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‘SURVIVAL’: BBC GAG RENE CUTFORTH— back page 






INSIDE 











SOUTH 
AFRICA FOR NON-VIOLENCE AND UNILATERAL DISARMAMENT : 
Fenner Brockway, MP, No. 1298 ee ean a London, May 12, 1961 , ; , ‘SIXPENCE id ieee 








on the republic 


page two 


The military are short of answers 
THE UNIONS 
AND 


THE BOMB A 0 | S : N 
Why the unions are tao! 
“turning round on 
unilateralism 
page four , 


7 HAAVING failed to settle their policy on the major military issues facing 
ACROSS THE BORDER 















the North Atlantic alliance, the Americans have proposed that the Foreign 
Ministers meeting in Oslo this week should concentrate on world-wide political 
issues, This has been generally agreed.” 


With these words The Guardian's 
Defence _ correspondent, Leonard 
Beaton, started his opening report from 
Oslo on the NATO meeting there, 


How short the military are of answers has 
just been shown by. a:new pamphlet pub- 
lished by the British Atlantic Committee. 
Entitled Nuclear’ Disarmament, it | seeks 
to refute the case. of the. Campaign’ for 
Nuclear Disarmament by setting out “ ques- 
tions, and, answers for those, who want the 
facts: 


The British Atlantic Committee is a -non- 
party body that aims’ to create public 
opinion in favour of NATO:..A former 
Cabinet. Minister .is. president,. and among’ 


Whitsun at the Holy Loch 
A 


War have sent a special message to Peace 
News calling attention to the American 
Polaris Base at the Holy Loch, Scotland. 
The sponsors: John Braine,; Ernie Roberts, 


GROUP of sponsors. of the Direct 
Action Committee Against Nuclear 


Spike Milligan, Herbert., Read, John 
Osborne, Constance Cummings, Michael 
Scott, John Berger, Alex Comfort, Horace 
Alexander and, Hugh Brock, say in their 
message : 


“...in view of the reaction of the 
American Government to previous demon- 
strations against Polaris, it)'seems the 
removal of the base from the Holy Loch 
may be.a realisable goal...” 


The message ‘then goes on to urge readers 
of Peace. News.to take part in the demon- 
stration and to support the project’ the 
Direct Action Committee have organised for 
Whitsun by ‘sending money to the Com- 
mittee, at) 344, Seven. Sisters Road, London, 
N.4. 

A special, train.has. been, arranged to 
leave Euston: Station!on Friday; May 19, at 
9.10. p.m, and two coaches from: Midland 


Road, St. Pancras, N.W.1, at 8.30 p.m. on 
the same evening. Wendy Butlin, who has 
been in charge of the organisation in the 
London office (STA 7062) asks supporters 
te contact her and book seats on these 
coaches or train. 


Regions of the Campaign for Nuclear 
Disarmament have made. arrangements. to 
transport supporters to Scotland for the 
demonstration. The London _ Regional 
Council are co-operating with Barking CND 
and the coach bookings are being handled 
by Ann Lincoln at TERminus 0284, Con- 
voys of, miscellaneous vehicles. are leaving 
from Hampstead ‘and from Nottingham. 
Coach: transport has been’ arranged by 
Yorkshire, Manchester, Tyneside and, Liver- 
pool regions ofthe Campaign. 


The Scottish Council CND have organ- 
ised a'supporting march’ and a meeting and 
arrangements ate’ being made by, the Secre- 
tary at Community House; 214, Clyde Street, 
Glasgow, C.1. 


A group" of supporters ‘unable to travel 
@ ON BACK PAGE 





TTT aM TRL TER 


‘STAY AT HOME!’ 


7 call upon all organisations and the 
trade union movement to organise 
acts of solidarity for: the’ people*of South 
Africa on May 31, the day on which their 
country ceases to be. a member of the 
Commonwealth,” says a. statement issued 
last week from the London. office of the 
South Africa United Front. 


‘“s 


In South Africa, the. editorial board of 
Contact, the inter-racial fortnightly, call for 
full’ support fora nation-wide’ peaceful 
“ stay-at-home ” demonstration being organ- 
ised on the day. 


‘CAlls who: love freedom, all ;»who love 
South Africa,” says the paper edited. by 
Patrick Duncan, son of a former Governor- 
General, »“‘ ally: who: ‘wish © toysremove. the 
leprosy of apartheid, all, must, hear the call 
when. it comes at the end; of. May, must 
obey it and must,stay at home.” 


In Cape Town 8,000. cheering coloured 
people gathered.on the.Grand Parade on 
April 6’to"declaré their support for May 31: 


MVOLOeWUee COLIC SPpUnaeny, LXLOMAIY 
Beaton, started his opening report from 
Oslo on the NATO meeting there. 


How short the military, are of answers has 
just been shown by a :new pamphlet pub- 
lished by the British Atlantic Committee. 
Entitled Nuclear’ Disarmament, it ‘seeks 
to refute the case of the. Campaign for 
Nuclear Disarmament by setting out “ ques- 
tions. and answers for those who want the 
facts.” 


The British Atlantic Committee is a non- 
party body that aims to create public 
opinion in favour of NATO.:...A former 
Cabinet Minister is president, and among’ 
the vice-presidents is Mr. Geoffrey de, 
Freitas, an Opposition Front Bench spokes- 
man, 


The quality of the “facts” in the pam- 
phlet can be judged from extracts: 


QO. What about this business of inspection 
and control? Isn't it just delaying action on 
disarmament? We've been at it for years 
and all we have got is the arms race, which 
always leads to war. 


‘Quite untrue’ 


A. That is quite. untrue. 1, know: of no 
war in history caused by an arms race. 
What does lead to. war is when one. side 
arms and the other does not. 

Among other answers in the pamphlet is 
one explaining why Christians should be in 
favour of H-bombs, This is the only policy, 
says the pamphlet, which can protect’ “ the 
spiritual values upheld by all the churches, 
in’ the world.” Any. other policy would 
not result in “ God’s will,” 

On accidents the dialogue is equally re- 
vealing ; 

Q. Might not these weapons be let off by 
accident—someone. making a mistake—being 
too quick on the trigger? I-hear we would 
only get.a few, minutes’, warning of a missile 
attack, 

A. It is conceivable,’ though unlikely. 
Anyway, surely that would happen only in 
a crisis when.we, should be alerted. Our 
bombers can get’ off the ground in even 
fewer minutes... . 

So if an accident kills us, it'll be no 
accident: that: “the enemy” are wiped ‘out 
as well. 

This pamphlet is a matter for congratula- 
tion. It shows that the Campaign has, posed 
a threat which.can no longer be left safely 
to the Right wing of the Labour Party’ to 
meet. And it allows us to study the mili- 
tary arguments against! CND. They read 
curiously like, 1984. 


2—PEACE. NEWS, May 12, 1961 





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pentuby hgh fe SES TE Ee TA te ae tee ee, ee eee 


South Africa prepares 
| for May 31 





By FENNER BROCKWAY, MP 


Chairman of the 


Movement for Colonial Frecdom 


HREE weeks from now the Union of South Africa will no longer be in the 
Commonwealth. The signs are that the end will come in further violence 


and bloodshed. 


Africans, Indians, Coloureds and 
Liberal. Europeans are planning 
demonstrations for May 31, when the 
Union becomes a Republic, claiming 
democratic rights and race equality. 
The Government has shown its: inten- 
tion to crush them. Leaders have 
already been rounded up. 

The picture is-black, yet I have confidence 
that’ apartheid will disappear from South 


Africa much sooner. than most people 


expect. ‘I base this view on the ever grow- 
ing ‘strength of the resistance; the pressure 
of world opinion and action; and the 
weakening of the Whites. 


Sometimes British people put all the 
blame for apartheid on the Afrikaans, the 
Whites of Dutch origin. This is not fair. 
The British Whites in South Africa, except 
the Progressive and Liberal minorities, have 
advocated and practised race discrimination, 
and the Opposition (United Party) in the 
Legislature, which they dominate, has been 
unwilling that the Africans should be en- 
franchised. Last week’s census gives the 
Africans nearly eleven millions in contrast 
with less than four million Europeans. 


Wind of change 


Now, however, the wind of change is 
blowing over South Africa. On May the 
First (an appropriate day) Sir Villiers de 
Graaf, the United Party leader, declared for 
direct representation of the Coloureds 
(mixed race); a “ defined political status ” 
(it is unclear what this means) for the 
Indians; African representation on a sepa- 
rate roli: and the entry of non-Whites to 





The most evident illustration of this 
affected United Kingdom representation in 


South Africa. At present we have a High 


Commissioner, who is responsible also for 
the administration of the three British Pro- 
tectorates in South Africa, Bechuanaland, 
Basutoland and Swaziland, Now that South 
Africa is leaving the Commonwealth, the 
normal practice would be for the High 
Commissioner to be replaced by an Ambas- 
sador, But the Government declined to give 
us any pledge that this will be done. In- 
deed, we were told that the United King- 
dom representative will probably continue 
to be responsible to the Commonwealth 
Relations Office rather than to the Foreign 
Office. This would make South Africa’s 
non-membership of the Commonwealth 
quite unreal. 

I was glad to see the Labour Party 
moving an amendment to the Bill that, what- 
ever other arrangements are continued with 
South Africa (they are to be negotiated 
during twelve months), the British Defence 
Treaties should be ended at once. 


Measures have recently been announced 
in South Africa to strengthen the Union’s 
military forces. These have been justified 
because of the danger, not of world war, 
but of internal disorders within South Africa 
and the somewhat remote possibility that 
there may be African invasions from the 
North in sympathy with an African 
rebellion. é 


It would be intolerable if British troops 
or arms were made available to South 
Africa in these circumstances. Yet the 
Minister of Defence told the South African 
Parliament last week that it is not intended 
to cancel the affiliation of the Citizen 
Force, mobilised to crush internal revolts, 


Stop sending arms now 


admiration for the many Whites who are 
so courageously standing for race equality, 
and that our concern is for the vast majority 
of people in the Union who are the daily 
victims of the humiliations of apartheid. 
We look forward to the day when South 
Africa will rejoin the Commonwealth on the 
basis of equality of all races, but experience 
has already shown that this will be hastened 
not by attempting to appease the Union 
Government, not by lessening the effects of 
non-membership of the Commonwealth, 
but by, making. clear in practice our deep 
moral repugnance to apartheid and our 
determination not to be associated with its 
imposition in any shape or form. 


Copyright in Africa and Asia reserved 
to author. 





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Gloucester Rd. Pacifist Fortnight Campaign, plans 
and brief AGM report. PPU. 


DALKEITH: 9.30 a:m. London-Holy Loch Pro- 
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LONDON, W.1: 3 p.m. Wigmore Hall, Wigmore 
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Universal Religion-Pacifist Fellowship. Discourse : 


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LIVERPOOL : § p.m. 3A Courtney Rd., Waterloo. 
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CLASS ‘A’ 


eee ee ee —_ 


eS ae ee 


franchised. Last week’s census gives the 
Africans nearly eleven millions in contrast 
with less than four million Europeans. 


Wind of change 


Now, however, the wind of change is 
blowing over South Africa. On May the 
First (an appropriate day) Sir Villiers de 
Graaf, the United Party leader, declared for 
direct representation of the Coloureds 
(mixed race); a “defined political status ” 
(it is unclear what this means) for the 
Indians; African representation on a sepa- 
rate roll; and the entry of non-Whites to 
skilled employment by a “rate for the job 
policy.” 

This is still far from race equality and 
democracy, but it represents a considerable 
retreat from previous attitudes. On the 
same day, when the Archbishop of Cape- 
Town arrived in London, he declared that 
the rank and file of Europeans think the 
days of apartheid are numbered. 


There is little doubt that the exclusion of 
the Union from the Commonwealth has in- 
fluenced this changing view, particularly 
among the Whites of British origin. The 
danger is that in practice the Government 
at Westminster (under the pressure of Tory 
back-benchers) will cushion’ the effects of 
South Africa’s departure so that the» Whites 
will come to feel that it makes: little differ- 
ence. If this happens they will be less 
concerned to change apartheid. 


Imperial preference 


Dr. Diederichs, South Africa’s Minister 
for Economic Affairs, for example, says that 
imperial preference between the members of 
the Commonwealth and South Africa will 
remain as before. This strengthens an im- 
pression which grew during the recent de- 
bate’ in the British Parliament on the South 
Africa Bill that the intention is not to treat 
South Africa as of foreign status, but to 
continue a privileged relationship with her 
which will maintain many of the advantages 
of her previous Commonwealth relation- 
ship. 





EXPERIENCED BOOK-KEEPER 
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in busy publishing office with varied 
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honoured. 


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Peace News, 5 Caledonian Road, London, N.1. 


asuarme 


for peace, 








in South Africa to strengthen the Union’s 
military forces. These have been justified 
because of the danger, not of world war, 
but of internal disorders within South Africa 
and the somewhat remote possibility that 
there may be African invasions from the 
North in sympathy with an African 
rebellion. . 


It would be intolerable if British troops 
or arms were made available to South 
Africa in these circumstances. Yet the 
Minister of Defence told the South African 
Parliament last week that it is not intended 
to cancel the affiliation of the Citizen 
Force, mobilised to crush internal revolts, 
with the British Army units in South Africa. 


ee ae ee ee ae eee oe ee ee 


Danger 


One hopes that “the wind of change” in 
South Africa will proceed sufficiently to 
avoid physical revolts, but .the danger is 
close that at the time of the inauguration 
of the Republic this month clashes will 
occur. I am not suggesting that British 
troops will be used, but South African 
troops have been trained in Britain, and 
during the disturbances which followed 
Sharpeville and in Pondoland British-made 
Saracen tanks were used. Britain should 
immediately end all her joint Defence 


arrangements with South Africa and no ' 


arms should be supplied to the Union 
Government. 


I would hope that it is unnecessary to 
say that when we urge that the break with 
South Africa should be made real we are 
not moved by animosity to the South Afri- 
can people; but our speeches in Parliament 
were interpreted as meaning that. So let me 
state clearly that we understand the historic 
causes which have led to the present tragedy 
in South Africa, that we have a profound 


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GRANGE-OVER-SANDS: 3 p.m. Parish . Hall, 
Kent’s Bank Rd., ‘‘ Experiences in Two Wars ”’; 
Mrs. W. Parsons, O.B.E. Grange Peace Group. 
LONDON, W.1: 3 p.m. Wigmore Hall, Wigmore 
St. Recital by Wilfred Brown (Tenor) and John 
Williams (Guitar), Tickets may be obtained from 


ue Action, 2 Amen Crt., E.C.4, (WELbeck 
: Sunday, May 14 ; 
LONDON, N.1: 3.30 p.m. 5 Caledonian Rd., 


Universal Religion-Pacifist Fellowship. Discourse : 
Arlo Tatum, ‘* Impressions of Hinduism.'’ 

LIVERPOOL : 8 p.m. 3A Courtney Rd., Waterloo. 
May Roberts: AGM Report. Crosby PPU. 


Monday, May 15 


, LONDON, W.C.1: 6.30 p.m. 6 Endsleigh St. 
Steps to Peace? World Peace Brigade ’’; Arlo 
Tatum. Refreshments 6 o'clock. Central London 


PPU. 
Tuesday, May 16 
LONDON, N.W.3: 8 p.m. 61A Fellows Rd. 
Bombs are Against the Law ’; Jack Gaster. 


Wednesday, May 17 
LONDON, N.9: 8 p.m. Congregational Church 
Hall, Lower Fore St., Frank Dawtry: ‘‘ Non-Violence 


“H. 
CND. 


and Crime.’’ Group AGM. Edmonton PPU. 
LIVERPOOL: 7.45 p.m. Friends Mtg. . Ho., 
Hunter St., PPU AGM Report by May Roberts. 


Central PPU. 
Thursday, May 18 

LONDON, E.11; 8 p.m. Friends Mtg. Ho., Bush 
Rd., Leytonstone. Muriel Sorensen: ‘‘ My work as 
a JP. ’*E.10,,8.11 PPU, 

NEW. YORK: 8.30 p.m. Woodstock Hotel, 127 
W.43rd St., ‘‘ Ahinsa—The Basis for Unilateral Dis- 
armament ’’; H. Jay and Freya Dinshah. American 


Vegan Society. 
Friday, May 19 s 
LONDON, W.C.1: 1.15-2 p.m, Friends Inter- 
national Centre, 32 Tavistock Sq. Lunch-time Talk : 
““ Impressions of Israel’’; Dr. James Henderson. 


SoF. 
Saturday, May 20 
ABERYSTWYTH : 1:30-4.30 p.m. Park Ave.,, 
March” to Castle Grounds» for All-Wales Rally 
(King’s Hall if wet). Michael Scott, Mervyn Jones, 


Tudor Watkins, M.P. Accommodation enquiries : 
Ee aareet Davies, 12 Stanley Rd., Aberystwyth. 


‘ Sunday, May 21 
DUNOON: 1. p.m. Dunoon Pier, leave 1.30 p.m. 
for Sandbank. Scottish CND Support March for the 
London-Holy Loch protest marchers, 
{ SANDBANK: 2.30 ‘p.m. War Memorial for 
SCND Mass Meeting. Hear the case for Nuclear 


Disarmament. 
Saturday, May 27 
LONDON, S.W.4: 3 p.m, Lecture Hall, Clapham 
Bath, Clapham Manor St. (Nr. Clapham North 
Tube), Max Parker (FoR): ‘ International Peace— 
The Chrisitian Pacifist Contribution.’’ Adm. free. 
Christian Socialist Movement. 


Tuesday. May 30 ; 
LONDON, W.C.1; 6.30 p.m. 6 Endsleigh St. 
All PPU members welcome. London Area PPU. 


LCM 
Ewery week: ! 


SATURDAYS 


LONDON, W.11: Golborne Rd., off Portobello 
Market, north end, Peace Bookstall in Market 
10 a.m.-5 p.m. Helpers for two-hour shifts are 
needed. Apply to the Secretary, BAY 2086, or 
Organiser, FLA 7906.  Porchester PPU. 


SATURDAYS AND SUNDAYS 


LONDON: 72 Oakley Sq., N.W.1, Week-end 
work camps take place whenever possible. ‘Phone 
HUS 3195. Work for needy sections of the com- 


munity. IVS. 
THURSDAYS 


LONDON, E.11: 8 p.m. Friends Mtg. Ho., Bush 
Rd. gear Green Man), H.1@ and B.11 Geeup PPU. 


9a ANNA ED aN ae ABE tNEN EEN A8 EE att gett HENNE gy 


SCOTS KIRK MINISTERS ON 
MORALITY AND THE H-BOMB 


CONFERENCE of ministers of the Church of Scotland on the issues 
involved in unilateral nuclear disarmament was held in Community House, 
Glasgow, on April 24. This conference followed the despatch of a statement 


on unilateral nuclear disarmament to 
all ministers of ‘the. Kirk. . The state- 
ment had already been signed by over 
one hundred ministers. 


Speakers at. the _conference..were Dr. 
William Barclay, of Trinity College, Glas- 
gow, Dr. H. Mykura, of the Natural’ Philo- 
sophy Department of Glasgow University, 
and Mr. George Houston, of the’ Political 
Economy Department, Glasgow University. 


Dr, Barclay began by saying that the 
threat of nuclear warfare had ‘not really 
produced a new problem; it had simply 
accentuated an old problem: that ofthe 
Christian ‘attitude to war; Christianity:;was 
founded’on love, and Christian love. in- 
volves seeking the highest good of all: men. 
It: was ‘therefore obvious that Christian love 
did not mean allowing people to: do’ what 
they liked. It involved discipline, punish- 
ment, and restraint of the wrong-doer, But 





or THE PLEDGE 


(HE words of the Peace 

Pledge Union pledge 
(adapted by Dick Sheppard 
from a sermon preached 
in New’ York by Dr. 
Fosdick during a service to 
commemorate the Armis- 
tice after the First World 
War) were. endorsed at the 
first Annual General Meet- 
ing on April 2 and 3, 1938, after various 
amendments had been ‘rejected, 

The AGM of 1941, though agreeing that 
the Four ‘Affirmations, should be regarded as 
expressing the corporate mind of the PPU, 
declined to alter the wording of the pledge 
to’ which each individual is committed. 


In 1946, 1954 and 1957 each AGM re- 
peated the decision that no alteration was 
necessary, and on the last occasion rejected 
a proposal to make the payment of a sub- 
scription a condition of membership. 

The Declaration of Policy and Principles 
endorsed by the 1958 AGM was issued m 
the pamphlet Pacifism as an expansion of 





{ 


By J. W. Sim 


Warden of Community House 
Glasgow 


Christian discipline, punishment, and_re- 
straint must always be exercised with a view 
to remedy and cure, never with a view to 
retribution and destruction, 


“You do not make a man better,” said 
Dr. Barclay, “or a nation better by wiping 
out the man and the nation. , Warfare. of 
any kind is the denial’ of the,basic Christian 
principle that force, when it is used, as it 
sometimes must be used, is intended -for 
remedy and cure. 1 


“When ‘we say that: if Communism in- 
vaded this country, it would be the end of 
Christianity, it simply méans thatwe' have 
lost all belief in the power of Christianity 
to convert and to change men. A Christian 
can destroy the enemies of mpage cg only 
by converting them.” 

In his opinion the plain choice was’ be- 
tween following a’ course of so-called priid- 
ence, ‘or risking everything on the adventure 
of being fully Christian. ‘In’ point of ‘fact, 


the policy of so-called prudence leads in the 
end to a situation based on fear and preg- 
nant with disaster. 


Dr. Barclay concluded: “ Any campaign 
for unilateral. nuclear disarmament is fore- 
doomed to failure without an equal cam- 
paign for the revitalisation of the Church. 
If the only defence. of Christianity is, in 
fact, Christianity itself, then the. defence lies 
upon the Church.” 

Speaking- of the scientific issues involved, 
Dr. Mykura~ said that’ the UK ‘defence 
expenditure was £1,600,000,000, and that of 
the US $40,000,000,000. One estimate. of 
the number of megaton. bombs now. in 
existence thinks they could make two-thirds 
of the northern hemisphere uninhabitable 
for one or two. years.. The alarming thing 
is that- many other countries. could «start 
manufacturing even more bombs:as soon as 
they could afford it. 


As a political economist, George Houston 
said that'a study of the economic aspects of 
disarmament yielded powerful ‘supporting 
arguments with which to “defeat the advo- 
cates of nuclear terrorism. “World disarma- 
ment would set in motion objective 'econo- 
mic forces which would make both’ sides 
more economically dependent on each other. 
It would, moreover, take the aid to under- 
developed countries out of the punter of 
cold war. 








South African Donen News. reader 
defi es ban on suppressed issues — 


OUTH AFRICAN police called at the Durban home of Peace News reader 
Theodore Kloppenburg recently to demand copies of the banned issues of 
Peace News which he had earlier told the Government he was keeping in 


defiance. of «a Government order 


making it illegal to do so. 


He took four down to the police station 
on the following day, telling them that he 
did not intend to surrender the copies from 
his’ own personal file. © 

In a letter to the Minister of the Interior 
telling of this action he said: 
that I take this action not out of bravado 
or for personal glory but for the moral sup- 
port to all those who disobey laws, in this 


Article 19 of the said Universal Declaration 


which says in part: i Everyone has the right 
to . . . receive and impart information 
and ideas through any media and regardless 
of frontiers ’ 


“It is only my great desire for truth, 


“T feiterate | justice and freedom that urges me to this 


stand of resistance. I am ready to undergo 
any punishment the not’so very free judges 
or ‘Magistrates may now impose ho oh me.’ 


PEACE NEWS, May 12, 1961—3 





KNOWN TO 
MAN 


When thousands of unburied corpses 
were sinking into the Flanders slime, the 
Imperial War Graves Commission was 
set up to ensure that all who had fallen 
in defence of freedom should be given a 
fitting grave -or- memerial. — Sunday 
Times, May 7, 


FEN THOUSAND cemeteries in 150 

‘different countries are maintained 
by the War Graves Commission, now 
called ‘ Commonwealth.’’.. instead . of 
“ Imperial.” There are not only graves 
in these. cemeteries. but: memorials to 
those whose bodies were never found; 
the graves of, those who.could not. be 
identified were marked with the words: 
“Known to God.” 

I have not myself seen’ these serried ranks 
of graves and uniform crosses; I am fully 
prepared to believe the description of those 
who have, that‘everything is exquisitely laid 
out, that there ‘is ‘beauty and simplicity in 
the architécture of the:Gardens of Remem- 
brance, and that the ‘conception of a holy 
shrine f6t the “ heroic ' dead Pas well imple- 
mented. 

The facts, however, are very different 
from the sentimental glamorisation that is 
inherent in such words: as those inscribed in 


the Warrior's Chapel, Westminster Abbey: 


Hy They died ‘in every quarter of the earth 


and. in all its seas, and their graves’ are 


made sure to them by their kin.” Yes, they 
died; but they also, killed, and though in the 
agony of grief it is natural for those be- 
reayed to make sure about; the graves, it is 
in any respect a meaningless phrase; it is a 
device for assuaging grief and a method for 
misting over the truth. 


Those ‘‘ whose bodies were neyer found.” 
means that men,.men with feeling and 
nerves, with passions and senses, with, flesh 
and bones and blood, were disintegrated 
into nothing but fragments, unrecognisable 
and untraceable, by ‘blast and fire:’.As for 
those “known to God” they were bodies 
so decomposed, so shattered and disfigured 
and broken that they could not be identified 


YYahy WET CMRGOESCU al Le 
first Annual General Meet- 
ing on April 2 and 3, 1938, after various 
amendments had been ‘rejected, * 

The AGM of 1941, though agreeing that 
the Four Affirmations should be regarded as 
expressing the corporate mind of the PPU, 
declined to alter the wording of the pledge 
to’ which each individual is committed. 

In 1946, 1954 and 1957 each AGM re- 
peated the decision that no alteration was 
necessary, and on the last occasion rejected 
a proposal to make the payment of a sub- 
scription.a condition of membership, 

The Declaration of Policy and Principles 
endorsed by the 1958 AGM was issued in 
the pamphlet Pacifism as an expansion of 
the pledge in terms of current problems.: 


A proposal to alter the pledge was again 
rejected by the 1959 AGM, and this year a 
similar motion to add further obligations to 
the pledge was defeated. It was, however, 
agreed that National Council ‘should revise 
and re-issue the card containing some im- 
plications of the pledge which was approved 
at the 1950 AGM. 


So the basis of the PPU remains the 
unilateral action of the individual in re- 
nouncing all war, issumg in the policy of 
the unilateral renunciation of all weapons 
of war by the nation, and beyond that, 
members are left free to interpret the pledge 
as conscience directs. 


So, too, members are left free to become 
voluntary subscribers or not, but I cannot 
but think that all those who have the cause 
of pacifism at heart will want not only to 
subscribe to the pledge but also to PPU 
funds as conscience and pocket direct, If 
this is also your view, will you please send 
to the PPU Headquarters Fund what your 
conscience approves, 

STUART MORRIS, 
General Secretary. 

Our Aim for the year : £1,750, 

Amount received to date: £270, an in- 
crease of £63, 

Donations to the Peace Pledge Union, 
which are used for the work of the PPU, 
should be sent marked ‘ Headquarters 
Fund,” to the PPU Treasurer at Dick Shep- 
pard House, Endsleigh St., London, W.C.1. 





“| renounce war and I will never 
support or sanction another ” 
This pledge, signed by each member, is 
the basis of the Peace Pledge Union. 
Send your pledge to PPU Headquarters 


DICK SHEPPARD HOUSE 
6 Endsleigh Street 


Lenden, W.C.1 





gepies Dan On Suppressed Issues — 


GOUTH AFRICAN police called at the Durban home of Peace News reader 
Theodore Kloppenburg recently to demand copies of the banned issues of 
Peace News which he had earlier told the Government he was keeping in 


defiance. of «a Government order 


making it illegal to do so. 


_He took four down to the police station 
on the following day, telling them that he 
did not intend to surrender the copies from 
his’ own personal file. — 

In a letter to the Minister of the Interior 


Article 19 of the said Universal Declaration 


which says in part: ‘Everyone has the right 
to... receive and impart information 
and ideas through any media and regardless 
of frontiers’ 


“It is only my great desire for truth, 


telling of this action he said: “I reiterate | justice and freedom that urges me to this 


that I take this action not out of bravado 
or for personal glory but for the moral sup- 
port to all those who disobey laws, in this 
and other countries, laws which are 
flagrantly contrary to the Rights of Man as 
laid down in the Universal Declaration of 
Human Rights, drawn up by the General 
Assembly of: the United Nations on 
December 10, 1948, and to which declara- 
tion, I understand, the Union of South 
Africa is a signatory. 4 

“The banning of these numbers of Peace 
News . . . cannot be in agreement with 


RECITAL TO AID 
CHRISTIAN ACTION 


WILFRED BROWN (tenor) and John 
Williams (guitar) will give a recital in 
aid of Christian Action on May 13. 

The recital will include works by Bach, 
Scarlattti, Haydn, and such modern com- 
posers as Arnold Cooke, Jean Francaix and 
Villa-lobos. . Tickets may be obtained ’ in 
advance from Christian Action, 2 Amen 
Court, London, E.C.4, or from the Wigmore 
Hall, where the recital is to take place at 
3 pm. (Seats at 21s., 12s. 6d., 10s., 7s. 6d. 
and unreserved 5s.) 

Wilfred Brown, who worked with Quaker 
relief during the last war, is one of our 
busiest oratorio singers and_ broadcasters. 
John Williams, a pupil of Segovia, has a 
growing reputation as a broadcaster and 
recording artiste. 








DORIS WHITEMAN 


Doers WHITEMAN, who died on April 

25 at the age of 66, was an active 
worker for pacifism and a lifelong Socialist. 
With her husband Duncan, who was im- 
prisoned for conscientious objection in the 
first world war, she was a regular and 
valued member of the King’s Heath and 
Cotteridge (Birmingham) Peace Pledge 
Union group, 


stand of.resistance. ‘I am ready to undergo 
any punishment the not'so very free judges 
or magistrates may now impose upon me.” 


HULL POSTER BAN 


Pacifist Fortnight Campaign 
THE Hull Corporation and East 

Yorkshire Motor Services have re- 
fused to display the announcements for 
the Pacifist’ Fortnight now appearing 
on London’s underground trains. 


To date, 3,000 each of leaflets No. 1 and 
No, 2 are on order and 2,000 stickers have 
been sold. Orders are’ still coming in. 


Rugby, Southend, and South Bucks are 
planning to send coach-loads ‘of supporters 
to‘the Trafalgar Square meeting on June 1. 
Victor Gollancz has joined the list of 
speakers for that: meeting. 

During the fortnight, Dick Sheppard 
House will be nightly “at home” to all 
visitors, with a continuous programme of 
meetings, forums, and film shows. 


Sheffield and Plymouth .Quakers. are 
following the example of a London group 
in suggesting special displays of books on 
pacifism and pacifists at their public 
libraries during the fortnight. — 

Newcastle means to take advantage of the 
annual Race Week on Town Moor where 
the pacifists hope to have a stall, distribute 
leaflets and send off a large number of 
balloons with peace cards attached. 

Poster parades, open-air meetings, garden 
parties and intensive leafleting are being 
planned in many parts of the country. 


SYBIL MORRISON’S 
COLUMN 


SyBIL Morrison has expressed a wish to 
conclude her series. Her lively and contro- 
versial column has spanned a period of 
twelve years and seen the introduction and 
ending of peace-time conscription in Britain. 








a ee ee nie) 


and in all its seas, and their graves are 
made sure to them by their kin.” Yes, they 
died; but they also, killed,’ and though in the 
agony of grief it is natural for those be- 
reaved to make sure about: the graves, it is 
in any respect a meaningless, phrase; it is a 
device for assuaging grief and a method for 
misting over the truth, 


Those “ whose bodies were neyer found:” 
means that men, .men with feeling and 
nerves, with passions and senses, with, flesh 
and bones and blood, were disintegrated 
into nothing but fragments, unrecognisable 
and untraceable, by ‘blast and fire.’.As ‘for 
those “known to God” they were bodies 
so decomposed, so shattered and disfigured 
and broken that they could not be identified 
by man; the responsibility of identification 
is therefore placed upon God. 


* 


“The horrors of. war” is a common 
phrase, but it is. only when this is taken 
into each individual life that it has any real 
meaning. To each separate person comes 
his own. pain, his own fear, his own horror, 
his own grief, and finally his own death. 
Only he, and no other, can bear these 
things, and ultimately, whether he be one 
of millions. dying in a nuclear. blast; or one 
of thousands suffocating in the Flanders 
slime, or one pierced by bullet or bayonet, 
only he can bear it, only he can die. 


It is the same for those who lay their 
flowers and their wreaths on the graves in 
War Cemeteries, who standin silence for 
two minutes on Remembrance Day; each 
one must bear his own grief, each one carry 
his own burden of. regret or remorse. 

All the care and art that has been given 
to drawing a picture of heroism and sacri- 
fice in a great cause; all the fine words that 
have been poured out in praise of those 
“who gave their lives” are prostituted to 
give an artificial and false impression so that 
tie truth about war may not be faced. 

Péople are saddened by the work of the 
War Graves Commission, but they are up- 
lifted; they are horrified, but inspired, for it 
is not said that these men were conscripted, 
that they had no freedom to decide, that 
they were not sent: to the four corners of 
the earth to die, but to kill; that what they 
fought for was not freedom but victory, and 
that any means towards that victory was 
accounted good, even if it meant shaking 
the’ blood-stained hands of Stalin. 

It is no service to mankind to make war 
seem a heroic and a selfless sacrifice; it is 
a monstrous evil, and it has brought the 
human race to the brink of total annihila- 
tion. Was it for this that those buried in 
the War Cemeteries fought and killed and 
died ? Whatever may be known to God: it 
cannot be that; what is known to man is 
that the world itself will be a grave if there 
is a nuclear war; there is only one answer— 
war must be abolished. 


4—PEACE NEWS, ‘May 12), 1961 


What ‘have the. unions _ LEE 4, now? 


ti ABU. REPUDIATES UNILATERALISM, 
Mr. GAITSKELL NOW CERTAIN OF 
A Decristve'Mayority.”’ So ran the 
headlines in last Friday’s Guardian, 
and to add to the gloom there were 
two- other reverses last week:.the 
Shopworkers also. rejected their 
former unilateralist policy, and. the 
executive. of the, National. Union of 
Railwaymen. celebrated, May Day. by 
adopting the “ official’’ (i.e. Gaits- 
kell) line on armaments. 

Last year, of the six big unions, four voted 
unilateralist at Scarborough and won: the 
Labour Party Conference to, that policy: 
the Transport and General Workers, the 
Amalgamated Engineering Union, the 
Railwaymen and the Shopworkers. This 
year there might not be a single one of 
these four taking such a position. 


Why has this happened and what does it 
mean ? It is worth looking first at what 
the unions have voted for.’.The Shop- 
workers gave their largest majority to the 
so-called Crossman-Padley defence draft, 
which was narrowly defeated in the 
Labour Party’s national executive in Feb- 
ruary and is being canvassed as. a “‘ com- 
promise.’ in the Labour movement, The 
union also endorsed (by a much. smaller 
majority) the “official” Labour-TUC 
statement which is straight Western mili- 
tary . policy but: which itself had been 
formulated with the unilateralists in mind. 


We wfteil be coming ina moment to the 
differences between these two statements. 
The Engineers’ national committee rejected 
a-unilateralist. motion (by 28. votes to 23 
with one abstention): and, then. passed on 
instructing their executive 
“to request the Labour Party and the 
TUC to consider ways, and: means’ of 
“formulating ‘a’ defence’ and foreign 
policy capable of uniting the Party and 
sufficiently flexible to’ take full cogni- 
zance of changing’ circumstances pecu- 
liar to defence and foreign affairs.” 
This artlessly formulated contrivance was 
passed by 37: to 12 with three abstentions. 
Incidentally Mr. E. Leslie of Edinburgh, 
who moved’ the motion which took the 
AEU into the unilateralist camp last year, 
supported this and voted against unilater- 
alism; This is typical of the -confusion 
which surrounds these debates. Mr. A. 
Harvey of Southend, who proposed this 
year’s ‘unilateralist» motion, went ‘out of 
his way to urge that Britain stay’ in 
NATO. Last Saturday in Manchester 
Mr. Crossman claimed that even a “ so- 
called . unilateralist”’ like Mr. Michael 
Foot. would; not go| so far as to commit 
the next, Labour Government to come out 
of .NATO.. It.,is, indeed, bcoming. in- 
creasingly. difficult for people to. discover 
ifthe unilateralists are standing on. firm 
ground, 
Which brings us back to the nature of. the 
policies being offered round. According 
to The Times, the Gaitskell and Cross- 


{WvUvnuuvevUEunUuvoeekneaenocntnnvnnvnsennornegneeenvp nate 





The. wages of sin 


INETEEN South African, mercenary 
; officers of the Katanga army, arrived 
back in Johannesburg on May 4. They had 
been among those captured by UN’ Ethio- 
pian troops in Katanga in April, They said 
that all their money was in an Elisabeth- 
ville bank, and ‘they’ had now little hope of 
ever Seeing it. 


Watchers watched 


AN 


executive order, reviving a watch- 
dog” board to, oversee. the Central 


THIS IS YOUR WORLD 


Republic on May 4 decreed that ‘‘ parasites ” 
(those who do not engage in socially useful 
labour) are subject to banishment for up to 


five years by a decision of a people’s court, | 


or a “collective of working people.” 


* 


An appeal from 249 scientists in Denmark 
has gone to their Government asking that 
space should, be jtaken..through the press, 
radio and other means to tell the general 
,public exactly ,what, the use,of. atomic 
weapons implied. People, they said, could 
then answer the question ‘“ Should atamic 


man lines are “much of a muchness.” 
There is a difference of emphasis on US 


bases in Britain andthe use of “ tactical” 
nuclear weapons in NATO, “but since 
neither. of these questions,” continues 


The Times, “ can be determined:solely by 
a British Government so long as it ad- 
heres to the NATO alliance (a course 
which both statements sustain) the prac- 
tical difference between them .is small.” 


The important point about the Crossman- | 


Padley line is that it is thought to make 
a placatory concession to the unilateralists 
and to be a unique formula for unity in 
the Party. In fact, it makes no real con- 
cession at all, and insists on a_ full 
Western contribution to the cold war 
(The Guardian’s Labour correspondent at 
the Shopworkerts’ meeting referred to 
“the emergence of Mr. Padley as among 
the most effective defenders of collective 
defence’ in the whole’ British Labour 
movement’’). “ There can be no doubt,” 
that paper commented editorially, “that 
the gulf between his position and Mr. 
Gaitskell’s is trivial compared with the 
gulf that separates him from the unilater- 
alists.” In fact, the real difference 

. between their positions is: that Mr. Gait- 
skell’s is much clearer and, it must be 
said, more honest. 


There must be no misunderstanding of. the 


role that Party unity has in this debate. 
The. Guardian’s industrial staff at the 
AEU conference reported: “It was the 
older Labour Party members who tipped 
the scale today. Some of them had 


voted unilateralist last year and many ’ 


were mandated by their divisions to vote 
that way again this year. But when it 
came to it, they put their loyalty to the 
‘Labour Party above all other loyal- 
TES Nae be 


The logical conclusion to this process was 


revealed in the Engineers’ motion which 
gave a blank cheque to their leaders to 
accept any old defence policy as long as 
it united the Party. 
Engineers had. not brought the defence 
controversy into enough contempt, they 
followed their rejection of unilateralism 
with a unanimous demand for the can- 
cellation, of the agreement permitting 
Polaris submarines to.be based. in the 
Holy Loch—or in any other part of the 
British Isles ! 


This confusion indicates that the a ite 


alictce “hava ‘Gat tra chau. tha clarntu. at 


And then; as if the © 





New Statesman, for example, is ardently 
pushing the’ Crossman-Padley line because 
it is more interested in Party unity’ and 
ousting Mr. Gaitskell from the leadership 
than in finding a new policy to help break 
out of the cold war.’ If unilateralists, 
however, were to accept such priorities it 
would be ‘obvious to anyone that they 
were not seriously: concerned with the 
Bomb as a matter of overriding import- 
ance. 


There will continue ‘to be arguments in the 
Labour movement about defence, and the 
multilateralists:may well fall out among 
themselves. ‘But the important task’ for 
unilateralists is to’show that they have a 
radically different. policy which | starts 
from different assumptions. To get 
caught up in the squabble about whether 
to make ambiguous “ concessions ”’ to, the 
Campaign for .Nuclear. Disarmament 
would be a disaster. The Campaign itself 
would in fact be much stronger if. it 
could dissociate itself from people who 
want to blur CND’s image and policy. 


bila: has happened in the last few: days is 
clear indication that..the Scarborough 
decision was well in advance of convinced 
opinion in the Labour movement and a 
lot more campaigning will have to be 
done there. But this is not enough. It 
has also been a reminder of the fickle- 
ness of these votes. . Not only do dele- 
gates ignore their mandates, but—worse 
still—the wholé system works against 
genuine convincement. If'a handful of 
activists turn up at a branch meeting and 
- vote in a unilateralist’ policy, ‘that is a 
“ victory.” But who is’ convinced by this 
method ? « The’ painful» process of peace 
education. may seem naive to some, but 
there are few short cuts. 





The. wages of sin 


NINETEEN South African, mercenary 
: officers of the Katanga army, arrived 
back in Johannesburg on May 4. They had 
been among those captured by UN’ Ethio- 
pian troops in Katanga in April, They said 
that all their money was in an Elisabeth- 
ville bank, and ‘they’ had now little hope of 
ever seeing it. 


Watchers watched. 


AN executive order, reviving a, ‘‘ watch- 

dog”. board to. oversee, the Central 
Intelligence Agency, was. issued. by., Presi- 
dent Kennedy on May 4. ; 

The group, consisting of six people, and 
known as the President’s Foreign Intelli- 
gence Advisory Board, will report periodi- 
cally on the objectives and performance of 
the activities of the CIA, It will be headed 
by Dr, Jamés. R. Killian, chairman of’ the 
corporation Of the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology. 


Senator Hubert Humphrey told sepeaele 
that CIA would-be “a government unto it- 
self” unless placed under tight control. 


No comment 


@JECTION 960 of the. Neutrality Act 
(USA) reads: “ Whoever, within the 
United States, knowingly begins or sets on 
foot or provides or prepares ‘a means for 
or furnishes the money for, or takes part in, 
any military or naval expedition, or enter- 
prise to.be carried on from thence against 
the territory or dominion of any foreign 
prince or state, or of any colony, district, or 
people with whom the United States is at 
peace, shall be ‘fined not more than $3,000 
or, imprisoned not more than, three years, 
or both.” 


The Commonwealth sense 


Gir ALFRED ROBERTS; at the confer- 

ence. of hte United Textile Factory 
Workers, Association at Morecambe, in ref- 
erence to Hong Kong, said: ;‘.I.am.a,, hum;, 
anitarian, but all this tripe about the Com- 
monwealth and our people in» the Com- 
monwealth ‘leaves mé very’ cold, because: I 
do’ not regard’ these °as Commonwealth 
people in the sense we usually regard the 
Commonwealth.” 


Objective sentence’ 


ApHE Praesidium of the Supreme Soviet of 
the Russian Socialist | Federal Soviet 


” 


Republic on May 4 decreed that ‘‘ parasites 
(those who do not engage in socially useful 
labour) are subject to banishment for up to 


five years by a decision of a people’s court, | 


or_a “collective of working people.” 


i 


An appeal from 249 scientists in Denmark 
has gone to their Government asking that 
space should, be \taken.through’ the press, 
radio and other means to tell the general 
public exactly what, the use..of atomic 
weapons implied. People, they said, could 
then answer the question, “ Should atomic 
‘weapons be allowed in Denmark or 

* noty?. 


came to it, they put their foyalty to the 
‘Labour Party ‘above all other loyal- 
tiess 5... 

The logical conclusion to this process was 
revealed in the Engineers’ motion which 
gave a blank cheque to their leaders to 
accept any old defence policy as long as 
it united the Party. And then; as if the 
Engineers had. not brought the defence 
controversy into enough contempt, they 
followed their rejection of unilateralism 
with a unanimous demand for the can- 
cellation. of the agreement permitting 
Polaris submarines to.be based. in_ the 
Holy Loch—or in any other part. of the 
British Isles ! 

This confusion indicates that the ikiae 
alists have got to show the clarity. of 
their position—and stick to it, In_ this 
they will get no help from outside... The 


What “has happened. in 1 the ast few days i is 
clear indication that. the Scarborough 
decision was well in advance of convinced 
opinion in the Labour movement and a 
lot more campaigning will have. to be 
done there. But this is not enough. It 
has also been a reminder of the fickle- 
ness of these votes. .Not only do dele- 
gates ignore. their mandates, but—worse 
still—the wholé system works against 
‘genuine convincement. If’ a handful of 
activists turn up at a branch meeting and 
vote in a unilateralist’ policy, that is a 
“victory.” But who is convinced by this 
method ? » The’ painful» process of peace 
education. may seem naive to some, but 
there are few short cuts. 

At _a«GND> weekend» school at Oxford last 


® ON: PAGE. FIVE 


a.ZT.MCIEIT TOC OOOOH 


CALL IN THE IRISH! 


HE outlook for the A-test-ban talks at Geneva looks rather dismal. 


Not 


that, either side seems to have given up yet, or convinced itself that the other 


side simply. doesn’t want an, agreement. 


been under strong pressure to resume 
testing. But. in, spite of Mr. Kennedy’s 
Cuban -performance, and his | rather 
ominous, words about the importance 
of , strength, .industry, determination, 
courage, vision, and. the rest of it, he 
doesn’t appear (at least at the time of 
writing) to have retreated from’ the 
view, of the test talks expressed over 
a year ago by the science and techno- 
logy committee of his own’ Party’s 
Advisory Council. 


This ‘committee. regarded’ the success’ of 
the test-ban negotiations as of critical im- 
portance. Failure’ would presumably lead 
to unrestricted testing and to the general 
dissemination of nuclear weapons, and_ it 
would be hard to see a way out of the 
situation that that would create. 


Reluctance 


Mr.. Khrushchev’s speech last. Saturday 
insisted’ that the Russians are still keenly 
interested in general disarmament, and there 
is no doubt that.they.-would..prefer to see 
the test'jtalks, in that context. (So, for that 
matter, would ‘Philip Noel- Baker). At the 
test talks the “Russians have shown their 
usual reluctance to give a free, hand to 
inspection before general disarmament, was 
under way (on the ground that it would 
amount to. licénsed espionage). Even , ‘so, 
much “progress. had been made. towards 


It is true that the US Government has 
By 





GEOFFREY CARNALL 





agreement, on. a thoroughly international 
inspectorate. 


The crucial. problem now seems to be the 
Russian» unwillingness to accept the’ possi- 
bility. of a “ neutral” executive chairman. 
Mr. Hammarskjoeld is anathema, and- they 
don’t intend to make opportunities for more 
such, monsters. 

I. think, the Russian criticism. of Mr: 
Hammarskjoeld. is: unjustified; but) there: is 
nevertheless a real difficulty here.» Such 
criticism will ‘be virtually inevitable when- 
ever a particular interest has been thwarted 
by an. international. authority. As we. all 
know, the, Russians ‘haven’t been the UN’s 
only critics during the-Congo crisis, On the 
same day, January 23, this year two news- 
papers published prominent articles attack- 
ing the UN’s “disastrous intervention” in 
the Congo: One-was The Daily Telegraph 
(London);,the other was, 7'he Ghana Times 
(Accra). The latter thought, Mr. Hammarsk+ 
joeld and his emissaries should pack and. go. 
Mr. Douglas Brown of the Telegraph called 
the emissaries,‘‘‘ pampered minions,’ but 
otherwise contented himself with arguing 
that the UN’s Congo operation was absurd 
and dangerous, Not for. the,same, reasons 
as The Ghana Times, of course. 


Mr. > Hammarskjoeld has » succeeded ; 
holding. his’ own, so far» because he eae 
lost .the;, confidence ‘of , many. neutralist 
nations, » And; this) may well indicate: the 
kind of line that will help the development 
of an international authority... No conflict is 
likely. to involye the special interests . of 
every .member of the UN; and those who 
are not immediately involved can see more 
clearly the importance of keeping the 
machinery of human. relationships in work- 
ing order. 


As, yet, that. machinery .is, only. in its shaky 
first. stages, so far as global,.administration 
is. concerned... Until it. is; more firmly estab- 
lished, it. will be very difficult to. contend 
with fears that it hasbeen “captured.” by 
the other; side:(whoever that;may be). And 
therefore, it will be difficult to. get arms 
negotiations, past their present dilemma: 
“We'll disarm if you'll. admit inspection 
from the start.”-—‘‘ We’ll admit inspection if 
you'll disarm from the ‘start.” 


Diplomacy 


The trouble is that we can’t. afford to 
wait, as the Democratic Advisory Council 
knows well enough. The paralysis of Great 
Power talks shows the urgency of the need 
for neutralist diplomacy. Is ‘it too much‘'to 
ask the Labour Party leadership to brush 
the dust” off that non-nuclear club idea 
which - they borrowedfrom~ the Irish —in 
order to defeat the. rank-and-file. unilateral- 
ists 2? The, leaders, were. pretty,tepid about 
it then, but, consultation ,.with, the Irish 


‘Department of External Affairs might warm 


them up.a bit. 


They might even™find™ that ‘the Trish had 
thought“up some new ideas Since. 


Whitehall sit-down) 


ONCE again the Committee. of 100 4 

~" mounted a well- organised display of 
non-violence... Once again it has come up 
against an even better organised display of 
non-violence—by the, police! The. effect 
on the public has been to, demonstrate the 
stability and order of British society. And 
so it will go on—until, perhaps, the demon- 
strators press matters to a point. where 
tempers are lost and bitterness engendered 
on} both. sides. But will thee ‘be! non- 
violence 2 


By: “contrast, a genuine demonstration “of 
well- -applied non-violence is proceeding in a 
quiet, unpublicised way, as...the . Polaris 
marchers continue northwards, | The Direct 
Action .Committee has for years been 
mounting: these demonstrations ‘by small 
groups. of well-trained people, aimed, at 
specific objectives. They have the double 
aim of making a meaningful protest at an 
obvious evil, and of offering a symbolic 
outlet for the pent-up fear and aggressive- 
ness of the ordinary man, who sees no way 
out of the. nuclear dilemma. 


The fact is the public is no longer un- 
aware of the Campaign. Its aims are widely 
known and up to a point respected... (Peace 
News forgot to mention René Cutforth’s 
fine tribute to the Aldermaston march on 
the BBC.):: But we have: now reached the 
limit, and are making no further headway. 
We are faced by the real dilemma of ordi- 
nary people who are genuinely unconvinced 
that nuclear disarmament would give them 
safety, 


“Could not ‘some -of ‘the limited funds 
available ‘for these demonstrations ‘be allo- 
cated to a’ pilot’ project of consumer’ re- 
search--designed’ to discover the public’s 
reaction ‘to the Campaign’s ‘various activi- 
tiés, and to ‘analyse their objections to 
nuclear disarmament? » Then we should 
have something to’ go on—instead of work- 
ing<in: the darki-A. LODGE,. 31 Swanley 
Lane, Swanley, Kent; 


Your issue of May 5 carried big  head- 

lines. which proclaim ‘“‘ Another ’ Sit- 
down Triumph.” True enough the White- 
hall sit-down achieved a modicum of pub- 
licity, for a number’ of actors and actresses, 
but'so far as.I could judge from a perusal 
of the press and a fairly faithful adherence 
to the television, precious little for any 
rational or moral reasons advocating puglear 
disarmament, 


Elsewhere in the ‘same 


Rustin’ was reported to have said : 
= eee ae) 


issue Bayard 
* How- 
raaches 


aaa atdawn 








conscience; but may I as one who has cam- 
paigned for some years by less spectacular 


but equally arduous and—to judge by 
results—more successful methods, make an 
earnest plea : 


1, That such gestures should be sensible 
and ielevant so that people with only a 
normal degree of common sense and ‘who 
have never even heard of: Gandhi can com- 
prehend what it is about and how the action 
has a bearing on nuclear disarmament, I 
concur with the comments of Joan Layton 
(PN, last week) in your correspondence 
column, 


2. That such gestures should be. better 
timed so that the least possible amount of 
harm be done, 


3. That the absurd doctrine of ‘ going 
limp ” should be abandoned and that par- 
ticipants should walk away when arrested in 
a manner more becoming to sensible human 
beings who have retained some semblance 
of respect for their opponents. Not only 
would this tend towards the retention of 
some degree of dignity and normality and 
thus enhance the possibility of the demon- 
stration. being taken both seriously and 
sympathetically, but it would also enable 
the police to arrest more people. This 
latter is, I gather, supposed to have some 
mystical and proportionate relevance to the 
achievement of nuclear disarmament, The 
connection js, to, say the least, by no means 
clear to me, but is it too much to hope that 
those who believe that. the ‘greater, the 
number arrested the greater the triumph will 
take serious note of this suggestion ?— 
FRANCIS. JUDE, 146 Abbots Rd,, Abbots 
Langley, Herts, . 


ATS off to the Committee of 100 and 
supporters, in. spite. of. unfavourable 
criticism from’ some ‘sections ofthe press. 
The issue of nuclear arms is far too seri- 
ous. to permit our children’s and. grand- 
children’s future to. be seriously endangered 
without some real protests. . The threat of 
the mass murder. of tens of millions of 
innocents, authorised by the Government, 
while there is agitation for the return of the 
birch and hangings for youths of 18 years, is 
most damnable hypocrisy—K. HOCKNEY, 
18 Hutton Terrace, Eccleshill, Bradford 2. 


Sa member of the: Committee of 100, I 
naturally welcome your approval of the 
Whitehall sit-down; but as. one of the people 


The. nuclear deterrent. will continue ».to 
give this freedom. Not that your readers 
are likely to be allowed to» read this.— 
A, D, LACEY, Burnside, Kendal End Rd., 
Barnt Green, Worcs. 


Tax refusal 


REGRET to say I consider that Nora_ 


Page (PN, April 28) is quibbling. Tax 
refusal would create a lot of publicity for 
the anti-war idea. It would also involve 
those taking part in it in a great deal of dis- 
comfort including a possible term of im- 
prisonment, These are the real reasons why 
no One does it—R. M. CLARKE, 36 Pros- 
pect Rd., Brixham, Devon, 


Countering violence 


S Laurens Otter (PN, April 28) says, it 
is a simple issue; I.am surprised that he 
has. made such complications of it. 

He says that he thinks it unnecessary to 
say why they did not prosecute, but goes on 
to give two reasons : 

1, A. pacifist should not \use the police or 
other coercive powers of the state, 

' 2."Acgroup engaged in a series of acts of 
civil disobedience cannot call ‘on”' the 
authorities to protect’ them in the intervals. 


The first appears to equate pacifism with 
anarchism, which amounts to an admission 
that within the context of present society it 
is meaningless. The second advocates that 
the: civil :disobedient\ is :a complete’ outlaw 
and this not only while committing his dis- 
obedient: acts,.. but. at) other... times... For- 


tunately.” very few of our ‘opponents are ,S0-, 


unprincipled as. to advance this view (more, 
appropriate to a totalitarian dictator. than to 
a pacifist) or we might have had_ the 
machine. guns turned on us in Whitehall last 
week. ; 


Since, apart from these two. sophisms, 
Laurens Otter thought it unnecessary to 
explain, it is»hard to understand why they 
should wish to put theniselves in such a 
false position (involving by implication other 


-civil disobedients who would repudiate it), 
‘and why they should think it right as a 


matter of practice to encourage louts ‘and 
hooligans in violent and destructive ways. 


Unless it be that they have a compulsion 
towards martyrdom ?. If so, their long vigil 


at thea. Lialy Tach -movwv.ecaervea ta releces:tham. 


, Graham’s. Point. 


PEACE NEWS, ‘May «12; 1961-—5,, 


Ruth, Townsend has mafi- 
aged to repair two of the small hike’tents 
which were badly slashed’ but not burned. 
We live in these. However, we are badly in 
need of camping equipment of all kinds to 
replace that lost. Of course we must expect 


‘that, the raiders will attack again, and any- 


thing that we, are lent or given may be 
destroyed by them. 


Despite these frequent visits by raiders, 


sanitary inspectors and others, we intend to 


continue our resistance to the establishment 
and operation of the Polaris base as long as 
it -remains—TERRY CHANDLER and 
nine others, Polaris Action, c/o Strone Post 
Office, Dunoon, Scotland, 


Inside the Labour Party ? 


IHE short-lived triumph of’ the nuclear 
unilateralists within the Labour Party is 
over, The reversal of the Scarborough vote 
for unilateral nuclear disarmament is as cer- 
tain'as anything in politics can be. 

Surely few: politically; knowledgeable 
people will be surprised. . When will; nuclear 
disarmament . campaigners) and__ pacifists 
realise that there is absolutely no difference 
between the policies of the Conservative and 
Labour Parties on this great issue of nuclear 
war ? 4 


The Labour Party has an undeserved re- 
putation of having an inclination towards 
pacifism. The fact is that throughout its 
history pacifists have tried to convert it 
and have failed dismally, Always they have 
been treated contemptuously. 


As Mr, Gaitskell said : “ We have always 
had pacifists and neutralists and. I suppose 
add: “ They don’t 
implied it,, . 

The only, hope, fer 4 a poles of peace is 
the presence in. the House of Commons of 
a pacifist party. Such. a) party exists—the 
Fellowship Party... All sincere believers. in 
the abolition of war—whether because they 
know it.to be wrong and futile, or whether 
they believe that another war would mean 
the end of the human race—should, give 


count.” His. tone 


_wholehearted support to this party.—BOB 


WALSH, 154, Droop St., London, W.10, - 





The unions 
e@ FROM PAGE FOUR 
summer someorie ‘suggested® that’ I was 
foolishly .trying..to. mount..a campaign 
against the block vote just at the time 
_ that,it, was..turning in our, favour. I 


have something to go -on—instead ‘of work- 
ing<in: the darki—A. LODGE, 31 Swanley 
Lane, Swanley, Kent; 





OUR issue of May 5 carried big  head- 
“ Jines which proclaim “ Another — Sit- 
down Triumph.” True enough the White- 
hall sit-down achieved a modicum of pub- 
‘licity for a number of actors and actresses, 
but'so far as I could judge from a perusal 
of the press and a fairly faithful adherence 
to the television, precious little for any 
rational or moral reasons advocating nuclear 
‘disarmament, ,.: 


Elsewhere in the ‘same issue Bayard 
Rustin’ was reported to have said: “ How- 
ever, the effect of the sit-down’ reaches 
beyond the state. It will have an effect 
upon the struggle within the Labour Party 
and it will affect the nature and programme 
of the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament.” 
The fact that both the; important Union of 

’ Shop, Distributive,,and Allied Workers and 
Amalgamated. Engineering , Union — voted 
against unilateralism so soon.;after this sit- 
down suggests that the effect is unlikely to 
be the favourable one which Bayard Rustin 
presumably envisaged, 


Rather does it confirm the worst appre- 
hensions of many campaigners who fear 
that those who go out of their way to find 
a law to break and who insist on being 
carried away like petulant children will only 
arouse sympathy for the police—the symbol 
of the authorities which uphold the H- 
bomb. 


Everyone ‘has; the right to follow their 





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— separ 


‘ATS off to the Committee of 100 and 
supporters, in. spite. of. unfavourable 
criticism from’ some ‘sections of the press. 
The issue of nuclear arms is far too seri- 
oOus. to permit our children’s. and. grand- 
children’s future to. be seriously endangered 
without some real protests. The threat of 
the mass murder. of tens of millions of 
innocents, authorised by the Government, 
while there is, agitation for the return of the 
birch and hangings for youths of 18 years, is 
most damnable hypocrisy—K. HOCKNEY, 
18 Hutton Terrace, Eccleshill, Bradford 2. 


S.a member of the: Committee:of 100, I 

naturally welcome your approval of the 
Whitehall sit-down; ‘but as, one of the people 
who took part and were arrested I must 
question your description (PN, May 5) of 
the demonstration ‘as “a _ well- organised, 
well-disciplined action in’ which’ the spirit of 
protest came through admirably.” 


I think we have to accept the facts: that 
it. was not really very well organised (the 
actual decision to sit. down was very mud- 
dled), that there was widespread confusion 
and indecision in Whitehall when the police 
stopped arresting demonstrators and man- 
handled: them on. to the pavement instead 
(to. their bitter disappointment !), and that 
there was parallel confusion and indecision 
at the various police stations because of the 
lack of any definite policy on our attitude 
to the police or on the business, of accepting 
bail or paying fines (far too many people 
didn't seem to know why they were’'there). 


Of course, these problems demand a- lot 
of thought: and discussion, but two basic 
questions come to my mind! What in fact 
were we protesting about (the British’ Bomb, 
all Bombs, war, authority, no good causes, 
étc.)? ‘And why’ ‘did only half as many 
people take part on April 29 as on February 
18 (fear of arrest, poor ‘publicity, wrong 
time, wrong place, wrong technique, etc.) ? 

Another immediate point is that clearly 
we can’t even dominate central London yet, 
and we should be very careful about travel- 
ling any further afield until we can if we are 
to avoid a fiasco. If there, aren’t ,at least 
10,000. participants -in, the next demonstra- 


' tion of non-violent, civil.disobedience organ- 


ised by the Committee of 100, something. is 


' badly. wrong.—NICOLAS.. WALTER, .43 


Aberdare Gardens, London, N.W.6. 

I WONDER how many “ sitters” round 
~~ the Cenotaph on April 29 remembered 
that they did so by courtesy. of the dead, 
who gave their lives to preserve the freedom 


to block the right of way to other road- 
users ? 


iss Oss Aue 6 bb Ed Oh du palin 6m 


unprineipled as to advance this view (more, 
appropriate to a totalitarian dictator. than to 
a_ pacifist) or we might have had_ the 
machine guns turned on us in Whitehall last 
week. 


Since, apart from these two. sophisms, 
Laurens Otter thought it unnecessary to 
explain, it ishard to ;understand why they 
should wish to put theriselves in such a 
false position (involving by implication other 
civil disobedients who’ would repudiate it), 


. & SCOT tT Ee eee Pe tT 


‘ahd why they should think it right as a 


matter of practice to encourage louts ‘and 
hooligans in violent and destructive ways. 


Unless it be that they have a compulsion 
towards martyrdom ?. If so, their long vigil 
at the Holy Loch may serve. to release them 
from it, and they, and our cause, will be so 
much. the better.—RICHARD WIGGS, 70 
Lytton Ave., Letchworth, Herts, 


UR activities in the Holy. Loch area are 

not .solely:, concerned. with . opposing 
Polaris. We wish to convince people that it 
is’ possible to defend ‘one’s ideals without 
resorting to the use of violence. 


In his: report in’ last’ week’s Peace’ News 
your Glasgow correspondent suggested that 
we might consider’ initiating prosecution 
against, or publicly ‘identify, the men who 
recently attacked our camp. In our opinion, 
to do’so' would be totally inconsistent with 
our ideas. ‘We''do not wish to have our 
attackers punished. Our only hope is that 
eventually we will influence them in such a 
way that they no longer wish to attack us. 


The police inspector from Dunoon tried 
very hard to persuade us to enable him to 
take appropriate action, ‘They won’t be 
punished,” he assured us, “they will be 
given corrective training.” At one time or 
another all of our group have served. terms 
of imprisonment. We know only too well 
just how corrective the training is, 

We have now re-established our camp at 


Me presence im tae Frouse: of Vommons 

a pacifist party... Such. a) party i 
Fellowship Party... All sincere believers in 
the abolition of war—whether because they 
know it.to be. wrong and futile, or whether 
they believe that another war would mean 
the end of the human race—should. give’ 
wholehearted support to this party—BOB 
WALSH, 154. Droop St., London, W.10, - 


is e 

The unions 
@ FROM PAGE FOUR 
summer someone ‘suggested that: I was’ 
foolishly -trying..to. mount..a campaign 
against the block vote just at the time 
that, it was. turning in our favour.) I 
wonder what he thinks now. I suspect 
that he, like scores of Campaigners to 
whom I have spoken in. the last ‘few days, 
are seriously wortied by the  union’s 
voting, 

This concern ‘seems. to. me to spring from 
accepting the debates in the unions on 
the wrong, terms.). The Campaigners who 
march from, Aldermaston and the sit- 
down demonstrators are in danger of 
being obsessed) with numbers, If they 
don’t get more numbers each time they 
are written off by the press as a failure. 
This is how .the press measures events— 
and this yardstick is accepted by unila- 
teralists. 

Likewise with the Stock votes, only more 
so. Voting figures tell us even less about 
personal , convincement than marching, 
Of course we-are concerned’ with quan- 
tity.. But we are interested in quality too. 

But of course for Campaigners who were 

‘Jast year quite uncritical of the block 
vote “to, say» this; year that. easily won 
numbers are not everything would sound 
suspiciously like “sour. grapes.” To save 
them this embarrassment we'll say it for 
them. Last.week’s union. votes were not 

‘a disaster. So cheer up. 








aeericaeenG re MARCH 
WANTED... _ 


A. small.car: to borrow or-hire from June 4th for use on the 
European March. Continuous loan to October preferred, but part 
of time offers welcomed. 


Please contact April Carter at 
87 Chancery Lane, W.C.2. HOLborn 6860. 





6—PEACE NEWS, May 12, 1961 


The Century of Total War—VII 


From Aldermaston 


By Hugh Brock 


to Christmas Island 


This week Hugh Brock recalls the growth of the movement against the Bomb. The first action at 
the atomic plant at Aldermaston—now. known all over the world as a symbol of the great Easter 
Marches organised by the Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament—the first action against a bomber 
» base—T he. long.:discussions. on the question of civil. disobedience—Finally the actions of national 
figures like Sir Richard Acland, who. resigned his parliamentary seat to contest an election on the 
H-Bomb issue,.and. Donald Soper who called. publicly for civil disobedience at the time of Suez. 


4 ipHE atomic plant at Aldermaston 

has been surveyed by a member 
of Operation Gandhi. It covers a large 
area of nearly’ two square miles, 
Something like fifty squatters would be 
required to’ make an effective demon- 
stration at the gate, This would not 
unfortunately be the only entrance: ’ 
there is a contractor’s entrance through 
which pass all the Jorries bringing 
building materials.” 


This was the picture given,in February, 
1952, to the members of the, pacifist group 
who the month previously had been arrested 
for a sit-down outside the War Office in 
protest. against the manufacture of atom 
bombs in Britain. 


“Fifty squatters” ‘were not available. 
The“ group decided at their meeting on 
March 1 “ that the Aldermaston demonstra~ 
tion’ ‘should not be an act of civil ‘dis- 
obedience, but that we should be right in 
planning an action in which as many paci- 
fists as ‘possible’could take part and one in 
which ‘those feeling their way ‘towards 
public action would be encouraged to join 
in? 


A coach—in which the. final briefing was 
to be given—was hired ‘to take between 20 
and 30 demonstrators from. London. As 
they neared Aldermaston village they did 
not recognise a small group of four or five 
people walking in the same direction, among 
them two-ex-servicemen; Austin Underwood 
and the organist of Salisbury €athedral, 
Ronald Tickner; ‘and* Mary Harrison, who 
three years Iater was to trek from Salisbury 





TD eee ek ait 


Se ak a a Nel 


. cracy,”. “Atomic secrecy breeds fear,” 


to Downing Street with an H-bomb protest. 

“We can do nothing to protect you,” 
two policemen warned. the. demonstrators as 
the march lined up. “ There are more than 
a thousand workers down there.” 


The three-mile walk to the plant had been 
timed so that the posters would be on show 
as the buses and coaches poured out of the 
building site. Leaflet distributors had gone 
on in advance to give out the’ group’s four- 
page folders to the men as they boarded 
the vehicles. 


“As the long file of buses and coaches 
went past the marchers,” Peace News re- 
ported, ‘‘ there were shouts and cheers. of 
sympathy as the men read the posters: “ No 
more war,”.'“ Atom bombs disgrace demo- 
and 
many others, 


Back again in the: village, ‘an open-air 
meeting was: held’ onthe village ‘green; 
attended by but few of Aldermaston’ s fa i 
lation of 300. 


Publicity, apart from the pacifist journals, 
was negligible. The demonstrators con- 
soled themselves with the opportunity which 
the expedition had’ given for the’ members 


of the group to get to know each’ other 
better and the’ discussion off thé next action,’ 
at the US atom-bomber base at’ Mildetihall 


in << said ann 


BOMBER’ ‘BASE. 


._ act of ‘civil disobedience’ that 


the entrance gates, called to everyone 
within earshot: ‘We are demonstrating 
against all atomic warfare and prepara- 
tions for it. Then we lay down in the 
gateway, feet. touching, and held our 
posters.” 


They were not arrested. Traffic and the 
airfield. bus service had been diverted to 
another entrance a mile or two away. The 
two were almost roasted by the heat, of the 
mid-summer sun on the asphalt. 


The poster paraders went on ‘through the 
married quarters, returned to the gate, and 
the two got up to join them in ‘the return 
walk to the town. 


A demonstration ‘without civil ‘disobedi- 
ence followed at ‘the ‘germ warfare research 
station at Porton, on’ Salisbury Plain, in 
1953, by: which time “ Operation Gandhi” 
had "changed its name ‘to ‘the Non-violent 
Resistance Group in deferencé to the wishes 
of ‘Indian pacifists' who ‘emphasised’ that 
Gandhi had never wanted ‘his name to be 
perpetuated—only ~ the principles and 
methods which he had used. - 


DISCUSSION 


Group discussion coiteintiza * unabated 
through the years. Michael Randle, answer- 
ing the question “Is it right to commit an 
involved 


. obstructing people ‘carrying out a job that 


With growing ‘confidence, in the. methods 
being used, Michael, Randle andthe, writer 
went to. the base to draw, up. ‘plans for a 
demonstration . on “June 28, 1952. The 
station officer at. Mildenhall Police Station 
was. visibly shaken when confronted with 
two” pacifists who ‘announced that they 


a democratically elected government had 
undertaken,” wrote in ‘July, 1953: ! 


“Suppose a vote. had been taken in 
Germany in 1939 and showed the majority 
desiring the persecution of the» Jews. 
Surely we would have been justified then 


ee ae OO, ee ee Se ee ee ee 


“What I think would be a good idea 
therefore would be to’ conduct a cam- 
paign on the A-bomb issue. We should 
write to the press, to our MP, to all the 
influential people we can and do every- 
thing in our power by democratic means 
to end the manufacture of these bombs: 
If this should prove unavailing, I would 
be prepared to commit civil disobedience 
by obstruction, and to advocate an all-out 
passive resistance campaign.” 


By 1955 the threat of the A-bomb: had be- 
come the threat of the H-bomb and Sir 
Richard Acland resigned his seat in Parlia- 
ment to contest an election on the issue. 


Before Suez and Hungary temporarily 
diverted public ‘attention, Professor Kath-' 
leen ‘Lonsdale outlined for Peace News 
readers the grounds on ~ which peace- 
workers should oppose nuclear weapon 
tests: 


1, They are wrong; 
2. They result from and cause suspicion; 


3. They cause suffering and death, un- 
necessarily, to millions of “lesser 
creatures ”’; 


4. They are a gross. misuse of the world’ 8 
resources; 


5. They add sansreashneily etien if at pre- 
sent very little, to the world’s radiation 
hazard. 


CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE 


The Anglo-French attack on Egypt saw 
the stirrings of revolt. From Tower Hill Dr, 
Donald Soper called on trade unionists. to 
refuse to handle arms for the new war and 
declared in a sermon preached to,a congre-. 
gation of 2,000 people: “I stand before: you 
tonight as one advocating for myself and my 


_ fellow ministers an attitude of civil dis- 


obedience. That is not an easy thing to say, 
but as I think of these people of Hungary, 
of Egypt and Israel, and the people of this 
country, I am finally satisfied that, until one 
community is prepared to base its policy on 
non-violent action, no real progress can be 
made ...”; the Cambridge Daily News re- 
ported that «50 per cent. of the University’s 
Reservists would come out against recall,” in 
London. the students marched through the 
West End. 


On February 7, 1957 the H-bomb issue 
came firmly back into the picture with the 
setting up, at the offices of the National 
Peace Council, of a National council for the 


ene... 


fists as ‘possible could take part and one in 
which ‘those feeling their way towards 
public action would be encouraged’ to join 
oenraaniree este : z 
A coach—in which the final briefing was 
to be given—was hired ‘to take between 20 
and 30 demonstrators from London. As 
they neared Aldermaston village. they did 
not recognise a small group of four or five 
people walking in the same direction, among 
them two-ex-servicemen, Austin Underwood 
and the organist of Salisbury €athedral, 
Ronald Ticker; and’Mary Harrison, who 
three years Iater was to trek from Salisbury 





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was negigibie. the demonstrators con- 
soled themselves with the opportunity which 
the expedition had given for the’ members 
of the group to get to know each’ other 
better and the’ discussion on thé next action,’ 
at the US atom-bomber base at’ Mildenhall 
in East: Anglia. i 


BOMBER BASE. 


With growing ‘confidence, in the methods 
being used, Michael, Randle and_the, writer 
went to the base to draw. up. plans: for a 
demonstration, on June 28,. 1952. The 
station officer at Mildenhall Police Station 
was visibly shaken when confronted with 
two’ pacifists who announced’ that they 
would be’ requiring the market square for 
an open-air meeting in connection with a 
demonstration at the airfield. ‘“ We'll see 
what we can do to stop it,” he told them. 
In fact, the group received a courteous letter 
from Inspector White asking that demon- 
strators park their cars in West Street. 


On June 26 the following letter was sent 
to the CO at the base: 


“This is to notify you that at 1.45 p.m. 
on Saturday, June 28, two British paci- 
fists, Dorothy Morton and Constance 
Jones, will sit in the main gateway of the 
US base at Mildenhall, Beck Row, in 
protest against the building up of NATO 
bomber bases in this country. 

Earlier at 12.30 a poster parade of 
some 20 pacifists will leave Mildenhall 
Market Place for the Main Gates, at 
which they will be timed to arrive at 2 
p.m., returning by the same route to the 
Market Place. 

We would emphasise that this demon- 
stration is in no unfriendly spirit. We 
are strongly opposed to ‘ anti-American- 
ism,’ as we hope the attached - leaflet, 
which is being distributed in Mildenhall 
on Friday evening, shows.” 


The US Air Force appeared to consider 
it a major emergency. 


An armed reconnaissance party in a jeep 


, Met ihe fifteen advancing poster paraders a 


mile from the base and returned to report. 
On the normally deserted perimeter of the 
airfield guards stood with sten guns at the 
ready or were busy with walkie-talkie radio. 
Mildenhall had been placed out of bounds 
to US troops and a posse of military police 
installed at the police station. 


Miss Jones (now Mrs. Cyril Thorpe), a 
Birmingham school teacher, wrote after- 


, wards in Peace News: 


“Dorothy Morton and I spotted the 
poster paraders coming, so I went up to 


BS i aa ai a 
methods which he had used. rie 


‘DISCUSSION 


Group’ discussion’ continued ‘ unabated 
through the years. Michael Randle; answer- 
ing the question “Is it ‘right to commit’ an 
act of ‘civil disobedience’ that involved 
obstructing people ‘carrying out a job that 
a democratically’ elected’ government had 
undertaken,” wrote in ‘July, 1953: 


and 


“Suppose a vote. had been taken in 
Germany in 1939 and showed the majority 
desiring the persecution of the Jews. 
Surely we would have been justified then 
in using passive obstruction ?° i 


“In other. words, the first thing we 
have got to understand is that we can 
promise to co-operate with a democratic 
government: only insofar as it observes 
the fundamentai rights of every human 
being. At what stage we should start 
using direct action, either instead of or 
in addition to, normal parliamentary 
agitation it is difficult to say. Personally 
I would have no hesitation in ‘principle 
to direct action in any case where lives 
were actually being lost by innocent 
people. That is why I consider that the 
question of atomic bombs and other in- 
discriminate weapons to be well worth 
thinking about with a view to initiating 
a passive resistance campaign. . . 


“We should not force pacifism into 
people; we should not succeed anyway 
but bring pacifism into disrepute. For 
although I consider it wrong to kill 
another human being even when my own 
life is threatened by him, I am sure that 
those who do not feel this way about 
things will never be persuaded by my 
obstructing their efforts to defend them- 
selves. On the contrary, they will be even 
stronger in their opposition to pacifism. 
For pacifism is a new creed to them with 
an ethic they have not even begun to 
understand, 


“Where we can hope to make head- 
way is on an issue which clearly involves 
a breach of their own ethics, an issue 
which they can understand. Such an issue 
would be the production or use of 
weapons that inflict destruction indis- 
criminately on innocent and guilty alike. 
People do feel uneasy about the A-bomb; 
they would not feel uneasy about shoot- 
ing and killing “enemy” troops attack- 
ing them. I could not therefore on 
strategic grounds advocate another War 
Office or Mildenhall demonstration. 


ee en Tee Onan een y | 


_ fellow ministers an attitude of civil dis- 


obedience, That is not an easy thing to say, 
but as I think of these people of Hungary, 
of Egypt and Israel, and the people of this 
country, I am finally satisfied that, until one 
community is prepared to base its policy on 
non-violent action, no real progress can be 
made . . .”; the Cambridge Daily News re- 
ported that “50 per cent. of the University’s 
Reservists would come out against recall,” in 
London the students marched through the 
West End. i} 


On February 7, 1957 the H-bomb issue 
came firmly back into the picture with the 
setting up, at the offices of the National 
Peace Council, of a National council for the 
Abolition of Nuclear Weapon Tests. 


Would the usual meetings and marches 
be enough to halt the proposed British test 
at Christmas Island? 


Among the doubters were a group of 
pacifists who sought Japanese help in flying 
war resisters to the Far East'in the hope 
that they could sail into the testing area. ~ 


To be concluded. 

















for all 





news and 





views on 


the 


campaign 
against 


nuclear 





madness 


ANOATAL 


EVERY FRIDAY 6d. 


from all newsagents 





A commemoration 
richly merited 


AM ashamed to confess that until a month ago Jane Addams was hardly 


more than a name to me. 


I knew that she had founded the Women’s 


International League for Peace and Freedom, had just heard of Hull House, 


her Chicago settlement, and that was 
all. y 


Now, having read a selection from her 
writings, JANE ADDAMS, A CENTENNIAL 
READER (Macmillan, N.Y., $6) and the 
‘centenary study by Margaret Tims, JANE 
AppAMS oF HuLL House, 1860-1935 (Allen 
& Unwin, 18s.), I can heartily recommend 
others, if they share my ignorance, to go 
and do likewise. They will make the 
acquaintance of a remarkable woman, and 
one who has still much to teach us. 


True, many of the reforms Jane Addams 
initiated in the United States are taken for 
granted today, so that to sample her books 
is to be shocked into a fresh realisation of 
how much has been accomplished in the 
few decades since they appeared. 


But this shock itself is salutary. If the 
‘old faith in automatic progress was an 
insult to the brave, patient, far-sighted 
minorities responsible for every advance, so, 
and no less, is the current des- 
pondency about _ progress, 
which prevents the best use be 
ing made of their legacy. W 
‘need reminding that what we: 
have inherited, earlier genera- 
tions fought for, if only in order to appre- 
ciate it. As Miss Tims says: 


“The need for institutions has been 
accepted; the need to discover the correct 
motivation of the institutions has not. It 
is in this sphere, rather than in the prac- 
tical measures that are necessarily con- 
fined in time and place, that Jane 
Addams’s philosophy is still relevant to 
our present condition; and now, more 
than ever, needs to be applied.” 


Jane Addams herself was never unappre- 
ciative of what had already been achieved. 
One of her most praiseworthy qualities was 
her positiveness. It would have been so 
easy for a girl of her ability, condemned by 
the conventions of her class to either 
domesticity or idleness, to become that 





| Piet hie ie i Oeil MN CM hs 


pathetic, sterile thing, a rebel—an angry 
young woman reacting against existing in- 
stitutions. Instead; her ‘very frustration 
deepened her sympathy for people of other 
classes deprived by other conditions of ‘the 
opportunity for fulfilment, and her deter- 
mination to remedy it, not by abolishing 
these institutions, but by exacting the utmost 
from them. 


“In meeting the needs of the Chicago slum 
dwellers she was consciously meeting her 
own, One result was that she was entirely 
free from that condescension which is the 
curse of mere philanthropy; another, that 
she was hampered by no rigid preconcep- 
tions or blue-prints. Miss Tims cites a 
passage from. TWENTY YEARS AT HULL 
House which is the key to Jane Addams’s 
motivation and philosophy: 


‘“‘A man who takes the betterment of 
humanity for his aim and end, must also 
take the daily experience of humanity for 








the constant correction, of his process. 

He must not only test and guide his 

achievement by human experience, but he 

must succeed or fail in proportion as he 
has incorporated it with his own.” 

Her sole touchstone being the mutual 
fulfilment of herself, her co-workers and 
their neighbours, she was continually open 
to suggestions, whether from individuals or 
events; continually ready to experiment, 
“ proceeding always ‘from the concrete to 
the abstract "—and then, it might be added, 
back again to the individual, human person 
as a test of the fitness of the abstract prin- 
ciple.” Small wonder her enterprise throve 
and burgeoned in unforseen ways, until an 
American Secretary for Labour could say 
that “she really invented social work and 
social welfare as a department of life in the 
United States.” 





JANE ADDAMS 


It may be no accident that Jane Addams, 
like democracy itself, owed as much to .a 


scientific as to a religious education. Such 
a consistent empiricism, dependent upon a 
rare combination of humility and intellec- 
tual power, is the very condition of both 
individual. and corporate growth. 


To watch it at work’ can be fascinating: 
and it is the great merit of Miss Tim’s study 
that it enables us to do so. One sees how 
even her pacifism’ sprang from the same 
approach: ~she would never have cam- 
paigned against war so tirelessly had she 
not. directly experienced its stultifying im- 
pact upon the creative activities that en- 
grossed her: and, Miss Tims gives us ‘to 
infer, it was always to these, rather than to 
any manifestoes or blue-prints of a peaceful 
society, that she turned for its true antidote. 

I have no space to quote any of the tell- 
ing anecdotes or shrewd insights in which 
the CENTENNIAL READER abounds; nor. to 
pay due tribute to. Miss Tims’s skilful 
blending of biography with interpretation. 
Her study, she says, being “ deliberately 
limited to certain aspects of Jane Addams’s 
philosophy that seem particularly relevant 
for today, is necessarily selective and incom- 
plete. A great deal has had to be omitted 
of the ‘human interest’ that enlivens the 
least. significant of her reminiscences.” It 
more than makes up for this by tracing the 
development of her thought in the context 
of her experience by relating her multi- 
farious activities one to another, and by 
evoking a personality that richly merits such 
commemoration. 


| ITTTUTULUTTT LLU HUUTULULUUCLLLCLUCLLLLOMAO POLLO LLUPIMPLUCUU LUNA DLIDEO DLO SLO PO LLLP LLUL PLLC LLCELUPULLLPLLLLooL-LOLLL Lo 


Antigenesis ? 


PEACE, NEWS, May 12, 1961—7 





The Birth of the,Bomb, by Ronald W 
Clark. (Phoenix House, 16s.) 


"HIS is the account of “ Britain’s 
part in the weapon that changed 
the world.’? ._Non-scientists can take 
heart; this is a fascinating collective 
biography rather.than what could so 
easily. have been.’an essay in the 
pedantry of boffin’s jargon. 


In almost every instance.the scientists’, pro- 
blems can be visualised; | For’ instance, 
one can quickly grasp the enormity of 
the problem of separatinig.isotypes of 
uranium 235 when this is likened to fill- 
ing a jam-jar with individual grains of 
sand, the isotypes. being “ far more alike 
than neighbouring grains of sand on the 
seashore.” 


One is easily led to imagine a group of 
truant schoolboys hiding ‘in a cellar, bent 
on concocting the most outrageous: prank, 
spurred on by the possibility of being 
beaten to the kill by a rival gang... To 
take the likeness .a step further, in the 
final stages others steal recognition for 
the enterprise by being able to provide 
the ingredients which the initiators lacked. 
“So surely did one intriguing incident 
lead to another.” 


Responsibility 


That’ British and. European refugee phy- 
sicists played such a large part in deve- 
loping the basic theories is made. very 
clear, and one cannot but wonder whether 
they would have been proud to see the 
cloud rise over Hiroshima had Britain 
had the necessary technical facilities to 
make the Bomb in this country. “The 
British scientists responsible for these 
calculations were so convinced of their 
significance that they were eager to get 
going on a full-scale effort to produce the 
required U235 to make the Bomb.” 


Many “ordinary people” contributed to 
the British effort, albeit unwittingly: 
printers in Bradford, scores of girls in 
Watford, 60 or 70 weekly labourers, 
people working for the ICI and Metro- 
politan-Vickers are all mentioned. As the 
financial aspect makes plain, for taxpayers 
it was inescapably “ Our Bomb ” that fell 
on August 6, 1945, 


ae Se Se ea eee a 


tical measures that are necessarily con- 
fined in time and place, that Jane 
Addams’s philosophy is still relevant to 
our present condition; and now, more 
than ever, needs to be applied.” 


Jane Addams herself was never unappre- 
ciative of what had already been achieved. 
One of her most praiseworthy qualities was 
her positiveness. It would have been so 
easy for a girl of her ability, condemned by 
the conventions of her class to either 
domesticity or idleness, to become that 








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Lulfiiment Of hersell, her co-workers and 
their neighbours, she was continually open 
to suggestions, whether from individuals or 
events; continually ready to experiment, 
“proceeding always ‘from the concrete to 
the abstract ’—and then, it might be added, 
back again to the individual, human person 
as a test of the fitness of the abstract prin- 
ciple.” Small wonder her enterprise throve 
and burgeoned in unforseen ways, until an 
American Secretary for Labour could say 
that “she really invented social work and 
social welfare as a department of life in the 
United States.” 


blending of biography with interpretation. 
Her study, she says, being “deliberately 
limited to certain aspects of Jane Addams’s 
philosophy that seem particularly relevant 
for today, is necessarily selective and incom- 
plete. A great deal has had to be omitted 
of the ‘human interest’ that enlivens the 
least, significant of her reminiscences.” It 
more than makes up for this by tracing the 
development of her thought in the context 
of her experience by relating her multi- 
farious activities one to another, and by 
evoking a personality that richly merits such 
commemoration. 


MMMM 


Gandhi’s non-violence 


My Non-violence, by M. K. Gandhi. (Navajivan, 11s. 6d.) 


‘THIS book, very ably edited by Sailesh Kumar Bandopadhaya, is a com- 
pilation of occasional writings by Gandhi, from a newspaper column in 
1920 to the draft constitution prepared by him for Congress on the day of 


his assassination in 1948. 


It is a presentation in a handy single 
volume of material from: the two volumes 
of NON-VIOLENCE IN PEACE AND WAR. 
Gandhi was not a man to use more words 
than were necessary, and the abridgement 
must have been far from easy, These writ- 
ings come from the columns of Young 
India, Harijan, and elsewhere. 


The title; My Non-vIOLENcE, is well 
chosen, and the whole book traces in a 
dramatic way, all the more effective for not 
being contrived, the, developments. in 
Gandhi’s thought with the passing of the 
years and the accruing of experience. |One 
of the refreshing things about him was the 
complete honesty with which he would 
admit his mistakes and failures, His respect 
for truth was so great, he knew that any 
temptation to deceive himself only threat- 
ened his cause. 


As time went on he admitted great 
failures. He blamed himself and disciplined 
himself as a consequence, but never lost the 
purity. of his vision, nor his faith in the 
efficacy of non-violence. when properly 
applied, “He confessed that it had become 
clear to him that what he had mistaken for 
satyagraha was not satyagraha . . . Indians 
harboured ill-will and anger against their 
erstwhile rulers, while they pretended to 
resist them non-violently, Their resistance 
was, therefore, inspired by violence and not 
by regard for the man in the British, whom 
they should convert through satyagraha. 


Now that the British were voluntarily quit- 
ting India, apparent non-violence had gone 
to pieces in a moment.” That was in 
August, 19°47, 


One intriguing chapter, for a Western 
reader, is Gandhi’s letter to Adolf Hitler, 
written in December, 1941, but prevented 
by the. then Government of India from 
being sent. It contains a paragraph which 
could well be addressed today to various 
world leaders whose names will leap to 
mind: “It is a marvel to:'me that you do 
not see ‘that [the science of destruction] is 
nobody’s monopoly. If not the British, 
some other power will certainly improve 
upon your method and beat you with your 
own weapon. You are leaving no legacy to 
your people of which they would feel 
proud, They cannot take pride in a recital 
of cruel deeds, however skilfully planned.” 

The Mahatma deserves his place in his- 
tory if only for the fact that he was the 
first man in two thousand years to live and 
die solely for the purpose of putting into 
social effect the clear calm teachings of 
Christ’s sermon on the mount, His failures 
cannot negate his achievements. His own 
reputation did not matter, the truth did. If 
this book serves no other purpose, it will 
remind present devotees of non-violence of 
this vital fact. Truth and love are the only 
things that matter. Personal repute and 
immediate results are not legitimate grounds 
for encouragement or discouragement. 


JACK SHEPHERD 


make the Bomb in this country. “The 
British scientists responsible for these 
calculations were so convinced of their 
significance that they were eager to get 
going on a full-scale effort to produce the 
required U235 to make the Bomb.” 


Many “ordinary people” contributed to 
the British effort, albeit unwittingly: 
printers in Bradford, scores of girls in 
Watford, 60 or 70 weekly labourers, 
people working for the ICI and Metro- 
politan-Vickers are all mentioned. As the 
financial aspect makes plain, for taxpayers 
it was inescapably “ Our Bomb ” that fell 
on August 6, 1945, 


The tale is far from grim. Whether such a 
book should be spiced with humour is 
open to question, but at least the human 
aspects lend colour and make readable 
the account of what was, after all, a 
determined bid’ for overwhelmingly 
superior inhumanity. 


Surely the verbal cartoon of the British 
physicists, on their way to join. the 
Americans, travelling to Liverpool docks 
in black undertaker’s cars, their luggage 
following in a hearse (provided by. the 
ICI organisation), is intended to. be 
symbolic ? 


Mr, Clark, who was a war correspondent 
with the Canadian Army and has written 
brief biographies of Sir John Cockcroft, 
Field-Marshall Viscount Montgomery and 
Sir Julian Huxley, tends to avoid . be- 
coming engrossed in the ‘rights \.and 
wrongs of the proceedings. 


He records that once the question ‘of 
whether the Bomb “could” be, built: had 
been settled, the decision of whether or 
not it “should”? be was.determined by 
economic rather than. moral considera- 
tions. “ However, the ‘author does say of 
the Nagasaki plutonium bomb: “It ‘is 
difficult not to believe that ‘the accusing 
stare of history will regard it as the 
greatest moral blunder of the war.” 


D. K. Taylor 


UNIVERSAL RELIGION 
PACIFIST FELLOWSHIP 


Service 3.30 p.m, Sunday, May 14 


Peace News, 5 Caledonian Rd., King’s X. 
Discourse : Arlo Tatum, “ Impressions of 
Hinduism.” 





PEACE NEWS 


1298 May 12, 1961 6d. US Air Expren 
Committee of 
100’s plans 


HE Committee of 100 met on Sun- 

day, May 8, to examine the results 
of the demonstration held on April 29 
in -which. they .and, their. supporters 
attempted to, hold:a Public Assembly 
in Parliament Square... At: this meet- 
ing it was decided that the next demon- 
stration would be arranged’ to ‘take 
place during the first week in July. 


No decision was taken about the nature 
of the project or the, location. The general 
feeling of those present, however, seemed to 
be that the next demonstration should be in 
central London, and that it was necessary 
to go back to the system of pledges em- 
ployed to gather support for the demonstra- 
tion held outside the Ministry of Defence 
on: February: 18. Also, attempts should ‘be 
made to explain the reasons why it was 
important ‘to take’ action’°of the kind the 
Committee ‘are advocating. ‘The next meet- 
ing of the Committee is likely ‘to’ ‘be con- 
cerned almost solely with’ policy. 


Information about the number of people 
who, have refused to pay their fine is diffi- 
cult to obtain. It wotild seem that the 
figure may well be over 100. ‘The legal 
procedure is that the demonstrators were 
fined for obstruction and no further in- 
struction was given by the magistrate. At 
Bow, Street Magistrates’ Court, no further 
action could be taken until the Chief Magis- 
trate returned to the court. 





Correspondence 


Correspondence on the subject ‘of the 
demonstration has beén heavier than any 


previous action. The letters réveal a whole 
reanacce. nf raaccinc. dhaint: wid. mbariile fect itt. ic 








WITH some pomp and not a little 
circumstance the BBC Home Service 
this week continued their series “ The 
way we live now.” The. programme 
had aroused considerable interest as a 
result of a broadcast on April 12 in 
which Rene. Cutforth set. out to 
examine the Aldermaston March and 
marchers. Rene Cutforth can be con- 
sidered to be in the top ranks of the 
BBC’s team of reporters and _ the 
material he produced made a great 
impact. . This. week the, programme 
was entitled “ Survival ” and dealt with 
the ‘arguments and opinions in Britain 
today for and against the nuclear 
bomb. 


Rene Cutforth Giavicten his programme 
on Saturday and submitted it in the usual 
way. It was argued, editorially, that the 
material submitted was too heavily weighted 
in favour-of the case for unilateralism, Mr. 
Cutforth felt. he .was, unable to. change. his 
material and asked to. be released from the 
responsibility for the programme. What kind 
of pressures are exerted to bring about this 
state of affairs? In the programme broadcast 
on April 12, the broadcast ended with these 
memorable words: 


““Anyway,. at the end, in Trafalgar 
Square, I' found an obstinate and unwel- 
come’ thought” continually invading the 
edges of my mind. 


“ Consider for a moment the times we 
middle-aged men have lived through in this 
monstrous century. First the huge 


‘From George Clark 


terrible casualty lists of the First World 
War. Then the mass unemployment, the 
..misery,..and. the injustice. of. the. .early 
Thirties. Then the spectacle of Europe 
under the heel of a murdering maniac. 
Belsen-Auschwitz, the. Jews in. the gas 
chambers. . Then another war. Then 
Hiroshima and Nagasaki. And finally for 
us an exhausted, meaningless state intent 
on the ‘ Jolly.’ 


“In medical matters there’s a principle 
called tolerance. If some poisons are fed 
toa human being over a long period he 
acquires va ‘tolerance.of them, and can 
survive a*lethal dose, though his whole 
metabolism may have to change to meet 
the challenge. The young are those who 
have so far never breathed the poisons 
we have had to try to contrive to survive, 
and their minds: are unclouded with them. 


“With every increase of tolerance we 
have lost a human sensitivity, And now 
it seems quite possible that these marchers, 
whatever their impact on the bomb, or 
the possible. future impact of the bomb 
upon them, these Aldermaston. marchers 
may well already be the only people left 
alive in Britain.” 

Mr. Cutforth was interested only in pre- 
senting the Aldermaston marchers as a 
reporter. Editorial policy was not his con- 
cern, The BBC is to be commended for 
attempting to inform radio listeners about 
‘The way we live now.’ However did they 
have the same sense of responsibility when 











Cy SURVIVAL’? = WHAT 
HAPPENED AT BBC? 


they considered the programme broadcast 
on Tuesday night? 


What is interesting is that he was com- 
missioned ‘by the BBC to, undertake © the 
programme because it was felt that he 
would steer clear of the political arguments. 
That he .would produce a_ programme 
which was good. reporting but would never- 
theless leave the basic. issues untouched. 
However, the sincerity of the marchers and 
their deep sense of purpose moved him to 
report in the terms of the above quote. 


“ Survival” which was broadcast this 
week was intended; to be a follow, up. 
Though some doubts about the advisability 
of employing Rene Cutforth for the pur- 
pose were expressed, the Head of the Home 
Service insisted that Cutforth should do it. 


MISSING 


When the’ programme’came on the air, 
Rene Cutforth was: missing with no ex- 
planation,. The programme. proved to be 
inadequate. The arguments of the Cam- 
paign and supporters of civil disobedience 
were kept to..a minimum. .There was a 
tendency to give prominence to “safe” 
people like the Bishop of Willesden. The 
only real confrontation of two people who 
took. opposite. views, was, betwen Barbara 
Castle, MP, and Sir Fitzroy. Maclean, MP, 
the rest of..the programme. comprising 
“ dubbed ”” interviews..which appeared to. be 
two people discussing ,together,, In fact, the 
people interviewed never met each other. 

In a statement at’ the end of the broad- 
cast the BBC press department told Peace 
News :— 


“This programme, ‘The way we live 
now,’ was planned as described in the 
Radio Times. Rene Cutforth asked to be 
released from the programme because it 
became clear in the course of preparing 
it that Mr. Cutforth’s very personal 
approach, which’ he has used so success- 
fully in’ many broadcasts in this series, 
was not proving suitable for a programme 
of ‘the ‘character described in the Radio 
Times.” 


QUESTIONS 


It is reasonable “at this stage to ask 
several) pertinent questions. Why did the 


bs unteteaiemes i Kai d C4 auverL teaw sever VE peVye 
who. have refused to pay their fine. is diffi- 
cult to obtain. It wotld ‘seem that the 
figure may well be over 100. The legal 
procedure is that the demonstrators were 
fined for obstruction and no further in- 
struction was given by the magistrate. At 
Bow. Street, Magistrates’ Court, no. further 
action could be taken until the Chief Magis- 
trate returned to the court. 


Correspondence 


Correspondence on the subject of the 
demonstration has beén heavier than any 
previous action. The letters reveal a whole 
range of reasons about why peopke feel it is 
necessary to take this kind of action now. 
They show a concern. about the manner of 
the.demonstration, and the way it is organ- 
ised. .Tkere is considerable anxiety about 
the future, and how it relates to the wider 
movement against nuclear policies. 


One constant theme running throughout 
the letters is the feeling that what has been 
started by the Committee of ‘100 is part! of 
the evolution of attitudes arising from ‘the 
previous years of campaigning. ' There are 
expressions of’ a determination not to’ be 
fobbed off with easy answers. The manner 
of behaviour is examined: by several corre- 
spondents in some detail and tends to show 
the; extent of the involvement with this new 
activity. 

In. the jlight of this, perhaps. the Com- 
mittee, of 100 are wise to’consider calling a 
conference of supporters... This was pro- 
posed at the meeting on Sunday. It will 
doubtless be one of the most. interesting 
conferences (and probably most timely) 
called within the movement. : Arrangements 
for the conference are:'to be: made by the 
working group of the Committee. 





1 e 
Hangman resigns 
WV BRIAN. ALLEN, 27-year-old,.son: of 
i Britain’s chief hangman, announced 
last Sunday:that he ‘was ‘resigning his: post 
as assistant hangtman, He had assisted his 

fathér at/fivé, executions. 

Mr. Allen explained that he had recently 
qualified’ as a state registered mental-nurse 
and had'to take a serious vow that at 
all times he would “do all-in his power to 
save ‘and preserve life... He had.-therefore 
concluded. that, his. two, posts .were incom- 
patible, 





Published by Peace News’ Ltd, 5 Caledonian Rd., 
London, N.1,.and printed in Gt, Britain by Goodwin 


Press Ltd., 135 Fonthill Road, London, N4 





carers CYS ee eo ei a foots tee ores Cr foc trea 








These publicity panels now being displayed on London’s Underground trains are to 
be displayed in Hull following the reversal of a decision banning them from the 


city’s transport 


Copies ‘of . these )posters' may be had from the Pacifist Fortnight 


Campaign, 6 Endsleigh Street, London, W.C.1. See page three. 





May Day in Scotland 


FROM OUR GLASGOW CORRESPONDENT 


AT least the unilateralist debate con- 

tinues in ‘trades union circles in 
Scotland. “At May Day Rallies’ in 
Glasgow and Edinburgh last’ Sunday 
unequivocal unilateralist resolutions 
wete carried with acclamation. 


Barbara Castle in Edinburgh icalled for a 
Labour policy which would put: an end to 
the | possession. and‘ manufacture: of nuclear 
weapons by Britain as a matter of prin- 
ciple, and in Glasgow; Frank Cousins ‘kept 
the issue alive by affirming the right of ‘the 
Labour movement to: go on - talking and 
examining in the search for a solution to 
the issues which! face: us... He condemned 
the: Tories for allowing the:development of 
ignorance ‘of ‘the consequences of. nuclear 
wai, 2" ct ! i 
‘There. was a Campaign for’ Nuclear Dis- 
armament. lorry in the Glasgow parade, 

Fnac nn nad 


£1,000: raised 


Yhe London Regional’ Council “of the 
Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament held 
a very successful Spring’ Fair last Satur- 
day. Net proceeds are expécted to be over 
£1,000. °° ‘An’ original’ Arnold’ Wesker 
manuscript has ‘been offered: for auction 
‘dnd: bids, ‘df over £100 /for this are still 
being considered. , 


with a following of over. 200, while many 
other supporters were taking part in the 
march with their appropriate Union organ- 
isation. _, ; 

Trades Unionists. were. urged from the 
platform to be at the Dunoon demonstra- 
tion this Sunday, May 14, andthe oppor- 
tunity was not lost to ‘strengthen support 
for the London to Holy Loch marchers, It 
is now likely that a large number will go 
the whole way down the North bank of the 
Clyde, leaving Glasgow from the Kelvin- 
grove Park on Saturday, May 20. 


HOLY LOCH 


@ FROM PAGE ONE 


on Friday or Saturday evening are flying 
from London Airport to Renfrew (Glasgow) 
Airport at.‘6 am,’ on Sunday, May 21. 
They are hoping to add to their present 
numbers in order to qualify for a fares 
reduction and travel’ both ways by plane for 
£7 10s, 

The group ‘of marchers who left London 
on’ Easter Monday after the Aldermaston 
March crossed ‘the border into Scotland 
last Sunday.’ They are in good health and 
about twenty of the group have ‘marched all 
the way. Oldest marcher is Evelyn ‘Pop- 
pleton) a 70-year-old ex-nurse. 





“This programme, ‘The way we live 
now,’ was planned as described in the 
Radio Times. Rene Cutforth asked to be 
released from the programme because it 
became clear in the course of preparing 
it that Mr. Cutforth’s very personal 
approach, which he has used so success- 
fully in’ many’ broadcasts in this series; 
was not proving suitable for a programme 
of ‘the character described in the Radio 
Times.” 


QUESTIONS 


It is reasonable at this stage to ask 
several) pertinent questions. Why did the 
BBC_not make a statement. about Mr. Cut- 
forth’s non-participation? Did somebody 
have second thoughts about the advisability 
of allowing such a free ranging discussion 
lasting 45 minutes? If it is the policy to 
allow the Bishop of Willesden to be so 
openly scathing about those who have 
decided that they can no. longer co-operate 
with the Government on the issue of 
nuclear weapons, why is it not also policy 
to allow the Secretary of the Committee of 
100 to reply? After all, he was inter- 
viewed for this purpose on Friday after- 
noon preceding the broadcast, 


Mr. Cutforth wishes to make it quite 
clear that he has no quarrel with the BBC. 
He feels they have a right to decide how 
material for broadcasting should be used. 
In this instance he felt unable to make 
changes in his prepared material which 
would make. it’ more ‘suitable’ for BBC 
purposes. 


The question is, what are these purposes 
and at what point are the changes made? 
Was somebody in the BBC alarmed that 
programmes of the kind arranged by Mr. 
Cutforth were too sympathetic? 


Another kind of example would be to 
recall the treatment Richard Dimbleby gives 
to royal occasions. These events are des- 
cribed with sickening eulogies in praise of 
monarchy. The, programme on April, 12 is 
our only yardstick for comparison, It does 
not suggest that Rene Cutforth did more 
than a completely honest reporting job. Is 
this what the BBC are afraid of? 





PPU AGM: A CORRECTION 


The St. Albans motion was carried on a 
show of shands}.and did not fail to get a 
two-thirds majority as stated: in) Peace, News 
last week. We apologise for this error in 
reporting. 





THE BOMB 


Why the unions are 
turning round on 
unilateralism 


page four , 

















TROUBLE 


ACROSS THE BORDER 





Whitsun at the Holy Loch 


A GROUP of sponsors, of the Direct 

Action Committee Against Nuclear 
War have sent a special message to Peace 
News calling attention to the American 
Polaris Base at the Holy Loch, Scotland. 
The sponsors: John Braine,; Ernie Roberts, 


Spike Milligan, Herbert., Read, John 
Osborne, Constance Cummings, Michael 
Scott; John Berger, Alex Comfort, Horace 
Alexander and, Hugh Brock, say in their 
message : 


“...im view of the reaction of the 


American Government to previous demon- 
“ Be ee ath, 


a ey = oe ae 


Road, St. Pancras, N.W.1, at 8.30 p.m. on 
the same evening. Wendy Butlin, who has 
been in charge of the organisation in the 
London office (STA 7062) asks supporters 
te contact her and book seats on these 
coaches or train. 


Regions of the Campaign for Nuclear 
Disarmament have made. arrangements. to 
transport supporters to Scotland for the 
demonstration. The London _ Regional 
Council are co-operating with Barking CND 
and the coach bookings are being handled 
by Ann Lincoln at TERminus 0284. Con- 


oy HAVING failed to settle their policy on the major military issues facing 
the North Atlantic alliance, the Americans have proposed that the Foreign 


Ministers meeting in Oslo this week should concentrate on world-wide political 


DOT a METTLE TTC TCL co 


“STAY AT HOME!’ 


“WE call upon all organisations and the 

trade union movement to organise 
acts of solidarity for: thepeople of South 
Africa on May 31, the day on which their 
country ceases to be a member of, the 
Commonwealth,” says a. statement. issued 
last ‘week from the London. office’ of the 
South Africa United Front. 


‘ 


In South Africa, the. editorial. boatd of 
Contact, the inter-racial fortnightly, call for 
full: support fora nation-wide’ peaceful 
““ stay-at-home ’’ demonstration being organ 


issues, This has been generally agreed.” 


With these words The Guardian’s 
Defence correspondent, Leonard 
Beaton, started his opening report from 
Oslo on the NATO meeting there, 


How short the military, are of answers has 
just been’ shown by anew pamphlet pub- 
lished by the British Atlantic Committee, 
Entitled Nuclear’ Disarmament, it seeks 
to refute the case of the. Campaign’ for 
Nuclear Disarmament by setting out “ ques- 
tions. and answérs for those who want the 
facts:”’ |' 


The British Atlantic Committee is a non- 
party body that aims’ to create public 
opinion ‘in favour of NATO..A former 
Cabinet Minister is president, and among’ 
the vice-presidents is Mr. Geoffrey de 
Freitas, an Opposition Front Bench spokes- 
man, 


The quality, of the “facts” in the pam- 
phlet can be judged from extracts: 


OQ. What about this business of inspection 
and control? Isn't it just delaying action on 
disarmament? We've been at it for years 
and all we have got is the arms race, which 
always leads to war. 


‘Quite untrue’ 


A. That is quite. untrue. 1, know: of. no 
war in history caused by an arms race. 
What does lead to. war is when one. side 
arms and the other does not. . . 

Among other answers in the pamphlet is 
one explaining why Christians should be in 
favour of H-bombs. This is the only policy, 
says the pamphlet, which can protect’ “ the 
spiritual values upheld by. all the churches 
inthe world.” | Any other policy would 
not result in “ God’s will,” 

On accidents the dialogue is equally re- 
vealing ; 

Q. Might not these weapons be let off by 
accident—someone. making a mistake—being 
too quick on the trigger? I-hear we-would 
only get a few, minutes’, warning of a missile 
attack. 

A. It is conceivable,’ though unlikely. 
Anyway. surely thar would dbannen. anda ts