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City of 


RSI BRADFORD 


gana METROPOLITAN DISTRICT COUNCIL 


Report of the Chief Executive Office to the meeting of 
Bradford South Area Committee to be held on 24th 
March 2021. 





Subject: PROTECTING CHILDREN AND VULNERABLE ADULTS AT 
RISK OF EXPLOITATION 


Summary statement: 


This report provides an update to and builds on the report presented to the District 
Area Committees previously regarding the issue of Child Exploitation (CE). It 
focuses on the Strategic Response to all forms of exploitation in Children and 
Adults and how partners from the Working Together to Safeguard Children — the 
Bradford Partnership and the Bradford Safeguarding Adults Board work to drive 
improvements across the District and to hold agencies to account for their work in 
their area. This report also outlines the emergence of other complex safeguarding 
themes and outlines how partners are effectively collaborating and focussing upon 
the protection of vulnerable Children and Adults. 


EQUALITY & DIVERSITY: 


Child exploitation is a crime committed by predominantly male perpetrators, from all 
different backgrounds. Victims of exploitation also come from all backgrounds. 
Nevertheless, local experience and national research indicates that recognised victims and 
perpetrators do not necessarily reflect the gender ethnicity and other characteristics of the 
Districts population. 





Kersten England Portfolio: 
Chief Executive 
Children and Families, Health and Wellbeing 


Report Contact: Darren Minton Manager Overview & Scrutiny Area: 

of Bradford Safeguarding Business Unit 

Phone: (01274) 434361 Children’s Services, Health and Wellbeing 
E-mail: darren.minton@bradford.gov.uk 





1.2 


SUMMARY 


This report provides an update to the report presented to the Area Committee 
previously regarding the issue of Child Exploitation (CE). The Working Together to 
Safeguard Children — The Bradford Partnership (TBP) scrutinises the District 
responses to this and provides professional challenge to these responses. This 
ensures that partners are working to improve how children are supported and 
protected and to seek assurance for work in this area. This report will focus on the 
strategic response to all forms of exploitation to Children and Adults and how 
partners are contributing to improve service provision across the District. Partners 
are continuing to work together to protect vulnerable children and adults and 
particularly through increased collaborative work between TBP, Bradford 
Safeguarding Adults Board (BSAB) and the Community Safety Partnership (CSP). 
This has been achieved through an improved awareness and understanding which 
has enabled professionals to recognise and respond at an earlier stage to wider 
types of exploitation. (See Appendix A for definitions) 


In summary: 

° As part of the new arrangements, TBP partners have recognised the 
emergence of wider safeguarding themes within TBP Strategic Plan 2019- 
20. 

° The Risk and Vulnerabilities in Complex Safeguarding sub group which 


includes membership from the Bradford Safeguarding Adults Board (BSAB) 
and the Community Safety Partnership (CSP) as well as The Bradford 
Partnership has continued to look at cross age responses to Exploitation. 
The group have agreed on a district strategic response to exploitation. This 
strategy has 6 headings. 

(1) Identify and understand the nature and scale of the themes involved. 

(2) Prevention, Education and Awareness 

(3) Safeguarding vulnerable people, groups and communities 

(4) Effective leadership and governance 

(5) Disrupt and Prosecute. 

(6) Communication, Engagement and Empowerment 


° Partners have finalised a Strategic Response to CE and also a strategic 
response to Risk and Vulnerabilities in Complex Safeguarding, and have 
published an Exploitation protocol Child Exploitation Protocol for children and 
also a Risk Assessment Tool for professionals Risk Assessment Tool. These are 
utilised by professionals in their day-to-day assessment of the risks faced by 
children and young people in the district and to inform the responses to 








these risks. 

° The Bradford Partnership has commissioned an independent thematic 
Serious Case Review of CSE. This is due to be published in early 2021. 

° Front Door arrangements within Children’s Social Care have been extended 


to address wider exploitation, with the development of new multi-agency 
processes. A multi-agency team involving Police, Early Help, Health, 
Barnardo’s and Education work in partnership to share information and 
agree care plans and service provision to children at risk of exploitation. A 
Tri-weekly multi-agency CE meeting that looks at all aspects of Child 
exploitation, Criminal, Sexual and Missing, along with County Lines and 


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2.5 


other forms of Exploitation takes place. This meeting tracks children who 
may be emerging, moderate or at significant risk. These meetings inform a 
monthly Multi Agency Child Exploitation (MACE) meeting that looks at a 
strategic overview of Child Exploitation and also monitors and assesses high 
risk cases which are assessed to have “blockages” in their management and 
look at multi-agency actions to overcome these issues. 

° Bradford District Police Cyber Team and other partners continue to deliver 
training around topics relating to exploitation and on-line safety. 


BACKGROUND 


Nationally and locally, safeguarding partners are now addressing the emergence of 
numerous themes including Serious & Organised Crime, Modern Day Slavery and 
criminal exploitation as new threats in a similar way to the same conversations in 
the last decade around Child Sexual Exploitation. This is not only within children’s 
safeguarding arrangements but also recognising that vulnerable Adults can be 
exploited in the same way. These complex safeguarding matters impact across the 
Working Together to Safeguard Children — The Bradford Partnership (TBP), 
Bradford Safeguarding Adults Board (BSAB) and the Community Safety 
Partnership (CSP). Scrutiny and quality assurance have also increased through the 
media, inspections and inquiries both locally and nationally. 


Governance and Infrastructure 


Working Together to Safeguarding Children - The Bradford Partnership (TBP) 


Following changes brought about by government legislation the BSCB ceased to 
exist and the new arrangements commenced in 1st September 2019. The 
legislative framework behind these changes is the Children and Social Work Act 
2017 as well as new guidance in Working Together to Safeguarding Children 2018. 
The three key agencies responsible for safeguarding within the District, namely 
Bradford Council (through the Children’s Services department) the Airedale, 
Wharfedale and Craven, Bradford City and Bradford Districts CCG (Clinical 
Commissioning Group) and West Yorkshire Police lead on safeguarding have equal 
and joint responsibility for safeguarding arrangements. There are also a number of 
“relevant agencies” who are also involved with safeguarding of children within 
Bradford. 


Bradford has continued to develop opportunities to increase collaboration between 
the BSAB, CSP and TBP and linked sub-groups. Across each of the three Boards, 
the sub-group structures manage core functions as well Board specific objectives. 
Some of these core functions create obvious opportunities for a more consistent 
and collaborative approach that takes into account cross-cutting themes and 
presents opportunities for shared learning. Work has commenced to develop these 
work streams. Appendix B outlines the details of the arrangements. 


Bradford Safeguarding Adults Board (BSAB) 

Work around exploitation of vulnerable Adults is still developing. This recognises 
the broader group of people who do not fall under the criteria as Adults at Risk 
within the Care Act. The BSAB has commissioned work to improve understanding 
and the response to people who may fall within this term. Various work streams are 





2.6 


on-going which look at issues of homelessness, substance misuse, mental health 
and transitions. Partners have recognised that there are people who fall outside the 
statutory threshold for services as Adults but do need support and safeguarding. 
Present and future work streams include: 


Undertaking an analysis to estimate the additional activity that might be 
involved in widening our policy including learning from partners and other 
SABs, and the impact this will have on delivery and resources. 

The development, embedding and reviewing of a multi-agency Safeguarding 
Adults Policy and Procedures group to agree and support local guidance and 
best practice in emerging wider complex safeguarding issues. 

Establishment of a Risk Enablement Group which will be a conduit to 
developing a professional pathway for case escalation. It will take learning 
from other areas of work to identify pathways for addressing tensions within 
the system and identify ways we can work better collectively. 

Development of performance datasets, quality assurance and auditing to 
monitor the implementation and on-going quality of safeguarding responses 
to exploitation across the partnership. 

Strengthening links with Risk and Vulnerabilities in Complex Safeguarding 
Group and Housing complex needs panel in developing pathways of support 
for adults with complex Non-Statutory Safeguarding issues. 

Working with the Safeguarding Voice Group to identify issues they have 
encountered regarding exploitation and the development of an award- 
winning Real Safeguarding Story around Mate Crime. This was based on a 
real-life experience of one of the Safeguarding Voice Group Members and 
can be found here: 

Annie’s Story 

Since undertaking this piece of work the individual has been supported to 
talk about her experience to different partner and service user audiences. 

An ‘On the Buses’ Safeguarding campaign was in the planning post Covid- 
19. This was a joint piece of work, led by Voice Group members in 
partnership with First Bradford and Community Safety Partnership. The aim 
of the project was to ensure that the busses were a safe place for all and 
how staff can recognise and respond to abuse. This was a piece of work that 
was identified following the Mate Crime work. 

Unfortunately, due to Covid-19 this work was paused, however BSAB and 
Voice members are keen to progress the work when appropriate. 

Ensuring that the groups we work have relevant and up to date information 
regarding scams including availability of information on Safer Bradford 
website and building relationship with Yorkshire Standards. Voice group 
members are also leading on a piece of work that will involve a short virtual 
awareness raising workshop. 

A Safeguarding Voice newsletter, capturing service user opinions and 
experiences. At present we have a number of Voice Group members unable 
to access virtual meetings, so we have using this as a tool to keep people 
engaged and connected. This is available on the SaferBradford Website 
here: 

Safeguarding Voice Group 





Risk and Vulnerabilities in Complex Safequarding Group. 
Partners considered and developed a definition of complex safeguarding for 


children and agreed a local definition — behaviour or activity involving Children and 


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Young People and Adults with multiple vulnerabilities where there is exploitation, a 
risk of exploitation and/or a clear or implied safeguarding concern which is likely to 
lead to a serious and sustained negative impact on Children & Young People. This 
definition covers a number of individual safeguarding themes. The group has 
developed a Strategic Response (Appendix C). 


West Yorkshire Risk and Vulnerability Group 


Bradford continues to work closely with other Local Authorities and is a member of 
the West Yorkshire Risk and Vulnerability group which operates under the oversight 
of the West Yorkshire Police and Crime Commissioner (OPCC), seeking to support 
the delivery of the West Yorkshire Police and Crime Plan (see document link in 
Section 12). This group has developed a West Yorkshire Contextual Children and 
Young People Safeguarding Strategy 2018-21. This group provides an opportunity 
for the sharing of good practice to learn and the development of a consistent 
approach to a number of processes. 


Child Exploitation 





Partners continue to work together to further develop the systems and procedures 
in Bradford for safeguarding and protecting the welfare of children from Child 
Exploitation. Within the Integrated Front Door, the new management team have 
undertaken a reassessment of the structure, functions and responses to Child 
Exploitation within their team. This has led to a return to a specialised response 
multi-agency team to address concerns about child exploitation. This team works 
closely with the Breaking the Cycles, Trusted Relationship and Family Against 
Youth Crime Projects (Para 2.24-2.30) signposting children identified and assessed 
at risk of exploitation to specialist service provision. 













Trusted relationships group work in schools 


Trusted Relationships 


Multi Agency 
Referral Form 


VW 






Targeted Group Work 


Families Against Crime 


1: 1 Trusted Relationships support- out of 
hours 






Risk and 
Vulnerabilites 
meeting 


CE Hub 


Breaking the Cycles- Home office Funded 
through the PCC 


The multi-agency procedures around exploitation (Child Exploitation Protocol) outline 
how partners provide an enhanced, effective service to reduce the risks and to 
ensure that interventions are focussed, co-ordinated to have a positive impact on 
outcomes for Children and Young People at the heart of the work. The protocols 
recognise the need to respond to all forms of exploitation of children and take into 





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account the pathways for Children and Young People who go missing, are at risk of 
Child Sexual or Criminal Exploitation, are at risk of Radicalisation or who have been 
Trafficked. This work utilises the exploitation assessment tool (Risk Assessment Tool) 
to assist practitioners when making referrals and allows the assessment team to 
make an informed decision. Between January 2020 and August 2020, the number 
of children assessed as at risk of CE fluctuated between 283 in January peaking in 
May at 389 and being at 311 in August. For full details of risk levels per ward areas 
see Appendix D. 





The Police continue to work in partnership with Environmental Health, Taxi 
Licensing, Barnardo’s, HMRC, Fire Service, Council Licencing, and Immigration. 
Areas of activity include cafes, fast food establishments, snooker and multi- 
entertainment halls, hotels and domestic dwellings. Since the changes brought on 
by the Coronavirus pandemic a number of these operations have been curtailed 
due to the closure of various locations, however the partners continue to monitor 
intelligence of locations of concern and respond accordingly. Over the last 12 
months the group has continued to develop assessments and understanding of 
perpetrator profiles and victim profiles through the partnership analytical team. This 
has provided a variety of data around perpetrators and victims and helps look at the 
difference in both from a non-recent and recent perspective. This has enabled 
partners to identify trends and areas of focus and continue targeted work. 


Child Criminal Exploitation. 

Child Criminal Exploitation (CCE) takes a variety of different forms (see Appendix 
A for definitions). It can include children being forced or coerced into moving drugs 
or money across the country as part of Organised Crime Groups to other types of 
activity such as shoplifting, pickpocketing, or to threaten other young people. Child 
criminal exploitation has become strongly associated with one specific model 
known as ‘county lines. While children of all ages have been subject to exploitation 
both locally and nationally research shows that criminal gangs are most likely to 
exploit children aged between 14- to 17-year-olds. National thinking recognises the 
need for earlier help for children at risk, responses that see children as victims and 
not criminals, and joined-up national and local responses. CCE is a complex 
problem that requires a joined-up approach from statutory and non-statutory 
agencies, and accurate sharing of intelligence and recording of concerns facing 
children. Through coordinated, concerted efforts across statutory and voluntary 
sectors, and by working with local communities and families, partners can reach 
vulnerable young people more quickly and begin to disrupt child criminal 
exploitation. The government has issued refreshed guidance in January 2020 
County Lines Practical Guidance which offers practical guidance to Youth Offending 
Teams and frontline practitioners. The understanding of the risk factors linked to all 
forms of child exploitation is still developing and the district is seeking to keep 
abreast of current thinking and responses. Across the UK there is much work still to 
do to fully understand all aspects of CE and the best responses to the risks children 
and young people face. 





Partners contribute to Tri-weekly multi-agency Child Exploitation meetings (Risk 
Assessment Meetings — RAM) that look at all aspects of Child Exploitation, 
Criminal, Sexual and Missing, including County Lines and other forms of 
Exploitation. This meeting tracks children who may be emerging, moderate or at 
significant risk. Data from these meetings feed into a monthly Multi-agency Child 


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Exploitation (MACE) meeting. This meeting is a two-part meeting that looks at both 
a strategic review of victims, perpetrators and “hot spot locations of concern” within 
the district and also provides multi agency scrutiny to assist provide solutions to 
cases where there are blockages within agency work with victims or potential 
victims of exploitation. 


Referrals and identification of potential victims continues to increase as does 
demands upon all partners to respond to these. These demands are monitored at 
the Children Services Improvement Board. Projects focusing upon preventive 
measures; working alongside other established locality models have continued 
across the district. These recognise the potential reduction in demands through 
prevention and early intervention. 


Audit & Performance data indicates that the RAM & MACE meetings have been 
effective in identifying and reducing risk. Good practice is being identified and the 
learning is improving the response to incidents. 


Child Sexual Exploitation & Missing 

CSE response remains a high priority for partners. Under the new focus, CSE is 
considered within the wider context of Child Exploitation. While CSE can be a 
standalone concern, and is still flagged as such, it can often be a factor within wider 
exploitation concerns and the risk assessment processes seek to reflect this. 





Philomena Protocol 

The number of children missing in the district have reduced significantly since the 
launch of the Philomena Protocol. The protocol is designed to specifically support, 
understand respond to children in residential care who go missing. The protocol 
ensures every child placed in a residential provision has their own personalised 
missing trigger plan irrespective of whether they have the propensity to go missing 
or not. The plan is agreed with the Social Worker, Residential Provider and West 
Yorkshire Police. 





TBP has sought to build on the successes of work undertaken by the Keighley 
Association Women & Children's Centre (KAWACC) which has worked in 
partnership across Keighley to raise awareness of CSE and engender constructive 
conversations across communities about how they can help deal with CSE in their 
communities, by starting discussions in other areas of the district about how to roll 
out the principles of KAWACC’s work across the district. 


West Yorkshire Police in Bradford were successful in obtaining funding to create a 
regional conference to discuss and share learning and practice around Child 
Exploitation along with a multi-agency training offer. This was planned for earlier in 
2020 however due to the Covid-19 pandemic this was cancelled and currently work 
is now on going to convert this to a virtual event planned for 12t of February 2021. 
Equally the training that was planned as face-to-face training is being redesigned as 
a Virtual offer. 


Operation Dalesway — Historic CSE Concerns. 

West Yorkshire Police and the Local Authority continue to work together in 
response to the issue of “non recent” CSE concerns. A specialist team was set up 
in October 2014, known as “Operation Dalesway”, to deal exclusively with these 





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2.19 


2.20 


forms of investigation within the Bradford District. There have been a number of 
successful prosecutions over recent years and their work continues. 


There are currently 12 live cases under investigation and 5 more are pending trial 
with four of these cases having one suspect each and a combined 42 indictments. 
These cases are due in court before the end of 2020 either for trial or for the fixing 
of a trial date. The further case has a total of 14 suspects who have been charged 
with offences and are expected to be at court at dates to fix late in 2021. 

Of the live investigations which have as yet not progressed to charges, 3 of these 
are at a stage of having a CPS complex case lawyer allocated to them to assist with 
the case building processes. Several of the ongoing investigations have multiple 
suspects, with the possibility of further suspects being identified as the enquiries 
continue. There have been numerous arrests for the ongoing enquiries and others 
are at or approaching a planned arrest phase. Victims for 5 investigations have only 
recently engaged with the investigative process and are still at victim disclosure 
stage albeit in two of the cases the victims are proving to be reluctant to engage 
with the investigation and their cases may have to be discontinued, at least until 
they feel able to assist. One other investigation was concluded due to the victim 
disengaging with the investigation. 


Partners in Bradford continue to maximise opportunities to learn and improve 
service provision and the response to CE. The Bradford Partnership has 
commissioned an independent thematic Serious Case Review into CSE. While this 
has been prompted by the convictions of nine men for grooming and abusing two 
young people in 2019, the SCR is a thematic review of CSE that is looking at other 
cases, both recent and non-recent, and is seeking to engage positively with victims 
of abuse so that their experience informs the work directly. Partners are contributing 
towards this review and will act on the recommendations and learning that result 
from this review. Due to Covid-19 the timescale for the review has been delayed 
and is now due to report in early 2021. TBP has continued to monitor the learning 
and has met with agencies to share early learning themes to support interim 
changes pending the final outcome of the review. 


The partnership recently made application for funding to the Home Office and 
Ministry of Justice through the Child Sexual Abuse Support Services 
Transformational Fund with support from West Yorkshire Police, Health and 
Barnados with the opportunity to create a specialist Child Exploitation Hub within 
the Integrated Front Door. Although the bid was unsuccessful. Partners are 
continuing the dialogue and developing proposals to enhance existing structures. It 
is hoped that through this development opportunity, the Bradford district will see 
better outcomes/ support for children, young people and parents, but also in the 
disruption and management of perpetrators and potential perpetrators, and where 
possible bring those individuals to justice 


Bradford District Cyber Team 

Child sexual abuse and exploitation continues to be identified across the district. 
This is particularly true of online abuse wherever-more-sophisticated digital tools 
protect anonymity and where apps encourage children to engage in risky 
behaviour. This has been subject of increased concern during the period of time 
when the district was in increased lockdown due to Covid-19 where children 
isolating at home are felt to be at an even higher risk of being targeted by online 





2.22 


groomers for abuse. 

Law enforcement agencies including the Police are working with partners from the 
industry and voluntary sector partners, both in the UK and abroad to raise 
awareness and support children and parents. TBP has published guidance for 
parents on the Safer Bradford website for advice about signs of this form of abuse. 
The team has been in place since 2015 and since the beginning of the 2019-2020 
academic year, the team have continued to make a significant contribution within 
the educational sector as well as targeting establishments that have key 
connections to early intervention, safeguarding and other various vulnerabilities. 
The details of the work undertaken by the team is outlined in the report in 
Appendix G. 


The Partnership Response to other forms of Exploitation and Vulnerability 


Education. 

A continued closer working relationship between internal and external partners is 
helping to support early identification and intervention along with better awareness 
of the increased vulnerability in children including those children who are looked 
after, children with SEN, children who are missing education and those not in 
receipt of efficient and suitable full-time education. Professionals are considering 
indicators of wider exploitation and have reported that they find the Continuum of 
Need an enabling tool to support identification, risk assessment and appropriate 
referral to services for children who may be at risk or have experienced any form of 
exploitation or abuse. In addition, schools have welcomed the introduction of Early 
Help Coordinators to support schools in identification of needs. 

Children Missing in Education (CME). During 2019/2020 853 pupils have been 
referred to the LA as missing from Education. This is a significant decrease from 
1339 pupils the previous academic year, but this is largely attributed to reduced 
movement of children as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Of these enquiries 
have established the whereabouts of 92% and supported them into education 
settings or determined they have moved out of the district. The demographic of the 
population of Bradford often means that families move both within and out of the 
district without informing school staff of new addresses and contact details. 

The Local Authority will support parents choosing Elective Home Education (EHE) 
where the delivery of education is sufficient and suitable for the age and aptitude of 
children. We recognise the varied approaches to home educating and this being a 
choice for parents to make at any point during a child’s educational career. The 
number of EHE pupils in Bradford had risen over the last four academic years. 
Overall, from January 2016 — January 2018 EHE registered pupils had risen by 
63%. From January 2018 — January 2019 the percentage increase was 7%. From 
January 2019 — January 2020 there was less than a 1% increase in children who 
were registered as being Electively Home Educated, indicating our proactive 
approach over the last 4 years has stabilised the numbers. Since September there 
has been a significant increase in the numbers of pupils who have been removed 
from a school roll, with parents sighting COVID-19 as the main reason for this. 

On 30‘ September 2020 there were 677 children registered as EHE, this is a 39% 
increase in one month and a 29% increase on this point last year. 

Activity will focus on 


° The LA has raised the concern over increasing numbers of EHE 
children to the DfE. 


° Raising awareness of Elective Home Education across the district 
through multi agency training 


° Targeted training delivery in respect of vulnerable groups of CME 
children 
° Performance related analysis of timescales for actioning initial 


enquiries for CME referrals and of informal enquiries conducted in 
respect suitability of education provision for EHE pupils. 


° Maintain robust multi agency links to collect information in respect of 
whereabouts of children in the district including improved links with 
Border Agency. 

e Improved data analysis to identify themes and trends. 

° Data collection and analysis to enable robust action involving the 


Regional Schools Commissioners (RSCs), Education and Skills 
Funding Agency (ESFA), OFSTED and the DfE if required, should 
evidence suggest illegal off rolling of pupils. 

° Initiating school attendance orders where informal enquiries 
determine the education is not suitable or efficient. 


2.23 Modern Day Slavery and Human Trafficking 

The true scale of Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking in Bradford, like in the rest 
of the country, cannot be accurately quantified; reports from statutory agencies and 
the third- sector reference the fact that, due to the nature of the offences, there is a 
significant under reporting of the issue. Of data recorded between April 2019 and 
March 2020 shows there were 147 recorded offences that have been classified as 
Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking (MSHT) offences within Bradford District. 
These numbers reflect the awareness and understanding by professionals and 
confidence of victims in reporting cases. 





At the beginning of this year the Bradford Modern Day Slavery Operational Group 
was formed. This was created to enable partners to be more involved in the 
planning of action against MS/HT intelligence and the subsequent days of 
action. As with many areas of business COVID has impacted the Operational 
Group which has now not been able to physically sit for a number of months. The 
aforementioned joint operation has been planned wholly using Skype facilities. 


In other positive news the operational group has been used as a platform to push 
the use of the Partnership Intelligence Portal. In the last 6 weeks we saw an 
increase of 50% submissions within this area of business. However, this news 
must be salted with caution. As although the increase is 50% that is only from 12 to 
24 pieces of MDS related intelligence inside a 6-week period. 


Inside Bradford Police there is an ongoing review about the effective allocation of 
MS/HT crimes to ensure that appropriately trained staff are dealing. 


There continues to be an increase in the training and awareness of Police staff with 
recent attendance for a number of supervisors at the College of Policing Specialist 
Modern Day Slavery Investigators Course along with a training event held by the 
County Lines Coordination Centre into County Lines investigations. 


2.24 


2.25 


Bradford Metropolitan District Council have worked hard to achieve an ethical 
procurement process and have obtained the CIPS (Chartered Institute of 
Procurement and Supply) Corporate Ethics Standard. This award means the 
Council is registered on the CIPS Corporate Ethical Register and has achieved the 
first requirement of the Co-Operative’s Charter Against Modern Slavery that has 
been signed by the Leader of the Council. This award also represents the Council’s 
ongoing commitment to ethical procurement and supply chain, both in terms of 
current and future practice, by ensuring that the key principles of the standard are 
adopted by the Council. As part of achieving Corporate Ethics Standard, the 
council’s procurement professionals have completed the CIPS Ethical Procurement 
and Supply Chain e-learning. 


Harmful Sexual Behaviour 

Harmful Sexual Behaviour (HSB) is developmentally inappropriate sexual behaviour 
which is displayed by children and young people and which may be harmful or 
abusive. It can be displayed towards younger children, peers, older children or 
adults, and is harmful to the children and young people who display it, as well as 
the people it is directed towards. If not recognised and dealt with this can lead to 
more serious sexual abuse. Work has continued through the Safeguarding and 
Professional Practice sub-group of TBP to create a Bradford HSB protocol and 
related training provided by NSPCC. Due to Covid-19 the training has had to be 
redesigned to be delivered virtually rather than by face-to-face delivery as initially 
planned and this has delayed the launch of the Bradford protocol. 





Serious and Organised Crime (SOC) 

Across the district we have a number of multi-agency/centrally funded posts who 
specialise in identifying, disrupting and preventing entry to Organised Crime Groups 
(OCG’s). Work has been focused in key areas of the district. 





Education and awareness raising is key to developing our SOC response. In 2019 
there were two conferences focussed on SOC delivered in Bradford that have been 
organised by West Yorkshire Police and the Home Office. A further Tackling 
Exploitation event planned for March 2020 had to be postponed. The exploitation of 
young and vulnerable people for criminal purposes is a concern, especially relating 
to the drugs trade including “County Lines” operations. Embedded drugs markets 
exist in parts of the district and there is a strong correlation between drugs and 
patterns of violence in the district. 


Young people are a high-risk group in relation to exposure to exploitation, given the 
age profile of the Bradford district (above regional and national average for young 
people). A strong emphasis on youth diversion is required (see the work of 
Breaking the Cycle). Following the launch of both the Continuum of Need and Risk 
Identification Tool alongside the new exploitation protocol, work has been on-going 
to identify and offer early intervention support to children vulnerable to many forms 
of exploitation including criminal exploitation. 

Galvanising our understanding and response to SOC within our communities is key. 
This has included working with key community partners to identify assets and areas 
for development in partnership work. 


2.26 


2.27 


2.28 


2.29 


The Organised Crime Partnership Board is currently meeting every 6 weeks and 
brings together a number of statutory and non-statutory partners to discuss 
emerging issues around SOC and OCG’s. The development of this board is being 
supported by the Home Office. 


Service Provision 


Youth Service. 

Youth Services continue to offer a broad range of interventions to young people 
across the district. Covid-19 has changed the way the service and staff work, with 
closure of open access provisions and an increased focus on detached work and 
garden gate visits. Services have established new ways of supporting young people 
using a range of tools and social media platforms and have created self-help packs 
for young people around bereavement and mental health, recognising and 
responding to the identified needs. 

In each constituency the Youth Service maintains a locality-based youth work team, 
providing direct support to young people who are identified as being at risk of CSE, 
CCE and other exploitations. This work is taking place 1-1 and in small peer 
support groups. During the Covid-19 pandemic the Service has been quick to adapt 
to new ways of working, to continue to provide support and be a trusted adult for 
young people - adopting a “still here to help” approach, ensuring young people have 
“someone to talk to” and working hard to identify young people who are more 
vulnerable or who are feeling more isolated by not been able to associate with their 
peers. Equally it has worked with “fearless” young people and those who have not 
been compliant with Covid-19 restrictions. Youth Services have employed young 
people as Covid-19 Ambassadors putting young people at the heart of the work 
shaping youth appropriate safety messages. 

The Youth Service continues to engage and support the work of Early Help teams 
in localities, and with those involved in ASB ensuring young people are in receipt of 
support as early as possible and to prevent escalation to threshold services. 





Young Lives Bradford Consortium - Trusted Relationships 

The consortium continues to support young people in the district who are at 
emerging risk of CE. The five partners are Barnardo’s; James — Motor Education 
Services; e; merge; Project 6- Keighley; Bradford YMCA. 





Trusted Relationships (TR) 1:1 work 

At the beginning of spring 2020 the country moved into lockdown due to the Covid- 
19 pandemic. During this time Trusted Relationship’s aim was to find ways to 
provide as many services in the safest way to meet the needs of our young people 
who were socially isolated. The team have seen an increase in referrals for young 
girls being a victim of online grooming. Staff working at home have been able to 
meet the needs of all referrals and allocate to appropriate workers with the skills 
and expertise to remotely engage and build trusted relationships. Families 
situations have become more crisis lead due to lack of food, debt and poverty. In 
response to this worker have used a holistic family approach and worked in 
partnership with the local authority and other voluntary organisations, for example 
the weekly delivery of food parcels. Staff have utilised social media platforms, 
phone contact, newsletters and wellbeing packs. Keeping safe resources were 
produced and delivered to support engagement and the emotional wellbeing of the 
young people. 


Most of the young people referred to TR prior to and during lockdown have 
continued to engage with their allocated worker. TR have worked creatively to 
ensure the focus of the work remains to be child exploitation related whilst ensuring 
they do not re-traumatise the young person. 


A recent Covid-19 study by a mental health charity reported that 83% respondent's 
felt that their anxiety had increased over this time. This is reflected in the work that 
the team are doing with young people where many have asked for their sessions to 
be extended because of lockdown. The team know from their support sessions that 
young people are struggling and predict that when the district finally moves out of 
lockdown, we will experience a further crisis as they present to our services with 
practical and mental health concerns — Case Study (see Appendix E) 


Safeguarding has continued to be a priority; workers have maintained a presence in 
Child Protection Conferences via virtual meetings. Also, TR staff reported and 
supported young people through disclosures and ensured safeguarding is 
“everyone's business” including parents. TR have created resources that have been 
delivered to over 4000 families across the district. 

See Appendix G 


As Covid-19 restrictions continued, TR implemented Covid-19 safe working 
environments across all Trusted Relationships providers. Restrictions did not 
prevent delivery, TR providers increased the number of weekly interventions to 
reflect the nature of support available to compensate for the reduction in face to 
face support and improve trust. TR increased focus on support networks such as 
family relationships providing a weekly check-in with parent/carer to support and 
signpost with wider household issues and increase protective factors in place. 


When buildings re-opened TR are seeing more young people face to face in their 
services and in their local communities applying Coronavirus safe protocols. All of 
the young people have adapted to the strict measures and guidance for new ways 
of working, however the quality of the trusted relationship with social distancing can 
be harder to form and dependant on what local facilities are available. For example, 
if a young person lives in a locality where there are no local parks, community 
venues or outside facilities. 


During the school holidays young people’s 1-1 sessions have taken place mainly 
during the day and TR have been able to reintroduce group activities following 
National Youth Association guidelines. Since the re-opening of schools in 
September, TR have supported young people in schools and or after school in safe 
space venues. TR have supported them around their anxieties of returning to the 
school environment. 

All young people are allocated a TR keyworker within the two-week allocation date. 
There has been an increase in significant safeguarding incidents for young people 
supported through TR. TR have worked closely with parents and partner agencies 
to ensure families receive the support they need from the statutory services — See 
Appendix E for case studies. 


Young people have accessed summer provisions and had the opportunity to meet 
youth workers in the community and build friendships with other young people. 


2.30 


Opportunities, to explore outdoor parks with young people enabling them to access 
local spaces have been a positive of Covid-19 times. Young people and families 
that have been closed have contacted keyworkers for advice, support and to give 
positive updates. TR have also provided guidance and encouragement to parents 
to support their children emotionally and physically during Covid-19. During this 
period there has been an increase in referrals to TR the highest percentage being 
for online grooming, due to young people accessing phones and the internet whilst 
they are spending more time indoors. TR keyworkers have focussed their work on 
internet safety, safe use of social media, keeping safe and positive relationships. 
Trusted workers are able to provide encouragement and motivation when young 
people have struggled to be at home. They have a person and space to offload and 
seek advice. Psycho-educative interventions have been delivered to young people 
face to face and over video calls. Resources and visual aids have been provided to 
enable the worker and young person to work effectively and ensure young people 
with different learning styles needs are met. TR workers have provided support with 
lockdown regulations and understanding of missing episodes linked to breeches of 
lockdown versus missing episodes linked to exploitation. Due to young people not 
being in school or able to socialise with their peers TR have seen this impact on 
young people’s emotional wellbeing, confidence and self-esteem. TR workers have 
supported young people and referred to Youth in Mind services for additional 
support when necessary. 


There has been a reduction in risk to young people who have accessed the TR 
service evidenced by the reporting of improved scores — see Appendix E. 


See Appendix F for a breakdown of statistics for Trusted Relationship 
engagement. 


Trusted Relationships — Group Work (TRGW) 


In line with national advice during Covid-19 the TRGW programme has been busy 
developing new ways of working. Support has been delivered remotely to ensure 
professionals, services, young people and families have continued access to 
support and guidance. All young people on the one-to-one caseload have received 
2 weekly contacts (Phone or video) and doorstep/garden visits every 3 weeks to 
take activity/resource packs. Schools in East have been offered support with 
emotional wellbeing resources for young people and online safety resources 
provided throughout Covid-19 restrictions. Wellbeing activity packs, journals and 
online safety information have been sent to 15 young people through targeted 
group work. TRGW included the same TR resources within packs and sessions 
reaching a further 14 young people in East over the quarter (84 district wide 
including siblings). 


Additional resource/capacity has been put in to one-to-one work whilst group work 
isn’t being delivered face to face, so TR are working with an additional 5 young 
people (2 with YMCA & 3 with Barnardo’s). During this period YMCA worker have 
had themes for one-to-one work of online exploitation / imaging / CE. 

Engagement has been consistent despite lockdown moving support to a remote 
offer. TR have carried out socially distanced face to face work with two young 
people (siblings) who do not have access to digital technology by working with 
school and meeting on school grounds. Consideration was given to applying for 
technology from the education hub however it was agreed with the social worker 


2.31 


that this would not be appropriate in the household due to wider family issues that 
would need further work undertaking by SW first. 

Activity funds have ranged from essential hygiene supplies, arts materials to sports 
equipment. One young person has used the activity fund to create a chill out area 
where she has space to herself (5 young people in the household) for time out and 
confidential one to one session. 


TRGW piloted an online Arts Award group for 6 weeks working with 3 young people 
to ascertain how they could adapt delivery in an engaging way whilst embedding 
online safety within sessions/activities. 
The TRGW programme has however delivered awareness messages by: 

- producing regular newsletters 

- joining ROC conversations (forum) 

- linking with schools to deliver messages via their social platforms. 

- sending out awareness materials in ‘wellbeing packs’ / ‘food parcels’ 
remaining in touch with partners 


By doing this they have been able to distribute information to at least 274 
professional/partners and estimate that TRGW awareness materials have reached 
an audience of over 2,300 families across the district in a three-month period. 


Turnaround 

Turnaround staff or Trusted Workers attend the daily CE RAM meetings. 
Turnaround staff take referrals for Moderate or Significant risk young people and 
they are only closed when their level of risk has reduced unless they have been 
moved out of area, service not appropriate (for example due to not being due to 
mental health concerns) or they have declined a service (very low percentage). 
Over 50% referrals are White British, next largest group is Asian Pakistani and 
there has been an increase of referrals for Eastern European young people. 
Turnaround has seen an increase of young people using Class A drug’s — crack 
cocaine; heroin; crystal meth. This includes increase in intravenous drug use. 


Throughout Covid-19, Turnaround staff have continued to work directly with young 
people. At the start of lockdown there was an increase in the amount of support 
offered by telephone/video call; and a reduction in the amount of direct face to face 
contact. At this time support was focused on maintaining consistency and existing 
positive relationships in order to support young people’s emotional health and 
wellbeing during lockdown, often through frequent check in calls and messages. 


Emotional health and wellbeing packs and other resources were provided either by 
post of dropped off in person. These have included a range of resources such as 
journals; colouring books; other art materials; and tools to support emotional 
regulation (e.g., stress balls, worry stones). Issue based resources have been 
explored in sessions either in person or through phone calls and video calls if 
appropriate. 


Due to the nature of the support offered by Turnaround — largely therapeutic; and 
levels of safeguarding and crisis support needed; direct contacts have been carried 
out with a number of young people from quite early on whilst still in lockdown. This 
support has been provided where it has been assessed as essential. 


Over time the number of direct contacts with young people has increased and the 


2.32 


2.33 


majority of young people are now being seen in person on a regular basis. 


We have taken a flexible approach which has been led by the support needs of 
young people. Direct contacts have been carried out in a range of settings 
including on doorsteps; in gardens; in houses; and at Listerhills. 


There have been high levels of crisis throughout Covid-19 and a number of young 
people have been involved in the criminal justice process have been seen more 
frequently. See stats in Appendix F. 


Breaking the Cycles. 

Breaking the Cycle has been funded by the Violence Reduction Unit to intensively 
work with young people who are involved in serious organised violence including 
those who carry and use knives and sharp instruments as part of their criminal 
activity. 





The Breaking the Cycle Case study 3 in Appendix E outlines the value and 
additionality the Violence Reduction Unit funding has brought to the project. This is 
but one example of many that could be evidenced but demonstrates how additional 
resource to existing good practice can support and truly make life changing impacts 
on young people’s lifestyles and future life choices, thus reducing the burden on 
future services and finances associated with criminal justice, police and health. 


Supporting Families against Youth Crime (SFAYC) is a multi-agency partnership 
funded by the Ministry of Housing, Communities & Local Government (MHLG) with 


a focus on preventing and tackling youth crime and gangs with young people aged 
6-13 and their families. 


The programme was initially funded for the period 2019 — 2020; however, as a 
result of a mobilisation underspend a limited programme will continue to March 
2021. 

Based on the learning from the key strengths of the pilot programme, the Families 
First contract managed by Barnardo’s in partnership with Brathay Trust, JAMES 
and Bradford YMCA have delivered: 


. Support for keyworkers, teachers and other professionals working with children and 


young people (school year 6-7) who are at risk of becoming drawn into gang crime, 
serious violence and the youth justice system. This included key worker provision 
following a ‘Think Family’ approach in order to support improved parenting skills, 
increased attendance at school following a period of absence from education due to 
Covid 19. 


During the period of the service extension referrals have been received via 
Schools/Early Help Coordinators and through the Early Help Gateway. Key workers 
have assessed need and offer targeted interventions with 30 young people and 
their families. This has included a mixture of virtual (Social media) home garden 
visits and 1:1 work with young people in open air and/or Covid secure youth work 
settings. 


2.34 


2.35 


2.36 


2.37 


. A school outreach team service — working flexibly across target schools in ‘hot 


spots’ and in partnership with the LA (Early Help Coordinators) TEH, Police to 
identify young people who are vulnerable learners who will have suffered further 
disadvantage as a result of school closures and who schools feel will be least 
prepared for transitioning from primary to secondary school and will be at high risk 
of criminal exploitation as a consequence. 


This has included delivery of virtual school assembly presentations and small 
group-based work. School assembly presentations have been delivered to over 
350 year 6-7 pupils across five (primary/secondary) schools in targeted areas. 


Further work is due to take place MHLG in a review of the programme. A summary 
of the key learning and will be shared across strategic groups. 


Training and Communication 


TBP has continued to provide varied training opportunities around a number of 
topics relating to exploitation, in a wider variety of formats and partners have also 
provides specialist training. While training delivered face to face has been curtailed 
by the Covid-19 pandemic TBP and BSAB have both reinforced their on-line 
training offer via the Virtual College about all aspects of safeguarding including 
contextual safeguarding. The training sub groups of both TBP and BSAB are 
exploring alternative multi-agency training delivery options including Webinar, 
Podcast and video materials to fill the gaps created by the suspension of face-to- 
face training provision. During Covid-19 restrictions the Business Unit made 
available basic safeguarding training provision for staff who were redeployed into 
new roles or volunteering to assist with responses to the pandemic so that they 
were better able to spot where safeguarding concerns might be evident and how to 


respond to this should they see it. 
Coronavirus crisis Info for volunteers 
Safeguarding message to volunteers’ video 
Covid-19 Vulnerable Adult Poster 

Covid-19 Safeguarding Children Poster 

















Real Safeguarding Stories is a learning tool dedicated to raising awareness of 
safeguarding issues. By telling compelling stories based upon real life events, it can 
help professionals from many walks of life understand these complex issues. 
Understanding and relating to these stories is the first step towards individuals and 
organisations being better able to support those at risk. The videos come with 
guidance to support wider training or awareness activity. Bradford continues to 
develop these tools and this year has produced stories around County Lines and 
Modern-Day Slavery. 

(Real Safeguarding Stories) 





Bradford Safeguarding Adult Board — Voice Group 

The Safeguarding Voice Group is a sub group of the BSAB made up of Service 
users. The role of the group is to ensure that voice of service users shape the 
priorities of the SAB and support the SAB in the improvement of services and 
information to safeguard Adults in the District. The group has continued to be 





involved in BSAB development work including providing increased guidance about 
vulnerable adults staying safe during the restrictions brought on by Covid-19. These 
were published on the Safer Bradford website 

Safer Bradford website and that, along with other advice related to Coronavirus, 
were designed to provide practical guidance to members of the public about staying 
safe and raising concerns during the period where professional contacts were more 
difficult to maintain. 


2.38 Emerging Themes 
Coronavirus (Covid-19) 


The Covid-19 pandemic that has struck the world has impacted on the way that 
services have been provided to both children and vulnerable adults. During the time 
of lockdown both TBP and BSAB have facilitated meetings with partners to monitor 
provision of services to the public. The Boards have offered assistance, via the 
local authority's communications team, to provide appropriate messages to the 
public and to share information to professionals working across the district. The 
Safeguarding Business Unit has created a section of the Safer Bradford website for 
advice during the pandemic including safeguarding information to volunteers (see 
Safer Bradford Website and links in 2.35 above). 

The effects of Covid-19 restrictions, both initial and subsequent, on the exploitation 
of children and vulnerable adults are yet to be assessed fully although it is clear that 
in the same way that service provision has evolved so too has the methodology 
used by exploitation gangs to continue their activities. 


3. OTHER CONSIDERATIONS 


3.1 There are no other considerations. 


4. FINANCIAL & RESOURCE APPRAISAL 


4.1 The Bradford Safeguarding Business Partnership Team is funded by a 
combination of contributions from the partners, including the Local Authority. 


4.2 The Bradford Safeguarding Business Partnership Team provides support to the 
Bradford Partnership and Bradford Safeguarding Adults Board. 
In particular, the teams coordinate and facilitate safeguarding activity and the 
delivery of strategic priorities and Delivery Plans. This is achieved through: - 


Coordination of inter-agency working. 

Administration of meetings 

Coordination of Local Child Safeguarding Practice Reviews and 
Safeguarding Adults Reviews 

Multi-agency audits and challenge 

Learning and Improvement including multi-agency training 

Performance, information and audit including Section 11 and Section 175. 
Production and publication of the Annual Reports 


Funding for the Team covers staffing costs, multi-agency training and audits and 
reviews. 


4.3 The staffing resource for Bradford Safeguarding Business Partnership Team is: 
e Business Manager, 
e 2x Deputy Managers (one deputy for children one for adults) 
e Business Administrators X2 
e Learning and development coordinators X2 
e Performance and information officers (1.5 FTE) 
e Communication and Project officer 
4.4 TBP also has an Independent Chair and Scrutiny Lead and the BSAB has 
continued with an Independent Chair. See Appendix B for further information. 


5. RISK MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE ISSUES 


5.1 The protection of Children and Vulnerable Adults is the highest priority for the 
Council and its partners when considering the implications of exploitation, as is the 
provision of services to support those who are victims of this abuse. Failure to 
protect and provide appropriate services significantly increases the risk to Children 
and vulnerable Adults in the District. It would also lead to significantly reduced 
public confidence in Bradford Council, West Yorkshire Police and other partners, as 
has been demonstrated in some other Districts. 


6. LEGAL APPRAISAL 


6.1 In relation to the protection of children and vulnerable adults, the report engages a 
number of legislative areas, including the Children Act 1989, Children Act 2004, 
Children and Families Act 2014, Children and Social Work Act 2017 and Working 
Together Guidance 2018, Care Act 2014, Modern Day Slavery Act 2015, Forced 
Marriage (Civil protection) Act 2007, Mental Capacity Act 2005, Equality Act 2010, 
and Safeguarding Vulnerable Groups Act 2006. Some legislative provisions have 
been amended temporarily under the Corona Virus Act 2020. 


7. OTHER IMPLICATIONS 

7.1 SUSTAINABILITY IMPLICATIONS 
None 

7.2 GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IMPACTS 
None 

7.3 COMMUNITY SAFETY IMPLICATIONS 

7.31 Exploitation of Children and Vulnerable Adults is a criminal offence. The 
consequences of exploitation can be long-standing for the victim and there is 
growing research evidence that victims of CE are themselves over-represented 
among young people coming to the attention of police services as potential 


offenders. In addition, Exploitation has lasting consequences for families of victims 
and perpetrators and has potential implications. 


7.32 


7.4 


The Community Safety Partnership (CSP) currently oversees the commissioning of 
funding from the passporting of Police and Crime Commissioner funding against 
key priorities, including CSE and now wider exploitation. 


HUMAN RIGHTS ACT 
Sexual and Criminal Exploitation is a violation of the rights of the child/adult under 


the Human Rights Act. The arrangements made by the Council and its partners are 
intended to prevent the rights of the child/adult being violated in this way. 


7.5 TRADE UNION 


None 


7.6WARD IMPLICATIONS 


7.61 


7.7 


7.8 


7.81 


7.9 


7.91 


It is recommended that each Area Committee receives an update report regarding 
criminal and sexual exploitation in the next 12 months. 


AREA COMMITTEE ACTION PLAN IMPLICATIONS 
(for reports to Area Committees only) 


None 

IMPLICATIONS FOR CORPORATE PARENTING 

National and local evidence shows that children who are looked after by the local 
authority are more likely to become victims of Child Exploitation than other groups. 
This means that in relation to safeguarding and corporate parenting responsibilities, 


partners have a responsibility to understand the safeguarding risks facing children, 
and especially in relation to Child Exploitation. 


ISSUES ARISING FROM PRIVACY IMPACT ASSESMENT 

The nature of Sexual and Criminal Exploitation work requires partners to manage 
confidential matters and data under GDPR regulations in accordance with individual 
agency guidelines. There is no sensitive data included in this report that requires a 
Privacy Impact Assessment 

NOT FOR PUBLICATION DOCUMENTS 

None 


OPTIONS 


None 


10. RECOMMENDATIONS 


10.1 The Area Committee is invited to consider the contents of this report and how 
members can support local activity. 


10.2 The Area Committee shall receive a further update on the progress of the response 
to exploitation in 12 months’ time. 


10.3 Partners will seek further funding opportunities from Government funding streams 
to enable to continuation of service provision as outlined in this report. 


11. APPENDICES 


Appendix A - Definitions 

Appendix B - Working Together to Safeguard Children — The Bradford Partnership. 
Appendix C - Strategic Response to Risk and Vulnerabilities in Complex Safeguarding 
Appendix D - Information and Data for Bradford South Area 

Appendix E — Case Studies 

Appendix F — Trusted Relationships Statistics 

Appendix G — Cyber Team Stats 


12. BACKGROUND DOCUMENTS 


Working Together to Safeguarding Children 2018 - Working Together 2018 





The Care Act 2014 - Care Act 2014 





West Yorkshire Police and Crime Plan - West Yorkshire Police and Crime Plan 





Serious and Organised Crime Strategy 2018 - Serious and Organised Crime Strategy 
2018 


West Yorkshire Police Serious and Organised Crime Strategy - West Yorkshire Police - 
Precision 





Children’s Society Counting Lives Report: responding to children who are criminally 
exploited - Children’s Society — Counting Lives Report. 





Appendix A — Definitions 
The below nationally agreed definitions will be utilised across Bradford: 


Child Exploitation 
CE occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an imbalance of power to 


coerce, control, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18 in 
exchange for something the victim needs or wants and/or the financial or other advantage 
of the perpetrator or facilitator and/or through violence or the threat of violence. The victim 
may have been criminally exploited even if the activity appears consensual. Child 
exploitation does not always involve physical contact; it can also occur through the use of 
technology.” (Home Office, 2017) 


Child Sexual Exploitation 
CSE is a form of child sexual abuse. It occurs where an individual or group takes 


advantage of an imbalance of power to coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young 
person under the age of 18 into sexual activity 

(a) In exchange for something the victim needs or wants, and/or 

(b) For the financial advantage or increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator. 

The victim may have been sexually exploited even if the sexual activity appears 
consensual. Child Sexual Exploitation does not always involve physical contact; it can also 
occur through the use of technology. (Home Office 2017) 


Child Criminal Exploitation 
CCE occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of a person under the age of 18 


and may coerce, manipulate or deceive a child or young person under that age into any 
criminal activity 
a) In exchange for something the victim needs or wants, and/or 
b) For the financial advantage or increased status of the perpetrator or facilitator 
and/or 
c) Through violence or the threat of violence. The victim may be exploited even if the 
activity appears consensual (i.e. moving drugs or the proceeds of drugs from one 
place to another). 
Child Criminal Exploitation does not always involve physical contact; it can also occur 
through the use of technology. (Home Office 2018) 


Adult Exploitation: 

Exploitation is defined as the deliberate maltreatment, manipulation or abuse of power and 
control over another person. It is taking advantage of another person or situation usually, 
but not always, for personal gain. 


Exploitation comes in many forms, including: 


slavery 

being controlled by a person or a group 
forced labour 

domestic violence and abuse 

sexual violence and abuse 

human trafficking 

(HM Gov) 


County Lines 
County Lines is a term used to describe gangs and organised criminal networks involved 


in exporting illegal drugs into one or more importing areas (within the UK), using dedicated 
mobile phone lines or other form of “deal line”. They are likely to exploit children and 
vulnerable Adults to move (and store) the drugs and money and they will often use 
coercion, intimidation, violence (including sexual violence) and weapons. (Home Office 
2018) 


County Lines is a form of Child Exploitation (CE). It is a major, cross-cutting issue 
involving drugs, violence, gangs, safeguarding, criminal and sexual exploitation, modern 
slavery, and missing persons. The response to tackle it involves the Police, the NCA 
(National Crime Agency) and a wide range of Government departments, local government 
agencies and VCS (voluntary and community sector) organisations. County Lines activity 
and the associated violence, drug dealing and exploitation has a devastating impact on 
children, vulnerable Adults and local communities. 


Home Invasion (sometimes referred to as Cuckooing) 


Urban gangs establish a base in the market location, often by taking over the homes of 
local vulnerable Adults by force and/or coercion, in a practice referred to as ‘cuckooing’. 
Urban gangs then use children and vulnerable people to move drugs and money. 


Human Trafficking 
A person commits an offence if the person arranges or facilitates the travel of another 


person to exploit them. It is irrelevant whether the exploited person, Adult or child, 
consents to the travel. A person may, in particular, arrange or facilitate another person’s 
travel by recruiting, transporting or transferring, harbouring or receiving them, or 
transferring or exchanging control over them. ‘Travel’ means arriving in, or entering, any 
country; departing from any country and travelling within any country. A person who is a 
UK national commits an offence under Section 2 regardless of where the arranging or 
facilitating takes place, or where the travel takes place. A person who is not a UK national 
commits an offence under Section 2 if any part of the arranging or facilitating takes place 
in the UK, or the travel consists of arrival in or entry into, departure from, or travel within 
the UK. 


N.B. In determining whether or not a child is a victim of trafficking, their consent to 
being trafficked is irrelevant and how they are trafficked is also irrelevant. Only the 
act and the purpose need to be present. It is not necessary to prove coercion or any 
other inducement. 


Exploitation alone does not constitute trafficking — there also needs to be recruitment, 
transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of a person. Slavery, servitude and forced or 
compulsory labour is, or may be, a crime in its own right under Section 1 Modern Slavery 
Act 2015. 


Harmful Sexual Behaviour 

HSB is developmentally inappropriate sexual behaviour which is displayed by children and 
young people and which may be harmful or abusive Harmful sexual behaviour. HSB 
includes: 


e using sexually explicit words and phrases 
e inappropriate touching 


e using sexual violence or threats 
e full penetrative sex with other children or Adults. 


Contextual Safeguarding 

Contextual Safeguarding expands the objectives of child protection systems in recognition 
that young people and vulnerable Adults who are vulnerable to abuse in a range of social 
contexts. This includes sexual exploitation, modern day slavery, harmful sexual behaviour, 
peer on peer violence and abuse including gangs and groups, criminal exploitation, and 
going missing and should not be seen in isolation as they often overlap, creating a 
complex set of harmful circumstances and experiences for children, young people, 
vulnerable Adults, families, carers and communities. 


It recognises that the different relationships that young people form in their neighborhoods, 
schools and online can feature violence and abuse. Parents and carers have little 
influence over these contexts, and young people’s experiences of extra-familial abuse can 
undermine parent-child relationships. Contextual Safeguarding, therefore, expands the 
objectives of child protection systems in recognition that young people and Adults are 
vulnerable to abuse in a range of social contexts. 


Organised Crime Groups and Gangs 
Organised Crime Groups and gangs means a group that: 
d) Has as its purpose the carrying on of criminal activities, and 
e) Consists of three or more persons who act, or agree to act, together to further that 
purpose 
Gang related violence and drug dealing activity is defined as gang related if it occurs in the 
course of, or is otherwise related to, the activities of a group that: 
a) Consists of at least three people, and 
b) Has one or more characteristics that enable its members to be identified by others 
as a group. (Serious Crime Act 2015) 


Appendix B 
Working Together to Safeguard Children — The Bradford Partnership. 


The fundamental priority for all partners in the Bradford District is the welfare of children 
and ensuring that any children in need of help and protection receive the highest quality 
care and most effective and appropriate support. Professionals working with children in 
Bradford are committed to their responsibilities in delivering on these priorities to keep 
children safe. 


For many years, the Bradford Safeguarding Children Board (BSCB) has overseen the 
partnership response to safeguard children in the District and to ensure that they are safe, 
well, and able to reach their full potential. 


Following changes brought about by government legislation the BSCB will cease to exist 
in September 2019 and new arrangements will replace it. The required changes allowed a 
period of reflection and review of processes and practices, both locally and nationally. 
Agencies in Bradford have been fortunate to utilise the work of Early Adopter authorities in 
drawing together a plan for the future structures and functions of the partnership. 


The purpose of the new arrangements is to support and enable local organisations and 
agencies to work together in a system where; 


— Children are safeguarded and their welfare promoted 

— Partner organisations and agencies collaborate, share and co-own the vision 

— Organisations and agencies challenge appropriately and hold one another to account. 

— There is early identification and analysis of new safeguarding issues. 

— Learning is promoted and embedded in a way that ensures local services for children 
and families can become more reflective and implement changes to practice. 

— Information is shared effectively to facilitate more accurate and timely decision making 
for children and families. 


The full document sets out the key changes being made in Bradford District to meet the 
legislative requirements. In moving to the new arrangements, we have adopted the title — 
Working Together to Safeguard Children — The Bradford Partnership. 

Signed 

Osman Khan District Commander West Yorkshire Police 

Kersten England Chief Executive Chief Officer Bradford BMDC 

Helen Hirst Airedale, Wharfedale and Craven CCG, Bradford Districts CCG, Bradford City 
CCG 


Appendix C 


Bradford District response to Risk and Vulnerabilities in Complex Safequarding 


Introduction: 


Bradford continues to recognise opportunities to increase collaboration between Strategic 
Boards and sub-groups. This recognises the emergence of more complex safeguarding 
matters which are under intense scrutiny through the media, inspections, and inquiries and 
impact across Children’s Safeguarding, the Adult Safeguarding arena and the Community 
Safety Partnership. 


In order to proactively safeguard children and vulnerable adults within a wide contextual 
safeguarding remit, a 

shared approach and collective understanding of the issues and experiences children and 
vulnerable adults is required. This approach recognises the broader group of people who 
do not fall under the criteria as Adults at Risk within the Care Act. The BSAB has 
commissioned work to improve understanding and the response to people who may fall 
within this term. 


This strategy recognises that contextual Safeguarding is an approach to understanding, 
and responding to, young people’s experiences of significant harm beyond their families. It 
recognises that the different relationships that young people and vulnerable adults form in 
their neighbourhoods, schools and online can feature violence and abuse. Parents and 
carers have little influence over these contexts, and young people’s experiences of extra- 
familial abuse can undermine parent-child relationships. 


Across the three Boards, there are detailed sub-group structures in place to manage core 
functions as well Board specific objectives. Some of these core functions lend obvious 
opportunities for a more consistent and collaborative approach which takes into account 
the cross-cutting themes and presents opportunities for shared learning. Bradford has 
developed this thinking with the Risk and Vulnerabilities in Complex Safeguarding sub- 
group. 


In the past Bradford has developed a strategic response to CSE and this strategy seeks to 
use the experience and methodology in developing this strategy. 


Taken together, the strategic objectives are: 
1. Identify and understand the nature and scale of the themes involved. 


2. Prevention, Education and Awareness 

3. Safeguarding vulnerable people, groups and communities 

4. Effective leadership and governance 

5. Disrupt and Prosecute 

6. Communication, Engagement and Empowerment 
Definitions 


The BSCB considered the definition of complex safeguarding and agreed a local definition 
Behaviour or activity involving C& YP and adults with multiple vulnerabilities where there is 
exploitation , a risk of exploitation and /or a clear or implied safeguarding concern which is 
likely to lead to a serious and sustained negative impact on Children & Young People 


Contextual Safeguarding expands the objectives of child protection systems in recognition 
that young people and vulnerable adults are vulnerable to abuse in a range of social 
contexts. This includes sexual exploitation, modern day slavery, harmful sexual behaviour, 
peer on peer violence and abuse including gangs and groups, criminal exploitation, and 
going missing and should not be seen in isolation as they often overlap , creating a 
complex set of harmful circumstances and experiences for children, young people, 
vulnerable adults, families, carers and communities. 


County lines is a term used to describe gangs and organised criminal networks involved in 
exporting illegal drugs into one or more importing areas [within the UK], using dedicated 
mobile phone lines or other form of ‘deal line’. They are likely to exploit children and 
vulnerable adults to move and store the drugs and money and they will often use coercion, 
intimidation, violence (including sexual violence) and weapons. 


Child criminal exploitation occurs where an individual or group takes advantage of an 
imbalance of power to coerce, control, manipulate 

or deceive a child or young person under the age of 18 into any criminal activity: 

e in exchange for something the victim needs or wants. 

e for the financial or other advantage of the perpetrator or facilitator. 

e through violence or the threat of violence. 


The victim may have been criminally exploited even if the activity appears consensual. 
Child criminal exploitation does not always involve physical contact, it can also occur 
through the use of technology. The criminal exploitation of children is not confined to 
county lines but can also include other forms of criminal activity such as theft, acquisitive 
crime, knife crimes and other forms of criminality. 


Harmful sexual behavior (HSB) includes: 


using sexually explicit words and phrases 
inappropriate touching 

using sexual violence or threats 

full penetrative sex with other children or adults. 


Children and young people who develop HSB harm themselves and others. More 
information is available here 


Stakeholders 
The strategy will include the following groups in all of the strategic objectives 


> 


VVVV WV 


Children and young people, particularly those in transitions 
Vulnerable adults 

Communities 

On-line activity 

Parents and carers 

Professionals and people involved with children and young people 


. Identify and understand the nature and scale of risk and vulnerabilities 


e Development of a vulnerability profile that includes relevant data sets and 
amalgamates individual profiles and assessments, to enable the partnership to 
utilise the profiles to effectively target resources and interventions effectively 
safeguard children and vulnerable adults. This should be done as part of the 
Joint Strategic Needs Assessments that all local authorities are required to 
produce. 

e Develop data and performance measures that provides partners with an 
understanding of trends and allows challenge and scrutiny 

e Enhancing the processes for recording flagging or ‘markers’ on service systems, 
to support effective consistent record keeping and information sharing with 
partner agencies, regarding those who pose a risk of harm to children and 
vulnerable adults. 

e Implementing agreed information sharing pathways to enable effective sharing 
of early information and data between partners, to help collate intelligence and 
other information about communities, environments, perpetrators and victims, in 
order to support robust interventions for children and families where emerging 
problems are recognised. 


Identify specific vulnerable people and groups incluidng transitions, 
homelessness and vulnerable learners 


2. Prevention, Education and Awareness 





Working closely with key stakeholders to understand and respond to a range of 
risk and vulnerabilities 

Raising awareness amongst all communities, parents, carers and potential 
perpetrators 

Training for professionals to enable identification, understanding and responding 
to range of risk and vulnerabilities 

Establish effective working with early years, reducing the number of children 
beginning school with very low levels of development (Links with Keeping Kids 
Safe’) 

Make contacts count - There are many points where support for a child or family 
can reduce the risk of them joining a gang. At each of these points there are 
services tasked with working with these families, and the key is ensuring these 
services are used. (Links with Keeping Kids Safe’) 

Focus upon all schools, colleges and alternative educational provision. 

Inform training and development opportunities that support agencies and 
practitioners to recognise that children can simultaneously be both a victim and 
perpetrator of exploitation, harm and abuse and therefore responses, 
assessments and interventions must child centred 

Work with the industry sector and night time economy to raise awareness and 
develop prevention strategies 


3. Safeguarding and supporting vulnerable people, groups and communities 


Ensuring that robust multi-agency needs led risk management plans are in place 
that give full consideration to vulnerability and need factors, , ensuring that these 
are strengths-based in approach, coordinated, effectively actioned and 
compliment (where relevant)any statutory 

processes 


' Childrens Commissioners Report -Improving safeguarding responses to gang violence and criminal 


exploitation 


Support and intervention - timely therapeutic and support services, particularly 
recognising the vulnerability of young people and adults with mental health 
needs?. 

Ensure that there is appropriate information to advise and access support 
Develop effective information sharing to identify and inform gaps in service 
provision 

Protect vulnerable locations — places where vulnerable young people can be 
targeted, including pupil referral units and residential children’s care homes? 
Focus upon transitional arrangements —ensure appropriate arrangements are in 
place to support and protect children who have been assessed as increasingly 
vulnerable 

Recognise and respond to the children and vulnerable adults with multiple 
vulnerabilities — including mental health, alcohol and substance misuse and 
Domestic Abuse 


4 Effective leadership and governance 


Coordinate the delivery and oversight of this strategic response 

Ensuring that the local multi-agency response is informed by national / local 
research and learning and an understanding of the wider context of risk and 
harm 

Effective systems around the Front Door/ MASH and associated processes for 
both children and adults 

Encourage statutory and non-statutory partners to work together to develop and 
strengthen our collective safeguarding efforts 

Quality assurance of improved outcomes for children and vulnerable adults 
Developing best practice and learning 

Multi agency training at all levels — including specialist and non-specialist 
practitioners and linking with established programmes to widen knowledge of 
exploitation. 

Improving outcomes and reducing harm to young people and vulnerable adults 
who are at risk of exploitation and victims of exploitation 


2 Public Health Report - The mental health needs of gang affiliated young people 


3 Home Office Report — Ending gang violence and exploitation 


5. 


Disrupt and Prosecute 


Improve intelligence and information sharing and analysis, to assist local 
disruption plans and the prosecution of people and businesses where 
appropriate 

Making best use of licensing laws, Child Abduction Warning Notices, Sexual 
Harm Prevention 

Orders, Slavery and Trafficking Risk Orders and other relevant legislation 
available to address 

offences to close down premises, deter perpetrators and prevent violence and 
abuse from 

occurring, escalating and /or recurring 

Collaborative working with law enforcement and criminal justice agencies 
Ensure a proactive response to prevent crimes and harm 

Supporting children and vulnerable adults through all aspects of the criminal 
justice system 

including court processes to improve their experiences and help minimise 
revictimisation 

created by the process/system including the often difficult court process and 
help achieve 

successful prosecutions of those who exploit, harm and abuse. Seek to identify 
and develop 

post CJS support networks and signposting for children, vulnerable adults and 
their families. 


Communication, Engagement and Empowerment 


Develop a coordinated programme of information and education for all partners. 
Developing awareness messages/campaigns about what to look for, and how to 
report concerns, in order to enhance not only the identification of people and 
places of concern 

Creating public facing campaigns and user friendly materials to effectively 
signpost children, young people, vulnerable adults families and communities to 
appropriate advice, support and services, to develop community resilience to 
empower and involve communities 

Provide clear and unambiguous deterrent messages to perpetrators including 
campaigns to reach diverse groups 

Ensure effective internal communications to professionals across the 
partnership 

Maximise on-line and social media opportunities and campaigns 

Coordinating clear pathways to centrally collate feedback received from 
children, families and vulnerable adults; to enable the reality of children’s and 


service users experiences to inform and enhance strategic knowledge, through 
developing and sharing that knowledge. 


e Listening to the voice of children and making safeguarding personal for service 
users to inform thinking and future planning. 


Appendix D 


Information and Data for Bradford South Area 


GREAT HORTON 
Children flagged as at risk of exploitation 








Average monthly Population Rate per 10,000 
number of children under18 population 
at risk of exploitation under 18 


18.17 3928 30,65 


Exploitation risk flags. by risk level 


Lewel @Emerging @ Moderate @® Significant 


Jan Feb haar Apr Mlay Jun Jul Aung Sep Oct 
2020 at 2020 2020 Pakia] 2020 2020 a et] 2020 2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by age group 


Ageband © Under 10 @10-1712 @12-15 @ig-15 
eat] 


CS 


Jan Feb Klar Apr May Jum Jul Aug Sep Oct 
2020 ao 2050 2020 2020 2050 2020 2020 S00) 2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by gender 


Gender © Female Œ Mals 


dan Feb Kiar Apr Mia Jun dul Aug Sep Oct 
2020 AO 2020 2020 A 2050 2020 2020 050) 2020 


Ethnicity 
@ Asian/British Asian - Other 

@ Asian/British Asian - Pakistani 
@Gypsy/Roma 

@ information Not Yet Obtained 


@ Mixed - Other 


Children 


@ Mixed - White/Asian 

@ Other Ethnic Group 

@ White - British 

@ White - Eastern European 


Sep Oct Nov 


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug 
2020 2 Ea 


2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 


QUEENSBURY 





Children flagged as at risk of exploitation 


g 
p] 
È 
3 
s 
= 
Q 


Jan Feb Mar Ap May Jun Jul = Aug Oct Nov Dec 
2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 20 2020 2020 2020 





Average monthly Population Rate per 10.000 
number of children under18 population 
at risk of exploitation under 18 


300 3911 12.78 


Exploitation risk flags. by risk lewel 


Lewel © Emerging @Moderate @ Significant 


Risk flags 


Aug Sep Oct Now Dec 


Jan Feb Maar A, per May Jun 
Pakea] 2020 2020 pahit] 2020 


2020 DDD 2020 2020 2020 2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by age group 


Ageband @ 10 -12 @13-15 @16- 12 


—~__ 


Feb Kiar Apr Blay Jun dul Aug 


AO 2020 2020 a 2020 2020 2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by gender 


Gender @Qremale ΠMalz 


ee 


Jan Feb Maar Apr Mlay Jum dul Aug Sep Oct 
2020 aos 2020 2020 a0 2020) 2020 2020 2020 2020 


Ethnicity 

@ Asian/British Asian - Pakistani 
@ information Not Yet Obtained 
@ Mixed - White/Asian 


@ White - British 


Children 





ROYDS 
Children flagged as at risk of exploitation 


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov De 
2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 


Average monthly Population Rate per 10,000 
number of children under18 population 
at risk of exploitation under 18 


7158 4686 16.18 


Exploitation risk flags. by risk level 


Level @Emerging @Moderate @ Significant 


pp u 


dan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Ju Aug Sep Oct 
2020 aay 2020 2020 AO 2020 2020 Pak ea] 20270 2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by age group 
Ageband @ 70-12 @13-15 @ 16-18 


Feb Klar Apr Mlay Jum Jul Oct 
AA 2020 2020 A020 2020) 2020 ia 2020 


Plow 


Mow Dec 
2020 2020 





Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by gender 


Gender @remale ΠMale 


Mayr Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Mow 


Feb Mar Apr 
2020 2020 z020 2020 


2020 pa k Fai 2020 2020 Dag 2020 2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by ethnicity 
Ethnicity 

@ Asian/British Asian - Pakistani 

@ information Not Yet Obtained 

@ Mixed - White/Asian 

@ White - British 

@ White - Irish 


Children 


Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep 
2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation 


Children 


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jn Jul Aug Sep Oct Now Dec 
2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 


ra 


Average monthly Population Rate per 10,000 


number of children under1é population 
at risk of exploitation under 18 


16.58 6805 2437 


Exploitation risk flags. by risk level 
Level @ Emerging ΠModerate @ Significant 


ee, ee 


Aung Sep Oct How 


Feb Kar Apr Mlay Jun Jul 
2020 eae et) 


Pak Fa] 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 a Ba] 2020 





Dec 
2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by age group 


Ageband © Under 10 @10-12 Miz-15 @i6-15 


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep 


2020 AO 2020) 2020 aka 2020 2020 2020 2050 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by gender 


Gender @ Female © Mlale 


Feb Mar Apr Maan Jun dul Aug Sep 


Jan 
A020 20270 2020 2020 2020) 


2020 Pat Paa] 2020 2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by ethnicity 
20 


Ethnicity 
@ Asian/British Asian - Indian 

@ Black/Black British - African 
@Gypsy/Roma 

@ Information Not Yet Obtained 


@ Mixed - Other 


Children 


@ Mixed - White/Asian 
@ Mixed - White/Black Caribbean 
@ Other Ethnic Group 


White - British 
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec = = aa 
2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 


WIBSEY 





Children flagged as at risk of exploitation 


= 


Children 


w 


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Wl Awg Sep Oa No Da 
2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 


Average monthly Population Rate per 10,000 


number of children under18 population 
at risk of exploitation under 18 


983 3850 20.04 





Exploitation risk flags. by risk level 


Level ΠEmerging @ Moderate @ Significant 


Feb Maar Apr Mlay Jun Ju Aug Sep Oct Now Dec 
AOA 2020 2020 AO 2020 2020 AO 2020 2020 AO 2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by age group 
Ageband @70-12 @13-15 @16- 18 


eee a 


Mar Apr Mlay Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct 
2020 2020 A 2020 2020 2020 200) 2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by gender 


Gender @Female @ Male 


Mar Apr Kasay Jum Jul Aug Sep Dict Mow 
pat a 2020 2020 220 2020) 2020 2020 2050 2020 2020 


Ethnicity 
@ Asian/British Asian - Other 


@ Asian/British Asian - Pakistani 
@ Black/Black British - African 
©® Black/Black British - Other 


@Gypsy/Roma 


Children 


@ Information Not Yet Obtained 
@ Mixed - White/Asian 

@ Mixed - White/Black Caribbean 
@ Other Ethnic Group 


Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul S Oct Nov Dec 
2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 202% 2020 2020 2020 2020 v 





Children flagged as at risk of exploitation 


Children 


Sep Oct Nov De 


Feb Mar Apr May Jun jul Aug 
2020 2020 2020 


Jan 
2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 


2020 2020 2020 2020 


Population Rate per 10,000 
under18 population 
under 18 


Average monthly 
number of children 
at risk of exploitation 


6.0/ 3319 19.73 


Exploitation risk flags. by risk level 


Level @ Emerging © Moderate @ Significant 


Risk flags 


Mar Oct 
2020 


2020 


Feb 
2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by age group 


Ageband ©@13 -15 @76-18 
= 


Aug Sep 


2020 


Jun Jul 
2020 2020 


Blay 
D20 


Apr 
2020 


Mar 
2020 


Feb 


200 


Jan 
2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by gender 


Gender @Female @Male @ Transgender 
10 


Sep (Oct 


2020 


Aug 
2020 


Jum Jul 
2020 2020 


Play 
a0 


Apr 
2020 


Mar 
2020 


Feb 


200 


z020 





AA 


Dec 
2020 


Now 
20AN 


Dec 
AO 


m ow 
2020 


Dec 


020 


Mow 
2020 


Children flagged as at risk of exploitation, by ethnicity 

Ethnicity 

@ Information Not Yet Obtained 
@ Mixed - White/Black African 

@ Mixed - White/Black Caribbean 
@ White - British 


@White - Eastern European 


c 
© 
= 
= 
= 
O 


@ White - Other 


Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 
2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 





WARD COMPARISON 


Average number Population Rate per 10,000 
of children at risk Under 18 population under 18 


of exploitation 
v 


Great Horton 
Wibsey 

Tong 

Wyke 

Royds 
Queensbury 
Total 


Rate of Child Exploitation per 10000 population under 18 
20 


Rate per 10,000 children 


Jan Feb Paar Apr Mlay Jum Jul Aug Sap het Pion Dec 
2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 2020 Z20270 2020 O70 





Rate of Child Exploitation per 10000 population under 18 by Ward 


RatePer 10k 
tm as 


an Anan tno Anan ble, ANY AAN O A O AnA Can OV 





Appendix E 


Case Studies 





TRUSTED RELATIONSHIPS — One to One Work 
CASE STUDY TEMPLATE 





NAME of Young Person: Child X 





CONTEXT OF THE WORK AND THE KEY ISSUES 
A summary of the key issues for the YP and the reason for referral 


X was referred to us for CSE/CE and friendship groups. 
Concerns around who x was hanging around with and what x was involved with 
when out with these people. 








YOUR APPROACH 
What did you do to build relationship and address the issues listed above? Think 
about how you worked with other to create solutions (family, other agencies etc.) 


In order to build a relationship with x, | took a keen interest in X’S hobbies which 
were football. X was a massive football fan and only wanted to take part if football 
was involved. | based my sessions around football in the park and after a football 
game or before a football game we would work though issues that needed to be 
addressed. | made sure x understood why it was important that we addressed issues 
that needed to be addressed. 





X always had a say in what work we were going to carry out and wishes were 











respected whilst focusing on key areas required. | often asked X how we can 
improve sessions and what kind of things X would want to do. 


The way | worked with X was very transparent. X knew | had contacts within school 
and local community centres and clubs X attended. | worked closely with the family 
and kept mum in the loop at all times. This was done so that mum knew exactly what 
was going into sessions with X and vice versa for issues at home. 


X and | sat down and made a clear plan so we knew exactly how our time was going 
to be spent. X was happy with this as it meant X had a say and there were no 
surprises. Incentives were given after a certain amount of sessions and X was 
allowed to buy a new football to practice new skills in the park after a number of 
sessions were completed. 








WHAT WAS THE OUTCOME? 
What has changed and how things have improved for the young person. What might 
the next steps be for the young person to continue on a positive journey? 


X was involved with older lads who would often pick him up and ask him to steal 
things such as car bumpers and bikes. X was offered money for doing this and would 
get lifts to funfairs and money to go enjoy in the funfairs. 

X was spoken to about the dangers of what could happen if he is caught. He was 
given real life examples of people in his area that are now in prison, some of these 
people were really good football players and could have got scouted to big football 
clubs. X’s love for football made this story hit home and he soon realised it wasn't 
worth it and would get him into a lot of trouble potentially ruining his life chances. 


X was easily influenced and never really thought of the consequences of his actions. 
X got involved with some local boys who thought it was funny to light fires not 
realising the harm that they could cause if they got out of hand. X was involved in 
setting fire to a cabin at a local school. He claimed he didn’t know the fire was still on 
when they walked away from the fire. X had multiple sessions on fire safety and the 
potential outcome of that fire. These sessions hit X hard when he was told that he 
could have taken the lives of innocent children. X now understands the 
consequences of his actions and has vowed never to light a fire again. X’s mum has 
been very supportive in this matter and even took X over to the school to apologise 
to the head teacher for the damage he had caused. X sat down to write an apology 
letter to the school in a session after football. 


As X was in that transitional period of his life moving from primary to secondary, | felt 
that it was extremely important that X had the right support in place so he wasn’t 
looking to be accepted into bad friendship groups. X was signed up onto the Families 
against youth crime programme and was given the opportunity to go away on 
residential to the lake district with other young people who were in this transitional 
period. X made lots of new friends and learnt lots of new skills. X loved every minute 
of it and thoroughly enjoyed his time learning new skills that can help him progress in 
life. 


X has since made positive friendships and has joined a few sports clubs after school. 











Refer to specific Project Outcomes - 

In what way has the young person increased their positivity? 
What other supports has the YP been linked to? 

What group work has the YP engaged with? 


X engaged with fayc key worker and went on the fayc residential with around 40 
other children 

X attends local football club 

Mum says x has become much more willing to listen and usually stays away from 
people x doesn’t know. 





DIRECT FEEDBACK 
Please record any direct feedback received such as quotes, compliments or 
complaints about the work with this individual 


X enjoyed being on TR programme and says it has helped him learn new skills 
that he can use in other parts of his life. X now thinks about the consequences 
of his actions before doing things and is more cautious of the things he does. 


Mum says she is grateful for the help and support with X and that X has been 
given opportunities to take part in a residential which she would have never 
been able to afford as a single mother. She says it has always been a wish for 
X to go on residential and learn new skills since primary school but she did 
not have the funds to pay for it. She also reports X has become more 
independent and doesn’t lie about his whereabouts. He is more open and 
honest with her which makes their relationship much better. 








TRUSTED RELATIONSHIPS — One to One Work 
CASE STUDY TEMPLATE 








NAME of Young Person: CS 


CONTEXT OF THE WORK AND THE KEY ISSUES 
A summary of the key issues for the YP and the reason for referral 


Young person referred to TR due to sexual abuse concerns/ vulnerabilities to 
exploitation. We received the CE assessment for CS in April 2020 with an ‘emerging 
CE’ flag. Concerns were in relation to placement break down, residing in Leeds due 
to issues with family relationships following sexual abuse disclosure. Young person 
open to CAMHS in Bradford causing issues in relation to ongoing support whilst in 
Leeds. Ongoing concern for young person’s emotional wellbeing. Increase in self- 
harm, suicidal thoughts and eating disorder. Young person’s missing episodes 
increasing and unsafe relationships. 


YOUR APPROACH 
What did you do to build relationship and address the issues listed above? Think 
about how you worked with other to create solutions (family, other agencies etc.) 


Young person supported throughout Covid-19 lockdown with sessions twice a week 
via WhatsApp video / telephone calls/ text messages. Young person then supported 
at Barnardo’s once lockdown restrictions lifted in July. Weekly face to face session / 
structured session using therapeutic art sessions to engage in structured exploitation 
awareness work. Support given to family member who had been caring for CS 











(Aunt). Practical advice provided to Aunt RE safety planning / missing strategies and 
procedures. Referrals made to health services in Leeds (CAMHS), referral to Leeds 
Social Care for additional support after significant missing. Maintaining a positive 
relationship with CS to continue to build a trusted relationship. 





WHAT WAS THE OUTCOME? 
What has changed and how things have improved for the young person. What might 
the next steps be for the young person to continue on a positive journey? 


Young person in need to access further support to continue with Positive Identities 
project, referral made for ongoing support. Young person now has a positive 
relationship with the organisation and feels happy to continue support via 
Barnardo’s. Young person back in Bradford with attempts to build on relationship 
with parent. Open to Bradford Children’s Social Care with an ongoing SC47 / child 
and family assessment. CS is back in college after a unsettled period following 
significant missing episode where CS was found in Dorset. Contact has been made 
with investigating Officer in Leeds who will be support CS with the ongoing Police 
Investigation. Young person feeling more in control having been provided with 
updates rather than feeling ‘out of the loop’. 





Refer to specific Project Outcomes - 

In what way has the young person increased their positivity? 
What other supports has the YP been linked to? 

What group work has the YP engaged with? 


Young person feeling listened to and supported. Young person has commented on 
previous being undetected by family / professionals in her life. Young person feeling 
protected and listened to. 

Young person has been referred for ongoing support RE identity, missing support 
and placement support (via Be Positive Pathways) to support in returning to Mum’s 
care in Bradford. 








DIRECT FEEDBACK 
Please record any direct feedback received such as quotes, compliments or 
complaints about the work with this individual 


Young person has enjoyed completing her scrap book tool to capture her 
achievements and work she has completed with her worker. 


Young person able to identity trusted adults / support networks. 


Young person has shared feeling safe when completing her sessions at 
Barnardo’s and less isolated during Covid-19 lockdown. 


Young person enjoyed receiving care packages through the post, positive 
quote cards / letters from the worker. 


Young person feeling listened to, heard and protected by worker. 








Trusted Relationships — Group Work (consultancy and support) 





Name of young person: BG Name of Unit Keyworker: NB 





Context of the work and the key issues 

A summary of the key issues for the Young Person and the reason for referral 

A referral was received from the allocated Children’s Social Care (CSC) social 
worker, regarding B as the SW felt that B was vulnerable to exploitation; her risk 
level stated as at ‘emerging risk’ of CSE. 

Concerns were highlighted around B speaking inappropriately and sending indecent 
images to unknown older males via social media. B is 13 and lives in children's 
residential care, she struggles with her peer group and to regulate her behaviours 
and emotions both around other young people and sometimes when out in public. B 
uses sexual language and sexual gestures with staff and young people alike and B 
has and will expose herself in public places and within the unit. 

B is described as having no sense of personal boundaries both physical and 
psychological with staff and young people. B has no family and no friends outside 
the unit and has low confidence, low self-esteem and attachment difficulties. 

BG will go missing for short periods and will often be led by others in the unit. 

The Social Worker has asked for work to be done around dangers of social media 


and risk of meeting older males. 








Your approach 
What did you do to build relationship and address the issues listed above? Think 
about how you worked with other to create solutions (family, other agencies etc.) 
B’s referral had been waiting for allocation and so due to additional 
resource/capacity being put in to one2one work whilst group work cannot be 
delivered due to Covid-19 | have been able to pick up the case with the intention of 
supporting both the young person and staff at the residential unit. 
B also attends a school in East where group work partnership has been established. 
Due to Lock down restrictions face-to-face sessions have not been possible and so | 
have built up a Trusted Relationship with B and her Keyworker N. N has a positive 
relationship with B who struggles with new relationships and attachments and so a 
collaborative approach between N and | was decided. | agreed to be a consultant 
and support N to deliver direct sessions with B during lockdown while establishing a 
relationship with B gradually. 
| would also be available to other staff at the unit to increase their knowledge / 
understanding of CE upon request. 
Work undertaken: 

- N introduced TR to B letting her know | would send an activity pack 


- Activity Pack 1: TR intro, arts, crafts and wellbeing activities 

- Consultation calls with N sending CEOP / online safety activities for 
completion with B 

- Developing links with residential unit / staff 

- Activity pack 2: Scrapbook, arts and crafts in line with B’s interests 

- Consultation calls with N continued, B gaining more interest in TR 
engagement 

- Letter writing set sent - letter writing between TR worker and B 

- B final engaging in telephone sessions and looking forward to meeting TR 











worker 





What was the outcome? 
What has changed and how things have improved for the young person. What might 
the next steps be for the young person to continue on a positive journey? 
Work is on-going, B very much enjoys receiving her TR activity packs, working 
through them with staff at the unit and writing letters as it’s a novelty for her to send 
and receive things through the post. 
N says that B is doing well and seems more settled, she is enjoying support and 
completing her activities and arts. N says the pace of introducing TR intervention 
slowly to B has been good and that the information | have shared with her has been 
useful. 
B tells me that she has: 
- been working on a good daily routine 
- going for walks, cooking, doing her art and keeping her room tidy 
- been keeping up with school work 
- been looking after herself more 
- enjoyed TR work so far and looks forward to meeting me as lockdown restrictions 
begin 

to ease. 
The next steps are to work more closely with B to develop: 


- Trusted Relationship 

- Confident and self-esteem 

- Positive activities 

- Think about my actions 

- Know about risks/consequences 
- Healthy / unhealthy relationships 
- Knowing how to keep safe 








Direct feedback 

Please record any direct feedback received such as quotes, compliments or 
complaints about the work with this individual 

‘I liked my activity box. I’ve put picture on my wall in my room and put some feathers 
on the inside of my wardrobe’. 

‘To Marianne, I’m thankful for pack, | like colouring and the feathers it was a cute 
pack [....] it’s fun, | wait see you, thanks again and I am happy with what other pack 
you want to send, everything feels good’. ‘P.S you can call the care home now’ B. 























CASE STUDY 1 — Breaking the Cycle Project 





Background 
Young person AH aged 15 year 11 (referred in through school, school attendance dropped 


drastically, missing episodes from home and social care involvement, concerns regarding 
younger siblings. 


AH had multiple home visits to the home from unknowns which were drug related, AH had 
also become more aggressive in school, AH involved in stealing and driving stolen cars, 
AH was also clearly being criminally groomed and exploited into drug dealing. 


Interventions 


Allocated a Breaking the Cycle worker 

Intervention work around criminal exploitation, county lines, life and career choices, 
anger management strategies and coping mechanisms with AH 

Regular visits to see AH and also on-going support for the family 

Worker also actively involved in Childrens Social Care Child Protection review 
meeting 

Worker built up a trusting relationship with Family members including mum and dad 
One to one work in school with AH, AH was also involved with regular bike riding 
activities 

Ongoing secondary support — text and call every six weeks to make sure there is no 
further support required. 


Outcomes 


Re-engaged at school, attendance improved, AH began to focus more on 
vocational qualifications and really got his head down 

AH managed to not be tarnished with a criminal record due to his improvement in 
behaviour and non-offending 

Focus and aspirations increased, AH began to think more positive about himself 
and more importantly developed self-worth and academic confidence 

AH became more resilient and slowly began to disassociate himself from criminal 
links 

AH also recorded a one to one session which was used for BTC which illustrated 
his journey 


e AH and the family no longer have any social care involvement 
e AH responding to on-going secondary support and remains focused on vocational 
aspirations 


Quotes 


e Dad “I don't think this would have been impossible without your intervention in 
particular. The boys speak very highly of you and really appreciate the work you 
have done with them. The personal intervention and 1-2-1 interaction you had with 
the boys has allowed them to express themselves in a neutral environment” 

e “The boys have begun to realise that life is about balance and you can work hard 
and you can have fun along the way and all the while being kind and considerate to 
those around you” 

e “| would like to say thank you very much for the support you have shown the boys 
and myself during your intervention work through Breaking the Cycle programme. 3 
months or so ago we as a family were at crisis point, the two older boys were way 
out of line, poor performance at school, disrupting family and home life, misuse of 
cannabis and involvement in criminal behaviour. Your intervention has been a 
blessing, last month the children were moved from Child protection Plan to Child in 
Need Plan, today that Child in Need Plan has now been closed” 


CASE STUDY 2 - Breaking the Cycle 


Background 
Young person AQ aged 14 year 10 (referred in through District PRU, school attendance 


dropped drastically, missing episodes from home and social care involvement, concerns 
regarding involvement in criminality and being groomed by older males linked to SOC. 


AQ recently arrived in UK as an asylum seeker from Syria, with mother and older brother. 
AQ experienced severe emotional trauma and loss of father in Syrian civil unrest, and 
family split up as a result of mass migration. Experienced PTSD through bereavement and 
separation from family members. 


AQ has had multiple home visits from unknowns which were drug related, 

AQ had also become more aggressive towards mum at home to the point where mum has 
no control over what AQ is doing and when he comes home. AQ has on-going 
investigations pending of both a drug and sexual nature. 

AQ has also been involved in driving unregistered and un-insured cars and stopped by 
the police, which clearly indicates he is being criminally groomed and exploited into drug 
dealing. 


Interventions 

e Allocated a Breaking the Cycle worker — liaise and share information with PRU; 
CSC; Police; school 

e Intervention work around the grooming cycle and criminal exploitation, county lines, 
life and career choices, anger management strategies and coping mechanisms with 
AQ 

e Initial visits at school then home visits during Covid-19 isolation restrictions, and in 
some cases alongside CSC in emergency visits 


e Also provided on-going support for older brother and mum who struggles with 
English as not first language. Interpreter present at case conference meetings. 

e Worker also actively involved in Childrens Social Care Child Protection review 
meeting 

e Developed trusting and positive working relationship with AQ and brother quickly 
and both brothers engaged immediately. 

e One to one work in school with AQ and boxing sessions once isolation restrictions 
relaxed was also involved with regular bike riding activities 

e Weekly home visit in line with CSC and other agency rota 


Outcomes 
e Adhering to isolation rules following intensive intervention from a multi-agency 
approach 
e Moved boys onto CP with CSC so the family receive the appropriate and needs 
based intervention and safe guarding measures. 


Quotes 


e ‘I can be anything I want to!’ (During first face to face contact and whilst exploring 
choices and consequences 

e During a home visit whilst isolation Covid 19, AQ had been asked to think about 
what he would like his future to look like during the previous visit. His reply was...‘l 
want to go to drama school or be a model.’ 

e On the next visit | enquired if he had identified any colleges a for drama courses. 


His reply...’| have found two...Edinburgh and another...Cambridge?’ He was 
genuinely excited at the prospect of being able to follow his new found focus. 


CASE STUDY 3 - Breaking the Cycle 


Background 


K came to the project with a referral that outlined that his ‘behaviour was spiralling out of 
control’. He was on roll at the local PRU but had been refusing to access his education 
offer. 


At 14 years of age he had older associates, but only by a couple of years and had an 
extensive police record for anti social behaviour and selling cannabis. He had a violent 
and angry side that had resulted in threats towards teaching staff, shop security officers 
and police staff. He would not only threaten but would physically assault people, 
particularly those in authority. He carried a weapon, and had on one occasion used this to 
slice open a security guards shirt in the local shopping centre. He has associations with 
knives and guns at this point. 


K was known to Children’s Social Care and the police safer schools officer. Initial concerns 


were that workers should not attend or meet K alone due to the threats and high levels of 
violence he had demonstrated. Mum was cooperative, but was not assertive or effective in 
her parenting or management of K behaviours, and she was really at her wits end in terms 
of knowing what else to do. Mum had also had visits to the home by others who were 
looking for K and had threats made against her, she was scared and frightened at the 
home and not prepared to answer the door to people she did not know. K was ruling the 
roost , doing what he wanted, when he wanted, unafraid or concerned about the 
consequences. 


K was initially worked with by a female Breaking the Cycle team worker, he was not easy 
to engage but over a period of 4 months this worker was able to intensively get alongside 
K and start to lay down foundational work that took K to a position where he was able to 
participate in activity with other young people, identify the drivers for his violent outbursts, 
reduce the need to carry a weapon, and had started to realise who were his true friends 
and who were using him for their own ends. Throughout this engagement K remained on a 
child protection plan. 


Initially the activity that K took part in was 1-1 cycle sessions in the park, this progressed 
with sessions about county lines and gangs, and critical challenge about K behaviours and 
how these aligned to a model of county lines, trafficking and selling drugs for others. K 
was part of a gang that operated in the City Centre, and throughout this time K remained a 
heavy cannabis user, he continued to see himself as invincible and that no one could 
touch him as he sat in a position of being also able to manipulate others to sell drugs. But 
we were making inroads, and had developed a strong relationship. 


Gradually over time the youth worker was able to help K see that whilst he was certainly a 
perpetrator of violent crime, he was also a victim and was exploited by others, who used 
his addiction and threats of violence and use of weapons to control him. 


The VRU allowed us through its funding to bring a drugs specialist worker into the team, 
this embedding of a drugs specialist has reaped so many rewards for young people on the 
caseload. For K this meant that in the very small window of opportunity when K began to 
realise and accept that he needed more support to deal with his own drug misuse and to 
break away from others who had drug dependency he would need a bit more specialist 
support. 


Our Breaking the Cycle drugs worker was able to buddy up with the youth worker and start 
to parallel the work alongside the intensive support to chip away at changing his drug 
habits and to help him see the longer term impacts of his existing lifestyle. 


This was not an easy piece of work, there were occasions when we had managed to 
secure a college place for him and in the first few weeks we helped with transporting him 
to and from the college, giving valuable time to work and chat to him and prepare him for 
the college day. There were times when he had already taken drugs, and times when he 
had been in possession of drugs, and when challenged had become angry and 
aggressive. But over time what we saw was that whilst the incidents still occurred they 
were much reduced and he would apologise afterwards. 


On one occasion he laid hands on the drugs worker slapping his chest in frustration, but 
still we continued the work with him, and what we have seen emerge is a really lovely 
young man, who does have aspiration, who has changed his lifestyle and his friendship 
group. K is talented and capable working with his hands, he can build things and we are 
using this interest to continue this journey. K is now fully engaged in drugs treatment 
services with our workers, and a few short weeks ago decided he was ready for giving up 
drugs altogether. He has with support maintained this position for some time now. 


This milestone is helpful in terms of this being one of the drivers for his violence and his 
disassociation with his old peer groups means he no longer feels the need to carry a 
weapon. He has a safety plan that he has created and has been given a range of self help 
skills that help him maintain a good and healthy wellbeing that he can used when he feels 
he is not coping. 


We continue to work, albeit less intensely with the young man now to ensure we do not 
see any slippage or return to his old lifestyle. We keep in touch and have regular catch ups 
to ensure that should at any point he feels his head is turned back to his old lifestyle he 
can quickly intensify the contact again as we know the journey is long and hard if we are to 
really BREAK THE CYCLE. 


Appendix F — Trusted Relationships stats 


Number of Cases 147 


Ages 

Age 8 2 
Age 9 5 
Age 10 9 
Age 11 14 
Age 12 17 
Age 13 27 
Age 14 38 
Age 15 31 
Age 16 3 
Age 18 1 
Gender 
97 females 
50 males 
Ethnicity 

Eastern European 18 


English British 97 


Gypsy or Irish Traveller 
Pakistani 

White & Asian 

White & Black Caribbean 
African 

Black Caribbean 
Unknown 

White/Kurdish 

White Other Ethnic Group 


— 


MOAN WBNW ABH RA 


Post Codes 

BD2 10 
BD3 12 
BD4 12 
BD5 10 
BD6 14 
BD7 14 
BD8 3 
BD9 1 
BD10 9 
BD12 8 
BD13 11 
BD14 2 
BD15 5 
BD16 1 
BD17 2 
BD18 7 
BD20 1 
BD21 10 
BD22 8 
LS29 5 
Confidential 2 


Turnaround stats 
Cases worked with 49 


Gender 
Female 49 


Male 0 
Ages 


Age 8 
Age 10 
Age 12 
Age 13 
Age 14 
Age 15 
Age 16 
Age 17 
Age 18 


aie teks 
- ODF BWW = = 


Ethnic Origin 


Bangladeshi 
Pakistani 

Roma Gypsy 
Slovakian 
English British 
Black African 
White and Asian 


Eastern European 
White & Black Caribbean 


N 
-N A> ON W OND 


Post Codes 


BD2 
BD3 
BD4 
BD5 
BD6 
BD7 
BD8 
BD9 
BD10 
BD12 
BD16 
BD17 
BD18 
BD20 
BD21 
BD22 


WAaEANWWNHWWNHHAD HD ENN 


Appendix G — Cyber Crime Team — Annual Report 


Attached to report