If that is your belief, what hope is there.of 
changing the workers’ attitude to arms pro- es 


duction ? 


Perhaps you were misled by the last para- 
graph in my letter, which merely re-stated 
what I think is true—that any addition to 
the total volume of incomes, regardless of 
what service or disservice the income repre- 
sents, is an addition to the value of the 
total goods available. Therefore an in- 
crease of 30 millions in soldiers pay adds 30 
millions to the value of goods available 
(That is the rough picture. I know there 
are such things as reinvestment in actually 
productive operations; but if we fail to 
grasp the relationship between goods and 
incomes we shall always be astray). 

Similarly, any millions paid for arms pro- 
duction have the same effect; but who wants 
guns, or battleships, or bombs ?_ Therefore, 
apart from the taxes deducted to pay for 
the guns, etc., by the Governments, the re- 
maining millions go into the market to be 
added to the value of real goods, 


The issue of bonus shares has the same 


. @ffect, as does any. increase in spending 


power, Inflation can only be avoided or 
corrected if spending power is related to 
the supply of goods—and education, food, 
Shelter, entertainment, enjoyment, are all 
goods—but I do not include armaments !— 
P. GWYNNE DAVIES, Abergele Rd., Old 
Colwyn. 


Nationalised industries 


N his review (PN, August 9) of “ Public 
Enterprise,” a Labour Party publication, 
John Holtom reiterates the myth that ‘Ten 
years ago large sections of British industry 
passed into public ownership.” 

None of the supposed-to-be nationalised 
industries will ever be truly nationalised 
until, first of all, the nation’s purse—its 
monetary system and banking—has passed 
into public ownership and is under public 
control, 

Far from transferring the Bank of Eng- 
land to public ownership and control, some 
of the provisions of the Act of 1945 are 
specifically devised to obviate all possibility 
of Parliament’s participation, and of public 
control in the running of the Bank, 

The compilers of “Public Enterprise ” 
appear to attach no significance to a certain 
famous great financier’s boast, “ Permit me 
to issue and control the money of a nation, 
and I do not care who makes its laws.”— 
CHAS. W. D. NEWMAN, Beechcroft, 
Brownshill, Stroud, Glos. 


as Asia’s last stronghold of anti-Com- 
munism, for nobody can accuse him of 
failing to be alert to the dangers of Soviet 

_ imperialism. . . 
realistic ‘by those who fear a ‘recrudes- 

cence of Japanese expansionist policies on 
the mainland of Asia. 

Rhee burns with a fierce hatred of Russia, 
Communist China and Japan—his three 
closest neighbours. Many call this 
emotional attitude (which: is understand- 
able in terms of Korean history) wisdom. 

But what kind of realism is this? How 
can Korea, geographically situated as she 
is, afford the luxury of such an emotion? 
Rhee talks patriotically: of his country’s 
longing for freedom and independence; 
but his policies render Korea ever more 
dependent on US: aid... -This aid flows’ in 
at the rate of a thousand million dollars 
a year; and less than a third is economic 
aid, 

Said a wise Korean to me one day: “ How 
can we be independent until we are 
independent of aid ? ” 


* 


PSHERE were signs at the last elec- 
tion that many Koreans are not 

so enthusiastic as their President about 
renewing the conflict. Some prefer a 
quiet life to heroic posturing. They see 
the draining away of the national re- 























in years to come. 


saving for Co-operators. 


during normal shopping hours, 


And he has been called . 


LOOKING AHEAD 


In these days of fluctuating money values one begins to look to the 
future with concern anda certain amount of apprehension, 


The answer, however, lies in seeking a firm basis on which to build for security 


crent for £7,UUU myjections, 


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READ 
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Quarterly 1s. 6d. per copy (Postage 2d.) 
Annual Subscription 6s, 8d., post free 
(USA and Canada $1) 


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Newsagents or direct from the publishers : 


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As this is a free service we reserve the right to 


select for publication notices sent in. We nevertheless 
desire to make it as complete a service as we reason- 
ably can, and therefore urge organisers of events to: 
1, Send notices to arrive not later than Mon. a.m, 
2. Include: Date, TOWN, Time, Place (hall, 
Street); nature of event; speakers, organisers (and 
secretary’s address). 
Friday /Sunday, September 6-8 
BRISTOL: Vinoba and Sarvodaya Fellowship of 
Friends of Truth, Conference with Donald Groom. 
Redland College (Malvern House). Sec.: 8 Fairhaven 
Road, Bristol, 6... Tel.:. 45515. Visitors welcomed. 
Friday, September 6 
LONDON LOCAL TRIBUNAL for COs, Fulham 
Town Hall (opposite Fulham Broadway Und. Station), 
10.30 a.m, and 1.15 p.m, Public admitted. 
Saturday, September 7 
LONDON, N.6: 3 p.m. 30 Wood Lane, Highgate 
(one minute Highgate Underground) Garden Party for 
Bhoodan Well Fund. Indian Dancers, Tea, stalls and 
sideshows. North London Action Council for War 
on Want; 
> Sunday, September 8 
LONDON : 3.30 p.m.; Friends International Centre, 
32 Tavistock Square, Euston. Pacifist Universalist 
Service. . Discourse by I. A, Sandapen, ‘‘A Day in 
an Indian Village.”’ 
Monday, September 9 
BIRMINGHAM : 8 p.m.; 221 Vicarage Road, Kings 
Heath. Kings Heath and Cotteridge. PPU. All 


welcome. 
Thursday, September 12 
LONDON, W.C.1 : 7.30 p.m.; Dick Sheppard House, 
6 Endsleigh St. Annual General Meeting of the 
Pacifist Youth Action Group. 
LEYTONSTONE: 8 p.m.; 
“* Vegetarianism Aid to Peace.”’ 
Ho., E.10 and E.11 Group. 
Sunday, September 15 
LONDON, W.C.1: 2.30 p.m. Friends International 
Centre, 32 Tavistock Sq. Conf. for prospective con- 
scientious objectors. Speaker: Brian Reed, Tea pro- 
vided; Women also welcome, SoF. 
Monday, September 16 
SOUTHEND-ON-SEA: 8 p.m.; Wesley Church 
Hall, Elm Road, Leigh. ‘‘ Any Questions.’’ Panel : 
Rev, Wm. Hodgkins, MA, Coun, W. H.. Clough, 
Mrs. L. M. Alexander, JP, Tom Parrinder (Scout 
Commissioner), FoR. 

SOUTHAMPTON: 8 p.m.;. ‘‘ Any  Questions.’’ 
PPU Friends Mtg, Ho., Ordnance Road. All welcome. 
Tuesday, September 17 

UPMINSTER : 8 p.m.; St..Mary’s Lane School (nr. 
The Bell). Speaker: Alec Beckman, ‘‘ Whither South 
Africa ?’’ . Hornchurch Way To Peace Group, 52 
Fleet Avenue, Upminster. 

Thursday, September 19 

LEYTONSTONE: 8 p.m.; Speaker: George Bush, 
“* Ethics and Morality.’”” PPU Friends Mtg, Ho., E.10 
and E.11 Group. 

Friday, September 20 

LONDON LOCAL TRIBUNAL for COs, Fulham 
Town Hall (opposite Fulham Broadway Und, Station). 
10.30 a.m. and 1.15 p.m. Public admitted. 

Saturday, September 21 

EPSOM. 3.45 p.m. 3 St. Martin’s Avenue. Poster 
Parade to meeting in Rosebery Park (Speakers: Sybil 
Morrison, Stuart Morris). 5.30 p.m. tea at Methodist 
‘Church Hall, Ashley Road. 7.0 p.m. public meeting 
““ Peace Is_ Possible.”” (Speakers: Donald Chessell, 
Stuart Morris, Sybil Morrison, Minnie Pallister; Chair- 
man: James L, Henderson). Epsom and District Peace 


Speaker: Grace Lane, 
PPU Friends Mtg. 


Fellowship. 

GLOUCESTER: 3 p.m.; Friends Mtg: Ho., PPU 
‘Western Area AGM, Rally and Auction, Details: 
Ron Barns, 4 Grange Drive, Bridgwater. 

Thursday, September 26 

LEYTONSTONE: 8 p.m; Group _ Discussion, 
PPU Friends Mtg. Ho., E.10 and E.11 Group, 

Monday, September 30 
LONDON APPELLATE TRIBUNAL for COs, 


Ebury Bridge Road, Victoria, 
Public admitted. 


Ebury Bridge House, 
S.W.1. 


10.30 a.m. and 2.15 p.m. 





Civil Defence in the Netherlands 


LAYERS OF (LLUSION 


Hilda von Klenze reviews 


Bescherming Beyolking (Civil Defence), by N. J, Verkruisen, published by De Driehoek, 
Amsterdam, on behalf of Central Dutch Peace Bureau (BEDA), one gilder, 


IN the Netherlands, as in other countries, Civil Defence seems to be a thing 


of many layers. 


The outside consists of a smooth mixture 
of soft soap, human compassion, and a 
kind of “Holland-can-take-it” attitude 
which always goes down well; next comes 
the harder stuff of sheer expediency which 
shows CD to be an essential cog in the 
military machine; and finally there is, deep 
inside, the desperate core of complete help- 
lessness in the face of modern weapons. 


The government has no more notion how 
to protect the country against 

















rains, and so it talks airily about deep 
shelters and evacuation, knowing only too 
well that the former are too costly and 
that the latter suggestion, in view of Hol- 
land’s size and density of population, is a 
lunatic counsel of perfection, 


N. J. Verkruisen deals with each layer in 
urn, There is a section on the official 
organisation and the laws under which it 
operates. In Holland, too, public’ interest 
is noticeably lacking and the flow of volun- 
teers is slow in spite of the fact that for 
“psychological reasons” the authorities 
decided some years ago to replace the term 
“ Civil Defence” by the more reassuring 
one of “ protection of the population,” and 
wherever possible link CD with the rescue 
service which functions in times of natural 
disaster. 

Another scction is devoted to official 
propaganda and one to the effects of nuclear 
weapons and the obvious impossibility of 
defence, civil or otherwise. 

The booklet also provides an excellent 
literature list which includes Dutch as well 
as American, English and French books 
and documents, and a particularly good 
selection of works on “Pacifism, Non- 


ae on. sats 


= 











Pamphlet review 


E two latest pamphlets in the ‘series 

published. from Pendle Hill, Walling- 
ford, Pennsylvania, are numbers 92 and 93, 
35 cents, each. 

An Inward Legacy, Forbes Robinson, 
is devotional extracts from the letters of a 
Cambridge lecturer in theology who died 
in 1904 at the age of 41. In an introduc- 
tion, Gilbert Kilpack, who made the selec- 
tion, describes the author as the William 
Law or Brother Lawrence of his generation, 
and truly says that his words carry just the 
sharp but tender clarification that this age 
needs, 

Quakerism and Others Religions, by 
Howard H, Brinton, is an interesting expo- 
sition of a theory that Quakerism, more 
than any other Christian sect, has the means 
of approach to the other great religious 
systems: worship in silence is the only 
ing of Foreign Policy a brief survey of the 
form in which adherents of all can take 
part, and provides a meeting point; the 
recognition of the Inward Light in every 
man and the mystical concept of direct con- 
tact with the Divine, through silence, medi- 
tation and contemplation, overpass the 
bounds that normally divide Christians and 
non-Christians. 

The South African Treason Trial, by 
Gerald Gardiner, Q.C., Christian Action, 
9d., is the text of a speech delivered in 
February last at a meeting held in aid of 
the Defence Fund for the 160 people now 
being tried in South Africa for treason. It 
is an admirably clear, brief explanation of 
the background to the trial and the laws 
against which the offences are alleged to 
have been committed, 


Christians and War, by Llewelyn Harries, 
Plough Publishing House, 1s. This is a re- 
print of an article that appeared in “The 
Plough,” the quarterly magazine of the 
Society of Brothers Bruderhof Community. 
It describes the attitude of the early Chris- 


PR ey i a al fie tile 





September 6, 1957—PEACE NEWS—7 





TERMS : Cash with order, 3d. per word, min, 2s, 6d. 
(Box No. 1s. extra), Please don’t send stamps in 
Payment, except for odd pence. Address for Box. .No. 
replies : Peace News, 3 Blackstock Rd., London, N.4. 


LATEST TIME for copy: Monday morning, 


Whilst the policy of Peace News is not to restrict 
any concern or individual from advertising in these 
columns, it must be noted that we do not necessarily 
share the views nor the opinions of all our advertisers. 


MEETING 
HOLBORN HALL at 7.30 p.m., September 7, Come 
and hear Fenner Brockway, MP, and others speak 
about Mauritius. Tickets 3s. available from J. R. 
Lamusse, London House, Guildford Street, W.C.1, 
and at the door. 


ACCOMMODATION 

FROM TIME TO TIME we have quiet accommoda- 
tion available for long term letting. Separate rooms; 
own cooking facilities. Apply, Sec. the Vedanta Move- 
ment, Batheaston Villa, Bath. 

HOMELY ACCOMMODATION and jolly good food 
for visitors and permanent guests, CANonbury 1340, 
Telkea Shayler, 27 Hamilton Pk., N.5. 

LARGE OFFICES TO LET. Kings Cross (suitable 
meetings). Apply Bookshop, 285 Grays Inn Rd., 


London, W.C.1, 
EDUCATION 
SPEAKING AND WRITING lessons  (correspon- 
dence, visit), 5s. Dorothy Matthews, BA, 32 Primrose 
Hill Rd., London, N.W.3. PRImrose 5686. 


FOR SALE 

WHAT ARE YOUR commercial and_ personal 
stationery needs ? HOUSMANS STATIONERY DEPT. 
can deal with them. Plain postcards, 2s. 10d. per 
100; white envelopes 6 x 34 ins., 21s, per 1,000 box; 
manilla, 14s, 6d. per 1,000 box; white bank paper 
10 x 8 ins., 9s. per 50@ sheets; newswrappers 10 x 
5 in., 19s. per 1,000, 2s. 3d. per 100; plain economy 
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All post free. Harley Bond Writing Pads, etc., frona 
6d. each, postage extra. All profits to Peace News. 
Write or call HOUSMANS STATIONERY DEPT., 3 
Blackstock Rd., London, N.4. 

NORTH DEVON. Fully equipped Youth Hostel, 
also caravan private letting. Property equally suitable 
Guest House, Private School, etc., 44 acres, Free- 


hold £5,600. Box 748. 
LITERATURE 
QUAKERISM. Information and literature respecting 


the Faith and Practice of the Religious Society of 
Friends, free on application to Friends’ Home Service 
Cttee., Friends’ House, Euston Rd., London, N.W.1. 

THE RAILWAY REVIEW. The only and _ best 
informed, TU newspaper. Trade union and _ political 


news; Railway problems and working conditions 
featured im every issue. Every Friday, 12 pages, 
price 4d. 


THE BIGGEST BOOKSELLERS IN THE WORLD 
cannot supply more titles than your own Peace News 
bookshop. Every book in print available from 
HOUSMANS BOOKSHOP, 3 Blackstock Rd., London, 
N.4, 

PERSONAL 

WAR RESISTERS’ International welcomes gifts of 
foreign stamps and undamaged air mail covers. Please 
send to WRI, 88 Park Ave., Enfield, Middlesex, 

WE CAN HELP YOU. Use these columns to 
advertise your services, sell your products and seck 
your needs. Write to the Advertisement Manager, 
Peace News, 3 Blackstock Rd., London, N.4. 

MIRACLE OIL! Headaches? Colds? Insomnia ? 
Migraine ? Sinusitis? Indigestion? Asthma? etc.? 
Phial 4s. 49 Adelaide Road, Dublin. 

THE BAPTIST PACIFIST FELLOWSHIP invites 
your support. For details of membership write: Rev. 


Leslie Worsnip, 63 Loughborough Rd., Quorn, 
Leicester. 
_ PRI ERTY REPAIRS and Decorations. Parsons. 





LEYTONSTONE: 8 p.m.; Speaker: George Bush, 
“‘ Ethics and Morality.” PPU Friends Mtg, Ho., E.10 
and E.11 Group. 

Friday, September 20 

LONDON LOCAL TRIBUNAL for COs, Fulham 
Town Hall (opposite Fulham Broadway Und, Station). 
10.30 a.m. and 1.15 p.m, Public admitted. 

Saturday, September 21 

EPSOM. 3.45 p.m. 3 St. Martin’s Avenue. Poster 
Parade to meeting in Rosebery Park (Speakers: Sybil 
Morrison, Stuart Morris). 5.30 p.m, tea at Methodist 
Church Hall, Ashley Road. 7.0 p.m. public meeting 
** Peace Is  Possible,’? (Speakers: Donald Chessell, 
Stuart Morris, Sybil Morrison, Minnie Pallister; Chair- 
man: James L, Henderson). Epsom and District Peace 
Fellowship. 


GLOUCESTER : 3 p.m.; Friends Mtg; Ho., PPU 
Western Area AGM, Rally and Auction, Details: 
Ron Barns, 4 Grange Drive, Bridgwater. 

Thursday, September 26 

LEYTONSTONE: 8 p.m.; Group _ Discussion. 
PPU Friends Mtg. Ho., E.10 and E.11 Group, 

Monday, September 30 
LONDON APPELLATE TRIBUNAL for COs, 


Ebury Bridge House, Ebury Bridge Road, Victoria, 
S.W.1. 10.30 am. and 2.15 p.m. Public admitted. 


COTTE 


Every week é 


SATURDAYS 

LIVERPOOL: 8 p.m.; Pier Head, Open-air meet 

ing of Liverpool and District Peace Bouio 
SUNDAYS 

HYDE PARK: 6.30 p.m.; Pacifist 
Group. Every Sunday. PYAG. 

GLASGOW : 8 p.m.; at Queen’s Park Gates. 
Meeting. Open-air. 

SATURDAYS AND SUNDAYS 

LONDON: Weekend Workcamps, cleaning and 
redecorating the homes of old-age pensioners. IVSP, 
72 Oakley Sq., London, N.W.1. 

TUESDAYS 

1-2 p.m.; Deansgate Blitz Site. 
Christian pacifist open-air mtg. Local Methodist 
ministers and others. MPF, 

WEDNESDAYS 

KIDBROOKE: 8 p.m.; 141 Woolacombe Rd. Talks, 

plays, discussion, music, radio, etc. Fellowship Party. 
THURSDAYS 

GLASGOW : 8 p.m.; Corner of Blythswood Street 
and Sauchiehall Street. Open-air Meeting. Glasgow 
H-bomb Committee, 

LEYTONSTONE : 8 p.m.; Friends Mtg. Ho., Bush 
Road. E.10 and E,11 Group. PPU. 

LONDON, W.C.1: 7.30 p.m.; Dick Sheppard Ho., 
6 Endsleigh St. PYAG. 

LONDON, W.C.1: 1.20-1.40 p.m.; Church of St. 
George the Martyr, Queen Sq., Southampton Row. 
Weekly lunch-hour Service of Intercession for World 
Peace. Conducted by Clergy and laymen of different 


denominations. 
FRIDAYS 


BIRMINGHAM : 5 p.m. onwards ; Bull Stréet Meet- 
ing House (outside) Peace News Selling. 
sSRR SREB ESE O RRO KBR EB EOR REESE eee 


JES v es eomesearsessesenesseseeeanneeee~ssee stent eeeenEEY 


PPU RELIGION COMMISSION 
Pacifist Universalist Service 
3.30 p.m. Sunday, September 8, 1957 
Friends’ International Centre 
32 Tavistock Square, London, W.C.]1 
Discourse by—!. A. Sandanpen 
“A Day in an Indian Village” 


Youth Action 


PPU 


MANCHESTER : 


SRURRESneeeee sen eeeeee 
seunecunesessesenessce 


«| renounce war and | will never 


support or sanction another ” 
This pledge, signed by each member, is 
nion. 


the basis of the Peace Pledge 
Send YOUR pledge to PPU Headquarters 
DICK SHEPPARD HOUSE 


6, Endsleigh Street London, W.C.1 


teers is slow in spite of the fact that for 
“psychological reasons” the authorities 
decided some years ago to replace the term 
“Civil Defence” by the more reassuring 
one of ‘protection of the population,” and 
wherever possible link CD with the rescue 
service which functions in times of natural 
disaster. 

Another section is devoted to official 
propaganda and one to the effects of nuclear 
weapons and the obvious impossibility of 
defence, civil or otherwise. 

The booklet also provides an excellent 
literature list which includes Dutch as well 
as American, English and French books 
and documents, and a particularly good 
selection of works on “ Pacifism, Non- 
violence and Reconciliation.” 


YOUTH FOR SHEFFIELD 


Three young conscientious objectors from 
Germany, Holland, and Belgium will visit 
Sheffield on October 17 to join with a 
British CO in an “Any Questions ” 
panel. Mrs, Kathleen Moore, Secretary 
of the Sheffield Fellowship of Recon- 
ciliation, wants as many young people as 
possible to hear the team, and hopes they 
will get in touch with her at 111, Dale- 
wood Avénue, Sheffield, 8. 


NOTEBOOK 


A BOUQUET to the Bournemouth Daily 

Echo far a thought-provoking editorial 
following the Russian achievement of the 
“ ultimate apon”’ (August 1957 variety). 


The parable of ‘‘ the strong man armed,” 
said the Echp, “though it comes to us from 
afar off down twenty centuries of time, 
gives a clear warning to mankind in this 
age of nucléar weapons and rocket missiles 
that there is}no security in armaments, We 
talk of deterrents, but who deters whom, 
and for how long?” 

“As the statesmen return to their dis- 
ks, let them ponder on _ these 




















c 


Service Unit, 


formerly the Stepney Pacifist Unit of 
war-time renown, has started a branch unit 
in Poplar, 

Carol Gardiner, who takes charge of the 
new unit fr two rooms in Follett Street, 
off the East India Dock Road, will have 
the support lof Poplar’s Medical Officer of 
Health, Dr. W. C, Turner, who has joined 
the Unit’s Council, This development has 


been welcomed by the Borough Council, 


amo VWUUUIr SAREE EC GEES Breau een ey 
Gerald Gardiner, Q.C., Christian Action, 
9d., is the text of a speech delivered in 
February last at a meeting held in aid of 
the Defence Fund for the 160 people now 
being tried in South Africa for treason. It 
is an admirably clear, brief explanation of 
the background to the trial and the laws 
against which the offences are alleged to 
have been committed. 


Christians and War, by Llewelyn Harries, 
Plough Publishing House, 1s. This is a re- 
print of an article that appeared in ‘“ The 
Plough,” the quarterly magazine of the 
Society of Brothers Bruderhof Community. 
It describes the attitude of the early Chris- 
tians to participation in war, military ser- 
vice and politics, and the change which 
gradually took place after A.D, 174, and 
relates Christ’s teaching on these matters to 
the political world of today. 

Labour in Transition, by John Burton, 
Kingston, Australia; Morgans Publications, 
2s. 6d. 

This very interesting pamphlet from the 
Antipodes expounds the argument that in 
Britain, Australia and New Zealand the 
Labour movement has so far played a 
“crisis” réle; it has fought a battle for 
better pay and conditions for the workers; 
it has only been called upon to govern in 
times of depression or the aftermath of war, 
when the people were suffering from the 
results of conservative policy. It has been 
dependent in no small degree on economic 
crisis for political support. The “ blurring” 
of the differences between Labour and 
Conservative Parties has been due to the 
general acceptance of Labour’s immediate 
industrial objectives. Now the movement 
needs a re-thinking of its objectives and 
transition from Labour to Democratic 
Socialism. The policies of Democratic 
Socialism set out by the author give priority 
to social equality and the most direct and 
active participation in government and 
administration by people acting as equals. 
It is not until a number of other matters 
have been mentioned that, under the head- 
ing of Foreign Policy a brief survey of the 
“ dismal failure ” of Western policies is held 
to completely justify the ‘ previously 
idealistic attitude” of Labour, the multi- 
lateral reduction of armaments and the 
admission of a “powerful argument for 
unilateral action if multilateral negotiations 
end in stalemate.” This part of the pam- 
phlet, and the section on organisation that 
follows it, are obviously Australian in view- 
point. British readers will see a quite 
different angle, but that does not invalidate 
the main thesis. TR. D 


IME RAILWAY KREVE 
informed, TU newspaper. 
news; Railway problems and working conditions 
featured in every issue. 


Every Friday, 12 pages, 
price 4d. 


THE BIGGEST BOOKSELLERS IN THE WORLD 
cannot supply more titles than your own Peace News 
bookshop. Every book in print available from 
HOUSMANS BOOKSHOP, 3 Blackstock Rd., London, 


N.4, 
PERSONAL 

WAR RESISTERS’ International welcomes gifts of 
foreign stamps and undamaged air mail covers. Please 
send_to WRI, 88 Park Ave., Enfield, Middlesex, 

WE CAN HELP YOU. Use these columns to 
advertise your services, sell your products and seek 
your needs. Write to the Advertisement Manager, 
Peace News, 3 Blackstock Rd., London, N.4. 

MIRACLE OIL! Headaches? Colds? Insomnia ? 
Migraine ? Sinusitis? Indigestion? Asthma? etc.? 
Phial 4s. 49 Adelaide Road, Dublin, 

THE BAPTIST PACIFIST FELLOWSHIP invites 
your support. For details of membership write: Rev. 


nw. ne only ana vce 
Trade union and political 


Leslie Worsnip, 63 Loughborough Rd., Quorn, 
Leicester. 
PROPERTY REPAIRS and Decorations. Parsons, 


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and agrees accounts for Income Tax; audits, repay- 
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work undertaken, Box No, 743, 

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8—PEACE NEWS—September 6, 1957 
* LL.C.O.P. discusses 


“THE QUEST FOR 
FREEDOM” 
By Hilda von Klenze 

ABOUT 40 people from six different 

countries and representing over 20 
organisations took part in this year’s 
Conference of» the . International 
Liaison Committee of Organisations 


for Peace at. Ruskin College, Oxford, 
from August 24-29. 


The general title of the conference was 
“The Quest for Freedom,” and J..H. 
Anderson, Regional Director of the Agri- 
cultural Advisory. Service, ted off with a 
talk on ‘Freedom from Want.” After 
giving some of the facts about poverty, 
disease and malnutrition in the world to- 
day, he described some of his work with 
the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation 
in the Middle and Far East and in Africa. 


He asserted that with the help of modern 
science the rapidly increasing world popu- 
lation, which grows fastest in the under- 
nourished areas, could be fed. In his view 
Britain could and should make its contri- 
bution by adding to 14d. a year per head of 
population, by the temporary loan of top 
level scientists to the UN functional agen- 
cies, and by training people from abroad to 
take over agricultural. and other develop- 
ment projects in their own countries. 


Professor L, A. Reid, of London Uni- 
versity, presented an excellent analysis of 
the different meanings of the term freedom, 
and his speech was followed by surveys of 
the present situation in Poland, India and 
Ghana by three speakers from these coun- 
tries. Recent events in Poland, said Lucjan 
Blit, had restored his belief that tyranny 
can be defeated by the human spirit, 


The revolution there had been successful 
because with the uprising at Poznan. the 
prestige of coercion had collapsed and the 
Polish people had ceased to be afraid. It 
had been a revolution against a lie and to- 
day public opinion was operating again. 


Persuasion not coercion 


In answer to another Polish member who 
expressed the view that under certain  cir- 
cumstances no progress could be made 
without coercion, Mr. Blit said that means 
were more important than ends, and that 
quite apart from the human results coercion 
never. gave good economic results, Per- 


“TOKYO DECLARATION” 


[7 FROM PAGE ONE - 


for an immediate and unconditional ban on ~ 


nuclear\ tests; °, Pp 

““We “demand. the prohibition of manu- 
facture, stockpiling, and, use of nuclear 
weapons with international control. 

“We oppose the introduction of nuclear 
weapons by the nations in possession of 
them into any other countries, e 

“We demand universal disarmament with 
controls accepted by the countries -con- 
cerned. If agreement on universal, general 
disarmament is not yet possible, we demand 
a partial disarmament agreement. 

“We: oppose. the establishment and. ex- 
pansion of military bases, especially nuclear 
bases. SAL 

“We recognise that the simultaneous 
liquidation of all the military blocs and the 
abandoning of all military bases and the 
withdrawal of all troops from all foreign 
territories lessen the threat of nuclear war.” 


Unconditioual agreement 


In its appeal to the UN and the Govern- 
ments, the Conference asked that the USA, 
Britain and Russia enter immediately and 
unconditionally into an agreement on _ the 
prohibition of nuclear tests, and stated that 
the system of. limitation or registration of 
tests does not meet their demand, 

“We also consider that any questions of 
disarmament or any other political ques- 
tions should not be made conditions for 
such an agreement on the prohibition of 
nuclear tests,” they declared, 

“The conclusion of such an .agreemert 
will pave the way for general disarmament, 
including the prohibition of manufacture, 
use and stockpiling of nuclear weapons.” 

In its “recommendations on common 
actions,” the Conference urged action, on 
several levels, 

It proposed. a world-wide series. of activi- 
ties be undertaken on dates yet to be. set 
during October and November on the issue 
of the abolition of nuclear weapons and 
disarmament during the forthcoming 
sessions of the UN General Assembly, 

Such action should be directed, the Con- 
ference urged, toward the UN directly or 
through individual Governments, - 


Afro-Asian Conference 

The Conference also proposed similar 
actions aimed at the five Power UN Dis- 
armament Sub-Committee which was then 
meeting in London. 

It was also recommended that activities 
be directed towards Governments and local 
authorities and that people be active within 
their social, professional and religious 
groups. as well as among their personal 








T is not new that pacifists should 

maintain the principle of putting 
moral obligations before any others, 
but it is a little hard to know from 
Gerald Petch’s letter where he stands 
as regards pacifism. 


He gives an impression of a man who 
has just made an important discovery ; he 
writes as though it had suddenly dawned 
upon him that stopping production «of 
nuclear weapons was more important and 
more essential than stopping the tests, 


He makes the highly doubtful gpsumnption 
that had it-been possible to stop the tests, 
stoppage of production would have been 
automatic. This seems very improbable, 
since we were categorically informed, at 
the time of the Pacific tests, that Sir William 
Penney. found it unnecessary to go himself 
because, in fact, Britain had been stock- 
piling for six years. 

It. has .been consistently ignored that. the 
most formidable obstacle to the campaign 
against tests is the sincere belief of the 
Government that possession of the H-bomb 
will prevent a nuclear war. [ 


It. is in. the light of such a belief, fan- 
tastic though that belief may seem to, some 
of us, that it becomes necessary for Goyern- 
ments. to let it. be known that they do, in 
fact, possess the weapon, 


It would be awkward, to say. the least 
of it, to make it known by dropping it in 
some area ‘where buildings would be 
destroyed and people killed and infected, 
and therefore, that difficulty is overcome 
by testing it in the middle of an ocean 
where the least possible damage to life will 
be done but, of course, where the rever- 
berations will be recorded on machines 
which measure these things, so that all over 


AFTER THE FESTIVAL : 


Americans visit China 
BY K. J. TARASOFF 


a ey Pybil Morrison ——__— 
Godliness and cleanliness 


_“ May J suggest most seriously as a matter of first importance that in the 
' antt-H-bomb campaign there should now be a shift of emphasis from stop the 
test to stop production (and stock piling). 
have been,to stop production. This is no longer’ so. . 
consideration must always be| the evil of the hydrogen. bomb—the moral con- 
sideration to which careful assessment of effects and relative risks must be 
secondary and contributory. Morality first, hygiene second.’ ' 


—Lettet from Gerald Petch, Peace News, August 30, 1957. 









. +. Up to-now to stop the tests would 
the overwhelming 


the world it will be known that Britain has 
the H-bomb. 


This is in very much the same category 
as the doctor who weighs the release of 
radio-active particles into the atmosphere 
when he uses deep X-ray to save a patient 
from some deadly disease, against the 
opportunity to save this one person’s life. 
He comes down on the side of saving that 
life. In the same way the Government 
weighs’ the known dangers of the tests 
against their belief that possession of the 
H-bomb will save the world from nuclear 
war, and comes down on the side of the 
bomb. 

* 


This is the logical conclusion of their 
false assumptions ; the great deterrent wins 
every time, and the only real challenge to 
those who believe in this doctrine is not 
to demand that they throw away what they 
believe to be a method of preventing a 


. third world war, but to challenge their 


assumptions at the very core of their mis- 
taken and false beliefs. 


These falsé’ assumptions have been 
examined in Peace News on many occa- 
sions, but it is plainer now, perhaps, than 
it has ever been before, that the faith in 
the great deterrent has been, apart from 
any moral issues, utterly mistaken, , Already 
Governments have moved away from that 
position and are discussing the necessity for 
guarding against a’ surprise attack, as 
though that possibility had only just arisen, 

Now that Russia has produced an inter- 
continental ballistic rocket which can carry 
H-bombs to the USA, it has become plain 
that there is no longer a parity of strength, 
and that the much vaunted deterrent may 
not, after all, deter. 

That assumption has been proved false ; 
equally false is the assumption that it is 
legitimate to use evil means for a good 
end, The “overwhelming consideration ” 
should be, not so much the evil of the H- 
bomb as the evil of war, for there would 
be no: H-bomb: if iti were not for thie funda. 


Blit, had restored his belief that tyranny 
can be defeated by the human spirit, 

The revolution there had been successful 
because with the uprising at Poznan. the 
prestige of coercion had collapsed and the 
Polish people had ceased to be afraid. It 
had been a revolution against a lie and to- 
day public opinion was operating again. 


Persuasion not coercion 


In answer to another Polish member who 
expressed the view that under certain cir- 
cumstances no progress could be made 
without coercion, Mr, Blit said that. means 
were more important than ends, and that 
quite apart from the human results coercion 
never gave good economic results. Per- 
suasion took time, but was infinitely more 
worth while. This was confirmed by the 
speaker on India, K. R. Narayanan, First 
Secretary of India House, who explained 
the attempts of the Indian Government to 
persuade rather than to force the people 
to work voluntarily for the common good 
and make certain sacrifices in the consump- 
tion of much needed goods in order to 
allow the development of power and com- 
munications to go forward and benefit. the 
whole country. 


Professor. G, D, H, Cole gave what in 
the discussion was described as a “ bril- 
liantly depressing” talk on “ Freedom. from 
Want” which provided a useful antidote to 
any over-optimistic notions. The three 
remaining addresses were concerned with 
the British point of view on social security, 
national security, and the» parliamentary 
party system, 


At the ILCOP Bureau meeting which fol- 
lowed the conference, Dr. Ernest Wolf was 
unanimously re-elected as Chairman for. the 
ensuing ‘two. years, 


Press release 


In a Press release the Conference ex- 
pressed the convinced belief that the 
safeguarding of personal freedom, political, 
intellectual and spiritual, was essential to 
the attainment and the maintenance . of 
peace and’ democracy, Without respect for 
the supreme worth of the human person, 
all other “gains lost’ much of their value 
and society was in danger of becoming 
totalitarian’ and tyrannical, 


The Conference stated that in countries 
subjected’ to a totalitarian government, 
where there was.a lack: of personal security, 
intellectuality and moral freedom, the 
attempt to change the situation by force 


ties be undertaken on dates yet to be set 
during October and November on the issue 
of the abolition of nuclear weapons and 
disarmament during the forthcoming 
sessions of the UN General Assembly. 

Such action should be directed, the Con- 
ference urged, toward the UN directly or 
through individual Governments. 


Afro-Asian Conference 

The Conference also proposed similar 
actions aimed at the five Power UN Dis- 
armament Sub-Committee which was then 
meeting in London. 

It was also recommended that activities 
be directed towards Governments and local 
authorities and that people be active within 
their social, professional and _ religious 
groups, as well as among their personal 
contacts, 

Because recent nuclear tests have taken 
place mainly in Asian and Pacific areas, the 
Conference said it was important to forge 
co-operation in these areas against prepara- 
tions for nuclear war in progress at military 
bases in Okinawa, Korea and other places. 

They urged a second Afro-Asian Confer- 
ence to further these aims. 

The Conference said there is insufficient 
knowledge and understanding of the dis- 
astrous consequences of the use of and 
experiments with nuclear bombs, and these 
should be made more. widely known. 
Through such efforts might come increased 
relief for the victims of nuclear bombing 
and testing. 





Japanese Conference 


FROM PAGE ONE 

There is a high probability unless they 
do so that before many years have passed 
we shall see the Japanese Government 
equipping itself with nuclear weapons, first 
“ tactical,’”” and then demanding the right to 
have A- and H-bombs like the other Great 
Powers. 


ARMS EXPENDITURE 


Britain’s total income from all sources last 





year was £18,002,00,000, Arms expendi- 


approximately 
twelfth of her 


diture, running at 
1,500,000,000, was a 
income. 





appeared in many cases to bring with it 
a continuation, if not an intensification of 
the evils it intended to remove, 

Recent developments in Poland seemed to 
indicate that non-violent methods, though 
apparently slower, might well prove to be 
the more effective. 


OF Us, that it becomes necessary lor Govern- 
ments to let it. be known that they do, in 
fact, possess the weapon, 


It would be awkward, to say’ the least 
of it, to make it known by dropping it in 
some area ‘where buildings would be 
destroyed and people killed and infected, 
and therefore, that difficulty is overcome 
by testing it in the middle of an ocean 
where the least possible damage to life will 
be done but, of course, where the rever- 
berations will be recorded on machines 
which measure these things, so that all over 


AFTER THE FESTIVAL : 


Americans visit China 
BY K. J. TARASOFF 


The writer is a young Doukhobor 
and editor of the Canadian Doukhobor 
publication, The Inquirer. He attended 
the Sixth World Youth Festival and 
here considers it in retrospect. 





a PHE first major achievement of the 

Moscow Sixth World Youth Festival,” 
observed one of the 160 Americans who 
took part in it, “is that the policy of non- 
participation has ended. No longer is it 
possible to disregard the views of the other 
fellow. Secondly, the Festival has raised 
hopes that relations with China may be 
improved, 

“ Although the USA. doesn’t recognise 
Red China, and despite written protests 
from home as well as from the American 
Embassy in Moscow, 45 Americans were 
invited to Pekin after the Festival. This 
group is headed by a clergyman, and it is 
composed of businessmen, students and 
workmen.” 

Was the Festival a propaganda stunt; was 
it a means of indoctrination for young 
pliable minds, or was it something more ? 

A definite answer is impossible, yet some 
observations must be made, 

No apparent attempt at indoctrination 
was made, unless it was indoctrination in 
the sense that a country publicises its own 
achievements and aims in a frank way. 
And who would be foolish enough to. chal- 
lenge the right to do so? As long as 
there are equal rights to present views, why 
worry ? { 

Competition between differing ideologies 
is here to stay for many years.. The main 
point is: let’s be peaceful about it, promote 
an interchange of ideas and trust and ulti- 
mately the best features of different systems 
will be preserved in the building of a better 
social order. 


vee Bat Sererrent’ Nas oeen, apart from 
any moral issues, utterly mistaken, Already 
Governments have moved away from that 
position and are discussing the necessity for 
guarding against. a surprise attack, as 
though that possibility had only just arisen, 

Now that Russia has produced an inter- 
continental ballistic rocket which can carry 
H-bombs to the USA, it has become plain 
that there is no longer a parity of strength, 
and that the much vaunted deterrent may 
not, after all, deter. 

That assumption has been proved false ; 
equally false is the assumption that it is 
legitimate to use evil means for a good 
end. The “overwhelming consideration ” 
should be, not so much the evil of the H- 
bomb as the evil of war, for there would 
be no H-bomb if it were not for this funda- 
mental belief in the method of war. 

The ultimate challenge must be to that 
basically false assumption, and immoral 
method ; when that challenge is made, not 
by a small group of pacifists only, but by 
millions, there will be no need to argue 
whether morals are to come before hygiene 
or after it; Godliness will have made 
cleanliness part of a world at peace, 
tg 


Shorthand writers for conferences, committee 
meetings, etc. Any time, anywhere. 


Official verbatim reports or narratives, 
Duplicating, typing, translating, 


MABEL EYLES, Duplicating and secretarial agency 
395 Hornsey Rd, LondonN.19 (ARC 1765,MOU 1701) 












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