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PHONOVISUAL 
METHOD 



SCH00LF1ELD 
TIMBERLAKE 



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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/phonovisualmethoOOscho 



The Phonovisual* Method 



by 

LUCILLE D. SCHOOLFIELD 

AND 

JOSEPHINE B. TIMBERLAKE 



Better Reading 
Better Spelling 
Better Speech 



PHONOVISUAL* PRODUCTS, P. O. BOX 5625. FRIENDSHIP STATION, WASHINGTON 16, D. a 
'Registered United States Patent Ofica 



u 

53Cp 



Copyright 1944, 1949, 1953, 1960 by Phonovisual Products, Inc. 

All rights reserved 



Seventeenth printing 1969 



Reproduction of this book or portions thereof in 
any manner, in whole or in part* is a violation of 
law and renders the infringer liable for damages. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

First Grade 
Steps in the Phonovisual Method 

1. Naming the Pictures 12 

2. Making a "Mistake" 12 

8. Watching the Teacher's Lips 18 

4. Introducing the Sounds 13 

5. Catching "Mistakes" in the Sounds 14 

6. Saying the Sounds 15 

7. Writing the Sounds 15 

8. New Words 17 

9. Introduction to Spelling: Initial and Final Sounds 19 

10. The First Vowel: ee 32 

11. The Short Vowel -a- 41 

12. The Teaching of Blends 43 

13. The Short Vowel -i- 45 

14. The Short Vowels -u-, -o-, -e- 46 

15. The Long Vowels 47 

16. The Rest of the Vowel Chart 48 

Second Grade, and Beyond 

The Teaching of Syllables 50 

Secondary Spellings 51 

"Sound" Words versus "Study" Words 52 

Prefixes and Suffixes 58 

Enriching the Program 53 

Auditory Training in the Kindergarten 

Beginning with the Kindergarteners 55 

Slow Up for These Little People 56 

Flannelboard Help 56 

Seatwork Materials 56 

The Final Goal ....„.., ST 



The Remedial Pupil 

A Sixth Grade Experiment 58 

Beginning with the Remedial Pupil 59 

The Importance of Immediate Success 60 

Speeding Up . . . . 61 

Be Careful Not to Skip 61 

Other Materials for Practice 62 

Case Histories 62 

Phonetic Words of One Syllable 

Compound Phonetic Words 

Harder Words for Remedial Pupils 

What Should Be Expected of Education? 

ILLUSTRATIONS 

i. Kindergarten Work at Flannelboard 38 

2. Building Charts 33 

3. First Grade Learning Consonant Sounds 34 

4. Writing Initial Sounds 34 

5. Writing Initial and Final Sounds 35 

6. The First Vowel Sound 35 

7. Short Vowels 36 

8. Blends . . z , 36 

9. Long Vowels 87 

10. Comprehension 37 

11. Train Game M . 38 

12. Compound Words 38 

13. Secondary Spellings 39 

14. Analysis: Sound or Study 39 

15. Number of Syllables 40 

16. Interested in Science , 40 



The Phonovisual Method 

By Lucille D Schoolfield and Josephine B. Timberlaxe 



5. 



he Phonovisual Method is based on the use of pictorial charts 
arranged on a scientific phonetic foundation, together with a definite 
plan for training in auditory and visual discrimination. There are 26 
sounds on the Consonant Chart and 17 sounds on the Vowel Chart. The 
instructions in this book make it easy to teach children to recognize and 
blend them in words. 

There are only three main points to be kept in mind: 1. The teaching 
of all initial consonant sounds. 2. The teaching of all initial and final 
consonant sounds. 3. The teaching of 17 vowel sounds. A good teacher 
will have no difficulty if (a) she knows how to produce aD of the sounds 
correctly and (b) she teaches each step with complete thoroughness 
before beginning the next. 

A Supplement, Not a Substitute 

It should be clearly understood that the use of the Phonovisual 
Method does not in any way presuppose the discarding of (1) the 
sight method of teaching reading, with the excellent results often ob- 
tained by that method; (2) the study method of teaching spelling, which 
has proved its value through the years; or (3) the excellent methods 
of teaching corrective speech so successfully used in the past quarter 
of a century. Rather, the Method proves of definite value in connection 
with sight reading. It simplifies the teaching of spelling so that the 



•The authors wish to acknowledge their indebtedness to Alice E. Worcester and 
Caroline A. Yale, of the Clarke School, Northampton, Mass., for the grouping of the 
letters which helps to make words pronounceable at sight. The arrangement of the 
PhonuTtfual Charts, however, is different from the Yale Charts, and the illustration* 
and methods of use are entirely original. 



6 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

hundreds of phonetic words occurring in the elementary grades are 
mastered easily and quickly without study, leaving additional time to 
spend on the "word demons" which require special drill. It offers the 
classroom teacher a scientific means of improving the speech of all the 
pupils, and of correcting minor speech defects along with other work. 
This has a double advantage: it does not take the child with slight defects 
from his classroom, and it frees the speech correctionist for extra work 
with the more serious cases. 



The Phonovisual Method in Reading 

We repeat: The Phonovisual Method is not intended to be used instead 
of sight reading, but as parallel teaching. It gives the pupil power to 
attack a word he has not previously seen, and gives him security by 
providing clues which help him remember words already learned. Evi- 
dence is strong that its use tends to prevent some of the causes of reading 
failure, such as "reversal tendencies." The child who knows the sound 
of s, and can listen to the word saw and tell his teacher whether he hears 
the s at the beginning or at the end of the word, will not confuse saw with 
was. 

In the Teacher's Guidebook which accompanies their primer, Fun with 
Dick and Jane, William S. and Lillian Gray stress the importance of 
stimulating auditory perception. 

"Experience," they say, "teaches that ability to distinguish the sounds 
of words that are in the child's speaking vocabulary is an indispensable 
aid in learning to read. . . . Ear training is often necessary to help pupils 
to recognize sound elements. . . . The ability to associate a common 
sound element with a specific part of a word is . . . difficult. For ex- 
ample, when asked to think of words that begin like see and so, pupils 
often give words which end with s, such as runs and goes." 

Use of the Phonovisual Method usually eliminates such troubles as 
these. It makes it easy, instead of difficult, to associate the sound elements 
with specific parts of words. A child learns the sound of s without effort, 



THE PHONOVI8UAL METHOD 7 

thinkin g he is playing a game, and can very soon listen to the word see 
and tell his teacher whether he hears the s at the beginning or at the 
end of the word. He will not reverse the initial and final positions of 
the sound, nor will he be likely to confuse the voiceless s in words like 
see and this with the z sound of the voiced s in runs and goes. 

Mabel O'Donnell, author of the widely-used Alice and Jerry series, in 
her monograph, "Word Recognition Techniques," says: 

"As a result of our over-zeal for thought getting and our hasty 
discard of phonics, without at the same time substituting a better 
method of word recognition, we are creating many of our own remedial 
cases. Experts in remedial reading are constantly reminding us that 
a goodly number of pupils retarded in reading are so because they 
have no apparent method, or at best ineffectual methods, of word 
recognition. Is there no middle course between the old phonetic ap- 
proach where pupils recognized words too well and thought too poorly, 
and the newer approach where pupils would find thought getting a joy 
if they could only recognize words?" 

The authors of the Phonovisual Method offer it as this "middle course." 
Some of the values they have found from its use in specific cases are as 
follows: 

1. It provides a quick and easy means for teaching all initial and final 
consonants, and vowel sounds. 

2. It teaches the pupil that a consonant sound at the beginning of a 
word is identical with the same sound at the end of a word. 

3. It teaches him to distinguish easily between letters often confused, 
such as p and q, m and n, b and d. 

4. It trains him to read from left to right by emphasizing the begin- 
nings of words, thus preventing "reversals." 

5. It gives the child, in the first few months of his reading experience, 
tools with which to attack new words. He does not have to stop and 
acquire each tool as the need arises, and does not confuse similar words 
such as funny, bunny, sunny. 



8 TEE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

6. It corrects minor speech defects without making the child aware 
of being corrected. 

7. It gives security to the child who has failed in reading, or who is 
slow. 

8. It produces marked improvement in the reading and spelling of 
remedial cases. 

9. It enables even a first grade child, after mastering the consonants 
and vowels, to read and spell hundreds of words without study. 

10. It provides a short cut to the reading and spelling of the 29 initial 
consonant blends, thus avoiding days, perhaps even weeks, of laborious 
teaching. 

11. It recognizes the importance of stressing comprehension and 
fluency. 



The Phonovisual Method in Spelling 

The habit of critical listening taught by the Phonovisual Method is 
especially valuable in spelling. It may be explained in this way: 

A child listens to a bird sing, and knows merely that it is a bird singing. 
Critical listening teaches him to differentiate between the songs of the 
thrush, robin, cardinal, etc. In the same way he may listen to words, with 
no consciousness of their characteristics. He may not be aware of the 
ng in going, the t in last, the d in hand; but after he has been taught to 
listen to a word all the way through, and to identify its beginning and 
ending sounds, he is not in danger of omitting these sounds when he 
speaks and spells. Nor is he likely to be guilty of such substitutions as 
sake for shake, such omissions as banch for branchy such reversals as 
srteet for street. 

Once a child has mastered the Phonovisual Charts, it will be found 
that there are literally hundreds of words which he can spell correctly 



THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 9 

without any study or preparation whatever. Even on a test so carefully 
controlled as the Buckingham-Ayres Spelling Scale, he is able to spell 
immediately 70 per cent of the words through the sixth grade. 

The Phonovisual Method in Speech 

The Phonovisual Charts contain all the elements of speech which the 
normal child learns in babyhood during the babbling period. As is well 
known, a child speaks English because he hears English, Dutch because 
he hears Dutch, French because he hears French. He does not begin 
to speak in words, but babbles consonant and vowel sounds months 
before he combines them to make words. 

It seems probable that the child with defective speech has heaH 
certain sounds incorrectly, not because he is hard of hearing, but because 
he may be lacking in the finer powers of auditory discrimination. The 
training provided by the Phonovisual Method automatically corrects 
many defective speech sounds without the necessity for laborious teach- 
ing and prolonged speech drills. 

In the case of the child with normal speech the Method is useful 
because it develops a keen ear for detecting even slight variations m 
syllables, vowel sounds, and the endings of words. The child who has 
been taught to listen to speech sounds is not likely to say pin for pen. 
free for three, sep for step. 



Phonovisuar Consonant Chart 



^P' 



b-U 





wh- 





f- 



ph 




W— 



v- 



3 th- Sth- 





d 



^k 



/* 





sh- 
<ch- 

* tch 

k- 

C 

ck 





3 



Pg 



m- 




n- 



j«ei 




qu- 




1- 





^-kx 



ng 

n(k) 



^-X 



10 



How to Begin Teaching with the 
Phonovisual Method 

The first steps are taken with the Consonant Chart. For best results 
the teaching should begin the very first week of school, if possible the 
very first day. At the demonstration school one half -hour daily is given to 
each of these two subjects, (a) sight-reading and (b) phonetic instruc- 
tion, taking care in the sight-reading period to confine the first experience 
charts to the vocabulary the children will meet in their first pre-primers. 
For a week or two no effort is made to indicate any relation between read- 
ing and phonics, but as soon as the Phonovisual teaching has firmly estab- 
lished the first five consonant sounds in the minds of the children, their 
attention is called in the sight-reading period to words in the pre-primer 
which begin with those sounds. 

These first five sounds must be taught thoroughly For many children 
this is a first experience in learning to listen, and it must not be hurried. 
Two or even three weeks spent in training the pupils' ears on this first 
group of sounds will prove to have been time well spent. The importance 
of slowness and repetition at this stage cannot be overstressed. If the 
children learn these first five sounds so that they have them "in their 
backbones," the other sounds will come much more easily. The ears 
have been sharpened; the child knows how to listen and to distinguish 
variations. If he has a speech defect and produces a sound incorrectly, 
gently tell him to listen and watch as you say it. Omit having him try 
to produce the sound until the correct auditory pattern is firmly fixed in 
his mind. 

Keep these main points in mind in your teaching: 

I. Always use this material as a game, not as a drill. Remember that 
one of its main purposes is to give the child a sense of confidence and 
security, and a feeling of doing things easily. 

11 



12 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

2. Master each step thoroughly before going to the next. Don't be 
tempted to go too fast. 

3. Keep the charts in sight at all times and teach the children to 
refer to them whenever they need help. 

4. When teaching with the key pictures, follow the order of the chart 
in each repetition until the sounds and their location on the charts are 
mastered. The children should be as secure in knowing the position of 
the sounds on the chart as a typist is in knowing the position of the 
letters on the keyboard. 

5. Don't practice mistakes. If a child speaks or writes a sound in- 
correctly, immediately give him many opportunities to practice the 
correct form. Do not allow the incorrect sound to become fixed in his 
mind through repetition. 

The First Five Pictures 

Step 1: Naming the Pictures. 

The teacher may say: "We are going to play a Phonovisual game. 
Phono (covering the rest of the word on the Phonovisual Consonant 
Chart) means sound. We are going to listen to sounds that we hear. 
Visual (covering the first part of the word) refers to seeing. We are 
going to hear and see in this game. Watch and listen!" 

Name the first five pictures in the first, or "breath," column, pointing 
to each and saying: "This is a pig. This is a wheel. This is a fan. This 
is a three. This is a top." Repeat several times, in the same order, the 
words fig, wheel, fan, three, top, pointing to each picture in turn. 

Step 2: Making a "Mistake." 

Say: "This time I am going to make a mistake.* Listen, and see if you 
can catch me." Start naming the pictures down the column as before, 



•Suggestion: The use of puppets to make a mistake adds much interest to the drill, 
which is so important in establishing the positions on the chart. 



OOW TO BEGIN TEACHING 13 

but make an absurd substitutiou for one of them, for example saying 
elephant instead of fan. As soon as the children have "caught" you, go 
back and begin again, this time making a "mistake" in another place, 
for instance saying baby instead of top. Continue this game until the 
children are thoroughly familiar with all five of the pictures, and the 
order in which they are arranged. 

This procedure is used for the following reasons: (a) It insures at- 
tention, (b) It gives even the dull child an opportunity to correct you, 
thus making him feel "At last, here is something I can do!" (c) It gives 
opportunity to repeat the key words again and again, thus fixing the 
auditory pattern. 

Step S: Watching the Teachers Lips. 

Say: "Did you hear me each time I said those words? If you look at 
me carefully, you can see me say them, too. I am going to say a word 
aloud, and then say it again without making a sound. You will not be 
<ble to hear anything the second time, so watch carefully." Say the 
word pig aloud, then repeat it inaudibly, but with natural, not exagger- 
ated, lip movements. Let the children watch the word on your lips. Say: 
"Could you see me say pig?" Most children immediately say yes. If some 
child says no, tell him to watch again, and then repeat the word pig, firs* 
aloud, then without voice. Usually this one repetition suffices. Follow 
the same procedure with wheel, fan, three, top. 

The purpose of this exercise is to focus attention on your lips, tongue, 
and teeth. 

The First Five Initial Sounds 

Step 4: Introducing the Sounds. 

Say: "Now listen. I am going to name the pictures again, but this 
time after I have said each word, I am just going to say the sound it 
begins with. I am not going to say the rest of the word. Listen: 



14 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

"pig-P 
"wheel— wh 
"fan-f 
"three— th 
top— t 

Repeat the words and sounds several times, asking the children to listen 
carefully. 

Caution: Be sure to say the sound of the letter, not its name. Remem- 
ber to make the sound as we hear it in the word. No one says "puh-ig" or 
"cup-uh"; therefore, be careful not to say "pun." The correct sound of p 
is only a little puff of breath, blowing open the closed lips. No voice is 
heard in the correct production of any of the sounds in the first column. 
They are all whispered sounds. Listen to each one as it sounds at the 
end of a word. (This does not apply, of course, to wh and h, heard only 
in the initial or medial position. ) A record, giving all the sounds on both 
charts, may be secured from the publisher of this book. 

Step 5: Catching "Mistakes" in the Sounds. 

Follow the same procedure used in Step 2— that is, make a mistake, but 
this time make a mistake in the sound, not the word. Let each mistake 
be absurd and easily recognized. For example, say: 

Pig-P 

wheel— wh 

fan-f 

three 

then say top— but instead of sounding t, 
make a noise like a train whistle, or a cat's mew, or any other obviously 
incorrect sound. 

Repeat, making an absurd noise in a different place each time, instead 
of the correct whispered sound. Always start at the top of the column, 
thereby giving the desired repetition each time, and further opportunity 
for fixing the auditory pattern. 



■OW TO BEGIN TEACHING 1/} 

Step 6: Saying the Sound*. 

Ask some child: "If I say the word, would you like to say what it 
begins with?" Then say pig, letting the child say, alone, the sound, p. 
It is helpful in the beginning to form the sound inaudibly on your own 
lips, having the child watch you as he says it. In this instance, he should 
watch you and not the chart. If he shows any hesitation about repeating 
the initial sound as soon as the word is spoken, say the sound with him 
immediately. Do not give him an opportunity to fail, or even to hesitate. 

Call on other children, eventually giving each pupil an opportunity to 
say the five sounds correctly. ( For variety, see "The Phonovisual Came 
Book." # ) 

Each child should also have the opportunity to say as much of the 
chart as has been taught, pointing to the pictures and sounds as he says 
"pig— p, wheel— wh, fan— f , etc." 

Flash-card drill on each sound is given as soon as the sound is learned. 
The purpose is to give the child the power to produce the appropriate 
sound immediately on sight. At first, hold up the cards in the order shown 
on the chart, thus helping the children to remember their location. Know- 
ing exactly where to find each sound on the chart gives the child security. 
Teachers often find it helpful at this point to use flannelboard equipment. 
Phonovisual Flipstrips showing pictures and sounds are obtainable from 
Phonovisual Products, Inc. They may be mounted with flannel backing, 
so that the children can place them on the flannelboard in the correct 
order. Much additional practice in recognition of the sounds may be 
found in The Phonovisual Came Book. 

Step 7: Writing the Sounds of the Key Pictures. 

It is extremely helpful to have permanent lines drawn on the chalk- 
board. Experiments have shown that the best and most lasting results 
are produced with India ink, which is not affected by washing. If the 



•The Phonovisual Game Book, by Marie S. Buckley and Esthe* B. lamb, Pheno- 
bual Products. Inc., P. O. Box 5625, Washington 16. D. C 



16 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

teacher herself will use the lines carefully and will insist that the children 
use them, satisfactory writing will come with a minimum of difficulty. 

Working with a group of about 10 children, say: "Now we are really 
going to have some fun. I am going to show you how to write. First 
let's learn to write the way pig begins." Divide the chalkboard into ten 
columns, one for each child. Slowly and carefully write the letter p— at 
the top of each column, saying the sound each time you write the letter. 
Say: "I did not write pig, but just the sound it begins with. I will draw 
a line for the rest of the word." 

Send the children to the board and let them practice the sound undel 
your copies, taking great care with each letter, and always drawing a 
line to represent the missing part of the word. It is important to have 
this work done on the chalkboard so that the teacher can check each 
letter as it is written. Preventing the children from "practicing mistakes" 
at this point will save hours of corrective effort later on. 

When each child can write the p— correctly, teach the wh— in the same 
way, and then the f— . As soon as they can all identify and write the 
beginning sounds of pig, wheel, and fan, each should be given a copy 
of the Phonovisual Consonant Workbook, "See, Hear, Say, Do." The 
seatwork practice will help them complete their mastery of the con- 
sonants. 

The Whole First Column — The Breath Consonants 

Review the first five initial sounds and add a sixth one, s— . Proceeding 
as above (steps 1-7), continue down the column, adding another new 
sound each day if the children are sure of those already taught. 

Dont go too fasti The children often learn the sounds so quickly that 
the teacher is strongly tempted to hurry through the whole chart. It 
cannot be too firmly emphasized that the lessons should be taken slowly 
and mastered each step at a time. For example, if the teacher names a 
picture in the first column, the children should be able without hesitation 
to give or write the corresponding initial sound. 



HOW TO BEGIN TEACHING 17 

The "key" words illustrated on the chart, and no others, should be 
associated with their initial sounds until knowledge of die sounds is 
firmly established. Then the children are ready for the next step. 

Step 8: New Words. 

Say: "Now I am going to give you some new words, and they all begin 
with these same sounds" (indicating the first column). "Listen. Who 
can show me the way pet begins?" Continue down the column, substi- 
tuting the new words for the key words. Be sure to keep in the same 
order. For example, the following words from the first grade vocabulary 
might be used: 

pet set 

what sheep 

fast chick 

think keep 

took help 

For additional words containing these sounds, see pages 22 to 24. 

As soon as the children can identify the sounds easily, let them write 
the initial sounds as you dictate the words. Remind them that they are 
writing just the beginning sound and must put in a dash to indicate the 
rest of the word. This is a good time to teach the important fact that c 
often has the same sound as k. Point to the c on the chart, and tell the 
children that we have to remember which letter to use. If at first they 
do not know, they must ask. Later they can be told that when c is fol- 
lowed by a, o, or u, it is likely to be like k, while c before e, i, or y is 
usually like s. 

Always keep the chart in sight. Encourage looking at it. Keep in 
mind that your purpose is to enable the child easily and habitually to 
associate a given sound with its written form. Do not try to make it a 
memory exercise. If the child makes a mistake, say to him, "Listen again, 
and watch me say the word, and then look at the chart." Let him correct 
his mistake. At first most children have to refer to the chart for wh, th, 
sh, and ch, but very soon they feel pride in not having to look. 



18 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

Continue to dictate words with the sounds in the same order until the 
children no longer need to refer to the chart; then test their knowledge 
by skipping around. 

Reading Back: When the children have written a list of sounds, say, 
for example, "Erase the one that says /, k, ch, th." Be sure to give the 
sounds, not the names, of the letters. 

Application of Lessons to Date 

It is an easy matter to make practical use of the knowledge acquired 
so far. Suppose, for instance, that a child who has had the word funny 
in a previous reading lesson stumbles over it in the sentence Baby is 
funny. The teacher needs only to point to the f on the chart, to help him 
realize that the word funny begins just like the word fan. In other words, 
the child has learned the initial consonants through the use of the chart. 
He is now ready to use them in word recognition. 

The Rest of the Consonant Chart 

The sounds in the second column are the voiced equivalents of those 
in the first column, and are taught in the same way (steps 1-8). Usually, 
due to the previous training, the children master them much more 
quickly. The class should soon be able to write the initial sounds of such 
words as jump, went, child, such, zoo, and point to them on the chart. 
When a child can do this, he is ready for the rest of the chart except for 
the two sounds that occur only as final in a word or syllable, — ng and — x. 
The others may all be taught in the same manner as those previously 
learned. 

Consonants Not Used Initially: 

Say: "There are two sounds on the chart which you have not learned. 
We never hear them at the beginning of a word. I will say a word that 
ends with one of them: swing. You say it too, and listen to the last sound. 
Feel where your tongue is. Swing, swing, swing-ng-n^ (prolonging the 
sound). Say other words containing the sound, letting the children 
write — ng. 



HOW TO BEGIN TEACHING 19 

Contrast words ending in ng with words ending in n, such as: 

ran rang 

thin thing 

win wing 

sun sung 

sin sing 

Say: "Here is another sound that we do not hear at the beginning of 
a word. Listen to this word: box. The sound is just like the h and s in 
rocks; ks." Give additional words and have the children write — x. (See 
page 24.) 

In producing the voiced and nasal sounds, remember to put the voice 
in the sound, not after it. The sound of m, for example, is a humming 
noise, not muh; the sound of z is a buzzing noise, not zuh. 

Step 9: Introduction to Spelling— Initial and Final Sounds. 

One of the Phonovisual Method's most important contributions is its 
practice of teaching the children to listen through the word. This may 
be done easily and simply as follows: 

Say: "Listen to this— peep. What sound did you hear at the beginning? 
Write it. Don't forget the dash to represent the missing letters. 

"Now listen again— peep. What sound did you hear at the end? Can 
you write it at the end of the dash?* 

Now the word appears on the board as p—p. 

Again it is helpful for the initial sounds of the words to follow the 
order of the chart (but not the final ones, especially as some of them, like 
wh y do not occur at the end of a word). The next word dictated might 
be when, which would appear on the chalkboard as wh-n. In continuing, 
refer to the list of words on pages 22 to 28, in which suitable words are 
indicated. 

The time needed to establish this step firmly in the minds of the chil- 
dren varies widely with the size and maturity of the class. In one school 
at a Christmas program the children made a list of gifts their parents 



20 THE PHONO VISUAL METHOD 

might like. Such words as book, lamp, bag, desk were dictated, with the 
children writing on the chalkboard the first and last sounds, as: 

b-k 

d-k 

Audience participation was encouraged, but the guests were asked to 
give only words beginning and ending with consonants. The children 
love this sort of thing, and obviously feel their power. At a demonstration 
when this feature had been omitted, a little girl whispered to her teacher, 
"Don't they have some words for us?" 

(When classes are small, and especially when Phonovisual auditory 
training is given in the kindergarten— see page 55— some first grade 
groups reach this point by early November, but a teacher with a large 
first grade which has had no previous auditory training should not feel 
discouraged if her pupils take till January to be sure of the consonants. 
Above all, she must not go too fast.) 



Spelling Readiness 



The Phonovisual approach to spelling is radically different from the 
approach of other methods in common use. From the first, strong em- 
phasis is placed upon training for auditory and visual discriminatiofi. 
This is accompanied by kinesthetic training, as the child's attention is 
focused through many repetitions upon a succession of muscular move- 
ments from the front to the back of his mouth. Further kinesthetic 
exercise is soon provided, when he is asked to write a sound to which he 
has listened, and to indicate its position in the word. 

The words in the following lists are tor use in this auditory, visual and 
kinesthetic training. Do not use them for spelling lessons. They ore to 
be dictated only for: 

1. Recognition of initial sounds. 

2. Recognition of final sounds. 

The purpose of this dictation is to teach the child to listen critically to 
initial consonants; to train him to listen through a word; to help him 
acquire auditory, visual and kinesthetic skill— three factors necessary for 
success in spelling. 

Follow closely the instructions on pages 11-12. Be sure the child can 
write all initial breath sounds easily, without reference to the chart, before 
having him write the final sounds. Do not hurry through this step. 



21 



Breath Consonants 

(Suggestion to teacher); Most of the word* in the lists given are from the 
basic vocabulary of the primary grades. However, it is especially helpful to build 
lists similar to those below, using words from (he child's own reader. This 
applies to both the breath and the voiced consonants. 



p— 


wh— 


f— 


paint 


pan 


which 


fast 


pet 


P*g 


what 


fish 


peep 


pail 


wheat 


fork 


park 


pen 


whip 


fat 


pat 


pin 


'white 


feet 


pink 


paid 


*why 


foot 


point 


P«g 


* while 


fresh 


push 


plan 


when 


frost 


part 


plum 


wheel 


feast 


peach 


pond 


•where 


flush 


path 


peal 


•whistle 


friend 


pint 


pool 


whirl 


find 


peek 


pain 


whiz 


found 


plump 


P«g 


•whether 


farm 


plus 


pad 


•whisper 


fan 


plot 


plug 




food 


port 


poem 




flag 


prank 


plain 




feel 


parch 


proud 




flood 



•Use these words only for the recognition of initial sounds. 

22 



B1UCATH CONSONANT! 



23 



th- 



think 


top 


sit 


said 


thought 


took 


°see 


soon 


thank 


tap 


•so 


sail 


thick 


tent 


•say 


sand 


thirst 


trip 


sat 


sang 


throat 


teach 


seat 


seem 


thrash 


tooth 


stop 


seen 


third 


taught 


set 


send 


thin 


ten 


such 


spin 


thread 


told 


soft 


stand 


thorn 


town 


sleep 


skin 


throb 


tag 


south 


stool 


•three 


tall 


skip 


stood 


•through 


twin 


spot 


spoon 


•throw 


tin 


slip 


spend 


•thimble 


toad 


sweet 


swim 


•thistle 


tool 


soap 


spoil 


•thunder 


turn 


sent 


swing 


•thrifty 


train 


stamp 


sound 






speech 


smooth 






splash 


steal 






soft 


spring 






spark 


squeak 






stoop 


sing 






slept 


sad 






swept 


sun 






sink 


sell 






suit 


•same 






soup 


•side 






•skate 


sled 



•Use these words only for the recognition of initial sounds. 



24 



THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 



sh- 



ell 



k— 



ship 


chick 


keep 


hat 


sheep 


cheep 


kiss 


help 


shop 


chalk 


kept 


hop 


short 


check 


kick 


hit 


shut 


chop 


keen 


half 


sharp 


chirp 


kind 


hush 


shelf 


chap 


kid 


health 


shirt 


child 


kiU 


honk 


shook 


chin 


kin 


hut 


shout 


chain 


keg 


huff 


sheet 


•chair 




hot 


shoot 


chicken 


qu — (=kwh) 


hurt 


•shake 


•cherry 


queen 


had 


shock 


•chose 


quart 


him 


shall 


•cheese 


quiet 


hold 


should 


•choose 


quick 


horn 


•shine 


chief 


quilt 


hug 


•shone 


chart 


quest 


held 


shawl 


cheek 


quench 


hill 


shield 


church 


quarrel 


head 


shell 


chant 




hen 


shin 


chest 


—x (=ks) 


hum 


shed 


charm 


box 


hog 


•shoe 


chill 


fox 


heard 


•show 


chum 


fix 


hail 


shrink 


•cheer 


mix 


ham 


shrub 


•choice 


wax 


hang 


shrill 


# chew 


lax 


hatch 


shriek 


•choke 


six 


heat 


shrimp 


chuck 


vex 


hook 



•Use these words only for the recognition of initial sounds 



Voiced Consonants 



boat 


bad 


went 


"very 


book 


bag 


wet 


visit 


bark 


ball 


walk 


"voice 


best 


barn 


want 


"vine 


both 


bed 


wait 


violet 


but 


been 


wash 


vest 


beat 


bell 


week 


"village 


black 


big 


wink 


velvet 


bright 


bird 


work 


verb 


bit 


bug 


well 


"vote 


bank 


bowl 


wing 


vex 


beet 


build 


wind 


"vase 


brick 


broom 


worth 


void 


branch 


bean 


web 


van 


break 


boil 


wept 


"vow 


bush 


bloom 


watch 


violin 


brush 


brown 


with 


"verse 


breast 


blind 


word 


vouch 


brook 


board 


world 


vanish 


bump 


born 


won 


victim 


bus 


bend 


wolf 


vacant 


back 


bring 


warm 


vowel 


blink 


buzz 


wand 


"veto 


bath 


broad 


wall 


"view 


bless 


•blew 


wag 


vast 


breath 


bread 


wild 


vanish 


brass 


"brave 


wax 


"victor 


blunt 


"breeze 


wept 


"volume 



•Use these words only for the recognition of initial sounds. 



3 THE PHONOVESUAL METHOD 

th — d — sb— j— 



that 


dish 


*zoo 


jump 


this 


•day 


zest 


just 


then 


dig 


•zero 


jam 


them 


dog 


•zone 


•jar 


•these 


doll 


•zebra 


•joy 


•thine 


dress 


•zinnia 


•joke 


•thy 


drink 


°zinc 


Pg 


•there 


duck 




jog 


•those 


desk 




jot 


•the 


dash 




job 


•they 


dot 




jest 


than 


dust 




join 


•thou 


dug 




•jaw 


•though 


dirt 
den 
drum 
down 
deep 
did 
drank 
drown 
drag 
dark 
dwarf 
•drive 
dried 
drop 




jerk 



•Use these words only for the recognition of initial sounds, 



VOICED CONSONANTS 



27 



(-ng) 



get 


man 


not 


sing 


•game 


meat 


nest 


sang 


•gave 


men 


nut 


song 


green 


milk 


noise 


long 


gain 


mouth 


night 


ring 


grand 


moon 


need 


ding 


gold 


marsh 


next 


spring 


goat 


mask 


nod 


string 


grass 


muff 


nail 


strong 


girl 


melt 


north 


thing 


glad 


•move 


*new 


hang 


gift 


most 


neat 


rang 


grin 


mash 


nip 


swing 


grunt 


mild 


°name 


dong 



♦Use these words only for the recognition of initial sounds 



88 



THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 



I— 



look 


ran 


yes 


lost 


rat 


yet 


lunch 


rap 


yard 


left 


rich 


yawn 


lay 


right 


yarn 


land 


roll 


yeast 


lamp 


rub 


yearn 


leaf 


round 


youth 


learn 


reach 


yield 


leg 


roast 


young 


long 


room 


•yellow 


luck 


rest 


•yonder 


loud 


real 


•youngster 


list 


risk 


yell 


laid 


raft 


•younger 


Up 


rock 


youngest 



'Use these words only for the recognition of initial sounds. 



Teaching The Vowels 

As stated on page 21, the Phono visual approach to reading and spell- 
ing is radically different from the approach of other methods in common 
use. The Director of the demonstration school often says that there are 
only three main points in the process: 

1. Learning the initial consonants 

2. Listening through the word to the final consonant 

3. "Tucking in" the vowels 

The Phonovisual Vowel Song 

This little song was originated by the Director of The Primary Day 
School in 1945 and has been sung with great enthusiasm by children ( and 
even by teachers-m-training) ever since. Its simple rune can be enjoyed 
long before the vowels are introduced in the teaching process, and it is 
very helpful in fixing the sounds in the children's minds. 

The teacher explains that the "baby" in the song is too young to be able 
to talk— that he cannot say a whole word, but only its vowel sound. After 
the children have learned the song they are delighted to be asked, for 
example, "What does the baby want when he says o-e, o-e?" [rose] or 
"when he says -i-, -i-, -i-?" [fish]. 

The teacher points to each sound as it is sung. 




* 



But 



Ba - by wants the cat 

Ba - by wants the cat 

Ba - by wants the cat 



> w \> j\r? j=^ 



Mother 



■ayi 



-a- -a- -a- 
-a- -a- -a- 
-a- -a- -a- 



3 



29 



Phonovisuar Vowel Chart 




ay 
ai 



-a 




aw 

au 
a(U) 
o(r) 



a(r) 







-e 
ea 



-e- 

ea 



a-e ee i- 



-y 

igh 



125?^-^ 



1 

-y 



30 



» 






o-e 



oa 

ow 

-o 





00 




00 

u 




ow 

ou 

oy 

oi 




u-e 

ew 




-U- 




ur 

er 



it 
or 



TEACHING THE VOWELI 31 

The Phonovisual Vowel Song 

Baby wants the cake, a-e-, a-e, a-e 

tree, ee, ee, ee 

five, i-e, i-e, i-e 

rose, o-e, o-e, o-e 

mule, u-e, u-e, u-e 
but Mother says -o-, -o-„ -o- 

Baby wants the cat, -a-, -a-, -a- 

bed, -e-, -e-, -e- 
" " fish, -i-, -1-, -i- 

top, -o-, -o-, -o- 

duck, -u-, -u-, -u- 
but Mother says -o-, -o-, -o» 

Baby wants the saw, aw, aw, aw 

car, ar, ar, ar 

moon, oo, oo, oo 

book, oo, oo, oo 

cow, ow, ow, ow 
m " boy, oy, oy, oy 

fur, ur, ur, ur 
but Mother says -o-, -o-, -o» 

Why Teach the Vowels in First Grade? 

After learning only one short vowel (-a-) a child who knows the conso- 
nants can figure out for himself any of the words on page 65 that he 
wishes to use. For dictation or reading, the teacher should of course select 
those that occur in his vocabulary. After he has acquired all five of the 
short vowels he can actually sound out not less than 30 to S5% of the 
words in his reader without the necessity for study, and can add them 
quickly to his sight vocabulary. To teach such a list as sight words would 
require hours, even days, of endless repetition. No busy teacher should 
undertake such unnecessarv labor. At the same time, she should never 
overlook the fact that it is possible for children to acquire fluency in read- 
ing words without always achieving understanding. A good teacher 



32 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

makes constant use of questions and devices which require the class to 
"read and find out" the meaning of sentences and stories. Word recog- 
nition is really reading only when it is accompanied by comprehension. 

Step 10: The First Vowel-ee. 

The first vowel taught is ee. It was selected because it has a clear 
auditory pattern, and is easily identified visually. Words such as peep, 
sheep, feet, see, seed, and many others can be written by the children 
without study as soon as they have learned this one vowel sound. 

It is suggested that the first lesson be a chalkboard lesson. Say: "I am 
going to write a new sound on the board. It says ee. Listen, and see if 
you can hear ee when I say tree. Could you? Where did you hear ee, at 
the beginning of the word or the end of the word?" Write the word tree 
on the board and have a child draw a line under the part that says ee. 

Say another word, sheep. Say it again in "slow motion," "sh-ee-p." Asl 
a child if he can write on the board the first sound he hears. (He should, 
of course, write sh quickly and easily.) Now write the ee after the sh, 
making shee, and then ask the child to add the last sound he hears, p, 
thus making the whole word, sheep. 

Ask a child to write the word keep on the board. Tell him, if he hesi- 
tates, that all he has to do is write the first sound he hears, k, add the ee, 
and then write the last sound, p. 

Now write three or four ee words on the board, such as meet , seed, 
keep, and say: *T am going to pretend I am just learning to read. I have 
no idea what these words say, but I know every sound in them. I will go 
slowly from one sound to another and see if I can find out what the words 
say. Look at the first word. I will say each sound slowly, holding on to it 
until I come to the next: m...ee...t. Let's pretend I still do not know 
the word, and go faster this time: meet." The teacher runs her hand un- 
der the sounds (always from left to right) and speeds the sounding with 
each repetition until the children get the idea of word recognition. 

Teachers are often surprised to find that although the children can 
write such words as these easily, reading them is quite another matter. 

(Continued on page 41) 




No reading or writing in kindergarten, but complete mastery of pictures, 

sounds, and positions. 




When recognition of sounds is fully mastered, chart-building is fun. 

33 




At first the entire emphasis is 
placed on listening to the 
teacher as she says the sounds, 
but after identification oj 
them has become automatic, 
the children may say them. 




Blackboard writing first— in large, clear letters. 

begin with?" 

34 



"What sound does this word 




"Write the first sound and the last sound in this word." 




Whispered consonant sounds have been mastered, and with one vowel we can 

write whole words. 

35 




If we know all consonant sounds and the five short vowels, we can write 
hundreds of words, without study. 




Blends are easy. "How many sounds do you hear before (or after) the vowelF 

36 




The silent e on the end makes the long vowel say its own name." 




No mechanical word-calling in Phonovisual; we must liave comprehension. 

37 




Who can recognize the word first, the "passenger" or the "engineer" behind 

her? Excitement runs high. 




'There are different ways to spell some of the vowel sounds. You cant tell by 
listening, but if you've seen the word, you can remember." 

38 




'A compound word is just two words put together to make a bigger word. 11 
you take them apart, they both make sense." 




"If you know the charts, you can spell all of the sound words, but you have to 
study the ones that are not like the charts." 

39 




"Every syllable has to 
have a vowel sound." By 
late Spring, second grad- 
ers can tell the numbei 
of syllables in any word 



The market is full of de- 
lightful science books. 
Phonovisually taught 
second graders read 
them avidly. 




40 



TEACHING THE VOWELS 41 

(Continued from page 32) 
It is important to start at once the technique of reading the words back. 
Make a permanent list of ee words on a large chart to be read at frequent 
intervals. (Those most commonly used are given below. See page 72 for 
others. ) If the reading back of words is mastered at this point, no diffi- 
culty will occur in reading words using the other vowel sounds taught 
later. 

"ee" Words Containing No Consonant Blends 

see sheet seem week 

peep teeth meet wheel 

keep queen jeep need 

sheep cheek feed weed 

cheep seed bee feel 

feet seen wee beet 

It will be found helpful (and very enjoyable to the children) to "piay 
tricks" on words. The work is done at the chalkboard. The procedure 
is as follows: 

"Write keep. Can you change keep and make it say peepT (Children 
erase the k and substitute p.) "Now make it say sheep. Now can you 
make sheep say sheet? Now one more change: make sheet say feet. B« 
sure to underline the vowel." 

Not only in the beginning, but all the way through their learning oi 
the sounds, this game will be found one of the most interesting and effec- 
tive ways of increasing the children's skill with the tools for reading and 
spelling. 

Step 11: The First Short Vowel: -a- as in Cat. 

Say: "Today we are going to learn another vowel sound. Here it is." 
Point to the -a- on the chart and write it on the chalkboard. Then make 
a list of -a- sounds, as: 

a- a* 

a- a- 

a- a- 

A. Say: "Now I will say the sound for you." Give the sound of -a- as faj 
cat, pointing to each -a- in turn, and repeating the sound. 



42 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

B. Go down the column again, but this time make a "mistake," giving 
some other vowel sound instead of -a-. Have the children "catch" you. 
Repeat several times, varying the "mistake" and its position. 

C. Have the children give the sound as you point to each -a-. 

D. Say to the children: "You remember that this dash by the -a- means 
that there is a letter missing. I will think of some words. Let's see if you 
can write the missing letters." Give the class these words, having them 
written one at a time on the chalkboard: 

at am an and ask ant 

E. Erase and dictate these words to the group, having them written 
and read aloud. 

F. Say: "These are easy little words, aren't they? Most of the words 
that have that vowel sound have a letter on each side. See if you can read 
this one." Write cat on the board. If the children show any hesitation, 
tell them immediately what the word is. 

G. Say: "Now I will give you some words, and you write them. Don't 
forget that every one has the same sound, -a- as in cat" Dictate words 
selected from page 65 or 66. Have the children underline the vowel each 
time and read aloud the words they have written. 

Blends 

The teaching of blends grows naturally out of the practice of listening 
through tne word. This practice has sometimes been called the Phono- 
visual Method's most important contribution to education. It relieves the 
busy teacher of the laborious task of teaching not less than 29 consonant 
combinations in the initial position— not to mention the additional flock 
that occur at the ends of words! Just think for a minute of the hours 
required to fix in the minds of a group of children the following appalling 
list: bL br, cl, cr, dr, dw, fl, fr, gl, gr, pi, pr, sc, scr, shr, sk, si, sm, sn, sp, 
spl spr, squ, st, str, sw, thr, tr, tw, . . . and then of attacking the final 
blends like mp, pt, ft, nk, nt, etc.! Teaching these blends as independent 
entities is a waste of time! 



TEACHING THE VOWEL* 43 

Step 12: Teaching the Blend* 

In the Phonovisual Method, as soon as a child can write and read 
words beginning with one consonant, a new word with a blend is written 
on the board— for example, green. 

Say to the children: "How many sounds do you have to say before you 
get to the ee? . . . Yes, two." 

Write the word sheep on the board. Say: "How many sounds do you 
have to say before you get to the ee?" If a child answers "Two," instead 
of the one sound ah, say: "I did not say how many letters, but how many 
sounds." 

Select other words such as tweet, flog, tree, glad, in each instance hav- 
ing the pupil tell how many sounds he has to say before he gets to the 
vowel. 

When the children can unhesitatingly recognize and point out on the 
chart two sounds that precede the vowel, write such words as splash or 
street and call attention to the three sounds before the vowel. Dictate a 
series of words beginning with blends and let the children hold up their 
fingers to indicate the number of sounds before the vowel. (Additional 
words may be found in the Short Vowel lists, pages 65 to 70. ) 

Final Blends: Teaching the final blends is introduced as soon as the 
children have mastered the idea of the initial blends. It is important to 
call attention to the endings of such words as fast, sand, ask, by asking: 
"How many sounds do you hear after the vowel?" 

It may seem desirable, particularly in first grade, to postpone the 
thorough mastering of blends until all the short and long vowels, or per- 
haps even the 17 main vowel spellings, are established. Some teachers 
feel that giving children early skill in attacking difficult words with blends 
gives confidence to "try anything" in reading. Others prefer to give a 
working knowledge of all vowel sounds as soon as possible. Excellent 
results may be obtained in either case 



44 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

Warning: Make every possible effort to assure unfailing recognition of 
the correct number of sounds. As each successive vowel is taught, con- 
tinue to give words containing blends and to have the class tell the num- 
ber of sounds before and after the vowel. Properly taught, this skill will 
prevent omissions, reversals, and careless spelling and reading later on. 
It should be mastered by the time all of the short and long vowels have 
been learned. 

Confidence: In beginning reading, as soon as the children have mas- 
tered a vowel sound in their Phonovisual training they should be held 
responsible for all words containing that sound that occur in the reading 
lesson. New phonetic words (a word is phonetic to a child only after he 
has mastered all of its elements) are introduced by the teacher in her 
reading development period, and may be presented as "Words We Can 
Sound" or "Ear Words." 

If a child hesitates at a phonetic word in his silent or oral reading, re- 
mind him that it is an "ear" word, point to its parts on chart or chalk- 
board, and encourage him to sound it, helping him if he stumbles. Often 
just a reminder of the vowel sound will light the way to quick recogni- 
tion. This procedure must be followed systematically until he gets the 
feeling of power in using the sounds he has learned. He has heard them, 
written them in print-script, and seen them in bold type on flash cards. 
Now he can use them confidently. 

A Helpful Game. 

Select the cards with Short-A words from Junior Phonic Rummy, which 
contains the basic words from six standard first grade books. These cards 
may be used for flash card drill or for games. As each successive short 
vowel is taught, add the Phonic Rummy cards containing that vowel. 

Word Families? No! 

As may be seen by the foregoing paragraphs, the Phonovisual Method 
makes unnecessary the toilsome task of teaching word families, such as 
the "all" or the "at" family. After a child has learned the consonant chart 
and the one short vowel -a-, he can without study spell and read such 



TEACHING THE VOWELS 45 

word families as ab, ad, ag, al, am, amp, an, and, ang, ant, ap, as, ask, ast, 
at, ax. Furthermore, the authors of the Phonovisual Method believe that 
the teaching of word families tends to cause reversals by having the child 
look at the end of the word instead of the beginning. Effort should always 
be directed at having the pupil start with the first sound in the word and 
go through the word. If this is done systematically he will not hesitate to 
attack words of more than one syllable when they occur in his reading. 
Many six-year-olds at The Primary Day School, given a Gray Oral Read- 
ing test in April, figure out for themselves such words as interesting and 
enjoyed. 

Step 13: The Short Vowel -i- as in Fish. 

Review the sound of -a-. 

Write on the chalkboard: 

i- -i- 

i- -i- 

i- -i- 

Tell the children: "This sound is -i- as we hear it in fish." 
Point to the first sound and say: "Can you make this say it?" The chil- 
dren should be able to do this at once, and to fill the other blanks to make 
the words if, in, sit, him, pig. 

Now dictate additional words using the vowel -i-. ( See pages 67 and 
68.) 

Listening for the Vowel: 

Dictate at random words using the sound of -a- or -i-. Require the chil- 
dren to say the vowel and point it out on the chart before writing the 
word. After it is written, be sure that they underline the vowel. 

Step 14: The Short Vowels -u-, -o-, -e-. 

The three other short vowels may now be presented in the same way. 
They may be given all at one time unless the class is a slow one, in which 
case it is suggested that -u- be taught next, then -o-, and then -e-. This is 
the order of difficulty. 



46 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

Review: 

Say: "Now I am going to name each picture in this row (the short 
vowel row) and give the vowel sound: 

cat, -a-; bed, -e-; fish, -i-; top, -o-; duck, -u-. 

Repeat over and over again, until the auditory pattern of each short 
vowel sound is fixed in the children's consciousness. 

Draw on the board five columns like this, with the key pictures 
sketched in above: 

-a- -e- -i- -©- -•- 

Say: "I am going to say a word with a short vowel, and you may show 
me which column I should put it in." Give the word cat, then bed, fish, 
top, duck, letting the child point to the correct column, the teacher writ- 
ing the word each time. Underscore each vowel Always start by using 
these key words. 

Give other words from the short vowel list on pages 65 to 70 and have 
a child tell in which columns they belong. When there are four or five 
words in each column, be sure to have the children read the words aloud. 
Do this unfailingly. Surprisingly it is found that the child may have the 
correct auditory pattern, but at the same time may need to have the 
visual pattern strengthened. 

Dictate many other short vowel words, skipping about, but keeping in 
mind the following procedure for the children: 

1. Say the vowel 

2. Point to it on the chart 

3. Tell how many sounds come before the vowel 

4. Tell how many sounds come after the vowel 

5. Write the word 

6. Underline the vowel 

7. Bead the words back 



TEACHING THE TOWBJ 47 

Additional practice is provided in the Phonovisual Vowel Workbook. 

It if advisable at this point to teach the children that when the conso- 
nant sound k follows immediately after a short vowel, the spelling is 
usually ck. If another consonant comes in between the vowel and the k, 
as in words like milk and desk, then the c is omitted. 

Step 15: The Long Vowels 

Point to the row of Long Vowels on the Phonovisual Vowel Chart. 
Say: Ton have already learned the sound of ee." (Point to the ee on the 
chart) "Now we are going to learn four more long vowel sounds." 

Say: "I am going to name each picture in this row and give the vowel 
sound. Listen and see if you can hear the vowel sound in each word." 

Say: cake, A; tree, E; five, I; rose, O; mule, U. 

"Do you hear that each vowel says its own name in these words?" 
Continue naming the pictures, followed by the vowel sounds, just as in 
the case of the short vowels. Give sufficient drill to be sure the auditory 
pattern is established. 

Draw on the blackboard five columns like this: 

a-e ee i-e o-e u-e 

Say: "You have already learned ee, and if I told you to write the word 
tree you would know which column to put it in, wouldn't you? (Write 
the word in the ee column, after the children have said where it should 
go.) "Here is another word: keep. Where does that go?" (Put it in the 
column.) "Now listen as I say all of these vowels. Each one says the 
name of its first letter— A, E, I, O, U. The dash means that a letter is left 
out Listen to this word: cake. Which column do you think it belongs 
in?" (If the children show any hesitation, say the word again slowly, 
emphasizing the A sound. ) Write the word in the a-e column. 

Give the other key words, five, rose, mule, in the same way, having the 
children tell which column each one belongs in. Underscore the vowel 
each time, thus: rose. Call attention to the fact that the e at the end of a 



4B THE PHONOVJBUAL METHOD 

word is not pronounced— it is there to make the other vowel "call its 
name." Underlining is emphasized because ( 1 ) it stresses the importance 
of the vowel, (2) it helps the children to understand that e at the end 
of a word such as gate, although silent, is actually a part of the long 
vowel which it modifies. Give other words from the Long Vowel List on 
pages 70 and 75, having the children tell in which column each belongs. 
Have the children take turns underscoring the vowel sounds. Be sure to 
have them read the words on the board before completing the lesson. It 
is helpful to make a permanent list on tagboard, for practice. 

The Long Vowels: Spelling and Reading: 

Dictate long vowel words (primary spellings only) from pages 70 to 75, 
skipping about Have the children underscore each vowel. Be sure to 
have all dictated words read aloud. 

Step 16: The Rett of the Vowel Chart: 

Review the ten vowels already learned. Take up another only when 
the children are sure of these. 

Say: "You have learned ten of the vowel sounds. Now I will show you 
two new ones. Here they are." Draw two columns on the board and 
write aw and a(r) at the top. Contrast the two sounds. Give illustrative 
words from pages 75 and 76 and let the children write them in the correct 
columns. 

The order in which the remaining sounds are taught is not important. 
By this time the children will have learned to listen critically. If each 
step has been mastered, there will be little difficulty in developing the 
remainder of the chart 

The Charts as Permanent Reference Material: 

If the charts are kept constantly in sight after they have been mas- 
tered, it will be found that the children refer to them for guidance, much 
as adults refer to the dictionary. They offer help in reading, spelling, 
ipeech, and writing. 



TEACHING THE VOWELS 49 

First Grade Results 

The children have mastered both Phono visual charts. They are held 
responsible for the correct use of all of the primary spellings (those 
printed in large letters). They are able to spell any phonetic word using 
these main spellings. 

Teachers who have used the Phonovisual Method with average first 
grade classes frequently state that by the end of the year their pupils carj 
pick up any first grade book and read it at sight. A large percentage of 
these children test third grade and above. 

Perhaps the most important result is the evidence of confidence and 
security shown by the children. Their personal sense of achievement 
prompts them to attack new words and to explore unfamiliar books. Their 
comprehension is increased by their skill in quick word recognition, and 
enables them to follow wherever their curiositv leads them. 



Second Grade, and Beyond 

it is assumed at this point that the children in your class have mas* 
tered all of the techniques taught in the foregoing pages. If they have 
not, no matter whether you have an upper first grade, a second grade, or 
a class much higher, the place to begin is on page 12. The principles 
explained in pages 12 to 49 will be helpful at any grade level to any stu- 
dent who shows weakness in reading or spelling. The intelligent teacher 
will of course modify her approaches to suit the ages of her pupils. 

(Some first grade classes, where the groups are small, are ready by 
April for the steps discussed through page 52. ) 

The Teaching of Syllables 

Even before the end of the first grade, children will have encountered 
words of more than one syllable. An easy way to introduce syllables is 
through the use of the children's own names— an unfailingly interesting 
subject. 

The teacher may say: "I am going to teach you a new word today, the 
word syllable. Does anybody know what a syllable is? ... A syllable is a 
part of a word. The words you have been writing have only one syllable. 
Many of our names have only one syllable also. For instance (clapping 
her hands as she says the word), Ann. You heard only one vowel sound, 
and I clapped my hands only once, so we know that there is only one 
syllable in Ann. Now here is another name. Listen to this one, Linda 
(clapping it out). Do you think that name has only one vowel sound? 
No, there are two (repeating Linda and clapping her hands for each 
syllable). When we hear two vowel sounds we know there are two parts 
of the word— two syllables. Always remember that every syllable has a 
vowel sound. How many do you think these words have? Jack, Billy, 
Helen, David, Clyde, Nancy (clapping each out in turn). 

It is an easy step from the use of their own names in words of one oj 
two syllables to names or three or four syllables (Carpenter, Mont- 

50 



8ECOND GRADE AND BEYOND 5l 

gomery, etc.), and then to such common words as party, elephant, kan- 
garoo, invitation, hippopotamus. The children love clapping out the num- 
ber of syllables and readily learn to tell how many in a word. Of course 
they are not yet ready to write most of these multisyllabic words, but 
there are others that they can write easily. 

Compound Words: Our language contains many words of two syllables 
which are purely phonetic and thoroughly familiar to almost every child. 
They are compound words, made up of smaller words which he already 
knows. Some of these are: 



sunshine 


cowboy 


milkshake 


sunset 


drumstick 


smokestack 


bedtime 


milkman 


pancake 



These can be clapped out and dictated, and the children should be able 
to write them without hesitation. 

Secondary Spellings 

During the first year's work the children are held responsible only for 
the primary spellings— those printed in large letters on the Phonovisual 
Charts. They frequently pick up for themselves some of the other spell- 
ings to which attention may be called casually, but no great emphasis is 
placed on these. 

In the second grade care is taken to see that the children remember 
that there are other ways of spelling certain sounds; for example the long 
a sound in rain and play, the long o sound in boat and snow, and the short 
e sound in head and bread. Attention is called to the short dash on the 
Vowel Chart which indicates that the y at the end of a word of one syl- 
lable is likely to be a long i sound. Examples: my, by, why, fly, try. (See 
page 73.) 

At the same time it may be pointed out that the longer dash under the 
vowel -(- indicates that the y occurs at the end of a word of more than 



52 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

one syllable and has the short i sound. Examples: kitty, baby, daddy, 
funny, family. 

"Sound" Words versus "Study" Words 

Critics of phonetic teaching invariably call attention to the largely 
non-phonetic character of English spelling. They fail, however, to point 
out the fact that at least a part of practically every word follows the regu- 
lar rules, so that only a portion of even the worst "word demon" needs to 
be memorized. 

Early in first grade, when the pupils meet such a word as have, come, 
or does, the Phonovisual teacher says simply, "That word is not like the 
chart. We have to remember it." When basic words are definitely un- 
reasonable from the phonetic standpoint, it is a good idea to build up a 
list for study. The cnMren love to be asked such questions as: "If you 
were just in first grade and hadn't learned how to spell have, how do you 
think you would write it?" (hav) "How would you write come?" (hum 
or cum ) She may say, "Those are study words; we do not spell them the 
way they sound. Let's make a list of words we have to study." It is sug- 
gested that a permanent list of "study" words be put on a chart. It might 
include: 

are give 

come guess 

could here 

does know 

done one 

four want 

It is easy for the children to learn to point out the parts of a word that 
are "not like the Phonovisual charts," thus differentiating between "study" 
words and "sound" words. Many second grade children so taught can 
take a list of 220 basic words and tell with obvious pleasure in which 
group each word belongs and why. 



SECOND GRADE AND BEYOND 58 

Prefixes and Suffixes 

Second grade teachers whose pupils read easily usually find it a good 
idea to add the words "prefix" and "suffix" to their vocabulary. The 
prefix un occurs so frequently in reading lessons and conversation that 
it is easy to arouse interest in "this little prefix that makes a word change 
its meaning." Once the subject is introduced, the children find it fun to 
think of illustrations such as: 

tie untie 

happy unhappy 

true untrue 

fold unfold 

load unload 

dress undress 

Other prefixes encountered in reading, such as pre- and inter-, n~*y be 
pointed out and their meaning explained, but they are far less frequent 
than at least two suffixes, -ing and -ed. Because the teacher must explain 
these in the discussion of words of more than one syllable, it is helpful 
to teach the word suffix. 

Enriching the Program 

Children taught by the foregoing procedures seldom have to stop and 
ask, "What is this word?" or "How do you spell . . . T* An alert and 
observant teacher who has such a class finds on every hand ideas for 
enriching her program. At Hallowe'en time not only can she find in 
ghost and goblin beautiful examples of "study" and "sound" words, but 
she has time to give the children information about the origin of the 
celebration; let them enjoy clapping out the number of syllables in 
superstition; see that they know that the ch sound in witch follows die 
secondary spelling on the consonant chart, tch; and ask about the suffix 
that is added when we want to talk about more than one witch. She 
can apply the same ideas to the words we use in connection with 
Thanksgiving, Christmas, and the other national holidays, and can 



54 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

combine character training with auditory and visual discrimination, find- 
ing compound words, prefixes, suffixes, "sound" words and "study" words 
in the holiday vocabulary while discussing counting our blessings, being 
thankful for them, thinking of others, letting people know that we love 
them, etc. She can take advantage of whatever enthusiasm is absorbing 
the children's attention at the moment— whether it be Davy Crockett, 
Howdy Doody, prehistoric animals, or rockets and satellites. If it happens 
to be dinosaurs, she can give the class elementary scientific facts about 
them and the kind of climate in which they lived. ( During the prehistoric 
animal craze it was not unusual for the second grade pupils at the 
demonstration school to know the names of a dozen different kinds of 
dinosaurs, to be able to tell which were meat-eaters and which preferred 
plant food, and to enjoy writing make-believe stories about them.) 

The observant teacher always seizes any opportunity to add to vocabu- 
lary and knowledge. She keeps in mind the fact that children who can 
read easily at their own grade level can also attack words beyond that 
level and are ready to understand and absorb much that would be 
impossible for them if they had to struggle with deciphering words in 
their own text books. 



Auditory Training In The Kindergarten 

The Phonovisual Method offers an invaluable means of giving kinder- 
garten children auditory training that is meaningful and that provide! 
definite preparation for first grade work. This conclusion has resulted 
from several years of experimentation in the demonstration school. 

Children who have had the training outlined below have entered first 
grade with the following characteristics: (a) eagerness to learn, (b) 
ability to listen, (c) a greatly increased attention span, (d) the ability to 
recognize consonant sounds and to point to the letters that represent 
them. These children show reading readiness weeks in advance of those 
who have not had such a program. 

Beginning with the Kindergarteners 

The kindergarten teacher should read carefully the foregoing pages 11 
to 20, keeping in mind that her goal is different from that of the first 
grade teacher. She is not planning to teach her pupils to read or write, 
but she does wish to give them the following skills: (1) the ability to 
recognize all the pictures on the consonant chart and the order in which 
they are arranged, (2) the ability to associate the names of the pictures 
and the speech sounds with which the names begin, (3) the ability to 
point to the letters that represent those sounds, (4) the ability to match 
the appropriate letters and pictures. 

It is imperative for the teacher to know, before she begins working 
with the children, how to produce the speech sounds correctly. She 
should by all means avoid such errors as the common one of putting 
the vowel sound uh after a consonant sound— for example saying kuh 
for k or fuh for /. For the correct sounds of these, listen to them in words 
like look and if. We do not say "look-un" or "if-uh." (A record, giving 
all the sounds on both charts, may be secured from the publisher of this 
book.) 

55 



56 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

Slow Up for These Little People: Where the first grade teacher begins 
with the names of five pictures, the kindergarten teacher should not 
take more than three. She may begin in the same way, pointing to the 
pictures, making "mistakes," and providing endless repetition in the same 
order. She will no doubt think of ways to offer variety, remembering 
always that the exercise must be a game to the children, never work. 
If she exhausts her ideas for variety, she may find many others in the 
"Phonovisual Game Book," by Marie S. Buckley and Esther B. Lamb. 

The repetition should proceed until every child knows each of the 
three pictures and its position on the chart. Then the sounds may be 
introduced (See page 13) and the repetition continued until complete 
mastery has been achieved. 

A Flannelboard is Most Helpful: Such a board (See illustration on 
page 33) is an almost indispensable help in working with a kinder- 
garten group. Pictures and letters may be placed on it by the children 
as well as by the teacher, and visual training is added to the auditory by 
'catching mistakes" when a picture or letter is placed in the wrong posi- 
tion, or crooked, or upside down. This provides almost inexhaustible 
variety, fun, and a sureness of learning that makes an immense contribu- 
tion to a child's confidence and security when he reaches first grade. 

Seatwork Materials: "Phono visual Skill Builders" (letters for individual 
handling), may also be found useful. With careful supervision to make 
sure that the children do not "practice mistakes," a small group of chil- 
dren may use these at their desks or tables, or on the floor, building 
charts like the printed one, placing initial sounds as called for, and learn- 
ing with unfailing care to replace each card in the proper position. 

After the children are absolutely certain of the first three pictures and 
sounds, a fourth may be added and the games continued, with constant 
review and repetition, and a new sound added each time the last new 
one has been mastered. 

The Final Goal: The object of this training is to have the children, by 
the end of their kindergarten year, thoroughly familiar with the coo- 



IN THE DNDERCARTEN 57 

sonant sounds and the appearance of the letters that represent them. 
It is found that those who have achieved this familiarity not only need 
very little reviewing when they enter first grade the following fall, but 
that many of them, having sung the vowel song just for fun in kinder- 
garten, have figured out for themselves the sounds on the vowel chart 
The ease and success with which they learn to read and write are 
incomparably superior to the work of classes which have not had this 
preparation. It is the earnest hope of the authors that all school systems 
which do not have kindergartens will add them in the near future, and 
that all of the pupils may have the help of auditory and visual training 
of this kind. 



The Remedial Pupil 



A Sixth Grade Experiment: The entire sixth grade in a Washington 
public school was given a Phonovisual Diagnostic Spelling Test, and the 
eight worst spellers were selected. All of them had difficulty also in read- 
ing and, as might have been expected, the group included the most 
troublesome behavior problems in the school. All were boys. 

A teacher, who knew how to produce correctly the sounds on the 
Phonovisual Charts, volunteered to help the group. She found them 

discouraged, belligerent, and emotionally unstable. She talked to them 

frankly about their difficulty in spelling, and told them she felt sure she 

had something that would help them. 

For the last eight weeks of the school year, the teacher spent a daily 
half hour with these boys, and was thrilled to watch their attitude chang- 
ing. Discouragement gave way to hope. They began to realize that the 
letters in a word were not just arranged in an arbitrary way to be pain- 
fully memorized, but that if students associated letters and sounds they 
could spell many words without study. Hope began to change to con- 
fidence, and confidence to readiness to participate. The boys' spelling 
(and their reading as well) improved spectacularly. The teacher felt 
gratified, but her real reward did not come until after school had 
reopened in the fall. Then the principal received a letter from the boy 
who had been the worst trouble-maker in the entire school— now attend- 
ing a school in another town. This is what he wrote: 



Dear Mrs. 



Remember that little spelling class we had before I came to this 
school? Well, I want to thank you for making it possible for me to be 
in that spelling cJass, because it has improved my work here and if it 
does do me a lot of good, it should do every other poor speller a lot 



THE REMEDIAL PUPIL 56 

of good too. It has helped me a lot and my grades are up in all 
subjects. I made the honor roll this month and I got a silver star too. 
I am very proud of myself and I bet my parents are too. Tell Hello 
to all of the teachers for me, please. 

Sincerely, 
Richard. 

Dick and his classmates constituted the first remedial group taught by 
the Phonovisual Method. The procedure is now described in response 
to the request of many teachers. 

Beginning with Remedial Pupils 

The program of the teacher whose pupils have been in school a year 
or more without learning to read and spell moves more rapidly than that 
of the first grade teacher, but the fundamental principles that have to 
be taught are identical. These, she should remember, are (1) teaching 
the initial consonants, (2) teaching the child to listen through the word 
and recognize both the initial and final consonants, and (3) inserting 
the vowel. 

The teacher should begin by mastering pages 5 to 54. (It is assumed 
that the pupils have adequate vision and hearing. This should be ascer- 
tained beyond all doubt. Nothing is more cruel than allowing a child to 
struggle with an unrecognized handicap. ) 

Diagnosis: In order to understand the difficulties of each pupil, the 
teacher first gives the Phonovisual Classroom Diagnostic Spelling Test 
and charts the errors of each child. This enables her to see at a glance 
whether a pupil's weakness is with the initial consonants, the final con- 
sonants, the vowels, or all three; and provides her with a ready means 
of testing improvement after some weeks of corrective work. 

Teaching: Steps 1 to 6, outlined on pages 12 to 15, should be followed 
carefully. It will be remembered that these steps are (1) Naming the 



60 THE PHONOVXSUAL METHOD 

Pictures, (2) "Making a Mistake," (3) Watching the Teacher's Lips, 
(4) Introducing the Sounds, (5) Catching "Mistakes" in the Sounds, 
(6) Saying the Sounds. The same procedure should be used with the 
remedial pupil, with only this difference: instead of beginning with five 
sounds, the teacher may start with ten— the entire first column. Her 
pupils will already have learned to write, which will speed up the woiV 
when she reaches Step 7, (page 15) but the need for care and accuracy 
will still be present, and the warning Dont go too fast is still applicable. 
Remember that these children have failed because they did not learn 
right the first time. This must not be allowed to happen again! No matter 
how long it takes, how much repetition and praise are required, how 
many games the teacher must invent to keep the children happy and 
make them feel successful, they must become absolutely sure of each 
step before being allowed to try the next. 

Children who have failed know all too well that they have been unable 
co do work which others have accomplished with apparent ease. Some 
of them, in their humiliation, pretend to write carelessly, omitting letters 
or half-forming them as if in too great a hurry. Others squeeze their 
letters together in the hope that their errors will not be noticed. Still 
others just give up and refuse even to try. Children of this type, if they 
are at first held responsible only for a single consonant sound which they 
can recognize and repeat, often enjoy writing that sound in large, bold 
letters which the teacher can admire with sincerity. 

The remedial group can conquer Step 7, Writing the Sounds, with a 
minimum of difficulty if the teacher will keep the foregoing factors in 
mind and will be lavish in her praise of honest effort. 

The Importance of Immediate Success: The discouraged child who 
believes himself a failure is desperately in need of a feeling of success, 
and he can be offered one as soon as he is sure of all of the sounds in 
the first column of the Phonovisual Consonant Chart, in the initial and 
final positions. (See pages 12 to 16.) One lone vowel, ee, can then 



THE REMEDIAL. PUPIL 61 

enable him to write an astonishing number of words, with ease, accuracy, 
and no study whatever. See that each child has his own notebook so 
that he can make a list of words and watch it grow. This list is invaluable 
for doing review. 

Turn to page 32 and review the teaching of ee to a first grade class 
Much less effort is needed with the remedial group. The teacher may 
say merely: "Today let's take one vowel, ee, and see what we can do with 
it, along with these consonants we have been writing.'' She writes ee on 
the chalkboard, and asks the class what to do to make it say see. With her 
leadership the children discover almost immediately ( and often with the 
utmost delight) that they can write and read back such words as these: 
see, feet, cheek, sheet, keep, teeth, sheep, speech, peeps, cheep. 

Speeding Up: From this point on progress is usually rapid and enthu 
siasm high. The teacher must keep in mind the necessity of mastering 
every sound on both charts, and by this time the children are eager to 
do so. Finding out what "hard" words they can spell and read with 
only the vowel ee often provides the first feeling of pride that school work 
has brought them. The addition of the other long vowels builds this 
confidence higher. 

Teaching the long vowels first (See page 47), immediately after the 
ee sound, is recommended for the remedial cases just because of this 
need of a sense of achievement The short vowel words seem much 
easier and are likely to be regarded as "baby stuff," but handling words 
like greed, blame, and strive is grown-up workl 

Be Careful Not to Skip: Be sure to teach every consonant sound and 
every vowel sound (pages 12 to 48), playing games with each, and 
checking and rechecking to be sure that mastery is complete and 
permanent. Let the children test their knowledge of the charts by filling 
in the sounds on the incomplete sheets (pictures but no letters) obtain- 
able from the publisher; by writing the charts from memory, getting all 
of the sounds in the right position; by picking out the vowel instantly 



02 THE PHONOVBUAL METHOD 

from a Phonic Rummy card and pointing to it on the Vowel Chart. Let 
them play the "Train Game" with Phonic Rummy cards, and enjoy some 
of the more difficult exercises in "The Phonovisual Game Book." 

Other Materials for Practice: After all of the sounds have been taught 
there is great opportunity to encourage independence. A bit of competi- 
tion may be provided by having the children bring in words whose 
pronunciation and meaning they have discovered outside of school. If a 
child can speak the word distinctly, give its meaning, and tell how many 
syllables it has, he may write it on the chalkboard and add it to the 
list in his notebook. (If other children wish to include it in their note- 
books, they may do so if they can meet the same requirements.) 

The book Better Speech and Better Reading provides an immense 
amount of interesting material, for practice with syllables and with "other 
spellings" of certain sounds. If possible, each pupil should have a copy 
If this is not feasible, the teacher may use many of the exercises helpfull) , 
especially the fine collection of poems. There are sentences and poems 
for use with every sound. The teacher selects one and reads it aloud 
several times. Then she asks a child to read it. A brief period spent in 
this way for several days in succession increases the children's love of 
poetry, helps them to read smoothly and with expression, and often makes 
them want to memorize the verses and to find others they like and bring 
them in. 

Case Histories 

If the remedial teacher will follow faitMully the above suggestions, 
she will undoubtedly be able to help her pupils speedily. The following 
case histories from Chicago provide support for this statement and en- 
couragement for the teacher. 

1. Peter, the son of a university professor, was nine years old and in the 
third grade. He read only in a pre-primer, word by word and with much 
hesitation. He was very insecure and felt that he was a complete failure. His 
teacher and the principal thought he had been pushed, and that he did not 
have tiie mentality to carry on third grade work. 



IHB REMEDIAL PUPIL 63 

Peter had never learned to concentrate. At the first lesson it was almost 
impossible to keep his attention for three minutes. He constantly wanted to 
glance out of the window. He soon learned that he had to watch me in ordeT 
to master the consonants. At first I did not teach him regularly. Sometimes I 
would have him once a week, sometimes twice, and occasionally once a month, 
but his span of attention increased remarkably and he never seemed to forget 
what he had been taught. If I gave him a fifteen minute review he could go 
on from there. The charts gave him complete security, and he could look at 
them for help as often as he wished. 

Peter's teacher and principal were soon startled by his progress and the 
confidence he showed, and the principal decided that his Phonovisual lessons 
should take priority over his other subjects. She asked me if I would come to 
the school for his lessons (I had been teaching him at home), and said that I 
could take him at any hour of the day. He covered the Phonovisual method 
within 30 hours, and soon he was reading with his classmates in an upper 
third grade book. 

Before Peter had the Phonovisual teaching his father had drilled him every 
evening on his weekly spelling words, but he always missed most of them on 
Friday when he was tested at school. After he had mastered the method his 
teacher and I dictated several advanced lessons and Peter could spell eight or 
ten of every twelve phonetic words. When he was promoted to 4th grade his 
teacher said there was no one in the room who could do what he could with 
words. Repeatedly his parents have told me: "You saved his life." 

2. Sally, a little girl in 4th grade, felt very insecure about her reading and 
spelling, in spite of having been tutored for more than a year by a very fine 
teacher connected with a well known reading clinic. When I first asked her 
to attack a phonetic word that I knew she was able to read, she said, "I am 
afraid to. I have been wrong so often, and then they say, 'Oh, Sally!' " 

After nine hours of Phonovisual teaching she stood up with confidence before 
a large audience of parents and teachers and wrote with ease any short-vowel 
phonetic word that was called out to her. After fifteen hours she was able to 
do the same with any phonetic word containing any vowel on the entire chart 
It was discovered that two-thirds of all the spelling words for her grade that 
year were phonetic, and that she had no difficulty spelling any of them without 
study, leaving her plenty of time to learn the non-phonetic words. She also 
read easily on a 4th grade level. 

One day this little girl looked with deep affection at the charts and made a 
gesture of encircling them with her arms because she felt that they had helped 
her so much by making reading and spelling fun. She was already well on the 



64 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

way to becoming a skillful independent reader, and her parents and teacher 
spoke with appreciation of the confidence she showed 

3. Gordon, a bright child of seven, was asked to repeat second grade because 
his teacher felt that he was immature. He needed help in reading and spelling. 
After only twelve hours of Fhonovisual teaching Gordon could write any 
phonetic word of one syllable, and in nineteen hours he had covered the whole 
Method. Compound words of two syllables and also words of four and fiv*» 
syllables were dictated to him and he spelled them easily. 

One day Gordon gave a demonstration to his classroom teacher, and during 
that time his classmates were writing creative stories. The children were 
constantly interrupting the teacher to ask her to spell w^ds for them. So many 
of the words were phonetic that we decided to let Gordon spell them for his 
classmates. He spelled word after word correctly and with the utmost con- 
fidence. 

Of course a teacher should usually confine herself to the use of words in the 
children's vocabulary, but in Gordon's case I went far beyond that point just 
to prove to myself what could be done with the Phonovisual Method. I often 
tell upper grade teachers about it because it shows what can be accomplished 
after following the basic steps. I found that Gordon had the ability to write 
and read hundreds and hundreds— maybe thousands— of words. He wrote these 
with ease: Stevenson, democrats, republicans, president, election, important, 
equipment, draft, breeze, snub, gale, French, British, evident, dissatisfaction, 
administration. Also he wrote many more that were far beyond him in com- 
prehension, for example: stalemate, liquidation, indicate, decline, etc. If you 
add prefixes and suffixes, there is just no end to writing words! 



Phonetic Words of One Syllable 



blab 
black 



bland 

blast 

brad 



bran 
branch 
brash 
brat 





Short Vowels 




-a- as in cat 


cash 


fast 


cast 


fat 


cat 


flag 


chant 


flap 


chap 


flash 


chat 


flask 


clack 


flat 


clad 


flai 


clam 


gab 


clamp 


gad 


clan 


g ft g 


clang 


gang 


clap 


gap 


clash 


gas 


clasp 


gash 


crab 


gasp 


crack 


glad 


crag 


gland 


cram 


grab 


cramp 


graft 


crash 


gram 


dab 


grand 


dad 


grant 


daft 


grasp 


dam 


hack 


damp 


had 


dash 


hag 


drab 


hand 


draft 


hang 


drag 


has 


dram 


hash 


fan 


hasp 


fang 


hat 



am casn fast hath 

an cast fat jab 

and cat flag jack 

ant chant flap jag 

apt chap flash jam 

as chat flask lack 

ash clack flat lad 

at clad flai lag 

ax clam gab lamp 

back clamp gad land 

bad clan gag lap 

bag clang gang lash 

ban clap gap last 

lax 

baslT clasp gash mad 

b a { crab gasp man 

bath crack gkd map 



mash 
mask 



blanch ^P g raft mast 

mat 



nab 
nag 

° ra g dam hack pad 



pal 
pan 
pang 
pant 



cab drag has path 

camp dram hash pat 

can fan hasp past 

cap fang hat plan 



66 



THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 



plant 

quack 

rack 

raft 

rag 

ram 

ramp 

ran 

ranch 

rang 

rant 

rap 

rapt 

rash 

rat 

sack 



sat 



snack 



tap 



sag 
sand 
sap 
sash 



bed 

beg 

belt 

bench 

bent 

bet 

blend 

blest 

best 

bred 

cent 

check 

chest 

deck 

den 



scamp 


snag 


scan 


snap 


scant 


span 


scram 


spat 


scrap 


splash 


shack 


sprang 


shad 


stab 


shaft 


stack 


sham 


stag 


slab 


stamp 


slack 


stand 


slag 


strand 


slam 


strap 


slang 


swag 


slant 


swam 


slap 


tab 


slash 


tack 


slat 


tact 


smack 


tag 


smash 


tan 




-e- as in bed 


dent 


fresh 


desk 


fret 


drench 


get 


dwelt 


hemp 


elf 


glen 


elk 


helm 


elm 


help 


end 


helps 


fed 


hem 


felt 


hen 


fez 


jet 


fleck 


jest 


fled 


keg 


flesh 


kept 


French 


led 



task 

tax 

than 

that 

thrash 

track 

tram 

tramp 

trap 

trash 

van 

vast 

wag 

wax 

whack 

whang 

yak 

yam 

yap 



left 

leg 

lend 

length 

lent 

lest 

let 

melt 

men 

mend 

mesh 

met 

neck 

nest 

net 



PHONETIC WORDS OF ONE SYLLABLE 



67 



next 

peck 

pelt 

pen 

pep 

pest 

pet 

pets 

quench 

quest 

red 

rent 

rest 

self 



bread 
breast 
breath 



bib 

bid 

big 

bin 

bit 

blimp 

brick 

brim 

bring 

brisk 

chick 

chin 

chip 

chit 

click 



send 


stem 


sent 


step 


set 


strength 


sex 


swept 


shed 


ten 


shelf 


test 


shred 


text 


sled 


them 


slept 


then 


speck 


thresh 


sped 


trend 


spend 


trench 


spent 


vest 


squelch 


vex 




cans in bread 


dead 


health 


dread 


lead 


head 


read 




4- as in fish 


clinch 


fin 


clip 


finch 


crisp 


fish 


did 


fist 


dig 


fit 


dim 


flick 


din 


flinch 


ding 


fling 


dint 


flint 


dip 


flip 


dish 


flit 


disk 


frisk 


drift 


gift 


drip 


gilt 


fib 


glim 



web 

wed 

went 

wept 

west 

wet 

whelp 

when 

whet 

yelp 

yes 

yet 

zest 



spread 

tread 

wealth 



glint 
grim 
grin 

grip 
grist 

grit 

grits 

hid 

him 

hint 

hip 

his 

hit 

if 

In 



THE PHONOVXSUAL METHOD 



inch 

imp 

is 

it 

jib 

fig 
lack 

lad 

kin 

i£ g 

kith 

lick 

lid 

lift 

limp 

lint 

lip 

lisp 

list 

lit 

milk 

mint 

mist 

mix 

nib 

pick 

P*g 
pin 

pinch 

ping 

pip 



block 

blot 

bob 

bog 

bond 



pit 


six 


pith 


skid 


prick 


skim 


P ri g 


skimp 


prim 


skin 


primp 


skip 


print 


slat 


quick 


slick 


quilt 


slid 


quip 


slim 


quiz 


sling 


rib 


slip 


rich 


slit 


rid 


smith 


rift 


snip 


rig 


spin 


rim 


spit 


ring 


splint 


rip 


split 


risk 


sprig 


script 


spring 


shift 


squib 


shin 


squint 


ship 


stick 


shrimp 


sting 


sick 


stint 


sift 


string 


silk 


strip 


sin 


swift 


sing 


swim 


sip 


swing 


sit 


swish 




-o- as in top 


box 


cob 


chop 


cog 


clock 


cop 


clod 


cot 


clog 


crock 



thick 

thin 

thing 

this 

thrift 

tick 

tilt 

tin 

tint 

tip 

trick 

trim 

trip 

twig 

twin 

twist 

vim 

which 

whim 

whip 

whisk 

whiz 

wick 

wilt 

win 

wind 

wing 

wish 

wisp 

wit 

with 

zip 



crop 

dock 

dot 

drop 

flock 



PHONETIC WORDS OF ONE 8YLLABLE 



m 



flog 

flop 

fob 

fog 

fox 

frock 

from 

got 

nob 

hod 

hop 

hot 

job 

jog 
jot 



blunt 

blush 

brush 

brunt 

buck 

bud 

bug 

bulk 

bump 

bun 

bunch 

bus 

bust 

but 

chuck 

club 

cluck 

clump 

clung 

chum 

chump 

crush 



lock 


pot 


log 


prod 


lop 


prompt 


lot 


prop 


mob 


rob 


mock 


rock 


mop 


rod 


nod 


romp 


not 


rot 


on 


shock 


ox 


shod 


plod 


shop 


plot 


shot 


pond 


slot 


pomp 


smock 




-M- as in duck 


crust 


gum 


cub 


gun 


cup 


gush 


cut 


gust 


drub 


hub 


drug 


hug 


drum 


hulk 


duck 


hum 


dug 


hump 


dust 


hunch 


dump 


hung 


dusk 


hunt 


flung 


hush 


flush 


husk 


fun 


hut 


fund 


J' u g 


glum 


jump 


glut 


just 


grub 


jut 


grunt 


lug 


gulf 


luck 


gulp 


lump 



smog 

snob 

sob 

sock 

sod 

sop 

spot 

stock 

stop 

throb 

top 

tot 

trod 

trot 



lunch 

lung 

lush 

much 

mud 

muff 

mug 

mum 

mumps 

munch 

mush 

musk 

must 

nun 

nut 

pluck 

plug 

plum 

plump 

plus 

plush 

puck 



70 



THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 



pulp 

pump 

pun 

punch 

pup 

rub 

rag 

rum 

rump 

run 

rang 

runt 

rush 

rust 

rat 

scrub 

shuck 



ape 

babe 

bake 

bale 

bane 

base 

blade 

blame 

blaze 

brace 

brake 

brave 

came 

cane 

cape 

case 

cave 

chafe 



shrub 


strut 


shrug 


stub 


shun 


stuck 


shut 


stump 


slug 


stun 


slum 


stung 


slump 


stunt 


slung 


sub 


slush 


such 


smug 


suck 


smut 


sulk 


snub 


sum 


snug 


sun 


sprung 


sung 


spun 


sup 


struck 


swung 


strung 


thrush 




Long Vowels 




*«e as in cske 


chase 


gale 


crane 


game 


crate 


gape 


crave 


gate 


craze 


gave 


dale 


gaze 


dame 


glade 


date 


glaze 


daze 


grace 


drape 


grade 


face 


grape 


fade 


grate 


fake 


grave 


fame 


graze 


fane 


haste 


fate 


hate 


flake 


haze 


flame 
frame 


jade 
fade 



thrust 

thud 

thump 

thus 

truck 

trump 

trust 

tub 

tuck 

tuft 

tug 

tusk 

tut 

up 

us 



lace 

lake 

lame 

lane 

late 

made 

make 

male 

mane 

mate 

maze 

name 

nape 

pace 

pane 

pale 

place 

plane 



PHONETIC WORDS OF ONE SYLLABLE 



71 



plate 


scale 


space 


tape 


quake 


scrape 
shade 


spade 


trace 


race 


spake 
naze 


trade 


rake 


shake 


vale 


rate 


shame 


stake 


vane 


rave 


shape 


stale 


vase 


safe 


shave 


state 


wade 


sake 


skate 


stave 


wake 


sale 


slate 


take 


wane 


same 


slave 


tale 


wave 


save 


snake 


tame 
d at in rmn 


whale 


aid 


frail 


pain 


stain 


ail 


gain 


paint 


strain 


aim 


gait 


plain 


strait 


bail 


grail 


quail 


swain 


bait 


grain 


quaint 


tail 


braid 


hail 


raid 


taint 


brain 


jail 


rail 


trail 


chain 


laid 


rain 


train 


claim 


maid 


sail 


trait 


drain 


mail 


saint 


twain 


fail 


maim 


slain 


vain 


faint 


main 


snail 


wail 


faith 


nail 


sprain 


wain 


flail 


pail 


staid 
gy ms in pUty 


wait 


bay 


g ft y 


pay 


stay 


bray 


gray 


play 


stray 


clay 


hay 


pray 


sway 


day 


jay 


ray 


tray 


dray 


lay 


say 


way 


flay 


may 


slay 




fray 


nay 


spray 





72 



THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 





ee at in tree 


bee 


need 


beech 


peek 


beef 


peel 


beet 


peep 


bleed 


queen 


breed 


reed 


cheek 


reef 


cheep 
creed 


reek 
reel 


creek 


screech 


creep 


screen 


deed 


see 


deem 


seep 


deep 


sheep 


eel 


sheet 


fee 


sleek 


feed 


sleep 


feel 


sleet 


feet 


speech 


flee 


speed 


fleet 


spree 


free 


steed 


freed 


steel 


glee 


steep 


green 


street 


greet 


sweep 


heed 


sweet 


heel 


teeth 


jeep 


thee 


keel 


three 


keen 


tree 


keep 


tweed 


lee 


wee 


leech 


weed 


leek 


week 


meek 


weep 


meet 


wheel 





es as in leaf 


each 


meat 


eat 


neat 


east 

beach 

bead 

beak 

beam 

beast 

beat 

bleach 


pea 

peach 

peal 

peat 

plea 

plead 

preach 

reach 


bleak 


read 


bleat 


ream 


cheap 
cheat 


reap 
sea 


clean 


seal 


creak 


seam 


cream 


seat 


dean 


scream 


dream 


sheaf 


feast 


sneak 


flea 
freak 
gleam 
glean 


speak 
squeak 
squeal 
steal 


heal 


steam 


heap 
heat 


streak 
stream 


heath 


tea 


lea 


teach 


leach 


team 


lead 


treat 


leaf 


tweak 


lean 


veal 


leak 


weak 


leap 


wheat 


least 
mean 


yeast 
zeal 



PHONETIC WORDS OF ONE SYLLABLE 



73 







-e as 


in me 






be 


me 




she 




the 


he 




t-e as 


in five 




we 


bide 


life 




rime 




stripe 


bike 


like 




ripe 




strive 


brine 
chide 


lime 
line 




rite 
scribe 




swipe 
thine 


chime 


live 




shine 




thrive 


dike 


mile 




shrine 




tide 


dime 


mine 




side 




tile 


dine 


mite 




size 




time 


dive 


nine 




slide 




tribe 


drive 


pike 




slime 




twine 


fife 


pile 




smile 




vine 


file 


pine 




smite 




while 


fine 
five 
glide 


pipe 

pride 

prime 




snipe 
spike 
spine 




whine 
white 
wide 


grime 
hide 
hike 
hive 


prize 
quite 
ride 
strife 




spire 
spite 
stile 
stride 




wife 
wine 
wipe 
wire 


kite 


rife 




strike 








-y as in my 




igh 


as in high 




by 

cry 
dry 

% 

my 

p«y 

FT 


shy 

sky 

sly 

spry 

spy 

sty 

thy 

why 




nigh 

sigh 

thigh 

blight 

bright 

figfrt 

flight 




fright 

light 

might 

night 

plight 

right 

sight 

slight 



74 



THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 



o-e mm rose 



bone 

broke 

choke 

close 

coke 

cone 

cope 

crone 

dole 

dome 

dose 

doze 

drone 

drove 

froze 

globe 

grope 



boat 

boast 

broach 

cloak 

coach 

coal 

coast 

coat 

foam 



bow 
blow 
crow 
flow 



go 



grove 


probe 


hole 


prone 


home 


quote 


hope 


robe 


joke 


rode 


lobe 


role 


lone 


rope 


lope 


rose 


mode 


rote 


mole 


rove 


mope 


scope 


more 


score 


mote 


slope 


nose 


smoke 


note 


smote 


poke 


sole 


pole 


spoke 




00 as in boat 


goad 


loan 


goal 


moat 


goat 


oat 


gloat 


oath 


groan 


poach 


hoard 


roach 


hoax 


road 


load 


roam 


loaf 


roast 




owismmoir 


glow 


row 


grow 


show 


low 


slow 


mow 


snow 




•0 at in go 


lo 


no 



spore 

stole 

stoke 

stone 

stove 

strode 

stroke 

strove 

those 

throne 

tome 

tone 

tote 

vote 

woke 

yoke 

zone 



soak 

soap 

shoal 

shoat 

toad 

toast 

throat 



sow 
stow 
throw 
tow 



to 



FHONETIC WORDS OF ONE 8YLLABLB 



75 



u-e an in m 



ule 



cube 


dune 


cure 


dupe 


cute 


fume 


dude 


fuse 


duke 





mule 
mute 
nude 
pure 



tube 
tune 
use 
yule 



ew as in few 



dew 
few 



hew 
mew 



new 
pew 



skew 
stew 



Other Vowel Sounds 



bawl 

brawl 

brawn 

caw 

claw 

craw 

crawl 

dawn 



daub 
fault 
faun 



all 

ball 

call 





aw as in sow 


draw 


law 


drawl 


lawn 


drawn 

fawn 

flaw 


paw 

pawn 

raw 


haw 


saw 


hawk 


scrawl 


jaw 


shawl 




a u as in fault 


gaunt 
haul 


jaunt 
laud 


haunt 


launch 




s (U) zsmbaU 


fall 
gall 
hall 


pall 

small 

squall 



spawn 

sprawl 

squaw 

squawk 

straw 

thaw 

yawl 

yawn 



Paul 
Saul 
taunt 



wall 
stall 
tall 



76 THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 

the aw sound as in born 

born corn horn north 

cord for lord or 

cork fork morn short 



arch char jar sharp 

ark charm larch smart 

arm chart lard snarl 

art dark lark spar 

bar darn march spark 

barb dart mark star 

bard far marsh starch 

bark farm parch stark 

barn hard park start 

car hark part tar 

card harm scar tart 

carp harp scarf yard 

cart harsh shark yarn 



boot fool proof spoon 

boom gloom roof stool 

boon loom room stoop 

broom mood root too 

cool moon smooth tool 

doom noon soon tooth 

food pool spool zoo 



book foot look stood 

brook good nook took 

cook hook shook wool 

the short oo sound as in push 

bull full puD push 

both put 



corn 


horn 


for 


lord 


fork 


morn 


a(r) 


as in car 


char 
charm 


jar 
larch 


chart 


lard 


dark 


lark 


darn 


march 


dart 


mark 


far 


marsh 


farm 
hard 
hark 
harm 


parch 
park 
part 
scar 


harp 
harsh 


scarf 
shark 


long oo, 


as in moon 


fool 
gloom 


proof 
roof 


loom 


room 


mood 


root 


moon 


smooth 


noon 


soon 


pool 


spool 


short oo 


, as in book 


foot 


look 


good 


nook 



PHONETIC WORD8 OF ONE SYLLABLE 



77 







ow as in 


clown 




bow 


crowd 




frown 


howl 


brown 


crown 




gown 


now 


clown 
cow 


down 
drown 


ou as in 


growl 
how 

loud 


row 
town 


bound 


hound 




out 


shout 


bout 


house 




pound 


sound 


cloud 


loud 




round 


south 


found 


mound 




rout 


stout 


ground 


mouth 


ay as in 


scout 
boy 


trout 


boy 
cloy 


coy 


oi as in 


joy 
boil 


to) 
tro) 


boil 

broil 

choice 


foil 

foist 

hoist 




joist 
loin 
moist 


soil 

spoil 

toil 


coil 


join 




oil 


voice 


coin 


joint 


Mr as in 


point 

i fur 


void 


burn 


cur 




furl 


spurn 


burnt 


curb 




hurl 


surf 


burst 


curd 




lurch 


turf 


blur 


curl 




purl 


Turk 


church 


curt 




slur 


turn 


churn 


fur 


er as in 


spur 
her 


urn 


berth 


her 




jerk 


serf 


clerk 
fern 


herb 
herd 




perch 
perk 


term 
verb 



78 



THE PHONOVISUAL METHOD 



birch 

bird 

birth 

chirp 

fir 

firm 



as in in- 




or as in word 


first 


mirth 


word 


gird 


sir 


work 


girl 


squirm 


world 


girth 


stir 


worm 


irk 


thirst 


worst 


kirk 


whir 


worth 



Compound Phonetic Words 



backbone 


flatfish 


backhand 


footprint 


bagpipe 


footstep 


barnyard 


footstool 


bedside 


grandstand 


bedtime 


grapevine 


beehive 


gumdrop 


beeline 


hatbag 


blacktop 


himself 


blowpipe 


hotbed 


bobcat 


inside 


bobsled 


instep 


bobwhite 


itself 


boxcar 


kidnap 


broomstick 


makeshift 


buckskin 


maybe 


dragnet 


milkman 


driftwood 


milkshake 


drumstick 


milkweed 


fireman 


nighttime 


fishhook 


outgrow 



pancake 

plaything 

playtime 

quicksand 

rainbow 

ransack 

sawdust 

seesaw 

shipshape 

sideline 

sidetrack 

smokestack 

starfish 

stickpin 

subway 

sunburn 

sunburst 

Sunday 

sundown 

sunfast 



sunlit 

sunset 

sunshade 

sunshine 

sunstroke 

sunup 

tadpole 

toothbrush 

treetop 

uplift 

upset 

upshot 

upkeep 

upstart 

waylay 

wigwag 

wishbone 

withdraw 

woodpile 

yardstick 

Yuletide 



THE FHONOVISU AL METHOD 



79 



Harder Words for Remedial Pupils 



a-e 


invalidate 


ee 
i-e 
o-e 
u-e 


jubilee 
pantomime 
hippodrome 
multitude 


-a- 
-e- 


boomerang 
recommend 


-i- 
•o- 
-u- 


optimist 

vagabond 

distrust 


a(r) 
aw 

00 
00 


registrar 
jacks traw 
platoon 
understood 


ow 


renown 


oy 
ur 


employment 
overturn 



gravitate evaporate 

absentee pedigree 

satellite utilize 

telescope antidote 

latitude subterfuge 

ransacking bandit 

overwhelm dividend 

ability civility 

nominate abominate 

omnibus trustworthy 

marmalade carpenter 

awkward tomahawk 

foolproof moonlight 

bookshelf cookbook 

sundown downward 

destroy enjoyment 

unfurl surly 



What Should Be Expected of Education? 

A Harvard University report, "General Education in a Free Society," 
answers this question definitely. It says that the abilities to be fostered in 
men and women by general education are, above all others, these four: 
"To think effectively, to communicate, to make valid judgments, to dis- 
criminate among values." 

A child in a Phonovisual class, having failed under another method, 
sometimes reverted to his former habit of guessing. One day, when he 
had looked at the word jump and called it skip, a classmate said to him, 
"Don't guess-think!" 

"Well," replied the boy, "in that other old school they didn't give you 
anything to think with— you had to guess." 

We like to feel that providing an environment and a procedure which 
could bring about, between seven-year-old children, such a conversation 
as this is giving them a solid foundation on which to build for their adult 
lives the four values listed by the writers of the Harvard report 




University of 
Connecticut 

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