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Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority 
Pembrokeshire County Council 


Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Local Development Plan 2 
Pembrokeshire County Council Local Development Plan 1 


BIODIVERSITY: 


How biodiversity can be protected and enhanced in the 
development process 


SUPPLEMENTARY PLANNING GUIDANCE 


PEMBROKESHIRE COAST NATIONAL PARK AUTHORITY 


Consultation: September 2020 


Adoption: Approval Date 


PEMBROKESHIRE COUNTY COUNCIL 


Consultation: Approval Date 
Adoption: Approval Date 


Contents 








AbbreviatlOns: sn seterercinvenserddennstnerdetteenm teelt sussei tenesuddsasseus A 3 
Introduction 
Purpose of the: document sereniteit aten EnC OE ETE deler NEAS 4 
Statusofths Document sense eat apes nnee eene ende eend 5 
Aims of the document siisii iestr s T a nE sa R NEEE PaE E NEES EREIN EISE lide 5 
Biodiversity and Nature Conservation … nanne oneneenenvenvenenveneenenveneeneevenvenenvenveneenenven 6 
Why is Biodiversity important and why we need to consider it? … eee 6 
Biodiversity un Pemnbrokeshit®. ans saertn vern ennerninn caatacenvgvsansceecyseseaseasedscesevenves EE NNE 7 
Pembrokeshire’s biodiversity resources … nennen nenveneenenveneevenvenveneevenvenvenenne 7 
Pembrokeshire Nature Partnership … nennen vooren vennenneeneeneenvenvenvennvenvenseenvenvenvenvensennvenee 7 
Pembrokeshire Nature Recovery Action Plan.. aed 
Legislation: and Poley cess His testers ralh tees beenen rdleete isis i 9 
Key Principles cassis csssssesssseaciissvessvsgaatacesvacdes vsti asses seasesvesnsstonsozgossabseciecadeesena setsvnesoa ESEESE EASA 9 
International, European and UK legislation … nn enoneneenenvenvenenveneenenvenvenvenenne 9 
National planning policy and guidance … ennen sen venvenvensenneenvenvenvenreenvenvenvenneenveneen 12 
Local Development Plán PONCy:, a areansnerenernrrenearedantnneredintentens eE ETE R E 13 
Table 1: Proteción of Sitesisccsccsissscesseacetsswscsasescanssdassevasesssitssecnacdetstiesacsucetusesoeusutsunachaceenseies 14 
Table 2; Protection of Habitats cninn ann n a E RA sees 15 
Table 3. Protection of Species siiin nee i a a ia aeaiee 16 
Protecting and Enhancing Biodiversity in the Development Process … enen ennen eneen 17 





Building Biodiversity into development … annen ennenvenvenseeneenvenvenvenreenseneensenneenveneen 17 
Figure 1. Good Practice: Process i i:.cscesccassssssevedsodvecgavessestesescestasesensdbotecsistsctetessiasessanarestsres 19 
Protected Species: ‚a sa savssesuasve2 conssicacesesces: hensen teases fund eteina sets ri IE ee ETSA KEES 20 
European Protected peCles ceiecssses ses desdsncshcih sinteae cue S E S AE EE 20 
Protected: Sites: renrsntann ease nanneitiererdtneenern hensen kennende dieen TONE SSA AKTES 20 
Pre-application GiSCUSSIONS s..icccssssssseceeveccesconesaaecaccaescsossvsavesaccaccecsnesnesscesstsneeteseacaccstcanseteenade 21 

Consider ecology early on to ensure it does not result in avoidable delays … … … … … … 21 

Information and Surveys: icc.csscs:cctesssti2ee cesetitesce cesdevdeteascseusassdasnstaleceessantacon ER s 22 
Design Stages: crensian ier E EEEa AA Ea E REEE EE RONTSA OEE E KTE EE i 23 


Mitigate … 





Compensate sarien E EE EREE E E E E ETEA i E EE 24 
Enhancer cases cesta sides sonst es EE ndr E EERE E E E TE ERE 24 
IMAM BE AA E EEE E E E A EE E andeng 25 


Planning Application Stage nonsense rsensenddeseansveraiknsnnddendenerneesdehentinendenesend denn 25 


Application Determination Stage sesiis iio as 25 
Planning Conditions iaee a E a T RE A AE ESR 25 
Planning ‘Ob Satins renate abscess csstsceoasacsassetes atsvevevasessenovasasewsssougstustagaoattevessecaesseaseaes 26 

Post application stage licencing ..........ceeceeceeeseeseeseeeceeseesecseeseeeeceaeeaesaeseeesecaesseceeeeaeeaeeaeeaees 27 
European Protected Species Licencing … nennen enveneenenvenenvenvenenvenvenennenvenvenenne 27 
UK Protected Species xs... cai veges biases oxen antennen enden en Heerlen raed misc ln 27 


Further Guidance for Enhancing Biodiversity in the Development Process … … … … cece 28 








SUDS: asses feta state E veda ccSvcssenis saved SEAS TERE treerd teen 28 
Green: IPPASHUCHUITE nvrorreren vereen oen nett EERE EIET RNA 2928 
Green On 29 
Biodiversity Enhancement Features … annen rnenvenenvenveneevenveneenenvenvenenveneenenven 30 
Table 4: Habitat Biodiversity Enhancements … annen veneenenveneenenvenvenenvenenneenen 34 
Table 5: Species Biodiversity Enhancements … nennen enenvenvenenveneenenvenenneenen 34 
Other: Considerati Ons esi nets ladakh Meh. chest e lana 37 
Permitted developments ssori e a R E A T EEs 37 
Demoliton. sneaker 37 
Renewable Energy Proposals ossa tes sendeorssnsertevern sess suveissdaasessavnverace eani danstenten deerde 37 
External lighting 
Table 6: Measures which can be taken to reduce light intrusion or pollution … … … … … … 39 
One Planet Development :srnreenesen irene naer 39 
Appendix Li Glossary wesise tiie ahin ater inde dietetic tibiae tide SENEE 41 
Appendix 2: Local Planning & Biodiversity Contacts … no neneenervenvenenvenvenenvenn 44 
Appendix 3: Ecological Survey Seasons … annen enenveneenenveneevenvenenvenvenvenennenvenvenenn 45 
Appendix 4: Bats — European Protected Species: Trigger List nennen 46 
Appendix 5: Advice Note relating to Green Roof Species Selection in Pembrokeshire … … 48 
Appendix 6: List of native pond plants in Pembrokeshire aanne venvenen vene 49 
Appendix 7: List of Invasive Non-Native Species in Pembrokeshire 50 


Terrestrial .... 


Freshwater... 





IMARING seas tes erneer nde veter eon bereke E exh heat ts detente wemiaus en derden 
Appendix 8: List of native trees and shrubs … annen enenveneenenvenenvenveneenervenvenvenenn 51 
Appendix 9 Hedsebank esi csscssissivetisccsbcesscssvesvees aids sceaassetetvesseatstbasesseseutsunedhaseeasesigntsadecidandaave 52 
Appendix 10 Useful Websites and Documents … annen eneeneneenenvenvenenvenvenvenenn 53 

Useful WEDSIES runnen E EE E A AEE 53 

Useful Documents serno iiie renine enden vana elder ten dear etn ak aaan 53 

Other useful information iseseisana rar asi SEAN RERE EEN ENESE AESSR EERS 53 


Abbreviations 






















































































AA Appropriate Assessment 

CROW (Act) Countryside and Rights of Way (Act) 2000 
LBAP Local Biodiversity Action Plan 

LDP Local Development Plan 

LNR Local Nature Reserve 

LANR Local Area of Nature Conservation 

MNR Marine Nature Reserve 

NNR National Nature Reserve 

NRAP Nature Recovery Action Plan 

NRW Natural Resources Wales 

PCC Pembrokeshire County Council 

PCNPA Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority 
PNP Pembrokeshire Nature Partnership 

PPW Planning Policy Wales 

SAB SuDS Approving Body 

SAC Special Area of Conservation 

SINC Sites of Importance for Nature Conservation 
SPA Special Protection Area 

SPG Supplementary Planning Guidance 

SSSI Site of Special Scientific Interest 

SuDS Sustainable Drainage Scheme 

TAN Technical Advice Note 

TLSE Test of Likely Significant Effect 

WG Welsh Government 








Introduction 





Purpose of the document 


1. 


Biodiversity encompasses all living plants and animals (including human- 
kind), and the habitats and ecosystems they (and we) depend on and 
support. Biodiversity is, literally, the breadth of life on earth and it is 
everywhere: in towns, gardens, fields, hedgerows, mountains, cliffs and in the 
sea. It is fundamental to the physical, economic and social well-being of all 
who live and work in Pembrokeshire but it also has a value in its own right. 


Development can have negative impacts on biodiversity, both direct (for 
instance through the destruction of habitat) and indirect (such as through 
severance of wildlife corridors). These impacts can be significant and lead to 
the loss of biodiversity in the County. Development can also have positive 
impacts for biodiversity for example by integrating new roosting or nesting 
opportunities into buildings and enhancing the surrounding environment. This 
Biodiversity Supplementary Planning Guidance is intended to guide 
development within the County to ensure sustainable development which 
serves to protect and enhance biodiversity. 


Biodiversity is a material consideration in the planning process and must be 
integrated from an early stage into the timetabling, design and delivery of any 
development. 


. The purpose of this Biodiversity SPG is to provide guidance to everyone 


involved with development proposals on legal responsibilities, obligations and 
the protection, conservation and enhancement of biodiversity during the 
development process. It supports the policies contained within Pembrokeshire 
Coast National Park Authority (PCNPA) and Pembrokeshire County Council’s 
(PCC) Local Development Plans and sets out policies on how biodiversity 
should be protected and enhanced. The guidance within this document will be 
used alongside these Local Development Plan policies. 


It provides guidance on: 


The legislation protecting flora, fauna and habitats 

The relevant Local Development Plan policies 

The information required when making a planning application 

The integration of biodiversity into development proposals in order to 
enhance existing habitats and create new habitats for flora and fauna 


Status of the Document 


6. The Pembrokeshire Local Development Plan (LDP) (adopted February 2013) 
and the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Local Development Plan 
(adopted September 2020) are the starting points for determining planning 
applications for development or the use of land in the respective planning 
authority areas in Pembrokeshire. This Supplementary Planning Guidance 
provides further detail and guidance on the implementation of Local 
Development Plan policy to assist those involved in the development process 
in meeting statutory and policy requirements. 


. This Supplementary Planning Guidance when adopted will be a material 


planning consideration in determining applications for planning permission. 


Aims of the document 


8. 


This Supplementary Planning Guidance aims to: 


Assist in ensuring that the key principles of national planning policy and 
guidance on biodiversity and nature conservation are met fully at the local 
level; 

Adhere and align with the new Welsh environmental legislative framework 
Assist in ensuring that local planning decisions do not result in adverse 
impacts on species and habitats and protect and enhance biodiversity 
across Pembrokeshire; 

Ensure compliance with good practice; 

Secure timely consideration of ecological issues from the outset and, in so 
doing, streamline the application process to minimise cost and delay; 

More closely integrate Pembrokeshire’s Nature Recovery Action Plan into 
the planning process. 


Biodiversity and Nature Conservation 





Why is Biodiversity important and why we need to consider it? 


9. 


As human beings we are an element of, and reliant on, the biodiversity of the 
planet. Increasingly, alongside its life-support functions, the economic and 
social benefits of biodiversity are recognised. Biodiversity is an important 
contributor to our quality of life, well-being and sense of place but it also has 
‘intrinsic value’ — a value in its own right, and is not something that should 
simply be viewed for its usefulness to humans. 


10. Biodiversity in Pembrokeshire is influenced by both natural and anthropogenic 


11. 


factors. Development can have significant negative impacts on biodiversity 
that can lead to the destruction of habitats and the loss of biodiversity. 
However, by considering biodiversity issues at an early stage in the design 
and development process, development can provide significant positive 
benefits for biodiversity e.g. through the creation of new and enhancing 
existing habitats, providing new opportunities for species conservation and 
enhancing ecological connectivity in the wider countryside. 


The conservation of biodiversity, which entails both its protection and 
enhancement, is a principle set out in both law and planning policy. It is not 
only about protecting specific designated sites; it is also concerned with 
habitats and species beyond them. The edges or boundaries of sites and 
green corridors that link sites represent zones of transition from one 
ecosystem to another and are where two or more different types of habitat 
meet and integrate. These ecological edges or stepping stones often exhibit 
high levels of productivity and species richness and provide essential 
connectivity for wildlife — therefore a break in a narrow ‘corridor can have a 
disproportionate effect on local and regional biodiversity. 


Biodiversity in Pembrokeshire 





Pembrokeshire’s biodiversity resources 


12. Pembrokeshire is internationally important for its marine, coastal, heathland, 
riverine and ancient semi-natural oak woodland habitats. 


13. The number of designated sites! in the County demonstrates its importance 
for biodiversity and its rich diversity of habitats and species, including marine 
and riverine Special Areas of Conservation (SACs), Special Protection Areas 
(SPAs), Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs), National Nature Reserves 
(NNRs), Local Nature Reserves (LNRs), Areas of Importance for Local Nature 
Conservation, and Wildlife Reserves. 


14. These habitats support numerous rare and vulnerable species, such as 
otters, bats, dormice, farmland birds, Marsh Fritillary and Brown Hairstreak 
butterflies. The overall area that is formally designated for its biodiversity 
value, is high and many species exist and migrate across the area as a whole 
and beyond. The connectivity of habitats within and between designated sites 
and across the wider landscape is therefore crucial. 


Pembrokeshire Nature Partnership 


15. Several organisations work together in Pembrokeshire to maintain and 
improve local natural features and the services that they provide. Together, 
they form the Pembrokeshire Nature Partnership (PNP). The Partnership, 
which includes public bodies, private sector companies, charities, community 
groups and individuals with an interest in the protection and enhancement of 
our natural resources in Pembrokeshire. Pembrokeshire Nature Partnership 
will continue to support, coordinate and initiate actions amongst existing and 
new Partners and will seek to record information on conservation action to 
feed into the reporting for the Nature Recovery Action Plan for Wales. 


Pembrokeshire Nature Recovery Action Plan 


16. The Nature Recovery Action Plan for Pembrokeshire ? has been produced by 
the Pembrokeshire Nature Partnership. Whilst it can be used to guide the 
members of the Partnership in setting their priorities for action, it is a guide for 
everyone to use. This plan follows on from the Local Biodiversity Action Plan for 
Pembrokeshire, which remains a valuable source of information and advice 
specific to species and habitats covered in that plan. 


17.The Welsh Government has published its Nature Recovery Action Plan for 
Wales, which sets six key objectives in order to halt the decline in biodiversity. 
The Pembrokeshire Nature Recovery Action Plan takes these objectives and 
sets them in the context of local priorities, inviting partners to work together in 





1 Maps, descriptions and management information for each of these sites can be found using 
the designated sites search at: Natural Resources Wales or on the County Council's website. 
2 See Pembrokeshire County Council’s website. 


7 


a set of broad action themes to meet the objectives. Specific actions will be 
recorded as they are identified and delivered. This plan is informed by and 
contributes towards the goals and duties set out in recent legislation such as 
the Wellbeing of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015 and the Environment 
(Wales) Act 2016. Within this context, the full range of benefits to the 
environment, society and the economy from nature conservation and 
enhancement measures should be taken into account. For example, the 
conservation of wetlands for the intrinsic value of the habitats and species 
found there may also improve water quality downstream, reduce the severity 
of flood events, preserve cultural associations with the local landscape and 
provide access opportunities to improve the wellbeing of local people and 
support the visitor economy. 


Legislation and Policy 





Key principles 
18. The key principles to consider are that: 


= The Local Planning Authority has a statutory duty to maintain and enhance 
biodiversity in the exercise of their functions to demonstrate that they have 
sought to fulfil the duties and requirements of Section 6 of the Environment 
(Wales) Act by taking all reasonable steps to maintain and enhance 
biodiversity in the exercise of their functions? under the Environment (Wales) 
Act 2016. Welsh Government has advised planning authorities (23 October 
2019) ‘..where biodiversity enhancement is not proposed as part of an 
application, significant weight will be given to its absence, and unless other 
significant material considerations indicate otherwise it will be necessary to 
refuse planning permission.’ 

= Local Planning Authorities are expected to promote approaches to 
development that create new opportunities to enhance biodiversity, prevent 
losses, reverse declines and compensate for losses that are unavoidable. 





= Both Pembrokeshire County Council and the Pembrokeshire Coast National 
Park Authority are committed to the implementation of the Nature Recovery 
Action Plan that identifies nature conservation interest and sets aims for future 
work planning. This work will tie in with the all-Wales NRAP to ensure that 
planning authorities contribute to their responsibilities and obligations for 
biodiversity and habitats. 


" Certain sites, habitats and species are afforded legal protection. Planning 
Authorities have an obligation to protect and promote their long-term 
conservation as part of the planning process. Tables 1, 2 and 3, provide a 
brief overview of these. 


International, European and UK legislation 


19. The following international and national legislation provides statutory 
protection to many of the species and habitats in Pembrokeshire: 


= The Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2017 (“The 
Habitats Regulations”) — transposes the EU directive on the 
Conservation of Wild Fauna and Flora (“The Habitats Directive”) 
(92/43/EEC) and elements of the EU Wild Birds Directive into UK law. This 
legislation required the establishment of a network of protected sites 
including SACs and SPAs and affords a high level of protection to 
identified individual species (such as otters) and species groups (Such as 





3. PPW 4011 (20482021) Section 6.4.8. 





bats). Alongside the Wild Birds Directive (below), these sites form part of a 
coordinated network of protected areas ensuring the long-term survival of 
Europe's most valued and threatened species and habitats. 


Natural Resources Wales Planning Policy Guidance on Water Quality 
in Riverine Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) 


In January 2021 Natural Resources Wales published an assessment of 


phosphate levels in Riverine SACs in Wales. The assessment showed a 
failure to meet targets in the Dee, Cleddau, Wye, Teifi and Usk. 


Alongside this data Natural Resources Wales published a Planning position 
statement and Interim guidance which should both be considered by 


applicants for proposals within the catchment or which impact on the 
waterbody of a Riverine SAC. More information is available via the 
Pembrokeshire County Council website: 
https://www.pembrokeshire.gov.uk/planning-and-ecology/phosphates- 
guidance-from-national-resources-wales 

The EU Wild Birds Directive (2009) — Regulation 9A places a statutory 
duty on public bodies for the provision of sufficient diversity and area of 
habitats for wild birds. Guidance on the interpretation and implementation 
of Regulation 9A is currently in preparation. 














UK Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended) — sets the general 
framework for habitats and species protection and provides statutory 
protection for certain species additional to those protected under the 
Habitats Regulations. 


Wellbeing of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015 — concerned with 
improving the social, economic, environmental and cultural well-being of 
Wales. The Act places a duty on public bodies listed in the Act to carry out 
sustainable development. In order to do this, public bodies are required to 
work towards seven well-being goals. All listed public bodies must develop 
well-being objectives. 


The Environment (Wales) Act 2016 — puts in place legislation needed to 
plan and manage Wales’ natural resources in a more proactive, 
sustainable and joined-up way includes: 


o Biodiversity and Resilience of Ecosystems Duty: Section 6 
under Part 1 of the Environment (Wales) Act 2016 introduced an 
enhanced biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems duty (Section 6 
Duty) requiring that public bodies must seek to maintain and 
enhance biodiversity so far as consistent with the proper exercise of 
their functions and in doing so, promote the resilience of 
ecosystems 


o Sustainable Management of Natural Resources: sets out Wales’ 
approach to planning and managing natural resources at a national 
and local level with a general purpose linked to statutory principles 


10 


of SMNR defined within the Act. The three main components 
include: 


> The State of Natural Resources Report (SoNaRR): Sets 
out the state of Wales’ natural resources). 


> Natural Resources Policy (NRP): Produced by Welsh 
Government, sets out priorities, risks and opportunities for the 
sustainable management of natural resources taking into 
account the findings of the SoNaRR report. 


> Area Statements: Produced by NRW to implement one or 
more of the priorities and opportunities outlined in the NRP at 
an appropriate spatial scale. They translate the high level 
strategic priorities while taking into account local needs, 
opportunities and pressures. 


Protection of Badgers Act 1992 — protects badgers and their setts. 


The Hedgerow Regulations 1997 — classifies and protects certain 
hedgerows using specified criteria. 


The Town and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) 
(Wales) Regulations 2017 - requires that certain types of project are 
subject to an assessment of their environmental impact before planning 
permission can be determined. 


Town and Country Planning Act 1990, Town and Country Planning 
(Trees) Regulations 1999. Town and Country Planning (Trees) 
(Amendment) 2012. An order made by the local planning authority which 
makes it an offence to cut down, top, lop, uproot, wilfully damage or wilfully 
destroy a protected tree without the planning authority’s permission. 


The Environmental Impact Assessment (Agriculture) (Wales) 
Regulations 2017 — Transpose international obligations into national law. 
They ensure that any projects that may impact on the environment are 
thoroughly assessed before they commence. The screening process 
evaluates the impact of the proposed project on the environment and the 
wider landscape. These regulations seek to protect farmland habitats, 
including historically important land, from damaging agricultural activities. 


The Countryside and Rights of Way Act (2000) - strengthens the 
protection of Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) and amends the 
Wildlife and Countryside Act with regard to certain protected species. 


National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act (1949) — sets out 
two statutory purposes for National Parks in England and Wales. When 
the aims and purposes conflict with each other, then the Sandford 
Principle should be used to give more weight to conservation of the 
environment. 


11 


1. Conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and cultural 
heritage 


2. Promote opportunities for the understanding and enjoyment of the 
special qualities of national parks by the public 


= The Environment Act (1995) — states that the first Statutory Purpose of 
National Parks is to conserve and enhance the natural beauty, wildlife and 
cultural heritage of the National Park. In addition to this, the Environment 
(Wales) Act 2016 sets out a biodiversity ‘duty’ for all Local Authorities 
(including National Park Authorities) in Wales stating that 
“Every Public Authority must, in exercising its functions, have regard, so far 
as is consistent with the proper exercise of those functions, to the purpose of 
conserving biodiversity” 


National planning policy and guidance 


20. The planning process operates in parallel with relevant environmental 


2 


= 


legislation, to deliver government commitments. The significance of the above 
legislation and commitments is reflected in the importance accorded to 
biodiversity in national planning policy. Planning Policy Wales (PPW), Edition 
40 11, 2048 2021, emphasises the importance of integrating nature 
conservation or biodiversity into all planning decisions at an early stage, 
whilst looking for development to deliver social, environmental and economic 
objectives together over time. Specific guidance in relation to nature 
conservation is available in chapter six of PPW +%-11-and TAN 5 — Nature 
Conservation and Planning (2009). 


. The British Standards Institute (BSI) has published the British Standards for 


Biodiversity — Code of practice for planning and development (BS 
420202:2013). The document amalgamates best practice and gives 
recommendations and guidance for those in the planning and development 
sectors whose work might affect or have implications on biodiversity. PCC 
and PCNPA will take into account the British Standard for Biodiversity and 
would encourage those in the planning, development and environmental 
sector to adopt the processes and recommendations as published. 


22. The Nature Recovery Action Plan for Wales is a live document and its 


ambition is to ‘reverse the decline in biodiversity for its intrinsic value, and to 
ensure lasting benefits to society’. It links to and complements The Well-being 
of Future Generations (Wales) Act 2015 and the Environment (Wales) Act 
2016, and sets out how current and proposed action will contribute to 
reversing the loss of biodiversity across Wales. 


12 


Local Development Plan Policy 


24. Pembrokeshire County Council’s Local Development Plan (LDP) (excluding 
the area of the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park) expands upon the 
principles in Planning Policy Wales 49-11 and The British Standards for 
Biodiversity, through policies which seek to ensure that development protects 
and enhances biodiversity and encourages proposals that achieve this. 





Pembrokeshire County Council Local Development Plan - List of most 
Relevant Policies 

SP.1 Sustainable Development — an overarching strategic policy that relates to all 
proposals. It aims to ensure that all development is sustainable. 

GN.1 General Development Policy — provides a framework for the evaluation of 
potential development impacts. Criterion 4 ensures that development will respect 
and protect the natural environment, including protected habitats and species. Any 
development proposal must demonstrate that it protects the natural environment 
and, where possible, enhances it. 


GN.3 Infrastructure and New Development — makes provision for contributions to 
be sought, where appropriate and necessary, in conjunction with development 
proposals including for biodiversity. 


GN.37 Protection and Enhancement of Biodiversity — requires all new 
developments to demonstrate a positive approach to maintaining and, where 
possible, enhancing biodiversity. It aims to ensure that species and their habitats as 
well as wildlife and landscape features in both countryside and urban environments 
are protected from the potentially adverse effects of development and requires that 
where any such effects are anticipated, appropriate mitigation and/or enhancement 
should be made. 








Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Local Development Plan - List of 
most Relevant Policies 

Policy 1 National Park Purposes and Duty - the overarching policy of the Plan 
fundamental to conserving and enhancing the wildlife National Park. 

Policy 8 Special Qualities - identifies the need for development to positively 
enhance the National Park’s ecosystems and components that underpin them. 
Links between sites are important 

Policy 9 Light Pollution seeks to ensure the minimal impact of lighting on the 
night sky. 

Policy 10 Sites and Species of European Importance 

Policy 11 Nationally Protected Sites and Species 

Policy 12 Local Sites of Nature Conservation — protection of areas of local 
importance — including habitats and species of principal importance to Wales, 
areas providing connectivity. 

Policy 30 Sustainable Design 

Policy 33 Surface Water Drainage 











13 





Table 1. Protection of Sites 

















Importance Feature Legislation & Policy Implications for 
Development 
International National Site Network | The Conservation of Sites are protected 
Special Area of Habitats and Species against potentially 
Conservation (SAC) Regulations 2017 (as damaging operations. 
Special Protection amended) — The Strong presumption 
Area (SPA) “Habitats Regulations” against damaging 
development. 
Ramsar ‘Wetland of Ramsar Convention SPA’s and SAC’s 
International (1971) known collectively as 
Importance’. ‘Natura 2000’ sites- 
‘the national site 
network’ 
National Sites of Special Wildlife and Countryside | Sites are protected 
Scientific Interest Act (1981) (as amended) | against potentially 
(SSSI) damaging operations. 
National Parks and 
National Nature Access to the Strong presumption 
Reserves (NNR) Countryside Act (1949) against damaging 
or Wildlife and development. 
Countryside Act (1981) 
(as amended) 
Local Local Nature National Parks and Sites to be protected 





Reserves (LNR) 


Sites of Importance 
for Nature 
Conservation (SINC) 





Access to the 
Countryside Act (1949) 
Planning Policy Wales 
edition 49-11 (2018) 





and enhanced. 


Planning Policy Wales 
40-11 (6-342 6.4.20) 








14 





Table 2. Protection of Habitats 





International 
Importance 


Habitats of European 
Importance (see Priority 
Habitats) 


The Conservation of 
Habitats and Species 
Regulations 2017 (as 
amended) 


Habitat may be a 
designated feature 
of a Natura-2000 
site National site 
network site (see 
above) 





National or Local 
Importance 


Hedgerows 


Hedgerow 
Regulations (1997) 


Certain hedgerows 
are protected from 
removal 
Hedgerows to be 
protected and 
enhanced 





Species and habitats of 
principal importance for 


the purpose of maintaining 
and enhancing biodiversity 
in relation to Wales And/or 
included in Pembrokeshire 


NRAP 


Environment (Wales) 
Act 2016, Section 7 
Pembrokeshire 
Nature Recovery 
Action Plan 


Planning 
consideration 











Trees 





Town and Country 
Planning Act 1990, 
Town and Country 
Planning (Trees) 
Regulations 1999. 
Town and Country 
Planning (Trees) 
(Amendment) 2012. 
Town and Country 
Planning (Trees) 
(Amendment) (Wales) 
Regulations 2017 





An order made by 
the local planning 
authority which 
makes it an 
offence to cut 
down, top, lop, 
uproot, wilfully 
damage or wilfully 
destroy a protected 
tree without the 
planning authority’s 
permission. 








15 





Table 3. Protection of Species 
































Importance | Feature Legislation and Policy | Implications for 
Development 
International | European Protected The Conservation of Species are protected 
Importance Species including Bats | Habitats and Species from intentional or 
(all species), Regulations 2017 (as reckless killing, injury or 
Dormouse, Otter amended) capture. Areas used for 
shelter or protection are 
protected from 
intentional or reckless 
destruction and whilst 
the species is using any 
such site, it is protected 
from intentional or 
reckless disturbance. 
Habitats Directive and | The Conservation of Protected through the 
Birds Directive Species | Habitats and Species designation of SAC/SPA 
Regulations 2017 (as 
amended) 
National Badgers Protection of Badgers Setts and badgers are 
Importance Act 1992 protected from 
intentional or reckless 
interference. 
Schedule 5 Animals Wildlife and Countryside | Species have different 
including: Water Voles, | Act (1981) (as amended) | levels of protection 
Reptiles including: protection from 
Schedule 8 plants intentional killing, injury 
including: Bluebell or taking; uprooting or 
Schedule 1 birds destruction; protection 
including: Barn owl, from harm at all times; or 
Cetti’s warbler whilst nesting. Species 
Nesting birds (all should be protected and 
species) their habitats enhanced. 
Local Species of all principal | Environment (Wales) Act | Planning consideration 
Importance Importance and/or 2016. Section 7 





included in the NRAP 














16 


Protecting and Enhancing Biodiversity in the Development Process 





Building Biodiversity into development 


25. 


26. 


This section considers how biodiversity is best protected and enhanced 
through the development management process. There are three key 
elements to this: 


= Providing accurate information with the planning application on the existing 
status of habitats or features and the presence of plants, invertebrates, 
amphibians, reptiles, birds or mammals (including bats) on or adjacent to 
the proposed development site. 


= Where it is known that a protected or priority species or habitat is present, 
ensuring that assessments are undertaken to identify the potential 
impact(s) of the proposed development on them, so as to inform the 
planning process. 


= Where such assessments demonstrate that species or habitats would be 
adversely affected, ensuring the development proposal is modified, to 
avoid the destruction or damage of sites used by protected species and/or 
to mitigate/compensate any potential impact. 


Biodiversity needs to be considered at all stages during the development 
process. Understanding the habitats and species that are present ona 
development site (including Invasive Non Native Species, see Appendix 7) 
will help to comply with legislation protecting wildlife and habitats, meet 
planning policy requirements and protect and enhance habitats and species. 


Figure 1: Guidance to protect and enhance biodiversity through the 
application process. 


18 


Development Proposal 


Figure 1. Good Practice Process v 


Pre-application Stage Pre-application discussion with NRW and LPA Planning 


| 
$ 4 


Check for survey requirements Consider need for HRA (AA) 


Employ consultant 


Carry out surveys 


























Data search (WWBIC LRC) 




















Application stage Submit application and nature conservation report Council consults statutory (NRW) and non- 
| statutory consultees (AA and TLSE) 


ý Y 


Approval Refusal 

















Post application stage Applicant obtains relevant licence 


Discharge conditions 


i 


Start work (monitoring if 
required) 








19 


Protected Species 


27. The presence of protected species will not usually prevent development 


entirely but steps will need to be taken to ensure there is no damage or 
disturbance to the species and to secure the protection of the species. It is 
the applicant or developer’s responsibility to ensure they comply with relevant 
legislation and licensing. Failure to do so can be a criminal offence which may 
result in the person(s) concerned liable to a heavy fine and/or a prison 
sentence; for example, maximum penalties for destroying a bat roost are six 
months’ imprisonment and/or a £5,000 fine per individual animal harmed. It is 
the responsibility of the Local Planning Authority to consider species and 
habitats when determining a planning application and to ensure that there are 
no unnecessary adverse impacts. 


28.Where licences have been obtained (see paragraph 54-57) in respect of 


protected species, these will also usually require some level of post- 
development survey and monitoring. 


European Protected Species 


29.There are a number of European Protected Species in Pembrokeshire; these 


include-otters, bats_fall species} and dermice. The Local Planning Authority 
will consider the potential impact of the proposed development upon these 
species based on information provided by the applicant to support their 
application. This may include a Protected Species or Extended Phase 1 
Habitat Survey, proposals for compensation, mitigation or enhancement and 
drawings to support the inclusion of such features. Consultation may also 
take place with Natural Resources Wales (NRW). If this information is not 
provided and is considered necessary as a requirement for the purposes of 
planning, then this may be requested. 


Protected Sites 


30.European Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) and Special Protection 


31. 


Areas (SPAs), are designated under the EC Habitats Directive as sites that 
will make a significant contribution to conserving habitats and species 
identified as most in need of conservation. There are a number of these sites 
in Pembrokeshire; certain forms of development impact upon habitats and/or 
species for which these sites are designated. 


Before approving any plan or project the Local Planning Authority, as the 
competent authority, must assess whether the proposals are likely to have a 
significant effect upon the European protected sites (SACs/SPA’s). The first 
stage of the Habitats Regulations Assessment is to screen the proposal 
through a Test of Likely Significant Effect (TLSE) as required under regulation 
63 of the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations. If it is 
considered that the proposal is likely to have a significant effect an 
Appropriate Assessment will be carried out. If mitigation options cannot avoid 


20 


an adverse effect, then an assessment of alternative solutions would be 
examined. Where no alternative solution exists an assessment will be 
undertaken to establish if the development is necessary for imperative 
reasons of over-riding public interest (IROPI). 


32. Applicants and developers are advised to seek advice regarding the likely 
effects of development upon European protected sites. For more information 
on features of individual protected sites in Pembrokeshire see Natural 
Resources Wales website. 


33. Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) are designated by Natural 
Resources Wales as being the best examples of rare or characteristic 
habitats, sites for certain species or for their geodiversity interest. Some 
SSSls have also been designated as National Nature Reserves (NNRs), 
where the land is managed as a nature reserve. These sites can be viewed 
on Lle the Geoportal for Wales. 


34.A development site may also be located within an area of local importance for 
nature conservation. Some may be formally recognised, such as Local 
Nature Reserves, or may not be formally recognised but provide important 
nature conservation value. The value may include its role as a wildlife corridor 
or as habitat such as unimproved grassland, coastal habitats and heath and 
moorland, as well as features such as road verges. Areas of importance for 
local nature conservation would be identified as: 

= Supporting habitats of principal importance for Wales. 

= Supporting, or is likely to support, species of principal importance for 
Wales for all or part of their lifecycle. 

= Providing ecological corridors, stepping stones, or contain features which 
enhance habitat connectivity and ecological resilience of international, 
national and locally important sites. 

= Providing supporting services to or buffer sites of importance (e.g. 
hydrological connectivity. 


Pre-application discussions 


Consider ecology early on to ensure it does not result in avoidable delays 


35. The potential for species and habitat features to be affected by a 
development must be considered at the first stage of any scheme. Failure to 
do so may prevent a planning application from being validated or lead to 
delays in the planning process or to refusal of consent. 


36. The planning departments welcome early discussions of ecological issues at 
the pre-application stage. This will help to identify if ecological surveys are 
required to support a planning application. Information about the pre- 
application process can be found on Pembrokeshire Coast National Park 
Authority and Pembrokeshire County Council’s websites. For more details of 


21 


survey requirements see the following sections on ‘Protected Species’ and 
‘Protected Sites’ as well as at the Local Planning Authority websites (See 
Appendix 2: Local Planning & Biodiversity ContactsAppendix2-Lecal 
Planning & Biodi HC ). 

37.Pre-application discussions with statutory consultees such as Natural 
Resources Wales is also recommended, in addition to non-statutory 
consultees if appropriate. 





Information and Surveys 


38. The level of information should be necessary, relevant and proportionate to 
the development and adequate to inform the determination of the application. 
If an ecological survey is required it will need to be undertaken and 
incorporated into the early stages of a project. This will enable design work to 
take full account of constraints and opportunities on site. 


39. Surveyors should use nationally recognised survey guidelines/methods where 
available. A suitably qualified ecological consultant will need to be employed 
to carry out any necessary survey(s). There are seasonal and time constraints 
to ecological surveying, which should be carefully planned into the 
development process. Appendix 3 sets out Ecological Survey Seasons. If 
you are unsure about survey requirements, pre-application advice should be 
sought. 


40. Survey information should include data sourced from the Local Records 
Centre - West Wales Biodiversity Information Centre. 


41.In some cases where there is not a reasonable likelihood for protected 
habitats or species to be present or affected by development, survey work 
may not be needed. However, additional information may still be requested by 
the Local Planning Authority in order to assist with the determination of the 
planning application. 


22 


Design Stages 


Figure 2: Five Key Principles for Planning for Biodiversity 


Avoid 
(Primary objective is to avoid negative impacts on wildlife) 


Stage 1 
Mitigate 


(Where avoidance is not possible) 


= 





= 


Compensate 
(Only where it is not possible to avoid or mitigate) 


= 
D 
5 
D 
Q 
® 


(To ensure long lasting benefits) 


z 


All impacts addressed = No loss of Biodiversity 


ee 
D 
Q 
© 
No 


Enhance 
(Required) 


= 


Manage 
(To ensure long lasting benefits) 


z 


Net biodiversity gain 


23 


42. It is important that the findings of any survey work are taken into careful 
consideration during the design stage. Good survey work will provide details 
of both the constraints and opportunities on a site. A proposal must show how 
it has been designed in such a way so as to avoid or minimise any adverse 
effects on those habitats or species present. This may involve incorporating 
appropriate new features or habitats within the development or site. 


43.Fig .2 above outlines a two-stage process for design using the five principles 
of planning for biodiversity. Stage 1 relates specifically to addressing the 
impacts of the proposed development. Logical progression through the avoid, 
mitigate, compensate hierarchy is aimed at achieving no loss of biodiversity 
as a result of development. Proposed enhancements are not considered at 
this stage. Stage 2 aims to achieve a net biodiversity gain by identifying 
opportunities for enhancing biodiversity as part of the proposed development. 


Avoid 


44.Wherever possible, development should avoid impacting on any wildlife 
feature. The primary objective should be to avoid negative impacts by 
designing the site around the wildlife features. For example, if the 
development site includes a pond or existing hedgerow try to incorporate it 
into the layout. Should avoidance not be possible, justification is required as 
to why adverse impacts cannot be avoided. 


Mitigate 
45.Where avoidance is not possible then the design should aim to mitigate any 
negative impacts. You will need to take account of all the potential effects of a 
development and make sure that mitigation is appropriate to the proposal and 
species and habitats present. Incorporate all aspects of mitigation onto 
drawings prior to submission 


Compensate 


46. In some cases it is not possible to avoid or mitigate adverse impacts on 
species or habitats. In exceptional circumstances either on- or off-site 
compensation is required. Compensation either restores or recreates the 
wildlife feature damaged by a development; however, some habitats and 
features, such as ancient woodland, cannot be compensated for. 


Enhance 


47.Planning Policy Wales, Local Development Plan policies and the Environment 
(Wales) Act place a duty on the Local Planning Authority to enhance. Welsh 
Government has advised planning authorities (23'¢ October 2019) ‘..where 
biodiversity enhancement is not proposed as part of an application, significant 
weight will be given to its absence, and unless other significant material 
considerations indicate otherwise it will be necessary to refuse planning 


24 


permission.’ A planning application should include information on measures 
that will enhance, restore and/or create new habitats and improve the built 
environment for wildlife in addition to any measures for protecting existing 
wildlife and habitats on sites. 


Manage 
48. On sites where wildlife features are retained or new habitats or features are 
created, ongoing management is required to ensure long lasting benefits. 
However, management needs will vary from site to site. For some sites there 
may be a need for a specific management plan. It should identify specific 
actions, the organisation and personnel responsible for implementing the plan 
and it may need to identify monitoring required as part of a licence. 


Planning Application Stage 


49. The applicant should submit the planning application accompanied by the 
nature conservation report which should detail how the above stages have 
been incorporated into the development proposal. 


50.If at a pre-application stage screening is identified a requirement for 
Appropriate Assessment, screening will be undertaken the by Local 
Planning Authority (which is the competent Authority) at the Planning 
Application Stage. This will look at the component parts of the project and it’s 
potential impact on the ecological functioning of the site features and the site’s 
conservation objectives. It is undertaken by the competent authority either before 
it gives the project permission or before the project is undertaken. It’s scope, the 
information to be contained within it and the timescale required to undertake it, 
will vary on a case-by-case basis. 


Application Determination Stage 


51.lt is good practice to address biodiversity and conservation as completely as 
possible within the design of the development approved. However, 
occasionally it may be necessary to secure further matters through the 
imposition of conditions and/or a planning obligation. 


Planning Conditions 


52.Planning conditions mitigate identified harm that would otherwise result in the 
refusal of an application. Planning conditions can achieve this in several ways 
on major development sites including: 


= Requiring monitoring of retained features and of new or enhanced habitats to 
gauge their success; 





5 Biodiversity enhancements: guidance for heads of planning | GOV.WALES 
25 


= Restricting or regulating the development in some way by requiring, for 
example, certain operations to be carried out at set times of the year; 


= Requiring works to be carried out, including for example habitat enhancement; 


= Requiring further details such as a comprehensive landscaping scheme to be 
submitted to the local planning authority for approval; 


= Requiring existing ecological features such as trees and hedges to be retained 
as part of the development and protected during construction; 


= Limiting the duration of all or part of the development; 


= Requiring appropriate management and maintenance after construction to 
benefit biodiversity. 


= Requiring further details such as measures to protect watercourses from 
pollution and run-off. 


53.Planning conditions will only be used where they are: necessary, relevant to 
planning, relevant to the development to be permitted, enforceable, precise 
and reasonable. Surveys for protected species or habitats cannot be 
conditioned as part of any planning consent. 


Planning Obligations 


54. Planning obligations are a mechanism that binds the developer and those 
with a legal interest in the land under section 106 of the Town and Country 
Planning Act (1990). Section 106 agreements are the usual way of 
formalising planning obligations. They are usually used where financial 
payments or on-going management are required to address biodiversity 
issues. They should only be used where it is necessary to make an otherwise 
unacceptable development acceptable. They must be reasonable, serve a 
planning purpose and relate to the proposed development in scale and kind. 


55. Examples of the use of planning obligations for major developments may 

include: 

= Provision of access and interpretation facilities for areas of biodiversity 
interest / feature; 

= Provision of new habitats; 

= Financial provisions such as a commuted sum for management to cover 
long-term maintenance costs; 

= Ongoing management of new or improved habitats after the initial after- 
care or maintenance period, possibly through a 5-year (or longer) 
management plan with the developer; 

= Agreement with a conservation organisation, housing association, the 
Council or local residents group where they are prepared to take on 
management responsibility. 


26 


Post application stage licencing 


56. Where licences have been obtained in respect of protected species, these will 
also usually require some level of post-development survey and monitoring. 


European Protected Species Licencing 


57. If development or an activity will affect European Protected Species then it is 
likely a licence will be required from Natural Resources Wales to allow 
otherwise illegal activities to go ahead. If the development requires planning 
permission, this must be granted prior to obtaining a licence. Once approved 
it is the applicant’s responsibility to apply for a licence and further information 
can be found by searching ‘European Protected Species licence’ on the 
Natural Resources Wales website. See Appendix 4: Bats — European 
Protected Species: Trigger ListAppendix4-Bats—Eurepean Protected 


Species: Trigger List for details on submitting planning applications where 
bats may be affected. 


58. It is important to note that planning permission (or a permitted development 
right) does not negate the need for a development licence before work starts 
on site. Working without a development licence could lead to the disturbance 
of the species or destruction of their roost or resting place, resulting in a 
wildlife crime being committed and subsequent prosecution. 


59. In some cases appropriate (sympathetic) design and mitigation will avoid the 
need for a licence — work can be managed so that it does not cause 
disturbance or harm. In other cases, mitigation will not remove the need for a 
licence, but will form part of the licence conditions, as well as being covered 
by planning condition(s). 


60.A Trigger list has been produced by the Bat Conservation Trust that lists 
development situations where bats are likely to be found. This can be found in 
Appendix 4: Bats — European Protected Species: Trigger ListAppendix 4: 

B E p Species: Tri List: 


UK Protected Species 





61.NRW is responsible for issuing licences for works which may interfere with UK 
protected species, including badgers and/or their setts in the course of 
development. The consideration and granting of such licences are separate 
from the process of applying for planning permission, but the Local Planning 
Authority must take account of the legislation throughout the development 
process. 


27 


Further Guidance for Enhancing Biodiversity in the Development 


Process 





SuDS: 


62. Sustainable Drainage Systems store or re-use surface water at source by 
decreasing flow rates to watercourses, and water bodies and by using natural 


processes to filtrate and purify water in both urban and rural areas. They aim 
to manage rainfall by simulating natural processes through the use of natural 
features in the landscape and vegetation. Surface water run-off and pollution 
are major causes of flooding and damage to river ecosystems. SuDS have a 
multitude of benefits including flood risk reduction, improved water quality, 
opportunities for habitat creation and expansion, and enhanced biodiversity 
through the creation of freshwater habitats. 


63. From 7t January 2019, all new developments of more than 1 house 


(construction area of 100m? or more) require Sustainable Drainage Systems 
for managing surface water. Local authorities are the SuDS Approving Body 


(SAB), in this case Pembrokeshire County Council. 
64. Types of SUDS include: 


Swales Shallow channels, sometimes vegetated which either store runoff 
water, or move it to the next stage of the water treatment process. 


Attenuation ponds Provide stormwater attenuation and treatment. They 
are designed to support emergent aquatic vegetation which also aids in 
effective and natural water filtration. 

Rain gardens A shallow depression located on a steep slope with absorbent 
yet free-draining soil planted with vegetation that can withstand occasional 
inundation. They slow down water flow and filter runoff. 

Green roofs can help to slow down the flow of surface water. See below for 
more information. 


Pembrokeshire hedgebanks (see Appendix 9 HedgebankAppendix9 _ 
Hedgebank): The hedgebank feature increases the immediate surface 

area for interception and typically incorporates plants and trees to intercept 
rainfall and absorb water. The bank can also act as a physical, semi- 


permeable barrier that can protect adjacent land from flooding. 


Peatlands 


New paragraph: Peatlands hold large stocks carbon. When peat is left undisturbed 
the carbon is protected. Problems only arise when the peat body is drained, burnt or 
over-grazed. Appendix & provides more advice on peat management procedures with 





the aim of preventing disturbance in the first instance.’ 


28 





{ Formatted: Font: Bold 





Green Infrastructure 


65. Green Infrastructure is a network of natural and semi-natural areas and 
features that contribute to the high quality of the natural environment. This 
includes parks, open spaces, playing fields, beaches, coastlands and 
woodlands, as well as street trees, allotments and private gardens. It also 
includes streams, rivers, ponds, green roofs and walls. The provision of green 
infrastructure in and around urban areas and incorporated into new 
developments is widely recognised as contributing towards creating places 
where people want to live and work. It can significantly reduce costs for 
individuals, businesses and public bodies, whilst enhancing the quality of life 
and health of residents, workers and visitors. 


66. Pembrokeshire County Council and Pembrokeshire Coast National Park have 
produced a joint Green Infrastructure Action Plan® and its purpose is to bring 
site specific projects forward, and improve the green infrastructure network. 


Green roofs 


67.A green roof is a roof or deck onto which vegetation is intentionally grown or 
habitats for wildlife are established. The two main types of green roof are 
intensive, which typically have deeper substrates (>200 mm) capable of 
supporting shrubs and trees and extensive, which typically have a shallower 
substrate layer (<150 mm), support low-growing, drought-tolerant plants, 
require low maintenance and are the most common type of green roof. 


68. The use of native species and the mimicking of natural habitats helps to 
provide the maximum benefits for the wildlife and landscape of 
Pembrokeshire. Pembrokeshire County Council and Pembrokeshire Coast 
National Park Authority encourage the establishment of green roofs using 
native species although if planted in close proximity to important open 
habitats and those which are vulnerable to invasion (coastal habitats), careful 
planning and sourcing of native seeds is imperative. 


69.Sedum-only roofs should be avoided in the National Park due to the limited 
number of native sedum species and the use of other sedums (including 
garden varieties) would not be acceptable as they can become invasive, 
putting native species at risk. There are only two species of sedum native to 
Pembrokeshire that are suitable for inclusion in a green roof Sedum acre - 
Goldmoss stonecrop and Sedum anglicum - English stonecrop. 


70. The implementation of a sedum roof with only two species would result in a 
roof with limited ecological benefit. Therefore to encourage ecological 
benefits, the following seed mixes are recommended: 





6 see Pembrokeshire County Council's website. 
29 


e UK Native Wildflower Roof 
e Pembrokeshire Coastal Roof 


71.Both of these species mixes are more tolerant to desiccation and can cope 
during dry periods and salt incursion. More details can be found in Appendix 
5: Advice Note relating to Green Roof Species Selection in 


PembrokeshireAppendix 5- Advice Note relating to Green Roof Species 


Biodiversity Enhancement Features 


72. Welsh Government has advised planning authorities (23rd October 2019) 
„where biodiversity enhancement is not proposed as part of an application, 
significant weight will be given to its absence, and unless other significant 
material considerations indicate otherwise it will be necessary to refuse 
planning permission’? 


73.Enhancements for wildlife will be sought where appropriate from all scales of 

development. The level of enhancement required will be proportionate to the 

type, scale and impact of development. There are many ways of incorporating 

features into planning schemes to enhance biodiversity and these range from 

small-scale actions for individual species to larger habitat creation schemes. 

Examples of how a site and/or development may be enhanced could include: 

= providing bird boxes around the site or for specific species (e.g. swallows, 
barn owls, house sparrows); For longevity and ease of maintenance we 
advise the use of boxes which are integrated into buildings rather than 
wooden boxes which are externally fixed. 

= providing roosting opportunities for bats (bat tiles, access to soffits, bat 
roosts); 

= planting a native species hedgerow/trees or creating a wildlife pond and 
scrapes; 

= en a wildflower meadow area or planting a native woodland area 





| Formatted: Font: (Default) Arial 











= creating wildlife corridors/linear features to improve connectivity; 
= creation of hedgebanks 
= creating buffer zones along watercourses. 





7 Biodiversity enhancements: guidance for heads of planning | GOV.WALES 


30 














Table 4: Habitat Biodiversity Enhancements 








Habitat type Enhancement suggestions 
Waterways/water e Create new water bodies (e.g. creation of ponds, scrapes 
bodies and semi-permanent water bodies). 


e Creation of suitable otter and amphibian habitat including 
the installation of otter holts and the retention and buffering 
of riparian corridor. 























e Plant native pond plant species (list included in , “—__| Formatted: Don't add space between paragraphs of the 
a aan a same style, Bulleted + Level: 1 + Aligned at: 0.25" + Indent 
at: 0.5" 
ä \ 
e Appendix 6: List of native pond plants in { Formatted: Font: Arial 
PembrokeshireAppendix 6-List of native pend plantsia 
Pembrokeshire). 
Buildings or other e Install barn owl boxes, erect bird boxes, erect bat boxes, 
structures and install bat bricks and bat lofts. 





e Create green roofs (see guidance in Formatted: Font: (Default) Arial 








Note relating to Green Roof Species 
PembrokeshireAppendix-5:Advice-Note+elating to 
Green Roof Species Selection in Pembrokeshire). 





Grassland e Extend area of wildflower meadow, coastal grassland or 
wetland scrapes for wading birds and access to mud for 
nesting swallows and house martins and create green roof. 





Hedgerows and e Improve connectivity for wildlife by connecting new to old 

hedge banks ones and repair damaged sections of existing features. 

e Plant native hedgerow species using a minimum of 5 
species including berry or seed bearing species. A list of 





native species can be found in endix 8: List of native Formatted: Font: (Default) Arial 








trees and shrubsAppendix 8-List of native trees and 
SRFHBS, 





Woodlands e Manage existing woodland for biodiversity by reducing the 
levels of grazing animals and introducing management 
techniques such as coppicing, where appropriate and 
create buffers for woodland edges. 





Urban e Plant native trees and hedgerow shrubs to provide food and 
shelter for birds and small mammals. 

e Encourage pollinating insects by planting native wildflower 
seed mixes, install bat and bird boxes (see species 
enhancements) and maintain and enhance areas of semi- 
natural habitat (such as grassland, hedgerows, wooded 
areas, and water bodies). 











Table 5: Species Biodiversity Enhancements 





Species Enhancement suggestions 

















Birds Blue and e Installation of bird boxes 2-3 metres above 
(Recommended | great tits ground level. Can be attached onto small 
material - buildings or onto tree trunks. 





34 





woodcrete for 
longevity) 


Blue and Great tits - nest box locations to be 
free from hanging vegetation to allow for easy 
access and watch-out for predators. 

Robins and wrens - front entrance hidden 
behind vegetation. 

House sparrows - easterly aspect and ideally in 
clusters of 6 or more due to them preferring to 
nest in loose colonies. It is less likely that 
individual boxes will attract a breeding pair 





Swallows 


Sites to include houses, barns, stables and car 
ports, nest cups to be installed inside buildings 
under eaves with open access for nesting 
between spring and summer. 

Multiple nest sites can be erected although not 
too close together (>1m) to avoid nest conflicts. 
Avoid installation where droppings may be a 
nuisance or predators (such as cats) may be 
present. 





House 
martins 


Host sites for nest cups to include buildings 
with wide soffits in close proximity to green 
infrastructure (rivers, ponds, trees, hedgerows) 
approximately 5 metres above ground away 
from windows and doors. 

Nest sites require shelter from prevailing 
weather (South-East). 

Multiple nest cups can be installed in clusters 
as they are a colonial species. 





Swifts 


Nest boxes/bricks to be installed with a 
northerly aspect at external eaves/soffits level 
above 5 metres in height and with an 
unobstructed flight path 

Can be installed in close proximity to others 
due to being a colonial bird species 





Barn owl? 


Large box to be installed in strong and mature 
tree or inside open sided barns at a height of 
above 3 metres. 

In trees, where the nest box access hole would 
be visible to a passing owl. 

Boxes in buildings to be placed out of the sight 
of human activity. 





Invertebrates 


Installation of insect boxes (bug hotels) and bee 
bricks into developments. 

Plant tree and hedgerow species that are early 
blossoming for example hawthorn and 
blackthorn trees. 





Reptiles 


Creation of hibernacula and log piles. 
Creation of south facing slopes for basking and 
creation of wetland area for grass snakes. 





Amphibians 











Create accessible ponds with some marginal 
shading which are positioned to avoid human or 
animal disturbance. 











8 Advice on Barn Owl Nest Boxes can be found on The Barn Owl Trust website. 


35 





Mammals 





Dormice 


Maintain traditional hedgerow management. 
Erect dormouse boxes. 

Retain and link habitats, e.g. woodlands and 
hedgerows. 

Create ‘buffers’ to reduce the potential for 
disturbance. 





Hedgehogs 


Create holes in garden fences to allow 
hedgehogs to pass through and evade 
predators. 

Maintain hedgerow corridors and create 
hibernation habitat - log piles and scrub areas. 





Otters 


Retain undisturbed habitat by rivers by 
installing wide buffers to developments. 
Establishment of wet woodland. 

Remove barriers to passages, e.g. culverts. 
Include ledges on bridge designs. 

Creation of otter holts. 








Bats 
(general) 





Incorporate bat lofts into building conversions. 
Recommended material — Bituminous roofing 
felt not containing polypropylene filaments. 
Create or retain access points into roof void 
and cavity walls. 

Erect bat boxes (x1 per dwelling) onto buildings 
— or 25% onto trees. 

Retain existing trees, hedgerow corridors and 
mature trees. 

Design dark corridors into site plans and 
incorporate lighting plans into applications. 
Sensitive lighting to use low level LED lights 
and low visibility splay. Lights to be no a timer 
switch or motion sensor. 

Boxes to be made from woodcrete and 
positioned on trees at least 5 metres high in 
groups of three facing in a south-easterly to 
south-westerly direction to provide a range of 
suitable temperatures. 

Roost material should be rough in texture, non- 
toxic and non-corrosive. 








Approved supplier of bug hotels, mammal, bird and bat boxes can be found on the NHbs 


website 


Supplier of native wildflower seed mix ‘Wyndrush Wild’ 


36 


Other Considerations 





Permitted development 


74. Some types of development, such as extensions and alterations, may be 
permitted development which means there is no need to apply for planning 
permission. General permission is granted under the Town and Country 
Planning (General Permitted Development) Order 1995 (as amended) in 
these cases. Even if a proposal is permitted development, the work may still 
disturb a protected species or damage an important habitat. 


75. If it is uncertain whether or not the proposal is permitted development, please 
contact Pembrokeshire County Council’s or Pembrokeshire Coast National 
Park Authority's Development Management team for advice. To ascertain the 
potential impact of a proposal or establish if a licence would be required 
contact the Planning Ecologist, or Natural Resources Wales. The presence 
(or potential presence) of protected species will require compliance with all of 
the relevant statutory obligations and responsibilities, and may involve 
obtaining a licence from NRW, if criminal offences are to be avoided. 


Demolition 


76. Approval for the demolition of most buildings is required from the Local 
Planning Authority and is achieved by either indicating the demolition of a 
building(s) and gaining approval in conjunction with a planning application or 
by applying for ‘prior notification’. Under the Town and Country Planning 
(General Permitted Development) Order 1995 (as amended) a prior 
notification must be submitted to check whether the Council requires prior 
approval of the method of demolition and site restoration. This is in addition to 
any other forms of consent required for demolition such as Listed Building 
Consent, Conservation Area Consent or approval via a Demolition Notice. 


77.Checks should be made prior to demolition to identify and define any 
biodiversity issues, such the presence of protected species that need to be 
addressed prior to commencing demolition. In advance of any planned 
demolition of a building or structure, advice may be obtained from the 
Planning Ecologist on requirements for surveys or precautions to be taken in 
respect of protected species. All bats are protected by European and UK 
legislation and it is an offence to disturb or destroy their habitat. Where 
protected species occur all of the statutory obligations and responsibilities 
relating to these, potentially including the need to obtain a licence from the 
NRW, will apply and must be resolved before demolition proceeds, otherwise 
a criminal offence may be committed. 


Renewable Energy Proposals 
78.Renewable energy proposals have the potential to impact on wildlife, 
including birds and bats. The Local Planning Authority recommends a 50m 


37 


buffer between wind turbine blades and linear features such as trees and 
hedgerows on proposals outside of the National Park. Careful consideration 
will need to be given to the location of access points and connections to grid, 
so as to reduce the potential impact on habitat features or species. 


79. If you are intending to submit a planning application for a renewable energy 


scheme the Local Planning Authority recommends undertaking an ecological 
walk-over survey as a minimum. However, additional survey work identified 
from the preliminary survey may need to be undertaken prior to the 
submission of a planning application, for example in relation to bats or birds. 
In the case of renewable energy projects applicants should take early advice 
from their ecologist and the planning authority on survey requirements. 


External lighting 


80. Light pollution can have a serious impact on the natural patterns that govern 


81. 


wildlife behaviour such as mating, migration, sleeping and eating. Lighting in 
itself is not a problem; it only becomes a problem where it is excessive, poorly 
designed or badly installed. The impact of lighting on wildlife can be reduced 
by: 

= Using lights only where and when needed 

= Lighting the target area only 

= Shining lights downwards 

= Using sensor lights that come on only when necessary 

Where light-sensitive protected species such as bats are involved, 
appropriate design of lighting to avoid or minimise adverse impacts will be a 
statutory requirement and may be subject to licensing by the NRW. More 
information on this can be found in the table below and Appendix 4: Bats — 
European Protected Species: Trigger ListApperndix4-Bats—Eurepean 





82. In considering schemes which involve the installation of external lighting, their 


impact on the night sky and biodiversity will be considered. Obtrusive lighting 
can be defined as “the unnecessary brightening of the night sky as a result of 
upwardly directed light. Usually light pollution is caused by poorly designed 
development schemes and inappropriate or poorly installed lighting 
equipment’. 


83. There are several forms of light pollution, which may have a detrimental 


impact on wildlife and the open countryside. Illuminating a bat corridor may 
cause disruption, alter feeding behaviour and even abandonment of the 
nearby roosts. Many nocturnal animals may have their sleep patterns 
disrupted, encouraging them to forage in the artificial light and expose 
themselves to predators that use light to hunt. Some species are intolerant of 
increased lighting and may abandon their dependent young resulting in 
population declines and displacement. 


38 


Table 6: Measures which can be taken to reduce light intrusion or 
pollution 


Lighting considerations | Measures to avoid or mitigate impacts 


Location of lights Include a lighting plan. 
Reduce the number of lights. 
Carefully consider the location of lights, do not locate near 
sensitive features such as hedgerows or trees. 
Avoid light-spill on bat roost access points. 
Type of lights Include pictures of products. 
Choose downward facing lights, no upward spill. 
Flood-lights are generally unacceptable. 


Height of light installation Consider use of low-level lighting where possible. 
PENS Ste masmu nog otiam ites o 
Direction and angle of | State beam orientation. 


State lumens. 
Recommended 600 lumens maximum in the National Park. 
2,700 Kelvin lights are recommended. 
Lighting accessories for | Cowls. 
reducing obtrusive lighting | External or internal louvres. 
Shields or hoods. 
Reflectors. 
Application of film to windows to reduce glow. 


Implications of lighting on | If the proposed scheme is on or adjacent to a designed site, 
General Locate away from reflective surfaces, such as windows. 
preety or LED aute were posate o | 


84. A Supplementary Planning Guidance document for the appropriate use of 
lights will be prepared by Pembrokeshire County Council and the 
Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority. More information can be found 
on the Institution of Lighting Professional's website and the Bat Conservation 
Trust Guidance Note 08/18 Bats and artificial lighting in the UK. 





One Planet Development 


85. Planning Policy Wales 11 defines One Planet Development (OPD) as 
“development that through its low impact either enhances or does not 
significantly diminish environmental quality”. (Paragraph 4.2.38) 


86.A Biodiversity Survey is required to accompany an OPD application and an 
audit forms part of the required management plan listing broad habitats, 
records of important flora and fauna and any statutory designations on the 


39 


87. 


site and in the immediate vicinity. These are important considerations to take 
into account prior to land purchase. 


Considerations for applicants: 


Are you planning to cultivate valuable semi-natural habitats? 

Will your crop/garden species pose a risk of spreading into the natural 
environment? 

Growing non-native species for production/to sell is not justification for 
introducing them. 

Proposals for planting and crops should carefully consider site location 
and proximity to sensitive sites, specifically designated sites. 

Grazing regimes should be appropriate for the habitat type and applicants 
should discuss this with their ecological consultants 

Applicants are advised to liaise with NRW to establish if their site is 
designated or likely to be notified as a designated site. 

Those bordering designated sites should positively contribute to the 
management of the site by carefully considering location/type of planting 
and grazing and impacts on draining and hydrology. 

Planting an orchard may increase diversity (on paper) but is not 
enhancement if it means eradicating an area of healthy marshy grassland. 


40 


Appendix 1: Glossary 





Appropriate Assessment 


A statutory assessment which is undertaken by a competent authority in respect of 
plans or projects which are likely to have a significant effect on a national site 
network site Natura 2000 site (see HRA definition). 


Biodiversity 


The richness and variety of living things (plants, birds, animals, fish and insects etc.) 
which exist in a given area, and the habitats which support them. 


Biodiversity Action Plan/Local Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP/LBAP) 


The UK's Biodiversity Action Plan recognises priority habitats and species and plans 
and works towards their conservation. Local Biodiversity Action Plans are the 
mechanism for local delivery. 


Development Licence 


Term used within this document to refer to a protected species licence (European or 
UK protected species) obtained by a developer for the purposes of undertaking a 
development. 


Ecosystem 


A system that includes all living organisms (biotic factors) in an area as well as its 
physical environment (abiotic factors) functioning together as a unit. 


European Protected Species (EPS) 
Species protected by the Conservation (Natural Habitats etc) Regulations 2010. 
Habitat 


The place in which a particular plant or animal lives. Often used in the wider sense 
referring to major assemblages of plants and animals together. 


Habitat Regulations Assessment (HRA) 


HRA is required under the European Directive 92/43/EEC and is an assessment of 
the impacts of implementing a plan or project on a Natura 2900 national site network 
site. Its purpose is to consider the impacts of a land use plan against conservation 
objectives of the site and to ascertain whether it would adversely affect the integrity 
and features of the site. 


Invasive Non Native Species (INNS) 


Any species which is outside its natural range in Pembrokeshire but which is 
present and capable of surviving and reproducing in the County and which causes 
damage to natural ecosystems or human economic, social or health interests by 
threatening native biodiversity. 


Local Development Plan 


The Statutory Development Plan for each Local Planning Authority area in Wales, as 
required under Part 6 of the Planning and Compulsory Purchase Act 2004. 


Local Nature Reserve 
41 


An area designated for its local importance in terms of nature conservation. 
Local Planning Authority 


A planning authority responsible for the preparation of the Local Development Plan 
and for determining planning applications. 


Mitigation 

The term mitigation in the document refers to action taken which offsets and 
minimises potential impacts on any wildlife features. 

National Nature Reserve (NNR) 


An area designated for its national importance in terms of nature conservation, and 
managed in accordance with a nature reserve agreement with landowners and 
occupiers. 


Natural Resources Wales (NRW) 


Is the Statutory Nature Conservation Organisation for the Welsh Government. Its 
purpose is to ensure that the natural resources of Wales are sustainably maintained, 
enhanced and used, now and in the future. 


Planning obligation 


A commitment made by a developer under Section 106 of the Town and Country 
Planning Act to undertake certain actions (on- or off-site) necessary to make a 
development acceptable in planning terms. 


Planning Policy Wales (PPW) 


Current land use planning policy is contained in Planning Policy Wales 40-11 (2048 
2021) which provides the strategic policy framework for the effective preparation of 
local planning authorities’ development. 


Pembrokeshire Nature Partnership (PNP) 


A collective of organisations which includes public bodies, private sector companies, 
charities, community groups and individuals with an interest in the protection and 
enhancement of natural resources in Pembrokeshire. The partnership has agreed to 
be responsible for the delivery of the Pembrokeshire Nature Recovery Action Plan. 


Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) 


A site identified under the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 as an area of special 
interest for wildlife or geological features. 


Special Area of Conservation (SAC) 


A site designated under the European Habitats Directive (enacted in the UK through 
the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2017 (as amended), to protect 
internationally important natural habitats and species. 


Special Protection Area (SPA) 


Sites classified under the European Community Directive on Wild Birds (enacted in 
the UK through the Conservation of Habitats and Species Regulations 2017 (as 
amended), to protect internationally important bird species. 


Supplementary Planning Guidance (SPG) 


42 


These documents reinforce the policies of the Local Development Plan and provide 
clear in-depth guidance on planning and development issues. 


Technical Advice Note 5 (TAN 5) 


Technical Advice Note (TAN) 5 provides advice about how the land use planning 
system should contribute to protecting and enhancing biodiversity and geological 
conservation. 


Welsh Government (WG) 


The elected body in Wales that develops and implement policy via the Civil Service 
and a range of sponsored bodies. 


43 


Appendix 2: Local Planning & Biodiversity Contacts 








Pembrokeshire County Council 
Planning Department, 
Pembrokeshire County Council, 
County Hall, 

Freemans Way, 

Haverfordwest, 

SA61 1TP. 


Tel: 01437 764551 
Fax: 01437 776496 





Email: 

Conservation Team - ecology@pembrokeshire.gov.uk 
biodiversit embrokeshire.gov.uk 

Planning Support Team - lanningenguiries@pembrokeshire.gov.uk 


planning.support.team@pembrokeshire.gov.uk 
Development Plans Team - |Idp@Pembrokeshire.gov.uk 














Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority 
Llanion Park 

Pembroke Dock 

Pembrokeshire 

Wales 

UK 

SA72 6DY 


Phone: 01646 624800 
Fax: 01646 689076 


Email: 


Development Management team -DC@pembrokeshirecoast.org.uk 








44 


Appendix 3: Ecological Survey Seasons 


Key: Optimal Survey Time: | | 


Extending into: | | 








Badgers 





Bats 
(Hibernation Roosts) 





Bats 
(Summer Roosts) 


SEP OCT NOV 




















Bats 
(Foraging / Commuting) 





Birds 
(Breeding) 











Birds 
(Over-wintering) 








Dormice 








Great crested newts 
(Terrestrial) 





Great crested newts 
(Aquatic) 





Invertebrates 





Otters 





Reptiles 





Water voles 





White clawed crayfish 








Habitats and Vegetation 

















DEC 


















































45 


Appendix 4: Bats - European Protected Species: Trigger List 





The following trigger list has been produced by the Bat Conservation Trust (BCT) in 
conjunction with the Association of Local Government Ecologist (ALGE) and lists 
common development situations where bats are likely to be found. 





However, this list is not exhaustive and bats may be found in seemingly unlikely 
habitats. This list does focus survey efforts at those sites most likely to have bats 
though and so the decision to then undertake a bat survey can be based on 
reasonable likelihood. 


If your development proposal is listed below it is likely to need a bat survey. Contact 
a licensed bat surveyor from the list of consultants or speak to the Planning Ecologist 
for further information. 








Trigger list of where bats are /ikely to be present and where developers can be 
expected to submit a bat survey. 





(i) Proposed development which includes the modification, conversion, demolition or 
removal of buildings and structures (especially roof voids) involving the following: 
e All agricultural buildings (e.g. farmhouses and barns) particularly of traditional 
brick or stone construction and/or with exposed beams greater than 20cm thick; 
e All buildings with weather boarding and/or hanging tiles that are within 200m of 
woodland and/or water; 
e Pre-1960 detached buildings and structures within 200m of woodland and/or 
water; 
e Pre-1914 buildings within 400m of woodland and/or water; 
e Pre-1914 buildings with gable ends or slate roofs, regardless of location; 
e All tunnels, mines, kilns, ice-houses, adits, military fortifications, air raid shelters, 
cellars and similar underground ducts and structures; 
e All bridge structures, aqueducts and viaducts (especially over water and wet 
ground); and 
e All developments affecting buildings, structures, trees or other features where 
bats are known to be present. 





(ii) Proposals involving lighting of churches and listed buildings or floodlighting of green 
spaces within 50m of woodland, water, field hedgerows or lines of trees with obvious 
connectivity to woodland or water. 





(iii) Proposals affecting quarries with cliff faces with crevices, caves or swallets. 





(iv) Proposals affecting or within 400m of rivers, streams, canals, lakes, or within 200m of 
ponds and other aquatic habitats. 





(v) Proposals affecting woodland or field hedgerows and/or lines of trees with obvious 
connectivity to woodland or water bodies. 





(vi) Proposed tree work (felling or lopping) and/or development affecting: 
e Old and veteran trees that are older than 100 years; 
e Trees with obvious hole, cracks or cavities; and 
e Trees with a girth greater than 1m at chest height. 





(vii) Proposed development affecting any feature or locations where bats are confirmed 
as being present, revealed by either a data trawl (for instance of the local biological 











46 








records centre) or as notified to the developer by any competent authority (e.g. planning 
authority, Statutory Nature Conservation Organisation or other environmental or 
conservation organisation). 





Bat Conservation Trust (2007). Bat Surveys — Good Practice Guidelines. 


47 





Appendix 5: Advice Note relating to Green Roof Species Selection in 
Pembrokeshire 





48 


Appendix 6: List of native pond plants in Pembrokeshire 





(Extract from WTSWW website) 


Bog Plants 





Scientific Name 


Common Name 


Information 





Polygonum amphibium 


Amphibious Bistort 


Good for boggy areas 





Geum rivale 


Water Avens 


A beautiful plant for boggy areas 





Caltha palustris 


Bog Arum 


Grows well in boggy areas and in the 
margins 





Menyanthes trifoliata 


Bog Bean/Water Clover 


Found in shallow water and boggy areas 





Eriophorum angustifolium 


Common cottongrass 


A wonderful bog plant 





Cardamine pratensis 


Cuckoo Flower/Lady’s 
Smock 


A lovely pink to white flower (good for 
Orange Tip and Green-veined 
butterflies, grows well in boggy areas) 





Lythrum salicaria 


Purple Loosestrife 


A dramatic purple/red flower which does 
well in boggy areas and in the margins 





Caltha palustris 


Marsh Marigold 


Cheerful early flower that grows well in 
damp places 








Filipendula ulmaria Meadowsweet Foamy white flowers with a distinctive 
sweet smell 
Lychnis flos-cuculi Ragged Robin One of our prettiest bog plants 





Pond Plants 





Scientific Name 


Common Name 


Information 





Sagittaria sagittifolia 


Arrowhead 


Striking marginal 





Veronica bettabunga 


Brooklime 


Found in standing water, lovely blue 
flowers 








Iris pseudacorus Yellow Flag Iris A stunning native iris which does well in 
standing water and boggy areas 
Myosotis palustris Water Forget-me-not Pretty blue flowers found in slightly 


deeper water 





Hydrocharis morsus-ranae 


Frogbit 


A floating aquatic plant 





Ceratophyllum demersum 


Hornwort 


Great for pond life and a brilliant 
oxygenator 





Potamageton natans 


Broadleaved Pondweed 


An important oxygenator, it also 
provides a superb hiding place for your 
wildlife 





Potammageton crispus 


Curly Pondweed 


A good oxygenator 





Butomus umbellatus 


Flowering rush 


Found in shallow to relatively deep 
water 





Callitriche stagnalis 


Common Water Starwort 


A good oxygenator found in still and 
moving water 





Ranunculus aquatalis 


Common Water Crowfoot 


A good oxygenator found in the margins 























Nymphaea alba candida Dwarf White Water Lily Found in still water and good for small 
ponds 

Nymphoides peltata Fringed Water Lily Pretty yellow flower, roots to the bottom 
— can be quite vigorous 

Nymphaea alba White Water Lily A vigorous but attractive pond plant 

Stratiotes aloides Water Soldier An oxygenator found in still and running 
water 

Hottonia palustris Water Violet Found on the edges of lakes and ponds 











49 


Appendix 7: List of Invasive Non-Native Species in Pembrokeshire 





(Reviewed August 2017) Species Considered High Priority for Action: 


There follows a list of species considered high priority for action, grouped by habitat for ease 
of reference. Below that, the species are listed alphabetically by taxonomic name with 
information on threats, distribution and recommendations for action. Alert species are shown 


in red text. 


Terrestrial 





Citrus Longhorn Beetle 


Anoplophora chinensis 





Butterfly Bush 


Buddleja davidii 





Hottentot Fig 


Carpobrotus edulis 





New Zealand Pigmyweed 


Crassula helmsii 





Japanese Knotweed 


Fallopia japonica 





Harlequin Ladybird 


Harmonia axyridis 





Sea Buckthorn 


Hippophae rhamnoides 





Himalayan Balsam 


Impatiens glandulifera 





Himalayan Honeysuckle 


Leycesteria formosa 





American Skunk-Cabbage 


Lysichiton americanus 





Winter Heliotrope 


Petasites fragrans 





Evergreen Oak 


Quercus ilex 





Rhododendron 


Rhododendron ponticum 





Common Cord-grass 


Spartina anglica 








Asian Hornet 








Vespa velutina 




















Freshwater 
Water Fern Azolla filiculoides 
Carolina Watershield Cabomba caroliniana 
Asian Clam Corbicula fluminea 
New Zealand Pigmyweed Crassula helmsii 
Killer Shrimp Dikerogammarus villosus 





Quagga Mussel 


Dreissena bugensis 





Zebra Mussel 


Dreissena polymorpha 





Chinese Mitten Crab 


Eriocheir sinensis 





Carrion Shrimp 


Hemimysis anomala 





Floating Pennywort 


Hydrocotyle ranunculoides 























Water Primrose Ludwigia grandiflora 

Parrot's Feather Myriophyllum aquaticum 

Fringed Waterlily Nymphoides peltata 

Topmouth Gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva 
Marine 

Asian Clam Corbicula fluminea 

Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas 





Slipper Limpet 


Crepidula fornicata 





Carpet Sea-Squirt (Colonial Sea-Squirt) 


Didemnum vexillum 





Killer Shrimp 


Dikerogammarus villosus 





Quagga Mussel 


Dreissena bugensis 





Zebra Mussel 


Dreissena polymorpha 





Chinese Mitten Crab 


Eriocheir sinensis 





Asian Shore Crab 


Hemigrapsus sanguineus 





Brush Clawed Crab 


Hemigrapsus takanoi 





American Lobster 


Homarus americanus 





Rapa Whelk 


Rapana venosa 








Wakame / Japanese Kelp 





Undaria pinnatifida 








50 


Appendix 8: List of native trees and shrubs 





51 


Appendix 9 Hedgebank 








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52 


Appendix 10 Useful Websites and Documents 





Useful websites: 

Amphibian and Reptile Conservation Trust 
Association of Local Environmental Records Centre 
Bat Conservation Trust 

Buglife — The Invertebrate Conservation Trust 
https://www.buglife.org.uk/ 

Bumblebee Conservation Trust 

Butterfly Conservation Wales 

Carmarthenshire County Council 


Ceredigion County Council 
Chartered Institute of Ecology and Environment Management 


https://cieem.net/about-cieem/ 

Joint Nature Conservation Committee (JNCC) 
Natural Resources Wales: 

Pembrokeshire Nature Partnership: 
Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority 
Pembrokeshire Local Biodiversity Action Plan 
Plantlife Cymru 

Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) 
The Association of Local Government Ecologists 
The Wildlife Trust of South and West Wales 
https://www.welshwildlife.org/ 

Wales Biodiversity Partnership: 

West Wales Biodiversity Information Centre 
https://www.wwbic.org.uk/ 

Useful Documents 


British Standards for Biodiversity Code of Practice for planning and development (BS 
420202:2013), British Standards Institute. 


Local Development Plan (2013 2021) Pembrokeshire County Council 

Pembrokeshire Coast National Park. Local Development Plan 

Planning Policy Wales, Edition 49-11 (20482021), Welsh Government 

Technical Advice Note 5, Nature Conservation and Planning (2009), Welsh Government 
https://gov.wales/technical-advice-note-tan-5-nature-conservation-and-planning 

Bat Surveys for Professional Ecologists: Good Practice Guidelines, Edition 3 (2016), The Bat 
Conservation Trust. 


The Town and Country (General Permitted Development) Order 1995 (as amended). 
Checked May 2020 



































Other useful information 


Ecological Survey Report Guidance and a list identifying local Licensed Bat Surveyors and 
Ecologists is available from the Pembrokeshire County Council Specialist Planning Ecologist 





on request. Contact details can be found in Appendix 2: Local Planning & Biodiversity —__ Formatted: Font: (Default) Arial 





ContactsAppendix 2:Local Planning & Biodiversity Contacts. Please note that inclusion 
53 


on this list does not constitute a recommendation by Pembrokeshire County Council and 
Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority. 

An interactive map of wind turbine applications within the County enables the potential 
cumulative effects of turbines in a given area to be assessed as well as their likely impact on 
wildlife can be found at www.pembrokeshirecoast.org.uk 





54