Full text of "Cabinet"
Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority
Pembrokeshire County Council
Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Local Development Plan 2
Pembrokeshire County Council Local Development Plan 1
HISTORIC ENVIRONMENT (ARCHAEOLOGY)
Supplementary Planning Guidance
This item is also available in Welsh/ Mae'r eitem hon ar gael yn Gymraeg hefyd
Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Authority
Consultation September 2020
Adoption approval date
Pembrokeshire County Council
Consultation October 2020
Adoption approval date
sedit —————————Á—————————————— 1
INTRODUCTION e—————————M 2
SECTION A - WHERE CAN I GET INFORMATION AND EARLY ADVICE? ...........................eeeeeeeeee eene eene e nennen nenne nn nnuue 4
How are archaeological sites protected? ............... esses essen nh nnns ness thia sa nisse serta rada s asses easi ada asas nnn 4
SECTION B WHAT HAPPENS BEFORE A PLANNING DECISION? .............................eeeeeeeeee eese e eene nenne ense sss sn nass s sss suu 6
Preservation of Archaeological Remains in situ
Preservation of Archaeological Remains by Record
SECTION C WHAT HAPPENS FOLLOWING A PLANNING DECISION? ..........................e eee eere eene nennen nnne nnne nnnnn 10
APPENDIX 1 RELEVANT LEGISLATION AND POLICY REQUIREMENTS ....................... ee ee eee eene ee eene nennen nennen nnno 12
Scheduled Monuments and CadWw ............... sees siis seen siii tnn enini seen soia ia esses tasses tns ss sa esses an assets 12
Human:Remains 5er enit eee ee RH deant e e Ae oer i ceu dés eed bes 13
Hedgerow:Regülatiahs: 5 eiii ee terr nd aede eee A200 ced bon EY ENT Lo oh Fed EY asides o SE YR sy ed ae ea rea Na RET Q IE CEPR ge ET 13
Historic Parks and Gardens Register ............... sss esee seen nnne nh nhan nsns ssa taa d asas essa sa ada asas sse sa sa daas iaasa 14
Historic Landscapes Registers............... sessi esses eese nennen ener AE sse Aa aa sess ea Aaaa AE a sa aa dass assa easi aa daas EAEn 14
Landscapes of Outstanding Historic Interest ..........ccceessssscececeseessassceseceseesscseceseceseeseasecesecsesesasesesecseeesesseasseeees 14
Landscapes of Special Historic Interest................. eiiis sessi n nnns en na ra asas sess ALEEN assess ea sa ra daas assa 14
Assessment of the Significance of the Impact of Development on Historic Landscapes Areas - ASIDOHL ..... 15
Historic Landscapes of Regional or Local Importance ............... isses esee eene en nhrhan asses enti ra dans nnn 15
Other Environmental Considerations ................ eese eee enn seinen nnns tenth siis sa esses thai itera nissan 16
APPENDIX 2 CONSIDERATIONS FOR UNDERTAKING ARCHAEOLOGICAL WORK .......................... eene ee eene nnns 17
Responsibility for Costs
Quality Control sssrin AF EE RARE Goo
How to find an Archaeological Contractor
APPENDIX 3 ARCHAEOLOGICAL WORK ......................eeeeeeeeeeeesess sess ese sh sss husu sss assa sa sass sss ss asas sss sssa assa assa sss ss assa asas aun 19
Historic Environment Appraisal... are e aha een a RENE Rx e steeds e PERR URN EMT IT CHR R RR na EET e Pe RRRAEE VE SY enda
Desk:büsed'assessment «5:0 estt cc etre n e xa Hg LR Ego e eque E T ERN URL Re
Eaürthwork SUkVeyui iis iitecsii eie A CERE ER AE FRE AER EE RENE TS EXER VER EAN VL UTER A a A A TR RATES UTER RYAN RA
Remote sensing / Geophysical Survey ....
Field: EvaluatiOnss:;.i ne c ete e E ERR ENTERO E a RR RIDERE nie eda
BUIGING ateolgelis sam ————— — teiees
Watching Brief... s i du e eds on e ee ad a reda Te ROBA a ERE ER EB E Ve CUTE e ed aaa coe SEA a abe 21
IU) EX COV ORCI ON PE ie aariin AAE A A AAAA A E TAE E Aa A EAE AA a a a eia aa ei aiaa ii aaia 22
APPENDIX 4 STANDARD PLANNING CONDITIONS AND ADVICE ON IMPLEMENTATION ........................ eee eee 23
oda vb e-Xeo] Nie —————————————————Ü 24
hiddsid [gl —————————————————— 26
Local Development Plans... rtis ete d ea detenta eee ex un oes aee en epa bud ad vna dee y eua nan eda e da Voip ean deua
PACES irit terr rp For E
National Policy and Guidance
CIfA' Regulations. etc... «xn od wo ente Cose a eai M reed ox Gee uo 39 eheu eee hae o AEEA oda d o edes PORE
1. In (September 2020) the Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Local
Development Plan 2 (end date 2031) was adopted by Pembrokeshire
Coast National Park Authority.
2. In (February 2013) the Pembrokeshire County Council's Local
Development Plan 1 (end date 2021) was adopted by Pembrokeshire
4. While only the policies in the adopted development plans have special
status in deciding planning applications, (i.e. for the purpose of any
determination under the Planning Acts, the determination must be made in
accordance with the relevant Plan unless material considerations indicate
otherwise), Supplementary Planning Guidance can be taken into account
as a material planning consideration provided it is derived from and is
consistent with the adopted development plan and has itself been the
subject of consultation, which will carry more weight.
decisions on matters that come before it, Welsh Government and
relevant Development Plan and
b. Weigh up-all the other planning considerations to see whether they
outweigh the conclusion of the relevant Develooment Plan.
6. This Supplementary Planning Guidance provides detailed information
regarding how planning applications with the potential to impact upon
archaeology within Pembrokeshire will be dealt with. It also provides
information on the way in which Development Plan policies will be applied.
. This Guidance is intended to assist all applicants seeking planning
permission whether their proposed development is large or small in scale.
As developers will be expected to meet the costs of archaeological work
(see Appendix 2 Considerations for Undertaking Archaeological
WorkApoendbcz-coensdemtencdorndenaldac-^rehaeologiea Wore), this
document will assist in guiding non-specialists through the planning
procedures and any archaeological work that may be involved. Information
is provided on where to seek information and specialist advice and how to
secure the services of professional archaeological contractors.
. This Guidance document has been prepared in consultation with the Dyfed
Archaeological Trust (Development Management section): the authorities’
professional advisors on matters relating to the historic environment.
. This Supplementary Planning Guidance is divided into three parts:
a. Section A provides information on getting early advice
b. Section B advises on what happens before a planning decision is
c. Section C advises on what happens following a decision being
10. The appendices provide more detailed advice on various technical issues
involving archaeology in the planning process. They also include a list of
Section A - Where can I get information and early
How are archaeological sites protected?
11.In Pembrokeshire over 530 sites are currently given statutory protection as
scheduled monuments under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological
Areas Act 1979, and more recently the Historic Environment (Wales) Act
2016. It is an offence to carry out any work to them without written consent
from the Welsh Government. If scheduled sites or their settings are
affected by planning applications, Cadw must be contacted'.
12.20,867 non scheduled archaeological sites and their settings are currently
recorded in the regional Historic Environment Record maintained by Dyfed
Archaeological Trust (DAT). These are protected by the planning process
with a presumption in favour of preserving, in situ, nationally important
archaeological sites. Welsh Government guidance is set out in Planning
Policy Wales (Chapter 6, Edition 48 11) and Technical Advice Note 24: The
Historic Environment (May 2017).
13. This places an onus on developers to consider the impact of their
proposals on archaeology. The key to the protection of archaeological sites
lies with the Local Planning Authorities working closely with applicants and
the regional Welsh Archaeological Trust; in the case of Pembrokeshire
Coast National Park Authority and Pembrokeshire County Council this is
Dyfed Archaeological Trust.
14.Both Local Development Plans in Pembrokeshire provide for heritage
protection. For Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, Strategy Policy 8
‘Special Qualities’ of Local Development Plan 2 requires the safeguarding
and enhancement of the special qualities of the Pembrokeshire Coast
National Park. Among these recognised qualities is the historic
environment. Policy requires that 'the historic environment is protected and
! Cadw is the historic environment service of the Welsh Government. Cadw works to protect the
historic buildings and structures, the landscapes and heritage sites of Wales, so that the public can
visit them, enjoy them and understand their significance.
where possible enhanced'. Further information on the historic environment
is given in the 'Historic Environment' section.
15.For Pembrokeshire County Council, Local Development Plan 1 recognises
the importance of the historic environment in Policy GN.38 Protection and
Enhancement of the Historic Environment: 'Development that affects sites
and landscapes of architectural and/or historical merit or archaeological
importance, or their setting, will only be permitted where it can be
demonstrated that it would protect or enhance their character and integrity.
16.A summary of relevant national legislation policy and guidance and their
main implications can be found in Appendix 1 Relevant Legislation and
17. Detailed data on the archaeology within Pembrokeshire is held within the
regional Historic Environment Record and is available on request from
Dyfed Archaeological Trust. Early consultation is advisable as the needs of
development and archaeological preservation are best reconciled at an
18.In their own interests applicants are encouraged to assess the impact of
their proposals on archaeological sites by consulting with Dyfed
Archaeological Trust Development Management (DAT-DM) during the pre-
planning stages. Guided by information and advice, sympathetic designs
can be prepared, which are intended to protect archaeological interests
without incurring potentially high costs in carrying out archaeological work.
19. Applicants should take into account archaeological considerations and
should discuss preliminary plans with the relevant planning authority at an
early stage prior to submitting a planning application.
20. Once detailed designs have been prepared and finance arranged, flexibility
and archaeological mitigation become more difficult to consider.
Developers who do not consider historic environment issues at an early
stage can be faced with unexpected discoveries, delay and expense during
the course of development. Managing this risk through obtaining early
advice is considered vital to all parties concerned in the planning process.
ARCHAEOLOGY AND YOUR PLANNING APPLICATION
Welsh Archaeological Trust
CONSIDERATION OF APPLICATION
* additional information — for example
geophysical survey ‘The Welsh Archacological Trusts
monitor archacological work
throughout on behalf of the Local
Planning Authority to ensure
compliance with planning and
maintenance of best practice
This simplified flow-chart is designed
to show key stages in the planning
process and should be used with the
Section B What happens before a planning
21.Acting as the professional archaeological advisors to the planning
authorities in Pembrokeshire, Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development
Management is notified of all planning applications lodged in
Pembrokeshire and makes appropriate recommendations accordingly.
22. Planning authorities expect proposals to take account of archaeology and
may require additional information to be provided in support of a planning
application. Without this further information they may recommend deferral
or refusal of a planning application.
23. This additional information can be provided in the form of desk-based
assessment and/or archaeological field evaluation which may also involve
geophysical survey. This work will determine the nature of the archaeology
and its significance, and could include proposals designed to protect
archaeological interests while enabling development. In all cases,
archaeological projects must be carried out in accordance with an agreed
specification / Written Scheme of Investigation (WSI) prior to the
undertaking of any work. Assessment methodologies are fully described in
Appendix 3 Archaeological WorkApperdix 3 Archaeological Work.
24.Early consultations, as described above, will give prospective applicants
advance information about the archaeological sensitivity of their site. The
submission of archaeological information is not a validation requirement
from the standard application form. Therefore determination regarding
whether archaeological information is adequate would need to be assessed
post-registration as part of the consideration of the application (unless
made as a local validation requirement for major applications). Therefore
pre-application engagement is even more important.
25.Where insufficient information has been provided, the planning authority
can decide to refuse to grant planning permission.
26. Developments which seriously affect nationally important archaeological
remains are unlikely to obtain planning permission. For archaeological
features of lesser importance, permission may be given providing
strategies are put in place to investigate and record in advance of
27.At this stage two main options are open to the planning authority; these are
‘preservation in situ’and ‘preservation by record’.
28.Where remains are not known but suspected, the relevant planning
authority may require that archaeological mitigation, such as a watching
brief, be carried out as part of development. Occasionally unexpected
remains can be found during development. To meet these unforeseen
circumstances developers should make contingency arrangements and
consider insuring themselves.
Preservation of Archaeological Remains /n situ
29.Where nationally important archaeological remains, whether scheduled or
not, and their settings are affected by proposed development there will be a
presumption in favour of their physical preservation in situ, i.e. a
presumption against proposals which would involve significant alteration or
cause damage, or which would have a significant impact on the setting of
visible remains. In these instances it may be appropriate for the planning
authority to refuse planning applications that would have a significant
adverse impact on the historic environment.
30. The policy of the planning authority is to ensure the protection of
archaeological remains through engineering solutions and designs. For
example, raising ground levels or constructing foundations that avoid
disturbing archaeological remains altogether will be actively encouraged. In
other circumstances, sensitive archaeological remains can be physically
preserved through the careful positioning of landscaped or public open
areas. Such techniques can seal archaeological remains beneath buildings
or through careful landscape design within development areas. Although
these remains may remain inaccessible for the time being, they are
effectively preserved for the future, when archaeological techniques of
excavation and scientific analysis will undoubtedly be improved. In these
instances, the planning authority may seek assurances that buried
archaeological material will remain secure after development through on-
going monitoring procedures, or, in certain circumstances, the removal of
permitted development rights.
Preservation of Archaeological Remains by Record
31.Where remains of less than national importance are known to exist, the
planning authority may decide that when weighed against all other material
considerations, including the need for development, the significance of the
archaeological remains is not sufficient to justify their physical preservation
32.In such cases the planning authority, through the attachment of appropriate
planning conditions (see Appendix 4 Standard Planning Conditions and
advice on implementationAppendbc4-Standard-Planning-Conditions-and
advice-onimplementation) may require the developer to make satisfactory
arrangements for the excavation, recording, archiving and publication of the
archaeological resource. This detailed excavation and recording work,
which may often be time-consuming and expensive, is generally a second-
best option and must be carried out prior to the commencement of
33. Other planning conditions may require the applicant to carry out building
recording in the form of a photographic record prior to and during the
course of development or arrange for an archaeological watching brief to
be carried out by a professional archaeologist during development.
34. On behalf of the planning authority, Dyfed Archaeological Trust -
Development Management will consider the applicant's submitted
archaeological scheme and, if satisfactory, the relevant Local Planning
Authority will approve the document in writing, allowing the archaeological
work to commence. Only when the work is satisfactorily completed will the
planning authority be able to discharge the relevant condition.
Section C What happens following a planning
35. On behalf of the planning authority, Dyfed Archaeological Trust -
Development Management will normally monitor archaeological work to
ensure compliance with planning requirements and the maintenance of
high archaeological standards in the county. All archaeological work will be
subject to monitoring from inception and project design, through fieldwork
and the post-excavation processes, to the deposition of the resulting
archive in an agreed repository and final publication.
36. The planning authority will be advised by Dyfed Archaeological Trust -
Development Management on whether conditions can be discharged either
in full or partially as the successive stages of the agreed archaeological
programme of work are satisfactorily completed.
37.ln general the purposes of monitoring by the regional development
management archaeologist on behalf of the relevant Local Planning
Authority may be summarised as follows:
To ensure the maintenance of high archaeological standards and
best practice based on the Standards and Guidance issued by the
Chartered Institute for Archaeologists.
To ensure compliance with planning regulations and requirements.
To ensure compliance with any Specifications / Written Schemes of
Investigation submitted by the applicant for the approval of the Local
To ensure the relevance of the further information gained by the
work to the ongoing planning process.
To ensure that any suggestions made by the archaeological
contractor are reasonable in planning terms.
To ensure that any further recommendations resulting from the work,
are founded on detailed knowledge and are reasonable in planning
To help formulate, where required, an archaeological mitigation
strategy, which could protect the archaeological resource whilst
enabling the permitted development.
To ensure compliance with planning conditions and their satisfactory
38. Where a pre-determination archaeological field evaluation is required,
Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management will visit the site to
ensure that the work being carried out is in accordance with the agreed
specification and relevant to the on-going planning process. Dyfed
Archaeological Trust - Development Management will therefore require
notice of the start date, a projected timetable and a copy of the Health and
Safety Risk Assessment to be submitted to them no less than 5 working
days prior to the commencement of the work.
Appendix 1 Relevant Legislation and Policy
Scheduled Monuments and Cadw
39. Over 530 monuments and archaeological sites in Pembrokeshire are given
statutory protection as Scheduled Monuments under the terms of the
Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act, 1979. These
monuments have met certain criteria, which are used for assessing their
national importance. Any works that would affect these monuments will
require scheduled monument consent from Welsh Government and in such
cases the setting of a monument, as well as its physical preservation, are
material considerations. Any work carried out to a Scheduled
Monument without consent is a criminal offence and is liable
to prosecution under the 1979 Act. Scheduled monument
consent is separate from planning permission. The granting of
planning permission does not confer scheduled monument consent nor
vice versa. For a site, which is both scheduled and listed, scheduled
monument legislation takes precedence over listed building requirements.
Planning authorities would encourage the submission of any necessary
scheduled monument consent from Cadw alongside a planning application.
40. The planning authority is required to consult with Cadw (acting on behalf of
Welsh Government) on any application likely to affect a scheduled
monument or its setting. A planning application which would involve
significant alteration or cause damage, or would have a significant adverse
impact causing harm within the setting of the remains adversely-affects-a
scheduled menumentwill normally be refused.
41.Further information on these protected sites can be obtained from Cadw
(please see contact details in Appendix 5 Contacts).
42. For certain types of development (listed in Schedules 1 and 2 to The Town
and Country Planning (Environmental Impact Assessment) (Wales)
Regulations 2016), formal environmental impact assessment (EIA) may be
necessary. Where EIA is required the developer must provide an
environmental assessment setting out the information specified in Schedule
3 to the Regulations regarding the site, and the likely significant effects of
the proposed development on the environment. This should include
information relating to any major effects on material assets and the cultural
heritage, such as archaeological features and other human artefacts. This
should also include the measures envisaged to avoid, reduce or remedy
such adverse effects.
43. Supporting the Historic Environment (Wales) Act (2016) both Planning
Policy Wales, Chapter 6: The Historic Environment and Technical
Advice Note 24: The Historic Environment, provide the main guidance
on conserving the historic environment in Wales.
44. Technical Advice Note 24: The Historic Environment has been
in place since May 2017 and supersedes Welsh Office Circular 60/96
Planning and the Historic Environment: Archaeology and 61/96 Planning
and the Historic Environment: Historic Buildings and Conservation Areas.
This is a key policy document providing detailed guidance on the handling
of archaeology in the legal land-use planning system in Wales.
Planning Policy Wales and Technical Advice Note 24 - Registered
Historic Landscapes and Parks and Gardens
45. Both these documents also provide advice with regard to the appropriate
consideration of both Registered Historic Landscapes and Registered
Parks and Gardens.
46. Where human remains are considered likely to be found, the appropriate
licence must be obtained from the Ministry of Justice in advance. When
unexpected human remains are encountered as the result of
archaeological work developers must adhere to legislation and best-
practice procedures for handling this sensitive material. When discovered,
human remains must always be left in situ, covered and protected
sensitively. No further investigation should be permitted and the local
Coroner and Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management must
be informed immediately. Advice should be sought from the ministry of
Justice and if appropriate, a licence obtained.
47.Developments that require the removal of hedgerow may come under the
terms of the Hedgerow Regulations 1997. These Regulations require
applications to be made to the Authority for permission to remove
hedgerow. Certain criteria apply in the decision making process which
involve consideration of archaeological and historical interests. For
instance hedgerows may be important archaeological features in their own
right or form part of an ancient monument. Accordingly, the planning
authority consults with Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development
Management for information from the Historic Environment Record.
Historic Parks and Gardens Register
48. Pembrokeshire contains important historic gardens and parklands, many of
which are contained within the Register of Landscapes, Parks and Gardens
of Special Historic Interest in Wales, published by Cadw in 2002. The
purpose of the statutory Register is to provide information and procedures
on these sites and their settings, in order to aid their protection and
conservation. For planning applications that may affect sites of Grades |
and II* and their essential settings, the relevant Local Planning Authority
will seek the advice of Cadw when assessing the suitability of proposals.
For Grade ll sites and other non-registered sites of local interest, the views
of Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management, the Gardens
Trust and the Welsh Historic Gardens Trust will be fully considered. Further
guidance can be obtained from Cadw's Managing Change to Registered
Historic Parks and Gardens In Wales (2017).
Historic Landscapes Registers
49. Parts 2.1 and 2.2 of the non-statutory Register of Landscapes of Historic
Interest in Wales contain information on historic landscapes of outstanding
or special historic interest. These landscapes have been recognised as
areas of "the nation's most valuable cultural assets, and as special, often
fragile and irreplaceable parts of our heritage".
Landscapes of Outstanding Historic Interest
50. These are large areas which retain physical evidence of the past, from the
agricultural and ritual landscapes of prehistory to 19th century industrial
landscapes. Eight of these Registered Landscapes lie within
Landscapes of Special Historic Interest
51.As well as the areas above, Registered Landscapes in Wales include some
that are designated as being of Special Historic Interest. They are generally
smaller in area and the difference "is one of degree, and not quality of
historic interests." Eight of these areas lie within Pembrokeshire. Further
information can be found on the Dyfed Archaeological Trust website.
Assessment of the Significance of the Impact of Development on
Historic Landscapes Areas - ASIDOHL
52. Planning Policy Wales requires that planning authorities need to take the
Register into account, for development which is considered to be "of a
sufficient scale to have more than local impact on the historic landscape".
In these circumstances the planning authority will expect applicants to have
assessed the impact of their developments on registered historic
landscape, which the planning authority will weigh against other material
considerations. To assist applicants for planning permission please see the
Guide to Good Practice on Using the Register of Landscapes of
Historic Interest in Wales in the Planning and Development Process
(Revised 2007). This document includes a Technical Annex — Assessment
of the Significance of the Impact of Development on Historic Landscapes
Areas, otherwise known as the ASIDOHL methodology.
53. ASIDOHL provides guidance on assessment process and on the technical
steps involved in assessing the impact of development on the historic
landscapes. In the first instance it is recommended that applicants should
seek the advice of the Trust on whether their development is of such a
scale to warrant an ASIDOHL assessment and on what steps they should
take in preparing their documentation for the purposes of the planning
Historic Landscapes of Regional or Local Importance
54. Not all historic landscapes in Wales are considered to be of national
importance or are currently contained within the Register of Landscapes of
Historic Interest in Wales. Many other, discrete landscapes of regional or
local importance exist and are significant for the historical, archaeological,
cultural or intrinsic value they bring to their communities. Where such
historic landscapes are recognised and an Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) is necessary, the planning authority requires an
assessment of the impact of the proposed development on the historic
landscape. This requirement is addressed in guidance on national EIA
Regulations 1999 SI 1999 No 293 (EIA Regulations) in Wales, and is given
in Welsh Office Circular 11/99 Environmental Impact Assessment.
Paragraph 46 Criterion 2 (c) (viii) refers to the necessity for Environmental
Impact Assessment in respect of “landscapes of historical, cultural or
archaeological significance”. In the first instance applicants are
recommended to consult with Dyfed Archaeological Trust — Development
Management on whether their development is likely to impact on a non-
registered historic landscape and what course of action may be required to
assess and mitigate this impact.
Other Environmental Considerations
55. Archaeological site work, which has been commissioned by an applicant
prior to the determination of an application or as part of a consented
development, may impact on other environmental interests, such as
habitat, hedgerow, ground water, fauna and flora, etc. It is the responsibility
of both those commissioning intrusive archaeological work and those
carrying out the work that they consider whether there may be other
environmental impacts resulting from their activities. Further advice on
these issues can be sought from the relevant planning authority or Dyfed
Archaeological Trust - Heritage Management.
Appendix 2 Considerations for Undertaking
Responsibility for Costs
56. It is important to understand that archaeological work, particularly intensive
excavation, can be time-consuming and expensive. Meeting these costs is
solely the responsibility of the applicant / developer. As part of a planning
requirement, this work can involve not just fieldwork but also post-
excavation analysis, archiving and publication. There may also be costs
relating to the conservation of artefacts, archiving and the storage of
excavated archaeological finds.
57.Because of these potential costs to developers, the planning authorities
recommend that applicants for planning permission should seek early
archaeological advice by discussing their proposals with the relevant
planning authority and Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development
Management. With good information on historic environment issues and
understanding constraints at an early stage in the formation of development
proposals, applicants may be able to lessen the likely financial impact of
their development through mitigating options, which avoid impact on
sensitive archaeological material.
58. It is the responsibility of applicants / developers, or their agents, to
commission archaeological contractors to carry out work on their behalf
and they will need to satisfy themselves of the ability of their chosen
archaeological contractor to undertake this work.
59. The archaeological work must be undertaken by the staff of a competent
and professional body, which is formally acknowledged by Dyfed
Archaeological Trust - Development Management, advisors to the two
planning authorities. The planning authorities and Dyfed Archaeological
Trust - Development Management recommend to those requiring
archaeological work that they consider the benefits of commissioning
organisations that are Registered Archaeological Organisations (RAOs)
with the Chartered Institute for Archaeologists (CIfA). This approach will
provide confidence that the archaeologists undertaking the commission
subscribe to codes of professional conduct and practice that are subject to
strict professional sanctions should they transgress. Further information on
the Institute's RAO scheme can be found on their website (please see List
of Useful Contacts).
60.In any event it is recommended that the archaeological contractor has
appropriate experience and is managed by a Member of the Chartered
Institute for Archaeologists (MCIfA), who is appropriately validated. The
archaeological contractor must adhere to the Chartered Institute for
Archaeologists' Code of Conduct and the Code of Approved Practice for
the Regulation of Contractual Arrangements in Field Archaeology and to
the relevant Standards and Guidance.
61.It is also recommended that, in the best interest of those commissioning
archaeological work, that they ensure that contractors have appropriate
professional indemnity or other insurances.
How to find an Archaeological Contractor
62.Information and advice regarding the commissioning of an archaeologist
can be found on the CIfA website, including CIfA's client guide which has
been designed to assist anyone with archaeological requirements to meet.
63.A list of archaeological contractors undertaking work within Wales is also
available via the British Archaeological Jobs Resource website.
Appendix 3 Archaeological Work
64. Listed below are the main types of archaeological work required as part of
the planning process.
Historic Envi EA isal
66. Where there is good reason to believe that an application site may have an
adverse impact on the historic environment has-significant-archaeological
potential and information is currently inadequate, the planning authority
may direct the applicant to provide a desk-based assessment prior to the
determination of an application. Depending on circumstances, this relatively
rapid archaeological study may form part of an Environmental Impact
Assessment or it may be submitted as a standalone document. The
definition of a desk-based assessment is a programme of assessment of
the known or potential archaeological resource within a specified area or
site on land, inter-tidal zone or underwater. It consists of a collation of
existing written, graphic, photographic and electronic information in order to
identify the likely character, extent, quality, and worth of the known or
potential archaeological resource in a local, regional, national or
international context as appropriate. The desk-based assessment should
lead to one or more of the following options:
a. The formulation of a strategy to ensure the recording, preservation
or management of the resource.
b. The formulation of a strategy for further investigation, whether or not
intrusive, where the character and value of the resource is not
sufficiently defined to permit a mitigation strategy or other response
to be devised.
c. The formulation of a proposal for further archaeological investigation
within a programme of research.
d. No further work required.
67.In areas of agricultural land that have not been subject to intensive
ploughing, archaeological remains may survive as earthworks. Surveying
these sites, which may often only have shallow surface features surviving,
will normally involve qualified archaeologists using electronic survey
equipment to record the earthworks. From the resulting information detailed
plans will be produced, which will be considered by the relevant planning
authority when determining applications.
Remote sensing / Geophysical Survey
68.Indications of buried human activity can be detected by a variety of non-
intrusive scientific methodologies and equipment. The main types of
geophysical survey currently being used are magnetometer survey. and
ground penetrating radar and resistivity survey. Site-specific geological
conditions can have a major bearing on the quality of the results from such
surveys and the type of survey that is appropriate in each circumstance can
often only be determined after initial testing of methodologies. This work
can often precede a field evaluation as the results of remote sensing can
assist in determining the rationale for the number and location of trial
trenches that might be required. It is unlikely that remote sensing on its own
will provide the required information on an archaeological resource.
Invariably, the results of these non-intrusive surveys will need to be tested
through the physical process of trial excavation.
69.A field evaluation is required where the relevant planning authority has
good reason to consider that a significant archaeological resource is
present, perhaps as a buried feature, on an application site. An evaluation
is normally a limited programme of intrusive fieldwork, which quickly
determines the presence or absence of archaeological features and
enables an assessment of their relative worth in a local, regional, national
or international context as appropriate. The programme of work will result in
the preparation of a report and ordered archive.
70. This type of physical or intrusive evaluation may, in certain circumstances,
be preceded by a programme of non-intrusive work such a field walking,
earthwork survey or geophysics.
71.The intrusive element of the work normally involves trial trenching by
means of archaeologically supervised mechanical excavation using
machinery with a toothless bucket. The number, location and rationale for
these trenches must be agreed with the relevant planning authority and
Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management prior to the
commencement of the work. The evaluation areas must be cleaned to an
appropriate standard to prove the presence or absence of archaeological
features and to determine their relative significance. In each area the
excavation of the minimum number of archaeological features, to elucidate
the character, distribution, extent, date and importance of the
eee remains is undertaken. In-each-area sufficient excavation
een An slab will excavate ius to the in ol the
archaeological horizon or the top of natural horizons — whichever is
reached first. If safety reasons preclude manual excavation to natural
subsoil, hand auguring may be used to try to assess the total depth of
stratified deposits within each area. The resulting report should be
presented to the relevant planning authority as further information to inform
the planning process.
72.Prior to the commencement of alterations to standing buildings of
architectural and/or historical interest, including listed buildings, the
relevant planning authority will require appropriate building recording to be
carried out prior to the commencement of development work. This
recording is usually required through the attachment of suitable planning
conditions. As there are many forms and levels of building recording work,
ranging from detailed and precise building survey through to digital
photography, advice should be sought from the Dyfed Archaeological
Trust-Development Management Section, who can recommend a form of
recording appropriate to circumstances and national standards.
73.An archaeological watching brief is normally carried out during the course
of approved development for the purposes of observing, excavating and
recording archaeological remains that come to light during operations such
as topsoil stripping, cutting foundation trenches or landscaping. The work
requires a professional archaeologist to be present on site to carry out
either an intensive or intermittent watching brief, which will have been
described in detailed specifications. Developers should consider the
implications of watching brief work which results in the discovery of
significant archaeological remains. Contingency measures should be put in
place to meet such unforeseen circumstances, which can have delay and
cost implications. Where such remains come to light unexpectedly, the
watching archaeologist will be required to contact Dyfed Archaeological
Trust - Development Management for further advice. Whilst this
consultation takes place the development work directly impacting on the
archaeological resource will normally be required to cease until
arrangements have been put in place for appropriate archaeological
recording. A report on the watching brief work, whether it has had positive
or negative results, will be required by the relevant planning authority.
74.Full archaeological excavation or ‘preservation by record’ is normally
required where no other form of mitigation has proved practicable. It entails
detailed and careful stratigraphic excavation and recording of
archaeological deposits by professional archaeologists within a specified
area. The work is carried out with defined research objectives and in a
controlled manner normally and beneficially ahead of the commencement
of the development programme. The excavation will examine, record and
interpret archaeological deposits, features and structures and, as
appropriate, retrieve artefacts, ecofacts and other remains. The records
made and objects gathered during fieldwork are studied and the results of
that study are published in detail appropriate to the project design, which
has been agreed with the relevant planning authority.
Appendix 4 Standard Planning Conditions and
advice on implementation
75.When required, the relevant planning authority will protect archaeological
interests through the attachment of appropriate planning conditions to
permitted applications. In line with national policy these conditions should
meet the criteria of being necessary, relevant to planning and to the
permitted development, enforceable, precise and reasonable.
76.Only when it is demonstrated that these conditions have been properly and
fully met will the relevant planning authority consider discharging planning
conditions. In cases where it is clear that applicants have not implemented
the requirements of planning conditions, the planning authority will consider
the need for enforcement action.
77.Pembrokeshire contains many buildings of national, regional and local
significance and Local Development Plans contain policies for their
protection. Many of these buildings are listed under the Planning (Listed
Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 and therefore come under
statutory protection. However, very many more are unlisted yet have
regional or local importance having historical, architectural, traditional or
intrinsic values within their communities. For these buildings, whether
urban or rural, it is appropriate that they are recorded prior to the
commencement of any development that will substantially alter their form or
character. There may also be requirements for an archaeologist or other
specialist to be present during development to record significant
discoveries. The level of recording required will vary with particular
circumstances and, in the first instance it is recommended that applicants
contact Dyfed Archaeological Trust - Development Management to obtain
advice on what level of recording is appropriate to their circumstances.
Appendix 5 Contacts
Organisation Address Telephone | Website
Dyfed Archaeological Trust Ltd. Corner House, Tel: General | www.dyfedarc
. : Carmarthen Enquiries haeology.org.
Zoe Bevans-Rice — Archaeological Street. Llandeilo. | 01558 uk
Planning Officer Carmarthenshire | 823121 id
email@example.com. SA19 6AE
Mike Ings — Archaeological Planning
Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Llanion Park Tel: 0845 www.pcnpa.or
Authority Pembroke Dock | 345 7275 g.uk
Matthew Griffiths — Development SA72 6DY i
Management Team Leader
Pembrokeshire County Council Planning Tel: 01437 www.pembrok
, i Department, 764551 eshire.gov.uk
firstname.lastname@example.org | Pembrokeshire
v.uk l .. | County Council, Fax: 01437
planning.support.team@pembrokeshir County Hall 776496
e.gov.uk Freemans Way,
Cadw email Cadw@Wales.gsi.gov.uk | Welsh Tel: 01443
Government 33 6000
Unit 5/7 Cefn Fax: 01443
Coed 33 6001
Natural Resources Wales (NRW) S.W. office 0300 065 www.naturalr
Llys Afon 3000 esources.wal
(Hawthorn Rise) es
Royal Commission on the Ancient and | Ffordd Penglais | 01970 www.rcahmw.
Organisation Address Telephone | Website
Historic Monuments in Wales Aberystwyth 621200 gov.uk
Pembrokeshire Archives Prendergast 01437 www.culture4
Haverfordwest 775456 pembrokeshir
SA61 2PE e.co.uk
The Chartered Institute for Power Steele 0118 966 www.archaeol
Archaeologists (CIfA) Building 2841 ogists.net
British Archaeological Jobs Resource | Thornton Mill 01368 840 www.bajr.org
(BAJR) Cottage 847
Links checked May 2020
Local Development Plans
Pembrokeshire Coast National Park Local Development Plan 2
Pembrokeshire County Council Local Development Plan 1
Historic Environment (Wales) Act 2016
Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979
National Policy and Guidance
Planning Policy Wales - Edition 11 (gov.wales
Technical Advice Note 24: Historic Environment May 2017
The National Standard & Guidance to Best Practice for Collecting & Depositing
Archaeological Archives in Wales (2017)
Guidance for the submission of data to the Welsh Historic Environment Record -
available as a pdf. Via the Dyfed Archaeological Trust website
Register of Landscapes, Parks and Gardens of Special Historic Interest in Wales.
Part 1: Parks and Gardens: Carmarthenshire, Ceredigion and Pembrokeshire.
Guide to Good Practice on Using the Register of Landscapes of Historic Interest
in Wales in the Planning and Development Process. Cadw 2006
Cadw provides guidance documents on the following:
Heritage Impact Assessment
Historic Environment Records In Wales — Compilation and Use
Managing Change in World Heritage Sites — Wales
Managing Change in Historic Places of Worship
Managing Change in Listed Buildings in Wales
Managing Change to Registered Historic Parks and Gardens in Wales
Managing Conservation Areas in Wales
Managing Historic Character in Wales
Managing Listed Buildings at Risk in Wales
Managing Lists of Historic Assets of Special Local Interest in Wales
Managing Scheduled Monuments in Wales
Setting of Historic Assets in Wales
Understanding Listing in Wales
The following are relevant documents published by the Institute of Field
CIfA Regulations etc.
CIfA regulations, standards and guidelines | The Institute for Archaeologists
Standard and Guidance for Archaeological Desk-based Assessment.
Standard and Guidance for Archaeological Field Evaluation.
Standard and Guidance for Archaeological Excavation.
Standard and Guidance for Archaeological Watching Brief.
Standard and Guidance for the Archaeological Investigation and Recording of
Standing Buildings and Structures.
Standard and Guidance for the Collection, Documentation, Conservation and
Research of Archaeological Materials.
Standard and Guidance for Archaeological Artefact and Environmental Collection,
Documentation, Conservation and Research.
The Chartered Institute for Archaeologists also has By-laws which include:
Code of Conduct.
Code of Approved Practice for the Regulation of Contractual Arrangements in