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Full text of "The Philippine Islands A political, geographical, ethnographical, social and commercial history of the Philippine Archipelago and its political dependencies, embracing the whole period of Spanish rule"

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A  Political,  Geographical,  Ellinagraplilcal,  Social  and  Commercial 
History  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago 

Embracing  the  whole  Period  of  Spanish  Rule. 






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It  would  be  surprising  if  the  concerns  of  !in  interesting 
Colony  like  the  Philippine  Islands  had  not  commanded 
the  attention  of  literary  genius. 

I  do  not  pretend,  therefore,  to  improve  upon  the  able 
productions  of  such  eminent  writers  as  Juan  de  le  Concepcion, 
Martinez  Ziiliiga,  Thomas  Comin  and  others,  nor  do  I  aspire, 
through  this  brief  composition,  to  detract  from  the  merit  of 
Jagor's  work,  which,  in  its  day,  commended  itself  as  a  valuable 
book  of  reference.  But  since  then,  and  within  the  last  twenty 
years,  this  Colony  has  made  great  strides  on  the  path  of  social 
and  material  progress  ;  its  political  and  commercial  importance 
is  rapidlj'  increasing,  and  many  who  know  the  Philippines,  have 
persuaded  me  to  believe  that  my  Notes  would  be  an  appreciated 
addition  to  what  was  published  years  ago  on  this  subject. 

The  critical  opinions  herein  expressed  are  based  upon 
personal  observations  made  during  the  several  years  I  have 
travelled  in  and  about  all  the  principal  Islands  of  the 
Archipelago,  and  are  upheld  by  reference  to  the  most  reliable 
historical  records. 

An  author  should  be  benevolent  in  his  judgment  of  men 
and  manners  and  guarded  against  mistaking  isolated  cases  for 
rules.  In  matters  of  history  he  should  neither  hide  the  truth, 
nor  twist  it  to  support  a  private  view,  remembering  how  easy  it 
is  to  criticize  an  act  when  its  sequel  is  developed :  such  will 
be  my  aim  in  the  fullest  measure  consistent. 

By  certain  classes  I  may  be  thought  to  have  taken  a 
hypercritical  view  of  things ;  I  may  even  offend  their  si.isce])ti- 
bilities— if  I  adulated  them,  I  should  fail  to  chronicle  the  truth, 
and  my  work  would  be  a  deliberate  imposture. 

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I  would  desire  it  to  be  understood,  with  regard  to  the 
classes  and  races  in  their  collectiveness,  that  ray  remarks  apph' 
only  to  the  large  majority  ;  exceptions  undoubtedly  there  are — 
these  form  the  small  minority.  Moreover,  I  need  hardly  point 
out  that  the  native  population  of  the  Capital  of  the  Philippines 
by  no  means  represents  the  true  native  character,  to  com- 
prehend which,  so  far  as  its  complicacy  can  be  fathomed,  one 
must  penetrate  into  and  reside  for  years  in  the  interior  of  the 
Colony,  as  1  have  done,  in  places  where  extraneous  influences 
have,  as  yet,  produced  no  effect. 

There  may  appear  to  be  some  incongruity  in  the  ]>lan 
of  a  work  which  combines  objects  so  dissimilar  as  those 
enumerated  in  the  Contents  pages,  but  this  is  not  a  History, 
nor  a  Geography,  nor  an  Account  of  Travels,  in  the  strict  sense 
of  the  word^it  is  a  concise  review  of  all  that  may  interest  the 
reader  who  seeks  for  a  general  idea  of  the  condition  of  affaire  in 
this  Colony  in  the  past  and  in  the  present. 

J.  ['. 

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The  success  which  has  iittendcd  the  publication  of  the 
First  Edition  of  this  work  has  induced  me  to  carefully  revise 
it  throughout,  the  latest  facts  of  public  interest  up  to 
the  close  of  Spanish  rule  in  the  Philippine  Islands. 

Long  years  of  personal  acquaintance  with  some  of  the 
active  movers  in  the  Revolutionary  Party  enabled  me  to 
estimate  tlieir  aspirations.  My  associations  with  Spain  and 
Spaniards  since  my  boyhood  heljied  nie,  as  an  eye-witness  of 
the  outbreak  of  the  rebellion,  to  jndge  of  the  counterpart  to 
that  movement.  iVIj'  connection  with  the  American  Peace 
G>mmission  in  Paris  afforded  me  an  opportunity  of  appreciating 
the  noble  efforts  of  a  free  people  to  raise  the  weight  of  monastic 
oppression  from  millions  of  their  fellow  creatures. 

I  would  point  out  that  my  criticism  of  the  clergj',  who 
exercised  governmental  functions  in  these  Islands,  in  no  way 
applies  to  the  Jesuit  or  the  Paul  fathers,  who  have  justly  gained 
the  respect  of  both  Europeans  and  natives- 
It  is  confidently  hoped  that  the  present  Edition  (which 
covers  the  whole  period  of  Spanish  dominion,  from  the 
conquest  up  to  the  evacuation)  may  merit  that  approval  from 
readers  of  English  which  has  been  so  graciously  accorded  to 
the  previous  one. 






Gcnoral  Desoriptidii  of  tlic  Avclapdlago.— Goographiciil  rcatiires 


Discovery  of  tl\e  Arciiipi'Jago. — Magellan  Straits  (iiscovcrcd. —Death 
of  Miighallaiica.  —  The  First  Voyage  round  the  Woild. — 
Iix]>c(lition  to  the  Moliiccaa.-— Legaspi's  Expedition  from 
Mexico. — Manila  founded. — Death  of  Legaspi     .  -  - 

CHAl'TER  111. 

Piiilippiiic  Copciiiloncii's. — The  Ladrone,  Carolina,  .tiid  Polow  Islands 


Atteniptofi  Conquest  hy  Chinese. — Its  Failure. — Fray  Alonso 
Saiiuhea's  Mission  to  Spain. — Interna!  Administration  in  Olden 
Timtis.— -Mendicant  and  Augustine  Friars. — Supreme  Court. — 
Church  and  State  Cojitentions.-— A  Governor-General  murdered 


Early    Eektiims    bctiveen    the   Philippines   and    Japan.— Cutliolic 
Jhasions.— Itartyr  Saints  ------ 

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CofEee. — Coffee  Quotations,  Shipments  and  Statistics.— Cuff ee  Culture 
a,n(l  YiuKI. — Tobacco  under  (Jovernmen't  Monopoly.— Tobacco 
under  Free  Traile. — Tobacco  and  Cigar  Bhipments  and  Statistics. 
— The  "  Comiiaiiia  (ieneral  do  Tabacos  do  I'ilipina;; ''       - 


Maize.— Cocoa  (^O'can). — Esculent  Boots. — Monkey  Jfuts.- — Bets:!.— 
Aroca  Palm. — Nipa  Paira. — Cocoauut  Palm. — Coprali  Shipments 
and  Statistics. — Coir. — Cdgon. — Cotton.  —  Ditii. — ]'alnia  Itrava.— 
Bamboo.  —  B6jo. — Hattau  Cane.- — Gum  MJistia  Shipments.^ 
Edible  Birds'  Nests.— Balato. — Sapan-wood  Shipment^.—  Saps. — 
Hard  Woods. — Hard  Wood  Tests,  C/0mparati\c  SLreiiytlis  and 
Qualities. — Fruits. — Flowcis. — MedleiuiU  Herbs  - 


I  Products. — Coal.— -(rold. — Iron. — Copper. — Sulpli 

Domestic  Live    Stock. — Po 
etc.— The  Locust  Plagi 


onics,    Ruffaloes.  etc.— Rcptilia,— Insects, 


Jlanila  under  Rpaiush  Rule.- Tlio  Port.— Tiie  City.— liinniido,  tlie 
Trading  Centre. — lilectric  Lighting. — Tramways. — (Chinese  and 
Native  Traders  and  Workers. — Bridges.— Theatres. — Bull  Ring. 
— Cock-Figliting. — Chinese  New  Year. — Journalism. — Botanic 
Garden . — U  welling-  Houses. — Ty  phoo  ii  s.— -Ea  r  thij  u  akes . — Native 
Costumes    _-----.- 


Toui-iiig  in  1,iixon  Island. — Up  the  PasFg  KJvcr. — Lagiuia  do  Bay. — 
.Tnlajala.  —  Los  IJanos.  —  Santa  Cruz.  —  Pag.smjan.  —  Bi>t6can 
Cascade. — ^Majayjay. — Tayabas  and  Pagbilao. — San  Juan  de 
Bocb  oc. — Batangas . — Lipa. — Bombon  Lake.— Talisay . — Taal. — 
Balayan. — Maragondon. — Santa  Cruz  de  Malabon. — Silan. — 
Pcres!  Dasmarinas.— Cavita  Tiejo. —  Oiivite  .  ,  . 




Touring  in  tlie  South.— Rom bl on.— Tlie  Silaiiga. — Yloilo.— ^^^  Coast 
of  Nogros. — Ginigariin. — Sumag. — liacuiod. — Ciiiiiz  Nuevo.— 
Escalanto. — Tlio  Danao  Elver. — Calatrava. — Uagumliitjau. — 
Across  Ncj;ros  Island.— ISuffaio  Rkling.— A  Jforse  Figlu 


.-oHing  Notes,  -ttinonirifs  <>i  23  Juiiriieys  about  the  (s!:uids 


10  T^ra<^  Kcbellicm  of  1890-1(8.— Kir^t  Poiiort  up  tci  the  ttctire- 
niont  of  tbo  Robol  Leaders  to  Hongkoug.^TSic  alleged  Treaty 
of  Biiic-iui-bat6. — Peace  proclaimed  ,  -  -  - 


TheT!igi'ilogllebeliiouofl8'jr.-98.—SGCoudPovio<l.— American  Inter- 
vention.—The  Rebel  Leaders  return  under  American  auspices 
and  resume  Warfare.  — The  Naval  Battle  of  Cavite.  — The 
Effect  in  Madricl. — The  Amorjcan-Spanish  Peace  Commission 
in  ParJH. — Manila  City  capitulates  to  the  Americans.  —  The 
Revolutionary  Government, — PhHippino  Act  o£  Independence. — 
First  Rcvolution.iry  Cotigre*--!. — The  Amerieau-SpaiiiRh  Treaty 
of  Paris       --..---- 


(!  Including  OliRerv^lioii^  _  ..  - 




The  Author  and  his  Serva> 

Taal  Volcano        -  -  -  - 

Mayon  Volcano    -  -  -  - 

A  Negrito  Famii.y 

Anii'O  Idol  .  .  -  - 

A  TouKii  Nkgrito 

n.H.  HAJttTN  Kakrasid,  Sultan  or  Sulii 

A  TAGiLOG  MlI,KWOJ[AN    -  .  - 

A  TagXlou  Townsman 
A  Spanish  Galleon 

A  PjtAHU       -  -  _  -  - 

A  Canoe     -  .  -  -  - 

A  Cabco  (Sailing  Barge) 

A  Sugar  Estate-House,  Southern  Piiu.i 

EiCe-Planting  in  TEititACES 

This  Plantain  (Banana  Treu)    - 

The  Papaw  Treh  and  Li;af 

Cocoanct  Palms    -  -  -  - 

The  old  City  Walls  of  Manila 

La  Escoi.ta. — Tub    Prin(!ipai.    Streiit 


A  Half-Caste  Manila  Belle     - 
A  Village  Market 
A  LuKON  Bungalow 
Tagalog  Women  and  Child 
A  leading  Yisaya  Planter 

-  Fraiitiijiie 
Facing  }iagf 

)i  HOLII 

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A  Uill.NliBE-FlLrriNO  (Mestizo) 


A  EiVEKsinE  'WASiiisti  ScBNE 

Dos  KSIII.IO  AOUINAI.DO      -  -  -  - 

Admiral  Patuicio  MoNTojo 


AitCiiiiisiiOP  Nokai.kda 


Plan  of  tue  Province  or  Cavite 
Pr.AX  siiowrMo  itEr.A'rivE  Positions  <>i'  t 
ASD  Spanish  Siiics — Battlh  or  Oav 

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P  It  O  L  0  G  U  K. 

),  Act  v.,  .V. 

'W'OT  WITH  STANDING  (lie  ihroo  centuries  of  inoro  or  Iohh  comiilete 
Spiiiiisli   iloniiriioii,    lliis    Archipulngo  Jiovcf    raukeil  abyve   the 

most  primitive  of  Colonial  jiosNCSKLOiiK. 

Tbjit  iioworful  nation  wliioli  in  ccntniius  gone  by  wus  Ijuilt  up  of 
IlieriftnH,  Celts,  I'htuiiicians,  Caiiliajfinians,  Viaigotiis,  Romans,  and 
Arabs  wiia  in  its  Konith  of  glory  ivlien  tlie  oonqtieLing  spirit  and 
dauntless  energy  of  its  people  led  tliem  to  gallant  enterprises  of  discovery 
whicli  astoiiisbeil  the  whole  civilised  world.  Itut  they  were  satisfied 
with  conquering  and  leaving  unimproveil  their  conquests.  Kor  did  the 
subsequent  example  of  succeeding  coloiii(?injj  nations  serve  to  qiieudi, 
in  spirit,  their  petrified  coDservatism,  Had  they  followed  up  their 
discoveries  by  social  cniightenincnt, — hy  cncouragcnioDt  to  commerce 
and  by  the  dovelopmcut  of  the  new  resonrces  under  theic  sway — they 
would,  perhaps  even  to  thiw  day,  have  preserved  the  loyalty  of  those  who 
yearned  for  and  obtained  freer  institutions.  Hut  tboy  Jtad  elected  to 
follow  the  principles  of  that  religious  ago,  although  the  impcllcnlmolive 
(if  conquest  was  divided  between  rapacity  and  soul-savhig.  All  wc  can 
crodit  them  with  is  the  conversion  of  millions  to  Ciiristianity  at  t!ie 
expense  of  chcrisliod  liberty;  for,  over  on  the  track  of  that  fearless  band 
of  warriors  followed  the  satellites  of  tlie  Koman  I'ontilT,  rearly  to  pass 
the  breach  openetl  for  Ihcui  by  the  sword,  to  conclndo  the  conquest 
by  llie  persuasive  iiiduenee  of  the  iloly  Cross,  Huccessful  govcnimeiit 
by  ibat  sublime  ctbieal  essence  called  mora!  philosophy  iias  fallen  away 
bi'foro  [(  more  practical  ri;giiiic.  Liberty  to  tbhik,  to  speak,  to  write, 
1<J  trade,  to  travel   was  only  partially  and  reluctantly  yielded  under 


i  I'lIILirriNE  ISLANDS. 

o.vtmiieous  pressure.  The  vciiitlity  ol:  tliu  i;tmqu(:i'oi's  u,LlniHiisl.riil.ioii 
— tho  juridical  oomplicauy,'  want  of  tmlilic  work^i,  w<!ttk  impuriiil 
govfrnmout  ami  !irrof;aiit  lociil  rule,  tciuluil  to  dismomlicr  the  ouuo 
powerful  Kpiitiibli  ICmpirc.  Tlic  hiuno  ciiiiavs  liiivo  X'lwln*'' ''  "'"  f-'i""' 
t^ffocta  in  jill  Spiilii'-.  ili-.l,iril  .  olonl,  -,  :iii,l  lo-U-.v  ihc  moliiiT  .■oiinlry  n 
])ra:;ti<;!illy  diiklli -.s, 

Tim  i-iw!!>u  <.r  Ihf  \\<;Ul  i-.  l,LLt  ll,e  onLcomo  .ji  wars  ai)il 
]H'oliitiiiy  (w  loiij:;  :!•<  the  wiwhl  histn  the  nllimato  iippeal  in  all  r|ne-ti<mh 
will  5ie  imnlc  to  force,  Dotwi(b^tall^lltlg  jiiiptrial  llu^'criiits.  The  hope 
.if  e\ei-  o-vtiii^iiishin^  «arfa)'o  in  nt  im>a<^rc  aH  tlic  julvaiitiif,'!-  Mieli 
ii  .■■hilc  ol  Ihiii!?-,  Houl.l  l>e.  Tlic  ideit  of  totally  siipprcMsiiiK  martini 
lii-lliicl  111  till!  ivhi'it  livili/eil  commnuity  is  as  hopelet-s  aw  (lie  ort'ort 
lo  I'oiivert  all  tlic  liuiiiaii  lacc  lo  one  leligiouh  HyKtoni.  Moreover, 
Ihc  iiiiiivnlnal  Iwnelila  tlfriveil  from  wni'  t,'oiieniUy  exceed  tlie  los^^es 
it  iiiHiotH  on  nlhers  ;  nor  i-  war  im  i-.ol;vtcd  iiinlanee  of  the  lew 
siilferini;  for  the  j-ood  of  llio  niiiny,  "  Sains  jwpuli  Hiipreuia  lex." 
Xearly  every  f.te|i  in  llio  worlil's  jirogn'^H  lias  heou  reached  liy  warfare. 
Ill  iiiodeni  liniun  tho  poa,ce  of  Eiirojie  i-.  only  jriaintaiiietl  hy  the 
I'cjuaiily  of  jiowiT  to  coerce  by  force. 

I.iherly  in  Kiifjimid,  |,'aincd  ouly  l.y  an  CNhil.ilioii  ol  foicc.  wonhl 
havo  i»M«  hwl  I.nt  for  liioodshod.  Tlic  -icat  Anieu^-a.i  Uei>iiMic 
owe^J  itH  existence  to  iiiii  ioevitahle  mean",  and  neitlier  ailiiti-.ilioii, 
moral  persiumion,  nor  scnliinciital  nrgutnenf  would  ever  Iiavecvchatijied 
I'liili|>Iii.,c    monastic    oppi-ession    for   fro'^iloiii    of    flmnfrht   and   kheral 

Thf  ri;,rlit  III  conquest  m  aduii.s-ilil"  when  it  in  cxercl-ud  I'or  the 
ailiani-cnieiii.  ot  civilization,  arn!  the  I'ouqneror  takcK  upon  himself 
tho  moral  olili<i;atioii  to  improve  the  condition  of  the  milijceteit  ]iooples 
and  render  them  hajipier.  How  far  the  >S|)iiiiiaida  of  eacii  yeiieialion 
have  firllilJed  tiiat  oliligatiou  may  lie  judged  from  those  iia^oH,  the 
worku  of  Mr,  W.  II.  I'reweott,  the  writiuj^M  of  I'adre  dc  las  Casas,  and 
otiier  chroniclers  of  ypanir-h  colonial  achievements.  The  ha]>iiiobt 
colony  is  (liaf  which  yearns  for  nothinj;  at  the  hands  of  tho  mother 
countiy  :  (lie  most  dinalile  bonds  ate  tliose  ouffendered  by  gratitude 
and  coiiicntinenf.  Such  bonds  can  never  im  created  by  reli^iona 
teachi))^'  idonc,  iinacoompaniea  by  the   twofold  iuseparablo  conditions 

'  Tbol'C  is  s  Hnanifih  snjifis  '■  fjisicii  l'i>"  '"j  ley  hiso  la  Iraiiipa," 


orninii  Lui  luauiil  impi.vfiiiLil  I  i  ]'>  lUsI  l.i  li  i  c  i  uil  j  inti  c, 
jiiouil  L\  im|>lt,  ml  (,  nisi  ml  .lie  In  tlio  iniitii  il  wit  ir  ..t  tlio  pcojilB 
iiiivt  rivolod  OKI  doHimiiHi  willioiit  Lhc  I  sjicu-i  vlili  iljim  !•  "  iti 
(iiiforLt,!  Slitorolyiou  lh(  it-ul  i  ivill  iikI^  Avlif.lli(,i  the  Spiiijarda 
cri'i  iHcdfliclim  '  ivili/itioiiini  tlic  laici  tlicy  -fubliicd,  Un,  a'?  miiukiiiJ 
liHiio  ]iliilos(iplii(  iliiitcnonof  tiutli,  it  is  i  mat  to  oC  opinmii  ivhoetlio 
iiKpollutcil  toiiiitiiii  <-l  (-111  liKLst  moLrii  cnili/tlioii  i-^  l>  In  found 
It  H  ibimtd  l.y  Cliiiit    ltd  hv   I  «i<.[R       111   llx.,  uiiumsc  ib 

S(lnsmitl(    oil  IllL   Mlll|l  1  t 

Tiiaiidt.  UCouL'p  i)n,'i\liuw Id    hst     ij|iii\,l.ists  Hit  Si    i  mids' 

ii^dit  io  (ouipiwl  hol.lyoii  tilt   lUi^'ioiis  tl.imj       lit,  iiHiims  Hut  tiio 

Spiiii-,li  Kiii^s  iiiliLiilotl    I  diviiK  n^lit  to  tliisc  I'-Uiids,  tlieii    1  mitiiion 

liuiu'dirctly  puipliiMul  iii  tliu  IStli  ( liiijitu  »l   Isuiili       VU  .,  llitt  Ja 

CtoiI  ^  iv<.  oit-i  lilt  I  mil  ot  C  III  mil  t    tlio  t  liil  liui  ol  iM-icI,  ■-<.  di  1  lie 

!L«  ul  tills  1.  iilDiy  li>  flit,  Cisliliin    iiioiiiimib      Ik  a  4iiro«i  lis  that 

tills,  iticcssi.m  li.mi  lit  uen  ttiiH  inriliiiin..l   Ij  iip..-.til<    iiillitiil'.-'  iiid 

I.J  "tlio  iiJtiij  iittiiiksl   jmiiiclcs  wjtii  will.  Ii  (.od,  lilt.  "\  ii-,iii  in  1  the 

Sums    IS  uiviliiri  h  <>l   0111    urns,  Itiii  .iislnitul   il     iiii.(ii(sIm>ii  il.lo 

1     I        '     Sidil  Aii-,fi  liiK,  111  sjntts,  (oiisiiltii,(l  il  a    111  to  loiil  t  llic 

li  \  V.    I  wliiili  (jco  I  dittiiniin,s,  Init,  la  it   It,  i  t,iiioiiil  citd    tlie 

11)1    V  III//  (iisi-tc  1  tlinl  till  IV Olid  Wis  Hilt  and  fliat  tlit.  -iiii  liid  t-vtry 

ni^dil  Ltliiiid  I  ill  .ill  tun  '     Ut  .aiiiiot  tvpt,Lt  oniit  iij  /iioh  1     I  it-  iii 

ilvantt  of  tilt,  (  uUmi,  tl  Ins  _,cintiitnni  -Inil  Aii^iistiin,  wis   i     nut  i:i 

Cinild  not  tliti  MiisKtiliimiis  iiso  Uic  soul-waving  argument  with 
ivspuct  t.i)  titu  SiillantUo  t.r  Sidii  ?  ![nn  not  Islam  loscimd  tlwm  ftoin 
.^..niiikti!  liavlinriKiiiiiiid  l>itiiij,4it  tlioiii  t^i  liic  fold  of  llio  Groat  I'rophct  ? 
Il:i.\,>  not  ii|i,)-i;il(-w,l'  tl„.  Ifomi.^li  (.'limrli,,)r,  at  least,  tliuif  dewcfiuhiiitK, 
iis  s,ii-i!r..sliill>  isl^thlisl.cil  .lomiiiiun  in  Uiitlsli  liidiii  iis  ihu  SpiHiiaiild 
li.'Lvi!  Ill  ilirir  lii,(i(  1  :-  A.II^'y  lor]ile:it  <;aiiiiot,  howovor,  l)e 
h<iui-\  ill  Ihi:  lU'-ii-ii  Io  n|ii-oad  any  particular  n;lif!;ioii,  inoctj  ospotiially 
wIiriiHc  Ileal,  ol'  {'iirlsl iaiiily,  wliiiso  l>eiiij;iirivdiain;e  w:is  ovorwbsulowed 

-  "  Ni.  I's  iiLiiessimii  talilioiir  t:l  iUtocIiu  il  taks  reiiicia  li  domiiiii^.  ps[H!ciiil- 
"  mente  oiiti'c  viisalloa  di;  reyiis  tan  jiistos  y  Catli61icos  y  tan  obuiliiinles  liijrjs  du 
''  la  Huprmua  autorlilad  apwloUca  con  cuia  liiuultad  hart  otniiiudc  catas  regiunea." 

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by  that  deliiisiiig  iiiMLitiitiuii  tlio  liiqiijsitiuiu  wiiicli  sodglit  out  tin; 
brightest  intellects  only  to  Jeati'oy  tiieiii. 

It  will  lio  seen  on  fdtiirc  pages  that  the  <;overiimciit  of  these  islands 
was  practically  as  theocratic  as  it  was  civil.  Upon  the  religions  principle 
were  founded  its  statutes,  and  the  reader  will  now  uudcrstant!  the 
source  whence  the  inuuiuerablo  Church  and  State  contentions  originated. 
Cbristiaoity  ga^-c  trouble  from  the  first  time  it  booaine  a  force  in  Itorao, 
foi  under  its  vitl  arofo  the  mutniy  of  the  Lniperor  Dioelttian'i  Boldiera. 
The  tendency  has  alw  nj  -i  been  to  combnio  politu  il  power  iviEli 
Christian  teachiu^,  ind  in  Rome  the  first  conflut'!  with  religion  were 
the  attempts,  finallj  suceos&ful,  to  huLld  np  i  go\ernnient  within  a 
government  tn  mlcpcniuit  tnipLic  o\<,r  incn\  mind"  within  (he 
Roniiin  1  mpiiL 

IIi-:toricaI  fiLts  kul  (ii  to  rri  (nin  U  >v,  fu  ams  S)  hi  over  a 
nwrtil  [lofeutnl  fittoi  in  tin,  HoiUa  piugitii  ui  1  it  \\i  (.liiiiinatc 
the  mfiiial  ettcrt  of  her  militiiy  SHecesso-,  would  it  not  le  more 
correct  lo  speiL  ot  tht,  j;ridsial  duline  rnibtr  thin  Iho  rise  of  all 
Spvuish  colonr^ation  ''  lot  the  lepoat-cd  stinggles  for  liheitj,  genera- 
tion after  gtiiei  itiou,  in  nli  lipr  colonies,  tend  to  show  thit  Spain's 
sovertignt)  wis  miiiitained  through  th(,  inspirition  of  feir  rather 
than  lo\i,  and  sj mpnthj ,  and  thit  slie  ontiiilj  fnl  I  i)  nn  lor  her 
colonial  Hiili]C(-ts  happier  than  thcv  wcio  before 

Hint  \iiiu]<-a'a  Lonccption  of  the  nioni  dudes  iMJthiii^  to  iiijuesl 
will  bo  veiT  diirerent  to  theirs  ciui  hardly  be  a  subject  of  doubL. 


CliAPTKK     I. 


The  I'liilippiiic  Islnmls,  with  the  Snhi  Protoctor.Uc,  cxtami  .1  liltlc 
over  fiixteeii  dcgroes  of  latitiulc — from  4"^  i't'  to  21'  K. — ;ii»l  nimibcr 
some  600  iniiimls,  manj  of  wJiidi  arc  mcro  islets.  The  elyvoii  islnjiils 
oE  primary  gcograjihicsil  importance  aro  Lukoii,  iliiidjiniio,  Samar, 
I'miay,  Ncwrds,  Palai'i;tii  (i'aragii.a),  Miniioro,  Lcyte,  Cchu,  Miisb.ite, 
and  Bojol.      The  total  iiroa   in  ainiroximiitely  coiiipiiteil  to  lie  aijoiil 

,300   Kqiiaro  1 

lies.     Adcieii 

nmps   sliriw  tlie 

Hlamls  ituil  proviucoft 

1(1  er  a  different 


for  osniiiplc  : — 



)     5lii»l<,ro. 


Cclj  l'l. 


i     t;--!'"- 




1     Sainai*. 


A 11. ay. 






M.iiiiht  !'"■ 




iiidfimi.  P" 


(ho  LsJaiidw  [luf.  togetlior.  Liixoti  if  Mai.l  to  have  about  40,0(M)  square 
iiiiieH  of  laud  area,  Tiie  TLorthoriL  half  of  Luzon  ia  a  inotmtainoua 
legion  foniied  by  ranLiilciittons  of  the  great  eordillcras,  which  run  N.fii. 
All  Ihc  isiiiiMis  iire  iiioiinlainons    in    tlie  interior,  the  prineipnl  jiwtks 


(Miridoro)    KS(W 


-     (JI- 


-        (1 

San  Cr 


Soiitli  Carahallo  „ 
JIa<niilirig  „ 



Most  of  tliOHf!  moantaiiiH  mid  milmnlLimtn  rniiRCS  nrc  tliipkly 
coverett  with  forost  am\  light,  wiiilst  tlic  stntoly  trecH  are 
gaily  foNtoimwl  witlt  <r!iistoriiig  iircoiitirs  iiiul  flowpvin^  juirRHitos  of  liic 
most  lirillitiiit  iimw.  'I'h<>  Miiyoii,  wliidi  is  iiii  active  toIcmio,  is 
cojnpiimlivdy  Um:.  wliilnl.  iilso  llio  Apo,  jvlflioiigli  iw  loiij^'cr  in 
eruption,  oxliiliits  nbmulaiit  trafuw  of  voiciiruc  iu;|.ioii  in  tu:n:»  tif  lii.vii 
iiiiil  blaekoiioil  seoria>,  JJotAvooii  llic  iiiimliorlc^N  vangcK  iiro  liixiLTiuiil. 
plains  glowJLifr  in  ,il!  (|io  fi])l(iiiilotir  of  tcopi'Mil  v(!;T(.|.ftt.LOii.  Tlio  valloys, 
frciiei-ally  of  rich  fertility,  ure  uboiit  ono-tliinl  nmloc 

Tliero    ;iro    muTioroiis    rivci-s.    few    cC    wiiir!,    :,iv    ii.!viKii.lil<'    l>y 

KCii-;,'niTig  ships. 
l{iv(M',  Init  tiiis  is  . 

A'-rssels  dr 
]<«.  to  iho  1 

irtifieinl  uioiuis 

I:;  W-'A  <-.,.t, 

TlK.  prim-ipul 

Kiveifi  itrc 

:— 111    Ln:„i, 

/s/„w/  1lio 

(V^jiiii,  whii^li  r 

isofi  ill  the 

Soiilh  (.;.tra.lpi 

dio  mouiil! 

of  Ihc   y\niu\,  irml 

niiiK  ill  ;i 

tortuous    sfri' 

nm    l<i    llie 

Jt  lias  two  chief 

0.lllllClit8,    t 

lie  Itio  Chi.'o 

d,.    Cit.,-!^y 

Magat,  bcsiilns  !i  i 

iiiunlior  of  strojiiris  whi>li 

find  Iheir 

roiirso,     Stciimorh' 

of  11  feet 

draught  lifive  < 

^iifercl  l!i(! 

ihe  saiiil  slioals  iit 
is  closed  to  iiitvif; 

the  mouth 
■a1ioi!.     Til 

iiTC  very  whifly 
e  river,  wiiieii 

yearly  iivc 

Is  hanks, 

hathes  llio  great  Ciigiiyau  Valley,— llin  riciicsl  lr)h;ieeo  '^'nnviiig  .listiiel. 
in  fhecolouy.  Jumieuso  tmtdvfl  of  Irees  are  earri.d  down  in  liie  h<rn-nt. 
with  groat  riipidity,  rciiderinfj  it  impo.saihlo  f<ir  even  sniidi  end) — die 
/ifir'ti/i/in/riiics — to  inakc  llieir  way  np  or  down  I  lie  vi  vei'  a.l  I  li;if.  |icriod. 

The  liio  Griitido  (hi  la  J'ampaiiga  riws   in   lli.^  Sfune   iiinuuiaiu  ami 
llowK   in  tlie   opposite   direelioii — simlliwan 
plain  until  it  oniptics  itself  l.y  some  ^0  uioi 
The  whole  of  tho  I'auipangii.  Viilley  and  the 
a  beautiful  panoi-ama  from  the  Kuramit  of  Ai'ayat  i 
an  elevation  of  2,877  feet  tihovo  the  sea  level. 

Tho  whole  of  this  ilat  country  is  laid  out  into  emlianki'd  ru'e  lirlds 
and  sugar-ciLDC  plantations,  Tho  tiiwus  and  villages  iiitois]iersed  arc 
Humorous,  All  the  primeval  forest,  at  one  time  dense,  has  disjvjiposirod ; 
for  this  heiug  one  of  tho  iirst  diKtricts  brought  under  liuropoan 
subjectioJi,  it  supplied  timber  to  llie  iuvadors  from  the  ('arlir"'t  days  of 
Spanish  coloidsatioii. 

The  Itio  Agiio  rise^  in  a  mounlainoiis  range  l,nv».nls  the  wesi.cnaM. 
nliniit  r,t)  milcF  N.N.W.  nf  the  South  Carabailo— runs  soitthwards  as 

lliroiiKJi   an    i: 


into  the  Man 

ila  liay. 

■-se  of  ihe  j-ivoi 

■  present 

moiiiilaiii,  wl 

ileh  hiis 


GENKUAr,    DEHCUIPTION   OV    ITIK   Ai;Cllll.'IOr.Ai;o.  ( 

fr    islif    16  ,  wiiero  it  (akcs  1  S  \V    d]  c  tion  down  lo  hi    1.    Is  — 

thtncc  1  NW  coursn  up  to  lat  lb  ,  whcmo  it  empties  itfdf  \i\  two 

iiioiiliis    n(<i  f!i(    <iiitt  ot  Liuffijcii      At-  flio  IjiRliest  lulcs  tlictc  i"  n 

mixiraiiin  <loplh  .i[  II  ft.  t  ot  u  tf  i  on  l!ie  sj,!!  I  lnuk  it  tlio  L  moiitli, 

on  which  IS  sitinito'l  tlic  port  of  Daf^upiii 

11k  ItiLoiKivtr,  mJikIi  ffows  iiom  111    I!  I      I    '      1     H      1   i-*  <  f 

Sim  Mir,ii«l,li.s  Mifliutiil  -Iqitli  ol  w  itn    K     iliii     m    ■.  1       I     1 1  il 

iliitii  'lit  -i  ftw  links  lip  Tioin  Its  1110  il  h 

III    Miiiii'/nw  MkiiiI  thr    JSiilii  ill  Rivoi  oi    U  j  A  ..   i     .is  ,  ,\ 

(lislaiKuol  aloiil  J'i  iiiilis  fmiii  the  s'Miih  1  1  il  niij  I    -,    if     11 

oil  Hio  notlhciii  <oi  t,    so  (hit    If  !i   111)     Uilslh     ihil     ,    li 

iiin^'iMi   foi       ^(^^  iiiihi  fr  im  th.   month 

lli(  liio  Grnnln  .h  Mm  Ian  lO  iis<s  m  thi  uiilic  ol  Ih.  ,shn  1 
iirl  nnpl  ts  itstll  oil   llu    AiLsl    (oast  1  y  tw  o  moiifli      mi!    isniM-tlli 

fi       m.  mit  s  h>    lij:ht  .lim^'hl  sk  mins.     Jt  li  ,s    i  „'r<  il  nuii.l  ( j  ol 


J  lie  onh  n\er  in  Aiijriis  I  liiiiil  i  iiv  i|  1 1  <  Ih  \leil  i  lli 
Dm.o,  nhidiiisci  infho  inonnliin  iiii„  inni.ii  ■■  I  w  l!  it  I 
lh<  Hinl    mil  !iii(|.<  .tv  oiMi  t  oi,  the  uts(  .  .,sl      Al    tl     n  mi     \ 

ilfiil    t,<|iitil(t  .  Ta  mile  \H(l  ,   l>iit  loo  sliilloiv  to  j    in  it  I   i^     \. 
(oMilM,  iHJion^'h  [.isl    Ih.    Ill  .iiih   it    )i,     '.iifl    I  111    [  I  II    I   I  s|    I 

]  iuu.   lci>.i    11).   Ill      in   I    s      1      n   '    i    ir         in      1  ii  I       .         , 

hnt  timlier  ii    n    it     1  t  I  s   i     1 1  n\  ]  I  II  n  I   in        it     |    i 

out  vci^  wiih.rlK   siIl     I  li  i  itiiii^  in  ii  ^i  m      w     ni 

ihomo'itimiHirtiiil  Lik.s  ire  —hi  /"wroK  T-,1:- .  I  Ih  V,  ,\  T  I 
oi  La^'Hiiiih  ]!a\,  hiippli  i!  in  immh.ilcis  siimli  s|u  mis,  min^  m 
Hk  moniitiiinon'<  disdi.t  noiin.l  ii  Its  ^  i  n^'fh  lioni  J  \>\\ 
IS  2)  mill*,  iiid  lis  ^Kiitr  I  liLiilth  Js  lo  S  il  links  Jii  it  (inrf  i-,  i, 
momitiinousislin.[--i  ilini,— of  no  ii^'tiuiKni  il  inijiortiiid,  iiiil  s(\ci-it 
i-ikls.  [tsoiedhm  forms  the  I'lsig  Kni,r,  ^^incil  tmptiL-i  ifHi,lf  nilo 
theMimla]ii\  Euii  i><.t  season— in  the  mi.hlh  «t  fho  je>r— the 
i-hoiis  ot  this  iakf  in  floolrd  J  hcic  floods  rci c(k  h  th<  h,  s,  i^on 
apjiro  idles,  hnt  only  piirti  ill^  so  fiom  the  sonlli  loisl  Miidi  i 
f,'i  idnally  I  cm^  imoipoi  itnl  into  Ihi,  J  tkc  hod 

Lake    TSomlion,   in  tho  inilte   of   whidi  h    i  -mh  mo  m  f  n  s|      f 
actiTilj,hisa  wulthE.  lo'W    orilmiks,  md  it's  h  n^th  liom  h    t.s 
rs  1  i  milts      'I  he  origin  of  this  lake  IS    ippiruitly  vol.  iniL       It    i      n 
Buppiicd  liy  any  streams  oiiiplyinf;  themsclveB  ioto  it  (further  than  two 

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8  i'iniJi'rj>:r,  islands, 

insisTiifiRniil,  liviilciu),  ;uid  1(  is  coimccteil  wiih  llio  son,  l)y  llio  raiiKipii 
Rivor,  wWwU  fl.Kvs  iiilo,-  (JulC  .>f  H;i,iii.yah  id,  l;i(..  l.'P  52'  N. 

Ciigajari  Lake,  In  tlic  <'x<r(;iiH'  N-K.  •■!  III.!  jsliiiid,  Is  iil.uuf,  7  iiiil.'S 
long  l.y  .-)  inilos  Ixoiul. 

Lake  Biito,  a  i.iiic^  ncrass  vn<-h  way,  iiiui  Liikr  iSiilii.  :i  miles  K.S. 
and  2^  milcR  wiilo,  siiUiitoUii  tliovnslcni  fisln,i,iily  of  .Isliiml, 
are  very  sliiiilow. 

Ill  tlio  c'ciifro  of  Ltikoii  Jsliiiiil,  in  tlic  liirgo  vidloy  wiilcro<l  liy 
the  sil'ovo-mcntifiiicd  l*jiinpaii!r;i  lunl  Af^no  Itivera,  arc  tliroo  liikes 
voHiieetivdy  :  Cniiiirem,  M;.nf,'nl><>l  ii,n,l  Caii.hivii ;  (lie,  l.wn  iwing 
lowlrtiid  ninros  floiidoil  and  navigjililc  l>j'  Riinoos  in  l.lie rainy  season  only. 

In  Miii'lori>  Isliind  tJicrc  is  one  lake  eallod  Kii,ujnn,  2J  iiiilos  frtini 
the  N.K.  want.     Its  grciitost  widlli  is  ;t  iniieH  witii  4  mikiw  in  kiiigtli. 

In  Mindanao  Tslttiid  thuro  are  the  Liibos  Miigniiidanao  or  Boajnn, 
iu  the  ociitro  of  tlio  island  {20  milos  K.VV.  l.y  Vi  U.S.)  ;  Malamio, 
18  miles  distant  from  tlie  worth  ooast ;  Lignasiin  iinil  Uuliian  lowards 
the  south,  coniiecto.1  with  tlio  ]{io  Oramlu  ilc  JUndaiino,  and  a  giiMiii 
of  four  enmli  lakos  on  the  Agiwiiati  Kivor. 

The  Malanao  l,akc  Inis  gr('it,t  iiisl.oricai  iissoeialions  ivilli  flio 
Struggles  Iwtweon.  Cliri^Hitus  i^ud  Moslems  dm-iiig  the  jifrioil  of  flio 
Spanish  t-onc|neBt.. 

In  some  of  tlie  straits  dividing  Ihe  tlieie  .iw  htmng 
currents,  rendering  navigation  of  sailing  vessels  very  ■tiflieult,  notalily 
ill  the  Hini  ISoriiadino  Straiti-,  separating  the  Islands  of  Luzon  and 
Samar  ;  the  roiidsteail  of  Tioiio  Ivotween  I'anuy  and  Gtii] Harms 
laliinds,  and  the  passage  hotween  the  soulh  |ioiuls  of  ('eln'i  and 
Negros  Islands. 

Most,  oE  the  islets,  if  not  indeed  the  whole  Archipelago,  are  of 
volcanic  origin.  There  are  many  volcanoes,  two  of  iheiii  hi  almost 
coiistitiit  antivity,  viz.,  the  Mayon,  in  the  cxfrcmn  east  of  Luzon 
Island,  and  the  T:iid  Voleiiiio,  in  tho  oeiitre  of  Itomhon  Lake,  Si  miles 
due  south  of  Manila.  Also  in  ISegros  Islaiiil  tho  Caidanan  Volcano 
— N.  lat.  10°  24'— 13  occasionally  in  visihio  eruption.  In  1886  a 
portion  of  its  crater  auhsided,  aeconiparded  hy  a  tremendous  uoise  and 
a  slight  ejection  of  lava.  Jii  the  piclurcsque  Island  of  Caniiguin,  a 
volcano  mountain  suddenly  arose  from  the  plain  in  1872, 

The  MiiijDii.  Vo/cnim  is  in  the  Province  of  Albay,  heiieo  it  is 
popularly  known  as  the  Alhay  Volcano.     Aroiiud   its  hase  there  arf^ 




tlioro  Avu 

s  a.  H(ii 

iiiKl  Mftli 

ILILll,     1) 

a,  ntdiiiK 

of  20 

iliiriiig  two  inO( 


lonii   11 

iCMEKAi.  divSOHTPTIOn  (if  titf  Aiirnivi;i,.\fii\  !* 

WLH  :imi  \iiia;;v.^,  liio  rhk-t  UAu^  Aih^iy,  liic  .■iLjiiii,!  of  tli<; 
Ciigsiiua  (iialloi!  Daruga)  anil  Cainalitij;  uri  ilio  one  siilc,  nm\ 
cfc.  nil  the  Ki.lo  faciti-;  tlto  east  tioast.  In  176!) 
IB  oni[)t.L'ni,  whidi  ilcstroypil  ti\c.  iowiis  of  C'ligsaiia 
liss  snvcM-;tl  villages;  ami  <luvitst4i(cil  i)ro]>erLj  williin 
Igs.  La\a.  anil  asiioK  wore  lliraivii  out  iifreSMaiilly 
5, and  cataracts  ol'  watuf  were  fonncil.  In  181 1  loiicl 
3S  wei'C!  Iioiini  proworiing  from  llic  volpano,  wliicli 
<;aiisei!  Ilin  iiiliabitaiits  tiroiinil  to  Eoar  an  oarJy  roiiewal  of  its  aptivitj, 
Imt  their  iniwfortiino  was  postjioiipd.  On  tiie  1st  of  Felini^iiy,  1S14,' 
it  Imrst  with  ton-ihlo  violence.  Ca<;sai!a,  !!aili:r<),  and  three  otiior 
towns  wcro  totally  demoliKlictl,  Stones  and  ii^^hos  were  ejeeted  in  all 
directions.  The  inlmhiliints  Hod  lo  cavos  to  shelter  themselves.  So 
Hiiddcii  was  Hio  oconrrenec,  tiiat  many  natives  were  overtaken  hy  Iho 
voleanic  projcetrlcf!  and  a  few  liy  lavji  streams.  In  CagRaiia  nearly 
all  pi-o]ierty  was  lost.  Father  Aragoneses  csfimates  Unit  2,200 
persons  wcro  killed,  Ijosides  many  being  wonrnled. 

An  eri([)tion  took  place  in  the  Spring  of  ItiST,  hiif,  only  a  Mnal! 
quantity  of  ashes  was  tinyiwn  out  and  did  very  Utile  or  no  damage  fo 
tlie  pi-opevty  in  the  BtiTrounding  towns  ami  villages. 

The  eraptioii  of  the  9t)i  of  July,  ]88K,  severely  damage.1  the  towns 
of  Liiiog  and  Legaspi ;  plantations  were  destroyed  in  tJie  villages  of 
Bigai'v  iind  lioiieo  ;  several  houses  wcro  Ih'cd,  others  had  llie  roofH 
criisiiwl  in  ;  a.  great  many  doniestie  animals  were  killed  ;  (iffeon  iialives 
lost  their  lives,  iind  the  loss  of  live  stock  (liuffaioes  and  oxen)  was 
estimated  at  -"lOO.  Tlic  ejection  of  lava  and  ashes  and  stones  from 
tlie  erator  eonlinued  for  one  night,  which  was  illuminated  hv  a  eoliLnm 
of  lire. 

The  last  ei-nption  oeenrrod  in  Miiy,  1897.  Showers  of  red-hot  lava 
feli  like  rain  in  a  radids  of  20  miles  ffom  ibc  eratei'.  Jii  Iheimmediale 
environs  about  400  persons  were  killed.  In  (he  village  of  liacacay 
houses  were  entirely  buried  lienoatli  llie  lava  ashes  anil  satnl.  The  rond 
In  the  port  ofLogaspi  was  p^vcrei.1  out  of  sigh  I.  In  (he  im|)ortnnt  town 
of  Tohaeo  there  was  total  darkness  and  the  curfli  ojienod,  Ileni]) 
planlations  and  a  large  number  of  cattle  were  destroyed.     In  Lilmg 

'  Vidi'  pannihlct  5)iib.  immcillaldy  aflev  the  OTcnt  by  l<';itlici-  I'raiiciscn 
.iraKOtiLflcs.  I'.r.  of  C'a^'Faiia.  Vyirint;  alms  fnr  IIi':  vidim?. 


10  i'llILIlTINlO    ISI.ANBS. 

ICO     HI   t     I    ter    I    (1      li  II     J    mlel    of  S      I  o| 

Misorco  1  t  a  I  S^  to  ]S  no  tli  ov  ISJ  !  nl  tit  f  vcre 
c      jlot  I       ov  r  I      tl    1  „    //  At      „H  II  !        E 

tl  c  (    r-       I  m     1  „     1    tl  1       f  t        o     t     c  1  I 

I J  1        s  1  U  H  c  1    o       ^  of  o      1       ft    V I         1         1    I  I     „r      1 

I    t   t   Vft    tl     p       I     t  p   11        nl        (V     I      I    IfiMcf  1!       Ur|  r 

i"  '"J  1 

11  (ft  I    M     I        I      J     I  1  1 

(»  f     tU   icrjc    II  II       I    I  1  1  II        I  I  II 

r        I     1  t  1        H  I    II  11  lei  Ml 

1   nk  1    s  1  c      CO    I  il    1  ftt  i    t    ccn  S    (H)       I  S  HH  f    I      J  i    v    I  o 
111     1  HI         1  S       1       1    t     !  1     t      0  (1 

I  11         (  (D  )      O        cl  I  t     !       lie  I 

II  I  II  I  H)  toft    vf  on  tic     oil 

/     /    1    /  ti         I      1     t  tl  p  li  m!        Ik        1        II 

I  !1      ]o  I J    (1  1        V   o  tc  I         llo      i  t  1  III 

Ih    f      0        1  J !  i  I        I  oe  i  f    f  i> 

o     1        !  jc    fto       I  I  X       ]1  1  1 

tf (,  I       U  o  f     f  o        f  1     to       I       1  ort  II  I  1 

i    41      a„  1   0)  fl  c      ivtc       o  II  I  If 

iLoi>(.  ,  on  tlic  21st  of  Scptcmlxr,  I, Id,  it  Ini.  w  luM.  binniri^  htniiL,'. 
iirul  la\  I  mtr  tlii,  mIioIo  islaml  from  which  if  rise-,  Imt  so  1  vr,  no  hiiim 
ii..l  liLldlon  the  Mllimrs  in  it-.  Munitj  Jn  17.1  liom  tho  w  itus 
of  Jholiilc  (hict  tiill  tohimn^of  cttfh  iiidsmd  nosi  m  a  few  .hjs 
tioitii  ilh  hiilisulLii^  into  till  form  of  nil  islitii!  ilioiil  ii  inik  it) 
,u  mntut-n  t  In  174% (hue  wis  i  f  uiioiis  ottti  u  ■•fnhi  lnTil  i<  u  .Ini 
Ih         mU   m  ]«  i!    .tf  (Ik    \  .1.  m  >   i<  u  ii^  ll      r    iii      I      I       J         ,| 

Hi  l.sf  mil  II,,  I  .(.sohfiiu  of  'ill  11  mill. is  I  ni^iidn 
oLcuMLil  111  the  Miir  ITii,  wliGii  the  stones,  lua,  aslios,  ami  inivts  of 
iliL  liko,  <  uised  \>\  volcanic  iHtion,  conliilmtu!  to  tb(,  nttci  doflnictum 
of  tliL  toHiiao)  'liuif.  Inn  mill,  Siila  mid  Lipi  imil  sprioitilj  d  imti,;ti! 
jiioiicitj  1"  ItilttMin,  l")  miks  11WI17,  wIiiLst  (indeM  luo  Binl  to  hue 
icadicd  Mtiiilii,  jl  miios  distitiit  tu  >,  atniglit  liiio  Ono  wntcr  sins  m 
Iw:   VS  'inmiiikd  3t>  jears  attei  the  ocennenoo  tlint  people  in  MiitiiK 

il  111     \    de   IliHn  IS      |o     n    I'dlD  Amlrta  (It  L-nUu  J  Ain-uifs 

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(iKNKKAl,    DKhCKII'TIOX    OK   TITI';    AKC1lII'KI,A(i().  II 

ilium!  wiUi  liglitol  csiinlles  iit  miil-ilny  tud  wiilXcd  ilimil  tin  '■trods 
(lonfoimdoit  ami  tliuii  dors  trunk,  (tliniioiii  iii^  for  tonicssioti  diiriiifr  tin, 
fiiijht,  diiy3  thfit  the  caliimity  was  vifli1)lc  The  mtlior  adds  tint  fhf 
smoll  oE  tlio  sulphur  find  fire  bisted  six  nionth'i  sifter  the  t\ciit  and  ims 
followed  liy  miilit^iiaiit  fover,  to  whicli  ludf  tin.  mil  il)](  iiif  il  lln 
province  Foil  victims.  Moreover,  Jidds  (lie  widci,  liii  Id  i  v,  ilri 
throw  tip  dcnd  iilligiitors  iiiid  fish,  iii(diidin^  shaikh. 

Tiie  iicst  dotailod  acooiint  cxtittit  ifltluit  of  llic  pm-h  jiui  st  ot  Siij  i 
at  the  time  of  the  event.'  Ho  says  that  iboiit  1 1  o'l  loi  1  it  iii^ht  on  tlic 
llth  of  August,  1749,  he  »:i\v  a  strong  li^'lit  <m  thi,  top  of  tlio  A  oh  mo 
JkIiihiI,  Ixit  ilid  not  tal(o  furthor  iiotict  lie  ncnl  to  jsUop,  iihcii  it 
3  o'olook  IhoiTcxt  morning  ho  liciivil  a  gradiiallv  mcici'-ing  noi-t  like 
iirtillery  firing,  which  ho  unpposfd  wonid  piocti  d  tioiu  the  ^inn  of  tho 
gitlloori  cxjiwted  in  Mnuila  from  Mcxir-o,  salnfm-r  the  S^nltn!^>  of 
Our  Liidy  of  Ciif^-saywiy  whilst  pawsLiig  II  onh  I  n  imi  uiMons 
ivlion  the  ininilicr  of  nIioIs  Iio  hoard  fai  exceeded  tlir'ro\jilMliito,  loj  Ik 
iiud  :i\ri-M\y  c;oiiiitod  a  huiidred  times  imd  --tdl  it  i  ontmiie.1  So  lie  iiosi , 
r.\\i\  il.  (HTiirrod  to  him  that  there  ini^lit  he  i  nil  tl  cnga^'inic  nt  eiFlht, 
eo;iK(,.  Jlo  was  soon  nndencived,  for  foui  old  n  i1  w  e-.  smhif  nly  <  illcd  on( 
"  Father,  lot  us  !lcc  !  "  and  on  hiw  cnipurj  tii(  i  nifoimeil  h  m  thai  lh(, 
island  Imd  hnrst,  henco  the  noise.  Uaj  light  i  imc  and  exposed  to  viow 
an  immense  eoJQinn  of  sinoko  gushing  from  tliL  simmiil  of  the  ^okatio, 
and  hoTO  mid  there  from  its  sidcw  smnlki  stieims  lose  liki  plume'-  lie 
was  joyed  at  the  spoctacle,  whidi  interested  linn  so  jnotoiindlj  th  it 
he  did  not  liecd  l.he  exhortations  of  the  iiitnes  lo  eMiipe  fiom  the 
graiiil  hut  awftd  seoue.  It  was  a  magnifii  cut  sight  to  w  jiteh  mountiiiiih 
of  sand  hinlcd  from  the  lake  into  the  air  in  the  form  of  cie<  t  pyniniid-" 
and  then  falluig  ngaiii  like  the  stream  from  a  foinil  im  lel  Whil«t 
eontemplating  this  itriposing  phenomenon  Aiitli  tninqml  delight,  a 
Htrong  earthquake  eamo  and  upset  cvi.r3'tliiiig  in  llic  (oiuonf  'llien 
he  reflected  that  it  might  ho  time  te  go  ,  pillais  of  sand  aseendcd  oul 
ol'  the  walor  iieiirer  to  the  slioro  of  the  town  iiid  loiniinul  erect  until, 
hy  a  Kceoiid  eartlnpiake,  they,  with  the  tiers  on  flu  isjcf,  ver<  \.o1liiII> 
thrown  down  and  submerged  in  the  laki         lli<    i  irtii   opened  oul    heie 

'  .l/^iS'.cxlmiislivo  rqinrt  .>r  tin;  rTiiiiHons  iif  Tii 
iilcil  2'Jn(I  ]).«emlHr  l7-'rl,  cimijiDucI  Ly  Fr.'iy  h'r.iii 
1  Ihc  archives  of  ihu  Cofpotatiou  of  KL,  AutfUisUne  ir 



ftiul  there  as  far  ns  the  shores  of  the  LaguDii  lio  Bay,  and  Ihe  lauila  of 
Salii  and  Taualiaii  shiftcil.  Streams  found  now  beds  and  look  other 
courses,  wliilst  in  several  places  ti-ecs  were  engulfed  in  the  fissures  made 
in  the  soil.  Houses,  whicii  one  uaeil  to  go  up  into,  one  now  iiad  to  go 
down  into,  hut  the  natives  continued  to  iijhahit  them  withont  tbc  least 

Tlie  volcano,  on  tliis  occasion,  ivaa  in  activity  for  three  weeks  ; 
the  first  three  days  ashes  fell  like  rain,  x\fter  tliiB  incident,  the  natives 
extracted  snlplmr  from  the  open  crater,  and  continued  to  do  so  iiutil  the 
year  1754. 

h\  that  year  (iT.'ii),  the  fiamo  c!n-onicler  eontinnes,  between  nine 
anil  ton  o'clock  at  night  on  the  liith  of  May,  the  volcano  ejected 
hoiling  lava,  which  ran  dowu  its  sides  iii  snch  qnantitios  that  only 
tho  waters  of  the  lake  aaveit  the  people  on  shore  from  being  bnrnt. 
Towards  the  north,  atones  reached  the  shore  and  foil  in  a  place 
caltcil  iiayoyongan,  in  tho  jurisdiction  of  Taa!.  Stones  aad  fire 
incessantly  uame  from  the  crater  until  the  2nd  of  Juno,  when  a  vohimo 
of  smoke  arose  which  seemed  to  meet  the  sbicM.  It  was  cle.arly  seen 
from  Banau,  which  is  on  a  low  level  about  four  leagues  (14  miles) 
from  tho  lake. 

Matters  continued   so   until   tho    10th   of  -Inly,  when  there  fell  a 

I  ea        I  o  V     of    uid  as  black  as  ink.     The  wind  changed  its  direction, 
a    1        K  1     1    of  Sala,  called  Balili,  was  swamped  with  mud.     This 

I I  o  Be  o  It  accompanied  by  a  noise  so  gi-cat,  that  the  [leople  of 
Bftta  ga  an  I  B  an,  who  that  day  1  a  I  see  tl  e  „allco  fro  i  Acni  Ico 
1  as  ug  o  1  er  1  ome  voyage,  conject  irod  tl  at  1  e  1  »d  s  1  ited  tl  e 
Sa  t  y  ot  O  r  Ladv  of  Cagsayhij  11  c  no  c  ceased  1  it  fire  st  II 
CO  t  n  cd  to  e  fiom  the  ciater  unt  I  tl  o  2  tl  of  Septe  be  Stoues 
fell  all  tl  t  gl  t ,  and  tlie  people  of  Taal  1  n  1  to  abau  Ion  the  r  I  omes 
for  the  roofs  wcie  falling  in  witl  t!  e  %  e  gl  t  jo  tlen  Tho 
chronicler  wa«  at  Taal  at  thin  date  an  1  tic  Ibt  of  tic  col  m 
of  smoke  ft  tempest  of  thunder  a  d  I  „i  tn  g  rt),ed  nn  1  cont  n  e  I 
without  intcrmiBSion  until  the  4th  of  1)    on  I 

The  niglit  of  All  Saints'  day  w  aa  a  memorable  one  (Nov  1  t)  for 
tho  quantity  of  filling  hre  atones,  sand  and  ashes  increased,  gradually 
diminishing  again  tow  aid';  the  I'Jtli  of  November,  Then,  on  that  night, 
after  vespers,  great  noisci  WLte  heard.  A  long  melancholy  sound 
dinned  in  one's  ears  ;  volumes  of  black  smoke  rose  ;  an  infinite  number 

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of  stonca  fell,  iind  groat  waves  proccuJed  Aoni  thn  Ink  ,  1 1  itui^  (Ik 
sliorea  wiili  appalling  fury.  This  was  folluwel  by  miotlip  ^reat 
shower  of  stones,  brought  up  amidst  tbe  blnck  smoko,  an  I  listed  until 
ton  o'clock  at  night.  For  a  short  while  the  devisiatiou  n  is  snspeiiicd 
prior  to  the  last  supreme  effort.  All  looked  hilf  dead  mil  innoli 
exhausted  after  seveu  months  of  suiVcring  in  the  wiy  deiiribci'  It 
wa3  roaoivod  to  take  away  the  Sanctuary  of  Cagsajsny  md  put  rit  its 
place  the  second  iinugc  of  Our  Lady. 

Ou  the  29th  of  November,  from  seven  o'clock  in  the  cveiiiiig,  the 
volcano  threw  up  more  fire  than  all  put  together  in  the  preceding  seven 
months.  The  burning  column  seemed  to  mingle  with  llit,  tloiids  the 
whole  of  the  iwland  was  one  igniteil  mass.  A  wind  blew.  And  as 
the  priests  and  the  miiyor  (Alcalde)  were  just  remarking  that  the  fire 
might  reach  the  town,  iv  mass  of  stones  was  thrown  up  with  great 
violence  ;  thunlerchips  and  suliteiianean  uoibea  wcic  htarii ,  cicr^boily 
looked  agiia  t,  -tud  uparly  all  knelt  to  pra^  iiion  the  i^atcri  of  the 
lake  began  to  encroach  upon  the  houses,  and  the  inhalitiuts  too  i.  to 
flight,  the  natives  cairymg  nway  nhate\ei  ciiatteis  thej  could  Cues 
and  lamentations  were  heiid  ^ll  -iround  motlieis  were  looking  for  tiitir 
children  in  dismay;  liall-caste  women  of  the  P'»riiu  neie  ciilin.;  for 
confession  ;  some  of  them  beseechingly  falliu^'  on  then  kuLts  in  the 
middle  of  the  streets.  The  panic  was  intcnst  and  n  s  n  iii  niv 
lessened  by  the  Chincdc,  who  set  to  yclliuf.  r  tl  i  wn  iir^juic 

After  the  terrible  nig  I  it  of  the  2Uth  of  November  thej  tiiou,.ht  jll 
was  over,  when  again  several  eohunns  of  smoke  ippeiud  aid  the 
priest  weut  off  to  the  Sanctuary  of  Cagsay=ay,  whore  the  ]>niii  wa-.. 
Taal  was  entirely  abandoned,  the  natives  having  gone  in  all  directions 
away  from  the  lake.  On  tlie  29tb  and  30tb  of  November  there  was 
i-omplote  darkness  around  the  lake  vicinity,  and  when  light  reappeared 
a  layer  of  cinders  about  live  inches  thick  was  seen  over  the  lands  and 
houses,  aiid  it  was  still  increasing.  Total  darkness  returned,  so  that 
one  could  not  distinguish  aucther's  face,  and  all  were  more  horror- 
stricken  than  ever.  In  Cagsaysay  the  natives  cliinbcd  on  to  the 
housetop.-;    and  threw  down  tiie  ciiuicrs,  wiiich   weie  over-weighting 

ilUl  it  appears  tliat  all  clauses  wore  williuj;  to  I'iiik  tlieir  lives  i<i  save  tlici 
rty.    TUcj  wi!rc  n'll  forcibly  dctiiineil  ia  tliat  pliijhi. 



the  struct ures.  On  the  30th  of  No\  ember, -^moke  ind  atiange  sounds 
came  willi,  greater  fury  thau  auythmg  ^et  oxperienced,  wliile  lightiiing 
flashed  in  the  dense  obscurity  It  seemed  as  if  the  end  of  the  world 
■vvas  arriving.  When  bght  returned,  the  destruction  was  horribly 
viaible  ;  the  churcii  roof  was  dangerously  covered  with  aahes  and 
earth,  and  the  writer  opmes  that  itt,  not  havnijj  fdlleu  in  might  be 
attributed  to  a,  miracle  I  Then  tliert.  wis  a  day  of  tomparativB 
quietude,  followed  by  a  huiricaDe  which  lasted  two  days  All  weie 
iu  a  state  of  melancholy,  whii,h  waa  increased  when  they  received  the 
news  that  the  whole  of  Taal  had  collap^ied  ,  amongst  the  ruin*!  being 
the  Government  House  and  Store'-,  the  Prifon,  State  narehouses  and 
the  Royal  Rope  Walk,  besides  the  Church  and  Convent 

The  Governor-Greneial  sent  food  and  clothing  in  i  vessel,  which 
was  nearly  wrecked  by  storms,  whdst  the  crew  pumped  and  baled  out 
eoutiaually  to  keep  her  afloat,  until  at  lengtli  she  broke  up  on  the 
shoals  at  the  mouth  of  the  Pinsipu  Iliver 

Another  cralt  hj,d  lier  mast  split  bj  <i  flash  ot  iightniDif,  but  itai-hed 

With  all  this,  some  daft  natneb  lingered  about  the  -iite  of  the 
village  of  Taal  till  the  last,  and  two  men  were  sepulchred  m  the 
Gov  emmont  House  rumi,  A  woman  left  her  houao  just  before  the 
root  fell  m  and  w^s  cjrned  away  by  a  flood,  from  which  she  escaped, 
and  was  then  struck  dead  by  a  flash  ot  lightning.  A  man  who  had 
escaped  from  Musiulmaii  pirates,  by  whom  he  had  been  held  in 
captivity  for  years,  was  killed  during  the  eruption.  Ho  had  settled  in 
Taal,  and  was  held  to  be  a  perfect  genius,  for  he  could  mend  a  clock  I 

The  road  from  Taal  to  Balayau  was  impassable  for  a  while  on 
account  of  the  quantity  of  lava.  Taal,  once  so  important,  was  now 
gone,  and  Batangas,  on  the  coast,  became  the  future  capital  of  the 

The  actual  duration  of  this  last  eruption  was  6  months  and 
17  days. 

Ill  1780  the  natives  again  extracted  sulphur,  but  in  1790  a  writer 
at  that  date'  says  that  he  was  unable  to  reach  the  crater  owing  to  the 
depth  of  soft  lava  and  ashes  on  the  slopes. 

'  "  Hist,  de  la  Piov.  Je  Bataiigai,"  por  Don  Pedro  AjidnJa  lic  C 
Inodited  MS.  in  the  Bauan  Convent,  Province  of  Batangas. 



There  is  a  tradition  current  umougst  tiie  natives  tliiit  an 
Eaglishman  some  years  iigo  iittempted  to  cut  a  tunnel  from  the 
base  to  the  centre  of  the  voleanie  mountain,  probably  to  extract  some 
metallic  product  or  sulphur.  It  is  said  that  during  the  work  the 
excavation  partially  fell  iu  upon  the  Englishnian,  who  perished  there. 
The  cave-like  entrance  is  pointed  out  to  travellers  as  the  Cueva  del 

lieEerriug  to    the  volcano,  Fray  Ga.spar  de  San  Aguatin    in   his 

jiistory'  remarks  as  follows  : — "  The  volcano  formerly  emitted  many 

large  fire  stoaeb  which  destroyed  the  eottou,  &wtet  potato  and  other 

'  [lantatioiis  belonging  fo  the  nitives  of  T^al  on  the  slopes  of  the 

(\olcarij)  mountain      Al^>o  it  hippenel  thit  if  three  persons  airivtd 

on  the   volcanic  lahnd,    oiie   of   them  had  infallibly  to  die  there 

without   beiu^;    able  to  ascertain    the   cauae  of  this   iircumstmcc 

Ihis   was  related  to  Father   Alburquerque'   who   after  a   fervent 

dceb  s  entie-itiug  compassion  on  the  natncs,  went  t>  the   island, 

voiLJsetl  the  oil  spnits  there  and  ble^ised  the  l^nl       1  rdi(,ioiis 

p  ocessiou  w IS  mudt,  ind  Matb  MRS  iclobiatfid  with  greit  humihtj 

'    On    the    ele\  ition    of     the     Hont,    horrible     sounds    were    hoird 

ii c jmpanied  by  gro imng  von,es  and  sad  lamentatious     two  craters 

opeued  out,  one  with  sulphur  m  it  in  I  the  othei   wiih  ^ri.en  a\  iter 

((it"))  which  le  constautjy  boiling      Tht.  crater  on  the  Lipa  siile  is 

about  ft  quarter  of  i  league  wile     the  other  is  smaller,  and  lu  time 

smoke    begdu  to    iscend   from   tins  opeuing  so    that    the  nitnci, 

feaifui  ot  some  new    calamity,  weut  to  lather  Lutholoracw,  who 

'  repeated  the  ceremonies  already  described      Mass  wis  said  a  second 

tune  so  tlwt  since  then  the  volcano  hj,a  not  tliiown  out  anj  more 

"  hri,  or  smoke'     However,  whilst  Fray  ihomis  Abresi  was  pinsh 

"  priest  of  Taal  (about  1611),  thunder  and  plaintive  cries  were  again 

"  heard,  therefore  the  priest  had  a  cross  made  of  Auobing  wood,  borne 

"  to  the  top  of  the  volcano  by  more  than    400  natives  ;  tlie  result 

"  being,  that  not  only  the  volcano  ceased  to  do  harm,  but  the  isJ^md 

"  has  regained  its  original  fertile  condition." 

'  "  Hist,  de  Pilipinas,"  by  Dr.  Gaspar  de  San  Agustin,  2  voln.  FirBt.  part 
pill),  in  Madrid,  1898,  the  second  part  yet  inedited  and  preseived  in  the  archives 
of  the  Corporation  of  St,  Auguatine  in  Manila. 

-  P.P.  of  Taal  Irom  15T2  to  1575. 

'  In  the  same  archives  of  the  St.  Augustine  Corporation  in  Manila  an  eruption 
in  16il  iflroconled. 



The  Taal  Voleaiio  la  readied  witk  facility  from  the  N.  side  of  the 
iaiaud,  the  ascent  on  fuot  occupying  about  half  an  hour.  Looking 
into  the  crater,  which  would  he  ahout  4,500  feet  wide  from  one  border 
to  the  other  of  the  shell,  one  aeos  three  distinct  lakes  of  boiling  liquid, 
the  colours  of  which  change  fiom  time  to  time.  I  have  beeu  up  to 
the  crater  four  times  :  the  last  time  the  liquids  in  the  lakes  were 
respectively  of  green,  yelloiv  and  chocolate  colours.  At  the  time  of 
my  last  visit  there  was  also  a  lava  ehininey  in  the  middle,  from,  wliich 
arose  a  snow-white  volume  of  smoke. 

The  Philippine  Islands  are  studded  with  creeks  and  bays  forming 
natural  harbours,  but  navigation  on  the  W.  coast-J  of  Cebi'i,  Negros  aud 
Palauan  Islands,  is  dangerous  for  any  but  very  light  draught  vessels, 
the  water  being  very  shalJow,  whilst  there  are  dangerous  reefs  -ill 
along  the  W.  coast  of  Palawan  and  between  the  south  point  of  thi-i 
island  and  Balabac  Island. 

The  S.W.  monsoon  brings  rain  to  moat  of  the  islands,  and  the  wet 
season  lasts  nominally  six  moathsj, — from  about  the  middle  of  April, 
The  other  half  of  the  year  is  tbe  dry  season.  However,  on  those  coasts 
directly  facing  the  Pacifai,  Oi,i,in,  the  heasons  arc  the  reverse  of  this. 

The  hottest  season  is  fiom  Maich  to  May  inclusive,  except  on  the 
coasts  washed  hy  the  Pacific,  where  the  gieitest  heat  is  felt  in  Juno, 
July  and  August.  The  tcmperatuie  tliroughout  the  year  varies  but 
slightly,  the  average  heat  in  Luzon  Island  being  ahout  81°  5'  Fahr. 
The  average  number  of  rainy  days  during  the  yeara  1881  to  1883  was 

The  climate  is  a  continual  summer,  which  maintains  a  rich  verdure 
throughout  tbe  year  ;  and  during  nine  months  of  the  twelve  au  alternate 
heat  and  moisture  stimulates  the  soil  to  the  spontaneous  production  of 
every  form  of  vegetable  life. 

Tbe  whole  of  the  Archipelago,  aa  far  aoath  as  10°  lat.,  is  affected 
hy  the  monsoons,  and  periodically  disturbed  by  terrible  hurricanes, 
which  cause  great  devastation  to  tbe  crops  and  other  property. 

Earthquakes  are  also  very  frequent,  tbe  last  of  great  importance 
having  occurred  in  1863  and  1830.  In  1897  a  tremendous  tidal 
wave  affected  the  Island  of  Leyte,  causing  great  destruction  of  life 
and  property. 

In  the  wet  aeASon  the  rivers  swell  considerably,  and  often  over- 
fiow  their  banks;    whiist  tlie    mountain  torrents  carry  away  bridges, 



cattle,  etc.  witli  terrific  force,  rendering  travelling  in  some  parts  of 
tlie  interior  dangerous  and  difficult.  In  the  dry  season,  long  droughts 
occasionally  occur  (about  once  in  tlaree  years),  to  the  great  detriment 
of  the  crops  and  live  stock. 

Tlie  southern  boundary  of  tho  Archipelago  is  formed  by  a  chain  of 
some  140  islands,  stretching  from  the  large  island  of  Mindanao  as  far 
as  Borneo,  and  constitutes  the  Sulu  Archipelago  and  Sultanate,  which 
was  under  the  protection  of  Spain  (vide  Chap,  X.). 




The  diacoveries  of  Cliristopher  Columbus  in  1492 — the  adventures 
and  conquests  of  Hernan  Cortes,  IJlasco  Kunez  do  Balboa  and  others  in 
the  South  Atla,ntie,  had  awakened  an  ardent  desire  amongst  those  of 
enterprising  spirit  to  seek  beyond  thcso  regions  which  had  hitherto  not 
been  traversed.  It  is  true  the  Pacific  Ocean  had  been  seen  by  Balboa, 
■who  crossed  the  Isthmus  of  Panama,  but  how  to  get  there  with  his 
ships  was  as  yet  a  mystery. 

On  the  lOtli  of  April,  1495,  the  Spanish  G  overament  published  a 
general  coneeasion  to  all  who  wished  to  search  for  unknown  lands. 
This  was  a  direct  attack  upon  the  privileges  of  Columbus  at  the 
instigation  of  Fonseca,  Bishop  of  Burgos,  who  had  the  control  of  the 
Indian  affairs  of  the  realm.  Eich  merchants  of  Cadiz  and  Seville, 
whose  imagination  was  iuSamed  by  the  reports  of  the  abundance  of 
pearls  and  gold  on  the  American  coast,  fitted  out  ships  to  be  manned 
by  the  roughest  class  of  gold-huutera  :  so  groat  were  the  abuses  of  this 
common  licence  that  it  was  withdrawn  by  Royal  Decree  on  the  2nd  of 
June,  1497. 

It  was  the  age  of  chivalry,  and  the  restless  cavalier  who  had  won 
his  spurs  in  Europe  lent  a  listening  car  to  the  accounts  of  romantic 
glory  and  wealth  attained  across  the  seas. 

That  an  immense  ocean  washed  the  western  shores  of  the  great 
American  continent  was  an  established  fact.  That  there  was  a  passage 
connecting  the  great  Southern  sea — the  Atlantic— with  that  vast  ocean 
was  an  accepted  hypothesis.  Many  had  sought  tho  passage  in  vain  -,' 
the  honour  of  its  discovery  was  reserved  for  Hernando  de  Maghallanes. 

This  celebrated  man  was  a  Portuguese  noble  who  had  received  the 
roost  complete  education  in  the  palace  of  King  John  II.  Having 
studied  mathematics  and  navigation,  at   an  early  age  be  joined  the 

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Portuguese  floet  which  left  for  India  iti  1505  nmlor  the  command  of 
Almeida.  He  was  present  at  the  siege  of  Malacea  under  the  famous 
Alburquerquo,  aud  accompanied  another  expedition  to  the  rich  Moluceaa, 
or  Spiae  Islands,  when  the  Islands  of  Banda,  Tidor  and  Ternate  were 
disi;overed.  It  was  here  he  obtained  the  information  which  led  him  to 
contemplate  the  voyages  which  he  subaeriuontlj'  realized. 

Oq  his  return  to  Portugal  he  searched  the  Crown  Archives  to  see  if 
the  Moluccas  were  situated  withiu  the  demarcation  accorded  to  Spain.' 
In  the  meantime  ho  repaired  to  the  wars  in  Africa,  where  he  was 
wounded  in  the  knee,  with  the  result  that  he  became  permanently  lame. 
IIg  consequently  retired  to  Portugal  ind  h's  companions  in  arms,  jealous 
of  his  prowess,  took  advantage  of  hi  affliction  to  assail  him  mth  \il8 
imputatioDs.  The  King  Emraanuol  cntouriged  the  compliints  and. 
accused  him  of  feigning  a  nialalv  of  which  le  n  as  comiiletclj  cured 
VVouiidetl  to  the  quitJs.  by  such  an  ns^erf  on  and  com  mt,e  i  of  hai  mg 
lost  the  roy.ll  favo  ir,  Maghallanes  ren  junced  for  e^  er,  bj  a  fo  mil  and 
public  instrument,  his  duties  and  rights  as  a  Portuguese  subject,  and 
henceforth  became  i  naturalized  Spimarl  He  then  prescnfel  himself 
at  the  Spanish  Court,  at  thdt  tm  e  m  Vallndolid,  w  herp  he  w  is  well 
received  by  the  Kiug  Charles  I ,  Bishop  of  Burgos  Juan  Eodriguea 
Fonseea,  Miiiistci  of  ludi  n  ^fura,  and  Ij  the  King's  chiiicellor 
Thoy  listened  attentively  to  his  narratioc,  aud  he  had  the  good  fortune 
to  secure  the  personal  protection  of  His  Majesty,  himself  a  well-tried 

The  Portuguese  Ambassador,  Alvaro  de  Acoata,  incensed  at  the 
success  of  his  late  countryman,  and  fearing  that  the  project  under 
discussion  would  lead  to  the  conquest  of  the  Spice  Islands  by  the  rival 
kingdom,  made  every  effort  to  influence  the  Court  against  him.  At 
the  same  time  he  ineffectually  urged  Maghallanes  to  return  to  Lisbon, 

'  During  the  preTions  century  jenlousy  hoA  run  so  high  between  Syain  and 
Port\i;,'al  with  regard  to  their  respective  coloni^iitiou  and  trading  rights,  thit  the 
question  o£  demarcation  had  to  be  settled  by  the  Pope  Alexander  VI.,  who  issued  !i 
bull  dated  4th  of  Hay,  1493  (or  1494),  dividing  the  world  into  two  hemispheres 
and  decreeing  that  all  heathen  lands  disnovered  in  the  Wcslorn  half,  from  the 
meridian  oE  Cape  Verd  Island,  should  belong  to  the  Spaniards  ;  in  the  Eastern  half 
to  the  Portuguese.  The  bull  was  adopted  by  both  nations  in  the  Treaty  oC 
TordesiDas.  It  gave  rise  to  many  psesionate  debates,  as  the  Spaniards  wrongly 
insisted  that  the  Philippinta  and  the  Moluccas  came  ivithin  the  division  allotted  to 
them  by  Pontifical  donation. 


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alleging  that  his  resolution  to  abandon  Portuguese  citizenship  required 
the  EDvereigo  sanction.  Others  even  meditated  his  assassiuation  to 
eavc  the  interests  of  the  King  of  Portugal,  This  powerful  opposition 
only  served  to  delay  the  expedition,  for  finally  the  King  of  Portugal 
was  satisfied  that  his  Spanish  rival  had  no  intention  to  authorize  a 
violation  of  the  Convention  of  Demarcation. 

Between  King  Charlea  and  Maghallanes  a  contract  was  signed  in 
Saragossa  hy  virtue  of  which  the  latter  pledged  himself  to  seek  the 
discovery  of  rich  spiee  islands  within  the  limits  of  the  Spanish  Empire. 
If  he  should  not  have  succeeded  in  the  venture  after  ten  years  from  the 
date  of  sailiug  ho  would  thenceforth  be  permitted  to  navigate  and  trade 
without  further  royal  assent,  reserving  one  twentieth  of  his  net  gains 
for  the  Crow-n.  Tiio  King  accorded  to  him  the  title  of  Cavalier 
and  invested  him  with  the  habit  of  St.  James  and  the  hereditary 
government  in  male  succession  of  all  tiie  islands  ho  might  annex.  The 
Crown  of  Castile  reserved  to  itself  the  supreme  authority  over  such 
government.  If  Maghallanes  discovered  so  many  as  sis  islands,  he  was 
to  embark  merchaudise  hi  the  King's  own  ships  to  the  value  of  one 
thousand  ducats  as  royal  dues.  If  the  islands  numbered  only  two,  he 
would  pay  to  tlie  Ci'own  one  fifteenth  of  the  net  profits.  The  King, 
however,  was  to  receive  one  fifth  part  of  the  total  cargo  sent  in  the 
first  return  expedition.  The  King  would  defray  the  expense  of  fitting 
out  and  arming  five  ships  of  from  60  to  130  tons  with  a  total  crew  of 
234  men  ;  ha  wonhl  also  appoint  captains  and  officials  of  the  Royal 
Treasury  to  represent  the  State  interests  in  the  division  of  the  spoil. 

Orders  to  fulfil  the  contract  were  issued  to  the  crown  officers  in 
the  port  of  Seville,  and  the  expedition  was  slowly  prepared,  consisting 
of  tho  following  vessels,  viz.: — The  eomEnodore  ship  "La  Trinidad," 
under  the  immediate  command  of  Maghallanes  ;  the  "  San  Antonio," 
Captain  Juan  de  Cartagena  ;  Ihe  "  Victoria,"  Captain  Luis  de  Mendoza  ; 
the"  Santiago,"  Captain  Juan  Rodriguez  Serruuo,  and  the  "  Coucepcion," 
Captain  Caspar  de  Quesada. 

The  little  fleet  bad  not  yet  saileil  when  dissensions  arose. 
Maghallanes  wished  to  carry  his  own  ensign,  whilst  Doctor  Sancho 
Matienza  insisted  that  it  should  he  the  Royal  Standard. 

Another,  named  Talero,  disputed  the  question  of  who  should  be 
the  standard-bearer.  The  King  himself  had  to  settle  these  quarrels  by 
bis  own  arbitrary  authority,     Talero  was  disembarked  and  the  Royal 

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Standard  waa  formally  presented  to  Maghallanea  by  injunction  of  tlia 
King  in  the  Chureli  of  Santa  Maria  de  la  Victoria  de  la  Triana,  in 
Seville,  wliere  ho  and  hia  companiona  swore  to  observe  the  uaages  and 
customs  of  Castile,  and  to  remain  faithful  and  loyal  to  His  Catholic 

On  the  10th  of  August,  1519,  the  expedition  left  the  port  of  San 
Liicar  de  Barrameda  iu  the  direction  of  tlio  Canary  Islands. 

On  the  13th  of  December  they  arrived  safely  at  Rio  Janeiro. 

Following  the  coast  in  search  of  the  longed-for  passage  to  the 
Pacific  Ocean,  they  entered  the  Soils  River — ao  called  because  its 
discoverer,  Jofio  de  Sohs,  a  Portuguese,  was  murdered  there.  Its  name 
was  afterwards  changed  to  that  of  Rio  de  la  Plata  (the  Silver  River). 

Continuing  their  course,  the  intense  cold  determined  Maghallanea 
to  winter  in  the  next  large  river,  known  then  as  San  Julian. 

Tumults  arose ;  some  wished  to  return  home ;  others  harboured  a 
4e9ire  to  separate  from  the  Hoot,  hut  Maghallanes  had  sufficient  tact  to 
persuade  the  crews  to  remain  witli  him,  reminding  them  of  the  shame 
■which  would  befall  tbem  if  they  returned  only  to  relate  their  failure. 
He  added  that,  bo  far  as  ho  was  concerned,  nothing  but  death  would 
deter  him  from  executing  the  royal  commission. 

As  to  the  rebellious  captains,  Juaa  de  Cari.tgena  was  already  put  in 
irons  and  sentenced  to  bo  cast  ashore  with  provisioud  and  a  disaffected 
French  priest  for  a  companion.  The  sentence  was  carried  out  later  on. 
Then  Maghallanes  seat  a  boat  to  each  of  three  of  the  ships  to  enquire 
of  the  captains  whom  they  served.  The  reply  from  all  was  that  they 
we  e  for  i  K  ng  a  d  then  selves.  Thereupon  30  men  were  sent  to 
the  ^  to  a  w  tl  a  letter  to  Meudoza,  and  whilst  he  was  reading  it, 
they  hei  on  I  oa  1  ind  stabbed  hiin  to  death.  Quesada  then  brought 
h  s  bI  p  lion"  le  of  the  Trinidad"  and,  with  sword  and  shield  in 
hand  called  n  va  n  apon  his  men  to  attack.  Maghallanes,  with  great 
I  ron  pt  t  lie  gave  o  !ers  to  board  Quesada's  vessel.  The  next  day 
Q  s  da  a  e  ecutei  Alter  these  vigorous,  but  justifiable,  measures 
obed  e  ce  w  a    ensu  ed 

St  II  1  c  r  n^  southwi  Is  within  sight  of  the  coast,  on  the  28th  of 
Octol  T  lo'>J  the  expedit  on  reached  and  entered  tbe  seaway  thenceforth 
kuow  I  0  Ma^^cllan  Straits,  dividing  the  Island  of  Tierra  del  Fuego 

from  the  mainland  of  Patagonia.' 

'  Probably  so  callcil  from  the  eaormoua  numbsr  of  pains  (duolis)  found  tlipre. 

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Oil  the  way  one  ship  had  become  a  total  wreck,  and  uow  the 
"  Sau  Antonio "  deserted  the  expedition ;  her  captain  having  been 
■wounded  and  made  prisoner  by  his  mutinous  ofBcers,  she  was  sailed  in 
the  direction  of  New  Guinea,  The  three  remaining  vessels  waited  for 
the  "Sau  Autonio  "  several  days,  auj  then  passed  through  the  Straits. 
Great  was  the  rejoicing  of  alt  when,  on  the  26th  of  November,  1520, 
they  found  themselves  oq  the  Pacific  Ocean  !  It  was  a  memorable  day. 
All  doubt  was  now  at  an  end  as  they  cheerfully  navigated  across  that 
broad  expanse  of  sea. 

On  tlie  16th  of  March,  1521,  the  Ladrone  Islands  were  reached. 
There  the  ships  were  so  croivded  with  natives  that  thoy  were  obliged 
to  be  espelied  by  force.  They  stole  one  of  the  ship's  boats,  and  90 
men  were  sent  on  shore  to  recover  it.  After  a  bloody  combat  the  boat 
was  regained,  and  the  fleet  continued  its  course  westward.  Coasting 
aloug  the  North  of  the  Island  of  Mindanao,  they  arrived  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Butuan  River,  where  they  were  supplied  with  provisions  by  the 
chief.  It  was  Easter  week,  and  ou  this  shore  the  first  Mass  was 
celebrated  in  the  Philippines,  The  natives  showed  great  friendliness, 
io  return  for  which  Maghallanes  took  formal  possession  of  their 
territory  in  the  name  of  Charles  I.  The  chieftain  himself  volunteered 
to  pilot  the  ships  to  a  fertile  island — the  kingdom  of  a  relation  of  his — 
and  passing  between  the  Islands  of  Bojol  and  Leyte  the  espedition 
arrived  ou  the  7th  of  April  at  Cehu,  where,  on  receiving  the  news,  over 
2,000  men  appeared  ou  the  beach  in  battle  array  with  lances  and  shields. 

The  Butuan  chief  went  on  shore  and  explained  that  the  expedition 
brought  people  of  peace  who  sought  provisions.  The  King  agreed 
to  a  treaty,  and  proposed  that  it  should  be  ratified  according  to  the 
native  formula,— drawing  blood  from  the  breast  of  each  party,  the 
oce  drinking  that  of  the  other.  This  form  of  bond  was  called  hy  the 
Spaniards  the  Facto  de  sangre,  or  the  Blood  compact  (ui<fe  Chap.  XXVI.). 

Maghallanes  accepted  the  conditions,  and  a  hut  was  built  on  shore 
in  which  to  say  Mass.  Then  he  disembarked  with  his  followers,  and 
the  King,  Queen  aud  Prince  came  to  satisfy  their  natural  curiosity. 
They  appeared  to  take  great  interest  in  the  Christian  religious  rites 
and  received  baptism,  although  it  would  he  venturesome  to  suppose 
they  understood  their  meaning,  as  subsequent  events  proved.  The 
princes  and  headmen  of  the  district  followed  their  example  and  swore 
feaity  and  obedience  to  the  King  of  Spain. 

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.  espoused  the  cause  of  his  new  allies,  who  were  at  war 
with  the  tribea  on  the  opposite  coast,  and  on  the  25th  of  April,  1521, 
he  passed  over  to  Magtan  Island,  In  tlie  afiray  he  was  mortally 
woundod  by  an  arrow,  and  thus  ended  hia  brief  but  lustrous  career, 
which  fills  one  of  the  most  brilliant  pages  ia  Spanish  annals. 

On  tlie  left  bauk  of  the  Pasig  River,  facing  tha  City  of  Manila, 
stands  a  monument  to  his  memory.  Another  has  been  erected  on  tbe 
spot  in  Magtan  Island,  where  he  is  suppoaeil  to  bavo  been  slain  on 
tbe  27tli  of  April,  1321.  Also  in  the  City  of  Cebu,  near  the  beach, 
there  is  an  obelisk  to  commemorate  these  heroic  events. 

It  was  perhaps  wel!  for  Maghallanes  to  have  ended  his  days  out 
of  reach  of  his  royal  master.  Had  he  returned  to  Spain  he  would 
probably  have  met  a  fate  similar  to  that  which  befell  Columbus  after 
all  his  glories.  The  "  Sau  Antonio,"  which,  as  already  mentioned, 
deserted  the  fleet  at  the  Magellan  Straits,  continued  her  voyage  from 
New  Guinea  to  Spain,  arriviog  at  San  Lucar  de  Barrameda  in  March, 
1521.  The  Captain,  Alvaro  Mcsqulta,,  was  landed  as  a  prisoner, 
accused  of  having  seconded  Maghallaues  in  repressing  insubordination. 
To  Maghallanes  were  ascribed  the  worst  cnielties  and  infractioa  of  the 
royal  instructions.  Accused  and  accusers  were  alike  cast  into  prison, 
and  the  King,  unable  to  lay  Lands  on  the  deceased  Maghallanes,  sought 
this  hero's  wife  and  children.  These  innocent  victims  of  royal 
vengeance  were  at  once  arrested  and  conveyed  to  Burgos,  where  the 
Court  happened  to  be,  whilst  tbe  "  San  Antonio "  was  placed  under 

On  tbe  decease  of  Maghallaues,  the  supreme  command  of  the 
expedition  in  Cebu  Island  was  assumed  by  Duarte  de  Barboea,  who, 
with  26  of  his  followers,  was  slain  at  a  banquet  to  which  they  had 
been  invited  by  HamaKar,  the  King  of  the  island.  Juan  Serrano  had 
so  ingratiated  himself  with  the  natives  during  the  sojourn  on  shora 
that  hia  life  was  spared  for  a  while.  Stripped  of  his  raiment  and 
armour,  he  was  conducted  to  the  beach,  where  the  natives  demanded 
a  ransom  for  his  person  of  two  cannons  from  the  ships'  artillery. 
Those  on  board  saw  what  was  passing  and  understood  the  request, 
but  they  were  loath  to  endanger  the  lives  of  all  for  the  sake  of 
one—"  Mcliui  est  u(  pereal  vnus  quam  ut  pcreat  communitas,'"  Saint 
Augustine,— 60  they  raised  anchors  and  sailed  out  of  the  port,  leaving 
Serrano  to  meet  hia  terrible  fate. 

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Sue  to  sickneas,  murder  during  the  leTolts,  and  the  slaughter  in 
Cebu,  the  exploriag  party,  now  reduced  to  100  souls  all  told,  was 
deemed  insufRcient  to  conveniently  manage  tiiree  vessela.  It  ivas 
resolved  therefore  to  burn  the  most  dilapidated  one — the  "  Coucepciou." 
At  a  general  council,  Juan  Caraliallo  was  choaen  Coram  an  der-in -chief 
of  the  expedition,  with  Gonzalo  Gomez  de  Espinoaa  as  Captain  of  the 
"  Victoria."  The  roya!  iuBtructions  were  read,  and  it  was  decided  to 
go  to  the  Island  of  Boroeo,  already  known  to  the  Portuguese  and 
marked  on  their  charts.  On  the  way  they  provisioned  the  ships  off  the 
ooaat  of  Palai'mn  Island,  and  thence  aavigated  to  within  ten  miles  of 
the  capital  of  Borneo  (probably  Brunei).  Here  they  fell  in  with  a 
number  of  native  canoes,  in  one  of  which  was  the  King's  Secretary. 
There  was  a  great  noise  with  the  sound  of  drums  and  trumpets,  and 
the  ships  saluted  the  strangers  with  their  guns. 

The  natives  came  on  board,  embraced  the  Spaniards  as  if  they  were 
old  friends,  and  asked  them  who  they  wore  aod  what  they  came  for. 
They  replied  that  they  were  vassals  of  the  King  of  Spain  and  wished  to 
barter  goods.  Presents  were  exchanged  and  several  of  the  Spaniards 
went  ashore.  They  were  met  on  the  way  by  over  2,000  armed  men  and 
safety  escorted  to  the  King's  quarters.  After  satisfying  his  Majesty's 
numerous  enquiries,  Caj>taiu  Espinosa  was  permitted  to  return  with  his 
companions.  He  reported  to  Carabalio  all  he  had  Been,  and  in  a  council 
it  was  agreed  that  the  town  was  too  large  and  the  armed  men  too 
numerous  to  warrant  the  safety  of  a  longer  stay.  However,  being  in 
need  of  certain  commodities,  five  men  were  despatched  to  the  town.  As 
days  passed  by,  their  prolonged  absence  caused  suspieiou  and  ausiety, 
HO  the  Spaniards  took  in  reprisal  the  son  of  the  King  of  Luzon  Island, 
who  had  arrived  there  to  trade,  accompanied  by  100  men  and  five  women 
in  a  largo  prahu.  The  prince  made  a  solemn  vow  to  see  that  the  five 
Spaniards  returned,  and  left  two  of  his  women  and  eight  chiefs  as 
hostages.  Then  Caraballo  sent  a  message  to  the  King  of  Borneo, 
intimating  that  if  his  people  were  not  liberated  he  would  seize  ail  the 
janks  and  merchandise  he  might  fal!  in  with  acd  kill  their  crews. 
Thereupon  two  of  the  retained  Spaniards  were  set  free,  but,  in  spite  of 
the  seizure  of  craft  laden  with  silk  and  eottOD,  the  three  men  remaining 
had  to  he  abandoned  and  the  expedition  set  sail. 

For  reasons  cot  very  clear,  Caraballo  was  deprived  of  the  supreme 
command   and   Espinosa   was    appointed   in   his    place^   whilst   Juan 



Sebastian  Elcano  was  elected  captain  of  tlie  "  Victoria."  With  a  native 
pilot,  captured  from  a  juuk  which  they  met  on  the  way,  the  ships  shaped 
their  course  towards  tbe  Moluccas  Isknds,  and  on  the  8th  of  November, 
1521,  they  arrived  at  the  Island  of  Tidor.  Thus  the  essential  object  of 
the  expedition  was  gained — the  discovery  of  a  Western  route  to  the 
Spice  Islands. 

Years  previous  the  Portuguese  had  opened  up  tra  le  and  si  !1 
continued  to  traffic  with  theee  islands,  which  were  rich  n  n  tmcs 
cloves,  cinnamon,  ginger,  sage,  pepper,  etc.  It  is  sa  d  that  &a  nt 
Francis  Xavier  had  propagated  hia  views  amoDgst  these  islande  s  some 
of  whom  professed  the  Christian  faith. 

The  King,  richly  adorned,  went  out  with  his  suite  to  receive  and 
welcome  the  Spaniards.  He  was  anxious  to  barter  with  Ihem,  aud  whea 
the  "Trinidad"  was  consequently  laden  with  valuable  spices  it  was 
discovered  that  she  had  sprung  a  leak.  Her  cargo  was  therefore 
transferred  to  the  sister  ship  whilst  the  "  Triiiidad  "  remained  in  Tidor 
for  repairs,  and  Eicano  was  deputed  to  make  the  voyage  home  with 
the  "  Victoria,"  taking  the  Western  route  of  the  Portuguese  in  violation 
of  tho  Treaty  of  Tordcsillas.  Efeano's  crew  consisted  of  53  Europeans 
and  a  dozen  natives  of  Tidor.  The  "  Victoria  "  started  for  Spain  at 
the  beginning  of  the  year  1522  ;  passed  tlirougii  the  Suiida  Straits  at 
great  risk  of  being  seized  by  the  Portuguese;  experienced  violent 
storms  in  the  Mozambique  Channel ;  was  almost  wrecked  ronndino-  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope  ;  a  few  of  the  erotv  died — their  only  food  was  a 
scanty  ration  of  rice, — and  in  their  extreme  distress  they  put  in  at 
SantiagoIsland,offCapeVerd,  to  procure  provisious  and  beg  assistance 
from  the  Portuguese  Governor.  It  was  like  jumping  into  the  lion's 
mouth.  The  GoTernor  imprisoned  those  who  went  to  hiin,  in  defence 
of  his  sovereign's  treaty  rights  ;  he  seized  the  boat  which  hronght 
them  ashore  ;  enquired  of  them  where  they  had  obtained  tho  cargo  and 
projected  the  capture  of  the  "  Victoria." 

Captain  Elcano  was  not  slow  to  comprehend  the  situation  ;  he 
raised  anchor  and  cleared  out  of  the  harbour,  and,  as  it  had  happened 
several  times  before,  those  who  had  the  misfortune  to  he  sent  aahore 
were  abandoned  by  their  countrymen. 

The  "  Victoria  "  made  the  port  of  San  Luear  de  Barrameda  on  the 
6th  of  September,  1622,  eo  that  in  a  little  over  th^ee  years  Juan 
Sebastian  Elcano  had  performed  the  most  notable  voyage  hitherto  on 

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record — it  was  the  firat  yet  aeeotnplisliGil  round  tbe  world.  It  must 
however  bo  borno  ia  mind  tliat  tlie  discovery  of  the  way  to  the 
Moluccas,  going  Westward,  was  due  to  Maghallanes — of  Portuguese 
birth, — and  that  the  route  theuce  to  Europe,  continuing  Westward,  had 
long  before  been  determined  by  the  Portuguese  traders,  whose  charts 
Elcano  used. 

When  Elcano  and  his  17  companions  disembarked,  their  appearance 
was  most  pitiable — mere  skeletons  of  mea,  weather-beaten  and  famished. 
The  City  of  Seville  received  them  with  acclamation  ;  but  their  first  act 
was  to  walk  barefooted,  in  procession,  holding  lighted  candles  in  their 
hands,  to  the  church  to  give  thanks  to  the  Almighty  for  their  safe 
deliveranee  from  the  hundred  dangers  which  they  had  encountered. 
Ciotbes,  money  and  all  necessaries  were  supplied  to  them  by  royal  bounty, 
whilst  Eleaiio  and  the  most  intelligent  of  bis  companions  were  cited  to 
appear  at  Court  to  narrate  their  adventures.  His  Majesty  received 
them  with  marked  deference,  Elcano  was  rewarded  with  a  life  pension 
of  500  ducats  (worth  at  that  date  about  £112  10«,),  and  as  a  lasting 
remembrance  of  his  unprecedented  feat,  his  roya!  master  knighted  him 
and  conceded  to  him  the  right  of  using  on  his  escutcheon  a  globe 
bearing  the  motto  :    "  Primus  circundedit  me." 

Two  of  Elcano's  officers,  Miguel  do  Kodas  and  Francisco  Alva,  were 
each  awarded  a  life  pension  of  50,000  maravedis  (worth  at  that  time 
about  14  guineas),  whilst  the  King  ordered  one  fourth  of  that  fifth 
part  of  the  cargo  which  by  contract  with  Maghallanes  belonged  to  the 
State  Treasury,  to  be  distributed  amongst  the  crew,  including  those 
imprisoned  in  Santiago  Island. 

The  cargo  of  the  "Victoria"  consisted  of  26^  tons  of  cloves,  a 
quantity  of  cinnamon,  sandalwood,  nutmegs,  etc.  Amongst  tlie  Tidor 
Islanders  who  were  presented  to  the  King,  one  of  them  was  not  allowed 
to  return  to  his  native  home  because  he  had  carefolly  enquired  the 
value  of  the  spices  in  the  Spanish  bazaars. 

Meanwhile  the  "  Trinidad  "  was  repaired  in  Tidor  and  on  her  way 
to  Panamii,  when  continued  tempests  and  the  horrible  sufferings  ot  the 
crew  determined  them  to  retrace  their  course  to  the  Moluccas,  In  this 
interval  Portuguese  ships  had  arrived  there,  and  a  fort  was  being 
constructed  to  defend  Portuguese  interests  against  the  Spaniards,  whom 
they  regarded  as  interlopers.  The  "  Tricidad  "  was  seized,  and  the 
Captain  Espinosa  with  the  survivors  of  his  crew  were  afforded  a  passage 

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to  LisTiou,  which  place  tliey  reiiohed  five  years  ufter  they  had  aot  out 
with  Magballanes. 

The  enthusiasm  of  King  Charles  was  equal  to  the  importance  of 
the  discoveries  which  gave  renown  to  his  subjects  and  added  glory 
to  his  crown.  Notwithatauding  a  protracted  controversy  witli  the 
Portuguese  Court,  which  claimed  the  exclusive  right  of  trading  with 
the  Spice  Islands,  ho  ordered  another  aquadrou  of  six  ships  to  be  fitted 
out  for  a  voyage  to  the  Moluccas.  TIio  supreme  command  was  confided 
to  Garcia  Yofre  de  Loaisa,  Kuight  of  Saint  John,  whilst  Sebastian 
Elcano  was  appointed  captain  of  one  of  the  vessels.  After  passing 
through  the  Magellan  Straits,  the  Commander  Loaisa  succumbed  to  the 
fatigues  and  privations  of  the  stormy  voyage.  Elcano  succeeded 
but  only  for  four  days,  when  he  too  expired.  The  expedition,  however, 
arrived  safely  at  the  Moluccas  Islands,  where  they  found  the  Portugi 
in  full  possession  and  strongly  established,  but  the  long  series 
combats,  struggles  and  altercations  which  ensued  between  tho  r 
powers,  in  which  Captain  Andres  de  Urdaneta  promineutly  figured, 
left  no  decisive  advantage  to  either  nation. 

Bat  the  King  was  in  no  way  disheartened.  A  third  expedition — 
the  last  under  his  auspices — was  organized  and  despatched  from  the 
Pacific  Coast  of  Mexico  by  the  Viceroy,  by  royal  mandate.  It  was 
composed  of  two  ships,  two  transports  and  one  galley,  well  manned 
aiidarmed,  chosen  from  the  fleet  of  Pedro  Alvarado,  the  late  Governor  of 
Guatemala,  Under  the  leadership  of  Ruy  Lopez  de  Viilalohos  it  sailed 
on  the  1st  of  November,  1542  ;  discovered  many  small  islands  iu  the 
Pacific  ;  lost  the  galley  on  tbe  way,  and  anchored  ofi"  an  island  about 
20  miles  in  circumference  which  was  named  Antonia.  They  found  its 
inhabitauts  very  hostile.  A  fight  ensued,  but  tbe  natives  finally  fled, 
Icai  ing  several  Spaniards  wounded,  of  whom  six  died.  Villalobos  then 
announced  bis  intention  of  remaining  here  some  time,  and  ordered  his 
men  to  plant  maize.  At  first  they  demurred,  saying  that  they  had 
coioe  to  fight,  not  to  till  land,  hut  at  length  necessity  urged  them  to 
obedience,  and  a,  small  but  insufficient  crop  was  reaped  in  duo  season. 
Hard  pressed  for  food,  they  lived  principally  on  cats,  rats,  lizards, 
Biiakcs,  dogs,  roots  and  wild  fruit,  and  several  died  of  disease.  In  this 
plight  a  ship  was  sent  to  Mindanao  Island,  commanded  by  Bernado  de 
la  Torre,  to  seek  provisions.  The  voyage  was  fruitless.  Tbe  party 
was  opposed  by  the  inhabitants,  who  fortified  themselves,  but  were 

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dislodged  and  stain,  Thea  a  vessel  w»a  commissioned  to  Mexico  with 
news  and  to  solicit  reinForoements.  On  the  way,  Volcano  Island  (of 
the  Ladrono  Islands  group)  "was  discovered  on  tiie  6ch  of  August,  1543. 
A  most  important  event  followed.  A  galiot  ivaa  built  and  despatched 
to  the  islands  (it  is  doubtful  vrhicii),  named  by  this  expedition  the 
Philippine  Islands  in  honour  of  Philip,  Prince  of  Asturiaa,  the  son  of 
King  Charles  I.,  heir  apparent  to  the  throne  of  Castile,  to  which  he 
ascocded  in  1 555  under  the  title  of  Philip  II,  on  the  abdication  of  his  father. 

The  craft  returned  from  the  Philippine  Islands  laden  with  abundanco 
of  provisions,  with  which  the  ships  were  enabled  to  continue  the  voyage. 

By  the  roya!  instructions,  Ruy  Lopez  de  Villalobos  was  strictly 
enjoined  not  to  touch  at  the  Moluccas  Islands,  peace  having  beeu 
concluded  with  Portugal.  Heavy  galea  forced  bim  nevertheless  to  take 
refuge  at  Gilolo.  The  Portuguese,  suspicious  of  his  iutentions  in  view 
of  the  treaty,  arrayed  their  forces  against  his,  inciting  the  King  of  the 
island  also  to  discard  alt  Spanish  overtures  and  refuse  assistance  to 
Villalobos.  The  discord  and  contentions  between  the  Portuguese  and 
Spaniards  were  increasing  ;  nothing  was  being  gained  by  either  party. 
Villalobos  personally  was  sorely  disheartened  in  the  stniggle,  fearing  all 
the  while  that  his  opposition  to  the  Portuguese  in  contravention  of  the 
royal  instructions  would  only  excite  the  King's  displeasure  and  lead  to 
his  own  downfall.  Hence  he  decided  to  capituhite  with  his  rival  and 
accepted  a  safe  conduct  for  himself  and  party  to  Europe  in  Portuguese 
ships.  They  arrived  at  Amhoina  Island,  where  Villalobos,  ab'eady 
crushed  by  grief,  succumbed  to  disease.  The  survivors  of  the 
OKpedition,  amongst  whom  were  several  priests,  continued  the  journey 
home  via  Malacca,  Cochin  China  and  Goa,  where  tbey  embarked  for 
Lisbon,  arriving  there  in  1549. 

In  1658,  King  Charles  was  no  more,  hut  the  memory  of  his  ambition 
outlived  him.  His  son  Philip,  ei^ually  emulous  and  unscrupulous,  was 
too  narrow-miudedaudsubtly  cautions  to  iuitiate  an  expensive  enterprise 
encompassed  by  so  many  hazards — as  materially  unproductive  as  it 
was  devoid  of  immediate  political  importance.  Indeed  the  hasia  of 
the  first  expedition  was  merely  to  discover  a  Western  route  to  tlie  rich 
Spice  Islands,  already  known  to  exist ;  the  second  went  there  to 
attempt  to  establish  Spanish  empire  ;  and  the  third  to  search  for,  and 
annex  to,  the  Spanish  crown,  lands  as  wealthy  as  those  claimed  by, 
and  now  yielded  to,  the  Portuguese, 

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But  the  value  of  the  Philippins  Islands,  of  which  the  possession 
was  but  recent  and  nomiual,  waa  thus  far  a  matter  of  doubt. 

One  of  the  moat  brare  anj  intrepid  captains  of  the  Loaisa 
expedition — Andrea  de  Urdnneta — returned  to  Spain  in  1536.  In 
former  years  he  had  fought  under  King  Charles  I.,  id  hia  wars  in  Italy, 
when  the  study  of  navigation  served  him  as  a,  favourite  pastime.  Since 
liis  rctttru  from  the  Moluccas  his  constant  attention  was  given  to  the 
project  of  a  new  expedition  to  the  Far  West,  for  which  he  unremittingly 
solicited  the  royjil  Banetlou  and  jissistaiice.  But  the  King  had  grown 
old  and  weary  of  the  world,  and  whilst  he  did  not  openly  diaoourago 
L'rdaneta's  pretensions  be  gave  him  no  effective  aid.  At  length 
in  l.'iSa,  two  years  before  Charles  abdicated,  Urdaneta,  convinced 
of  the  futility  of  his  importuuity  at  the  Spanish  Coart,  and  equally 
nnsHccessfnl  with  his  scheme  in  other  quarters,  retired  to  Mexico, 
where  he  took  the  habit  of  an  Augustine  monk.  Ton  years  afterwards 
King  Philip,  inspired  by  the  religiouB  sentiment  which  pervaded  hie 
whole  policy,  urged  his  Viceroy  in  Mexico  to  fit  out  an  oipcdition  to 
eonqnerand  cliriatianinc  the  Philippine  Islands.  Urdaoeta,  now  a  priest, 
was  not  overlooked.  Accompanied  by  five  priests  of  his  order,  he  was 
entinsted  with  the  spiritual  care  of  the  races  to  be  subdued  hy  an 
expedition  composed  of  four  ships  and  one  frigate  well  armed,  carrying 
400  f^oldiers  and  sailors,  corainaudcd  hy  a  Basque  navigator,  Miguel 
Lopez  de  Lcgaspi.  This  remarkable  man  was  destined  to  acquire  the 
fame  of  having  established  Spanish  dominion  in  these  islands.  He  was 
of  noble  birth  and  a  native  of  the  Province  of  Guipuzcoa  in  Spain. 
Having  settled  in  the  City  of  Mexico,  of  which  placo  he  was  elected 
Mayor,  he  there  practised  as  a  notary.  Of  undoubted  piety,  he  enjoyed 
reputation  for  his  justice  and  loyalty,  hence  he  was  appointed  General 
of  the  forces  equipped  for  the  voyage. 

The  favourite  desire  to  possess  the  valuable  Spice  Islands  still 
lurked  in  the  minds  of  many  Spaniards — amongst  them  was  Urdaneta, 
who  laboured  iu  vain  to  persuade  the  Viceroy  of  the  superior 
advantages  to  be  gained  hy  annexing  Kew  Guinea  instead  of  the 
Philippines,— whence  the  conqiieat  of  the  Molu  ca  11  I      but  a 

facile  task.     However,  the  Viceroy   was  inexor  1 1         d  1  ed  to 

fulfil  the  royal  instructions  to  the  letter,  bo  the  exp  d  t  t       1  from 

the  Mexican  port  of  Kavidad  for  the  Philippine  I  land  on  th  21  st 
of  November,  1564, 

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The  Ladrouo  Islaads  were  paasod  oa  the  9th  o!  January,  1565, 
and  on  the  ]3tli  of  the  foUowiug  month  the  Philippines  were  sighted. 
A  call  for  provisions  was  made  at  Beveral  small  islands,  including 
CamiguiQ,  -whence  the  expedition  sailed  to  Bojol  Island.  A  boat 
despatched  to  the  port  of  Butuan  returned  in  a  fortnight  iTitli  the  newa 
that  there  was  much  gold,  wax  and  cinnamon  in  that  district.  A 
small  vessel  was  also  sent  to  Cebu,  and  oa  its  return  reported  that  the 
natives  showed  hostility,  having  decapitated  one  of  the  crew  whilst  he 
was  bathing. 

Nevertheless,  Genera!  Legaspi  resolved  to  put  in  at  Cebil,  which 
was  a  safe  port ;  and  on  the  way  there  the  ships  anchored  off  Limasana 
Island  (to  the  south  of  Leyte).  Thence  running  S.W.,  the  Port  of 
Dapitan  (Mindanao  Island)  was  reached. 

Prince  Pagbuaya,  who  ruled  there,  was  astonished  at  the  sight  of 
such  formidable  ships,  and  commissioned  one  of  his  subjects,  specially 
chosen  for  hia  boldness,  to  take  note  of  their  movements,  and  report 
to  him.  His  account  was  uncommonly  iji  teres  ting.  He  related  tiiat 
enormous  mea  with  long  pointed  noses,  dressed  in  fine  robes,  ate  stone;? 
(hard  biscuits),  drank  fire  and  blew  smoke  out  of  their  mouths  and 
through  their  nostrils.  Their  power  was  such  that  they  commanded 
thunder  and  lightning  (discliarge  of  artillery),  and  that  at  meal  times 
they  sat  down  at  a  clothed  table.  From  their  lofty  port,  their  bearded 
faces  and  rich  attire,  they  might  have  been  the  very  gods  manifesting 
themselves  to  the  natives  ;  so  the  Prince  thought  it  wise  to  accept  the 
friendly  overtures  of  such  marvellous  strangers.  Besides  obtaining 
ample  provisions  in  barter  for  European  wares,  Legaspi  procured  from 
this  chieftain  much  useful  information  respecting  the  condition  of 
Cebu.  He  learnt  that  it  was  esteemed  a  powerful  kingdom,  ot  which 
the  mage i licence  was  much  vaunted  amongst  the  neighbouring  states  ; 
that  the  port  was  one  of  great  safety,  and  the  most  favourably  situated 
amongst  the  islands  of  the  painted  faces.' 

The  General  resolved  therefore  to  filch  it  from  its  native  king  and 
annex  it  to  the  crown  of  Castile. 

He  landed  in  Cebu  on  the  27th  of  April,  1565,  and  negotiations 
were  entered  into   with  the   natives   of    that  island.      Kemembering 

'  The  Viaayos,  inhabiting  the  southern  group  of  the  Archipelago,  tatoocd 
thcmBelyes,  hence  for  man7  yeare  their  islands  were  called  by  the  Spaniards  Mas 
de  loa  pmtadas. 



how  succesafuUj  tfaey  had  rid  themselvea  of  Maghallancs'  party,  tliej- 
naturally  opposed  this  renewed  menace  to  their  icdepeQ deuce.  The 
Spaniards  occupied  tbe  town  by  force  and  sacked  it,  bnt  for  months 
were  so  harassed  by  the  aurrounding  tribes  that  a  council  was  convened 
to  discuss  the  prudence  of  continuing  the  occupation.  The  General 
decided  to  remain,  and,  little  by  little,  the  natives  yielded  to  the  new 
condition  of  things,  and  thus  the  first  step  towards  tbe  final  conquest 
was  achieved.  The  natives  were  declared  Spanish  subjects,  and 
hopeful  with  the  success  thus  far  attained,  Legaspi  dotennined  to  send 
despatches  to  the  King  by  the  priest  Urdanota,  who  safely  arrived  at 
Kavidad  on  the  3rd  of  October,  1565,  and  proceeded  thence  to  Spain. 

The  pacification  of  Cobu  and  the  adjacent  islands  was  steadily  and 
a  lice-ess  fully  pursued  hy  Legaspi  ;  the  confidence  of  the  natives  was 
assured,  and  their  dethroned  King  Tnpas  accepted  Christian  baptism, 
whilst  his  daughter  married  a  Spaniard. 

In  the  midst  of  the  invaders'  felicity,  the  Portuguese  arrived  to 
dispute  the  possession,  but  they  were  compelled  to  retire.  A  fortress 
was  constructed  and  plots  of  land  were  marked  out  for  the  building  of 
the  Spanish  settlers'  residences,  and  finally,  in  1570,  Cehu  was  declared 
a  City,  after  Legaspi  had  received  from  his  royal  master  the  title  of 
Governor-General  of  all  the  lands  which  he  might  be  able  to  conquer. 

In  May,  I5"0,  Captain  Juan  Salcedo,  Legaspi's  grandson,  was 
despatched  to  the  Island  of  Luzon  to  reconnoitre  the  territory  and 
bring  it  under  Spanish  dominion. 

The  history  of  these  early  times  is  very  confused,  and  there  are 
mciny  contradictions  in  the  authors  of  the  Philippine  chronicles,  none 
of  which  seem  to  have  been  written  contemporaneously  with  the  first 
events.  It  appears,  however,  that  JInrtin  de  Goiti  and  a  few  soldiers 
accompanied  Salcedo  to  the  north.  They  were  well  received  by  the 
native  chiefs  or  petty  Kings  Lacandola,  Kajab  of  Tondo  {known  as 
Kajah  Matanda,  which  means  in  native  dialect  the  aged  Eajah)  and 
bis  nephew  the  young  Kajah  Soliman  of  Manila. 

The  sight  of  a,  body  of  European  troops  armed  as  was  the  custom 
in  the  I6lh  century,  must  liavo  profoundly  impressed  and  overawed 
these  chieftains,  otherwise  it  seems  almost  incredible  that  they 
should  have  consented,  without  protest,  or  attempt  at  resistance, 
to  (for  ever)   give  up  their  territory,    yield    tlieir    independence,  pay 



tribute,'  and  become  the  tools  oF  invading  foreigners  with  which  to 
conquer  their  own  race  without  recompense  whatsoever. 

A  treaty  of  peace  was  signed  au(i  ratified  by  an  exchange  of  dropa 
of  blood  between  the  parties  thereto.  Soliman  however  soon  repented 
of  hia  poltroonery  and  roused  the  war-cry  among  some  of  his  tribea. 
To  save  hia  capital  (then  called  Maynila)  falling  into  the  hands  o£ 
the  invaders  he  set  fire  to  it.  Lacandola  remained  passively  watching 
the  issue.  Soliraao  was  comjileteiy  routed  by  Salcedo  and  pardoned 
on  his  again  swearing  fealty  to  the  King  of  Spain,  Goici  remained  in 
the  vicinity  of  Manila  with  his  troops  whilst  Salcedo  fought  hia  way 
to  the  Kombon  Lake  (Taal)  district.  The  present  Batangas  Province 
was  subdued  by  him  and  included  in  the  jurisdiction  of  Mindoro  Island. 
During  the  campaign  Salcedo  was  severely  wounded  by  an  arrow  and 
returned  to  Manila. 

Legaspi  was  in  the  Island  of  Fanay  when  Salcedo  (some  writers 
say  Goiti)  arrived  to  advise  him  of  what  had  occurred  in  Luzon. 
They  at  once  proceeded  together  to  Cavite,  where  Lacandola  visited 
Lega&pi  on  board,  and,  prostrating  hmiself,  averred  his  submission. 
Then  Legaspi  continued  his  journey  to  Manila  and  was  received  there 
with  acclamation.  He  took  formal  possession  of  the  surrounding 
territorj,  dechred  ManiK  to  bo  the  (.ipitil  of  the  Archipelago,  and 
proclaimed  the  sovereignty  ot  the  King  of  hpaiu  over  the  whole  group 
of  islands  Gaspar  do  banAgustm,  writing  of  thia  period  eaya:  "He 
"  (Legaspi)  ordered  them  (the  n-itu  ea)  to  hniah  the  building  of  the 
"  fort  m    construction  at  the  mouth  of  tho  ri\tr  (Pasig)  so  that  Hia 

'  Legaspi  and  Guido  Lavezarea,  under  oath,  made  promises  oi  rewards  to  the 
Lacandola  family  and  a  remission  of  tribute  in  perpetuity,  but  tiiey  were  not 
fulfilled.  In  the  following  centuij— year  1660- it  appears  that  the  descendanta 
oE  the  Bnjah  Lacandola  stili  upheld  the  SpaniBh  authority,  and  haying  become 
Boiely  imiMiTeriEhed  thereby,  the  heir  of  the  family  petitioned  the  Governor 
(^Sabiniano  Maniique  de  Lara)  to  make  good  the  honour  of  his  first  predecessors. 
Eventually  the  Lacandolas  were  eiempted  from  the  payment  of  tribute  and  pol! 
ta£  for  ever,  aa  recompenBe  for  the  filching  ot  their  domains. 

In  1884,  when  the  fiscal  reformB  were  introdaced  which  abolished  the  tribute 
and  established  in  lieu  thereof  a  document  of  personal  identity  (/.eJula  pettoiuiV), 
for  which  a  tas  was  levied,  the  lajt  vestigG  of  privilege  disappeared. 

Descendants  of  Lacandola  are  still  to  be  met  with  in  eeveral  villages  near 
Manila.  They  do  not  seem  lo  have  materially  profited  by  their  transcendent 
anceatry — one  of  them  I  found  serving  aa  a  waiter  in  a  French  ri 
capital  in  18SB. 

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"  Majesty's  artillery  mislit  be  mounted  tliorein  for  tlie  defence  of  t!io 
"  port  and  the  town.  Also  he  ordered  them  to  huild  a  largo  iiouae 
"  inside  tho  battlement  walla  for    Legaspi'a  own  residence — another 

"  large  house  and  church  for  the  priests,  etc 

"  ]5esides  these  two  large  houses  he  told  them  to  erect  150  dwellings 
"  of  moderate  f      th        m      d        f     h     Spa       ds  to  live   in, 

"  All  this  thej-  p  n  ptly  p  a  dt  1  btthjdd  not  obey,  for 
'■  the  Spaniards  th  m    1  bl       i  t    t     n      t    tl  e  ivork  of  the 

"  fortifications.' 

The  City  Cou      1     f  M      la  wa  t  t  ted        tl      2ith  of  June, 

l.J-1.  On  til  20tl  f  A  t  1  r  M  1  L  p  z  de  Legaspi 
succumbed  to  th     t  t  j,  f  1  1  1  f      1  g  behind    him 

a  name  which  w  11     1  m      ta       a  p    m        t  pi         in     Spanish 

colonial  history  Hwb  dnHl  tl\.  <nistine  Chapel 
of  San  Fausto,  nl        i  th    R     al  St  nla  1       1  tl     hero's  armorial 

l>o,trings  until  tl      B    t    h  t       p  p    d  tl         ty        1   63. 

"  Death  makes  no  conqiieat  of  this  conqueror, 
For  now  he  lives  in  fame,  thongh  not  in  life." 

Itlchanl  III.,  Act  3,  Sr.  1. 

In  the  meantime  Salcedo  continued  his  task  of  subjeotiug  the  tribes 
m  tlie  interior.  The  natives  of  Taytay  and  Cainta,  in  the  present 
military  district  of  Morong,  submitted  to  him  on  tho  loth  of  August, 
1371.  He  returned  to  the  Laguna  de  Bay  to  pacify  the  villagers,  and 
penetrated  as  far  as  Camarines  Norte  to  explore  tlio  Bicol  River. 
TSolinao  and  tlie  provinces  of  Paagasinau  and  Ylocos  yielded  to  his 
prowess,  and  in  this  last  province  ho  had  well  eatabliahed  himself  when 
tlie  defence  of  the  capital  obliged  him  to  return  to  Manila. 

At  the  same  time  Martin  de  Goiti  ivas  actively  employed  in 
ovorr aiming  the  Parapanga  territory  ivith  the  double  object  of 
pmcuring  supplies  for  tho  Manila  camp  and  eoerclug  the  inhabitanta  on 
his  way  to  acknowledge  their  new  liege  lord.  It  is  recorded  that  in 
lliiw  espcditiou  Goiti  was  joined  by  the  Rajahs  of  Tondo  and  Manila, 
Yet  Lacandola  appears  to  have  been  regarded  more  as  a  servant  of  the 
Spaniards  ?iolens  voleiis  thau  as  a  free  ally,  for,  because  he  absented 
liimself  from  Goiti's  camp  "without  licence  from  tho  Maestro  de 
<^ampo,"  he  was  suspected  by  some  writers  of  having  favoured  opposition 
to  the  Spaniards'  incursions  in  the  Marshes  of  Hagonoy  (Pampanga 
coast,  N.  boundary  of  Manila  Bay). 

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The  district  whicli  conatituted  tho  ancient  pronnce  of  Tial  j 
Balayan,  subsequently  deuomm-ktedPiovmee  of  Batanga''  T\aa  formcrU 
governed  by  a  number  of  cieique*,  the  mofct  not'kble  of  whom  wt,rt 
Gatpagit  and  Gatjiiilintan  They  were  usually  at  war  with  their 
neighbours,  Gafjinhiitnn,  the  caciquG  of  the  Batangas  River  at  the 
time  of  the  conquest,  was  famous  for  his  valour  Gitbuilgajan,  who 
ruled  on  the  other  side  of  the  rn  er,  n  as  celebrated  as  i  hunter  of  deer 
and  wild  boar.  Theso  men  were  half  (.istes  of  Borneo  and  Aet  i 
extraction,  who  formed  a  distinct  race  called  by  the  natives  Daghagaug. 
None  of  them  would  submit  to  the  Kiug  of  Spain  or  become  Christians,, 
hepce  their  descendants  were  offered  no  privileges, 

Tho  Aetas  collected  tribute,  Gabriel  Montoya,  a  Spanish  soldier 
of  Legaspi'a  legion,  partially  conquered  those  races,  and  supported  the 
mission  of  aa  Austin  Friar  amongst  them.  This  was  probably  Fray 
Diego  Moxica,  who  undertook  the  mission  of  Batangas  on  ita  eeparation 
from  the  local  administration  of  Mindoro  Island  in  1581.  The  first 
Governor  of  San  Pablo  or  Sampaloc  in  tho  name  of  the  King  of  Spain 
was  appointed  by  the  soldier  Montoya,  and  was  called  Bartolomi'; 
Maghayin  ;  the  second  was  Cristobal  Somaiigalit  aud  the  third  was 
Bernabe  Piiidan,  all  of  whom  had  adopted  Christianity.  Bay,  on  the 
borders  of  the  lake  of  that  name,  and  four  leagues  from  San  Pablo,  was 
originally  ruled  by  tiie  cacique  Agustin  Maglansaiigau.  Calilayan, 
now  called  Tayabas,was  founded  by  the  woman  Ladia,  and  subsequently 
administered  by  a  native  Alcalde,  who  gave  sucli  satisfaction  that  he 
was  three  times  appointed  the  King's  lieutenant  and  baptized  a*^ 
Francisco  de  San  Juau. 

The  system  established  by  Juan  Salcedo  was  to  let  the  conquered 
lands  be  governed  by  the  native  caciques  and  their  male  successors  so 
long  as  they  did  so  in  the  name  of  the  King  of  Castile.  Territorial 
possession  seems  to  have  heen  the  chief  aim  of  the  European  invaders, 
and  records  of  having  improved  the  condition  of  the  people  or  of 
having  opened  isp  means  of  communication  aud  traffic  as  they  went  on 
conquering,  or  even  having  explored  the  natural  resources  of  the 
colony  for  their  own  benefit,  arc  extremely  rare, 

San  Pabio,  the  centre  of  a  once  independent  district,  is  situalcd 
Et  the  foot  of  the  mountains  of  Saa  Criatoba!  and  Banijao,  from  whiuh 
over  fourteen  streams  of  fresh  water  flow  through  the  villages. 

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The  Ladrones,  Carolines  and  Pelew  Isiands. 

In  1521  Magliallanes  cast  anchor  off  the  Ladrone  Islands  (aitimted' 
between  17°  and  20°  N,  lat.  by  146°  E.  long.)  nn  his  way  to  the 
discovery  of  the  Philippines,  This  group  was  named  by  him  I&las 
de  las  Velas.'  Legaspi  called  them  the  Ladrones,'  Subsequently,, 
several  navigators  sighted  or  touched  at  these  Islands,  and  the 
indistinct  demarcation  which  comprised  them,  acquired  the  name  of 
Saint  Laaarus'  Archipelago, 

la  1662  the  Spaaish  vessel  "San  Damiau,"  on  her  course  from 
Mexico  to  Luzon,  anchored  here.  Ou  board  was  a  missionary  Fray 
Diego  Luis  de  San  Victores,  who  was  so  impressed  with  the  dejected 
condition  of  the  natives,  that  on  reaching  Manila  he  made  it  liia- 
common  theme  of  conversation.  In  fact,  so  importunately  did  he 
pursue  the  subject  with  his  superiors,  that  he  bad  to  be  constrained  to 
silence.  The  Governor,  Diego  Saloedo,  replied  to  his  urgent  appeal 
for  a  mission  there  iu  terms  which  permitted  no  further  solicitation  in 
that  quarter.  But  the  Friar  was  persistent  in  his  project,  and 
petitioned  the  Archbishop's  aid.  The  prelate  submitted  the  matter  to 
King  Philip  IV.,  and  the  Friar  himself  wrote  to  his  father,  who 
presented  a  memorial  to  His  Majesty  and  another  to  the  Queen 
beseeching  her  influence.  Consequently  iu  1666,  a  Eoyal  Decree  was 
received  in  Manila  sanctioning  a  mission  to  the  Ladrones. 

The  galleon  "  San  Diego  "  was  ready  to  sail,  and  Fray  Diego  was 
to  take  passage  to  Acapulco  to  organize  his  expedition,  but  meanwhile 
tlie  merchants  proposed  to  change  her  route,  sending  her  to  Peru,  in 

'  Velas,  Spanish  for  Sails.  '  Ladrones,  Spanish  for  Thieves. 



which  case  they  would  give  her  a  full  cargo.  The  priest  protested. 
The  galleon  was  so  hciivily  ladeo  on  one  side,  that  she  could  not  right 
herself.  The  cmming  Friar  declared  it  was  a  sign  from  lleavon,  but 
that  if  she  started  on  the  voyage  to  Acapulco  all  would  go  well.  The 
shippers,  however,  were  not  so  readily  gulled,  and  although,  in  tho  end, 
she  was  despatched  to  Aeapiilco,  the  vessel  was  lightened  of  part  of 
her  cargo. 

Fray  Diego  arrived  safely  in  the  Viceregal  Court  of  Mexieo,  and 
pressed  his  views  on  the  Viceroy,  who  declared  that  he  had  no  orders. 
Then  the  priest  appealed  to  the  Viceroy's  wife,  who,  it  is  said,  was 
entreating  her  husbaud's  help  oa  bended  knee,  when  an  earthquake 
occurred  which  considerably  damaged  the  city.  It  was  a  nianifes- 
talion  from  Heaven,  the  wily  priest  avowed,  and  tho  Viceroy  yielded 
to  the  superstition  of  tiie  age, 

Therefore,  in  March  1668,  Fray  Diego  started  from  Acapnlco  in 
charge  of  a  Jesuit  mission  for  the  Ladrones,  where  they  subsequently 
received  a  pension  of  $3,000  per  annum  from  Queen  Maria  Ana, 
who  meanwhile,  had  become  a  widow  and  Regent.  To  commemorate 
this  Royal  munificence,  these  islands  have  since  !>een  called  by  the 
Spaniards  "  IsJas  Marianas,"  whilst  the  older  name — Ladrones — U 
hettei'  known  to  the  world. 

When  the  mission  was  fairly  established,  troops  were  sent  there, 
consisting  of  12  Spaniards  and  19  Philippine  natives,  with  two  pieces 
of  artillery. 

The  acquiescence  of  tlie  Ladronc  natives  was  being  steadily  gained 
by  the  old  policy  of  conquest,  under  the  veil  of  Christianity,  until  a 
revolution  broke  out,  on  the  discovery  that  the  stranger's  religion 
brought  with  it  restraint  of  liberty  and  a  social  dominion  which 
practically  amounted  to  slavery.  Fortunately,  Nature  caiuo  again  to 
the  aid  of  Fray  Diego,  for,  whilst  the  natives  were  in  open  rebeiUon,  a 
severe  storm  levelled  their  huts  to  the  ground.  The  priest  persuaded 
them  it  was  a  visitation  from  Heaven,  and  peace  was  concluded. 

Fray  Diego  left  the  mission  for  Visayas,  where  lie  was  killed. 
After  his  departure,  the  natives  again  revolted  because  tliey  failed  tv 
comprehend  the  mysteries  of  Christian  rites,  which,  in  those  day,J, 
involved  a  servile  subjection.  Many  priests  were  slain  from  time  to 
time — some  in  the  exercise  of  their  sacerdotal  functions,  others  in  open 

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lu  1778  a  Governor  was  sent  there  from  Mexico  with  30  soliIierB, 
but  iie  rcsignesd  his  charge  after  two  years'  service,  and  others 
succeeded  him. 

The  Islands  arc  very  poor.  Tlie  products  are  Rice,  Sago,  Cocoa- 
nuts  and  Cane-sugar  to  a  small  extent ;  tiiere  are  also  pigs  and  fowls 
in  abundance.  The  Spaniards  taught  the  natives  the  use  of  fire.  They 
were  a  warlike  people  ;  every  man  had  to  carry  arms.  Tlieir  ianguago 
is  Chamorro,  much  resembling  the  Visayau  dialect.  Tlie  population, 
for  a  hundred  years  after  the  Spanish  occupation,  diminished.  Women 
])urposely  sterilized  themselves.  Some  throw  their  new-born  offspring 
into  the  sea,  hoping  to  liberate  them  from  a  world  of  woe,  and  that 
ihoy  would  regenerate  in  iiappiuess.  In  the  beginning  of  the  17th 
century,  the  population  was  further  diminished  by  an  epidemic  disease. 
During  tho  first  century  of  Spanish  rule,  the  Government  were  never 
able  to  esact  the  payment  of  tribute.  At  tho  present  day,  the  revenue 
of  the  islands  is  not  nearly  sufficient  to  cover  the  entire  cost  of 
administration.  A  few  years  ago,  the  Governor,  Sr,  Pazos,  was 
assassinated  there. 

There  are  nine  towns  with  parish  priests.  All  the  Churches  are 
built  of  stone,  and  roofed  with  reed  tliatching,  except  that  of  tho 
capital,  which  has  an  iron  roof.  Six  of  the  towns  have  Town  Hails 
made  of  bamboo  and  reed  grass  ;  one  has  a  wooden  building,  and  in 
two  of  them  {including  tho  capital)  the  Town  Halls  are  of  stone. 

The  Seat  of  Government  is  at  Agana  (called  in  old  official 
documents  the  "  City  of  San  Ignacio  de  Agaiia  ").  It  is  situated  in 
llie  creek  called  the  Port  of  Apra.  Ships  cannot  get  up  to  the 
capital ;  they  lie  about  two  miles  off  Puuta  Piti,  where  passengers,, 
stores  and  mails  are  conveyed  to  a  wooden  landing-stage.  Five 
hundred  yards  from  here  is  the  Harbour-master's  office,  built  of  stone, 
with  a  tile  roof.  From  Puuta  Piti  there  is  a  bad  road  of  about  five 
miles.  The  situation  of  Agaiia  seems  to  be  ill-suited  for  communi- 
cation with  vessels,  and  proposals  were  ineffectually  made  by  two 
(jovernors,  since  1835,  to  establish  the  capital  town  elsewhere.  The 
i;entral  Government  took  no  heed  of  their  recommendations.  In 
Agaiia  there  is  a  Government  House,  a  Military  Hospital  and 
Pharmacy,  an  Artillery  Depot  and  Infantry  Barraeks,  a  we!l  built 
Prison,  a  Town  Hall;  the  Administrator's  Office,  called  by  the  natives 
"the  shop,"  and  the  ruins  of  former  public  buildings.  It  is  a  rather 
.pretty  town,  but  there  is  nothing  notable  to  he  seen. 

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The  natives  are  as  domesticated  as  the  Piiilippine  Islanders,  and 
have  much  better  features.  Spaniali  and  a  little  EugUsh  are  spokeu 
hj'  maoj-  of  them,  as  these  Islands  in  former  years  were  tho  resort  of 
English -speaking  whalemen.  For  the  elementary  Education  of  the 
natives,  there  is  the  College  of  San  Juan  de  Letran  for  boys,  and  a 
girls'  school  in  Agana ;  and  in  aevea  of  the  towns,  there  was,  in 
1888,  a  total  of  four  schools  for  boys,  five  schools  for  girls,  and  nine 
schools  for  both  sexes,  niider  tlie  direction  of  20  masters  and  is 

When  the  Ladrone  Islands  (Marianas)  were  a  dependency  of  the 
Philippine  General -Government,  a  subsidized  mail  steamer  left  Manila 
for  Agafla,  and  two  or  three  other  ports,  every  three  mouths.  For  the 
Govermnent  of  these  Islands  under  the  Spaniards,  vide  Chap.  XIII. 

An  island  was  discovered  by  one  of  the  Spanish  galleon  pilots  iu 
1G86,  and  called  Cakolina,  in  honour  of  Charles  II.  of  Spain,  but  its 
iNsarings  could  not  be  found  again  for  years. 

In  1696  two  canoes,  with  29  Pelcw  Islanders,  drifted  to  the  coast 
of  Samar  Island,  and  landed  at  the  Town  of  Guivan,  They  were  60 
days  on  the  drift,  and  five  of  them  died  of  privations.  They  were 
terror-stricken  when  they  saw  a  man  on  shore  making  signs  to  them. 
When  he  went  out  to  them  in  a  boat,  and  boarded  one  of  tho  canoes, 
they  all  jumped  out  and  got  into  the  other ;  then  when  the  man  got 
into  that,  they  were  in  utter  despair,  considering  themselves  prisoners. 

They  were  conducted  to  the  Spanish  priest  of  Guivan,  whom  they 
supposed  would  be  the  King  of  tho  Island,  and  on  whom  would 
depend  their  lives  and  liberty.  Tliey  prostrated  themselves,  and 
implored  bis  mer((y  and  the  favour  of  sparing  their  lives,  whilst  the 
priest  did  all  ho  could,  by  sigus,  to  reassure  them. 

It  happened  that  there  had  been  living  here,  for  some  years,  two 
other  strange  men  brought  to  this  shore  by  currents  and  contrary 
winds.  These  came  forward  to  see  tho  novelty,  and  served  as 
interpreters,  so  that  the  newcomers  were  all  lodged  in  native  houses 
in  twos  and  threes,  and  received  the  best  hospitality. 

They  related  that  their  Islands  numbered  32,  and  only  produced 
fowls  and  sea-birds.  One  man  made  a  map,  by  placing  stones  in  the 
relative  position  of  the  Islands.  Wiion  asked  about  the  number  of  the 
inhahitaats,  one  took  a  handful  of  sand  to  demonstrate  that  they  were 
countless.     There  was  a  King,  they  explained,  who  hold  hia  court  in 

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tiio  lalftnd  of  Lamurrec,  to  whom  the  cliiefa  were  subject,  Tliey  mucli 
respected  ami  obeyed  him.  Among  these  caatawaya  was  a  ciiief,  with 
his  wife — the  daughter  of  the  King. 

The  men  had  a  leaf-fibre  garment  around  their  loins,  and  to  it  was 
attached  a  piece  of  stuff  in  front,  which  was  thrown  over  the  shoulders 
and  hung  loose  at  the  back,  Tlie  women  were  dressed  the  same  us 
the  men,  except  that  their  loin  vestment  reached  to  their  knees.  The 
Kinc's  daughter  wore,  moreover,  tortoise-shell  ornaments. 

They  were  afraid  when  they  saw  a  cow  and  a  dog,  their  Island 
liaviag  no  quadrupeds.  Their  sole  occupation  consisted  in  providing 
food  for  their  families.  Their  mark  of  courtesy  was  to  take  the 
hand  of  the  person  whom  they  ^saluted  and  pass  it  softly  over  the 

The  priest  gave  them  pieces  of  iron,  wliicii  they  prized  as  if  they 
had  been  of  gold,  imd  slept  with  them  under  their  heads.  Xbeir  only 
arms  were  lances,  with  human  bones  for  points.  They  seemed  to  be 
!t  pacific  people,  inteiligeat  and  well-proportioned  physically.  Both 
.•(oxes  wore  long  hair  down  to  tlieir  shoulders. 

Very  content  to  find  so  mnoh  luxury  in  Siimar,  they  offered  to 
return  and  bring  their  people  to  trade.  The  Jesuits  cousidered  this 
n  capital  pretext  for  subjecting  their  Islands,  and  the  Government 
approved  of  it.  At  the  instance  of  the  Pope,  tlie  King  ordered  tho 
Governor-General,  Domingo  Zabillbiiru,  to  send  out  espeditiona  in 
quest  of  these  Islands  ;  and,  between  1708  and  1710,  several  unsuccessful 
eilorts  were  made  to  come  across  them.  In  1710,  two  islands  were 
illscovered,  and  named  San  Andres.  Several  canoes  arrived  alongside 
of  the  ship,  and  the  occupants  accepted  the  Commander's  invitation  to 
eome  on  board.  They  were  much  astonialjcd  to  eoo  tlie  Spaniard:* 
smoke,  and  admired  tbo  iron  fastenings  of  the  vessel.  When  they  got 
no;ir  shore,  they  all  began  to  dance,  clapping  their  bands  to  beat  time. 
They  measured  the  ship,  and  wondered  where  such  a  large  piece  of 
wood  eould  have  come  from.  They  counted  the  crew,  and  presented 
tlicm  with  cocoa-nuts,  fish,  and  herbs  from  their  canoes.  Tho  vessel 
anchored  near  to  the  shore,  bnt  there  was  a  strong  current  and  a  fresh 
wind  blowing,  so  that  it  was  imprudent  to  disembark.  However,  two 
priests  insisted  upon  erecting  a  cross  on  the  shore,  and  were  accompanied 
by  the  quarter-master  and  an  officer  of  tbo  troops.  The  weather 
compelled  the  master  to  weigh  anchor,  and  tho  vessel  set  sail,  leaving 



on  laud  the  four  Europeftua,  who  were  nUimiitdy  miirJereJ.  For  a, 
(juarter  of  a  century  those  Islamla  were  lost  iigain  to  the  SpaninrilM. 

lu  IT2I  two  Caroliuo  prahus  were  wafted  to  tho  Ladi'ono  Islands, 
where  D.  Liiiz  Sauehea  was  Goveruor.  TJie  Caroline  Islauders  had  no 
idea  where  they  had  laudeil,  and  were  (jiiitc  aurprised  when  they  bclicid 
the  priest.  He  forcibly  detamed  these  iinfortmiatc  people,  and  liauded 
them  oTer  to  the  Governor,  whoni  they  entreated,  with  tears — but  all 
in  vain — to  be  allowed  to  retnm  to  their  liomes.  There  they  remained 
prisoners,  nutil  it  suited  the  Governor's  convenience  to  wend  a  vessel 
with  a  priest  to  their  I'land.  Tlie  pi-iest  went  ti>  their  Island,  and 
thenee  to  Manila,  where  a  fresh  e-ipedition  was  fitted  out.  It  was 
headed  by  a  missionary,  and  included  a  number  of  soldiers  whom  the 
natives  massacred  soon  after  their  arrival.  All  further  attempt  to 
subdue  the  Caroline  Islands  was  necessarily  postponed. 

The  natives,  at  that  time,  had  no  i-eligioa  at  all,  or  were,  in  a 
vague  souso,  polytheists.  Their  wise  men  communicated  with  the 
souU  of  the  doftinut.  They  were  poiyganiists,  but  Iiad  a  horror  of 
adultery.  Divorce  was  at  onee  granted  by  the  chiefs  on  proof  of 
infidelity.  They  were  oanuibala.  In  eacli  island  there  was  a  chief, 
regarded  as  a  semi-spiritual  being,  to  whom  the  natives  were  profoundly 
obedient.  Huts  were  found  used  as  aitrological  schools,  whore  also  tlie 
winds  and  currents  were  studied.  They  made  eloth  of  plantain-fibre 
— hatchets  with  stone  heads.  Between  sunset  and  sunrise  tlicy  slept. 
When  war  was  declared  between  two  villages  or  tribes,  each  formed 
three  lines  of  warriors,  Ist,  young  men  ;  2nd,  tall  wen  ;  3rd,  old  men  ; 
then  the  combatants  pelted  each  other  with  stones  and  lances.  A  man 
ftors  de  combat  was  replaced  by  one  of  the  bai"!;  file  coming  forward. 
When  one  jiarfy  acknowledged  themselves  vanquished,  it  was  an 
understood  privilege  of  the  victors  to  shower  invectives  on  their  retiring 
adversaries.  Thoy  lived  on  fniits,  roots  and  fish.  There  were  no 
quadrupeds  and  no  agriculture. 

Many  Spanish  descendants  were  found,  jiurcly  native  in  their 
habits,  and  it  was  remembered  that  about  the  year  1566,  several 
Spaniards  from  an  expedition  went  ashore  on  some  islands,  supposed  to 
be  these. 

The  Carolines  and  I'clews  comprise  some  48  groups  of  islaiuls  and 
islets,  makii'g  a  total  of  about  500.  Their  relative  position  to  the 
ladrono  Islands  is — of  the  former,  from  S.W.  stretching  to  S.E. ;  of 

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liiG  latter,  S.W.  Tiie  priucipal  Peiew  Islands  ftro  Babel-Di'uaji  ami 
Kosor — Yap  und  Pouapu  (Aseueion)  are  the  moKt  importnat  of  the 
Carolines.  Tho  oentrcs  of  GoTeiomctit  {tide  Chap  XIII )  are 
lenpectively  iu  Yap  anl  Babel  Draap,  witii  a  A  lOc  Govtrnir  ot  the 
Eastern  Carolines  in  PonapL — allformeilj  dependent  on  the  General 
Government  in  Manila.  Ihe  Carolines  and  Polews  ■were  laeliidel  m 
tiie  Bishopric  of  Cebn,  ind  were  subicct,  judiciallj  ti  the  Supreme 
Court  of  Manila. 

These  Islands  were  Milsequcntlj  ma  i>  times  Msited  by  ■ihips  ol 
otiier  nations,  and  a  1>arti.r  tralo  graluallj  sprung  up  m  Ut ltd  cocoa  nut 
kernels  and  frait  (coprab)  foi  the  estrai,tion  of  oil  m  tarope  and 
America.  Later  on,  when  the  nativei  weie  thoroughly  accustomed  to 
the  foreigners,  British  American,  and  German  tralcrs  e«tioli^hed 
ijiemselves  on  shore,  and,  up  to  tho  preteiit,  vessel-,  continue  to  arrne 
with  European  and  American  manufactures  to  e'vchange  for  tlie  copi  ih,' 
which  tlioy  carry  aivay 

Anglo-American  inissionari€«  have  settled  there,  and  a  greiit 
numbei'  of  natives  profess  Christianity  in  the  Protestant  form.  Iteligious 
l)ook6  ill  native  dialect,  published  in  Honolulu  (Sandwich  Islands)  by 
tbe  Hawaiian  Evangelical  Association,  are  distributed  by  the  American 
missionaries.  I  have  one  before  me  now,  entitled  Kapas  Fel,  Fuk  Eu, 
describing  incidents  from  the  Old  Tcstameot,  A  few  of  the  native.s 
i;an  make  tliemselves  ttaderstood  in  English.  Besides  cocoa-mits,  the 
Islands  produce  Kice,  Yams,  Bread-fruit  {rima),  Sugar  Cane,  &c. 
The  chief  article  of  export  trade  is  Coprah.  Until  1886  there  was  no 
(iovernmeiit,  except  that  of  several  petty  kings  or  chiefs,  each  of  whom 
stiil  rules  over  his  own  tribe,  although  tho  Protestant  missionaries 
oxoreise  a  cousiderable  social  infliienco. 

Whilst  I  was  in  China  iu  1885,  returning  to  Manila  from  America, 
I  was  startled  by  rumours  of  expected  hostilities  bettveen  Spain  and 
(Jermany.  A  Spanish  naval  officer,  named  Capriles,  having  been 
appointed  Governor  of  the  Islands,  arrived  at  Yap,  ostensibly  with  the 
object  of  lauding  to  hoist  the  Spanish  flag  as  a  signal  of  possession,  for 
it  was  known  in  official  quarters  that  the  Germans  were  about  to 
elaim   sovereignty.     However,   three  days  were  sijuanciered  (perhaps 

'  The  average  estiniatcrl  jicld  of  the  cocoa-nuts 
'c  one  cwt.  of  dried  cojirah,  jielding  say  lo  gnl!oi 



iutentionally)  in  trivial  formalities,  and  wliiist  two  Spanish  men-o'-war 
— the  "  Manila  "  and  the  "  San  Quintin  " — were  already  anchored, 
ia  the  Port  of  Yap,  the  German  warship  "  litis  "  entered,  landed 
marines,  and  hoisted  their  national  flag,  whilst  the  Spaniards  looked 
on.  Then  the  German  Commander  went  on  hoard  the  "  San 
Qniutin  "  to  tell  the  Commander  that  possession  of  the  Islands  had 
been  taken  in  the  name  of  the  Emperor  of  Germany,  Neither  Capriles, 
the  appointed  Governor,  nor  Eapafia,  the  Commander  of  the  "  San 
Quintin"  rnado  any  opposition,  and  as  we  can  hardly  attrihute  their 
inactivity  to  cowardice  (for  surely  Spanish  valour  has  not  degenerated 
to  such  a  degree),  we  can  only  suppose  that  they  followed  their 
Government's  instructions.  Capriles  and  Espafia  returned  to  Manila, 
and  were  both  rewarded  for  their  inaction  ;  the  former  being  appointed 
to  the  Government  of  Mindoro  Island.  In  Manila,  a  ridiculous  report 
was  circulated,  that  the  Germans  contemplated  an  attack  upon  the 
Philippines.  Earthworks  were  thrown  np  outside  the  city  wall  ; 
cannons  were  mounted,  and  the  cry  of  invasion  resounded  aU  over  the 
Colony.  Hundreds  of  families  fled  from  the  capital  and  environs  to 
ad  jaeeut  provinces,  and  the  personal  safety  of  the  German  residents  was 
menaced  by  individual  patriotic  enthusiasts. 

In  Madrid,  popular  riots  followed  tlie  publication  of  the  incident. 
The  Gorman  Embassy  was  assaulted,  and  its  escutcheon  was  burnt  in 
the  streets  by  the  indignant  mob,  although,  probably,  not  five  per  cent- 
oE  the  rioters  had  any  idea  where  the  Caroline  Islands  were,  or  anything 
about  them,  Spain  acted  so  feebly,  and  Germany  so  vigorously,  in  this 
affair,  that  many  asked — was  it  not  due  to  a  secret  ententa  cnrdiale 
between  the  respective  Ministries,  disrupted  only  by  the  weight  of 
Spanish  public  opinion  ?  Diplomatic  notes  were  exchanged  between 
Madrid  and  Berlin,  and  Germany,  anxious  to  withdraw  with  apparent 
dignity  from  an  affair  over  which  it  was  probably  never  intended  to 
waste  powder  and  sliot,  referred  the  question  to  the  Pope,  who  arbitrated 
in  favour  of  Spain. 

But  for  these  events,  it  is  probable  that  Spain  would  never  have 
done  anything  to  demonstrate  possession  of  the  Caroline  Islands,  and, 
for  !6  months  after  the  question  was  solved  by  Pontifie  mediation, 
there  wxis  a  Spanish  Governor  in  Yap — Sr.  Elisa — a  few  troops 
and  ofhciab,  but  do  Government.  Ko  laws  were  promulgated,  and 
« very  body  continued  to  do  as  heretofore. 

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In  PonapL  (Asencioa  Ishud)  &r  Posadillo  was  appointeil 
(joiernor  A  few  troops  ^nere  atitioned  there  under  a  sub  lieutenant, 
wiiiUt  floan,  Capurhm   Friars — Europeiu  eci.l6^i»9tn,s  of  the  meineat 

^^pe were   sont  there   to   compete   with   tht.    AmeriLan    Protestant 

ml  iionnries  in  the  salvation  of  Datives  souls  A  collision  naturally 
took  pliLC  ind  the  Go\eruor — well  known  in  Manila  as  crack  brained 
Ai  1  tactieiis — sent  the  chief  Protestant  missionary,  Mr  E  T  Bodiie 
ijisonerto  Mamh  on  the  Ibth  of  June  1887'  He  was  sent  back 
to  Ponapi,  Iiy  the  Governor  General,  but,  during  his  absence,  the 
o  iitnc  Posadillo  exerciaed  a  most  arbitrarj  authority  o\er  the  nalue^ 
ilic  chiefs  weie  compelled  to  serve  him  as  meniaU,  and  their  subjects 
■\\ ere  formed  into  ^angs,  to  work  like  convicts  native  teachers  were 
s  I  pcnde  I  from  their  duties  uuder  threat,  and  the  Capuchins  disputed 
tuc  possession  of  land  ind  attempted  tJ  coerce  the  natncs  to  accpft 
tic  r  rehgna 

On  the  1st  of  July  the  natives  did  not  return  to  their  boadoge 
and  all  the  soldiers,  led  by  the  sub -lieu  tenant,  were  sent  to  bring  them 
ill  by  force.  A  fight  ensued,  and  the  officer  and  troops,  to  the  last 
man,  were  killed  or  mortally  wounded  by  clubs,  stones  and  knives. 
The  astonished  Governor  fortified  his  place,  which  was  surrounded  by 
the  enemy.  The  tribes  of  the  chiefs  Nott  and  Jockets  were  up  in 
arms.  There  was  the  hulk  "  D".  Maria  de  Molina  "  anchored  in  the 
roadstead,  and  tlie  Capuchins  (led  to  it  on  the  first  alarm.  The 
Governor  escaped  from  his  house  on  the  night  of  the  4th  of  July  with 
his  companiozis,  and  rushed  to  the  sea,  probably  intending  to  swim  out 
to  the  hulk.  But  who  knows?  lie  and  his  partisans  were  chased  by 
natives,  who  killed  them  all. 

On  the  21st  of  September,  the  news  of  the  tragedy  reached  Manila 
by  the  man-o'-war  "  San  Qiiintiu "  About  sis  weeks  afterwards, 
three  men-o'-war  were  sent  to  Ponape  with  infantry,  artillery,  a, 
mountain  battery,  and  a  section  of  Kugineers — a  total  of  about  558  men 
—hut  on  their  arrival  they  mot  an  American  warship — the  "  Ebkox  " — 
which  had  hastened  on  to  protect  American  interests.  The  Spaniards 
limited  their  operations  to  the  seizure  of  a  few  accused  individuals, 
whom  they  brought  to  Manila,  and  the  garrison  of  Yap  was  increased 
to  100  men,  under  a  Captain  and  subordinate  officers.     The  prisoncra 

'  Mr.  Doane  is  reported  to  have  tHod  in  Honolulu  about  Jane  1390. 



were  tried  in  Maaila  by  court-mnrtial,  and  I  acted  aa  interpreter.  It 
was  found  that  they  bad  only  been  loyal  to  the  bidding  of  their  chiefs, 
and  were  not  morally  culpable,  whilst  the  action  of  the  late  Governor 
of  Ponapu  met  with  general  reprobation.  Public  opinion  gave 
expression  to  the  little  sympathy  due  to  a  man  who  had  expiated  hia 

Again,  in  July  1890,  a  party  of  -51  Koldiers,  under  Lieutenant 
Porras,  whilst  engaged  in  felling  timber  in  the  forest,  was  attacked  by 
the  Malatana  (Ciiroline)  tribe,  who  killed  tlio  officer  and  27  of  his  men. 
Tlie  news  was  telegraphed  to  the  Home  Govenimcnt,  and  caused  a 
great  sensation  iu  Madrid.  A  conference  of  Ministers  was  at  once  held. 
Professional  politicians  in  the  Spanish  metropolis  made  an  attempt, 
through  the  public  jouruals,  to  gain  something  for  their  respective 
parties  from  the  occurrence — whilst  the  Canovas  Ministry  cabled  to  the 
Governor- General  Weyler  discretionary  power  to  punish  these  Islanders. 
Within  a  few  months,  troops  were  sent  from  Manila  for  that  purpose. 
Instead,  however,  of  chastising  the  Kanakas,  the  Government  forces 
were  repulsed  by  them  with  great  slaughter.  The  commissariat 
arrangements  were  most  deficient :  my  friend  Colonel  Gutierrez  Soto, 
who  commanded  the  expedition,  was  so  inadequately  supported  by  the 
War  Department,  that,  yielding  to  despair,  and  crestfallen  by  reason  of 
the  open  and  adverse  criticism  of  hia  plan  of  campaign — he  shot 

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On  the  death  of  General  Legaspi,  tlie  Govenimeut  of  the  Colony 
was  assumeil  by  the  Eoyiil  Treasurer,  Giiiilo  do  Lavezarcs,  ia 
conformity  vfith  the  scaled  iustrtictioiis  from  the  Supreme  Court  of 
Mexico,  which  were  now  opened.  During  this  period,  tlio  possession 
o(  the  Ishfcnds  was  unsuccessfuily  disputed  hy  a  rival  expedition  under 
the  command  of  a  Chinaman,  Li-ma-hong,  whom  the  Spaniards  were 
pleased  to  term  a  pirate,  forgetting,  pcrliaps,  t)»at  they  themselves  had 
only  recently  ivrested  the  country  from  its  former  pos--essOTa  hy  virtue 
of  might  against  right.  On  the  coasts  of  Lis  native  country  ho  Lad 
indeed  heen  n,  pirate.  For  the  many  depredations  committed  by  Lim 
against  private  traders  and  piopcrty,  tho  Colestiai  Emperor,  failing  to 
catch  him  by  cajolery,  outliiwed  Lim. 

Born  in  the  port  of  Tiuciiiu,  Li-raa-Loug  at  an  early  age  evinced  a 
martial  spirit  and  joined  a  band  of  coraaira  which  for  a  long  time  had 
l)ee  the  fe  or  o£  the  China  coasts.  Ou  the  demise  of  Lis  chief  he 
as  nan  n  usly  elected  leader  of  the  buccaneering  cruisei's.  At 
leni'th  p  r  ed  in  alt  directions  hy  the  imperial  ships  of  war,  ho 
detenn  ued  to  attempt  the  conquest  of  the  Philippines.  Presumably 
tie  a  o  nee  it  ives  which  impelleil  tho  Spanish  mariners  to  conquer 
lands  and  overthrow  dynasties — the  vision  of  wealth,  glory  and  empire, 
— awakened  a  like  ambition  in  the  Chinese  adventurer.  It  was  the 
spirit  of  tho  age.'  In  his  sea-wandcringa  ho  happened  to  fall  in  with 
11  Cliiiiese  trading  junk  returning  from  Manila   with  tho  proceeds  of 

'  Guido  de  Lavezarea  tlpposal  a  Kullan  in  Borneo  in  onier  to  aiil  another  to 
the  throne,  and  even  asked  permission  <)f  King  Phili]!  II.  to  conquer  China  which 
of  covii'se  wag  not  conceded  to  bim.  Vide  also  the  history  of  (he  deatruction  of  tha 
A?.tec  (Mexican)  and  incaa  (Peruvian)  djDikstios  bj  tlic  Spaniards. 



her  cargo  sold  there.  Thia  lie  Beizeil,  and  the  captive  crew  were 
constrained  to  pilot  his  fleet  towards  the  capital  of  Luzon.  From 
them  he  learnt  how  easily  the  natives  had  been  plundered  hj  a  handful 
of  foreignera — the  probable  extent  of  the  opposition  he  might 
encounter-^the  defences  established — tlie  wealth  and  resources  of  the 
district,  and  the  nature  of  its  inhabitantH. 

His  fleet  consisted  of  62  war  ships  or  armed  junks,  well  found, 
having  on  board  2,000  sailors,  2,000  soldiers,  1,500  women,  a  number 
of  artisans,  and  all  that  could  be  conveniently  carried  with  which  to 
gain  and  organize  hia  new  Kingdom,  On  its  way  the  squadron  cast 
anchor  off  the  Province  of  liocos  Sur,  where  a  few  troops  were  sent 
ashore  to  get  provisions.  Whilst  returning  to  the  junlts,  tliey  sacked 
the  village  and  set  fire  to  the  huts.  The  news  of  this  outrage  was 
hastily  communicated  to  Juan  Salcedo,  ivho  had  been  pacifying  the 
Northern  Provinces  since  July,  1572,  and  was  at  the  time  in  Villa 
Fernandina  (now  called  Vigan).  Li-ma-hong  continued  his  course 
until  calms  compelled  his  ships  to  anchor  in  the  roads  o£  Caoayan 
(Ilocos  coast),  where  a  few  Spanish  soldiers  were  stationed  under  the 
orders  of  Juan  Salcedo,  who  still  was  in  the  immediate  town  of  Vigan. 
Under  his  direction,  preparations  were  made  to  prevent  the  enemy 
entering  the  river,  but  such  was  not  Li-nia-hong's  intention.  Ho  again 
set  sail ;  whilst  Salcedo,  naturally  supposing  his  course  would  be 
towards  Manila,  also  started  at  the  same  time  for  the  capital  with  all 
the  fighting  men  he  could  collect,  leaving  only  30  cnen  to  garrison 
Vigan  and  protect  the  State  interests  there. 

Oq  the  29th  of  November,  1574,  the  squadron  arrived  in  the 
Bay  of  Manila,  and  Li-ma-hong  sent  forward  his  Lieutenant  Sioco — a 
Japanese — at  the  head  of  600  fighting  men  to  demand  the  surrender  of 
the  Spaniards.  A  strong  gale  however  destroyed  several  of  his  junks, 
in  which  about  200  men  perished. 

With  the  remainder  he  reached  t!ie  coa^t  at  Paraiiaque,  a  village 
a  few  miles  south  of  Manila.  Thence,  with  tow  lines,  the  400  soldiers 
hauled  their  junks  up  to  the  beach  of  the  capital. 

Already  at  the  village  of  Malate  the  alarm  was  raised,  but  the 
Spaniards  could  not  give  credit  to  ;the  reports,  and  no  resistance  was 
oficred  until  the  Chinese  were  within  the  gates  of  the  city.  Martin 
de  Goiti,  the  Maestre  de  Cauipo,  second  in  command  to  the  Governor, 
vras  the  first  victim  of  the  attack. 

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Tlie  flames  and  smoke  arising  from  hia  burning  residence  were  the 
first  indications  whieli  tlie  Governor  received  of  what  was  going  on. 
The  Spaniards  toolt  refuge  in  the  Fort  of  Santiago,  which  the  Chinese 
were  on  the  point  of  taking  by  storm,  when  their  attention  was  drawn 
elsewhere  by  the  arrival  of  fresh  troops  led  by  a  Spanish  sub- lieu  ten  ant. 
Under  the  mistaken  impression  that  these  were  the  vanguard  of  a 
formidable  corps,  Sioeo  sounded  the  retreat.  A  bloody  hand-to-hand 
combat  followed,  and  with  great  difficulty  the  Chinese  collected  their 
dead  and  regained  their  junks. 

In  the  meantime  Li-ma-hoog,  with  the  reserved  forces,  was  lying 
in  the  roadstead  of  Cavite,  aud  Sioco  hastened  to  report  to  him  the 
lesult  of  the  attack,  which  had  cost  the  invader  over  one  hundred  dead 
and  more  than  that  number  wounded.  Thereupon  Li-ma-hong  resolved 
to  rest  his  troops  and  renew  the  conflict  in  two  days'  time  under  his 
personal  supervision.  The  next  day  Juan  Salcedo  arrived  by  sea  with 
reinforcements  from  Vigan,  and  preparations  were  unceasingly  jnade  for 
the  expected  encounter.  Salcedo  having  been  appointed  to  the  office 
of  Maeetre  de  Campo,  vacant  since  the  death  o£  Goiti,  the  organisation 
of  the  defence  was  entrusted  to  his  immediate  care. 

By  daybreak  on  the  3rd  of  December,  the  enemy's  fleet  hove  to  off 
the  capital,  where  Li-ma-hong  harangued  his  troops,  whilst  the  cornets 
and  drums  of  the  Spaniards  were  sounding  the  alarm  for  their  fighting 
men  to  assemble  in  the  fort. 

Then  1,500  chosen  men,  well  armed,  were  disembarked  nndcr  the 
leadership  of  Sioco,  who  sivore  to  take  the  place  or  die  ia  the  attempt. 
Sioeo  separated  his  forces  into  three  divisions.  The  city  was  set  firo 
to,  and  Sioeo  advanced  towanls  the  fort,  into  which  hand-grenades  were 
thrown,  whilst  Li-ma-hong  supported  the  attack  with  his  ships'  cannon. 

Sioco,  with  his  division,  at  length  entered  the  fort,  and  a  hand- 
to-hand  fight  ensued.  For  a  while  the  issue  was  doubtful.  Salcedo 
fought  like  a  lion.  Even  die  aged  Governor  was  well  at  the  front 
to  encourage  the  deadly  struggle  for  existence.  The  Spaniards  finally 
gained  the  victory  ;  the  Chinese  were  repulsed  with  great  slaughter, 
and  their  leader  having  been  killed,  they  fled  in  complete  disorder. 
Salcedo,  profiting  by  the  confusion,  now  took  the  offensive  and 
followed  up  the  enemy,  pursuing  them  along  the  sea-shore,  where  they 
were  joined  by  the  third  division,  which  had  remained  inactive.  The 
panic  of  the  Chinese  spread  rapidly,  and  Li-ma-hong,  in  despair,  landed 

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another  contiugent  of  about  500  mau,  whilst  he  still  continued  afloat, 
but  even  with  this  reinforcemeut  the  morale  of  li'is  army  could  not  be 

The  -Chinese  troops  therefore,  harassed  on  all  sides,  made  a 
precipitate  retreat  on  board  the  fleet,  and  Li-ma-iiong  set  sail  again 
for  the  west  coast  of  the  island.  Foiled  iu  the  attempt  to  possess 
himself  of  Manila,  Li-ma-hong  determined  to  sot  up  his  capital  in 
other  parts.  In  a  few  days  he  arrived  at  the  mouth  of  the  Aguo 
River,  in  the  province  of  Pangasiuan,  where  ho  proclaimed  to  the 
natives  that  he  had  gained  a  signal  victory  over  the  Spaniards.  Tiie 
inhabitants  there,  having  no  particnlar  choice  between  two  masters, 
received  Li-ma-liong  with  welcome,  and  be  tliereupon  set  about  the 
foundation  of  liis  new  capital  some  four  miles  from  the  mouth  of  the 
river.  Months,  passed  before  the  Spaniards  came  iu  force  to  dislodge 
the  invader.  Feeling  themselves  secure  iu  their  new  abode,  the 
Chinese  had  built  many  dwellings,  a  small  fortress,  a  pagoda,  etc.  At 
lengtli  an  expedition  was  despatched  under  the  command  of  Juan 
Salcedo.  This  was  composed  of  about  250  Spaniards  and  1,600 
natives  well  equipped  with  sraall  arms,  ammunition  and  artillery.  The 
flower  of  the  Spanish  Colony,  accompanied  by  two  priests  and  the 
Eajah  of  Tondo,  set  out  to  expel  the  formidable  foe.  Li-ma-hong 
made  a  bold  resistance  and  refused  to  <;orae  to  terms  with  Salcedo.  Iu 
t!ie  meantime,  the  Viceroy  of  Fokien,  having  heard  of  Li-ma-hong's 
ilaring  exploits,  had  commissioned  a  ship  of  war  to  discover  the 
whereabouts  of  his  imperial  master's  old  enemy.  The  envoy  was 
received  with  delight  by  the  Spaniards,  who  invited  him  to  accompany 
tliem  to  Manila  to  interview  the  Governor. 

Li-ma-liong  still  held  out,  but  perceiving  that  an  irresistible 
onslaught  was  being  projected  against  him  by  Salcedo's  party,  he  very 
cunningly  and  quite  unexpectedly  gave  them  the  slip,  and  sailed  out 
of  the  river  with  his  ships  by  one  of  the  mouths  unknown  to  his 
enemies.'  In  order  to  divert  the  attention  of  the  Spaniards,  Li -ma-hong 
ingeniously  feigned  an  assault  in  an  opposite  quarter.  Of  course,  on 
his  escape,  he  had  to  abandon  the  troops  employed  in  tliis  manaiuvre. 
These,  losing  all  hope,  and  having  indeed  nothing  but  their  lives  to 

'  Acconlins  to  Jiian  de  la  Coaoepcion,  in  his  "  HLst,  Gen.  de  Philipinas," 
Vol.  I.,  page  431,.Li-raa-hong  mnde  his  escape  by  cutting  a  canal  for  his  ehipa  to 
pass  through,  but' this  appears  to  me  highly  improbable  under  the  ci 



fight  for,  fled  to  the  mountaius.  HeDce,  it  is  popiilurly  supposed  that 
from  these  fugitives  desceaJs  the  raue  of  people  iu  thiit  province  still 
distinguishable  by  their  oblique  eyca  and  known  by  the  name  of 

"Aide  loi  et  Dieti  t'cddcra"  is  iiii  old  French  m;ixim,  but  the 
ypaniarda  chose  to  attribute  their  deliverauce  from  their  Chinese  rival 
to  the  friendly  iuterveution  of  Saint  Andrew  ihn  Saint  wi^>  declared 
thenceforth  to  be  the  Patron  Saint  of  Slanila  ai  d  iii  hia  honour  Ui^h 
Mass  is  celebrated  in  the  Cathediat  at  8  a  ni  on  the  ^Oth  of  each 
November.  It  is  a  public  holiday  and  gala  day,  wht.  i  all  the  highest 
civil,  military  and  reiigious  autliotities  ttend  the  JFiincton  votita  de 
San  AndrSs.  Tliis  opportunity  to  assert  thesupremity  of  etc!esia'*tical 
power  was  not  lost  to  the  Church  anl  fir  many  ycais  t  iias  tht 
custom  after  hearing  Mass,  to  epreal  the  Spanish  national  flag  on  the 
floor  of  the  Cathedral  for  the  metropolitan  Archbishop  to  walk  over 
it.  It  has  been  asserted,  however,  tiiat  a  few  years  ago  the  Governor- 
Cieneral  refused  to  witness  this  antiquated  formula  which,  in  public  at 
least,  no  longer  obtains.  Latterly  it  was  the  practice  to  carry  the  Koyal 
Standard  before  the  altar.  Both  before  and  after  the  Mass,  the  bearer 
{Atferez  Real),  wearing  his  hat  and  accompanied  by  the  Mayor  of  the. 
City,  stood  on  the  altar  floor,  raised  his  hat  three  times,  and  tliree 
rimes  dipped  the  flag  before  the  Image  of  Christ,  then,  facing  the 
public,  he  repeated  this  ceremony.  On  Saint  Andrew's  Eve,  the 
Eoyal  Standard  was  borne  in  procession  from  the  Cathedral  through 
the  principal  streets  of  the  city,  escorted  by  civil  fnuctionariea  and 
followed  by  a  band  of  music.  This  ceremony  was  known  as  the  I'useo 
del  Real  Pendon. 

According  to  Juan  do  Ja  Concepcion,  the  Rajahs'  Soliman  and 
Laeandola  took  advantage  of  these  troubles  to  raise  a  rebellion  against 
the  Spaniards.  The  natives  too  of  Mindoro  Island  revolted  and 
maltreated  the  priests,  but  all  these  disturbances  were  speedily  qnelled 
by  a  detachment  of  soldiers. 

The  Governor  wilhngly  accepted  the  offer  of  the  commander  of 
the  Chinese  man-o'-wur  to  couvey  ambassadors  to  Lis  country  to  visit 
the  Viceroy  and  make  a  commercial  treaty.  Therefore  two  priests,, 
Martin  Eada  and   Gerdnimo    Martin,  were  commissioned  to   carry  a 

'  Other  autborg  oeaert  that  only  Solimiui  reLelleJ, 

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letter  of  greeting  aod  prcseuta  to  tliis  persouage,  who  leceivcd  their, 
with  great  distiDctioD,  but  objected  to  tlieir  residing  in  the  country. 

After  the  defeat  of  Li-ma-hong,  Juan  Salcedo  again  set  out  to  the 
Koitliern  Provinces  of  Lnzon  Island,  to  cootiuue  his  task  of  reducing 
the  natives  to  suhmissiou.  On  the  11th  of  March,  1576,  he  died  of 
fever  near  Vigan  (then  callel  Villa  Fermndina),  tnp'tal  of  the  Provioee 
of  IIocos  Sur  A  yeir  aftenvards  «hat  could  be  fwnd  of  Ins  boues 
were  pliiced  lu  the  o&Miir}  of  his  illustrious  graudfxther  Lcgaspi,  in 
the  Augustine  Chapel  of  Sunt  Faiisto,  Manil*  Hi'!  akull,  however, 
which  li-id  been  carried  off  b^  the  natives,  of  Ilocoi,  could  not  be 
recovered  lu  spite  of  all  threats  and  promises  In  Vigan  there  ifv  a. 
small  monument  ni'-ed  to  commemorate  the  deeds  of  this  famous 
warrior,  ind  there  is  alio  i  utrett  Ijeurmg  his  name 

FK-iCvctal  joai>5  foUonin^  these  events,  the  question  of  prestige 
in  the  en li  atlairs  of  tho  colony  -nas  acrimoniously  contested  by  the 
Governor  Geueral,  the  &upienie  Court  and  tin,  ecclesiastics 

Tlie  Governor  was  censured  bj  his  opponents  for  aliegcl  undue 
e\erci&e  of  arhiti-ary  luthoritj  Ihe  Supieme  Couit,  established  on 
the  Mexican  model,  was  reproached  ivith  seeking  to  overstep  the  limits 
of  its  functions  Every  legal  quibble  was  adjusted  by  a  dilatory 
process,  impiacticable  in  a  colony  yet  in  its  infancy,  wliere  sumiuarj- 
lustice  -was  indispensable  for  the  maintenance  of  order  Imperfectly 
understood  by  the  masses.  But  the  fault  laid  less  witli  the  justices 
than  mth  the  constitution  of  the  Court  itself.  Nor  was  this  state  of 
•iffairs  improved  by  the  growing  discontent  and  immoderate  ambition  of 
the  clergy,  who  umemittingly  urged  their  pretensions  to  immunity  from 
btate  contrd,  affiiming  the  suprainundane  condition  of  their  office. 

An  excellent  code  of  laws,  called  the  Leyes  de  Indias,  iu  force 
lu  Mixi  o,  was  adopted  here,  but  modifications  in  harmony  ivitli  the 
special  conditions  of  this  colony  wore  urgently  necessarj-,  whilst  all 
the  branches  of  government  called  for  reorganization  or  reform.  Under 
tiiese  circumstances,  the  Bishop  of  Manila,  Domingo  Salazar,  took  the 
initiative  in  commissioning  a  priest,  Fray  Alonso  Sanchez,  to  repair 
firstly  to  the  Viceroy  of  Mexico  and  afterwards  to  the  King  of  Spain, 
to  expose  the  grievances  of  his  party. 

Alonso  Sanchez  left  the  Philippines  with  bis  appointment  as 
procurator-general  for  the  Augustine  order  of  monks.    As  the  execution 

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of  the  proposed  reforms,  which  he  was  charged  to  lay  before  Ilia 
Majesty,  would,  if  conceded,  be  entrusted  to  the  Goverument  o£  Mexico, 
Lis  first  care  was  to  seek  the  partisanship  of  the  Viceroy  of  that 
Colony  ;  and  in  this  he  succeeded.  Thence  he  eoatmued  In-,  journey 
to  Seville,  where  the  Court  happened  to  be,  arriviu?  there  in  September, 
1587.  He  was  at  onco  granted  an  aiidieuce  of  tlie  King,  ti  prc=ent  his 
credentials  and  memorials  relative  to  Philippine  aftairs  in  general,  and 
ecclesiastical,  judicial,  military  and  iiative  matters  in  particular.  The 
King  promised  to  peruse  all  the  documents,  but  sufttrmg  from  gout, 
and  having  so  many  and  distinct  State  couceins  to  atteiii  to,  the 
negotiations  were  greatly  delayed.  Finally,  Sanchez  sought  a  minister 
who  had  easy  access  to  the  Royal  apartments,  And  th  s  ].ersonage 
obtained  from  the  King  permission  to  examine  the  documents  and  baud 
to  him  a  succinct  Tesume  of  the  whole  for  His  Majesty's  consideration, 
A  eommission  was  then  appointed,  including  Sanchez,  and  tlio 
deliberations  lasted  five  monrbs. 

At  this  period,  public  opinion  in  the  Spanish  Universities  was  very 
itivided  with  respect  to  Catholic  missions  in  the  Indies. 

Some  maintained  that  the  propaganda  of  the  faith  ought  to  he 
purely  ApostoKu,  such  as  Jesus  Christ  taught  to  his  disciples, 
inculcating  doetriuea  of  humility  and  poverty  witiiout  arms  or  violence, 
and  if,  nevertheless,  the  heathens  refused  to  welcome  this  mission  of 
peace,  the  missionaries  should  simply  abandon  them  in  silence  without 
further  demonstration  than  that  of  shaking  the  dust  off  thoir  feet. 

Others  held,  and  amongst  them  was  Sanchez,  that  such  a  method 
was  useless  and  impracticable,  and  that  it  was  justifiable  to  force  their 
religion  upon  primitive  races  at  the  point  of  the  sword  if  necessary, 
using  any  violence  to  enforce  its  acceptance. 

Much  ill-feeling  was  aroused  in  the  diaeiiasioo  of  these  two  and 
distinct  tlieories,  Juan  Volante,  a  Dominican  Friar  of  the  Convent  of 
Our  Lady  of  Atocha,  presented  a  petition  against  the  views  of  the 
Sanchez  faction,  declaring  that  the  idea  of  ingrafting  religion  with  the 
aid  of  arms  was  scandalous.  Fray  Juan  Volante  was  so  importunate, 
that  he  had  to  be  heard  in  Council,  but  neither  party  yielded.  At 
length,  the  intervention  of  the  Bishops  of  Manila,  Macao  and  Malacca 
and  several  captains  and  governors  in  the  Indies  influenced  the  King  to 
put  an  end  to  the  controversy,  on  the  ground  that  it  would  lead  to  no 




The  King  retired  to  the  MoTiastcry  of  the  Escorial,  and  SaiicheK 
was  citeil  to  meet  liim  there  to  learn  the  Eoyal  will.  About  the  same 
time  the  news  reached  the  King  of  the  loss  of  the  so-called  Invinciblo 
Armada,  sent  under  the  commaud  of  the  incompetent  Duke  of  Medina 
Sidonia  to  annex  England,  Notwithstanding  this  severe  hlow  to  the 
vain  ambition  of  Philip,  the  aifalrs  of  the  Philippines  were  delayed  hut 
a  short  time.  On  the  basis  of  the  recommendation  of  the  junta,  the 
Eoyal  Assent  was  given  to  an  important  decree,  of  which  the  moat 
significant  articles  are  the  following,  namely  : — The  tribute  was  fixed 
by  the  King  at  ten  reales  (5/-)  per  annum,  payable  by  the  natives  iu 
gold,  silver,  or  grain,  or  part  in  one  commodity  and  part  in  the  other. 
Of  this  tubute,  eight  reales  were  to  be  paid  to  the  Treasury,  one  half 
real  to  the  bishop  and  clergy,  and  one-acd-a-halE  realea  to  be  applied  to 
the  maintenance  of  the  soldiei'y.  Full  tribute  was  not  to  he  exacted 
from  the  natnos  still  unsnbjeetcd  to  the  Crown.  Until  their 
confidente  and  loj  alty  should  be  gained  by  friendly  overtures,  they  were 
to  pay  a  small  recognition  of  vassalage,  and  subsequently  the  tribute  in 
common  with  the  rest. 

Instead  of  one-fifth  value  of  gold  aud  hidden  treasure  due  to  His 
Majesty  (real  quinto),  he  would  henceforth  receive  only  one-tenth 
of  such  value,  excepting  that  of  gold,  which  the  natives  would  be 
permitted  to  extract  free  of  rebate. 

A  customs  duty  of  S^  ad  valorem  was  to  he  paid  on  merchandise" 
sold,  and  this  duty  was  to  be  speut  on  the  army. 

Export  duty  was  to  be  poid  on  goods  shipped  to  New  Spaii! 
(Mexico),  and  this  impost  was  also  to  he  exchisively  spent  on  tlic  armed 

The  number  of  European  troops  in  the  Colony  was  fixed  at  400 
meii-at-arais,  divided  into  six  companies,  each  under  a  captain,  a 
sub-lieutenant,  a  sergeant,  and  two  corporals.  Their  pay  was  to  be 
as  follows,  nameiy  : — Captain  $35,  sub -lieutenant  $20,  sergeant  $10, 
corporal  $7,  rank  and  file  $6  per  month  ;  besides  which,  an  annual 
gratuity  of  $10,000  was  to  be  proportionately  distributed  to  all. 

Recruits  from  Mexico  were  not  to  enhst  under  the  age  of  15 

The  Captain-General  was  to  have  a  body-guard  of  24  men 
(Halberdiers)  with  the  pay  of  those  of  the  line,  under  the  immediate 
command  of  a  Captain  to  he  paid  $15  per  month. 

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Salaries  due  to  State  employes  wore  to  be  punctually  paid  whoQ 
due  ;  and  when  funds  were  wanted  for  tliiit  purpose,  they  were  to  be 
supplied  from  Mexico. 

Tbe  King  made  a  donation  of  $12,000,  wIitcL,  with  another  like 
aum  to  be  contriliuted  by  the  Spaniards  themselves,  would  serve 
to  liquidate  their  debts  incurred  on  their  first  occupation  of  tbe 

The  Governor  and  Bishop  were  recomracndcd  to  consider  the  project 
of  a  refuge  for  young  Spanish  women  arrived  from  Spain,  and  to  study 
tlie  question  of  dowries  for  native  women  married  to  poor  Spaniards. 

Tbe  offices  of  Secretaries  and  Notaries  were  no  longer  to  be  sold, 
but  coiiferred  on  persons  ivho  merited  such  appointments. 

The  governors  were  instructed  not  to  make  grants  of  land  to  their 
relations,  servants  or  friends,  hut  solelj'  to  those  who  should  have 
resided  at  least  three  years  in  the  islands,  and  have  ivorked  the  lauds 
so  conceded.  Any  grants  which  might  have  already  been  made  to  Iha 
relations  of  the  governors  or  magistrates  were  to  be  cancelled. 

The  rent  paid  by  the  Chinese  for  tho  laud  tiiey  occupied  was  to 
i)e  applied  to  the  necessities  oE  the  capitai, 

Tho  Governor  aud  Bishop  were  to  enjoin  the  judges  not  to  permit 
■costly  law-suits,  hut  to  execute  summary  justice  verbally,  aud  so  far  as 
possible,  fines  were  not  to  he  inflicted. 

The  City  of  Manila  was  to  be  fortified  in  a  manner  to  ensure  it 
against  ali  further  attacks  or  risings. 

Four  penitcfttiaries  were  to  he  estahlislied  in  the  Islands  in  the 
most  convenient  places,  with  the  necesaaiy  garrisons,  and  six  to  eight 
galleys  and  frigates  well  armed  aud  ready  for  defence  against  the 
English  corsairs  who  might  come  by  way  of  the  Moluccas. 

In  the  most  remote  aud  unexplored  parts  of  tho  Islands,  the 
Governor  was  to  have  unlimited  powers  to  act  as  he  should  please, 
without  consulting  His  Majesty;  but  projected  enterprises  of  conversion, 
pacification,  &c.,  at  the  expense  of  the  Hoyal  Treasury,  were  to  be 
submitted  to  a  Council  comprising  the  Bishop,  the  captains,  &c.  The 
Governor  was  authorised  to  capitulate  and  agree  with  the  captains  and 
others  who  might  care  to  undertake  conversions  and  pacifications  on 
their  own  account,  and  to  concede  the  title  of  Macstrc  de  Campo  to 
such  persons,  on  condition  that  such  capituhaioDs  should  ho  forwarded 
to  His  Majesty  for  ratification. 



Only  those  persons  domiciled  in  Uie  Islands  would  be  permitted 
to  trade  with  them, 

A  sum  of  $1,000  was  to  be  taken  from  the  tributes  paid  into  the 
Eoyal  Treasury  for  the  fonndHtion  of  the  Hospital  for  the  Spaniards, 
and  the  annual  sum  of  $600,  appropriated  by  the  Governor  for  its 
support,  was  confirmed.  Moreover,  the  Eoyal  Treasury  of  Mexico  wan 
to  send  clothing  to  the  value  of  400  ducats  for  the  Hospital  use. 

TIio  Hospital  for  the  natives  was  to  receive  an  annual  donation 
of  $600  for  its  support,  and  an  immediate  supply  of  clothing  from 
Mexico  to  the  value  of  $200. 

Slaves  held  by  Spaniards  were  to  he  immediately  sot  at  liberty.  No 
native  was  thenceforth  to  make  slaves,  AH  new-born  natives  were 
declared  free.  The  bondage  of  all  existing  slaves  from  ten  years  of 
ago  was  to  cease  on  their  attaining  twenty  years  of  age.  Those  above 
twenty  years  of  age  were  to  serve  five  years  longer,  and  then  become 
free.  At  any  time,  notwithstanding  the  foregoing  conditions,  they 
would  be  entitled  to  purchase  their  liberty,  the  price  of  which  was  tO' 
he  determined  by  the  Governor  and  the  Bishop.' 

There  being  no  tithes  payable  to  the  Church  by  Spaniards  or 
natives,  the  clergy  were  to  receive  for  their  maintenance  the  half  real 
above  mentioned  in  lieu  thereof,  from  tlie  tribute  paid  by  each  native 
subjected  to  tlie  Crown,  When  tiie  Spaniards  should  have  crops,  tliey 
were  to  pay  tithes  to  the  clergy. 

A  grant  was  made  of  12,000  ducats  for  the  building  and  ornaments 
of  the  Cathedra!,  and  an  immediate  advance  of  2,000  ducats  on 
account  of  this  grant  was  made  from  the  funds  to  be  remitted  from 

Forty  Austin  Friars  were  to  be  sent  at  once  to  the  Philippines, 
to  be  followed  by  missionaries  from  other  corporations.  The  King 
allowed  $500  to  be  paid  against  the  gl,000  passage  money  for  each 
priest,  the  balance  to  iie  defrayed  out  of  the  connnon  funds  of  the 
clergy,  derived  from  their  share  of  the  tribute. 

'  Bondage  in  the  Philippines  was  apparently  not  so  necessary  for  the 
ol  the  Chnroh  as  it  was  in  Cuba,  whoi-e  a  commission  of  Friars,  ai>pointed  soon 
after  the  discovery  of  the  island,  to  deliberate  on  the  policy  of  partially  permittiag 
slavery  there,  reported  "that  the  Indians  would  not  labour  without  compuleion 
"  and  that,  unless  they  laboured,  they  could  not  be  brought  into  communication 
"  with  tie  whites,  nor  be  converted  to  Christianity,"  VMe  W.  H.  Presoott's 
"  Hist,  of  the  Conquest  of  Mcsico,"  torn.  II.,  Chap,  I,,  page  10*,  ed,  1878. 

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Missionaries  in  great  numbers  had  already  flocked  to  the 
Philippines  and  roamed  wherever  they  thought  fit,  without  license 
from  the  Bishop,  whose  authority  they  utterly  repudiated. 

Affirming  that  they  had  the  direct  consent  of  His  Holiness  (he 
Pope,  they  menaced  with  eTcommuni cation  whosoever  attempted  to 
impede  them  in  their  free  peregrination.  Five  years  after  the 
foundation  of  Manila,  the  city  and  environs  were  infested  with 
niggardly  mendicant  Friars,  whose  slothful  habits  placed  their 
supercilious  countrymen  in  ridicule  before  the  natives.  They  were 
tolerated  but  a  short  time  in  the  Islands  ;  not  altogether  because  of 
the  ruin  they  would  have  brought  to  European  mora!  influence  on 
the  untutored  tribes,  Imt  beeause  the  Bishop  was  highly  jealous  of 
all  competition  against  the  Augustine  order  to  which  he  belonged. 
Consequent  on  the  rep  resent  at  ioua  of  Fray  Alonso  Sanchez,  Hia 
Majesty  ordained  that  all  priests  who  went  to  the  Philippines  were, 
iu  the  first  place,  to  resolve  never  to  quit  the  Islands  without  the 
Bishop's  sanction,  which  was  to  bo  conceded  with  great  circumspection 
and  only  in  extreme  cases,  wliilst  tlie  Governor  was  instructed  not  to 
afibrd  them  means  of  exit  on  his  sole  authority. 

Neither  did  the  Bishop  legard  with  ■latisfaetion  the  presence  of  the 
Commissjiry  of  the  Inquisition,  whoie  seuret  investigations,  shrouded 
ivitli  myaterj,  curtailed  the  libcrtj  of  the  loftiest  functionary,  sacred 
or  Lnil  At  the  instigation  of  tray  Alonso  Sanchez,  the  junta 
recommended  the  King  to  lecall  the  Commissary  and  extinguish  the 
oflicc,  but  he  refu-ed  to  do  s  3  In  short,  the  chief  aims  of  the  Bishop 
were  to  enhincc  the  power  of  the  Friirs,  raise  the  dignity  of  the 
Colonial  mitie,  anl  secure  a   religious   monopoly  for  the  Augustine 

Gomez  Perez  Dasm^llnt8  was  the  ntxt  Governor  appointed  to  these 
Tsl  in  J-i,  on  the  i  n,ommi,Tidatiou  of  Fray  Alonso  Sanchez.  In  the  Royal 
Instructions  which  he  brought  with  him  were  embodied  all  the  above- 
mentioned  civil,  ecclesiastical  and  military  reforms. 

At  the  same  time.  King  Philip  abolished  the  Supreme  Court,  He 
wished  to  put  an  end  to  the  interminable  lawsuits  so  prejudicial  to  the 
development  of  the  Colony.  Therefore  the  President  and  Magistrates 
were  replaced  by  Justices  of  the  Peace,  and  the  former  returned  to 
Mexico  ia  1591.  This  measure  served  only  to  widen  the  breach 
between  the  Bishop  and  the  Civil  Government.     Dasmariuas  compelled 



him  to  IcGop  within  the  spliore  of  his  sacerdotal  fiiiictioiis,  tiod  tolerafeil 
0(1  rival  in  State  uoncenis.  There  was  no  appeiil  on  the  spot  against 
tho  Governor's  antliority.  This  restraint  irritated  and  disgusted  the 
Bishop  to  aiioh  si  degree,  that,  at  the  age  of  78  years,  he  resolved  to 
present  himself  at  the  Spanish  Court.  On  his  aiTival  there,  he 
explained  to  the  King  tho  impossibility  of  one  Bishop  attending  to 
tho  spiritual  wants  of  a  people  dispeised  over  so  many  islands.  For 
seven  years  after  the  foundation  of  Manila  as  capital  of  the  Archipelago, 
its  principal  church  was  simply  a  parish  church.  In  1578  it  wiis 
raised  to  the  dignity  of  a  Cathedral,  at  the  instance  of  the  King. 
Tiiree  years  after  this  date  the  Cathedral  of  Manila  was  solemnly 
declared  to  be  a  "  Suffragan  Cathedral  of  Mexico,  under  the  Advocation 
of  Our  Lady  of  the  Immaculate  Conception  ; "  Domingo  Salaaar  Itenig 
the  first  Bishop  consecrated.  He  now  proposed  to  raise  the  Manila 
See  to  an  Archbishopric,  with  three  Suffragan  Bishops.  The  King  gave 
his  consent,  subject  to  approval  from  Rome,  and  tliis  following  in  due 
course,  Salazar  was  appointeil  first  Archbishop  of  Manila,  but  he  died 
Lofore  the  Papal  Bull  arrived,  dated  Hth  of  August,  159.5,  officially 
authorisiug  his  investiture. 

In  the  meantime,  Alonso  Sanchez  had  proceeded  to  IJome  iri  May, 
1589.  Amongst  many  other  Pontifical  favours  conceded  to  him,  be 
obtained  tho  right  for  himself,  or  his  assigns,  to  use  a  die  or  stamp  of 
any  form  with  one  or  more  images,  to  be  chosen  by  the  holder,  and  to 
contain  also  tlie  Figure  of  Christ,  the  Very  Holy  Virgin,  or  tho  Saint 
Peter  or  Paul.  On  the  reverse  was  to  be  engraven  a  bust  portrait 
of  His  Holiness,  with  the  following  indulgences  attached  thereto, 
viz.  : — "  To  him  who  should  convey  the  word  of  God  to  tlie  infidels, 
"  or  give  them  notice  of  the  holy  mysteries — each  time  300  years' 
"  indulgence.  To  him  who,  by  industry,  converted  any  one  of  these, 
"  or  brought  him  to  the  bosom  of  the  Church — full  indulgenco  for  all 
"  sins."  A  number  of  minor  indulgences  were  conceded  for  services 
to  be  rendered  to  tho  Pontificate,  and  for  the  praying  so  many  Pater 
Nosters  and  Ave  Marias,  This  I'nll  was  dated  in  Kome  28th  of 
July,  1591. 

Popes  Gregory  XIV.  and  Innocent  IX.  granted  oihcr  Bulls  relating 
to  the  rewards  for  using  beads,  medals,  crosses,  pictures,  blessed  images, 
etc.,  with  which  one  could  gain  nine  plenary  indulgences  every  day 
or  rescue  nine  souls  from  purgatory  ;  and  each  day,  twice  over,  all  the 

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full  iudulgencQs  yet  given  in  mi-i  o;it  of  Rome  could  be  obt.iinoil  fur 
living  and  deceased  persons. 

Sanciiea  returned  to  Spain  (where  lie  died),  briuging  with  bir.i 
the  body  of  SaiDt  Policarp,  relics  of  SainC  I'otenciana,  and  157 
Martyrs  ;  amongst  them,  2"  popes,  for  remissiou  to  the  Cathedral  of 

The  Snpreme  Court  wjis  re-estabiished  with  the  same  faculties  as 
those  of  Mexico  and  Lima  in  1698,  aud  since  liien,  on  seven  occasions, 
when  the  Governorship  has  been  v\cint,  it  h\'^  icted  pto  lent  ihc 
following  infore^tmg  iccount  of  the  pomi>ous  leremonial  attending  the 
reception  of  the  Roj  al  Seal,  restoring  this  Court,  la  gii  eii  !ij 
Conception  '  Ht  i  ij  s  — "  The  Roj  al  Seal  oi  offiLe  w  \>>  leueived  from 
"  the  ship  with  the  iceustomed  aolemniti  It  was  coiititned  in  a 
'  chest  coveted  with  pmple  \elvet  and  tnmmiugs  of  sih  cr  aod  gold, 
"  oier  which  lnmg  a  ohtli  of  silvei  and  gold  It  was  escorted  by  a 
"  majestic  uceompmmieiLt,  marching  to  the  sounds  of  clirions  and 
"  cymb^K  and  othci  mnsicai  instruuients  The  cortege  paa'^od  through 
"  the  nobk  tity  with  rich  vestments,  with  leg  trimmings  ml 
'  uncovered  heads  Behind  these  followed  «4  hor-^e,  gorgeoiHl_, 
"  capansonal  and  girthed,  for  the  President  to  place  the  toftti 
"  containing  the  Kojnl  Seal  upon  its  back  The  streets  neio 
"  heantifuUj  adorned  i\ith  exquisite  drapei}  lUc  High  Biilifl, 
"  magniticently  lobed,  took  tin,  reins  in  lixud  to  leid  the  hoiae  undo 
'  a  purple  ■velvet  pall,  bordered  with  goli  Ihe  magistrates  «  ilkt  1 
"  on  eithei  side  tlic  aldermen  of  the  citjjiichl^'  clid,  c  inicd  their 
"  stages  of  office  m  the  tuguat  procession  which  coutludcd  with  t 
"  military  escni  t,  standard  !>earerH,  etc  ,  and  pioceeded  to  the  Cathcdnl, 
"  where  it  was  mot  by  tlie  Dean,  holding  a  Cross,  As  the  company 
"  entered  the  sacred  edifice,  the  Tc  Deum  was  intoned   by  a  band  of 

In  1886  a  Supreme  Court,  exactly  similar  to,  and  independent  of, 
that  of  Manila,  was  established  iu  the  City  of  Cebit.  The  question  of 
precedence  in  official  acts  having  been  soon  atter  dispuled  between  tiie 
President  of  the  Court  and  the  Brigadier-Governor  of  Yisayas,  it  was 
decided  in  favour  of  the  latter,  on  appeal  to  the  Goveriior-Geueral.     In 

'  "  Hist.  Gen.  de  Philipinas,"  by  Juan  dc  la  Concepciou,  Vol.  III.,  Chap.  IS,, 
page  366,  pub.  Manila,  1788. 


Oo  PniLll'PINE    ISLANDS. 

the  meantime,  the  advisability  of  abolishing  the  Supreme  Court   of 
Cebii,  was  debated  by  the  public. 

For  many  years  Jifter  the  con(j»csf,  deep  religious  sentiment 
pervaded  the  State  policy,  and  uot  a  few  of  tiie  Governors- Genera! 
acquired  fame  for  their  demonstrations  of  piety. 

Nevertheless,  the  coufiictive  ambition  of  the  State  anil  Church 
representatives  was  a  poiverfid  hindrance  to  the  progress  of  the 

The  quarrel  between  Sebastian  Hurtado  de  Corcuera  (1635-I64i) 
and  the  Archbishop  arose  from  a  circumstance  of  little  concern  to  the 
Colony.  The  Archbishop  ordered  a  military  officer,  who  had  a  slave, 
to  either  sell  or  liberate  her.  The  officer,  rather  than  yield  to  either 
condition,  wished  to  marry  her,  hut  failing  to  obtain  her  consent,  he 
stabbed  her  to  death.  He  thereupon  took  asylum  in  a  convent, 
whence  be  was  forcibly  removed,  and  publicly  executed  in  front  of 
St.  Augustine's  Church  by  order  of  tlie  Governor,  Tlie  Archbishop 
protested  against  the  act,  which,  in  those  days,  was  qualified  as  a 
violation  of  sanctuarj-. 

The  churches  were  closed  whilst  the  dispute  lasted.  The  Jesuits, 
always  opposed  to  the  Austiu  Friars,  sided  with  the  Governor.  The 
Archbishop  therefore  prohibited  them  to  preach  outside  their  churches 
in  nuy  public  place,  under  pain  of  exootnmwntoation  and  4,000  dacats 
fine,  whilst  the  other  priests  agreed  to  abstain  from  attending  their 
religious  or  literary  rennioua.  I''iually,  a  religious  council  was  called, 
but  a  coalition  having  beca  formed  against  tlie  Archbishop,  ho  was 
excommunicated — his  goods  distrained — his  salary  stopped,  and  he  was 
suspended  in  his  arch  iep  is  copal  functions  under  a  penalty  of  4,000 
ducats  fine.  At  this  crisis,  he  implored  mercy  and  the  intervention  of 
the  Supreme  Court.  The  magistrates  decided  against  the  prelate's 
appeal,  and  allowed  iiim  twelve  hours  to  comply,  under  pain  of  continued 
excommunication  and  a  further  fine  of  1,000  ducats.  The  Archbishop 
thereupon  retired  to  the  Convent  of  St.  Francis,  wliere  the  Governor 
visited  him.  The  Archbishop  subsequently  made  the  most  ahjeet 
submission  in  an  arch iepis copal  decree  which  fully  sets  forth  the 
admission  of  his  guilt.  Such  a  violent  settlement  of  disputes  did  not 
long  remain  undisturbed,  and  tlic  Archbishop  again  sought  the  first 
opportunity  of  opposing  the  lay  authority.    In  this  he  can  only  be 

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exeuBed — if  excuse  it  l;e — as  the  upholder  of  the  traditions  of  cordial 
discord  between  the  two  great  factions — Church  and  State.  The 
Supremo  Court,  uDder  tlie  presideucy  of  tlie  Governor,  resolved  therefore 
to  hiniah  the  Arthbishop  from  Manila.  With  tliis  object,  50  soldiers 
were  deputed  to  ncize  the  prelate,  who  was  secretly  forewarned  of  their 
coming  hj  hjs  co-conspirators.  On  their  approach  he  held  the  Host  in 
his  hand,  ind  it  is  related  that  the  sub-lieuteuaut  sent  in  cliarge  of  the 
troops,  Tsas  so  horrified  at  his  mission,  that  he  placed  the  hilt  of  his 
sword  upoii  the  floor  uud  fell  upou  the  point,  but  as  the  sword  bent  he 
did  not  kill  himself  The  soldiers  waited  patiently  until  the  Archbishop 
was  fired  out,  md  t  ompeJJed,  by  fatigue,  to  replace  tho  Host  on  the  altar. 
Then  they  immediately  arrested  him,  conducted  him  to  a  boat  under 
a  guard  of  five  moH)  and  landed  him  on  the  desert  Island  of  Corregidor. 
The  churches  were  at  once  re-opened  ;  the  Jesuits  preached  where  they 
chose ;  terms  were  dictated  to  the  contumacious  Archbishop,  who 
I  everything  unconditionally,  and  was  thereupon  permitted  to 
e  his  oflico. 

The  acts  of  Corciiera  were  enquired  into  by  his  successor,  who 
caused  him  to  be  imprisoned  for  five  years,  but  it  is  to  be  presumed 
that  Corcuera  was  justified  in  what  ho  did,  for  oq  his  release  and  return 
to  Spain,  the  King  rewarded  him  with  the  Governorship  of  the  Canary 

It  is  chronicled  that  Sabiniano  Manrique  de  Lara,  who  arrived  in 
the  galleon  "  San  Francisco  Xavior "  in  1653  witli  the  Archbishop 
Poblete,  refused  to  disembark  until  this  dignitary  had  blessed  the  earth 
he  was  going  to  tread.  It  was  he  too  who  had  the  privilege  of 
witnessing  the  expurgation  of  tlie  islands  of  the  excommunications  and 
ailmonitions  of  Rome.  The  Archbishop  brought  peaee  and  good-will 
to  all  men,  being  charged  by  His  Holiness  to  sanctify  the  Colony. 

Tiio  ceremony  was  performed  witli  great  solemnity,  from  an 
elevation,  in  the  presence  of  an  immense  concourse  of  people.  Later 
on,  the  pious  Lara  was  accused  of  perfidy  to  his  Eoyal  Master,  and  was 
fined  ^60,000,  but  on  being  pardoned,  he  retired  to  Spain,  where  he 
took  holy  orders. 

His  successor,  Uiogo  Salcedo  (1663-1668),  was  not  so  fortunate  in 
his  relations  with  Archbisbop  Pobletc,  for  during  five  years  he  warmly 
confested  his  intervention  in  civil  affairs.     I'obleic  found  it  hard  to 



yield  the  exercise  of  veto  in  all  mutters  wbieli,  by  ooiirtesy,  had  been 
conceded  to  him  by  the  late  Governor  Lnra.  Tlie  Archbishop  refused 
to  obey  the  Royal  decrees  relotiug  to  Chtireh  appointments  under 
ihe  Royal  patronage,  sncli  preferments  being  in  the  hands  of  the 
Govern  or- General  as  vice-royal  patron.  These  decrees  were  twice 
notified  to  tlie  Archbishop,  but  as  he  still  persisted  in  his  disobedieuee, 
Salcedo  signed  on  order  for  !)is  expulsion  to  Mariveles.  This  brought 
the  prelaic  to  bis  senses,  and  he  remained  more  submissive  in  future. 
It  is  recorded  that  the  relations  between  the  Governor  siiid  the 
Archbishop  became  so  strained,  that  the  latter  was  compelled  to  pay  ii 
heavy  fine — to  remain  standing  whilst  awaiting  an  audience — to  submit 
to  contumely  during  the  interviews — and  when  he  died,  the  Governor 
ordered  royal  feasts  to  celebrate  the  joyful  event,  whilst  ho  prohibited 
the  dc  profundis  Mass,  on  the  ground  that  snch  would  be  inconsistent 
with  the  secular  festivities. 

The  King,  on  being  apprised  of  this,  permitted  the  Inquisition  to 
take  its  course.  Diego  Salcedo  was  surprised  in  Ids  Palace,  and 
imprisoned  by  the  bloodthirsty  agents  of  the  SmUo  Oficio.  Some 
years  afterwards,  he  was  shipped  on  board  a  galleon  as  a  prisoner  to 
the  Inquisitors  of  Mexico,  hut  the  ship  had  to  put  back  under  stress  of 
weather,  and  Salcedo  returned  to  his  dungeon.  There  he  suffered  the 
worst  privations,  until  he  was  again  embarked  for  Mexico.  On  this 
voyage  he  died  of  grief  and  melancholy.  The  King  espoused  the  cause 
of  the  ecclesiitstics,  and  ordered  Salcedo's  goods,  as  well  as  those  of  his 
partisans,  to  be  confi-scated. 

Manuel  de  Leon  (1669)  maiuiged  to  preserve  a  good  understanding 
with  the  clergy,  and,  on  his  decease,  he  bequeathed  all  his  possessions 
to  the  Obras  Pias  (vide  Chap.  XV,,  foot  note). 

Troubles  witli  the  Archbishop  and  Friars  were  revived  on  tlio 
Government  being  assumed  by  Juan  de  Kargas  (1678-1684).  lu 
the  last  year  of  his  rule,  the  Archbishop  was  banished  from  Manila, 
It  is  difficidt  to  adequately  appreciate  the  causes  of  this  quarrel,  and 
there  is  doubt  as  to  which  was  right — the  Governor  or  the  Archbishop. 
On  his  restoration  to  his  See,  he  was  one  of  the  few  prelates — perhaps 
the  only  one — who  personally  sought  to  avenge  himself.  During  the 
dispute,  a  number  of  Friars  had  supported  the  Government,  ami 
these  he   caused  to  stand  on  u  raised  platform  in  fiont  of  a  cburcb,  and 

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Holy  riot. — a  governor-general  murdered.      61 

publicly  recaat  their  former  acts,  deeliiriiig  themselves  miscreanta, 
Jitati  de  Naigas  had  just  retired  from  the  Governorship  after  seven 
years'  service,  and  the  Archbishop  called  upon  him  likewise  to  abjure 
his  past  proceedings  and  perform  the  following  peuauce  : — To  wear  a 
penitent's  garb — to  place  a  rope  around  his  neek,  and  eavry  a  lighted 
candle  to  the  doors  of  the  cathedral  and  the  churelies  of  the  Furian, 
San  Gabriel  and  Biaondo,  on  every  feast  day  during  four  months. 
Niii-gas  objected  to  this  degradation,  and  claimed  privilege,  arguiug 
that  the  Archbishop  had  no  jurisdiction  over  him,  as  he  was  a  Cavalier 
of  the  military  order  of  St.  James,  But  tlie  Archbishop  only  desisted 
JQ  liis  pretcn^ioiiij  when  the  new  Governor  tbi-eatened  to  expel  him 

Fernando  Bustamente  Bustillo  y  RuwUi  (IVIT-ITI'J)  adopted 
stringent  measiiies  to  counteract  tlie  Archbisiiop's  excessive  claims 
to  imiiinaity.  Several  individuals  charged  with  heinous  crimes  had 
taken  church  asylum  and  defied  the  civil  power  and  justice.  The 
Archbishop  was  appealetl  to,  to  hand  them  over  to  the  civil  authorities, 
or  allow  them  to  be  taken.  He  refused  to  do  either,  supporting  the 
claim  of  immuni^ty  of  sanctuary. 

At  the  same  time  it  came  to  the  knowledge  of  the  Governor  that  a 
movement  had  been  set  on  foot  against  him  by  those  citizens  who 
favoured  tlic  Archbishop's  views,  and  that  even  the  Friars  had  so 
debased  themselves  as  to  seek  the  aid  of  the  Chinese  residents  against 
tho  Governor. 

Torralba,  the  !at«  acting-Governor,  was  released  from  coniinemeitt 
by  the  Governor,  and  re-instated  by  him  as  jndge  in  the  Supreme 
Court,  although  he  was  under  an  accusation  of  embezzlement  to  the 
extent  of  $700,000.  The  Archbishop  energetically  opposed  this  act. 
He  notified  to  Torralba  his  excomnmuication  and  ecclesiastical  pains, 
and,  on  his  own  autliority,  .attempted  to  seize  his  person  in  violation 
of  the  privileges  of  the  Supreme  Coart.  Torralba  with  his  sword  and 
shield  in  hand  expelled  Iho  Archbishop's  messenger  by  force.  Then, 
MS  judge  in  tlie  Supreme  Court,  he  hastened  to  avenge  himself  of  his 
enemies  by  issuing  warrants  against  them.  They  fled  to  church 
asylum,  and,  with  the  moral  support  of  the  Archbishop,  laughed  at  the 
magistrates.  There  tho  refugees  provided  themseJves  with  arms,  and 
prepared  for  rebellion.  When  the  Archbishop  was  officially  informed 
of  these  facts,  be  still  maiulainod  that  nothing  could    violate    their 

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immunity.  The  Governor  tiieu  caused  tlie  Arcliljishop  to  |be  arrested 
and  confined  in  a  fortress,  with  all  tlie  e  coles  in  sties  who  had  joined 
the  conspiracy  agaiust  the  Govoriimcnt. 

Open  riot  ensued,  and  the  priests  marched  to  the  Palace,  amidst 
hideous  clamouringe,  collecting  the  mob  and  citizens  on  the  way.  It 
was  one  of  the  most  revolting  scenes  and  remarkable  events  in 
Philippine  historj.  Priests  of  the  Sacred  Orders  of  Saint  Francis, 
Saint  Dominic,  and  Saint  Augustine  joined  the  Eecoletos  in  shouting 
*'  Viva  la  Iglesia,"  "  Viva  imestro  Rey  Don  Felipe  Qiiinto."'  The 
excited  rabble  rushed  to  the  Palace,  and  the  guard  having  fled,  tiiey 
easily  forced  their  way  in.  One  priest  who  impudently  dared  to 
advance  towards  tiie  Governor,  was  promptly  ordered  by  him  to 
stand  back.  The  Governor,  seeing  himself  encircled  by  an  armed 
mob  of  laymen  and  servants  of  Christ  clamouring  for  his  downfall, 
pulled  the  trigger  of  his  gnn,  but  the  flint  failed  to  strike  fire. 
Then  the  crowd  took  courage  and  attacked  him,  whilst  he  defended 
himself  bravely  with  a  bayonet,  until  he  was  overwhelmed  by  numbers. 
From  the  Palace  he  was  dragged  to  the  common  jail,  and  stabbed  and 
maltreated  on  the  way. 

His  son,  hearing  of  this  outrage,  arrived  on  horseback,  hut  was 
run  through  by  one  of  the  rebels,  and  fell  to  the  ground  He  got  up, 
cnt  his  way  tlirough  the  infuriated  rtofeis,  hut  wa&  soon  snrrounded 
and  killed  by  numbers,  who  horribly  mutilated  his  body 

The  populace,  urged  by  the  derical  jiartj,  now  fought  for  the 
liberty  of  the  Archbishop.  The  prisou  doors  were  broken  open, 
and  the  Archbishop  was  amongst  the  number  of  offenders  liberated. 
The  prelate  came  in  triumph  to  tlie  PaUioe,  and  assumed  the 
Government  in  October,  1719.  The  mob,  during  their  escesses,  tore 
down  the  Koyal  Standard,  and  maltreated  those  whom  they  met  of 
the  unfortunate  Governor's  faithful  friends.  A  mock  enquiry  into 
the  circumstances  of  the  riot  was  made  in  Manila  in  apparent  judicial 
foi-m.  Another  investigation  w^  instituted  in  Mexico,  which  led  to 
several  of  the  minor  actors  in  this  sad  drama  being  made  tlie  scapegoat 
victims  of  the  more  exulted  criminals.  The  Archbishop  held  the 
Government  for  nine  years,  and  was  then  transferred  to  the  Mexican 
Bishopric  of  Mechoacan, 

'  "  Long  Htc  the  Churcii,"  "  Long  live  oiir  liing  Philip  V." 



Pedro  Manuel  de  Araudia  (1  "54— 1759)  is  Baiil  to  have  died  of 
melancliolj  coosequent,  in  a  ineaaure,  on  his  futile  endeavours  to  govern 
at  peace  with  the  Friars,  who  always  secureJ  the  favour  of  tho  King. 

On  four  occasions  the  Supreme  State  authority  in  the  Colony  has 
been  vested  in  tho  prelates.  Archbishop  Manuel  Eojo,  acting- 
Governor  at  the  time  of  the  British  occupation  of  Manila  iu  1763,  is 
said  to  have  died  of  grief  and  shame  in  prison  (176i)  through  the 
intrigues  of  the  violent  Simon  de  Anda  y  Salazar. 

Joso  Raon  was  Governor-Genera!  in  1768  when  the  expulsion  of 
the  Jesuits  was  decreed.  After  the  secret  determination  was  made 
known  to  him,  he  was  accused  of  having  divulged  it,  and  of  having 
concealed  his  instructions.  JIc  was  thereupon  placed  under  guard  in 
his  own  residence,  where  he  expired. 

Domingo  Moriones  y  Murillo  (1877-1880),  it  is  alleged,  had 
altercations  with  the  Friars,  and  found  it  necessary  to  remind  the 
Archbishop  Pay o  that  the  supreme  power  in  the  Philippines  belonged 
to  the  State — not  to  tlie  Church  representative. 

From  the  earliest  times  of  Spanish  dominion,  it  had  been  the 
practice  of  the  natives  to  expose  to  view  the  corpses  of  their  relations 
and  friends  in  the  public  highways  and  villages  whilst  conveying  them 
to  tlie  parish  churches,  wiiore  they  were  again  exhibited  to  the  common 
gaze,  pending  the  pleasure  of  the  parish  priest  to  perform  the  last 
obsequies.  This  outrage  on  pubiie  decorum  was  proscribed  by  the 
Director- General  of  Civil  Administration  in  a  circular  of  the  18th  of 
October,  1887,  addressed  to  the  Provincial  Governors,  enjoining  them 
to  prohibit  such  indecent  scenes  in  future.  Thereupon  the  parisli 
priests  simply  showed  their  contempt  for  restraint  by  the  ci\it 
authorities,  and  simulated  their  inability  to  elucidate  to  the  native  petty 
Governors  the  true  intent  and  meaning  of  the  order.  At  the  same 
time,  the  Archbishop  of  Manila  issued  instructions  on  the  subject  to  his 
subordinates  in  very  equivocal  language.  The  native  local  authorities 
then  petitioned  the  Civil  Governor  of  Manila  to  make  the  matter  clear 
to  tbem. 

The  Civil  Governor  of  Manila  referred  the  matter  back  to  the 
Director- Gen  oral  of  Ciii!  Adminislration.  This  functionary,  in  a  new 
circular  dated  4th  of  November,  confirmed  his  previous  mandate  of  the 
18th  October,  and  censured  the  action  of  the  parish  priests,  who  "  in 



improper  languiige  and  from  the  pulpit,"  had  mciteil  the  native  headmen 
to  set  aside  bis  authority.  The  author  of  the  circular  sarcaBtically 
added  the  pregnant  remark,  th.-.t  he  was  penetrated  with  the  conviction 
tliat  the  Archbishop's  sense  of  patriotism  and  rectitude  would  deter 
Mm  from  sitbverting  the,  law.  This  incident  seriously  aroused  the 
jealousy  of  the  Friars  holding  vicarages,  and  did  not  improve  the 
relations  between  Church  and  State. 

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Two  decades  of  existence  m  the  16th  century  -was  but  a  short 
period  in  which  to  make  known  the  coaditiona  of  tliia  new  Colony  to 
its  neighbouring  States,  when  its  onlj  re£;ular  intercourse  v,  itli  them 
was  through  the  Chinese  who  (,ame  to  trade  with  Manila  Japanese 
marinera,  therefore,  appear  to  hwe  continued  to  regard  the  north  of 
Luzon  as  "  no-man's-Iaiid,"  for  years  after  its  nominal  annexation  by 
the  Spaniards  they  assembled  there,  whether  at,  merchants  or  buccaneers 
it  is  difficult  to  determiue.  Spanish  authority  had  been  asserted  by 
Salccdo  along  the  west  coast  about  as  far  as  iat  18°  N.,  but  in  I59I 
the  north  coast  was  only  known  to  Europeans  geographically.  So  far, 
the  natives  there  had  not  made  the  acqiiaintauco  of  their  new  masters. 

A  large  Spanish  galley  cruising  in  these  waters  met  a  Japanese 
vessel  off  Cape  Bojeador  (N.VV,  point)  a.nd  fired  a  shot  which  carried 
away  the  stranger's  mainmaBt,  obliging  him  to  heave-to.  Then  the 
galley-men,  intending  to  board  the  stranger,  made  fast  the  stern.*, 
whilst  the  Spaniards  rushed  to  the  bows,  but  the  Japanese  came  first, 
hoarded  the  galley  and  drove  the  Spaniards  aft,  where  they  woiilil 
have  all  perished  had  they  not  cut  away  the  mizzeumast  and  let  it  fall 
with  all  sail  set.  Behind  this  barricade,  they  had  time  to  load  tlieir 
arquebuses  and  drive  back  the  Japanese,  over  whom  they  gained  a 
victory.  The  Spaniards  then  entered  the  Hio  Grande  de  Cagayan, 
where  they  met  a  Japanese  fleet,  between  which  they  passed  peacefully. 
On  shore  they  formed  trenches,  and  monuted  cannons  on  earthwork?, 
but  the  Japanese  scaled  the  fortifications  and  pulled  down  the  cannons 
by  the  mouths. 

These  were  recovered,  and  the  Spanish  captain  had  the  cannon 
mouths  greased,  so  that  the  Japanese  tactics  should  not  be  repeated. 

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A  bftttlo  waa  fought,  and  the  defeated  Japanese  set  sail  ;  whilst  tLe 
Spauiards  remained  to  obtain  the  submission  of  the  natives  hy  force 
or  by  persuasion. 

Japanese  bad  also  come  to  Manila  to  trade,  and  were  located  in  the 
neighbouring  village  of  Dilao,'  where  the  Franciscan  Friars  undertook 
their  conversion  to  Chris tiaiiitj',  whilst  the  Dominican  order  considered 
the  spiritual  care  of  the  Chinese  their  especial  cbsirge. 

The  Portuguese  had  been  in  possession  of  Macao  since  the  year 
1557,  and  traded  with  various  Chinese  ports,  whilst  in  the  Japanese 
town  of  Nagasaki  there  was  a  small  colony  of  Portuguese  merchants. 
These  were  the  indirect  sources  whence  the  Emperor  of  Japan  learnt 
that  Europeans  had  founded  a  colony  in  Luzon  Island,  and  in  1593 
he  sent  a  message  to  the  Governor  of  the  Philippines  calling  upon  him 
to  surrender  and  becooae  his  vassal,  threatening  invasion  in  the  event 
of  refusal.  The  Spanish  colonies  at  that  date  were  hardly  in  a  position 
to  treat  with  haughty  scorn  the  menaces  of  the  Japanese  potentate, 
for  they  were  simultaneously  threatened  with  troubles  with  the  Dutch 
in  tho  Moluccas,  for  which  they  were  preparing  an  armament  {vide 
Chap.  VI.).  The  want  of  men,  ships  and  war  material  obliged  them 
to  seek  conciliation  with  dignity.  The  Japanese  Ambassador,  Farranda 
Kiemon,  was  received  with  great  honours  and  treated  with  the  utmost 
deference  during  his  sojourn  in  Manila. 

The  Governor  replied  to  the  Emperor,  that  being  but  a  Heger  of  the 
King  of  Spain — a  mighty  monarch  of  Hulimited  resources  and  power, — 
he  was  unable  to  acknowledge  the  Emperor's  suzerainty  ;  for  the  most 
important  duty  imposed  upon  him  by  his  Sovereign  was  the  defence 
of  his  vast  domains  against  foreign  aggression  ;  that,  on  the  other  hand, 
he  was  desirous  of  entering  into  amicable  and  mutually  advantageous 
relations  with  tho  Emperor,  and  solicited  his  conformity  to  a  treaty  of 
commerce,  tho  terms  of  which  would  be  elucidated  to  him  by  an  envoy. 

A  priest,  Juan  Cobo,  and  an  infantry  captain  were  thereupon 
accredited  to  the  Japanese  Court  as  Philippine  ambassadors.  On  their 
arrival  they  were,  withoot  delay,  admitted  in  audience  by  the  Emperor  ; 
the  treaty  of  commerce  was  adjusted  to  the  satisfaction  of  both  parties, 
and  the  ambassadors,  with  some  Japanese  nobles,  set  sail  for  Manila 
in  Japanese  ships,  which  foundered  on  the  voyage,  aiui  all  perished. 

'  Now  the  suburb  of  Pnco.  Between  1606  and  1608,  owing  to  a  rising  of  the 
Japanese  settlers,  their  dwellings  in  Dilao  were  sacked  and  the  settlement  burnt. 



Keither  the  political  nor  the  clerical  party  in  Manila  vtAn,  however, 
dismayeiJ  by  this  firat  disaster,  and  the  prospect  of  peaetrating  Japan 
was  followed  up  by  a  socond  expedition. 

Between  the  Friars  an  animated  discussioa  arose,  when  the  Jesuits 
protested  against  members  of  any  other  order  being  sent  to  Japan. 
Saint  Francis  Xavier  had,  years  before,  obtained  a  Papal  Bull  from 
Popa  Gregory  XIII.,  awarding  Japan  to  his  Order,  which  had  been  the 
first  to  establish  missions  in  Nagasaki.  Jesuits  were  still  there  u 
numbers,  and  the  necessity  of  sending  members  of  rival  religious  bodies 
19  not  made  clear  in  the  historical  records.  The  jealous  feud  between 
those  holy  men  was  referred  to  the  Governor,  who  naturally  decided 
against  the  Jesuits,  in  pursuit  of  the  King's  policy  of  grasping  territory 
under  the  cloak  of  piety.  A  certain  Fray  Pedro  Eautista  was  choaeu 
as  ambassador,  and  in  his  suite  were  three  other  priests.  These 
embarked  in  a  Spanish  frigate,  whilst  Farranda  Kiemon,  who  had 
remained  in  Manila  the  honoured  guest  of  tlie  Government,  took  his 
leave,  and  went  on  board  his  own  vessel.  The  authorities  bid  farewell 
to  the  two  embassies  with  osteutatious  ceremonies  and  amidst  public 
rejoicings,  and  on  the  26th  of  May,  1593,  the  two  ships  started  on 
their  journey. 

After  30  days'  navigation,  one  ship  arrived  safely  at  Kagasaki  and 
the  other  at  a  port  35  miles  off  it. 

Pedro  Bautista,  introduced  by  Farranda  Kiemon,  was  presented  to 
the  Emperor  Taycosama,  who  welcomed  him  as  an  ambassador  authorized 
to  negotiate  a  treaty  of  commerce,  and  conclude  an  offensive  and 
defensive  alliance  for  mutual  proiectiim.  The  Protocol  was  agreed  to, 
and  signed  by  both  parties,  and  the  relations  between  the  Emporor  and 
Pedro  Bautista  became  more  and  more  cordial.  The  latter  solicited,  and 
obtained,  permission  to  reside  inilefinitely  in  the  country,  and  send  the 
treaty  on  by  messenger  to  the  Governor  of  the  Philippines,  hence  tiio 
ships  in  which  the  envoys  had  arrived  remained  about  ten  mouths  in 
port.  A  concession  was  also  granted  to  build  a  cliurch  at  Meaco,  near 
Osaka,  and  it  was  opened  ia  1594,  when  Mass  was  publicly  celebrated. 

In  Nagasaki  the  Jesuits  were  allowed  to  reside  unmolested,  and 
practise  their  religious  rites  amongst  the  Portuguese  population  of 
traders  aud  others  who  might  have  voluntarily  embraced  Christianity. 
Bautista  went  there  to  consult  with  the  chief  of  the  Jesuit  Mission, 
who  energetically  opposed  what  he  held  to  be  an  encroachment  upon 

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tins  monopoly  rights  of  his  Order,  conceded  hy  tlie  stslf-constitut&I 
Mouarch  of  tlie  whole  world,  Popo  Gregory  XIII.,  sind  couflrmed  by 
Royal  Decrees.  Bantista,  however,  showed  a  permission  which  he  had 
received  from  the  Jesuit  General,  by  virtue  of  which  he  was  aufi'ered 
to  continue  his  course  until  the  arrival  of  that  dignitjiry  himself. 

The  Portuguese  merchants  in  Nagasaki  were  not  slow  to  com- 
prehend that  Bautista's  coming  with  priests  at  his  command  was  but  a 
prelude  to  Spanish  territorial  conquest,  in  which  they  would  naturally 
be  the  losers  when  their  Iioped-for  emaucipation  from  the  Spanish  yoke 
ehoiihl  one  (lay  be  realized.'  Therefore  to  save  their  own  interests, 
they  forewarned  the  Governor  of  Nagasaki,  who  prohibited  Bautisla 
from  continuing  hia  propaganda  against  the  established  religion  of  the 
country  iu  contravention  of  the  Emperor's  commands.  But  little  heed 
was  taken  of  this  injunction,  and  Baufista  was  expcllei!  from  Nagasaki 
for  contumacy. 

It  was  now  manifest  to  the  Emperor  that  he  had  been  basely 
deceived;  ho  was  persuaded  to  believe  that  under  the  pretext  of 
concluding  a  commercial  and  political  (reaty  as  Philippine  ambassador, 
Eantisla  and  hia  party  had,  in  efiect,  introduced  themselves  into  his 
realm  with  the  clandestine  object  of  seducing  his  subjects  from  their 
allegiance,  of  undermining  their  consciences,  perverting  them  from  the 
religion  of  their  forefathers,  and  that  all  this  would  bring  about  the 
dismemberment  of  hia  Empire  and  the  overthrow  of  hia  dynasty. 
Not  only  had  Taycosama  abstained  from  persecuting  foreigners  for  the 
exercise  of  their  religious  rites,  but  iie  freely  licensed  the  Jesuits  to 
continue  their  mission  in  Na^jaiaki  and  wherever  Catholics  happened 
to  congregate.  He  had  permitted  the  construction  of  their  temples, 
hut  he  could  not  tolerate  a  deliberate  propaganda  which  foreshadowed 

Pedro  Bautista's  designs  being  prematurely  obstructed,  he  toot  his 
passage  back  to  Manila  from  Nagasaki  in  a  Japanese  vessel,  leaving 
behind  him  his  interpreter,  Fray  Jerome,  with  the  other  Franciscan 
Monks.  An  Impeiial  Decree  was  then  issued  to  prohibit  foreign 
priests  from  interfering  with  the  reUgion  of  Japanese  siibjecta ;  but 

'  Portugal  waa  forcibly  annexed  to  the  Spanish  Crown  from  1581  to  Ifi40. 

'  The  persecntion  of  religious  apostates  by  Philip  ll.'s  Generals  during  the 
"  Wars  of  the  Flanders,"  was  due  to  his  foresight  of  the  politioal  di  Bad  vantages 
which  would  ensue  from  religious  discord. 



tliis  law  Ijeing  act  at  naught  by  Biiutiata's  colleagues,  one  waa  arretted 
and  imprisoned,  ami  warrants  were  issued  against  the  others ; 
meiiuwhiie  the  Jesuits  in  Nagasaki  were  in  no  way  restrained. 

The  Governor  of  Nagasaki  caused  the  Franuiscan  propagandists 
to  be  conducted  on  board  a  Portuguese  ship  aud  handed  over  to  the 
charge  of  the  captain,  under  severe  penalties  if  he  aided  or  allowed 
tiieir  escape,  but  they  were  free  to  go  wiierever  they  chose  outside  the 
Japanese  Empire.  The  captain,  however,  permitted  one  to  return 
ashore,  au<l  for  some  time  lie  wandered  about  the  country  in  disguise. 

Pedro  Bftutista  had  reached  Manila,  whero  the  ecclesiastical 
dignitaries  prevailed  upon  the  Governor  to  sanction  another  expedition 
to  Japan,  and  Bautista  arrived  in  that  country  a  second  time  with  a 
number  of  Franciscan  Friars.  The  Emperor  now  lost  all  patience,  and 
determined  not  only  to  repress  those  venturesome  foreigners,  but  to 
stamp  out  the  last  vestige  of  their  revolutionary  machinations. 
Therefore,  by  Imperial  Deeree  the  arrest  wis  ordered  of  ill  the 
Franciscan  Friars,  and  al!  nitnes  who  persisted  m  their  adhesion  to 
these  m is 8 iouari OS '  teachings  Tnentv-si-^  of  those  taken  ■were  tried 
and  condemned  to  ignominious  exhibition  and  death — the  Spaniards, 
because  they  iiad  come  into  the  country  and  had  received  royal  fnours 
under  false  pretences,  representing  themselves  as  politic  il  amhass  idors 
and  suite — the  Japanese,  because  they  had  forsworn  the  leligioa  of 
their  ancestors  and  bid  fair  to  hei-ome  a  Lonsfaut  dinger  an  1  soiirie  of 
discord  in  the  realm.  Amongst  these  Spauiaris  was  Pedro  Bautista 
And  after  their  ears  and  noses  had  b(.cu  cut  off,  they  were  pjomenailed 
from  town  to  town  in  a  cart,  Imally  cntt-rmg  Migasaki  on  h  )rseb  itk 
Each  bore  the  sentence  of  death  on  a  hreiat  board,  winch  stated  the 
reasons  why  they  were  so  condemned  The  sentence  was  to  be  carr  cd 
out  where  common  felons  were  ordinarily  exei  uted  ,  but  a  deputation 
of  Portuguese  merchants  waited  upon  the  riovernor  at  Nagasaki  to  heg 
that  the  crticifixiouB  should  take  place  elsewhere  Ihe  Governor 
readily  acceded  to  their  request — mdee  i  there  is  nothing  in  the  history 
of  these  events  which  points  to  vindictivcuess  on  the  pirt  of  the 
Japanese  Emperor  or  his  officer- 
On  a  high  ground,  near  the  Citj  and  the  port,  in  front  of  the 
Jesuits'  Church,  these  26  persons  were  trucilied  and  stabbed  to  dpath 
with  lances,  in  expiation  of  their  political  offences  It  ^  is  a  sad  fate 
for   men   who    conscientiously   believed    that    th&j    were   justified    m 



violating  rights  and  laws  of  nations  for  the  propagation  of  tlieir 
particular  views,  but  can  one  complain  ?  Would  Buddhist  missionaries 
in  Spain  have  met  witli  milder  treatment  at  the  hands  of  tbe 
Inquisitors  ?' 

Each  Catholic  body  was  supposed  to  designate  the  Kame  road  to 
Heaven~eaeh  professed  to  teach  the  same  means  of  obiaining  the 
grace  of  God  ;  yet,  strange  to  say,  each  bore  the  other  an  impiaoaWe 
hatred — an  inextinguishable  jealousy  1  If  conversion  to  Ciiristianity 
■were  for  the  glory  of  God  and  not  |for  the  glory  of  tha  Friars,  ivhat 
co\iId  it  have  mattered  to  the  Franciscan  order  whether  souls  of 
Japanese  were  saved  by  them  or  by  others  ?  For  King  Philip  it  was 
the  same  whether  his  political  tools  were  of  one  denomination  or  the 
other,  but  many  of  the  Jesuits  in  Japan  happened  to  be  Portuguese. 

The  Jesuits  in  Manila  pi-obably  felt  that  in  view  of  their  oppositiou 
to  the  Franciscan  missions,  they  might  incur  public  censure,  and  be  held 
morally  responsible  for  indirectly  contributini;  to  the  unfortunate  events 
related  ;  therefore,  they  formally  declared  tliat  Pedro  Bautista  and  his 
followers  died  excommunicated,  because  they  bad  disobeyed  the  Bull 
of  Pope  Gregory  XIIT. 

The  general  public  were  much  excited  wheu  tlie  news  spread 
through  the  City,  and  a  special  Mass  was  said,  followed  by  a  religious 
procession  through  the  streets.  The  Governor  sent  a  commission  to 
Japan,  under  the  control  of  Luis  de  Navarrete,  to  ask  for  the  dead 
bodies  and  chattels  of  the  executed  priests.  The  Emperor  showed  no 
rancour  whataoever ;  on  the  contrary,  his  policy  was  already  carried 
out ;  and  to  welcome  the  Spanish  lay  depiities,  he  gave  a  magnificent 
banquet  and  entertained  them  sumptuously.  Luis  de  Navarrete  having 
claimed  the  dead  bodies  of  the  priests,  the  Emperor  at  once  ordered  the 
guards  on  the  execution  ground  to  retire,  and  told  Navarrete  that  he 
could  dispose  as  he  pleased  of  the  mortal  remains.  Navarrete  there- 
upon hastened  to  Nagasaki,  but  before  he  could  reach  there,  devout 
Catholics  had  cut  up  the  bodies  ;  one  carrying  away  a  head,  another  a 

'  Eeligiona  intolerance  in  Spain  was  confirmed  in  1832,  by  the  New  Penal  Code 
of  that  date;  the  test  reads  thue:— "Todo  &  que  conspirnse  directamente  y  de 
'■  hecho  A  establecer  otra  religion  en  las  Espafias,  6  &  que  la  Hacion  Espanola  deje 
"  de  profosar  la  religion  Apostolica  Komana  ea  traidor  j  lufriri  la  pens  de 
"  muerte."  Artieulo  !27  del  Cddigo  Pcnai  prcEcntado  i  las  Cfittes  en  22  de  Abril 
de  1821  J  Baocionado  en  1823. 

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leg,  and  bo  forth.  It  happened  too,  that  Navarrete  died  of  disease  a 
few  days  after  his  arrival  in  Nagasaki.  His  successor,  Diego  de  Losa, 
recovered  the  pieces  of  the  deceased  priests,  which  ho  put  into  a  box 
and  shipped  for  Manila,  but  the  vessel  and  box  were  lost  on  the  way. 

Diego  de  Losa  returned  to  Manila,  the  bearer  of  a  polite  letter,  and 
Tery  acceptable  presents  from  the  Emperor  to  the  Governor  of  the 

The  letter  fully  expatiated  on  recent  events,  and  set  forth  a  well- 
reasoned  justification  of  the  Emperor's  decrees  against  the  priests,  in 
terms  which  proved  that  he  was  neither  a  tyrant  nor  a  wanton  savage, 
but  au  astute  politician.  The  letter  stated,  that  under  the  pretest  of 
being  ambassadors,  the  priests  in  question  hail  come  into  the  country 
and  had  taught  a  diabolical  law  belonging  to  foreign  countries,  and 
which  aimed  at  superseding  the  rites  and  laws  of  hia  own  religion, 
confused  his  people,  and  destroyed  hia  Government  and  Kiugdom  ; 
for  which  reason  !ie  had  rigorously  proscribed  it.  Against  these 
prohibitions,  the  religious  men  of  Luzon  preached  their  law  publicly  to 
humble  people,  such  as  servants  and  slaves.  Not  being  able  to  permit 
this  persistence  in  law -breaking,  he  had  ordered  their  death  by  placing 
them  on  crosses  ;  for  he  was  informed  that  in  the  Kingdom  where 
Spaniards  dominated,  this  teaching  of  their  religious  doctrine  was  but 
an  artifice  and  stratagem  by  means  of  which  the  civil  power  was 
deceitfully  gained.  He  astutely  asks  the  Govern  or- Gen  oral  if  he  would 
consent  to  Japanese  preaching  their  laws  in  his  territory,  perturbing 
public  peace  with  such  noM,lfies  amongst  the  lower  classes  ? 

It  is  certain  he  would  not  permit  it,  arguta  the  Emperor — it  would 
he  severely  repressed,  and  he  had  done  the  same  in  the  exercise  of  his 
absolute  power  and  for  tiie  good  of  his  subjects  Thus,  he  add"*,  he  ha^ 
avoided  the  occurrence  in  his  dominions  of  what  has  taken  plate  m 
those  regions  where  the  bpaniards  deposed  the  legitimate  Kings,  and 
hud  constituted  themselves  mai'ter^  bj  rehgioni  fraud 

It  is  true,  he  admits,  that  he  seized  the  cargo  of  a,  bpaniob  ship, 
but  it  was  only  as  a  reprisal  for  the  harm  which  he  had  suffered  bj  the 
tnmult  raised  when  they  evaded  the  edict 

But  as  the  Spanish  (jo\crnor  had  thought  fit  to  send  another 
ambassador  from  so  far,  ri-ikmg  the  piiils  ot  the  sea,  he  was  anKious 
for  peace  and  mntua!  goud  ftelmg,  but  oi  ly  on  the  preciie  condition 
that  no  more  individuals  should  be  sent  to  teaeh  a  law  loreign  to  his 



realm,  and  nuder  these  nnalteralile  cooditiona  tbe  GoTcrnor's  subjects 
were  at  liberty  to  trade  freely  with  Japan  ;  that  by  reason  of  his  former 
friendship  and  royal  clemency,  he  had  refrained  from  killing  all  the 
Spaniards  with  the  priests  and  their  servants,  and  had  allowed  them  to 
return  to  their  country. 

As  to  religion  itself,  Taycosam  1    t     1  n     1.  d     1    t 

among  so  many  professed,  one  more  f  I  ttl        n     j  — 1       e 

ilia  toleration  in  the  beginning,  a   J  h  nt  n  ed  pe  n        u  to  tl  e 

Jesuits  to  maintain  their  doctrin  a  am  n^  t  the  wn  ta  ana 
Moreover,  it  is  said  that  a  map  las  loTit  Tj  an  a  ma  k  n 
the  domains  of  the  King  of  Spain  and  Portugal,  and  that  in  reply 
to  his  enquiry  :  "  How  could  one  man  have  conquered  sitch  vast 
territory  ?  " — a  certain  Father  Guzman  (or  more  probably  it  was  a 
Portuguese)  answered  ;  "  By  secretly  sending  religious  men  to  teach  their 
"  doctrine,  and  when  a  sufficient  number  of  persons  were  so  converted, 
"  the  Spanish  soldiery,  with  their  aid,  annexed  their  country  and 
"  overthrew  their  Kings."  Such  an  avowal  naturally  impressed 
Taycosam  a  profoundly.' 

In  Seville  there  was  quite  a  tumult  when  the  details  of  the 
executions  in  Japan  were  published. 

In  the  meantime,  the  lamentable  end  of  the  Franciscan  missionaries 
did  not  deter  others  from  making  further  attempts  to  follow  their 
example.  During  the  first  20  years  of  the  17fh  century,  priests 
siieceoded  in  entering  Japan,  nndcr  the  pretence  of  trading,  in  spite 
of  the  extreme  measures  adopted  to  discover  them  and  the  precaution.i 
taken  to  uproot  the  new  doctrine,  which  it  was  feared  would  become 
the  forerunner  of  seditioB.  Indeed,  many  Japanese  nobles  professing 
Christianity  had  already  taken  up  their  residence  in  Manila,  and  were 
regarded  by  the  Emperor  as  a  constant  danger  to  his  realm,  hence  he 
was  careful  to  avoid  communication  witli  the  Philippines.  During  the 
short  reigns  of  Dayfusama  and  ihis  son  Xognsama,  new  decrees  were 
issued,  not  against  foreign  Christians,  but  against  those  who  made 
apostates  amongst  the  Japanese  ;  and  consequently  two  more  Spanish 
priests  were  beheaded. 

In  September,  1622,  a  large  number  of  Spanish  missionaries  and 
Christian  Japanese    men   and   children  were   executed   in    Nagasaki, 

■  "Hist.  Gen.  de  Philipinas,"  by  Juna  de  la  Concepcion,  Vol,  HI.,  Chap,  VIII. 



Twenty-five  of  them  were  burnt,  and  the  rest  beheaded  ;  their  remains 
being  thrown  into  the  sea  to  avoid  tbe  Christians  followicg  their  odious 
custom  of  preserving  parts  of  corpses  as  relics.  Two  days  afterwards, 
four  Franciscan  and  two  Dominican  Friara  with  five  Japanese  were  burnt 
in  Oranra.  Then  followed  an  edict,  stating  tlie  pains  and  penalties, 
civil  deprivations,  etc.  against  all  who  refused  to  abandon  their  apostasy 
and  return  to  the  faith  of  their  forefathers.  Another  edict  was  issued, 
imposing  death  upon  those  who  should  conduct  priests  to  Japan,  and 
forfeiture  of  the  ships  in  which  they  should  arrive  and  tiie  merchandise 
with  which  they  should  come.  To  all  informers  against  native 
apostates,  the  culprits'  estates  and  goods  were  trauafeircd  as  a  reward. 

A  Spanish  deputation  was  sent  to  the  Emperor  of  Japan  in  1622, 
alleging  a  desiro  to  renew  commercial  relations,  but  the  Emperor  was 
so  exasperated  at  the  recent  defiance  of  his  decrees,  that  ho  refused  to 
accept  the  deputies'  presents  from  the  IPhiJippine  Govornmont,  and  sent 
them  and  the  deputation  away. 

Still  there  were  Friars  in  Manila  eager  to  seek  martyrdom,  bnt  the 
Philippine  traders,  in  view  of  the  danger  of  confiscation  of  their  ships 
and  merchandise  if  they  carried  missionaries,  resolved  not  to  despatch 
vessels  to  Japan  if  ecclesiastics  insisted  on  taking  passage.  The 
Government  supported  this  resolution  in  the  interests  of  trade,  and 
formally  prohibited  the  transport  of  priests.  The  Archbishop  of 
Manila,  on  hia  part,  imposed  ecclesiastical  penalties  on  those  of  his 
subordinates  who  should  clandestinely  violate  this  prohibition. 

Supplicatory  letters  from  Japan  reached  the  religious  communities 
in  Manila,  entreating  them  to  send  more  priests  to  aid  iu  the  spread  of 
Christianity,  therefore  the  chiefs  of  the  Orders  consulted  together, 
bought  a  ship,  and  paid  high  wages  to  its  officers  to  carry  four 
Franciscan,  four  Dominican  and  two  Reeoleto  priests  to  Japan.  W  h  e 
the  Governor,  Alonso  Fajardo,  heard  of  the  intended  expedition,  he 
threatened  to  prohibit  it,  affirming  that  he  would  not  consent  to  any 
more  victims  being  sent  to  Japan.  Thereupon  representatives  of  the 
religious  orders  waited  upon  him,  to  state  that  if  he  persisleti  in  his 
prohibition,  upon  his  conscience  would  fall  the  enormous  charge  of 
having  lost  the  souls  which  they  had  hoped  to  save.  The  Governor 
therefore  retired  from  the  discussion,  remitting  the  question  to  the 
Archbishop,  who  at  once  permitted  the  ship  to  leave,  convoying  tbe  ten 
priests  disguised  as  merchants.     Several  times  the  vessel  was  nearly 

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Ti-recked,  but  at  length  arrived  safely  in  a  Japanese  port ;  the  ten  prioets 
landed,  and  were  siiortly  afterwards  biirut  by  Imperial  order. 

In  Rome,  a  very  disputed  enquiry  had  been  made  into  tlio 
cireuiastancea  of  the  Franciscan  mission  ;  but  in  spite  of  the  severe 
ordeal  of  the  diaboli  advoealus,  canonization  wa'!  coacedeJ  to  Pedro 
Bauti&ta  and  his  companions. 

In  1629,  the  Papal  Bull  of  Urban  VIII.,  dated  Hth  of  September, 
1627,  waa  published  in  Manila,  amidst  public  feasts  and  popular 
rejoicing.  The  Bull  declared  the  missionaries  of  Japan  to  be  Saints  and 
JJartyrs  and  Patron  Saints  of  the  second  class.  Increased  animation 
in  favour  of  missions  to  Japan  became  general  iu  consequence.  Ten 
thousand  dollars  were  collected  to  fit  out  a  ship  to  carry  12  priests 
from  Manila,  besides  24  priests  who  came  from  Pangasinan  to  embark 
secretly.  The  ship,  however,  was  wrecked  off  the  Ilocos  Province 
coast,  but  the  crew  and  priests  wore  saved, 

A  large  jiink  was  then  secretly  prepared  at  a  distance  from  Manila 
for  the  purpose  of  conveying  another  party  of  friars  to  Japan  ;  but  jnst 
as  they  were  about  to  embark,  the  Governor  sent  a  detachment  of 
soldiers  ivitli  orders  to  prevent  thera  doing  so,  imd  he  definitely 
prohibited  further  missionary  expeditious. 

In  1633,  the  final  extinction  of  Christians  wns  vigorously 
commenced  bj  the  Emperor  To  Kogunsama  and  m  the  tollowing  vcar 
"J  persons  iiere  execute!  Ihe  wme  Emperor  -sent  a  ship  to  M  tr  ila 
with  a  piescnt  of  150  Ieper<i  saung  that  as  he  did  not  permit 
Chri'itiaua  m  h  s  countr-*,  and  knowing  that  the  piiesfs  had  specially 
care]  for  these  unfortunate  beings,  lie  remitted  them  to  their  care 
The  first  impulse  of  the  Sp  innrds  was  to  tink  the  nhip  with  ctimon 
shots,  but  linillj  it  was  agreed  to  receive  the  lepers,  who  were 
con  lucted  with  great  pomp  through  the  citj  and  Iod.,ed  in  a  large 
shed  at  Dilao  (now  the  suburb  of  I'aco).  This  gave  rise  to  the 
foundation  of  the  Saint  Lazarus'  (Lepers')  Hospital,  existing  at  the 
present  day.'  The  Governor  replied  to  the  Emperor  that  if  any  more 
were  sent  be  would  kill  them  and  their  conductora. 

The  Emperor  then  convoked  a  great  assembly  of  his  vassal  Kings 
and  Nobles,  and  solemnly  imposed    upon  them  the  strict  obligation  to 

'  Thie  Hospital  was  rebuilt  with  a  legacy  left  by  the  Gov. -Gen.  Don  JMnnuel 
de  Loon  in  1677.  It  was  afterwanls  subsidized  by  the  Government,  and  was  under 
the  care  of  the  Franciscan  Friars,  up  to  tlie  close  of  Spanish  dominion. 



fulfil  all.  the  edicts  against  tlie  entry  and  permaneuce  of  Cliristians, 
under  severe  penalties,  forfeiture  of  property,  deprivation  of  dignities, 
or  death.  So  intent  was  this  Prinee  on  effectually  annihilating 
Christianity  within  hia  Empire,  that  he  henceforth  interdicted  all  trade 
■with  Macao  ;  and  when  in  1640  his  decree  was  disregarded  by  four 
Portuguese  traders,  who,  describing  themselves  as  ambassadors,  arrived 
witli  a  suite  of  i6  Orientals,  they  were  all  executed. 

In  the  same  year,  the  Governor  of  the  Philippines  called  a  Congress 
of  local  officials  and  ecclesiastics  ;  amongst  whom  it  was  agreed  that 
to  send  missionaries  to  Japan  was  to  send  them  directly  to  death, 
and  it  was  henceforth  resolved  to  abandon  Catholic  missions  in  thiit 

Secret  missions  and  consequent  executions  still  continued  uutil 
about  the  year  1642,  when  the  Dutch  took  Tanchiu— in  Formosa 
Island — from  the  Spaniards,  and  intercepted  the  passage  to  Japan  of 
priests  and  merchants  alike.  The  conquest  of  Japan  was  a  feat  which 
all  the  artifice  of  King  Philip  IV.'s  favourites  and  their  monastic 
agents  could  not  compass. 




Consequent  on  the  uiiioa  of  the  Crowns  of  Portugal  and  Spain 
{1581  to  16-10),  the  fends,  as  between  uiitions,  diplomatically  anbaided, 
altliongh  the  individual  aQtngouiam  was  as  rife  as  ever. 

Spanish  and  Portuguese  intereats  in  tlie  Moluccas,  as  elsewhere, 
were  thenceforth  officially  mutual.  In  the  Molucca  group,  the  old 
contests  between  the  once  rival  Kingdoms  had  estranged  the  natives 
from  their  forced  alliances.  Ant i- Portuguese  and  Philo-Portngnese 
parties  had  sprung  up  amongst  the  petty  sovereignties,  but  the 
Portuguese  fort  and  factory  established  lu  Tematc  Island  were  held 
for  many  years,  despite  all  contentious.  But  another  rivalry,  as 
formidable  and  more  detrimental  than  that  of  the  Portuguese  in  days 
gone  by,  now  menaced  Spanish  ascendancy. 

From  the  close  of  the  16th  century  up  to  the  year  of  the  "  Family 
Compact"  Wars  (1763),  Holland  and  Spain  were  relentless  foes.  To 
recount  the  numerous  combats  between  their  respective  fleets  during 
this  period,  would  itself  require  a  volume.  It  will  sufiiee  here  to  show 
the  bearing  of  these  political  conflicts  upon  the  concerns  of  the 
Philippine  colony.  The  treaty  of  Antwerp,  which  was  wrung  from 
the  Spaniards  in  1609,  twenty-eight  years  after  the  union  of  Spain  and 
Portugal,  broke  the  scourge  of  their  tyranny,  whilst  it  failed  to  assuage 
the  mutual  antipathy.  One  of  the  consequences  of  the  "  Wars  of  the 
Flanders,"  which  terminated  with  this  treaty,  was  that  the  Dutch  were 
obliged  to  seek  in  the  Far  East  the  merchandise  which  had  hitherto 
been  supplied  to  them  from  the  Peuiuaula.  The  short-sighted  policy 
of  the  Spaniards  in  closing  to  the  Dutch  the  Portuguese  markets, 
which  were  now  theirs,  brought  upon  themselves  the  destruction  of 

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the  monopolies  which  thoy  had  gained  \ij  the  Union.  The  Dutch 
■were  now  free,  and  their  old  tyrant's  policy  induced  them  to 
independently  establish  their  own  trading  headquarters  in  the 
Molucca  Islands,  whence  tiiey  could  obtain  directly  the  produce 
forbidden  to  them  in  the  home  ports.  Hence,  from  those  islands,  the 
ships  of  a  powerful  Netherlands  Trading  Company  sallied  forth  from 
time  to  time  to  meet  the  Spanish  galleons  from  Mexico  laden  with 
silver  and  macufaetured  goods. 

Previous  to  this,  and  during  the  Wars  of  the  Flanders,  Dutch 
corsairs  hovered  about  the  waters  of  the  Moluccas,  to  take  reprisals 
from  the  Spaniards.  These  encounters  frequently  took  place  at  the 
eastern  entrance  of  the  San  Bernadino  Straits,  where  the  Dutch  were 
accustomed  to  heavc-to  in  anticipation  of  the  arrival  of  their  prizes. 

lu  this  manner,  constantly  roving  about  the  Philippine  waters, 
they  enriched  themselves  at  the  expense  of  their  detested  adversary, 
and,  in  a  small  degree,  avenged  themselves  of  the  bloodshed  and 
oppression  which  for  over  sixty  years  had  desolated  the  Low 

The  Philippine  Colony  lost  immense  sums  in  the  seizure  of  its 
galleons  from  Mexico,  upon  which  it  almost  entirely  depended  for 
subsistence.  Being  a  dependency  of  New  Spain,  its  whole  intercourse 
with  the  civilized  world,  its  supplies  of  troops  and  European 
manufactured  articles,  were  contingent  upon  the  safe  arrival  of  the 
galleons.  Also  the  dollars  with  which  they  annually  purchased 
cargoes  from  the  Chinese  for  the  galleons  came  from  Mexico. 

Consequeutly,  the  Dutch  usually  took  the  aggressive  in  these  sea- 
battles,  a.lthough  they  were  not  always  victorious.  Wheu  tbere  were 
no  ships  to  meet,  they  bombarded  the  ports  where  others  were  being 
built.  The  Spaniards,  on  their  part,  from  time  to  time  fitted  out 
vessels  to  run  down  to  the  Molucca  Islands  to  attack  the  enemy  iu  his 

During  the  Governorship  of  Gomez  Perez  Dasmarinas  (1390-1593), 
the  native  King  of  Siao  Island — one  of  the  Molucca  group — came  to 
Manila  to  offer  homage  and  vasaalage  to  the  representative  of  the  King 
of  Spain  and  Portugal,  in  return  for  protection  against  the  iiicursious  of 
the  Dutch  and  the  raids  of  the  Ternate  natives.  Dasmariiias  received 
hinn  and  the  Spanish  priests  who  accompanied  hiru  with  afTability,  and, 
being  satisfied  with  his  credentials,  he  prepared  a  large  expedition  to 

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go  to  the  Moluccas  to  set  matters  in  order.  The  Fleet  waa  composed 
of  several  frigates,  one  sbip,  6  galleys  and  100  small  vessels,  aU 
well  armed.  The  fighting  men  numhered  100  Spaniards,  400 
Pampanga  and  Tagalog  arquebusiera,  1,000  Visaya  archers  and 
iancers,  besides  100  Chinese  to  row  tho  galleys.  This  expedition, 
which  waa  calculated  to  he  amply  sufficient  to  subdue  all  the 
Moluccas,  sailed  from  Cavito  on  the  6th  of  October,  1593.  Tho 
sailiiig  ships  having  got  far  ahead  of  the  galleys,  they  hove-to  oif 
Punta  de  Aautre  (N.  of  Maricahan  Islund)  to  wait  for  them.  The 
galleys  arrived ;  and  the  next  day  they  were  able  to  start  again  in 
company.  Meanwhile  a  conipiracy  was  formed  hy  the  Chinese 
galleymeu  to  murder  all  the  Spaniards.  Assuming  these  Chineso 
to  be  volunteers,  their  action  would  appear  most  wanton  aud  base. 
If,  however,  as  is  most  probable,  they  were  pressed  into  this  military 
service  to  foreigoers,  it  seems  quite  natural,  that  being  forced  to 
bloodshed  without  alternative,  they  should  first  fight  for  their  own 

All  but  the  Chinese  were  asleep,  and  they  fell  upon  the  Spaniards  iti 
a  body.  Eighteen  of  the  troops  and  four  slaves  escaped  by  jumping 
into  the  sea.  The  Governor  was  sleeping  in  his  cabin,  but  awoke  on 
hearing  the  noise.  He  supposed  the  ship  had  grounded,  and  was 
coming  up  the  companion  en  dishabille,  when  a  Chinaman  cleaved  his 
head  with  a  cutlass.  The  Governor  reached  his  state-room,  and  taking 
his  Missal  and  tlio  Image  of  the  Virgin  in  his  hand,  he  died  in  six  Iiours, 
The  Chinese  did  not  venture  below,  where  the  priests  and  armed  soldiers 
were  hidden.  Thoy  cleared  the  decks  of  al!  tlieir  opponents,  made  fast 
the  hatches  and  gangways,  and  wailed  three  days,  when,  after  putting 
ashore  those  who  were  still  alive,  they  escaped  to  Cochin  China,  where 
the  King  and  Mandarins  seized  the  vessel  and  ail  she  carried.  On 
board  were  found  $12,000  In  coin,  some  silver,  and  jewels  belonging  to 
the  Governor  and  his  suite. 

Thus  the  expedition  was  brought  to  an  untimely  end.  The  King 
of  Siao,  and  the  missionaries  aecompanying  him,  had  started  in  advance 
for  Otong  (Panay  Island)  to  wait  for  the  Governor,  and  there  they 
received  the  news  of  the  disaster. 

Amongst  the  most  notable  of  the  saccessful  expeditions  of  the 
Spaniards,  was  that  of  Pedro  Bravo  de  Acuna,  in  1606,  which  consisted 
of  19  frigates,  9  galleys,  and  8  small  craft,  carrying  a  total  of  about 

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2,000  mea  and  provisions  for  a  prolonged  struggle.  The  result  waa 
tliat  the^  subdued  a  petty  sultan,  friendly  to  the  Dutch,  and  established 
a  fortress  on  his  island. 

About  the  year  1607,  the  Supreme  Court  (the  Governorship  being 
vacaut  from  1606  to  1608),  hearing  tlint  a  Dutch  vessel  was  hoveriug 
off  Ternato,  sent  a  ship  against  it,  commanded  by  Pedro  de  Heredia, 
A  combat  ensued.  The  Dutch  conimauder  was  taken  prisoner  with 
several  of  his  men,  and  lodged  in  the  fort  at  Teruate,  but  was  ransomed 
on  payment  of  $50,000  to  the  Spanish  commander.  Heredia  returned 
joyfully  to  Manila,  where,  mueh  to  his  surprise,  he  was  prosecuted  by 
the  Supreme  Court  for  exceeding  his  instructions,  aud  expired  of 
melancholy.  The  ransomed  Dutch  leader  was  making  his  way  back 
to  his  headquarters  in  a  small  ship,  peacefully,  and  without  threateoing 
the  Spaniards  in  any  way,  when  the  Supreme  Court  treacherously  seut 
a  galley  and  a  frigate  after  bim  to  make  iiim  prisoner  a  second  time. 
Overwhelmed  by  numbers  and  amis,  and  little  expecting  such  perfidious 
conduct  of  the  Spaniards,  be  was  at  ouoe  arrested  aud  brought  to 
Mauila.  The  Dutch  returned  22  Spanish  prisoners  of  war  to  Manila 
to  ransom  him,  but  whilst  these  were  retained,  the  Dutch  commander 
was  nevertheless  imprisoned  for  life. 

Some  years  afterwards,  a  Dutch  squadron  anchored  off  the  south 
point  of  Bataan  Province,  not  far  from  Punta  Marivelez,  at  the 
entrance  to  Mauila  Bay.  Juan  de  Silva,  the  Governor  (from  1609  to 
1616),  was  in  great  straits.  Several  ships  had  bcon  lost  by  storms, 
others  were  away,  aud  there  was  no  adequate  floating  armament  with 
which  to  meet  the  enemy.  However,  the  Dutch  lay  to  for  fivo  or  six 
months,  waiting  to  seize  the  Chinese  and  Japanese  traders'  goods  on 
their  way  to  the  Manila  market.  They  aeciired  immense  booty,  and 
were  in  no  hurry  to  open  hostilities.  This  delay  gave  Silva  time  to 
prepare  vessels  to  attack  the  foe.  In  tie  interval  ho  dreamt  that  Saint 
Mark  had  offered  to  help  him  defeat  the  Dutch.  On  awaking,  he 
called  a  priest,  whom  he  consulted  about  the  dream,  aud  they  agreed 
that  the  nocturnal  vision  was  a  sign  from  Heaven  denoting  a  victory. 
The  priest  went  (fiom  Cavite)  to  Manila  to  procure  a  relic  of  this 
glorious  intercesHor,  and  returned  with  his  portrait  to  the  Governor, 
who  adored  it  In  baste  the  ships  and  armament  were  prepared.  On 
Saint  Mark's  day,  therefore,  the  Spaniards  sallied  forth  from  Cavite 
■with  six  ships,  carrying  70  guns  and  two  galleys,  aod  two  launches 

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also  well  armed,  besides  a  uumlier  of  small  Hglit  vessel!-,  to  assist  is  the 
formatioD  of  line  of  battle. 

All  the  Europcau  figlitiug  men  in  Manila  and  Cavite  embarked — 
oi-er  1,000  Spaniards — the  flower  of  the  Colony,  together  with  a  large 
force  of  natives,  who  were  taught  to  believe  that  the  Dutoh  were  iufidels. 
On  the  issue  of  this  day's  events  peruLanco  depended  the  possession 
of  the  Colony.  Manila  and  Cavite  were  garrisoned  by  voluateers. 
Orations  were  offered  iu  tlie  Churehcs.  The  Miraculous  Image  of  Our 
Lady  o£  the  Guide  was  taken  in  procession  from  the  Hermit,  auJ 
exposed  to  public  view  in  the  Cathedral.  The  Saints  of  the  different 
churches  and  sanctuaries  were  adored  and  exhibited  daily.  The 
Governor  himself  took  the  supreme  command,  and  dispelled  all 
■wavering  doubt  in  his  etibordiuates  by  proclaiming  Saint  Mark's 
promise  of  iotercesaion.  Oa  his  ship  he  hoisted  the  Royal  Staudard, 
on  which  was  embroidered  the  Image  of  the  Holy  Virgin,  with  the 
motto  "  Mostrate  esse  Matrcm"  and  over  a  beautifully  calm  sea  he  led 
the  way  to  battle. 

A  shot  from  the  Spanish  heavy  artillery  opcued  the  bloody  combat. 
The  Dutch  were  con)pletely  vanquished,  after  a  fierce  struggle,  which 
lasted  six  hours.  Their  three  ships  were  destroyed,  and  their  flags, 
artillery,  and  plundered  merchandise  to  the  value  of  $300,000,  were 
Bcized.  This  famous  engagement  was  thenceforth  known  as  the  Battle 
of  Playa  Honda. 

Again  iii  IGtl,  under  Silva,  a  squadron  sailed  to  the  Moluccas 
and  defeated  the  Dutch  off  Gilolo  Island. 

In  1617,  the  Spaniards  had  a  successful  engagement  off  the 
Zambales  coast  with  the  Dutch,  who  lost  three  of  their  ships. 

In  July,  1620,  three  Mexican  galleons  were  met  by  three  Dutch 
vessels  off  Cape  Espiritu  Santo  (Sdmar  Island),  at  the  eutrauce  of  the 
San  Bernadino  Straits,  but  managed  to  escape  in  the  dark.  Two  rau 
ashore  and  broke  np  ;  the  third  reached  Manila.  After  this,  the 
Govern  or- General,  Alonso  Fajardo  de  Tua,  ordered  the  course  of  the 
State  ships  to  ha  varied  on  each  voyage. 

In  1625,  the  Dutcb  agaiu  appeared  off  the  Zambales  coast,  and 
Gerouimo  de  Silva  went  out  against  them.  The  Spaniards  having  lost 
one  man,  relinquished  the  pursuit  of  tlie  enemy,  and  the  Commander 
was  brought  to  trial  by  the  Supreme  Court. 

In  1626,  at  the  close  of  the  Governorship  of  Fernando  de  Silva,  a 

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Spauisli  Colony  was  founded  on  Formosa  Isliind,  but  no  supplies  were 
sent  to  it,  itnd  consequently  in  1642  it  surrendered  to  tlie  Dntcb,  who 
lield  it  for  20  years,  until  ttiey  were  driven  out  by  the  Chinese 
adventurer  Koxinga.  And  tbus  for  over  a  century  and  a  half  the 
strife  continued,  until  the  Dutiih  concentrated  their  attention  on  the 
development  of  tlicir  Eastern  Colonies,  wliiub  the  power  of  Spain, 
growing  more  and  more  effete,  was  incompetent  to  impede. 

Tbe  rule  ol  the  Governors -Gen  era!  of  tbo  Islands  was,  upon  the 
Mhole,  liLuignant  with  respect  to  tbe  natives  when  these  manifested 
snUmission.  Apart  from  tbo  unconcealed  animosity  of  t!ie  monastic 
party,  the  Governor- General's  liberty  of  action  was  always  very  mucli 
locally  restrained  by  the  Supreme  Court  and  by  individual  officials. 
The  standing  rule  was,  that  in  the  event  of  the  death  or  deprivation 
of  office  of  the  Governor -General,  the  Civil  Government  was  to  be 
assumed  by  the  Supreme  Courf,  and  the  military  administration  by  tbo 
senior  magistrate.  Latterly,  in  the  absence  of  a  Governor- General, 
from  any  cause  whatsoever,  the  sub-inspector  of  the  forces  became 
Acting  Governor- General. 

Up  to  tbo  beginning  of  the  present  century,  the  authority  of  the 
King's  absolute  will  was  always  jealously  imposed,  and  the  Governors- 
General  were  frequently  rebuked  for  having  exercised  independent 
action,  tatiug  the  initiative  in  what  they  deemetl  tbe  best  policy.  But 
Koyal  decrees  could  not  enforce  honesty  ;  the  peculations  and  frauds  on 
tbe  part  of  the  soeiilar  authorities,  and  increasing  quarrels  and  jealousies 
amongst  the  several  religious  bodies,  seemed  to  annihilate  all  prospect 
of  social  and  material  progress  of  the  Colony.  As  early  as  the  reign  of 
Pliilip  III.  (1598  to  16il),  tbe  procurators  of  Manila  bad,  during  thi-ee 
years,  been  uuaiiccei'ifnlly  soliLiting  from  the  mother  country  financial 
help  for  the  Pliilippmes  to  meet  offit-itl  discrepancies  Tbe  affaire  of 
tlic  Colony  were  e\eiitiit!ly  submitted  to  a  special  Royal  Commission 
iu  Spain,  t!ie  result  btin/,  that  the  King  TiJ's  idvised  to  abandon  this 
possession,  which  \*  is  not  onh  uuprodncti\  e,  but  h-^d  become  a  costly 
centre  of  disputes  and  bid  feeling  Howi,\er,  Fray  Hernando  de 
Moraga,  a  missionary  fiom  the  I'hilippinas,  happened  to  be  iu  the 
Peninsula  at  the  time,  and  suecossfnlly  implored  tbo  King  to  withhold 
bis  ratification  of  tbe  recommendation  of  the  Commission,  His  Majesty 
avowed,  that  even  though  the  maintenance  of  this  Colony  should  exhaust 

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his  Mexican  Treasury,  his  conscience  would  not  nllow  him  lo  consent 
to  the  perdition  of  souls  which  had  been  saved,  and  the  hope  of  rescuiag 
yet  far  more  in  these  distant  regions. 

During  the  first  two  centuries  following  the  foundation  of  the 
Colony,  it  was  the  custom  for  a  Royal  Commission  to  be  appointed  to 
enquire  into  the  official  acts  of  the  outgoing  Governor  before  ho  could 
leave  tlie  islands. — Ilacerle  la  residencia,  aa  it  was  called. 

Whilst  on  the  one  hand  this  measure  effectually  served  as  a  check 
upon  a  Governor  who  miglit  bo  inclined  to  adopt  unjustifiable  means  of 
coercion,  or  commit  defalcations,  it  was  also  attended  with  many  abuses  ; 
for  against  an  energetic  ruler,  an  antagonistic  party  was  always  raised, 
ready  to  join  in  the  ultimate  ruin  of  the  Governor  who  had  aroused 
their  susceptibilities  by  refusing  to  favour  their  Defarious  schemes. 
Hence  when  a  prima  facte  case  was  made  out  against  a  Governor, 
bis  inexperienced  successor  was  often  persuaded  to  consent  to 
his  incarceration  whilst  the  articles  of  impeachment  were  being 

Sebastian  Hurtado  de  Coroiiera  (IGoo-lffi-l)  had  been  Governor 
of  Panama  before  ho  was  appointed  to  the  Philippines,  During  his 
term  of  office  here  he  had  usually  sideil  with  the  Jesuits  on  important 
questions  taken  up  by  the  Friars,  and  on  being  succeeded  by  Diego 
Fajardo,  Lo  was  brought  to  trial,  fined  §25,000,  and  put  into  prison. 
After  five  years'  confinement,  be  was  released  hy  Royal  order  and 
returned  to  Spain,  where  the  King  pariially  compensated  him  with  the 
Government  of  the  Canary  Islands. 

Juan  Vargas  (1G78-1684)  had  been  In  office  for  nearly  seven  years, 
and  tiie  Royal  Commissioner  who  enquired  into  his  acts  took  four  years 
to  draw  up  his  report,  lie  filled  20  large  volumes  of  a  statement  of 
the  charges  made  against  the  late  Governor,  some  of  which  were  grave, 
but  the  majority  of  them  were  of  a  very  frivolous  ciiaracter.  This  is 
the  longest  enquiry  of  the  kind  on  record. 

Acting-Govemor  Jose  Torralba  (1715-1717)  was  arrested  on  the 
termination  of  his  GovemorBhip  and  confined  in  the  Fortress  of 
Santiago,  ehargeil  with  embezzlement  to  the  amount  of  $700,000.  Ho 
Imd  also  to  deposit  the  sum  of  $20,000  for  the  expenses  of  the  enquiry 
commission.  Several  other  officials  were  imprisoned  with  him  as 
accomplices  in  his  crimes.  He  is  said  to  have  sent  his  son  with  public 
funds  on  trading  expeditions  around  the  coasts,  and  his  wife  and  yonug 

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ohiidrcn  to  Mexico  with  an  etiormotis  sum  of  money  defrauded  frooi 
ftiie  Government.  Figures  at  thut  date  show,  tlmt  wlien  he  took  the 
Government,  tliere  was  n  balance  in  tlio  Treasury  of  $238,849,  and 
when  he  left  it  in  two  ycara  and  a  half,  the  balance  was  $33,226, 
leaving  a  deficit  ot  $205,623,  wliilst  the  expenses  of  the  colony 
were  not  extriiordinary  during  that  period.  Amongst  other  clinrgea, 
ho  was  'accused  of  having  sold  ton  Provincial  Government  licences 
(cncomiendas),  many  offices  of  notaries,  scriveners,  &c.,  and  conceded 
27  montiis'  gambling  licences  to  the  Chinese  in  the  Tnrian  without 
accounting  to  the  Treasury.  He  was  finally  sentenced  to  pay  a  fine 
of  $100,000,  the  costs  of  the  trial,  the  forfeiture  of  the  $20,000  already 
deposited,  perpetual  privation  of  public  office,  and  banishment  from  the 
Philippine  Islands  and  Madrid.  When  the  Eoyal  order  reached 
Manila,  he  was  so  ill  that  his  banishment  was  postponed.  He  lived 
for  ft  short  time  nominally  under  arrest,  and  was  permitted  to  beg  alms 
for  his  subsistence  until  he  died  in  the  Hospital  of  San  Jnan  do  Dios 
in  1736. 

The  defalcations  of  some  of  the  Governors  cnused  no  inconsiderable 
anxiety  to  the  Sovereign.  Pedro  do  Arandia  (1754-17o9)  was  a 
corrupt  administrator  of  his  country's  wealth.  Ho  is  said  to  have 
amassed  a  fortune  of  $25,000  during  his  five  years'  term  of  office,  and 
on  his  death  he  left  it  all  to  pious  works. 

Governor  Berenguer  y  Marquina  (1788-1793)  was  accused  of 
briber;',  but  the  King  absolved  him. 

In  the  present  century,  a  Governor  of  Yloilo  is  said  to  have 
absconded  in  a  sailing  ship  with  a  large  sum  of  the  public  funds.  A 
local  Governor  was  then  also  ac-ojfwio  administrator;  and,  although 
the  system  was  aftcnvards  reformed,  official  extortion  was  rife  through- 
out the  whole  Spanish  administration  of  the  Colony,  np  to  the  last. 

A  strange  drama  of  the  year  1622  well  portrays  the  spirit  of  the 
times— the  immunity  of  a  Governor- General  in  those  days,  as  well  as 
the  religious  sentiment  which  nccompanied  his  most  questionable  acts. 
Alonso  Fajardo  de  Tua  having  suspected  his  wife  of  hifidelity,  went  to 
the  house  where  she  was  accustomed  to  meet  her  paramour.  Her  attire 
was  such  as  to  confirm  her  husband's  surmises.  He  called  a  priest 
and  instructed  him  to  confess  her,  telling  him  that  ho  intended  to  take 
her  life.  The  priest  failing  to  dissuade  Fajardo  from  inflicting  sucli 
an  extreme  penalty,  took  her  confession  and  proffered    her   spiritual 

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conBulation.  Then  Fajardo,  iucensed  with  jealousy,  mortaUy  stabbed 
her.  Xo  inquiry  into  the  occurrence  seems  to  iiave  been  made,  and  lio 
continued  to  govern  for  two  yeava  after  the  event,  when  he  died  of 
melancholy.  It  is  recorded  that  the  paramour,  who  was  the  son  of  a 
Cadiz  merchant,  had  formerly  been  the  accepted  ^ajice  of 'Fajardo's 
wife,  and  that  lie  arrived  in  Manila  in  their  company.  The  Governor 
gave  him  time  to  confess  before  he  killed  him,  after  which  (according 
to  one  account)  be  caused  his  house  to  be  razed  to  the  ground,  and  the 
land  on  which  it  stood  to  be  strewn  with  salt.  Juan  de  la  Conccpcion, 
however,  saya  that  the  house  stood  for  one  hundred  years  after  the  event 
aa  a  memorial  of  the  punishment. 

In  1640,  Olivarez,  King  Philip  IV.'s  c^hief  counsellor,  had  succeeded 
by  his  arrogance  and  unconstitutional  policy  of  leprcssion,  iu  arousing 
the  lateut  discontent  of  the  Portuguese  A  few  j£ar->  previously  they 
had  made  an ■■ful  effort  to  regam  their  independent  nationality 
undfr  the  sovereignty  of  the  Duke  of  Braganza  At  length,  when  a 
(.all  WIS  mj,de  upon  their  bclde«tn  »rnor'!  to  suppoit  the  King  of  Spam 
m  hi^  protiai.ti.d  strugf,It  vith.  the  Cat^lonian^,  nu  minrrpclioa  broke 
out,  T\  hieh  only  terminated  when  Portugal  had  thi  i>\\  n  off,  for  e\  er,  the 
scourge  of  Spanish  supremacy 

The  Duke  of  Biagau/  i  uns  ciowued  King  of  Po  tugal  under  (he 
title  of  John  IV,  and  every  Portiigue--e  colonj  decliied  in  Iw  fa\oui, 
eveept  Ceiiti  on  the  Afiican  eoist  The  news  of  tlie  separation  ot 
Portugal  from  Spain  reached  Manila  in  the  following  year  The 
Governor  Genei  il  at  tint  time— Sebastian  Uurtado  de  Corcuera — sent 
out  at  once  an  cipclitoii  of  picked  men  uod  i  Juin  CUudio  with 
orders  to  take  Maeao, — a  Fortuguehe  '.ettlemeiit  at  the  mouth  of  tho 
Canton  Rnor,  ahjut  40  miles  west  of  Hongkong  The  attempt 
miseral  Ij  f  uled,  aul  the  blue  md  white  ennign  continued  to  wiive 
unscathed  oier  tho  little  terntorj  ihe  Govcinor  of  Macao,  who 
waa  witlmg  to  >ield,  was  deuouneed  a  traitor  to  Portugal,  and  killed 
bj  the  populace  Jum  CUudio,  who  fell  a  prisoner,  was  ^enerouslv 
liberatel  bj  fivour  of  tiie  Portu^^ueie  ^  icoio\  el  Gja,  and  returned 
to  Manila 

The  Conient  ot  Sinti  CUri,  \\  ts  f  luiled  in  MiuiK  m  1621  bv 
Gcr  tiimo.  de  la  Asuni  on  who,  three  jear^  afterwards,  was  expelled 
f  1  om  the  man  igement  hj  the  Fri  irs  i  ecause  she  refused  to 
admit  reforma  m  the  coaveutual  regulations      The  General  Council 

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Bubaequently  restored  her  to  the  matronahip  for  :20  yeara.  Pulilic 
opinion  was,  at  this  time,  vividly  aroused  against  the  auperiora  of  the 
convents,  who,  it  was  alleged,  made  serious  inroads  on  society  by 
ioveigling  the  marriageable  young  women  into  takiiig  the  veil  and  to 
live  unnatural  lives.  The  public  demanded  that  there  should  ho  a 
fixed  limit  to  the  number  o£  nnna  admitted.  An  ccclesiastiu  of  high 
degree  made  strenuous  efforts  to  rescue  three  nuns  who  had  just 
lieen  admitted,  but  the  abbess  refused  to  give  tliem  up  until  her 
excommunication  was  published  ou  tho  walls  of  the  nunnery. 

In  1750,  a  certain  Mother  Cecilia,  who  had  boon  in  the  nunnery 
of  Santa  Cataliua  since  she  was  16  years  of  age,  fell  in  love  with  a 
Spaniard  who  lived  opposite,  named  Francisco  Antonio  de  Figneroa, 
and  begged  to  be  relieved  of  her  vows  and  have  her  liberty  restored  to 
her.  The  Arehbiahop  was  willing  to  grant  her  request,  which  waa, 
however,  stoutly  opposed  by  tho  Domiuican  Friars.  On  appeal  being 
made  to  the  Governor,  as  viceregal  patroiL,  he  ordered  her  to  he  set 
at  liberty  The  Friars,  nevertheless,  defied  the  Governor,  who,  to  sustain 
liH  authority,  was  compelled  to  order  the  troops  to  be  placed  under 
arms,  and  the  commanding  officer  of  the  artillery  to  hold  the  cannons 
in  readiness  to  fire  when  and  where  necessii-y.  In  view  of  these 
preparations,  the  Friars  allowed  the  nun  to  leave  her  confiuemeiit,  and 
she  was  lodged  in  the  College  of  Santa  Potenciana  pending  the  dispute. 
Public  excitement  was  intense.  The  Archbishop  ordered  the  girl  to  ho 
liberated,  but  as  his  subordinates  were  still  contumacious  to  his  bidding, 
the  Bishop  of  Cebu  was  invited  to  arbitrate  on  the  question,  but  he 
declined  to  interfere,  therefore  an  appeal  was  remitted  to  the  Archbishop 
of  Mc"\.ioo  In  t!ie  meantime,  the  girl  was  married  to  lier  lover,  and 
long  afterwards  a  citation  arrived  from  Mexico  for  the  woman  to  appear 
at  that  ecclesiastical  court.  She  went  there  with  her  husband,  from 
whom  she  was  separated  whilst  the  case  was  being  tried,  hut  in  tho 
end  her  li!  erty  and  marriage  were  eoiifirmod, 

Diiiiug  the  Government  of  Nino  de  Tabora  (1626-1632),  tlie 
High  Host  and  sacred  vessels  were  stolen  from  tho  Cathedral  of  Manila. 
The  Archbishop  was,  in  consequence,  sorely  distressed,  and  walked 
barefooted  to  the  Jesuits'  convent  to  weep  with  the  priests,  and  therein 
find  a  solace  for  his  meutal  affliction.  It  waa  surmised  that  the  wratli 
of  God  at  such  a  crime  would  assuredly  be  avenged  by  calamities  on 
the  inhabitants,  and  confessions  M-cre  made  daily.  Tho  Friars  agreed  to 

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appease  the  auycr  of  tliu  Almighty  hj  makiiij;  publift  peuaiicc  iiiid 
by  public  prayer.  The  Aielibiabop  gave  liimsclf  up  to  tlie  moat 
fauciful  follies.  He  perpetually  fasteil,  ate  herbs,  drank  only  -water, 
slept  ott  the  fioor  with  a  stone  for  a  pillow,  audflagoUateJ  his  own  body. 
On  Corpus  Christi  day,  a  religious  pi-ocession  passed  tlirough  the  public 
streets,  exhorting  the  delinquents  to  restore  tho  body  of  Our  Saviour, 
but  all  ill  vain.  The  melancholy  prelate,  -weak  beyond  recovery  from 
his  self-imposed  privations,  came  to  tiie  window  of  his  retreat  as  the 
cortSffe  passed  in  front  of  it,  and  there  ho  breathed  his  last. 

As  in  all  other  Spanish  Colonies,  the  Inquisition  had  its  secret 
agents  or  eommissaries  iu  the  Philippines.  Sometimes  a  priest  would 
hold  powers  for  several  years  to  inquire  into  the  private  lives  and  acts 
of  individuals,  whilst  no  one  knew  who  the  informer  was.  The  Holy 
Office  ordered  that  its  Letter  of  Auathema,  with  tho  names  iu  full  of  all 
persons  who  had  incurred  pains  and  penalties  for  heresy,  should  be  read 
in  pnblie  places,  every  three  years,  but  tliis  order  was  not  fulfilled. 
The  Letter  o£  Anathema  was  so  read  in  1669,  and  the  only  time  since 
then  up  to  the  present  date  was  in  1718. 

In  the  middle  of  the  17th  oentuiy,  the  Tartars  invaded  China  ami 
overthrew  tlie  Min  Dynasty — at  that  time  represented  by  the  Chiueso 
Emperor  Yunglic.  He  was  succeeded  on  the  throne  by  the  Tartar 
Emperor  Kuugchi,  to  whose  arbitrary  power  nearly  all  the  Chinese 
Empire  had  submitted.  Amongst  the  few  Mongol  chiefs  who  held  out 
against  Ta-Tsing  dominion,  was  a  certain  Mandarin,  known  under  tho 
name  of  Koxinga,  who  retired  to  the  Island  of  Kinmuen,  where  he 
asserted  his  independence  and  defied  his  nation's  conqueror.  Securely 
established  in  his  stronghold,  he  invited  tho  Chinese  to  take  refuge  iu 
his  island  and  oppose  the  Tartar's  rule  Therefore  the  Emptror  ordered 
that  no  man  should  inhabit  China  withm  four  letgue->  of  the  coast, 
except  m  tl  oso  pro\ince^>  which  were  uadoubtell)  loj  il  to  Ihc  new 
Government  The  coist  was  consLquently  laid  hire  leosels,  houses, 
plantation,  and  everything  uncfnl  to  man  was  dottroj  ed  in  order  to 
efiectuallj  c  it  off  all  commuun,  itiona  with  lands  bej  oiid  the  Tartar 
Empire  The  Chine'-e  from  the  uiast,  who  for  gLueriti  ma  had  earned 
a  living  by  fishing,  etc  ,  crowded  into  the  interior,  anl  fhcir  misery  was 

'v  Koxinga,  unable  to  communicate  with  the  mainland  of  the  Empire, 
turned  his  attention  to  the  conquest  of  Formosa  Island,  at  the  time  in 



the  [jossossiou  of  the  Dntcli.  According  to  Dutch  accounts,  tho 
European  settlers  nnmljered  about  500,  with  a  garrisoD  of  2,200.  Tlie 
Dntcii  artillery,  stores  and  marchaiiitise  wore  valued  at  $3,000,000, 
aud  the  Chinese,  who  attacked  tliem  under  Koxinga,  were  about 
100,000  strong.  The  settlemeot  surrendered  to  the  invaders'  superior 
nnmbers,  and  Koxiuga  establislied  himself  as  King  of  the  Island. 
Koxinga  had  become  acquainted  with  an  Italian  Dominican  missionary 
named  Vittorio  Eiccio,  whom  he  created  a  Mandarin,  and  sent  him  as 
Ambiissador  to  the  Governor  of  the  Philippines.  Eiccio  therefore  arrived 
in  Manila  in  1662,  the  bearer  of  Kostnga's  despatches  calling  upon  the 
Governor  to  pay  tribute,  under  threat  of  tlio  Colony  Ijeing  attacked  by 
Koxinga  if  his  demand  were  refused. 

The  position  of  Riccio  as  an  European  Friar  and  Ambassador  of  a 
Mongol  adventurer  was  as  awkward  as  it  was  novel.  He  was  received 
with  great  honour  in  Manila,  where  he  disembarked,  and  rode  to  the 
Government  House  in  the  full  uniform  of  a  Chinese  envoy,  through 
lines  of  troops  drawn  up  to  salutfl  him  as  he  passed.  At  the  same  time, 
letters  from  Formosa  !iad  also  been  received  by  the  Chinese  in  Manila, 
and  the  Government  at  once  accused  them  of  conniving  at  rebellion. 
All  available  forces  were  concentrated  in  the  capital ;  and  to  increase 
tlie  garrison,  the  Governor  published  a  Decree,  dated  6th  of  May,  1662, 
ordering  the  demolition  of  the  forts  of  Zamboanga,  Yligan  (Mindanao 
Island),  Calamianes  and  Ternate^  (Moluccas). 

Tiie  only  provincial  fort  preserved  was  that  of  Surigao  (then  called 
Caraga),  consequently  in  the  south  the  Mussulmans  became  complete 
masters  on  laud  and  at  sea  for  half  a  year. 

The  troops  in  Manila  numbered  100  cavalry  and  8,000  iufantry.. 
Fortifications  were  raised,  and  redoubts  were  constructed  in  which  to 
secrete  tho  Treasury  funds.  When  all  the  armament  was  in  readiness, 
the  Spaniards  incited  the  Chinese  to  rebel,  to  afford  a  pretext  for  their 

Two  jnnk  masters  were  seized,  and  the  Chinese  population  was 
menaced ;  therefore  they  prepared  tor  tlieir  own  defence,  and  then 
opened  the  affray,  for  which  the  Government  was  secretly  longing,  by 

'  From  this  date  the  Molucca  Islands  were  definitely  evacuated  and  abandoned 
b;  the  Spauianle,  althongb  as  many  men  »ttd  as  mucli  material  and  money  had 
been  cmiiloyeil  in  garrisons  and  conveyance  of  subsidies  tliere  as  in  the  whole 
Philippine  Colony  up  to  Ihat  period. 


oO  nilLIl'I'INK    ISLANDS. 

killing  a  Spaniard  in  tlio  market  place.  Siidilouly  artiliory  fire  Wiis 
opQucd  out  on  the  I'arian,  ami  many  of  the  peaceful  Cbiuese  traders,  in 
their  ten'or,  hangeil  tliemselvcs  ;  many  were  drowned  in  tbe  attempt  to 
reach  the  canoes  in  which  to  get  away  to  sea  ;  some  few  did  sivfely 
arrive  in  Formosa  Islauil  aud  joined  Koxinga's  camp,  whiist  oUiers  toot 
to  the  mountains.  Some  8,000  to  9,000  Chinese  remained  quiet,  hut 
ready  for  any  event,  when  they  were  suddenly  attacked  hy  Spaniards 
and  natives.  The  confusion  was  geueral,  and  the  Chinese  seemed  to 
be  gaining  ground,  therefore  the  Goveruor  sent  the  Ambassador  Riceio 
aud  a  certain  Fray  Josepii  de  Madrid  to  parley  with  them.  The  Chinese 
accepted  the  terms  offered  by  liiccio,  who  returned  to  the  Governor, 
leaving  Fray  Joseph  with  tlio  rebels,  but  when  Riecio  went  back  witlia 
general  pardon  aud  a  promise  to  restore  tlic  two  junk  masters,  he  found 
tluit  they  had  beheaded  the  priest.  A  geueral  carnage  of  the  Mougols 
followed,  and  Juan  de  la  Concepcion  says  '  that  the  original  intention 
of  tlie  Spaniards  was  to  kill  every  Chinaman,  but  that  they  desisted  iii 
view  of  the  inconvenience  which  would  have  ensued  from  the  want  of 
tradesmen  and  mechanics.  Therefore  they  made  a  virtue  of  a  necessity, 
and  graciously  pardoned  In  tlie  name  of  His  Catholic  Majesty  all  who 
laid  down  their  arms. 

Eiccio  returned  to  Formosa  Island,  and  found  Koxingii  prcpartuo' 
for  warfare  against  the  Philippines,  but  before  iie  could  carry  out  his 
intentions  he  died  of  fever.  This  chief's  successor,  of  a  less  bellicose 
spirit,  sent  Riccio  a  second  time  to  Manila,  aud  a  treaty  was  agreed  to, 
re-establishing  commercial  relations  with  the  Chinese.  Shortly  after 
Koxiuga's  decease,  a  rebellion  was  raised  in  Formosa  ;  aud  the  Island 
falling  at  length  into  the  hands  of  a  Tartar  party,  became  annexed  to 
China  under  the  new  dynasty.  Then  Eiccio  was  called  upon  to  relate 
the  part  he  had  taken  iu  Koxiuga's  affairs,  and  he  was  heard  in 
council.  Some  present  wcro  iu  favour  of  invading  the  Philippines  iii 
great  force  because  of  tlie  cruel  and  unwarranted  general  massacre  of 
the  Ciiinese  in  cold  blood,  but  Riccio  took  pains  to  show  hoiv  powerful 
Spain  was,  and  how  justified  was  the  action  of  the  Spaniards,  as  a 
metisure  of  precaution,  in  view  of  the  threatened  invasion  of  Koxinga. 
The  Chinese  party  was  appeased,  but  had  the  Tartars  cared  to  take 

'  "  Hist.  Gen.  de  Philipinas,  "  by  Juan  de  la  Coaceiiciou,  Vol.  V!I., 
pub,  Manila,  ITS 8. 

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VAIlN/UbL\,    THE    COUKT    FAVOURITE.  89 

up  tlie  cause  of  tbeir  couqutrnl  subjects,  tbo  fate  of  the  Pliilippiuca 
would  have  been  doubtful 

Duriug  the  minouty  of  thi-  young  Spauiah  King  CliarleM  IT.,  the 
Eegewcy  was  holil  hj  his  mother,  the  Queeu  Dowager,  who  was 
uufortuuately  influenced  by  fuvourites,  to  the  great  disgust  of  the  Court 
and  the  people.  Amongst  these  sycophants  was  a  man  named 
Valenznela,  of  noble  birth,  who,  as  a  boy,  had  followed  the  custom 
of  those  days,  and  entered  as  page  to  a  nobleman — the  Duko  del 
lufaiitado— to  learn  manners  and  Court  etiquette. 

The  Duke  went  to  Italy  as  Spanish  Ambassador,  .lud  took 
Valenznela  under  his  protection.  He  was  a  handsome  and  talented 
young  fellow, — learned  for  those  times, — inteOigent,  well  versed  in  all 
the  generous  exercises  of  chivalry,  and  a  poet  by  nature.  On  his 
return  from  Italy  with  the  Duke,  his  patron  caused  him  to  he  created  a 
Cavalier  of  the  Order  of  Saint  James.  The  Duke  shortly  afterwards 
died,  but  through  the  influence  of  the  Dowager  Queen's  confessor — the 
notorious  Kiturd,  also  a  favourite — young  Valouzuela  was  presented  at 
Court.  There  lie  made  love  to  one  of  the  Queen's  m aids -of-hou our 
— a  German — and  married  her.  The  Prince,  Don  Juaa  do  Austria, 
who  headed  the  party  against  the  Queen,  expelled  her  favourite  (Nitard) 
from  Court,  and  Valenzuela  became  Her  Majesty's  sole  confidential 
ailviser.  Kcarly  every  night,  at  late  hours,  the  Queen  went  to 
Valenzuela's  apartmeut  to  confer  with  him,  whilst  he  daily  brought  her 
secret  news  learnt  from  the  courtiers.  The  Queeu  created  him  Marquis 
of  San  Bartolome  and  of  Villa  Sierra,  a  first-class  Grandee  of  Spain, 
and  Prime  Minister. 

Ho  was  a  most  perfect  courtier  ;  and  it  is  related  of  him  that  wjicn 
a  bull  flglit  took  place,  ho  used  tfl  go  to  tiie  Koyal  box  richly  adoiiied 
in  fighting  attire,  and,  with  profound  rovereuco,  beg  Her  Majesty's 
leave  to  challenge  the  bull.  The  Queen,  it  is  said,  never  refused  him 
the  solicited  permission,  but  tenderly  begged  of  him  not  to  expose 
himself  to  such  dangers. 

Sometimes  ho  would  appear  iu  the  ring  as  a  cavalier,  in  a  Mack 
costume  embroidered  with  silver  and  wilh  a  large  white  and  black 
plume,  in  imitation  of  the  Queen's  half  mourning.  It  was  niucli 
remarked  that  on  one  occasion  he  wore  a  device  of  the  sun  with 
an    eagle   looking   down   upon    it,    and    the  words,    "  /    atone   have 



III.'  (iompo'-ed  sevfttil  comedies,  and  iiU.iwcd  tlicui  to  lie  perfomiei] 
at  LU  exijuiiii:  foi'  ihe  free  amQbemcut  of  the  people.  He  also 
much  improved  the  City  of  Madrid  witii  fine  buildiDgs,  bridges 
and  many  puliliu  works  to  enstaiu  his  popularity  amongst  the 

The  young  King,  now  a  youth,  ordered  a  deer  liunt  to  he  propared 
in  tho  EscoriaJ  grounds ;  and  during  tlie  diversioo,  Hiw  Majesty 
happenetl  to  shoot  Valeazuela  in  the  muscle  of  liis  arm,  whether 
inteutinnfirlly  or  aeeidentally  ia  not  known.  However,  tho  terrified 
Qneen-mothcr  faiuted  and  fell  into  the  arms  of  Ler  ladies-iu-waitiu". 
This  circumstance  was  muoh  commented  upon,  and  contributed  iu  uo 
small  degree  to  the  public  odium  and  final  downfall  of  Valenzuola  in 
1684,  At  length,  Dou  Juan  de  Auatria  retnrned  to  the  Court,  when 
the  young  King  was  of  an  age  to  appreciate  public  concerns,  and  be 
became  more  the  Court  favourite  than  ever  Valenzuela  or  Nitard  had 
been  duriog  the  Dowager  Queen's  administration.  Valenzuola  felt  ut 
once  from  the  exclusive  position  he  had  held  in  Koyal  circles  and 
retired  to  the  Escorial,  wliere,  by  order  of  Dou  Juan  de  Austria, 
a  party  of  young  noblemen,  including  Don  Juan's  son,  the  Duke 
of  Medina  Sidonia,  the  Marquis  of  Valparaiso  and  others  of  rank, 
accompanied  by  200  horsemen,  went  to  seize  tho  disfavoured  courtier. 
He  was  out  walking  at  the  time  of  their  arrival,  but  he  was  speedily 
apprised  of  the  danger  by  his  bosom  friend,  the  Prior  of  St.  Jerome 
Monastery.  Tlie  priest  hid  him  in  the  roof  of  the  Monastery,  where, 
being  uearly  suffocated  for  want  of  ventilaliou,  a  surgeon  was  scut  up 
to  bleed  bim  and  make  him  sleep.  The  search  party  failed  to  iiud  the 
refugee,  and  were  about  to  retiu-n,  when  the  surgeon  treacherously 
betrayetl  the  secret  to  them,  and  Valonzuela  was  discovered  sleeping 
with  orms  by  his  side.  He  was  made  prisoner,  confined  iu  a  castle, 
degraded  of  all  iiis  honours  and  rank,  and  finally  baniohed  by  Don  Juan 
de  Austria  to  the  furthermost  Siuinish  possession  in  tht  world — the 
Philippines, — whilst  his  family  were  lucarcerated  in  a  convent  at 
Talavera  in  Spain. 

When  the  Pope  heard  of  this  riolatioo  of  church  asylum  in  the 
Escorial  committed  by  ths  nobles,  he  es communicated  all  concerned  in 
it ;  and  iu  order  to  jiurge  them.selves  of  their  fcin  and  obtain  absolution, 
they  were  compelled  to  go  to  church  in  their  shirts,  each  with  a  rope 
around  his  neck.     They  actually  performed  this  penance,  and  then  the 


STltAXGE   PROCEEDINGS    0¥   A   POPE's   LEGATE.  91 

Niincio,  Cardiual  Mellliii,  relieveil  tliem  of  tlieir  ecclesiiistiiiiil  piiius 
and  penaltieH. 

Volenzuela  was  permitted  to  Gstabliali  a  house  witliii;  the  prison 
of  Cavite,  where  he  lived  for  several  years  as  a  State  prisoner  and 
exile.  When  Don  Juao  de  Austria  died,  the  Dowager-Queon  regained 
in  a  measure  her  iuflusoce  at  Court,  aud  one  of  the  first  favours  she 
begged  of  her  son,  tlie  King,  was  the  return  of  Valenznela  to  Madrid. 
The  King  granted  her  request,  aud  slie  at  once  despatclied  a  ship  to 
bring  hiai  to  Spain,  but  the  Secretary  of  State  interfered  and  stopped 
it.  Nevertheless,  Valeuzuela,  pardoned  and  liberated,  set  out  for 
the  Peninsula,  and  i-eachcd  Mexico,  whore  lie  died  from  the  kick  of  a 

In  1703,  u.  vessel  arrived  ia  Manila  l!ay  from  India,  nnder  an 
Armenian  captain,  bringing  a  young  man  35  years  of  age,  a  native  of 
Turin,  who  styled  himself  Monseigueur  Charles  Thomas  MatUard  de 
Toumon,  Visitor- General,  Bishop  of  Savoy,  Patriarch  of  Antiocb, 
Apostolic  Kuncio  and  Legate  ad  latere  of  the  Pope.  lie  was  on  hia 
way  to  China  to  visit  the  missions,  and  called  at  Manila  with  eight 
priests  and  four  Italian  families- 
Following  the  custom  established  with  foreign  ships,  the  custodian 
of  the  Fort  of  Cavite  placed  guards  on  board  this  vessel.  This  act 
seems  to  have  aroused  the  indignation  of  the  exalted  stranger,  who 
assumed  a  very  haughty  tone,  and  arrogantly  insisted  upon  a  verbal 
iiicBsagc  being  taken  to  the  Governor  (Domingo  Zabalburu),  to  announce 
his  arrival.  lu  Manila  these  circumBtaucea  were  much  debated,  aud 
at  length  the  Governor  instructed  the  custodian  of  Cavite  Fort  to 
accompany  the  stranger  to  the  City  of  Manila.  On  his  approach,  a 
salute  was  fired  from  the  City  battlements,  and  he  took  up  his  residence 
in  the  house  of  the  Maestre  de  Carapo.  There  the  Governor  went  to 
visit  him  as  the  Pope's  legate,  and  was  received  with  great  arrogance. 
However,  the  Governor  showed  no  resentment;  he  seemed  to  be  quite 
dumfoundedby  the  dignified  airs  assumed  by  the  patriarch,  aud  consulted 
with  the  Supreme  Court  about  the  irregularity  of  a  legate  arriving  without 
exhibiting  the  regium  exequatur.  The  Court  decided  that  tlie  stranger 
must  be  called  upon  to  present  his  Papal  credentials  and  the  Royal 
confirmation  of  his  powers  with  respect  to  Spanish  dominions,  aud  with 
this  object  a  magistrate  was  commissioned  to  wait  upoa  him.  The 
patriarch  treated  the  commissioner  with  undisguised  contempt,  expressing 

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his  indignatioQ  and  aurprise  at  his  position  being  doubted  ;  he  absolutely 
ref  nset.1  to  sliow  any  credentials,  and  turned  ont  the  commissioner,  raving 
at  him  and  causing  an  uproarious  scandal.  At  each  stage  of  the 
negotiations  ivjth  iiira,  the  patriarch  pnt  forward  the  great  authority  of 
the  Pope,  and  his  unquestionable  right  to  dispose  of  realms  and  peoples 
at  iiis  will,  and  somehow  this  ruse  seemed  to  su()due  everybody  ,  the 
Governor,  the  Archbishop  and  all  the  authorities,  civil  and  eccle''n.'<tical, 
were  overawed.  The  Archbishop,  in  fact,  made  au  unconditional 
surrender  to  the  patriarch,  who  now  declared  that  all  State  and  religions 
authority  must  be  snbordinat«  to  his  will.  The  Archbishop  was  ordered 
by  him  to  sot  aside  bis  Archiepiscopal  Cross,  whilst  the  patriarch  used 
bis  own  particular  cross  in  the  religious  ceremonies,  and  left  it  in  the 
Cathedra!  of  Manila  on  his  departure.  He  went  so  far  as  to  cause  his 
master  of  the  ceremonies  to  publicly  divest  the  Archbishop  of  a  part  of 
his  official  robes  and  insignia,  to  all  whicii  the  prelate  meekly  consented. 
All  the  chief  authorities  visited  the  patriarch,  who,  however,  was  too 
dignified  to  return  tbeir  calls.  Here  was,  in  fact,  an  extraordinary  case 
of  a  man  unknown  to  everybody  and  refusing  to  prove  his  identity, 
having  actually  brought  all  the  authority  of  a  colony  under  his  sway  I 
He  wai,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  the  legate  of  Ckment  \I 

The  only  person  to  whom  ht.  appe  irs  to  L  ive  extended  his 
frienj>!hip  was  the  Maestro  de  Gampo,  it  the  time  under  ecclesiastical 
arrest  The  Maestre  de  Campo  mas  vnited  b\  the  patriarch,  who  so 
ingeniously  bhnded  him  with  his  patronage  that  this  officml 
aqu-indered  about  $20,000  in  cnttrtaining  his  strange  -iisitor  and 
making  him  presenf^  The  patriarch  m  teturn  lusiitetl  upon  the 
Governor  and  Aichbiahop  pardoning  the  Maestre  de  Cimpo  of  all 
hi**  alleged  misdeeds,  and  when  this  was  contedeil  lie  (.aitsed  the 
pardon  to  bo  proclaimed  in  a  publn,  att  All  the  Miinja  officials 
were  treated  bj  the  patriarch  with  open  disdain,  but  he  created  the 
Armenian  captain  of  the  ■icsel  which  brought  liiin  to  Manila,  a 
ktiight  of  the  '  Golden  Spur,"  in  a  public  ceremony  in  the  Mieitre  de 
Campo's  house,  in  ^vhtch  the  Governor  General  was  ignoiod 

turn  Manila  the  patriarch  nent  to  China,  where  his  meddling 
with  (he  Catholic  misiious  was  met  with  fierce  opposition  He  so 
dogmitiLally  asserted  his  unproM,d  authority  that  ho  caused  Enropein 
missionaries  to  be  cited  to  the  Chinese  Courts  and  sentenced  for  their 
diBobedienee  ,  but  he  was  piaj  lug  with  fire,  for  at  last  the  Jbrnpoior  of 

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China,  ■wetirieil  of  his  importunitieg,  baniahed  liim  from  the  country. 
Theiicc  lie  went  to  Mqcho,  where,  much  to  the  bewilderment  of  the 
Cliinose  populntion,  he  maintained  constant  disputes  with  the  Catholic 
missionaries  until  he  died  there  in  1710  in  the  Inquisition  prison,  where 
lie  W3B  placed  at  the  instance  of  the  Jesuits. 

^Vhen  King  I'hilip  V.  became  aware  of  what  had  occurred  in 
Manila,  ho  was  highly  incensed,  and  immediately  ordered  the 
Governor- General  to  Mexico,  declaring  him  disqualified  for  life  to 
serve  under  the  Crown.  The  senior  miigistrates  of  the  Supreme 
Court  were  removed  from  office.  Each  priest  who  had  yielded  to 
the  legate'*  authority  without  previously  taking  cogniaance  of  the 
Tcgittfn  exequatur  was  ordered  to  pay  $1,000  fine.  The  Archbishop 
was  degraded  and  transferred  from  the  Arciiblshopric  of  Manila  to  the 
Bishopric  of  Guadalajara  in  Mexico.  In  spite  of  this  punishment,  it 
came  to  the  knowledge  of  the  King  that  tlie  ex-Archbishop  of  Manila, 
as  Bishop  of  Guathilajara,  was  still  conspiring  with  the  patriarch  to 
subvert  civil  and  religions  authority  in  his  dominions,  with  which 
object  he  had  sent  him  $1,000  from  Mexico,  and  had  promised  him  a 
fixed  sum  of  $1,000  per  annum  with  whatever  further  support  he 
could  afi'ord  to  give  him.  Therefore  the  King  issued  an  edict  to  the 
efi'ect  that  any  legate  who  should  arrive  in  his  domains  without  Royal 
confirmation  of  his  Papal  credentials  should  thenceforth  be  treated 
simply  with  the  charity  and  courtesy  duo  to  any  traveller  ;  and  in 
order  that  this  edict  should  not  be  forgotten,  or  evaded,  under  pretext 
of  its  having  become  obsolete,  it  was  further  enacted  that  it  should  be 
read  iu  full  on  certain  days  in  every  year  before  all  the  civil  and 
ecclesiastical  fimctionaries. 




In  1761,  King  George  III.  had  just  succeeded  to  tlio  throne  of 
Englaod,  and  the  protracted  coutentions  with  Fruiice  had  been  suspended 
for  it  while.  It  was  soon  evident,  however,  that  efforts  were  being 
employed  to  extinguish  the  power  and  prestige  of  Great  Britain,  and 
with  this  object  a  convention  had  been  entered  into  between  France 
and  Spain  known  as  the  "  Family  Compact."  It  was  so  called  because 
it  was  an  alliance  made  by  the  three  branches  of  the  IIoHse  of  Bourbon, 
namely,  Louis  XV.  of  France,  Charles  III.  of  Spain,  and  his  son 
Ferdinand,  who,  in  accordance  with  the  Treaty  of  Vienna,  had  ascended 
the  throne  of  Naples,  Spain  engaged  to  unite  her  forces  with  those  of 
France  against  England  on  the  1st  of  May,  1762,  if  the  war  still  lasteil, 
in  which  case  France  would  restore  Minorcajto  Spain,  Pitt  was 
convinced  of  the  necessity  of  meeting  the  coalition  by  force  of  arms, 
but  he  was  unable  to  secure  the  support  of  his  Ministry  to  declare  war, 
and  he  therefore  retired  from  the  premiership.  The  succeeding  Cabinet 
were,  nevertheless,  compelled  to  adopt  Ids  policy,  and  after  having  lost 
many  advantages  by  delaying  their  decision,  war  was  declared  against 
France  and  Spain. 

The  British  were  successful  everywhere,"!  In  the  West  Indies,  the 
Caribbean  Islands  and  Havana  -were  captured  with  great  booty  by 
Rodney  and  Monckton,  whilst  a  British  Fleet  was  despatched  to  the 
Philippine  Islands  with  orders  to  talce  Manila. 

There  are  many  versions  of  this  event  gi^eu  by  difl'erent  historians, 
and  amongst  them  there  is  not  wanting  au  author  who,  foliowiug  the 
Spanish  custom,  has  accounted  for  defeat  by  alleging  treason. 

On  the  14th  of  September,  1762,  a  British  vessel  arrived  in  the 
Bay  of  Manila,  refused  to  admit  Spanish  officers  on  board,  and  after 
taking  soundings  she  sailed  again  out  of  the  harbour. 

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In  tlio  evening  of  tlie  22nA  of  September,  tlie  British  squailron, 
composed  of  13  ships,  under  the  command  of  Admiral  Coniish,  entered 
the  bay,  and  the  next  day  two  British  officers  were  deputed  to  demand 
the  surrender  of  the  Citadel,  wliieh  waa  refused. 

Brigadier-Genera!  Draper  thereupon  disembarked  his  troops,  and 
again  called  upon  the  city  to  yield.  Thia  citation  being  defied,  the 
bombardment  commeneed  the  nest  day.  The  Fleet  anchored  in  front 
of  a  powder-magazine,  took  possession  of  the  Churches  of  Malnte, 
Hermita,  San  Juan  do  Bagumbayan  and  Santiago.  Two  picket  guards 
made  an  unsuccessful  sortie  against  them.  The  whole  force  in  Manila, 
at  the  time,  was  the  King's  regiment,  which  mustered  about  600  men 
anil  80  pieces  of  artillery.  The  British  forces  consisted  of  1,500 
European  troops  (one  regiment  of  infantry  and  two  companies  of 
artillery),  3,000  seamen,  800  Sepoy  fusileera,  and  1,400  Sepoy  prisoners, 
making  a  total  of  6,830  men,  inchiding  officers.' 

There  was  no  Governor-General  here  at  the  time,  and  the  only 
person  with  whom  the  British  Commander  could  treat  was  the  Acting- 
Governor,  the  Archbishop  Manuel  Antonio  Rojo,  who  was  willing  to 
yield.  His  authority  was,  however,  sot  aside  by  a  rebellious  wnr  party, 
wh     pi      d  tb  m    I  d      th     1     I      1  I      f  trato  of  the 

SpmC      t       mdS  lAdySl  Ths  individual, 

t     I    f  1     1        tl    m  t    b  ttl     fl   1  t     tl     P  f  Biilacan  the 

lyhf        th        p  fMl  pi  tl        few  natives, 

■w  th  1  m       >       1   1    If  m     f     ffi  ial  stamped 

PI  H     k  P    E    Hy        11     I   t  1  1  f J    g  the   legal 

tl       tj    £  tl     A  t        r  1  ft  pen  rebellion 

t  !       m      I  t        It  y  th      f        t  o  an  official 

I        t    h         t    1  hi  d  p      1        t         on  Govcrn- 

tt      plpp  tbttlir      idtyrahb  guided  if  he 

b    q       tly  1  d       J     tif  I  t         t  C       t 

0     tl       4tb    f  S  pt  mb      tl     Sj.        h  b  It  f  S  n  Diego  and 

S  A  1  p  dfi  bt  II  lltl  ff  t  A  llyl  len  galleon— 
the  "  Plnlipmo  " — was  known  to  be  on  her  way  from  Mexico  to  Miinila, 
but  the  British  ships  which  were  sent  in  <[uest  of  her  fell  in  with 

>  Zdfliga's  History,  Eng.  trans,  London,  1814,  Vol.  II.,  Chiip,  XITI. 

'  Cr6nica  de  loa  P.  P.  DoiiiiniCGs,  cd.  ot  llitadcnijra,  Madrid,  Vol,  IV.,  pp.  637 

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another  galleon — the  "" — and  brought  their  prize  to  Manila. 
Her  treasure  amounted  to  about  $2,500,000.' 

A  Frenchman  resident  in  Manila,  Monsieur  Faller,  made  an  attack 
on  the  Britisli,  who  forceil  him  to  retire,  and  ho  was  then  accused  by 
the  Spaniards  of  treason.  Artillery  fire  was  kept  up  on  both  sides. 
The  Archbishop's  nephew  was  taken  prisoner,  and  an  officer  was  sent 
with  him  to  hand  him  over  to  his  uncle.  However,  a  party  of  natives 
foil  upon  them  and  murdered  them  all.  The  officer's  head  having  been 
cut  off,  it  was  demanded  by  General  Draper.  Excuses  were  made  for 
not  giving  it  up,  and  the  General  determined  thenceforth  to  continue 
the  warfare  with  vigour  and  punish  this  atrocity.  Tlie  artillery  was 
increased  by  another  battery  of  ttiree  mortars,  placed  behind  the  Church 
of  Santiago,  and  the  bombardment  continued. 

Five  thousand  native  recruits  arrived  fi-ora  the  provinces,  and  out 
of  this  number,  2,000  Pampangoa  were  selected.  TJiey  woro  divided 
into  three  eolnmns,  in  order  to  advance  by  diflercnt  routes  and  attack 
respectively  tlie  cliurcb  of  Santiago — Malate  and  Hermita — and  the 
troops  on  the  beach.  At  each  place  they  were  driven  hack.  The  leader 
of  the  atta,ck  on  Malate  and  Hermita— Don  Santiago  Orendain — was 
declared  a  traitor.  The  two  first  columns  were  dispersed  with  great 
confusion  and  loss.  The  third  column  retreated  before  they  had 
sustained  or  inflicted  any  loss  The  natives  fled  to  their  villages  in 
dismay,  and  on  the  3th  of  October  tl  e  British  entered  the  walled  city. 
After  a  couple  of  1  o  rs  lonlarlnent  the  forts  of  San  Andrijs  and 
Sau  Eiigenio  were  lemol  she  I  tl  e  art  llery  overturned,  and  the  enemy's 
fusilcers  and  sapjicrs  were  k  lied 

A  council  of  war  wa  no  v  1  ell  1  j  the  Spaniards,  Genera!  Draper 
sustained  the  a  ithor  tv  of  the  Ar  hi  ishop  against  the  war  party, 
composed  chiefly  of  c  ^  1  an=  wl  determined  to  continue  the  defence 
in  spite  of  the  oj  n  on  of  the  m  1  tary  men,  who  argued  that  a 
capitulation  wa  luev  table  B  t  matters  were  brought  to  a  crisis  by 
the  natives,  who  refused  to  epa  r  the  fortifications,  and  the  Europeans 
were  unable  to  perform  su  h  bard  lal  o  r.  Great  confusion  reigned  in 
the  city — the  clergy  fled  thro  t,h  the  Puerta  del  Parian,  where  there 

'  This  money  const  tuted  the  Man  !a  mercbants"  specie  remittances  from 
Acapulfio,  together  with  the  Mex  can  ubs  Hy  to  support  the  admiaistration  of 
this  Colony,  which  was  merely  a  lepcnd  iiey  of  Mexico  up  to  the  second  decade 
of  this  century  (ride  Chap  X^  ) 



■was  still  a  oative  guard.  Accordiug  to  Zilfiiga,  tlie  British  spent  20,000 
cannon  balls  and  5,000  shells  in  the  bombardment  of  the  city. 

Major  Fell  entered  the  city  (Oct.  6th)  at  the  head  of  his  troops, 
and  General  Draper  followed,  leading  his  column  unopposed,  with 
two  field  pieoos  in  tlie  van,  wiiilst  ii  constant  musketry  fire  cleared  the 
Citlle  Real  as  they  advaacetl,  Tlie  people  fled  before  the  enemy.  The 
gates  being  closed,  tbey  scramhlcd  up  the  walls  and  got  into  boats  or 
swam  off. 

Colonel  MonsoD  M-a«  sent  hy  Draper  to  tlie  irclibishop  Tovernor 
to  say  that  he.expeelel  It  I  llw        Iptlby 

the  Archbishop,  who  p  tl        IPljl         tolt  i 

capitulation.      The    0  I  n  1       t       I    t     t  ko     t         I   d  m      1  1 
unconditional    surrende         11    u   tl      A    hb    1    p         CI       1     f   tl  e 
Spanish  troops,  and  C  1       1  M        a         t  I        t  tl     (  1 

whose  quarters  were  in  the  I'alaee.  The  Arehbishop,  offering  himself 
as  a  prisoner,  presented  the  terms  of  capitulation,  which  provided  for 
the  free  exercise  of  their  religion  ;  security  of  private  property  ;  free 
trsidc  to  all  the  inhabitants  of  tho  islands,  and  the  continuation  of  the 
powers  of  the  Supreme  Court  to  keep  order  amongst  tbe  ill-disposed.. 
These  terms  were  gi-auted,  but  General  Draper,  on  his  part,  stipulated 
for  an  indemnity  of  four  millions  of  dollars,  and  it  was  agreed  to  pay 
one  half  of  this  sum  in  specie  and  valuables  and  the  other  half  iu 
'.rrcasury  bills  on  Madrid.  The  capitulation,  with  these  modifications, 
was  signed  by  Draper  and  tho  Archbishop- Govern  or.  The  Spanisb 
Colonel  took  the  document  to  tho  Fort  to  have  it  countersigned  by  the 
magistrates,  which  was  at  once  done  ;  the  Fort  was  delivered  np  to 
the  British,  and  the  magistrates  retired  to  the  ralaee  to  pay  their 
respects  to  the  conquerors. 

When  tiie  British  flag  was  seen  floating  from  the  Fort  of  Santiago 
there  was  great  cheering  fi-om  the  British  Fleet.  The  Archbishop 
stated  that  when  Draper  reviewed  the  troops,  more  than  1,000  men 
were  missing,  including  sixteen  officers.  Among  these  officers  were 
a  Major,  fatally  wounded  hy  an  arrow  on  the  first  day  of  the  assault, 
and   the  Vice-Admiral,  who  was  drowned  whilst  coming   ashore  in 

Tho  natives  who  had  been  ijroiight  from  tiie  provinces  to  Manila 
were  plundering  and  committing  excesses  in  the  city,  so  Draper  had 
them  all  driven  out.     Guards  were  placed  at  the  doors  of  the  unnneries 

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ami  conveota  to  jirevcnt  outrages  ou  the  womeu,  and  tiieu  the  city 
was  given  up  to  the  viutorious  troops  for  pilluge  during  three  hourn. 
Zifiiga,  however,  reuiiirks  tlmt  the  Europcau  troops  were  moderate, 
hut  that  the  Iniiian  contingents  were  insatiable.  They  are  said  to  have 
uomraitted  many  atroeities,  and,  revelling  in  hioodshed,  even  murJered 
the  inhabitants.  They  ransacked  the  suburbs  of  Santa  Crua  and 
Biuondo,  and,  actiug  like  sarage  victorious  trihes,  they  ravished 
wortiCJi,  a][d  even  went  into  the  highways  to  murder  and  rob  tho^o 
who  iled.  The  three  hours  expired,  and  the  following  day  a.  simihir 
wuene  was  permitted.  The  Arehhiahop  thereupon  besought  the  General 
to  put  a  stop  to  it,  aifd  have  compassion  on  the  city.  The  General 
complied  with  this  request,  and  I'cstored  order  under  paiu  of  death  for 
diaobedieace — some  Chinese  were  in  couseipieiice  hanged.  Geueral 
Draper  himself  killed  one  whom  he  found  in  (he  at-t  of  stealing,  and 
he  ordered  that  all  Church  property  should  be  restored,  but  only  some 
priests'  vestments  were  recovered. 

Draper  demanded  the  surrender  of  Cavite,  which  was  agreed  to  by 
the  Archbishop  and  magistrates,  but  the  CommaudiDg  Officer  refused 
to  comply.  The  Major  of  that  garrison  was  seat  witii  'a  message  to 
the  Commander,  hut  on  the  way  he  talked  with  such  freedom  about 
the  surrender  to  the  British,  that  the  natives  quitted  their  posts  and 
plundered  the  Arsenal,  The  Commander,  rather  than  face  humiliation, 
retired  to  a  ship,  and  left  all  further  respousibilitv  to  the  Major. 

Measures  were  now  taken  to  pay  the  agreed  indemnity.  Heavy 
contributions  were  levied  upon  the  inhabitants,  which,  however,  together 
with  the  silver  from  the  pious  establishments,  church  ornaments,  plate, 
tlie  Archbishop's  rings  and  breast-cross,  only  amounted  to  $546,01)0. 
The  British  then  projKised  to  accept  one  milliou  at  once  and  draw  the 
rest  from  the  cargo  of  the  galleoD  "  Philipiuo,"  if  it  resulted  that  she 
had  not  been  seized  by  the  British  previous  to  tiie  day  the  capitulation 
was  signed — but  the  one  milliou  was  not  forthcoming.  The  day  before 
the  capture  of  Manila,  a  Royal  messenger  had  been  sent  off  with 
$111,000  with  orders  to  hide  them  in  some  place  in  the  Lagunade  Bay. 
The  Archbishop  now  ordered  their  return  to  Manila,  and  issued  a  requi- 
siition  to  that  effect,  but  the  Franciscan  friars  were  insubordinate,  aud 
armed  the  natives,  whom  they  virtually  ruled,  aud  the  treasure  was 
secrotetl  ia  Majayjay  Conrent.  Thence,  on  receipt  of  the  Archbishop's 
message,  it  was  carried  across  country  to  a  place  in  North  Pampanga, 

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bordering  OH  Cagayaii  and  l^angjisinnn.  Tho  Britiali,  convinced  tliat 
they  were  being  duped,  insisted  on  flieir  claim.  Tliomas  Backlioiiite, 
commanding  the  troops  stationed  at  Pasig,  went  np  to  the  Laguna  de 
Bay  with  80  mixed  troops,  to  intercept  tlie  liringing  of  the  "Philipino" 
treasare.  He  attacked  Tiinasau,  Viiianaad  S;iiit;i  Kosa,  and  embarked 
for  Pagsn.njan,  which  was  tlien  tiie  capital  oE  the  Lake  Province,  The 
iahabitanta,  after  firing  tlie  convent  and  church,  fled.  Hackhouse 
returned  to  Calamba,  entered  tho  Province  of  Eataugas,  overran  it,  and 
made  several  Austin  Friars  prisoners.  In  Lipa  he  seized  $3,000,  and 
there  he  established  his  quarters,  expecting  that  the  "  Philipino  "  treasure 
would  be  carried  that  way  ;  but  oii  learning  that  it  had  been  transported 
hy  sea  to  a  Pampanga  coast  town,  Backhouse  withdrew  to  Pasig, 

In  the  capitnlatiou,  the  whole  of  the  Archipelago  was  surrendered 
to  the  British,  hut  a  magistrate,  Simon  do  Anda,  determined  to  appeal  Ui 
iirms.  Draper  used  stratagem,  and  issued  a  Proclamation  commiseraticg 
the  fate  of  the  natives  who  paid  tribute  to  Spaniards,  and  assuring  tliem 
that  tlie  King  of  England  would  not  exact  it.  The  Archbishop,  as 
Governor,  became  Draper's  tool,  sent  messages  to  the  Spanish  families 
persuai'ing  them  to  return,  and  appointed  an  Englishman,  married  in 
the  country,  to  be  Alderman  of  Tondo.  Despite  the  strenuous  opposi- 
tion of  the  Supreme  Court,  the  Archbishop,  at  the  instance  of  Draper, 
convened  a  council  of  native  headmen  and  representative  families,  and 
l»roposed  to  them  the  cession  of  all  tho  islands  to  the  King  of  England. 
Draper  clearly  saw  that  the  ruling  powers  in  the  Colony,  judging  from 
then-  energy  and  effective  measures,  were  the  Friars,  so  he  treated  them 
with  great  respect.  The  Frenchman  Faller,  who  unsuccessfully  opposed 
the  British  assault,  was  offered  troops  to  go  and  take  possession  of 
Zamboanga  and  aeeept  the  government  there,  but  he  refused,  as  did 
also  a  Spaniard  named  Sandoval. 

Draper  returned  to  Europe  ;  Major  Fell  was  left  in  command  of  the 
troops,  whilst  Drake  assamcd  the  military  government  of  tho  city,  with 
Smith  and  Brock  as  council,  and  Breretou  in  charge  of  Cavito.  Draper, 
on  leaving,  gave  orders  for  two  frigates  to  go  in  search  of  the  "Philipino" 
treasure.  The  ships  got  as  far  as  Capal  Island  and  put  into  harbour. 
They  were  detained  there  by  a  ruse  on  tho  part  of  a  half-caste  pilot, 
and  the  treasure  was  got  away  in  the  meantime. 

Simon  de  Anda,  from  his  provincial  retreat,  proclaimed  himself 
Governor- Gen  oral.  Ho  declared  that  the  Archbishop  and  tiio  magistrates, 

a  2 

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as  prisoaers  of  war,  were  dead  in  tlic  ejo  of  llie  law  ;  aiad  that  his 
assumption  of  autlioritywas  based  upon  old  laws.  None  of  his  coimtrj- 
men  disputed  bis  authority,  and  ho  established  liiinself  in  Bacolor. 
The  British  Council  thea  couveued  a  meeting  of  the  chief  iuhabitanta, 
at  whieli  Anda  was  declared  a  seditious  person  and  deserving  of  capital 
punishment,  together  with  tha  Marquis  of  Moute  Castro,  who  had 
violated  his  parole  d'/ton»eur,  and  the  Provincial  of  tho  Austin  Friars, 
who  had  joined  tiie  rebel  party.  All  the  Austin  friars  were  declared 
traitors  (or  having  broken  their  allegiance  to  the  Archbishop's  .authority. 
The  British  still  pressed  for  the  payment  of  the  one  million,  whilst  tlie 
Spaniards  declared  they  possesseil  no  more.  The  Austin  friars  were 
ordered  to  keep  the  natives  peaceable  if  they  did  not  wish  to  provok® 
hostilities  against  themselves.  At  length,  the  British,  convinced  of  the 
futility  of  decrees,  determined  to  sally  out  with  their  forces  ;  and  500 
men  under  Thomas  Backhouse  went  up  the  Pasig  River  to  secure  a 
free  passage  for  supplies  to  the  camp.  Whilst  opposite  to  Maybonga, 
Bustos  with  bis  Cagayan  troops  fired  on  them.  The  British  returned 
tliQ  fire,  and  Bustos  fled  to  Mariquina.  The  British  passed  the  river, 
aud  sent  an  ofiicer  with  a  white  flag  of  truce  to  summon  surrender. 
ISustos  was  insolent,  and  tiiroatened  to  hang  the  officer  if  he  returned. 
Backhouse's  troops  then  opened  fire  and  placed  two  field  pieces  which 
completely  scared  tlie  natives,  who  fled  in  such  great  confusion  tliat 
many  were  drowned  in  the  river.  Thcnco  the  British  pursued  their 
enemy  "  as  if  they  were  a  flock  of  goats,"  and  reached  the  Bamljau 
lliver,  where  the  Sultan  of  Sulu  '  resided  with  his  family.  The  Sultan, 
after  a  feigned  resistance,  fell  a  prisoner  to  the  British,  who  fortified 
his  dwelling,  and  occupied  it  during  the  whole  of  the  operations.  Tliere 
were  subsequent  skirmishes  on  the  Pasig  liiver  banks  with  the  armed 
insurgents,  wlio  were  driven  as  far  as  the  Antlpolo  mountains. 

Meanwhile,  Anda  collected  troops  ;  and  Bustos,  as  his  Licutenant- 
Gcneral,  vaunted  tho  power  of  his  chief  through  the  Bulacan  and 
I'ampanga  Provinces.  A  Fr.anciscan  aud  an  Austin  friar,  having  led 
troops  to  Masilo,  about  seven  miles  from  Manila,  tho  British  went  out 
to  dislodge  them,  bnt  on  their  approach  most  of  tho  natives  feigned  they 
were  dead,  and  the  British  returned  without  any  loss  in  arms  or  men. 

The  British,  believing  that  the  Austin  friars  were  conspiring  against 

'   Vicl=^siludcs  o£  Sultan  Mahaiiia-I  Alinrailin  lydi'  Ciinp.  X,J. 

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tkem  in  connivance  with  those  insido  the  city,  placed  these  friars  in 
confinement,  and  subsequently  sliippcd  away  eleven  of  them  to  Europe. 
For  tlio  same  reason,  tliey  at  hist  determiued  to  enter  the  St.  Augustine 
Convent,  and  oa  ransacking  it,  they  fount!  that  the  priests  had  been 
lyiiig  to  them  all  the  time.  Six  thousand  dollars  in  coin  were  found 
hidden  in  the  garden,  and  large  quantities  of  wrongbt  silver  elsewhere. 
'I'lio  whole  promises  were  then  searched,  and  all  the  valuables  were 
seized,  A  British  expeditioa  went  out  to  Jlulaean,  sailing  across  the 
Bay  and  up  the  Hagonoy  llivcr,  ^vhere  they  disembarked  at  Malolos 
(111  the  19th  of  Jaonary,  1763.  The  troops,  under  Captain  Eslay  of 
tiie  Grrenadiors,  nmnbored  GOO  men,  many  of  whom  were  CUbeso 
vohmtoers.  As  they  advanced  from  Malolos,  the  natives  and  Spaniards 
lied.  On  the  way  to  Bulaean,  Biistos  advanced  to  meet  them,  but 
retreated  into  ambush  on  seeing  they  Avore  superior  in  numbers.  Bnlaean 
Convent  was  fortified  with  tliree  small  cannons.  As  soon  as  the  troops 
were  in  sight  of  the  convent,  a  desultory  fire  of  case  shot  made  great 
Imvocin  the  ranks  of  the  resident  Chinese  volnutoers  forming  the  British 
viLugaard,  At  length  the  British  brought  tUeii'  field  pieces  into  action, 
and  pointing  at  the  enemy's  cannon,  the  first  disciiarge  carried  off  the 
head  of  their  Ybarra.  The  panic-stricken  natives 
decamped  ;  the  convent  ivas  tiiken  by  assault  ;  there  was  an  indis- 
criminate fight  and  general  slaughter.  The  Alcalde  and  a  Franciscan 
fiiar  fell  m  action,  one  Austin  frur  escaped,  ind  another  was  seized 
tud  killed  to  avenge  the  deith  of  the  British  soldiera  The  invading 
torce-)  occupied  the  Convent,  and  some  of  the  tioops  wcie  shortly  sent 
1  n,k  to  Manila  Dustos  reappeircd  iitar  the  Bulatau  Convent  with 
s  000  native  troops,  of  nhieh  600  wtre  cavalij,bnt  they  dared  no 
Utatk  the  British  Bnstos  then  manoeuvred  in  the  neiuhbonrhood  and 
lit  t  le  occasional  alarms  Small  parties  were  sent  out  against  him  witli 
-0  httle  eifect,  that  the  British  Commander  heided  a  body  in  person, 
and  put  the  whole  of  Bustos'  troops  to  flight  like  inosquitos  before  a 
gust  of  wind,  for  Bustos  feared  they  would  Sje  pursued  into  I'ampauga. 
After  clearing  away  the  underwood,  which  served  as  a  covert  for  the 
natives,  the  British  reoccupied  Ihc  convent ;  but  Bustos  returned  to 
his  position,  and  was  a  second  time  as  disgracefully  routed  by  the 
British,  who  then  withdrew  to  Manila. 

At  the    same    time,  it  was  alleged  that    a  conspiracy  was  being 
organized  amongst  the  Chinese  in  the  Froviaee  of  I'ampanga  with  the 

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102  nilLIlTINE   ISLANDS. 

object  ot  iis«"is&iuatiii^  Aiiiia  aud  hia  Spanish  followers.  Tiie  Cliiiiesu 
mt  treuclies  aiiJ  laised  fortificitions,  avowiug  tbat  their  belUcoso 
preparations  were  only  to  defend  themselves  against  the  possible  attack 
of  the  British  ,  ^^hiistthe  Sp'inurds  saw  in  al!  this  a  connivance  witii 
theln^adera  11  ic  latter  no  doubt  conjectiireil  rightly.  Anda,  actini; 
upon  the  vieus  of  bis  ptrty,  precipitated  matters  by  appearing  with 
fourteen  "^panihli  ^oldiei's  and  a  crowd  of  native  bowmen  to  commcneo 
the 'laughter  jn  the  to\i  ii  of  Guigua.  The  Chinese  assembled  there 
in  great  mimbeis  ind  Audi  endeavoured  in  vain  to  iuduce  them  to 
euirenJer  to  hini  Ht,  then  leut  a  Spaniard,  named  llignel  Garccs, 
with  a  message,  oSoimg  them  pardon  in  the  name  of  the  King  of 
Spain  if  they  wonld  lay  down  their  arms  ;  but  they  killed  the  emissnry, 
and  Anda  therefore  commenced  tiie  attacU.  The  result  was  favourable 
for  Anda's  party,  and  great  numbers  of  the  ChinCi5e  were  slain.  Many 
Hcd  to  the  fields,  where  they  were  pursued  by  the  troops,  whilst  those 
iffho  were  captured  were  hanged.  Such  was  the  inveterate  hatred 
which  Anda  entertained  for  the  Chinese,  that  lie  issued  a  general  de(!reo 
declaring  all  the  Chinese  traitors  to  the  Spanish  flag,  and  ordered  them 
lo  be  hanged  wherever  they  might  be  found  in  the  provinces.  Thus 
thousands  of  Chinese  were  executed  who  iiail  taken  no  part  whatever 
in  the  events  of  this  little  war. 

Admiral  Cornish  having  decided  to  return  to  Europe,  again  urged 
for  the  payment  of  the  two  millions  of  dollars.  The  Archbishop  was 
in  great  straits  ;  he  was  willing  to  do  anything,  but  his  colleagues 
opposed  him,  and  Cornish  was  at  length  obliged  to  content  himself 
with  a  bill  on  the  ^ladrid  Treasury,  Anda  appointed  Bustos  Alcalde 
of  Bulacan,  and  ordered  him  to  recruit  aud  train  troops,  as  ho  still 
nurtured  the  hope  of  confining  the  British  to  Manila — perhaps  even  of 
driving  them  out  of  the  Colony, 

The  British  in  the  city  were  compelled  to  adopt  the  most  rigorous 
precautious  against  a  rii*ing  oE  the  population  withiu  the  walls,  and 
several  Spanish  residents  were  arrested  for  intriguing  against  them  in 
concert  with  those  outside. 

Several  French  prisoners  from  Pondicherry  deserted  from  tJic 
British ;  and  some  Spanish  regular  troops,  who  had  been  taken 
prisoners,  effected  their  escape.  The  Fiscal  of  the  Supreme  Court  and 
a  Senor  Villa  Corta  were  found  conspiring.  The  latter  was  caught  in 
the  act  of  sending  a  letter  to  Andii,  and  was  sentenced  to  be  Inuiged 

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ailil  qnartered — the  quarters  to  be  exhibited  iu  public  plsicea.  The 
Arelibishop,  however,  obtaiacd  VUla  Corta's  pardon,  on  the  condition 
that  Anda  should  evacuate  the  P.ampanga  Province  ;  and  Villa  Corta 
wrote  to  Anda,  begging  hiii!  to  accede  to  tiiis,  but  Anda  absolutely 
refused  to  make  any  sacrifice  to  save  his  frieud's  life  ;  and  at  the  same 
time  he  wrote  a  disgraceful  letter  to  the  Archbishop,  couched  in  such 
iuHuUing  terms,  that  the  British  Commander  burnt  it  ■without  letting 
the  Archblsliop  see  it.  Villa  Corta  was  finally  ransomed  by  the 
payment  of  $3,000. 

The  treasure  brought  by  the  "Philipino"  served  Anda  to  organi/.c 
a  respectable  force  of  recruits,  Spaniards  who  were  living  there  in 
mi^erv,  and  a  crowd  of  lati^es  alwiys  ready  for  piy,  enlisted  Thcc 
forces  under  Lieutenant  deneiil  Busto'i  encamped  at  Malmta  about 
hie  miles  from  Maudt  Ilif  officers  lolged  in  a  house  belmgm^ 
ti  the  Austin  irjar-  around  wbieh  the  troops  pitched  their  t^uth — 
tlie  whole  being  defended  bv  n^doubts  and  palisades  raised  uiidei 
the  diiection  of  a  Iren  h  desertei,  ^^ho  led  a  company  From  thi'i 
place  Bustoa  constantly  oaiiscl  alarm  to  the  British  tioops,  who  oucc 
lial  to  retreat  before  i  picket  guard  sent  to  get  the  chuich  hells 
(.f  Quiapo  The  Bittifth,  in  fict,  weie  much  molested  b/  B  sto&' 
MJinti  tioops,  who  foiced  the  invaders  to  withdraw  to  JIaniU  an! 
rtduce  the  e\ten=ion  of  thou  outposts  llitn  measure  wpb  foiloned 
ip  by  a  Pioclamation,  in  which  the  Butisli  Commander  I'ludud  to 
Bustos'  tioopij  IS  'canaille  and  robbeis,"  ^ud  ofieied  a  leiiird  ot 
$5,000  foi  Andis  head  detlaiing  him  and  his  partj  lebels  md 
ttaitors  to  their  MaiCfcties  the  Kings  of  Spun  uid  Englanl  Audi, 
i.hj,fiog  it  bis  impotence  to  combat  the  mvuling  pirfy  by  force  <f 
arms,  gave  vent  to  his  feelings  of  rage  and  disappoiutment  by  issiiiu;;; 
a  Decree,  dated  from  Bacolor  19th  of  May,  1763,  of  which  the 
[rauslated  text  reads  as  follows,  viz,  : — 

'■  Koya!  Government  Tiibunal  of  these  Islands  for  His  Catholic 
•'  Majesty : — Whereas  the  Royal  Go\-ernmciit  Tribunal,  vSujireme 
-'  Government  and  Cap  tain- Generalship  of  Ili.s  Catholic  Majesty  iu 
"  those  Islands  are  griiveJy  offended  at  the  audacity  and  blindness 
'■  of  those  men,  who,  forgetting  all  humanity,  have  condemned  aa 
*'  rebellious  and  disobedient  to  both  their  ilajesties,  him,  who  as  a 
"  faithful  vassal  of  His  Catholic  Majesty,  ami  in  conformity  with  the 
"  law,  holds  the  lloyal  Tribunal,  Government  and  Captaio -Genera  1 - 

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104  I'lilLIiTINE    IKLANUS. 

ship  ,  lui  lia^iUjf  suiioreJ  by  a  lewanl  beiug  offerci!  by  order  of  the 
"  British  Go\ernor  iii  coiiiuil  to  whomsoever  shall  ddnct  mo  ihie  or 
"  Ueail  aiul  bj  then  lia\iug  pUcGd  the  arms  captuicil  lu  Bulaianiit 
"  the  foot  of  the  gallons — seeing  that  lustoad  of  their  punishing  and 
"  rejitoTchm,'  such  e-vecrable  proceedings,  the  spirit  of  haughtiness 
"  and  piiJe  is  increasing,  aa  ^hoiin  m  the  Pioelamation  published  iit 
"  Manila  on  the  17th  mstant,  m  which  the  troops  of  His  Maie-ity 
"  are  infamously  cahimaiatod — lieUiug  them  is  blackguarda  uid  dii 
"  aflecled  to  their  ^cn  k  c — i  h  irg  i\^  them  n  itli  plotting  to  ass  *'-siiiat<i 
"  the  En^li-h  officers  and  soldiers,  md  with  having  fled  when  attacked 
'  — the  who!c  ot  these  accusations  leing  false       Inovv  therefore  Iv 

these  presents  be  it  known  to  all  Spaniards  and  true  Englishmen 
"  that  Messrs  Drake  Smith  and  Brock  n  ho  feigned  the  Proehmation 
'*  referred  to,  must  not  l)e  considered  as  \asbals  of  IIis  Bntauuit 
"  Majesty  lut  as  t>r-vnts  and  eommon  enemies  unwoithi  of  humiu 
"  society,  ind  therefore,  I  order  that  thej  he  apprehended  as  such 
'  an!  I  offer  ton  thousand  lolUrs  foi  each  one  of  them  aliie  oi  Je  »d 
'  \t  the  same  time,  I  withliiw  the  oider  to  treat  the  vassals  of  Hi^ 
'  Itritanuic  Majesty  with  all  the  humamtv  which  the  lights  of  nai 
"  Hill  permit,  as  has  hecn  pnetised  hitherto  with  respect  to  the 
"  prisoners  and  deserters  " 

Anda  had  hy  this  time  received  tlie  couscut  of  lu  Iviiig  to  oecuj  \ 
(he  position  vvliieh  he  lud  usurped,  and  the  Biitish  tommatider  was 
thus  enabled  to  communicate  ofiieiaih  with  him,  if  occasion  required 
It  and  Diake  leplied  tj  this  Proel imation,  recommending  Anda  to 
<arrj  on  the  war  with  gieater  moderj,tiou  and  huwixmty 

On  the  27th  of  Juno,  1763,  the  British  made  a  sottie  fioio  the 
citj  to  dislodge  Bustos,  who  still  occupied  Malinti  Iho  attatkin^ 
party  consisted  of  -jO  fusileers,  50  horsemen,  j.  moh  ot  Chinese  and 
1  number  of  guns  and  ammunition  The  Bntish  took  up  quarfcis 
ou  one  Bide  of  the  iner,  whilst  Bustos  rcm-^med  on  the  other  Iho 
opposing  parties  exchanged  fiie,  lut  neither  ctred  oi  dared  to  ci  i&s 
the  water-waj  The  Biitish  forces  letired  in  good  orler  to  Masilo 
lul  remained  there  until  they  heard  that  Bustos  hil  I  tir nt  Malitti 
House  and  removed  his  eamp  to  Mejcauayan.  llien  the  Brit  oh 
withlrevv  to  Mam!a  in  the  esening  On  the  Spanifch  side  there  were 
two  killed,  fnc  moitUh  wounle],  and  two  slightly  woundel  Ihe 
British  losses  \\ere  six  mortally  wounded  and  seven  disabled      This 

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WRS  tlie  last  encouDter  iu  oi)cn  warfare,  Chiuumeii  occasionally  lost 
their  lives  tliroiigh  their  love  of  plunder  iu  tlie  viciuity  occupied  by 
the  Britiali, 

Dnriug  these  operations,  the  priesthood  taught  the  iguornut  nutives 
to  believe  that  the  invadiug  troops  were  infidels — and  a  holy  war  was 

The  Friars,  especially  those  of  the  Augnstiuo  order,'  abandoued 
their  mission  of  peace  for  that  of  the  sword,  anil  tlie  British  met  with 
a  slight  reverse  at  Masilo,  where  n  religious  fauttic  of  the  Austin  friars 
had  put  himself  at  the  head  of  a  small  baud  h  lug  in  ambush. 

Ou  the  23rd  of  July,  1763,  i  British  frigate  brought  uows  from 
Europe  of  an  armistice, — and  the  prelimniai  le^  of  peace,  by  virtue  of 
wiiich  Manila  iviis  to  be  evacuated  (Peice  of  l'ari&,  10th  of  February, 
1763),  were  received  by  the  British  Commauder  on  the  27tb  of  August 
foilowiug',  and  commiiuieated  by  him  to  the  Archbishop-Governor  for 
tJie  "  Commander-in-Chief  "  of  the  Spanish  arms.  Anda  stood  on  his 
dignity,  and  protested  that  he  ehould  he  addressed  directly,  and  be 
styled  Captaiu-Geuera!.  Ou  this  plea  he  declined  to  receive  the 
communication.  Drake  replicil  hy  a  manifesto,  dated  19tli  September, 
to  the  effect  that  the  responsibility  of  the  blood  which  might  be  spilt  in 
consequence  of  Anda's  refusal  to  accept  his  notification  would  rest  with 
him.  Auda  published  a  counter  manifesto,  dated  28th  September, 
iu  BacoloT  (Pampanga),  protesting  that  he  had  not  been  treated  with 
proper  courtesy. 

Greater  latitude  was  allowed  to  the  prisoners,  and  Villa  Corta 
effected  bis  escape  dressed  as  a  woman,  IIo  fled  to  Anda — the 
co-conspirator  wlio  refused  to  save  his  life,— and  their  siiperiicial 
friendship  was  renewed.  Villa  Corta  was  left  iu  charge  of  business  in 
Bacolor  during  Auda's  temporary  absence.  Meanwhile  the  Arehbisiiop 
fell  ill  ;  and  it  was  discussed  who    should   be   his    successor   in  the 

I  So  tenacious  was  thu  opposition  brouglit  by  the  Aasliii  friara  both  in  BLtuil.i 
and  the  PTOvinces,  that  the  British  appear  to  have  reg.irdej  them  as  their  special 

From  the  archives  o£  Bauan  ConvLut,  Province  of  Batangas,  I  have  iateii  the 
following  notes,  viz. ;— The  Austin  Friars  lost  $338  000  and  fifteen  convents.  Six 
of  their  estates  were  despoiled.  Of  the  troops  k\lled,  300  were  Spaniards,  500 
rampans*  natives  and  300  Tagalos  natives  Peides  theAuslin  friars  from  the 
galleon  "  Tlinidad,"  «ho  were  male  pnsoneis  ml  shipped  to  Bomliay,  ten  of 
their  order  wore  tilled  in  battle  and  niiiLtnii  nti  taken  and  esilcd  to  India  and 

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government  in  the  event  of  his  death.  Villa  Corta  nrgued  that  it  fell 
to  him  as  senior  magistrate.  The  discussion  came  to  the  knowledge  of 
Anda,  and  seriously  aroused  his  jealonsy.  Fearing  conspiracy  against 
his  ambitious  projects,  he  left  his  camp  at  Polo,  anil  hastened  to 
interrogate  Villa  Corta,  who  explaineil  that  he  had  only  maile  casual 
remarks  in  the  course  of  couvers;i(Ioii.  Anda,  however,  was  restless  on 
the  subject  of  the  succession,  and  sought  tlie  opinion  of  all  the  chief 
priests  and  bishops.  Various  0[iLriioua  existed.  Some  urged  that  the 
decision  be  left  to  tlie  Supreme  Court — otliers  were  in  favour  of  Anda — 
whilst  many  abstained  from  exprossiiij^  their  views.  Anda  was  so 
nervously  anxious  about  the  matter,  that  ho  even  begged  the  opinion  of 
the  British  Commander,  and  wrote  him  on  the  subject  from  Bac-olor  on 
the  2ud  of  November,  1763. 

Major  Fell  seriously  quarrelled  witli  Drake  about  the  Frenchman 
Falter,  whom  Admiral  Cornish  had  left  under  sentence  of  death  for 
having  written  a  letter  to  Jax"a  aeeusiiig'  him  of  boinj;  a  pirate  and  a 
robber.  Drake  protected  Faller,  whilst  Fell  demanded  the  execution 
of  the  prisoner  ;  and  the  dispute  became  so  heated,  that  Fell  was  about 
to  slay  Drake  with  a  bayonet,  but  was  prevented  by  some  soldiers.  Fell 
then  went  to  London  to  complain  of  Drake,  hence  Anda's  letter  was 
addressed  to  Backhouse,  who  took  Fell's  place.  Anda,  who  months 
since  had  refused  to  negotiate  or  treat  with  Drake,  still  insisted 
upon  being  styled  Captain -General,  Backhouse  replieil  that  ho  was 
ignorant  of  the  Spaniards'  statutes  or  laws,  but  that  lie  knew  the 
Governor  was  the  Archbishop.  Anda  thereupon  spread  the  report  that 
the  British  Commander  had  forged  the  Preliminaries  of  Peace  because 
he  could  no  longer  hold  out  in  warfare.  The  British  necessarily  had  to 
send  to  the  provinces  to  purchase  provisions,  and  Anda  caused  their 
forage  parties  to  be  attacked,  so  that  the  war  really  continued,  in  spite 
of  the  news  of  peace,  until  the  30th  of  January,  1764.  On  this  day 
the  Archbishop  died,  sorely  grieveil  at  the  situation,  and  weighed  down 
with  cares.  He  had  engaged  to  pay  four  millions  of  dollars  and 
surrender  the  islands,  but  could  he  indeed  have  refused  any  terms  ? 
The  British  were  in  possession  ;  and  these  conditions  were  dictated  at 
tho  point  of  the  bayonet. 

Immediately  after  the  funeral  of  the  Archbishop,  Anda  received 
despatches  from  tlie  King  of  Spain,  by  way  of  China,  confirming 
the  news  of   peace  to    his   Governor  at  Manila.     Then   the  British 

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iicknowleilgoil  Aiitla  as  Governor,  and  proceeded  to  evacuate  tlie  city, 
but  rival  fiL<;tioiis  were  not  so  easily  set  aside,  iind  fierce  quarrels  ensued 
between  tlie  respective  parties  of  Anda,  '\'il!a  CorLt  and  Ustariz  as  to 
who  should  be  Governor  and  receive  the  city  officially  from  the  British. 
Anda,  being  iictually  iii  command  of  tlie  troops,  had  the  game  in 
his  hands.  The  conflict  was  happily  terminated  by  tlie  arrival  at 
MariDdnque  of  tlio  newly  appointed  Govern  or- Gen  oral  from  Spain, 
Don  Francisco  de  La  Torre,  A  galley  was  sent  tbere  by  Anda  to  bring 
His  Excelleucy  to  Luzon,  and  he  arrived  at  Bacolor,  where  Anda 
resigned  the  Govennneut  to  him  on  the  17th  of  March,  1764. 

La  Torre  sent  a  message  to  Backhouse  »nd  Brerelon — the    com- 

ffi  a  d  C  vite, — stating  that  he  was  ready 

k  h  d  La  Torre  thereupon  took  np  his 

C         p  Spanish  guard  with  sentinels  from 

b      w  B    dge  (Puento  do  Barcas,  now  called 

Pn  a  l!ipn)w  hB         i  advance  guard  was,  and  friendly 

mm  n  k  p  G  or  Drake  was  indignant  at  being 

d   n  p        e(  a    orderetl  the  Spanisli  Governor  to 

w   h    aw        g      dad        h  ea         appealing  to  foree.     Baekhouss 

a      F  nted    h        d  n        and  ordered  the  troops  uoder  arms 

D  on,  due  to  jealousy,  they  declared 

unwarrantable.     Drake  hcin^  apprised  of  their  iuteutions,  escaped  from 

the  city  with  his  suite,  emliaiked  oti  hoTid  a  firgate,  and  billed  off 

La  Torre  was  said  to  be  indisposed  on  the  day  appointed  fot 
receiving  the  ciiy.  Some  assert  that  he  feigniid  his  indispo'iition  as 
he  did  not  wish  to  arouse  Anda'a  mimo'^ity,  and  desired  to  afforl 
him  an  opportunity  of  displaying  himself  as  i  delegate  rt  least  of  the 
highest  loeal  authority  by  receiviug  the  city  from  the  British,  whiht 
he  pampered  his  pride  by  allowing  him  to  enter  triumphantly  into  it. 
As  the  city  esclianged  masters,  the  Spani-h  flag  was  hoisted  oiice 
more  on  the  Fort  of  Santiago  amidst  the  hiirriihs  of  the  populace  and 
artillery  salutes. 

Before  embarking,  Kreretou  offered  to  do  ]ustiee  to  any  claims 
which  might  he  leiiitimately  established  against  the  British  authorities. 
Hence  a  sloop  lent  to  Drake,  valued  at  $i,000,  was  paid  for  to  the 
Jesnits,  and  the  $3,000  paid  to  ransom  Villa  Cortu's  life  was  returned, 
Erereton  remarking,  that  if  the  sentence  against  him  were  valid,  it 
should  have  been  executed  at  the  time,  but  it  could  not  be  commuted 

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108  pnlLIFPINE    ISLANDS. 

Ijy  niouoy  pi>i>n,iit  ^t  tin,  lUatince  ol  the  Biitinh  autlio  itics  a  free 
pardon  was  griiitnl  ami  pnblisliel  to  the  Chiuese  fen  of  iihom, 
however,  confiiled  lu  it,  \nd  manj  left  witli  the  retiring  aimy 
Brereton,  with  his  forces  embaiked  foi  India,  "tfter  despatchiug  a 
pactet-lioat  to  rcsitore  the  Saltan  of  Suhi  to  his  throne 

During  this  convuUtd  period,  groat  itroutios  weio  committed 
Uufortunjttel  T  the  common  felons  ncre  released  bj  the  English  from 
their  prisons,  ind  used  then  lihertj  to  perjit-trate  murders  and  rol  bcry 
in  alliance  with  those  always  naturally  bent  that  way.  So  great  did 
this  evil  become — so  bold  were  the  marauders,  that  in  time  they  formed 
large  parties,  infested  highways,  attacked  plantations,  and  tho  poor 
peasantry  had  to  flee,  leaving  their  cattle  and  all  their  belongings  in 
their  power.  Se^'eral  avenged  themselves  of  the  Friara  for  old  scores — 
others  settled  accounts  with  those  Europeans  who  had  tyrannised  flicni 
of  old.  Tho  Cliinese,  whether  so-called  Christians  or  pagans,  declared 
for  and  aided  the  British. 

The  procoediogs  of  the  choleric  Simon  de  Anda  y  Sahizar  were 
approved  by  his  Sovereign,  but  his  impetuous  disposition  drove  from 
iiim  his  best  couusellors,  whilst  those  who  were  bold  enough  to  uphold 
their  opinions  against  his,  were  accuBed  of  connivance  with  tlic  British. 
Communications  with  Europe  were  scant  indeed  in  those  days,  but 
Anda  could  not  have  been  altogether  ignorant  of  the  causes  of  tho  war, 
which  terminated  with  tho  Treaty  of  Paris. 

On  his  return  to  Spain,  after  the  appoiDtmeiit  of  La  Torre  as 
Governor- General,  he  succeeded  in  retaining  the  favour  of  the  king, 
who  conferred  several  honours  on  him,  making  him  Councillor  of 
Castile,  etc.  In  the  moautimo  Jose  Itaon,  who  superseded  La  Torre, 
had  fallen  into  disgrice,  ind  And-i  mis  jppoiuted  to  the  Gnenor 
Greneralship  of  the  Isl  mds 

There  is  peihips  no  nnpcnousnc^s  so  intolennt  is  that  if  iti 
offieial  who  vaunts  his  authorily  tj  the  reflected  light  of  his  ponerlul 
patron,  Anda  on  hi-,  airnal  avenged  himself  of  hii  oppo'^trs  m  all 
directions.  He  imjnnoned  Ina  predecessor,  several  judge  ,  milit-iij 
officials  and  others  ,  ^omf  he  «ent  back  to  SpaLii,  others  he  banished 
from  the  capital.  Thus  he  brought  trouble  upon  himself  I  rom  all 
sides  hostile  resistance  increased  He  quarrelled  with  the  clergj  ,  bit 
when  his  irascible  temper  had  exhausted  itself  in  the  rourse  of  six 
years,  he  retired  to  the  Aus'm  1    la-s'  Hosp  tal  of  Sac  Juan  d"  Dios 

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in  Cavite,  where  iie  espired  in  1776,  much  to  the  relief  of  his  numerous 

Consequent  on  tlie  troubled  state  of  the  Colony,  a  serious  rebellion 
arose  in  Ylogan  (Cagayau  Province),  amongst  the  Timava  natives, 
who  flogged  tbo  Commaudflnt,  and  declared  tJiey  would  no  longer  pay 
tribute  to  the  Spaniards.  The  revolt  spread  to  YIocos  and  Pangasiuau, 
but  the  ringleaders  were  caught,  and  tranquillity  was  restored  by  the 

A  rising  far  more  important  occurred  in  Tlocos  Sur.  The  Alcalde 
was  deposed,  and  escaped  after  be  bad  beeu  forced  to  give  up  his  .staff' 
of  office.  The  leader  of  this  revolt  was  a  euuning  and  wily  Manila 
native,  named  Diego  de  Silan,  who  persuaded  the  people  to  cease  paying 
tribute,  and  declare  against  the  Spaniards,  who,  he  pointed  out,  were 
uuable  to  resist  the  English.  The  City  of  Vigan  was  in  great  commotion. 
The  Vicar- General  parleyed  with  the  natives ;  and  then,  collecliuf  bis 
troops,  the  rebels  were  dispersed,  whilst  some  were  taken  prisoners  ;  but 
the  bulk  of  the  rioters  rallied  and  attacked,  and  burnt  down  part  of  the 
city.  The  loyal  natives  fled  before  the  flames.  The  Vicar- G en er.-il's 
house  was  taken,  and  the  arms  in  it  were  seized.  All  the  Austin  friars 
within  a  large  surrounding  neighbourhood  had  to  ransom  themselves 
by  money  payments.  Silan  was  then  acknowledged  as  chief  over  a 
large  territory  north  and  south  of  Vigan.  He  appointed  his  lieutenants, 
and  issued  a  M  mifesto  declanng  Jesiis  of  Nazareth  to  be  Captain- 
General  of  the  place,  and  th  it  ht,  w  is  His  Alcalde  for  the  promotion 
of  the  Catholic  religion  t,nd  dominion  of  the  King  of  Spain.  His 
Hanifesto  was  wholly  that  of  a  religious  fanatic.  Ho  obliged  llie 
natives  to  attend  M'tss  to  confcs",  and  to  see  that  their  ohildreu  went 
to  school.  In  the  midst  of  all  this  pretended  piety,  be  stole  cattle  and 
exacted  ransoms  for  the  lives  of  all  those  who  could  pay  them  ;  ho  levied 
a  tax  of  $iO0  on  each  friar.  Under  the  pretence  of  keeping  out  the 
British,  lie  placed  sentinels  in  all  directions  to  prevent  news  reaching 
the  terrible  Simon  de  Anda.  B«t  Anda,  though  fully  informed  by  an 
Austin  friar  of  what  transpired,  had  not  sufficient  troops  to  march 
north.  He  sent  a  requisition  to  Silau  to  present  himself  within  nine 
days,  under  penalty  of  arrest  as  a  traitor.  Whilst  this  order  was 
published,  vague  reports  were  intentionally  spread  (Iiat  the  Spaniards 
were  coming  to  Tlocos  in  great  force.  Many  deserted  Silan,  but  he 
contrived  to  deceive  even  the  clergy  and  others  by  bis  feigned  piety. 



Silau  sent  prcsodts  to  Manila  for  the  British,  acknowledging  the  King 
oS  England  to  be  his  legitimaie  Sovereign.  The  British  Governor  sent, 
in  return,  a  vcesoi  bearing  despatches  to  Silao,  appointing  liini  Alcalde 
Mayor,  Elated  with  pride,  Silan  at  once  made  this  pnblit;.  The  natives 
were  undeceived,  for  they  had  counted  on  liim  to  deliver  them  from  the 
British  ;  now,  to  their  dismay,  they  saw  him  the  authorized  magistrate 
of  the  invader.  He  gave  orders  to  make  all  the  Anstin  friars  prisoners, 
saying  that  the  British  would  send  other  clergy  in  their  stead.  The 
friars  surrendered  themselves  without  resistance  and  joined  their  Bishop 
near  Vigan,  awaiting  the  pleasiireof  Silan.  The  Bishop  excommunicated 
Silan,  and  then  he  released  some  of  the  priests.  The  Christian  natives 
having  refused  to  slay  the  friars,  a  secret  compact  was  being  made,  with 
this  object,  with  the  mountain  tribes,  when  a  lialf-caste  named  Vieos 
obtained  the  Bishoi>'s  benediction  and  killed  Silau  ;  and  tho  rebellion, 
which  had  lasted  from  Hlh  December,  1762,  to  28th  May,  1763,  ended. 
Not  until  a  score  of  little  battles  had  been  fought  were  the  numerous 
riots  in  the  provinces  quelled.  The  loyal  troops  were  divided  into 
sectious,  and  marched  north  in  several  directions,  uuti!  peace  was 
restored  by  March,  1765,  Ziiniga  says  that  tho  Spaniards  lost  in  these 
riots  about  70  Europeans  aud  140  natives,  whilst  they  cost  tho  rebels 
quite  10,000  men. 

The  submission  made  to  thn  Spaniards,  in  the  time  of  Legaspi,  of  the 
Manilaand  Tondo  chiefs,  was  but  of  local  importance,  and  by  no  means 
implied  a  total  x>acific  surrender  of  the  whole  Archipelago ;  for  each 
district  had  yet  to  be  separately  conquered.  In  many  places  a  bold  stand 
was  made  for  independence,  but  the  superior  organization  and  science  of 
the  European  forces  invariably  brought  them  victory  in  the  end. 

Space  will  not  permit  me  to  cite  alt  the  mimerous  revolutionary 
protests  registered  in  history  against  the  Spanish  dominion,  to  show  that 
the  natives  from  the  beginning,  and  up  to  the  present  time,  have  only 
yielded  to  a  force  which  they  have  repeatedly,  in  each  generation, 
essayed  to  overthrow.  The  Pampanga  natives  soon  submitted,  but  a 
few  years  afterwards  they  were  in  open  mutiny  against  their  masters, 
who,  they  alleged,  took  their  young  men  from  their  homes  to  form  army 
corps,  and  busily  employed  tlio  able-bodied  men  remaining  in  tlie  district 
to  cut  timber  for  Government  requirements  and  furuisii  provisioes  to 
the  camp. 


SXRUGGL1«   VOll    LIEEliTY.  Ill 

111  liy22  tlie  ii!ili\cs  of  liojol  Island  erected  nu  aratory  in  the 
moHiitain  in  lionoiir  of  a.n  imaginary  deity,  and  revolted  against  the 
tyranny  of  tlie  Jesuit  miss  ion  nric-.  They  proclaimed  their  intention 
to  regain  their  liberty,  tind  freedom  from  the  payment  of  tribute  to 
foreigners,  and  tnxoa  to  a  cbnrcli  they  did  not  believe  in.  Several 
towns  and  chnrcUes  were  burnt,  and  Catliolic  images  were  desecrated, 
but  the  relwla  were  dispersed  hy  the  G-ovei-uor  of  Cebu,  who,  witii  a 
considerable  number  of  troops,  pursued  them  into  the  interior.  In  the 
same  island  &  more  serious  rising  was  caused  in  1744  by  the  despotism 
of  a  Jesuit  priest  named  Morales,  who  arrogated  to  himself  goveruinciital 
rights,  ordering  the  appi-ebonsion  of  natives  who  did  not  attend  Mass, 
smd  exercising  his  sacerdotal  functions  according  to  his  own  caprice. 
The  natives  resisted  those  abuses,  and  a  certain  Dagiihoy,  whose 
brother's  body  had  been  left  nninterred  to  decompose  by  the  priest's 
order*,  organised  a  revenge  party,  and  swore  to  pay  the  priest  in  his 
own  coin.  The  Jesuit  was  captured  and  executed,  and  Ins  corpse  was 
left  four  days  in  the  sun  to  corrupt. 

Great  numbers  of  disafiected  natives  flocked  to  Dagoboy's  standard. 
Their  complaint  was.  that  whilst  tiiey  risked  their  lives  in  foreign 
service  for  the  sole  benefit  of  their  European  masters,  their  homes 
were  wrecked  and  their  wives  and  families  maltreated  to  recover  tiie 

Dagohoy,  with  his  people,  maintiiiaed  their  independence  for  tbo 
space  of  85  years,  during  which  period  it  was  necessary  to  constantly 
employ  detachments  of  troops  to  check  the  rebels'  raid  on  private 
property.  On  the  expulsion  of  the  Jesuits  from  the  Colony,  Becoleto 
Friars  went  to  Bohol,  and  then  Dagohoy  aud  his  partisans  submitted 
to  the  Governmeiit  on  the  condition  of  all  receiving  a  full  pardon. 

In  Lcyte  an  insurrection  was  set  on  foot  in  1622  itgaiust  Spanish 
rule,  and  the  Governor  of  Cebu  went  there  witli  40  vessels,  carrying 
troops  and  war  material  to  co-operate  with  the  local  Governor  against 
the  rebels.  The  native  leader  was  made  prisoner,  arid  his  head  placed 
on  a  high  pole,  to  strike  terror  into  the  populace.  Another  prisoner 
was  garrotted,  four  more  were  publicly  executed  by  being  shot  with 
arrows,  and  another  was  burnt. 

In  1629,  an  attempt  was  made  in  the  Province  of  Surigao  (then 
called  Caraga),  in  the  east  of  Miadanao  Island,  to  throw  off  the 
Spanish  yoke.     Several  churches  were  burnt,  and  four  priests  were 

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112  PHlLirPIXE    ISLAMDS. 

killed  by  the  rebels,  aiiJ  the  risinf;  ivas  only  qucllci.1  after  tiiioe  year** 
guerilla  warfare. 

lu  1649  the  Governor-Gciierul  decided  to  supply  tlie  ivaut  of  men 
iu  the  Arsenal  at  Cavite,  and  the  iacreasing  necessity  for  troops, 
by  pressing  the  natives  of  Silmar  Island  into  the  King's  service. 
Thereupon  a  native  headman  named  Sumoroy  killed  the  priest  of 
Ybabao,  oii  the  east  coast  of  Simar,  and  led  the  mob  ^\■^xo  sacked  aud 
burnt  the  churches  aloDg  the  coast.  The  Governor  at  Catbalogan  got 
together  a  few  men,  and  sent  them  iuto  the  mouutains  with  orders 
to  send  him  back  the  head  of  Sumoroy,  but  instead  of  this  they  sent 
liim  a  pig's  head.  The  revolt  increased,  and  General  Audres  Lopez 
Azaldegui  ivas  despatched  to  the  island  with  full  powers  from  the 
Governor- General,  whilst  he  was  supported  ou  the  coast  by  armed 
vessels  from  Zamboaiiga.  Sumoroy  fled  to  tiie  hills,  but  his  mother 
was  found  in  a  hut ;  and  the  iuvailiug  party  wreaked  their  vengeance 
on  her  by  literally  palliug  her  to  pieces. 

Sumoroy  was  at  length  betrayed  by  his  own  people,  who  carried 
his  head  to  tiie  Spanish  Captain,  and  this  officer  had  it  stuck  up  on 
a  pole  iu  the  village.  Some  years  afterwards,  another  rebel  chief 
surrendered,  under  a  pardon  obtained  for  him  by  the  priests,  but  the 
military  authorities  imprisoned  and  then  hanged  him. 

The  riots  of  1649  extended  to  other  provinces  for  the  same  cause. 
In  Albay,  the  parish  priest  of  Sorsogon  had  to  flee  for  his  life  ;  in 
JIasbate  Island,  a  sub-lieutenant  was  killed  ;  in  Zamboanga,  a  priest 
was  murdered  ;  in  Cehu,  a  Spaniard  was  assassinated  ;  and  in  Caraga 
(Surigao),  and  Butuau,  many  Europeans  fell  vietiins  to  the  fury  of  the 
populace.  To  quell  these  disturbances,  Captaiu  Gregorio  de  Castillo, 
stationed  at  Butuan,  was  ordered  to  march  against  the  rebels  with  a 
body  of  infantry,  but  bloodshed  was  avoided  by  the  Captain  publishing 
a  I'-cneral  pardon  in  the  uame  of  the  King,  and  crowds  of  insurgents 
came  to  tho  camp  in  consequence.  The  King's  name,  however,  was 
sullied  ;  for  very  few  of  those  who  surrendered  ever  regained  their 
liberty.  They  were  sent  prisoners  to  Manila,  where  a  few  were 
pardoued,  otliers  were  executed,  and  the  majority  became  galley  slaves. 

In  1660  there  was  again  a  serious  risiug  in  Pampanga,  the  natives 
objecting  to  cut  timber  for  the  Cavite  Arsenal  without  payment.  The 
revolt  spread  to  Pangasinao  Troviucc,  where  a  certain  Andres  Maiong 
was  declared  King,  and  he  in  turn  gave  to  anotljer — Pedro  Gumapos — 

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the  title  of  Count.  Messages  were  sent  to  Zambalea  and  other  adjacent 
provinces,  ordering  the  natiTea  to  kill  the  Spaniards,  under  pain  of 
inourrinp  King  Malong's  displeasure. 

Three  army  corps  were  formed  bj  the  rebels  :  one  of  6,000  men, 
under  Melehor  de  Veras,  for  the  conquest  of  Pampanga  ;  another  of 
3,000  men,  led  by  the  titular  Count  Gumapos,  to  annex  Iloeos,  and 
Cagayan,  whilst  the  so-called  King  Malong  took  the  field  agaiast  the 
Pangasinan  people  at  the  head  of  2,000  followers.  IJooos  Provioce 
declared  in  his  favour,  and  furnished  a  body  of  insurgents  under  a 
chief  named  Juan  Manzauo,  whilst  everywhere  on  the  march  the  titular 
King's  troops  increased  until  they  numbered  about  40,000  men.  On 
the  way  many  Spaniards— priests  and  laymen — were  killed.  The 
Governor- Genera!  sent  by  land  to  Pampanga  200  Spauiah  troops,  400 
Pampangos  and  half-breeds,  well  armed  and  provisioned,  and  Mount 
Arayat  was  fortified  and  ^.^rnsoned  by  500  men  By  sea  :  two  galleys, 
ais  small  vessels,  and  four  LWgo  Uunches — carrying  700  Spaniards 
and  half-breeds,  and  30  Pampango" — went  to  Eolirno,  in  Zambales 
Province.  The  rebels  were  everywhere  routed,  ami  their  chiefs  were 
hanged, — some  m  Pampitig'a  and  others  m  Manil  i 

Almost  each  generation  has  cilled  forth  tlie  stiong  arm  of  the 
conqueror  to  reprssg  native  aspirations  to  liliertj  in  one  island  or 
another,  whilst  the  flame  of  rebellion  has  as  often  been  kindled  by 
sacerdotal  despotism  as  hy  official  rapacity. 

In  the  present  century,  several  vain  attempts  fo  subvert  Spanish 
authority  have  been  m<tde  ■  notably  in  1S23,  when  a  body  of  disatTected 
nat  t  p  h  ad  1  ly  fl  Capta  n — a  Creole  named  Andres  Novales 
—    Dp      It  tt         p  t  1  anil  ne  Government. 

Th  g     a.  qu    kly      bl  ed  by  the  Governor-General  in  person. 

wh  w  th  Sp  n  h  troop  1  pers  d  the  rebels,  their  chiefs  being 
captu     1  a  d    X      t  I 

In  IS  th  t  nl  I  f  d  t  -nas  raised  in  Cebii  and  a  few 
t  w         fit      lanl    b  t   th  It  rbances  were   speedily   stilled 

th  u  h  tl  fl  n  f  tl  Spa  h  f  ars.  In  1844,  during  a  rising 
n  R  I  I      I  tl     Sp        I  G  was  killed.    The  cause  is  said 

tohah        dtht  nhag  compelled  the  State  prisoners 

to  labour  for  his  private  account. 

In  January,  1872,  what  is  known  as  the  Cavite  insurrection 
occurred,  the  centre  of  the  plot  being  Cavite  Arsenal,     A  number  of 



native  Boldiers  were  implicated  in  this  affuir,  and  it  was  agreed 
between  tbe  eonspiratore  in  Cavite  and  their  accomplices  in  Manila 
that  the  signal  for  the  outbreak  should  be  given  by  those  in  the 
eapital,  who  were  to  fire  off  a  rocket  on  the  night  that  tbey  would  bo 
readj  for  simultaneous  action.  It  happened,  however,  that  those  in 
Cavite  mistook  the  fireworks  of  a  suburban  feast  for  the  signal  agreed 
upon,  and  they  unwittingly  commenced  tbe  revolt,  unsupported  by 
their  comrades  across  the  bay. 

Tha  disaffected  soldiers  took  possession  of  the  Arsenal  and  made  a 
firm  resistance,  whilst  others  attacked  the  influential  Europeans.  The 
loyal  troops  were  called  out,  the  Arsenal  wjis  retaken,  and  ail  the 
rebels  who  escaped  death  were  taken  prisoners.  The  origin  of  this 
tumult  was  native  opposition  to  the  Spanish  friars,  A  certain 
Dr.  Joseph  Burgos  (Philippine  born)  had  headed  a  party  which  urged 
the  exclusion  of  friars  from  parochial  incumbeneies,  aud  called  for 
liie  fulfilment  lof  the  Council  of  Trent  decisions  which  prohibited 
friars  from  holding  benefices.  It  appears  that  the  friars,  nevertheless, 
secured  these  ecclesiastical  preferments  by  virtue  of  Papal  Bulls  of 
Pius  "V.  and  subsequent  Popes,  who  authorized  friars  to  act  as  parisJi 
priests,  not  in  perpetuity,  hut  so  long  as  secular  clergymen  were 
insufficient  in  number  to  attend  to  the  cure  of  souls.  The  native  party 
consequently  declared  that  the  friars  retained  their  incumbencies 
illegally  and  by  intrusion,  in  view  of  the  sufficiency  of  Philippine 
secular  priests.  Had  the  Council  of  Trent  enactments  been  carried 
out  to  the  letter,  undoubtedly  the  religious  communities  in  the  Philip- 
pines were  doomed  to  comparative  political  impotence.  The  Spanish 
monastic  faction,  therefore,  insisted  upon  the  extreme  penalty  of  the 
law  being  inflicted  upon  their  opponents,  and  Dr.  Joseph  Burgos,  and 
three  other  native  [priests  (one  of  whom  was  a  dotard  of  80  years 
of  age),  were  executed  on  the  Luneta,  a  fashionable  promenade  by  the 
sea-shore  outside  Manila,  whilst  several  of  the  native  clergy  and  many 
laymen  were  deported. 

The  real  instigators  of  the  Cavite  tragedy  were  the  Spanish  friars, 
who  found  in  it  a  means  of  attainting  Dr.  Burgos,  of  striking  terror 
into  the  native  clergy,  and  of  procuring  the  banishment  of  certain 
families  known  to  hold  liberal  ideas. 

Colonel  Sabas  went  over  to  Cavite  and  quelled  the  riot,  and  when 
the  friars  had  secured  their  victims  they  caused  a  hill  of  indictment  to 

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CAVITE    CONSPIRACY    OF    1872.  H5 

be  put  forward  by  the  public  prosecutor  in  wliicli  it  was  alleged  that  a 
revolutionary  government  liad  been  projected. 

Some  of  the  accused  in  this  revolt,  who  protested  their  iiinoccace, 
■were  banished  to  the  Marianas  (Ladrone)  Islands,  whence  a  few 
eeeaped  to  foreign  countries.  Of  these,  personally  known  to  me,  one 
is  a  successful  lawyer  now  residing  near  London,  and  three  were  still 
living  in  Hongkong  in  18S(6.  In  1889  I  visited  a  penal  settlement- 
La  Colonia  Agricola  de  San  Ramon— in  Mindanao  Island,  and  duriog 
my  stay  at  the  director's  house  I  was  every  day  served  at  tabic  by 
the  native  convict  who  was  said  to  have  been  nomiuatod  by  the  Cavite 
insurgents  to  the  Civil  Governorship  of  Maiiila. 

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C  ir  A  I>  T  E  R      VII  I. 


Long  beforo  the  foundafjou  of  Mxuila  Ly  Legaspi  in  1571  tho 
Chinese  traded  with  tliese  I'^iands  lli  ir  hcus  standi,  however,  was 
invariably  a  critical  one,  and  their  lommeroial  transactions  with  the 
semi-barbarous  Philippme  la!aniler>i  were  always  conducted  afloat. 
Often  their  junks  were  boirded  an  1  pillaged  fay  the  natives,  but,  in 
spite  of  the  immense  n->k  incurred,  the  Chinese  lacked  uothiug  hi  their 
active  pursuit. 

Legaspi  soon  perceived  the  advantage'!  which  would  iiccrue  to  his 
conquest  by  fomenting  tho  development  oE  commerce  with  these  Islands  ; 
and,  as  an  inducement  to  the  Chinese  to  eontinije  their  traffic,  he 
severely  punished  all  acts  of  violence  committed  against  them. 

In  the  course  of  time,  the  Chineae  had  gained  sufficient  confidence 
under  European  protection  to  come  ashore  with  their  wares.  In  1588, 
Chinese  were  already  paying  rent  for  the  land  they  occupied.  Some 
writers  assert  that  they  propagated  their  religious  doctrine  as  well  as 
their  customs,  but  I  have  found  nothing  to  confirm  this  statement, 
and  my  knowledge  of  Chinese  habits  inclines  me  to  think  it  most 
improbable.  In  their  trading  junks  they  frequently  carried  their  idols 
as  a  Romish  priest  carries  his  missal  when  he  travels.  The  natives 
may  have  imitated  the  Chinese  religious  rites  years  before  the  Spaniards 
came.  There  is  no  evidence  adduced  to  prove  that  they  forcibly 
proselytized  the  natives  as  the  Spaniards  did.  On  the  other  hand,  there 
is  reason  to  believe  that  some  idols,  lost  by  the  Chinese  in  shipwreck 
and  piratical  attacks,  have  been,  and  still  are,  revered  by  the  natives  as 
authenticated  miraculous  images  of  Christian  Saints  (vide  "  Holy  Child 
of  Cebu"  and  "  Our  Lady  of  Casay say," Chap.  XL). 

The  Chinese  contributed,  in  a  large  measure,  to  bring  about  a 
state  of  order  and  prosperity  in  the  new  Colony,  with  the  introduction 

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of  their  email  trades  and  industry  ;  and  tbeir  traffic  jn  the  interior,  and 
with  China,  was  really  beneficial,  in  tboso  times,  to  the  object  which 
the  conquerors  had  in  view.  So  onnnerous,  however,  did  they  become, 
that  it  was  fonnd  necessary  to  regulato  the  growing  commerce  and  the 
modus  vivendi  of  the  foreign  traders. 

In  the  bad  weather  they  were  unable  to  go  to  and  from  their  junks, 
and,  fearing  lest  under  such  circumstances  tfie  trade  would  fail  off, 
the  G-overnment  detormined  to  provide  them  with  a  large  building 
galled  tlie  Alcayceria,  Tiie  contract  for  its  construction  was  ofiered  to 
any  private  person  or  corporation  willing  to  take  it  up  on  the  following 
terms,  via, : — The  original  cost,  the  annual  expense  of  maintenance,  and 
the  annual  rents  received  from  the  Chinese  tenants  were  to  be  equally 
shared  by  the  Grovcrnraent  and  the  contractor.  The  contract  was 
accepted  by  a  certain  Fernando  de  Mier  y  Noriega,  who  was  appointed 
bailiff  of  the  Alcayceria  for  life,  and  the  eniployraent  wiis  to  be 
hereditary  in  his  family,  at  a  salary  of  $50  per  month.  However, 
when  the  plan  was  submitted  to  the  Government,  it  was  considered  too 
extensive,  and  was  consequently  greatly  reduced,  the  Government 
defraying  the  total  cost  ($48,000).  The  baihfTs  salary  was  likewise 
reduced  to  $25  per  month,  and  only  the  condition  of  sharing  rent  and 
espeuse  of  preservation  was  maintained.  The  Alcayceria  was  a  square 
of  shops,  with  a  back  store,  and  one  apartment  above  eacli  tenement. 
It  was  inaugurated  in  the  year  1580,  in  the  Calie  de  San  Fernando,  in 
Binoado,  opposite  to  where  is  now  the  Harbour-Master's  Office,  and 
under  fire  of  the  forts.  In  the  course  of  years  this  became  a  ruin,  and 
on  the  same  site  Government  Stores  were  built  in  1856.  These,  too, 
were  wrecked  in  their  turn  by  the  great  earthquake  of  1863.  In  the 
meantime,  the  Chinese  had  long  ago  spread  far  beyond  the  limits  of 
the  Alcayceria,  and  another  centre  had  been  provided  for  them  within 
the  City  of  Manila.  This  was  called  the  Parian,  which  is  the  Mexican 
word  for  market-place.  It  was  demolished  by  Giayerament  order  iu 
1860,  but  the  entrance  to  the  city,  at  that  part  (constructed  in  1782), 
still  retains  the  name  of  Puerta  del  Parian, 

Hence  it  will  be  seen,  that  from  the  time  of  the  conquest,  and  for 
generations  following,  the  Spanish  authorities  offered  encouragement 
and  protection  to  the  Chinese. 

Dr.  Antonio  Morga,  in  his  work  on  the  PJiilipplnes,  page  3i9, 
writes  (at  the  close  of  tbe  16th  century) ;  "  It  is  true  the  town  cannot 

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118  PillUPl'INE    ISLANDS. 

"  exist  -without  tlie  Cliinese,  as  they  are  workers  in  all  trades  and 
"  business,  and  very  industrious  and  work  for  small  wages." 

Juan  de  la  Concepcion  writes'  (referring  to  the  beginning  of  tha 
17th  century):  "Without  the  trade  and  commerce  of  the  Chinese, 
"  these  dominions  could  not  have  subsisted."  The  same  writer 
estimates  the  number  of  Chinese  io  the  Colony  in  1638  at  33,000.' 

In  1686  tbe  policy  of  fixing  the  fctatutory  maximum  number  of 
Chinese  at  6,000  was  discussed,  but  commercial  conveniences  out- 
weighed its  adoption.  Had  the  measure  been  -carried  out,  it  was 
proposed  to  lodge  theia  all  in  one  place  within  easy  cannon  range,  in 
view  of  a  possible  rising. 

In  1755  it  was  resolved  to  expel  all  nou-Christian  Chinese,  hut  a 
term  was  allowed  for  the  liquidation  of  their  affairs  and  withdrawal. 
By  the  30th  of  June  17.J5,  the  day  fixed  for  their  departure  from 
Manila,  515  Cniiiameii  had  been  sharp  enough  to  obtiiiit  baptism  as 
Christians,  iu  order  to  evade  the  edict,  besides  1,103  who  were 
permitted  to  remain  because  they  were  studying  the  mysteries  and 
intricacies  of  Christianity.  2,070  were  banished  from  Manila,  the 
expulsion  being  rigidly  enforced  on  those  newly  arriving  in  junks. 

Except  a  few  Europeans  and  a  score  of  Western  Asiatics,  the 
Chinese  who  remained  wore  the  only  ctercliants  in  the  Archipelago. 
The  natives  liiid  neither  knowledge,  tact,  energy,  nor  desire  to  compete 
with  them.  They  cannot,  to  this  day,  do  so  successfully,  and  tiie 
Chinese  may  be  considered  a  boon  to  the  Colony,  for,  without  them, 
Urin"  would  be  far  dearer — commodities  and  labour  of  all  kinds  more 
scarce,  and  the  export  and  import  trade  much  embarrassed.  The 
Chinese  are  really  tho  people  who  gave  to  the  natives  the  first  notions 
of  trade  nd  stry  a  I  f r  ttul  work  Tl  ej  tau  ht  tl  em,  amongst 
uany  other  use  ul  th  ags  tho  extrac  on  ot  sac  1  r  e  ]u  ce  from  the 
s  i<rar  cane  the  n  a  nfacture  of  »;  gar  -ind  tl  e  ork  n,,  of  wrought 
on  They  nt  oi  ed  nto  the  C  oay  tie  fir  t  ougar-mills  with 
trtical  stone  cri  si  c      anl  ron  bo  I  u^     ^n 

The  h  bt  r  of  th  last  li  ndred  aud  tiftj  jeira  si  o  rs  that  tho 
(  L  ncse    altl  ou^h   tolerated  re     I  v     s  reg  rded  bj    the  Spanish 

nloE  ats  aa    an    un    elcome  lace    au  1  the  nat    es  ha\o  learnt,  from 

'  "Hist.  Gen.  do  I'hilipina.'i,"  by  Juan  do  la  Coneepcioa,  Vo!,  IV.,  page  53, 
[lub.  in  Manila  io  1738. 

-  ibid.,  Vol,  v..  page  439. 

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esample,  to  despise  them.  From  time  to  time,  especially  since  the 
joar  1763,  the  feeling  against  them  has  run  very  high. 

The  public  clamour  for  restrictions  on  their  arrival,  impediments 
to  the  traffic  of  those  already  established  here,  intervention  of  the 
authorities  with  respect  to  their  dwellings  and  mode  of  living,  and  not 
a  few  have  urged  their  total  expulsion.  Indeed,  such  influence  was 
brought  to  bear  on  the  Indian  Council  at  Madrid  daring  the  temporary 
Governorship  of  Juan  Arechedcra,  Bishop  of  Nueva  Segovia  (1745- 
1750),  that  the  Archbishop  received  orders  to  expel  the  Chinese  from 
the  Islands,  but,  on  the  ground  that  to  have  done  so  would  have 
prejudiced  public  interests,  he  simply  archived  the  decree.  Even  up  to 
the  close  of  Spanish  rule,  the  authorities  in  power  and  the  national 
trading  class  considered  the  question  from  very  distinct  points  of  view, 
for  the  fact  is,  that  only  tho  mildest  action  was  taken — just  enough  to 
appease  the  wild  demands  of  the  people.  Still  the  Chinaman  was 
always  subject  to  the  ebb  and  flow  of  tho  tide  of  official  bounteousness, 
and  only  since  18i3  were  Chinese  shops  allowed  to  be  opened  on  the 
same  terms  as  other  foreigners. 

The  Chinaman  is  always  ready  to  sell  at  any  price  which  will  leave 
him  a  trifling  nctt  gain,  whereas  the  native,  having  earned  sufficient 
for  his  immediate  wants,  would  stubbornly  refuse  to  sell  his  wares 
except  at  an  enormous  profit. 

Again,  but  for  Chinese  coolie  competition,'  constant  labour  from  the 
natives  would  be  almost  unprocurable.  The  native  day-labourer  would 
work  two  or  three  days,  and  then  suddenly  disappear.  The  active 
Chinaman  goes  day  after  day  to  his  task  (excepting  only  at  the  time 
oftheChineseNew  Year,  in  January  or  February),  and  can  he  depended 
upon— thus  the  needy  native  is  pushed,  by  alien  competition,  to  bestir 
hintself.  In  my  time,  in  the  port  of  Yloilo,  four  foreign  commercial 
houses  had  to  incur  the  expense  and  risk  of  bringing  Chinese  coolies 
for  loading  and  discharging  vessels,  whilst  the  natives  coolly  lounged 
about  and  absolutely  refused  to  work.  Moreover,  the  exactions  and 
avarice  of  the  native  are  quite  intolerable,  and  create  a  serious  impedi- 
ment to  the  development  of  the  Colony.  Only  a  very  small  minority 
of  the  labouring  class  will  put  their  hands  to  work  without  an  advance 

I  About  two  per  thousand  of  the  present  resident  Chinese  were  not  originally 



on  their  wages,  and  men  who  eara  $8  per  mouth  will  ofteu  demand  a» 
much  as  $25  to  $40  advance  without  auy  guarantee  whatsoevei".  If  a- 
native  is  commissioued  to  perform  any  kmd  ot  Ber\ice,  he  will  refuse  to 
stir  without  a  sum  of  money  beforehand,  whilst  the  Chinese  very 
rarely  expect  payment  until  they  have  given  \aluefor  it.  Only  the 
direst  necessity  will  make  an  unskilled  native  labourer  continue  several 
weeks  at  work  for  a  wage  which  ia  only  to  be  paid  when  due.  There 
is  scarcely  a  single  agriculturist  who  has  not  the  burthen  of  having  to 
sink  a  share  of  his  capital  in  making  advances  to  his  labourers,  who, 
nevertheless,  are  in  no  way  legally  bound  thereby  to  serve  the  capitalist, 
or  whether  they  are  or  not,  the  fact  is,  that  a  large  proportion  of  this 
capital  so  employed  must  bo  considered  lost.  There  are  certain  lines 
of  business  which,  without  the  aid  of  Chinese,  would  have  to  be 
abandoned,  hence  it  would  be  an  unfortunate  day  for  the  Treasury,  and 
for  the  export  and  import  merchant  class,  when  the  Chinese  ceased  to 
eo-opcrate  in  Philippine  trade. 

Taxes  were  first  levied  on  the  Mongol  traders  in  1826,  In  1852 
a  general  reform  of  the  fiscal  laws  was  introduced,  and  the  classification 
of  Chinese  dealers  was  modified.  They  were  then  divided  into  four 
grades  or  classes,  each  paying  contributions  according  fo  the  new  tariff. 
In  1886  the  univcisal  depressiou,  which  was  first  manifest  in  this 
Colony  in  1884,  still  eoutinued.  Remedies  of  mopt  original  character 
were  suggested  in  the  public  organs  and  private  chclcs,  and  a  renewed 
spasmodic  tirade  was  levied  against  the  Chinese,  A  petition,  made 
and  signed  by  numbers  of  the  trading  class,  was  addressed  to  the 
Sovereign,  but  it  appears  to  have  found  its  last  resting-place  in  the 
Colonial  Secretary's  waste-paper  basket.  The  Americans  in  the  United 
States  and  Mexico  were  in  open  rebellion  against  the  Celestials — the 
Governments  of  Australia  had  imposed  a  capitation  tax  on  their 
entry' — in  British  Columbia  there  was  a  party  disposed  to  throw  off 
its  allegiance  to  Great  Britain  rather  than  forego  the  agitation  against 
the  Chinese.     Wiiy  should   not   the    Chinese   be   espelled   from    the 

'  General  Wong  Yung  Ho,  accompanied  by  a  Chinese  Justice  of  the  High 
Court,  visited  Australia  in  the  middle  of  the  year  1887,  In  a  newspaper  oE  that 
Colony,  it  was  reported  that  aft«r  these  persojis  bad  been  courteously  entertained 
and  Khuwn  tlie  local  institutions  and  industries,  they  had  the  bold  effrontery 

to  protest  against  the  State  Laves,  and  asked  for  a  repeal  of  the  "  poll  tax  " 

consklered  there  the  only  checlt  upon  a  Chiueao  coolie  inundation  1 



Philippines,  it  was  asked,  or  at  least  be  permitted  only  to  puraue 
agriculture  iu  the  Islands  ?  In  1638,  around  Calamba  and  along  the 
Laguna  shore,  they  tilled  the  land,  but  the  selfishness  and  jealousy  of 
the  natives  made  their  permanence  intolerable.  In  1S50  the  Chinese 
were  invited  to  take  up  agriculture,  but  the  rancorous  feeling  of  the 
natives  forced  them  to  abandon  the  idea,  and  seek  greater  Beeurity  in 
the  towns. 

The  chief  accusation  levelled  against  the  Chiuamau  is,  that  he  comes 
as  an  adventurer  and  makes  money,  whl<:h  he  carries  away,  without 
leaving  any  trace  of  civilization  behind  him.  The  Chinese  immigrant 
is  of  the  lowest  social  class.  Is  not  the  dream  of  the  European 
adventurer,  of  the  same  or  better  ciass,  to  make  his  pile  of  dollars  and 
be  off  to  the  land  of  his  birth  ?  If  he  spends  more  money  Jn  the  Colony 
than  the  Chinaman  does,  it  is  because  he  lacks  the  Chinaman's  self- 
abnegation  and  thriftiness.  Is  the  kind  of  civilization  taught  in  the 
colonies  by  low-class  European  settlers  worth  having  ? 

The  Chinaman  settled  in  the  Philippines  under  Spanish  rule  tras 
quite  a  different  being  to  his  obstinate,  self-willed,  riotous  countryman 
in  Hongkong  or  Singapore.  In  Manila  he  was  drilled  past  docility — 
in  six  months  ho  became  even  fawning,  cringing,  and  servile,  until 
goaded  into  open  rebellion.  Whatever  position  he  might  attain  to,  he 
was  never  addressed  (as  iu  the  British  Colonies)  as  "  Mr."  or  "  Esq"," 
but  always  "  Chinaman "  ("  Chino "). 

The  total  expulsion  of  the  Chinese  would  have  been  highly 
prejudicial  to  trade.  If  it  suited  the  State  policy  to  check  the  ingress 
of  the  Chinese,  nothing  would  have  been  easier  thau  the  imposition  of 
a  JoO  poll  tax.  To  compel  them  to  take  up  agriculture  was  out 
of  the  question  in  a  Colony  where  there  was  so  little  guarantee  for 
their  personal  safety — so  long  as  the  native,  jealous  of  the  prosperity 
which  is  the  reward  of  their  industrial  habits,  hears  tliem  an  innate 

The  frugality,  constant  activity  and  commendable  ambition  of  the 
Celestial  clashes  with  the  dissipation,  indolence  and  want  of  aim  in 
life  of  the  native.  There  is  absolutely  no  harmony  of  thought,  purpose 
or  habit  between  the  Philippine  Malay  native  and  the  Mongol  race, 
and  the  consequence  of  Chinese  coolies  working  on  coffee,  sugar  or 
other  plantations  would  be  frequent  assassinations  and  open  affray. 
Moreover,  a  native  planter  could  never  manage,  to  his  own  aatisfaction 

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or  interest,  au  estate  worked  witli  Chioeso  labour.  The  Chit 
essentially  of  a  commercial  bent,  and,  ia  the  Philippines  at  least,  he 
ja-efera  taking  hia  ehanee  aa  to  the  profits,  in  the  bubble  and  risk  of 
independent  speculation,  rather  than  calmly  undertake  obligations  to 
labour  at  a  fixed  wage  which  affords  no  stimulus  to  his  efforts. 

Plantations  worked  by  Chinese  owners  with  Chinese  labour  might 
have  succeeded,  but  those  who  arrived  in  the  Colony  brought  no 
capital,  and  the  Government  never  offered  to  overcome  this  difUcuity 
by  gratuitous  allotment  of  property.  A  law  relating  to  the  eoncession 
of  State  lands  existed,  hut  it  was  enveloped  in  so  many  entanglements 
and  encompassed  by  so  many  intricate  conditions,  that  fow  Orientals 
or  Europeans  took  advaotage  of  it,  for  the  tardy  process  to  obtain 
Government  title  deeds  of  the  conceded  lands  compelled  the  needy 
colonist  to  follow  some  other  and  distinct  occupation  in  the  meantime 
ia  order  not  to  starve. 

History  records  that  in  the  year  1603  two  Chinese  Mandarins 
came  to  Manila  as  Ambassadors  from  their  Emperor  to  the  Goveroor- 
General  of  the  Philippines.  They  represented  that  a  countryman  of 
theirs  had  informed  His  Celestial  Majesty  of  the  existence  of  a 
mountaiu  of  gold  in  the  environs  of  Cavite,  and  they  desired  to  see  it. 
The  Governor- General  welcomed  them,  and  they  were  carried  ashora 
by  their  own  people  in  ivory  and  gilded  sedan  chairs.  They  wore 
the  insignia  of  High  Mandarins,  and  the  Governor  accorded  them  the 
reception  due  to  their  exalted  station.  He  assured  them  that  they 
were  entirely  misinformed  respecting  the  mountain  of  gold,  which 
could  only  he  imaginary,  but,  to  fuithev  convince  them,  he  accompanied 
them  to  Cavite.  The  Mandarins  shortly  afterwards  returned  to  their 
country.  The  greatest  anxiety  prevailed  in  Manila.  Rumours  cir- 
culated that  a  Chinese  invasion  was  in  preparation.  The  authorities 
held  frequent  councils,  ia  which  the  opinions  were  very  divided,  A 
feverish  consternation  overcame  the  natives,  who  were  armed,  and 
ordered  to  carry  their  weapons  constantly.  The  armoury  was  over- 
hauled, A  war  plan  was  discussed  and  adopted,  and  places  were 
signalled  out  for  each  division  of  troops.  The  'natives  openly  avimved 
to  the  'Chinese,  that  whenever  they  saw  the  first  signs  of  the  hdstile 
fleet  arriving,  they  would  murder  them  all.  The  Chinese  were  accused 
of  havin"  arms  secreted;  they  were  publicly  insulted  and  niattrea1;ed-; 
the  cry  was  falsely  raised  that  the  Spaniards  had  fixed  the  day  fOr 

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their  extermination  ;  they,  daily,  saw  weapons  being  cleaned  and  pat 
in  order,  and  they  knew  that  there  could  bo  no  immediate  enemy  but 
themselves.  There  was,  in  short,  every  circumstantial  evidence  that 
the.  fight  for  their  existence  would  ere  long  be  forced  upon  them. 

In  this  terrible  position  they  were  constrained  to  act  on  the 
offensive,  simply  to  ensure  their  own  safety.  They  raised  fortificationa 
in  Boveral  places  outside  the  city,  and  many  an  unhappy  Chinaman 
had  to  reluctantly  shoulder  a  weapon  with  tears  in  his  eyes.  They 
were  traders.  War  and  revolution  wore  quite  foreign  to  tlieir  wishes. 
The  Christian  despots  compelled  them  to  abandon  their  adopted  homes 
and  their  chattels,  regj,rdles3  of  the  future.  What  a  strange  conception 
the  Chinese  must  have  formed  of  His  Most  Catholic  Majesty  I  In 
their  despair,  many  of  them  committed  sdicide.  Finally,  on  the  eve 
of  St.  Francis'  Day,  the  Chinese  opeuly  declared  hostilities — beat  their 
war-gongs — hoisted  their  flags — assaulted  the  armed  natives,  and 
threatened  the  city.  Houses  were  burnt,  and  Binoudo  was  besieged. 
They  fortified  Toado  ;  and  the  next  morning,  Luis  Perez  Dasmarlfias, 
an  ex-G-overnor-Grcneral,  led  the  troops  against  them.  Ila  was  joined 
by  one  hundred  picked  Spanish  soldiers  under  Thomas  de  AcuHa.  The 
nephew  of  the  Governor  and  the  nephew  of  the  Archbishop  rallied 
to  the  Spanish  standard  nearly  all  the  flower  of  Castilian  soldiery — and 
hardly  one  was  left  to  tell  the  tale  !  The  bloodshed  was  appalling. 
The  Chinese,  encouraged  by  tliis  first  victory,  besieged  the  city,  hut 
after  a  prolonged  struggle,  they  were  obliged  to  yield,  as  they  could 
not  provision  themselves. 

The  retreating  Chinese  were  pursued  far  from  Manila  along  the 
Laguna  de  Bay  shore,  thousands  of  them  being  overtaken  and 
slaughtered  or  disabled.  Reinforcements  met  them  on  the  way, 
and  drove  them  as  far  as  Bataugas  Province  and  into  the  Morong 
district.  The  natives  wore  iu  high  glee  at  this  licence  to  shed  blood 
unresisted  —  so  in  harmony  with  their  natural  iuslincts.  It  is 
calculated  that  24,000  Chinese  were  slain  or  tnken  prisoners  in  this 

The  priests  aflirm  positively  that  during  the  defence  of  the  city 
Saint  Francis  appeared  in  person  on  the  walls  to  stimulate  tlie 
Christiana — thus  the  victory  was  accorded  to  him. 

This  ruthless  treatment  of  a  harmless  and  necessary  people — for 
up  to  this  event  they  had  proved  themselves  to  be  both — threatened 

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to  bring  its  own  reward.  They  were  the  only  iDiluatrious,  thriving, 
skilful,  wealth-producing  portion  of  the  population.  There  were  no 
other  artificers  or  tradespeople  iu  the  Colony.  Moreover,  the  Spaniards 
■were  fearful  lest  their  supplies  from  China  of  food  for  consumptiou  iu 
Manila,"  and  manufactured  articles  for  export  to  Mexico,  should  in 
future  be  discontinued.  Consequently,  they  haatened  to  despatch  ao 
envoy  to  China  to  explain  matters,  and  to  reassure  the  Chinese  traders. 
Much  to  their  surprise,  they  found  the  Viceroy  of  Canton  little 
concerned  about  what  had  happened,  and  the  junks  of  merchandise 
again  arrived  as  heretofore, 

Notwithstanding  the  memorable  event  of  1603,  thirty-six  years 
afterwards  another  struggle  was  made  by  the  Chinese.  In  1639, 
exasperated  at  the  official  robbery  and  oppression  of  a  certain  doctor, 
Luis  Arias  de  Mora,  and  the  Governor  of  the  Laguna  Province,  they 
rose  in  open  rebeUion  and  killed  these  officials  in  the  town  of  Caiamba. 
So  serious  was  the  revolt,  that  the  Governor-fieneral  went  out  against 
them  iu  person.  The  rebels  numbered  about  30,000,  and  sustained,  for 
nearly  a  year,  a  petty  warfare  all  around.  The  images  of  the  Saints 
were  promenaded  in  the  streets  of  Manila  ;  it  was  a  happy  thought,  for 
6,000  Chinese  consequently  surrendered.  During  this  conflict,  an  edict 
was  published  ordering  all  the  Chinese  in  the  provinces  to  be  slain. 

In  1660  there  was  another  rising  of  these  people,  which  terminated 

The  Spaniards  now  began  to  reflect  that  tliey  had  made  rather  a 
Ijad  bargain  with  the  Mongol  traders  in  the  beginning,  and  that  the 
Government  would  have  done  better  had  they  encouraged  commerce 
with  the  Peninsula.  Up  to  this  time  the  Spaniards  liad  vainly  reposed 
on  their  laurels  as  comiuerors.  They  squandered  lives  and  fortunes 
on  innumerable  fruitless  expeditions  to  Gamboge,  Cochin  China,  Siam, 
Pegu,  Japan,  and  the  Moluccas,  in  quest  of  fresh  glories,  instead  of 
concentrating  their  efforts  in  opeiung  up  this  Colony  and  fomenting 
a  Philippine  export  trade,  as  yet  almost  unknown,  if  we  exclude 
merchandise  from  China,  etc.  in  transit  to  Mexico.  From  this  period 
restrictions  were,  little  by  little,  placed  on  the  intromission  of  Chinese  ; 
they  were  treated  with  arrogance  by  the  Europeans  and  Mexicans,  and 

'  Jast  before  the  naval  engagenient  of  Plaja  Honda  between  Dutch  and  Spanish 
ships  (mde  page  80)  the  Dutch  intercepted  Chinese  jnnka  on  the  way  to 
Manila,  brii^ng,  amongst  their  eai^ea  of  food,  as  many  as  12,000  capons. 


Tlir    CHINESE    ON    THE   WAR   PATH.  125 

tho  ]eaIoua  hatred  which  the  native  at  this  day  feela-for  the  Chinaman 
now  begaa  to  be  more  openly  manifested.  The  Chinaman  had,  for 
a  long  time  past,  been  legarded  hj  the  European  as  a  necessity — and 
henceforth  an  unfortunate  one. 

Nevertheless,  the  lofty  Spaniard  who  ]>y  favour  of  the  King  had 
arrived  ta  Manila  to  occupy  an  official  post  without  an  escudo  too  much 
ia  hia  pocket,  did  not  disdain  to  accept  the  hospitality  of  the  Chinese. 
It  was  formerly  their  custom  to  secure  the  goodwill  and  personal 
protection  of  the  Spanish  officials  hy  voluntarily  keeping  lodging-houses 
ready  for  their  reception.  It  is  chronicled  that  these  gratuitous 
residences  were  well  furnished  and  provided  with  all  the  requisites 
procurable  on  the  spot.  For  a  whole  century  the  Spaniards  were 
lulled  with  this  easy-going  and  felicitous  state  of  things,  whilst  the 
insidious  Mongol,  whose  clear-sighted  sagacity  vas  sufficient  to  pierco 
the  thin  veil  of  friendship  proffered  hy  his  giieat,  was  ever  prepared 
for  another  opportunity  of  rising  against  tho  dominion  of  Castile,  of 
which  he  had  h<il  so  nianv  sorry  experien<,ea  since  lb03  1  he  occasion 
at  list  arrived  during  tne  Btiti  h  occupitiou  of  Manila  m  1763.  Tho 
Chinese  vsluntarily  joined  the  invaders,  but  were  un'»blf  to  sustain 
the  struggle  and  it  it  estiniited  that  some  6,000  of  them  were 
murderei  in  the  provinceb  hy  order  of  the  notorious  'iimon  de  Anda 
(t  idc  pa^L  102)  They  memoed  the  town  of  Pa^ig — near  Manila — 
and  Fray  Juan  le  Tjrres,  the  pirish  priest,  put  himself  at  the  head  of 
300  nativeh,  bv  srler  of  his  I'nor  Fru  Andres  Fueutes,  to  oppose 
them   and  the  Chinese  were  forced  to  retire 

On  the  9th  of  October,  1820  a  general  massacre  of  Chinese  and 
other  foreit.ner'j,  inciuding  British,  took  pkce  m  Manila  and  Cavite. 
Epidemic  cholora  hdd  affectel  the  capital  and  surrounding  districts; 
gre<»t  numbers  ot  n-itnea  buccumbed  to  its  malignant  effects,  and  they 
accused  the  fireigners  of  having  poisoned  the  drinking  water  in  the 
stream-)  Foreign  propettj  was  attackel  an  I  p  11  aged — even  ships 
lying  in  the  bay  had  to  aatl  oft  and  anchor  lut  ifir  for  safety.  The 
outbreak  ittimel  such  grave  proportiOGS  th  it  the  clergy  intervened  to 
dissuade  thr  pipulace  from  their  h  vllnci nation  The  High  Host  was 
carried  through  the  streets,  but  the  rioters  were  on!v  pa  ified  when  they 
cotild  find  no  more  victims. 

Amongst  other  reforms  concerning  the  Chinese  which  the  Spanish 
colonists  and  Manila  natives  called  for  in  1886,  through  ihe  public 

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organs,  was,  that  thpy  sliould  be  forced  to  comiilj  with  iLc  law 
promulgated  in  1867,  wliicli  provided  that  the  Chinese,  like  all  other 
merchants,  should  keep  their  irade-books  in  the  Spanish  language. 
The  demand  had  the  appearance  of  being  ba,>cd  on  certain  justifiable 
grounds,  but  in  reality  it  was  a  mere  ebullition  of  spite  intended  to 
augment  the  difficulties  of  the  Chinese. 

The  British  merchants  and  baukers  are,  by  far,  those  who  "Ivc 
moat  credit  to  the  Chinese.  The  Spanish  and  native  ereditors  of  the 
Chinese  are  but  a  smitU  minority,  faking  the  aggregate  of  their  credits, 
and  instead  of  seeking  malevoleutly  to  impose  new  hardships  on  tho 
Chinese,  they  could  have  abstained  from  entering  into  risky  transactions 
with  them.  All  merchants  are  aware  of  the  Chinese  trading  system, 
and  none  are  obliged  to  deal  with  them.  A  foreign  house  gives  a. 
Chinaman  credit  f oi  s  ly  £300  to  £400  worth  of  European  manufacture  I 
goo  is,  knowing  full  well,  from  personal  experience  or  from  fh^t  oi 
others,  that  the  whole  value  will  pr  I  .tbly  never  te  ittoverel  It 
remains  a  standing  debt  on  the  fook'^  of  the  firm  The  C  hmamtn 
retails  theie  gool=  and  bring=i  a  small  tiim  of  Ljah  to  tht  firm  on  the 
understani  ng  that  he  shall  get  amthcr  panel  of  gxd'i  and  bo  he 
goc-i  ou  for  yeari.  Thus  the  foreign  merchants  practi  ally  s  uk  «tu 
amount  of  capital  to  "tart  their  Chinese  constituenti  SDmetimcs  the 
acknowledged  owner  and  responsible  man  in  one  Chine  e  retail 
establishment  wdl  ha^o  a  share  m  or  oun,  several  others  If  matteis 
go  wrong,  he  absconls  abroad  and  only  the  one  shop  which  he  openly 
represented  can  b  eml  argoed  whiht  his  goodi  ^re  distributed  over 
several  shops  under  atij  name  but  his  It  is  always  difficult  ti  bring 
legal  proof  ot  thi&  tht  books  are  m  Chinese,  aul  the  whole  business 
18  m  a  state  cf  confusion  iiieomprehensibk  to  anj  European  Put 
these  niks  are  well  known  beforehinl       It  is  only  then  that  the 

primitive  ctedit  mist  be  -written  efi  I  y  the  fore  guer  as  a  n  tt  loss 

often  small  whti  -iPt  against  everaljeai  of  accun  date  1  proiits  made 
in  successive    perat  ons 

The  Chinese  have  guilds  or  secret  societies  for  their  mutual 
protection,  and  it  is  a  well-ascertained  fact  that  they  had  to  pay  the 
Spanish  authorities  very  dearly  for  the  liberty  of  living  at  peace  with 

'  Since  about  the  year  1885,  this  sjetem,  which  has  entailed  severe  losses  is 
gradually  falling  iato  disase,  and  busineRS  on  cash  terms  has  become  more  general. 



theij  fellow  men.  If  the  wind  blew  against  tiiem  from  official  quarters 
the  affair  brought  on  the  iapis  was  hushed  up  by  a  gift.  These 
peace-offerings  were  at  times  of  considerable  value,  and  were  procured 
by  a  tax  privately  levied  ou  each  Chinaman  by  the  headmen  of  their 

lu  1880-1883  the  Governor-General  and  other  high  f:int;tionarics 
used  to  accept  Chinese  hospitality, — etc. 

In  December,  1887,  the  Medal  of  Civil  Merit  was  awarded  to  a 
Chinaman  named  Sio-Sloii-Tay,  resident  in  Binondo,  whilst  the 
Government  for  several  years  made  contracts  with  tho  Chinese  for  the 
public  service.  Another  Cliinamau  was  christened  in  the  name  of 
Carlos  Palanca,  and  later  on  was  awarded  the  Grand  Cross  of  Isabella 
the  Catholic  with  the  title  of  Excellency. 

Many  Chinese  have  adopted  Christianity,  either  to  improve  their 
social  standing,  or  to  be  enabled  thereby  to  contract  marriage  with 
native  women.  Their  intercessor  and  patron  is  Saint  Nicholas 
wince  the  time,  it  is  said,  that  a  Chinaman,  having  fallen  into  the 
Pasig  River,  was  in  danger  of  being  eaten  hy  an  alligator,  and 
saved  himself  by  praying  to  that  saint,  who  caused  the  monster  to 
turn  into  stone.  The  legendary  stone  is  still  to  be  seen  near  the  left 
bank  of  the  river. 

Thei'e  appears  to  be  no  perfectly  reliable  data  respecting  the 
number  of  Chinese  residents  in  the  Archipelago.  In  1886  the  statistics 
differed  largely.  One  statistician  published  that  there  was  a  total  of 
66,740  men  and  194  women,  of  which  51,348  men  and  191  women 
lived  in  Manila  and  suburbs,  1,154  men  and  3  women  in  Yloilo,  and 
983  men  in  Cebii,  the  remainder  being  dispersed  over  the  coast  villages 
and  the  interior.  The  most  competent  local  authorities  in  two 
provinces  proved  to  me  that  the  figures  relating  to  their  districts  were 
inexact,  and  all  other  information  on  the  subject  which  I  have  been 
able  to  procure,  tends  to  show  that  the  numbec  of  resident  Chinese 
was  underrated.  I  estimate  that  there  were  100,000  Chinese  in  the 
whole  colony  of  which  upwards  of  40,000  dwelt  in  the  capita!  and 
its  environs. 

Crowds  of  Chinese  passed  to  these  islands  i'i«  Suhi,  which,  as  a 
free  port,  they  could  enter  without  need  of  papers.  Pretending  to  be 
resident  colonists  there,  they  manageil  to  obtain  passports  to  travel  on 

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business  for  a  limited  period  in  tlie  Philippines,  but  they  were  never 
seen  again  in  Solu. 

In  Maniln  aud  the  wards,  and  in  several  provincial  towns  where 
the  Chinese  residents  .were  numerous,  they  had  their  own  separate 
"  Tribunals  "  or  local  courts,  wherein  minor  affairs  were  managed  by 
petty -governors  of  their  own  nationality,  elected  bi-annually,  in  the 
same  manner  as  the  natives.  In  1888  the  question  of  establishing 
Chinese  Consulates  in  the  Philippines  was  talked  of  in  official  circles, 
which  proves  that  the  Government  was  far  from  seeing  the  "Chinese 
question"  in  the  same  light  as  the  Spanish  or  native  merchant  class. 
In  the  course  of  time  they  acquired  a  certain  consideration  in  the  body 
politic,  and  deputations  of  Chinese  were  present  in  all  popular 
ceremonies  during  the  last  few  years  of  Spanish  rule. 

Wherever  the  Chinese  settle  they  exhibit  a  disposition  to  hold  their 
footing,  if  not  to  strengthen  it,  at  all  hazards,  by  force  if  need  be.  In 
Sarawak,  their  secret  societies,  which  threatened  to  undermine  the 
prosperity  of  that  little  State,  had  to  be  suppressed  by  capital  punish- 
ment. Since  the  British  occupation  of  Hongkong  in  1841,  there  have 
been  two  serious  movements  against  the  Europeans.  In  Singapore,  the 
attempts  of  the  Chinese  to  defy  the  Government  have  met  with  only 
feeble  measures  of  repression. 

In  Australia  and  the  United  States  it  has  been  found  necessary  to 
enact  special  laws  regulating  the  ingress  of  Mongols.  Under  the 
Spanish-Philippine  Government  tho  most  that  eonld  be  said  against 
them,  as  a  class,  was  that,  through  their  thrift  and  perseverance,  they 
outran  the  shopkeeping  class  in  the  race  of  life. 

Under  a  native  Government  the  lot  of  the  Chinese  is  not  likely  to 
be  a  happy  one.  One  of  the  aims  of  the  Tagalog  Revolutionists  is  to 
exclude  the  Chinese  from  tlie  islands. 




It  is  estimated  that  alwut  one-fifth  of  t!io  population  of  Luzoa 
Islam!,  anil  oue^fourth  of  that  of  the  Visayas  group,  nre  indepeadent. 

Space  will  uot  permit  me  to  attempt  an  exhaustive  ethnographical 
treatiee  oa  the  various  tribes  anil  races  dispersed  over  these  regioua, 
and  for  fuller  iuformation  on  the  subject  of  these  notes,  I  would  refer 
my  renders  to  Wallace's  "  Malay  Archipolago." 

The  chief  of  these  tribo-i  arc  the  Aetas  or  Negritos,  a  mountaiu 
triho  to  be  found  here  and  there  over  the  whole  group  of  islands. 
'The  Gaddanes,  Itavis,  Igorroles.  half-caste  Iff orrote- Chinese,  the 
Tinguianes,  etc,  in  the  Northern  Islands,  and  the  various  branches 
of  Mussulmans  in  the  South. 

I  Imve  used  only  the  generic  denominations,  for  whilst  these  tribes 
are  sub-divided  (for  instance,  the  Buquils  of  Zambales,  a  section  of  the 
Negritos;  the  Guinaancs,&  sanguinary  people  inhabiting  the  mountains 
of  tlie  Igorrote  district,  etc.)  the  fractious  denote  no  material  physical 
or  moral  difference,  and  the  local  names  adopted  by  the  different  clans 
of  the  same  race  are  of  no  iaterest  to  the  general  reader. 

Aetas  or  Negettos  are  to  be  met  with  in  the  mountains  of  nearly 
every  peopled  island  of  tlie  Colony,  and  are  supposed  to  be  the 
aboriginal  inhabitants.  They  are  dark,  some  of  them  being  as  black 
as  African  Kcgrocs.  Their  general  appearance  resembles  that  of  the 
Alfoor  Papuan  of  Now  Guinea,  They  have  cmly  matted  hair,  like 
Astrakhan  fur.  The  men  cover  only  their  loins,  and  the  women  dress 
from  the  waist  to  the  knees.  They  are  ;t  spiritless  and  cowardly  race. 
They  would  not  deliberately  face  white  men  in  anything  nearly  equal 
numbers  with  warlike  intentions,  although  they  would  perhaps  spend 
a  quiverful  of  arrows  from  behind  a  tree  at  a  retreating  foe. 

The  Acta  carries  a  bamboo  lance,  a  palm-wood  Iww  and  poisoned 
-arrows  when  out  ou  an  expedition.     He  is  wonderfully  light-footed. 

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and  runs  with  great  speed  after  the  deer,  or  ciliabs  a  tree  like  a  monkey. 
Groups  of  fifty  to  sixty  souls  live  in  community.  Their  religion  seems 
to  be  a  kind  of  cosmolntry  and  bpirit  worship.  Anything  which  for 
the  time  being,  in  their  imaginition,  has  a  auperuatnral  appearance 
is  deified.     They  have  a  profound  respect  for  old  age  and  for  tiieir 

They  are  of  extremely  low  intelle''t,  and,  although  some  of  them 
have  been  brought  up  by  civilized  families  hving  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Negrito  mountainous  country,  they  offer  little  encouragement  to  those 
who  would  desire  to  train  them  Even  when  more  or  less  domesticated, 
the  Negrito  cannot  bo  trusted  to  do  anything  which  requires  an  effort 
of  judgment.  At  times,  his  mind  seems  to  wander  from  all  social 
order,  and  he  is  apparently  euhjeet  to  an  occasional  overwhelming 
eagerness  to  return  to  iiia  native  haunts,  which  disconcerts  all  one's 


For  a  long  time  they  were  the  sole  masters  o£  Luzon  Island,  where 
they  exercised  seignoria!  rights  over  the  Tagalogs  and  other  immi- 
grants, until  these  arrived  in  such  numbers,  that  the  J^egritos  were 
forced  to  retire  to  the  high  lands.  The  taxes  imposed  upon  the 
primitive  Malay  settlers  by  the  Negritos  were  levied  in  kind,  and  when 
payment  was  refused,  they  swooped  down  in  a  posse,  and  carried  oft"  the 
head  of  the  defaulter.  Since  the  arrival  of  the  Spaniards,  the  terror 
of  the  white  man  has  made  them  take  definitely  fo  the  mountains,  where 
they  appear  to  bo  very  gradually  decreasing. 

The  Go\  emmeiit  have  exhausted  all  their  laborious  endeavours  to 
implant  civdised  habils  among  this  weak-Wiined  race. 

Ill  1881  I  M sited  the  Cjpas  Missions  m  Upper  Pampanga.  The 
authorities  had  establi-hed  there  what  is  called  a  real — a  kind  of  model 
village  of  bamboo  and  palm-leaf  huts,  to  each  of  which  a  family  was 
assigned.  They  wete  supplied  with  food,  clothiug  and  all  necessaries 
of  life  for  one  year,  which  would  give  them  an  opportunity  of  tilling 
the  land  and  providing  for  themselves  in  future.  But  they  followed 
their  old  habits  when  the  year  had  expired  and  the  subsidy  ceased. 
On  my  second  i  isit,  thej  had  returned  to  their  mountain  homes,  and  I 
could  see  no  possible  inducement  for  them  to  do  otherwise.  The  only 
attraction  for  them  during  the  year,  was  the  fostering  of  their  inbred 
indolence,  and  as  soon  as  they  had  to  depend  on  their  own  resources,  it 
ought  to  ha\  e  been  evident  that  they  would  adopt  their  own  way  of 

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living — free  of  taxes,  military  service  aud  social  restraint — as  being 
more  congenial  to  their  tastes. 

Being  in  the  Bataau  Province  some  years  ago,  I  accepted  the 
invitation  of  tlie  son  of  a  Lieutenant-Colonel  to  ride  across  tlie 
mountain  range  to  the  opposite  coast.  On  our  way  wo  approached  a 
Negrito  Real,  and  hearing  strange  noises  and  extraordinary  calls,  we 
stopped  to  coasult  as  to  the  prudeace  of  riding  up  to  the  settlement. 

We  decided  to  go  there,  and  were  fortunate  enough  to  be  present 
at  a  wedding.  The  young  bride,  who  might  liave  been  about  thirteen 
years  of  age,  was  being  pursued  by  her  future  spouse  as  she  pretended 
to  run  away,  and  it  need  hardly  be  said  that  he  succeeded  in  bringing 
her  in  by  feigned  force.  She  struggled,  and  again  got  away,  and  a 
second  time  she  was  caught.  Then  an  old  man  with  grey  hair  came 
forward  and  dragged  the  young  man  up  a  bamboo  ladder.  An  old 
woman  grasped  the  bride,  and  both  followed  the  bridegroom.  The 
aged  aire  then  gave  them  a  ducking  with  a  cocoa-nut  shell  full 
of  water,  and  they  all  descended.  The  happy  pair  knelt  down,  and  tlio 
elder  having  placeil  their  heads  together,  they  were  man  and  wife. 
We  endeavoured  to  find  out  which  hut  was  allotted  to  the  newly- 
married  couple,  but  we  were  given  to  understand,  that  until  the  sun 
had  reappeared  five  times  they  would  spend  their  honeymoon  in  the 

After  the  ceremony  was  concluded,  several  present  began  to  make 
their  usual  mountain  call.  In  the  low-lands,  the  same  peculiar  cry 
serves  to  bring  home  straggling  domestic  animals  to  their  nocturnal 

There  is  sumething  picturesque  about  a  well-formed,  healthy 
Negrito  damsel,  with  jet  black  piercing  eyes,  and  her  hair  in  one 
perfect  ball  of  closo  curls.  The  men  are  not  of  a  handsome  type  ; 
some  of  them  have  a  hale,  swarthy  appearance,  but  many  of  them 
present  a  sickly  emaciated  aspect.  A  Negrito  matron  past  thirty  i» 
perhaps  one  of  the  least  attractive  objects  in  humanity. 

They  live  principally  on  fish,  roots  and  mountain  rice,  but  they 
often  make  a  raid  on  the  vicinal  valleys  and  carry  off  the  herds. 
To  such  an  extent  was  the  crime  of  cattle- stealing  pursued,  that 
several  semi-official  expeditions  have  been  made  to  punish  the 
marauderi",  particularly  on  the  Coidillera  de  Zamhales,  on  the  west 
side  of  Luaon  Island. 

I  2 

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The  husbandry  of  tlie  Kegrltos  is  the  most  primitive  iinagiDable. 
It  consists  of  scraping  the  surface  of  the  earth — without  clearance  of 
forest — and  throwing  the  Keeil. 

They  never  "take  up  "  a  piece  of  land,  but  sow  in  the  manner 
described  wherever  they  niiiy  happen  to  temporarily  settle. 

The  Gaddanes  occupy  tbo  estremo  N.VV.  part  of  Luzon  Island, 
and  are  entirely  out  o£  the  pale  of  civilization.  I  have  never  heard 
that  any  attempt  has  been  made  to  eubdue  them.  They  have  a  fine 
physical  bearing  ;  wear  the  hiiir  down  to  the  shoulders  ;  are  of  a  very 
<lark  colour,  and  feed  chiefly  on  roots,  mountain  rice,  game,  fruits  and 
fish.  They  are  considered  the  only  really  warlike  and  aggressive 
nomades  of  the  north,  and  it  is  the  custom  of  the  young  men  about  to 
marry,  to  vie  with  each  other  in  presenting  to  the  sires  of  their  fuluro 
brides,  all  the  scalps  they  are  able  to  take  from  their  enemies,  as  proof 
of  their  manlineBs  and  courage.  This  practice  prevails  at  the  season 
of  the  year  when  the  tree — popularly  called  hj  the  Sjianianls  "  the 
fire-tree  " — is  in  bloom.  The  flowers  of  this  tree  are  of  a  fire-red  ime, 
and  their  appearance  is  the  signal  for  this  race  to  collect  tiieir  tro]»hies 
of  war  and  celebrate  certain  religious  rites.  When  I  was  in  the 
extreme  north,  in  the  country  of  the  Ibanacs,'  preparing  my  expedition 
to  the  Gaddanes  tribe,  I  whs  cautioned  not  to  remain  in  the  Gaddanc.s 
country  until  the  fire-tree  blossomed.  The  arms  used  by  ihe  Gaddtmcx 
are  frightful  weapons — long  lances  with  tridented  tips,  and  arrcvs 
carrj-ing  at  the  point  two  rows  of  teeth,  made  out  of  flint  or  sea-shells. 
These  weapons  are  used  to  till  both  fish  and  foe. 

The  Itavis  inhabit  the  district  to  the  south  of  that  territory 
occupied  by  the  Gaddanes,  and  their  mode  of  living  and  food  are  very 
similar.  They  are,  however,  not  so  fierce  as  the  Gaddanes,  and  if 
assaults  are  occasionally  made  on  other  tribes,  it  may  be  rather 
attributed  to  a  desire  to  retaliate  than  to  a  love  of  bloodshed.  Their 
skin  is  not  so  dark  as  that  of  their  northern  neighbours— the  Gaddanes 
or  the  partially  civilized  Ihnnacs—aDil  their  Irnir  is  sliorter. 

The  iGOKROTKa  are  spread  over  a  considerable  portion  of  Luzon, 
principally  from  N,  lat.  I6^°  to  1S°.  Tliey  are,  in  general,  a  fine  race 
of  people,  physically  considered. 

'  The  }T)anacs  are  the  ordinary  domesticated  natives  inhabiting  the  extreme 
north  of  Luzon  and  the  banks  ol  the  Rio  Grande  de  Cagajau  for  some  miles  up. 
Some  of  them  have  almost  blnck  skins. 








Tliey  wear  tlieir  hair  long.  At  the  back,  it  liangs  down  to  the 
shoiiiJers,  whilst  it  is  cut  shorter  in  front,  and  is  allowed  to  nearly 
cover  the  forehead  like  a  long  fringe.  Some  of  tliem,  settled  in  the 
districts  of  Lepaoto  and  El  Abra,  have  a  little  hair  on  the  chin  and 
upper  lip.  Their  skin  is  of  a  dark  copper  tinge.  They  have  flat  noses, 
tiiick  lips,  hi^h  cheek  bones,  ami  their  broad  shoulders  and  limbs 
seem  to  denote  great  strength. 

Their  form  is  not  at  all  graceful,  however.  Like  all  the  races  of 
the  Philippines,  they  arc  indolent  to  the  greatest  degree.  Their  huts 
are  built  bee-hive  fashion,  and  they  creep  into  them  like  quadrupeds. 
Fields  of  sweet  potatoes  and  sugar-eane  are  under  cultivation  by  them. 
They  cannot  be  forced  or  persuaded  to  embrace  the  Western  system  of 
civilization.  Adultery  is  little  known,  but  if  it  occurs,  the  dowry  is 
I'eturned  and  the  divorce  settled.  Polygamy  seems  to  be  permitted,  but 
little  practised.  Murders  are  common,  and  if  a  member  of  one  hat 
or  family  group  is  killed,  that  family  avenges  itself  on  one  of  the 
murderer's  kinsmen,  hence  those  who  might  have  to  "  pay  the  piper  " 
jLi'e  interested  in  maintaining  order.  In  the  Province  of  La  Isabela, 
the  Negrito  and  Igorrote  tribes  keep  a  regular  Dr.  and  Cr.  account  of 

Their  aggressions  on  the  coast  settlers  have  been  frequent  for 
centm-ies  past.  From  time  to  time  Ihey  came  down  from  their 
mountain  retreat  to  steal  cattle  and  effects  belonging  to  the  domesti- 
cated popuhitiou.  Tho  first  regular  attempt  lo  chastise  ihem  for  these 
inroads,  and  afterwards  gain  their  suhmissiou,  was  in  the  time  of 
Governor  Arandia  (1754-17.59),  when  a  plan  was  concerted  to  attack 
them  simultaneously  from  all  sides  with  1,080  men.  Their  ranches  and 
crops  were  laid  waste,  and  many  Igorrotcs  were  taken  prisoners, 
bnt  the  ultimate  idea  of  securing  their  allegiance  was  abandoneil  as 
an  impossibility. 

In  1881  General  Primo  de  Kivera,  at  the  head  of  a  large  armed 
force,  invaded  their  district  with  the  view  of  reducing  them  to  obedience, 
hut  it  was  all  to  no  purpose,  and  the  result  of  the  expedition  was 
apparently  more  Uisadvantageous  than  otherwise  to  tlie  project  of 
bringing  this  tribe  under  Spanish  dominion  and  of  opening  up  their 
country  to  trade  and  enlightened  intercourse.  Whilst  the  expeditionary 
forces  were  not  sufficienfly  large,  or  in  a  condition  to  successfully  carry 
on  a  war    a  outrance,  to  be  immediately  followed  up  by  a  military 

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system  of  goycrament ;  on.  tiie  otiier  hand,  tlie  feeble  efforts  displftj'eil 
to  conquer  them  served  only  to  demonstrate  the  impoteuco  of  the 
Europeans.  This  gave  the  tribes  courage  to  defend  their  liberty, 
whilst  the  licence  indulged  in  by  the  white  men  at  the  expense  of  the 
mountaineers — and  boasted  of  to  me  personally  by  many  Spanish 
officers — had  merely  the  effect  of  raising  the  veil  from  their  protesta- 
tions of  wishing  to  benefit  the  race  they  sought  to  subdue.  The 
enterprise  ignominiously  failed  ;  the  costly  undertaking  was  an 
inglorious  and  fruitless  one,  except  to  the  General,  who — being  under 
Royal  favour  since  at  Sagunta  in  1875  he  "  pronounced  "  for  King 
Alphonso — secured  himself  the  title  of  Count  of  La  Union. 

Since  this  event,  the  Igorrotes  have  been  less  approachable  f>y 
Europeans,  whom  they  natwrally  regard  with  every  feeling  of  distrust. 
Rightly  or  wrongly  (if  it  can  be  a  matter  of  opinion),  they  fail  to  gee 
any  manifestatiou  of  ultimate  advantage  to  themselves  in  the  arrival  of 
a  troop  of  armed  strangers  who  demand  from  them  food  (even  tliough 
it  be  on  payment)  and  perturbate  their  most  intimate  family  ties.  They 
do  not  appreciate  being  civilized  to  exchange  their  usages,  independence 
and  comfort  for  even  the  highest  post  obtainable  by  a  native  in  the 
provinces,  wliioh  then  was  practically  that  of  local  head  servant  to  the 
district  authority,  under  the  name  of  Municipal  Captain. 

To  roam  at  large  in  their  mountain  home  is  far  more  enjoyable  to 
them  than  having  to  wear  clothes  ;  presenting  themselves  often,  if 
not  to  habitually  reside,  in  villages  ;  having  to  pay  tases,  for  wiiich 
tbey  would  get  little  return— not  even  the  boon  of  good  high-roads— and 
acting  aa  unsalaried  tax-collectors  with  tlie  chance  of  fine,  punishment 
and  ruin  if  they  did  not  succeed  in  bringing  funds  to  tlie  Public  Treasury. 

As  to  Christianity,  it  would  be  as  hard  a  task  to  convince  them  of 
ivlial  Roman  Catholicism  deems  indispenaable  for  the  salvation  of  the 
soul  as  it  would  he  to  convert  all  England  to  the  teachings  of  Buddha — 
although  Buddhism  is  as  logical  a  religion  aa  Christianity. 

Being  in  Tuguegarao,  the  capital  of  Cagayan  Province,  about 
60  miles  up  the  Rio  Grande,  I  went  to  visit  the  prisons,  where  I  saw 
many  of  tiic  worst  types  of  Ignrrotcs.  I  was  told  that  a  priest  who 
had  endeavoured  to  teach  them  the  precepts  of  Christianity,  and  had 
explained  to  Ihem  the  marvellous  life  of  Saint  Augustine,  was  dismayed 
to  hear  an  Igorrote  exclaim  that  no  coloured  man  ever  became  a  white 
man's  saint,     Kothing  could  convince  him  that  an  exception  to  the 



rule  might  he  possible.  Could  experience  have  revealed  to  him  the 
established  fact — the  remarkable  aDorauIy,  that  the  grossest  forms  of 
immorality  were  only  to  be  found  in  the  trail  of  the  highest  order  of 
white  mau's  civilization  f 

Specimeus  of  the  different  tribes  and  races  of  these  Islands  were 
on  view  at  the  Philippine  Exhibition  held  in  Madrid  in  1887.  Some 
of  them  eonseuted  to  receive  Christian  baptism  before  returning  home, 
but  it  was  publicly  stated  that  the  Igorrotes  were  among  those  who 
positively  refused  to  abandon  their  own  belief. 

The  liiOKROTE  Chinese  are  supposed  to  he  the  descendants  of  the 
Chinese  who  fled  to  the  hills  on  the  departure  of  the  Corsair  Li-ma -hong 
from  Pangasiuan  Province  in  1,574  (vide  page  49).  Their  inter- 
marriage with  the  Ignrrote  tribe  lias  generated  a  species  of  people 
quite  unique  in  their  character.  Their  habits  are  much  the  same  as 
those  of  the  pure  Igorrnles,  but  with  this  fierce  nature  is  blended  the 
cunning  and  astuteness  of  the  Mongol,  and  although  their  intelligence 
may  be  often  misapplied,  yet  it  is  superior  to  that  of  the  pure  Igorrote. 
In  the  Province  of  Pangasinan  there  are  numbers  of  natives  of  Chinese 
descent  included  iu  the  domesticated  population,  and  their  origin  is 
evidently  due  to  the  circumstances  described. 

The  TiNGUiANES  inhabit  principally  the  district  of  El  Abra,  about 
17=  N.  lat.  hy  12(P  43'  E.  long.  (Greenwich  meridianl.  They 
were  nominally  nuder  the  control  of  the  Spanish  Government,  who 
appointed  their  headmen  petty  governors  of  village-*  or  ranches  on  the 
system  adopted  io  the  subdued  district".  According  to  Father  Ferraudo 
(58  years  ago),  the  form  of  oath  taken  in  hjf  presence  by  the  newly 
elected  heailmen  on  receiving  the  statT  of  ofliee  was  the  following, 
viz.: — "  May  a  pernicious  wind  touch  me;  may  a  flaih  of  lightning 
'■  kill  me,  and  may  the  alligator  catch  roe  asleep  if  1  fail  to  fulfil  my 
"  dnty,"  The  headman  presented  himself  almost  when  he  chose  to 
the  nearest  Spanish  Governor,  who  gave  him  his  orders,  which  were 
only  fulfilled  aecording  to  the  traditional  custom  of  the  tribe.  Thus, 
the  headman  on  liis  return  to  the  ranche,  delegated  his  powers  to  the 
council  of  eiders,  and  according  to  their  decision  he  a^-tcd  as  the 
executive  only. 

Whenever  it  was  possible,  they  applied  tbcir  own  laws  in  preference 
to  acting  upon  the  Spanish  Code. 

By   their  laws,  the  crime  of   adultery  is    punished  by  a  fine  of 



30  dollars  value  and  divorce,  b«t  if  the  adultery  lias  been  mutual,  th^r 
divorce  is  pronouuced  absolute,  without  the  paymeut  of  n  fine. 

Wheu  a  man  is  brought  to  justice  on  an  accusation  which  he  denie?, 
a  bandful  of  straw  is  burnt  iu  his  presence.  He  is  made  to  hold  up  au 
earthenware  pot  and  say  as  followa  : — "  May  my  belly  be  converted 
"  into  a  pot  like  this,  if  I  have  committed  the  deed  attributed  to  me." 
If  the  trans  form  at  iou  does  not  take  place  at  once,  he  is  declared  to  bo 

They  are  Tagans,  hi    1  a  o  no  t      j  1  lie     t.O'l    ire  li  "  "    " 

the  mountain  cavities.  L  ke  a  y  tl  c  1  g  n  s  th  bel  ev 
the  efficacy  of  prayer  for  1  e  a  pplj  of  the  r  nate  van  Hen 
if  there  be  too  great  ai  dan  t     f  r  u   or  too  I     le  of  r 

epidemic  disease  raging  or  a  y     alam  tj   affect    g    1  e  co    n  un  ty 
general,  the  Anitos  are  car   ed  rounl  a    1  exl  orte  1  (1  ke  th    &a  nli  of 
the  Roman  Catholic  CI      cl  )    "wh  Ist  ^  tu  e     ont  nne     1  e  r 

rupted  course.  The  Min  te  of  4n  to  al  o  aj-iealeil  to  when  t  cl  II 
is  to  be  named.  The  infa  t  a  carr  ed  u  o  the  voo  1  and  tl  e  1  ag 
priest  pronounces  the  ua  no  v!  1b  i  e  ra  se  a  (loh  e  k  f e  over  t!  e  ne  v 
born  creature's  head.  On  lowering  the  knife,  lie  strikes  at  a  tree.  If 
the  tree  emits  sap,  the  first  name  uttered  stands  good  ;  if  not,  the 
ceremony  is  repeated,  and  each  time  the  name  is  changed  until  the 
oozing  sap  denotes  the  will  of  the  deity. 

The  Tinguianes  are  monogamists,  and  generally  aro  forced  by  tlit 
parents  to  marry  before  the  age  of  puberty,  but  the  bridegroom  or  his 
father  or  elder  has  to  purchase  the  bride  at  a  price  mutually  agreed 
upon  by  the  relations.  These  people  live  in  cabins  on  posts  or  trees 
sixty  to  seventy  feet  from  the  ground,  and  defend  themselves  from  the 
attacks  of  tlieir  traditional  enemies,  the  Guinanncs,  by  heaving  stones 
upon  them.  Nevertheless,  in  the  more  secure  neighbourhoods  of  the 
Christian  villages,  these  people  build  their  huts  similar  to  those  of  the 
domesticated  natives.  From  the  doors  and  window  openings,  skulls  of 
buffaloes  and  horses  are  hung  as  amulets. 

Physically,  they  are  of  fine  form,  and  the  nose  is  aquiline.  They 
wear  the  hair  in  a  tuft  on  the  crown,  like  the  Japanese,  but  their 
features  aro  similar  to  the  ordiiiary  low-laud  native.  They  are  fond  of 
music  and  personal  ornaments.  They  tattoo  themselves  and  black  their 
teeth  ;  and  for  these,  and  many  other  reasons,  it  is  conjectured  that 
they  desceud  from  the  Japanese  shipwrecked  crews  who,  being  without 

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means  at  hand  with  which  to  return  to  their  coimtry,  iook  to  the 
mountains  inland  from  the  west  coast  ol^  Lt;zon. 

I  have  never  seen  a  Tinguian  with  a  how  and  arrow  ;  they  carry 
the  lance  as  the  common  weapon,  ami  for  hunting  and  spearing  flsh. 

Their  conversion  to  Christianity  has  proved  to  he  an  impossible 
task.  A  Royal  Decree  of  Ferdinand  VI.,  dated  in  Aranjnez,  18th  of 
June,  1758,  set  forth  that  the  infidels  called  Tinguinues,  Ifforroles  and 
by  other  names  who  should  accept  Christian  baptism,  should  be  exempt 
all  their  lives  from  the  payment  of  tribute  and  forced  labour.  Their 
offspring,  however,  horn  to  them  after  receiving  baptism,  would  lose 
these  privileges  as  well  as  tiie  in  dependence  enjoyed  by  their  fore- 
fathers. Thia  penalty  to  future  generations  for  becoming  Christians 
was  afterwards  extended  to  all  tho  uudomesticated  races. 

Many  of  these  tribes  did  a  tittle'  barter  traffic  with  the  Chinese, 
but — with  the  hope  that  necessity  would  bring  them  down  to  the 
Christian  villages  to  procure  commodities,  and  thus  become  socialized — 
the  Government  prohibited  this  trade  in  1886, 

The  Tinguiancs  appear  to  be  as  intelligent  as  the  ordinary  subdued 
natives.  They  are  by  no  means  savages  —  they  are  not  entirely 
strangers  to  domestic  life,  and  they  have  laws  of  their  own.  A  great 
many  Christian  families  of  El  Abra  and  Ilncos  Sur  are  of  Tinffuiaji 
origin,  and  I  may  here  mention  that  the  Ilocos  dominated  natives  have 
the  just  reputation  of  being  the  only  Philippine  industrious  people. 
For  this  reason,  Ilocoa  Hervants  and  workmen  are  songht  for  in  preference 
to  most  others. 

There  is  another  race  of  people  whoso  source  is  not  distinctly 
known,  but,  according  to  tradition,  they  descend  from  Indian  Sepoys, 
who,  it  is  said,  formed  part  of  the  troops  under  British  command 
during  the  military  occupation  of  Manila  in  1763,  The  legend  is,  that 
these  Hindoos,  having  deserted  from  the  British  army,  migrated  up 
the  Paaig  Biver.  However  that  may  be,  the  sharp-featured,  black  skin 
settlers  in  the  Barrio  de  Dayap,  of  Cainta  Town  (Morong  district), 
are  decidedly  of  a  different  stock  to  ibo  ordinary  native.  The  notable 
physical  differences  are  the  fine  aquiline  nose,  bright  expression  and 
regular  features.  They  are  Christians — are  far  more  laborious  than 
the  Philippine  natives,  and  are  a  law-abiding  people,  I  have  known 
many  of  them  personally  for  years.  They  are  the  only  class  who 
voluntarily  present  themselves  to  pay  the  tascs,  and  yet,  on  the  ground 



that  generations  ago  they  were  intruders  on  tlie  soil,  tliej-  were  more 
iieaviiy  laden  witU  iinposra  than  their  fellow  neighbours  until  tlie 
abolition  of  tribute  in  1884. 

There  are  also  to  be  seen  iu  these  Islands  a  few  types  of  that  class 
of  tropical  inhabitant,  preternaturally  possessed  of  a  while  skin  and 
extremely  fair  hair — sometimes  red — known  as  Albinos.  I  leave  it  to 
physiologists  to  elucidate  the  peculiarity  of  vita!  phenomena  in  these 
unfortunate  abnormities  of  Nature.  Amongst  others,  I  once  saw  in 
Negros  Island,  a  hapless  young  Albino  girl,  with  marble-white  skin 
and  very  light  pink-white  hair,  who  was  totally  blind  in  the  sunny 
hours  of  the  day. 




Hdiultaneotjsly  with  the  Spanish  conqiiest  of  the  Philippines, 
two  Borneo  chiefs,  who  were  brothers,  quarrelled  about  their  respective 
possessions,  and  one  of  tliem  had  to  flee.  His  partisans  joined  him, 
and  they  emigrated  to  the  Island  of  Basilan,'  situated  to  the  south 
of  Zamboatiga  (Mindanao  Island).  The  Moras,  as  they  are  called  tn 
the  islands,  are  Hierefore  supposed  to  be  descoudcil  from  the  Mussulman 
Dyaks  of  Borneo. 

They  were  a  valiant,  warlike,  piratical  people,  who  admired  bravery 
in  others, — had  a  deep-rooted  contempt  for  poltroons,  and  lavished 
no  mercy  on  the  weak. 

In  the  suite  of  this  chief,  called  Paguian  Tindij;,  came  his  cousin 
Adasaolan,  who  was  captivated  by  the  fertility  of  Basilan  Island 
and  wished  to  remain  there,  so  Tindig  left  him  in  possession  and 
withdrew  to  Sulu  Island,  whero  ho  easily  reduced  the  natives  to 
vassalage,  for  they  had  never  yet  had  to  encounter  so  powerful  a  foe. 

So  famous  did  Pagnian  Tindig  become,  tliat,  for  generations  after- 
wards, the  Sultans  of  Sulu  were  proud  of  their  descent  from  such  a 
celebrated  hero. 

After  the  Spaniards  had  pacified  the  great  Butuan  Chief  on  the 
north  coast  of  Mindanao,  Tindig  consented  to  acknowledge  tlio 
suzeraioty  of  their  King,  in  exchange  for  undisturbed  possession  of  the 
realm  which  he  had  just  founded, 

Adasaolan  espoused  the  Princess  Paguian  Goan,  daughter  of 
Dimasangcay,  King  of  Mindanao,  by  his  wife  Imbog,  a  Suhi  woman, 
and  with  this  relationship  he  embraced  the  Mahometan  faith. 

'  According  to  Father  Pedro  Murillo,  the  ancient  niime  of  Basilaa  was 
Tngaima,  so  callcfi  from  a  river  there  of  thnt  name. 



Ailasaolim's  ambition  increased  as  good  fortune  came  to  him,  and, 
stimulated  l>y  tlie  promised  support  of  ihia  father-in-law,  he  iavaded 
SuSii,  attacked  his  cousin  Tindig,  and  attempted  to  murder  liiin  to 
annex  his  kingdom.  A  short  but  fierce  contest  ensued.  Tindlg's 
fortified  dwelUug  was  besieged  in  Tain.  The  posts  whicli  supported 
tlie  upper  story  were  greased  with  oil,  and  an  entrance  could  not  be 

Adaaaolan,  wearied  of  liis  failures,  retired  from  the  enterprise,  and 
Tindig,  in  turn,  declared  war  on  the  Baeilan  king  after  be  had  been 
to  Manila  to  Holieit  assistance  from  his  Spanish  suzerain's  representative, 
who  sent  two  armed  boats  to  support  him. 

When  Tindig,  on  his  return  from  Manila,  arrived  within  sight  of 
Hnln,  hie  auxioua  subjeets  rallied  round  him,  and  prepared  for  battle. 
The  two  armed  boa^^,  furnished  by  the  Kpaidaids,  were  on  the  way, 
but,  as  yet,  too  far  off  to  render  Leli>,  so  Adasaolan  immediately  fell 
npou  Tiudig'fl  paity  and  completely  routed  them. 

Tindig  himself  died  bravely,  fighting  to  the  last  moment. 

Adasaolan,  however,  did  not  annex  the  territory  of  bis  defeated 
cousin.  Rajah  Bongso  succeeded  Tindig  in  the  Government  of  Sulu, 
and  when  old  age  enfeebled  him,  he  was  wont  to  show  with  pride  the 
scars  inflicteil  on  him  during  the  war  of  iudependenec. 

The  Spaniards,  having  no  one  to  figlit  for  when  tlioy  arrived, 
returned  to  Manila  with  their  armed  boats.  Adasaolan  then  made 
alliauees  with  Mindanao  and  Hornoo  people,  and  introduced  the 
Mahometan  religion  into  Sulu.  Since  then,  Sulo  (called  "JoI(5,"by 
the  Spaniards)  has  become  the  Mecca  of  the  Southern  Archipelago,' 

The  earliest  records  relating  to  Mindanao  Island,  siuce  the  Spanish 
annexation  of  the  I'hilippiues,  show  tliat  about  the  year  1595,  a  rich 
Portuguese  cavalier  of  noble  birth,  named  Estevan  Kodriguez,  who  had 
acquired  a  largo  fortune  in  the  Philippines,  and  who  had  a  wealthy 
brother  in  Mexico,  proposed  to  the  Governor  Perez  Dasmarinas  the 
conquest  of  this  Island. 

For  this  purpose,  he  offered  his  person  and  all  his  means,  but 
having  waited  in  vain  for  four  years  to  obtain  the  Royal  sanction  to  his 

'  Mahomed  an  ism  appears  to  liave  been  introduced  into  the  Islanda  of  Sorneo 
and  Mindanao  bj  Aiabian  mietionaTy  prophets. 



project,  ho  prejiareJ  to  leave  for  Mexico,  disgusted  and  disappoioted. 
lie  was  on  the  jjoiiit  of  starting  for  New  Spain  j  he  liaJ  Lis  ship  laden 
Knd  his  family  on  board,  when  tlio  Bojal  confirmation  arrived  with  the 
3iew  Governor,  Dr.  Antonio  Morga.  Tiierefore  lie  changed  his  plans, 
liut  dcspatclied  the  laden  ship  to  Mexico  with  the  cargo,  intending  to 
employ  the  profits  of  the  venture  in  the  prosecution  of  his  Mindanao 

With  tlic  title  of  General,  he  and  lii^  family,  together  with  three 
chaplaiu  priests,  started  in  another  vessel  for  the  south.  They  pnt  in 
at  Otoug  (I'anay  Island)  on  the  way,  and  left  there  in  April,  1596. 
Having  veaohed  the  great  Mindanao  River  (Gio  Grande),  the  ship 
went  up  it  as  far  as  Buhayen  in  the  terntorj  of  the  thief  StlotLgan. 
A  party  under  the  Maestre  dc  Campo  was  sent  ashore  to  rei,onuoitre 
the  environs.  Their  delay  in  itturning  ciused  alarm  so  the  (jcueral 
buckled  on  liis  shield,  and  with  swoid  m  hand  diicmharkcd, 
accompanied  by  a  Cehuino  sei\  mt  tud  two  tiptuitrds,  carrjmg  lances. 
On  the  way  they  met  a  natne  who  raise  I  his  campilan  to  deil  a  blow, 
ithich  the  General  received  on  hio  shitld  aud  cut  down  the  foe  at  the 
waist.  Then  they  encountered  mother,  nh  cleived  theOeucrat  s  head 
almost  in  tw^o,  causing  his  dbath  in  bis  hours  The  Cebiiauo  it  onoe 
van  the  native  through  witl  a  lance  Ihis  biaie  nas  dncoie  el  to  ho 
tlie  youngest  brother  of  the  chief  bilongan,  who  iiad  sworn  to  M.ihomet 
to  saoriftce  his  life  to  take  that  of  the  Castilliau  invader. 

The  General's  corpse  was  sent  to  Manila  for  interment.  The 
expedition  led  by  the  Maestre  de  Campo  fared  badly,  one  of  the  party 
being  killed,  another  seriously  wounded,  and  the  rest  fled  on  board. 
The  next  day  it  was  decided  to  construct  trenches  at  the  mouth  of  tlie 
river,  where  the  camp  was  establisheil.  The  command  was  taken  by 
Juan  de  la  Jara,  the  Maestre  de  Campo,  whoso  chief  exploit  seems  to 
have  been,  that  ho  made  love  to  the  deceased  General's  widow  and 
[troposed  marriage  to  her,  which  she  indignantly  rejected.  Nothing 
was  gained  by  the  expedition,  aud  after  the  last  priest  died,  the  project 
was  abandoned,  and  the  vessel  returned  to  Cebu. 

The  alliances  effected  between  the  Sulu  and  Mindanao  potentates 
gave  a  great  stimulus  to  Piracy,  whicli  hitherto  had  been  confined 
to  the  waters  in  the  locality  of  those  islands.  It  now  spread  over  the 
whole  of  the  Philippine  Archipelago,  and  was  prosecuted  with  great 
vigour  by  regular  organised  fleets,  carrying  weapons  almost  equal  to 

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those  of  the  Spaniards.  In  meddling  with  the  Mussulman  territories 
the  Spaniards  may  be  said  to  have  unconsciously  lighted  on  a  hornet's 
nest.  Their  eagerness  for  cooquest  stirred  up  the  implacable  hatred 
of  tiac  Moslem  for  the  Christian,  and  they  unwittingly  brought  woo 
upon  their  own  heads  for  mauy  geuerationa.  Indeed,  if  half  the 
consequences  could  iisive  been  foreseen,  they  surely  never  would  have 
attempted  to  gain  what,  up  to  the  present  day,  they  have  failed  to 
secure,  namely,  tho  complete  conquest  of  Mindanao  and  the  Sulu 

For  over  two  centuries  aud  a  half  Mussulman  war  junks  ravaged 
every  coast  of  tho  Colony.  Not  a  single  peopled  island  was  spared. 
Thousands  of  the  inhabitants  were  murdered,  whilst  others  were  carried 
into  slavery  for  years.  Villages  were  sacked  ;  the  churches  were 
looted  ;  local  trade  was  intercepted  ;  the  natives  subject  to  Spain  were 
driven  into  the  high  lands,  and  many  even  dared  not  risk  their  lives 
and  goods  near  the  coasts.  The  utmost  desolatiou  and  havoc  was 
perpetrated,  and  militated  vastly  against  the  welfare  aud  development 
of  the  Colony. 

For  four  years  the  Government  had  to  remit  the  payment  of 
tribute  in  Negros  Island  and  the  others  lying  between  it  acd  Luzon,  on 
account  of  the  abject  poverty  of  the  natives,  due  to  these  raids. 

From  the  time  the  Spaniards  first  interfered  with  the  Mussulmans 
there  was  continual  warfare.  Expeditions  against  the  pirates  were 
constantly  being  fitted  out  by  each  succeeding  Governor.  Piracy  was 
indeed  an  incessant  scourge  aud  plague  ou  the  Colony,  and  it  cost  the 
Spaniards  rivers  of  blood  and  millions  of  dollars  only  to  keep  it  in 

In  the  present  century,  the  Mussulmans  appeared  even  in  the  Bay 
of  Manila.  There  are  persons  yet  living  who  have  been  in  Mussulman 
captivity.  There  are  hundreds  who  still  remember,  with  anguish,  the 
insecurity  to  which  their  lives  and  properties  were  exposed.  The 
Spaniards  were  quite  unable  to  cope  with  such  a  prodigious  calamity. 
The  coast  villagers  built  forts  for  their  own  defence,  and  many  an  old 
stone  watch-tower  is  still  to  be  seen  on  the  islands  south  of  Luzon. 
On  several  occasions  the  Christian  natives  were  urged,  by  the 
inducement  of  spoil,  to  eq^uip  corsairs,  with  which  to  retaliate  on  the 
indomitabie  marauders.  The  Sulu  people  made  captive  the  Christian 
natives  and  Spaniards  alike,  whilst  a  Spanish  priest  was  a  choice  prize. 

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And  whilst  Spaniards  in  Philippine  waters  were  straining  every 
nerve  to  extirpate  slavery,  tlieir  couutrymen  were  diligently  pursuing  a 
profitable  trade  in  it  between  the  West  Coast  of  Africa  and  Cuba  I 

"  It  is  an  ill  wind  whieh  blows  no  one  any  good"  ;  and  the  Moslem 
attacks  certainly  had  the  good  political  effect  of  forcing  hundreds  of 
Christians  up  from  the  coast  to  people  and  cultivate  the  interior  of 
these  islands. 

Duo  to  the  enterprise  of  a  few  Spanish  and  foreign  merchants, 
steamers  at  length  began  to  navigate  in  the  waters  of  the  Archipelago, 
and  piracy  by  Mussulmans  beyond  their  own  locality  was  doomed.  In 
the  time  of  Governor- Genera!  Noraagaray,  18  steam  gun-boats  were 
ordered  out,  and  arrived  in  1860,  putting  a  close  for  ever  to  this  epoch 
of  misery,  bloodshed,  and  material  loss.  The  end  of  piracy  brought 
repose  to  the  Colony,  and  in  no  small  degree  aided  the  progress  of  its 
social  advancement. 

During  the  protracted  striiggle  with  the  Moslems,  Zamboanga 
(Mindanao  Is.)  was  fortified,  and  became  the  headquarters  of  the 
Spaniards  in  the  south.  After  Cavite,  it  was  the  chief  naval  station, 
and  a  penitentiary  was  also  established  there.  Its  maintenance  was  a, 
great  burden  to  the  Treasury — its  esistence  a  great  eyesore  to  the 
enemy,  whose  hostility  was  much  inflamed  thereby.  About  the  year 
1635  its  abandonment  was  proposed  by  the  military  party,  who 
described  it  as  only  a  sepulchre  for  Spaniards.  The  Jesuits,  however, 
urged  its  continuance,  as  it  suited  their  interests  to  have  material 
support  close  at  hand,  and  their  influence  prevailed  in  Manila 
bureaucratic  centres. 

In  the  year  1738  t!ie  fixed  annual  expenses  of  Zamhoanga  fort  and 
equipment  were  $17,500,  and  tiie  incidental  disbursements  were 
estimated  at  $7,500.  These  sums  did  not  iuclude  the  cost  of  scores  of 
armed  fleets  which,  at  enormous  expense,  were  ^sent  out  against  the 
Mussulmans  to  httle  purpose.  Each  new  (Zamboanga)  Governor  of  a 
martial  spirit,  and  desiring  to  do  something  to  establish  or  confirm  his 
fame  for  prowess,  seemed  to  regard  it  as  a  kind  of  duty  to  pretext  the 
quelling  of  imaginary  troubles  in  Sulu  and  Mindanao.  Some,  with  less 
patriotism  than  selfishness,  found  a  ready  excuse  for  filling  their  own 
pockets  by  the  proceeds  of  warfare,  in  making  feigned  efforts  to 
rescue  captives.  It  may  be  observed  in  extenuation,  that,  in  those 
days,  the  Spaniards  believed  from  their  birth  that  none  but  a  Christian 

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had  rights,  wliilst  somo  were  deluded  by  a  conscientioiia  impression 
that  they  were  exeeiiting  a  high  mission  ;  myth  as  it  van,  it  at  least 
served  to  give  them  courage  in  their  perilous  undertakings.  Peace  was 
made  and  broken  over  and  over  again.  Spanish  forts  were  at  times 
established  iji  Siiln,  and  afterwards  demolished.  Every  decade  brought 
new  devices  to  control  the  desperate  foe.  Several  Governors-Getieral 
headed  the  troops  in  person  against  the  Mussulmans  with  temporary 
success,  but  without  any  lastjug  effect,  and  almost  every  new  Governor 
made  a  solemn  treaty  with  one  powerful  chief  or  another,  which  was 
respected  only  as  long  as  it  suited  both  parties. 

This  continued  campaign,  tlie  details  of  which  are  too  prolis  for 
insertion  here,  may  be  qualified  as  a  religions  war,  for  Koman  Catholic 
priests  took  an  active  part  in  the  operations  with  the  same  fiendish 
passion  as  the  Moslems  themselves.  Among  tliese  tonsured  warriors 
may  be  mentioned  Father  Duces,  the  son  of  a  Colonel,  Jose  Villanneva 
and  Tedro  de  San  Agustln.  They  al!  acquired  great  fame  out  o/"  their 
profession  ;  tbe  last  being  known,  with  dread,  by  the  Moslems  in  the 
liegiiiniiig  of  the  I7th  century,  under  the  title  of  the  Captain-priest. 
One  of  the  moat  renowned  Kings  in  Mindanao  was  Cachil  Corralut, 
an  astute,  far-seeing  chieftain,  who  ably  defended  the  independence  of 
his  territory,  and  kept  the  Spaniards  at  bay  during  the  whole  of  his 

All  interesting  event  in  the  Spanish-Sulu  history  is  the  visit  of 
the  Sultan  Mahamad  Alimudin  to  the  Governor- General  in  1750,  and  his 
Bubse(|vient  vicissitudes  of  fortune.  The  first  Koyal  despatch  addressed 
by  the  King  of  Spain  to  the  Sultan  of  Sulu,  was  dated  in  Biien  Retiro, 
12th  of  July,  1744,  and  everything,  for  the  time  being,  seemed  to  augur 
a  period  of  peace.  In  1749,  however,  the  Sultan  was  violently  deposed 
by  an  ambitious  brother,  Prince  Bautilan,  and  the  Sultan  forthwitli 
went  to  Manila  to  seek  the  aid  of  his  Suzerain's  delegate,  the  Governor- 
General  of  the  Philippines  who  chanced  to  be  the  Bishop  of  Nueva 
Segovia.  In  Manila,  the  Priest- Go  vomer  cajoled  his  guest  with 
presents,  and  accompanied  liim  on  horseback  and  on  foot,  irith 
the  design  of  persuading  him  to  renounce  his  religion  in  favour  of 

At  length  the  Sultan  yielded,  and  avowed  his  intention  to  receive 
baptism.  Among  the  Friars  an  animated  discussion  ensued  as  to  tbe 
propriety  of  thb  act,  especial  opposition  being  raised  by  the  Jesuits, 

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Imt  in  the  end  the  Sultan,  with  a  [nimber  of  his  suite,  outwardly 
embraced  the  Christian  faith.  The  Sultan  at  hia  baptism  received  the 
name  of  Ferdinand  I.  of  Sulu  ;  at  the  same  time  he  was  invested  with 
the  insignia  and  grade  of  a  Spanish  Lieu  tenant-General. 

Great  ceremonies  and  magnificent  feasts  followed  this  unprecedented 
iacident.  He  was  visited  and  congratulated  by  all  the  elite  of  the 
capital.  By  proclamation,  the  festivities  included  four  days'  illumina- 
tion, three  days'  processioa  of  the  giants,  three  days  of  bull-fighting, 
four  nights  of  fireworks,  and  three  nights  of  comedy,  lo  terminate  with 
High  Mass,  a  Te  Deum  and  special  sermon  for  the  occasion. 

In  the  meantime,  the  Sultan  had  requested  the  Governor  to  have 
the  Crown  Prince,  Princesses  and  retainers  escorted  to  Manila,  to  iearii 
Spanish  manners  and  customs.  Thus  the  Sultan  with  his  male  and 
female  accompaniment  numbered  60  persons.  The  Governor-Bishop 
defrayed  the  cost  of  their  maintenance  out  of  hia  private  purse. 
After  the  baptism,  the  Government  supported  them  in  Manila  for  two 

At  length  it  was  resolved,  according  to  appearances,  to  restore  the 
Sultan  Ferdinand  I.  to  his  throne.  With  that  idea,  he  and  his  retiauo 
quitted  Manila  in  the  Spanish  frigate  "  San  Fernando,"  which  was 
convoyed  by  another  frigate  and  a  galley,  until  the  "  San  Fernando  " 
fell  in  with  bad  weather  ofi^  Mindoro  Island,  and  had  to  make  tho 
Port  of  Calapan.  Thence  ho  proceeded  to  Yloilo,  where  he  changed 
vessel  and  set  sail  for  Zamboanga,  but  contrary  winds  carried  him  to 
Dapltan  (N.W.  coast  oE  Mindanao  Island),  where  he  landed  and  put 
ofi'  again  in  a  small  Visayan  craft  for  Zamboang.n,  arriving  there 
on  the  I2tli  of  Jnly,  1751, 

Thirteen  days  afterwards,  the  "San  Fernando,"  which  had  been 
repaired,  reached  Zamboanga  also. 

Before  Ferdinand  I.  left  Manila,  he  had  addressed  a  letter  to  Sultan 
Muhamad  Amirubdin,  of  Mindanao,  at  the  instance  of  the  Spanish 
Governor- General.  Tiie  original  was  written  by  Ferdinand  I.  ia 
Arabic  ;  a  version  in  Spanish  was  dictated  by  bim,  and  both  were 
signed  by  him.  These  documents  reached  tho  Governor  ol:  Zamboanga 
by  the  "  San  Fernando,"  but  he  had  the  original  in  Arabic  re- 
translated, and  found  that  it  did  not  at  all  agree  with  the  Sultan's 
Spanish  rendering.     The  translation  of  tho  Arabic  runs  thus  : — 

"  I  flhall  be  glad  to  know  that  the  Sultan  Muhamad  Amirubdin 
"  and  all  his  chiefs,  male  and  female,  are  well.     I  do    not  write   a 

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"  lengthy  letter,  as  I  intcndei],  because  I  Bimply  wi^h  to  ^i^''  ^ou  '» 
"  understaud,  in  case  the  Sultan  or  his  cliief-^  ai  d  othcri  should  feel 
"  aggrieved  at  my  writing  this  letter  in  this  in  inner,  tliat  I  du  ^o 
"  UDder  pressure,  being  under  foreign  dominion  lod  I  am  compelled 
"  to  obey  whatever  they  tell  me  to  do,  and  I  ba  l  to  sai  ^hat  they 
"  tell  me  to  say.  Thus  the.  Governor  has  ordered  me  to  ivnte  to  you 
"  in  our  style  and  language  ;  therefore,  do  not  understand  that  I  am 
"  writing  you  on  mj  own  behalf,  but  because  1  sim  ordered  to  do  so, 
"  and  1  have  nothing  more  to  add.  Written  in  the  year  1164  on  the 
"  ninth  day  of  the  Eabilajer  Moon,  Ferdinand  7.,  King  of  Suiii.  who 
"  seals  with  his  own  seal," 

This  letter  was  pronounced  treasonable.  Impressed  with,  or 
feigning,  this  idea,  the  Spaniards  saw  real  or  Jmagiuary  indications 
of  a  design  on  the  part  of  the  Sultan  to  throw  off  the  foreign  yoke  at 
the  first  opportunity.  All  his  acts  were  thus  interpreted,  although 
no  positive  proof  was  manifest,  and  the  Governor  communicated  his 
suspicions  to  Manila. 

There  is  no  csplanalion  why  the  Spaniards  detained  the  Sultan  at 
all  in  Zamboanga,  unless  with  the  intention  of  Irumpiug  up  accusations 
against  liim.  The  Sultan  arrived  there  on  the  ]  2th  of  July,  and 
nothing  was  known  of  the  disagreement  in  the  letter  uuti!  after  the 
25th  of  July,  Why  lie  was  detained  in  Zamboanga  duriug  these  13 
days  can  only  be  conjectured.  To  suppose  that  t!io  could  ever 
return  to  reign  peacefully  as  a  Christian  over  Miieunlman  subjects  was 
utterly  absurd  to  any  sane  mind. 

On  the  3rd  of  August,  the  Sultan,  his  sons,  vassals  and  chiefs  were 
all  cast  into  prison,  without  opposition,  and  a  letter  was  despatched, 
dated  6th  of  August,  1751,  to  the  Governor  in  Manila,  stating  the 

The  Snitan  was  the  first  individual  arrested,  and  he  made  no 
difBculty  about  going  to  the  fort.  Even  the  Priniie  Asin,  the  Sultan's 
brother,  who  had  voluntarily  come  from  Sulii  in  iipp.iroat  good  faith 
with  friendly  overtures  to  tlie  Spaniards,  was  included  among  the 
prisoners.  The  reason  assigned  was,  that  he  h^d  failed  to  surrender 
Christian  captives  as  provided. 

The  prisoners,  besides  the  Sultan,  were  the  loltowiug,  viz,  t— 

Four  sons  of  the  Sultan.  ]         Princess  P.ingutan  BnnquifiDg 

Prince  Asin  (brother),  (sisterj. 

Prince  Mustafa  (son-in-law).      |         Four  Princesses  (daupiitors). 

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Dato  Yamudin  (a  noble). 
Snven  Mussulman  priests. 
Concubines     -n'itli     32      female 

160  ordiniiry  male  and  female 

Five  brotbers-in-law. 

One  Mussulman  Clierif. 

The  political  or  other  crime  {if  any)  attributeil  to  these  last  is  not 
stated,  nor  why  they  were  imprisoned. 

Tho  few  arms  brought,  according  to  custom,  by  the  followers  of  the 
Saltan  who  had  come  from  Sulu  to  receive  their  liege-lonl  and  escort 
him  back  to  his  country,  were  also  sciKcd. 

A  Decree  of  the  Governor- Gene i-iil  set  forth  the  following 
accusations  against  the  prisoners,  via.  : — 

1°.  That  Priuee  Asin  hud  not  siirrendorod  captivca.  2".  That 
whilst  the  Siiitan  was  in  Manila,  now  captives  were  maile  by  the  party 
who  expelled  him  from  the  throne.  3°.  Thitt  tiio  number  of  arras 
brought  to  Zaniboanga  by  Sulu  chiefs  was  excessive.  4°.  That  the 
letter  to  Sultan  Muhamad  Amirubdin  jnsinuate<l  help  wanted  against 
the  Spaniards.  5°.  That  several  Mahomedan,  but  uo  Christian  books, 
were  found  in  the  Snitan's  baggage.  6^.  That  during  the  journey  to 
Zamboanga  ho  had  refused  to  pray  in  Christian  form.  7°.  That  he  had 
only  attended  Mass  twice.  8".  TJiat  he  had  celebrated  Mahomedan 
rites,  sacrificing  a  goat ;  and  had  given  evidence  in  a  liundred  ways 
of  being  a  Mahomedan.  9°.  That  his  conversation  generally  denoted 
a  want  of  attachment  to  the  Spaniards,  and  a  coMtcmpt  for  their 
treatment  of  him  in  Manila,'  and  10".  That  he  still  cohabited  with  his 

The  greatest  stress  was  Uid  on  the  recovery  of  the  ciiptive 
Christians,  and  the  Governor  added,  that  although  tho  mission  of  the 
fleet  was  to  restore  the  Sultan  to  the  throne  (which,  by  the  way,  he 
does  not  appear  to  have  attempted),  the  principal  object  was  the  rescue 
of  Christian  slaves.  He,  therefore,  proposed  that  the  liberty  of  the 
imprisoned  nobles  and  chiefs  should  he  bartered  at  the  rate  of  500 
Christian  slaves  for  each  one  of  the  chiefs  and  nobles,  and  the  balance 
of  the  captives  for  Prince  Asin  and  tho  clergy. 

A  subsequent  Decree,  dated  in  Manila  2Ist  December,  175),  ordered 
the  extermination  of  the  Mussulmans  with  fire  and  sword  ;  the  fitting 

'  The  Sultan  complained  that  he  harl  not  been  (tc-.tpd  in  Manila  with  dignity 
cqnal  to  his  rank  and  quality,  and  that  he  had  constantly  Ijecn  under  goard  of 
■oldierfl  in  bis  residence  (this  wss  explained  to  be  «  gaard-of-honoiir). 



out  of  Viaayan  corsairs,  with  autbority  to  extinguish  the  foe,  hum  all 
that  was  combustible,  destroy  the  crops,  desolate  their  cultivated  land, 
make  captives,  and  recover  Christian  slaves.  One-fifth  of  the  spoil 
(the  Real  quhito)  was  to  belong  to  the  King,  and  the  natives  were  to 
be  exempt  from  tlic  payment  of  tribute  whilst  so  engaged. 

Before  giving  eifect  to  such  a  terrible,  but  ira practicable  resolution, 
it  was  thought  expedient  to  publish  a  brochure,  styled  a  "  Historical 
Manifest,"  in  which  the  Governor-General  professed  to  justify  his  acts 
for  public  s at isf notion. 

However,  public  opinion  in  Manila  was  averse  to  the  intended 
warfare,  so  to  make  it  more  popular,  the  Uoveraor  abolished  the 
piiymeot  of  one-fifth  of  the  booty  to  the  King.  An  appeal  was  made 
to  the  citizens  of  Manila  for  arms  and  provisions  to  carry  on  the 
campaign  ;  they  therefore  lent  or  gave  the  following,  viz. : — 

26  guns,  13  bayonets,  3  pporting  guns,  15  carbines,  5  blunderbusses, 
7  brace  of  pistols,  23  swonls,  15  lance?,  901)  cannon  balls,  aud  $150 
from  Spaniards,  and  a  few  lances  and  $188  from  natives. 

Meanwhile  Prince  AsJn  died  of  grief  at  his  position. 

Under  the  leadership  of  the  Maestre  de  Campo '  of  Zamboanga, 
hostilities  commenced.  With  several  sliips  he  proceeded  to  Sulu, 
carrying  a  large  armament  and  1,900  men.  When  the  squadron 
anchored  oiF  Sulu,  a  white  and  a,  red  flag  were  hoisted  from  the 
principal  fort,  for  the  Spaniards  to  elect  either  peace  or  war.  Several 
Solos  approached  the  Fleet  with  white  flags,  to  enquire  for  the  Sultan. 
Evasive  answers  were  given,  followed  by  a  sudden  cannonade. 

No  good  resulted  to  the  Spaniards  from  the  attack,  for  the  Sulus 
defended  themselves  admirably,  Tawi  Tawi  Island  was  next  assaulted. 
The  Captain  and  his  men  went  iiliore,  but  their  retreat  was  cut  off 
and  tbey  were  all  stain  The  Cjmmander  of  the  expedition  was  so 
discouraged,  that  he  returiit,d  to  Zamboanga  and  resigned  Pedro 
Gastambide  then  took  command,  hut  itter  ha\ing  attacked  Btsilan 
Island  fruitlessly,  he  letired  to  Zmiboinga  The  whole  tampaigii  was 
an  entire  fiasco.  It  was  a  gre-it  mistake  to  hive  decliredawar  of 
estermiuatiou  without  hating  the  means  to  carry  it  out  The  result 
was,  that  the  irate  Sulus  organized  a  guenlli  warfare,  by  sea  ^nd  by 

'  jtfiiejtre  rffi  (7ijmj>o  (obailPtPgriJ  )  ibo  t  pqunaient  to  the  mnd-rn  fcneral 
ot  Brigade. 

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land,  against  nil  Christians,  to  whieli  the  SpaciardB  hut  feubly 
responded.  The  "  tables  were  turned."  lu  fact,  they  were  ia  great 
straits,  and,  wearied  at  the  tittle  success  of  their  arras,  endless  councils 
and  discussions  were  held  in  the  capital. 

Meanwhile,  almost  every  coast  of  the  Archipelago  was  energetically 
ravaged.  Hitherto  the  Spaniards  had  only  had  the  SuJus  to  contend 
with,  hut  the  licence  given  hy  the  Govcruor-Geuenil  to  reprisal  and 
pillage  excited  the  cupidity  of  unscrupulous  officiaia.  Without 
apparent  right  or  reason,  the  Maestre  de  Campo  of  Zamboanga  caused 
a  Chinese  junk  from  Amoy,  carrying  goods  to  S6  friendly  Sultan  of 
Mindanao,  to  be  seized.  After  tedious  delay,  vexation,  and  privation, 
the  master  and  his  crew  wore  released,  and  a  part  of  the  cargo  restored, 
but  the  Maestre  de  Campo  insisted  upon  retaining  what  was  convenient 
for  Lis  own  use.  This  treachery  to  an  amicable  Power  exasperated 
and  undeceived  the  Mindanao  Saltan  to  such  a  degree,  that  he  at  ouc-e 
took  his  just  revenge  by  making  war  on  the  Spaniards.  Fresh  fleets  of 
armed  winoes  replenished  the  Sulu  armadillap,  ravaged  the  coasts, 
hnntcd  down  Spanish  priests,  and  made  captives. 

On  the  north  coast  of  Mindanao  several  battles  took  place. 
There  ia  a  legend  that  over  600  Mussulmans  advanced  to  the  village 
of  Lubnngan,  but  were  repulsed  by  the  villagers,  who  affirmed  that 
their  patron.  Saint  James,  appeared  on  horseback  to  help  them. 

Fray  Iloquo  de  Santa  Monica  was  chased  from  place  to  place, 
hiding  in  caves  and  rocks.  Being  again  met  by  four  Mussulmans,  he 
threatened  them  with  a  blunderbuss  and  was  left  unmolested. 
Eventually,  he  was  found  by  friendly  natives,  and  taken  by  them  to  a 
wood,  where  he  lived  on  roots.  Thence  ho  journeyed  to  Linao, — 
became  raving  mad,  and  was  sent  to  Manila,  where  he  died  quite 
frantic,  in  the  convent  of  his  order. 

The  Sultan  and  his  fellow  prisoners  had  been  conveyed  to  Manila, 
and  lodged  in  the  Fortress  of  Santiago.  In  1753,  he  petitioned  the 
Governor  to  allow  iiis  daughter,  the  Princess  Faatima,  and  two  slaves 
to  go  to  Sulu  about  his  private  affairs.  A  permit  was  granted  on 
condition  of  her  returning,  or,  in  exchange  for  her  liberty  and  that  of 
her  two  slaves,  to  remit  50  captives,  and,  failing  to  do  either,  the 
Sultan  aud  hia  suite  were  to  be  deprived  of  their  dignities  and  treated 
as  common  slaves,  to  work  in  the  galleys,  and  to  be  undistinguished 
among  the  ordinary  prisoners.      On  these    cocditione,    the    Princesa 



left,  ami  forwarded  fiO  slavoa  and  one  more— a  Spiiiikii'd,  Jose  de 
Montcainoa— aa  a  present. 

TUe  Princess  Faatima,  neverthelcsa,  did  retiiru  to  Manila,  liringiog 
with  her  an  ambassajar  from  Prince  Bantilaii,  her  nncle  and  Governor 
of  Sulu,  who,  iu  the  meantime,  had  assumed  the  title  of  Sultau 
Mahamad  MiuJudin, 

The  ambassador  waa  Prince  Maliatoad  Ismael  Dato  Marayalayta. 
After  an  audience  with  the  Governor,  he  ivcnt  to  the  fort  to  coastilt 
with  the  captive  Sultan,  and  they  proposed  a  treaty  with  tlio  Governor, 
of  which  the  maiu  points  wore  as  follows,  viz.  : — 

Aq  offensive  and  defensive  alliance. 

All  captives  within  the  Kingdom  of  Sulu  to  he  surrendered  withiu 
one  year. 

All  objects  loolcd  from  tlio  churuiies   to   bo  restored  within  one 

On  the  fulfilment  of  those  conditions,  the  Sultan  and  his  people 
were  to  be  set  at  liberty. 

The  treaty  was  dated  in  Manila,  3rd  of  March,  1734.  The  terms 
were  quite  imposaihle  of  accomplishment,  for  the  Sultan,  beiug  still  in 
prison,  had  no  power  to  enforce  commanda  on  his  subjects. 

The  war  vias  continued  at  great  saeiitice  to  the  State  and  with 
little  bcueSt  to  the  Spaniards,  whilst  their  operatious  were  greatly 
retarded  hy  discordance  between  tlio  officials  of  the  expedition,  the 
authorities  on  shore,  and  the  priests.  At  the  same  time,  dilatory 
proceedings  were  being  taken  against  the  Maestro  de  Campo  of 
Zamboangu,  wlio  waa  charged  with  having  appropriated  to  himself 
others'  share  of  the  war  booty.  Siargao  Island  had  been  completely 
overrun  by  the  Mnssiilmana  ;  the  villages  and  cultivated  land  were  laid 
waste,  and  the  Spanish  priest  waa  killed. 

When  the  Governor  Pedro  de  Araudia  arrived  in  1754,  the  Sultan 
took  advantage  of  the  occasion  to  put  his  case  before  him.  lie  had, 
indeed,  experienced  some  of  tho  strangest  mutations  of  fortune,  and 
Araodia  had  compassion  on  hini.  By  Araudia'a  persuasion,  the 
Archbishop  yisited  and  spiritually  examined  him,  and  then  the  Sultan 
confessed  ami  took  the  Commuuion.  In  the  College  of  Santa 
L'otonciana  there  was  a  Moslem  woman  wlio  had  been  a  concubine  of 
the  Sultan,  but  who  now  professed  Christianity,  and  had  taken  the  name 
of  Bita  CalJeron,     The  Sultan's  wife  having  died,  he  asked  for  this 

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ex-coiicubiue  ia  marriage,  and  the  favour  was  coocoded  to  him.  The 
nuptials  weie  celebrated  ia  the  Governor's  Palace  on  the  27th  of  April, 
1755,  aDcl  the  eapoused  couple  returned  to  their  prison  with  iin  allowauee 
of  JoO  per  mouth  for  their  maiutenance. 

In  1755  all  the  Sultau's  relations  anil  suite  who  had  been 
incarcerated  in  Manila,  except  his  son  lamael  and  a  few  chiefs,  were 
aent  back  to  tiulu.  Tlie  Sultan  and  his  chiefs  were  then  allowed  to 
live  freely  within  the  city  of  MaTiila,  after  having  sworn  before  the 
Governor,  ou  bended  knee,  to  pay  homage  to  him,  and  to  remain  peaceful 
during  the  king's  pleasure.  Indeed,  Arandia  was  so  favourably  disposed 
towards  the  Sultan  Mahamad  Alimudin  (Fernando  I.),  that  personally 
he  was  willing  to  restore  him  to  his  throne,  but  hia  wish  only  brought 
him  in  collision  with  the  clergy,  and  he  desisted, 

Tlie  British,  after  the  military  occupation  of  Manila  in  1763, 
took  np  the  cause  of  the  Sultan,  and  reinstated  him  in  Sulu.  Then 
he  avenged  himself  of  the  Spaniards,  by  fomenting  incorsious  against 
them  iu  Mindanao,  which  the  Govern  or- General,  Jose  Kaon,  was  unable 
to  oppose  for  want  of  resources. 

The  Mnssulmauf!,  however,  soon  proved  then  un trustworthiness 
to  friend  and  foe  alike.  Their  friendship  lasted  on  the  one  side  so 
long  as  danger  conld  thereby  bo  averted  from  the  other,  and  a  certain 
Datto  Teng-teug  attacked  the  British  garrison  at  Batarabangan  one 
night,  and  slaughtered  all  but  sis.  of  the  troops. 

The  town  of  Sulu  was  formerly  the  residence  of  the  Sultan's 
Court.  This  Sovereig:t  had  arrogantly  refused  to  check  the  piratical 
cruisings  made  by  his  people  against  the  Spanish  subjects  in  the 
locality  and  about  the  Islands  of  Calamiauea  ;  therefore,  on  the  11th 
of  February,  1851,  General  Urbiatondo  (an  ex-Carlist  chief),  who  had 
been  appointed  Governor- General  of  the  Philippines  in  the  previous 
year,  undertook  to  redress  his  nation's  grievances  by  force.  The 
Spanish  flag  was  hoisted  in  several  places.  Sulu  Town,  which  was 
shelled  by  the  guuhoats,  was  captured  and  held  by  the  invaders,  and 
the  Sultan  Muhamed  Pulalou  fled  to  Maybun  on  the  south  coast,  to 
which  place  the  Court  was  removed.  Still  the  Moslems  paid  the 
Spaniards  an  occasional  visit  and  massacred  the  garrison,  which  was 
as  often  renewed  by  froah  levies. 

In  1876  the  incursions  of  tlie  Mussulmans  and  the  temerity  of  the 
chiefs  had  again  attained  such  proportions,  that  European  dominion  over 




the  Sulu  Sultanate  and  Mindanao,  even  in  the  nomioal  form  in  which 
it  existed,  was  sorely  menaced.  Consequent  on  this,  an  expedition, 
Leaded  by  Vice- Admiral  Maleampo,  arrived  in  tho  waters  of  the 
Sultanate,  carrying  troops,  with  the  design  of  enforcing  suljioission. 

The  chief  of  the  land  forces  appears  to  have  had  no  topographical 
plan  formed.  The  expedition  turned  out  to  be  one  oi  discovery. 
The  troops  were  marched  into  tbo  interior,  without  their  officers 
knowing  where  they  were  going,  and  they  even  liaJ  to  depend  o»  Sulu 
guides.  Naturally,  they  were  often  deceived,  and  led  to  precisely 
where  the  Muasulmana  were  awaiting  them  in  ambush,  the  result 
heiug  that  great  havoc  was  made  in  tho  advance  column  by  frequent 
surprises.  Now  aiid  again  would  appear  a  iew  Jarameuladas,  or  sworn 
Moslems,  who  sought  their  way  to  Allah  by  the  Haerilice  of  theii'  own 
blood,  but  cansing  considerable  destruction  to  tho  invading  party. 
With  a  kris  at  the  waist,  a  javelin  in  one  hand,  and  a  shield  supported 
by  the  other,  they  would  advance  before  the  enemy,  dart  forward 
and  backwards,  make  zigzag  movements,  and  then,  with  a  war-whoop, 
rush  iu  three  or  four  at  a  time  upon  a  body  of  Christians  twenty 
times  their  number,  giving  no  quarter,  expecting  none — to  die,  or  to 
uonquer  !  The  expedition  was  not  a  failure,  but  it  gained  little,  Tho 
Spanish  flag  was  hoisted  in  several  places,  in  some  of  which  it  remained 
until  the  Spanish  evacuation  of  the  ishmds. 

The  Mussulmans  (called  by  the  Spaniards  Moroii)  now  extend  over 
ibe  whole  of  Mindanao  Island,  and  the  Sultanate  of  Sulu,  which 
comprises  Sulu  Island  (3i  miles  long  from  E.  to  W.,  and  12  miles  in 
the  broadest  part  from  N.  to  S.)  anil  about  140  others,  m  to  90  of 
whieh  are  uninhabited. 

The  population  of  the  Sulu  Sultanate  alone  would  be  about  110,000, 
including  free  people,  slaves  and  some  20,000  meu-at-aruis  under  orders 
of  the  DattOB.  The  domains  of  His  Highness  reach  westward  as  faraa 
Borneo,  where,  until  recently,  Ihe  Sultanate  of  Brunei  was  more  or  less 
uominally  subservient  to  that  of  Sulu.  The  Sultan  of  Sulu  is  also 
feudal  lord  of  two  vassal  Sultanates  in  Mindanao  Island. 

There  is,  moreover,  a  half-caste  branch  of  these  people  iu  the 
southern  half  of  Palauan  Island  (Paragua)  of  a  very  subdued  and 
peaceful  nature,  nominally  under  the  Sulu  Sultan's  rule. 

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la  Miodaoao,  onl;-  a  small  coast  district  liere  and  there  wus  reallj' 
under  Spanish  empire,  although  Spain  claimed  suzoraintj  otbt  all  the 
territory  subject  to  tlia  Sultan  of  Sulu,  by  virtue  of  an  old  treaty,  whieli 
never  waa  rsBpected  to  the  letter.  After  the  Suiu  war  of  1876,  the 
Sultan  admitted  the  claim  more  formivlly,  and  on  the  lltli  of  March, 
1877,  a  protocol  was  signed  by  England  and  Germany  recognizing 
Spain's  rights  to  the  Tawi  Tawi  group  and  the  chain  of  islands  stretching 
from  Sulu  to  Borneo.  At  the  same  time,  it  was  understood  that 
Spain  would  give  visible  proof  of  annexation  by  eatablishiug  military 
posts,  or  occcpying  these  islands  in  some  way,  but  nothing  was  done 
uatil  1880,  when  they  were  scared  by  a  report  th^t  tiie  Germans 
projected  a  settlement  there.  A  convict  corps  at  onco  took  possession, 
military  posts  were  established,  and  in  1 882  tho  6th  regiment  of  regular 
troops  was  quartered  in  the  group  at  Bongao  and  Siassi. 

Meanwhile  in  1880,  a  foreign  colonizing  company  was  formed  in 
the  Sultanate  of  Brunei, under  the  title  of  "  British  North  Borneo  Co." 
(Eoyal  Charter  7th  November,  1881).  The  company  recognized 
the  suzerain  rights  of  the  Sultan  of  Sulu,  and  agreed  to  pay  him 
£5,000  a  year  as  feudal  lord.  Spain  protested  that  the  territory  was 
hers,  but  could  bhow  notiiiug  to  confirm  the  possession.  There  was 
neither  a  flag,  nor  a  detachment  of  troops,  nor  anything  whatsoever  to 
indicate  that  the  coast  was  under  European  protection  or  dominion. 
Notes  were  exclianged  between  the  Cabinets  of  Madrid  and  Loudon, 
and  tho  former  relioquislied  for  ever  their  ckim  to  tho  Borneo  fief  of 

The  experiences  of  the  unfortunate  Sultan  Alimudin  (Ferdinand  I.) 
taught  the  Sulu  people  such  a  sad  lesson  that  subsequent  Sultans  have 
not  cared  to  risk  their  persons  in  the  hands  of  the  Spaniardfl.  There 
was,  moreover,  a  National  Party  which  repudiated  dependence  on 
Spain,  and  hoped  to  bo  able  eventnally  to  drive  out  tho  Spaniards. 
Therefore,  in  1885,  when  the  heir  to  the  throne  was  cited  to  Manila  to 
receive  his  investiture  at  the  hands  of  the  Governor-General,  he  refused 
to  comply,  and  the  Government  at  once  offered  the  Sultanate  to  another 
chief.  The  dignity  having  been  accepted  by  him,  he  presented  himself 
to  the  Governor- General  in  the  capital. 

The  ceremony  of  investiture  took  place  in  the  Governmeot  House 
at  Malacafian  near  Manila  on  the  24th  of  September,  188G,  TrhenDatto 
Harun  took  the  oath  of  allegiance  to  tho  King  of  Spain  as  LiasoTereign 

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lord,  and  received  from  the  Goffer  nor- Genera!  Emilio  Terrera  the  title 
of  his  Excellency  Paduca  Majasari  Maidana  Amiril  Mauminin  Sultati 
Muhamad  ffarun  Narrasid,  with  the  rank  and  grade  of  a  SpaDieh. 

The  Govern  or.  General  was  attended  bv  hia  Secretary,  the  Official 
Interpreter,  and  several  officers  of  high  local  rank.  In  the  suite  of  the 
Snltan-elect  were  his  Secretary  Tuan  Hagi  Omar,  a  priest  Pandila 
Tvan  Sik  Mustafa,  and  several  dattos. 

For  the  occasion, the  Sultao-elect  was  dressed  in  European  costume, 
and  wore  a  Turkish  fez  with  a  heavy  tassel  of  black  silk.  His  Secretary 
and  Chaplain  appeared  in  long  black  tunics,  white  trousers,  light  shoes 
and  turbans.  Two  of  the  remainder  of  his  suite  adopted  the  European 
fashion,  but  the  others  wore  rich  typical  Moorish  vostineiits. 

The  Sultan  returned  to  his  country,  and  in  the  course  of  throe 
months  the  chiefs  of  the  National  Party  openly  took  up  arms  against 
the  nominee  of  the  King  of  Spain,  the  movement  spreading  to  the 
adjacent  islands  of  Siussi  and  Bongao,  which  form  part  of  the 

The  Mussulmans  ou  the  Great  Mindanao  River,  from  Cottobatto 
upwards,  openly  defied  Spanish  authority ;  and  in  the  spring  of  1886, 
the  Government  were  under  the  necessity  of  organizing  an  expedition 
against  them 

The  Spaniaris  had  orlcitd  thit  nati  craft  should  carry  the 
Spiiuish  fl^i;  othei » lae  the'i  woullle  tre ite  1  as  pirates  or  rebels.  Ju 
March,  lbS7,  the  cacique  of  the  Simonor  rancbe  (Bougao  Island), 
named  Pandan  refused  mj  longer  to  hojbt  the  Christian  ensign,  and 
he  was  pursue  1  and  taken  pri'ionei  He  w  xs  onveyed  on  the  gunboat 
"Panay  "  to  Siilu  and  on  be  ng  isked  bj  tl  e  Governor  why  he  Iiad 
ceased  to  uae  the  Spanish  flag,  he  hau^ht  ly  replied  that  "he  would 
only  anawei  BU(,h  a  que  tion  to  the  Captain  General,"  and  refused  to 
give  any  further  ex|  Unation  W  tb  n  i  month  after  liis  arrest,  the 
garrison  of  Sulu  was  strengthened  by  m  increase  of  377  men,  in 
expectation  of  an  immediate  genera!  rising 

The  forces  wrre  led  by  Majors  Mattos  ai  I  \  illa-Ahrille,  under  the 
command  of  Brigadier  henna.  They  were  stoutly  opposed  by  a  cruel 
and  despotic  chief,  named  Utto,  who  advanced  at  the  head  of  hia 
subjects  and  slaves.  With  the  co-operation  of  the  gunboats  up  the 
river,  the  Mussulmans  were  repulsed  wUh  great  loss. 

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HOSTILITIES    ON   THE   RIO    GliANDE,    MINDANAO.        155 

Probably  this  woitld  have  suE&ced  for  a  long  time  to  convince  the 
Mu3sulmaus  that  svlieu  they  show  front,  the  modern  mean^  of  warfare 
are  moro  effective  than  theirs.  Scores  of  expcilitious  have  been  led 
againat  the  Miudaniio  natives,  and  temporary  aubmissioa  has  been 
usually  obtained  by  the  Spaniards,  but  on  their  retirement,  the  natives 
Lave  alwaya  reverted  to  their  old  customs,  and  have  taken  their  revenge 
on  the  settlors.  The  history  of  the  Colony  wonld  have  proved  this  to 
the  Govern  or- General,  bat  there  were  petty  jealousies  existing  between 
his  highest  officers  in  the  sonth,  which  hb  presence,  without  warfare, 
would  have  sufficed  to  tranquillize.  What  reason  was  there  for  further 
hostilities  ? 

The  cry  was  raised  that  Datto  l]lto  had  avowed  that  uo  Spauiiud 
had,  or  ever  should,  enter  his  territory  ! 

It  was  a  small  plea  for  an  armed  expedition,  but  from  the  example 
of  his  predecessor  in  1880,  the  Geueral  perchance  foresaw  in  a  little 
war  the  vision  of  titles  and  more  material  reward,  boaides  counter- 
balancing hia  increasing  unpopularity  in  Manila,  due  to  the  influence  of 
the  Govenfment  Secretary  Don  Felipe  Conga-Arguelles.  Following  in 
the  wake  of  tiiose  who  had  successfttily  checked  the  Mussulmans 
in  the  previous  spring,  he  toot  the  chief  command  in  person  in  the 
beginning  of  January,  1887,  to  force  a  recantation  of  the  Chief  Utto's 

The  petty  Sultans  of  Bacat,  Buhayeh  and  Kudaraiigan  in  vain 
nnited  their  fartiiucs  with  that  of  Utto.  The  stoukadea  of  cocoanut 
trunks,  palma-bravas  and  earth  (called  coitus)  were  easily  destroyed  by 
the  Spanish  artillery,  and  their  defenders  fled  under  a  desultory  fire. 
There  was  very  little  slaughter  on  either  side.  A  few  of  the  Christian 
native  infantry  soldiers  sufft-rcd  from  the  bamboo  spikes  set  in  the 
ground  aromid  the  stockades  (called  by  tlie  Spaniards  puas),  but 
the  enemy  had  not  had  time  to  cover  with  brushwood  the  pits 
dug  for  the  attacking  party  to  fall  luto. 

In  about  two  months,  the  operations  ended  by  the  euhmission  of 
some  petty  chiefs  of  minor  importance  and  Influence ;  and  after 
Bpendijig  so  much  powder  and  shot  and  Christian  blood,  the  General 
bad  not  even  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  either  the  man  he  was  fighting 
against  or  his  enemy's  ally,  the  Sultan  of  KudaraHgan. 

This  latter  sent  a  priest,  Pandita  Kalibaudang,  and  Datto  Andig  to 
SUB  for  peace,  and  cajole  the  General  with  the  fairest  promises. 

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Afterwarils  the  son  auJ  heir  of  this  chief,  Rajah  Muda  Tambilanang, 
presented  Limself,  uad  he  iiiid  his  suite  of  30  followera  were  conducted 
to  the  camp  ia  the  steam  launch  "  Carriedo." 

Utto,  whoso  residence  haJ  beeu  demolished,  had  not  deigned  to 
submit  in  peraon.  He  sent,  as  emissaries,  Datto  Siruiigiing  and  the 
chiefs  Buat  and  Dalandung,  who  excused  only  the  absence  of  Utto's 
prime  minister,  Capitalations  of  poaco  were  drawn  up  and  handed 
to  Utto's  servants,  who  were  told  to  bring  them  back  signed  without 
delay,  for  despatches  from  the  Home  Government,  received  four  or  five 
weeks  previously,  were  urging  the  General  to  conclude  this  affair  as 
speedily  as  possible.  They  were  returned  signed  by  Utto— or  by 
somebody  else — and  the  same  signature  and  another,  supposed  to  be 
that  of  hia  wife,  the  Ranee  Pudtli  (a  woman  of  great  sway  amongst  her 
people)  were  also  attached  to  »  letter,  offering  complete  submission. 

The  Spaniards  destroyed  a  large  quantity  of  rice  paddy,  and  they 
stipulated  for  the  payment  of  a  war  indemnity  in  the  form  of  cannons, 
buffaloes  and  horses,  to  be  delivered  at  a  period  later  on. 

The  General  gave  them  some  trifling  presents,  and  they  went  their 
way  and  he  hia, — to  M.mila,  where  he  entered  in  state  on  the  21at  of 
March,  with  flags  flying,  mu^iie  playing,  and  the  streets  decorated  with 
bunting  of  the  national  Lulour-,,  to  give  welcome  to  the  conqueror  of 
the  Mussulman  chief — whom  he  had  never  aeen — the  bearer  of  peace 
capitulations  signed — by  whom  ?  ' 

As  usual,  a  Te  Deum  was  celebrated  in  the  Cathedral  for  the 
victories  gained  oper  the  infidels;  the  officers  and  troops  who  had 
returned  were  invited  by  the  Municipality  to  a  theatrical  performance, 
and  the  Govcmor-GeBeral  held  a  reception.  Some  of  the  troops  were 
left  in  Mindanao,  it  having  been  resolved  to  establish  armed  outposts 
Klill  farther  up  the  river  for  the  better  protection  of  the  port  and 
settlement  of  Cottobatto, 

Whilst  the  Governor- General  headed  the  military  parade  in  the 
Cottobatto  district,  the  ill-feeling  of  the  Sulu  natives  towards  the 
Spaniards  was  gradually  maturing.  An  impending  struggle  was 
evident,  and  Colonel  Juau  Arolas,  the  Governor  of  Sulu,  concentrated 
his  forces  in  expectation. 

The  Sulus,  always  armed,  prepared  for  events  in  their  cottas ; 
Arolas  demanded  their  surrender,  which  was  refused,  and  they  were 
'  Datto  Utto  afterviardi  visited  the  Brigadier  of  Mindanao  in  October,  1887. 



attacked.  Two  collas,  well  defended,  were  ultimately  taken,  not 
■without  serious  loss  to  the  Spaniards.  It  was  reported  that  amougst 
the  slain  was  a  captain.  Arolas  then  twice  asked  for  authority  to 
attack  the  Mussulmans  at  Maybnn  and  was  -euch  time  refused.  At 
length,  acting  on  his  own  responsibility,  on  the  ISth  of  April,  1887,  he 
ordered  a  gunboat  tc  etoam  round  to  Mayhuu  and  opoo  fire  at  day- 
break on  the  Sultan'a  capital,  which  was  io  possession  of  the  party 
opposed  to  the  Spanish  nominee  (ITaruo  Karrasid),  At  11  o'clock 
the  same  night  he  started  with  his  troops  towards  Maybun,  and  the 
next  morning,  whilst  the  enemy  was  engaged  with  tlie  gunboat,  he 
led  the  attack  on  the  land  aide.  The  Mussulmans,  quite  surprised, 
fought  like  liotis,  but  were  completely  routed,  and  the  seat  of  the 
Sultanate  was  razed  to  the  ground.  It  was  the  most  crushing  defeat 
ever  inflicted  on  the  Sulu  National  Party,  The  news  reaciied  Manila 
on  the  29th  of  April,  and  great  praise  was  justly  accorded  to  Colonel 
Arolas,  whose  energetic  operations  contrasted  so  favourably  with  the 
Cottobatto  expedition.  It  was  thought  that  Arolas  would  have  come 
to  the  capital  to  receive  the  congratulations  of  his  compauions-in-arois, 
and  all  manner  of  festivities  in  his  honour  wore  projected  ;  but  he 
elected  to  continue  the  work  of  maintaining  his  country's  i]restige  in 
all  the  islands  of  the  group.  Notwithstauding  his  well-known 
republican  tendencies,  on  the  20th  o£  September,  1887,  the  Quecn- 
Eegent  cabled  through  her  Ministry  her  acknowledgment  of  Colonel 
Arolas'  valuable  services,  and  the  pleasure  it  gave  her  to  reward  him 
with  a  Brigadier's  commission.' 

In  1895  an  espoditiou  against  the  Mussulmans  was  organised  under 
the  supreme  command  of  Governor-General  Ramon  Blanco.  It  was 
known  as  the  Marault  Campaign.  The  tribes  around  Lake  Malanao 
and  the  Marault  district  had,  for  some  lime  past,  made  serious  raids 
on  the  Spanish  settlement  at  Yligan,  which  is  connected  with  Lake 
Malanao  by  a  river  navigable  only  by  canoes.  Indeed,  the  lives  and 
property  of  Christians  in  all  the  territory  adjoining  Yiigan  were  in 
great  jeopardy,  and  the  Spanish  authorities  were  set  at  defiance.  It 
was,  therefore,  resolved,  for  the  first  time,  to  attack  the  tribes  and 
destroy  their  co/tas  around  the  lake  for  the  permanent  tranquillity  of 



rillLIl'nSE    ISLANDS. 

Yligau,  Tho  Spauisih  aud  native  troopa  alike  ■jiifferGil  great  lianlsliips 
and  privations.  Steam  launclies  in  eectioiii  (I'onstnicted  in  Hong- 
kong), small  guns  andi\ar  material  nrro  carried  up  from  Yligaii  to 
tlie  late  by  natives  over  very  rugged  gi-oimd.  On  (lie  lake  ahoro  the 
launuliea  were  fitted  up  and  opci-ated  on  tlie  lake,  to  tbo  immense 
Burpriso  of  tlie  tribes.  From  tiie  laud  aide  tUoir  coHas  were  attacked 
and  destroyed,  under  the  command  of  my  old  friend  Brigadier  General 
liouzalez  Parrado.  The  nperatious.  which  lasted  about  three  months, 
were  a  complete  success,  anil  General  Gonzalez  Parrado  was  rewarded 
with  promotion  to  General  of  Division.  Lake  llalaiiao,  with  the 
surrounding  district  and  the  route  down  to  Tligan,  were  in 
possessiou  of  the  Spaniard'!,  and  in  order  to  retain  that  possession 
without  the  expense  of  maiutaiiiing  a  large  military  establishment, 
it  was  determined  to  people  the  conquered  territory  with  Christian 
families  from  Luzon  and  the  other  islands  situated  north  of 
Mindanao.  It  was  the  attempt  to  carry  out  this  colonizing  scbemo 
which  gave  significance  to  the  Marauit  Expedition  and  contributed  to 
that  movement  which,  in  1H9G,  led  to  the  downfall  of  Spanish  rule 
in  the  Archipelago. 

The  last  fipauish  punitive  expedition  ajraiiist  tho  Mindanao 
Mussulmans  was  Kent  in  February,  1898,  imder  tlio  eommaii<l  of 
General  Buille.  Tiie  operations  lasted  only  a  few  days.  The 
enemy  was  driven  into  the  interior  with  great  loss  aud  one  chief 
was  slain.  Tho  small  gunboat-s  built  in  Hongkong  for  the  Marauit 
Campaign— the  Gc7teral  Blanco,  Corcuero,  aad  Lanao — again  did 
good  service. 

A  few  years  ago,  we  were  all  alarmed  on  Corpus  Christi  Day, 
during  the  solemn  procession  of  that  feast  in  Cottobatlo,  by  the  sudden 
attack  of  a,  few  Mussulmans  on  the  crowd  of  Christians  assembled.  Of 
course  the  former  were  overwhelmed  and  killed,  as  they  quite  expected 
to  be.  They  were  of  that  class  known  as  juramen/'idos,  or  sworn 
Mussulmans,  who  believe  that  if  they  make  a  solemn  vow,  in  a  form 
binding  on  their  consciences,  to  die  taking  the  blood  of  a  Christian, 
their  souls  will  immediately  migrate  to  the  happy  hunting  ground,  where 
they  will  ever  live  in  bliss,  in  the  presence  of  the  Great  Prophet.  This 
is  the  most  dangerous  sect  of  Mussulmans,  for  no  exhibition  of  force 
can  suffice  to  stay  their  ravages,  and  they  can  only  be  treated  like  mad 
dogs,  or  like  a  Malay  who  has  run  amok. 

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The  Spaniards  (in  1898)  left  nearly  balf  the  Philippine  Archipelago 
to  be  con(]aere<I,  but  only  its  Mussulman  inliabitants  over  took  the 
aggressive  against  them  in  regular  warfare.  The  attempts  of  the 
Jesuit  missionaries  to  convert  them  to  Christianity  were  entirely  futile, 
for  the  Panditas  and  the  Eomish  priesta  were  equally  fanatical  in 
their  respective  religious  beliefs.  The  last  treaty  made  between  Spain 
and  Sulii  especially  stipulated  that  the  Mussulmans  should  not  be 
persecuted  for  their  religion. 

To  overturn  a  dynasty,  to  suppress  an  organised  system  of  feudal 
laws,  and  to  eradicate  au  aocieut  belief,  the  principles  of  which  had 
solidly  insinuated  themselves  amoug  the  popnlaco  in  the  course  of 
centuries,  was  »  harder  task  than  that  of  briugiug  under  the  Spanish 
yoke  detached  groups  of  Malay  emigrants.  The  pliant,  credulous  nature 
of  the  Luzon  settlers — the  fact  that  they  professed  no  deeply-rooted 
religion,  and-— although  advanced  from  the  nomad  to  the  municipal 
condition — were  mere  nominal  Sieges  of  their  puppet  kinglicgs,  were 
facilitieR  for  the  .achievement  of  couqueat. 

True  it  is,  that  the  dynasties  of  the  Aztecs  of  Mexico  and  the 
Incas  of  Peru  yielded  to  Sj>anish  valour,  but  there  was  the  incentive  of 
untold  wealth  ;  here,  only  of  military  glory,  and  the  former  outweighed 
the  latter. 

The  Suln  Islanders,  male  and  female,  dress  with  far  greater  taste 
and  ascetic  originality  than  the  Christian  natives.  The  women  are 
fond  of  gay  colours,  the  predominant  oues  being  scarlet  and  green. 
Their  nether  bifurcated  garment  is  very  baggy — the  bodice  is 
extremely  tight— and,  with  equally  closc-fittiug  sleeves,  exhibits  every 
contour  of  the  bust  and  arms.  They  use  also  a  strip  of  stuff  se^^'u 
together  at  the  ends  called  the  jahul,  which  serves  to  protect  the  hea^ 
from  the  sun-rays.  The  endof  the  yaSw^  would  reach  nearly  down  to  the 
feet,  but  is  usually  held  retrousse  under  the  arni.  They  have  a  passion 
for  jewellery,  and  wear  many  fingor-rings  of  metal  and  Eometimos  of 
Bea-shells,  whilst  their  earrings  are  gaudy  and  of  large  dimensions. 
The  hair  is  gracefully  tied  with  a  coil  on  the  top  of  the  head,  and 
their  features  arc  more  attractive  than  fbosu  of  the  g<jnoraIity  of 
Philippine  Christian  women. 

The  men  wear  breeches  of  bright  colours,  as  tight  as  gymnasts' 
pantaloons,  with  a  large  number  of  huttons  uj)  the  sides — a  kind  of 

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waistcoat  Ijuttoniag  up  to  tlie  throat — a  jacket  reaching  to  the  hips 
with  close  alceves,  and  a  turhiiu.  A  chief's  dress  has  many  adoromenta 
of  trinkets,  and  is  quite  elegant. 

They  are  robust,  of  medium  height,  often  of  superb  physical 
development,  of  a  dusky  bronze  colour,  piercing  eyes,  low  forehead, 
lank  hair  whieh  19  dressed  as  a  chignon  and  hangs  down  the  back  of 
the  neck.  The  body  is  agile,  the  whole  movement  is  rapid,  and  they 
have  a  wonderful  power  of  holding  the  breath  under  water.  They  are 
of  quick  perception,  audacious,  extremely  sober,  ready  to  promise 
everything  and  do  nothing,  vindictive  and  highly  suspicious  of  a 
stranger's  intentions.  They  are  very  long-suffering  in  adversity, 
hesitating  in  attaek,  and  the  bravest  of  the  brave  in  defence.  They 
disdain  work  as  degrading  and  only  a  fit  occupation  for  slaves,  whilst 
warfare  is,  to  their  minds,  an  honourable  calling.  Every  male  over 
16  years  of  age  has  to  carry  at  least  one  fighting  weapon  at  all  times 
and  consider  himself  euiolled  hi  military  service. 

Thev  have  a  certain  knowledge  of  the  Arts.  They  manufaetiire 
on  the  anvil  very  fine  kris-daggers,  knives,  lance  heads,  ete.  Many 
of  their  fighting  weapons  are  inlaid  with  silver  and  set  in  polished 
hard  wood  or  ivory  handles  artistically  carved. 

In  warfare  they  carry  shields,  and  their  usual  arms  on  land  are  the 
campilan,  a  kind  of  short  two-handled  sword,  wide  at  tlie  tip  and 
narrowing  dowu  to  the  hilt — the  bnrong  for  close  combat — the  straight 
kris  for  thrusting  and  cutting,  and  the  waved  serpent-like  kris  for 
thrusting  only.  They  are  dexterous  in  the  use  of  arms,  and  can  most 
skilfully  decapitate  a  foa  at  a  single  stroke.  At  sea  they  use  a  sort 
of  assegai,  called  bagsacay  or  shnbilin,  about  half  an  inch  in  diameter, 
with  a  sharp  point.  Some  can  throw  as  many  as  four  at  a  time,  and 
make  them  spread  in  the  flight ;  they  use  these  for  boarding  vessels. 
They  make  many  of  tbcir  own  domestic  utensils  of  metal,  also  coats  of 
mail  of  metal  wire  and  buffalo  horn  whieh  resist  linnd  weapons,  but 
not  bullets.     The  wire  probably  eomes  from  Singapore. 

The  local  trade  is  chiefly  in  pearls,  mother-of-peari,  shells,  shark 
fins,  etc'     The  Sultan  has  a  sovereign  right  to  all  pearls  fonnd  which 

'According  fo.Sonnerat,  Sulu  Island  produced  elephants  1  oWb  "  Voyages  ans 
Indps  ct  &  la  Cbine,"  Vol.  III.,  Chap.  10,  I  have  not  Been  the  above  statement 
confirmed  in  any  writing.  Cortainlj  there  is  no  such  animal  in  these  islands  at 
tlie  presenl  day. 



exceed  a  certain  size  fixed  by  law,  hence  it  ia  very  difficult  to  secure  an 
extraordinary  specimen.  The  Mussulmana  trade  at  great  distances  in 
their  small  craft,  for  tiiey  are  wonderfully  export  navigators,  Tiieir 
largest  vessels  do  not  exceed  seven  tons,  and  they  go  as  far  as  Borneo, 
and  even  down  to  Singapore  on  rare  occasions.  However,  without 
going  that  distance,  they  are  well  supplied  with  arms,  for  a  foreign 
ship  occasionally  puts  in  at  Sulu  with  rifles,  &c.,  which  are  exchanged 
for  mother-of-pearl,  gum,  pearls,  and  edible  birds'  nests. 

I  found  that  almost  uny  coinage  was  useful  for  purchasiug  in  the 
market-places.  I  need  hardly  add  that  the  Chinese  smalt  traders 
have  found  their  way  to  these  regions,  and  it  would  be  an  unfavourable 
sign  if  a  Chinaman  were  not  to  be  seen  there,  for  where  the  frugal 
Celestial  cannot  earn  a  living  it  is  a  bad  look-ont.  Small  Chinese 
coin3  (knovtn  as  cash  in  the  China  Treaty  Ports)  arc  current  money 
here,  and  I  think  the  most  convenient  of  all  copper  coins,  for,  having 
a  hole  in  tho  centre,  they  can  be  strung  together.  Chinese  began  to 
trade  with,  this  island  in  I75I 

The  root  of  their  language  is  Sanscrit,  miseJ  with  Arahic.  Each 
Friday  is  dedicated  to  public  worship,  and  the  faithful  are  called  to 
the  temple  by  the  heating  of  a  box  or  hollow  piece  of  wood.  All 
recite  the  Iman  with  a  plaintive  voice  in  honour  of  the  Great 
Prophet ;  a  Blight  gesticulation  is  then  made  whilst  the  Pandita 
rea<ls  a  passage  from  the  Mustah.  It  seemed  to  me  strango  that  no 
young  women  put  in  an  appearance  at  the  temple  on  the  occasion  of 
my  visit. 

At  the  beginning  of  each  year,  there  is  a  very  soiemn  ceremonial, 
and,  in  the  event  of  the  liirtli  or  death  of  a  child,  or  the  safe  return 
from  Kome  expedition,  it  is  repeated.  It  is  a  sort  of  Te  Deum  in 
conformity  with  their  rites.  During  a  number  of  days  in  a  certain 
month  of  the  year  they  abstain  from  eating,  drinking  and  pleasure 
of  all  kinds,  and  siifFcr  many  forms  of  self  imposed  misery.  Strangers 
are  never  allowed,  I  was  told,  inside  the  Mosque  of  the  Sultau,  but 
it  is  a  rare  thing  for  straagera  to  find  themselves  anywhere  in  the 
Sultan's  capital.  The  higher  clergy  are  represented  by  tho  Ckerif,  who 
has  temporal  power  also,  and  this  post  is  hereditary.  The  title  ot 
Pandita  means  simply  priest,  and  is  the  common  word  used  in 
Mindanao  as  well  as  in  I'alauan  Island.  He  seems  to  be  almost  the 
chief  in  his  district — not  in  a  warlike  sense  like  tho  Datto—hMi  bis 

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word  has  great  iiiflueneo.  He  performs  all  tlie  fuQctions  of  a  priest, 
receivea  the  vow  of  the  juramcntados,  auii  expounds  the  mysteriea  and 
the  glories  of  that  better  world  whither  they  will  go  without  delay  if 
they  die  taking  the  blood  of  a  Christian. 

The  Panditas  are  doctors  also.  If  a  Datto  or  ehief  dies,  they 
intone  a  dolorous  chant — tbc  family  hursts  into  lamentatious,  which 
are  finally  drowned  in  the  din  of  the  clashing  of  cymbals  and  beating 
of  gongs,  whilst  sometimes  a  gun  is  fired.  In  rush  the  neighbours, 
and  joia  ia  the  shouting,  until  all  settle  down  quietly  to  a.  feast.  The 
body  is  then  sprinkled  with  salt  and  camphor,  and  dressed  iu  white 
with  the  kria  attached  to  the  waist.  There  is  little  ceremony  about 
placing  the  body  iu  the  coffin  and  burying  it.  The  mortuary  is  marked 
by  a  wooden  t.ablet — sometimes  by  a  stone,  on  which  is  an  inscription 
in  Arabic.  A  siip  of  board,  or  bamboo,  is  placed  around  the  spot, 
and  a  piece  of  wood,  carved  like  the  bows  of  a  canoe,  is  stuck 
in  the  earth  ;  in  front  of  this  is  placed  a  eocoa-nut  she!!  full  of 

The  old  native  town  or  cotta  of  Sulu  was  a  collection  of  bamboo 
houses  built  upon  piles  and  extended  a  few  hundred  yards  into  the 
sea.  This  is  now  all  demolished,  only  the  Military  Hospital  being  so 

The  site  is  a  small  bay  formed  by  the  points  Dangapic  aud  Candea, 
and  the  modern  town  is  situated  on  the  plain  a  couple  of  yards  above 
sea-level.  The  sea-beach  is  desired,  and  the  native  village  put  back 

There  is  a  short  stone  and  brick  pier — a  very  simple  edifice 
for  a  Church — splendid  barracks,  equal  to  those  in  Manila,  and  said  to 
be  more  commodious.  Some  of  the  houses  are  of  stone  or  brick,  others 
of  wood,  and  all  have  corrugated  iron  roofs.  The  streets  are  marked 
out  at  rectangles,  well  drained — boulevards,  squares  and  tasteful 
gardens  formed,  and  the  market-place  is  clea.n  and  orderly. 

The  neighbourhood  is  well  provided  with  water  from  uatiirai 
streams.  The  town  is  supplied  with  drinking  water  conducted  in 
pipes,  laid  for  the  purpose  from  a  spring  about  a  mile  aad  a  quarter 
distant,  whilst  other  piping  carries  water  to  the  end  of  the  pier  for  the 
requirements  of  shipping.  This  improvement,  the  present  salubrity 
of  the  towQ  (once  a  fever  focus),  and  its  recent  embellishment,  are 
mainly  due  to  the  intelligent  activity  of  its  late  Governors,  Colonel 

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(uow   General)   Gouzitfez  I'arrado  and   Colonel   (now  Geaeral)  Juan 

The  town  is  encircled  on  the  laud  side  by  a  brick  loop-lioled  wall. 
The  outside  defences  consist  of  two  forts,  viz.  ; — The  "  Prineesa 
de  Asturias"  and  "  Torre  da  la  Reina,"  and  within  the  town  those 
of  the  "  Puerta  Blockaus,"  "  Puerta  Espana"  and  the  redoubt 
"  Alfonso  ^//."— this  last  has  a  Kordenfeldt  gun. 

The  goceral  aspect  of  Siilu  is  lively  and  attractive  ;  the  quaint 
attire  and  energetic  features  of  the  native  popuialion  adding  to  the 
general  picturesqueuess. 

The  Spanish  Government  of  Sulu  was  entirely  under  martial  law, 
and  the  Europeans  (mostly  military  meu)  were  conslantly  on  the  alert 
for  the  evor-recurring  attacks  of  the  natives. 

By  a  Decree  dated  24th  of  September,  1877,  all  the  natives,  and 
other  races  or  uationalitiea  settled  there,  were  exempted  from  all  kinds 
of  contributions  or  taxes  for  10  years,  In  1887  the  term  was  extended 
for  another  10  years,  hence,  no  imposts  being  levied,  all  the  Spaniards 
had  to  do  was  to  maintain  their  pFestige  with  peace. 

In  his  relations  with  the  Spaniards,  the  Sultan  held  the  title  of 
Excellency,  and  he,  as  well  as  several  chiefs,  received  pensions  from  the 
Government  at  the  following  rates  : — 

S  per  annum. 

Sultan  of  Sulu 2,100 

Do.     of  Mindanao      ---.-.  1,000 

Datto  Beradureii,  heir  to  the  Sulu  Sultanate  -  700 

Paduca  Datto  Alinibdin,  of  Sulu  -         -         -         -  600 

Datto  Amiral,  of  Mindanao  -----  800 

Other  minor  pensions  .         .         -         .         _  600 


and  an  allowance  of  $2  for  each  captive  rescued,  and  $3  for   each 
pirate  caught,  whether  m  Sulu  or  Mindanao  waters. 

The  Sultan  is  the  JIajasari  (the  stainless,  the  spotl^s) — the 
Pontiff-king— the  chief  of  the  State  and  the  Church  ;  but  it  is  said 
that  he  acknowledges  the  "sultau  of  Turkey  as  the  Padishah.  He  is 
the  irresponsible  lord  and  master  of  all  life  and  property  among  hi* 
subjects,  although  in  his  decree'-  he  is  advised  by  a  Council  of  Elders. 

L  2 

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Nevertheless,  in  spite  of  his  absolute  authority,  he  does  not  seem 
to  have  perfect  control  over  the  acts  of  his  nobles  or  chiefri,  who  are  a 
privileged  class,  and  are  coustantly  waging  some  petty  war  among 
theraBelves,  or  organising  a,  maruuding  expedition  along  the  coast. 
The  Sultan  ia  compelled,  to  a  certain  extent,  to  tolerate  their  e 
as  his  own  dignity,  or  at  least  his  own  tranquillity,  is  m  a  great  n 
dependent  on  their  common  goodwill  towards  him.  The  chiefs  collect 
tribute  in  the  name  of  the  Sultan,  but  they  probably  furnish  their  own 
wants  first  and  pay  differences  into  the  Hoyal  Trei^ury,  seeing  that  it 
all  comes  from  their  own  feudal  dependents. 

The  Sultanate  is  hereditary  under  the  Salic  Law.  The  Sultan  is 
supported  by  three  ministers,  one  of  whom  acta  as  Regent  in  his 
absence  (for  he  might  have  to  go  to  Mecca,  if  he  had  not  previously 
done  so),  the  other  is  Minister  of  War,  and  the  third  is  Minister  of 
Justice  and  Master  of  the  Ceremonies. 

Slavery  exists  in  a  most  ample  sense.  There  are  slaves  by  birth 
and  others  by  conquest,  such  as  prisoners  of  war,  insolvent  debtors, 
and  those  seiaed  hy  piratical  expeditions  to  other  islands.  A  creoie 
friend  of  mine,  Don  A.  M,,  was  one  of  those  last.  Ho  had  commenced 
clearing  an  estate  for  cane-growiiig  on  the  Negroa  coast  some  years 
ago,  when  he  was  seized  and  carried  off  to  Sulu  Island.  In  a  few 
years  he  was  ransomed  and  returned  to  Negros,  where  he  formed  one 
of  the  finest  sugar  haciendas  and  factories  iu  the  Colony, 

In  188i  a  Mussulman  was  found  on  a  desolate  isle  lying  off  the 
Antique  coast  (Pauay  Island),  and  of  course  had  no  document  of 
identity,  so  he  was  arrested  and  confined  in  the  jail  of  Sait  Jose  de 
Buenavista.  From  prisou  he  was  eventually  taken  to  the  residence  of 
the  Spanish  Governor,  Don  Manuel  Castcllou,  a  very  humane  gentleman 
and  a  personal  friend  of  mine.  There  he  worked  for  some  little  time 
with  the  other  domestics.  In  Don  Mauuel's  study  there  was  a 
collection  of  native  arms  which  took  the  fancy  of  the  Mussulman  ;  one 
morning  he  seiaed  a  kris  and  lance,  and,  boundiug  into  the  hrcakfaat- 
roo  ape  ed  about,  gesticulated,  and  brandished  the  lance  in  the  air, 
mu  h  to  tl  e  anausemciit  of  the  Governor  and  his  guests.  But  in  an 
n  (ant  the  fellow  (hitherto  a  mystery,  but  uudoubtedly  &  juramentado) 
hu  led  the  lance  with  great  force  towards  the  Public  Prosecutor,  and 
the  m  as  le  fter  severing  his  watch-chain,  lodged  in  the  side  of  the 
tal  le     The  Governor  _aud  the  Public  Prosecutor  at  once  closed  with 

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A   VISIT   TO    THE    SULTAN.  165 

the  would-be  assftssin,  whilst  the  G-overnor's  wife,  with  great  presence 
oi  mind,  thrust  a  table-knife  into  the  culprit's  body  between  the  shonlder- 
blade  and  the  collar-bone  The  mau  fell  la  if  dead  and,  when  all 
fiuppoied  that  he  wai  so,  he  Bud  lenly  jumped  up  !No  cue  had 
thought  of  takui'  the  kri-i  out  ff  his  grasp  ind  he  rushed  around 
the  apartment  severely  cut  two  of  the  servaut^,  b  it  wis  ultimately 
despatched  Vy  the  ba\onefs  f  the  guards  who  arrived  m  hearing 
the  scuffle  Ihe  Governor  showtd  me  his  wouuls,  which  were  "■light, 
but  hi3  life  wi    6ived  by  the  vilour  of  his  wife — Dona  Justa 

It  hjs  rftcn  been  remarkti  by  old  residents  that  if  free  1  eence 
were  granted  to  the  domesticated  natives  their  barbarous  instincts 
would  leiur  to  them  in  all  vij,om  Here  was  in  instanee  The  body 
was  carried  off  1  >  an  e\citel  populace,  who  tied  a  lope  to  it,  leat  it, 
and  dragged  it  through  the  town  to  a  few  miles  up  the  coast,  where  it 
was  thrown  on  the  sea  shore  The  priests  did  not  interfere  like  the 
Egyptian  mninm  cs  cist  on  the  Stygian  shores,  the  culf.  ret  w  as  unw  orthy 
of  sepulture — besides,  who  would  pay  the  fees  ? 

During  my  first  visit  to  Sulu  in  1881,1  was  dimug  with  the 
Governor,  when  the  conversation  ran  on  the  det  ills  of  an  expedition 
which  was  to  be  seat  out  in  a  day  or  so  to  Maybnn,  to  carrj  despatches 
received  from  the  Governor- General  for  the  Sultan,  and  to  transact 
business  anent  the  Protectorate,  The  Governor  seemed  rather  "iurpi  ised 
when  I  expressed  my  wish  to  join  the  party,  for  the  ]Onruev  is  not 
unattended  with  risk  for  one's  life.  [I  may  hero  mention,  that  only 
a  few  days  before  I  arrived,  a  youug  officer  was  bCnt  on  some  mission 
a  short  distance  outside  the  town  of  Sulu,  accomp  mied  by  a  patrol 
of  two  guards.  He  was  met  by  armed  Moslems,  and  sent  back  with 
one  of  hie  hands  cut  off.  I  remember  also  the  news  reachmg  us,  that 
several  military  officers  were  sitting  outside  a  cafe  in  Sithi  lown, 
when  a  number  of  juramentados  came  behind  them  and  i  nt  tlieir 
throats.3  However,  the  Governor  did  not  oppose  mv  wish — on  the 
contrary,  he  jocosely  replied  that  lio  could  not  extend  mj  passport 
so  far,  because  he  could  say  nothing  about  my  safety  vtt  the  more 
Europeans  the  better. 

Ofiieials  usually  went  by  sea  to  Maybun,  and  a  ^unlKiat  was  now 
and  again  sent  round  the  coast  with  messages  to  the  hultan,  but  there 
was  none  here  at  the  time. 



Our  party,  all  told,  includiag  the  native  ntteodants,  Dumbereil 
tthout  tliirty  Christiaua,  and  vre  started  early  in  the  morning  on 
horaeback.  I  carried  my  oi'dinarj-  weapon — a,  revolver — hoping  there 
would  be  no  need  to  !ise  it  on  the  journey.  And  so  it  resulted  ;  we 
arrived,  without  being  molested  in  any  way,  in  about  three  hours, 
•cross  a  beautiful  country. 

We  passed  two  low  range  of  I  \U  which  appeared  to  run  from 
S.W.  to  N.E.,  and  several  eniaU  stieim*  whilst  here  and  there  was 
a  raneba  of  the  Sultan's  siitjett^  Lach  lanche  ^as  formed  of  a 
group  of  ten  to  twenty  huts,  controllel  I  j  the  Cacique 

Agriculture  seemed  to  be  pursued  m  a  very  pristine  fashion, 
but  doubtless  owing  to  the  exuberant  fertility  of  the  soil,  we  sawaome 
very  nice  crops  of  Eioe,  Indian  corn,  Sugar  cane,  and  Indigo  and  Coffee 
plantations  on  a  small  scale.  In  the  forest  which  we  traversed  there 
were  some  of  the  largest  Bamboos  I  have  ever  seen,  and  fine  building 
timber,  such  as  Teat,  Narra,  Molave.  Mangachapuy  and  Camagon  (vide 
Woods,  page  367).  I  was  assured  that  Cedars  also  flourished  on 
the  island.  We  saw  a  great  number  of  Monkeys,  wild  Pigeons, 
Cranes,  and  I'arrots,  whilst  Deer,  Buffaloes  and  Wild  Goats  are  said  to 
abound  in  these  parts. 

On  our  arrival  at  Maybun,  we  went  flrat  to  the  bungalow  of  a 
Chinaman — the  Sultan's  brother-in-law — where  we  refreshed  ourselves 
with  our  own  provisions,  and  learnt  the  gossip  of  the  place.  On 
inquiry,  we  were  told  that  the  Sultan  was  sleeping,  so  we  waited  at 
the  Chinaman's.  I  understood  this  man  was  a  trader,  bnt  there  were 
DO  visible  signs  of  his  doing  any  business.  Most  of  our  party  slept 
the  siesta,  and  at  about  four  o'clock  wc  called  at  the  Palace.  It  was  a 
very  large  building,  well  constructed,  itid  appealed  to  be  budt  almost 
entirely  of  materials  of  the  country.  A  deal  ot  bamboo  and  wood 
were  used  in  it,  and  even  the  roof  was  made  of  split  bamboo,  although 
I  am  told  that  this  was  replaced  by  sheet  iron  whea  the  young  Sultan 
came  to  the  throne.  The  vestibule  wis  very  spmons,  and  all  around 
was  pleasantly  decorated  with  IovgIj'  sbrubs  aud  plants  peculiar  to 
most  mid-tropical  regions.  The  entrance  to  the  Palace  wasalnajs 
open,  and  we  were  received  by  three  Dattos,  who  saluted  ui  m  a 
formal  way,  and  without  waiting  to  ask  us  any  question,  invited  us, 
with  a  waive  of  the  baud,  to  follow  iuto  the  throne  room. 



The  Sultan  was  seated  ou  our  entering,  but  when  the  bearer  of 
the  despatches  approached  with  the  oiScial  interpreter  hy  his  side,  and 
we  following,  he  rose  in  his  place  to  greet  us. 

His  Excellency  was  dressed  in  very  tight  silk  tronsers,  fastened 
partly  np  the  sides  with  showy  chased  gold  or  gilt  buttons — a  short 
Eton-cut  olive-green  jacket  with  an  infinity  of  buttons,  white  socks, 
ornamented  slippers,  a  red  sash  around  his  waist,  a  kind  of  turban,  and 
a  kris  at  his  side.  One  could  almost  have  imagiueJ  him  to  be  a 
Spanish  bull-flghter  with  an  Oriental  finish  off. 

We  all  bowed  low,  and  the  Snltiin,  surrounded  by  his  Sultanas,  put 
his  hands  to  his  temples,  and  on  lowering  them,  he  bowed  at  the  same 
time.  We  remained  standing  whilst  some  papers  wore  handed  to  him. 
He  looked  at  them — a  few  words  were  said  in  Spanish,  to  the  efFect 
tliat  the  beiirer  saluted  His  Excellency  in  the  name  of  the  Governor  of 
Sulu.  The  Sultan  passed  the  documents  to  the  official  interpreter,  who 
read  or  explained  them  in  Sulu  language ;  then  a  brief  conversation 
ensued,  through  the  interpreter,  and  tho  business  was  really  over. 
After  a,  short  pause,  the  Sultau  motioned  to  us  to  be  seated,  od  floor 
cushions,  and  we  complied.  The  cushions,  covered  with  rich  silk,  were 
very  comfortable.  Servants,  in  fantastic  costumes,  were  constantly  in 
attendance,  serving  betel-nut  to  those  who  cared  to  chew  it. 

One  Sultaua  was  fairly  pretty,  or  had  been  so,  but  the  remainder 
were  heavy,  languid  and  lazy  in  their  movements  j  and  their  teeth,  dyed 
black,  did  not  embellish  their  personal  appearance.  The  Sultan  made 
various  inc[uirios,  and  passed  many  oomplimcuts  on  us,  the  Governor, 
Governor-General  and  others,  which  were  conveyed  to  us  through  tha 
interpreter.  Meanwhile,  the  Sultanas  chatted  among  themselves,  and 
were  apparently  as  mucli  interested  in  our  external  appearance  as  we 
were  in  their  style,  features  and  attire.  They  all  wore  light- coloured 
"  dual  garments "  of  great  width  and  tight  bodices.  Their  coiffure 
was  carefully  finished,  but  a  part  of  the  forehead  was  hidden  by  an 
ungraceful  fringe  of  hair. 

We  had  so  little  in  common  to  converse  on,  and  that  little  bad  to 
be  said  through  the  interpreter,  that  we  were  rather  glad  when  we 
were  asked  to  take  refreshments.  It  at  least  served  to  relieve  the 
awkward  feeling  of  looking  at  each  other  in  silence.  Chocolate  and 
ornamental  sweetmeats  were  brought  to  us,  but  what  frightful  mixture 
tbe  supposed  chocolate  was  I  could  sot   tell,     I  believe  it  was  made 

•d  by  Google 


with  cocoauut  oil,  and  to  avoid  a  scene  conaequeat  on  an  indispoeition, 
I  decided  to  leave  it. 

We  were  about  to  take  our  departure,  wlien  the  Sultan  invited  us 
to  remain  all  night  ia  the  Palace.  The  leader  of  our  party  caused  to 
be  explained  to  him  that  we  were  thankful  for  his  gracious  offer,  but 
that,  being  bo  numeroua,  we  feared  to  disturb  His  Excellency  by 
intruding  so  far  on  his  hospitality.  Still  the  Sultan  politely  insisted, 
and  whilst  the  interpretation  was  being  transmitted,  I  found  au 
opportunity  to  let  our  chief  know  that  I  bad  a  burning  anxiety  to  stay 
at  the  Palace  for  curiosity.  In  any  case,  we  were  a  large  number  to 
go  anywhere,  so  our  leader,  in  reply  to  the  Sultan,  said,  that  he  and 
four  Europeans  of  his  suite  would  take  advantage  of  Hia  Excellency's 

We  withdrew  from  the  Sultan's  presence,  and  walked  through  the 
town  in  company  with  some  functionaries  of  the  Eoyal  household. 
There  was  nothing  very  striking  iu  the  town  ;  it  was  like  most  others. 
There  were  some  good  bungalows  of  bamboo  and  thatching.  I  noticed 
that  men,  women,  and  children  were  smoking  tobacco  or  chewing, 
and  bad  no  visible  occupation.  Many  of  the  smaller  dwellings  were 
built  on  piles  out  to  the  sea.  We  saw  a  number  of  divers  preparing  to 
go  off  to  get  pearls,  mother-of-pearl,  etc.  Tliey  are  very  expert  in 
this  occupation,  and  dive  as  deep  as  100  feet.  Prior  to  the  plunge, 
they  go  through  a  grotesque  performance  of  waiving  their  arms  in 
the  air  and  twisting  their  bodies,  in  order — as  they  say — to  frighten 
away  the  sharks  ;  then  with  a  whoop,  they  leap  over  the  edge  of 
the  prabu,  and  continue  to  throw  their  arms  and  legs  about  tor  the 
purpose  mentioned.     They  oft«n  dive  for  the  shark  and  rip  it  up  with 

Five  of  us  retired  to  the  Palace  that  night,  and  were  at  once 
conducted  to  our  rooms.  There  was  no  door  to  my  room  ;  it  was, 
strictly  speaking,  an  alcove.  During  the  night,  at  intervals  of  about 
every  hour,  as  it  seemed  to  me,  a  Palace  servant  or  guard  came 
to  inquire  how  the  Senor  was  sleeping,  and  if  I  wore  comfortable. 
"  Duerme  el  SeFior  ?  "  (does  the  gentleman  sleep  ?)  was  apparently  the 
limit  of  his  knowledge  of  Spanish.  1  did  not  clearly  understand  more 
tlian  the  fact  that  the  man  was  a  nuisance,  and  I  regretted  there  was  no 
door  with  which  to  shut  him  out.  The  next  morning  we  paid  onr 
respects  to  His  Highness,  who  furnished  us  with  au  escort— more  a& 

•d  by  Google 


a  compliment  than  a  neceaaity — and  we  reached  Sulu  town  again,  after 
a  very  enjoyahle  ride  through  a  superb  country. 

•  •«>«•  a 

The  Sultan's  subjects  are  so  far  spread  from  the  centre  of 
Government — Maybun — that  in  some  places  their  allegiance  is  bat 
nominal.  Many  of  them  residing  near  the  Spanish  settlements  are 
quick  at  learning  Castilliao  sufficiently  weU  to  be  understood,  but  the 
Spanish  authorities  have  tried  in  vain  to  subject  them  to  an  European 
order  of  things. 

About  20  miles  up  the  coast,  going  north  from  Zamhoanga,  the 
Jesuits  sent  a  missionary  in  1885  to  convert  the  Swbuanos,  said  to 
be  of  the  same  caste  as  the  Manohos  of  Caraga,  tlie  Guimbanos  o£ 
Sulu  and  the  Samecas  of  Basilan.  lie  endeavoured  to  persuade  the 
people  to  form  a  village.  They  cleared  a  way  through  tlie  forest  from 
the  beach,  and  at  the  end  of  this  opening,  about  three  quarters  of  a 
mile  long,  I  found  a  church  half  built  of  wood,  bamboo  and  palm- 
leaves,  I  had  ridden  to  the  place  on  horseback  along  the  beach,  and 
my  food  and  baggage  followed  in  a  cauoc.  The  opening  was  so 
roughly  cleared  that  I  thought  it  better  to  dismount  when  I  got  half 
way.  As  the  church  was  only  in  course  of  construction,  and  not 
consecrated,  I  look  up  my  quarters  there.  I  was  followed  by  a  Suhuano, 
who  was  curious  to  know  the  object  of  my  visit.  I  told,  him  I 
wished  to  see  the  headman,  so  this  personage  arrived  with  one  of  his 
wives  and  a  young  girl.  They  sat  on  the  floor  with  me  and  tasted 
some  of  my  food,  and  as  the  Cacique  could  make  himself  understood 
in  Spanish,  we  chatted  about  the  affairs  of  the  town  in  posse.  The 
visiting  priest  had  gone  to  the  useless  trouble  of  baptizing  a  few  of 
these  people.  They  appeared  to  be  as  mnch  Christian  as  I  was 
Mussulman,  The  Cacique  had  more  than  one  wife — the  word  of  the 
Patidila  of  the  settlement  was  the  local  law,  and  the  Pandita  himself 
of  course  had  his  seraglio.  I  got  the  first  man,  who  had  followed  me, 
to  direct  me  to  the  Pandita's  house.  My  guide  was  gaily  attired  in 
bright  red  tight  acrobat  breeches,  with  buttons  up  the  side,  and  a 
jacket  like  a  waistcoat,  with  sleeves  so  cloae-iitting  that  I  suppose  he 
seldom  took  the  trouble  to  undress  himself,  I  left  the  Cacique, 
promising  to  visit  his  bun,'::ilow  that  day,  and  then  iny  guide  led  me 
through  winding  paths,  in  a  wood,  to  the  hut  of  the  Pandita.  On  the 
way,  I  met  a  man  of  the  tribe,  carrying  spring-water  in  a  bamboo,  which 

•d  by  Google 


lie  tilted,  to  give  me  a  drink.  To  my  inquiries  if  he  were  a  Christian, 
and  if  be  knew  the  Casdllian  Pandila  (Spanisli  priest),  he  replied  in 
the  affirmative  ;  continuing  the  interrogation,  I  asked  iiim  how  many 
GoUa  there  were,  and  when  he  answered  "  four,"  I  closed  my  investiga- 
tion of  hia  Christianity.  My  guide  was  too  canning  to  take  me  by 
the  direct  path  to  the  Pandita'i  bungalow.  He  led  me  iuto  a  half- 
cleared  plot  of  laud  facing  the  bungalow,  whence  the  inmates  could 
see  lis  for  at  least  ten  mimites  making  our  approach.  When  we 
arrived,  and  after  aerambling  up  the  staircase,  which  was  simply  a 
notched  trunk  of  a  tree  about  nine  iDches  diameter,  I  found  that  the 
Pandita,  forewarned,  had  fled  to  the  mountain  close  by,  leaving  hia 
wives  to  entertain  the  visitor.  It  was  perhaps  censurable  to  have 
brought  Dutch  gin  with  me,  when  visiting  a  people  of  rightly  famed 
sobriety  in  their  natural  habits,  yet  it  was  highly  efficacious  in  arousing 
their  loquacity  when  I  found  them  all  lounging  and  chewing  betel- 
nut:  squatted  on  the  floor  amongst  them,  with  the  big  black  square 
bottle  passing  round,  they  became  remarkably  chatty.  Then  I  picked 
up  my  bottle  and  went  to  the  Cacique's  bungalow.  In  the  rear  of 
this  dwelling  there  was  a  small  forge,  and  the  most  effective  bellows 
of  primitive  make  which  I  have  ever  seen  in  any  country.  It  waa  a 
double-action  apparatus,  made  entirely  of  bamboo,  except  the  pistons, 
which  were  of  feathers.  These  pistons,  working  up  and  down  alter- 
nately by  a  bamboo  rod  in  each  hand,  sustained  perfectly  a  constant 
draught  oE  tiir.  One  man  was  squatting  on  a  bamboo  bench  the  height 
of  the  bellows'  rods,  whilst  the  smith  crouched  on  the  ground  to  forge 
his  kris  on  the  anvil. 

The  headman'a  bungalow  waa  built  the  same  as.  the  others,  but 
with  greater  care.  It  was  rather  high  up,  and  had  tlie  uiual  notched 
log-of-wood  staircase,  whieli  is  perhaps  easy  to  ascend  with  naked  feet. 
The  Cacique  and  one  of  his  wives  were  seated  on  mats  on  the  floor. 
After  mutual  salutations,  the  wife  threw  rae  three  cushions,  on  which 
I  reclined — doing  the  dolce  far  nicnte  whilst  we  talked  about  the 
affairs  of  the  Settlement,  The  conversation  was  growing  rather 
wearisome  anent  the  Spanish  priest  having  ordered  huts  to  he  buUt 
without  giving  materiala — about  the  scarcity  of  palm  leaves  iu  the 
neighbourhood,  and  so  forth,  bo  I  bade  them  farewell  and  went  on  to 
another  but.  Here  the  inmates  were  numerous — four  women,  three 
or  four  men,  and  two  rather  pretty  male  children,  with  their  beads 


ACROSS    PALAUAN   ISLAND    (pArXgua).  171 

shaven  bo  as  to  leave  only  a  tuft  of  haiv  towards  the  forehead  alioHt 
the  size  of  a  crowti  piece.  Tliey  were  alt  drowsy,  but  liere  the  giti 
liottle  had  a  grand  effect.  Sis  copper  tom-toms  were  brought  out,  and 
placed  iu  a  row  on  pillows,  whilst  another  large  one,  for  the  haas 
aecompaoiment,  was  suspended  from  a  woodea  frame,  A  man  beat 
the  bass  witli  a  stick,  whilst  the  wo7nen  took  it  in  turns  to  kneel  on 
the  floor,  with  a  stick  in  each  hand,  to  play  a  tune  on  the  series  of  six. 
A  few  words  were  passed  between  the  three  meu,  when  suddenly  one 
of  them  arose  and  performed  a  war  dance,  quaintly  twisting  his 
arms  and  legs  iu  attitudes  of  advance,  recoil  and  exultation.  There 
1  left  the  Iwttle  which  had  done  so  much  service,  and  mounted  my 
horse  to  leave  the  Settlement  iu  embryo,  called  by  the  missionariea 
Reus,  which  is  the  name  of  a  town  iu  Cataluuia. 

The  Island  of  Palauim  (Pariyua)  formerly  belougod  to  the  Sultan 
of  Borueo  (Brunei  ?),  but  at  the  beginning  of  the  18th  century 
Spaniards  had  already  settled  in  the  north  of  it. 

A  movement  was  set  on  foot  to  reduce  the  natives  to  submission, 
and  in  order  to  protect  the  Spanish  settlers  from  Mussulman  attacks 
a  fort  was  established  at  Labo.  However,  the  supplies  were  not 
kept  np,  and  many  of  the  garrison  died  of  misery,  hunger  and 
nakedness,  until  1720,  when  it  was  abandoned. 

Some  years  afterwards,  the  island  was  gratuitously  ceded  to  the 
Spaniards  by  the  Sultan,  at  their  request.  Captain  Antonio  Fabeau 
was  sent  there  with  troops  to  take  fornial  possession,  beiug  awarded 
the  handsome  salary  of  $50  per  month  for  this  service.  Ou  the  arrival 
of  the  ships,  an  officer  was  sent  ashore  ;  the  people  fled  inland,  and  the 
formalities  of  annexation  were  proceeded  with  unwitnessed.  But  the 
only  signs  of  possession  left  there  were  the  corpses  of  the  troops 
aad  sailors  who  died  from  eating  rotten  food,  or  were  murdered  by 
Mussulmans  who  attacked  the  expedition. 

Subsequently,  a  fortress  was  established  at  Taytay,  where  a  number 
of  priests  and  laymeu,  in  a  few  years,  succeeded  in  forming  a  small 
colony,  which  at  length  shared  the  fate  of  Labo.  The  only  Spanish 
settlement  in  the  island,  at  the  date  of  the  evacuation,  was  the  colony 
of  Puerta  Princesa,  ou  the  east  coast.' 

'  A  few  outposts  had  recently  been  established  by  Eoyal  decree.  Thej  were 
all  under  the  command  of  a  Captain,  ride  Chap.  XIIL 

•d  by  Google 

172  PHILIPPINE  isla:hds. 

Before  I  started  on  my  peregrination  in  Palauan  Islnnd,  I  sought  in 
vain  for  information  respecting  the  liabits  and  nature  of  the  Taghanuas, 
a  half-caste  Malay- Aeta  tribe,  disseminated  over  a  little  more  than  the 
southern  half  of  the  island.  It  was  only  on  my  arrival  at  Puerta 
Prineesa  that  I  was  able  to  proenro  a  vague  insight  into  the 
pecufiarities  of  the  people  whom  J  intended  to  visit.  The  Governor, 
Don  Felipe  Canga-Argiielles,  was  highly  pleased  to  find  a  traveller 
who  could  sympathize  with  hie  efforts,  and  help  to  make  tnowit,  if  only 
to  the  rest  of  the  Archipelago,  this  island  almost  unexplored  in  the 
interior.  He  constantly  wrote  articles  to  one  of  the  leading  journals  o£ 
Manila,  under  the  title  of  "  Echos  from  Paragua "  (PnJai'ian),  partly 
with  the  view  of  attracting  the  attention  of  the  Government  Depart- 
ments to  the  reqwirements  of  the  Colony,  but  also  to  stimulate  a  spirit 
of  enterprise  in  favour  of  this  fertile  island  among  those  trading 
capitalists  who  might  feel  inclined  to  cultivate  its  vast  resources. 

Puerta  Prioccsa  is  a  good  harbour,  situated  on  a  gulf.  The  soil  has 
been  levelled,  trees  have  been  planted,  and  a  slip  for  repairing  vessels 
has  been  constructed.  There  was  a  fixed  white  light  visible  eleven 
miles  off.  It  was  a  naval  station  for  two  gunboats — the  Commander 
of  the  station  was  ex-officio  Governor  of  the  Colony.  It  was  also  a 
Penal  Settlement  for  convicts,  ami  those  sjispected  by  the  civil  or 
religious  authorities.  To  give  employment  to  the  convicts  and 
suspects,  a  model  sugar  estate  was  established  by  the  Government. 
The  locality  supplied  nearly  all  the  raw  material  for  n'orking  and 
preserving  the  establishment,  such  as  lime,  stone,  bricks,  timber,  sand, 
firewood,  straw  for  hags,  rattans,  etc. 

The  aspect  of  the  town  is  agreeable,  and  the  environs  are  pretty, 
but  there  is  a  great  drawback  in  the  want  of  drinking-water,  which,  in 
the  dry  season,  has  to  be  procured  from  a  great  distance. 

The  Governor  showed  me  great  attention,  and  personallv  took 
command  of  a  gunboat,  wliich  conducted  me  to  the  mouth  of  the 
Iguajit  Kiver.  Tills  is  the  great  river  of  the  district,  aud  is  navigable 
for  abont  three  miles.  I  put  otf  in  a  boat  manned  by  marines,  and  was 
rowed  about  two  miles  up,  as  far  as  the  mission  station.  The  missionary 
received  me  well,  and  I  stayed  there  that  night,  with  five  men,  whom 
I  had  engaged  to  carry  my  luggage,  for  we  had  a  journey  before  ua 
of  some  days  on  foot  to  the  opposite  coast. 

My  luggage,  besides  the  ordinary  travelling  requisites  and 
provieioDS,  included    about   ninety  yards    of   printed  stuffs  of   bright 

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colours,  six  dozeo  common  handkerchiefs,  and  some  twelve  pounds 
weight  of  beads  on  strings,  with  a  few  odds  and  ends  of  trinkets ; 
whilst  my  native  bearers  were  provided  with  rice,  dried  fish,  betel-nut, 
tobacco,  etc.  for  a  week  or  more.  We  set  out  ou  foot  the  next  day, 
and  in  throe  days  and  a  half  we  reached  the  western  siiore. 

The  greatest  height  above  the  sea-level  on  our  route  was  about 
900  metres,  according  to  my  aneroid  reading,  and  the  maximum  heat 
at  mid-day  in  the  shade  (month  of  January)  was  82"  Fahr.  The 
wights  were  cold,  comparatively  speaking,  and  at  midnight  the 
thermometer  ouce  descended  to  59°  Fahr. 

The  natives  proved  to  be  a  very  pacific  people.  We  found  some 
engaged  in  collecting  gum  from  the  trees  in  the  forest,  and  others 
cutting  and  making  up  bundles  of  rattans.  They  took  these  products 
down  to  the  Iguajit  Eiver  mission  station,  where  Chinese  traders 
bartered  for  them  stuffs  and  other  commodities.  The  value  of  coin  was 
not  altogether  unknown  in  the  mission  village,  although  the  relative 
value  hetwecu  copper  and  silver  coinage  was  not  understood.  lu  the 
interior  they  lived  in  great  misery,  their  cabins  being  wretched  hovels. 
They  planted  their  rice  without  ploughing  at  all,  and  all  their 
agricultural  implements  were  made  of  wood  or  bamboo. 

The  island  produces  many  marketable  articles,  such  as  beeswax, 
edible  birds'  nests,  fine  shells,  dried  shell-fish,  a  few  pearls,  bush- 
rope  or  paUsan  of  enormous  length,  wild  nutmegs,  logwood,  etc., 
which  the  Chinese  obtain  in  barter  for  knives  aud  other  small 

The  native  dress  is  made  of  bark  of  trees,  smashed  with  stones,  to 
take  out  the  ligneous  parts.  Iii  the  cool  weather  they  make  tunics  of 
Itark,  and  the  women  wear  drawers  of  the  same  material.  They  adorn 
their  waists  with  sea-shell  and  cocoa-nut  shell  ornaments,  whilst  the 
fibre  of  tlie  palm  serves  for  a  waistband.  They  pierce  very  large  holes 
iu  tlieir  ears,  in  which  they  place  shells,  wood,  etc.  They  never  bathe 
intentionally.  Their  arms  are  bows  and  arrows,  and  darts  blown 
through  a  kind  of  pea-shooter.  They  are  a  very  dirty  people,  and  they 
eat  their  fish  or  flesh  raw, 

I  had  no  difliculty  whatever  iu  getting  guides  from  place  to  place 
OH  payment  in  goods,  aud  my  instructions  were  always  to  lead  me 
straight  to  the  coast,  the  nearest  point  of  which  I  knew  was  due  west 
or  a  few  points  to  the  north. 

We  passed  through  a  most  fertile  country  the  whole  way.    There 

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■were  no  rivers  of  "any  importance,  bnt  we  were  well  supplied  with 
drinking-water  from  the  numerous  springs  and  rivulets.  The  forests 
are  very  rich  in  good  timber,  chiefly  Ipil  (Eperma  decandria),  a.  very 
useful  hardwood  (vide  "  Woods,"  page  367).  I  estimated  that  many  of 
these  trees,  if  felled,  would  have  given  clean  logs  of  seventy  to  eighty 
feet  long.  Also  ebony  and  logwood  are  found  here,  I  presume  the 
felling  of  timher  is  abandoned  by  these  natives  on  account  of  the 
difficulties,  or  rather,  total  want  of  transport  means.  From  a  plateau, 
within  half  a  day's  journey  of  the  opposite  coast,  the  scenery  was 
remarkably  beautiful,  with  the  sea  to  the  west  and  an  interminable 
■  of  forest  to  the  east.  Tliere  were  a  few  fishermen  on  the 
,t  coast,  hut  further  tliau  that,  there  was  not  a  sign  of  anything 
beyond  the  gifts  of  nature. 

With  an  abuodauce  of  fish,  we  were  able  to  economize  our 
provisions.  Ooo  of  my  men  fell  ill  with  fever,  so  that  we  had  to  wait 
two  days  on  the  west  coast,  whilst  I  dosed  him  with  Eoo's  fruit  salt 
and  Howard's  quinine.  Such  a  thing  as  a  horse  I  suppose  had  never 
been  seen  here,  although  I  would  gladly  have  bought  or  hired  one,  for 
I  was  very  weary  of  our  delay.  We  all  went  on  the  march  again,  on 
foot  nearly  all  the  way,  by  the  same  passes  to  thelguajit  River,  where 
we  found  a  canoe,  which  carried  us  back  to  Puerta  Princesa. 

The  first  survey  of  the  Palauan  Island  coast  is  said  to  have  been 
made  by  the  British.  A  British  map  of  Puerta  Princesa,  with  a  few 
miles  of  adpiniDg  coast,  was  shown  to  me  in  the  Government  House 
of  this  place.  It  appears  that  the  west  coast  is  not  navigable  for  sliips 
within  at  least  two  miles  of  the  shore,  although  there  are  a  few 
chanuela  leading  to  creeks.  Vessels  coming  from  the  west  usually 
pass  through  the  Straits  of  Balibac,  between  the  island  of  that  name 
and  the  islets  off  the  Borneo  Island  coast.  The  north  of  Palaiian 
Island  is  very  sparsely  peopled. 

In  recent  years,  the  Home  G-overnment  have  made  efforts  to  colonize 
Palaiian  Island,  by  offering  certain  advantages  to  emigrants.  By  Royal 
Order,  dated  25th  of  February,  1885,  the  islands  of  Palauan  and 
Mindanao  were  to  be  occupied  in  an  effectual  maniLcr,  and  outposts 
established,  wherever  necessary,  to  guarantee  the  secure  possession  of 
these  islands.  The  points  mentioned  for  such  occupation  in  Palauan 
Island,  were  Tagbusao  and  Malihut  on  the  east  coast,  and  Colasian  and 
Malaiuit  on  the  west  coast.  It  also  confirmed  the  Royal  Decree  of  tho 
30th  of  July,  1S60,  granting  to  all   families  emigrating  to  these  newly 

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established  military  posts,  and  all  peaceful  tribes  of  the  Islands  who 
might  choose  to  settie  there,  exemption  from  the  payment  of  tribute 
for  six  years.  The  families  would  be  furnished  with  a  free  passage 
to  these  places,  and  each  group  would  be  supplied  with  seed  smd 

A  subsequent  Eoyal  Order,  dated  19th  of  JaDuary,  1886,  was 
issued,  to  the  effect  : — That  the  Provincial  Governors  of  the  Proyincea 
of  North  and  South  Ilocos  were  to  stimulate  voluntary  emigration  of  the 
natives  to  Palauau  Island,  to  the  extent  of  23  families  from  each  of 
the  two  provinces  per  ai       n      T  any  payments  due  by  tliem  to 

the  Public  Treasury  wer     t     b  d  ned.     That  such  families  and 

any  persons  of  good  uh  a  te  1  might  establish  themselves  in 
Palauan  should  be  exempt  f  m  h  p  j  nent  of  taxes  for  ten  years,  and 
roeeivo  free  passage  ther  f  th  m  1  es  and  their  cattie,  and  three 
hectares  of  land  gratis,  to  1       nl  It    ation  within  a  stated  period. 

That  two  ehupas  of  ric     (f  sure,  vide]  page  318)  and  ten 

cents  of  a  dollar  should  b    g  t  h  adiilt,  and  oue  chiipa  of  rice 

to  each  minor  eaeh  day  during  the  first  six  months  from  the  date  of 
their  embarking.  That  the  Governor  of  Palauan  should  be  instructed 
respecting  the  highways  to  he  constructed,  and  the  convenience  of 
opening  free  ports  in  that  island.  That  the  land  and  sea  forces  should 
be  increased  ;  and  of  the  latter,  a  third-rate  man-o'-war  should  be 
stationed  on  the  west  coast.  That  convicts  should  continue  to  be 
sent  to  Palauau,  and  the  Governor  should  be  authorized  to  employ  all 
those  of  bad  conduct  in  public  works.  Tuat  schools  of  primary 
instruction  should  be  established  in  the  island  wherever  such  might 
bo  considered  convenient,  etc.,  etc' 

'  By  Royal  Order  of  August  20tli,  I8S8,  a  concession  of  12,000  U>  14,000  hectares 
of  land  in  Palalian  was  Felipe  Canga-Argilellesy 
ot  Pnerta  Princesa,  for  the  term  of  20  jcars. 

He  could  work  mines,  cut  timber,  and  till  the  land  so  conceded  under  the  law- 
called  "  Ley  lie  Coloniaa  Agricolas,"  of  the  ith  September,  1884,  which  was  little 
more  than  an  estccifiion  to  the  Philippines  o£  the  Peninaula  forest  and  agricultural 
law  of  June  Srd,  IStiS,  vide  "  Gaceta  de  Madrid"  of  September  23lh,  1S88.  It 
appeal's,  however,  from  the  Colonial  Minister's  despatch  No.  616,  to  tlie  Governor- 
General  of  the  Colony,  dated  May  24th,  1890,  that  the  concessioimaire  had 
endeavoured  to  associate  himself  with  foreigners  forthe  working  of  the  concession. 
The  wording  of  the  despatch  shows  that  suspicion  was  entertained  of  an  intention 
to  eventually  declare  territorial  independence  in  ralafian.  The  Government, 
wishing  to  avoid  the  possibility  of  embmilment  with  a  foreign  nation,  unfortunately 

thought  it  necessary  to  impose  sucli  restrictions  upon  the  cr •         '—  —  '~ 

render  his  enterprise  valueless. 

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In  the  Island  of  Baldbac  there  ia  absolutely  nothing  remarkable  to 
be  seen,  unless  it;  be  a  little  animal  about  the  size  of  a  big  cat,  but  in 
shape  a  perfect  model  of  a  doe.'  I  took  one  to  Manila,  but  it  died  the 
day  we  arrived.  No  part  of  the  island  (which  is  very  mountainous  and 
fertile)  appears  to  be  cultivated,  and  even  the  officials  at  the  station 
had  to  get  supplies  from  Manila,  whilst  cattle  were  brought  from  the 
Island  of  Cuyo,  one  of  the  Calamiaiies  group.  A  few  weeks  before  I 
arrived  in  Balabac,  an  American  three-masted  ship  had  stranded  in 
the  dangerous  Balabac  Straits,  but  tlie  Captain  with  his  wife  and 
daughter  managed  to  reach  the  naval  station  of  Balahac,  where  they 
were  treated  with  every  kindness  by  the  Governor  and  officials. 

'  Alfred  Marohe  calls  this  the  Tragidivi  Jtanchil,  and  says  it  is  also  to  be  found 
in  Malacca,  Cochin  China,  and  Pulo  Condor,  vide.  "  Lu^on  et  Palaouan,"  par 
A.  Marche.  Paris,  1887. 

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iiiE  gPueiiU}  (loccptcJ  tliLOi)  r(,^ir<lm„'  tin  oij^'in  ot  tlie  nee 
winch  I  will  term  '  dumestiL  ifed  aattve?,"  is,  tliit  they  hrat  migntoJ 
fiom  Mulagascar  to  the  Malay  PcniQsula  But  so  many  leiiuel 
<li->scitatioii'i  ha\e  eniamteil  iiom  distiugiusLo  1  men  proponnJmg 
toiifliLtiug  opinions  ou  tine  dost  cut  of  the  Mafiij  a  iiid  (he  mhahitiiits 
ol  iliilesia,  tint  we  ire  '^tlll  Ipft  on  the  field  of  coiijectuie  There 
19  not  room  la  this  work  to  cuter  the  iistt  a„  uu&t  many  stiaugo 
asscition^  Tvbii,h  li  n  o  heoii  made  o  i  the  sul>]ect 

Some  hu'iegoiie  as  fai  as  Patagouia  to  trai'e  tlio  piunitne  aoiULe 
of  the&e  pLople  '  "1  itaie  affirm,"  eajs  ZuKina,"  "  that  the  ludiaus 
"  of  tlie  Philippines  are  descended  from  the  ahoiiginea  of  Chih  nuil 
"  Pel  u,  ind  that  the  1  inguaffe  of  these  inlands  derives  iinnicdiately 
"  from  the  parent  source"  latlicr  /uiiiga,  it  least,  u«e3  the  potent 
and  toa^ible  ugumont  m  favour  of  in-,  couUusiont,  that  uatneshive 
hoen  frequently  lariied  WeitwarJ  b)  East  muds  and  current*, 
whilst  uo  Lise  13  on  lecoid  of  their  liaviug  Infted  m  the  eouti  m 
duectiou  towards  thi'>  AicUipeligo 

Hoiveier.  (he  popiihr  siipjiO'-iHou  i,  th  it  the>  pissed  f i  im 
Mil(,sia  to  these  IsHiida  Iq  the  eour-.e  of  time — [icihaps  after  miu> 
gentntions — thev  \irtnnllj'  eupplaiitcd  the  vboiigmal  popal  itioii  m 
tbo  domiuiou  ot  the  lonstB  and  lowlands,  where  they  bei'kmc  us 
tlioniighly  rnilii'ited  as  if  thtv  had  betii  proptr  lutochthous  of   tlic 

Iho  des  ciidiuts  of  these  cmisinul  then  f  ip,  wcii.  thoa  hIioui 
thf  Spuiish   nmders   had   to   '■uhdin'    to  maiiitiin    i  fooling       lu   tilt, 

'  Zuiliga's  Hist,  ile  Phil.,  torn.  i.  '  Ibid. 

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present  day  tliey  are  the  ouly  race,  iimoug  the  seyeml  in  tliesf" 
islanilfl,  i-ulijc-cteil,  in  fact,  to  civiiized  methods. 

The  light  of  Christianity  felt  upon  them,  Itut,  to  tbcm,  it  w.aa  sh 
Iiurning  einlicrK,  under  which  their  uherished  freedom  ivonid  smoulder 
and  decay.  The  die  was  cast  against  their  liberties,  where  the  pale 
face  from  the  Far  West  trod,  backed  hy  the  Inquisition. 

In  treating  of  tlio  doracsticatotl  Datives  I  wish  it  to  Le  anderstowl, 
that  my  observations  apply  solely  to  tlie  very  large  mnjorily  of  the 
more  or  less  five  millions  of  them  who  inhabit  these  islnnls. 

In  the  Capital  and  the  jtorta  open  to  foreign  trade,  when.' 
eoenioj'olitan  vices  and  virtnes  prevail,  and  in  large  towns,  where 
there  is  constantly  a  number  of  domiciled  Europeans,  the  native 
haa  become  a  modified  being.  It  is  not  here  that  a  just  estimate 
of  character  can  be  arrived  at,  even  during  many  yea,r8  sojourn. 
The  native  innst  he  studied  by  often-repeated  casual  residence 
in  localities  where  bia,  or  hei-,  domestication  is  only  "by  liiw 
established,"  imposing  little  restraint  upon  natural  iiiclJn  sit  Ions,  .and 
where  exotic  notions  in  uo  way  obtain. 

Several  writers  have  essayed  to  correctly  depict  the  Philippine 
native  character,  but  with  only  partial  success.  Dealing  with  such  an 
anomalism,  the  most  eminent  physiognomists  would  hurely  differ  in 
their  speculations  regarding  the  Philippine  na(i\  e  of  llie  present  d.iy. 
That  Catonian  figure,  with  placid  countenance  and  soltmn  gravity  of 
feature,  would  readily  deceive  any  one  as  to  the  true  mental  organisni 
vrithiu.  The  iat«  pariah  priest  of  Alaminos,  in  Batangr.s  Province— m. 
Spanish  Franciscan  friar,  who  spent  half  his  life  in  the  Colony — lefl 
a  brief  manuscript  essay  on  the  native  character.  I  Ijave  reail  il. 
In  his  opinion,  the  native  is  an  incomprebeiisihle  phenomenon,  tiie 
mainspring  of  whose  lino  of  tliought  and  the  guiding  motive  of  whose 
actions  have  never  yet  been,  and  perhaps  never  wiSl  be,  discovered, 
A  native  will  serve  a  master  satisfactorily  for  years,  and  then  suiUICTily 
abscond,  or  commit  some  such  hideous  crhne  as  conniving  with  n 
brigand  band  to  murder  the  family  and  pillage  the  house. 

A  friend  of  mine — a  Frenchman — who  has  lived  in  the  Colony 
about  half  a  century,  had  a  servant  with  him  for  nearly  forty  years. 
The  sou  came  bacl;  from  a  journey,  bringing  with  him  a  portmanteau 
containing  $1,000.  The  old  servant  cut  it  open  and  extracted  there- 
from   about  20    or    30  dollftrs.       He  did  not  deny    it.     So  my   old 

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friend,  aged  about  70,  gave  his  domestic — aged  about  50,  and  Btill 
called  "  boy  " — as  eoimd  a  tlirasbing  as  his  years  would  permit  for  the 
want  of  BtDartnees,  be  said,  iu  not  taking  the  wbole  sum. 

When  the  hitherto  faithful  servant  is  remonstrated  with  for  having 
committed  a  crime,  he  not  unfrequently  accouuta  for  the  fact  by  saying, 
"  Senor,  my  head  was  hot."  When  caught  in  the  act  on  his  first  start 
on  highway  robbery  or  murder,  his  invariable  excuse  is,  that  he  is 
nut  a  scoundrel  himself,  hut  that  he  was  "iovited"  hy  e.  relation  or 
cnmpadre  to  join  the  company. 

He  is  fond  of  gambling,  profligate,  lavish  in  iiia  promises.  Out 
l&clic  in  the  extreme  as  to  their  fulfilment.  He  will  never  come 
frankly  and  openly  forwaril  to  make  a  clean  breast  of  a  fault  committed 
or  even  a  pardonable  accident,  but  will  hide  it,  until  it  is  foiind  out. 
In  common  with  many  other  non- Europe  an  races,  an  act  of 
generosity  or  a  voluntary  concession  of  justice  is  regarded  as  a  sign 
of  weakness.  Hence  it  is,  that  the  experienced  European  is  often 
compelleil  to  be  more  harsh  than  his  own  natuie  dictates.  In  1887, 
the  Director- General  of  Civil  Administration  visited  the  provinces, 
and  lent  his  ear  to  the  native  complaints,  with  the  intention  of 
remedying  certain  inconvenient  practices  prejudicial  to  the  people. 
The  result  was,  that  on  the  Ist  of  ilarch  in  the  following  year,  a 
body  of  iieadmen  had  the  boldness  to  present  themselves  in  Manilft 
with  a  manifesto  demanding  reforms  which  implied  nothing  less  than 
a  complete  revolution  in  the  governmental  system,  consequently  a 
large  number  of  the  paities  to  the  manifesto  were  imprisoned. 

If  one  pays  a  native  20  cents  for  a  service  performed,  and  that 
be  exactly  the  customary  remuneration,  he  will  say  nothing,  but  if  a 
feeling  of  compassion  impels  one  to  pay  30  cents,  the  recipient  will 
loudly  protest  that  he  ought  to  be  paiil  more.  In  Luzon,  the 
n,!.tive  i-i  able  to  say  "  Thank  you  "  (salamat-po)  in  his  motiier  tongue, 
but  in  the  South  (Visayas)  there  is  no  way  of  expressing  tfianks  iu 
native  dialect  to  a  donor,  and  although  this  may,  at  first  sight,  appear 
to  be  an  insignificant  fact,  I  think,  nevertheless,  a  groat  deal  may  be 
deduced  from  it,  for  the  deficiency  of  the  word  in  the  Visaya  vernacular 
denotes  a  deficiency  of  the  idea  which  that  woi-d  should  express. 

If  the  native  be  in  want  of  a  trivial  thing,  which  by  plain  asking 
he  could  readily  obtain,  he  will  come  with  a  long  tale,  often  begin  hy 
telling  a  lie,  and  whilst  he  invariably  scratches  his  head,  he  will  beat 

M  2 

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about  the  bush  wiitil  he  comes  to  tbe  poiut,  witb  a  aupplicatiug  tone 
nnil  a  saintly  counteuauce  hidiug  a  mass  of  falsity.  But  if  he  has 
nothing  to  gain  for  himself,  his  reticeoco  is  astonishingly  inconvenient, 
for  he  may  let  yo«r  horse  die  and  tell  you  afterwards  it  was  for  waut 
of  rice  paddy,  or,  just  at  the  yery  moment  you  want  to  use  sometliicg, 
iie  will  tell  you  "  Uala-po" — tliere  is  not  any. 

I  have  known  natives  whoso  mothers,  according  to  their  account, 
hare  died  several  times,  and  each  time  they  have  tried  to  beg  the  loan 
of  tiie  buria!  expeuses. 

Even  the  best  class  of  natives  noithor  appreciate,  nor  feoi  grateful 
for,  nor  even  seem  to  understand  a  spontaneoua  gift.  Apparently, 
they  only  comprehend  the  favour  when  one  yields  to  their  asking.  The 
lowest  classes  never  give  to  each  other,  unsolicited,  a  cent's  wortli. 
If  an  European  makes  voluntary  ^rafuaties  to  the  natives,  he  is 
considered  a  fool — thev  entertain  i  contempt  for  him,  which  developes 
into  intolerable  impertinen  e  Therefore  to  avoid  this,  if  a  native 
wants  anything,  nevtr  offur  it  voliintauJj  if  he  comes  to  borrow 
lend  him  a  little  less  than  he  I'iks  for  ifter  a  verbose  preamble.  If 
one  at  once  lent,  or  gave  the  full  value  asked  for,  the  native  would 
continue  to  invent  a  host  of  pressiog  necessities,  until  one's  patience 
ivas  exhausted.  The  sa^  lu^  '  G-ne  him  an  inch  and  he  will  take  an 
"  ell,"  can  truly  be  applied  to  the  Filipinos,  They  are  void  of  all 
feeling  of  magnanimity,  and  do  not  understand  chivalry  towards  fbu 
weak  or  the  fallen  foe. 

A  native  seldom  restores  the  loan  of  anything  voluntarily.  On 
being  remonstrated  with  for  his  remissness,  after  the  date  of  repayment 
or  return  of  the  article  has  expired,  he  will  coolly  reply  "You  did  not 
"  ask  mo  for  it."  A  native  considers  it  no  degradation  to  borrow 
money ;  it  gives  him  no  recurrent  feeling  of  humiliation  or  poignunt 
distress  of  mind.  Thus,  lie  will  often  give  a  costly  feast  to  impress  hio 
neighbours  with  his  wealth  and  maintain  his  local  prestige,  whilst  on 
nil  sides  he  has  debts  innumerable.  At  most,  iie  regards  debt  aa  :ui 
inconvenience,  not  as  a  calamity,  and  perchance  this  looseness  o( 
morality  is  the  cause  of  his  inability  to  resist  evil  in  many  forms. 
Were  it  not  for  the  fear  of  a  fine,  no  well-to-do  native  would  willingly 
contribute  his  legal  quota  lo  the  expenses  of  the  State, 

Before  entering  another  native's  house,  he  is  very  compliment  a  rv, 
and  sometimes  three  minutes'  dialogue  is  exchanged  between  the  visitor 

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and  t!ic  iiittive  visitcil  before  tlie  former  passes  the  threshold.  When 
it  native  enters  an  Eiiropcitn's  house,  he  generally  satisfies  his  curiosity 
by  looking  all  around,  iiud  ofteu  puts  his  head  into  a  private  room, 
iisking  permission  to  do  so  afterwards. 

The  lower  class  of  native  never  comes  at  first  call  ;  among 
themselves,  it  is  usual  to  call  five  or  six  times,  raising  the  voice  each 
time.  If  a  Hiitive  is  told  to  tell  another  to  come,  ho  seldom  goes  to 
him  to  deliver  the  message,  but  calls  him  from  a  distance.  The 
nile  of  the  road  for  horsemea  and  canoemen  is  (amoug  themselves), 
that  he  who  comes  along  behind  must  steer  clear — the  one  in  front,  on 
cither  side,  does  not  n>ake  way.  When  a  native  steals  (and  I  must  say 
they  are  fairly  honest),  he  steals  only  what  he  wants.  One  of  the 
rudest  acts,  according  to  their  social  code,  is  to  step  over  a  persou  asleej. 
on  the  floor.  Sleeping  is,  with  them,  a  very  solemn  matter  ;  tiiey  are 
very  averse  to  awaking  any  one,  the  idea  heing,  that  during  sleep  the 
soul  is  abseut  from  the  body,  and  that  if  slumber  be  suddenly  arrested, 
the  soul  might  not  have  time  to  return.  A  person  knowing  the  habits 
of  the  native,  whea  he  calls  upon  him  and  is  told  "  He  is  asleep,"  does 
not  inijuire  further— the  rest  is  understood:  that  he  may  have  to  wait 
an  indefinite  time  until  the  sleeper  wakes  np — so  he  may  as  well 
depart.  To  get  a  servant  to  rouse  you,  you  have  to  give  Iiim  very 
imperative  orders  to  that  effect;  then  he  stands  by  your  side,  and  calls 
"  Senor,  Seiior  "  repeatedly,  and  each  time  louder,  until  you  are  half 
awake,  then  he  returns  to  the  low  note,  and  gradually  raises  his  voice 
again  until  yon  are  quite  conscious. 

The  reasoning  of  a  uative  and  an  European  differs  so  largely,  that 
the  mental  impulse  of  the  two  races  is  ever  clashing.  Sometimes  a 
newly  arrived  generously  disposed  Proviooial  Governor  will  start  a 
reform  solely  for  their  benefit,  and  find  his  subjects  quite  indifierent 
aljoiit  it. 

With  the  majority,  no  number  of  years  of  genial  intercourse, 
without  material  profit,  will  arouse  in  the  native  breast  a  perceptible 
sympathy  for  the  whito  race.  Exceptions  to  this  rule  are  always 
appreciated.  The  Visaya  native,  in  particular,  exhibits  a  frigid 
stoicism.  He  bears  his  own  misfortunes  unmoved,  and  would  look  on 
at  another  in  imminent  danger  with  solemn  indifference. 

Wherever  I  have  been  in  (he  whole  Archipelago — near  the  Capital, 
or  live  hundred  miles  from  it — 1  li.ive  fouLid  molher.^  tc;vvi)iug  their 


182  PHlLll'lTNE   ISLANDS. 

off:spring  to  regard  tlie  Europe.iu  iis  a  demoniaeai  being  1  au  evil  spirit ! 
or,  at  least,  as  aii  eacmy  to  bo  feared.  If  a  cliiW  cries,  it  is  hushed  hy 
the  exclamation  "  Castila  !  "  (European).  If  a  white  mau  approaches 
a  poor  hut  or  a  fine  native  reaiileuce,  the  cry  of  cautiou,  the  watchword 
for  defence  is  always  heard — Castila  1  itnJ  the  children  hasten  tiieir 
retreat  from  the  dreaded  object. 

The  Filipino,  like  most  Orientals,  is  .i  gooil  imitator,  but  having 
no  initiative  genius,  be  is  not  efficient  in  anything.  If  you  give 
iiim  a  model,  he  will  copy  it  any  number  of  times,  hut  yon  cannot 
get  hira  to  make  two  copies  so  much  alike  that  tbo  one  is 
undistinguia liable  from  the  other.  He  has  no  attachment  for  any 
occupation  in  particular.  To-day  he  wiil  be  at  the  plough  ;  to-morrow 
a  coachman,  a  collector  of  accounts,  a  valet,  a  sailor,  ami  so  on  ;  or 
he  will  suddenly  renounce  social  trammels  in  pursuit  of  lawless 
vagabondage.  I  onee  travelled  with  a  Colonel  Mawiues,  acting 
Governor  of  Cebii,  whose  valet  ivas  an  ex -law  student. 

The  native  is  indolent  in  the  extreme,  and  never  tired  of  sitting 
Htill,  gaaiug  at  nothing  in  particular.  He  will  do  no  regular  work 
without  an  advance — his  word  cannot  he  depended  upon — he  is  fertile 
in  exculpatory  devices — he  is  momentarily  obedient,  but  is  avoree  to 
subjection.  He  feigns  friendship,  but  has  no  loyalty — he  is  calm  and 
silent,  but  cau  keep  no  secret — lie  is  daring  on  the  spur  of  the  moment, 
hut  fails  in  resolution,  if  he  reflects — he  is  wantonly  unfeeling  towards 
animals,  cruel  to  a  fallen  foe,  but  fond  of  his  children.  If  familiarity 
he  permitted  with  a  native,  there  is  uo  limit  to  hin  audacitj-,  Tlie 
Tagalog  is  docile,  but  keenly  resents  au  injustice. 

Native  superstition  and  facile  credulity  are  easily  imposed  upon. 
A  report  emitted  in  jest,  or  in  earnest,  travels  with  alarming  rapidity, 
and  the  consequences  have  not  unfrequently  been  serious.  He  rarely 
sees  a  joke,  and  still  moi-e  rarely  makes  one.  ile  never  reveals  anger, 
but  he  will,  with  tlio  most  profound  calmness,  avenge  himself,  awaiting 
patiently  the  opportuuity  to  use  his  bohie  kuife  witli  effect.  Mutila- 
tion of  a  vanquished  enemy  is  common  among  these  Islanders.  If 
he  recognizes  a  fault  by  his  own  conscience,  he  will  receive  a  flogging 
without  resentment  or  complaint  ;  if  he  is  not  so  convinced  of  the 
misdeed,  he  will  await  his  chance  to  give  vent  to  his  rancour. 

Ho  lias  a  profound  respect  only  for  the  elders  of  his  bouseliold,  a-jd 
the  lash  j'.istly  administered.     He  raroly  refers  to  past  generations  in 

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Ilia  lineage,  and  the  lowest  class  do  not  koow  their  own  a^o;.  Families 
are  very  united,  and  claims  for  help  and  protoction  are  admitted  how- 
ever distniit  the  relationship  may  be.  Sometimes  the  connection  of  a 
"  hanger  on  "  with  his  host's  family  will  bo  so  remote  and  doubtful, 
that  he  can  only  be  recognined  aa  "w«  poco  parienle  iinda  mas"  (a 
sort  of  kinsman).     But  the  house  is  open  to  all. 

The  native  is  a  good  fatber  and  a  good  hnaljiind,  uureasonsibly 
jealous  of  his  wife,  careless  of  the  honour  of  his  daughter,  and  will  take 
no  heed  of  the  indiscretions  of  his  spouse  committed  before  marriage. 

Cases  have  been  kuown  of  natives  haviug  fled  from  their  burning 
hilts,  taking  care  to  save  their  fighting  e^oks,  but  leaving  their  wives 
and  children  to  look  after  themselves. 

In  February,  1885,  I  wiis  present  in  the  Town  Hall  of  Jlariquina, 
»  village  six  miles  from  Manila,  when  the  petty  Governor  was  hearing 
a  remarkable  case  of  callousness.  A  native  had  handed  over  the 
corpse  of  his  late  wife  to  liis  brother-in-law  for  interment,  and  refused 
to  pay  any  of  the  expenses.  During  the  investigation,  the  husband 
put  forwai'd  the  fantastic  plea  that  his  consort  had  been  useful  to  him 
in  life,  but  now  she  was  no  longer  of  any  service,  and  he  did  not  think 
he  ought  to  be  compelled  to  incur  any  expense  over  a  detul  body.  He 
was  condemned  to  pay  tlie  costs  of  the  burial,  but  alleging  that  he  had 
no  money,  he  had  to  go  to  work  in  the  village,  husking  rice,  until  the 
sum  was  raised,  I  made  him  an  offer  on  the  spot  to  buy  off  his  debt, 
he  to  pay  me  by  receiving  lashes  in  the  Town  Hall  at  the  rate  of  three 
cents  a  stroke,  but  he  would  not  accept  the  bargain. 

If  a  question  be  suddenly  put  to  a  native,  he  apparently  loses  his 
presence  of  miud,  and  gives  a  reply  most  convenient  to  himself,  to  save 
himself  from  trouble,  puuisbment  or  reproach.  It  is  a  matter  of 
perfect  indifference  to  him  whether  the  reply  be  true  or  not.  Then, 
as  the  investigation  proceeds,  he  will  amend  one  statement  after 
another,  until,  finally,  he  has  practically  admitted  his  first  explanation 
to  be  quite  false.  One  who  knows  the  native  character,  so  far  as  its 
mysteries  are  peneti'able,  would  never  attempt  to  get  at  the  truth  of  a 
question  by  a  direct  iuquiry — he  would  "  beat  about  the  bush,"  and 
extract  the  truth  bit  by  bit.  Nor  do  the  natives,  rich  or  poor,  of  any 
class  in  life,  and  with  very  few  exceptions  in  the  whole  population, 
appear  to  regard  Ij'iug  as  a  sin,  but  rather  as  a  legitimate,  though 
cunning,  convenience,  which  should  be  resorted   to  whenever  it  will 



serve  a  purpose.  It  is  my  frsitik  opinion  tlint  tliey  ilo  not,  iu  tlieii 
consciences,  holil  lying  to  be  a  fiiiilt  in  any  degree.  I£  the  liar  be 
discovered  and  faced,  lie  rarely  appears  disconcerted — his  eonntouaTi-?e 
ratlier  denotcB  surprise  at  the  diaeovery  or  disappointment  at  liis 
being  foiled  in  tlie  object  for  wliicji  lie  lie<l.  As  tliis  is  oue  of  tbc  most 
remarkable  cbaracte  lis  tics  of  tlie  natives  of  both  sexes  in  ail  spheres  of 
life,  I  hare  repeatedly  discussed  it  with  the  priests,  several  of  whom 
have  assured  me  timt  the  habit  prevails  even  in  the  Confessionni.' 

The  native  is  so  contumacious  to  all  bidding — so  averse  to  social 
order,  that  ho  can  only  be  rnleJ  by  coei'ciou  or  by  tlie  demonstration 
of  force.  Men  and  women  alike  find  exaggerated  enjoyment  m 
litigation,  which  many  keep  up  for  years.  Among  themaelves  tiiey 
are  tyrannical.  They  iiave  no  real  sentiment,  lionour  or  magnanimity, 
i>nd,  iiparl  from  their  h  i-pit  ilitj ,  in  which  thej  (e-'pecjaliy  tlie  Tagalogs) 
far  excel  the  Earopcin,  all  their  in  don'*  ippear  to  be  only  guided  by 
fear,  or  interest,  or  both 

The  domesticated  Tig  ihfi  nitifstf  the  ^oith  have  made  greater 
progress  in  eiviliKation  tnd  gon  1  minncis  than  the  Visayos  of  the 
South.  It  is,  perhajs,  lu  a  measure,  due  to  the  proximity  of  tlie 
Capital,  whence  Western  mfiuence  and  comelj  I  reeding  are  more 
easily  spread,  but  not  altogether  so  Iho  la^dJog  differs  vastly  from 
liis  southern  brotlier  in  his  tme  nature,  and  that  nature  is  more  pliant ; 
he  is  by  instinct  cheerfully  and  less  interestedly  hospitable.  Invariably 
an  European  wayfarer  who  takes  asylum  in  the  Town  HaU  of  a  Tagalog 
village — which  at  the  same  time  serves  as  a  casual  waiii — is  invited  by 
one  or  the  other  of  the  principal  residents  or  heailmen  to  lodge  at  his 
house.  If  he  stayed  there  several  days  no  charge  would  be  nmde  for 
this  accommodation,  and  to  offer  payment  would  give  offence.  A 
present  of  some  European  article  might  he  made,  but  it  is  not  at  all 
looked  for.  Tour  Tagiilog  host  lend.s  you  horses  or  vehicles  to  go 
about  the  neighbourhood,  takes  you  round  to  the  houses  of  his  friends, 
accompanies  you  to  any  feast  which  may  bo  celebrated  at  the  time  of 
your  visit,  and  leuds  yon  his  sporting  gun,  if  he  has  one. 

'  With  regard  to  tbis  cbaractcrislic  among  the  Chinese,  Sir  John  Ilowving 
nflirms  that  the  Chinese  respect  their  writings  and  traditions,  whilst  they  do  not 
believe  a  lie  (o  be  a  fnalt,  and  in  some  ol  their  elassical  works  it  in  espedaliy 
recommended,  in  ortler  to  cheat  and  coiifnse  foreign  intruders.  Viilr  "  A  Visit 
to  the  PhilippiPG  Islaiiils,"  hj  Sir  John  Bowring,  li..d.,  p.h.s.  Manila,  187fi, ' 
Spanish  e^Htlon,  rage  iT'l. 


MANSEItS    OF    THE    VISAYOS.  185 

The  wliolc  time  be  treats  you  with  the  defereuce  due  to  the 
superiority  which  he  recoguizea.  IIo  is  remarkably  iuquisitive,  and 
will  ask  all  Korts  of  questions  about  'yocr  private  affairs,  but  that  is  of 
uo  consequence— he  is  not  intrusive,  he  never  hints  at  corrosponcliug 
favours,  and  if  he  be  invited  to  visit  you  in  the  capital,  or  wherever 
yon  may  reside,  he  accepts  the  invitation  reluctantly,  but  seldom  pays 
the  visit.  If,  however,  an  intimacy  should  subsequently  result  from 
this  casual  acquaintanceship,  then  tlie  native  is  quite  .likely  to  he 
constantly  begging  your  assistance. 

The  Visaya  native's  cold  hospitality  is  much  tempered  with  avarice 
or  the  prospect  of  personal  gain— quite  a  contrast  to  the  Tagiilog. 

On  the  first  visit,  he  might  admit  you  into  his  house  out  of  mere 
curiosity  to  know  all  about  you — whence  you  come — why  you  travel — 
how  much  you  possess— and  where  you  are  going.  The  basis  of  his 
estimation  of  a  visitor  is  his  worldly  means,  or,  if  the  visitor  be  engaged 
in  trade,  his  power  to  facilitate  his  host's  schemes  would  bring  him 
a  certain  measure  of  civility  and  complaisance.  He  is  fond  of,  and 
seeks,  the  patronage  of  Europeans  of  position.  In  manners,  the  Visayo 
is  uncouth  ami  brusque,  and  more  conceited,  arrogant,  self-reliant, 
ostentatious  and  unpolished  thau  his  northern  neighbour.  If  remon- 
strated with  for  any  fault,  lie  is  quite  disposed  to  assume  an  air  of 
impertineut  retort  or  sullen  defiftnce. 

The  women  too  are  less  compliant  in  the  South  than  in  the  North, 
and  evince  an  almost  incredible  avarice.  They  are  esccssivoly  fond 
of  ornament,  and  at  feasts  ihey  appear  adorned  witli  an  amount  of 
gaudy  French  jewellery,  wiiicli,  compared  with  their  means,  has  cost 
them  a  lot  of  money  to  purchase  from  the  swarm  of  Jew  pedlars  who 
invade  the  villages. 

If  an  European  calls  on  a  well-to-do  Visayo,  tlio  women  of  the 
family  saunter  off  in  one  direction  and  another,  to  hide  tiicmsdvcs  in 
other  rooms,  iiuless  the  visitor  be  well  known  to  the  family. 

If  met  by  chance,  perhaps  they  ivill  return  a  siiliitatiou,  peiliaps 
not.  Thoy  seldom  indulge  in  a  smile  before  a  stranger  ;  have  no  con- 
versation ;  no  tuition  beyond  music  and  the  lives  of  the  Saints,  and 
altogether  impress  the  traveller  with  their  insipidity  of  character, 
which  chimes  badly  with  the  air  of  disdain  which  they  exhibit. 

I  stayed  for  some  months  in  an  important  Visaya  town,  in  the 
house  of  an  European  who   was  married  to  a  native  woman,  and  wa;' 

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mueh  edified  hy  observing  the  visitora  from  tlie  locality.  Tlie  "  Seiiora," 
■wlio  was  aomewliat  pretentious  in  iier  soisial  aspirations  amongst  her 
own  class,  occasionally  came  to  the  table  to  join  lis  at  niea,]s,  but  more 
often  preferred  to  eat  on  the  floor  in  her  bedroom,  where  she  could 
follow  her  native  custom,  at  ease,  of  eating  with  her  fingers. 

The  women  of  the  North  are  less  reserved,  a  trifle  better  educated, 
»nd  decidedly  more  courteous  and  sociable.  Their  manners  are  more 
lively,  void  oi  arroganee,  cheerful  and  buoyant  in  tone.  However,  all 
over  tbe  Islands  the  women  are  more  niggardly  than  the  man. 

But  the  Filipino  has  many  excellent  qualities  which  go  far  to  make 
amends  for  his  shortcomings.  He  is  patient  and  forbearing  in  the 
extreme,  remarkably  sober,  plodding,  anxious  only  about  providing 
for  his  immediate  wants,  and  seldom  feels  "  the  canker  of  ambitious 
thoughts."  In  bis  person  and  his  dwelling  he  may  serve  as  a  pattern 
of  cleanliness  to  all  other  races  in  the  tropical  East,  He  has  little 
thought  beyond  the  moiTOw,  and  therefore  he  never  raelts  his  brains 
about  events  of  the  far  future  in  the  political  world  or  any  other 
sphere.  He  indifferently  leaves  everj'thing  to  happen  as  it  may,  with 
surprising  resignation, 

The  Tagalog  in  particular  has  a  genial,  sociable  nature.  The 
Dative,  iu  general,  will  go  without  food  for  many  hours  at  a  time 
without  grumbling  ;  and  fish,  rice,  betel-nut  am!  tobacco  arc  his  chief 

When  an  European  is  travelling,  he  never  needs  to  trouble  about 
■«here  oi  nlica  h  s  aer\tnt  gets  bii  food  oi  nhcre  he  sleeps — lie  look'i 
after  that  Wbtn  a  natno  travels,  he  diopt.  in  amongst  anj  group 
of  his  fellow  ciuntiymen  whom  he  findi  hiMug  their  med  on  the 
road-side,  andvherciei  he  bappeus  to  he  t  iiij,htfall,  theie  he  lio-> 
down  to '.Icop  He  IS  neiei  long  m  a  great  dilemma  It  his  hut  it 
about  to  ta  I,  iiL  mikcs  it  t  isl  -nith  udml  oo  and  r-ittan  taiie  If  a 
vehicle  bri.»l.H  donn,  i  h  unish  snaps,  oi  his  <  moe  leats  or  npiets,  lie 
Ins  aluJjs  his  remedj  at  hand  H»,  misfortune  of  all  kind 
mth  the  greatct  indiftorcuLC,  and  without  the  least  appaieut  emotiOD 
Viuler  the  eye  of  his  mastei  he  is  the  nioit  ti  octal  lo  of  all  beings 
Hi,  ueitr  (like  the  Ghme->L)  in  slat's  upon  doing  thmgt,  bis  own  way, 
but  tries  ti  10  just  as  he  it.  told,  whether  it  be  light  or  nroug  A 
native  enters  your  service  as  i  coachman,  and  if  jnu  wish  him  to 
paddle  a  boit  cook  a  meal   fi\  a  lock,  o-  di  iiii  otbti  kmd  of  labour 

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possible  to  Lini,  he  is  quite  agiecable.  He  l;now3  the  duties  of  no 
occupation  with  efficiency,  iiuil  lie  is  perfectly  williDg  to  be  a  "  jack-of- 
all  trades,"  Another  gooil  feature  is,  that  he  rarely,  if  ever,  repudiates 
a  debt,  although  be  may  never  pay  it.  So  loug  as  he  gets  his  food  and 
fair  treatment,  and  his  stipulated  wages  paid  in  advance,  he  is  content 
to  act  as  it  general-atility-man.  If  uot  pressed  too  bard,  he  will  follow 
his  superior  like  a  faithful  dog.  If  treated  with  kindness,  according  to 
European  notions,  he  is  lost.  Lodging  he  will  find  for  himself.  The 
native  never  looks  ahead  ;  he  is  never  (tnxious  about  tlie  future  ;  but  if 
left  to  himself,  he  will  do  all  sorts  of  imprudent  thinga,  from  sheer  want 
of  reflection  ou  the  conKequeuces,  when,  as  he  puts  it,  "his  head  is 
hot  "  from  excitement  due  to  any  cause. 

Oa  the  15th  of  March,  1886,  I  was  comiug  round  the  coast  of 
Xanibales  in  a  small  steamer,  in  which  I  was  the  only  saloon  passenger. 
The  captain,  whom  I  had  known  for  years,  found  that  one  of  the 
cabin  servants  had  been  systematically  robbing  him  for  some  time  past. 
He  ordered  the  steward  to  cane  him,  and  then  told  him  to  go  to  the 
upper  deck  and  remain  there.  He  at  once  waiked  up  the  ladder  and 
threw  himself  into  tbe  ''ea,  but  a  lioat  wis  lowered,  the  vessel  stopped 
and  he  was  soon  picked  up  Had  he  1  cen  allowed  tt  reach  tlie  shore, 
lie  would  hiive  become  what  is  know  n  as  j,  remontado  and  perhaps 
eventnally  a  brigand,  foi  such  is  the  beginning  of  m^nj  of  them 

The  native  haa  no  idea  of  organizatna  on  a  lajgc  scale,  hente  a 
Eiiceessf  nl  revolution  is  not  possible  if  eouhned  to  the  pure  in  hgenous 
population  unaided  Ij  otheis  such  as  treoks  and  foioi^uers  Ho  is 
brave,  and  fears  no  conhequonces  when  with  oi  against  his  equals,  or  if 
led  by  his  superiors,  but  a  conviction  of  superiority — moral  or  physical 
— in  the  adversary  depresses  him.  An  excess  of  audacity  calms  and 
overawes  him  rather  than  irritates  him. 

His  admiration  for  bravery  and  perilous  boldness  is  only  equalled 
by  his  contempt  for  cowardice  and  puerility,  and  this  is  really  the  secret 
of  the  Dative's  disdain  for  the  Chinese  race.  Under  good  European 
officers  they  make  excellent  soldiers  ;  however,  if  the  leader  fell,  they 
would  become  at  once  demoralized.  There  is  nothing  they  deiighl  iti 
more  than  pillage,  destruction  and  bloodshed,  and  when  once  they 
become  masters  of  the  situation  in  an  attray,  tJicre  is  no  limit  to  their 
greed  and  savage  cruelty. 

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Yet,  detGsting  order  of  miy  kind,  military  ilisciplitic  is  ropiigiiant 
to  them,  and,  as  in  otber  coutitries,  all  kinds  of  tricks  are  resorted  to, 
to  avoid  it.  On  looking  over  the  deeds  of  nn  estate  which  I  had 
piirehased,  I  saw  that  two  hrothers,  each  named  Catiiiino  Rajmiiudo, 
were  the  owners  at  one  time  of  a  portion  o£  the  land.  I  thought  there 
must  have  heeu  some  mistake,  but,  on  close  impiiry,  I  found  that  they 
were  so  named  to  dodge  ttie  recmitiug  officers,  who  would  not  readily 
suppose  tliere  were  two  Catalino  Kaymuiidos  born  of  the  same  parents. 
As  one  Cataliiio  Kaymundo  had  served  in  the  army  and  the  olher  was 
dead,  no  further  secret  was  made  of  the  matter,  and  I  was  assured  that 
this  practice  was  common  among  the  poorest  natives. 

In  November,  1887,  a  deserter  from  the  new  recruits  was  parsued 
to  Langca,  a  ward  of  Mcycanayan,  Bulacan  Province,  where  nearly  all 
the  inhabitants  rose  up  in  his  defence,  the  result  being,  that  the 
Lieutenant  of  Cnadrilleros  was  killed  and  two  of  bis  men  were 
wounded.  WlioQ  the  Civil  Guard  appeared  on  the  spot,  the  whole 
wjrd  nas  abiudoned. 

According  to  the  Spanish  army  regulations,  a  soldier  cannot  be 
on  Kcntmel  duty  for  more  than  two  hours  at  a  time  under  any 
circumstances  Ca'^es  have  been  known  of  a  native  sentinel  having 
!  een  left  at  his  post  for  a  little  over  that  regulation  time,  aud  to  have 
become  frenetic,  nudcr  the  impre  sion  that  the  two  hours  hid  long 
since  expired,  and  that  he  htl  been  for^olten  lu  one  cane  the  man 
had  to  be  disaimed  b>  force,  but  in  another  instance  the  seutmel  simplj 
refused  to  give  up  his  rifle  ind  hajonet  and  defacd  all  who  approachpd 
liim.  Fiuallj,  i  brij,alifr  nent  iiith  the  ifloun  of  the  regiment  m 
hand  to  exhort  bim  to  inrrender  his  arms,  adding  that  justice  t^  ould 
attend  his  complaint  The  sentinel  however,  threatened  to  kill  any 
one  who  should  draw  ncir,  and  the  Irigalier  had  no  other  nsouic:' 
open  to  him  but  ti  older  an  En  opcau  soldier  to  thmh  up  1  lIi  id 
the  sentry-box  \\  tli  i.  rpiolvcr  ml  Lliiv  o  it  thf  lusul  ndiuate 
native's  brains 

Some  yeiiTS  ago,  a  contingont  of  Piiilippine  troops  was  sent  to  assist 
the  French  in  Tonquin,  whore  they  rendered  very  valuable  service. 
Indeed,  some  officers  are  of  opinion  that  they  did  more  to  quell  the 
rising  of  the  Tonquinese  than  the  French  troops  themselves.  When  in 
the  mcU'e,  they  throw  otT  their  boots,  and,  barefooted,  they  rarely  falter. 
Even  over  imi<l  and  swamp,  a  native  is  almost  as  sure-footed  lis  a  goat 



on  the  brink  of  a  quarry,  I  Iiavo  frequently  been  carried  for  miles  ia 
a  liammock  by  four  natives  and  relays  through  morassy  districts  too 
dangerous  to  travel  on  horseback.  They  are  great  adepts  at  climbiiig 
wherever  it  is  possible  for  a  human  being  to  scale  a  height ;  like 
monkeys,  they  hold  as  much  with  their  feet  as  with  their  hands  ;  they 
ride  any  horse  barebacked  without  fear  ;  they  are  ntterly  careless  about 
jumping  into  the  sea  among  the  sharks,  which  sometimes  they  will 
intentionally  attack  with  knives,  and  I  never  knew  a  native  who  conlJ 
not  swim.  'J'here  are  natives  wlio  dare  dive  for  the  caiman  and  rip 
it  up.  If  they  meet  with  an  accident,  they  hear  it  wilh  supreme 
resignation,  simply  exclaiming  "  dcsgracia  pa  " — it  was  a  misfortuiie. 

The  native  is  very  slowly  tempted  to  abandon  the  habits  and 
traditional  customs  of  his  forefathers,  and  his  ambitioulesa  felicity  may 
he  envied  by  any  true  philo80]ihcr. 

No  one  who  has  lived  in  the  Coloiij  for  years  could  sketch  tlie  real 
moral  portrait  of  such  a  lemarkablo  combination  of  virtues  and  vices. 
The  domesticated  native  &  character  is  a  succession  of  surprises.  The 
experience  of  each  year  brings  one  to  form  fre^h  cc  uclusions,  and  the 
most  exact  definition  of  Biioh  a  kaleidoscopic  crciture  is,  after  all, 
hypothetii'aJ.  However,  to  a  certain  degree,  the  c ha racf eristic  imiolenec 
of  the  Philippine  Islanders  is  less  dependent  on  themselves  than  on 
natural  law.  By  the  physical  conditions  with  which  they  arc 
smrounded,  their  vigour  of  motion,  energy  of  life,  and  intelloetnal 
power  aie  influenced. 

The  organic  elements  of  the  European  differ  wiilely  from  those  of 
the  Philippine  native,  and  each,  for  its  own  durability,  requires  its  own 
special  environment.  The  half-breed  partakes  of  both  organisms,  but 
has  the  natural  environment  of  the  one.  Sometimes  artificial  means— 
the  mode  of  life  into  which  he  is  forced  by  his  European  parent — will 
counteract  in  a  measure  natural  law,  but,  left  to  himself,  the  tendency 
will  ever  be  towards  an  assimilation  to  the  native.  Original  national 
characteristics  disappear  in  an  exotic  climate,  and,  in  the  courae  of 
generations,  conform  to  the  new  laws  of  nature  to  which  they  are 

It  is  an  ascertained  fact,  that  the  increase  of  energy  introduced  into 
the  Philippine  native  by  blood  mixture  from  Europe  lasts  only  to  thu 
second  generation,  whilst  the  effect  remains  for  several  generations 
when  there  is  a  similarity  of  natural  environment  in  the  two  races 

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crossed.  Hence  the  peculiar  qualities  oi  a  Chinese  half-breeil  are 
preserved  ia  succeeding  generations,  whilst  the  Spanish  half-caste  has 
merged  into  the  conditions  of  his  enviroumeot. 

The  Spanish  Governmeut  has  striven  in  vain  against  natural  law 
to  counteract  physical  conditions  by  favouring  mixed  marriages,'  but 
Kature  overcomes  man's  law,  and  climatic  influence  forces  its 
couditiooe  on  the  half-breed.  Indeed,  were  it  not  for  new  supplies  of 
extraneous  blood  infusion,  mongrel  individuality  of  character  would 
become  indiscernible  among  the  masses. 

Treating  even  of  Europeans,  the  new  physical  conditions  and 
the  influence  of  climate  ou  their  mental  and  physical  organisms  are 
perceptible  after  two  or  three  decades  of  years'  residence  in  the  mid- 
tropics,  in  defiance  of  their  own  volition. 

For  the  Education  of  youth  iu  the  Colony,  of  all  classes  and 
conditions,  the  Stat«  contributed  in  1888,  according  to  the  Budget  for 
that  year,  the  following  sums,  viz.  : — 

S  cts. 
Schools  and  CoJieges  for  iiigh-class  education  in 
Manila,  incfndiug  Navigation,  Drawing, 
Painting,  Book-keeping,  Languages,  History, 
Arts  and  Trades,  Natural  History  Museum 
and  Library  and  gerieral  instruction    -  -       86,450  00 

School  oE  Agriculture  (including  10  schools  and 

modelfarms  in  10  Provinces)  -  -     113,686  Ci 

General  Expenses  of  Public  Instruction,  includ- 
ing National  Schools  in  the  Provinces  -       38,513  70 

$238,650  3i 

On  the  banks  of  the  Kiver  Pasig,  there  was  a  Training  College  for 
Schoolmasters,  who  were  drafted  otT  to  the  villages,  with  a  miserable 
stipend,  to  t«ach  the  juvenile  rustics.  But  what  fell  somewhat  hard 
on  the  village  schoolmaster  was,  that  to  recover  his  salary,  the  system 
of  centralization  adopted  by  the  Government  obliged  him  to  spend 
a  comparatively  considerable  amount  of  it.     For  instance,  I  kuew  a 

'  See  the  Army  Kegulations  for  the  advantages  granted  to  miUtary  men  who 
many  Philippine  born  women.     Vi'le  also  page  B3. 



Bchoo  I  master  who  receiveii  $16  per  month  for  his  services,  but.  every 
month  he  had  to  spend  one  ilollar  to  travel  to  Manila  to  receive  it, 
and  Buother  dollar  to  return  to  his  village, — this  expenditure  equalled 
twelve  and  a  half  per  cent,  of  his  total  income.  For  such  a  wretched 
pittance,  great  things  were  not  to  bo  expected  of  either  the  teacher 
or  his  teaching.  Other  circumstances  also  contributed  to  keep  the 
standard  of  education  among  the  masses  very  low,  in  some  places  to 
abolish  it  totally.  The  parish  priests  were  cx-officio  Inspectors  of 
Schools  for  primary  instruction,  wherein  it  was  their  duty  to  see 
that  the  Spanish  language  was  taught.  The  old  "  Laws  of  the 
Indies  "  provide  that  Christian  doctrine  shall  he  taught  to  the  heathen 
native  in  Spanish.'  Several  decrees  confirming  that  law  were  issued 
from  time  to  time,  but  their  fulfilment  did  not  seem  to  -luit  the  policy 
of  the  Friars.  On  the  30th  of  June,  1887,  the  Goveri.or-deneriil 
published  another  decree  with  the  same  object,  and  sent  a  coiu- 
inunication  to  the  Archbishop  to  remind  him  of  this  obligation  of  his 
subordinates,  and  the  urgency  of  its  strict  observance.  Nevertheless, 
they  persisted  in  striving  to  keep  the  rising  generation  (as  they  had 
always  done  with  past  generations)  from  the  knowledge  of  anything 
further  than  Christian  doctrine.  This  they  learnt  only  by  role,  for  it 
suited  the  Friar  to  stimulate  that  peculiar  mental  condition  in  which 
belief  precedes  understanding.  The  sehoolmafeter,  being  subordinate  to 
the  inspector,  had  no  voice  in  the  matter,  and  was  compelled  to  follow 
the  views  of  the  priest.  Few  Spaniards  took  the  trouble  to  learn 
native  dialects  (of  which  there  are  about  30),  and  only  a  small  per- 
centage of  the  natives  can  speak  intelligible  Spanish.  There  is  no 
literature  in  dialect.  There  were  m.iuy  villages  with  untrained  masters 
who  could  not  speak  Spanish— ihere  weie  other  villages  with  no 
schools  at  all. 

As  the  poorest  families  generally  depend  on  agricuHure,  living  in 
rural  districts  remote  from  Ihe  villages,  compulsory  education — even 
such  ns  it  was— was  not  possible,  consequently  the  majorjfy  grew  ap 
as  untutored  as  when  (hey  were  liorn. 

Home  discipline  and  training  of  manners  were  quite  ignored,  even 
in  well-to-do  families.  Children  were  left  without  coatro!,  and  allowed 
to  do  just  as  they  pleased,  hence  they  became  ill-behaved  and  boorish. 

'   Vide  "  Eecopilacion  de  las  Lejes  lie  Indias,"  lej  V.,  tit.  Xill.,  lib,  I. 



Pliiiitors  of  meaas,  and  others  who  could  afford  it,  sent  their  sons 
and  daughters  to  private  sthoola,  or  to  the  colleges  under  the  direction 
o£  the  priests  iu  Manila,  Jaro  (Yloilo  Province)  or  Cebu.  A  few — very 
few — sent  their  sous  to  study  iii  Europe,  or  in  Houglcoag. 

The  teacliing  offered  to  students  in  Manila  was  very  advanced,  as 
will  fae  seen  from  the  following  Syllabus  of  Education  iu  the  Municipal 
Athensciim  of  the  Jesuits  : — 


Latin  Compos  it  ioh. 




Mercantile  Arithmetic, 


Natural  History, 

CoMMERCtiL  Law. 

Physics  and  Chemistey, 

Commercial  Geography. 





Rhetoric  and  Poet  a  v. 


Spanish  Classics. 


Spanish  Compositios, 



Latin  Grammar. 


In  the  highest  Girls'  School  —  tho  Santa  Isalwl  College  —  tiic 
following  was  the  curriculum,  vln.  : — 


Drawing.  Music. 

Drbss-Cctting.  Keedlewobk, 

French,  physics. 

Geography.  Reading — Prose  and  Verse. 

Gbombtbv,  Spanish  Grammar. 

Geology.  KACRr.n  Histohy. 

History  of  Spain. 

There  were  also  (for  girls),  the  Colleges  of  Santa  Cataliua,  Saiitii 
Kosa,  La  Concordia,  the  Municipal  Scliool,  etc.  A  few  were  sent  to 
the  Italian  Convent  in  Hongkong. 

A  college  known  as  Saint  Thomas'  was  founded  in  Manila  by  Fray 
Miguel  de  Yenavidoa,  third  Archbishojt  of  Manila,  between  the  years 
1603  and  1610,  He  contributed  to  it  bis  library  and  $1,000,  to  whlcii 
was  added  a  donation  by  the  Bishop  of  Nueva  Segovia  of  $3,000  and 
liis  library. 

In  1620,  it  already  had  professors  and  masters  under  Government 
protection.  It  received  three  Papal  Briefs  for  10  years  each,  permitting 
students  to  graduate  in  Pliilosophy  and  Theology.  It  was  then  raised 
to  the  status  of  an  University  in  the  time  of  Philip  IV.,  by  Papal  Bull 

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of  20t!i  KovemSier,  164.6.  Tlie  first  rector  of  Burnt  Tiiomas'  Uuivcrgity 
was  Fray  Miirtio  Real  de  la  Cniz.  lu  the  meantine,  the  Jesuits' 
University  hail  been  established.  Until  1645,  it  ivas  the  only  place  of 
learning  superior  to  primary  education,  and  conferred  degrees.  The 
Saint  Tiiomas'  University  (under  the  direction  of  Dominican  Friars) 
now  disputed  tlie  Jesuits'  privilege  to  do  so,  claiming  for  themselves 
exclusive  right  by  Papal  Bull.  A  law  suit  followed,  and  the  Supreme 
Court  of  Manila  deoided  in  tavot7r  of  Saint  Thomas'.  The  Jesuits 
appealed  to  the  King  against  this  decision,  Tlie  Supreme  Couneil  of 
tlio  Indies  was  consulted,  and  revoked  the  decision  of  the  Manila 
Supreme  Court,  bo  that  the  two  Universities  continued  to  give  degrees 
until  the  Jesuits  were  expelled  from  the  Colony  in  1763.  From  1785, 
Saint  Thomas'  University  was  styled  the  "Royal  University,"  and  was 
declared  to  rank  equally  with  the  Peninsula  Universities. 

There  was  also  the  Dominican  College  of  San  Juan  de  Letran, 
founded  in  the  middle  of  the  l7th  century,  the  Jesuit  Normal  School, 
the  Convent  of  Mercy  for  Orphan  Students,  and  the  College  of  Saint 
Joseph,  This  last  was  founded  in  1601,  under  the  direction  of  the 
Jesuits.  King  Philip  V,  gave  it  the  title  of  Royal  College,  and  allowed 
an  escutcheon  to  be  erected  over  the  entrance.  The  same  king  endowed 
three  professorial  chairs  with  $10,000  each.  Latterly  it  was  governed 
by  the  Rector  of  tlie  University,  whilst  the  administration  was  confided 
to  a  licentiate  in  pharmacy. 

At  the  time  of  the  Spanish  evacuation,  therefore,  the  only  university 
in  the  City  of  Manila  was  that  of  Saint  Thomas,  which  was  empowered 
to  issue  diplomas  of  licentiate  in  law,  theology,  medicine,  and  pharmacy 
to  all  successful  candidates,  and  to  confer  degrees  of  LL.D,  The 
investiture  (which  the  public  were  allowed  to  witness)  was  presided  over 
by  the  rector  of  tlie  university,  a  Dominican  Friar ;  and  the  speeches 
preceding  and  following  the  ceremony,  which  was  semi-religious,  were 
made  in  the  Spanish  language. 

In  connection  with  this  university,  there  was  the  modern  Saint 
Thomas'  College  for  preparing  students  for  the  university. 

One  of  the  most  interesting  and  amusing  types  of  the  native,  was 
the  average  college  student  from  the  provinces.  After  a  course  of  two, 
three,  up  to  eiglit  years,  he  learnt  to  imitate  European  dress  and  ape 
Western  manners  ;  to  fantastically  dress  his  liair  ;  to  wear  patent 
leather  shoes,  jewellery,  and  a  felt  hat  d  la  derniire  mode  adjusted 

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carefully  towards  one  side  of  hia  head.  Ho  went  to  tho  theatre,  drove 
a  "  tilbury,"  and  attended  native  Teunions,  to  deploy  Iiis  abilities  liefore 
the  beau  seme  of  his  class.  Ho  reminded  one,  in  fact,  of  the  Calcutta 
Baboo  Bachelor  of  Arts.  During  his  residence  in  the  capital,  he  ■was 
supposed  to  learn,  amongst  other  subjectB,  Latin,  Divinity,  Pliilosophy, 
and  sometimes  Theology,  preparatory,  in  many  cases,  to  foUowiog  hia 
father's  occupation  of  planting  fields  of  sugar-cane  and  rice.  The 
average  student  had  barely  an  outline  idea  of  either  physical  or  political 
geography,  whilst  bis  Motions  of  Spanish  or  universal  history  were  very 
chaotic.  I  really  think  that  the  Manila  newspapers — poor  aa  they 
were — contributed  very  largely  to  tho  education  of  the  people  in  this 

Still  there  are  cases  of  an  ardent  genius  shiniog  as  an  exception  to 
his  race.  Amongst  the  few,  there  were  two  brothers  named  Luna — 
the  one  was  a  notably  skilful  performer  on  the  guitar  and  violin,  who, 
however,  died  at  an  early  age.  The  other,  Juan  Luna,  developed  a 
natural  ability  for  painting.  A  work  of  his  own  conception — the 
"  Spoliarium,"  executed  by  him  in  Eome  in  I8R4,  guiaetl  the  second 
prize  at  the  Madrid  Academy  Exhibition  of  Oil  Paintings.  The  Muni- 
cipality of  Barcelona  purchased  this  c/ref  d'feuvre  for  the  City  HalL 
Other  famous  productions  of  his  are,  "  The  Battle  of  Lepanto,"  "  The 
Death  of  Cleopatra,"  and  "  The  Blood  Compact."  This  last  master- 
piece was  acquired  by  the  Municipality  of  Manila  for  the  City  Hall, 
hut  was  removed  when  the  Tagftlog  Rebellion  broke  on(,  for  reasons 
which  will  be  understood  after  reading  Chapter  XXVI.  This  artist,  tho 
eon  of  poor  parents,  was  a  second  mate  on  board  a  sailing  ship,  when 
his  gifts  were  recognized,  and  means  were  furnished  him  with  which 
to  study  in  Borne.  His  talent  was  quite  exceptional,  for  these  Islanders 
are  not  an  artistic  people.  They  (in  general)  have  no  admiration  for 
the  most  lovely  scenery  and  beautiful  forms  in  Nature,  nor  their 
reproduction.  They  form  a  deolded  contrast  to  Ihe  Japanese  in  this 
respect.  Paote,  in  the  Laguna  Province,  is  llie  only  place  in  the 
provinces  I  know  of  where  there  are  sculptors  by  profession.  The 
Academy  (in  Manila")  is  open  to  all  comers  of  all  nationalities,  and,  aa 
an  ex-student,  under  its  professors  Dou  Lorenzo  Bocha  and  Don  Agustiu 
Saez,  I  can  attest  to  their  enthusiasm  for  the  progress  of  tlicir  pupils. 

I  was  personally  acquainted  with  a  native — Jose  Riza! — w!io  went 
to  Germany  and  Spain  to  study,  and  returned  with  his  titles  of  doctor  in 

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meilicine,  philosophy,  and  arts.  In  1886  he  wrote  &  very  readable 
novel,  entitled  "Noli  me  Taugere,"  and  other  work  a.  Also  in  1887, 
as  an  oculist,  he  performed  a  difficult  operation  yery  suceeaafully  in 
Calamba  (LagQiia  Province).  His  biography,  however,  is  more 
nJinutely  referred  to  in  Chapter  XXVI. 

In  the  General  Post  and  Telegraph  OfSce  in  Manila,  I  was  shown 
an  cscelleut  specimen  of  wood-carving — a  bust  portmit  of  Mr.  Morso 
(the  celebrated  inventor  of  the  Morso  system  of  telegraphy) — the  work 
of  a  native  sculptor. 

Another  promising  native,  Vicente  Francisco,  esbibited  some  good 
sculpture  work  in  the  Philippine  Exhibition,  held  in  Madrid  in  1887  ; 
the  jury  I'ecommended  that  he  should  he  allowed  a  ponaioa  by  tho 
State,  to  study  in  Madrid  and  Rome. 

But  the  native  of  cultivated  iutellect,  on  returning  from  Europe, 
found  a  very  limited  circle  of  friends  of  Ina  own  class  and  traiaing. 
If  he  returned  a  lawyer  or  a  doctor,  he  was  one  too  many,  for  the 
capital  swarmed  with  them ;  if  he  had  learnt  a  trade,  his  knowledge 
was  useless  outside  Manila,  and  iu  his  native  village  his  previoos 
technical  acquirements  were  usually  profitless. 

The  native  has  an  inherent  passion  for  music.  Musicians  are  to 
be  found  in  every  village,  and  even  among  the  very  poorest  classes. 
There  was  scarcely  a  parish  without  its  orchestra,  and  this  natural  taste 
was  laudably  encouraged  by  the  priests  SoniL  of  these  hands  acquired 
great  local  fame,  and  v.  ere  sought  for  whcres  oi  there  ■«  as  a  feast  mile<i 
away.  The  plajera  seemed  to  enjoy  it  "is  much  as  the  listeners,  and 
they  would  keep  at  it  for  hours  it  a  t  me  a'i  long  aa  their  bodily 
strength  lasted  GirK  from  six  years  of  age  leirii  to  play  the  liirp 
almost  by  instinct,  ind  college  giils  qui(,kly  lexrn  the  piano  There 
are  no  native  composers — they  iro  hut  imitators  There  is  an  ahsenct, 
of  aentimental  feelmg  in  the  execution  of  set  tiisi  (ivhioh  la  all 
European),  and  thia  is  tho  only  drawback  to  their  becoramg  fine 
instrumentalists  For  the  same  reason,  dissical  music  is  very  little  m 
vogue  among  the  Philippine  people,  who  prefer  dance  pieces  and  ballad 
accompaniments  In  fict,  i  native  musical  pciloimLU(,e  is  so  void  of 
soul  and  true  ponception  of  hirmonj,  thit  at  a  ffa-it  it  is  not  an 
uncommon  thing  to  heir  three  hauls  playiug  clost  to  tath  oth^r  at  tho 
s^me  time  ;  and  the  mob  issembk  1  seem  to  enjoy  t!i  *,  nfution  of  the 
melody.     There  are  no  Philippine  vocaliata  of  repute 

K  3 

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19b  .  I'lnUl'WNE    ISLANDS. 

Tmvolliiig  tliroui^'li  the  Proviuee  of  Lagima  ia  1882, 1  was,  for  the 
first  time,  impressed  with  the  iiigeuuity  of  tlic  aativca  in  their  imitation 
of  European  musical  instruments.  I  had,  just  au  hour  before,  emergeil 
from  a  dense  forest,  abundantly  adorned  with  exquisite  foliage,  and 
where  majestic  trees,  flourishing  in  gorgeous  profusion,  afforded  a 
gratifying  shelter  from  the  seorchiag  suu.  Not  a  sound  was  liearJ  but 
the  gentle  ripple  of  a  limpid  stream,  breaking  over  the  boulders  on  its 
course  towards  the  ravine  below  me.  Neither  the  axe  nor  the  plough 
had  thus  far  outraged  Nature  in  this  lovely  spot,  .  But  it  w^s  hardly 
the  moment  to  ponder  on  the  poetic  scene  siround  me,  for  fatigue  and 
hunger  had  overcome  nearly  all  sentimentality,  and  I  got  as  qniokly  as 
I  could  to  the  first  resting-place.  This  I  found  to  bo  the  plautatlou 
bungalow  of  a  well-to-do  nalive  cane-grower. 

There  was  quite  a  number  of  persons  assembled,  and  the  occasion 
of  the  meeting  was,  that  the  sugar  cane  mil!  on  the  plantation  had 
that  day  been  blessed  and  baptized  with  holy  water. 

Before  1  was  near  ejiongh,  however,  to  bo  distinguished  as  au 
European — for  it  was  nearly  sunset — I  heard  the  sound  of  distant 
music  floating  through  the  air.  So  strange  an  occurrenco  in  such  a 
place  excited  my  curiosity  immensely  ;  the  surrouuding  scene — the 
mystic  strains  of  dying  melody — might  well  have  entranced  a  more 
romantic  natui'e,  and  I  determined  to  find  out  what  it  all  meant.  I 
succeeded,  and  discovered  that  it  was  a  bamboo  orchestra  returning 
from  the  feiist  of  the  "  baptism  of  the  mill."  Each  instrument  was 
made  of  bamboo,  and  the  pliivers  were  farm  labourers. 

Being  naturally  prone  to  suporstiiious  beliefs,  the  islanders  accepted, 
without  doubtiug,  all  the  fantastic  tales  which  the  early  missionaries 
taught  them.  Miraculous  crosses  healed  the  sick,  cured  the  plague, 
and  scared  away  the  locusts.  Images,  such  as  the  ffoly  Child  of 
Banpi,  relieved  them  of  all  worldly  sufferings.  To  this  day  they 
revere  many  of  these  objects,  which  are  still  preserved. 

The  most  ancient  miraculous  image  in  these  Islands  appears  to  be 
the  Santo  Milo  de  Ceb&— the  Holy  Child  of  Cebii.  It  is  recorded  tliat 
on  the  2Sth  of  July,  1565,  an  image  of  the  Child  Jesus  was  found  on 
Cebii  Island  shore  by  a  Basque  soldier  named  Juaii  de  Camus,  It  was 
venerated  and  kept  by  the  Austin  Friars,     In  1627,  a  fire  occurred  in 

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THE  HOLY  CHILD  OF  CEBF.  197  City,  wLea  tlic  Chiirehes  of  Saint  Nicholas  and  of  the  Holy  Child 
were  burnt  clown.  Tho  image  was  saved,  and  temporarily  placed 
in  charge  of  the  Kecoleto  priests.  A  fire  also  took  place  on  the  site  of 
the  first  cross  erected  on  the  island  by  Fray  Martin  de  Rada,  the  day 
Legaspi  landed,  and  it  is  said  that  this  cross,  although  made  of 
bamboo,  was  not  consumed.  Thero  now  stands  an  Oratory,  wherein 
is  exposed  the  original  cross  on  special  occasions.  Close  by  is  tho 
modern  Church  of  the  Holy  Cbild. 

In  June  1887,  the  Prior  of  the  convent  conducted  me  to  the  strong 
room  wbcro  the  wonderful  image  is  kept.  The  Saint  is  of  wood,  about 
fifteen  inches  high,  and  laden  with  silver  trinkets,  which  have  been 
presented  on  different  occasions.  Wheu  exposed  to  public  yiew,  it  has 
the  honours  of  field-marshal  accorded  to  it. 

It  is  a  mystic  deity  with  ebon  features — so  different  from  the  lovely 
Child  presented  to  ns  on  canvas  by  the  great  masters.  Daring  tho 
feast  held  in  its  honour  (20th  of  January),  pilgrims  from  the  reraotest 
districts  of  the  island  and  from  across  tlio  seas  come  to  purify  their 
souls  at  the  shrine  of  "  The  Holy  Child." 

In  the  same  room  is  a  beautiful  image  of  the  Madonna,  besides  two 
large  tin  boxes  containing  sundry  arms,  legs,  and  heads  of  Saints,  willi 
their  robes  in  readiness  for  adjustment  on  procession  days.  The  patron 
of  Cehu  City  is  Saint  Vidal. 

Tho  legend  of  the  celestial  protector  of  Manila  is  not  Ic^s 
interesting.  It  is  related  that  in  Dilao,  near  Manila,  a  wooden  image 
of  Saint  Francis  de  Assisi,  which  was  in  the  house  of  a  native  named 
Alonso  Cuyapit,  was  seen  to  weep  so  copiously,  that  many  cloths  were 
moistened  by  its  tears. 

The  image,  with  its  hands  open  during  three  hours,  asked  God's 
blessing  on  Manila.  Then,  on  closing  its  hands,  it  grasped  a  cross  and 
skull  BO  firmly,  that  these  appeared  to  be  one  and  the  same  thing. 
Vows  were  made  to  the  Saint,  who  was  declared  protector  of  the 
Capita!,  and  the  said  image  is  now  to  be  seen  in  the  Franciscan 
Church,  under  the  appellation  of  Saint  Francis  of  Tears— Sum" 
Francisco  de  las  lagrimas. 

Our  Lady  of  Casa>/sa;/,  near  Taal,  in  Bataiigas  Province,  has 
been  revered  for  many  years  both  hy  Europeans  and  natives.  So' 
enthusiastic  was  the  belief  in  the  miraculous  power  of  this,  fiat 

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tlie  galleons  when  passing  tlie  Biitaugaa  coast  ou  tboir  wny  to  iiiid 
from  Mexico  were  accustomed  to  fire  a  Balnte  from  their  guns. 

Tills  image  was  piclied  up  by  a  native  in  liis  fishing  net,  and  he 
placed  it  iti  a  cave,  where  it  ivits  discovered  by  other  natives,  who 
imagined  tiiey  saw  many  extraordinary  lights  around  it.  According  to 
the  local  legend,  they  heard  sweet  sonorous  music  proceeding  from  the 
same  spot,  and  the  image  came  forward  and  spoke  to  a  native  woman, 
who  had  brought  hor  companions  to  adore  the  Saint. 

The  history  of  the  many  shrines  all  over  the  Colony  would  well  fill 
a  volume  ;  however,  by  for  the  roost  popular  one  is  that  of  the  Virgin 
of  Antipolo — Nuestra  Senora  de  Buen  Viaje  y  de  la  Paz,  "  Our  Lady 
of  Good  Voyage  and  Peace." 

This  image  is  said  to  have  wrought  many  miracles.  It  was  first 
brought  from  Acapulco  (Mexico)  in  1626  in.  the  State  galleon,  by  Juan 
NiSo  de  Tubora,  who  was  appointed  Governor-General  of  these  Islands 
by  King  Philip  IV,  The  Saint,  it  is  alleged,  ha3  encountered 
nurabericHs  reverses  between  that  time  and  the  year  1672,  since  which 
date  it  is  safely  lodged  in  the  Parish  Church  of  Antipolo— a  vUlnge 
in  the  Military  District  of  Morong — iu  the  custody  of  tlio  Austin 
Friars  until  the  year  1898. 

In  the  month  of  May,  thousands  of  people  repair  to  this  shriue  ; 
indeed,  this  village  of  3,800  inhabitants  chiefly  depends  upon  the 
pilgrims  for  its  esistence,  for  the  land  within  the  jurisdiction  of 
Antipolo  is  all  mountainous  and  very  limited  iu  extent.  The  priests 
also  did  a  very  good  trade  in  prints  of  Saints,  rosaries,  etc.,  for  the 
sale  of  which  they  opened  a  shop  during  the  feast  inside  the  convent 
just  in  fro'.^t  of  the  entrance.  The  total  amount  of  money  spent  in  the 
village  by  visitors  during  the  pilgrimage  has  been  roughly  computed 
to  be  $30,000.     They  came  from  all  parts  of  the  islands 

The  legends  of  the  Saint  are  best  described  in  a  pamphlet  published 
in  Manila,'  from  which  I  take  the  following  information. 

The  writer  says  that  the  people  of  Acapulco  (Mesieo)  were  loth  to 
part  with  their  Holy  Image,  but  the  saintly  Virgin  being  disposed  to 
succour  the  inhabitants  of  the  Spanish  Indies,  she  herself  smoothed  ail 

'  "  Hiatoria  de  Nueatra  Senora  La  Virgen  de  Antipolo,"  by  M.  Romero,  Manila, 


THE    VIRGIN    OF    ANTirOLO.  199 

Diiriug  her  first  voyage  in  the  month  of  March,  1626,  a  tempest 
arose,  ivliich  wr,s  culmed  by  the  Virgin,  and  all  arrived  safely  at  the 
shores  of  Manila.  The  Virgin  was  then  taken  in  procession  to  the 
Cathedral,  whilst  the  church  bells  tolled  and  the  artillery  thundered 
forth  salntcs  of  welcome. 

A  solemn  Mass  was  celebrated,  at  which  all  the  religious 
communitieB,  civil  authorities,  and  a  multitude  of  people  assisted. 

Six  years  afterwards,  the  Governor- General  Tabora  died. 

By  his  will  he  intrusted  the  Virgin  to  the  care  of  the  Jesuits, 
whilst  a  church  was  being  built  under  the  dircctioa  of  Father  Juan 
Sakzar  for  her  special  receptjou.  During  tlie  erection  of  this  church, 
the  Virgin  often  descended  from  the  altar  and  displayed  herself 
Jimongst  the  flowery  branches  of  a  tree,  called  by  the  natives  Antipolo 
(_Artocarpus  incisa). 

The  tree  itself  was  henceforth  regarded  as  a  precious  relic  l>y  the 
natives,  who,  leaf  by  leaf  and  branch  by  branch,  were  gradually  carrying 
it  otr.  Then  Father  Safazar  decreed  that  the  tree  should  serve  for  a 
pedestal  to  the  Divine  Miraculous  Image— hence  the  title  "  Virgin  of 

In  1639  the  Chinese  rebelled  against  tiie  Spanish  authority. 

In  their  furious  march  through  the  ruins  and  the  blood  of  their 
victims,  and  amidst  the  wailing  of  the  crowd,  they  attacked  the 
Sanctuary  wherein  reposed  the  Virgin.  Seizing  the  Holy  Image,  they 
cast  it  into  the  flames,  and  when  all  around  was  reduced  to  ashes, 
there  stood  the  Virgin  of  Antipole,  resplendent  with  her  hair,  her  lace, 
her  ribbons  and  adornmenta  intact,  and  her  beautiful  body  of  brass 
without  wound  or  blemish  ! 

Passionate  at  seeing  frustrated  their  designs  to  destroy  the  deified 
protectress  of  the  Christians,  a  rebel  stabbed  her  in  the  face,  and  all 
the  resources  of  art  have  ever  failed  to  heal  the  lasting  wound. 

Again  the  Virgin  was  enveloped  in  flames,  which  hid  the  appalling 
sight  of  her  burning  entrails.  Now  tlie  Spanish  troops  arrived,  and 
fell  upon  the  heretical  marauders  with  great  slaughter  ;  then,  glancing 
with  trembling  anxiety  upon  the  scene  of  the  outrage,  behold  1  with 
astonishment  they  descried  the  Holy  Image  upon  a  pile  of  ashes — 
unhurt ! 

With  renewed  enthusiasm,  the  Spanish  infantry  bore  away  the 
Virgin   on  their  shoulders  in  triumph,  and   Sebastian  Hurtado,  the 

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200  nilLIPFINE    ISLANDS. 

Governor-Geuertil  at  the  time,  hid  hoi  conioypd  to  Ciivite  to  he  the 
patroness  of  the  fuitliful  upon  the  high  seis 

A  galleon  arrived  at  Cavite  ami  bom<;  iinahle  to  go  into  port,  tha 
comiuander  anoliorod  off  at  i  dntaiice 

Then  the  Governor-Gcuerx!,  Dit^o  Fii'»rdo,  sent  the  Virgin  oa 
board,  and,  by  her  help,  a  passage  was  found  for  tlie  vessel  to  enter. 

Later  on,  twelve  Dutch  war  ships  appeared  off  Marivcles,  a  point 
to  the  north  of  the  entrance  to  Manila  Bay.  They  had  come  to  attack 
Cavitc,  and  ia  their  honr  of  danger  the  Spaniards  appealed  to  the 
Virgin,  who  gave  them  a  complete  victory  over  the  Dntclimen,  causing 
them  to  flee,  with  their  commander  mortally  wounded.  During  the 
afTray,  the  Virgin  hatl  hccn  tiLken  away  for  safety  on  hoard  the  "  San 
Diego,"  commanded  by  Cepeda,  Id  1650  this  vessel  returned,  and  the 
pious  prelate,  Jose  Millan  Pobiete,  tliought  he  perceived  clear 
indications  of  an  eager  desire  on  the  part  of  tho  Virgin  to  retire  to 
her  Sanctuary. 

Tlie  people  too  clamoured  for  the  Soiot,  attributing  the  many 
calamities  with  which  they  were  afflicted  at  that  period  to  ber  absence 
from  their  shores.  Assailed  by  enemies,  frequently  threatened  by  the 
Dutch,  lamenting  the  loss  of  several  galleons,  and  distressed  by  a  serious 
earthquake,  their  only  hope  reposed  in  tho  beneficent  aid  of  the  Virgin 
of  Aiitipolo. 

But  the  galleon  "  San  Francisco  Xavier "  feared  to  make  the 
journey  to  Mexico  without  the  saintly  support,  and  for  the  sixth  time 
the  Virgin  crossed  the  Pacific  Ocean. 

In  Acapulco  the  galleon  lay  at  anchor  until  Marcli,  1653,  whea 
the  newly  appointed  Governor- General,  Sabiniano  Manrique  do  Lara, 
Archbishop  Miguel  Pobiete,  Fray  Eodrigo  Cardenas,  Bishop-elect  of 
Cagayan,  and  many  other  passengers  embarked  and  set  sail  for  Manila. 
Their  sufferings  during  the  voyage  were  horrible.  Almost  overcome 
oy  a  violent  storm,  the  ship  became  unmanageable.  Eain  poured  in 
torrents,  whilst  her  decks  were  washed  by  the  surging  waves,  and  all 
was  on  tlie  point  of  utter  destruction.  In  this  plight  the  Virgin  was 
exliorted,  and  not  in  vain,  for  at  ber  command  the  sea  lessened  its  fury, 
the  'Aiind  calmed,  and  all  the  horrors  of  the  voyage  ceased.  BJack 
threatening  clouds  dispersed,  and  under  a  beautiful  blue  sky  a  fair  wind 
wafted  the  galleon  safely  to  the  port  of  Cavite. 

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These  circumstancca  gained  for  the  Saint  the  title  of  "  Virgin  of 
Good  Voyage  aud  Peace  "  ;  and  tho  sailors  who  acknowledged  that 
their  lives  were  saved  by  her  sublime  intercession— followed  by  the 
ecclesiastical  dignitaries  and  militsiry  chiefs — carried  the  image  to  her 
retreat  in  Antipole  (8th  September,  1653),  where  it  was  intended  she 
should  permanently  remain.  However,  deprived  of  the  snccour  of 
the  Saint,  misfortunes  again  overtook  the  galleons.  Three  of  them 
were  lost,  and  the  writer  of  the  brochure  to  which  I  refer  supposes 
(Cliap.  IV,)  that  perchance  the  sea,  suffering  from  the  number  of 
furrows  cut  by  the  keels  of  the  ships,  had  determined  to  take  a  fierce 
revenge  by  swallowing  them  up  ! 

Once  more,  therefore,  the  Virgin  eondesceDdeJ  to  accompany  a 
galleon  to  Mesico,  bringing  her  back  safely  to  these  shores  in  1672. 

This  was  tho  Virgin's  last  sea  voyage.  Again,  and  for  ever,  she 
was  convoyed  by  the  joyous  midtitude  to  her  resting  place  in  Antipolo 
Church,  and,  on  her  joumey  thither,  there  was  not  a  flower,  adds  the 
chronicler,  which  did  not  greet  her  by  opening  a  bud— not  a  mountain 
pigeon  which  remaineil  in  silence,  whilst  the  breezes  and  the  rivulets 
poured  forth  their  silent  murmurings  of  ecstacy.  Saintly  guardian  of 
the  soul,  dispersing  mundane  evils — no  colours,  the  historian  tells  ns, 
can  paint  the  animation  of  the  faithful  ;  no  discourse  can  describe  the 
consolation  of  die  pilgrims  in  their  refuge  at  the  Shrine  of  ll)e  Holy 
Virgin  of  Antipolo. 

Yet  the  village  of  Antipolo  and  its  neighbourhood  is  the  centre  o£ 
bi-igaodage,  the  resort  of  murderous  highwaymen,  the  fociis  of  crime. 
What  a  strange  contrast  to  the  sublime  virtues  of  the  immortal 
Divinity  encloseil  within  its  Sanctuary  ! 

The  most  lucrative  iindertaking  in  the  Colony  is  tliat  of  a  sJirine. 
It  J  ir  Ids  all  gam  ind  no  possible  loss  Among  the  most  popular  of 
tlieso  "Miraculous  Saint  ShoM&"  wai  thit  of  Gusi,  belonging  to  a 

native  lather  M G ,  late  piri'^b  piiest  of  Hug,   iu  Negros 

Island  At  Guii,  half  in  hour  ■^  walk  from  the  Father's  parish  church, 
was  enthroned  San  Joaquin,  iiho  for  %  small  consideration,  consoled 
tlie  faithful  or  relieved  them  of  their  suflerings  His  spouse,  Santa 
Ana,  having  taktn  up  her  residence  la  the  town  of  JIolo  (Yloila 
Province),  wis  siid  to  h->\e  been  vi'ited  by  San  Joaquin  once  a  year. 

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He  was  absect  on  the  jourcev  at  least  a  fortoight,  but  the  waters  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  the  Shriue  being  satictificd  the  clientele  was  not 
dispersed.  Some  sceptics  have  dared  to  doubt  whetlier  San  Joaquin 
really  paid  this  visit  to  his  saintly  wife,  and.  alleged  that  hia  absence 
was  feigned,  firstly  to  make  his  presence  longed  for,  and  secondly  to 
remove  the  cobwebs  from  his  hallowed  brow,  aad  give  him  a  wash  and 
brush  up  for  the  year.  It  paid  well  for  years — every  dei-oteo  leaving 
his  mite.  At  the  tinae  of  my  pilgrimage  there,  the  holy  Father's  sou 
was  the  petty  Governor  of  the  same  town  of  Hug. 

Shrine-owners  are  apparently  no  friends  of  free  trade.  In  1888 
there  was  a  great  commotion  amongst  them  when  it  was  discovered 
that  a  would-be  competitor  and  a  gownsman  had  conspired,  in 
Parapanga  Province,  to  establish  a  Miraculous  Saint,  by  concealing 
an  image  in  a  field  in  order  that  it  should  "  make  itself  manifest  to 
the  faithful,"  and  thenceforth  become  a  source  of  iacome. 

It  is  notorious  that  in  a  church  near  Manila  a  few  years  ago,  an 
image  was  made  to  move  the  parts  of  its  body  as  the  reverend  preacher 
exhorted  it  in  the  coarse  of  his  sermon.  When  he  appealed  to  the 
saint,  it  wagged  its  head  or  extended  its  arms,  whilst  the  female 
audience  wept  and  wailed.  Such  a  scandalous  disturbance  did  it 
provoke,  that  the  exhibition  was  even  too  monstrous  for  tbe  clergy 
themselves,  and  the  Archbishop  proiiibited  it.  But  religion  has  many 
wealth-producing    branches.     In    January,    1889,   a    friend    of    mine 

(J M ,  of  Negros)  showed  me  an  account  rendered  by  the 

Superior  of  the  Jesuits'  School  for  tho  education  of  his  sons,  each  of 
whom  was  charged  with  one  doUar  as  a  gratuity  to  the  Pope,  to  iwduce 
him  to  canonize  a  deceased  member  of  their  order.  Nevertheless,  I 
have  been  most  positively  assured  by  friends,  whose  good  faith  I 
onght  not  to  doubt,  that  San  Pascual  Bailon  really  has,  on  many 
occasions,  had  compassion  on  barren  women  (their  friends)  and  given 
them  offspring. 

On  the  other  band,  the  holy  waters  transported  to  Negros  Island 
from  the  Concepeion  district  (Panay  Island),  for  which  the  steamer 
"Eupido"wa3  specially  chartered  from  Tloilo,  failed  to  prolong  the 
days  of  my  late  friend  A M ,  of  Bago, 

Trading  upon  the  credulity  of  devout  enthusiasts  by  fetichism 
and  shriue  quackery  is  not  altogether  confined  to  the  ecclesiastics.  A 
layman  named  P ,  in  Yloilo,  some  few  years  ago,  when  he  was  an 

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official  of  the  prison,  known  as  the  "  Cotta,"  eoiicolved  the  idea  of 
declaring  that  the  Blessed  Virgin  and  Child  Jesus  had  appeared  in  the 
well  of  the  prison,  where  they  took  a  bath  and  disappeared.  When,  at 
length,  the  belief  became  popular,  hundreds  of  natives  went  there  to 

get  water  from  the  well,  and  P imposed  a  tax  on  the  pilgrims. 

P ,  wlio  at  one  time  possessed  a  modest  fortune,  and  owned  two 

of  the  best  houses  in  the  Square  of  Yloilo,  subsequently  became 
misciahly  poor. 

The  Feast  of  Tigbauang  (a  few  miles  from  Yloilo),  whicb  takes 
place  in  January,  is  also  much  frequented,  on  account  of  the  miracles 
performed  by  the  patron  Saint  of  the  town  The  faith  in  tlie  power 
of  this  minor  divinity  to  dii'pel  bodilj  sufFeimg  is  so  deeply  rooted, 
that  members  of  tbe  most  ealightenel  families  of  "iloilo  and  the 
neighbouring  towns  go  to  Tigb  iua,ng  &  mply  to  ittend  High  Mass, 
aad  go  back  home  at  once  I  ha\e  seen  steamers  rfturn  to  Yloilo 
from  this  feast  so  crowded  with  pis  enters,  that  there  was  only 
standing  room  for  them. 

An  opprobrious  form  of  religious  imposture — and  I  judged  the 
most  contemptible — which  frequently  offended  the  public  eye,  was  the 
practice  of  prowling  about  with  doll-saiuts  in  the  streets  and  public 
highways.  A  vagrant,  too  lazy  to  earn  an  boaest  subsistence, 
procured  a  licence  from  tbe  monks  to  hawk  about  a  wooden  box  with  a 
doll  or  print  inside  and  a  pane  of  glass  in  front.  This  be  ofTerod  to 
bold  before  tlic  nose  of  any  ignorant  passer-by  who  was  willing  to  pay 
for  the  boon  of  kissing  tbe  glass  ! 

During  Holy  Week,  a  few  years  ago,  the  captain  of  the  Civil 
Guard  in  Tayabas  Province  went  to  the  town  of  Atimonan,  and  saw 
natives  in  tbe  streets  almost  in  a  state  of  nudity  doing  penance 
"for  tbe  wounds  of  Our  Lord."  They  were  actually  beating  tliem- 
Helves  with  flails,  some  of  which  were  made  of  iron  chain,  and  others 
of  rope  with  thongs  of  rattan  cane.  He  confiscated  tbe  flails — one 
of  which  he  gave  to  mc — and  effectually  assisted  the  fanatics  in  their 
penitent  castigation.  Alas  I  to  what  excesses  will  faith,  unrestrained 
by  reason,  bring  one  ! 

The  result  of  tuition  in  mystic  influoaces  is  sometimes  de- 
veloped itt  tbe  appearance  of  native  Santoncs, — indolent  scamps  who 
never  cut  their  hair,  and  roam  about  in  remote  villages  and  districts, 
feigning  the  possession  of  superuatural  gifts,  and  tbe  facalty  of  saving 

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sonis  and  curing  diseases,  with  tlie  object  of  living  at  the  espeiise  of 
tlie  ignorant.  I  have  never  happened  to  meet  more  than  one  of  these 
creatures — &n  escaped  convict  named  Apoionio,  said  to  he  a  native  of 
Cabuyao  (Laguna  Province),  who,  assuming  the  character  of  a  prophet 
and  worker  of  miracles,  hail  fled  to  the  neighbourhood  of  San  Pablo 
■village.  I  have  often  heard  of  them  in  other  places,  notably  in  CiVpiB 
Province,  where  the  pursuit  of  the  Santones  by  the  Civil  Guard  was 
for  a  while  the  local  theme  of  conversation. 

The  sale  of  Masses  is  a  very  old-established  custom  of  the  llomau 
Catholic  Church,  but  it  never  appeared  to  mo  in  bo  practical  and 
business-like  a  light  as,  when  in  Pasacao  {Province  of  Camarinea  Sur), 
on  the  23rd  of  December,  1886,  I  heard  a  certain  Father  Carlos,  who 
was  going  to  Spain  on  a  special  mission,  strike  a  serious  bargain  with 
a  Spaniard  residing  in  Nueva  Caceres.  The  priest  proposed  to  Bend 
to  his  friend  a  ham  from  Gailicia  for  every  ten  Mass  orders  he  received 
from  him.  The  bargain  being  accepted,  he  at  once  proceeded  to 
calculate  the  cost  of  the  ham  and  the  value  of  the  fees  of  ten  Masses, 
chuckling  over  the  neft  profits  in  perspective. 

Tiie  Spanish  clergy  were  justifiably  zealous  in  guarding  the  native 
classes  from  the  knowledge  of  other  doctrines  which  would  only 
lead  them  to  immeasurable  bewilderment.  Hence  all  the  natives 
who  were  entirely  under  Spanish  dominion,  i.e.,  all  the  indigenous 
population,  excepting  the  independent  and  seini-indepcndeut  tribes, 
are  Roman  Catholics. 

This  blind  obedience  to  one  system  of  Christianity,  even  in  its 
grossly  exaggerated  form,  had  the  effect  desired  by  the  State,  of 
bringing  about  social  unity  to  an  advanced  degree.  Tet,  so  far  aa  I 
have  observed,  it  appears  evident  that  the  native  understands 
extremely  little  of  the  "  inward  and  spiritual  grace "  of  religion. ' 
He  is  so  material  and  realistic,  so  devoid  of  all  conception  of  things 
abstract,  that  his  ideas  rarely,  if  ever,  soar  beyond  the  contemplation 
of  the  "  outward  and  visible  signs  "  of  Christian  belief.  The  symbols 
of  faith  and  the  observance  of  religious  rites  aro  to  him  religion  itself. 
He  also  confounds  morality  with  religion.  ^Natives  go  to  cliurch 
because  it  is  the  custom.  Often  if  a  native  cannot  put  on  a  clean 
shirt,  he  abstains  from  going  to  Mass.  The  petty  Governor  of  a 
town  was  compelled  to  go  to  High  Mass,  accompanied  by  his 
"ministry,"     In    some    towns,  the  Barangay    Chiefs   were  fined  or 

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beaten  if  they  wore  absent  from  oliureli  on  Sundays  ami  certiiia 
i'east  Days.' 

As  to  the  women,  little  or  no  pressure  was  necessary  to  oblige 
them  to  attend  Mass  ;  many  of  them  pass  lialf  tlieir  existence  between 
adoration  of  tho  images,  Marioiatry  and  the  confessional. 

Undoubtedly,  Koman  Catholicism  appears  to  be  the  form  of 
Christianity  most  successful  in  proselytizing  uncivilized  races,  whicii 
aro  impressed  more  with  their  eyes  than  their  understanding. 

The  pagan  idols,  which  reappeared  in  the  foi'm  of  martyrs  in 
primitive  times,  still  gratify  the  instinctive  want  of  visible  deities  to 
uncultivated  minds.  The  heathen  rites,  originally  adopted  by  the 
Catholic  Church  to  appease  the  pagans  in  tho  earliest  ages,  such  as 
pompous  ritual,  lustrous  gold  and  silver  vases,  magnificent  robes,  and 
glittering  processional  shows,  serve,  where  intellectual  reasoning  would 
fail,  to  convince  the  neophyte  of  the  sanctity  of  the  religious  system 
and  the  infallibility  of  its  professors'  precepts. 

The  parish  priest  of  Lipa,  a  town  in  Batangas  Province,  related 
to  ft  friend  of  mine,  that  Laving  on  one  occasion  distributed  all  his 
stock  of  pictures  of  the  Saints  to  those  who  had  come  to  see  Iiim  on 
parochial  business,  he  had  to  content  the  last  suppliant  with  an  empty 
raisin  box,  without  noticing  tliat  on  the  lid  there  was  a  coloured  print 
of  Garibaldi.  Later  on.  Garibaldi's  portrait  was  seen  in  a  hut  in  one 
of  the  suburbs  with  caudles  around  it,  being  adored  as  a  Saint. 

A  curious  case  of  native  religious  philosophy  was  reported  in  a 
Manila  newspaper.*  A  milkman  was  accused  by  one  of  his  customers  of 
having  adulterated  the  milk  which  he  supplied.  Of  course  he  denied 
it  at  first,  and  then  yielding  to  more  potent  argument  than  words,  he  con- 
fessed that  he  had  diluted  the  milk  with  holy  water  from  the  Church 
fonts,  for  at  tiie  same  time  that  he  committed  the  sin  he  was  penitent. 

'  A  Decree  issued  by  Don  Juan  de  Ozaeta,  a  magistrate  of  the  Supreme  Court, 
in  bis  general  viait  of  inspection  to  the  provinces,  dated  26th  May,  1606,  enacts 
the  following,  viz. :— "  That  Chinese  half-castea  and  headmen  shall  be  compelled 
"  to  go  to  tte  church  and  attend  Divine  Service,  and  act  accoiding  to  the  customs 
"  established  in  the  villages,"  and  the  penalty  for  a,n  infraction  of  thismandate  by 
a  male  was  "  20  lashea  in  the  public  highway  and  two  months'  iabomr  in  the  Eoyal 
"  EopeWalfc(e3lablishedinTaal),or  in  the  Qalleya of  Cavite."  If  the delinqaent 
were  a  female,  the  chastisement  was  "  one  month  of  public  penance  in  the  chnrch." 
whilst  the  Alcalde  or  Governor  of  the  Province  who  did  not  pj'omptly  inflict 
the  punishment  was  to  be  mulcted  in  the  sum  of  "  |200,  to  be  i)aid  to  the  Royal 
"  Treasury." 

'  "Diario  de  Manila,"  Saturday,  July  23th,  1883. 

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Although  slavery  was  prohibited  by  law  as  tax  back  as  the  reign  of 
Philip  II.,'  it  nevertheless  still  exists  in  an  occult  form  among  the 
natives.  Rarely,  if  ever,  do  its  victims  appeal  to  the  law  for  redress, 
firstly,  because  of  their  ignorance,  and  secondly,  because  the  untutored 
class  have  an  innate  horror  of  resisting  anciently  estiiblishect  custom, 
and  it  ivoiild  never  occur  to  them  to  do  so.  Ou  the  other  hand,  in  the 
time  of  the  Spaniards,  the  numberless  procuradores  and  pica-pleitos 
— touting  solicitors — had  no  interest  in  taking  up  cases  so  profitless  to 
themselves.  Under  the  pretext  of  guaranteeing  a  loan,  parents  readily 
sell  their  children  (male  or  female)  into  bondage  ;  the  child  is  handed 
over  to  ■work  until  the  loan  is  repaid,  but  as  the  day  of  restitution  of 
the  advance  never  arrives,  neither  does  the  liberty  of  the  youthful 
victim.  Among  themselves  it  was  a  law,  and  is  still  a  practised 
custom,  for  the  debts  of  the  parents  to  pass  on  to  the  children,  and,  as 
I  have  said  before,  debts  are  never  repudiated  by  them. 

However,  one  cannot  closely  criticise  the  existence  of  slavery  in 
the  Philippines,  when  it  ia  remembered  that  it  was  in  vogue  in  educated 
England  not  much  over  half  a  century  ago.  Before  the  lat  of  Augnst, 
1834,  negroes  were  caught  in  public  highways  and  shipped  off  to  the 
colonies,  whilst  press  gangs  seized  quondam  free  citizens  to  serve  in  the 
army  and  navy  forces.  When  the  case  of  the  negro  James  Somerset 
was  first  brought  before  Lord  Mansfield  by  Mr.  Granville  Sharp,  that 
high  legal  authority,  in  agreement  with  all  the  contemporary  lawyers 
of  note,  virtually  decided  that  the  slave  trade  could  be  legally  carried 
on  in  the  streets  o£  London  and  Liverpool,  and  it  needed  the  persistent 
devotion  of  Clarkson,  Wilberforco,  Brougham  and  Fowel!  Buxton,  to 
ensure  equality  of  freedom  to  all  British  subjects. 

Labour  seems  to  he  about  equally  distributed  amongst  men  and 
women  in  the  Philippines  ;  each  sex,  as  a  rule,  working  strictly  in  its 
sphere  ;  and  this  may  compare  favourably  with  tbe  state  of  rural  society 
as  it  was  io  Scotland  some  years  ago,  for  Mr.  Samuel  Smiles  remarks*  : 
"  The  hard  work  was  chiefly  done,  and  the  burdens  borne  hy  the 
"  women  ;  and  if  a  cotter  lost  a  horse,  it  was  not  unusual  fo     1  m  to 

'  According  to  Concepcion,  there  were  headmen  at  the  time  of  th  C  nqn  st 
who  had  as  many  as  .tOO  slaves,  and  a?  a  property  they  ranked  nes  Ine 

to  gold.  Tide  "  Hist.  Gen.  de  Philipinas,"  by  Juan  de  la  Concepci  pub  n 
Manila  in  1783,  in  14  volnmes. 

=  SmilcB'  "  Self  Help."     Edition  of  1SG7,  page  376. 

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*'  marry  a,  wife  as  tlio  cheapest  substitute."  And  again,  in  tho  north 
of  Spain,  1  have,  hundreds  of  times,  seen  ships  being  laden  with. 
mineral,  brought  dowu  in  baskets  on  the  heads  of  Basque  ivomen. 

All  the  natives  of  the  domesticated  typo  have  distinct  Malay 
features — prominent  cheek  bones,  large  and  lively  eyes,  and  flat  noses 
with  dilated  nostrils.  They  are,  on  tiio  average,  of  rather  low  stature, 
very  rarely  boarded,  and  of  a,  copper  colour  more  or  less  dark.  Most  of 
the  women  have  no  distinct  line  of  hair  on  the  forehead.  Some  there 
are  with  hairy -down  on  the  forehead  within  an  inch  of  tho  eyes,  possibly 
a  reversion  to  a  progenitor  (the  Macacus  radiata),  iu  whom  the  forehead 
had  not  becomo  quite  naked,  leaving  tho  limit  between  tlie  scalp  and 
the  forehead  undefined.  The  hair  of  both  males  and  females  stands  out 
from  the  skin  like  bristles,  and  is  very  coarse.  Children,  from  their 
birth,  have  a  spot  at  the  base  of  the  vertebras,  thereby  supporting  the 
theory  of  Professor  Huxley's  Anihrnpidts  sub-order — or  man  {vide 
"  An  Introduction  to  the  Classificatiori  of  Ammals,"  by  Professor 
Huxley,  1869,  page  ^^'). 

Consanguine  marriages  are  very  common,  and  perhaps  tliis  accounts 
for  the  low  intellect  and  mental  debility  perceptible  in  many  families. 
Great  numbers  die  annually  of  fever — especially  in  the  spring — and 
although,  in  general,  thoy  may  be  considered  a  robust,  enduring  race, 
they  are  loss  capable  than  tho  European  of  withstanding  acute  disease. 
I  should  say  that  quite  SO'/j,  of  the  native  population  are  affected  by 
cutaneous  disease,  said  to  be  caused  by  eating  (isii  daily,  and  especially 
shell-fish.     It  is  known  in  the  Colony  as  Sarnas. 

In  1882,  Cholera  morbus  in  epidemic  form  ravaged  the  native 
population,  carrying  off  thousands  of  victims,  the  exact  number  of 
which  has  never  been  published.  The  preventive  recommended  by  the 
priests  on  this  occasion,  viz.,  prayer  to  St.  Eoque,  proved  quite  ineffectual 
to  stay  tho  plague.  Annually  many  natives  suffer  from  what  is  called 
Colerin — a  mild  form  of  Cholera,  but  not  epidemic.  In  the  spring, 
deaths  always  occur  from  acute  indigestion,  due  to  eating  too  plentifully 
of  new  rice.  Many  who  have  recovered  from  Cholera  become  victims  to 
a  disease  known  as  Beri  Bert,  of  which  the  symptom  is  a  swelling  of 
the  legs.  Small-pox  makes  great  ravages,  and  Measles  is  a  common 
comphiint.  Lung  and  Bronchial  aiiections  are  very  rare.  The  most 
fearful  disease  in  the  Colony  is  Leprosy.  To  my  knowledge  it  is 
prevalent  in  tlie  Province  of  Bulacan  (Luzon),  and  in  the  ialands  of 

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Cebu  aad  Kugros.  There  ia  an  asyluui  for  lepers  near  Manila  (i-!</5 
Cliaps.  V,  and  XXII.)  and  at  Mabolo,  just  outside  the  City  of  Cebu, 
but  no  practical  iDeasures  were  ever  adopted  by  tlic  Spaniards  to 
eradicate  the  disease,  whicti,  in  Cebii  at  least,  is  known  to  be  spreadiog. 
The  Spanish  authorities  were  always  too  indiffereut  about  the  propaga- 
tion of  leprosy  to  establish  a  homo  on  one  island  for  all  male  lepers  and 
another  home  on  auother  island  for  female  lepers.  Some  years  ago  I 
read  a  series  of  well-written  articles  on  this  question  published  in  the 
Boletiii  de  Ccbu,hy  Dr.  Manuel  Eogel.'  In  Baliuag  (Btdacan)  there 
are  leper  faniUies,  personally  knowu  to  me,  who  are  allowed  to  mix  with 
the  general  public.  In  Cebu  and  Negros  Islands  they  are  permitted  to 
roam  about  on  the  high  roads  and  beg. 

The  Colony  abounds  in  valuable  medicinal  herbs  and  trees,  and 
the  natives  are  acquainted  with  many  efficacious  remedies  foi'  current 

Marriages  between  natives  are  usually  arranged  liy  the  parents  of 
the  respective  families.  The  nubile  ago  of  females  is  from  about 
eleven  years.  Tlic  parents  of  the  young  man  visit  those  of  the  maiden, 
to  approach  the  subject  delicately  in  an  oratorical  style  of  allegory. 
The  response  is  in  like  manner — shrouded  with  mystery — and  the  veil 
is  only  thrown  otF  the  negotiations  when  it  becomes  evident  that  both 
parties  agree.  If  the  young  man  has  no  dowry  to  offer,  it  is  frequently 
stipulated  that  he  eliaU  serve  on  probation  for  an  indefinite  period  in  the 
house  of  his  future  bride — as  Jacob  served  Labau  to  make  Rachael  his 
wife — and  not  a  few  drudge  for  years  with  this  hope  before  them. 

Sometimes,  in  order  to  secure  service  gratis,  the  elders  of  the  young 
woman  will  suddenly  dismiss  the  young  man  after  a  proloDged  expec- 
tation, and  take  another  Cat'ipad,  as  he  is  called,  on  the  same  terms. 
The  old  colonial  legislation — "  Leyes  de  Indias,"  in  vain  prohibited  this 
barbarous  ancient  custom,  and  there  waa  a  modern  Spanish  law  which 
permitted  the  intended  bride  to  be  "  deposited "  away  from  parental 

'  Author  ol  "  Lepra  EnViaayas,"  pub.  inManila  I8B7.  Eeterringlo  Leprosy, 
"The  Charity  Secord,"  London,  Dec.  t5tti,  1893,  says  : — "Rehable  eatimates  place 
"  the  EumbGr  o£  lepers  in  India,  China,  and  Japan  at  one  million.  About  hall  a 
"  million  would  probably  be  a  correct  estimate  for  India  only,  although  the 
"  official  number  is  less,  owing  to  the  many  who  from  being  hidden,  or  homeless, 
"  or  Irom  other  canaes,  escape  enumeration." 



CQsLody,  wlailst  the  parents  were  called  upon  to  show  cause  why  tho 
union  should  not  take  place.  However,  it  often  happsna,  that  when 
Cupid  has  already  shot  hia  arrow  iuto  the  virginal  breast,  and  the 
betrothed  foresee  a  determined  oppoaicion  to  their  iniitual  hopes,  they 
anticipate  the  privileges  of  matrimony,  and  compel  the  bride's  parents 
to  countenance  their  legitimate  aspirations  to  save  the  honour  of  tha 
family.  Honi  soU  qui  mal  y  pense — they  simply  force  the  hand  of  a 
dictatorial  mother-iQ  law.  The  women  are  mercenary  in  the  extreme, 
and  if,  on  the  part  of  the  girl  and  her  people,  there  be  a  hitch,  it  ia 
generally  on  the  question  of  dollars,  when  both  parties  are  native.  Of 
course,  if  the  suitor  be  European,  no  sucli  question  ia  raised — the 
ambition  of  the  family  and  the  vanity  of  the  girl  being  both  satisfied 
by  the  alliauoo  itself. 

When  the  proposed  espousals  aro  accepted,  the  donations  propter 
nupiias  are  paid  by  the  father  of  the  bridegroom  to  defray  the  wedding 
expenses,  and  often  a  dowry  settlement,  called  in  Tagalog  dialect 
"bigaycai/a"  is  made  iu  favour  of  the  bride.  Very  rarely  the  bride's 
property  is  settled  on  the  husband.  I  iie\  er  heard  of  such  a  cafie.  The 
Spanish  laws  relating  to  married  persons'  property  are  quaint.  If  the 
husband  be  poor,  and  tlie  wifo  well'Off,  so  they  may  remain,  notwith- 
standing the  maniage.  He,  as  a  rule,  becomes  a  simple  administrator 
of  her  possession'*,  and,  if  honest,  often  depends  on  her  liberality  to 
supply  his  own  neceasities.  If  he  becomes  bankrupt  in  a  business  ia 
which  he  employed  also  her  capital  or  possessions,  she  ranks  as  a 
creditor  of  the  second  class  under  the  "  Conimercial  Code."  If  she 
dies,  the  poor  husband,  under  no  circumstances,  by  legal  right  (unless 
under  a  deed  signed  before  a  notary)  derives  any  benefit  from  the  fact 
of  bis  having  espoused  a  rich  wife, — ber  property  passes  to  their 
legitimate  issue  or, — in  default  thereof — to  her  nearest  blood  relation. 
The  children  might  be  rich,  and,  but  for  their  generosity,  their  father 
might  be  destitute,  whilst  the  law  compels  him  to  render  a  strict  account 
to  them  of  the  administration  of  their  property  during  their  minority. 

A  married  woman  often  signs  her  maiden  name,  sometimes  adding 
"  de "  (her  husband's  surname). 

If  she  survives  him,  siie  again  takes  up  her  nonien  ante  nuptias 

amongst  her  old  circle  of  friends,  and  only  adds  "  widow  of "  to 

show  who  she  is  to  the  public  (if  she  be  in  trade),  or  to  those  who  have 
only  known  her  as  a  married  woman. 

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The  offspring  me  tiiQ  eurnaiQes  of  botli  fatlior  ami  mother,  the 
latter  coming  after  the  former,  hence  it  is  tlie  more  prominent. 
Frequently,  in  documents  requiring  the  mention  of  a  person's  father 
and  mother,  the  maiden  snrname  of  the  latter  is  revived. 

Thus  marriage,  as  I  cnderetand  the  spirit  of  the  Spanish  laAV,  eeema 
to  be  lb  simple  contract  to  legitimjae  and  license  procieitiou 

Up  to  the  year  18i4,  onW  a  minority  of  the  Christian  natives  had 
distinctive  family  names.  They  were,  before  tl  at  date,  known  by 
certain  harsh  ejaculationa,  and  classification  of  families  was  uncared  for 
among  the  majority  of  the  population  Thercfojc,  m  that  year  a  list 
of  Spanish  surnames  was  sent  to  each  pariah  piiest,  ind  every  native 
family  had  to  adopt  a  separate  appellation,  whiLh  has  evei  since  been 
perpetuated.  Hence  one  mu,!^  mtnea  bearing  lUustiioLis  names,  such 
as  Juan  Salcedo,  Juan  de  Austria,  Ei  maares,  Rimju  dt,  C  ihrera,  Pio 
Nono  Lopez,  and  a  great  miny  Legaspis 

When  a  wedding  among  nitivcs  ^^1a  determined  uion,  the  betrothed 
went  to  the  priest — not  necessaiily  together— kissed  Iiis  hand,  and 
informed  him  of  their  intentun  There  was  a  tariff  of  marriage  fees, 
but  the  priest  usually  set  this  aside,  and  fixed  hia  i,hria;e^  according  to 
the  resources  of  the  parties  This  abuse  of  power  could  hardly  be 
resisted,  iis  the  natives  have  a  radicate  aversion  to  bemg  married 
elsewhere  than  in  the  village  of  the  bride  The  prie^it  too  (not  the 
bride)  usually  had  the  privilege  of  *  mming  the  U  ly  "  The  fees 
demanded  were  sometimes  enormous,  tJie  common  itsult  being  that 
many  couples  merely  cohabittd  undur  mutual  vows  because  they  eoidd 
not  pay  the  wedding  expenses 

The  banns  were  verbally  published  after  the  benediction  following 
the  conclusion  of  the  Mass.  The  ceremony  almost  invariably  took  place 
after  the  first  Mass,  between  five  and  six  in  the  morning. 

In  the  evening,  prior  to  the  marriage,  the  couple  had  of  course  to 
confess  and  obtain  absolution  from  the  priest. 

Mass  having  been  said,  those  who  were  spiritually  prepared  presented 
themselves  for  Communion  in  the  sacrifice  of  the  Eucharist  de  sanguine 
et  coTpore  Domini.  Then  an  acolyte  placed  over  the  shoulders  of  the 
bridal  pair  a  thick  mantle  or  pall.  The  priest  recited  a  short  formula 
of  about  five  minutes'  duration,  put  his  interrogations,  received  the 
muttered  responses,  and  all  was  over.  To  the  espoused,  as  they  left 
the  church,  was  tendered  a  bowl  of  coin ;  the  bridegroom  passed  a 

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handful  of  the  contents  to  the  bride,  who  aeeepted  it  and  returned  it 
to  the  bowl.  This  act  waa  symbolical  of  his  giviag  to  her  his  worldly 
possessions,  Theu  they  left  the  church  with  their  friends,  preserving 
that  solemn  Stoical  countenance  common  to  all  Malay  natives.  There 
was  no  visible  sign  of  emotion  as  they  all  walketl  off,  with  tha  most 
matter-of-fact  indifference,  to  the  paternal  abode.  This  was  tha 
custom  under  the  Spaniards  ;  the  Eevolution  decreed  civil  marriages. 

Theu  the  feast  called  the  Catapusan'  begins.  To  this  the  vicar 
and  headmen  of  the  villages,  the  immodiale  frieuds  and  relatives  of  tha 
allied  families,  and  any  Europeans  who  may  happen  to  be  resident  or 
sojourning,  are  invited.  The  table  is  spread  d  la  Busse,  with  all 
the  good  things  procurable  served  at  the  same  time — sweetmeats 
predominatiug.  Imported  beer,  Dutch  gin,  chocolate,  etc,  are  also  in 
abundance.  Afterthe  early  repast, both  men  and  women  arc  couatantly 
being  ofiorod  betel-nut  to  masticate,  or  cigars  and  cigarettes. 

Meanwhile  the  compauy  is  entertained  by  native  dancers.  Two  at 
a  time — a  young  man  aud  woman — stand  vts-d-vts  and  alternately  sing 
a  love  ditty,  the  burthen  of  the  theme  usually  opening  by  the  regret 
of  the  young  man  that  his  amorous  overtures  have  beeu  disregarded. 
Explanations  follow,  in  the  poetic  dialogue,  as  the  parties  dance 
around  each  other,  keeping  a  slow  step  to  the  plaintive  strains  of  music. 
This  is  called  the  Balitao.     It  is  most  popular  in  Visayas. 

Another  dance  is  performed  by  a  yoimg  woman  only.  If  well 
executed,  it  is  extremely  graceful.  The  girl  begins  siugiug  a  few 
words  in  an  ordiuary  tone,  when  her  vcice  gradually  drops  to  the 
diminuendo,  whilst  her  slow  gesticulations  and  the  declining  vigour  of 
the  music  together  express  her  forlornuess.  Then  a  ray  of  joy  seems 
momentarily  to  lighten  her  mental  anguish  ;  the  spirited  crescendo 
notes  gently  return  ;  the  tone  of  the  melody  swells  ;  her  step  aud 
action  energetically  quicken — until  she  lapses  agaiu  into  resigned 
sorrow,  aud  so  on  alternately.  Coy  in  repulse,  and  languid  in 
surreudcr,  the  danscuse  in  the  end  forsakes  her  sentiment  of  melancholy 
for  elated  passion. 

'  Catapnsaa  HgniBeB  in  native  dialect  the  gathering  of  fcieatls,  which 
terminates  the  festival  connected  with  any  event  or  ceremony,  whether  it  be 
a  wedding,  a  funei'al,  a  baptism,  or  aa  election  of  local  aathoritiee,  etc.  The 
festivities  after  a  burial  last  nine  days,  and  on  the  last  day  of  wailing,  drinking, 
praying  and  eating,  the  meeting  is  called  the  Catapusan. 

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The  native  danses  are  uumorous.  Another  oC  the  moat  typical,  is 
that  of  a  girl  writhing  and  dancing  a  pas  seul  with  a  glass  of  water  on 
her  head.     This  is  known  as  the  ComiCan. 

There  is  scarcely  a,  Christian  village  in  the  Islands,  however  remote, 
which  has  not  a  hand  of  mnsic  of  BOmo  kind  with  which  the  natives 
display  their  natural  talent. 

When  Europeans  are  present,  the  bride  usually  retires  into  the 
kitchen  or  a  back  room,  and  only  puts  in  an  appearance  after  repeated 
requests.  The  conversation  rarely  turns  upon  the  event  of  the 
meeting  ;  there  is  not  the  slightest  outward  manifestation  of  affection 
between  the  newly  united  couple,  who,  during  the  feast,  are  only  seen 
together  by  mere  accideut.  If  there  are  European  guests,  the  repast 
is  served  three  times — firstly  for  the  Europeaus  and  headmen,  secondly 
for  the  males  of  less  social  dignity,  and  lastly  for  the  women. 

Neither  at  the  table,'  nor  in  the  drawing-room,  do  the  men  and 
women  mingle,  except  for  perhaps  the  first  quarter  of  an  hoar  after  the 
arrival,  or  whilst  dancing  continues. 

About  ao  hour  after  the  mid-day  meal,  those  who  are  not  lodging 
at  the  house,  return  to  their  respective  residences  to  sleep  the  siesta. 
On  an  occasion  like  this — at  a  Catap&san  given  for  any  reason — native 
outsiders,  from  anywhere,  always  invade  the  kitchen  in  a  mob,  hang 
around  doorways,  fill  up  corners,  and  drop  in  for  the  feed  uninvited, 
and  it  is  usual  to  be  liberally  complaisant  to  all  coiners. 

As  a  rule,  the  married  couple  live  with  the  parents  of  one  or  the 
other,  at  least  until  the  family  inconveniently  increases.  In  old  age,  the 
elder  members  of  the  families  come  under  the  protection  of  the  younger 
ones  quite  as  a  matter  of  course.  In  any  case,  a  newly  married  pair 
seldom  reside  alone.  Kelations  from  all  parts  flock  in.  Cousins, 
uncles  and  aunts,  of  more  or  less  distant  grade,  hang  on  to  the  recently 
established  household,  if  it  he  not  estremely  poor.  Even  when  an 
European  marries  a  native  woman,  she  is  certain  to  introduce  some 
vagabond  relation — a  drone  to  hive  with  the  bees — a  condition  quite 
inevitable,  unless  the  husband  be  a  man  of  specially  determined 

Death  at  childbirth  is  very  common,  and  it  is  said  that  25°/o  of  the 
now-born  children  dio  within  a  month. 

Among  the  lowest  classes,  whilst  a  woman  is  lying-in,  the  husband 
closes  all  the  windows   to  prevent  the  evil  spirit  (asuan)  entering ; 

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sometimes  he  will  wave  about  a  stick  or  bohio  knifo  at  the  door,  or 
OE  top  of  the  roof,  for  the  same  purpose.  Even  among-  the  most 
enlightened,  at  the  present  day,  the  custom  of  shutting  the  windows  is 
inherited  from  their  superstitious  forefathers. 

It  is  cousidered  rather  an  houour  than  otherwise  to  have  children  by 
1  priest  and  little  seitet  is  miide  of  it 

In  Octoter,  1SS8,  I  wis  m  a  villige  neir  Manila,  at  the  bedside  of 
a  sii-k  friind,  when  the  (.unte  entered  He  LxcuseJ  him-ielf  for  not 
having  called  eirlier,  by  esplammf;  that  "Turing  hid  ent  him  a 
messagf  informing  him  that  as  the  vicar  {a  native)  had  gone  to  Manila, 
he  might  take  charge  of  the  church  and  parish  "  I&  Turing '  va 
assistant  curite  ' "  I  mqm  ed  Mj  friend  and  the  pastor  were  so 
convulsed  with  laughter  at  the  idea,  that  it  was  quite  five  minuter 
before  they  could  expHm  that  the  intimation  respe^'ting  the  paiochial 
bus  ness  emanated  from  the  absent  vicar  s  lurme  anne 

Parents  offer  their  girU  to  Fnrnpeans  for  a  loan  of  money,  and 
they  are  often  admitted  under  the  pseudonjme  of  sempstresses  or 
housekeepers  Natives  among  themsehes  do  not  kiss — they  smell 
each  other,  or  rather,  they  place  the  no«e  and  lip  on  the  cheek  and 
draw  a  long  breath 

Mairiages  between  Spaniards  ml  native  women  iltho  li^h  less 
frequent  than  formeilj,  stdl  takt  pla  e  It  is  difhtult  to  apprthend 
an  alliance  so  mcrngruoua,  there  he  ng  no  ifflnitj  of  ideas  and  the  only 
condition  in  common  is,  that  they  are  both  human  beings  professing 
Christianity  The  European  husband  is  either  drawn  to\\  arda  the  level 
of  the  native  hy  this  heterogeneous  relationship,  oi,  in  despair  of 
remedying  the  error  of  a  passiu^'  passion,  he  practically  ignores  his 
wife  m  hiB  own  boi,ial  connections  Each  forma  then  i  distinut  circle 
of  friends  of  his,  or  her,  own  selection,  uliilst  the  woman  is  refractory 
to  mental  improvement,  and,  m  manners  h  but  sli^hth  raist-d  aboio 
her  own  Uiss  bj  E  iropean  influence  ud  contact  IIilu  ire  some 
exceptions,  but  I  haic  most  frejuenth  observed  in  the  houses  of 
Europeans  man  led  to  nitnc  women  in  the  piovinces,  thit  the  wives 
take  up  their  chief  abide  in  the  kitchea,  and  are  only  seen  by  tue 
visitor  w  hen  some  domcstii,  duty  requires  them  to  move  .iboHt  the  house 

Familiarity  breeds  contempt,  aud  these  mesalliances  diminish  the 
dignity  of  the  superior  race  by  reduciug  the  birth  origin  oi  both  races 
to  a  common  level  in  their  children. 

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Tlie  Spanish  half-breeils  and  Creoles  constitute  a  very  influoutial 
tody.  A  great  number  of  tliem  are  establisJied  in  trade  in  Manila  and 
the  provinces.  Due  to  their  European  descent,  more  or  less  distant, 
the  half-breeds  are  of  quicker  perception,  greater  tact,  and  gifted  with 
wider  intellectual  facvtlties  than  the  indigenous  class.  Also,  the 
Chinese  lialf-breeUs — a  Cate  of  Chinese  fatbcia  and  Philippine  mothers 
— who  form  about  one-'iith  of  the  M^nIU  population,  are  ihret^dcr 
than  the  natives  of  pure  e"vtr  tttion  Ihere  are  numbers  of  bpannh 
lialE-breeds  fairly  ■well  educated,  anl  just  a  fi-w  of  them  verj  talented 
Many  of  them  have  8uccei,h  !  in  making  pretty  considerabii-  fortunes 
in  their  negotiations,  as  middlemen,  between  the  provincial  natives 
and  the  European  commercial  houses.  Their  true  social  position  is 
often  an  equivocal  one,  and  the  complex  question  has  constantly  to 
be  confronted  whether  to  regard  ft  Spanish  demi-Baug  from  a  native 
or  European  standpoint.  Among  tliemsolvcs,  they  are  continually 
Btruggling  to  attain  the  respect  and  consideration  accorded  to  the 
superior  clasK,  whilst  their  connections  and  purely  native  relations 
link  them  to  the  other  side. 

In  this  perplexing  mental  condition,  we  find  them  on  the  one  hand 
striving  in  vain  to  disown  tlieir  affinity  to  the  inferior  races,  and  on  the 
other  hand,  jealous  of  their  true-born  European  acquaintances.  A 
morosity  of  disposition  is  the  natural  outcome.  Their  cliaracter 
generally  is  evasive  and  vacillating.  They  are  captious,  fond  of 
litigation,  and  constantly  seeking  subterfuges.  They  appear  always 
dissatisfied  with  their  lot  in  life,  and  inclined  to  foster  grievances 
against  whoever  may  be  in  office  over  them. 

Pretentious  in  the  extreme,  they  are  fond  of  porc.p  and  paltry  show, 
and  some  have,  years  ago,  aspired  to  become  tlie  reformers  of  the 
Colony's  institutious. 

The  Jesuit  Father,  Pedro  Murillo  Velarde,  at  page  272  of  hia  work 
ou  this  Colony,  expressed  his  opinion  of  the  political-economical 
result  of  mixed  marriages  to  the  following  effect : — "  Now,"  he  says, 
"  we  have  a  querulous,  discontented  population  of  half-castes,  who, 
"  sooner  or  later,  will  bring  about  a  distracted  state  of  society,  and 
"  occupy  the  whole  force  of  the  Government  to  stamp  out  the  discord." 
How  far  the  prophecy  was  fulfilled  will  be  seen  in  another  chnpter. 

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'^JPlua  ultra." 
History  attests  that  at  least  during  tho  first  two  centuries  of  Spamst 
rule,  the  subjugatioD  of  the  natives  and  tlieir  acquiescence  in  tlie  new 
order  of  tliiags  were  obtained  moro  by   the  subtle  influeucQ  of    the 
missionaries  than  by  the  State. 

As  the  soldiers  of  Castilo  carried  war  into  the  interior  and  forced  its 
inhabitants  to  recognise  their  King,  so  the  priosta  wore  drafted  off  from 
the  Capital  to  mitigate  the  memory  of  bloodshed  and  to  mould  Spain's 
new  subjects  to  social  equanimity. 

In  many  cases,  in  fact,  the  whole  task  of  gaining  their  submission  to 
the  Spanish  Crown  and  obedience  to  the  dictates  of  Western  civilization 
had  been  confided  solely  to  the  pacific  medium  of  persuasion.  The 
difficult  mission  of  holding  in  check  the  natural  passions  and  instincts 
of  a  race  which  knew  no  law  but  individual  will,  was  left  to  the 
successors  of  Urdaneta.  Indeed,  it  was  but  the  general  policy  of 
Philip  II.  to  aggrandize  his  vast  realm  under  tlie  pretence  of  rescuing 
benighted  souls.  The  efficacy  of  conversion  was  never  doubted  for  a 
moment,  however  suddenly  it  might  come  to  pass,  and  the  Spanish 
cavalier  conscientiously  felt  that  he  had  a  high  mission  to  fulfil  under 
the  Banner  of  the  Cross.  In  every  natural  event  which  coincided  with 
their  interests,  in  this  respect,  the  wary  priests  descried  a  providential 

In  tiieir  opinion  the  oon-Catliolic  had  no  rights  in  this  world — no 
prospect  of  gaining  the  nest.  If  the  Pope  claimed  the  whole  world 
(such  as  was  known  of  it)  to  be  in  his  gift — how  much  more  so  heathen 
lauds  !  The  obligation  to  convert  was  imposed  by  the  I'ope,  and  was 
an  inseparable  condition  of  the  conceded  right  of  conquest.  It  was 
therefore  constantly  paramount  in  the  conqueror's  mind.'     Tho  Pope 



could  depose  and  give  away  the  right  of  any  sovereign  prince  "  si  vel 
paulum  dejicxerit."  The  Monarch  lield  his  sceptro  uuiler  tlie  sordid 
condition  of  vassalage,  hence  Philip  II.  for  the  security  of  his  Crown 
could  not  have  disobeyed  the  will  of  the  Pontiff,  whatever  his  personal 
inclinations  might  have  been  regarding  the  spread  of  Christianity.  If 
he  desired  it,  he  served  his  ends  with  advantage — if  he  were  indifferent 
to  it,  he  secured  by  its  prosecution  a  formidable  ally  in  Rome.  America 
had  already  drained  the  Peninsula  of  her  able-bodied  men  to  such  an 
extent,  that  a  military  occupation  would  have  overtaxed  the  resources 
of  the  Mother  Country. 

The  power  of  the  Friars  w-as  recognized  to  the  last  by  the  Spanish- 
Philippine  authorities,  who  continued  to  solicit  the  co-operation  of  the 
parish  priests  in  order  to  secure  obedience  to  decrees  affecting  their 

Up  to  the  Rebellion  of  1896  in  Lnzon — and  elsewhere  till  the  last 
day  of  Spanish  rule — the  placid  word  of  the  ecclesiastic,  the  superstitious 
veneration  which  he  inspired  in  the  ignorant  native  community,  had  a 
greater  law-binding  effect  timn  the  commands  of  the  civil  functionary. 
The  gownsman  used  those  weapons  appropriate  to  his  office  which  best 
touched  the  sensibilities  and  won  the  adhesion  of  a  rude  audience.  The 
priest  appealed  to  the  soul,  to  the  unknown,  to  the  awful  and  the 
mysterious.  Go  where  he  would,  the  convert's  imagination  was  so 
pervaded  with  the  mystic  tuition  that  he  came  to  regard  hia  tutor  as  a 
being  above  common  humanity.  The  feeling  of  di-ead  reverence  which 
he  inspired  in  the  hearts  of  the  most  callous  secured  to  him  even 
immunity  from  the  violence  of  brigands,  who  carefully  avoided  ttie  man 
of  God.  Ill  the  State  official  the  native  saw  nothing  but  a  man  who 
strove  to  bend  the  will  of  the  conquered  race  to  suit  his  own.  A  Koyal 
Decree  or  tbe  sound  of  the  comet  would  not  have  been  half  so  effective 
as  the  elevation  of  the  Holy  Cross  before  the  fanatical  majority,  who 
became  an  easy  prey  to  fantastic  proniiaes  of  eternal  bliss,  or  tbe  threats 
of  everlasting  perdition. 

Kor  is  this  assertion  by  any  means  chimerical,  for  it  has  been  proved 
on  several  occasions,  notably  in  tbe  attempt  to  raise  troops  to  drive  out 
the  British  in  1763,  and  in  the  campaign  against  the  Sultan  of  Sulu  in 
1876.  But,  since  the  monastic  Cavite  conspiracy  of  !  872,  the  Friars  had, 
uudoubiedly,  been  losing  ground  amongst  a  certain  class.  Many  natives 
were    driven   to   emigrate,    whilst   others   were   emerging  yearly   by 



9  from  tlieir  mental  obacurity.  Already  the  intellectual  struggle 
for  freedom  from  mystic  enthralmeut  had  commenced  without  icjuty 
to  faith  in  things  really  dmne. 

Each  decade  brought  some  refonn  in  the  relations  between  the 
parish  priest  and  the  people.  Link  by  link  the  chain  of  priestcraft 
eneompaasing  the  developmeut  of  the  Colouy  was  yielding  to  natural 
causes.  The  most  enlightened  nati\'ea  themselves  were  beginning  to 
understand  that  their  spiritual  wants  were  not  the  only  care  of  the 
priests,  and  that  the  aim  of  the  Church,  through  its  satellites,  was  to 
monopolize  all  in  the  world  worth  having,  and  to  subordinate  to  their 
common  will  all  beyond  their  mystic  circle.  The  Romish  Church  owes 
its  power  to  the  uniformity  of  precept  and  practice  of  the  vast  majority 
of  its  members,  and  it  is  precisely  because  this  was  the  reverse  in 
political  Spain,  where  statesmen  are  divided  into  a  dozeu  or  more  groups 
with  distinct  policies — that  the  Church  was  practically  unassailable. 
In  the  same  way,  all  the  friars  of  a  corporation  are  so  closely  united, 
that  a  quarrel  with  one  of  thena  brought  the  enmity  and  opposition  of 
his  whole  community.  The  Progressists,  therefore,  who  combated 
ecclesiastical  preponderance  in  the  Philippines,  demanded  the  retirement 
of  the  friars  to  conventual  reclusion  or  missions,  and  the  appointment 
of  cUrigos,  or  secular  clergymen  belonging  to  no  order  or  association, 
to  the  vicarages  and  curacies.  By  such  a  change  it  was  anticipated 
abuses  could  have  been  remedied,  for  a  misunderstanding  with  a  cUrigo 
vicar  would  only  have  provoked  a  single-handed  encounter. 

That  a  priest  should  have  been  practically  a  Government  agent  in 
his  locality  would  not  have  been  contested  in  the  abstract,  had  he  not, 
as  a  consequence,  assumed  tlie  powers  of  the  old  Roman  Censors,  who 
exercised  the  most  dreaded  function  of  the  Regtum  Morum,  Spanish 
opinion,  however,  was  very  much  divided  as  to  the  political  safety  of 
strictly  confining  the  friars  to  their  religious  duties.  It  was  doubted  by 
some  whether  any  State  authority  could  ever  gain  the  confidence  of  the 
native,  or  repress  his  inherent  inclinations  like  the  friar,  who  led  by  super- 
stitious teaching,  and  held  the  conscience  by  an  invisible  cord  through  the 
abstract  medium  of  the  coafessionaL  However  this  might  be,  it  was 
felt  that  a  change  in  the  then  existing  system  of  semi-sacerdotal 
Government  was  desirable  to  give  more  vigorous  scope  to  the  budding 
intelligence  of  tho  minority,  in  the  hope  that  the  majority  might  ere 
long  claim  its  benefits. 



Emerging  from  tlie  lowest  ranks  of  society,  with  no  training 
whatever  but  tliat  of  the  seminary,  it  was  natural  to  suppose  that  these 
Spanish  priests  would  have  been  more  capable,  than  ambitious  political 
men  of  the  world,  of  blending  their  ideas  with  those  of  tha  native,  and 
of  forming  closer  asaooiationa  with  a  rural  population  engaged  in 
agrieultiiral  pursuits  farailiar  to  themselves  in  their  own  youth.  Before 
the  abolition  of  Convents  in  Spain,  the  priests  were  allowed  to  return 
there  after  ten  years'  residence  in  tho  Colony  ;  since  then  they  usually 
entered  upon  their  new  lives  for  the  remainder  of  their  days,  ao  that 
they  naturally  strove  to  make  the  best  of  their  social  surroundings. 

The  Civil  employe,  as  a  rule,  could  feel  no  personal  interest  in  his 
temporary  native  neighbours,  his  hopes  being  centred  only  in  rising  in 
the  Civil  Service  there  or  elsewhere — Cuba  or  Porto  Kico  or  where  the 
ministerial  wheel  of  fortune  placed  him. 

The  younger  priests — narrow-minded  and  biased — those  who  had 
]U9t  entered  into  Provincial  curacies — were  frequently  the  greater 
bigots.  Enthusiastic  in  their  calling,  they  pursued  with  ardour  their 
mission  of  proselytisra  without  experience  of  the  world.  They  entered 
the  Islands  Avith  the  zeal  of  youth,  bringing  with  them  the  impression 
imparted  to  them  in  Spain,  that  they  were  sent  to  make  a  moral 
conquest  ofj  savages.  In  the  course  of  years,  after  repeated  rebnfFs, 
and  the  obligation  to  participate  in  the  affairs  of  everyday  life  in  all  its 
details,  their  rigidity  of  principle  relaxed,  and  they  became  more 
tolerant  towards  those  with  whom  they  necessarily  came  in  contact. 

The  Spanish  parish  priest  was  consulted  by  the  native  in  all  matters  ; 
he  was,  by  force  of  circumstances,  often  compelled  to  become  an 
architect— to  build  the  church  in  his  adopted  village — an  engineer,  to 
make  or  mend  roads,  and  more  frequently  a  doctor.  His  word  was 
paramount  in  his  parish,  and  in  his  residence  he  dispensed  with  that 
stern  severity  of  conventual  discipline  to  which  he  had  been  accustomed 
in  the  Peuinaula.  Hence  it  was  really  here  that  iiis  mental  capacity 
was  developed — his  manners  improved— and  that  the  raw  sacerdotal 
peasant  was  converted  into  the  man  of  thought,  study  and  talent^— 
occasionally  into  a  gentleman.  In  his  own  vicinity,  when  isolated  from 
European  residents,  he  was  practically  the  representative  of  the 
Government  and  of  the  white  race  as  ivcll  as  of  social  order.  His 
theological  knowledge  was  brought  to  boar  upon  the  most  secular 
subjects.    His    thoughts    necessarily   expanded    as    the    exclusiveneas 

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of  hia  religious  vocation  yielded  to  the  rcaUnatiou  of  a  social  position 
and  political  importance  of  which,  he  had  never  entertained  an  idea,  in 
his  native  country. 

So  large  was  the  party  opposed  to  the  continuance  of  priestly 
inlluence  in  the  Colony,  that  a  six  months'  resident  would  not  fail  to 
hear  of  the  many  iniquities  with  ■which  the  Friars  in  general  were 
reproached.  If  self-indulgence  is  to  be  accounted  a  sin,  then  they  were 
sinful  indeed.  And  it  would  be  contrary  to  fact  too,  to  pretend  that 
the  bulk  of  them  supported  their  teaching  by  personal  example.  I  have 
been  acquainted  with  a  great  number  of  the  priests  and  their  offspring 
too,  in  spite  of  their  vow  of  chastity  ;  whilst  many  lived  in  comparative 
luxury,  notwithstanding  their  vow  of  poverty. 

There  was  Father  Juan  T— — ,  of  Malolos,  whose  son,  my  friend, 

was  a,  prominent  lawyer.     Father   S ,  of  Eugason,  had  a  whole 

family   living    in    his   parish.     Archbishop    P bad    a    daughter 

frequently  seen  on  the  Paseo  de  Santa  Lucia.     The  late  pariah  priest 

of  Lipa,  Father  B ,  whom  I  knew,  had  a  son  whom  I  saw  in  1893. 

The   late    parish   priest  of    Santa    Crua,    Father   M L ,  got 

hia  spiritual  flock  to  petition  against  his  being  made  prior  of  his  order 
in  Manila  so  that  he  should  not  have  to  leave  his  women.  I  was 
intimately  acquainted  and  resided  more  than  once  with  a  very  mixed 
up  family  in  the  south  of  Negroa  Island,  My  host  was  the  sou  of  a 
secular  clergyman  ;  his  wife  and  sister-in-law  were  the  daughters  of  a 
friar  ;  this  sbter-in-law  was  the  mistress  of  a  friar ;  my  host  bad  a  son 
who  was  married  to  another  friar's  daughter,  and  a  daughter  who  waa 
the  wife  of  a  foreigner.  In  abort,  bastards  of  tlie  friars  are  to  be  found 
everywhere  in  the  Islands,  Regarding  this  merely  as  the  natural  out- 
come of  tlie  celibate  rule,  I  wish  thereby  to  show  that  the  pretended 
sanctity  of  the  clergy  in  the  Philippines  was  an  absurdity  and  that  the 
monks  were  in  no  degree  leas  frail  than  mankind  in  common. 

The  mysterious  deaths  of  General  Solano  (in  August,  1860),  and  of 
Zamora,  the  Bishop-cleot  of  Ccbi'i  (in  1873),  occurred  so  opportunely 
for  Philippine  monastic  ambition  that  little  doubt  existed  in  tho  public 
mind  as  to  who  were  the  real  criminals.  When  I  first  arrived  in 
Manila,  nearly  twenty  years  ago,  a  fearful  crime  was  still  being 
commented  on.  Father  Piernavioja,  formerly  parish  priest  of  San 
Miguel  de  Mayumo,  had  recently  committed  a  second  murder.  His  first 
Tictim   waa    a   native   youth,    his    second   a   native   woman   cnceinlc. 

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The  public  voice  could  not  be  raised  very  loudly  there  against  the 
priests,  but  tlie  scandal  waB  so  great  that  tho  crimical  friar  waa  sent  to 
another  province — Cavite — where  he  still  celebrated  the  holy  sacrifice 
of  the  Eucharist.  Nearly  two  decades  afterwards — in  January  1897 — 
this  rascal  met  with  a  terrible  death  at  the  haods  of  the  rebels.  He 
was  in  captivity,  and  having  been  appointed  "  Bishop "  in  a  rebel 
diocese,  to  save  his  life  he  accepted  thoraock  dignity,  but  unfortunately 
for  himself  he  betrayed  the  confidence  of  bis  eaptors  and  collected 
information  concerning  their  movements,  plans,  and  strongholds  for 
remittance  to  his  community.  In  expiation  of  his  treason  he  was  bound 
to  a  post  nuder  the  tropical  snu  and  left  there  to  die.  See  how  the  public 
in  Spain  are  gulled  1  In  a  Malaga  newspaper  this  individual  was 
referred  to  as  a  "  venerable  figure,  worthy  of  being  placed  high  up  on 
"  an  altar,  before  which  all  Spaniards  should  prostrate  themselves  and 
"  adore  him.  As  a  religieux  he  was  a  most  worthy  minister  of  the 
"  Lord ;  as  a  patriot  he  waa  a  hero." 

Within  my  recollection,  too,  a  Friar  absconded  from  a  Luzon 
Islaud  parish  with  a  large  sum  of  parochial  funds,  and  was  never 
heard  of  again. 

I  well  remember  another  interesting  charteter  of  the  monastie 
orders.  He  had  been  parish  priest  in  a  /ambiles  province  town,  but 
intrigues  with  a  sot  diinnt  counne  brought  him  under  ecclesiastical 
arrest  at  the  convent  ot  his  order  in  Manila  TJicnce  he  eatiped,  and 
came  over  to  Hongkong,  where  I  made  his  acquaintance  in  1890. 
He  told  mo  he  had  stdrted  life  in  an  houett  way  is  a  shoemaker  s  boy, 
but  was  taken  away  from  hi-i  ttale  to  be  put  m  the  seminary  His 
mind  seemed  to  be  a  blank  on  any  Vranch  of  study  bejond  shoemaking 
and  church  ritual  He  pretended  thit  he  had  como  o\er  to  Hong- 
kong to  seek  work,  but  in  reality  he  wts  ITS aiting  his  couimc,  whom 
he  rejoined  on  the  wij  to  Europe,  where,  I  Vcheve,  he  bccime  a 
ffarfon  de  cafi  in  France 

In  1893  there  wis  anothf  r  great  public  ■-caudil  brought  about  by 
the  Friars,  who  wuo  openly  iLCused  of  hj^ing  printed  the  Beditions 
proclamations  whose  authorship  was  attrihuted  to  the  natives  The 
plan  of  the  Friars  was  to  start  the  idea  of  an  intenled  revolt  m  order 
that  they  might  be  the  first  in  the  field  to  quell  it,  and  thus  be  able  to 
again  proclaim  to  the  most  Catholic  nation  the  absolute  necessity  of 
their  continuance  in  the  Islands  for  the  security  of  Spanish  sovereignty. 

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But  the  plot  was  discoTored  ;  the  actual  printer,  a  friar,  mysteriously 
dlaappearod,  and  the  courageous  Governor-General  Dcspujols  was, 
through  monastic  influence,  recalled. 

In  Jane,  1888,  some  cases  of  personal  effects  belonging  to  a  friar 
■were  consigned  to  the  care  of  an  intimate  friend  of  mine,  whose  guest 
I  was  at  the  time.  Thoy  iiad  become  soaked  vvitli  sea-water  before  he 
received  them,  and  a  neighbouring  priest  requested  him  to  open  tbe 
packages  and  do  what  he  could  to  save  the  contents.  I  assisted  my 
friend  in  this  task,  and  amongst  the  friar's  personal  effects  we  were 
surprised  to  find  intermixed  with  prayer-books,  scapularies,  missals, 
prints  of  saints,  etc.,  about  a  dozen  most  disgustingly  obscene 
double- picture  slides  for  a  stereoscope.  What  an  entertainment  for  a 
guide  in  morals  !  This  same  friar  had  held  a  vicarage  before  in 
another  province,  but  having  become  an  habitual  drunkard,  he  was 
removed  to  Manila,  and  there  appointed  a  confessor.  From  Manila  he 
had  just  been  again  sent  to  take  charge  of  the  cure  of  souls, 

I  knew  »  money- grabbing  parish  priest — a  friar— who  publicly 
announced  raffles  from  tho  pulpit  of  the  church  from  which  he  preaciied 
morality  and  devotion.  On  one  occasion  a  $200  watch  was  put  up  for 
$500 — at  another  time  he  raffled  dresses  for  tho  women.  Under  tho 
pretext  of  being  a  pious  institution,  he  established  a  society  of  women, 
called  the  Association  of  St.  Joseph  (Cofradia  de  San  Jose),  upon 
whom  he  imposed  the  very  secular  duties  of  domestic  service  in  tbe 
convent  and  raffle-ticket  hawking.     He  had  the  audacity  to  dictate  to 

a  friend  of  mine— a  planter,  Don  Leandro  L ,  the  value  of  the 

gifts  he  was  to  make  him,  and  wlien  the  planter  was  at  length  wearied 
of  his  importunities,  he  conspired  with  a  Spaniard  to  deprive  my  friend 
of  his  estate,  alleging  that  he  was  not  the  real  owner.  Failing  in  this, 
he  stirred  up  the  petty  Governor  and  headmen  against  him.  The 
petty  Governor  was  urged  to  litigation,  and  when  he  received  an 
unfavourable  sentence,  the  priest,  enraged  at  the  abortive  result  of  his 
malicious  intrigues,  actually  left  his  vicarage  to  accompany  his  litigious 
protege  to  the  chief  judge  of  the  province  in  quest  of  a  reversion  of 
the  sentence. 

I  remember  only  too  well  a  certain  native  Father  L ,  a  parisli 

priest  in  Visayas,  who  was  accused  of  several  crimes,  one  of  which  was 
that  of  Laving  murdered  a  man  for  !ust.  On  the  l7f!i  of  August,  li<81, 
I  a(rri\'ed  at  the  Town  Hall  of  Maroyo,  and  demanded  horses  to  continue 



my  journey.  Whilst  I  waa  ■waiting  tliore,  a  crowd  assoniMeil  and 
tLreateQeil  to  take  my  life.  One  man  riiisoil  liis  knife  wlien  I  turned 
my  back,  but  I  was  in  time  to  face  Iiim  witli  my  revolver,  and  he 
Buenlied  off. 

After  a  deal  of  wrangling  acd  shouting,  I  managed  to  clear  the 
Town  Hall,  and  it  was  only  the  ucxt  day  that  I  conld  get  to  know  the 
cause  of  the  tunault.    It  appeared  that  a  Spanish  officer  nan:ied  Perdigoa 

had  been  commissioned  to  capture  the  delinquent  Father  L ,  and 

the  prieat's  family,  in  order  to  subvert  justice,  had  basely  spread  the 
report  that  Perdigou  waa  possessed  of  an  evil  spirit.  Hence  the  family 
incited  the  natives  to  kill  any  European  who  chanced  to  travel  along 
that  coast  in  ease  he  should  turn  out  to  be  the  officer  in  question. 

After  midnight  I  left  the  Town  Hall  and  took  refuge  in  a  hut,  as 
hospitality  bad  been  refused  me  by  the  parish  priest.  On  arriving  at 
the  sugar  plantation  of  a  Spanish  acquaintance,  this  person  facetiously 
enquired  of  the  guide  who  had  to  take  back  the  horses — "  Who  is  the 
stianger  ?  "  "  Perdigou  "  replied  the  man.  "  How  is  it  he  did  not  eat 
you?"  continued  the  Spaniard.  "Well,  I  managed  to  keep  out  of  his 
way,"  rejoined  the  native,  but  I  did  not,  myself,  perceive  that  he  was 
taking  any  special  precautions.  The  wicked  priest,  being  a  native, 
was  pursued,  and  I  happened  to  be  in  Valladolid  (Negros)  later  on 

when  Father  L was  landed  from  Guimarras  Island,  where  he  had 

been  captured  in  company  with  a  mistress. 

A  priest  of  evil  propensities  brought  only  misery  to  his  parish  and 
aroused  a  feeling  of  odium  against  the  Spanish  friars  in  general.  As 
incumbents  they  held  the  native  in  contempt.  He  who  should  be  the 
parishioner  was  treated  dcfpoticaliy  as  the  subject  whose  life,  liberty, 
property,  and  civil  rights  were  in  his  sacerdotal  lord's  power.  And 
that  power  was  not  uufrequcntly  exercised,  for  if  a  native  refused 
to  yield  to  his  demands,  or  did  not  contribute  with  sufficient  liberality  to 
a  religions  feast,  or  failed  to  come  to  Mass,  or  protectad  the  virtue 
of  his  daughter,  or  neglected  the  genuflection  and  kissing  of  hands,  or 
was  out  of  the  prie^t\  party  in  the  municipal  affairs  of  the  parish, 
or  in  any  other  trivial  way  beeamc  a  persona  non  grain  at  the 
"  convent,"  he  and  Lis  family  would  become  the  pastor's  sheep  marked 
for  sacrifice.  As  Government  agent  it  was  within  his  arbitrary  power 
tfl  attach  bis  signature  to  or  withhold  it  from  any  municipal  docnment. 
From  time  to  time  he  could  give  full  vent  to  his  animosity  by  secretly 



denouncing  to  the  civil  authorities  aa  "  inconvenient  in  the  town " 
all  those  whom  he  -wished  to  get  rid  of.  He  had  simply  to  seud 
an  official  advice  to  the  Governor  of  tlie  province,  who  forwarded 
it  to  the  Governor- General,  statiog  that  he  had  reason  to  helieve  that 
the  persons  mentioned  in  the  margin  were  disloyal,  immoral  or  whatever 
it  might  be,  and  recommend  their  removal  from  the  neighbourhood.  A 
native  so  named  suddenly  found  at  his  door  a  patrol  of  the  civil  guard 
who  escorted  him,  with  his  elbows  tied  together,  from  prison  to  prison, 
up  to  the  capital  town  and  thence  to  Manila.  Finally,  without  trial  or 
sentence,  ho  was  banished  to  some  distant  island  of  the  Archipelago. 
He  might  one  day  return  to  find  his  family  ruined,  or  he  might  as  often 
spend  his  last  days  in  misery  alone.  Sometimes  a  native  who  had 
privately  heard  of  his  "denunciation"  became  a  remuniado,  that  is 
to  say  he  fled  to  the  mountains  to  lead  a  bandit's  life  whore  the  evils  of 
a  debased  civilization  could  not  reach  him.  Banishment  in  these 
circumstances  was  not  a  mere  transportation  to  another  place,  hut  was 
attended  with  all  the  horrors  of  a  cruel  captivity,  of  which  I  have  been 
an  eye  witness.  From  tho  foregoing  it  mny  he  readily  undei-stood  how 
the  conduct  of  the  regular  clergy  was  tho  primary  cause  of  the 
Kebellion  of  1S<)6 

The  Hieiarchy  of  the  Philippines  consists  of  one  Arclihishop  in 
Mind  1,  and  four  SufFiagan  Bishoprics,  respectively  of  Nueva  Segovia, 
Cebu,  Jaro,  and  Nueva  C^eres, 

The  Jesuits  weie  expelled  from  these  Islands  in  tho  year  1768, 
ly  Mrtuo  of  an  Apjstolic  Brief*  of  Pope  Clement  XIV.,  but  were 
pennitt(,d  to  return  m  1852,  on  the  understanding  that  they  would 
eonhne  their  labours  to  scholastic  education  and  the  establishment 
of  missions  amongst  nncivilieed  tribes.  Consequently,  in  JIanila  they 
refoiindcd  thur  school — the  Municipal  Athena;nm — a  mission  house 
and  a  Meteorological  Observatory,  whilst  in  many  parts  of  Mindanao 
Island  they  have  established  missions,  where  they  are  under  the  belief 
that  they  have  converted  Mussulmans  to  Christianity.  The  Jesuits, 
compared  with  the  members  of  the  other  orders,  are  very  superior  men 

'  The  Kojal  Decree  setting  forth  the  exeontioa  of  this  Brief  was  printed  in 
Madrid  in  1773,  This  politic-religious  Order  wna  banished  from  Portugal  and 
Spain  in  1767.  In  Madrid,  on  the  night  of  the  31st  March,  the  Kojal  Edict  was 
read  to  the  members  of  the  Company  of  Jesus,  who  were  allowed  time  to  pack  up 
their  most  necessary  chattels  and  leave  for  tho  coast,  where  they  were  iiamedJy 
embarliied  for  Eumc.    The  same  Order  was  suppressed  for  ever  in  France  in  1764. 

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and  their  frateroity  iaciudea  a  few,  but  the  oulj-,  learned  ecclesiastica 
who  came  to  this  Colony.  Seveml  Chinese  also  have  been  admitted  to 
holy  orders,  two  of  them  having  become  Austin  Friars.' 

Tiie  first  native  Friara  date  their  admission  from  the  year  1700, 
ainco  when  there  have  been  sixteen  of  the  Corporatiou  of  Saint 
Augustine.  Subsequently  tiiey  were  excluded  from  the  corporations, 
and  were  only  admitted  to  holy  orders  as  curates  to  assist  parish  vicars, 
as  chaplains,  and  in  other  minor  offices.  Up  to  the  year  1872,  native 
priests  were  appoiuted  to  vicarages,  but  in  consequence  of  their  alleged 
implication  in  the  Cavite  insurrection  of  that  year,  their  benefices, 
aa  they  became  vacant,  were  given  to  Spanish  Friars,  whose  corpora- 
tions were  established  in  Manila. 

The  Austin  Friars  were  the  religious  pioneers  in  these  Islands  ;  then 
followed  the  Dominicans  ;  and  after  them  came  the  Franciscans,  The 
last  to  arrive  were  the  Eecoletos,  who,  however,  are  merely  a  branch  of 
the  St.  Augustine  Order,  the  Becoletos  being  known  aa  the  unshod,  and 
their  confreres  as  the  shod  fathers  of  the  same  institution.  In  Cebu, 
the  Paul  Fathers,  or  followers  of  Saint  Vincent  de  I'anl,  wore  employed 
ia  scholastic  work,  the  same  as  the  Jesuits  were  in  Manila.  In  1886, 
Capuchin  Friars— the  lowest  type  of  European  Catholic  sacerdotal 
orders  in  the  East — were  sent  to  the  Caroline  Islands.  The  immediate 
result  of  their  arrival  is  a,lluded  to  in  Chap.  III. 

The  Church  was  financially  supported  by  the  State  to  tiio  extent 
of  about  three-quarters  of  a  million  dollars  per  annum. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  most  interesting  items  taken  from 
"The  Budget  for  1888,"  viz.  :— 

Sanctokitm  or  Church  tax  of  I8|  cents  {i.e.  li  reales) 
on  each  Cedula  pcrsoTial,  say  on  2,760,613  Cedulaa 
in  1888,  less  4%  cost  of  collection   -  -  -     $496,910,00 

The  Friars  appointed  to  incumbencies  received  in  former  times 
tithes  from  the  Spaniards,  and  a  Church  tas  from  the  natives  computed 
by  the  amount  of  tribute  paid.  Tithe  payment  {Diezmos  prediales) 
by  the  Spaniards  became  almost  obsolete,  and  the  Sanctorum  tax  on 
Cedulas  was  paid  to  the  Church  through  the  Treasury, 

There  were  priests  in  missions  and  newly  formed  parishes,  where 
the  domiciled  inhabitants  were  so  few  that  the  Sanctorum  tax  on  the 
:  of  the  Cedulas  was  insufficient  for  their  support.      These 

1  Tide  "  Catftlogo  de  Iob  Keligioaoa  da  N.  S.  F.  San  Agustic,"  pub.  Manila  1861. 

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missionaries  were  allowed  salaries  ranging  from  $600  to  82,200  per 
annum  (the  pariah  priest  or  missionary  of  Vergara,  Davao  Province, 
for  instance,  received  $2,200  a  year). 

A  project  was  under  consideration  to  value  the  incumbencies,  ami 
classify  them  (like  the  Courts  of  Justice,  vide  page  262),  with  the  view 
o£  apportioning  to  each  a  fixed  income  payable  by  the  Treasury  in  lieu 
of  accounting  to  the  Church  for  the  exact  amount  of  the  Sanctorum. 

By  Decree  of  Governor- General  Terrero,  dated  November  23rd, 
1885,  the  State  furnished  free  labour  (by  natives  who  did  not  pay  poll 
tax,  vide  page  247)  for  Churcii  architectural  works,  provided  it  was 
made  clear  that  the  cost  of  such  labour  could  not  be  covered  by  the 
surplus  funds  of  the  SanctoTum, 

Cathedral  in  Manila. 

S       cts. 
12,000  00 

Archbishop's  salary       .--..- 

•Other  salaries       -             .             -             -             - 

40,300  00 
3,000  00 

„      expenses 

J;55,30()  00 


Kueva  Segoviii  (llocos)          -   -] 

Cebu               ...     [Four  Bishops,  each 

8       cts. 

Jaro  (Tloilo)         ---fa  salary  of     - 

6,000  00 

Nueva  Ciceres  (Caraarlnes)  -    J 

Court  of  Arches  (amount  contributed  by  the  State') 

5,000  00 

Chaplain  of  Los  Bafios 

120  00 

Siilu  Mission 


1,000  00 

Cajmchin  Friars. 

Jlissian  House  in  Manila 

1,700  00 

For   the    Caroline   and    Pelew   Islands,   there    wen 
Capuchins    paid   by  Government — 6  @  $300 
and  6  @  $500  each  per  annum 

!    12 

4,800  00 

Transport  of  Missionaries  estimated  at  about,  per  ann 


10,000  00 

Tlie  anticipated    total  State   outlay  for   the   support  of 
the    Church,  Missions,  Monasteries,  Convents,  etc., 
including  the   above   and   all   other   items  for  the 
financial  year  of  1888  was 

724,6^4  50 

'  For  any  further  espensa  this  might  iacur,  3%  ira3  deducted  from  the  parish 
priests'  emoluments. 



Moreover,  the  religious  Corijorations  pja-obsetl  Lirge  private 
revenues.  Their  investments  in  Hongkong  aie  extondLve,  The 
Austin  and  Dominican  Friars  in  parLicuiar  held  very  valuable  real 
property  in  the  provinces  uear  Maiaila,  which  wok  rented  out  to  the 
native  agriculturists  on  tyiannical  conditions.  On  the  Laguna  do 
Bay  shore  the  rent  was  raised,  as  the  natives,  at  their  own  expense, 
improved  their  holdings.  Leases  were  granted  for  the  uoniina!  term 
of  three  years,  hut  the  reccipU  giveu  for  tin;  reat  wore  very  cunningly 
worded.  Some  have  lieen  shown  to  me  ;  neither  the  amouat  of  money 
paid,  nor  the  extent  of  the  land  rented,  nor  its  situation  was  mentioned 
on  the  document,  so  that  the  tenant  was  constantly  at  the  mercy  of  the 
owners-  The  native  planters  were  much  incensed  at  the  treatment 
they  received  from  these  landowners,  und  their  numerous  well-fonndeit 
complaints  formed  part  of  the  gcnoi-al  outcry  against  the  priesthood. 
The  bailiffs  of  these  corporation  lands  were  unordained  brothers  of 
the  Order.  They  resided  in  the  Estate  Houses,  and  hy  courtesy  were 
styled  "fathers"  by  the  natives.  They  were  under  certain  religious 
vows,  but  not  being  entitled  to  say  Mass,  they  were  termed  "  legos," 
or  ignorant  men,  hy  their  own  Order. 

The  clergy  also  derived  a  very  large  portion  of  their  incomes  from 
commissions  on  the  sale  of  cidulas,  sales  of  Papal  Bulls,  masses,  pictures, 
books,  chaplets  and  indulgences,  marriage,  burial  and  baptismal  fees, 
benedictions,  donations  touted  for  after  the  crops  were  raised,  legacies 
to  he  paid  for  in  masses,  remains  of  wax  candles  left  in  the  church  by 
tlio  faithful,  fees  for  getting  souls  out  of  purgatory,  alms,  etc.  The 
surplus  revenues  over  and  above  parochial  requirements  were  supposed 
to  augment  the  common  Church  funds  in  Manila,  The  Corporations 
were  consequently  immensely  wealthy,  and  their  power  and  influence 
were  in  consonance  with  that  wealth. 

Each  Order  had  its  procurator  in  Madrid,  who  took  up  the  cudgels 
in  defence  of  bis  Corporation's  interest  in  theFhilippiues  whenever  this 
was  menaced.  On  the  other  hand,  the  Church,  as  a  body  politic,  dis- 
pensed no  charity,  hut  received  all.  It  was  always  begging  ;  always 
above  civil  laws  and  taxes  ;  claimed  immunity,  proclaimed  poverty, 
and  inculcated  in  others  charity  to  itself. 

Most  of  the  parish  priests — Spanish  or  native — were  very  hospi- 
table to  travellers,  and  treated  them  with  great  kindness.  Amongst 
them,  there  were  some  few  misanthropes  and  churlish  characters,  who 


EIVALlilES    01'    THE   FRIAKS.  227 

did  not  care  to  be  troubled  by  anything  outside  the  regioo  of  their  voca- 
tion, but  upou  the  whole  I  found  them  remarkably  compkisant. 

lu  Spain  there  were  trainicg  colleges  of  the  three  Communities  in 
Valladolid,  Ocana  and  Moute  Agudo,  resjiectively,  for  young  novices 
intended  to  be  sent  to  the  Philippines,  the  last  Spanish  Colony  where 
Friars  held  vicarages. 

They  were  usually  taken  from  the  peasantry  and  families  of  lowly 
staliou.  As  B  rule  they  had  little  or  nu  secular  oJueatiou,  and  regard- 
ing them  apart  from  tiieir  religious  training,  they  might  be  considered  a 
very  ignorant  class.  Amongst  tbem  the  Franciscan  Friars  appeared  to 
be  the  least — and  the  Austins  the  most— polished  of  all. 

The  ecclesiastical  archives  of  the  Pliilippinos  abound  with  proofs 
of  the  bitter  and  tenacious  strife  sustaiued,  not  only  between  the  civil 
and  Church  authorities,  but  even  amongst  the    religious   communities 

Each  Order  was  so  intensely  jealous  of  the  other,  that  one  is  almost 
led  to  ponder  whether  the  final  goal  of  all  could  have  been  identical. 

All  voluntarily  faced  death  with  the  same  iiiceutive,  whilst  amic- 
able fellowship  m  this  ^  orld  oeemed  an  impo'.sibility ,  The  first  Biahop" 
(vide  page  55)  struggled  in  lain  to  create  a  religions  monopoly  in 
the  Philippines  for  thuexiluMvebcneht  ol  the  Augustine  Order.  It 
has  been  shown  in  Limp  \  how  irJent  wds  the  hatred  which  the 
Jesuits  and  till,  other  rehgious  orders  niutuallj  entertained  for  each . 
other  Each  sacred  fraternity  liboured  luceas  intly  to  gain  the  ascen- 
dancy in  the  conquered  territories,  ani  tlieir  divine  calling  served  for 
nothing  in  pa  Hit,  ting  the  ammouy  of  their  reciprocal  accusations  and 

For  want  of  space,  I  can  only  refer  to  a  few  of  these  disputes. 

The  Austin  Friars  attributed  to  the  Jesuits  the  troubles  with  the 
Mussulmans  of  Mindanao  and  Sulu,  and,  iu  their  turn,  the  Jesuits  pro- 
tested against  what  they  conceived  to  be  the  bad  policy  of  tlie  Govern- 
ment, adopted  under  the  iufiuence  of  tlio  otlior  Orders  in  Manila. 
So  distinct  wore  their  interests,  that  the  Augustine  chroniclers  refer 
to  the  other  Orders  as  different  religions. 

In  1778,  the  Province  of  Pangasinan  was  spiritually  administered 
by  the  Dominicans,  whilst  that  of  Zambales  was  allotted  to  the  Eeco- 
letos.      The  Dominicans,  therefore,  proposed  to  tho  Becotetos  to  cede 




Zambales  to  thorn,  because  it  was,  repugnant  to  have  to  pass  through 
Eecoleto  lerritory  going  from  Manila  to  their  own  province  !  The 
Eecoletos  were  offered  Mindoro  Island  in  exchange,  whichtheyrefiised, 
until  the  Archbishop  compelled  them  to  yield.  Distarbances  then  arose 
in  Zambales,  the  responsibility  of  which  was  thrown  on  the  Dominicans 
by  their  rival  OriJer,  and  the  Becoletos  finally  succeeded  in  regaining 
their  old  province  by  intrigue. 

During  the  Governorship  of  Count  Liaarraga  (1709-1715),  the 
Aragonese  and  Caatillian  priests  quarrelled  about  the  ecclesiastical 

At  the  beginning  of  the  18th  century,  the  Bishop-elect  of  Cebfi, 
Fray  Pedro  Saez  de  la  Vega  Lanzaverde,  refused  to  take  possession, 
because  the  nomination  was  in  partibvs.  He  objected  also  that  the 
Bishopric  was  mercW  ^ne  in  perspective  and  not  yet  a  reality.  The  See 
remained  vacant  whilst  the  contumacious  priest  lived  in  Mexico.  Fray 
Sebastian  de  Jorronda  was  subsequently  appointed  to  administer  the 
Bishopric,  but  also  refused,  until  he  was  coerced  into  submission  by  the 
Supreme  Court  (1718). 

In  1767  the  Austin  Friars  refused  to  admit  the  episcopal  visits,  and 
exhibited  such  a  spirit  of  independence,  that  Pope  Benedict  XIV.  was 
constrained  to  issue  a  Bull  to  exhort  them  to  obey,  admonishing  them 
for  their  iQsiibordination. 

The  Friars  of  late  years  were  subject  to  a  visiting  priest — the  Pro- 
vincial — in  all  matters  rfe  vita  et  morihus — to  the  Bishop  of  the  diocese 
in  all  affairs  of  spiritual  dispensation,  and  to  the  Governor-General  as 
vice-royal  patron  in  all  that  concerned  the  relations  of  the  Church  to 
the  Civil  Government.^ 

An  observant  traveller,  unacquainted  with  the  historical  antecedents 
of  the  friars  in  tiie  Philippines,  could  not  fail  to  be  impressed  by  the 
estrangement  of  religious  orders,  whose  sacred  mission,  if  genuine, 
ought  to  have  formed  an  inseverable  bond  of  alliance  and  good 

'  "Itecopiiacion  de  iaa  Leyea  de  Indias," — Ley  46,  tit.  Ji,  lib.  1°,  forbids 
pricsfs  and  members  of  any  religious  body  to  take  part  ia  matters  of  Civil 




After  the  first  occupation  of  these  lalande,  the  Supreme  rule  iiae 
been  usually  confided  for  indefinite  periods  to  military  men  ;  but 
circumstancea  have  frequently  placed  naval  oflicerB,  magistrates,  the 
Supreme  Court,  and  even  ecclesiastics  at  the  head  of  the  local 

Of  !ate  years  the  common  practice  has  been  to  appoint  a  Lientenant- 
General  as  Governor,  with  the  local  rank  of  Captain-General  during 
his  three  years'  term  of  office.  The  first  exception  to  this  recent  rule  was 
made  (1883-1885)  when  Joaquin  Jovellar,  a  Captain -General  in  Spain 
was  specially  empowered,  to  establish  some  notable  reforms — the  good 
policy  of  \vhieb  was  doubtful.  In  1897  another  Captain-General  in 
Spain,  Fernando  Primo  de  Rivera,  held  office  in  Manila. 

Since  tlie  conquest,  the  Colony  has  been  divided  ind  sub-divided 
into  provinces  and  military  districts  as  they  gradually  yiel  led  t  >  (he 
Spanish  sway.  Such  distriLtn,  called  Encoimendas  ■were  then  rented 
out  to  Ejicomenderos,  who  exercised  little  scruple  m  tlieir  rigorous 
esactions  from  the  Katnc*  Some  ot  the  Encomendcros  acquired 
wealth  during  the  terms  of  their  1  oldmgs,  whilst  others  became  i  ictims 
to  the  revenge  of  their  sul  lects  Thej  mu'*t  luleed  hive  been  bold 
enterprising  men  who,  in  those  days  would  ha\e  taken  charge  of 
districts  distant  from  the  Capita!  Ibcy  wcie  frequently  called  upon 
to  aid  the  Centra!  Government  with  \essel  men,  and  irma  tgiinst  the 
attacks  of  commou  enemie  Against  the  incursions  of  the  Mussulmans 
—necessity  made  them  warriors — if  they  were  not  so  by  taste — civil 
engineers  to  open  communications  within  their  districts — admiiiistrators, 

'  In  the  early  days  of  Mexican  conquest,  tlic  conquered  land  was  apportioned 
to  the  warriors  under  the  name  of  Repartimeiitoi,  but  Euch  divisions  included  the 
absolute  possession  of  the  nativea  as  slaves.  Vide  La  vida  y  emrUm  del  P.  Fray 
Bartolomi  de  las  Casus,  Obispo  de  Chiapa,  by  Antonio  Maria  Pabid,  Colonial 
Uioistei  in  the  Cftnovas  Cabinet  of  1890,  Madrid. 

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230  niiLiri'iNE  islands. 

judges  nnd  nil  that  represented  social  order.  Encomxeiidas  were  some- 
times given  to  Spaniards  as  rewards  for  high  services  rendered  to  the 
commonwealth,'  although  faTOUritism,  or  (in  later  years)  purchase 
money  more  commonly  secured  the  vacancies,  and  the  holders  were 
quite  expected  to  make  fortnnes  in  the  manner  they  thought  most 
convenient  to  themselves. 

The  Kncomenderos  were,  m  the  course  of  time,  superseded  by  Judicial 
Governors,  called  Alcaldes,  who  received  amaU  salaries,  from  £60  per 
auDum  and  upwards,  but  they  were  allowed  to  trade.  The  right  to 
trade — called  "  indulto  de  comcrcio  " — was  sold  to  the  Alcaldes- 
Governors,  except  those  of  Tondo  (now  Manila  Province),  Zamboanga, 
Cavite,  Nueva  Ecija,  Islas  Batanes  and  Antique,  whose  trading  right 
was  included  iu  the  emoluments  of 

In  1840  Eusobio  Mazorca  wrote  thus*  : — "The  salary  paid  to  the 
"  Chiefs  of  Provinces  who  enjoy  the  right  of  trade  is  more  or  less  $300 
"  per  anntiio,  and  after  deducting  the  amount  paid  for  the  trading 
"  right,  which  in  some  provinces  amounts  to  five-sixths  of  the  whole — 
"  as  in  Pangasinan  ;  and  in  others  to  the  whole  of  the  salary— as  in 
"  Caraga ;  and  discounting  again  the  taxes,  it  is  not  possible  to 
"  honestly  conceive  how  the  appointment  can  be  so  much  sought 
"  after.  There  are  candidates  up  to  the  grade  of  Brigadier  who 
"  relinquish  a  $3,000  salary  to  pursue  their  hopes  and  projects  in 
"  Goveroorship." 

Tills  system  obtained  for  many  years,  and  the  abuses  went  on 
increasing.  The  Alcaldes  practically  monopolized  the  trade  of  their 
districts,  unduly  taking  advantage  of  their  Governmental  position 
to  hinder  the  profitable  traffic  of  tho  natives  and  bring  it  all  into 
their  own  hands.  They  tolerated  no  such  thing  as  competition  ;  they 
arbitrarily  fixed  their  own  purchasing  prices,  and  sold  at  current  rates. 
Due  to  the  scarcity  of  silver  in  the  interior,  the  natives  often  paid 
their  tribute  to  the  Koyal  Treasury  in  produce — chiefly  rice — which 
was  received  into  the  Eoyal  Granaries  at  a  ruinously  low  valuation, 
and  accounted  for  to  the  State  at  its  real  value  ;  the  difference  being 

'  Juan  Salcedo,  Legaspi's  graiiilson  (vide  Chaps.  II.  and  IV.)  was  rewarded 
with  several  MtBomienda*  oa  the  west  coast  of  Luzon,  where  he  levied  a  tribute 
on  the  natives  whom  he  subdued. 

'  *'  Noticias  de  Pillplnas,"  bj  Don  Bnsebio  Maiorca.  Incdited  MS.  dated  ISiO, 
in  the  Archives  of  Bauan  Convent,  Province  of  Batanga'. 



the  illicit  profit  made  by  tho  Alcalde,  Many  of  these  functionaries 
exercised  their  power  most  despotically  in  their  owa  circuits,  disposing 
of  the  natives'  labonr  and  chattels  without  remuneration,  and  not 
unfrequently  for  their  own  en  da,— invoking  the  King's  name,  which 
imbued  the  native  with  a  feeliiig  of  .awe,  as  if  His  Majesty  were  some 
supernatural  heing. 

In  1810  Thomas  Comln  wrote  as  follows  : — "  In  order  to  be  a  Chief 
"  of  a  Province  in  these  Islands,  no  training  or  knowledge  or  special 

"  services  are  necessary  ;  all  persons  are  fit  and  admissibla 

"  It  is  quite  n  common  thing  to  see  a  barber  or  a  GloverQor's  lackey,  a, 
"  sailor  or  a  deserter,  suddenly  transformed  into  an  Alcalde,  Adrainis- 
"  trator,  and  Captain  of  the  forces  of  a  populous  province  without  any 
"  counsellor  but  his  rude  understanding,  or  any  guide  but  bis  passions." ' 
After  centuries  of  such  misrule,  the  Filipino  lost  respect  for  the  white 
face  and  disloyalty  to  the  dominant  power  was  checked  more  by  fear 
than  by  esteem. 

By  Royal  Decree  of  1844,  Government  ofBcials  were  thenceforth 
strictly  prohibited  to  trade  under  pain  of  removal  from  office. 

In  the  year  1850,  there  were  34  Provinces,  and  two  Political 
Military  Commandaucies.  Until  Juno,  1886,  the  Government  of  a 
Province  under  civil  rulo  still  remained  in  the  hands  of  tho  Chief 
Judge  of  the  same — the  Alcalde  Mat/or,  Tiiia  created  a  strange 
anomaly  ;  for  in  the  event  of  the  Judicial-Governor  issuing  an  edict 
prejudicial  to  the  commonweal  of  his  circuit,  an  appeal  against  hia 
measure  had  to  be  made  to  himself  as  Judge,  Then  if  it  were  taken 
to  the  central  authority  in  Manila,  It  was  sent  back  for  "  information  " 
to  the  Judge- Governor,  without  independent  inquiry  being  made  in  the 
first  instance,  hence  protest  against  his  acts  was  fruitless. 

Under  the  Regency  of  Queen  Maria  Christina,  a  great  reform  was 
introduced  by  a  Decree  dated  in  Madrid  on  the  26th  of  February,  1 886, 
to  take  cfEcct  on  the  1st  of  June  following. 

'  The  test  reflds  thus  :— '■  Para   eer  jefe  de  Provin 

■  requiere    < 

determinados,  todoa  son  aptoi  y 
a  bastante  comun  ver  a  un  pelaquero  6 
"  lacajo  (le  iin  gobemador,  &  Bnmariaero  y  Aun  desertor  transfurmado  derepente 
"  en  Alcalde- Mfiyot,  sub-delcgado  y  Capitan  a  gnerra  de  una  ProTracia  popnloaa, 
"  Bin  otro  consejero  que  bu  nitlo  cntendimiento,  ni  mas  guia  que  sns  pasiones." 
Thomas  Comin  was  an  employ^  of  the  "  Compai5ia  de  Fiiipinas  "  (vide  page  383), 
and  subaequently  Spanish  Consal-General  in  Lisbon, 



Eighteen  Civil  Governorships  were  created,  aud  Alcaldes'  functiona 
were  confiocd  to  their  Judgeships  ;  thus  the  anomaly  of  the  chief 
ruler  of  a  province  aud  the  arbiter  of  legal  questions  raised  therein 
being  one  aud  tbe  same  person  henceforth  disappeared.  Under  this 
recent  law,  the  Civil  Governor  was  assisted  by  a  Secretary,  so  that  two 
new  official  posts  were  created  in  each  of  these  provinces. 

The  Archipelago,  including  Sulu,  was  divided  into  19  Civil  Provincial 
Governments,  4  Military  General  Divisions,  i3  Military  Provincial 
Districts,  and  4  Provincial  Governments  under  Naval  Officers,  forming 
a  total  of  70  Divisions  aud  Sub-Divisions. 


General  received  a  salary  of       -         -         -     40,000  00 

The  Central  Government  Office,  called  "Gobierno  General " 

with  its  Staff  of  Officials  and  all  expenses  -         -         -     43,708  00 

The    General    Government   Centre  was    assisted  in    the 
General  Administration  of  the  Islands  by  two  other 
Governicg  Bodies,  namely  : 
The  General  Direction  of  Civil  Administration         -     29,277  34 
The  Administrative  Council 28,502  00 

The  Chief  of  the  General  Direction  received  a  salary  of 
$12,000,  with  an  allowance  for  official  visits  to  the 
Provinces  of  $500  per  annum. 

The  Council  was  composed  of  three  Members,  each  at  a 
salary  of  J4.700,  besides  a  Secretary  and  officials. 

Tbe  above-mentioned  70  divisions  and  sub-divisions  v 
tbe  following,  namely  : — 

Civil  Governments. 
4.  pcB._Salary  of  Civil  Governor  $5,000.— Total  cost  20,248  00 

Carried  forward       -  $161,735  34 

•d  by  Google 


Albay  P™ 
Batangas  - 

ECLACAN      - 

Ilocos  Noete     - 
Ilocos  Sub 
La  Laguna 
f am pang a  - 
Pangasinan        -  ■ 


Cam  AKiNES  NoRTi; 

Camarixes  Suk  - 

MlNDOKO      - 

Nueva  Ecu  a 
Tayabas     - 
Zambales  - 

Cagayan    - 



Brought  forward 

Eight  First  Class  Governments  : — 
Salary  of  each  Civil  Governor  $4,500 
Total  cost  of  each  Government  8,900 

8  First  Class  Governments  c 

^even  Second  Class  Governments  : — 
Salary  of  each  Civil  Governor  $4,000 
Total  cost  of  each  Government  7,660 

7  Second  Class  Governments  cost     53,620  00 
Three  Third  Class  Governments  : — 
Salary  of  each  Civil  Governor  $3,500 
Total  cost  of  each  Governmcut  6,700 

3  Third  Class  Governments  cost     20,100  00 

Military  General  Governments, 

Generai.  Division  of  S.  Visayas,  mnler  a  Brigadier  and 

Statr 10,975  00 

Generai  Division  of  N.  Visayas,  under  a  Brigadier  and 

Staff 10,975  00 

General  Division  of  Mindanao,  under  a  Brigadier  and 

Staff 17,825  00 

General   Division    op  Cavite,  under  a  Brigadier    and 

Staff 6,596  66 

icd  forward         ■  353,027  00 

•d  by  Google 


$       cts. 
Brought  forward         -  353,027  00 




East  CAiiOLiNEg  and| 

Pelew  Islands     J 
West  Caeolises  asd) 

Pelew  Islands     J" 

MisXmis     -        -        . 
Lade ONE  Islands 
Subcgao    -         -         - 
Davao       ... 
Dafitan    -         -         - 

ZUCURAN    -  -  - 

Military  Provinces  and  Districts. 
-  Under  a  Colonel  and  Staff    - 

7,240  oa 

„  -         -       4,410  00 

..  „  -         -       5,426  6G 

Lieiit.-Colonel  and  Staff  -       4,900  00 

Ma  jo 

3,500  00 


-       3,500  00 


-     4,816  ee 

-       4,975  00 

and  Staff      - 

-       3,856  66 

-       4,356  66 


-       4,156  66 


-       2,692  00 

La  Union,  Antiqdb,  SIuar,  )  -o    ,         ,  ,,  . 

Leyte       Abea       Bojol  \  *'^''"    ^'^^'^^  *    Major. — 
TiKLAC,  Kegros,  Moeonq  (      ^'"^  °'^^"«t^  @  $3,040     27,360  00 

Batanes,  Calamianes,  Rom-  ' 
BLON,  Benguet,  Lei'ANto,  I 
BuRiAS,    Infante,    Prin-  i 


Each  under  a  Captain, — 

Ten. Districts  @  $1,980     19,800  00 

Cagatan  (Mindanao),  ' 

BlLlNG,   NiTEVA    ViZCATA,  ) 

Sasanqani  (recently  . 

occupied        Districts        of  I 
Palaiian)  -         -         -         -  ^ 

Each  under  a  Captain. — 

Five  Districts  @?I,792       8,960  00 
(vide  end  of  Chap.  X.) 

SI,  BONGAO,  Tatoan    Each  under  a  Captain. — Three 

Districts  @  $2,032     -         -       6,096  00 

Carried  forward         -  477,735  30 

•d  by  Google 


$       els. 
Brought  forward         -  477,735  30 

Escalante' UQtier  a  Lieutenant      -----      1,52500 
Masbate  „        Cavalry  Sub-Lieutenant  -        -         -       1,4.50  00 

Provincial  Governments  under  Naval  Officers,  Officers  in 
Charge  of  Naval  Stations  as  ex-officio  Governors. 

COKBEGIDOR 3,821   00 

Bal^bac 3,960  00 

ISABELA   DE   Basilan      -------        5,276   66 

PaLaiSan  (Puerta  Prineesa) 6,910  00 

Total  cost  oE  Genera!  Governraeot  of  tlie  Islands  $500,677  96 

Deduct — 

Salaries,    &e.  included    ia    Army 

Estimatea $145,179  96 

Salaries,    &c,    included    iu    Navy 

Estimates 34,640  00 

159,819  96 

$340,858  00 

As  it  was  inteuded,  ia  due  course,  to  appoint  a  Civil  Governor  to 
svery  province  in  the  Islands,  it  may  be  interesting  to  note  here  tlie 
principal  duties  and  qualifications  of  this  functionary. 

He  was  tlie  representative  of  tho  Governor-GGneral,  wliose  orders 
and  decrees  lie  had  to  publish  and  execute  at  his  own  discretion.  He 
could  not  absent  himself  from  his  province  without  permission.     He  had 

'  T  anatened  to  Ba's  in  January,  1889,  in  consequence  of  the  rise  o£  brigandage 
in  the  S  B  of  NetT:oB  I  land. 

The  b  ganil  nnd  the  leadership  of  a  natire  named  Camartin  and  another, 
■who  de  la  d  th  mscl  es  prophets,  plundered  the  planters  along  that  coast,  and 
comm  ttol  Bu  h  n  t  us  crimes  that  troops  had  to  be  dispatched  there  uniiei' 
the  c  mmand  t  th  famous  Lieutenant-Colonel  Tilla-Abrille.  The  Governor- 
General  Val  sno  ftevler  went  to  the  Visayas  Islands  and  pergonally  directed 
the  operations. 



to  maintain  order,  veto  petitions  for  arma'  licences,  hold  under  his  orders 
and  diapOBO  of  the  Civil  Guard,  CarabiBcerB  and  local  guards.  He 
could  suspend  the  paj  for  ten  days  of  any  suirordinate  official  who  failed 
to  do  his  duty.  He  could  temporariiy  suspend  subordinates  in  their 
functions  with  justifiable  cause,  and  propose  to  the  Govern  or- General 
their  definite  removal.  He  bad  to  preside  at  ill  election' of  native  petty 
Governors  and  town  author  t  es  ■>  h  n  le  co  11  als  remove  at  h  s 
discretion — to  bring  delinquents  to  jubt  e — to  le  ee  the  Itte  t  on  on 
suspicion  of  any  individual  an  1  pi  co  h  m  at  tl  c  d  poail  of  the  1  e£ 
judge  within  three  days  ifte  h  r  captu  e — to  d  Ute  orders  for  the 
government  of  the  tonus  lad  v  liases — to  txflan  to  the  petty 
Governors  the  true  interpretit  on  of  tl  e  la  v  a  d  rcg  lat  ous 

He  was  chief  of  police  an  1  could  jn  pose  fines  w  th  ut  the  nterven 
tion  of  judicial  authority  up  to  $50  ;  and  in  the  evect  of  the  mulcted 
person  being  unable  to  pay,  he  could  order  his  imprisonment  at  the  rate 
of  one  day's  detention  for  each  half-dollar  of  the  fine— it  was  provided, 
however,  that  tlie  imprisonment  could  not  exceed  30  days  in  any  case. 
He  had  to  preside  at  the  ballot  for  military  conscription,  but  he  could 
delegate  this  duty  to  his  Secretary,  or,  failing  him,  to  the  Administrator. 
Where  no  harbour-master  had  been  appointed,  tbo  Civil  Governor  acted 
as  such.  He  had  the  care  of  the  primary  instruction  ;  and  it  was  his 
duty  specially  to  see  that  the  native  scholars  were  taught  the  Spanish 
language.  Latid  concessions  ;  improvements  tending  to  increase  the 
wealth  of  the  province  ;  permits  for  felling  timber  ;  and  the  collection 
of  excise  taxes  were  ;all  under  his  care.  He  had  also  to  furoisb 
statisticsrelating  to  the  labour  poll-tax  ;  draw  up  the  provincial  budget ; 
render  provincial  and  municipal  accounts,  etc.,  all  of  which  must  be 
counter- signed  under  the  word  Intervinc  by  the  Secretary,  He  was 
provincial  postmaster- general,  chief  of  telegraph  service,  prisons, 
charities,  board  of  health,  public  works,  woods  and  forests,  mines, 
agriculture  and  industry. 

Under  no  circumstances  could  he  dispose  of  the  public  funds,  which 
were  in  the  care  of  the  Administrator  and  Intcrventor,  and  ho  was  not 
entitled  to  any  percentages  (as  Alcalde-Governors  formerly  were),  or  any 
emoluments  whatsoever  further  than  his  fixed  salary. 

A  Governor  must  he  a  Spaniard  over  30  years  of  age.  It  is  curious 
to  note  from  its  political  significance,  that  among  the  numerous  classes 



oE  persons  eligible  for  a  Civil  Governorship,  were  those  who  had  been 
Metnbers  of  the  Spanish  Parliamont  or  Senate  during  one  complete 

Upon  the  whole,  a  Provincial  Governor  passed  life  very  comfortably 
if  ho  did  not  go  out  of  hia  way  to  oppress  hU  subjects  and  create 
discord.  His  traimuilHty,  nevertheless,  was  always  dependent  upon  his 
maintaining  a  good  understanding  with  the  priesthood  of  his  district, 
and  his  eonformtty  with  the  demands  of  the  friars.  If  he  should  have 
the  misfortune  to  seriously  cross  their  patL,  it  would  bring  him  a  world 
of  woe,  and  finally  his  downfall.  There  have  been  Provincial 
Governors  who  in  reality  maintained  their  posts  by  clerical  influence, 
whilst  others  who  have  exercised  a  more  independent  spirit — who  have 
set  aside  Church  interests  to  serve  those  of  the  State,  with  which  they 
were  intra sted^-have  fallen  vietinia  to  sacerdotal  intrigue;  for  the 
subordinates  of  the  hierarchy  had  power  to  overthrow  as  well  as  to 
support  those  who  were  appointed  to  their  districts.  Few  improvements 
appear  to  have  been  made  in  the  provinces  by  the  initiative  of  the  local 
Governors,  nor  did  they  seem  to  take  any  special  interest  in  commercial 
and  agricultural  advancement.  This  lack  of  interest  was  somewhat 
excusable  and  comprehensible,  however,  seeing  that  after  they  were 
appointed,  and  even  though  they  governed  well  within  the  strict 
attributions  of  their  office,  they  were  constantly  expecting  that  a 
ministerial  cliange  or  the  fall  of  a  single  minister  might  remove  them 
from  their  posts,  or  that  the  undermining  influence  of  favouritism  might 
succeed  in  accomplishing  their  withdrawal.  It  was  natural,  therefore, 
that  they  should  have  been  indifferent  about  the  fomenting  of  new 
agricultural  enterprises,  of  opening  tracks  for  bringing  down  timber,  of 
facilitating  trade,  or  of  in  any  way  stimulating  the  development  of  tlie 
resources  of  a  province  when  the  probability  existed  that  they  would 
never  have  the  personal  satisfaction  of  seeing  the  result  of  their 

Some  Governors  with  whom  I  am  personally  acquainted  have,  in 
spit«  of  all  discouragement,  studied  the  wants  of  their  provinces,  but  to 
no  purpose.  Their  estimates  for  rond-raaking  and  mending,  bridge- 
building  and  public  works  generally,  were  shelved  iu  Manila,  whilst  the 
local  funds  {^Fondos  locales),  which  ought  to  have  been  expended  in  the 
localities  where  they  were  collected,  were  seized  by  the  authorities  in  the 
Capital  and  applied  to  other  purposes. 



An    annual   statemant   of  one  province  will   be   sufficient, 
example,  to  UluBtritte  the  ns.ture  of  this  local  tn,^  i — 


Provincial  Revenue. 

S     els.        % 

Stamps  ou  Weiglita  anJ  ileaaurea-         -         -  2,490  00 

Billiard  Tax 360  00 

Live  stock  credentials  and  transfers        -         -  136  00 
90   °lo   of   fines   imposed    for  shirking    forced 

labour 1,500  00 

Tax  in  lieu  of  forced  labour    -         -         -         -  86,209  00 

Vehicle  tax 4,000  00 

Municipal  Revenue, 

Tax  paid  by  sellers  in  the  pnblic  market  place 

„    on  slaughter  of  animals  for  food 

„     „    local   sales   of    hemp    (casual    sellers, 

without  hemp- dealers'  annual  licence) 

90  °/o  of  the  Municipal  fines    -         -         -         • 

Local  tax  on  Chinese     -         -         -         -         - 

Surplus  tax  of  10°/q  o 

tithes  paid 
House  property    - 
Industrial  licences 
Alcohol  licences' 

7,050  00 

12,098  00 

iO  00 

260  00 

29i  00 

70  00 

310  00 

5,710  00 

2,525  00 

28,357  00 



In  the  same  year  this  province  contributed  to  the  eommon  funds  of 
the  Treasury  a  further  sum  of  $133,009. 

There  was  in  each  town  another  local  tax  called  "  Cajade  Comuni- 
dad,"  contributed  to  by  the  townspeople  to  provide  agaiust  any  urgent 
necessity  of  the  community,  bat  it  found  its  way  to  Manila  and  was 
misappropriated,  like  the  Fondos  locales. 

'  From,  the  1st  January,  ISga,  the  Goverunieut  Financial  year  mas  made 
concurrent  with  the  year  of  the  CalcnJar. 



In  1887  the  paristi  priest  of  Buuan  (Batangaa  Province)  toid  mc 
that  although  there  must  littve  been  about  $300,000  paid  into  this  fund 
up  to  the  year  1882  by  bis  parish  alone,  yet  fioaDcial  aid  was  refused 
by  tho  GoYcrnment  during  the  cholera  epidemic  in  that  year. 

There  was  not  a  dollar  at  the  disposal  of  tho  Provincial  Governor 
for  local  improvements.  .If  a  bridge  broke  down,  so  it  remained  for 
years  ;  whilst  thousands  of  travellers  had  to  wado  through  the  river 
unless  a  raft  were  put  there  at  the  expense  of  the  very  poorast  people 
by  order  of  the  petty  Governor  of  the  nearest  villago.  The  "  Tribunal," 
which  served  the  double  purpose  of  Town  Hail  and  Dak  Bungalow  for 
wayfarers,  was  often  a  hut  of  bamboo  and  palm  leaves,  whilst  others 
which  had  been  decent  buildings  generations  gone  by,  lapsed  into  a 
wretched  state  of  dilapidation.  In  some  villages  there  was  no  Tribunal 
at  all,  and  the  official  business  had  to  be  transacted  in  the  municipal 
Governor's  house.  I  first  visited  Calamba  (on  the  Lagnna  de  Bay 
shore)  in  1880,  and  for  fourteen  years,  to  my  knowledge,  the  headmen 
had  to  meet  in  a  sugar  store  in  lieu  of  a  Tribunal.  In  San  JosiS  de 
Buenavista,  the  capital  town  of  Antique  Province,  the  Town  Hall  was 
commenced  in  good  style  and  left  half  finished  during  15  years.  Either 
some  one  for  pity  sake,  or  the  headmen  for  their  own  convenience,  went 
to  the  expense  of  thatcliing  over  half  the  unfinished  structure.  This 
hnlf  was  therefore  saved  from  utter  ruin,  whilst  all  but  the  stone  walls 
of  the  remainder  rotted  away.  So  it  continued  until  1887,  when  the 
Government  authorised  a  portion  o£  this  i)u!lding  to  be  restored. 

As  to  the  roads  connecting  the  villages,  quite  20°/o  of  them  serve 
only  for  travellers  on  foot,  oa  horse  or  on  bufialo  back  at  any  time,  and 
in  the  wet  season  certainly  60  °/o  of  all  the  Philippine  highways  are  in 
too  bad  a  state  for  any  kind  of  passenger  conveyance  to  pass  with 
safety.  In  the  wet  si'ason,  many  times  I  have  made  a  sea  journey  in  a 
prahu,  simply  because  the  high  road  near  the  coast  had  become  a  mud 
track,  for  want  of  macadamized  si  one  and  drainage,  aod  only  serviceable 
for  transport  by  buffiilo. 

In  the  dry  season  the  sun  mended  the  roads,  and  the  traffic  over 
the  baked  clods  reduced  them  more  or  less  to  dust,  so  that  vehicles 
could  pass. 

Private  property  owners  expended  much  time  and  money  iu  the 
preservation  o£  public  roads,  although  a  curious  law  existed  prohibiting 
repairs  to  highways  by  noa-ofScial  persons. 

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Every  male  adtilt  itiliabitant  or  resident  (with  certain  exceptions) 
had  to  give  tiic  State  fifteen  days'  labour  per  auiium,  or  redeem  that 
labour  by  payment  (vide  "Fiscal  Reforms,"  page  248),  Of  course 
thousands  of  the  moat  needy  class  preferred  to  give  their  fifteen  days. 
This  labour,  and  the  cash  paid  by  those  who  redeemed  their  obligation, 
were  theoretically  supposed  to  be  employed  in  local  improvements. 

The  Budget  for  1888  showed  only  the  sum  of  $120,000  to  be  used 
iti  road-making  and  mending  in  the  whole  Archipelago. 

It  provided  for  a  Chief  Inspector  of  Public  Works  with  a  salary  of 
$6,500,  aided  by  a  staff  composed  of  48  technical  and  82  non-technical 

Aa  a  matter  of  fact,  the  Provincial  and  District  Governors  were 
often  urged  by  their  Manila  Chiefs  not  to  encourage  the  employment 
of  labour  for  local  improvements,  but  to  press  the  labouring  class  to 
pay  the  redemption  tax  to  swell  the  central  coffers,  regardless  of  the 
corresponding  misery  and  discomfort  and  lose  to  trade  in  the  interior. 
But  labour  at  the  disposal  of  the  Governor  was  not  alone  sufiicient. 
There  was  no  fund  from  which  to  defray  the  cost  of  materials  ;  or,  if 
these  could  be  found  without  payment,  some  one  must  pay  for  the 
transport  by  bufi'aloes  and  carts  and  find  the  implements  for  the 
labourers'  use.  How  could  labourers'  hands  alone  repair  a  bridge  which 
had  rotted  away  ?  To  cut  a  log  of  wood  for  the  public  service  would 
have  necessitated  communications  with  the  Inspection  of  Woods  aud 
Forests  and  other  centres  and  many  months'  delay. 

The  system  of  controlling  tlie  action  of  one  public  servant  by 
iippoiuting  another  under  him  to  supervise  his  work,  has  always  found 
favour  in  Spnin,  and  was  adopted  in  this  Colony.  There  wore  a  great 
many  Government  employments  of  the  kind  which  were  merely 
sinecures.  In  many  cases  the  pay  was  small,  it  is  true,  but  the  labour 
was  often  of  proportionately  smaller  value  compared  with  that  pay. 
With  very  few  exceptions,  all  the  Government  Offices  in  Manila  were 
closed  to  the  public  during  half  the  ordinary  working  day — the  afternoon 
— and  many  of  the  Civil  Service  officials  made  their  appearance  at  their 
desks  about  ten  o'clock  in  the  morning,  retiring  shortly  after  mid-day, 
when  they  had  smoked  theh  habitual  number  of  cigarettes. 

The  crowd  of  office-seekers  were  indifferent  to  the  fact  that  the 
true  source  of  national  vigour  is  the  spirit  of  self-dependence  manifested 

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EfPECTd    Of    i-AVOUKITISM.  241 

hy  the  individuala  who  eonstittite  the  nation.  Constant  lam  u  fo 
Government  employment  tonda  ooly  to  enfeeble  individual  eli  t  and 
destroys  the  stimulus,  or  what  is  oE  greater  worth,  the  ne  o  ty  of 
acting  for  one's  self.  The  Spaniard  looks  to  the  G-ove  nmeat  tor 
active  and  direct  aid,  as  if  the  Public  Treasury  ware  a  nat  al  Sf  ng 
at  the  waters  of  wiiich  all  temporal  calamities  could  he  wai9hed  away — 
all  material  wants  supplied.  He  will  tell  you  with  pride  rather  than 
with  abashment  that  he  is  an  empleado — a  State  dependent. 

National  progress  is  but  the  aggregate  of  personal  activity  and 
rightly  directed  individual  energy,  and  a  nation  weakeoa  as  a  whole 
as  its  component  parts  become  dormant  or  as  the  majority  rely  upon 
tbe  efforts  of  the  few.  The  spirit  of  Csjsarism — "  all  for  the  people 
and  nothing  by  them " — must  tend  not  only  to  political  slavery  and 
to  render  social  enfranchisement  impossible,  hut  to  reduce  commercial 
prosperity  and  national  power  and  influence  amongst  other  States  to 
a  nullity.     The  Spaniards  have  indeed  proved  this  fact. 

The  be^t  laws  themselves  were  never  intended  to  provide  for  the 
people,  but  to  regulate  the  conditions  on  which  they  conid  provide 
for  themselvps.  Amongst  the  Spaniards,  the  consumers  of  public 
wealth  are  far  too  numerous  in  proportion  to  the  producers,  hence  not 
■only  is  the  State  constantly  lorely  pressed  for  funds,  but  the  busy  bees 
who  form  the  nucleus  of  the  nation's  vitality  are  heavily  taxed  to  provide 
for  the  dependent  ofSce-seeking  drones.  Against  this  state  of  things, 
the  industrious  populations  of  Biscay  and  Catalunia  have  protested. 

It  is  the  fatal  delusion  that  liberty  and  national  welfare  depend 
solely  upon  good  government,  instead  of  good  government  depending 
upon  the  joint  action  of  independent  individual  exertion,  that  has 
brought  the  Spanish  nation  to  its  present  state  of  deplorable  impotence. 

The  Government  itself  is  but  the  official  counterpart  of  the 
governed.  By  the  aid  of  servile  speculators,  a  man  in  political  circles 
struggles  to  come  to  the  front — to  hold  a  portfolio  in  the  ministry — if 
it  only  be  for  a  week,  when  his  pension  for  life  is  assured  on  his 
retirement.  Merit,  ability  and  long  service  have  little  weight,  acd  the 
proteges  of  the  outgoing  minister  must  make  room  for  those  of  the 
next  lucky  ministerial  pension-seeker,  and  so  on  successively. 

This  Colony  therefore  became  a  lucrative  hunting-ground  at  the 
disposal  o£  the  Madrid  Cabinet  wherein  to  satisfy  the  craving 
demands  of  their  numerous  partisans  and  friends. 


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They  were  sent  out  with  a  salary  aod  to  make  what  they  could — at 
their  own  riak  of  course — like  the  country  lad  who  was  sent  up  to 
London  with  the  injunctioo  from  his  father  "  Make  money,  honestly 
if  you  can,  but  make  it." 

From  the  Coaquest  up  to  1844,  when  trading  by  officials  was 
aholished,  it  was  a  matter  of  little  public  concern  how  Government 
servants  made  fortunes.  Only  when  the  jealousy  of  one  urged  him  to 
denounce  another  was  any  inquiry  instituted  so  Jong  as  the  official  was 
careful  not  to  embezzle  or  commit  a  direct  fraud  on  the  RcalHaber  (the 
Treasury  funds).  When  the  Real  Ilaber  was  onco  covered,  then  all 
that  could  be  got  out  of  the  Colony  was  for  the  benefit  of  tlie  officials, 
great  and  small.  In  1840,  Eusebio  Mazorca  wrote  as  follows  :'— "Each 
"  chief  of  a  province  is  a  real  Sultan,  and  when  he  has  tenniuated  his 
"  administration,  all  that  is  talked  of  in  the  capital  is  the  thousands 
"  of  dollars  clear  gain  which  he  made  in  his  Government." 

Up  to  thirteen  years  ago,  whilst  taxes  of  a  province  wore  in  the 
custody  of  the  Administrator,  the  Judicial  Governor  had  a  percentage 
assigned  to  him  to  induce  him  to  control  the  Administrator's  work. 
The  Administrator  himself  had  percentages,  and  the  accounts  of  these 
two  functionaries  were  cheeked  by  a  third  individual  stvled  "  the 
Intflrventor,"  whose  duties  appeared  to  be  to  intervene  in  Ihe  casting  up 
of  his  superiors'  figures.  From  June,  18R6,  the  payment  of  percentages 
both  to  Governors  and  Administrators  ceased. 

From  time  to  time  one  saw  published  in  the  Manila  journals  a 
citation  to  the  Administrator  and  Interventor  of  a  Province  to  appear 
at  the  Audit  Office  to  justify  their  accounts,  and  such  interviews  have 
not  unfrequently  been  followed  up  by  long  legal  proceodingM. 

In  1840,  Eusehio  Mazorca  wrote  thus'  : — "The  Governor  receives 
"  payment  of  the  tribute  in  rice  paddy,  which  he  credits  to  the  native 

'  The  text  reads  thus  ; — "  Cada  Jefe  de  PtOTincia  es  un  verdadero  Sidtan  y 
"  cuando  acaba  ea  administracion  Bolo  se  habla  en  la  Capital  de  Ids  miles  de  pesos 
"  qae  saub  limpioa  de  au  aloaldia." — "  Notieiaa  dc  Filipinas,"  by  Don  Eusebio 
Mazorca.  Inedited  MS.  dat«d  1810.  In  the  archires  of  Bauan  Convent,  Province 
«f  Batangas. 

'  The  test  reads  thus :— "  Cobrando  cl  Alcalde  en  palay  cl  tributo,  solo 
"  abona  al  indio  dos  reales  plata  poc  caban  ;  introduce  en  cajas  rcales  sa  importe 
"  ea  metfilico  y  vende  despues  el  palay  en  aeis,  ocho  ja  vccea  mas  reales  fuertes 
"  plata  cada  caban  j  le  resulta  cod  esta  senciila  operacion  un  doscientoa  6 
"  trescientos  por  ciento  de  ganancia Ahora  recicntito 



"  at  two  reals  in  silver  per  caban.  Then  he  pays  this  earn  into  the 
"  lioyal  Treasury  in  mouey,  and  sells  the  rice  paddy  for  private  account 
"  at  the  Cttrrout  rate  of  six,  eight  or  more  reals  in  silver  per  caban, 
"  and  this  simple  operation bringa him 200  to  300  percent,  profit." 

The  same  writer  adds  : — "  Now  qntte  recently  the  Interventor  of 
"  Zamboanga  is  accused  by  the  Governor  of  that  place  of  having  made 

"  Booie  $15,000  to  $16,000  solely  by  using  false  measures 

"  The  same  luterventor  to  whom  I  refer,  is  said  to  have  made  a  fortune 
"  of  $50,000  to  $60,000,  whilst  his  salary  as  second  official  In  the 
"  Audit  Department^  is  $540  per  annum."  According  to  Zuniga,  the 
salary  of  a  professor  of  taw  with  the  rank  of  magiatrnte  waa  $800  per 

Could  the  peculations  by  the  Government  employes  from  the  highest 
circles  downwards  have  been  arrested,  the  inhabitants  of  this  Colony 
would  doubtless  have  heea  several  millions  richer  per  annum.  One 
frequently  heard  of  ofScials  leaving  for  Spain  with  suras  far  esceeding 
tjio  total  emoluments  they  had  received  during  their  term  of  office. 
Some  provincial  employes  acquired  a  pernicious  habit  of  anoexing 
what  waa  not  theirs  by  ail  manner  of  pretexts.  To  cite  some  instances  : 
I  knew  a  Governor  of  Negros  Island  who  seldom  saw  a  native  pass  the 
Government  House  with  a  good  horse  without  begging  it  of  him — thus, 
under  fear  of  his  avenging  a  refusal,  his  subjects  fiiriiished  him  little  by 
little  with  a  large  stud,  which  he  sold  before  he  left,  much  to  their 

In  another  provincial  capital  there  happened  to  be  a  native  headman 
imprudently  vain  enough  to  carry  a  walking  stick  with  a  chased  gold- 
knob  handle  studded  with  brilliants.  It  took  the  fancy  of  the  Spanish 
Governor,  who  repeatedly  expressed  his  admiration  of  it,  hoping 
that  the  headman  would  make  him  a  present  of  it.  At  length  the 
Governor  was  relieved  of  his  post,  but  prior  to  his  departure  he  called 

"  escA  acusado  el  Ministro  luterventor  de  Zamboanga  por  el  Gobcrnador  de  aquella 
"  plaza  de  habgrse   utilizado  aquel  de  815,000  ±  (16,000  solo  con  el  trocntinte  de 

"  la  medida Se  cueuta  al  mismo  intetTcntor^  quo  mureGero 

"  SoO.OOO  ^  $60,000  euando  el  sueldo  de  su  empleo — ofieial  2°  do  la  Contadnria 
"  cs  de  $540  al  afio,"— "  Noticias  de  Filipinas,"  by  Don  Eusebio  Majorca. 
Inedited   3IS.  dated   1840.     In  the  Archives  ol    Bauan    Convent,   Province   of 

'  The  Audit  Oifiee  was  suppressed  and  revived;  and  again  suppressed  on  the 
it  January,  ISSO. 

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together  the  iiuailmcii  to  take  formal  leave  of  tlieni,  anil  at  the  close  of 
a  flattoriug  speech,  he  said  he  would  willingly  hand  over  hia  official  stick 
aa  ft  remembrance  of  hia  command.  In  the  hubbub  of  applause  whicU 
followed,  he  added,  "  and  I  will  retain  a  souvenir  of  my  loyal  subordi- 
nates." Suiting  tlie  nctioii  to  the  word,  he  snatched  the  coveted  stick 
out  of  the  hand  of  the  owaer,  and  kept  it,  A  General,  who  has  quite 
recently  made  for  himself  a  world-wide  notoriety  for  alleged  cruelty 
in  another  Spanish  colony,  enriched  himself  by  peculation  to  such  an 
extent  that  he  was  at  his  wits'  end  how  to  remit  hia  ill-gotten  gains 
clandestinely.  Finally,  he  resolved  to  seud  an  army  Captain  over  to 
Hongkong  with  $35,000  with  which  to  purchase  a  draft  on  Europe. 
The  Captain  left,  but  he  never  returned. 

The  cases  of  official  swindling  are  far  too  numerous  to  come  within 
the  space  of  this  volume. 

In  the  whole  of  the  Colony  thercare  about  725  towns  and  23  missions. 
Each  town  was  locally  governed  by  a  native — in  some  cases  a  Spanish  or 
Chinese  half-caste — who  was  styled  the  petty  Governor  or  Goberna- 
doTciUo,  whilst  his  popular  title  was  that  of  CapUan.  This  service 
was  compulsory. 

The  elections  of  GobernadorcUlos  and  their  subordinates  took  place 
every  two  years,  and  the  term  of  office  counted  from  the  1  st  of  tJuly 
following  such  elections. 

There  were  a  few  towns  where  the  GobernadorcUlos  were  able  to 
make  considerable  sums,  aod  here  the  appointment  was  energetically 
sought  for,  but  aa  a  rule  it  was  regarded  as  an  onerous  task,  and  I 
know  several  who  have  paid  bribes  to  the  officials  to  rid  them  of  it 
under  the  pretext  of  ill-health,  legal  incapacity,  and  so  on.  The 
Gobcrttadorcillo  was  supported  by  what  was  pompously  termed  a 
ministry,  the  "ministers  of  justice"  being  two  lieutenants  of  the 
town,  suburban  lioutenants  of  the  wards,  (he  chiefs  of  police,  of 
plantations,  and  of  live  stock. 

The  Goberna.dorcillo  was  nominally  tho  delegate  and  practically 
the  servant  of  the  Governor  of  the  Proviace,  through  whom  he  received 
his  instructions  and  to  whom  he  com  muni  eated  all  official  information. 
In  his  town  and  its  wards  ho  might  be  regarded  as  the  counterpart  of 
the  Governor  in  his  Province. 

[le  was  the  arbiter  of  local  petty  questions,  and  eudeavoured  to 
adjust  them,  but  when  they  assumed  a  legal  aspect,  they  were  taken  up 



[jj  t!ie  local  Justice  of  the  Peace,  who  wiia  directly  subordmate  to  the 
Chief  Judge  of  the  Province. 

The  GobeTnadorcillo  was  also  siihservient  to  the  Administrator  for 
tbe  collection  o£  taxes — to  the  Chief  of  the  Civil  Guard  for  the  capture 
of  criminals,  and  to  the  priest  of  his  pariah  for  the  interests  of  the 
Church,  aad  (if  he  were  a  Friar)  tbe  private  ends  of  its  representative. 

He  was  often  made  personally  responsible  for  the  taxes  to  he 
collected,  and  on  this  score  ho  was  at  times  imprisoned,  iinlesa  he 
succeeded  in  throwing  the  hurden  on  the  actual  collectors — the  Cabezas 

The  GobernadoTcillo  was  often  put  to  considerable  expense  in  the 
course  of  his  two  years,  in  entertaining  and  supplying  the  wants  of 
ofRcials  passing  through.  To  cover  this  outlay,  the  loss  of  hia  own 
time,  the  salaries  of  writers  in  the  Town  Hall,  presents  to  hia  Spaoish 
chiefs  to  secure  their  goodwill,  and  other  calls  upon  his  private  income, 
he  naturally  had  to  exact  funds  from  the  townspeople.  To  cover  these 
disbursements  legally,  he  could  receive,  if  he  chose  (hut  few  did),  the 
munificent  salary  of  $2  per  month,  and  an  allowance  for  clerks  equal  to 
about  one-fifth  of  what  he  had  to  pay  them. 

Some  of  these  G  ibcriiadorciUos  were  well-to-do  planters,  and  were 
anxious  for  the  office,  even  if  it  cost  them  money,  on  account  of  the 
local  prestige  which  tlie  title  of  '  Capitan  "  gave  them,  hut  others  were 
often  so  poor,  that  if  fhcv  hid  not  pilfered  this  compulsory  service 
■would  have  ruined  them  However,  a  smart  Gobernadorcillo  was 
r-trely  out  of  pocket  by  hia  acnice.  One  of  the  greatest  hardships  to 
the  Gobcr/uidorciUo  wae  that  he  often  bad  to  abandon  his  plantation  or 
other  me  ins  of  living  to  go  to  the  capital  of  tbe  province  at  his  own 
expense  whenever  he  wis  cited  there.  Many  of  them  did  not  speak  or 
underst  ind  bpani'ih,  lu  which  case  they  had  to  pay  and  he  at  the  mercy 
ot  a  becretary  (^DireclorciUo). 

When  there  was  any  question  on  the  tapis  of  general  interest  to  the 
townspeople  (such  as  a  serious  innovation  in  the  existing  law,  or 
the  annual  feasts,  or  the  anticipated  arrival  of  a  very  big  official)  the 
headmen  (^principalia)  were  cited  to  the  Town  Hall.  They  were  also 
expected  to  assemble  there  every  Sunday  and  Great  Feaei  Days 
(three-cross  Saint  days  in  the  Calendar),  to  march  thence  in  procession  to 
the  church  to  hear  Mass,  under  certain  penalties  if  they  failed  to  attend. 
Sach  one  carried  hia  stick  of  authority  ;   and  the  official  dress  'was  a 



short  Eton  jacket  of  black  cloth  over  tho  shirt,  the  tai!  of  which 
hung  outside  the  trousers. 

Some  GohernadorcUlos,  imbued  with  a  sense  of  the  Importance  and 
eolemuity  of  office,  ordered  a  baud,  playing  lively  danco  music,  to  head 
the  cortege  to  and  from  the  church. 

After  Mass  they  repaired  to  the  convent,  and  on  bended  kaee  kissed 
the  priest's  hand.  Town  affairs  were  then  discussed.  Some  present 
were  ehided,  others  were  commended  by  the  holy  friar. 

During  the  sowing  and  harvesting  seasons,  some  of  the  headmen 
were  only  seen  in  town  on  Sundays,  tiieir  lands  being  so  distant,  or 
the  roads  so  hud  that  they  went  off  there  from  the  Monday  to  the 
Saturday  o£  each  week. 

For  the  direct  collection  of  taxes  and  contributions,  each  township 
was  sub-divided  into  what  were  called  Barangays,  which  were  simply 
groups  of  forty  or  fifty  families ;  each  group  having  to  pay  its 
respective  head,  who  was  responsible  to  the  petty  Governor,  who  in 
turn  made  the  payment  to  the  Administrator  of  the  Province  for 
remission  to  the  Treasury  (^Iiitendenda)  in  Manila. 

This  Harangay  chiefdom  system  took  its  origin  frona  that  established 
by  the  natives  themselves  prior  to  their  conquest,  and  m  somo  parts  of 
the  Colony  the  original  title  of  datto  was  still  apphed  to  the  Chief. 
This  position  was  amongst  tliomselves  hereditary,  lud  Lootiuued  to  be 
so  for  many  years  under  Spanish  rule.  The  appointment  wns  then 
sought  for  by  the  natives,  as  it  gave  tlie  heads  of  ceitim  families 
a  birthright  importance  or  superiority  over  their  class.  Later  on  they 
were  chosen  like  all  the  other  native  local  authorities  every  two  years, 
but  if  they  had  anything  to  lose,  they  were  invariably  re-elected.  In 
order  to  be  included  in  the  headmen  of  the  town  (the  principalis)  a 
Harangay  chief  had  to  servo  for  ten  years  in  that  capacity  unless 
he  were,  meanwhile,  elected  to  a  higher  rank,  such  as  Lieutenant 
or  Gohernadorcillo. 

The  obligations  of  a  Sara ȣf(iy  chief  were  peihaps  the  most  irksome 
and  repugnant  of  all.  The  Government  larely  recognized  any  bad 
debts  in  the  collection  of  the  tixei,  until  the  chief  had  teen  made 
bankrupt  and  his  goods  and  chattels  sold  to  mike  good  the  siUms  which 
he  could  not  collect  from  his  group,  whether  it  arose  from  their  poverty, 
death  or  from  their  having  absconded. 

I  have  been  present  at  the  sales  by  public  auction  of  the  live  stock 

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of  some  of  these  chiefs  to  supply  taxes  to  the  Government,  which 
ftdraitted  no  excuses  or  cxplauatious.  Many  liarangay  chiefs  Lave 
goue  to  prison  through  their  inability  or  refusal  to  pay  others'  debts. 
On  the  other  haaJ,  it  ia  true  there  were  among  them  some  profligate 
characters  who  misappropriated  the  collected  taxes.  Eveu  iu  that  case 
the  Government  had  really  little  right  to  complain,  for  the  labour  of 
tax-gathering  was  a  farced  service  without  remuneration  for  expenses 
or  loss  of  time  incurred. 

In  msny  towua,  villages  and  hamlets  there  were  posts  of  the  Civil 
Guard  established  for  the  arrest  of  criminals  and  the  mainteoauce 
of  public  order  ;  moreover,  there  was  in  each  town  a  body  of  guards 
called  "  Cuadrilleros  "  for  the  defence  of  the  town  and  the  persecution 
of  bandits  and  criminals  withio  the  jurisdiction  of  the  town  only. 
They  did  not  appear  to  be  specially  chosen  for  their  loyalty,  indeed  no 
one  who  could  hopefully  aspire  to  a  higher  vocation  would  accept 
to  be  a  CuadrillcTO. 

There  were  frequent  cases  of  Cuadrilleros  passing  over  to  the 
opposite  side,  to  join  a  band  of  brigands.  Somo  years  ago  the  whole 
body  appertaining  to  the  town  of  Mauhan,  in  the  Province  of  Tayabaa, 
suddenly  took  to  the  mountains  ;  and  whilst,  on  the  other  hand,  many 
have  rendered  valuable  aid  to  society,  this  uncertainty  of  character 
vastly  diminishes  their  public  utility. 

From  the  tiaie  the  first  administration  in  the  Philippines  was 
organized  up  to  the  year  1884,  all  the  subdued  natives  paid  tribute. 

Latterly  it  amounted  to  tiie  nomiual  sum  of  four  shillings  auJ 
five  pence  per  annum  (one  dollar  and  17  cuartos),  and  those  who 
did  not  choose  to  work  for  the  Government  during  forty  days  in  the 
year,  paid  also  a  poll-tax  (^fallas)  of  $3  per  annum.  But,  as  a  matter 
of  fact,  thousands  were  declared  as  workers  who  never  did  work,  and 
whilst  roads  were  in  an  abominable  condition  and  public  worts  abandoned, 
not  much  secret  was  made  of  the  fact  that  a  great  portion  of  the  poil- 
tas  never  reached  the  Treasury. 

These  pilferiuga  were  known  to  the  Spanish  local  authorities  as 
caidas  or  droppings ;  and  in  a  certain  province  I  have  met  at  table  a 
provincial  chief  judge,  the  nephew  of  a  General,  and  other  persona 
who  openly  discussed  the  value  of  the  different  Provincial  Governments 
(before  1884)  in  Luzon  Island,  on  the  basis  of  so  much  for  salary  and 
so  much  for  fees  and  caidas. 




However,  as  good  faitli  depends  on  the  individual  and  not  on  the 
system,  the  above  arrangement  may  be  said  to  have  worked  as  well  sis 
any  other  would  under  the  circumstances,  but  for  some  reason,  best 
known  to  the  authorities,  it  was  abolished.  In  lieu  thereof  a  scheme 
was  proposed,  obliging  every  inhabitant  in  the  Philippines,  excepting 
only  public  servants,  the  clergy  and  a  few  others,  to  work  for  fifteen 
days  per  annum  without  the  right  of  redeeming  this  obligation  by 
payment.  Indeed,  the  Decree  to  that  effect  was  actually  received  from 
(he  Home  Government  by  the  Go\ernor  Genera!  in  Manila  It  Hd,s  no 
palpably  ludicrous,  that  the  toverooi  General  did  not  give  it  effect 

He  hid  sufficient  common  sense  to  foresee  in  its  applit,.itioJi  the 
est  nction  of  all  European  prestige  and  moral  influence  over  the 
natnea  if  Spanish  and  fore  gn  gentlemen  of  good  fimily  were  seen 
sweeping  the  streets,  one  lighting  the  hmpa,  another  road  mending, 
another  guiding  a  buffalo  cart  with  a  load  of  stones,  and  so  on  This 
measure  therefore,  regarded  by  some  as  i  practical  joke — by  others  as 
the  conception  of  a  lunatic  theorist — was  withdrawn,  or  at  least  allowed 
to  subside.  Perhaps  it  may  be  said  to  have  fallen  by  the  weight  of  its 
own  absurdity. 

Nevertheless,  those  in  power  were  bent  on  reform,  but  the  greatest 
blunder  of  all — the  abolition  of  tribute — was  not  remedied.  The 
Peniusular  system  of  a  document  of  identity  {Cedula  personal),  which 
works  well  amongst  Europeans,  was  then  adopted  for  all  classes  and 
nationalities  above  the  age  of  IS  years  without  exception,  and  its 
possession  was  compulsory.  The  amount  paid  for  this  document,, 
which  was  of  nice  classes,'  from  $25  value  downwards,  varied 
according  to  the  income  of  the  holder  or  the  cost  of  his  trading  licences. 
Any  person  lioldiiig  this  document  of  a  value  under  $3^  was  subject  to. 
fifteen  days'  forced  labour  per  annum,  or  to  pay  50  cents  for  each  day 
he  failed  to  work.  The  holder  of  a  document  of  $3^  or  over  paid  also 
$1^  "  Municipal  Tax  "  in  lieu  of  labour.  The  "  Cedula  "  thencefortli 
served  as  a  passport  for  travelling  within  the  Archipelago,  to  be 
exhibited  at  any  time  on  demand  by  the  proper  authoritv. 

'  There  was  also  a  tenth  class  gratis  for  tie  clergy,  army,  and  nary  forcee  anil 
convicts,  aad  a  "prirlleged"  class  gratis  for  petty  Goveraora  and  their  wives, 
Barangaj  chiefs  and  their  wives,  and  Bsrangay  chiefs'  assistants,  called 
"  primog^nitoB  "  Cprimogf^nito  means  first  bom— perhaps  it  was  anticipated  that  he 
would  "  assist "  hie  father). 



No  legal  douiimeut  was  valid  unless  the  interested  parties  had 
produced  their  Cedulas,  the  details  oE  which  were  noted  ia  the  legal 
instroment.  No  petitions  would  be  noticed  ;  and  very  few  transactionB 
could  be  made  in  tiie  Government  Offices  without  the  presentation  of 
this  document  of  identity.  The  Decree  relating  to  this  reform,  like 
most  ambiguous  Spanish  edicts,  set  forth  that  any  person  was  at  liberty 
to  take  a  higher  valued  personal  identity  document  than  that  corre- 
sponding to  his  position,  without  the  right  of  any  official  to  ask  the 
reason  why.  This  was  highly  prejudicial  to  the  public  welfare,  for,  in 
this  way,  thousands  of  abie-lwdied  natives  become  exempt  from  labour 
for  public  improvements  which  were  so  imperatively  necessary  in  the 
provinces.  The  labour  question  was  indeed  altogether  a  farce,  and 
simply  afforded  a  pretext  for  levying  a  tax. 

In  1890  certain  reforms  were  introduced  into  the  towu'-hips,  most 
of  which  were  raised  to  the  dignity  of  Municipalities.  Tho  tiflet  of 
Gobcrtiadorcillo  and  Direcforcillo  (the  words  themsehes  in  Spanish 
bear  a,  sound  of  contempt)  were  changed  to  Cupitan  Municipal  and 
Secretario  respectively  (Municipal  Captain  and  Secretary)  ^liii 
nominally  extended  powers.  For  instance,  the  Municipal  Captains 
were  empowered  to  disburse  for  public  works,  without  appeal  to 
Manila,  a  few  hundred  dollars  in  the  year  (to  be  drawn,  in  some 
cases,  from  empty  public  coffers,  or  private  purses).  The  oid- 
established  obligation  to  supply  travellers,  on  payment  thereof,  with 
certain  necessaries  of  life  and  means  of  transport,  was  abolished.  The 
amplified  functions  of  the  local  Justices  of  the  Peace  were  abused  to 
such  a  degree  that  these  officials  became  more  the  originators  of  strife 
than  the  guardians  of  peace. 




The  seceasion  of  Mexico  from  the  Spanish  Crown  ia  the  second 
decade  of  thii  century  brought  with  it  a  comploto  revolution  in 
Philippine  affairs.  Direct  trade  with  Europe  through  one  channel  or 
the  other  bad  noccaaartly  to  be  permitted.  The  "  Situado  "  or  subsidy 
received  from  Mexico  became  a  thing  of  tlie  past,  and  necessity  urged 
the  home  authorities  to  somewhat  relax  the  old  restraint  on  the. 
development  of  this  Colony's  resources. 

Id  1839  the  first  Philippine  Budget  was  presented  in  the  Spanish 
Cortes,  but  so  little  interest  did  the  affairs  of  this  Colony  excite,  tbat 
it  provoked  no  discussion  ;  excepticg  only  the  amendment  of  one  Item, 
the  Budget  was  adopted  ia  silence. 

There  is  apparently  no  record  of  t!ie  Philippine  Islands  having 
been  at  any  time  in  a  flourishing  financial  condition.  Of  late  years 
the  revenue  of  the  Colony  has  invariably  resulted  much  less  than  the 
estimated  yield  of  taxes  and  contributions.  The  figures  of  the  last 
three  years,  prior  to  the  Budget  of   1888,  which  I  give  iu  full,  stand 



Income  nj 




188-1-1885    -    - 




1883-1886    -    - 




1886-1887    -    - 




1896-1897    -    - 


No  official  retn 

rns  procurable. 



Anticipated  Revenue,  Year  18SS. 

$         cfs. 

Direct  Taxes       -------.  5,206,836  93 

Cuatoma  Dues 2,023,400  00 

Government  Monopolies   (statnpa,  cock-iighting,  opium, 

gambling,  ete.) 1,181,239  00 

Lotteries  aud  Baffles    --._...  513,20000 

Sale  of  State  property          .-.-..  153,571  00 
War  and  Marine  Department  (sale  of  useless  articles. 
Gain  on  repairs  to  private  ships  in  the  Government 

Arsenal) -  15,150  00 

Sundries     ---.--.--  744,500  00 

9,837,896  93 
Anticipated  Expenditure,  year  1888         -    9,825,633  29 

Anticipated  Surplus       -         -         .         -       $12,263  64 

The  actual  deficit  in  ttie  last  previous  Budget  for  -which  there  was 
KO  provision,  was  estimated  at  $1,376,179.56,  against  which  the  above 
balance  would  be  placed.  There  were  some  remarkable  inconsistencies 
in  the  1888  Budget :— The  Inspection  of  Woods  and  Forests  was  an 
institution  under  a  Chief  Inspector  with  a  salary  of  $6,500,  assisted  by 
a  technical  staff  of  64  persons  and  52  non-technical  subordinates.  The 
total  cost  for  the  year  was  estimated  at  $165,960,  against  which  the 
anticipated  income  derived  from  duties  on  felled  timber  was  |80,000 — 
hence  a  loss  to  the  Colony  of  $85,960  was  duly  anticipated  to  satisfy 
office-seekers.  Before  the  Budget  appeared,  economists  hoped  that 
this  institution  would  have  been  abolished  and  a  Foresters'  Corps 
created  under  one  Chief  for  the  duo  preservation  of  forests  and  the 
regulation  of  felling  in  season.  Those  who  wished  to  cut  timber  were 
subjected  to  very  complicated  regulations,  which  severely  taxed  one's 
patience.  The  tariff  of  duties  and  mode  of  calculating  it  were 
capriciously  modified  from  time  to  time  on  no  commercial  basis 
whatever.  Merchants  who  had  contracted  to  supply  timber  at  ao  much 
per  foot  for  delivery  within  a  fixed  period,  were  never  sure  of  their 
profits  ;  for  the  dues  might,  meanwhile,  be  raised  without  any 
consideration  for  trading  interests.     Beyond  all  doubt  the  primordial 

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element  uf  en  ilizatioE  is  tlie  establishment  of  easy  means  of 
communication  Yet,  whilst  this  was  so  sadly  neglected  iu  the 
iDtenorof  the  islands,  the  Budget  pro\ided  the  turn  of  $113,686  64 
toi  a  School  of  ApTiculture  la  Manila,  and  ten  model  farms  and 
Schools  of  Cultivation  m  the  Frounces  It  was  not  the  want  of 
farmicg  knowledge,  hut  the  scaruity  of  capital  and  the  scanialouB 
neglect  of  puijlic  liiglmays  and  bnd„eo  for  transport  ot  produce  which 
retarded  agnt-utturo  The  one  hundred  and  thirteen  thousand  dollars 
if  disbursed  on  road--,  bridges,  town  halls,  and  landing  letties,  would 
have  benefited  the  Colouj — as  it  wis  this  sura  went  to  turnish  salatits 
to  needy  Spaniirda 

The  following   are   a  ttw   of   the   mo&t  interesting  items  of  the 
Budget  : — 


2,760,613  Documents,  of  Identity  (^Cedulas  personales)  *        '^  *' 
costing  4  °/o  to  collect — gross  value          ...  4,401,62925 
Tas  on  the  above,  based  on  the  estimated  local  consump- 
tion of  Tobacco 222,500  00 

Chinese  Capitation  Tax 236,250  00 

Tax  on  the  above  for  tho  estimated  local  consumption  of 

Tobacco 11,250  00 

Recognition  of  vassalage  collected  from  the  unsubdued 

mountain  tribes 12,000  00 

Industrial  and  Trading  Licences  (costing  i  %  ^'^  collect) 

gross  value "    -         -         -  1,350,000  00 

Yield  of  the  Opium  Contract  (rented  out)      -         -         -  483,400  00 

„     „     „    Cock-fighting  Contract  (rented  out)   -         -  149,039  00 

Lotteries  and  Eaffies,  nett  profit  say      -         -         -         -  501,862  00 

State  Lands  worked  by  miners      ...         -         -  100  00 

Sale  of  State  Lands 50,000  00 

Mint — Profits  on  the  manipulation  of  the  bulKoG,  less 

expenses  of  the  Mint  ($46,150),  nett        -         -         -  330,350  00 

Stamps  and  Stamped  Paper 548,400  00 

Convict  labour  hired  out       -----         -  50,000  00 

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34  "/o  of  the  maintenance  of  ForiianJo  Po  (by  Decree  of  ^       ^'*" 

5th  August  1884)  .         .  ■      .  .      -         .         .         .         68,61S  18 

Share  of  the  pension  paid  ta  the  heir  of  Christopher 

Columbus,. the  Duke  of  Veragua  ($23,400  a  year)     -  3,000  00 

Share   of   the   pension   paid   to    Ferdinand    Columbus, 

Marquis  of  lidrbolea        ---,..  i  ooq  00 

The  Marquis  of  Bedmar  ia  the  heir  of  the  assayer  and 
caster  in  the  Mint  of  Potosi  (Peru).  Tiie  concern 
was  taken  over  by  the  Spanish  Government,  in 
return  for  an  annual  perpetual  pension,  of  which  this 
Colony  contributes  the  sum  of  -         -         -         .  \  500  00 

The  Consularand  Diplomatic  Seryicea,  Philippine  Share         66,000  00 

Postal  and  Telegraph    Services   (with    a  staff  of    550 

persons) 406,547   17 

The  Submarine  Cable   Co.  Subsidy  (Bolinao  to  Hon"- 

kong)  payable  up  to  June  1890       --,''.  48,000  GO 

Charitable  Institutions  partly  supported  by  Government, 

including  the  "  Lepers'  Hospital "  $500    -         -         .         26,887  50 

The  salary  pf  the  Treasurer -Genera  I  was  $12,000. 

The  Branches  of  the  Treasury  or  Administration  i 
the  Provinces  were  the  following,  viz. : — 

3  of  th. 

!  First      Class  with 

Custom  .House. 

7     „ 

„              „ 



1       r 

6     „ 

Second    „ 


i,             (Zamboanga), 

6     „ 

Third      „ 



19     „ 

Fourth    „ 


47  Provincial  Administrations,  total  cost  per  annum 



The  Armt/  and  Armed  Land  Forces. 

Bank  and  File  and  Non-eommiBsioned  Officers  as  follows  : — 
Infantry,  Artillery,  Engineer  iind  Carabineer  Corps-         -         -     9,470 
Cavalry  Corps        ..__.-_..        407 
Diacipiiuary  Corps  (Convicts)  ,..._.        630 

„  „      (Non-commissioned      Officers)   -         -         -  92 

Three  Civil  Guard  Corps  (Provincial  Constabulary)  -         -     3,342 

Voterau   Civil  Guard  Corps  (Manila  and    Suburban  Military 

Police) -----400 

Total  number  of  men      -         -         -14,341 











Governor  Guieral  w  th    local   rank"! 

of  Captam-Gentral  -        -         / 

Employed  in    Government  Adnnn  i 

Provmual   Goiernments     Stafi ' 

Officers     and    Officers    at   the 

Orders  of  the  Governor  General  J 

With  command  or  attached  to  Army"! 

Ci-vil  Guard 

Veteran  Ciyil  Guard 

Invalid  Corpn 

Military  Academy    -        -        .        . 
Prisons  and  Penitentiaries 
Commissariat  Department 
Judicial  Audit  Department      - 
In  cspcctation  of  Service 
In  excess  ol  Active  Service  require-"! 
meats        ....        -J 































Total  of  Officers 










The  Archbishop  as  Viear-General  of  the  Armed  Forces  ranked 
in  precedence  as  a  Field-Marshal,  (In  the  Spanish  Army  a  Field 
Marshal  ranks  between  a  Brigadier  and  Lieutenant- General.) 

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ARMY   PAY.  2ob 


Captain -General  was  paid  as  Gov-"l 
emor-General  of  the  Colony  -J 

Lieutenant-Gcneral  (looal  ran  ,  , 
Sab-Inspectoi  of  Ariny  CorpsJ 

Colonel-        .        .        -        . 

Lieutenant    -        .        -        - 
Sub-Lieutenant    .        -        - 



After  6  years'  and  up  to  9  years'  service,  an  officer  couW  claim 
a  tree  passage  liack  to  the  Peninsula  for  himself,  and  liis  family  if 

After  9  years'  service,  his  retirement  from  the  Colony  for  3  years 
was  compulsory.  If  he  nevertheless  wished  to  remain  in  the  Colony, 
he  must  quit  Military  serviee.  If  he  left  before  completing  6  years' 
service,  he  would  have  to  pay  his  own  passage  udIcss  he  went  "  on 
commissiou  "  or  with  sick  leave  allowance. 

Estimated  Annual  Disbursements  for — 
The  Civil  Guard,  composed  of  Tiiree  Corps  =  3,3i2  Men       $         els. 
and  156  Officers 638,896  77 

The  Veteran  Civil  Guard  (Manila  Police)  One  Corps  = 

400  Men  and  13  Officers T3,246  SB 

The  Disciplinary  Corps,  Maintenance  of  630  Convicts  and 

Material S6,230  63 

(For  the  Disciplinary  Convict  Corps)  92  Kon-commis- 

sioued  Officers  aud  23  Officers  .         -         -         -      47,90!)  31 

$104,140  14 

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$       els: 
Eatimate  according  to  t!ie  Budget        .         .         ,         _     3,016,185  9i 
Plus  the  followiDg  sums  charged  on  other  estimates, 

Disciplinary  Corps,   maintenance  of  630  Convicts  and 

material      --------  56,230  6Z 

The  Civil  Guard         -         - 638,896  "7 

The  Veteran  Civil  Guard    ----_.  73  2i6  S8 

Pensions    ---.--.,-.        117,200  00 
Transport  and  maintenance  of  Recruits  from  Provinces  -  6  000  00 

Expeditions  to  be  made  against  the  ^Natives  of  Mindanap 
Island. — Keligious  ceremonies  to  celebrate  Victories 
gained  over  Maliomcdaiis,  Waintonauce  of  War 
Prisoners,  etc.     -------  11,000  00 

Total  cost  of  Army  and  Armed  Land  Forces       -  $3,918,760  19 

Before  the  walls  were  built  around  Manila,  about  the  year  1590 
each  soldier  and  officer  lived  where  he  pleased,  and,  when  required  t!ie 
troops  were  assembled  by  the  bugle  caU. 

At  the  close  of  the  16th  century  barracks  were  constructed,  but 
up  to  the  middle  of  last  century  the  native  troops  were  so  badfy  and 
irregularly  paid,  that  they  went  from  house  to  house  begging  alms  of 
the  citizens  (ride  page  52,  King  Philip  11. 's  Decree). 

Last  century,  in  the  Fort  of  Yligan  (nortii  of  Mindanao  Island), 
troops  died  of  sheer  want,  and  when  this  was  represented  to  the 
Governor,  generous  reforms  were  made  to  better  their  position.  The 
Spanish  soldiers  were  in  future  to  he  paid  $2  per  month  and  native 
soldiers  $1  per  month  to  hold  the  fort,  at  the  risk  of  their  lives,  against 
attack  from  the  Mussulmans. 

In  the  Forts  of  Labo  and  Taytay,  in  the  north  of  Palaiian  Island, 
the  soldiers'  pay  was  only  nominal,  rations  were  often  short,  and  their 
lives  altogether  most  wretched.  Sometimes  they  were  totally  overlooked 
by  the  military  chiefs,  and  they  had  to  seek  an  existence  as  best  they 
could  when  provisions  were  not  sent  from  the  Capital. 

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Mexican  soldiers  arrived  in  nearly  every  ship,  but  there  was  no 
order — no  barrjiuks  for  them,  no  regular  mode  of  living,  no  regulations 
at  all  for  their  board  iiud  lodging,  etc.,  hence  many  had  to  subsist  hj 
serving  natives  and  half-breeds,  much  to  the  discredit  of  the  Mother 
Country,  and  consequent  loss  of  prestige. 

Each  time  a  new  expedition  was  organized  a  fresh  reciiiiting  had 
to  be  made  at  great  cost  and  with  great  delay.  There  was  practically 
no  regular  army  except  those  necessarily  compelled  to  mount  guard,  etc. 
in  the  City. 

Even  the  officers  received  no  pay  with  regularity  and  punctuality, 
and  there  was  some  escuse  for  stealing  when  they  Inid  a  chance,  and 
tor  the  totil  absence  of  enthusiasm  in  the  Service,  When  troops  were 
urgentlj  called  for,  the  Governor-General  had  to  bargain  with  the 
officers  to  faU  the  minor  posts  by  promises  of  rewards,  whilst  the  liigh 
commands  Tiere  eagerly  sought  for,  not  for  tiio  pay  or  the  glory,  but 
for  the  plunder  in  perspective. 

In  1739  the  Armoury  in  Manila  contained  only — 

25  Arquebuses  of  native  manufacture. 
120  Biscayan  muskets, 
40  Flint  guns. 
70  ILitehets. 
40  Cutlasses. 
The  first  regular  military  organization  in  these  Islands  was  in  the 
time  of  Pedro  Manuel  de  Arandia  (175^),  when  one  regiment  was 
formed  of  five  companies  of  native  soldiers  fogother  with  four  companies 
of  troops  which  arrived  with  the  Governor  from  Mexico.     This  Corps, 
afterwards  known  as  the  "  King's  Regiment'  "  {Rcgimicnto  del  Rey) 
was  divided  into  two  battalions,  each  of  which  was  increased  to  ten 
companies  as  the  troops  returned  from  the  Provinces. 
The  20  companies  were  eieh  composed  as  follows  : — 
1  Captain,  2  Diummcrs, 

1  Lieutenant,  6  Fir.^t  Corporals, 

1   feuli-hcutenant,  6  JSecond  Corporals, 

4  Sergeant-,,  68  Kank  and  File. 

'  In  !S88  tlic  kiDCs  1'ef.nncnt"  was  diviiicd  intri  two  regiments,  under  new 
denominations,  Tiz ,     (^istiili   No    1,"  (Srd  .Spril),  and  "Espaila,  Ko.  1,''   (IHth 



Tho  Governor-Geaerara  body  guard  of  Halberdiers  was  reformed, 
and  theiieetorth  consisted  of  18  men,  uuder  n  Captiiiu  and  a  Corporal. 

The  monthly 


nnder  these  reforms  jvaa  as  follows  : — 

s,...  .,»... 



g    e. 



Cliief  of  the  Staff 



25  00 



Adjutant  Major  - 


Licvitsnant      - 

•is  00 



Adjutant     - 
Captain       . 


Sub-L[eutoiiant       - 

S.rsea^t         -        - 


First  Corporal 

Second      „ 

Kank  and  File 

Besides    an    allow- 
ance of  atout  IS 
pint,  of  clean  rie. 
per  day. 

U  00 

i  00 

;i  00 

3  2,-. 
a  00 
2  G2i 


From  the  1st  of  October  I75i  they  wore  quartered  in  barracks, 
Commissariat  Officers  were  apjiointed,  and  every  nia,n  and  officer  was 
regularly  paid  Eortnigbtly. 

The  soldiers  were  not  used  to  tliia  discipline,  and  desertion  was 
frequent.  They  much  preferred  the  old  style  of  roaming  about  to  bog 
■or  steal,  and  live  where  they  chose  until  they  were  called  out  to  service, 
and  very  vigorous  measures  had  to  he  adopted  to  compel  them  to 
comply  with  the  bcw  regulations. 

In  May  175a  four  artillery  brigades  were  formed,  tlie  commanding 
■officer  of  each  receiving  $30  per  month  pay. 

lu  1757  tliere  were  16  fortified  outposts  in  the  Provinces,  at  a 
total  estimated  cost  of  $37,G38  per  annuoi  (includiug  Zamboanga,  the 
chief  centre  of  operations  against  the  Mahomedans,  which  alone  cost 
$18,831  in  1757),  besides  the  armed  forces  and  Camp  of  Manila, 
Fort  Santiago  and  Cavite  Arsenal  and  Fort,  which  together  cost  a 
further  sum  of  $157,934  for  maintenance  in  that  year. 

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Vcar  1888. 

■'■Mavqufs  del  Duero" 

"San  Quintm  " 

'"  Manila "        -        - 


"General  Lczo" 


"Parag3a="     - 

"  Blasco' "        .        . 

'■  Marques  de  la  "Victoria 

"CaTiteEo"    - 

*'  Santa  Ana  " 

"  Da.  Maria  dc  Molina  " 

"Aniraosa"    - 

2n(i    „        „ 
Despatch  boat 
Despatch  boat 




















































'  In  cliarge  j'  In. 
■of  Quarter-^  Su- 
,     master,     (.bigs. 

In  Caroline  Islands 




Year  189S. 





"ReinaCristina"       - 




"Castilla"         .        -        -        - 



"  Don  Ant",  de  Ulloa  " 



"Don  Juan  (le  Austria"     - 

1,1 30 


"  Isla  dc  Cuba "         -        -        ■ 



"Islade  Luzon"        -        -        - 



"Vclasoo"         .... 

Gunboat     - 



"  Elcano "         .        .        .        - 



"  General  Lcko  "        -       -       - 






"  Marqufe  (k-I  Duero  " 


"Manila"          ...        - 

TraHjport  - 



"  General  Alava  "... 




"          -        -        - 



"  Callao  " 

Gunboat    and    i  others  Tory  small,  besides  it 

armeil  stea,m  launches  built  in  Hongkong,  \h. ; 

"  Lanao,"  "  Corcuero,"  and  "  General  Blanco." 





South  Division       .        .        .        - 



Palauan  (I'ta.  rrinccsa) 

Isabel  de  Basilaii  .       -       ,       - 


30       ,.      (27oftheNaval 
Rri!,':nle  under  a  Lieut.) 

Bahlba«  Island      -        .        -        - 


22  Marines. 

Corrcgidor  Island  -        -        .        - 


West  Caroline  Islands  - 

3,3C0         „             „         -        -        - 












Zamboanga       -        -         .        -        - 

UocM  Norte  y  St;;-     -        -        .        - 


Lailronc  Island.!        .... 


1st  Cbss 


Ship's  Lieulooaat 


The  Chief  of  the  Thilippine  Kaval  Forces  was  a  Eear-Admiral 
receiving  $16,392  per  annum. 

There  wore  two  Brigades  of  Mariuo  lufjintry,  composed  of  37G 
mctt  with  18  officers, 

Cavitc  Arsenal. 
The  chief  Naval  Station  was  at  Cavite,  six  miles  from  Maaila. 

The  Officer  in  command  of  the  Cavite  Arsenal  and  Kaval  Station 
took  ranli  after  the  Kear-Adrairal,  and  received  a  salary  of  $8,496  per 

In  Cavite  there  were  90  Marines  as  Guards. 

244     '  „         Reserved  Forces. 
100  Convicts  for  Arsenal  labour. 

The  Navy  Estimates  for  1888,  according  to  the  Budget  for  that 
year,  amounted  to  $2,573,776.27, 

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Civil  and  Criminal  Law  Courts. 
Tie  Civil  nud  Criniimil  Law  Courts  were  as  follows,  viz.  : — 
2  Supreme  Courts  in  MaiiiJa  aud  Cebu  quite  indopendeut  of  each  other. 

4  First  Class  Courts  of  Justice  iti  Mauila  (called  "  de  tirmtno."} 

5  t.  n  ill  tlic  Provinces  (  „  "  de  lirntino.") 
10  Second  „  „  „  „  (  ^^  "  ^^  ascenso") 
19  Third     „                      „                  „           „           (     ,,     "  de  entrada:') 

7  Proviacial  GoTerumeuts  witli  judiciiil  attributions. 
Judges'  Salaries. 
I'residcnt  of  tlie  Supreme  Court  of  Manila 

Judge  of  each  of  the  12  First  Class  Courts      - 

„         „         „         10  Secoud         „  -         . 

19  Third 
Lata  Courts  Estimate  for  1888. 
Supreme  Court  of  Manila      -         -         -         ,         . 


All    the    minor    Courts    and    alloivaiico; 
Govcruors  with  judicial  attributions 

-  87,000 

-  6,000 

-  4,000 

-  3,000 

-  2,000 
8       cts. 

90,;J82  00 
49,828  00 

to  Pn 

Estimated  total  cost  for  the 


Penitentiaries  and  Convict  Settlements. 
Manila  (Bililild  Jail)  containing  on  an  average  -  900  Native  Cc 

Aud  in  1S88  tliere  were  also       :\  Spanish 
Cavite  Jail  contained  „  -         -  -     51  Native 

Zamboanga  Jail  contained  in  1888    -         -         -     93      ,, 
Agricultural  Colony  of  San  Ramon,  worked  by 

convict  labour,  contained  in  18S8         -         -  164       „ 
Ladrone Island  Penal  Settlemeot contained  in  1888  iOl       „ 

„  3  Spnnisli 

In  the  Army  and  Navy  Ser 

2,045  Coi 


Total  estimated  disbursements  for  Penitentiaries  and  Convict 

maintenance  in  the  Settlements  for  the  year        -         -  $82,672.71 

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Moreover,  an  allowanoe  of  $2,000  was  made  for  rewards  for  the 
capture  or  slaughter  of  brigands. 

Brigandage  first  came  into  promiuenoe  iu  Governor  Arandia's 
time  (1754^1759),  and  he  used  the  meaus  of  "  settiog  a  thief  to  catch 
a  thief,"  which  answered  well  for  a  short  time,  luitil  the  crime  became 
more  and  more  an  established  custom  as  provincial  property  inereased 
in  value  and  capitals  were  accumulated  there.  Yet,  up  to  the  end  of 
Spanish  rule,  brigandage,  pillage  and  murder  were  treated  with  SHch 
leniency  by  the  judges,  and  often  condoned  by  them  for  a  consideration, 
that  there  was  little  hope  for  the  extinction  of  such  crimes. 

When  a  band  of  thieves  and  assassins  attacked  a  village  or  a 
residence,  murdered  its  inliabitants,  aud  carried  off  booty,  the  Civil 
Guard  at  once  scoured  the  country,  aud  often  the  malefactors  were 
arrested.  The  Civil  Guard  was  an  excellent  institution,  and  performed 
its  duty  admirably  well,  hut  as  soon  as  the  villaiua  were  handed  over  to 
the  legal  functionaries,  society  lost  hope.  Instead  of  the  criminals 
being  garrotted  according  to  law  after  the  charge  was  proved,  as  the 
public  had  a  right  to  demand,  they  were  "  protected  " — some  were  let 
loose  on  tlie  world  again,  whilst  others  were  sent  to  prison,  whence 
they  were  often  allowed  to  escape,  or  they  were  transported  to  a  penal 
settlement  to  work  without  fetters,  and  where  they  were  just  as. 
comfortable  as  if  they  were  working  for  a  private  employer  on  a 
plantation.  I  record  these  facts  from  personal  knowledge,  for  my 
wanderings  in  the  Islands  brought  me  into  contact  with  all  sorts  and 
conditions  of  men.  I  havo  been  personally  acquainted  witlt  many 
brigands,  and  I  gave  regular  employment  to  an  ex -bandit  for  years, 

At  Christmas  1884  I  went  to  Lagnimanoc  in  the  Province  of 
Tayahaa  to  spend  a  few  days  with  an  Kuglish  friend  of  mioc.^  On 
the  way  there,  at  Sariaya,  I  stayed  at  the  house  of  the  Captain  of  the 
Civil  Guard,  when  a  message  came  to  say  that  an  attack  had  been 
made  the  night  before  on  my  friend's  house,  and  his  manager,  a  Swede, 
had  been  killed,  and  many  others  in  the  village  wounded. 

The  Captain  showed  me  the  despatch,  and  invited  mo  lo  join  him 
as  a  voUmteer  to  hunt  down  the  murderers.  1  agreed,  aud  we 
Bucceeded  in  capturing  several  of  them.     Within  half  an  hour  we  were 

'  This  gentleman  has  since  rctiresi  from  basiEiees  and  is  now  residing  in  tlic 
county  of  Eesex,  England. 


264  I'HILiri'IKK    ISLANDS. 

moanteJ.  and  on  tlicir  track.  It  was  a  dark  iiiglit,  aud  the  rain  poured 
in  torre:it3.  'Wo  lind  four  uativo  soldiers  witii  us  followiug  on  foot. 
Wo  j\impe(J  over  ditches,  through  rice  paddy  fields  and  across  cocoa- 
nut  plantations,  and  then  forded  a  river,  on  the  opposite  bank  of  vrhieh 
was  the  next  guards'  post  lii.  charge  of  a  lieutenant,  ivho  Joined  ua  with 
eight  foot  soldiers.  That  same  night,  we  together  captured  five  of  the 
wretches,  who  had  just  beached  a  canoe  containing  part  of  their  spoils. 
The  prisoners  were  bound  elbows  together  at  tlioir  backs  aud  sent 
forward  under  escort.  We  rode  on  all  night  till  iiTC  o'clock  the 
next  morning,  arriving  at  the  Convent  of  Pagbilao  just  as  Father 
Jesus  was  going  down  to  say  Mass.  I  had  almost  lost  my  voice 
through  beirig  ten  hours  in  the  vftiu,  but  the  priest  was  very  attentive 
to  us,  and  we  went  on  in  a  prahu  to  the  village  where  the  crime 
had  been  committed.  In  another  prahu  the  prisoners  were  sent  iu 
charge  of  the  soldiers. 

In  the  meantime,  the  Chief  Judge  and  the  Goveniinent  Doctor  of 
tiie  Province  had  gono  on  before  us.  On  the  way  we  met  a  canoe 
going  to  Pagbilao,  and  carrying  the  corpse  of  the  murdered  Swede  for 
burial.  When  we  arrived  at  the  village,  we  found  one  native  dead  and 
many  natives  and  Chinese  badly  wounded. 

My  friend's  house  had  the  front  door  smashed  in — an  iron  strong 
liox  had  been  forced,  and  a  few  hundred  dollars,  with  some  rare  coins, 
were  stolen.  The  furnittue  in  the  dining-room  was  wantonly  chopped 
and  hacked  about  with  bohie  kuivos,  with  no  apparent  object  further 
than  a  savage  love  for  mischief.  His  bedroom  had  been  entered,  and 
there  the  brigands  began  to  make  their  harvest — the  bundles  of  wearing 
apparel,  jewellery  and  other  valuables  were  already  tied  up,  when 
lo !  the  Virgin  herself  appeared,  casting  a  penetrating  glance  of 
disapprobation  upon  tlie  wicked  revelry !  The  brigands  abandoned 
their  plunder,  and  fled  in  terror  from  the  saintly  apparition.  And  when 
my  friend  returned  to  his  house  and  crossed  the  blootlstained  floor  of 
the  dining-room  to  go  to  his  bedroom,  the  cardboard  Virgin,  with  a 
trade  advertisement  on  the  other  tide,  was  still  peeping  round  the  jamb 
of  the  door  to  which  she  was  nailed,  with  the  words  "  Please  to  shut 
the  door,"  printed  on  her  spotless  bust. 

The  next  day  the  Captain  remained  there  whilst  I  went  on  with  the 
Lieutenant  and  a  few  Guards  in  a  sailing  prahu  down  the  coast,  where 
we  made  further  captures,  and  returned  la  three  days.     I  will  relate  an 

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incideot  of  our  journey  in  the  prabu.  A  atroug  wiud  got  up,  and  we 
thought  it  ivould  bo  prudent  to  Ijeaoh  our  craft  oa  the  sciishore  instead 
of  attempting  to  get  over  the  slioal  of  the  St,  Jobn'a  Kiver. 

We  ran  lier  ashore  under  full  sail,  and  just  at  that  moment  a  native 
with  a  bar  of  iron  in  his  han<i  rushed  towards  us.  In  the  gloom  oE 
eventide  he  must  havo  raistakon  us  for  a  party  of  weather-heatea  native 
or  Chiuose  traders  whose  skulls  ho  might  smasli  in  at  a  stroke  and 
rifle  their  baggage.  lie  halted,  however,  perfectly  amazed  when  two 
Guards  jumped  forward  with  their  hayoiiet3  fised  in  front  of  him. 
Then  we  got  out,  took  bim  prisoner,  and  the  next  day  be  was  let  off 
with  a  souvenir  of  tlic  lash,  as  there  was  uotliiug  to  prove  that  he  was 
a  brigand  by  profession. 

Fortunately,  the  seeond  leader  of  tho  brigand  gang  was  shot  through 
the  lungs  a  week  afterwards  as  he  was  jumping  from  the  window- 
opening  of  a  hut,  and  there  he  died. 

The  Captain  of  tho  Civil  Gruard  received  ao  anonymous  letter 
stating  where  the  brigand  ehief  was  hiding.  This  came  to  the 
kufiwledge  of  the  cuadrillero  officer  (a  native)  who  had  hitherto 
supplied  his  friend,  tho  brigand,  with  riee  daily,  so  he  hastened  on 
before  the  Captain  could  arrive,  and  imposed  silence  for  ever  on  the 
fugitive  bandit  by  stabbing  him  in  the  back.  In  this  way  the 
cuadrillero  avoided  the  disclosure  of  unpleasant  facta  which  would 
have  implicated  himself. 

The  prisoners  were  conducted  to  the  Provincial  Jail, and  tlirco  years 
afterwards  when  I  made  inriuiriea  about  these  fellows,  I  found  that 
two  of  them  had  died  of  their  wounds,  whilst  not  a  single  one  had  been 
executed  or  even  sciiteuccd. 

The  most  ignorant  classes  superstitiously  believe  that  certain 
persons  are  possessed  of  a  diaboUeal  influence  called  anting-anting, 
whiclt  preserves  them  from  all  barm.  They  believe  that  the  body  of 
a  man  so  affected  is  even  refractory  to  the  effects  of  btillet  or  steel. 
Brigands  are  often  captured  wearing  medallions  of  the  Virgin  Mary  or 
the  Saints  as  a  device  of  the  anting-anting.  In  Maragondon,  Cavite 
Province,  the  son  of  a  friend  of  mine  was  enabled  to  go  into  any  remote 
places  with  impunity,  because  he  was  generally  supposed  to  be 
possessed  of  this  charm.  Some  highwaymen  too  have  a  curious  notion 
that  they  can  escape  punishmeat  for  a  crime  committed  in  Easte 
Week,  because  the  thief  on  the  Cross  was  pardoned  hia  sins. 

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It  frequently  happeneil,  tiiftt  in  the  course  of  time,  when  public 
iudignatioii  had  somewliat  abated,  criminals  who  ought  to  have  been 
extinguished  from  society  were  trnnsfcrred  to  the  Manila  Jaii,  whenco 
they  were  permitted  to  decamp. 

In  1885  I  purchased  a  small  estate,  wliere  there  was  some  good  wild 
boar-hunting  and  snipe- shooting,  and  I  baxl  occasion  to  see  t!ie  man 
who  waa  tenant  previous  to  my  purchase,  in  Manila  Jail.  He  was 
accused  of  having  been  concerned  in  an  attack  upon  a  village  near 
the  Capital,  and  wan  incarcerated  for  cighteeu  months  without  being 
definitely  convicted  or  acquitted.  Three  months  after  he  came  out  of 
prison  he  was  appointed  petty  Governor  of  his  oivn  village,  much  to 
the  disgust  of  tlie  villagers,  who  in  vain  petitioned  against  it  in  writing. 

I  visited  the  Penal  Settlement,  known  as  tiic  Agricultural  Colony 
of  San  Kamou,  situated  about  fifteen  miles  north  of  Zamboanga, 
where  I  remained  twelve  days.  The  Director  of  the  Settlement  was 
D,  Felipe  Bujiols,  an  army  captain  who  had  defended  Ofiate,  in  the 
Spanish  Province  of  Guipiizeoa,  against  the  Carlist  attack  in  the  last 
civil  war ;  so,  as  we  were  able  to  mutnally  relate  our  personal 
experiences  of  the  Spanish  civil  war  at  that  period,  we  speedily  became 
friends.  As  his  guest,  I  was  afibrded  an  excellent  opportunity  of 
acquiriug  more  ample  information  about  the  system  of  convict  treatment. 
With  the  25  convicts  just  arrived,  there  were  in  all  150  natives  of  the 
most  desperate  class — assassins,  thieves,  conspirators,  etc.,  working  on 
this  Penal  Settlement.  They  were  well  fed,  fairly  well  lodged,  and 
worked  with  almost  the  same  fieedom  as  any  other  independent 
labourers.  Within  a  few  yards  of  the  Director's  hungalow  were  the 
barracks,  for  the  accommodation  of  a  detachment  of  40  soldiers — under 
the  command  of  a  lieutenant — who  patrolled  the  Settlement  during  the 
day  and  mounted  guard  at  night.  During  my  stay,  one  prisoner  was 
chained  and  flogged,  but  that  was  for  a  serious  crime  committed  the 
day  before.  The  only  severe  hardship  which  these  convicts  bad  to 
suffer,  and  the  solo  punishment  which  they  endured  under  the  rule  of 
my  generous  host  D,  Felipe,  was  the  obligation  to  work  like  honest 
men  in  other  countries  would  he  willing  to  do. 

In  this  same  Penal  Settlement  some  years  ago,  a  party  of  convicts 
attacked  and  killed  three  of  the  European  overseers,  and  then  escaped 
to  the  Island  of  Basilan,  which  lies  to  the  south  of  Zamboanga.  The 
leader  of  these  criminals  was  a  native  named  Pedro  Cuevas,  and  there 

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he  became  a  sort  of  petty  chief,  with  the  title  of  Paulima,  amongst  the 
Basilan  Mussulman  iuhabitsiuts,  and  hviug  in  perfect  security  he  was 
able  to  defy  tho  Government. 

Within  halE  a  day'a  journey  frmn  llanila  (berc  are  several  well- 
known  marauders'  bauute,  such  as  San  Mateo,  Imus,  Silan,  ludan,  tiie 
mouths  ot  the  Ilagonoy  Kiver  wbich  empties  itself  into  the  Bay,  etc. 
In  1881  1  was  the  only  European  amongst  20  to  25  passengers  in  a 
canoe  going  to  Balaiiga  on  the  west  shore  of  Manila  Bay,  when  about 
mid-day  a  canoe,  painted  black  and  without  the  usual  outriggers,  bore 
dowu  upon  us,  and  suddenly  two  guu-sliots  were  fired,  whilst  we  were 
calleil  upon  to  surrcudci-.  The  jiirates  nnnil>ered  eight ;  tliey  had 
their  faces  bedaubed  white  and  their  canoe  ballasted  with  stones. 
There  was  great  commotion  in  onr  craft ;  the  men  shouted  and  the 
women  got  into  a  heap  over  me,  reeitinw  Ave  Marias,  and  calling  upon 
all  th    S    ut    t  th  a 

Ju  t  I  t  ted  )  If  d  1  k  I  t  f  om  under  the  palm- 
le.  f  tl     1      t       fl  t  hi  erely  cut  our  pilot's 

fa  n  m  J     1         1        1   1  n     tl        knives,  but  our  crew 

m  Itkpthf         hi  '^P    htng  off  their  canoe 

with  the  piddles 

When  tho  enem>  ctmc  withiii  range  of  my  revolver,  one  of  their 
party,  who  i\  IS  standing  up  wiving  a  bohie  knife,  siuldenly  collapsed 
into  a  heap  This  seemed  to  dis  ourage  the  rest,  who  gave  up  the 
pursuit,  and  we  went  on  to  Balanga 

In  consequence  of  this  attack,  the  Juilieial  Governor  of  Bataan 
Province  ordered  thit  in  future  thf  postal  service  boat  leaving  that 
coast  should  carry  i  bwii  el  gun  at  the  bow  s  and  lances  on  board. 

No  one  experienced  in  the  Colony  ever  thought  of  prosecuting 
a  captured  brigand  ;  for  whoever  might  be  the  legal  adviser  retained, 
a  criminal  or  civil  law  suit  iu  the  Philippines  was  one  of  the  worst 
calamities  that  could  befal!  a  man.  Between  notaries,  procurators, 
Bolicitors,  barristers  and  the  shiggish  process  of  the  courts,  a  litigant 
was  Reeced  of  his  money,  often  worried  into  a  bad  state  of  health,  and 
kept  in  horrible  suspense  and  donbt  for  years.  When  judgment  was 
given,  it  was  as  hard  to  get  it  executed  as  it  was  to  wia  the  case. 
Even  then,  when  the  question  at  issue  was  supposed  to  be  settled,  a 
defect  in  the  scnteuce  could  always  be  concocted  to  re-open  the  whole 
affair.      If  the  case  had  been  tried  and  judgment  given  under  the 

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268  rHii-iri'iNE  islands. 

Civil  Code,  a  way  ivivs  often  foimd  to  convert  it  into  a  crimiual  ciise, 
and  when  apparently  seltlec!  under  tlio  Criminal  Code,  a  flaw  could 
be  discovered  uudor  tho  lotion  of  the  Iitdies,  or  tlio  H^iele  I'artidns, 
or  the  Roman  Lmo,  or  the  Novis'ima  Recojnlacion,  or  the  Antigttos 
fueros,  Decrees,  Eoyat  Orders,  Ordenanzas  de  buen  Gnhierno,  and  so 
forth,  by  which  tlie  ciiso  could  bo  re-opened. 

I  knew  a  man  in  Negros  Island — a  planter — wiio  was  cliarf^od 
with  homicide.  The  judge  of  his  Province  acquitted  him,  but  fearing 
that  he  might  he  agiiin  arrested  on  the  same  charge,  he  came  up  to 
Manila  with  me  to  procure  a  ratillcatioa  of  the  sentence  in  tho  Supreme 
Court.  The  expenses  of  the  legal  proceedings  were  so  enormous,  that 
lie  was  compelled  to  fully  mortgage  Iiis  plantation.  Weeks  passed,  and 
he  bad  spout  all  his  money  without  getting  justice,  so  I  lent  hia  notary 
40/.  to  assist  in  bringing  the  case  to  an  end.  The  planter  returned  to 
Kegros  apparently  satistied  that  he  should  be  no  further  troubled,  but 
later  on,  the  newly  appointed  judge  iu  that  island,  whilst  prospecting 
for  fees  by  turning  up  old  cases,  unfortunately  came  across  this,  and 
my  planter  acquaintance  was  sentenced  to  eight  years'  imprisonment, 
although  the  family  lawyer,  proceeding  on  the  same  liues,  had  still  a 
hope  of  finding  defects  in  tiio  sentence  to  reverse  it  in  favour  of  his 

Availing  one's  self  of  the  dilatoriness  of  the  Spanish  law,  it  was 
possible  for  a  man  to  occupy  a  house,  pay  no  rent,  and  refuse  to  quit 
on  legal  grounds  during  a  couple  of  years  or  more.  A  person  who  had 
not  a  cent  to  lose,  could  persecute  another  of  means  by  a  trumpeil  up 
accusation,  until  he  was  ruined  by  an  "in/bi-Miacion  de  pobreta" — a 
declaration  of  poverty — which  enabled  the  persecutor  to  keep  the  case 
going  as  long  as  he  chose  without  needing  money  for  fees.' 

A  case  of  this  kind  was  often  got  up  at  the  instigation  of  a  native 
lawyer.  When  it  had  gone  on  for  a  certain  time,  the  prosecutor's 
adviser  proposed  an  "  extra-judicial  arrangement,"  to  extort  costH  from 
his  victim,  the  wearied  and  browbeaten  defendant. 

About  the  year  188(j  there  was  a  cause  celibre,  tho  parties  being 
the    firm  of   Jurado   and  Co.  versus    The  Hongkong   and  Shanghai 

'  Under  BritiBli  law,  a  litigant  is  not  allowed  to  bring  and  conduct  an  action 
iafurmi,  pav-iifvi*  until  it  is  proved  tliat  be  is  not  worth  6i.  after  his  debts  ara 
paid ;  and,  moreover,  he  must  obtain  a  certificate  from  a  barrister  that  he  has  gooi 
eauie  ofactimt. 



BankiDg  CorporatioD.  The  Bank  haJ  agreed  to  make  advances  on 
goods  to  be  importeil  by  the  firm  iu  exchange  for  the  iirm's 
acceptances.  The  agreement  was  siiLject  to  six  mouths'  notice  from 
the  Bank,  lu  due  course  the  Uauk  had  reason  to  doubt  the 
genuineness  of  certaiu  documents.  Mr.  Jurado  was  imprisoned,  but 
shortly  released  on  bail.  He  was  dismissed  from  liis  offioiai  post  of 
second  chief  of  Telegraphs,  wortli  $4,000  a  year.  Goods,  as  they 
arrived  for  his  firm,  were  seined  and  stored  pending  litigation,  and 
deteriorated  to  only  a  fraction  of  their  original  \alue.  His  firm  was 
forced  by  tiiese  circumstances  into  liquidation,  and  Jurado  sued  the 
Bank  for  damages.  Tiie  case  was  open  for  several  years,  during 
which  time  the  Bank  coffers  were  once  sealed  by  judicial  warrant,  a 
sum  of  ca-ih  was  actually  tran'iporled  from  the  Bank  premises,  the 
Bank  manager  was  nominally  arrested  but  really  a  priaoner  on 
parole  in  his  house.  Several  sentences  of  the  Court  were  given  in 
favour  of  each  party.  Years  after  this  they  were  all  quaslied  on 
appeal  to  Madrid,  Mr.  Jurado  went  to  Spain  to  fight  his  case.  In 
1891  I  accidentaliy  met  him  and  his  brother  (a  lawyer)  in  the  street 
in  Madrid.  The  brother  told  me  the  claim  against  the  Bank  then 
amounted  to  $93o,000,  and  judgment  for  (hat  sum  would  ba  given  in 
a  fortnight  thence.  Still,  years  after  that,  when  I  was  again  in 
Manila,  the  case  was  yet  pending,  and  another  onslaught  was  made 
on  the  Bank.  The  Court  called  on  the  manager  to  deliver  up 
the  funds  of  the  Bank.  On  his  refusal  to  do  so  a  mechanic  was 
sent  there  to  open  the  safes.  This  man  laboured  m  vain  for  a 
week.  Then  I  learned  that  a  syndicate  had  been  formed  and 
stibscrihed  to  by  a  number  of  Philippine  capitalists  to  fleece  the 
Bank.  I  had  all  the  ])articulars  from  one  of  the  syndicate  resident 
in  Malolos,  One  of  the  most  energetic  members  of  it  was  an 
acquaintance  of  mine — a  native  private  banker  in  Manila.  Whilst 
the  case  was  in  its  first  stages  I  happened  to  be  discussing  it  at  a, 
shop  in  tho  Escolta — the  principal  business  street — when  one  of  the 
partners,  a  Spaniard,  Don  Enrique  Navarro,  asked  me  if  I  should  like 
to  see  with  my  own  eyes  the  contending  lawyers  puftiug  their  heads 
together  over  the  matter.  "  If  so,"  said  he,  "  you  have  only  to  go 
through  my  shop  and  np  the  winding  back  staircase,  from  tlie  lauding 
of  which  you  can  see  them  any  day  you  like  at  1  o'cIoeL,"  I  did  so 
more  than  once,  and  there,  indeed,  were  the  rival  advocates  laughing 

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and  gesticulatiug  and  presumably  cogitating  liow  thej  could  plunder 
the  litigant  wiio  had  most  money  to  spend.  At  one  stage  of  the 
proceedings  the  Bank  specially  retained  a  reputed  Spanish  lawyer 
(Mr.  Godiuez),  ivho  wont  to  Madrid  to  push  the  case.  Later  on  a 
British  Q.C.  was  sent  over  to  Manila  from  lioagkong  to  advise 
the  Bank.  The  Prime  Minister  was  appealed  to.  The  good 
offices  of  onr  Ambassador  in  Madrid  wore  solioited.  For  a  long 
time  the  Bank  was  placed  in  a  most  awkward  legal  dilemma.  The 
other  side  contended  that  the  Bank  could  not  be  heard,  or  appear  for 
itself,  or  by  proxy,  on  the  ground  that  under  its  own  charter  it  had 
no  right  to  be  established  in  Manila  at  all ;  tbat  ia  view  of  the 
terms  of  that  charter  it  had  never  been  legally  registered  as  a  Bank 
ill  Manila,  and  that  it  had  no  legal  existence  in  the  Philippines, 
This  was  merely  a  technical  quibble.  Half-a-dozen  times  over  the 
case  was  supposed  to  be  finally  settled,  but  again  re-opened.  Happily 
it  may  now  be  regarded  as  closed  for  ever. 

A  great  many  well-to-do  natives  have  a  mania  for  seeing  their  sous 
launched  into  the  "  learned  professions,"  lience  there  was  a  mob  of 
native  doctors  who  made  a  scanty  living,  and  a  swarm  of  half-lawyers, 
popularly  called  "  abogadillos,"  who  were  a  pest  to  the  Colony.  Up 
to  the  beginning  of  the  I8th  century,  the  offices  of  solicitors  and 
notaries  were  filled  from  Mexico,  where  the  licences  to  practise  in 
Manila  were  publicly  sold.  Since  then,  the  Colleges  and  the 
University  issued  licences  to  natives,  thus  keeping  up  the  supply  of 
native  pcttyfogging  advocates  wiio  stirred  up  strife  to  make  cases, 
availing  themselves  of  the  complicacy  of  the  law. 

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Its  Earlt  Histoky. 

Froji  witliiii  a,  year  after  tlie  foundatioa  of  the  Colouy  up  to  tlie 
second  decade  of  tliia  century  direct  commuuicatioQ  witli  Mexico  was 
maintaiiieil  by  the  State  galleons,  termed  the  Naos  do  Acapulco.  The 
first  sailings  o£  the  galleons  were  to  Navidad,  but  for  over  two 
centuries  Aeapnlco  was  the  port  of  destination  ou  tho  Mexican  side, 
and  this  inter-coramunicatioii  with  New  Spain  only  ceased  a  few  years 
l>efore  that  Colony  threw  off  its  allegiance  to  tho  Mother  Country. 
But  it  was  not  alone  the  troubled  state  of  political  affairs  which 
brought  about  the  discontinuance  of  the  galleons'  Toyages,  although  the 
subsequent  secession  of  Mexico  -would  have  produced  this  effect.  The 
expense  of  this  means  of  intercourse  was  found  to  be  bearing  too 
heavily  upon  the  scanty  resources  of  the  Exchequer,  for  the  condition 
of  Spain's  finances  had  never,  at  any  period,  been  so  lamentable. 

The  Commander  of  tho  State  Nao  had  tlio  title  of  General,  witli  a. 
sakry  of  $40,000  per  annum.  The  chief  officer  received  $25,000  a 
year.  The  quarter-master  was  remunerated  with  9°'(,  on  tho  value 
of  the  merchandise  shipped,  and  this  amounted  to  a  very  coiiBidcrablc 
sum  per  voyage. 

The  last  State  galleon  left  Manila  for  Mexico  in  1811,  and  the 
last  sailing  from  Acapulco  for  Manila  was  in  1815, 

These  ships  arc  described  as  having  been  short  fore  and  aft 
but  of  great  beam,  light  draught,  and,  when  afloat,  had  a  half-moon 
appearance,  being  considerably  elevated  at  bows  and  stern,  Tliey  were 
of  1,500  tons  burden,  had  four  docks,  and  carried  guns. 

The  Governor- General,  the  clergy,  the  civil  functionaries,  troops, 
prisoners,  and  occasionally  private  persons,  took  passage  in  these  ships 
to  and  from  the  Philippines.     It  was,  practically,  the  Spanish  Mail. 



This  Colony  had  no  coin  of  its  own,'  It  was  simply  a  dependency 
of  Mexico  ;  and  all  tliat  it  Irongbt  in  tribute  and  taxes  to  its  Boyal 
Treasury  helonged  to  the  Crown,  to  be  disposed  of  at  the  King's 
will.  For  many  these  payments  to  the  local  treasury  were  made 
wholly — and  afterwards  partially — in  kind,  and  were  kept  in  the  Eoyal 
Stores.  As  the  junks  from  China  arrived  each  spriug,  this  colonial 
produce  belonging  to  the  Crown  was  bartered  for  Chinese  wares  and 
manufactures.  These  goods,  packed  in  precisely  1,500  hales,  each  of 
exactly  the  same  size,  constituted  the  ofReiai  cargo,  and  were  remitted 
to  Mexico  hy  the  annual  galleon.  The  surplus  space  in  the  ship  was  at 
the  disposal  of  a  few  chosen  merchants  who  formed  the  "  Consulado" 
— a  trading  ring  which  required  each  member  to  have  resided  in  the 
Colony  a  stipulated  number  of  years,  and  to  be  possessed  of  at  least 
eight  thousand  dollars. 

For  the  support  of  the  Philippiue  administration  Mexico  remitted 
back  to  Manila,  on  the  return  of  the  galleon,  a  certain  percentage  of 
the  realized  value  of  the  above-mentioned  official  cargo,  hut  seeing  that 
in  any  case — whether  the  Philippine  Treasury  were  flourishing  or  not — 
a  certain  sum  was  absolutely  necessary  for  the  maintenance  of  the 
Colony,  this  remittance,  known  as  the  '^Jieal  Siluado"  or  royal  subsidy, 
was,  from  time  to  time,  fixed,^ 

The  Philippine  Colony  was  therefore  nominally  self-supporting, 
and  the  Situado  was  only  a  guaranteed  income,  to  he  covered,  as  far  as 
it  could  be,  hy  shipments  of  foreign  bartered  manufactures  and  local 
produce  to  Mexico.  But,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  the  Mexican  subsidy 
seldom,  if  ever,  was  so  covered. 

By  Eoyal  Decree  of  6th  of  June,  1663,  the  Mexican  subsidy  to  the 
Philippines  was  fixed  at  $2,500,000,  of  which  $2,000,000  was  remitted  in 
coin  and  $500,000  in  merchandise  for  the  Royal  Stores.  Against  this 
was  remitted  value  io  goods  (Philippine  taxes  and  tribute)  $176,101.40 
so  that  the  net  Subsidy,  or  donation,  from  Mexico  was  -  73,898.60 


'  According  to  Zuiiiga  (IlUt.  de  PHI.),  the  ancient  inhabitants  of  1,iiioq 
iBland  bad  a  kind  of  shcll-moncj— the  Signey  shell.  Tins  Etatemcut  needs 
confirmation,  as  Sigvey  shells  are  so  very  plentiful  that,  at  the  pi-escnt  doj,  they 
arc  used  by  children  to  play  at  Siim-a. 

'  Situada  is  not  literally  "  Snbsidj,"  but  it  was  tantamount  to  (hat. 





Hence,  in  the  course  of  time,  coin — Mexican  dollars— found  their 
way  in  large  quantities  to  the  Philippines,  and  thence  to  China. 

The  yearly  value  of  the  merchants"  shipments  was  first  limited  to 
$250,000,  whilst  the  return  trade  eould  not  exceed  $500,000  in  coin 
or  stores,  and  this  was  on  the  supposition  that  100  per  cent,  protit 
would  be  realized  on  the  saies  in  Mexico, 

The  allotment  of  surplus  freight  room  in  the  galleon  was  regulated 
by  the  issue  of  6o/e(a*— documents  which,  during  a  long  period,  served 
&s  paper  money  in  fact,  for  the  holders  were  entitled  to  use  them  for 
■shipping  goods,  or  they  could  transfer  them  to  others  who  wished  to 
do  BO. 

The  demand  for  freight  was  far  greater  than  the  carrying  power 
provided.  Shipping  warrants  were  delivered  gratis  to  the  members  of 
the  Consulado,  to  certain  ecclesiastics,  to  members  of  municipality  and 
others.  Indeed,  it  is  asserted  by  some  writers,  that  the  Governor's 
favourites  were  served  with  preference,  to  the  prejudice  of  legitimate 

The  Spaniards  were  not  allowed  to  go  to  China  to  fetch 
merchandise  for  transhipment,  but  they  could  freely  buy  what  was 
brought  by  the  Chinese. 

Indian  and  Persian  goods  uninterruptedly  found  their  way  to 

The  mail  galleon  usually  sailed  in  the  month  of  July  in  each  year, 
and  the  voyage  occupied  about  five  months. 

Very  strict  regulations  were  laid  down  regarding  the  course  to 
be  steered,  but  many  calamities  befell  the  ships,  which  were  not 
unfrequently  lost  through  the  incapacity  of  the  officers  who  had 
procured  their  appointments  by  favour. 

For  a  century  and  a  half  there  was  practically  no  competition. 
All  was  arranged  beforehand  as  to  shape,  quantity,  size,  etc.  of  each 
bale.  There  was,  however,  a  deal  of  trickery  practised  respecting  the 
declared  values,  and  the  bohtas  were  often  quoted  at  high  prices. 
Even  the  selling  price  of  the  goods  sent  to  Mexico  was  a  preconcerted 

The  day  of  the  departure  of  the  galleon  or  its  arrival  with  a  couple 
of  millions  of  dollars  or  more,*  and  new  faces,  was  naturally  one  of 

'  Tbe  values  of  shipments  by  law  established  were  little  t^arded. 




rejoicing — it  was  almost  the  event  of  the  year.  A  Te  Deum  waa 
chanted  in  the  churches,  the  bells  tolled,  and  musicians  promenaileil 
the  streets,  which  were  illnminated  aud  draped  with  bunting. 

So  far  as  commercial  affairs  were  concerned,  the  Philippine 
merchants  passed  very  easy  lives  in  those  palmy  days.  One, 
sometimes  two,  days  in  the  week  were  set  down  in  the  calendar  as 
Saint-days  to  be  strictly  observed,  hence  an  active  busitioss  life 
would  have  heea  incompatible  wilh  the  exactions  of  religion.  The 
only  misadventure  tkey  Lad  to  fear,  was  the  loss  of  the  {^iilleoii. 
Market  rises  and  falls  were  unknown.  During  the  absence  of  the 
galleon,  there  was  nothing  for  t!ie  merchants  to  do  but  to  await  the 
arrival  of  the  Chinese  junks  in  the  months  of  March,  April  and  May, 
and  prepare  their  bales.  For  a  century  and  a  half  this  sort  of  trading 
was  lucrative ;  it  required  no  smartness,  no  spirit  of  enterprise  or 
special  tact.  Shippers  were  busy  for  only  three  montlis  iii  the  year, 
and  during  the  remaining  nine  months,  they  could  enjoy  life  as  they 
thought  fit — cut  off  from  the  rest  of  the  world. 

Some  there  were  who,  without  means  of  their  own,  speculated,  witli 
the  Obras  Pias  funds,  lent  at  interest,^ 

By  disasters  at  sea— shipwreck  and  seizure  by  enemies — the 
Philippine  merchants  often  lost  the  value  of  tiieir  shipments  in  the 
State  galleons.  Mexico  frequently  lost  the  Philippine  remittances  to 
her,  and  the  specie  she  sent  to  the  Philippines,  The  State  galleon 
made  only  one  voyage  a  year  there  and  back,  if  all  went  well,  but,  if 
it  were  lost,  the  shipment  had  to  be  renewed,  and  it  often  happened 
that  several  galleons  were  seized  in  a  year  by  Spain's  enemies. 

'  The  Ohras  Pias  funds  were  legacies  left  by  pious  persona.  Two-thirds  of 
the  capital  wore  to  bo  lent  at  interest,  to  stimulate  traile  abroad,  and  one-third  was 
to  be  reserved,  to  cover  possible  losses.  When  the  accumulated  interest  on  the 
original  capital  had  reached  a  certain  amount,  it  was  to  ba  applied  to  the  payment 
of  nuLfsee  for  the  repose  of  the  donors'  souls. 

The  peculations  of  the  Governor-General,  Pedro  Manuel  de  Arandia,  (1704-1753), 
permitted  him  to  amass  a  fortune  of  a  quarter  of  a  million  dollars  in  less  than  fire 
years'  service,  which  sum  he  left  to  pious  works.  On  the  separation  of  Mesieo,  (in 
1810)  the  Government  appropriated  the  Ohrai  Pies  funds,  on  the  pretext  of 
administering  them.  This  measure  was  quite  jnst,  if,  sa  there  is  reason  to  believe, 
many  of  the  donations  were  the  fruits  of  the  corrupt  administration  of  the 
country's  wealth  by  high  officials. 

The  institution  existed  up  to  tlie  close  of  Spanish  rule  and  lent  money  to 
private  persons  on  house  property  and  lands  in  and  near  the  capital  at  six  per 
cent,  interest  per  annum.     In  olden  times  it  operated  as  a  bank. 



The  abortive  attempt  to  annex  the  British  Isles  to  the  Spanisli 
Crown  in  1588,  trooght  about  the  collapse  of  Spain's  naval  supremacy, 
enabling  English  mariners  to  pky  havoc  with  her  gallcona  from 
America.  The  Philippine  Islands,  as  a  colony,  had,  at  that  date,  only 
just  come  into  esistence,  but  during  the  scries  of  Anglo-Spanish 
wars  which  preceded  the  "  Family  Compact "  (vide  page  Hi), 
Philippine-Mexican  galleons  laden  with  treasiire  became  the  prey  of 
British  commanders,  notably  Admiral  Anson.  The  coasts  were 
infested  with  Anson's  Fleet.  He  was  the  tyrror  of  the  Philippines 
from  the  year  1743.  His  exploits  gave  rise  to  consternation,  and 
numerous  councils  were  held  to  decide  what  to  do  to  get  rid  of  him. 
The  captured  galleon  "Pilar"  gave  one -and -a- half  million  dollars 
to  the  enemy — the  "  Covadonga "  was  an  immense  prize.  All  over 
the  Islands  the  Spaniards  were  on  the  alert  for  the  dreaded  foe  ;  every 
provincial  Governor  sent  out  his  spies  to  high  promoutories  with 
orders  to  signal  by  beacons  if  the  daring  Britisher's  ships  were  seen 
hovering  about,  whilst,  in  Manila,  the  citizens  were  forewarned  that, 
at  any  moment,  they  might  be  called  upon  to  repel  the  enemv. 

Not  only  in  fleets  o£  gold-laden  vessels  did  Spain  and  her 
dependencies  lose  immense  wealth  through  her  hostile  ambition,  for  in 
view  of  the  restrictions  on  Philippine  trade,  and  the  enormous  profits 
accruing  to  the  Spanish  merchants  on  their  shipments,  English,  Dutch, 
French,  and  Danish  traders  entered  into  competition  against  tbem. 
Shippers  of  these  nationalities  bought  goods  in  Canton,  where  they 
established  their  own  factories,  or  collecting  stores.  In  1731,  over 
three  millions  of  Mexican  dollars  were  taken  there  for  making  purchases, 
and  these  foreign  ships  landed  the  stuffs,  etc.,  in  contraband  at  the 
American  ports,  where  Spaniards  themselves  co-operated  in  the  illicit 
trade.  The  Riffhls  of  Man  conscientiously  asserted  themselves  above 
the  merciless  restraint  imposed  by  His  Catholic  Majesty  on  his  own 
subjects,  who  had  a  natural  right  to  trade. 

As  the  Sonthem  (Peninsula)  Spanish  merchants  were  Itelpless  [o 
stay  this  competition,  which  gradually  annihilated  their  profits,  their 
rancorous  greed  made  them  clamour  against  the  Philippine  trade,  to 
which  they  cliose  to  attribute  their  misfortunes,  and  the  King  was 
petitioned  to  curtail  the  commerce  of  this  Colony  with  Mexico  for  their 
exclusive  benefit.  But  it  was  not  Spanish  home  trade  alone  whicli 
Buffered  :  Acapnlco  was  so  beset  with  smugglers,  whose  merchandise, 

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surreptitiously  lutroduLcd,  found  it'  way  to  Mexico  Citj ,  that,  in  latter 
dayi,  the  Philippine  galleons'  cargoes  did  not  always  fand  a  market 
Morcoi  i.r,  all  kin  K  of  fr  mds  were  practised  about  this  time  m  the 
qualitj  of  the  goods  bded  for  Bliipment,  and  the  bnd  results  ie\eali-d 
themsLhes  on  the  Mesiom  aide  The  shippers  unwisely  thought  it 
possible  to  decene  the  Mexit^aiib  1  y  sending  tiiem  inferiot  articles  at 
old  pri  PS,  hence  their  disabter  hecami,  partlj  due  to  "the  vaulting 
ambil  on  that  o  erleaps  itstlf  and  falls  ou  t  other  side  "  The  Governor 
commnsioned  four  of  the  most  dist  ngui^hed  Man  hi  utizeu  tradcis  to 
inspect  the  vortLng  and  class  ih  cot  ion  of  tlio  merchandise  shipped 
These  citizens  distinguished  thembelve^  so  effecfuallj  to  thiir  own 
advantage,  thit  the  Goiernor  hiul  to  suppress  tlie  commission  and 
ihmdon  the  control,  m  despair  ot  finding  hsuest  colleagues  Besides 
this  fraud,  contraband  goods  were  tikpn  to  Acapulco  in  the  galleons 
themselves,  hidden  in  water  jars. 

In  the  time  of  Governor  I'edro  Arandia,  1754,  the  hundred  per  cent, 
fixed  profit  was  no  longer  possible.  Merchants  came  down  to 
Aeapulco  and  forced  the  market,  by  waiting  until  the  ships  were 
obliged  to  catch  the  monsoon  back,  or  lie  up  for  another  season,  so  that 
often  the  goods  had  to  be  sold  tor  cost,  or  a  little  over.  In  1754, 
returns  were  so  reduced,  that  the  Consulado  was  owing  to  the  Obras 
Pias  over  $300,000,  and  to  the  Cam  Mieericordia  $147,000,  without 
any  hope  of  repayment.  The  Cam  Miserieordia  lent  money  at  40°/n, 
then  at  3o°/o,  and  in  1755  at  20°/o  interest,  hut  the  state  of  trade  made 
capital  hardly  acceptable  even  at  this  last  rate. 

As  early  as  the  beginning  of  last  century,  the  Cadiz  merchants 
began  to  evince  jealousy  towards  tlie  Philippine  shippers,  alleging  that 
the  home  trade  was  much  injured  by  the  cargoes  carried  to  Mexico  in 
Philippine  bottoms.  So  efi'ectnally  did  they  influeiiee  the  King  in  their 
favour,  that  he  issued  a  decree  prohibiting  the  trade  between  China  and 
the  Philippines  of  all  woven  stuifs,  skein  and  woven  silk  and  clothing, 
except  the  finest  linen.  Manila  imports  from  China  were  thereby 
limited  to  fine  linen,  porcelain,  wax,  pepper,  cinnamon  and  cloves.  At 
the  expiration  of  six  months  after  the  proclamation  of  the  decree, 
any  remaining  stocks  of  the  proscribed  articles  were  to  be  burnt ! 
Thenceforth  trade  in  such  prohibited  articles  was  to  be  considered 
illicit,  and  such  goods  arriving  in  Mexico  after  that  date  were  to  be 

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By  Eoyal  Decree  dated  a7th  of  October,  1720,  and  published  in 
Mexico  by  the  Viceroy  on  the  lotli  of  February,  1724,  the  following 
was  enacted,  viz  — That  ui  future  there  should  he  two  galleons  pei 
annum,  instead  of  one  as  heretofore  (.arryjug  morchandiBS  to  A  apnko, 
each  to  be  of  500  tons  Ihat  the  \alue  of  the  merchandise  sent  in 
the  two,  was  to  he  $300  000  tj  le  precisely  in  gold,  cinnamon,  w  ix, 
porcelain,  cloves  pepper,  etc  hut  not  silks  or  stuffs  of  any  kmd 
containing  silk,  under  p  iin  of  couhscation,  to  be  lUotted  in  three  equal 
parts,  namely,  to  the  Fiscal  officer  the  Judge  inti,rvening,  and  the 
informer,  and  perj  efinl  I  anihhment  from  the  In  lies  of  all  ].  crhoni 
concerned  in  the  slnpment  That  the  numler  cf  Mtnili  mcrcl  ants 
was  to  he  fixed  anl  my  one  njt  mclulel  in  th  it  numler  wastole 
prohibited  from  trading  IVo  ecclesiistK,  or  professor  of  religion  or 
foreigner  could  be  incluled  m  the  elected  few  who  e  rights  to  sh  p 
were  uon-transfeidble  TiiiT  if  the  proceeds  of  the  silt,  happenolto 
exceetl  the  fixed  sum  of  $600 000,  on  lecount  of  roatket  prices  bein„ 
higher  than  it  wa*!  anticipated,  only  that  amount  could  be  brought 
back  in  money,  and  the  difFereiice,  or  excess  m  f,oo  Is  If  it  turne  1 
out  to  be  less  than  that  imouut,  the  diflertnce  coul  1  not  I  e  ad  led  ^n  1 
remitted  in  mone\  under  penalties  of  confiscation  and  two  vcars 
banishment  from  the  Indies 

By  Eoyal  Decree  of  the  year  1726,  received  and  piihlisbed  in 
Manila  on  the  9th  of  August,  1727,  tlie  followiug  regulations  were 
made  known,  vis. : — That  the  prohibition  relating  to  silk  and  all-silk 
goods  was  revoked.  That  only  one  galleon  was  to  be  sent  each  year 
(instead  of  two)  as  formerly.  That  the  prohibition  on  clothing 
containing  some  silk,  and  fl  few  other  articles,  was  maintained,  TnA.T 
certain  stufis  of  fine  linen  ware  permitted  for  five  years  to  he 
shipped,  to  tho  limit  of  4,000  pieces  per  annum,  precisely  in  boxes 
containing  each  500  pieces. 

The  Southern  Spanish  traders  in  1729  petitioned  the  King  against 
the  Philippine  trade  in  woven  goods,  and  protested  against  the  five 
years'  permission  granted  in  the  above  decree  of  1726,  declaring  that 
it  would  bring  about  the  total  ruin  of  the  Spanish  weaving  industry, 
and  that  tho  galleons,  on  their  return  to  the  Philippines,  instead  of 
loading  Spanish  manufactures,  took  back  specie  for  the  continuance  of 
their  traffic  to  the  extent  of  three  to  four  millions  of  dollars  each  year. 

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The  Kiog,  however,  refused  to  modify  the  decree  of  1726  until  the 
five  years  had  expired,  after  which  time,  the  Governor  -was  ordered  to 
load  the  galleons  aeoording  to  the  former  decree  of  1720. 

The  ManiJii  merchantB  were  in  great  excitement.  The  Govoruor, 
under  pretext  that  the  original  Royal  Decree  ought  to  have  beeu 
transmitted  direct  to  the  Philippines  and  not  merely  communicated  by 
the  Mexican  Viceroy,  agreed  "  to  obej  and  not  fulhl  "  ita  conditions. 

From  the  year  1720,  during  the  period  of  prohibitions,  the  Royal 
Treasury  lost  about  $50,000  per  annum,  and  maoy  of  the  t^-\ch  were 
not  recovered  in  full.  Be&nlea  this,  tho  donations  to  Uoserntnent  by 
(lie  citizens,  which  sometime'!  had  amoonttd  to  1^40,000  m  one  year, 
ceased.  A  doul  le  lost,  was  alao  ciu=e  1  to  Mexico,  for  the  people  there 
had  to  pq\  much  hi^jher  prices  for  their  Bluffs  supplied  by  Spauish 
(homo)  monopohzer'i  whilst  Mexican  coffers  were  being  drained  to 
make  good  the  deficits  in  the  Philippine  Treasury.  The  Manila 
merchant,"  wore  terubly  alarmed,  and  meetinj;  after  meeting  was  held. 
A  Con^res'i  of  Gro\  nmcnt  ollicials  j,nd  priests  was  convened, and  each 
priest  was  aikel  to  oi{.re^>s  his  opinion  on  the  state  of  trade. 

Commercial  deprcaaioa  in  the  Phil  ppines  had  never  been  so 
marked  and  the  pis  tnn  ol  affairs  -w  is  mile  known  to  the  King  in  a 
petition  wh  h  elicited  the  Rjyal  Decree  dited  "^th  of  April  1734.  It 
provided  that  the  \  line  of  export^>  should  henceforth  not  exceed 
$500,000  ml  the  amount  permitted  to  return  was  also  raised  to 
$1,000,000  (ilnavi  on  the  supposition  that  100  /„  over  cost  laid  down 
would  be  realize  1)  The  due'-  and  taxes  p  ud  m  Acapnlco  on  amval, 
and  the  dues  paiJ  in  Manila  on  startm^r,  amounted  to  17%  of  the 
inillioti  expected  to  return^     Ihis  co\eied  the  whole  cost  of  maiu- 

'  It  happened  at  this  date  that  the  dues,  etc.  equalled  177,,  on  the  anticipated 
one  million  dollars,  but  thcj  were  not  computed  by  per  ccntage.  The  Royal  Dues 
wore  a  filed  sum  since  about  the  year  1625,  so  that  when  the  legal  Talue  ot  tho 
shipmenta  was  much  less,  the  dues  and  other  expenses  represented  a  much  higher 
per  centage.    Ihese  charges  were  as  follows,  viz. ; — 

KoyalDues  -.._._.  jieo^oOO 

Port  Dues  at  Acapulco    -  .  -  -  -        2  000 

DisbucBements  paid  in  Manila  on  the  ship's  departure    -  -        7  soo 

Poit  and  AnchoragG  dues  on  arrival  in  Philippines       »  .  SOO 


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tenaace  of  ships,  salaxiea,  freight  and  charges  of  all  kinds  which  were 
paid  by  Government  in  tho  Urat  instance. 

The  fixed  aumher  of  merchants  was  to  he  decided  by  the  merchants 
themselves  without  Government  intervention. 

Licence  was  granted  to  allow  those  of  Cavite  to  bo  of  the  number, 
and  both  Spaniards  and  natives  were  eligible.  Military,  and  other 
professional  men,  exeept  ecclesiastics,  could  henceforth  he  of  tho 
number.  Foreigners  were  strictly  excluded.  The  right  to  ship  (boleta) 
was  not  to  bo  traasferablo,  except  to  poor  widows.  A  sworn  invoice 
of  the  shipment  was  to  be  sent  to  the  Royal  officials  and  magistrate  of 
the  Supremo  Conrt  in  Mexico  for  the  value  to  be  verified.  The  official 
in  charge,  or  supercargo,  was  ordered  to  make  a  book  containing  a  list 
of  the  goods  and  their  respective  owners  and  iiand  this  to  the  commander 
of  the  fortress  in  Acapuleo,  with  a  copy  of  the  same  for  the  Viceroy. 
The  Viceroy  was  to  send  hia  copy  to  the  Audit  Oflice  to  be  again 
copied,  and  the  last  copy  was  to  be  forwarded  to  the  Royal  Indian 

Every  soldier,  sailor  and  ofliccr  was  at  liberty  to  disembark  with 
a  box  containing  goods,  of  which  tho  Philippine  value  should  not 
exceed  $30,  in  addition  to  his  private  efi^ects. 

All  hidden  goods  were  to  be  confiscated,  one  half  to  the  Royal 
Treasury,  one  fourth  to  the  Judge  intervening,  and  one  fourth  to  the 
informer,  but,  if  such  confiscated  goods  amounted  to  $50,000  In  value, 
the  Viceroy  and  Mexican  Conucil  were  to  determine  the  sum  to  be 
awarded  to  the  Judge  and  the  informer. 

If  the  shipment  met  a  good  market  and  realized  more  than  one 
million  dollars,  only  one  million  could  be  remitted  in  money,  and  the 
excess  in  duty-paid  Mexican  merchandise. 

If  tho  shipment  failed  to  fetch  one  million,  the  difference  could  not 
be  sent  in  money  for  making  new  purchases. 

The  object  of  these  measures  was  to  prevent  Mexicans  supplying 
trading  capital  to  tho  Philippines  instead  of  purchasing  Peninsula 
manufactures.  It  was  especially  enacted  that  all  goods  sent  to  Mexico 
from  the  Philippiuea  should  have  been  purchased  with  tho  capital  of 
the  Philippine  shippers,  and  be  their  exclusive  property  without  lieu. 
If  it  were  discovered  that  on  the  return  journey  merchandise  was 
carried    to    the    Philippines   belouging  to    Mexicans,    it   was   to    be 

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confiscated,  and  a,  fine  imposed  on  tbe  interested  parties  of  three  times 
the  value,  payable  to  the  Eoyal  Treasury  on  the  first  conviction.  The 
second  conviction  entailed  confiscation  of  all  the  culprits'  goods,  aiul 
banishment  from  Mexico  for  ten  years. 

The  weights  and  measures  wore  to  be  Philippine,  and,  ahove  all, 
wax  was  to  be  sent  precisely  in  pieces  of  the  same  weight  and  size  as 
by  custom  established. 

The  Council  for  freight  allotment  in  Manila  was  to  comprise  the 
Governor,  the  senior  Magistrate — and  failing  this  latter,  the  Minister 
of  the  Supreme  Court  next  below  him — also  tlie  Archbishop,  or  in  his 
stead  the  Dean  of  the  Cathedral — an  ordinary  judge,  a  Municipal 
Comicillor,  and  one  merchant  as  commissioner  in  representation  of  the 
eight  who  formed  the  Consulado  of  merchants. 

The  expulsion  of  tlie  non-Christian  Chinese  in  1755  (vide 
page  118)  caused  a  deficit  in  the  taxes  of  $30,000  per  auuiim.  The 
only  exports  of  Philippine  produce  at  this  date  were  cacao,  suwar, 
wax  and  sapanwood.  Trade  was  ia  a  deplorable  state,  and  conse- 
quently the  Treasury  was  the  same.  To  remedy  matters,  and  to  make 
lip  the  above  $30,000,  the  Government  proposed  to  levy  an  export 
doty.  This  tax  was  to  bo  applied  to  the  cost  of  armaments  fitted 
out  against  pirates.  Before  the  tax  was  approved  of  by  the  King, 
some  priests  loade<I  a  vessel  with  export  merchandise  and  abso- 
lutely refused  to  pay  the  impost,  alleging  immunity.  The  Governor 
argued  that  there  could  be  no  such  thing  as  religious  immunity 
in  trade  concerns.  The  priests  appealed  to  Spain,  and  the  tas.  was 
disapproved  of ;  meantime,  most  of  the  goods  and  the  vessel  itself 
rotted,  pending  the  solution  of  the  question,  liy  the  Eoyal  Indian 

There  have  been  three  or  four  periods  during  which  no  galleon 
arrived  at  the  Philippiues  for  two  or  three  consecutive  years,  and  coio 
became  very  scarce,  giving  rise  to  rebellion  on  the  part  of  the  Chinese 
aud  misery  to  the  Philippine  population.  After  the  capture  of  the 
*'  Covadonga "  by  the  English,  six  years  elapsed  before  a  galleon 
brought  the  subsidy ;  then  the  "  Kosario "  arrived  with  5,000  gold 
ounces  (nominally  $80,000). 

However,  besides  the  Subsidy,  the  Colony  had  certain  other  sources 
of  public  revenue,  as  will  be  seen  by  the  following  : — 

•d  by  Google 


Philippine  Budget  for  the  year  1757. 


Stamped  Paper  

Port  and  Anchorage  Dues...    ; 

Saleof  Offices,  such  as  Nota- 
ries, Fnblic  Scribes,  Seore- 
taijships  etc 

Ofhcea  hired  out 

Taxea  rented  out 

Lxdee  da  ties 

■saleof  &eu?)i  mdas  and 23 
provincial  govfa  t  iretl  uat  2i 

DiTera  taxes  fines  pariion^ 

Tribute,  direct  tax 

Subsidy  from  Meiieo  2! 


i  839  121 
1713  75 
iBOO  00 
llOo  00 

8 166  00 
4  477  00 
■0  000  00 
tUi  00 

Ekpehdithke.        %      cU. 

Supreme  Court 3*,219  75 

Treasury  and  Audit  Office  ...     12,092  00 

UniTeisity 800  00 

Coatof  theannualQalleon...     23,*65  00 

Clei^     103,751  00 

LDDd  and  Sea  forces  all  over 

Philippines  —  Staff      and 

JLtlcrial '312,861  00 

Salaries,  HospitalsandDivers 

expenses 70,168  00 

Remittance  in   McTchandiEe 

on  account  of  the  Sabeidy  140,108  00 

When  the  merchant  citizens  of  Miinihi  were  in  clover,  they  made 
donations  to  the  G-overnment  to  cover  the  deficit,  and  loans  were 
raised  amongst  them  to  defray  extraoidioitry  disbursements,  such  as 
expeditions  against  the  Mussulmans,  etc. 

In  the  good  years,  too,  the  valuation  of  the  merchandise  shipped 
and  the  returns  were  iinder-raied  in  the  sworn  declarations,  so  that  an 
immensely  profitable  tratlo  was  done  on  a  larger  scale  than  was  legally 
permitted.  Between  1754  ajid  1759,  in  view  of  the  reduced  profits, 
due  to  the  circumstances  already  mentioned,  the  merchants  in  Manila 
prayed  the  King  for  a  reduction  of  the  Royal  dues,  which  had  been 
originally  fixed  on  the  basis  of  the  gross  returns  being  equal  to  double 
the  cost  of  the  merehandiie  laid  down  in  Acapulco. 

To  meet  the  case,  another  Roj  al  Decree  wj,3  issued  confirming  the 
fixed  rate  of  Koyal  dues  and  di^burbement«  but  in  compensation  the 
cargo  was  thenceforth  permitted  to  mclude  4,000  pieces  of  fine  linen, 
without  any  restriLtion  whatsoever  as  to  mfasnre  or  value  ;  the  sworu 
value  was  abolished,  and  the  maxim  im  return  value  of  the  whole 
shipment  was  raised  to  one  and-a-half  millions  of  dollars.  Hence  the 
total  dues  and  disbursements  became  equal  to  llj  per  tent,  instead  of 
17  per  cent.,  as  heretofore,  on  the  anticipated  return  value. 

In  17G3,  the  Subsidy,  together  with  the  Consulado  shippers' 
returns,  amounted  in  one  voyage  to  two-and-a-half  millions  of  dollars 
iyidc  page  96).      After  the  independence  of  Mexico,  tribute  in  kind 

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(tobacco)  was,  niitll  recently,  shipped  direct  to  Spain,  and  Peiilasiiln 
coiu  begau  to  circulate  m  theso  Islands. 

Consequent  ou  tiie  banishment  of  the  non -Christian  Chiaesc  in 
1755,  trade  became  stagnant.  The  Philippines  now  experienced 
what  Spain  had  felt  since  the  reign  of  Philip  III.,  wheo  the  expulsion 
of  900,000  Mooriah  agriculturists  and  artisans  crippled  her  home 
industries,  which  it  took  a  century  and  a  half  to  revive. 

The  Aeapnico  trade  was  fast  on  the  wane,  and  tlie  Spanish  element 
were  anxious  to  get  the  local  trade  into  their  own  hands. 

Every  Chinese  shop  was  closed  by  order,  and  a  joint-stock 
trading  company  of  Spaniards  and  balf-breeds  was  formed  with  a 
capital  of  $76,500,  in  shares  of  $500  each.  Stores  were  opened  in  the 
business  quarter,  each  under  the  control  of  two  Spaniards  or  half- 
breeds,  the  total  number  of  shopmen  being  21, 

The  object  of  the  company  was  to  purchase  clotjiing  and  staple 
goods  of  all  kinds  required  in  the  Islands,  and  to  sell  the  same  at 
30  per  cent,  over  cost  price.  Out  of  the  30  per  cent,  were  to  bo  paid 
an  8  per  cent,  tax,  a  dividend  of  10  per  cent,  per  annum  to  the  share- 
holders, and  the  remainder  was  to  cover  salaries  and  form  a  reserve 
fnnd  for  new  investments.  The  company  found  it  impossible  to  make 
the  same  bargains  with  the  Chinese  sellers  as  the  Chinese  buyers  had 
done,  and  a  large  portion  of  the  capital  was  soon  lost. 

The  funds  at  that  date  in  the  Obras  Plas  amounted  to  $159,000, 
and  the  trustees  were  applied  to  by  tlie  company  for  financial  support, 
which  they  refused.  The  Governor  was  petitioned  ;  theologians  and 
magistrates  were  consulted  on  the  subject.  The  theologlLil  obji^ctuns 
were  ovemiled  by  the  judicial  arguments,  and  the  Governor  crdored 
that  $130,000  of  the  Obras  Pias  funds  should  he  loaned  to  the 
company  on  debentures ;  nevertheless,  within  a  year  tl  c  company 

A  commercial  company,  known  as  the  "  Compania  Gmpuscoatta 
de  Cardcas,"  was  created  under  Royal  sanction,  and  obtai  ed  certain 
privileges.  During  the  term  of  its  existence,  it  almost  mouopohi-od  the 
Philippine- American  trade  which  was  yet  carried  on  exclusnelj  in  the 
State  galleons.  On  the  expiration  of  its  charter,  about  the  year  1783, 
a  petition  was  presented  to  the  Home  Government,  praying  for  a 
renewal  of  monopolies  and  privileges  in  favour  of  a  Trading 
Corporation,  to   be   founded    on   a  modified  basis.      Consequently,  a 

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cliartcr  {licat  Cedula)  was  granted  on  the  lOth  Marcb,  1785,  to  a,  new 
company,  bearing  the  style  and  title  of  the  "  Seal  Compania  de 
Fitipinas."  Its  capital  was  $8,000,000,  in  32,000  shares  of  $250  each. 
King  Charles  III,  took  up  4,000  shares — 3,000  shares  were  reserved 
for  the  Friara  and  the  Manila  residents,  the  halatiee  heing  allotted  in 
the  Peninsula, 

The  defunct  company  had  eagaged  solely  in  the  American  trade, 
employing  the  galleons — the  present  one  left  that  sphere  of  commerce, 
and  proposed  to  trade  with  the  East  and  Europe. 

" '  To  the  '  Eeal  Compania  de  FUipinas^  was  conceded  the 
exclusive  privilege  of  trade  between  Spain  and  the  Archipelago, 
with  the  exception  of  the  traffic  between  Manila  and  Acapulco.  Its 
ships  could  fly  the  Royal  Standard,  witii  a  signal  to  distinguish 
them  from  war  vessels.  It  was  allowed  two  years,  counting  from 
the  date  of  charter,  to  acquire  foreigu-huilt  vessels  and  register 
them  under  the  Spanish  flag,  free  of  fees.  It  could  import,  duty 
free,  any  goods  for  the  fitting  out  of  its  ships,  or  ships'  use.  It 
could  take  into  its  service  Koyal  naval  officers,  and,  whilst  these 
were  so  employed,  their  seuiority  would  continue  to  count,  and  in 
all  respects  they  would  enjoy  the  same  rights  as  if  they  were 
serving  in  the  navy.  It  could  engage  foreign  sailors  and  officers, 
always  provided  tliat  the  captain  and  chief  officer  were  Spaniards." 

"  All  existing  decrees  and  Royal  orders,  forbidding  the  importation 
into  the  Peninsula  of  stuffs  and  manufactured  articles  from  India, 
China  and  Japa7i  were  abrogated  in  favour  of  this  company. 
Philippiue  produce,  too,  shipped  to  Spain  by  the  Company,  could 
enter  duty  free." 
"  The  prohibition  on  direct  traffic  with  China  and  India  was 
henceforth  abolished  in  favour  of  al!  Manila  merehauts,  and  the 
Company's  ships  in  particular  could  call  at  Chinese  ports." 
"The  company  undertook  to  support  Philippine  agriculture  and 
"  to  spend,  with  this  object,  4.°ja  of  its  nett  profits." 

Ill  order  to  protect  the  company's  interests,  foreign  ships  ivere  not 
allowed  to  bring  goods  from  Europe  to  the  Philippines,  although  tbey 
could  land  Chinese  and  Indian  wares. 

By  the  Treaties  of  Tordesillas  and  Antwerp  (vide  pages  19   and 
76),  the  Spaniards  had  agreed  that  to  reach  their  Oriental  possessions 
'  "  La  Libertad  del  comercio  de  Filipicas,"  bj  Manuel  AicAvraga. 



thej  would  take  only  the  Weatern  route,  which  would  be  via  Mexico 
or  round  Cape  Horn.  These  Treaties,  however,  were  virtually 
■quashed  by  Kiug  Charles  III.  on  the  establishment  of  the  Seal 
Companla,  Holland  ouly  lodged  a.  nominal  protest  when  the 
company's  ships  were  authorised  to  sail  to  the  Philippines  vid  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope ;  for  tho  Spaniards'  ability  to  compete  had, 
meau while,  vastly  dimimahed. 

With  such  important  immunities,  and  tlie  credit  which  ought  to  be 
procurable  hy  a  company  with  $8,000,000  paid  up  capital,  its  operations 
migtit  have  heen  relatively  vast.  However,  its  balance  sheet,  closed 
to  the  31st  October,  1790  (5^  years  after  it  started),  shows  the  total 
assets  to  be  only  $10,700,194.  The  working  account  is  not  set  out, 
Although  it  was  never,  in  itself,  a  flourishing  concern,  it  brought 
immense  benefit  to  tlie  Philippines  (at  the  expense  of  its  shareholders) 
by  opening  the  way  for  the  Colony's  futnre  commercial  prosperity. 
These  advantages  operated  in  two  ways.  1°.  It  gave  great  impulse 
to  agriculture,  which  thenceforth  began  to  make  important  strides. 
By  large  sums  of  money,  distributed  in  anticipation  of  the  i°jo  on  nett 
profit,  and  expended  in  the  rural  districts,  it  imparted  life,  vigour  and 
development  to  those  germs  of  husbandry — such  as  the  cultivation  of 
sugar-cane,  tobacco,  cotton,  indigo,  pepper,  etc. — which,  for  a  long 
time  siuce,  were,  and  to  a  certain  extent  are  still,  the  staple  dependence 
of  many  provinces.  2".  It  opened  the  road  to  final  extinction  of  all 
those  vexatious  proliihitious  to  trade  with  the  Eastern  ports  and  the 
Peninsula  which  had  checked  the  spirit  and  energj  of  the  Phihppine 
merchants.  It  was  the  precursor  of  frte  trade — the  'iteppmg-stone  to 
commercial  liberty  in  these  regions. 

The  causes  of  its  decline  are  nut  difficult  to  trace  Established 
as  it  was  on  a  semi-official  basis,  all  kinds  of  intrigues  'vv ere  resorted 
to — all  manner  of  favouritism  was  besought,  to  secure  apporatioents, 
more  or  less  lucrative,  in  the  Great  Company  Influential  incapatity 
prevailed  over  knowledge  and  ability,  and  the  men  intrusted  with  the 
direction  of  the  company's  operations  proved  themtelves  lne^.perlenced 
and  quite  unfit  to  cope  with  unshackled  i,ompetition  from  the  outer 
world.  Their  very  exclusiveuoss  was  an  irresistible  temptation  to 
contrabandists.  Manila  private  merchants,  viewing  with  displeasure 
monopoly  in  any  form,  lost  no  opportunity  of  putting  obstacles  in 
the  way  of  the  company.     Again,  the  willing  oonenrrenco  of  native 

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TKEE    TUADE. — MANILA   OPENED   TO    THE   WOKLD.      285 

labourers  in  an  enterprtso  of  magnitude  waa  as  impossible  to  secure 
then  as  it  is  now.  The  native  had  a  high  tirao  at  the  expense  of  the 
company,  revelling  in  the  enjoyment  of  cash  advances,  for  whieh  some 
gave  little,  others  nothing.  Success  could  only  he  achieved  by  forced 
labour  and  this  right  was  not  included  Iq  the  charter. 

lu  1825,  the  company  was  on  the  point  of  collapse,  when,  to 
support  the  tottering  fabric,  its  capital  was  increased  by  $12,500,000 
under  Real  Cedula  of  that  year,  dated  22nd  June.  King  Charles  IV. 
took  15,772  ($250)  shares  of  this  new  issue.  But  nothing  could  save 
the  wreck,  and  finally,  it  was  decreed,  by  Real  Cedula  of  28th  May, 
1830,  that  the  privileges  conceded  to  the  "  Real  Compania  de 
Filipinas  "  had  expired — and  Manila  was  then  opened  to  Free  Trade 
with  the  whole  world. 

In  1820  the  declared  indepeudence  of  Mexico,  ackoowiodged 
subsequently  by  the  European  Powers,  forced  Spain  to  a  decision,  and 
direct  trade  between  the  Philippines  and  the  mother  country  became  a 
reluctant  necessity.  No  restrictions  were  placed  on  the  export  to  Spain 
of  Colonial  produce,  but  value  limitations  were  fixed  with  regard  to 
Chinese  goods.  The  export  from  the  Philippines  to  Acapuleo,  Callao 
and  other  South  American  porta  was  limited  to  $760,000  at  that  date. 
Twenty-two  years  afterwards,  one  third  of  all  the  Manila  export  trade 
was  done  with  China. 

When  the  galleons  fell  into  disuse,  communication  waa  definitely 
established  with  Spain  by  merchant  sailing  ships  via  the  Cape  of  Good 
Hope,  whilst  the  opening  of  the  Suez  Canal  has  now  brought  tiie 
Philippines  within  32  days'  journey  by  steamer  from  Barcelona. 

The  voyage  via  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  occupied  from  three  to  six 
months  ;  the  sailings  were  less  frequent  than  at  the  present  day,  and 
the  jouruey  was  invariably  attended  with  innumerable  discomforts. 
A  few  old  Spanish  residents  now  compare  their  privations,  when  they 
journeyed  from  the  Peninsula,  with  the  traveiliug  facilities  of  these 
times.  What  is  to-day  a  pleasure,  waa  then  a  hardship,  consequently 
the  number  of  Spaniards  in  the  Islands  was  small  ;  their  movementa 
were  always  known.  It  waa  hardly  possible  for  a  Spaniard  to  acquire 
a  aum  of  money  and  migrate  secretly  from  one  island  to  another,  and 
still  less  easy  was  it  for  him  to  leave  the  colony  clandestinely. 

The  Spaniard  of  that  day  who  settled  in  the  Colony  usually  h 
well  known  during  the  period  of  the  service  which  brought  him 



Far  East.  If,  after  his  retirement  from  public  duty,  on  tho  conclusion 
of  hia  tenure  of  office,  he  decided  to  remain  in  the  Colony,  it  was  often 
due  to  his  being  ahie  to  count  on  the  pecuniary  support  and  moral 
protection  of  the  priests.  Hence  it  is,  that  the  majority  of  needy 
Spaniards  in  the  Philippines,  in  the  course  of  time,  came  to  entertain 
a  kind  of  Hoeialiatic  notion  that  those  who  have  means,  ought  to  aid 
and  set  up  those  who  have  nothing,  without  guarantee  of  any  kind  : 
"  Si  hubiera  quien  me  proteja  !  "  was  the  common  sigh — tlie  outcome 
of  Cfeaarism  nurtured  by  a  Government  which  discountenanced 
individual  effort.  Later  on,  too,  many  natives  seemed  to  think  that 
the  foreign  firms,  and  others  employing  large  capitals,  might  well 
become  philanthropic  in&titHtions,  paternally  assisting  them  with 
unsecnreil  capital.  Tho  natives  were  bred  in  this  moral  bondage — 
they  had  seen  trading  companies,  established  under  royal  sanction, 
benefit  the  few  and  collapse — they  had  witnessed  extensive  works, 
undertaken  por  via  de  adminislracion,  miscarry  in  their  ostensible 
objects,  but  prosper  in  their  real  intent,  namely,  tho  providing  of  berths 
for  those  who  lived  by  their  wits. 

The  patriarchal  system  was  essayed  by  a  wealthy  ftitn  of  American 
merchants  (Russell  and  Sturgis^  with  most  disastrous  results  to 
themselves.  They  distributed  capital  all  over  the  Colony,  and  the 
natives  abused  their  support  in  a  most  abominable  manner,  A  native, 
on  the  pretext  that  he  had  opened  up  a  plantation,  would  present 
himself  to  the  firm,  and  procure  advances  against  future  crops  with 
every  facility.  Having  once  advanced,  it  was  necessary  to  continue 
doing  so  to  save  the  first  loans. 

Under  the  auspices  of  the  late  Mr,  Nicholas  Loney,  great  impulse 
was  given  to  the  eommeree  of  Tloilo,  and,  due  to  his  efforts,  the  Island 
of  Negros  was  first  opened  up.  His  memory  is  still  revered,  and  he  is 
often  spoken  of  as  the  original  benefactor  to  the  trading  community 
of  that  district,  Messrs.  Russell  and  Sturgis  subsequently  extended 
their  operations  to  that  locality.  The  result  was,  that  they  were 
deceived  in  every  direction  by  the  natives  who,  instead  of  bringing  in 
produce  to  pay  off  advances,  sent  their  sous  to  colleges,  huilt  fine 
houses,  bought  pianos,  jewellery,  etc,  and  in  a  hundred  ways  satisfied 
their  pride  and  love  for  outward  show  in  a  manner  never  known  before, 
at  the  expense  of  the  American  capitalists.  As  hankers,  tho  firm 
enjoyed  the  unlimited  confideuce  of  those  classes  who  had  something 



to  lose  AB  well  as  to  gain.  Ileuce,  it  ia  said  that  the  original  partners 
having  with  drawn  thoir  niouey  iaterest,  the  firm  endeayoured  to 
continue  the  business  with  a  working  capital  chiefly  derived  from  the 
fniids  deposited  by  priyato  persons  at  8°/^^  per  annum.  AH  might  have 
gone  well,  had  not  the  unpriuciplcdness  of  the  native  agriculturists, 
who  had  ali  to  gain  and  estrcnicly  little  to  lose,  brought  about  the 
failure  of  the  house  in  1875.  The  news  anuMcd  everybody.  Trade 
was,  for  the  moment,  completely  paralysed.  The  great  firm,  which 
had  for  years  been  the  mainspring  of  all  Philippine  mercantile 
enterprise,  had  failed  ! 

But  whilst  many  individuals  suffered  (principally  depositors  at 
interest)  fifty  times  as  many  families  to-day  owe  their  financial  position 
to  the  generosity  of  the  big  firm,  and  I  could  mention  the  names  of 
half-a-dozen  real  estate  owners  in  Yloilo  Province  who,  having  started 
with  nothing,  somehow  found  theniselves  possessing  comparatively 
large  fortunes  at  the  time  of  the  liquidation. 

Consequent  on  the  smash  a  reaction  set  in  which  soon  proved 
beneficial  to  the  Colony  at  large.  Foreign  and  Spanish  houses  of  minor 
importance,  which  had  laboured  in  the  shade  during  the  existeuce  of 
the  great  firm,  were  now  able  to  extend  their  operations  iu  brauches  of 
trade  which  had  hitherto  ijeen  practically  monopolized. 

Before  Manila  was  opened  to  foreign  tiailc,  even  in  a  re-:tiicted 
form,  special  couceaaions  appear  to  liave  been  granted  to  a  icw  traders. 
One  writer  mentions  that  a  French  mereautde  house  was  fonudoil  iu 
Manila  many  years  prior  to  1787,  and  that  an  English  firm  obtained 
permission  to  establish  itself  in  1809. 

In  olJen  times,  the  demand  for  ordinary  commodities  was  supplied 
by  (he  Chinese  traders  and  a  few  Americana  and  Persians.  During 
the  latter  half  of  the  last  century,  occasionally  a.  Spanish  mau-o'-war 
arrived,  bringing  European  manufactures  for  sale,  and  loaded  a  return 
cargo  of  Oriental  goods. 

Fifty  yearn  ago  the  Philippine  Islands  were  but  little  known  in  the 
foreign  markets  and  commercial  centres  of  Europe.  Notwithstanding 
the  special  trading  concessions  granted  to  one  foreigner  and  another 
from  the  beginning  of  this  century,  it  was  not  until  the  Port  of  Manila 
was  uorestrictively  opened  to  resident  foreign  merchants  in   1834  that 

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a  regular  export  trade  with  the  wliolo  niercantilo  world  gradually  came 
into  exiHtenee. 

It  is  said  that  before  tbia  time  (daring  the  existence  o£  the  '^  Real 
Compal  a  de  Filipmas^')  a  Mr.  Batler  solicited  permission  to  reside 
in,  and  open  up,  a  trade  between  Manila  and  foreign  ports,  but  hia 
petitioQ  was  held  to  be  monstrous  and  grievously  dangerona  to  the 
political  security  of  the  Colony,  hence  it  was  rejected.  Ko  doubt  the 
same  spirit  of  excluaivenosa  and  abborrenco  of  foreign  intercourse 
obtained  at  this  time  as  in  1738,  when  the  Spaniards  preferred  a  war 
■with  England  to  the  fulfilment  of  the  Astento  contract  entered  into 
under  the  Treaty  of  Utrecht,^ 

Subsequently  the  American  firm  already  mentioned— Kussell  and 
Sturgis — made  a  similar  request,  which,  having  the  Siipport  of  the 
Governor -General  of  that  day  was  granted.  Then  Mr,  Butler,  taking 
advantage  of  this  recent  precedent,  succeeded  in  founding  a  commercial 
house  in  Manila.  Since  then  a  great  number  of  foreigners  have 
followed  their  example,  so  that  in  the  ports  of  Manila,  Yloilo,  and  Cebii 
there  were  about  a  dozen  British  and  a  dozen  German  and  Swiss  firms, 
besides  a  few  smaller  merchants  of  divers  nationalities,  trading  with 
Europe,  America,  China,  Australia,  etc. 

The  same  distrustful  sentiment  of  olden  times,  in  the  Spanish 
commercial  and  colonial  policy,  continued  up  to  the  last  day.  Pro- 
posed reforms  and  solicitations  for  permission  to  introduce  modern 
improvements  were  by  do  means  welcomed.  In  the  provinces,  clerical 
opposition  was  cast  against  all  liberal  innovation'^,  and  in  the  Government 

■  The  Peace  ot  Otrecht,  signed  in  1713  ■lettled  the  aucccsBim  of  lliip  ti  i, 
Frencli  Dauphin,  to  the  SpaniBh  throne,  whilst  among  the  concL&s  ons  which 
England  (gained  for  herself  under  this  treaty  was  a  conYention  with  Spiin  known 
as  the  Aaiento  contract.  This  gave  the  English  thi,  right,  wh  <,h  had  hitherto 
been  denied  them,  of  trading  with  the  Spanish  ciIonieB  of  Amenci  Nevertheleis, 
the  exercise  of  this  right  was  lUapateii  in  1738  An  irmed  contest  ensued  and  the 
Spaniards  lost  several  galleons  in  a  naval  comhat  undertaken  by  A  Imiral  Vernon 
and  Comnjodore  Anaon,  who  attacked  Peru  and  Chiii 

So  prejudicial  to  the  vital  interests  of  spam  \sas  the  ceded  rii^ht  held  to  I  e 
that  the  earliest  efforts  of  the  first  new  tibraeC  undtr  Ferdnanl  VI  were 
engaged  in  a  revision  of  the  commercial  differences  between  that  countrj  in  1 
England.  England  was  persuaded  to  relinqui'jh  the  Asu  ito  eontiaot  m  eicha  if,t, 
for  advanti^s  of  greater  consideintion  in  another  direction 

Less  than  a  century  ago  England  took  over  from  Spain  Nootka  faound  a 
station  on  the  Pacific  coast,  where  a  floiiriahiQn  fui  trad  was  carnt-d  on  bj  Bnt  sh 
settlers  ;  the  cession  was  accorded  undev  a  sokmn  prom  se  not  to  trade  thince 
with  the  Spanish  colonies  of  South  America. 



bureaux  they  wero  oucoiiipasacd  witli  obstructive  formaiitiea,  olijectioiiis 
and  deJajs.^ 

By  Kojal  Oi-dinance  of  1844,  straiigers  were  excluded  from  the 
interior  ;  in  1857,  unrepealed  decrees  were  brought  forward  to  urge  the 
prohibitiou  of  foreigners  to  establish  tliemselvea  iu  the  Colooy — anil, 
iis  late  as  1886,  their  trading  here  was  declared  to  be  prejudicial  to  tlie 
"material  iuterests  of  the  country,"* 

The  support  of  the  Fria,r8  referred  to  in  these  pages  became  a 
thing  of  tlie  past.  Colouists  had  increased  teufold — the  means  of 
communication  and  of  exit  were  too  ample  for  the  security  of  the 
lenders,  wlio,  as  members  of  religious  communities,  could  not  seek 
redress  at  law,  aud,  moreover,  those  "  lucky  hits  " — which  were  ma<le 
by  penniless  Europeans  in  former  times  by  pecuniary  help  "just  in  the 
nick  of  time" — were  no  longer  possihlo,  for  every  known  cliauiiel  of 
lucrative  tranaa:;tion  was,  iu  time,  taken  up  by  capitalists. 

It  was  the  capital  brought  originally  to  tlie  i'liilippines  throu<fh 
foreign  channels  which  developed  the  modern  commerce  of  the  Colony, 
and  much  of  the  present  wealth  of  the  inhabitants  engaged  ic  trade 
uad  agriculture  is  indirectly  due  to  foreign  enterprise.  Negros  Island 
was  entirely  opened  up  by  foreigu  capital.  In  Manila,  many  of  tlie 
liulf-casteH,  pure  natives,  and  some  Spaniards,  who  at  this  day  figure  as 
men  of  position  and  standing,  commenced  their  careers  as  messeugeri-, 
H'arehouse -keepers,  scriveners,  etc,  of  the  foreign  houses  established. 

There  were  a  great  many  well-to-do  Spaniards  in  trade,  but  few 
whose  fundh  on  starting  were  brought  l)y  them  from  the  Peuiusula. 
The  first  Spanish  steamer-owner  iu  the  Colony  was  a  baker  by  trade. 

'  For  esami'le  :  i-ide  ''  Memoria  leida  por  el  Serretario  df  la  Cilmsi'a  de 
Comercio  de  Maniln,  Don  F.  de  P.  Hodoteda,  en  28  de  Mario  de  189u,"  page  fi 
(pub,  Manda  1S90  by  Diaa  Vuertaa  y  CompaKia). 

It  Bays  thus: — "Jm'ado  Mercantil — El  cxjiedicnte  aiguio  la  penosa  perogri- 
"  nacfoii  de  nneatro  iresado  y  complicado  engcanaje  administrativo  y  llevaba  j.t 
"  muy  cerca  de  doa  alios  empleados  en  solo  recoiTcr  doa  do  los  muclios  Centres 
"  consultivoH  A  nan  debia  ser  aometido,  etc." 

'  The  following  is  an  extract  from  the  text  of  the  preamble  to  a  Ducreo, 
dated  19th  March,  18K6, — relative  to  the  oi^nization  of  the  Philippine  Bifaibitioii 
held  in  Madrid — signed  hj  the  Colonial  Minister,  Don  German  Gamajio ; — 

"  Con  6[  sc  lograrSi  que  la  gran  masa  de  numerario  que  sale  dc  la  Metrdpoli 
"  para  aih^uirir  en  paises  extranjeros  algodon,  aificar,  cacao,  tabaeo  y  otros 
"  productos  vaya  a  naestras  posesiones  de  Oceania  donde  comereianiei  eietranimva 
"  log  aeaparatt  eon  da/ko  eridente  de  let  Merete*  materialet  del  pait." 



and,  due  to  tho  support  of  Rnssell  &  Sturgis,  he  made  hia  way.  One 
of  the  richest  Spanish  merchants  (who  died  in  1894)  oiico  kept  a  little 
grocer's  shop,  and  after  the  failure  of  Kussell  &  Sturgis,  he  developed 
into  a  merchant  and  shipowner,  liis  firm  being  now  considered  the 
largest  Spanish  house  oper.itiug  in  hemp  and  other  prodnco. 

There  are  two  foreign  Bank  Branches'-  and  three  Bank  Agencies 
in  Manila  ;  also  one  foreign  Bank  Branch  in  Yloilo.  About  fourteen 
Spanish  firms  of  a  certaiu  importance  were  established  in  Maniln,  Yloilo 
and  Cebii  in  aildition  to  the  Europeans  trading  here  and  there  on  tiic 
coasts  of  tlie  Islands.  In  Manila  tiiere  was  a  Spanish  private  banking 
honso  ;  also  the  "  Baiico  Espanol  de  Isabel  II ,"  which  wis  institnted 
in  1852,  with  a  capital  of  $400,000,  in  2,000  shares  of  $200  each. 
The  capital  was  subsequently  increased  to  $600,000  Authorised  by 
charter,  it  issued  notes  payable  to  bearer  on  demand  from  glOupwards. 

The  legal  maximum  limit  of  Note  issue  was  $1,200,000,  whilst 
the  actual  circulation  was  about  $100,000  short  of  that  figure.  This 
bank  did  a  very  limited  amount  of  very  secure  business,  and  it  has 
paid  dividends  of  12  to  15°/o  ;  hence  the  shares  were  always  at  a 
premium.  In  1888,  when  12°lo  dividend  was  paid,  this  stock  was 
quoted  at  $420  ;  in  1895  it  rose  to  $435. 

During  the  reign  of  Isabella  II.  (1833-1868)  Philippine  coin  was 
issued.  Thirty-five  years  ago  gold  coin  really  obtained  less  than 
its  nominal  value  in  sih-er,  and  as  much  as  10°/,,  was  paid  to 
exchange  an  onza  of  gold  ($16)  for  silver.  In  1878  gold  and  silver 
were  worth  their  nominal  relat  e  alues  t  old,  however,  has  gradually 
disappeared  from  the  Colony  large  q  i  nt  t  es  having  been  exported  to 
China.  In  1881  the  currei  t  j  em  m  for  purchasing  gold  was  2°;'^, 
and  at  the  close  of  1884  or  1  g  n  n«-  of  1885,  as  much  as  10^/^ 
premium  was  paid  for  PI  I  pp  e  gol  1  f  the  Isabella  II,  or  any 
previous  coinage.  The  gold  c  rre  cy  of  Alfonso  XII.  (1875-1885) 
was  always  of  less  intrinsic  v  1  e  than  tl  e  coin  of  earlier  date,  the 

'  1°  The  "  Hongkong  and  Shangliai  Banting  Corporation,"  incorporated  in 
I8B7,  Present  position:  Capital  paid  up,  $10,000,000.  Kcservefund. JI0,00O,O00 
(held  in  London  at  Ex.  2».  per  $  =  il,IXI0,O0O,  invested  in  Consols  and  other 
Sterling  Becnrities).    Reserve  liability  of  proprietors,  810,000,000. 

2".  "The  Chartered  Bank  of  India,  AuKtralia,  and  China,"  incorporated  in 
ia5:i.  Capital  paid  np,  £800,000.  Resei've  fnn.l,  £500,000.  Reserve  liahility  of 
proprietors,  £800,000. 

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difference  averaging  about  S^'o-  At  the  present  day,  gold  could  only 
be  obtained  in  very  limited  quantities  at  about  tlie  same  rate  as  sigbt 
drafts  on  Europe.     Philippine  gold  pieces  are  rare. 

In  1883  Mexican  dollars  of  a  later  coinage  than  1877  were  called 
in,  and  a  term  was  fixed  after  ivhich  they  would  cease  to  be  legal 
teuder.  In  July  1886  a  Decree  was  pubiislied  calling  in  all  foreign 
anil  Chinese  marked  coins  (chop  dollars')  within  six  months,  after 
which  date  those  not  brought  in  would  cease  to  be  legal  fender,  and 
any  person  who  introduced  such  coin  into  the  Colony  would  bo  subject 
to  the  penalty  of  a  fine  equal  to  20%  of  the  value  imported — the 
obligation  to  immediately  re-export  the  coin — and  civil  action  for  the 
misdemeanour.  At  the  expiration  of  tiie  six  months,  the  Treasury  was 
not  in  a  position  to  effect  the  conversion  of  the  foreign  medium  in 
private  hands  prior  to  the  publication  of  the  decree.  The  term  was 
extended,  but  in  time  the  measure  became  practically  void,  so  far  as 
the  legal  tender  waa  concerned.  However,  the  importation  of  Mexican 
dollars  was  still  prohibited,  but  as  they  remained  current  in  Manila,  at 
par  value,  whilst  in  Hongkong  and  Singapore  they  conld  be  bought  for 
8  to  12%  (and  In  1894,25%)  less  than  Manila  dollars,  large  quan- 
tities were  smuggled  into  the  Colony.  It  is  estimated  that  in  the 
year  1887  the  clandestine  introduction  of  Mexican  dollars  into  Manila 
averaged  about  $150,000  per  month.  I  remember  a  Chtuaman  was 
caught  in  September,  1887,  with  $16i,000,  imported  in  cases  declared 
to  contain  matches,  lu  1890  there  was  a  "  boom "  in  the  silver 
market.  Owing  to  the  action  of  the  American  Silverites,  the  Wash- 
ington Treasury  called  for  a  monthly  supply  of  four  millions  of  silver 
dollars,  consequently  sight  rate  on  Loudon  in  Hongkong  touched  3/lOJ 
and  in  Manila  rose  to  3/10^,  but  a  rapid  reaction  set  in  when  the 
Treasury  demand  ceased.  In  1895  wc  heard  in  Manila  that  the 
Government  were  about  to  coin  I'hilippine  dollars  and  absolutely 
demonetize  Mexicans  as  a  medium  in  the  islands.  But  this  measure 
was  never  carried  out,  probably  because  the  government  had  not  the 
necessary  cash  with  which  to  effect  tlie  conversion. 

In  June  1893,  the  n.s.  Don  Juan,  owned  by  Francisco  L.  Rojas, 
of  Manlhi,  took  on  board  in  Hongkong  about  $400,000  Mexicans  for 

'  Chop  dollars  are  those  defaced  by  private  Cliir 




the  purpose  of  amugglmg  tiiem  nto  Manila  Ou  b  ar!  thert  were 
also,  as  passeogers,  a.  SeBor  EoJorela  auj  a  crnid  of  Cliinese  coolies 
The\ea^eU«ight  hre  off  tht  ^\  coait  of  Luziu  llie  c  ptain  Ihc 
cren  aud  the  Spanish  pa  eager  J.bandjaGl  the  hhip  mboats,  lewmg 
the  Chme  e  (o  the  r  awful  1  itc  A  Bteam  launch  wa'<  aeut  alongside 
and  aaved  a  few  iollars  whilst  the  dsBpairmg  Chinese  became  Tictuna 
to  the  flamoa  md  sliarks  Ihe  sh  p  s  ^ unit  out  hull  was  toned  to 
ManiH  Bay  Die  lemaium^  doliai  noie  coiili  eafud,  ml  the  captam 
lud  chief  en^meer  wer<,  prosecuted 

The  uiiiveri,  d  monetaty  cnais  due  to  the  lepreciation  of  s  Iver  was 
experienced  here  and  the  Goverament  made  matteis  -,1111  wors,ely 
coiumg  half  dollars  tnd  20  cent  piCLca,  whik,h  had  not  the  intrius  <  i  ahii, 
exprc-sed  nd  eii.han^e  consequently  fell  stUl  lower  In  September, 
laS",  d  Aladril  penodicil,  Correo  de  Espana  Uted  that  the 
Philippine  oO  cent  pieces  were  rejectel  m  Madtid  both  bj  money 
changers  aud  nicreiiauta  in  the  doverument  ofiices  In  May,  1888, 
the  dollar  was  quoted  at  3/2^  (o\er  19%  below  nommal  value),  and 
shippers  to  the  Colon j  wlu  ha!  already  sufiered  cousiderai  (j  by  the 
loss  on  exchange  had  tin  r  interc  ta  ttiU  further  impaire  1  \  y  the 
luiquitoua  action  of  the  lieu  i  rj 


OE  Fluctuations. 


Quotations  in  the  Yea 

R  1889. 




Sight  ou 












Hongkong  - 

U  %  Am. 

1   °'o»Iis. 




Singapore  - 

13     „     „ 

1     „     „ 





12^,     „ 

I     >i      » 




Madrid        - 

20    „  prem. 

10^  „prcm. 





fes.  4". 

fes.  4«*. 












Exchange  Fluctuatioks. — continued. 

Sight  on  LONDON. 

ON    1.JTH   SEP 

EMBER,  1898. 



Lowes  (i. 

SighL  on 










Hongkong - 

h  X  dis. 




Singapore  - 

i    „  prem. 


3;  10^ 



i    „       . 





30    „       „ 





fes.  2  ". 

A  CusLom  Honse  was  esbiblishetl  and  port  opened  in  Zamboanga 
(6°  56"  N.  lat.)  for  direct  communication  with  abroad  in  1831  ;  tlioae 
of  Sual  (16°  5"  N.  lat.)  and  Yloilo  (10°  42"  N.  lat.)  in  18j3,  and  that 
of  Cebii  (10°  20"  N.  lat.)  in  1863.  The  Custom  House  of  Sua!  was 
subsequently  abolislied,  and  the  port  closed  to  direct  trading  with 
foreign  countries.  The  place  having  thorefore  lost  its  former  importance, 
it  has  since  lapsed  into  a  miserable  lifeless  village. 

Special  permission  could  be  obtained  for  ships  to  load  in  and  sail 
direct  from  harbours  where  there  were  no  Custom  Houses  established, 
on  a  sum  of  money  being  paid  beforehand  into  the  Caja  de  Dep6sitos 
in  Manila,  to  coi  ci  duties,  dues,  etc. 

Aftei  the  opening  of  the  Port  of  Yloilo,  tliree  years  passed  before 
a  cargo  of  produce  sailed  thence  to  a  foreign  port.  Since  then,  it  has 
gradually  be  ome  the  shipping  centre  for  the  crops  (chiefly  sugar  and 
sapanviood)  raised  id  the  Islands  of  I'anay  and  Negros,  whilst  from 
abont  the  year  1882  it  lias  attracted  a  portion  of  what  was  formerly 
the  Ccbu  trade.  The  development  of  Yloilo  as  a  port,  trading  with 
abroad,  is  entirely  duo  to  foreigners. 

The  opening  of  the  Port  of  Yloilo  was  a  considerable  aid  to 
ai^iculture  in  the  Visayas.  Previous  to  this  event,  the  small  output 
of  sugar  (which  had  never  reached  one  thonsand  tons  in  any  year)  had 
to  be  sent  up  to  Manila  ;  the  expense  of  local  freight,  brokerages  and 
double  loading  and  reloading  left  so  little  profit  to  the  planters  that 
the  results  were  then  quite  discouraging. 

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None  but  wooileu  sugar-cano  mills  -were  cmployeii  at  tlmt  time, 
but  since  tlieu,  uiany  small  steam-power  factories  liave  been  orecteJ, 
ftlthongh  thoy  are  all  far  behind  tlie  latest  modern  iiuprovemeuta  in  the 
apparatus  relating'  to  this  industry.  The  produce  shipped  in  Yloilo 
is  principally  carried  to  the  United  States  in  American  sailing  ships. 
The  following-  figures  wii!  serve  to  show  tlie  commercial  importance  of 
this  die  trie  t ; — 

CiiiEt-  Exi'ORTS  FiiOM  Yloilo.^ 




— . 












































'■™""»  -      - 









The  oponiug  of  the  port  of  Cehu  has  imdoubtedly  been  beneficial 
to  the  Colony,  but  Uie  inhabitants  of  that  island,  notably  docile,  are 
little  fond  of  work,  and  the  exports  of  local  produce  are  small.  In  the 
same  years  as  above,  they  have  been  as  follows,  viz. : — 

Chief  Exportb  from  Ceb6. 























™'     ■             ■        ■ 




























b3-  '-  . 









'  Yloilo  liad  its  "  Gremio  da  Comerciantea  "  (Board  of  Trade),  constituted  by 
Philippine  General-Rovornmcnt  Decree  of  tlie  5tli  September,  1884 — and  Manila 
had  a  Chamber  of  Commerce, 



































































1  1 





!•=«        Is    ■      i|    '        pi  1  " 

ilsl    55  1    Bi    lilmlS 

1            1           ^>          „„„■£/«„ 




According  to  Sir  Johi.  Bowrlng. 

1"       i"        ""  ^"i"^"" 











1  ^»|i 




1  P 
















8  i 







H  i- 

Ij   l||--^ 





















k|  !| 


llli  li  |i  illl 



The  total  Values  declared  in  the  Customs  Houses  t 

s  foUows, 

In  1841—$  3,230,000  Imports. 
In  1885—119,171,468 
In  1888— S2i, 208,445 
In  1891— $24,860,000 
In  1892— $27,000,604 
In  1896— $17,740,010 
In  1897— |16,3,50,32S 
The  Excise  and  Custoraa  Eevj 

$  4,370,000  Exports. 
No  official  returns  procurable. 
in  1889  was  as  follows,  viz. :— 








S         df,. 

i         til. 



«          «.. 

«      a,. 

e    «j. 


S30,391     97 

1,4M    44 
27,5  J  9     83 



1,057    13 

117,846     31 

844.10S    03 



.,.     .       . 







43  oe 

B,(lSl,CB!l    63 

S  9,910 


l.<MO    17 

150,693    80 

s,ej7.2io  02 

Against  a  total  o/ $2,650,304.41  in  1888  and  $2,217,505,55  in  1896. 

Most  of  the  carrying  Import  trade  was  in  the  hands  of  stibsidized 
Spanish  steamer  owners  whilst  the  larger  portion  of  the  Exports  was 
conveyed  in  foreign  vessels,  which  amved  in  ballast  from  Eastern 
ports  where  they  liad  left  cargoes. 

Smuggling  was  carrieil  on  to  a  considerable  extent  for  years,  and 
iu  1891  a  fresh  gtimulns  was  given  to  contraband  by  the  introduction  of 
a  Protectionist  Tariff,  which  came  into  force  on  April  Ist  of  tliat  year, 
and  under  which  Spanish  goods  brought  in  Spanish  ships  were 
allowed  to  enter  free  of  duty.' 

In  order  to  eva^le  the  payment  of  the  Manila  Port  Works  Tax  (for 
which  no  value  was  given,  nor  ever  likely  to  be,  vide  Chap.  XXII.), 
large  quantities  of  piece  goods  for  Manila  were  shipped  from  Europe 
to  Tloilo,  passed  through  the  Custom  House  thoi'o  and  re-shippcii  in 
inter-islaud  steamers  to  Manila.  In  1890  some  two-thirds  of  the 
foreign  imports  into  Yloilo  were  for  re-siiipment  as  above, 

'   Vide  •'  Board  of  Trade  Journal "  for  Febtuarj  and  April  leui. 



Tlie  ti renin stancca  whitih  directly  led  to  the  opeuiu^  of  Ziimboanga, 
us  u.  port  of  commerce,  are  iutereBting,  when  it  is  remombevod  that  the 
islaud  (MinUajjao)  is  independent  in  the  iuterior — inhabited  by  races 
iudoinitable  by  tho  Spaniai-ds,  and  where  agriculture,  by  civilized 
settlers,  is  as  yet  nascent.  It  appears  that  the  free  and  open  Port  of 
Sulii  had  been,  for  a  long  time,  frequented  by  foreign  ships,  whose 
owners  or  officers  (chiefly  British)  unscrupulously  supplied  the  Sulus 
v'th  d  y  n  an  fa  tured  goo  Is  'nclud'og  t  s  of  wa  fare  much  to 
tl  e  1  tr  me  t  of  Sp  a  sh  nteiesta  there  n  oxcl  a  ge  fo  n  otl  e  of  j  earl 
pearls  gum  ct  Tl  c  fap**  ar  1  cla  n  o  I  s  izer  n  r  ^h  s  ov  r  the 
sland  I  e  110  strong  t  o  gl  to  e  t  bl  sh  and  p  o  ect  a  C  stem 
Ho  se  so  they  up  e  I  tl  o  eg  lat  o  tl  at  sh  ].  lo  1  ug  S  lu 
tjho  11  p  t  n  it  Z  boa  ^a  for  cle  ran  e  to  (o  ^n  port  He 
fore  gue  s  1  o  ca  t  ed  on  this  II  t  traffic  protested  aga  nst  a 
a  1  ug  si  p  be  n^  req  ed  to  go  out  of  her  bo  ne  ard  o  e  about 
120  miles  to  put  into  Zamboanga,  for  the  mere  formality  of  customs 
clearance.  A  British  ship  (and  perhaps  many  before  her)  sailed  straight 
away  from  Sulu,  in  defiance  of  the  Spaniards,  who  had  naturally  sought 
their  own  protection.  The  matter  was  then  brought  to  the  notice  of 
the  British  Government,  who  intimated  that  either  Sulu  must  be 
declared  a  free  port  or  a  Custom  House  must  be  estabiished  there. 
The  former  alternative  was  chosen  by  the  Spaniards. 

Zamhoonga  would  have  been  a  convenient  port  of  call  for  vessels 
comiuK  from  Australia  if  the  harbour  dues  hail  not  been  so  excessive. 

The  supreme  control  of  merchant  shipping  and  naval  forces  was 
vested  in  the  same  high  official.  No  foreigner  was  permitted  to  own  a 
vessel  trading  between  Spain  and  her  colonies,  or  between  one  Spanish 
colony  and  another,  or  doing  a  coasting  trade  within  the  Colony.  This 
difficulty  was  however  readily  overcome,  and  reduced  to  a  moie 
ineffective  formality,  by  foreigners  employing  Spaniards  to  become 
nominal  owners  of  their  vessels.  Thus  a  very  large  portion  of  the 
inter-islund  caiTying  trade  in  steamers  was  virtually  conducted  by 
foreigners,  who  were  chiefly  British. 

Mail  steamers,  subsidized  by  the  Government,  left  the  Capital 
every  fortnight  for  the  different  islands,  and  there  was  a  quarterly 
Pacific  Mail  Service  to  the  Ladrone  Islands.'     Regular  mails  arrived 

'  Manila  to  Yap,  1,160  miles.    Yap  to  Poaaiw,  1,270  milea.     Ponapt  to  Apra, 

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from,  and  left  for,  Europe  every  fortnight,  bnt  there  wero  frequent 
intermediate  opportunities  of  remitting  and  receiving  correspondence, 
so  that  there  were  really  about  throe  mails  reeeived  and  three  despatched 
every  mouth.  The  mail  route  for  Europe  is  via  Singapore,  hut  there 
were  some  seven  or  eight  sailings  of  steamers  per  month  between 
Manila  and  Hongkong  (the  nearest  foreign  colony — 640  miles),  whence 
mails  were  forwarded  to  Europe,  Australia,  Japan,  United  States,  etc. 

Between  the  Capital  and  several  porta  in  the  adjacent  provinces, 
there  was  a  daily  service  of  passenger  and  light  cargo  steamers. 

Between  Tloilo  and  the  adjoining  Province  of  Antique,  the  District 
of  Concepcion  and  the  Islands  of  Negros  and  Cebu,  there  were  some 
half-dozen  small  steamers,  belonging  to  Filipinos  and  Spaniards, 
running  regularly  with  passengers  and  merchandise,  whilst  in  the 
sugar-producing  season — from  January  to  May — they  were  fully 
freighted  with  cargoes  of  this  staple  article. 

The  carrying  trade  in  sailing  craft  between  the  Islands  was  chiefly 
in  the  hands  of  natives  and  half-castes.  There  were  also  a  few  Spanish 
sailiug  ship-owners,  and  in  the  above-mentioned  Port  of  Yloilo,  a  few 
schooners  (called  lorckas),  loading  from  40  to  100  tons  of  sugar,  were 
the  property  of  foreigners,  under  the  nomiual  ownership  of  Spanish 
subjects,  for  tlie  ellecta  of  the  law. 

The  principal  exporters  employ  middlemen  for  the  collecting  of 
produce  and  usually  require  their  guarantee  for  sales  at  credit  to  the 
provincial  purchasers  of  imports.  These  middlemen  are  always  persons 
of  means,  horn  iu  the  Colony,  and  understanding  both  the  intricacies 
of  the  native  character  and  the  European  mode  of  transacting  business, 
they  serve  as  very  useful — almost  indispensable — intermediaries. 

It  was  only  when  the  crisis  in  the  Sugar  trade  affected  the  whole 
world,  and  began  to  be  felt  in  the  Philippines  in  1884,  that  the  majority 
of  the  natives  engaged  in  that  industry  slowly  yielded  to  the  conviction 
that  quotations  depended  upon  circumstances  quite  beyond  the  control 
of  the  foreign  buyers  and  exporters.  Until  that  period,  the  idea 
obtained  amongst  the  small  planters,  that  the  current  price  of  produce 
fluctuated  according  to  the  caprice  of  the  foreign  buyer,  instead  of 
supply  and  demand — hence  many  have  lost  money  by  perversely 
refusing  to  take  advantage  of  market  rises.  Before  transactions  were  so 
thoroughly  in  the  hands  of  middlemen,  small  producers  used  to  take  their 
samples  to  the  piu-chasers,  "  to  see  how  much  they  were  disposed  to 

•d  by  Google 

300  ,        PHILIPPINE   ISLANDS. 

pay  "  as  tlicy  expressed  it — the  term  "  market  price  "  seldom  being 
used  or  understood  in  the  provinces. 

Accustomed  to  deal,  duriug  tlie  first  centuries  of  tlie  Spanish 
occupation,  with  the  Chinese,  the  natives,  even  amongst  themselves, 
rarely  have  fixed  prices  in  retail  doalioga,  anil  Dearly  every  quotation 
in  small  traffic  is  taken  only  as  a  fancy  price,  subject  to  considerable 
rebate  before  closing.  The  Chinese  understand  the  native  pretty  well  ; 
they  study  his  likings,  and  they  so  fix  their  prices  that  an  enormous 
reduction  can  be  made  for  his  satisfaction.  He  goes  away  quite 
contented,  whilst  the  Chinaman  chuckles  over  liaving  got  the  best  of 
the  bargain.  Even  the  import  houses,  when  they  publish  their  goods 
for  sale,  seldom  state  the  prices ;  it  seeras  as  if  ail  regarded  the  question 
of  price  as  a  shifty  one. 

The  system  of  giving  credit  in  the  retail  trade  of  Manila,  and  a  few 
provincial  towns,  was  the  ruin  of  a  great  many  shopkeepers.  Without 
a  dollar  in  his  poekct,  and  often  unworthy  of  creilit,  a  person  went  into 
a  shop  aud  expected  to  be  served  with  whatever  he  might  select  against 
his  1,0. XT.  There  were  few  retail  tradesmen  who  had  fixed  prices  ; 
most  of  them  fiuetuated  according  to  the  race,  or  natiouality,  of  the 
intending  purchaser.  The  Chinese  dealer  made  no  secret  about  his 
price  being  merely  nominal.  If  on  the  first  ofier  you  were  about  to 
move  away,  he  would  call  after  you  and  politely  invite  yoii  to  haggle 
with  him'  over  what  you  were  to  pay  for  the  chosen  article. 

The  only  real  basis  of  wealth  in  the  Colony,  is  the  raw  material 
obtained  by  Agriculture  and  Forest  produce.  Nothing  was  done  by 
the  conquerors  to  foster  the  Industrial  Arts,  and  the  Manufacturing 
Trades  were  of  insignificant  importance.  Cigars  were  the  only 
manufactured  export  staple,  whilst  a  little  cordage,  and  occasionally  a 
a  parcel  of  straw  or  finely-split  bamboo  hots  were  shipped. 

In  the  Provinces  of  Bulaean  and  Pampanga,  split  cane  and  Nilo 
(lygodium)  hats,  straw  mats,  and  cigar  cases  are  made.  Some  of 
the  finest  worked  cigar  cases  require  so  much  time  for  making  that 
they  cost  up  to  $20  each.  Hats  can  only  be  obtained  in  quantities  by 
shippers  through  native  middlemen. 

In  Yioilo  Province  a  rough  cloth  called  Sinamay  is  woven*  from 

I  "  yii  cnidado  dc  rcgatear." 

»  Weaving  was  taught  to  the  nafivea  by  a  Spanish  priest  about  the  year  1595. 



selected  liemp  fibre.  Also  ia  this  proviniie  auj,  that  of  Aatique  (raniiy 
lahind),  Piiia  mualio  of  pure  pine-leaf  fibre  and  Ilwsi  of  mixed  piue-leaf 
and  hemp  filament  arc  made.  Ilocos  Province  has  a  reputation  in  these 
Islands  for  its  -woollen  and  dyed  cotton  fabrics.  Taal,  in  Batangaa 
Province,  also  produces  11  Special  make  of  cotton  stuffs,  Pusig,  on  tlie 
rivor  of  that  name,  and  Sulipan  iu  Pampanga,  are  locally  known  for 
their  rough  pottery, 

Paete,  at  the  extreme  east  of  the  Lagtina  de  Bay,  is  tlie  centre  for 
white  wood  furniture  and  wood-earving.  In  Muriquina,  iie:ir  Manila, 
wooden  clogs  and  native  leather  shoes  are  made,  Santa  Cruz,  a  ward 
of  Manila,  is  the  gold  and  silver  worker-i'  quarter.  The  native  women 
in  nearly  all  the  civilized  provinces  produce  some  very  handaomo 
specimens  of  embi'oidery  on  European  patterns.  Mats  to  sleep  upou 
(_petates)  ;  straw  bags  (hayoties),  alcohol,  bamboo  furniture,  buffalo- 
hide  leather,  wax  caudles,  soap,  etc.  have  their  centres  of  manufacture 
on  a  small  scale.  The  first  Philippine  brewery  was  opened  4th  October, 
1890,  iu  San  Miguel  (Manila)  by  Don  Enrique  Barretto.  Native 
capital  alone  supports  these  manufactures.  The  traffic  and  consumption 
being  entirelr  local,  the  consequent  increase  of  wealth  to  the  Colony  is 
the  e(.ouomized  diffeieuce  between  them  and  imported  articles.  These 
industries  bring  no  fresh  capit  d  to  the  Colony,  by  way  of  profits,  but 
they  contribute  to  check  its  egieas  by  the  returns  of  agriculture 
changing  hands  to  the  local  niauufactuier  instead  of  to  the  foreign 
mere  hint 

Viniit  of  Uieap  meins  of  laud  ti  mspoit  has,  so  far,  been  the  chief 
drawback  to  Philippine  manut  icture-', 'whicli  are  of  small  importance 
m  the  total  trade  of  the  Colonj 

Philippine  Kaihv  ij  i  n  eie  farst  offiLi  illy  proieeted  iu  1875,  when  a 
lioya!  Decree  of  tliat  jtar,  dated  6th  of  August,  determined  the 
legislative  basis  for  woiks  of  that  uatutc  Ihe  Inspector  of  Public 
Works  was  instructed  to  form  i  gencial  plan  ot  i  railway  system  iu 
the  Island  of  Luzon  On  tlie  lllh  ot  November  following,  this  task 
was  undertaken  by  Uon  Eduardo  Lopea  Navarro,  an  engineer  personally 
known  to  me.  The  projected  system  included  (1°)  a  line  running  north 
from  Manila  through  the  Provinces  of  Bulacau,  Pampanga  and 
Pangasinan.  (2°)  A  line  running  south  from  Manila  and  then  along 
tlie  Laguna  de  Bay  shore  eastwards  through  Tayabas,  Camariues  and 
Albay  Provinces.     (3°)  A  branch  from  this  line  on  the  Laguna  de  Bay 

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shore  to  rna  almost  duo  sontii  to  Batangas.  Tlie  Hues  to  lie  constriicteil 
■were  classed  under  two  heads,  viz. :  1°.  Those  o£  general  public 
utility  to  be  laid  down  either  by  the  State  or  by  subsidized  companies  ; 
the  concession  in  this  ease  being  given  by  the  Homo  Government, 
and  2°.  Those  oE  private  interest,  for  the  coufftniction  of  whicli 
concessions  could  be  granted  by  the  Governor-frcneral. 

In  1885  the  Gorernment  solicited  tenders  for  the  laying  of  the 
first  line  of  railway  from  Manila  to  Dagupan — ft  port  on  the  Gulf  of 
Lingayen,  and  the  only  practicable  outlet  for  produce  from  the  Province 
of  Pangasinan  and  Tiirlac  District.  Tlie  distance  by  sea  is  216  miles— 
the  railway  lino  196  kilometres  (say  120  miles). 

The  subsidy  offered  by  the  Government  amounted  to  about  $7,650 
per  mile,  but  on  three  occasions  no  tender  ■was  forthcoming  either 
from  Madrid  or  in  Manila,  where  it  was  simultaneously  solieited. 
Subsequently  a  modified  offer  was  made  of  a  guaranteed  annual  interest 
of  87^  on  a  maximum  outlay  of  $4,964,473.65,  and  the  news  was 
received  in  Manila  in  October,  1886,  that  the  eontraet  had  been  taken 
up  by  a  Loudon  firm  of  contractors.  The  prospectus  of  "  The  Manila 
Railway  Co.,  Limited,"  was  issued  in  February,  1888.  The  line  was 
to  be  completed  within  four  years  from  tlio  2Ist  of  July,  1887,  and  at 
the  end  of  99  years  the  railway  and  rolling  stock  revert  to  the 
Government  without  eompensation.  The  rails,  locomotives  (36  tons 
and  12  tons  each),  tenders,  coaches,  waggons,  and  ironwork  for  bridges, 
all  came  from  England.  The  first  stone  of  the  Central  Station  in 
Manila  (Bilibid  Koad,  Tondo)  was  laid  by  Governor-General  Emilio 
Terrero  on  the  31st  of  July,  1887.  In  1890,  the  eontractors,  Messrs. 
Hett,  Maylor  &  Co.,  failed,  and  only  the  first  section  of  28  miles  was 
opened  to  traffic  on  the  24th  of  March,  1891. 

Many  other  circumstances,  however,  contributed  to  delay  the  opening 
of  the  whole  line. 

Compensation  claims  were  very  slowly  agreed  to — the  Govern- 
ment engineers  slightly  altered  the  plans — the  Company's  engineers 
could  not  find  a  hard  strata  in  the  bed  of  the  Calumpit  Eiver  (a  branch 
of  the  Rio  Grande  de  Pampanga)  on  which  to  build  the  piers  of  the 
bridge ;  and  lastly,  the  Spanish  authorities,  who  had  direct  intervention 
in  the  work,  found  all  sorts  of  excuses  for  postponing  the  opening  of 
the  line.  Probably  the  Company  did  not  choose  to  "  grease  the  palm  " 
any  further.    When  the  Civil  Director  was  applied  to,  he  calmly  replied 

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that  ho  was  going  to  the  baths  aud  wouhl  think  about  it.  Finally,  on 
appeal  to  tho  highest  authority,  &o\  cruor-(4t!ueral  De'^ptijols  himnelf 
went  up  to  Tdrlac,  anil  in  a»  energetic  speech,  reflecting  on  the 
<liIatoriness  of  his  subordinates,  he  declaretl  the  first  Philippine  Rail- 
way open  to  traffic  on  the  23rd  of  November,  1892.  For  about  a  year 
and  a  half  passengers  and  goods  were  ferried  across  the  Calumpit 
River  in  pontoons.  Large  caissons  liad  to  be  sunk  in  the  river  in 
which  to  build  the  piers  for  the  iron  bridge,  which  cost  an  enormous 
■^nm  of  money  in  excess  of  the  estimate.  Later  on  Iieavy  rains  caused 
a  partial  inundation  of  the  line,  the  embankment  of  which  yielded  to 
tho  accumulated  mass  of  water,  and  traffic  to  Dagiipan  was  temporarily 
suspended.  The  total  outlay  on  the  liuo  turned  out  to  be  far  more 
than  the  Company  had  originally  calcolated,  and  to  avert  a  financial 
collapse,  fresh  capital  had  to  be  raised  by  tho  issue  of  6°/o  Prior  Lien 
Mortgage  Bonds,  ranting  before  the  debenture  stock.  The  following 
official  quotations  on  the  London  Stock  Exchange  will  show  how  the 
Manila  Railway  Company's  shares  and  bonds  were  appreciated  :— 


:iAL  Quotations. 


Cum.  fref. 


Deb.  £100 

67,  Prior  I-^en 
Moit.  Bonds, 
Series  A..  XIOO. 

G°/„  Prior  Lien 
Miirt.  Konds, 
Sci-iea  P.,  £100. 
































Up  to  December,  1898,  the  interest  had  been  regularly  paid  on  the 
Prior  Lien  Bonds.  Up  to  the  same  ilate  no  interest  had  been  paid  on 
the  debentures  since  1st  of  July,  1891,  nor  on  the  7°/^  Cumulative 
Preference  Shares  since  27th  of  July,  1890,  when  3s.  \\d.  per  share 
was  distributed.  On  the  26th  of  January,  1895,  these  shares  were 
officially  quoted,  for  sellers,  0. 

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Including  the  termini  iu  Mauila  (Tondo)  aod  Daj|;upaii,  tliere  are 
29  stations  and,  aloog-  the  line,  16  bridges.  The  journey  over  the 
whole  line  occupies  eight  liours.  From  the  Manila  termiims  there  is 
a  short  liue  (about  a  mile)  ruouiug  down  to  the  quay  in  Binondo  for 
goods  traffic  only. 

The  coiintiy  tlirougli  wliich  this  line  passes  is  flat,  uud  has  vast 
natural  resources,  the  development  of  which — without  a  railway — had 
not  been  feasible  owing  to  the  ranges  of  mountains— chiefly  the 
Cordillera  of  Zambales — whieh  run  parallel  to  tlio  coast. 

In  1S87  a  coQceaaiou'  was  applied  for  by  a  British  commercial  firm 
in  Manila  to  lay  a  21-mile  line  of  railway,  without  subsidy,  from  Manila 
to  Antipole,  to  be  called  the  "  Centre  of  Luzon  Railway." 

The  basis  of  the  anticipated  traiSc  was  the  conveyance  of  pUgrima 
to  the  Shrine  of  CKu"  Lady  of  Good  Voyage  and  Peace  (vide  page  198), 
but,  moreover,  the  proposed  line  connected  the  Parishes  of  Dilao 
(4,380  pop.),  Santa  Ana  (2,115  pop.),  Mariquina  (10,000  pop.),  Cainta 
(2,300  pop.),  Taytay  (6,500  pop.) — branching  to  Pasig  and  Angono — 
with  Antipole  (3,800  pop.).  The  estimated  outlay  was  about 
$1,000,000,  but  the  concession  was  abandoned. 

There  is  a  Telegraph  Service  from  Manila  to  ail  civilized  parts  of 
Luzon  Island — also  in  Panay  Island  from  Capiz  to  Yloilo,  and  in  Cebii 
Island  from  the  City  of  Cebu  across  the  island  and  up  the  west  coast 
as  far  north  as  Tubnran,  There  is  a  land  lino  from  Manila  to  Bolinao 
(Zambales),  from  which  point  a  submarine  cable  was  laid  in  April  1880, 
by  the  Eastern  Extension  Australasia  an,d  China  Telegraph  Company, 
Limited,  whereby  Manila  was  placed  in  direct  telegraphic  communi- 
cation with  the  rest  of  the  world.  For  this  service  the  Spanish 
Government  paid  the  Company  $4,000  a  montli  for  a  period  of  10 
years,  which  expired  in  June,  1890.  In  April,  1898,  the  same  Company 
detached  the  cable  from  Bolinao  and  carried  it  on  to  Manila,  in  the 
s.s.  Skerard  Oshortt,  207  nautical  miles  having  been  added  to  the 
cable  for  the  purpose.  In  return  for  this  service  the  Spanish 
Government  gave  the  Company  certain  exclusive  rights  and  valuable 
concessions,  which,  up  to   the  end  of   the  year  1898,  had   not  boeu 

'  This  concesBion  wna  granted  to  Messrs.  Sniitli,  Bell  4  Company,  Maoila,  for 
99  jearB,  under  Koyal  Order  No.  508,  dated  June  lltli,  1890.  The  work  to  be 
commenced  within  one  year  and  finished  In  two  years. 



eoofirmed  by  tlie  Aiiiericaa  Government.  In  May,  1898,  the  American 
Admiral  Dewey  ordered  the  Manila-Hongkong  cable  to  be  cut,  but 
the  eonnectiou  was  made  good  again  after  the  Preliminaries  of  Peace 
with  Spain  were  signed  (12tli  of  August,  1898),  Cable  communication 
was  suspended,  therefore,  from  the  2nd  of  May  until  the  2Ist  of 
August  of  that  year. 

In  1897  another  submai'iue  cable  was  laid  iiy  the  above  Company, 
under  contract  with  the  Spauisli  Government,  conuectiug  Manila  with 
the  Southern  Islands  of  Panay  and  Cebu  (Tuburan).  The  Maniia- 
Panay  cable  Was  also  cut  by  order  of  Admiral  Dewey  {23rd  of  May, 
1898),  but  after  the  IStli  of  August,  under  an  arrangement  made  with 
the  American  and  Spanish  Governments,  it  was  re-opened  on  a  neutral 
basis,  a  claim  for  compensation  against  the  Government  of  the  United 
States  having  been  lodged  by  the  Telegraph  Company.  Under  the 
above  arrangement,  the  Company's  own  staff  worked  direct  with  the 
Manila  public,  instead  of  through  the  medium  of  Spanish  officials. 

Owing  to  their  geographical  position,  none  of  the  Phihppiue  ports 
are  places  of  call  for  regular  lines  of  vessels  en  route  elsewhere,  hence, 
unlike  Hongkong,  Singapore  and  other  Eastern  ports,  there  is  little 
profit  to  be  derived  from  a  floating  population. 

Due,  probably,  to  the  tedious  Customs  regulations — the  obligation 
of  every  person  to  procure,  and  carry  on  his  person,  a  document  of 
identity — the  requirement  of  a  passport  to  enter  and  complicated 
formalities  to  recover  the  passport  on  leaving  the  Islands — the  absence 
of  railroads  and  hotels  in  the  interior  and  the  personal  insecurity  end 
diflieiilties  of  travelling — this  Colony,  during  the  Spanish  regime,  was 
apparently  outside  the  region  of  tourists  and  "  globe-trotters." 

Indeed  the  Philippiiie  Archipelago  formed  an  isolated  settlement  in 
the  Far  East  which  traders  or  pleasure-seekers  rarely  visited  en  passant 
to  explore  and  reveal  to  the  world  its  natural  wealth  and  beauty.  It 
was  a  Colony  comparatively  so  little  known,  that  old  residents  on 
visiting  Singapore  and  Hongkong  were  often  higldy  amused  by  the 
extravagant  notion,  h  h  p  Id,  even  there,  concerning  the  Philip- 
pines. But  the  reg  I  n  ab  eferred  to  were  an  aavantage  to  the 
respectable  resident  I  yhd  he  desirable  effect  of  excluding  many 
of  those  uondescrip  w  nd  d  social  outcasts  who  invade  other 

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CHAPTER     X  y  I. 


In  years  gone  l)j,  before  so  msDv  colouies  weie  opened  up  ull  over 
the  world,  the  few  who,  in  the  Philippines,  had  the  courege  to  face 
the  obBtaclea  to  agrienlture  in  a  primitive  country  made  fairly  large 
fortunes  in  tho  main  staple  prodiifits.  Sugar  and  Hemii.  Prices  were 
then  treble  what  tliey  have  since  been — labour  was  cheaper,  because 
the  necessities  of  the  labouring  class  were  fewer,  and,  owing  to  the 
limited  demand,  buffaloes  for  tilling  M'ere  worth  one-fifth  of  what  they 
cost  at  the  present  day.  Although  the  amount  of  trade  was  vastly  less, 
those  natives  engaged  in  it  were  in  sounder  positions  than  the  same 
class  generally  is  now. 

Within  the  last  few  years,  there  are  Imndreds  who  have  embarked 
in  agricultural  enterprises  with  only  one-tenth  of  the  capital  necessary 
to  make  them  a  success.  A  man  will  start  planting  with  only  a  few 
hundred  dollars  and  a  tract  of  cleared  laud,  without  title  deeds,  and 
consequently  of  no  negotiable  value.  In  tho  first  year  he  inevitably 
falls  into  the  hands  of  money-lenders,  who  reasonably  stipulate  for  a 
very  high  rate  of  interest  in  view  of  tJie  want  of  guarantees.  The 
rates  of  interest  on  loans  under  such  circura stances  vary  as  a  rule  from 
12  to  24  per  cent.  I  know  a  Visayo  native  who,  by  way  of  interest, 
commission  and  charges,  demanded  as  much  as  30  per  cent.  I  need 
not  refer  to  the  isolated  cases  which  have  come  to  my  knowledge  of 
over  100  per  cent,  being  charged.  As  at  tiie  present  day,  agriculture 
in  the  Philippines  does  not  yield  30  per  cent,  uett  profit,  it  naturally 
follows  that  the  money-lender  at  that  rate  has  to  attach  the  estate  upon 
which  he  has  made  loans,  and  finally  becomes  owner  of  it.  lu  the 
meantime,  the  colonist  who  has  directed  the  labour  of  converting  a 
tract  of  land  into  a  plantation,  simply  gets  a  living  out  of  it.  Some 
few  are  able  to  disencumber  their  property  by  paying,  year  by  year,  not 
only  the  whole  of  the  nett  returns  from  the  plantation,  but  also  the 

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VALUE    OF   ARABLE    LAND.  307" 

profits  on  smiill  traffic  in  iviileli  tlioy  may  liavG  speculated.  It  seldom 
liitppens,  liowever,  that  the  native  planter  is  sufficieatly  loya.1  to  his 
financial  Bupportcr  to  tio  this  ;  on  the  contrary,  although  he  maj'  owe 
thousands  of  dollars,  he  will  spend  money  in  feasts,  and  undertake 
fresh  obligations  of  &  most  worthless  natuvs.  He  will  buy  on  credit, 
to  be  paid  for  after  the  next  crop,  an  amount  of  paltry  jewellery  from 
tho  first  hawker  who  passes  his  way,  or  let  the  cash  slip  out  of  his 
hands  at  the  coek-plt  or  the  gambling  table. 

E\en  the  most  f  jrluntte  seem  to  make  no  pTOvision  for  a  bad  year, 
lud  the  consequence  \  as,  that  m  1887,1  think  I  may  safely  assert, 
tlatifallthe  Philippme  planters  had  hid  to  liquidate  within  twelve 
months,  eeitamly  50%  ot  them  would  liave  been  insolvent.  Oue  of 
tho  most  h  laartlout  Imsmes'tes  in  tJie  Colony  is  that  of  advancing  to 
the  nttive  pi intct=,  unless  it  bo  done  ■with  the  express  intention  of 
cvcntuillj  becoming  oi\n(,i  of  m  estate,  which  is  really  often  the  case. 

The  value  of  laud  suitable  for  sugir-eaue  growing  varies  cou- 
Biderablv,  being  dependent  ou  proximity  to  a  port,  or  sugar  market, 
J  nd  on  qualitj ,  facilities  f oi  di  aiuagp,  tmnspoi-t,  site,  boundaries,  etc. 

In  the  ProMnee  of  Bui  tciu,  which  adjoins  that  of  Manila,  land, 
which  in  1  gre  it  meinure  is  e^:li  lusted  jnd  yields  only  an  average  of 
21  tons  of  cane  per  acre,  is  v  ilued,  on  account  of  lis  nearness  to  tho 
Capitil,  at  $115  per  •\uq  Iu  Pimpmga  Province,  a  little  fartlier 
north,  the  a\engo  \alue  of  Imd,  jicllmg  say  30  tons  of  cane  per  acre, 
la  $75  per  icre  Still  tirthor  noith,  iii  the  Province  of  Nueva  Eeija, 
whence  transport  to  the  sugar  market  Is  difficult,  and  can  only  be 
ocouomicalty  effected  in  the  wet  season  by  river,  land  produciutr  an 
average  of  35  tons  of  cane  per  acre  will  hardly  fetch  more  tlian  J-SO 
per  acre.     Railroads  will  no  doubt  eventually  level  those  values. 

In  reality,  Bulaean  land  is  priced  higher  than  its  intrinsic  value  as 
ascertained  by  yield,  aud  economy  of  pi-oJuce  transport.  The  natives 
are,  everywhere  in  the  Colony,  more  or  less  averse  to  alienating  real 
estate  inherited  from  their  forefathers,  and  as  Bulaean  is  one  of  the 
first  provinces  where  lands  were  taken  up,  centuries  ago,  an  attachment 
to  the  soil  is  particularly  noticeable.  In  that  province,  as  a  i  iile,  only 
genuine  necessity,  or  a  fancy  price  far  in  excess  of  producing- worth, 
would  induce  an  owner  to  sell  his  land. 

Land  grants  were  obtainable  from  the  Spanish  Government  by 
proving   priority  of  claim,  but  the   concession  waa  only  given  after 

U  1 

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wearisome  tlelay.  Then  large  capital  was  requisite  to  utilize  tlie  pro- 
perty, the  clearance  often  costiug  more  than  the  virgin  tract,  whilst  the 
eviction  of  squatters  was  a  most  difficult  uudertakiug  ;  "  J'^  *"*«  et  fi/ 
rcsle,"  thought  the  squatter,  aud  the  grantee  had  no  speedy  redress  at 
law.  On  the  other  hand,  the  soil  is  so  wonderfully  rich  and  fertile,  that 
tlie  sliiidy  of  geoponica  and  artificial  manuring  is  never  thought  essential. 
The  finest  Sugar-cane  producing  island  in  the  Archipelago  is 
Negros,  in  the  Visaya  district,  between  N.  latitudes  9°  and  1 1°.  The 
area  of  the  island  is  about  equal  to  that  of  Porto  Kico,  but  for  want  of 
capital,  is  only  about  one-half  opened  up.  Nevertheless,  it  sent  to  the 
Yloilo  market  in  1892  over  113,000  tons  of  raw  sugar — the  largest 
crop  it  has  yet  produced.' 

The  price  of  uncleared  laud  there,  suitable  for  sugar-caue  cultivation, 
ia  accessible  spots,  is  say  $35  per  aci'c,  aud  cleared  land  may  be 
considered  worth  about  $70  per  acre.  The  yield  of  sugar-cane  may 
be  estimated  at  40  tons  per  acre  on  the  estates  opened  up  within  the 
last  ten  years,  whilst  the  older  estates  proiluco  per  acre  nearer  30  tous 
of  cane,  but  of  a  quaUty  which  gives  such  a  high-class  sugar  tliat  it 
compensates  for  the  decrease  in  quautity,  taking  also  into  account  the 
economy  of  manipulating  and  transportiag  less  bulk. 

Otaheiti  cane  is  generally  planted  in  Luzon,  whilst  Java  caue  is 
most  common  in  the  Southern  islands. 

The  following  equivalents  of  Philippine  laud  measure  may  be 
useful,  viz.  : — 

1  Quiiion  -     -  =  40,000  square  varas  =  10,000  square  brazas. 

=  5  oabans  ^  6'9444  acres  =  2-795  hectares. 
1   Balita     -     -  =  4,000  square  varas  =  1,000  square  brazas. 

=  -69444  acre  =  -2790  hectare. 
1  Loan-     -     -  =  400  square  varas  =  100  square  brazas. 

=  -06944  acre  =  -02795  hectare. 

1   Square  Braza=  3-361 1  square  English  yards. 

=  4355-98  „  inches. 

1   Square  Vara  =  "8402  ,,  yards. 

=  1088-89  „  inches. 

1   Acre-     -     -  =  5760  square  varas  =  1-44  balitas. 

^  -72  cabau^  "404671  hectare. 

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The  average  yield  of  sugar  per  aero  is  approximately  as  follows, 

Pampanga  Province,  say  @)  6i  °/o  CKtraction  -        -  =  1-93  Tons  ot  Sugar, 
Other  Northarii  provinces,  say  @  5{  "j^  eitraction  -  =  1-G5       „    „        „ 
MegTos  Island  (with  almost  eiclusivcly  European 

mills),  aay  @  ^J  "/^  extraction  -        -        -  =  2-73       „     „        „ 

From  Yloilo  the  sugar  is  chiefly  exported  to  tlie  United  States, 
where  there  is  a  demand  for  raw  material  only  from  the  Philippiuos  for 
the  purpose  of  refiniug,  whilst  from  Manila  a  certain  quantity  of 
crystal  grain  sugar  ia  sent,  ready  for  consumption,  to  Spain,  Conse- 
quently, in  the  Island  of  LuKon,  a,  higher  class  of  msichiuery  is 
employed.  In  1890  there  were  five  private  estates,  with  vacuum  pans 
erected,  and  one  refinery,  near  Manila  (at  Malabon).  Also  in  1885  the 
Government  acquired  a  sugar  machinery  plant  witli  vacuum  pan  for 
their  model  estate  at  San  Ramon  in  the  Province  of  Zamboauga  ;  the 
sugar  turned  out  at  the  trial  of  the  plant  was  equal  to  21  D.  S.  of  that 
year.     Convict  labour  was  employed. 

It  is  a  rare  thing  to  see  others  than  European  mills  in  the  Island 
of  Negros,  whilst  in  every  other  sugar-producing  province  roughly 
made  vertical  cattle-mills  of  wood,  or  stone  (wood  in  the  south  and 
stone  in  the  north),  as  introduced  by  the  Chinese,  are  still  in  use.  The 
triple  effect  refining  plant  is  altogether  unknown  in  this  colony. 

The  sugar  estates  generally  are  small.  There  are  not  a  do:!en  estates 
in  the  whole  colony  which  produce  over  1,000  tons  of  raw  sugar  each, 
per  season.  An  estate  turning  out  500  tons  of  sugar  is  considered 
ft  large  one.  I  know  o£  one  estate  which  yields  1,500  tons,  and  anotlier 
1,900  tons  in  a  good  season.  In  the  Island  of  !Negros  there  is  no  port 
suitahle  for  loading  ships  of  large  tonnage,  and  the  crops  have  to  he 
carried  to  the  Yloilo  market,  in  small  schooners,  loaiHiig  from  40  to  100 
Ions  (vide  page  299).  From  the  estates  to  the  coast  there  are  neither 
canals  nor  railroads,  and  the  transport  is  by  buffalo  cart.  Five-year-old 
buffaloes,  in  good  condition,  are  worth  in  Negros  Island  abont  $30,  and 
labourers'  wages  are  about  a  dollar-and-a-half  per  week.  In  Luzon 
Island,  especially  in  Camarines  and  Tayabas,  good  buffaloes  can  be 
purchased  for  half  the  above  price. 

The  highest  table- lands  are  nsed  for  cane-planting,  which 
imperatively  require  a  good  system  of  drainage.     In  Luzon  Island  the 

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output  of  Siigiir  would  be  far  greater  if  more  attention  were  paid  to 
the  seasons.  Tlie  cane  should  be  cut  in  Decembnr,  and  tbe  tniliing 
should  never  last  over  ten  weeks.  The  new  cane-point  setting  should 
be  commenced  a  fortnight  after  the  milling  begins,  anil  the  whole 
operation  of  manufacture  and  planting  for  the  new  crop  should  be 
finished  by  the  middle  of  March.  A  deal  of  sugar  is  lost  by  delay  in 
each  branch  of  the  field  labour. 

In  tho  West  ladies  the  planters  set  the  oaues  out  widely,  leaving 
plenty  of  space  for  the  development  of  the  roots,  and  the  ratooas  serve 
up  to  from  five  to  twenty  years.  In  the  Philippines  the  setting  of 
cane-points  is  renewed  each  year,  with  few  exceptions,  and  the  planting 
is  comparatively  close. 

Bnlacan  sugar  land,  being  more  exhausted  that  Pampanga  land^ 
will  not  admit  of  such  close  planting,  hence  Bnlacan  land  can  only  find 
nourishment  for  14,300  points  per  aero,  whilst  Pampanga  land  take? 
17,800  points  on  average  computation. 

In  Negros,  current  sugar  is  raised  from  new  lands  (among  the 
best)  and  from  lands  which  are  hardly  considered  suitable  for  cane 
planting.  Good  lands  are  called  "  new  "  for  three  crops  in  Kcgros,  and 
during  that  period  the  planting  is  close,  to  choke  the  cane  and  prevent 
its  becoming  aqueous  by  too  rapid  development. 

In  the  Northern  Philippines  "clayed"  sugar  is  made.  The 
nmssecuite,  when  drawn  from  the  pans,  is  turned  into  earthenware  pots 
containing  about  150  lbs.  weight.  When  the  mass  has  set,  tho  pot  ia 
placed  over  a  jar  into  which  the  molasses  drains.  In  six  months, 
if  allowed  to  remain  over  the  jar,  it  will  drain  a!>out  20%  of  its 
original  weight,  but  it  is  usually  sold  before  that  time,  if  prices  are 

The  molasses  is  sold  to  the  distilleries  for  making  Alcohol,*  whilst 
there  is  a  certain  demand  for  it  for  mixing  with  the  drinking  water 
given  to  horses. 

From  nine  tests  which  I  made  with  steam  machinery,  of  small 
capacity,    in   difFerent    places    in    the    Northern    provinces,    without 

'Molasses  ia  toM  bj   t!ie   Tiniija,   wliich   i 
19  inches  in  height  and  17i  inches  at 
ganias  (liquid  meaenre)  ^  iS  litres. 

'  The  Eiile  oi  alcohol  was  a  Government  monopolj  until  the  year  1862. 



interfering  ■with  the  customary  system  of  manipulating  the  cane  or  the 

adjustment  of  the  mill  rolls,  1  found  the — 

Average  guice  estraction  to  be  -  -  -  -     56-37  °/„ 

„        Moisture  in  the  mcgaBS  on  leaving  the  mill   -    23-27  „ 
„        Amount  of  dry  megass'  ...    20-3S  „ 

100-00  "/q 

The  average  density  o£  juice  in  ihe  cane  workcii  off  as  above  was  lOi'  Beaume. 

In  Negros  the  process  is  very  dilferent.  Tbe  juice  is  evaporated 
in  the  pan  batt«ry  to  a  higher  point  of  coni-entration,  so  that  the 
molaases  hecotoes  incorporated  with  the  saccharine  grain.  It  is  then 
turned  out  into  a  wooden  trougli,  about  eight  feet  long  liy  four  feet 
■wide,  and  stirred  about  with  shovels,  until  it  has  cooled  so  far  as  to  be 
unable  to  form  into  a  solid  mass,  or  lumps.  When  quite  cold,  the  few 
lumps  visible  are  pouuded,  and  the  -whole  is  packed  in  grass  bags 
(hayones).  Sugar  packed  in  this  way  is  deliverable  to  shippers,  whereas 
"  clayed  "  sugar  can  only  be  sold  to  the  assorters  and  packers  (farderos) 
■who  sun-dry  it  on  mats  and  then  bag  it  after  making  up  the  colour  and 
quality  to  exporter's  sample. 

The  Labour  system  in  the  Northern  Pbilippinea  is  quite  distinct 
from  that  adopted  in  (he  South.  The  piantations  in  the  North  are 
worked  on  the  co-operative  principle  (^sisiema  tic  inquUinos).  The 
landowner  divides  his  estate  into  tenements,  each  tenant  being  provided 
with  a  buffalo  and  agricultural  implements  to  work  up  the  plot — plant — 
and  attend  to  the  cane  growth  as  if  it  were  his  own  property.  When 
the  cutting  season  arrives,  one  tenant  at  a  time  brings  in  his  eane  to  the 
mill,  aud  when  the  sugar  is  worked  off,  usually  one-third,  but  often  as 
much  as  one-half  of  the  output,  according  to  arrangement,  belongs  to 
the  tenant.  The  tenant  provides  the  hands  required  for  the  operations 
of  cane-crushing  and  sugar-making  ;  the  cost  of  mnehinery  and  factory 
establishment  is  for  tbe  account  of  the  landowner,  who  also  has  to  take 
the  entire  risk  of  typhoons,  inundations,  drought,  locusts,   &c. 

'  British  j>afents  for  paper-making  from  sugar-cane  fibre  were  granted  to  Berry 
in  1838,  Johnson  in  1855,  Jullion  in  1855,  Euckand  Touehe  in  1856,  and  Hook  ia  1857. 

*  Siuce  about  the  year  1885,  a  weed  baa  been  obrerved  toapontaneouHlygerminale 
around  the  roots  of  the  Bugar-eaiu  in  the  Laguna  Pi-ovinee.  The  natives  have 
given  it  the  name  of  Bulaclac  naxg  tabo  (Sugar-cane  flower),  it  destroys  tlie 
saccharine  properties  of  the  cano.  The  bitter  juice  of  this  weed  ha«  been  found  to 
be  a  useful  palliative  for  certain  diseases. 



During  the  year,  whilst  the  cano  is  maturing,  the  tenants  receive 
advances  agaiust  tlieir  estimated  sliare,  some  even  beyond  the  full 
value,  so  that,  in  nearly  every  case,  the  full  crop  rornains  in  the  hands 
o£  the  estate  owner.  In  the  general  working  of  the  plantation  hired 
day  labour  is  not  required,  the  tenants,  in  fact,  being  regarded,  in  every 
sense,  as  servants  of  the  owner,  who  employs  them  for  whatever  service 
he  may  need.  Interest  at  ten  to  twelve  per  ceut.  per  annum  is  charged 
upon  the  advances  made  in  monoy,  rice,  stuffs,  etc.  during  the  year; 
and  on  taking  over  the  tenant's  sliare  of  output,  as  against  these 
advances,  a  rebate  on  current  price  of  the  sugar  is  often  agreed  to. 

In  the  South,  plantations  are  worked  on  the  daily  wages  system, 
(sislema  dejornal),  aud  the  labourer  will  frequently  exact  his  pay  for 
several  weeks  in  advance.  Great  vigilance  is  requisite,  and  on  estates 
exceeding  certain  dimensions,  it  is  often  necessary  to  sub-divide  the 
management,  apportioning  it  off  to  overseers,  or  limited  partners,  called 
"  Asas."  Both  on  European  and  native  owners'  estates  these  axas  were 
often  Spaniards.  The  axas'  interest  varies  on  different  properties,  but 
generally  speaking,  he  is  either  credited  witli  one-third  of  the  prmluct 
and  supplied  with  necessary  capital,  or  be  receives  two-thirds  of  the 
yield  of  the  land  under  his  care  and  he  finds  his  own  working  capital 
for  its  tilth,  whilst  the  sunk  capital  in  land,  machinery,  sheds,  stores, 
etc.  is  for  the  account  of  the  owner. 

In  1877  a  British  Company — the  "Teugarie" — was  started  with 
a  large  capital  for  the  purpose  of  acquiring  cane  juice  all  over  the 
Colony  and  extracting  from  it  highly  refined  sugar.  The  works,  fitted 
with  vacuum  pans  and  all  tlie  latest  improvements  connected  with  this 
class  of  apparatus,  were  established  at  Mandaloyan,  about  three  miles 
from  Manila  up  the  Pasig  Elver.  From  certain  parts  of  Luzon 
Island  the  juice  was  to  be  conveyed  to  the  factory  in  tubes,  and  the 
promoter,  who  visited  Cebu  Island,  proposed  to  send  schooners  there 
fitted  with  tanks,  to  bring  the  defecated  liquid  to  Mandaloyan.  The 
project  was  an  entire  failure  from  the  beginning  (for  the  ordinary 
shareholders  at  least),  aud  in  1880  the  machinery  plant  was  being 
realised  and  t!ie  company  wound  up. 

The  classification  of  the  sugar  in  the  South  differs  from  that  in 
the  North.  In  the  former  market  it  is  ranked  as  Nos.  0, 1, 2,  3  Superior 
and  Current.  For  the  American  market  these  qualities  are  blended, 
to  make  up  what  is  called  "Assorted  Sugar,"  in  the  proportion  of 

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one-oightb  of  No.  1,  two-eighths  of  No.  2  and  five-eightha  of  No.  n. 
In  tbe  Nortli  tho  quality  ia  determinetl  on  the  Dutch  staudurd,  and 
No.  9  D.  S.  is  about  equivalent  to  No.  1  Yloilo.  The  New  York  and 
London  markets  fix  the  prices,  which  arc  cabled  daily  to  Manila. 

The  following  pro  forma  Estiniiites  (tho  final  rcauh  depends  on 
the  selling  price  of  the  day)  may  serve  for  comparison  with  the  nctt 
cost  of  production  in  other  sugar- yielding  Colonies  :— 

Estimated  cost  of  producing  Philippine  Sugar,™known  in  the 
market  as  "  Yloilo  Superior," — in  the  Island  of  Negros, 

300  cabana  of  land  (=  420  acres)  taken^up  in  the  fonrth  year  of 
clearance,  suitable  for  cane  planting,  the  half  of  which — 1.50  oabans 
(=v  210  acres)  being  planted  nt  one  time — the  other  half  lying  fallow. 

Each  eaban  produeiog  an  average  of  61'60  pieuls  of  sugar  = 
92iO  pieuls  (@  7i%  extraction  =  3'85  tons  of  sugar  per  caban 
—  2-75  toQS  per  acre  =  577^  tons  yield  from  the  210  acres  or  150 
cabana. — It  is  customary  to  plough  five  times  in  Negros. 

Invested  CAriTAL. 

300  cabana  of  cleared  iaiid  purchased  @  $98  per  caban       -  29,400  00 

Machinery  for  milling  cane,  sugar  pan  battery,  etc.              -  6,000  00 

Machinery  shed,  and  sugar  store         -             -             »         .  1,500  00 

Manager's  residence            .             -             -             .             ,  1,500  00 

150  buffaloes  @  $30  each  =  $4,500,  feucing  $500  -  -  5,000  00 
For  making  roads,  draiuiug  dykca  and  caiiats  $1,000,  two 

vehicles  and  six  horses  $350   -             -             -             -  1,350  00 

For  say  20  three  feet  diameter  culverts  under  roads   -         -  400  00 

Advances  to  labourers  unrecoverable  $500  ;  40  cottages  $800  1,300  00 

40  carts  @  $50  =  $2,000  ;  20  oxen  and  cowa  @  $25  =  $500  2,500  00 
50  ploughs,  100  spare  shares,  60  wood  knives,  60  shovels, 

100  yokea,  60  pairs  steel  wive  rope  traces,  spare  holts 

and  nuts,  tar,  general  stores,  etc.               -             -         -  1,500  00 

Small  band  saw  and  bench  $150 ;  portable  forge  $25          -  175  00 

Smith's  tools  $125,  carpenter's  tools  $25    -             -             -  250  00 

General  shop  for  smith  and  carpenter  -  -  -  500  00 
Transport  by  land  or  by  sea  of  above  roqitirenicnts  to  the 

estate  from  the  place  of  purchase  -  -  _  275  00 
Total  Invested  Capital         -  $51,650  00 

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WoKKiNfr  Expensed. 

8    cU. 

4  Overseers  @    $6  per  montli  eacii,  the  whole  year         -  288  00 

40  Labourers  @    $4  „         „         „        „         „      „             -  1,920  00 

\  Machinist  @  $30  „  „  „  „  „  „  -  360  00 
1  Assistant  Machinist  @  $li)   per  mouth   for   the  season 

of  3  months  -  -  -  -  -  45  00 
100   Labourers  @    $1.50  per  week    for  the  season  of   3 

months       -----                 -  1,800  00 

Food  for  labourers  during  the  whole  time  of  service  -          -  2,000  00 

20,000  half-picul  grass  bags  {hnyones)  ®  $4.50  per  100      -  900  00 

Wood  fuel 135  00 

Oil,  lamps,  lime,  laiiles  and  divers  milling  expenses  -  -  632  00 
Freight  ou  9,240  piculs  sugar  to  Tloilo  @  12^  cents  per 

picul 1,155  00 

Loading,  discharging  and  divers  expenses  on  <lelivcry  at 

Yioilo  @  12i  cents  per  picul  .             -             -             -  1,155  00 

Machinery  licence  and  charges                 -              -                 -  70  00 

Animal  and  vehicle  licences                  -             -             -         -  20  00 

Maintenance  of  vehicles  and  horses              -             -             -  50  00 

Preservation  of  roads,  dykes,  canals,  fences  and  machinery  -  500  00 

To  renew  live  stock  and  divers  petty  losses          -                 -  500  00 

For  general  improvements  on  estate,  yearly  overage,  sav  -  1,000  00 
Renovation  of  ploughs,  hohie-knivos,  shovels,  yokes,  carts, 

roofing,  &c.  -  -  -  -  -  1,320  00 
Transport  from  Yioilo  or  elsewhere  of  estate  requirements  : 

Manager  journeying  to  and  from  Yioilo  and  up  the 

coast  duriag  the  year  -  -  -  -  1 50  00 
Manager's  salary  (or  owner's  living  expenses,  if  acting  as 

manager)             ..-,--  ),500  00 

Total  Working  Capital  -  -  $15,500  00 


Prime  cost  to  the  producer  of  "  YloHo  superior"  (assorted)  raw 
sugar  delivered  io  the  Yioilo  market,  say  $26-84  per  ton,  or  $1'67|  per 
pical.     The  margin  of  profit  between  above  cost  and  average  Yioilo 

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CAHE    SUGAK   OUSTED    BY   I5EET-1100T.- 


selling  price  in  t!ie  year  of  greatest  depression  iu  tlie  trade  ("1885)  was 
say  15°i'(,  OQ  the  total  capital  employed.  With,  the  pves>ent  data  the 
profit  can  be  easily  estimated  by  comparison  with  the  current  quotation 
of  the  day  ;  taking  "  assorted  "  sugiir  at  say  J;3'25  per  picul  seiliag 
price,  the  profit  would  be  21^°/^,  From  a  series  of  estimates  compiled 
by  me  I  fiad  that  to  produce  only  up  to  7,000  piculs,  the  coat  laid  down 
in  Yloilo  would  be  say  J2.00  per  pioul  ($32.00  per  ton) — and  in  Hke 
manner,  the  smaller  the  output  the  larger  is  the  prime  cost. 

Fortunes  ha\e  been  made  m  this  Colony  in  cane  sugar,  and  until 
the  end  of  1S83  sugir-plantrng  paid  the  capitalist  lad  left  something 
to  the  borrowing  planter  ,  now  it  paja  only  interest  on  capital.  From 
the  year  1884  the  suhsuliaed  beetroot  sugu  manufattuiers  on  the 
continent  o£  Lnrope  turned  out  such  enormon-j  quantities  of  this  article 
that   tLe   total   j  leid   of   ^ug  ir,  it  Itngtli,  tai    exceeded  the  world's 

The  confeequecee  w  a' 

that  the 

almost  at  the  iame  ratio  as  that  of  beet-root  aUanced,  . 
from  tiie  subjoined  figures  — - 

uifictnre  decliued 

The  world's  production  iu  1880,  cane  siigLii 


-  3,285,714 

-  1,443,349 

The  world's  product io 

u  1887,  canes 



-  2,333,004 

-  2,492,610 

Increase     1 ,049,261 
Decrease       952,710 

The  woriil's  output  was  only    - 
by  reason  of  the  beet-root  sugar  competiti 

Increased        96,551 

The  staple  food  of  the  native  Vieiug  Rice,  this  grain  is  cultivated 
more  or  less  largely  in  every  province  of  the  Colony.  Its  market  value 
fluctuates  considerably  according  to  the  stocks  in  liand  and  the  season 
oC  the  year.     It  appears  to  be  the  only  branch  of  agriculture  in  which 

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the  lower  classes  of  natives  tiike  a  visible  pleasure  anil  which  they 
understaud  thorouglily.     In  1897  about  80,000  tons  were  raised. 

The  natives  measure  and  sell  rice  and  paddy  by  the  cahan  and  its 
fractions  ;  the  cahan  dry  measure  is  as  follows,  viz,  ;-— 
4  Apatans  =  1  Chupa  ;  8  Chnpiis  =  1  G-anta  ;  25  Gautas  =  1  Cabaa. 
the  equivalent  of  which  in  English  measure  is  thus,  viz.  ; — 

1  Atapan  =  -168(5  oE  a  pint. 

1  Chupa    =  -675  of  a  pint. 

1  Ganta    :=  2  quarts,  If  pint. 

1  Cabaa    ^  16  gallons,  3  quarts,  1  piut. 
Eiee  of  foreign  importation  is  weighed  and  quoted  Ijy  the  picul 
of  133^  lbs.  avoirdupois. 

16  Taels  =  1  Catty  ;  10  Catties  =  I  Ghinanta  ,  10  Chmintas  =  1  Picul 
Twenty-five  years  ago  lioe  was  cxporte  t  fiom  the  Philippines,  but 
now  not  even  sufficient  is  produced  for  home  cjusumption,  hence  this 
commodity  is  imported  in  large  quantities  from  Siam,  Lower  Burmih, 
and  Cocliin  China  to  supply  the  deficiency '  Sual,  to  the  north  ot 
l^angasinan  Province,  on  the  Gulf  of  Ling^^en,  was,  thiity  years  ago, 
a  port  of  importance,  whence  rice  was  shipped  to  China  It  lin^>,  since 
that  period,  declined  to  the  rsink  of  an  in-^ignihciut  village  This 
falling  otF  of  rice  production  does  not,  ho(\evi,r,  imply  a  loss  to  the 
population.  Land  which,  in  many  provinces,  was  used  fonice  growing, 
is  now  turned  to  better  account  for  raising  other  crops  which  pay  better 
in  a  fairly  good  market. 

The  natives  everywhere  continue  to  employ  the  primitive  method  of 
treating  rice  paddy  for  domestic  and  local  use.  The  grain  is  generally 
hnsked  by  them  in  a  large  mortar  hewn  from  a  bloelc  of  molave,  or 
other  hard  wood,  in  which  it  is  beaten  by  a  pestel.  Sometimes  two 
or  three  men  or  women  with  wooden  pestles  work  at  the  same  mortar. 
This  mortar  is  termed,  in  Tagalog  dialect,  Luzon,  tlie  name  given  to 
the  largest  island  of  the  group.  Plowcver,  I  have  seen  in  the  towns  of 
Candava,  Province  of  Pampauga  ;  Pagsanjan,  Province  of  La  Laguna  ; 
near  Calamba  in  the  same  Province  ;  in  Kaig,  Province  of  Cavit«  ;  in 
Camariaes  Province,  and  a  few  otlier  places,  an  attempt  to  improve 
upon  the  current  system  by  employing  an  ingenious  wooden  mechanical 

'  In  1897  nearly  G5,000  tons  of  rice  were  imported. 

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apparatiis  worked  by  buffaloes.  It  consisted  of  a  vertical  shaft  on 
which  waa  keyed  a  bevel  wheel  revolving  horizontally  and  geared  into 
a  bevel  pinion  fixed  upon  a  horizontal  shaft.  In  this  shaft  were 
adjusted  pins,  which,  at  each  revolution,  caught  tho  corresponding  pins 
in  vertical  sliding  columns.  These  columns  (five  or  six)  — being 
thereby  raised  and  allowed  to  fall  of  their  own  weight  when  the  raising 
pins  had  passed  on — actod  as  pounders,  or  pestles,  in  the  mortars 
placed  below  them.  Subsequently,  unexampled  progress  was  made  in 
Camarines  Province  by  Spaniards,  who,  in  1888,  employed  ateara  power, 
whilst  in  Pagsaujau  the  animal  motive  power  was  substituted  by  that 
of  steam,  the  owner  having  purchased  a  small  engine  and  accessories 
from  a  planter  of  Santa  Cruz  do  la  Laguna.  Also  near  Calamha,  water 
power  was  eventually  employed  to  advantage.  In  Negros,  near  the 
village  of  Candaguit,  I  have  seen  oue  small  rice  machiuery  plant 
worked  by  stoam  power,  it  having  been  brought  by  a  Spaniard  from 
Valencia  in  Spain.  I  presume  it  wiis  not  a  success,  as  it  remained 
only  ft  short  time  in  use. 

Finally  the  Manila- Dagiipan  Railway  gave  a  great  stimulus  to  the 
rice  husking  and  pearling  industry,  which  was  taken  up  by  foreigners. 
There  are  now  important  rice  stoam  power  mills  established  at 
Calumpit,  Gerona,  Moncada,  Bayambang,  and  other  places  along  the 
line  from  Calumpit  towards  Dagupan  which  supply  large  quantities  of 
cleaned  riee  to  Manila  and  other  provinces,  where  it  is  invariably  more 
highly  appreciated  than  the  imported  article.  Also,  at  Nueva  Caceres 
(Camarines)  in  1896  a  large  steam-power  rice  mill  was  being  worked 
by  Don  Manuel  Pardo,  who  had  a  steamer  specially  constructed  in 
Hongkong  for  the  transport  of  his  output  to  the  markets. 

The  average  yield  of  cleined  ret.  from  the  paddy  is  50%,  whilst 
CO  special  use  is  found  for  the  r  n  i  nm^,  00%  of  poddy  bran. 

The  customary  chai'ge  for  h  sk  ng  and  winnowing  a  eaban  of 
paddy  is  12^  cents,  so  that  as  two  cil  ans  of  paddy  give  one  eaban  of 
rice,  the  cost  of  this  labour  wo  Id  be  25  ce  ts  per  cabao  of  rice. 

The  average  amount  of  rice  consumed  by  a  working  man  per  day 
is  estimated  at  four  cliupas,  or  say  close  upon  eight  cabans  per  annum, 
and  taking  an  average  price  of  $1  per  eaban  of  paddy,  equals  $2  per 
eaban  of  rice,  plus  25  cents  for  cleaning  ^  $2.25  per  eaban  of  clean 
rice,  amounting  to  $18  per  annum,  A  native's  further  necessities  are 
fish,  an  occasional  piece  of  buffalo,  betel-utit,  tobacco,  six  yards  of 

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cotton  priiit-sUiflF  ami  pajnicnt  of  tiixes,  all  of  which  (iDclmliug  rice) 
amounts  to  say  $50  in  the  year,  so  that  a  man  earning  20  cents  per  day 
(luring  301)  days,  ciiii  live  in  luxury,  provideil  lie  has  iio  unforeseen 

There  are,  it  is  said,  over  twenty  diiferent  kinds  of  rice  paddy. 
These  are  comprised  in  two  common  groups — the  oue  is  called  Macan 
rice  (in  Spanish,  Arroz  de  Semillero)  which  is  raised  on  alluvial  soil 
on  the  low  lands  capable  of  being  flooded  conveniently  with  water,  and 
the  other  has  tho  general  denomination  (in  Luzon  Island)  of  Paga  (in 
Spanish,  Arroz  Secano)  and  is  cultivated  on  high  lauds  and  slopes 
where  inundation  is  impracticable. 

The  Macan,  or  low  land  rice,  is  much  the  finer  quality,  the  grain 
being  usually  very  white,  although  Macan  rice  is  to  be  found  containing 
up  to  25°/q  of  red  grain.  The  white  grain  is  that  most  esteemed.  The 
yield  of  grain  varies  according  to  the  quality  of  the  soil.  In  the  north 
of  Bnlaca»  Province  tho  average  crop  of  Macan  rice  may  be  taken  at 
80  oabans  of  grain  for  oue  cabau  of  seed.  In  the  south  of  the  same 
province  the  return  readies  only  one-half  of  that.  In  the  east  of 
Pampanga  Province,  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Ar:iyat,  Magalang  and 
Candava  villages,  the  yield  is  still  higher,  giving,  in  a  good  year,  as 
much  as  100  cabans  for  one  of  seeil.  In  Negros  a  return  of  50  cabana 
to  one  may  be  taken  as  a  fair  average. 

Paga  rice  always  shows  a  large  proportion  of  red  grain,  and  the 
return  is,  at  the  most,  half  that  of  Macan  yield,  but  whilst  rarely  more 
than  one  crop  per  annum  is  obtained  from  low  lands  {Macan  rice) — 
taking  the  average  in  all  the  islands — in  most  places  up  to  three  crops 
of  Paga  rice  can  be  got. 

Besides  the  ordinary  agricultural  risks  to  which  rice  cultivation  is 
exposed,  a  special  danger  often  presents  itself.  The  Paga  rice  is 
frequently  attacked  by  flies  which  suck  the  flower  just  before  seeding. 
This  is  called  in  Tagalog  dialect  Alutangia,  and  the  person  in  charge 
of  the  plantation  has  to  stroll  in  the  evenings  and  mornings  among  the 
settin"  to  whisk  ofF  these  insects  with  a  bunch  of  straws  on  the  end  of 
a  stick,  or  catch  them  with  a  net  to  save  the  graiu.  Botli  Macan  and 
Paga  are  sometimes  damaged  by  an  insect,  known  in  Ilocoa  Province 
as  Taliban^,  which  eats  through  the  stalk  of  the  plant,  causing  the 
head,  or  flower,  to  droop  over  and  wither,  but  this  does  not  happen 
with  regularity  every  season. 

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To  plant  Macan  rice  the  grain  or  seed  is  sown  in  tlie  month  of 
June  on  a  piece  of  hinil  called  the  "Hoediug  plot,"  where,  in  sis  weelts, 
it  attains  a  height  of  ahout  one  foot,  and,  provided  the  rains  have  not 
failed,  it  is  flien  pulled  up  by  the  roots  and  trans  plan  ted,  stem  by  stem, 
in  the  flooded  fields.  Each  field  is  embanked  with  earth  {in  Tagiilof^ 
pildpil)  so  that  the  water  ahall  not  run  off,  and  just  before  the  setting 
is  commenced,  the  plough  is  passed  for  the  last  time.  Then  men, 
women  and  children  go  into  the  inundated  fields  with  their  bundles  of 
rice  plant  and  stiek  the  stalks  in  the  soft  mud  one  by  one.  It  would 
Rcem  a  tedious  operation,  but  the  natives  are  so  used  to  it  that  they 
quietly  cover  a  large  field.  In  four  months  from  the  transplanting 
the  rice  is  ripe,  but  as  at  tlie  end  of  November  there  is  still  a  risk  of 
rain  falling,  ihe  harvest  is  usually  commenced  at  the  end  of  December, 
after  the  gi-ain  has  hardened  and  the  dry  season  has  fairly  set  in.  If, 
at  such  an  abnormal  period,  the  rains  were  to  return  (and  such  u 
thing  has  been  known),  the  cropj>od  harvest,  which  is  put  in  heaps  iu 
sheaves  for  about  a  montli  to  dry,  would  be  greatly  exposed  to  mildew 
owing  to  the  damp  atmosphere.  After  tiie  heaping — at  the  end  of 
•Tauuavy — the  paddy,  still  in  the  stniw,  is  made  into  stacks  (in  Tagilog 
Maiidald).  In  six  weeks  moro  the  grain  is  separated  from  the  straw, 
find  this  operation  has  to  bo  conelitded  before  the  next  wet  season 
begins— say  about  the  15tli  of  April.  On  the  Pacific  coast  (Camarines 
and  Albay),  where  the  seasons  are  reversed  (rirfe  page  IG),  rice  is 
planted  out  in  September  and  reaped  in  February. 

The  separation  of  the  grain  is  cflected  in  several  ways.  Some  beat 
it  out  with  their  feet,  others  flail  it,  whilst  iu  Cavite  Province  it  is  a 
common  practice  to  spread  the  sheaves  in  a  circular  enclosure  withiii 
which  a  number  of  ponies  and  foals  are  trotted. 

In  Ncgros  Island  there  is  what  is  termed  Ami  riee — a  small  crop 
which  spontaneously  rises  in  successiou  to  the  regular  crop  after  the 
first  ploughing. 

It  seldom  happens  that  a  "  seeding  plot "  is  oliUgcd  to  be  allowed 
to  run  to  seed  for  want  of  rain  for  transplanting,  but  in  sucii  aneveut 
it  is  said  to  yield  at  the  most  ten-fold, 

Paddy -planting,  commercially  considered,  is  not  a  lucrative  under- 
taking, and  few  take  it  up  on  a  large  scale,  Kone  of  the  large  millers 
employing  steam  power  are,  at  the  same  time,  grain  cultivators. 
There  is  this  advantage  about  the  business,  that  the  grower  is  lesa 

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322  I'HILIl'riNE    ISLANDS. 

likely  to  bo  confrouted  with  the  lii,l)Our  difficultv,  for  the  work  ot 
planting  out  aud  gsitheriug  iu  tlie  crop  Is,  to  the  native  and  Lis  family, 
«  geuial  ocKupaiiou, 

Kice  harvest  time  ia  a  lively  one  among  the  poor  tenants,  who,  as 
a  rule,  are  practically  tlic  landowner's  partners  working  for  half  tho 
erop,  against  whieli  they  receive  advances  during  tlie  year.  Therefore, 
cost  of  labour  may  be  taken  at  50°,'o  plus  ItP/g  stolen  from  the  owner's 
share.  After  further  dediietiug  cost  of  transport  to  market  aud  $750 
per  annum  fur  manager's  (or  onuei's)  living  expenses,  the  uett  return 
on  a  rice  plantation,  employing  some  $11,000  capital,  would  be  say, 
13°.'o,  presuming  an  ^\era^e  jieh!  of  fifty-fold  @  $1  per  cabau  of 
paddy.  To  ( oniparo  with  sugar  cane  planting  (which  takes  a  larger 
amount  of  m\e&feil  Lapitil  of  doubtful  realization),  it  must  be 
remembeied  that  rice  pioducmg  has  maintained  its  normal  state  of 
prosperity,  whilst  sugar,  at  the  lowest  price  known  here,  gave  a  larger 
profit  on  outla\  than  rice  does  1  he  m  nimum  profit  on  sugar  exceeds 
the  maximum  pioht  on  nee  to  tiie  ^lower. 

iS'othmg  m  iatnu  is  mne  loveJi  than  a  valley  of  green  half- 
ripened  rite  pal  U    su  icnn  lei  1  ^  M,riant  hills. 






Hkkp  (Musa  lextilis)—re(eTred  to  by  some  writers  as  M.  troglo- 
di/taruni—\%  a  wild  species  of  tlie  plantain  {M.  paradisaica),  found 
growing  iu  many  parts  of  tiie  Pliilippiue  Islands.  It  greatly  resembles 
the  M.  paradisaica,  which  bears  the  well-known  and  agreeiible  fruit— 
the  edible  banana. 

Only  connoisseurs  can  perceive  the  difference  iti  the  density  of 
colour  and  size  of  the  green  leaves — those  of  the  bemp  plant  being  of  a 
somewhat  darker  hue,  and  shorter.  Tiie  fibre  of  a  number  of  species  of 
Musa  is  used  for  weaving,  coi'dage,  etc.  in  tropical  countries. 

cd  plane, 

This  herbaeeous  plant  seems 

to  thrive  best  on  an  inclined 


for  nearly  all  the  wild  hemp  which  I  have  seen  has  been  found 

slopes  of  mountains,  even  far  a" 

■ay  down  the  ravines. 

The     1     t     Uh       h       1 

g                1      bl      m            f 


will  not  tl                        1  y '     "1 

d  t       tt                g      t  h      1 1 

be  well     h  d  d  b)     th      t 

p  bl      f  I          g  tl 

A  great    1  pth     f        1            t 

I   p        bl    f       t    d       1  p 

is  to  bo           fl          h              t 

t      1     t  t           tl       1  p        f 


formatio        I      4ib  j    P 

t                       th     d    1     t 


Mayon  \    I 

The   i   mp  f             th     Ihl 

PP                 li                       g     li 


ten  feet.     It  1  pi     t  th      t  m    f      h    1  11 

layers  of  h  If  d  p  t    !  Th     h  mp  fib  t      t  d  f    m  tl 

petioles  which,  when  cut  down,  are  septrated  mto  strips,  fiie  to  six 
inches  wide,  and  drawn  under  a  knife  att  ichecl  at  one  end  by  a  bingo 
to  a  block  of  wood,  whilst  the  other  end  is  smpeuded  to  the  extremity 
ef  a  iiesible  stick.  The  bow  tends  to  raise  the  kmfe,  and  a  eord, 
attached  to  the  same  end  of  the  knife  and  a  treadle  is  '^o  arranged,  that 
by  a  movement  of  the  foot,  the  opeiator  can  bimg  the  kmfe  to  work  on 
(he  hemp  petiole  with  the  pressure  he  chooses. 

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The  Ijast  11  lianu  llirongh  Letweeu  the  knife  auJ  tho  1  lock,  tlic 
opeiator  twi&(  ng  the  hbre,  at  en(,li  pull,  arouuil  a  «tii,k  ff  nooil  or  Lis 
ann,  ivhiht  the  pirenchi  inatons  pulp  reinaiD-- on  the  other  Fi  k  ot  Ihe 
knife      There  i    no  use  for  the  pulp 

The  knife  should  bo  TTithout  teeth  or  indentition*,  hut  neaily 
evervnhere  in  Capis  Pio^iiico  I  ha\e  eocn  itMith  a  slightly  serrated 
edg"  The  fibre  is  then  spread  out  to  dry,  and  afterwards  tightly 
]  ai,kel  m  bales  with  iiou  ui  rittaa  hoops  for  ehipmeut 

A  huer  hbre  than  the  ordinary  hemp  is  loraetimea  obtaLiicl  in 
small  qmntides  from  the  specially  selected  edgei  of  the  petiolt  ind 
this  maiennl  is  u'cl  hv  the  natives  for  weaMng  The  quantity 
prjpurable  is  limited,  and  the  difhculty  in  obtaining  it  consists  in  the 
frequent  breakage  of  the  fibre  wh  1st  beiug  dtawrt,  due  to  its  compara- 
tive fragility  Its  commercial  value  is  about  double  that  of  ordinary 
first  class  cordage  hemp  The  stuff  made  from  this  fane  hbre  (calkd  in 
Bicol  dialect  L6pis),  suits  a  Imirably  for  ladies'  dresses  Oidiuarj  hen)i> 
fibre  is  used  for  the  manufacture  of  coarse  native  stulf,  known  in 
Manila  as  Sinamay,  much  worn  by  the  poorer  classes  of  natives  ;  large 
quantities  of  it  come  froni  Tloilo.  In  Panay  Island,  a  kind  of  texture 
called  JIusi  is  made  of  a  misturo  of  fine  hemp  (lupis),  and  pine- leaf 
fibre.  Sometimes  this  fabric  is  palmed  off  on  foreigners  as  pure  piiia 
stuff,  but  a  connoisseur  can  easily  detect  the  hemp  filament  by  the  touch 
of  the  material,  tiiere  being  a  certain  amount  of  stiffness,  and  a  tendency 
to  spring  back,  in  the  hemp  fibre  as  in  horsehair,  which,  when 
compressed  into  a  ball  in  the  hand,  prevents  tho  stuff  from  retaining 
that  shape.     Piiia  fibre  is  soft  and  yielding. 

Many  attempts  have  been  made  to  draw  the  hemp  fibre  by 
machinery,  but  in  spite  of  all  strenuous  ettoits,  no  one  has  hitherto 
succeeded  in  introducing  into  the  hemp  distriits,  a  satisfactory  mecha- 
nical apparatus  It  the  entire  length  of  fibre  in  i  strip  of  bast  could 
bear  the  strain  of  f  ill  tension,  instead  of  having  to  wind  it  around  ii 
cylinder  (whn,h  woidd  take  the  place  of  the  opeiator's  hand  and  stick 
under  tho  present  system),  then  a  machine  coidd  be  contiivcd  to 
accomplish  the  work.  Machines  with  cyHudera  to  reduce  the  tension 
have  been  constructed,  the  lesult  being  admirable  &o  fur  as  the 
extraction  of  ihe  fibre  is  concerned,  but  the  cylinder  upon  which  the 
fibre  coiled,  as  it  came  fiom  under  the  knife,  always  discolouicd 
the  material.     A  tiial  was  made  with  a  glass  cylinder,  but  the  same 

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ed  u  B 

In!  a  a     aa  e  p 

f  a  to  y  e 

u  y  0     n„        a 

n      on3  of 

hb  e  es            n 


iuconveuience  was  experienced.  Oa  another  occasioQ  the  cylinder  was 
dispensed  with,  and  a  reciprocating  motion  clutch  drew  the  bast, 
ranning  to  and  fro  the  whole  length  of  the  fibre  frame,  the  fibre  being 
gripped  by  a  pair  of  steel  parallel  bars  on  its  passage  iu  one  or  two 
places,  aa  might  be  necessary,  to  lessen  the  tension.  These  steel  bars, 
however,  always  left  a  transversal  black  lino  on  the  filament,  and 
diminished  its  marketable  value. 

In  Gfibat,  Province  of  Albay,  there  was  a  machine  in  the  year  1886 
which  partially  met  the  special  requirement.  In  the  same  year  the  most 
perfect  mechanical  contrivance  hitherto  brought  out,  was  tried  in  Manila 
liy  the  inventor,  a  Spaniard,  Don  Abelardo  Cuesta ;  it  worked  to  the 
.satisfaction  of  tiiose  who      w  a  f  n  an  a     a 

si»  inconsiderable  that  the  b    k    f      n  p       pp  d  e      a 

liy  the  primitive  process. 

Musa  textilis  has  been  p  a 
but  the  result  has  not  been    a 
knowledge  of  the  essen  a 
report '  says — 

'■  The  first  trial  a  h    t  d 

"  no  proper  macliine  h      tern  mp         d 

"  mill,  but  as  it  hod  ngegcaixbrs  h 

"  the  only  one  on  wh   h  rs       vi      h     d  h 

"  result  of  grinding  the  stems  to  pulji  mslead  of  simply  bruising  them." 
In  the  Philippines  one  is  carefiU  not  to  bruise  the  stems,  as  this 
would  weaken  the  fibre  and  discolour  it. 

Another  statement  from  British  India  shows  that  Manila  hemp 
requires  a  very  special  treatment.     It  rnns  thus  ; — 

"  The  mode  of  extraction  was  the  same  as  practised  in  the  locality  with 
"  Ambai/i  (brown  hemp)  anAtrmin  hemp,  with  the  exception  that  the  stems 
"  were,  in  the  first  place,  j)asseii  through  a  sugar.cane  mill  which  got  rid  o! 
"  sap  averaging  60  i)cr  cent,  of  the  whole.  The  stems  were  nest  cottcil  in 
"  water  for  ten  to  twelve  days,  and  afterwards  washed  by  hand  and  sun- 
"  dried.  The  out-turn  of  fibre  was  IJ  lbs.  per  100  lbs,  of  fresh  stem,  a  per 
"  centage  considerably  higher  than  the  average  shown  in  the  Saidipet 
"  esperiments  ;  it  was  however  of  bad  eoloar  and  defective  in  strength." 

'  Extract  from  a  letter  dated  21)th  September,  18S5,  from  H.  Strnchan,  Esq,, 
Su[ieriiitendent,  Government  Eiperimcutal  Farm,  Hyderabad,  Sindh— and  Extract 
from  a  letter  dated  I3th  February,  ISSG,  from  A.  Stonnont,  Esq.,  Superintendent, 
GoTetoment  Experimental  Farm,  Khaudcsh — ride  "  I'he  Tropical  Agriculturist," 
Colombo,  June  1st,  1886,  page  376  et  aeq. 

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326  rniLiPFiNE  islands. 

If  treatcil  in  the  siiine  mnnner  in  the  Philippines,  a  similar  baJ 
result  would  ensue  ;  the  pressure  of  mill  roUers  would  discolour  the 
fibre,  aud  the  soaking  with  48°/o  of  pulp,  before  being  sun-dried,  would 
weaken  it. 

Dr.  Ure,  in  his  "Dietionary  of  Arts,  Mauufactures  and  Mines," 
page  1,  thus  describes  Msinila  Hemp  : — 

"  A  species  of  fibre  obtained  in  the  Philippine  Islands  in  abundance. 

"  Some  anthoritiea  refer  theee  fibres  to  the  palm  tree  known  as  the  Al/acdnr 

"  Anim  textilU.    There  seems  indeed  to  be  seieral  Hell  kaowa  varieticB  of 

"  fibre  included  under  this  name,  some  eo  fine  that  they  are  used  in  the 

"  most  delicate  and  costly  testures,  mixed  with  fibiLs  uf  the  pine  ipple, 

"  forming^ifiamnslinsand  testures  equal  to  the  best  mnslms  ot   Bengal 

"  Of  the  coarser  fibres,  mats,  cordago  and 'i^ll  Uoth  are  made     M  DuLhe-ne 

"  states  that  the  well-tnown  fibious  manufattuiea  of  Manila  have  Icdtothi 

"  manufacture  of  the  fibres  themselTes,  at  Paris,  into  many  articlesoffurni. 

"  lure  and  dress.    Their  brilliancy  and  strength  give  remarkable  fitness  for 

"  bonnets,  tapestry,  carpets,  nctworJi,  hammocks,  etc.    The  only  maun- 

"  factnred  articles  exported  from  the  Philippine  Islands,  enumerated  by 

"  Thomas  de  Comyn,  Madrid,  1820  (translated  by  Walton),  besides  a  few 

«  tanned  buffalo-hides  and  skins,  are  8,000  to  12,CO0pieces  of  light  sailcloth 

"  and  200,000  lbs.  of  assorted  Abricd  cordagi  " 

Abaca,  or  Manila  Hemp,  is  quite  a  specialitj    of  these  Islands,^ 

Mr.  Craufurd  refers  to  it  in  his  "  Hifitoiy  of  the  Eastern  Arciiipelago  " 

as  being  "known  to  our  traders  and  na\igators  under  the  name  of 

"  Manila  rope  and  is  equally  applicable  to  cables  and  to  standing  and 

"  running  rigging." 

Manila  hemp  rope  is  very  durable,  but  wanting  in  fiexibility. 
Hemp  growiog,  with  ample  eapitiil,  appears  to  be  the  most  lucrative 
and  least  troublesome  of  all  agricultural  enterprises  in  staple  export 
produce  in  the  Colony,  whilst  it  is  quite  independent  of  the  seasons. 

Planted  in  virgin  soil,  each  shoot  occupies,  at  first,  a  space  of 
ground  thirty-six  Spanish  square  feet.  In  the  course  of  time,  this 
regularity  of  distribution  disappeara  as  the  original  plant  is  felletl,  and 
the  suckers  come  up  anywhere,  spontaneously,  from  its  root, 

'  The  eatremely  fine  muslin  of  delicate  te:xture  known  in  the  Philippines  as 
Piiia  is  made  exclusively  of  pine-apple  le4if  fibre.  When  those  fibres  are  woven 
together  with  the  slender  filament  drawn  from  the  edges  of  the  hemp  petiole,  the 
mnnufactnred  article  is  called  HvsL 

'  A  British  patent  for  paper-mating  from  Manilu  hemp  ivas  granted  to 
Kewton  in  IS52, 

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Tlie  plant  requires  three  years  to  arrive  at  euttiog  maturity,  or  four 
years  if  raised  from  the  seed  ;  most  plauters,  however,  transplant  tiie 
pix-montha  suckers,  instead  of  the  seed,  wlien  forming  a  new  plantation, 
Tiie  stem  shonid  be  cut  for  fibre-drawing  at  the  flowering  maturity  ;  in 
no  ease  should  it  be  allowed  to  beat  fruit,  as  the  fibre  is  thereby 
u'oakened,  iiud  there  is  sometimes  even  a  waste  of  material  in  tliB 
drawing,  as  the  accumulation  of  fibre  with  the  sap  at  the  knife  is 

The  average  weight  of  dry  fibre  extracted  from  one  plant  equals  10 
oimces,  or  say  2°/^  of  the  total  weight  of  the  stem  and  petioles,  but  as 
in  practice  there  ia  a  certain  lose  of  petioles,  by  cutting  out  of  maturity, 
n'hilst  others  are  allowed  to  rot  through  negligence,  the  average  output 
fi'om  a  carefully  managed  estate  does  not  exceed  cwts,  3'60  per  acre, 
or  say  i  piculs  per  Oaban  of  laud. 

The  length  of  the  bast,  ready  for  manipulation  at  the  knife,  averages 
ill  Albay  6  feet  6  inches. 

The  weight  of  moistui'o  in  the  wet  fibre,  immediately  it  is  drawn 
from  the  bast,  averages  56°i„.  To  thoroughly  sun-dry,  an  exposure  of 
live  hours  is  necessary. 

The  first  petioles  forming  the  outer  covering,  and  the  slender  centra) 
stem  itself  around  which  they  cluster,  are  thrown  away.  Due  to  iho 
inefiicient  method  of  fibre-drawing,  or  rather  the  want  of  mechanical 
lippliances  to  efi^ect  the  same,  the  waste  of  fibre  probably  amounts  to  as 
much  as  30°/o  of  the  whole  contained  in  the  bast. 

In  Sngar-caue  planting,  the  poorer  the  soil  is  the  wider  tlie  cane  is 
l)Ianted,  whilst  the  hemp  plaut  is  set  out  at  greater  space  on  virgin  land 
ihan  an  old  worked  land,  the  reason  being  that  the  hemp  plaut  in  rich 
soil  throws  out  a  great  number  of  shoots  from  the  same  root,  which 
require  nourishment  and  serve  for  replanting.  If  space  were  not  left 
i'or  their  development,  the  main  stem  would  flower  before  it  had  reached 
its  full  height  and  circumference,  whereas  sugar-cane  is  purposely 
choked  in  virgin  soil  to  check  its  running  too  high  and  dispersing  the 
saccharine  matter  whilst  becoming  ligneous, 

A  great  advantage  to  the  colonist,  in  starting  hemp-growing 
in  virgin  forest  land,  consists  in  the  clearance  requiring  to  be  only 
partial,  whilst  newly  opened  up  land  is  preferable,  as,  on  it,  the  young 
plants  will  sometimes  throw  up  as  many  as  thirty  suckers.  The 
krgest  forest    trees    are    intentionally    left    to    sliade   the   plants   and 

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jouug  shoots,  so  that  onlj"  light  rooting  is  imperatively  necessary. 
In  cano-plautiug,  quite  the  reverse  is  the  case. 

The  great  drawback  to  the  beginner,  with  limited  capital,  is  the 
impossibility  of  recouping  himself  for  his  labour  and  recovering  profit 
on  outlay  before  three  years  nt  least.  After  that  period  the  risk  in 
small,  drought  being  the  only  natural  cal  n  ty  t  b  feared.  Tho 
plants  are  only  at  rare  intervals  damaged  ly  L  ,  from  which 

they  are  fairly  well  protected  by  the  dei  ty  f  tl  f  at ;  being  set 
out  on   high  land,  thoy  nre  extremely  sell  !  t  1;  locusts  do 

not  attack  the  foliage,  and    beetles   do  \e  j    1  ttlo  h  if  any.     A 

eonflagratioii   conld  not  spread  far  among  t  g  1         s  aud  sappy 

petioles.  There  is  no  special  cropping  fie  n  a  th  s  iu  tlie  case 
of  sugar-cane,  which,  i£  neglected,  brings  a  t  tal  1  £  p  ;  tho  plauta 
naturally  do  not  all  mature  at  precisely  the  same  time,  and  tlic  fibre 
extraction  can  be  performed  with  little  precipitation,  and  more  or  less 
all  the  year  round.  If,  at  times,  tlie  stage  of  maturity  be  overlooked, 
it  only  represents  a  percentage  of  loss,  whilst  a  whole  plantation  of 
ripe  sugar-cane  must  be  all  cut  with  the  least  possible  delay.  No 
ploughing  is  necessary,  although  the  plant  thrives  better  when  weeding 
is  carefully  attended  to ;  no  costly  machinery  has  to  be  purchased  and 
either  left  to  tho  mercy  of  inexperienced  hands  or  be  placed  under  the 
care  of  highly  paid  Europeans,  whilst  there  are  few  agricultural 
.implements  and  no  live  stock  to  bo  maintained  for  field  labour. 

The  hemp  fibre,  when  dry,  runs  a  greater  risk  of  fire  than  sugar, 
but  upoii  the  whole,  after  comparing  these  estimates  with  those  of  sugar 
(vide  preceding  chapter)  the  advajitages  of  hemp  cultivation  over 
Hugar-cane  planting  apfiear  too  obvious  to  need  further  illustration. 

Hemp  fibre  is  classified  by  the  large  provincial  dealers  and  Manila 
firms  as  of  first,  second  aud  third  qualities.  The  dealers,  or  acopiadores, 
m  treating  with  the  small  native  collectors,  or  their  own  workpeople, 
take  delivery  of  hemp  under  two  classes  only,  viz.,  first  quality 
(eorriente)  and  second  quality  (colorada).  The  first-class  hemp  is 
the  whitest,  and  has  a  bea  t  f  1  s  !kj  glos'i 

The  difficulties  with  1  el  tie  European  hemi  c  Hivator  iias  to 
contend  all  centre  to  tht  same  or  g  u — t!  e  lokn  e  of  the  native ; 
hence  there  is  a  continuol  tr  ggle  let  vecu  cap  til  t  in  I  labourer  in 
the  attempt  of  the  former  to  co  mte  bala  t,  tho  nat  ve  f  incoustnncy 
and  antipathy  to  honest  toil. 



Left  to  himself,  tlie  native  cuts  the  plant  at  any  period  of  ita 
maturity.  Witen  lie  is  haril  pressed  for  a  dollar  or  two,  he  strijia  a  few- 
petioles,  leaving  them,  for  daya,  exposed  to  tke  rain  and  atmoaphere  to 
soften  and  render  easier  the  drawing  of  the  fibre  in  which  putrefaction 
has  commenced.  The  result  is  prejudicial  to  the  dealer  and  the 
plantation  owner,  hecause  the  fibre  discolours.  Then  he  passes  the  bast 
under  a  toothed  knife,  which  ia  easy  to  work,  and  goes  down  to  tiio 
village  with  his  bundle  of  discoloured  coarse  fibre  with  a  certain  amount 
of  dried  sap  on  it  to  increase  tlie  weight.  He  chooses  night  time  for 
the  delivery,  firstly,  because  tho  acopiador  may  be  deceived  in  the 
colour  upon  which  tiepends  the  selection  of  quality,  and  ipcnndiv,  i" 
order  that  the  fibre,  absorbmg  the  dew  maj  weigh  heavier  Ihese  are 
the  tricks  of  the  trade  well  known  to  the  natue 

The  Iirge  dealeis  anl  plantation  owners  use  e^ery  efibrt  to  enforce 
the  u^io  of  knives  without  teeth,  so  that  tho  fil  re  may  he  fini.,  perfei'tly 
>  lean  and  white,  to  roiue  nndcr  the  first  class  ,  the  native  ofposes  this 
on  the  gromd  that  ho  loses  in  weight,  whiht  he  is  toi  dull  ti 
appreciate  his  gain  in  hij,her  val  le  1  or  instanoe,  presuming  the  hist 
quMity  to  1«  quoted  m  "\laiula  (3  $S  oO  per  picul  and  the  thud  quahtj 
@  $7  io,  even  though  the  ftrit  class  basis  price  remained  him,  the  third 
class  price  would  tall  is  the  percentage  of  third  ikss  quahtj  m  the 
Mipphes  went  on  increasing 

Heie  and  there  ire  to  he  found  hemp  phnts  which  ^ive  a  wh  tcr 
fibre  than  others,  whilst  some  assert  that  there  are  three  or  four  kinds 
of  hemp  plant,  but,  in  general,  til  mil  jield  commercial  first  class  hemp 
(  ibara  eomente),  and  it  the  native  could  he  coerced  to  ci  t  the  plant 
at  maturitj — draw  the  fibre  under  a  toothless  knife  during  the  same 
day  of  stripping  the  petioles — lodge  the  fibre  as  drawn  on  a  clean  place, 
and  sun-dry  ii,  on  the  first  opportunity,  then  (the  proprietors  and 
dealers  positively  assert)  the  output  of  third  quality  need  not  esceed 
five  to  six  per  cent,  of  the  whole  produced.  In  short,  the  qneetiou  of 
quality  in  Abaca  has  vastly  less  relation  to  the  species  of  the  plant  than 
to  the  care  taken  in  its  extraction  and  manipulation. 

I  was  present  in  the  Government  House  of  Albay  in  December, 
1886,  when  the  complaints  against  the  native  hemp-drawers  were 
formally  stated  to  the  Governor,  whose  authority  was  appealed  to,  to 
commission  an  inspector  to  travel  about  the  province  and  put  pressure 
on  the  natives,  in  the  hope  of  remedying  this  state  of  affairs. 

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The  Cliincse  very  actively  collect  parcels  of  hemp  from  the  '^malk'-t 
class  of  native  ownei-s,  but  they  aJso  frequently  enter  info  contrtct^ 
wLith  briiia;  discredit  to  the  reputation  of  a  province  as  »  liemp 
producing  di^triLt  lor  ii  '.mall  sura  in  cash,  i  Chmimin  acqiiiren 
from  a  native  tiie  right  to  noia,  his  plintatioii  during  a  bliort  period 
Having  no  propnetaiy  interest  at  stike,  and  looking  only  to  his 
immediate  gain  he  lu liscnminately  strips  plants,  regaidless  of 
maturity,  lud  the  property  ie\erts  to  the  small  owner  m  a  soiclj 
dilapidated  i.ondUion  Ihe  market  result  is,  thit  although  the  filne 
drawn  may  be  white,  it  is  wctk,  and  dealirigi  with  the  Cbincse  lequne 
Mpecial  scrutiny. 

Each  labourer  on  an  "estate  "  (called  in  Albay  Province  IfJte)  h 
remunerated  by  receiving  one-liHlf  of  all  the  fibre  he  dniws  ;  tlio  other 
half  belongs  to  the  "lat^"  owner.  The  share  correspouding  to  the 
liibourer  is  almost  invariably  delivered  at  the  same  time  to  the 
employer,  wbo  puichiiHes  it  at  the  current  local  value- — often  at  much 

In  sugar-planting,  as  no  siigii  can  bo  hoped  for  until  the  fixed 
grinding  season  of  the  year,  planteis  have  to  advance  to  their  work- 
people during  the  whole  twelve  months.  If,  after  so  advancing  during 
six  or  eight  montlis,  he  loses  half  or  more  of  his  crop  by  natural  causes, 
he  stands  a  poor  chance  of  recovering  his  advances  of  that  year. 
There  Is  no  such  risk  in  the  ease  of  hemp  ;  when  a  man  wants  money 
he  can  work  for  it,  and  bring  in  his  biradle  of  fibre  and  receive  hie 
half-share  value. 

In  Manila  the  export  houses  estimate  the  prices  o£  second  and 
third  qualities  by  a  rebate  from  first  class  quality  price.  These  rates 
necessarily  fluctuate.  When  the  deliveries  of  second  and  thii-d  (pialities 
go  on  increasing  in  their  propoi'lton  to  the  quantity  of  first  class  sent 
to  the  market,  the  rebate  for  lower  qualities  on  tlic  basis  price  (first 
class)  is  consequently  augmented.  For  example,  iii  the  subjoined 
estimate,  I  have  taken  the  price  of  $8,50  per  picul  for  first  class,  with 
the  rebates  of  75  cents  for  second  class  and  $1.25  for  third  class.  If 
the  total  shipments  to  Manila  began  to  show  an  extraordinary  larga 
proportionate  increase  of  lower  qualities,  these  differences  of  prices 
would  be  made  wider,  and  in  this  manner  indirect  pressure  is  brought 
to  bear  upon  the  provincial  shippers  by  increasing  their  interest  in 
using  every  effort  to  send  as  much  lirst  class  quality  as  possible. 

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Tlie  liibour  of  young  plant-setting  in  Albay  ProvincG  may  be 
cftleulateil  @  $3  per  1,000  piunts  ;  the  cost  of  shoots  two  feet  high,  for 
planting  out,  is  from  50  cents  to  one  dollar  per  100,  However,  as 
proprietoi-s  have  frequently  been  elieiitod  by  natives  wJio,  having 
accepted  to  plimt  out  the  land,  have  not  dug  holes  sufficiently  deep  and 
have  Bet  plants  without  roots,  it  is  now  customary  in  Luzon  to  pay 
$10  per  100  live  plants,  to  be  eounted  at  the  time  of  full  growth,  or 
Kay  in  three  years,  in  lieu  of  paying  for  shoots  and  labour  at  tlie  prices 
stated  above.     The  contractor,  of  course,  lives  on  the  estate. 

In  virgin  soil,  2,500  plants  would  be  set  in  one  pisoson  of  land 
{vide  Albay  land  measure,  at  page  333),  or  say  720  to  each  aere. 

A  hemp  press  employing  60  men  and  boys,  with  wages  varying 
from  12^  to  50  cents  per  day,  should  turn  out  230  bales  per  d;iy. 
Freights  by  mail  steamer  to  Manila  in  the  year  1890  from  Albay  poi'ts 
i)eyond  the  Sau  Bernadino  Straits,  were  30  cents  per  bale ;  from  ports 
vjest  of  the  Straits,  37  J  cents  per  bale. 

In  the  extntction  of  the  fibre  the  utttives  work  in  couples  ;  one 
mail  strips  the  bast,  whilst  his  companion  draws  it  lujder  the  knife. 
A  fair  week's  work  for  a  conple,  including  selectiou  of  the  mature  plants 
and  felling,  would  be  about  300  lbs.  However,  the  labourer  is  not 
(iMe  to  give  his  entire  attention  to  (ibre-d rawing,  for  occasionally  a 
ilay  has  to  be  spent  iu  weeding  and  brushwood  cleiu'auce,  but  his  half- 
share  interest  covers  this  duty. 

The  finest  quality  of  hemp  is  producetl  in  the  Islands  of  Lcyte 
r.ud  Marindnque,  and  in  the  districts  of  Sorsogon  and  Gubat  of  the 
Province  of  Albay  (Luzon). 

The  whole  Province  of  Albay  yields  animally  an  average  of  30,000 
tons  ;  it  is  the  most  important  iiemp  district  of  Luzon  Island. 

Previous  to  the  year  1823,  the  quantity  of  hemp  produced  in  these 
islands  was  iusiguificaut ;  iu  1840  it  is  said  to  have  exceeded  8,500 
tons.  The  total  shipments  in  1870  amounted  to  30,535  tons  ;  in  1871 
to  28,984  tons,  but  the  export  of  subsequent  years  has  largely  increased, 
ad  will  be  seen  by  the  following  figures,  viz.  : — 

Total  Hemp  Siiitments  is  the  Years. 

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Hemp  Sjupmests. 

















I8S1      - 




1890     - 



1833     - 




1891      - 




1883     - 




1392      - 




1884     - 




1893     - 




1835     - 




1694      - 




188S     - 




1805      - 




1887     - 




18%      - 




1883     - 




1897      - 




18S9     - 




Leyte  Islaml  ranks  second,  if  uot  now  equal,  to  Albay  Froviiico  iu 
quautity  of  hemp  production.  The  average  yield  per  auuiim  dnriug 
the  years  1888  to  1897  inclusive,  was — in  tiie  Pi-oTinoo  of  Camariues 
Sur  6,500  tous  and  in  Camariuca  Norte  2,500  tons,  the  latter  being  of 
inferior  quality  due,  it  is  alieged,  to  the  use  of  serrated  edget.1  knives  in 
the  extraction.  From  Sdmar  Island  hemp  is  sent  in  fair  quantities  to 

From  Mindanao  Island  hem])  is  forwunied  to  Ccliu  for  shipment 
ivith  tliat  grown  in  Cebii  Island  itself,  mid  certain  deliveries  froni 
Leyte ;  but  in  recent  years  the  supplies  to  Cebu  of  Leyto  liemp  have 
(proportionately  to  the  production)  fallen  off,  Manila  having  superseded 
Cebu  as  the  market  for  a  good  share  oE  Leyte  deliveries. 

A  small  quantity  of  low  quality  hemp  is  produced  in  Ciipis 
Province  (Fanay  Island)  ;  collections  are  also  made  along  the  south- 
east coast  of  Kcgros  Island  from  Dumaguete  northwards  and  in 
the  district  of  Mauban'  on  the  Pacific  coast  of  Tayabas  Provini;o 
(Luzon  Island). 

'  A  large  proportion  of  the  product  sent  from  Maftban  to  Manila  as  marketable 
Uemp'is  really  a  wild  hemp-fibre  loraiUy  known  by  the  name  of  AUnsartay.  It  i% 
ii  wortbless,  brittle  filament  whieb  baa  all  the  external  appearance  of  marketable 
hemp.  A  sample  o£  It  broke  as  easily  an  silk  thread  between  my  fingers.  Its 
maximum  strength  is  calculated  to  lie  one-fourtb  of  hemp  fibre.  I  saw  a  letter 
from  Mauban,  in  which  it  was  stated  that  the  recent  deliverioa  from  that  place  to 
Manila  port  probably  contained  four-fiflVis  of  this  inferior  material. 

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The  highest  Manila  quotation  for  first  quality  hemp  (torrienCe) 
during  the  years  1882  and  1896  inclusive,  was  $17-21^  per  picul,  and 
the  lowest  in  the  same  period  $6'00  per  picnl  (16  picuSs=^l  ton; 
2  piculs  =  1  bale),  whilst  specially  selecteil  lots  from  Sorsogoa  and 
Marinduqiie  fetched  a  certain  advance  on  those  figures. 

Manila  export  firms  usually  admit  up  to  5°!^  ol  low  quality  hemp 
in  a  parcel  delivered  as  first  class,  and,  if  the  amount  of  low  quality 
does  not  exceed  2°/o  in  a  lot  so  supplied,  a  premium  is  paid  for  tbia 
superior  proportion  of  "  Corrisiile" 

The  subjoined  ^/■oybrma  Estimate  of  an  Albay  Estate,  will  give  a 
fair  idea  of  the  cost  of  production  and  the  result  of  the  venture. 

Albay  Province  {local)  Land  Measure, 

1     Topou     =  16  square  Brazas  =  53'776  English  square  yards. 
312^  Toponcs  ^     1  Pisoson  =  5,000  square  Brazas. 

„  .,=;},  of  Quiiion  =  2\  Cabanes  =  3'472  acres. 

Estimate  of  an  Abaci  (Hemp)  Plantation  in  Albay  Province. 

500  Pisosoncs  =  1,250  Cah.anes  (=  1,73G  acres)  of  land,  over 
two  years  planteil  with  shoots  and  therefore  ready  to  cut  in  one  year 
from  time  of  purcliase.     No