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table 59.1: Values of Letters in Standard Romance Languages 





Italian 


Spanish 


Portuguese 


Catalan 


French 


Rumanian 


a 


[a] 


[a] 


[a;e] 


[a; a] 


[a, a] 


[a] 


ae 






[SI1 








ai 


[ai] 


[ai] 


[ai] 


[ai] 


[e] 


[ai] 


ain / $ 










[e] 




an/_$ 










m 




ao 






m\ 








au 


[au] 


[au] 


[au] 


[au] 


[0] 


[au] 


a 






[a] 




[a] 


[i] 


a 












[3] 


a 






[a] 








b 


[b] 


[b-Pl 


[b] 


[b~M 


[b] 


[b] 


c / i, e 


[tf] 


[9] (Am. [s]) [s] 


[s] 


[s] 


[tf] 


c (elsewh.) 


M 


[k] 


M 


[k] 


[k] 


M 


ch 


[k] /_i, e 


[tf] 


[/] 


[k] (IF. ^ 


in 


[k] /_i, e 


9 






[s] /_i, e 


[s] 


[s] /_i, e 




d 


[d] 


[d~3] 


M 


M ■■ oj 


[d] 


[d] 


e 


[e,e] 


[e] 


[6, e; i] 


k, r; ;>J 


[e, e, a] 


[e] 


e 


* 






[e] 


[e] 




e 






[e] 




[e] 




e 




* 


[e] 


[e] 


[e] 




eau 










[0] 




ei 


[ei] 


[ei] 


[ei] 


[ei] 


[e] 


[ei] 


ein /_$ 










[e] 




en/_$ 










P] 




eu 


[eu] 


[eu] 


[eu] 


[eu] 


[0,oe] 


[eu] 


f 


Kl 


M 


[f] 


[Q 


ffl 


ra 


g /_i, e 


[*] 


M 


H 


[*~3l 


[3] 


[*] 


g (elsewh.) 


[g] 


[g~y] 


[g] 


[g-Y] 


[g] 


[g] 


gh 


[g] /_i, e 










[g] /_i, e 


gl 


[*«] 












gn 


WO] 








M 




gu / i, e 


[gw] 


[g] 


[g] 


[g] 


[g] 


[gw] 


gu (elsewh.) 


[gw] 


[gw] 


[gw] 


[gw] 




[gw] 


gu 




[gw] 


[gw] 


[gw] 






h 

















M 


i 


[i]/_V, 


[i]/_V, 


[i] /_V, 


U] /_ V, 


U] /_V, 


U1/—V, 




[i] elsewh. 


[i] elsewh. 


[i] elsewh. 


[i] elsewh. 


[i] elsewh. 


[i] elsewh. 


i 










[i] 


[i] 


J 




w 


K 


[*~3] 


[3] 


K 


k (in loans) 


M 


M 


M 


[k] 


M 


M 



table 59. 1 : Values of Letters in Standard Romance Languages (Continued) 





Italian 


Spanish 


Portuguese 


Catalan 


French 


Rumanian 


1 


[i] 


Pi 


[1] 


[1] 


[1] 


en 


lh 






m 








11 




M (Am. [j]) 




M 






LI 








[1] 






m 


[m] 


[m] 


[m] 


[m] 


[m] 


[m] 


n 


[n] 


M 


[n] 


[n] 


[n] 


M 


nh 






M 








n 




M 




M 









[o,d] 


[0] 


[6, 6; u] 


[6, o; u] 


[o,o] 


[0] 


6 


* 






[0] 






6 






[6] 




[0] 




6 




* 


[o] 


[6] 






6 






[6] 








oe 






[61] 








ce(u) 










[oe] 




oi 


[oi] 


[oi] 


[oi] 


[oi] 


[wa] 


[oi] 


on/_$ 










[5] 




ou 






[ou] 




[w] /__V, 
[u] elsewh. 




p 


[p] 


[p] 


[p] 


[P] 


M 


[p] 


qu / i, e 


[kw] 


M 


M 


[k] 


M 




qu (elsewh.) 


[kw] 








[k] 




r 


M 


[r: ~ r] 


[n - f ] 


[n ~ r] 


M 


W 


rr 




[r:] 


M (Am. [ X ]) 




[n] 




s 


[s~z] 


[s] 


[J] /_$, 

[s ~ z] elsewh. 


[s~z] 


[s~z] 


[s] 


ss 






[s] 


[s] 






§. 












[J] 


t 


[t] 


[t] 


[t] 


[t] 


[t] 


[t] 


\ 












[ts] 


u 


M/_V, 


[u] /__V, 


[y]/_ v, 


[u] /_V, 


[q]/_V, 


[«] /_ v. 




[u] elsewh. 


[u] elsewh. 


[u] elsewh. 


[u] elsewh. 


[y] elsewh. 


[u] elsewh. 


un/__$ 










[oe] 




V 


[v] 


[b~p] 


[v] 


[b~p] 


[v] 


[v] 


w (in loans) 


[v, w] 


[w] 


[v, w] 


[w] 


[v, w] 


[v, w] 


X 


[ks] 


[ks] 


[J, ks] 


[J, ks] 


[ks] 


[ks] 


y (mainly in 


U] 


[i]/_#, 


HI 


[j] 


[i,j] 


01 


loans, excepl 




[j] elsewh. 










in Spanish) 














z 


[ts, dz] 


[G] (Am. [s]) 


1 [z] 


[z] 


[z] 


[z] 



PART X: USE AND ADAPTATION OF SCRIPTS 



Portuguese (Sao Paulo, Brazil) 



i. Portuguese: Eis aqui 

2. Transcription: eiz a'ki 

3. Gloss: here.is here 



i. una mesma 

2. "urns 'mezms 

3. a same 



linguagem; 

li'gwajei 

language 



um povo, que nao tern senao 

u "povu ki n§u tei si'nau 

a people that not has but 

. Vinde pois, descamos, e 

'vidi pois de'ssmus i 

come then let's.descend and 



1. ponhamos 

2. po'jiomuz 

7. se nao 

2. si n§u 

3. refl not 



nas 
nas 



suas lfnguas 
'susz Tigwas 



tal 
tau 



confusao, 
kofu'z5u 



que 
ki 



eles 
'elis 



entendam uns 
l'tedsu uz 

understand ones 



aos outros. Desta maneira e 
auz 'outrus "dests ma'neirs e 
to.the others of.this manner is 



j. que o 

2. ki u 

3. that the Lord 



Senhor os espalhou daquele lugar para todos 
se'jior: uz ispa'Xou da'keli lu'gar: pars 'toduz 
them scattered from.that place to all 



1. os paises da terra . 

2. us pa'iziz da 'tens 

3. the lands of earth 



E por esta 
i por 'este 
and for this 



razao e 
r:a'z5u 8 
reason is 



que lhe 
ki Hi 
that to.it 



1. foi posto o nome de Babel, porque nela e que sucedeu 

2. foi "postu u 'nomi di ba'beu purki 'nels e ki suse'deu 

3. was placed the name of Babel because in.it is that happened 

1. a confusao de todas as linguas do mundo. 

2. a kofuzou di 'todsz az 'ligwsz du 'mudu 

3. the confusion of all the languages of.the world 

Acknowledgment: The editors would like to thank Prof. Milton Azevedo for his assistance. 



Bibliography 



Romance languages 



Harris, Martin, and Nigel Vincent, eds. 1988. The Romance Languages. London: Routledge; New 
York: Oxford University Press. 



THE WORLD'S ""* 

WRITING SYSTEMS PeBr L Danie,s 



William Bright