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MANUAL 



HE ROTTER INCOMPLETE SENTENCES BLANK 

College Form 



Julian B. Rotter 

and 
Janet E. Rapferty 



® 



The Psychological Corporation 
New York 17. N. Y. 



NO 



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MANUAL 



THE ROTTER INCOMPLETE SENTENCES BIANR 



College Form 



& 



Julian B. Rotter 

Professor of Psychology, The Ohio State University 

and 
Janet E. Rafferty 

Research Assistant, The Ohio State University 






Copyright 1950. 
All rights reserved. No part of this manual, or of the Blanks associated 
with it may be reproduced in any form of printing or by any other means, 
electronic or mechanical, including, but not limited to, photocopying, 
audiovisual recording and transmission, and portrayal or duplication in 
any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writ- 
ing from the publisher. See Catalog for further information. 

The Psychological Corporation, 304 East 45th Street, New York, N. Y. 10017 



Printed in U.S.A. 65-431M 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PART I 
Chapter One: Rationale of the Incomplete Sentences Blank 

Purpose of the ISB . 

The Sentence Completion Method 

Administration . 

Development of the ISB 

Reliability . 

Validity 

Normative Data 

Application of the Scoring Manuals 

High School and Adult Forms 

General Application of the Method 
Chapter Two: Scoring the ISB 

The Use of the Scoring Examples 

Scoring Principles 
Chapter Three: Six Practice Cases 

Practice ISB Records 

Scoring of Practice ISB Cases . 
Chapter Four: Clinical Interpretation 

Ralph Smith — Adult Form 

Janice Brown — College Form . 

John Richardson — Adult Form 

Ruth Robinson — Adult Form . 

George Edwards — College Form 

Sally Grover — High School Form 
Bibliography 

PART II 



Scoring Manuals 

Scoring Examples for Male Records 
Scoring Examples for Female Records 



54 
55 
69 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

LYRASIS members and Sloan Foundation 



http://archive.org/details/rotterincompleteOOrott 



PART I 



Chapter One 

RATIONALE OF THE INCOMPLETE SENTENCES BLANK 

Purpose of the 1SB 

The Incomplete Sentences Blank is an attempt to standardize the sentence 
completion method for use at the college level. Forty "stems" are completed 
by the subject. These completions are then scored by comparing them against 
typical items in empirically derived scoring manuals for men and women and 
by assigning to each response a scale value from to 6. The total score is an 
index of maladjustment. 

The scoring plan makes the technique useful as a gross screening instrument. 
The ISB is not intended to provide ratings in finer diagnostic terms. Those 
scoring above a predetermined cutting score can be referred to counselors for 
more careful study or can be identified as persons to be especially observed by 
appropriate staff members for evidences of maladjustment in their campus and 
classroom living. 

The Sentence Completion Method 

The sentence completion method of studying personality is a semistructured 
projective technique in which the subject is asked to finish a sentence for which 
the first word or words are supplied. As in other projective devices, it is assumed 
that the subject reflects his own wishes, desires, fears, and attitudes in the 
sentences he makes. 

Historically, the incomplete sentences method is related most closely to the 
word association test. In some incomplete sentences tests only a single word 
or brief response is called for; the major difference appears to be in the length 
of the stimulus. In the sentence completion tests, tendencies to block and to 
twist the meaning of the stimulus words appear and the responses may be 
categorized in a somewhat similar fashion to the word association method. 

However, there are certain differences in purposes and procedure which 
distinguish the sentence completion method from its antecedent. Even in tests 
where quickness of response is encouraged there is no attempt to measure speed 
of reaction and there is no real pressure for immediate association. The responses 
tend to provide information that the subject is willing to give rather than that 
which he cannot help giving. The method of analysis is frequently more similar 



to that of the Thematic Apperception Test than to that of the word association 
method. 

The general advantages of the sentence completion method can be sum- 
marized as follows. 

1. There is freedom of response. That is, the subject is not forced to answer 
yes, no or ? to the examiner's question. He may respond, instead, in any 
way he desires. 

2. Some disguise in the purpose of the test is present. Although the subject 
may be aware of the general intent, what constitutes a "good" or "bad" 
answer is not readily apparent to most subjects. 

3. Group administration is relatively efficient. Most incomplete sentences tests 
can be given to a group of any size without apparent loss of validity. 

4. No special training is ordinarily necessary for administration. Interpretation 
depends on the examiner's general clinical experience, although the examiner 
does not need specific training in the use of this method. 

5. The sentence completion method lends itself easily to objective scoring for 
screening or experimental purposes. Although objective scoring has not been 
attempted in many tests of this type described in the literature, the Incom- 
plete Sentences Blank demonstrates the ease with which relatively objective 
scoring may be done. 

6. The time of administration tends to be shorter than for most tests and the 
time of scoring or analysis tends to be shorter than for most projective 
techniques. 

7. The method is extremely flexible in that new sentence beginnings can be 
constructed or "tailor made" for a variety of clinical, applied and experi- 
mental purposes. 

On the other hand, the method has three major disadvantages as compared 
to other personality measures. 

1. Although susceptible to semi-objective scoring, it cannot be machine scored 
and requires general skill and knowledge of personality analysis for clinical 
appraisal and interpretation. 

2. There is not as much disguise of purpose as in other projective methods. 
Consequently, a sophisticated subject may be able to keep the examiner 
from knowing what he does not wish to reveal. 

3. Insufficient material is obtained in some cases, particularly from illiterate, 
disturbed or uncooperative subjects. Application of the method as a group 
test also requires writing and language skills and has not yet been adequately 
evaluated for potential clinical usefulness for younger children. 

There are many different sentence completion tests in use. The literature 
on such tests has been reviewed by Bell (1), Rotter (13), and Rohde (8). This 
manual is concerned only with the use of the Incomplete Sentences Blank (ISB). 



Administration 
The items and instructions for the ISB— College Form are reproduced below. 1 



Complete these sentences 


to express your real feelings. Try to do 


to make a complete sentence. 






1. I like . . . 


21. 


I failed . . . 


2. The happiest time . . . 


22. 


Reading . . . 


3. I want to know . . . 


23. 


My mind . . . 


4. Back home . . . 


24. 


The future . . . 


5. I regret . . . 


25. 


I need . . . 


6. At bedtime . . . 


26. 


Marriage . . . 


7. Boys . . . 


27. 


I am best when . . . 


8. The best ... 


28. 


Sometimes . . . 


9. What annoys me . . . 


29. 


What pains me . . . 


10. People . . . 


30. 


I hate . . 


11. A mother . . . 


31. 


This school . . . 


12. I feel . . . 


32. 


I am very . . . 


13. My greatest fear . . . 


33. 


The only trouble . . 


14. In high school . . . 


34. 


I wish . . . 


15. I can't . . . 


35. 


My father . . . 


16. Sports . . . 


36. 


I secretly . . . 


17. When I was a child . . 


37. 


I . . . 


18. My nerves . . . 


38. 


Dancing . . . 


19. Other people . . . 


39. 


My greatest worry is 


20. I suffer . . . 


40. 


Most girls . . . 



These items are printed on a practical work blank. No further instructions 
are given except to repeat the printed instructions if necessary and to urge 
subjects to complete all the items. Administration to a group of any number 
of subjects is possible. The approximate average time for administration is 
twenty minutes. 



Development of the ISB 

The Incomplete Sentences Blank consists of forty items revised from a form 
used by Rotter and Willerman (11) in the Army. This form was, in turn, a 
revision of blanks used by Shor ( 15 ) , Hutt ( 5 ) , and Holzberg ( 4 ) at the Mason 
General Hospital. 2 

In the development of the ISB, two objectives were kept in mind. One aim 
was to provide a technique which could be used objectively for screening and 
experimental purposes. It was felt that this technique should have at least some 
of the advantages of projective methods, and also be economical from the point 
of view of administration and scoring. 



1- Fo; a discussion of stem modifications in other forms, see page 12. 

2 - Rohde ( 9 ) has recently pointed out that some of the items of the incomplete sentence tests 
used in the Army are similar to items in a test copyrighted by her and Hildreth in 1941 
and described in the psychological literature in 1946. The Rohde-Hildreth test was, in 
turn, modified from a test by Payne which had not been described in the psychological 
literature prior to 1946. 



A second goal was to obtain information of rather specific diagnostic value 
for treatment purposes. It was not an objective to construct a measure that 
would describe the "whole personality" nor necessarily to expose the "deep 
layers" of personality or the "fundamental structure." If it is possible to do 
these things, the ISB was nevertheless not constructed with the primary goal 
of accomplishing such ends. Rather it was designed to save time for the clin- 
ician and to allow him to structure his first interviews advantageously before 
he had spent a great deal of time with a patient. In general, it probably does 
not provide the clinician with information that he cannot obtain in a lengthy 
interview; but it may save him that time and, perhaps, also prevent him from 
making some of the costly mistakes that occasionally are made with patients 
in a first or early interview. 

It is to be noted that the instructions do not mention responding quickly or 
immediately as in some tests. The experience of Rotter and Willerman and of 
the present authors indicates that instructions which do stress immediate 
response tend to produce short answers like the responses to word association 
tests, but lacking the value of association responses since no actual measure 
of response time is available. 

The items may be characterized, in general, as being short and unstructured 
—as in the sentences beginning "I . . ." and "Sometimes . . ."—and as being 
either neutral or referring to the first person. Third person stimuli, such as "He 
always worried . . .," or "Mary felt that . . .," are not used in the ISB. The 
authors' experience indicated that such items tended to produce stereotypes 
and to be literally referred to other people. Recently Sacks (14) has corrobor- 
ated this in an experimental study which showed that first person items are 
superior to third person items for general clinical purposes. 

Sentence beginnings are presented so that, with the page held in the normal 
position, the subject has only one line on which to write his completion. It is 
possible for the subject to crowd words on the line, or to write a double line 
in the space allotted. Such behavior, however, enters into the scoring system. 
Presentation of the sentences in any other fashion reduces the standard situation 
on which the numerical scoring is based. 

The Incomplete Sentences Blank can be used, of course, for general inter- 
pretation with a variety of subjects in much the same manner that a clinician 
trained in dynamic psychology uses any projective material. However, a feature 
of the ISB is that one can derive a single over-all adjustment score. The method 
of scoring is described in Chapter Two and scoring examples constitute Part II 
of this manual. Essentially the method is to assign a scale value to each response 
in accord with the general principles stated in this manual and by matching 
responses with typical samples. This over-all adjustment score is of particular 
value for screening purposes with college students and in experimental studies. 
For example, it has been used in a college health service for selection of indi- 
viduals needing psychological help as well as providing the potential therapist 



with an early evaluation of the student. The ISB has also been used in a voca- 
tional guidance center to select students requiring broader counseling than was 
usually given, in experimental studies of the effect of psychotherapy, and in 
investigations of the relationship of adjustment to a variety of variables. 

Detailed description of the development of the scoring examples and valida- 
tion of the male and female college student scoring manuals is reported else- 
where (12). Theoretically scores can range from to 240 (40 items times 6); 
practically, they range from around 70 to 200 with scores of 110 to 150 being 
most common. 

Reliability 

Since the items on an incomplete sentence blank are not equivalent, the 
odd-even technique for determining reliability is not applicable and would tend 
to give a minimum estimate of internal consistency. Therefore, the items on 
the ISB were divided into halves deemed as nearly equivalent as possible. This 
yielded a corrected split-half reliability of .84 when based on the records of 124 
male college students, and .83 when based on 71 female students. 

The scoring plan involves judgments and matching of sentences against 
criterion sentences, so the reliability of scoring is an important factor. 

Inter-scorer reliability for two scorers trained by the authors was .91 when 
based on 50 male records, and .96 for 50 female records. Further evidence of 
inter-scorer reliability was obtained by comparing the scores given by one of 
the scorers with those given by a clinical psychologist whose knowledge of the 
ISB was based entirely on a careful reading of this manual in its prepublication 
manuscript form. The records of the 50 male college students were transcribed. 
The independent psychologist scored the transcribed blanks which contained 
only the subjects' responses. The correlation between the two sets of scores 
was .90 and the difference between mean scores for the two raters was 2.3 points. 

Validity 

The Incomplete Sentences Blank was validated on groups of subjects which 
did not include any of the cases used in developing the scoring principles and 
the scoring manuals. Scoring of the blanks was done "blindly"; the scorer never 
knew whether the test blank was supposed to be that of a maladjusted or an 
adjusted subject. 

Validity data were obtained for the two sexes separately since the scoring 
manuals differ. The subjects included 82 females and 124 males who were 
classified as either adjusted or maladjusted, i.e., as needing personal counseling 
or as not needing such counseling. For each sex, the cases were divided 
into two groups because the rating on the criterion of adjustment was not 



secured in the same manner for all subjects. Group I, for both sexes, includes 
students in classes in effective study and in mental hygiene who were rated by 
their instructors as either adjusted or maladjusted. The instructor, forced to 
classify all subjects in one category or the other, doubtless made judgments in 
many cases where he was relatively unsure of his ratings. The cases in Group I 
may be called "forced choice" cases. Group II, for females, includes 10 college 
students who were judged by advanced student clinicians as clearly malad- 
justed or well adjusted. Group II, for males, includes 46 cases who were either 
self-referrals to the psychological clinic for treatment or cases from the Occu- 
pational Opportunities Service, referred for personal counseling by the voca- 
tional advisors. All of the Group II males were considered maladjusted. The 
distributions of scores on the Incomplete Sentences Blank for the various groups 
are shown in Tables I and II. 



TABLE I 

Distribution of Scores on the Incomplete Sentences Blank of 
82 Females Classified as Adjusted or Maladjusted 







Croup 


I* 


Group 


lit 




Score 


Adjusted 




Maladjusted 


Adjusted 


Maladjusted 


180-184 






1 








175-179 






— 








170-174 






— 








165-169 






— 








160-164 






2 






2 


155-159 






3 






1 


150-154 






— 






2 


145-149 


2 




2 






1 


140-144 


5 




4 








135-139 


4 












130-134 


5 












125-129 


6 












120-124 


6 












115-119 


6 






2 






110-114 


4 




2 


1 






105-109 


6 




2 









100-104 


1 




1 









95-99 


1 













90-94 


3 






_ 






85-89 


_ 






1 






80-84 


1 












N 


50 




22 


4 




6 


Mean 


121.1 

r bis 


= .50 


137.0 


108.2 




155.3 



* Group I includes students in classes in effective study and in mental hygiene who were 

classified by their instructors as adjusted or maladjusted. 
f Group II includes other students so classified by advanced student clinicians. 



8 



TABLE II 

Distribution of Scores on the Incomplete Sentences Blank of 
124 Males Classified as Adjusted or Maladjusted 

Croup I* Croup Ilf 

Scores Adjusted Maladjusted Maladjusted 

,80-184 1 

75-179 5 

170-174 2 

165-169 3 

160-164 1 5 

155-159 1 7 

150-154 1 1 1 

145-149 1 1 

140-144 _24 

135-139 4 5 7 

130-134 5 1 2 

125-129 6 2 3 

120-124 10 5 3 

115-119 9 1 3 

110-114 11 

105-109 5 1 

100-104 2 

95-99 3 

N 57 21 46 

Mean 119.4 133.7 149.2 

rbis = -62 



Group I includes students in classes in effective study and in mental hygiene who were 
classified by their instructors as adjusted or maladjusted. 
f Group II includes self-referrals to the psychological clinic for treatment and cases referred 
for counseling by advisors. All students in Group II were considered maladjusted. 

It will be noted in Table I that there is a marked difference in the scores 
of the adjusted and maladjusted females of Group II. It is apparent, of course, 
that the number of cases in this group is very small. However, the distinct 
differentiation between adjusted and maladjusted cases is very encouraging 
evidence of validity of the ISB. The data for Group I females show considerable 
overlap between the scores of those rated "adjusted" and those rated "malad- 
justed." Since the classification by the instructors is probably quite fallible, 
this is not surprising. But despite the overlap, a cutting score of 135 on the ISB 
would correctly identify 78% of the adjusted cases and 59% of the maladjusted 
cases. The biserial correlation coefficient between the classification of adjusted 
and maladjusted and ISB scores for females in Group I is .50. 

The data for males shown in Table II tend to support the judgments based 
on Table I. A cutting score of 135 would correctly identify 76% of the malad- 
justed cases in Group II. The same cutting score would correctly identify 89% 
of the adjusted cases and 52% of the maladjusted cases in Group I. The biserial 
correlation coefficient between classification and ISB scores for Group I is .62. 

9 



The data in Tables I and II may be summarized as follows. 

1. Where the judges were quite definite in their ratings of adjusted and mal- 
adjusted cases, as they were in Group II females, the ISB scores disclose a 
marked difference between the two classifications. 

2. With a group of people who might reasonably be considered maladjusted, 
such as Group II males, a cutting score of 135 would correctly identify 75 
to 80 per cent of the group. 

3. In Group I of both sexes the criterion classification of students as either 
adjusted or maladjusted is probably weakest. Instructors cannot possibly 
classify all of their students correctly. Nevertheless, the correlation coeffi- 
cients between ISB scores and classification are .50 and .62 for females and 
males, respectively. Under the circumstances, these coefficients speak well 
for the validity of the instrument. 

A cutting score of 135 provided a very efficient separation of adjusted and 
maladjusted students in the data just presented. It is not, however, a magic 
figure which miraculously separates the truly adjusted from the truly malad- 
justed. For screening purposes the critical score will be controlled by the 
purpose of the screening and the facilities available. For example, a score of 
145 might be more suitable where facilities allow for the special examination 
of only the more obviously disturbed students. On the other hand, if the test 
is being used to screen out maladjusted subjects in order to make up some 
experimental sample and if a truly "pure" group is wanted, a cutting score of 
110 might be appropriate. 

The study of Morton (6) provides further data bearing on the validity of 
the ISB. Morton gave the ISB with other measures of adjustment to nineteen 
pairs of subjects. One subject of each pair was given brief psychotherapy and 
the other was not. Experienced, independent judges made ratings from recorded 
interviews. These ratings, the Mooney Problem Check List, and the ISB scores 
were obtained for all cases at the time of the initial interview. They were 
obtained again approximately three months after the cessation of treatment for 
the experimental cases and three months after the initial interview for the control, 
or untreated, cases. Mean scores for the treated and untreated groups were 
similar before therapy. The ISB correlated .53 with the judges' ratings and .40 
with the Mooney Problem Check List. Biserial correlation between the final ISB 
scores and treated and untreated groups was .50. Since the tests were scored 
"blindly" by someone who was not aware of whether a subject was a control or 
an experimental case, the results suggest a significant relationship between 
scores on the ISB and the current ratings of expert judges. 



10 



Normative Data 

A distribution of scores on the ISB for a representative college freshman 
population was obtained by giving the Incomplete Sentences Blank to 299 
entering freshmen at Ohio State University. There was no reason to believe 
that the sample of 299 was in any way atypical of the much larger total fresh- 
man class/ A_ comparison between the median percentile ranks on the Ohio 
State Psychological Examination of the sample and of the total freshman popu- 
lation showed a difference of approximately two percentile points AThe agree- 
ment between corresponding first and third quartile points was also very close. 
It was interesting to find that the correlation coefficient between the Ohio State 
Psychological Examination scores and ISB scores for the selected freshman 
sample was only .11. This is in accord with the general feeling that very little 
relationship would exist between intelligence and scores on a personality 
measure such as the Incomplete Sentences Blank. 

The distributions of ISB scores for the 299 college freshmen are shown for 
each sex in Table III. 



TABLE III 

Distribution of Incomplete Sentences Blank Scores for 
85 Female and 214 Male College Freshmen 
Females 

Cumulative 
Scores Frequency Per Cent 



170-174 

165-169 

160-164 2 100 

155-159 

150-154 

145-149 

140-144 

135-139 

130-134 

125-129 

120-124 

115-119 

110-114 

105-109 

100-104 

95-99 

90-94 

85-89 

80-84 

75-79 1 1 

N 85 214 

Mean 127.4 127.5 

S D 14.4 14.2 

11 



2 


98 


4 


95 


7 


91 


13 


82 


12 


67 


10 


53 


14 


41 


5 


25 


6 


19 


5 


12 


4 


6 





Males 




Cumulative 


Frequency 


Per Cent 


1 


100 


1 


99 


6 


99 


8 


96 


9 


93 


13 


88 


25 


82 


31 


71 


37 


56 


21 


39 


21 


29 


19 


19 


10 


10 


8 


6 


3 


2 


1 


1 



Application of the Scoring Manuals 

Since the scoring manuals have been developed on college students, their 
applicability to the general population is undetermined. Occasional use of the 
manuals with high school seniors suggests that the college manuals might be 
profitably used in precollege counseling. Use of the ISB for diagnostic purposes 
in mental institutions is being explored; but it appears at this time that for such 
purposes scoring would have to be done on several dimensions. The present 
research and these scoring manuals are based on studies of college students only. 
It is assumed that the printed form labeled Incomplete Sentences Blank- 
College Form will be used with college students and occasionally with upper 
level high school students. 

High School and Adult Forms 

In order to use the ISB with nonschool adult or high school populations, 
modifications in certain stems are necessary. Therefore, in the published blank 
which is labeled Incomplete Sentences Blank— Adult Form the following changes 
have been made. 

Item 7: Boys . . . to Men . . . 

Item 14: In high school ... to In school . . . 

Item 31: This school . . . to This place . . . 

Item 40: Most girls . . .to Most women . . . 

In the published blank which is labeled Incomplete Sentences Blank— High 
School Form these changes have been made. 

Item 4: Back home ... to At home . . . 

Item 14: In high school ... to In the lower grades . . . 

Item 17: When I was a child . . . to When I was younger . . . 

Item 19: Other people . . . to Other kids . . . 

Item 26: Marriage . . . to Dating . . . 

Item 31: This school ... to At school . . . 

It should be borne in mind that no formal standardization with general 
adults or high school students has been carried on. When research has been 
completed, scoring manuals for these forms will be released. However, as the 
stem modifications for both forms are very slight, there is reason to believe that 
the scoring principles and the present scoring manuals should be applicable 
when used by competent clinical workers. 



12 



General Application of the Method 

The incomplete sentences method, incorporating as it does many of the 
advantages of the economical so-called objective personality tests and also of 
the projective techniques, appears to be a promising instrument for a variety 
of purposes. Research underway (2) indicates its promise for the study of 
social attitudes, and it seems likely that it can be used as a selection device 
for personnel in business and industry from unskilled workers to top leadership. 
In each new problem a modified blank and a new scoring manual would be 
advisable, but it appears that the general method of devising and testing the 
validity of new scoring manuals could follow the procedure described in detail 
by Rotter and Willerman (11) and Rotter, Rafferty and Schachtitz (12). 

Both in individual case studies and in experimental work in the field of 
clinical psychology as well as in problems not specifically concerned with adjust- 
ment, this method might be applied for the study of specific personality vari- 
ables. In fact, the incomplete sentences' greatest asset as a method is its flexi- 
bility and the ease with which it can be adapted to a multitude of purposes. 



13 



Chapter Two 

SCORING THE ISB 

The Use of the Scoring Examples 

Sentence completions are scored from examples in the scoring manuals by 
assigning a numerical weight from to 6 for each sentence and totaling the 
weights to obtain the over-all score. The scoring examples in Part II of this 
manual are given to facilitate the assignment of weights to responses. They 
are from ISB responses of 58 male and 53 female college students, ranging from 
extremely well-adjusted persons to those judged to be in need of psychotherapy. 
Since the scoring examples are illustrative and representative of common re- 
sponses with no intent to list all possible sentence completions, a set of scoring 
principles will be presented. These principles are intended to aid in determin- 
ing the correct weight for a completion when a very similar statement cannot 
be found in the scoring examples. 

In order to provide the potential user of the ISB with "supervised" experience 
before attempting to score clinical or experimental records, six randomly selected 
sample records have been placed in Chapter Three. The correct scoring for 
these records is given at the end of that chapter. These examples will enable 
the clinician to check his scoring against that of the authors'. They may also 
be used by a clinic supervisor to check the scoring ability of any student or 
general scorer. 

Sentence completions used for illustrative purposes in the following discus- 
sions are taken almost entirely from the manual for male students. 

Scoring Principles 
1. Omission responses 

Omission responses are designated as those for which no answer is given or 
for which the thought is incomplete. Omissions and fragments are not scored. 
It might be thought that omission responses are representative of psychological 
blocks and, therefore, maladjustments. This seems to be true in some cases. 
However, it has been found that such an hypothesis is not tenable in the 
majority of instances. This conclusion was reached by the authors, as well as 
by Rotter and Willerman, after study showed that omission responses appear 
as often in the records for adjusted subjects as for the maladjusted. 



14 



It is recognized that in a clinical situation omissions are occasionally pro- 
vocative since they may point to areas of conflict which the individual does not 
recognize or cannot bring himself to express. In cases such as these they are, 
of course, worthy of further exploration. For example, the paper may have 
frequent references to the mother as a "very wonderful person" and no response 
given to the stimulus, "My father 

Occasionally it is found that, although the stimulus elicits a response, the 
response cannot be scored because the thought is incomplete and the meaning 
is not clear. Examples which are to be considered omissions are as follows: "I 

suffer . . . from "; "What annoys me ... is for someone "; "In high 

school ... I " (This rule of not scoring the item does not apply, how- 
ever, to essentially meaningless groups of words which are stereotypes, song 
titles or commonly found responses. For further discussion, see rules concerning 
neutral responses.) 

There are certain cases in which a sentence, although not actually complete, 
is scored because one complete thought has been expressed. For example, 

"Most girls . . . don't appeal to me except sexually because "; or, "I 

hate . . . the thought of going home since " 

For all responses which are subsumed under the heading of incomplete 
thoughts or omissions, no scoring is made. After the remainder of responses has 
been scored, these unevaluated items are prorated by the formula : (— ^ \ 

v 40 — omissions / 

times the total score. However, if there are more than twenty omissions, the 
paper is considered unscorable for all practical purposes. 

2. Conflict responses 

"C," or conflict, responses are those indicating an unhealthy or maladjusted 
frame of mind. These include hostility reactions, pessimism, symptom elicita- 
tion, hopelessness and suicidal wishes, statements of unhappy experiences, and 
indications of past maladjustment. Examples of these types of reactions follow. 
"I hate . . . almost everyone." "People . . . destroy what they build." "I 
suffer . . . from dizzy spells." "Sometimes ... I wonder what's the use." "I 
wish ... I were dead." "When I was a child ... I spent most of my time 
in a hospital bed." "In high school ... I was extremely self-conscious and 
backward." 

Some conflictive responses have been elicited by stimuli which presuppose a 
negative reply, but there is a large group of "C" responses which consists of 
twisted answers. In reply to the stimulus "I like . . . ," the completion may 
be, "to be alone." Other examples of twisting are: "The happiest time . . . ends 
badly." "The best . . . years of my life are wasted." 

Responses range from CI to C3 according to the severity of the conflict or 
maladjustment expressed. The numerical weights for the conflict responses are 
CI = 4, C2 = 5 and C3 = 6. 

15 



Typical of the CI category are responses in which concern is expressed 
regarding such things as the world state of affairs, financial problems, specific 
school difficulties, physical complaints, identifications with minority groups, 
and so on. In general it might be said that subsumed under CI are minor 
problems which are not deep-seated nor incapacitating, and more or less 
specific difficulties. Here are examples. "The future . . . looks rather black, 
at least for the near future of our country." "The only trouble ... is financial." 
"I regret . . . my ignorance of subject matter." "I suffer . . . from sinus." 
"What pains me ... is racial intolerance." 

More serious indications of maladjustments are found in the C2 category. 
On the whole, the responses refer to broader, more generalized difficulties than 
are found in CI. Included here are expressions of inferiority feelings, psycho- 
somatic complaints, concern over possible failure, generalized school problems, 
lack of goals, feelings of inadequacy, concern over vocational choice, and 
difficulty in heterosexual relationships as well as generalized social difficulty. 
Here are some sample responses. "Other people . . . don't seem to be very 
impressed with me." "I suffer . . . headaches." "My greatest worry is ... I 
will fail to attain my goal in life." "I can't . . . concentrate." "I wish ... I 
could be as natural and confident as most people." "I regret . . . not having 
any goals to work towards." "My greatest fear ... is that I'll be disinterested 
in the vocation I train myself for." "Most girls . . . are only looking for 
husbands." 

Expression of severe conflict or indications of maladjustments are rated C3. 
Among the difficulties found in this area are suicidal wishes, sexual conflicts, 
severe family problems, fear of insanity, strong negative attitudes toward people 
in general, feelings of confusion, expression of rather bizarre attitudes, and so 
forth. Examples in this category are: "I wish ... I were dead." "I regret 
. . . prolonged autoeroticism and fear that I might not be able to make a 
normal sexual adjustment." "The only trouble ... is an inner confusion." 
"Sometimes ... I think people watch me." 



3. Positive responses 

"P," or positive, responses are those indicating a healthy or hopeful frame 
of mind. These are evidenced by humorous or flippant remarks, optimistic 
responses, and acceptance reactions. Examples are as follows: "What annoys 
me . . . are people who squeeze the toothpaste tube in the middle." "The 
best ... is yet to come." "People . . . are fun." 

Here, too, one finds twisted responses, but in this category fall those in 
which the stimuli suggest a negative reply and the response given is a positive 
one. For example, such a response made to "I can't . . ." is "be two places 
at one time." Further examples of the twisted responses are: "I suffer . . . 
from cold ears on mornings such as today." "The only trouble ... is that 
there are not more hours in the day." 

16 



Responses range from PI to P3 depending on the degree of good adjustment 
expressed in the statement. The numerical weights for the positive responses 
are PI = 2, P2 = 1 and P3 = 0. 

In the PI class common responses are those which deal with positive attitudes 
toward school, hobbies, sports, expressions of warm feeling toward some in- 
dividual, expressed interest in people, and so on. Examples illustrating typical 
responses in the PI category are: "I . . . am glad I started to college." "I 
like . . . sports." "The best . . . friend I have is Betty." "People ... are 
interesting." 

Generally found under the heading of P2 are those replies which indicate 
a generalized positive feeling toward people, good social adjustment, healthy 
family life, optimism, and humor. "I am best . . . when I'm with people." 
"Most girls . . . appeal to me." "Back home . . . are a couple of swell parents." 
"I like . . . dancing." "The best . . . woman is my wife." "The happiest time 
... is yet to come." 

Clear-cut good-natured humor, real optimism, and warm acceptance are 
types of responses which are subsumed under the P3 group. "I like ... a 
great many things." "The best ... is yet to come." "People . . . are swell." 
"I feel . . . happy." "I regret ... to hear the alarm clock." 

The ISB deviates from the majority of tests in that it scores humorous 
responses. Most tests make no allowance for the scoring of humor and, as a 
matter of fact, some specifically request the subject not to answer humorously. 
By so doing they fail to recognize that humor is a healthy way to meet frustrat- 
ing situations. One of the dangers in scoring may be that these items are 
less reliable because of the difficulty in defining humor, but it seems a worth- 
while addition. 

4. Neutral responses 

"N," or neutral, responses are those not falling clearly into either of the 
above categories. They are generally on a simple descriptive level. Responses- 
such as "Most girls . . . are females."— which evade the purpose of the test 
are generally scored as neutral. Stereotypes, catch phrases, song titles, and 
expressions of common cultural cliches are usually scored as neutral, as are 
commonly found, essentially meaningless completions. Examples of responses 
in the order listed are as follows: "Boys . . . will be boys." "When I was a 
child ... I spake as a child." "Sometimes ... I wonder why I spend each 
lonely night dreaming of a song!" "People . . . who are truthful will be re- 
warded." "Back home ... on the farm." 

After some familiarity with the test it may be seen that there are two general 
types of responses which account for a large share of those that fall in the 
neutral category. One group includes those lacking emotional tone or personal 
reference. The other group is composed of many responses which are found 
as often among maladjusted as among adjusted individuals and through clinical 
judgment could not be legitimately placed in either the "C" or "P" group. All 
the "N" responses are scored 3. 

17 



Deviation from the generalizations regarding the scoring of "C," "P" or 
"N" responses may occur and, if they do, examples will be listed in the scoring 
manual. For example, at first glance the response, "My greatest fear ... I 
have no fear," would probably fall into a "P" category. However, the response 
is essentially one of conflict and given by maladjusted individuals, so it is 
placed in the C3 category. Another example might be, "I am best . . . when 
happy," which is not rated as "P," but rather "C," because of the implication 
that it is not a frequent occurrence. 

5. The scoring manuals as guides 

The scoring manuals, one for males, one for females, are to serve as guides 
to be followed as closely as possible. All possible responses for each of the 
different numerical weights are not given. Many times a generalization is 
listed for a category of a particular item in order to aid the scoring. An example 
in which it is possible to score a certain response with the aid of a generaliza- 
tion is, "I can't . . . study chemistry." Although such a response is not listed 
per se in the CI category, one finds the generalization "study specific subject 
matter." "What annoys me ... is myself." is not found in the manual, but in 
the C2 category one finds, "things about self or other's reaction to self." "In 
high school ... I was captain of the football team." is scored P2 because of the 
general rule for that item— "statement of participation in sports or activities." 

In other cases there are responses which are not found in the manual and 
for which there is no general rule. These can be scored by noting other re- 
sponses for that item. For example, although "I hate . . . failures." is not found 
in any category for that item, it most closely approximates the tone of those in 
the C2 class and the general types of responses for C2. "I suffer . . . bad 
habits." is seen to fall in the C2 category, although it is not specifically listed. 
"The best . . . things in life aren't' free," on the other hand, fits best into the 
CI class. 

6. Independent scoring of items 

Each response is to be scored and evaluated independently of all others, 
except when there is a clear-cut reference to a previous statement. It is, of 
course, important in the scoring of any papers to avoid the halo effect as much 
as possible so that the measurement can be reliable. This is equally necessary 
here for, if each response is not scored independently of all others, there is 
a tendency to rate all responses in light of the over-all picture. For example, 
in scoring the record of a maladjusted individual there is apt to be a bias in 
the direction of "C," when certain of the responses most surely should be 
scored "N" or "P." 

However, in some cases a response refers directly to a previous item, and 
it would not be reasonable to score it independently of the first. In such an 
instance, therefore, a previous response must be used in the evaluation of the 
later one. Examples of this are as follows. "I wish ... he were dead" in one 
record had reference to the preceding sentence when the individual said, 

18 



"The only trouble ... is I wish I could forget I'll be like my father." The 
response, "I . . . think I can if the rungs of the ladder stay in place when I 
put them there," is not very meaningful until it is seen that the previous state- 
ment was, "I secretly . . . desire to become great." Another instance is, "I 
secretly . . . blame my mother," which refers to a precedent, "My father . . . 
was a suicide." 

There is one other type of situation in which greater reliability of rating is 
achieved if the response is taken in light of the over-all picture. This occurs 
when the individual's frame of reference alters the evaluation considerably, as 
in the record of a boy who makes reference to coming marriage within a short 
time. In response to "Most girls . . ." he said "do not interest me much any 
more." If this were taken out of context of the whole record it would be rated 
differently than if the context were also utilized. Another illustration is that 
of a male student who is married and states, "The happiest time ... is with 
my family." Such a response from an unmarried student would be rated quite 
differently. 

7. Qualifications 

Responses which start like an example in the manual but are differently 
qualified are scored with a consideration of these qualifications. For example, 
it may be seen that the following responses should be scored higher than if 
they had not been qualified. "Sports ... I have always liked, yet they don't 
hold my interest like they did." "Back home ... is the family and a swell 
town, but I don't like it too well." "People . . . are all right, but I don't like 
being in a crowd like parties." "This school ... is O.K., but it's too close 
to home." 

There are also responses which will be given lower ratings than they would 
get without the qualification. Common among these are responses given by 
individuals subsequent to therapy. "The future ... is uncertain, but I think 
I can lick it." "Back home . . . life was pretty miserable, but I think I can 
cope with the situation now." 

Such qualifications may change the weighting of the response by one or 
more points. 

8. Extreme weights 

Examples are not given for extreme weights (0 or 6) in some items, usually 
because extreme responses to those items are rare. These weights may be 
assigned, however, if clearly warranted. In cases when a response seems to 
be more extreme than the examples cited, then it is permissible to use an 
extreme weight. If the following responses were given they would be scored 
6, although there are no examples listed for these items. "Sports . . . should 
not be allowed for mixed groups because they are too stimulating." "Reading 
... is one thing I hate." 

19 



9. Generality of scoring illustrations 

Where precedent for scoring a given response cannot be found in the 
examples for that item, the examiner may look for a similar response to another 
item. There are several stimuli which are very similar and elicit the same 
types of responses so that cross reference is possible. However, male and 
female manuals are not to be used interchangeably. Items which are commonly 
reacted to as equivalents are these. "What annoys me . . . ," "What pains 
me . . . ," and "I hate . . . ." "My greatest fear . . ." and "My greatest 
worry . . . ." "People . . ." and "Other people . . . ." "The happiest time 
. . ." and "The best . . . ." "I need . . ." and "I wish . . . ." 

An individual might say, '.'What annoys me ... is my home life." There 
is no example given under this item, but by referring to item 29, "What pains 
me . . . ," the response can be found under C3. For item 29 the completion, 
"What pains me ... is doing things I don't like," does not have a similar 
example, but item 30, "I hate . . . ," has this response classified as CI. Another 
example is "The best . . . time is having a party," which may be scored by 
referring to item 2, "The happiest time . . . ." "I wish ... I had more friends" 
can be rated by referring to item 25, "I need . . . ." 

Using other items as examples for the scoring is particularly important in 
item 28, "Sometimes . . . ," and item 37, "I . . . ," which are so unstructured 
that just about any type of response may be given. In these two items espe- 
cially, it is often necessary to refer to other items for accurate evaluation. 

10. Unusually long responses 

In cases where the response is unusually long, it should be given an addi- 
tional point in the direction of "C" unless it has already been rated 6. It has 
been found that the maladjusted individual often writes long involved sentences 
as if compelled to express himself fully and not be misunderstood. On the 
other hand, the well-adjusted person frequently replies to the stimuli with 
short concise statements. For example, one poorly adjusted individual wrote, 
"I am best when ... I am under no pressure of responsibility concerning the 
accomplishment of a given thing within a certain specified time." An adjusted 
person wrote, "I am best when . . . I'm having a party." This does not seem 
to be a function of intelligence as might be hypothesized. The previous re- 
sponses were from two subjects of superior intelligence. The following are 
reactions of two individuals of lesser ability. The maladjusted student wrote, 
"I like . . . agriculture, to read short stories, to go with a nice rather quiet 
girl who doesn't drink or smoke, and other fellows, and to eat and sleep." A 
well-adjusted individual wrote simply, "I like . . . people." If a completion 
includes a qualification as well as being unusually lengthy, the clinician will 
have to use his own judgment in determining to what extent the initial scoring 
of the response should be changed. 

The only exception to this rule concerns neutral completions. If the response 
is a common quotation, stereotype or song title, it is always scored as neutral, 
regardless of length. 

20 



Chapter Three 

SIX PRACTICE CASES 

Following are ISB records of six college students. Correct scoring for 
these will be found at the end of this chapter. 

As has been stated previously, the weights to be assigned are as follows: 
C3 = 6, C2 = 5, CI = 4, N = 3, PI = 2, P2 = 1, P3 = 0. A further word 
should be said about long responses. It has been found useful as a rough 
measure to consider the statement as lengthy if the response (excluding the 
stimulus ) is greater than ten words. In such cases the weight given is increased 
by one point, except when the essence of the completion would have been 
rated as 6, since the greatest weight assigned to any response is 6. As stated 
previously, this rule does not apply to common quotations, stereotypes or song 
titles, which are always scored as neutral. 

For convenience, it is suggested that an Incomplete Sentences Blank be 
used for recording the scores for the following practice cases. 



21 



Practice ISB Records 



Record 1 — Male 



1. I like . . . mellow music. 

2. The happiest time ... of my life is when I can do things for other people. 

3. I want to know . . . why people think like they do. 

4. Back home . . . things are pleasant, and yet I like being away from home more. 

5. I regret . . . that I have not made more of myself so far in life. 

6. At bedtime ... I like listening to the radio. 

7. Boys . . . are regular Joes. 

8. The best ... I can do is not good enough. 

9. What annoys me ... is someone getting angry with me. 

10. People . . . are interesting. 

11. A mother ... is a person's dearest friend. 

12. I feel . . . tired but in a fairly good mood. 

13. My greatest fear . . . 

14. In high school ... I wasted too much time. 

15. I can't . . . seem to get ahead in life as fast as I would like to. 

16. Sports . . . are very relaxing. 

17. When I was a child ... I liked to imagine things. 

18. My nerves . . . are generally very steady. 

19. Other people . . . amuse me. 

20. I suffer . . . very little. 

21. I failed . . . very few things that I have started. 

22. Reading . . . does not particularly interest me, but I like to know things from books. 

23. My mind ... is generally free from worry. 

24. The future ... is hard to anticipate. 

25. I need . . . 

26. Marriage . . . doesn't particularly interest me now. 

27. I am best when ... I am alert. 

28. Sometimes ... I wonder what the future will bring. 

29. What pains me ... is seeing the results of wrongs. 

30. I hate . . . things that are dirty and corrupt. 

31. This school . . . holds my interest. 

32. I am very . . . enthusiastic. 

33. The only trouble ... is that automobiles are too high priced. 

34. I wish ... I had a little more money. 

35. My father ... is a Jack of all trades. 

36. I secretly . . . 

37. I . . . have no secrets. 

38. Dancing ... is one thing I like doing. 

39. My greatest worry is . . . not taking some things seriously enough. 

40. Most girls . . . are fickle, especially blondes. 



22 



Record 2 — Male 

1. I like . . . things which do not contribute to tangible wealth. 

2. The happiest time ... for me is when I am traveling, far away from the city, with 
a good book at hand. 

3. I want to know . . . specific ways to overcome my dilemma. 

4. Back home . . . we are beginning to achieve a modicum of happiness. 

5. I regret . . . that I cannot wholly revamp my life. 

6. At bedtime . . . there is surcease to the day's toil. 

7. Boys . . . are the happiest of human creatures being carefree. 

8. The best . . . minds of the past worked out their lives independently. 

9. What annoys me ... is the attempt to fit me to the standards of others. 

10. People . . . are generally callous enough so that life is not too bruising. 

11. A mother . . . should be capable of easing her child over adolescent pitfalls. 

12. I feel . . . that I should be striving to amount to something but am not doing so. 

13. My greatest fear . . . being utterly penniless in middle age, one of life's supernumerals. 

14. In high school ... I wasted my time on worthless subjects. 

15. I can't . . . mix as well as others. 

16. Sports . . . hold no especial interest for me. 

17. When I was a child ... I was withdrawn and yet I frittered away my time. 

18. My nerves . . . are easily effected by stress. 

19. Other people . . . are generally not affected by life's daily demands. 

20. I suffer . . . from a consuming lack of self-confidence. 

21. I failed ... to spend my high school years profitably. 

22. Reading . . . holds a continued interest for me. 

23. My mind ... is too unstable to enter into work requiring a great amount of social 
contact. 

24. The future . . . seems so uncertain that I am troubled yet I am doing nothing to pre- 
pare for it. 

I need ... to achieve mental stability. 

Marriage . . . requires that one be well adjusted with himself— something I am not. 
I am best when . . . with people who are my intellectual inferiors. 
Sometimes ... I feel life is a worthless battle. 

What pains me . . . are the violent moods I constantly fight against. 
I hate . . . intricate details about mechanical work. 
This school ... is attended by students greatly divergent in capability. 
I am very . . . indifferent to some of mankind's strongest motivations. 
The only trouble . . . with wealth is the inevitable surfeit with leisure. 
I wish . . . that I had greater inherent potentialities. 
My father . . . was a frustrated man. 
I secretly . . . aspire to roam the world. 
I . . . hope I never become a five-day-a-week drudge. 
Dancing ... is sheer triviality but is the best entree to society. 

My greatest worry is . . . stated in the question, "Shall I ever amount to anything?" 
Most girls . . . prefer the "Joe College" type of fellow. 



23 



Record 3 — Female 

1. I like . . . dancing better than any other recreation. 

2. The happiest time ... of my life started when I met my boy friend. 

3. I want to know . . . everything I possibly can. 

4. Back home . . . there is a great many things to do. 

5. I regret . . . not going to college sooner. 

6. At bedtime ... I am always very tired and fall asleep immediately. 

7. Boys . . . are what men remain all their life. 

8. The best . . . time of my life is right now. 

9. What annoys me . . . very much are brassy streetcar conductors. 

10. People . . . are more entertaining to watch than movies, etc. 

11. A mother ... is what I hope I will be to twins. 

12. I feel . . . wonderful! 

13. My greatest fear . . . seems to be insects although I don't know why. 

14. In high school ... I was fortunate enough to be salutatorian. 

15. I can't . . . see any sense to these questions at all. 

16. Sports . . . , which I especially enjoy, are tennis and swimming. 

17. When I was a child ... I had a very happy home life. 

18. My nerves . . . are very well controlled. 

19. Other people . . . interest me, and I like to be around them. 

20. I suffer . . . frequent headaches, which bothers me. 

21. I failed ... at nothing really important to me. 

22. Reading ... is a favorite pastime of mine. 

23. My mind ... is not easily turned once it is made up. 

24. The future . . . lying before me looks wonderful. 

25. I need . . . nothing, in particular. 

26. Marriage . . . seems to be a pretty good idea. 

27. I am best when . . . doing something exciting. 

28. Sometimes . . . my mind wanders. 

29. What pains me ... is the sight of deformed people. 

30. I hate ... to go back to work after a vacation. 

31. This school . . . has too much prejudice. 

32. I am very . . . happy most of the time. 

33. The only trouble ... is finding a house to live in. 

34. I wish ... I were married. 

35. My father . . . works too hard. 

36. I secretly . . . would like to be a dancing teacher. 

37. I . . . had better get busy and get some work done. 

38. Dancing ... is what I never tire of. 

39. My greatest worry is . . . getting enough sleep. 

40. Most girls . . . are easy to get along with. 



24 



Record 4— Female 

1. I like . . . my roommate. 

2. The happiest time ... is too seldom. 

3. I want to know . . . what I want, what I'm missing. 

4. Back home . . . there is lovely snow - — the trees make the city look like Fairyland. 

5. I regret . . . that I can't go to Lewisburg this Christmas. 

6. At bedtime ... I no longer say my prayers. 

7. Boys . . . are interesting while young - - - but grown into brutes by the time they 
have earned the title "men". 

8. The best . . . way to be happy is just not to think. 

9. What annoys me ... is Alex' constant "I'll call you, Baby." which to me means, "I 
won't phone you." Also Lita's unreasoning mind. 

10. People . . . come in a wider variety than anything else I can think of there is no 

more interesting subject. 

11. A mother . . . should be honest with herself and her children, should love them, but 
not enough to hurt them, should see them for what they are. 

12. I feel . . . rather warm from running— rather excited at the approaching of Bob's arrival 
time. 

13. My greatest fear ... is that it will all be over before I've been able to discover why 
it existed at all. 

14. In high school ... I had a gay time - - - I was a blind dope. 

15. I can't . . . leave other people's problems to themselves. 

16. Sports . . . are always interesting when participating, sometimes when a spectator, 
rarely on days like this. 

17. When I was a child ... "I spake like a child", but now I am a woman, and I speak 
like a child. 

18. My nerves . . . 

19. Other people . . . are always interesting when you are first becoming acquainted; when 
you know them, there are all degrees of fascination. 

20. I suffer . . . not one bit. 

21. I failed . . . because I was unable to let the best in me come to the surface. 

22. Reading ... is an interesting occupation, but I must be more careful of my choice of 
books. 

23. My mind ... is far too often incongruent and illogical. In general, it is filled with 
cobwebs; they glint when the sun shines. 

24. The future . . . worries me, only because it is the first time in my life I haven't been 
sure of what it is. 

25. I need . . . somebody to love me. 

26. Marriage ... is not made in Heaven. 

27. I am best when ... by myself. 

28. Sometimes ... I feel very, very depressed, without reason. 

29. What pains me ... is the constant centering of my thoughts upon myself while talking 
to others, upon my job and my friends when by myself. 

30. I hate . . . Miles— and no one else. 

31. This school ... is like most universities, full of an exciting assortment of people, but is 
too old-fashioned and undemocratic. 

32. I am very . . . self-centered. 

33. The only trouble ... is my adolescence didn't start until I was 17. 

34. I wish ... for little, at first, but as I get it, I wish for more and more. 

35. My father ... is a grand guy. If only he had more up-to-date ideas. 

36. I secretly . . . feel like going to Lewisburg, but I could never explain my presence 
there, or my absence here. 

37. I . . . should have died twenty months ago. People would have thought it sadder then, 
and everyone might have enjoyed himself over it thoroughly. 

38. Dancing ... is a grand pastime. 

39. My greatest worry is . . . how to keep from worrying. 

40. Most girls . . . are shallow, and are determined to stay that way. 

25 



Record 5 — Male 

1. I like ... to be with people I feel comfortable with. 

2. The happiest time ... I had was in high school. 

3. I want to know . . . what to do about my condition. 

4. Back home ... all my friends are married or gone. 

5. I regret . . . that I have changed. 

6. At bedtime ... I usually say a prayer. 

7. Boys . . . don't seem to like me very well. 

8. The best . . . thing in the world is love. 

9. What annoys me ... is my roommate. 

10. People ... are good as a whole. 

11. A mother ... is one of the greatest people in the world. 

12. I feel . . . dizzy a lot of the time. 

13. My greatest fear ... is of death. 

14. In high school ... I had a lot of fun. 

15. I can't . . . play basketball or football well. 

16. Sports ... is a field I am not good in. 

17. When I was a child ... I wasn't unhappy like I am now. 

18. My nerves . . . bother me a lot. 

19. Other people . . . don't get acquainted with me very well. 

20. I suffer . . . from getting too excited all the time. 

21. I failed ... to do a good job when I made a record for speech. 

22. Reading . . . bothers my eyes. 

23. My mind ... is just of average intelligence. 

24. The future . . . doesn't look very good. 

25. I need . . . someone that I can trust to talk to. 

26. Marriage ... is a good thing but I don't think I can ever marry. 

27. I am best when ... I am with a few people that I like. 

28. Sometimes ... I get spots in front of my eyes. 

29. What pains me ... is that my face gets red when I am the center of attraction. 

30. I hate . . . people who show off. 

31. This school ... is not very friendly. 

32. I am very . . . discouraged at times. 

33. The only trouble ... is that I don't have any friends any more. 

34. I wish ... I were normal. 

35. My father ... is a good guy. 

36. I secretly . . . want things I can't have. 

37. I ... am frustrated. 

38. Dancing ... is a lot of fun. 

39. My greatest worry is . . . that I do not get along with girls. 

40. Most girls . . . don't like me too well. 



26 



Record 6— Female 

1. I like ... to eat. 

2. The happiest time ... is when you are young. 

3. I want to know . . . many people. 

4. Back home ... is where I will be three weeks from now. 

5. I regret . . . nothing at this moment. 

6. At bedtime ... I like to have a cigarette. 

7. Boys . . . can be so stupid. 

8. The best . . . things in life are free. 

9. What annoys me ... is someone cracking his knuckles. 

10. People . . . are funny. 

11. A mother . . . deserves a lot of credit. 

12. I feel . . . fine. 

13. My greatest fear ... is snakes. 

14. In high school ... I didn't study much. 

15. I can't . . . cook. 

16. Sports . . . are great fun. 

17. When I was a child ... I was fat. 

18. My nerves . . . are not always calm. 

19. Other people . . . can be so inconsiderate. 

20. I suffer . . . from hay fever. 

21. I failed ... to set the alarm last night. 

22. Beading . . . , writing, and arithmetic are taught in school. 

23. My mind ... is in a dither. 

24. The future ... is questionable. 

25. I need . . . self-confidence. 

26. Marriage ... is not always something wonderful. 

27. I am best when ... I have had eight hours of sleep. 

28. Sometimes ... I get discouraged. 

29. What pains me . . . are people with money. 

30. I hate ... no one. 

31. This school ... is very large. 

32. I am very . . . content. 

33. The only trouble ... is they are too young to get married. 

34. I wish ... I were very intelligent. 

35. My father ... is very kind to us. 

36. I secretly ... do nothing. 

37. I . . . hate secrets. 

88. Dancing ... is enjoyed by most young people. 

39. My greatest worry is . . . money. 

40. Most girls . . . are silly. 



27 



Scoring of Practice ISB Cases 

General: Whenever weights are starred it means that the original weight has 
been increased by one point because of length. 

Record 1 — Male 



1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 
9. 
10. 



11. 


4 


12. 


3 


13. 


om 


14. 


4 


15. 


6* 


16. 


2 


17. 


4a 


18. 


1 


19. 


2 


20. 


2 



21. 


3 


31. 


1 


22. 


5* 


32. 


1 


23. 


1 


33. 


2 


24. 


3 


34. 


4 


25. 


om. 


35. 


3 


26. 


3 


36. 


om 


27. 


3 


37. 


1 


28. 


3 


38. 


2 


29. 


4 


39. 


4 


30. 


4 


40. 


4 



Total Score: 109 Score corrected for omissions (see page 14): 118 



Record 2 — Male 



1. 


4 


2. 


5° 


3. 


5 


4. 


4 


5. 


5 


6. 


4 


7. 


5^ 


8. 


4 


9. 


6* 


10. 


6* 



Total Score: 196 



Record 3 — Female 



11. 


5 


12. 


6* 


13. 


5* 


14. 


4 


15. 


5 


16. 


5 


17. 


6 


18. 


5 


19. 


5 


20. 


6c 



21. 


4 


22. 


2 


23. 


6 


24. 


6 


25. 


6 


26. 


6' 


27. 


6 


28. 


6 


29. 


6 


30. 


4 



31. 


3 


32. 


5 


33. 


4 


34. 


5 


35. 


5 


36. 


3 


37. 


4 


38. 


5 


39. 


6 


40. 


4 



1. 2 


11. 


1 


2. 2 


12. 





3. 2 


13. 


4 


4. 2 


14. 


2 


5. 4 


15. 


2 


6. 1 


16. 


2 


7. 4 


17. 


1 


8. 


18. 


2 


9. 4 


19. 


1 


10. 3 


20. 


5 


Total Score: 93 







21. 


4 


22. 


2 


23. 


2 


24. 





25. 


1 


26. 


2 


27. 


2 


28. 


4 


29. 


4 


30. 


1 



31. 


4 


32. 





33. 


3 


34. 


4 


35. 


4 


36. 


2 


37. 


3 


38. 


1 


39. 


4 


40. 


2 



28 



Record 4 — Female 



1. 


2 


2. 


5 


3. 


5 


4. 


4* 


5. 


3 


6. 


4 


7. 


6 


8. 


5 


9. 


6* 


10. 


4° 


Total Score 



11. 


6* 


12. 


4* 


13. 


6° 


14. 


5 


15. 


4 


16. 


4* 


17. 


6* 


18. 


om 


19. 


3* 


20. 






21. 


6 


22. 


5 


23. 


6 


24. 


6 


25. 


5 


26. 


4 


27. 


5 


28. 


6 


29. 


6 


30. 


5 



31. 


5' 


32. 


5 


33. 


5 


34. 


5 


35. 


2 


36. 


4« 


37. 


6 


38. 


1 


39. 


4 


40. 


5 



178 Score corrected for omissions (see page 14): 182 



Record 5 — Male 



1. 


4 


2. 


3 


3. 


6 


4. 


4 


5. 


5 


6. 


4 


7. 


6 


8. 


5 


9. 


5 


10. 


1 



11. 


4 


12. 


6 


13. 


5 


14. 





15. 


3 


16. 


5 


17. 


5 


18. 


6 


19. 


5 


20. 


5 



21. 


4° 


22. 


5 


23. 


4 


24. 


5 


25. 


6 


26. 


6 


27. 


4d 


28. 


5 


29. 


5* 


30. 


5 



31. 


4 


32. 


5 


33. 


5 


34. 


6 


35. 





36. 


4 


37. 


5 


38. 


1 


39. 


5 


40. 


5 



Total Score: 176 



Record 6 — Female 



1. 3 


11. 


3 


2. 4 


12. 


1 


3. 3 


13. 


4 


4. 3 


14. 


4 


5. 2 


15. 


3 


6. 3 


16. 


1 


7. 4 


17. 


4 


8. 3 


18. 


4 


9. 3 


19. 


5 


10. 3 


20. 


5 


Total Score: 131 







21. 


2 


22. 


3 


23. 


4 


24. 


3 


25. 


5 


26. 


4 


27. 


3 


28. 


5 


29. 


4 


30. 


1 



31. 


3 


32. 





33. 


3 


34. 


5 


35. 


4 


36. 


3 


37. 


3 


38. 


3 


39. 


4 


40. 


4 



a. Although there is a PI category which has "I liked to ," in this case the response is 

scored CI because of its nature. 

b. This scoring illustrates the use of cross references in scoring items. See item 8, C2 category 
response, "was in childhood days." 

c. Scored 6 since the use of "consuming" increases the negative connotation. 

d. This is scored 4 since it is implied that the individual feels adequate and secure with only 
a limited or restricted group of people whom he knows very well. 



29 



Chapter Four 

CLINICAL INTERPRETATION 

For the clinician working directly with cases, the qualitative interpretation 
of the records will be of considerably more interest than a numerical score of 
adjustment. For such purposes no specific method of interpretation is recom- 
mended. The clinician's use of these materials will depend on his experience, 
his level of training, and his theoretical orientation. The sentence completions 
can be interpreted from a common sense point of view or at a symbolic psycho- 
analytic level; they can be analysed according to the Murray system of needs 
and presses or by the Social Learning system of hierarchy of goals. The kind 
of material obtained by the ISB is similar to that obtained by the TAT; and 
any of the methods used in TAT analysis, such as Murray (7), Rotter (10), 
Stein (16), and Tompkins (17), can be applied to sentence completions. 

In order to illustrate some of the interpretations which can be made from 
the ISB which can serve to help the clinician arrive at an early understanding 
and structuring of his case, six records with comments on their interpretation 
will be presented. The purpose of these cases is to illustrate the potential 
value of the ISB, not to describe a method of qualitative interpretation. 

Hypothetical names have been used in these instances. 

Ralph Smith 

Ralph Smith is a veteran who entered a Veterans Administration Mental 
Hygiene Clinic with complaints of nervousness, many fears (particularly of 
people in authority), and some suspiciousness regarding other people. He was 
also suffering from recurrent malaria. The patient was 29 years old, married, 
had two children, and his parents were living but separated. In the army he 
had three years overseas, including four combat operations. His ISB responses 
are quoted below. 

1. I like ... to eat very good food. 

2. The happiest time ... of my life is when I hear "stars and stripes". 

3. I want to know . . . what is wrong with me. 

4. Back home ... I have little or no pleasures. 

5. I regret ... to say that I am ashamed of my family. 

6. At bedtime ... I wish to stay up and walk. 

7. Men . . . suggest ability to take work and respect in their stride. 



30 



8. The best ... of me is spent in good movies. 

9. What annoys me . . . most is death, dirt, drink, unloyalty. 

10. People . . . are like me they all have there problems. 

11. A mother ... is a great heart fulfillment. If you have one. 

12. I feel . . . that I would like to stand erect and salute the flag. 

13. My greatest fear ... is failure in being truthfully right. 

14. In school ... I fought all the smaller kids battles. 

15. I can't . . . bring myself to do the things I want to do the most. 

16. Sports . . . are things I would have liked to do better in. 

17. When I was a child ... I was forlorn and abused by a drunken father. 

18. My nerves . . . are my greatest defeat. 

19. Other people . . . have the ability I wish I had. 

20. I suffer . . . most of all when I try to stand rigid. 

21. I failed ... in school because I had several cruel teachers. 

22. Reading ... is a wonderful gift. 

23. My mind ... is very clear when I am envolved in medical work. 

24. The future ... is hopeless sure to fail. 

25. I need . . . advice very badly. 

26. Marriage ... is a wonderful loyalty so long as I have the wife I have now. 

27. I am best when . . . tired. 

28. Sometimes ... I find I am better than at other times. 

29. What pains me . . . most is to see a child hurt. 

30. I hate . . . anything against America. 

31. This place ... is very quiet. 

32. I am very . . . steady now and quite capable of thinking. 

33. The only trouble ... I have is facing a stranger. 

34. I wish ... I could do the things I want to do. 

35. My father ... is both good and bad. 

36. I secretly . . . love to eat limburger cheese. 

37. I . . . wish that I could live up to the standards of a soldier. 

38. Dancing ... is something I cannot do. 

39. My greatest worry is . . . can I give my baby a decent life. 

40. Most women . . . are friendly but to the extent of companions. 



Analysis 
Familial Attitudes 

The patient's completions provide a picture of a strong dependent relation- 
ship to the mother and a conflict regarding the father, whom he sees as cruel 
and morally bad, but possibly also having some admirable characteristics. He 
describes his conflict in item 35— "My father ... is both good and bad." Since 
his mother is living and he qualifies his response in item 11 to "A mother . . . " 
by saying, "if you have one," it might be expected that he feels rejected by 
his mother although dependent on her. 

Considering the entire record, it does not seem that he has much concern 
over his immediate family since he refers to his wife in only one sentence 
completion, that of "Marriage . . . ," and mentions his children but once. He 
thinks of marriage as "a loyalty" ( item 26 ) rather than as a source of pleasure 
or satisfaction, since he states in item 4, "Back home ... I have little or no 
pleasures." 



31 



Social and Sexual Attitudes 

General social inadequacy is suggested by such sentence completions as 
(items 5, 19, 38, and 33)— "I regret ... to say that I am ashamed of my 
family." "Other people . . . have the ability I wish I had." "Dancing ... is 
something I cannot do." "The only trouble ... I have is facing a stranger." 
A rigid, moralistic approach to himself and others tends to limit greatly any 
satisfaction from social relationships. This is illustrated in sentence completions 
such as (items 13 and 9)— "My greatest fear ... is failure in being truthfully 
right." "What annoys me . . . most is death, dirt, drink, unloyalty." 

His rigid moral standards would be likely to prevent satisfaction in his 
sexual relationships. However, he does not deal with his sexual attitudes in 
any direct way in these sentence completions, except to point out carefully 
in sentence 40 that women are friendly but only as companions. 

In general, he attempts to explain his failures as due to the rejection of his 
mother and father and to identify himself with the weak and helpless, as indi- 
cated by items 14 and 29— "In school ... I fought all the smaller kids 
battles." "What pains me . . . most is to see a child hurt." He apparently 
sees masculinity and righteousness as the pathway to adequacy and security; 
at the same time he strives for, and tries to reassure himself about, his own 
masculinity. 

General Attitudes 

The patient has sought a claim to distinction or superiority through his 
morality, patriotism and masculinity. His completions stressing patriotism, 
loyalty, Americanism, etc. seem to be out of range of normalcy and appear to 
provide a symbolic satisfaction for him. In general, there is a strong tendency 
to see things in black and white, to stress moral values, and to accept con- 
ventional standards of behavior as verbally expressed. The absence of non- 
symbolic satisfaction in many areas has probably resulted in a greater de- 
pendency on physical satisfactions, such as eating (items 1 and 36). 

Character Traits 

The patient's responses regarding patriotism and loyalty, as in items 12 and 
9— "I feel . . . that I would like to stand erect and salute the flag." "What 
annoys me . . . most is death, dirt, drink, unloyalty."— are fairly clear indica- 
tions that this patient has already developed the beginnings of psychotic 
behavior. Item 24— "The future ... is hopeless and sure to fail."— would sug- 
gest a fairly depressed frame of mind as well. In general, the patient is rigid 
and compulsive. Dependency is indicated by (item 25) "I need . . . advice 
very badly." It is indicated also by his general attachment to symbols, such 
as the stars and stripes of America, and such guides to behavior as (item 37) 
"the standards of a soldier." 

Although in item 12 he states, "I feel . . . that I would like to stand erect 
and salute the flag," he also states (item 20) "I suffer . . . most of all when 
I try to stand rigid." This would suggest that satisfaction is obtained through 

32 



his punishing himself by standing erect, possibly as a way of demonstrating 
to himself his masculinity in being able to take punishment. His feelings of 
inferiority are present in social, personal, intellectual, and moral areas of 
endeavor. 

Summary 

The over-all picture the patient presents is of a rigid, compulsive individual 
whose contact with reality is distinctly breaking. His completions indicate he 
presents both paranoid and depressive behavior. Apparently in his early child- 
hood he was timid and anxious; at the present time he projects the blame for 
many of his failures on the abuse of a drunken father (item 17) and other 
authority figures whom he describes in item 21 as "cruel teachers." Particularly 
important in his present picture is a need to obtain security through asserting 
his masculinity and through his identification with symbols of strength such as 
the nation and the army. Apparently there are few avenues to satisfaction open 
for this subject whose feelings of inferiority or inadequacy are widespread and 
who describes his homelife, his social relationships, and his parental relation- 
ships all as being unsatisfying. 

Contribution of the ISB 

As a screening instrument used in a Mental Hygiene Clinic, the Incomplete 
Sentences Blank, in this case, gives a strong indication of psychotic behavior 
that would suggest a program which should be primarily diagnostic rather than 
immediately therapeutic. This would be particularly important if intake pro- 
cedures required elimination of psychotics who would be recommended for 
hospitalization. 

This particular patient presents an extremely difficult therapeutic problem 
since there are so few avenues of approach which might be utilized as the 
starting point for the patient to build up a more adequate acceptance of himself. 

On the positive side, for therapeutic prognosis, is his apparent need to 
establish a relationship with some accepting and nonthreatening strong masculine 
figure, his insight into his needs, and his strong desire to obtain outside help. 



Janice Brown 

Janice Brown is a 23-year-old college student who taught school for a year 
and then returned to complete her degree. Because she was curious about 
the results, the subject requested that she be given some personality tests. The 
ISB and other techniques were administered by a psychology graduate student. 

Regarding the family situation, it is known that the mother is living and 
the father dead, and that they were divorced some time prior to his death. 
One sibling, a brother, does not live at home. The subject's ISB responses are 
quoted below. 

1. I like . . . doing things for others— especially those who are kind to me. 

2. The happiest time ... in my life is still anticipated— I've had many happy times but, 
off hand, can't think of any specific one to put first. 

33 



3. I want to know . . . exactly what my biggest trouble is. 

4. Back home . . . There isn't any such relationship as "back home." Home has been 
and is the same place today as years ago. 

5. I regret . . . that there seemingly isn't time to do all the things I'd like to do. 

6. At bedtime ... I completely relax and feel at ease. 

7. Boys . . . are nice people to have around— where would the world be without them. 

8. The best . . . religion a person can have is his own philosophy of life. 

9. What annoys me ... is people who think and act as though they know it all when 
they actually don't. 

10. People . . . say I'm always calm during any trying situation although inwardly I some- 
times don't feel so calm. 

11. A mother . . . 's greatest responsibility is to her family. 

12. I feel . . . that things can never be quite as bad as people make out they are. 

13. My greatest fear ... is loneliness— people mean too much to me. 

14. In high school ... I had many friends, got good marks, and actively participated in 
activities— all three were important. 

15. I can't . . . relax many times when I'm out with a boy even though I want to. 

16. Sports . . . are good for a person— wish I had more time to participate in more of them. 

17. When I was a child . . . things appeared much differently from the way they appear 
now as I look back on them. 

18. My nerves . . . display themselves in my itching my face— even when there isn't any- 
thing to itch. 

19. (Seeing) Other people . . . make such complete fools of themselves at times— makes 
me determined that I won't be so foolish. 

20. I suffer . . . when anyone makes remarks about my weight or complexion since I 
have trouble with both. 

21. I failed . . . when I began teaching school because I wasn't mature enough— I know 
why and have changed completely. 

22. Reading ... is important to me— it doesn't bother me so terribly much if I haven't 
anything else to do because I enjoy reading— there are exceptions however. 

23. My mind ... is average— although with determination I can comprehend a lot of 
things. 

24. The future ... is uncertain but I am determined that I will be successful. 

25. I need . . . appreciation shown for things I do for other people, although I keep on 
doing them even though I don't get it. 

26. Marriage ... is one of the most important things in life to me— I don't think my life 
would be complete without it. 

27. I am best when ... I know I have been accepted by the person or group whose 
company I'm in. 

28. Sometimes ... I wish I could do things over— but actually if I have made a mistake, 
I'm glad of the experience and hope to profit from it. 

29. What pains me ... is criticism— I'm sensitive about it even when I know it's construc- 
tive and meant for my own good. 

SO. I hate . . . people who gossip with malicious intent— if people can't say good things 
about someone, they shouldn't say anything. 

31. This school . . . has been the background for many good things for me— educational 
primarily, but also social. 

32. I am very . . . conscientious in all the things I do— too much in some instances I've 
been told. 

33. The only trouble ... is there doesn't ever seem to be enough time to do things— that 
doesn't indicate lack of organization merely that 

34. I wish ... I could do so many more things. 

35. My father ... is dead— his death was merely an anticlimax since his existence as a 
father ended long before that. 

36. I secretly . . . wish I had someone to give all the affection and love I'm capable of 
giving. 



34 



37. I . . . try so hard to be kind and thoughtful to people— it hurts to not have the kind- 
ness and thoughtfulness appreciated. 

38. Dancing ... is fun. 

39. My greatest worry is . . . insecurity— I've seen too many others lead unhappy lives. 

40. Most girls . . . are pretty nice people— but are individual— don't think any characteristic 
sums most of them up. 

Analysis 
Familial Attitudes 

There is no indication that the family and home afford Janice any feeling 
of security or constitute a positive aspect of her life. She expresses negative 
attitudes toward both her mother and father and, perhaps significantly, does 
not mention her sibling at all. Outstanding is her extremely hostile attitude 
toward her father which continues even after his death, so that she says (item 
35), "My father ... is dead— his death was merely an anticlimax since his 
existence as a father ended long before that." 

One also suspects a poor relationship with her mother since she implies that 
her mother has failed the family when she comments (item 11), "A mother 
. . 's greatest responsibility is to her family." 

Social and Sexual Attitudes 

If nothing more than the number of sentences devoted to this topic were 
considered, one would quickly see the importance of this area of adjustment 
to the subject. She feels very insecure (item 39) and expresses a strong need 
for acceptance (item 27). In an attempt to combat fears of loneliness and 
nonacceptance (item 13), she makes bids for approval in this manner (item 1), 
"I like . . . doing things for others— especially those who are kind to me." 
However, it seems apparent that this method of obtaining social satisfaction is 
not successful; it obviously does not lead to the acceptance and status which 
she desires although she repeats this mode of behavior as the only pathway 
toward acceptance which she sees. Sentences 25 and 37 are illustrative— "I 
need . . . appreciation shown for things I do for other people, although I 
keep on doing them even though I don't get it." "I . . . try so hard to be 
kind and thoughtful to people— it hurts to not have the kindness and thought- 
fulness appreciated." 

Despite her need for acceptance and approval from others as well as a 
desire for social status, she makes several rather critical remarks about people 
which may be interpreted as a defense for felt social rejection. For example, 
she says (items 9, 19 and 30)— "What annoys me ... is people who think 
and act as though they know it all when they actually don't." "(Seeing) Other 
people . . . make such complete fools of themselves at times— makes me de- 
termined that I won't be so foolish." "I hate . . . people who gossip with 
malicious intent— if people can't say good things about someone, they shouldn't 
say anything." 

Her heterosexual relationships are extremely important to her and here 
she seems to be having even more difficulty in obtaining satisfaction. Although 

35 



she expresses warm attitudes toward men (items 7 and 36), she is insecure 
and unsure of herself in their presence ( item 15 ) . In her eyes marriage appears 
to be the solution of many of her problems, since it would provide for her 
security, love and social status (item 26). 

The attitude she expresses toward girls in item 40 is a conventional one, 
and it would seem that her relationships with them are not as important to 
her as some of the other aspects which have been mentioned. "Most girls . . . 
are pretty nice people— but are individual— don't think any characteristic sums 
most of them up." 

Further increasing her feelings of social inferiority are her weight and 
complexion about which she is very sensitive (item 20). 

To meet the frustrations which confront her, she takes solace in solitary 
activities, reading in particular (probably romantic in nature); but one has 
the feeling that this is no real substitute satisfaction since she says in item 22, 
"Reading ... is important to me— it doesn't bother me so terribly much if 
I haven't anything else to do because I enjoy reading— there are exceptions 
however." 

General Attitudes 

There are frequent complaints of lack of time to do all of the things which 
she would like (items 5, 16, 34, and 33). "I regret . . . that there seemingly 
isn't time to do all the things I'd like to do." "Sports . . . are good for a per- 
son—wish I had more time to participate in more of them." "I wish ... I 
could do so many more things." "The only trouble ... is there doesn't ever 
seem to be enough time to do things— that doesn't indicate lack of organization 
merely that . . . ." Although the desire for more time to do things usually 
may be considered a healthy sign, in this case the references are too frequent 
and suggest that lack of time is used by this subject as a defense for failure 
and lack of accomplishment. 

She looks on school positively and it would seem that this is partially 
the result of what it potentially means to her socially and as a means of getting 
some help. Her comment in item 31 is, "This school . . . has been the back- 
ground for many good things for me— educational primarily, but also social." 

While she conceives of her younger life with somewhat of a good old days 
feeling, as in item 14— "In high school ... I had many friends, got good 
marks, and actively participated in activities— all three were important."— she 
also expresses a more negative attitude (item 17)— "When I was a child . . . 
things appeared much differently from the way they appear now as I look 
back on them." 

Character Traits 

Janice shows partial, though not deep, insight into some of her difficulties 
by stating that her skin condition is aggravated by her general nervousness 
(item 18). Other indications of tension are her inability to relax and feel at 
ease in certain social situations (item 15), and also in item 6— "At bedtime . . . 
I completely relax and feel at ease." 

36 



Certain sentences indicate that she is a strong believer that success will 
come through determination (items 21, 23 and 24). Concomitant is her plati- 
tudinous optimism that it's all for the best regardless of what happens. For 
example (items 12 and 28)— "I feel . . . that things can never be quite as 
bad as people make out they are." "Sometimes ... I wish I could do things 
over— but actually if I have made a mistake, I'm glad of the experience and 
hope to profit from it." To summarize her attitudes toward herself, she sees 
herself as determined (items 23 and 24), calm (item 10) and conscientious 
(item 32). 

In addition to feelings of inferiority, nervousness, social conformity, and 
feelings of rejection, also important is some indication of paranoid feelings as 
is seen particularly in item 30— "I hate . . . people who gossip with malicious 
intent— if people can't say good things about someone, they shouldn't say 
anything." 

Summary 

This subject may be characterized as a girl who is seriously maladjusted in 
family, social and sexual areas. She sees herself as a serious, conscientious, help- 
ful person who can overcome many of her problems through her determination. 

Even after her father's death she expresses extreme hostility toward him. 
This may be the result of her mother's attitudes which she has internalized 
and/or may have arisen because of a feeling of rejection by the male parent. 

She has implied that her mother has failed in her responsibilities toward 
the family (probably chiefly toward the subject), and one sees that the home 
is not a source of satisfaction for her. Perhaps her omission of any mention of 
the sibling is important and indicative of lack of warmth toward him. If this 
is the case, it may be that the subject feels that her sibling was favored, and 
that her mother has failed in her responsibility toward her specifically. 

Her whole adjustment in the social and sexual area is one of insecurity 
and a strong need for approval and acceptance. She seems to try to win 
friends by doing things for them, but apparently is not very successful since 
she complains in martyrlike fashion that they do not appreciate it. To meet 
the frustrations which confront her, she attempts to gain satisfaction through 
solitary activities and by a defensive criticality. There is also an indication of 
some paranoid feelings. 

As poor as her general social adjustment is, the problems of her relationship 
to men and her need for acceptance are even greater. Here, too, she feels tense 
and insecure, which is frustrating since she places a high premium on someone 
to love and marriage as an ultimate goal. Marriage, she seems to feel, would 
guarantee her love and would also be a symbol of success in the social and 
sexual spheres. 

Contribution of the 1SB 

The ISB substantiates the need for psychotherapy— a need of which the 
subject is at least partially aware in that she is curious about her personality 

37 



and seems to be struggling with the problem of seeking help. She has already 
developed some superficial insight; but the pattern of self-concern, feelings of 
martyrdom and rejection by others are fairly well established, so that long 
term therapy would be necessary. At the outset it would seem that the patient 
would demand reassurance rather than insight or need for change. Probably 
therapy could best be accomplished with a female therapist who could accept 
the subject without allowing the subject to become too dependent on her for 
ego support. 

John Richardson 

John Richardson is a male patient in a mental hospital. The admission 
diagnosis of early schizophrenic reaction was later changed to chronic alcoholism, 
nonpsychotic. He is 22 years old, married, and has one child. His father is 
dead, the mother has remarried, and he has a 26-year-old sister. His ISB re- 
sponses are quoted below. 

1. I like . . . airplanes very much. 

2. The happiest time ... in my life, was when I got married. 

3. I want to know . . . more about life. 

4. Back home ... is where I ought to be. 

5. I regret . . . drinking and trouble, I've caused. 

6. At bedtime ... I say my prayers and think of tomorrow. 

7. Men . . . should be athelectic & always keep strong. 

8. The best . . . thing in life is freedom. 

9. What annoys me ... is being in a mental Hospital. 

10. People ... all have their own various social spheres. 

11. A mother . . . 's love, is the greatest in the world. 

12. I feel . . . that I'm not accomplishing anything in here. 

13. My greatest fear ... is the love & fear of God. 

14. In school ... I got along with everybody. 

15. I can't ... go home until the doctors say so. 

16. Sports . . . are very good for the body, mind, and morrale. 

17. When I was a child ... I had everything I needed. 

18. My nerves . . . aren't so good since being here. 

19. Other people . . . are no different than me. 

20. I suffer . . . only when I bring it on myself. 

21. I failed ... to do my duty more than once. 

22. Reading ... is good for broadning the mind. 

23. My mind ... is normal. 

24. The future ... is what I intend to make of it. 

25. I need . . . the good company & satisfaction of being with my wife and son. 

26. Marriage ... is what we make of it. 

27. I am best when . . . working everyday. 

28. Sometimes ... I enjoy myself here. 

29. What pains me ... is not being free. 

30. I hate . . . nothing but dislike somethings. 

31. This place ... is really not for me. 

32. I am very . . . ernest to prove my worthy ness. 

33. The only trouble . . . with me is being here. 

34. I wish ... to go home and make amends. 

35. My father ... is intelligent and respected by me. 

36. I secretly . . . would like to be a successful singer. 

37. I . . . love my wife and son very much. 

38 



38. Dancing ... is fun and improves posture and shyness. 

39. My greatest worry is . . . the safety of Mom, Pat, Cliff, wife & child. 

40. Most women . . . are good, but some are bad. 

Analysis 
Familial Attitudes 

The patient's response to item 17— "When I was a child ... I had every- 
thing I needed."— would indicate a history of indulgence which, as seen in 
item 11— "A mother . . . 's love is the greatest in the world."— suggests a strong 
dependency as a result. It is interesting here that he felt the need to change 
the stimulus to a possessive in order to express his attitude. 

Several responses indicate a feeling of not being a man or, conversely, the 
need to demonstrate that he is a man. Item 7— "Men . . . should be athelectic 
& always keep strong."— would suggest strong conflicts over his dependency and 
attachment to his mother on one hand; on the other hand is the feeling that it 
is up to him to act like a man and to take care of his wife and child. Little 
information is given about either his father or stepfather except in item 35, 
which would indicate that he feels that he has not earned the respect of either 
his father or his stepfather, whichever reference was intended. 

It is also of considerable interest that in item 39 he places the safety of 
his mother and sister first and uses their familiar names, but mentions his wife 
and child last, using a more impersonal form of appellation. The identity of 
"Cliff" is not certain, but probably is his stepfather. 

In summary, it would seem that he still is strongly attached to his mother 
and sister; feels that his wife and child are a responsibility; and that he has 
considerable conflict over his inability to accept that responsibility. In face of 
a father figure, he feels inadequate and unmanly. 

Social and Sexual Attitudes 

In spite of the patient's desire or need to prove himself a man, as indicated 
in items 7 and 32, his secret ambition is to be a successful singer, which would 
tend to be a feminine identification. In general, the patient does not express 
severe problems in regard to getting along in social situations, but rather tends 
to give conformity-type responses as in the following examples (items 22, 2 
and 20)— "Reading ... is good for broadning the mind." "The happiest time 
... in my life, was when I got married." "I suffer . . . only when I bring 
it on myself." 

Along with a tendency to express religious sentiments, his conformity 
tendency, feminine identification, and indications of dependency, all suggest 
a picture of indulgence by his mother and possibly by his older sister, and a 
resultant identification with the opposite sex. 

General Attitudes 

The patient expresses a higher degree of religiousness than might be 
expected. The statements in sentences 6 and 13, that he says his prayers at 

39 



bedtime and that his greatest fear is his "love & fear of God," might be taken 
at face value, although it is quite possible that he is expressing the attitudes 
of his mother and the responses represent a superficial type of conformity. In 
addition, many responses indicate a strong tendency to accept blame as well 
as indicating the importance to him of duty and moral superiority. 

Character Traits 

Diagnostically, the sentences are logical and coherent and betray no bizarre- 
ness of thought, associational breakdowns or excessive stereotyping. 

Outstanding character traits seem to be dependency and conformity. Item 
28— "Sometimes ... I enjoy myself here."— would suggest that, in spite of his 
conforming response that it is important for him to get out of the hospital so 
he can be with his wife and child, he finds the dependent position of a patient 
in a hospital satisfying to him. 

It could be expected that this patient would be superficially outgoing, 
socially oriented, quick to blame himself, effeminate in interests and possibly 
behavior, but at the same time trying to prove his manliness by athletic means. 

Summary 

Sentence completions in this case would give an initial impression of a 
dependent, superficially conforming individual overly attached to his mother 
and possibly sister, feminine in his identifications which conflict with his sexual 
role, unable to take responsibility and the acting of the masculine role demanded 
of him. His apparent solution is repression of his unacceptable alternatives 
and the seeking of release of his conflicts and problems by alcoholism. 

Inadequacy, immaturity, guilt, and conflict in sexual roles are the problems 
with which the therapist would have to deal in any plan for treating this 
subject. 

Contribution of the ISB 

In addition to the general description of the patient's personality and 
implications regarding etiology, some concrete information pertaining to psycho- 
therapy is suggested by the ISB. One would expect to receive from this patient 
a great many conformity responses and find quick acceptance of superficial 
insights; but the patient would not be likely to take any real responsibility for 
changing his patterns of behavior. It would be easy to be misled into thinking 
a great deal of progress had been made in therapy inside the hospital only 
to find a repetition of his alcoholic solution upon release. Therapy might be 
concerned primarily with developing the patient's need to accept adult respon- 
sibility and his potential ability to do so. 



Ruth Robinson 

Mrs. Ruth Robinson is a mother who brought a problem child to the Ohio 
State University Psychological Clinic. Jane, the child involved, is the second 
of four children and was referred to the Clinic because of nervousness and "not 

40 



doing well in school." It was also thought that a chronic skin rash might be 
related to psychological problems. After one or two visits to the Clinic, the 
mother completed an Incomplete Sentences Blank— Adult Form. The mother 
was asked to take the test in order to obtain more information regarding her 
general attitudes toward the child and the family, and also to help determine 

the mother's potentiality for insight into her own role in the family situation. 
Her ISB responses are quoted below. 

1. I like . . . people mostly. 

2. The happiest time ... of the day is when my work is done. 

3. I want to know ... so many things. 

4. Back home ... I hope the children are sleeping. 

5. I regret . . . many things. 

6. At bedtime ... I love to know I've accomplished something. 

7. Men . . . are interesting. 

8. The best . . . 

9. What annoys me ... is to have one job come up before I'm ready. 

10. People . . . are very necessary to me. 

11. A mother ... is made not born. 

12. I feel . . . that life is a challenge. 

13. My greatest fear ... is that I'll get too tired to really feel. 

14. In school ... its great to be able to learn more. 

15. I can't . . . seem to do all I want to. 

16. Sports . . . always intrigued me— but was never good at it. 

17. When I Was a child ... I was a stinker. 

18. My nerves . . . try to get the best of me— if I'm not careful. 

19. Other people . . . hurt me but I can't stay away. 

20. I suffer . . . from lack of confidence. 

21. I failed ... so many times its pitiful. 

22. Reading ... is a great relaxation. 

23. My mind . . . keeps going in its own private rat-race. 

24. The future ... to me will always be hopeful. 

25. I need ... a good balance wheel. 

26. Marriage ... is quite an experience that we need to really live. 

27. I am best when ... I feel I am approved of. 

28. Sometimes ... I am not satisfied with myself. 

29. What pains me . . . most is to be disgusted with myself. 

30. I hate ... to find myself losing my temper. 

31. This place ... I don't know what to write here. 

32. I am very . . . glad that things are going well with Jane. 

33. The only trouble ... is I wish I could have helped her sooner. 

34. I wish . . . the improvement continues. 

35. My father ... is a good soul. 

36. I secretly ... try to close the door to others. 

37. I . . . like to watch the students coming into class. 

38. Dancing . . . not good at it. 

39. My greatest worry is . . . I'll make myself ridiculous. 

40. Most women . . . are so sure of themselves that I envy them. 



Analysis 
Familial Attitudes 

The mother's attitude toward her children is partly described in her com- 
pletion of sentence 11— "A mother ... is made not born."— and also in sentences 

41 



32 and 33, the last of which expresses her personal concern for her failure in 
child raising. Not much information is given regarding her attitude toward 
her husband other than the careful neutrality of her response to item 26— 
"Marriage ... is quite an experience that we need to really live." In general, 
she seems to accept the mother's role as one of considerable responsibility which 
she finds difficult to live up to; as a result she feels inadequate in meeting her 
own standards for herself and her children. One would suspect that she sees 
her husband as playing a rather minor role in the family situation and that, 
in general, she does not feel any strong cooperative bond with him. 

Social and Sexual Attitudes 

A tendency toward perfectionism and high standards seems to be evident 
in her social relations, as illustrated in these sentence completions (items 39, 
40, 27, and 19). "My greatest worry is . . . I'll make myself ridiculous." "Most 
women. . . are so sure of themselves that I envy them." "I am best when . . 
I feel I am approved of." "Other people . . . hurt me but I can't stay away. 
These responses suggest that a strong need for recognition may dominate her 
relationships with other people so that she is overconcerned with her failures, 
inadequacies, and inability to reach her own standards of perfection. Her 
need for social recognition is also evident in her interests in further education, 
as shown in items 14 and 37— "In school ... its great to be able to learn more.' 
"I . . . like to watch the students coming into class." Many of the other 
sentences emphasize her failures and her strong attempt to feel that she has 
accomplished something. 

Only minor indications of sexual adjustment are present, indicated again 
by the guarded neutral type of response, such as, "Men . . . are interesting.' 
The inability to answer item 8 might be a carryover disturbance from the pre- 
ceding sentence beginning with "Men . . . ," and would be indicative of some 
conflict in the sexual area. 

General Attitudes 

Mrs. Robinson apparently places a great deal of emphasis on accomplish- 
ment, success, education, and skill in general. When responding to the stimuli 
"Sports ..." and "Dancing . . . ," she feels it necessary to point out her 
inadequacy in these areas. Although she usually likes people and is generally 
dependent on them for recognition and approval, she tends to maintain high 
standards of her own and to have a strong need for independence and possibly 
dominance, probably as a defense against expected rejection by others. This 
latter is suggested particularly by the response (item 36), "I secretly . . . try 
to close the door to others." 

Character Traits 

One of her most prominent character traits is a tendency toward perfec- 
tionism and the maintenance of high standards. Along with this trait, she has 
strong feelings of inadequacy, lack of accomplishment, and inability to meet 
her own standards. A general state of tension is indicated by her completion 
(item 23), "My mind . . . keeps going in its own private rat-race." There are 

42 



also suggestions of impulsivity, quick temper, and a high degree of sensitivity 
to the criticism and approval of others. Perhaps outstanding indications of 
good prognosis for insight are a sense of humor, as shown in item 17— "When I 
was a child ... I was a stinker."— and a hopeful general attitude indicated 
in items 24, 12 and 1— "The future ... to me will always be hopeful." "I feel 
. . . that life is a challenge." "I like . . . people mostly." 

Summary 

Mrs. Robinson presents a picture of an active, emotionally labile mother with 
high self standards and strong feelings of inadequacy to face her own ambitions 
and goals. She is probably hypersensitive to criticism and to social approval. 
Neither a bad nor a particularly warm relationship with her husband is evident; 
although there is obvious love for her children, they are also rather a burden 
to her in that they are constant tests of her ability as a mother and a reflection 
of her own inadequacy. 

Contribution of the ISB 

The ISB responses tend to suggest as part of the etiological picture of the 
child's difficulty, the tendency of the mother to hold up high standards and 
to be overconcerned with other people's attitudes toward the behavior of her- 
self and her children. One might hypothesize that the mother has been unable 
to accept Jane for what she is and what she is capable of doing, and, as she 
does for herself, consistently demands a higher standard of performance. Pos- 
sibly she sees in her child a reflection both of her own social inadequacies and 
her failure or inability to gain satisfactions in intellectual accomplishments. In 
general, however, the mother shows an aggressive and hopeful approach to 
her problems and some sense of humor; both of these traits would suggest a 
good prognosis for an attempt by the Clinic to carry treatment with the mother 
herself over an extended period of time. 

George Edwards 

George Edwards is a 25-year-old college junior who went to the Ohio State 
Occupational Opportunities Service for vocational counseling after he had 
received several low grades in his major courses. Specifically, he desired advice 
as to whether he should continue college and, if so, what courses he should take. 

The family consists of mother, father, and a sister three years his junior. 
He enlisted in the Navy when he was 18 and spent his 44 months in service 
on a carrier. At the end of the war he received an honorable discharge. His 
ISB responses are quoted below. 

1. I like ... to tell people my troubles. 

2. The happiest time . . . s I've had were the few times I've had a girl-friend and felt 
wanted. 

3. I want to know . . . how to adjust myself so that I can have confidence in myself and 
either learn to study or be satisfied with my lack of ability. 

4. Back home . . . my family wasn't very pleasant and I never felt that I was wanted. 

5. I regret . . . many of the things I did when I was young and dislike talking about them. 

43 



6. At bedtime ... on the night before a test I get quite restless and can't sleep for hours. 

7. Boys ... 

8. The best . . . thing for me is to have more contact with women which will improve 
my confidence in myself. 

9. What annoys me ... is people who are very confident in themselves. 

10. People ... all have their problems. 

11. A mother . . . who is happy and loves her children can help make the children happy 
and well adjusted. 

12. I feel . . . sometimes that if I could improve my grades I could then improve my 
confidence in myself. 

13. My greatest fear ... is I think, being pushed out into the world with no one to 
help me. 

14. In high school ... I graduated in the lower third of my class. 

15. I can't . . . study or get passing grades. 

16. Sports . . . which are highly competitive I can only enjoy as a spectator. 

17. When I was a child ... I was punished severly for misdemeanors. 

18. My nerves . . . are high strung, which I think, makes me too sensitive to many situations. 

19. Other people . . . , generally speaking, are almost as bad off as I am. 

20. I suffer . . . because I am too self-centered and have no other outside interests. 

21. I failed ... in my college studies partly because I wasn't intelligent enough and 
partly because I had no incentive. 

22. Reading . . . speed is one of my worst problems since I am in the lower 10 percentile. 

23. My mind ... is not as well adjusted to this world as it could be. 

24. The future . . . frightens me. 

25. I need . . . someone to love me and make me feel wanted. 

26. Marriage ... is almost out of the question until I straighten myself out. 

27. I am best when ... I have confidence in my ability to do what is required of me. 

28. Sometimes ... I wish I had fife to five over again. 

29. What pains me ... a great deal is to be criticized. 

30. I hate ... to be without some security or someone to lean on. 

31. This school ... in many cases is too impersonal and too large. 

32. I am very . . . tired of school at the present and I also am too self-centered. 

33. The only trouble . . . with me, some people say, is that I just don't have any incentive. 

34. I wish ... I had a goal to work towards. 

35. My father ... is egotistical, dictatorial, and has little patience with me. 

36. I secretly . . . wish I was in the position to tell some people to "go to hell". 

37. I . . . think too much of myself. 

38. Dancing ... is a very good way to meet people and I wish I could do it better. 

39. My greatest worry is . . . what I am going to do in the future. 

40. Most girls . . . would find me odd and not one to get too closely associated with. 

Analysis 
Familial Attitudes 

Apparently familial relationships have never assumed a positive aspect in 
this subject's life since he says (items 4 and 17)— "Back home ... my family 
wasn't very pleasant and I never felt that I was wanted." "When I was a 
child ... I was punished severly for misdemeanors." It seems that his father 
makes George feel very insecure which results in hostility toward his father as 
is seen in item 35, "My father ... is egotistical, dictatorial, and has little 
patience with me." He seems to have a warmer feeling toward his mother and 
one suspects that he feels that his father has made her unhappy and thus 
excuses the implied failure which he expresses in item 11, "A mother . . . who 

44 



is happy and loves her children can help make the children happy and well 
adjusted." The statements regarding his father and mother give some indication 
that he projects the blame for his difficulties onto them. 

Omission of any response concerning his sister may be indicative of a poor 
relationship with her also. 

Social and Sexual Attitudes 

Throughout the record there are frequent references to feelings of inadequacy 
and inferiority and a strong need to build up feelings of more confidence. As 
might be predicted, at the same time he resents individuals who make him 
feel insecure, as illustrated in items 9 and 29— "What annoys me ... is people 
who are very confident in themselves." "What pains me ... a great deal is 
to be criticized." 

While he strongly desires a warm relationship with some woman (item 25) 
and says (items 2 and 8)— "The happiest time . . . s I've had were the few 
times I've had a girl-friend and felt wanted." "The best . . . thing for me is to 
have more contact with women which will improve my confidence in myself."— 
he has had few such relationships and expects rejection by girls (item 40) — 
"Most girls . . . would find me odd and not one to get too closely associated 
with." 

His completion to item 5— "I regret . . . many of the things I did when I 
was young and dislike talking about them."— strongly suggests guilt over early 
sexual behavior. In light of this, his failure to respond to item 7, "Boys . . . ," 
may be meaningful in terms of early homosexual relationships. 

General Attitudes 

It is obvious that he has had and continues to have difficulty in school 
(items 12, 14, 21, and 22); at one point he becomes quite critical of the uni- 
versity when he says (item 31), "This school ... in many cases is too imper- 
sonal and too large." It would seem, however, that his lack of achievement in 
school and his playing of the "dumb" role is a defense against really having to 
compete with others, since then his feelings of inadequacy might be substan- 
tiated. If he does not achieve, then fewer demands are made of him. 

Character Traits 

Probably most outstanding in the record are the indications of strong 
dependency needs as, for example, items 1, 13 and 30— "I like ... to tell 
people my troubles." "My greatest fear ... is I think, being pushed out into 
the world with no one to help me." "I hate ... to be without some security 
or someone to lean on." This may partially explain his fear of the future ( items 
24 and 39) since, if he does not complete school, he will be forced to assume 
a more independent role. It is his feeling that confidence is the keynote to his 
adjustment, and he summarizes his problem by saying (item 3), "I want to 
know . . . how to adjust myself so that I can have confidence in myself and 
either learn to study or be satisfied with my lack of ability." 

45 



He frequently is self -critical as (items 20, 32 and 37)— "I suffer . . . be- 
cause I am too self-centered and have no other outside interests." "I am very 
. . . tired of school at the present and I also am too self-centered." "I . . . 
think too much of myself." However, these may not be internalized attitudes, 
but merely repetitions of statements that have been directed toward him. 

Most of the time he has difficulty in defining his problems except in very 
general terms. He also frequently rationalizes his failures, as when he says in 
item 21, "I failed ... in my college studies pardy because I wasn't intelligent 
enough and partly because I had no incentive." Occasionally he uses fantasy as 
a mode of solution of problems (items 28 and 36)— "Sometimes ... I wish I 
had life to live over again." "I secretly . . . wish I was in the position to tell 
some people to 'go to hell'." 

Summary 

George is a young man whose feelings of inadequacy and inferiority are so 
great that he withdraws from competitive situations. This may partly explain 
his failure in school, although he suggests that it is due to lack of intelligence 
and incentive. He seems to have internalized his concept of himself as being 
"dumb" and, as far as objective criteria are concerned, his belief is strengthened 
for he points out his low grades, the fact that he graduated in the lower third of 
his class, and his slow reading rate. 

Conflict over future plans regarding school seems to be complicated by his 
strong dependency needs. Apparentiy, feelings of inadequacy and of being 
unwanted originated in the family and have generalized to all areas of adjust- 
ment. A protective and anxious mother and restrictive father have made him 
dependent and unable to face the problems of life. 

While he strongly desires a warm relationship with a woman, he expects 
rejection. The situation may be further complicated by guilt over early sexual 
experiences. 

Contribution of the ISB 

As a selective device in vocational guidance, this record points strongly to 
the need for psychotherapy before such guidance is given. The problems of 
vocational choice and school success are clearly related to this subject's strong 
dependency needs, his fear of responsibility, and the utilization of his maladjust- 
ment as a method of avoiding the demands of life. 

It may be expected that this individual will want advice, reassurance and 
acceptance; but it will probably be difficult for him to take much initiative in 
treatment procedures. As the relationship develops, it is likely that he will 
want to depend more and more on the therapist for making decisions. It would 
seem that the main task of therapy would be to build for independence, increase 
feelings of confidence, and develop a feeling that others will like him even 
though he doesn't reach ideal standards. 



46 



Sally Grover 

Sally Grover is a 16-year-old ninth grade student who was referred to the 
Akron Child Study Department by her high school counselor. The main prob- 
lem, according to the referent, was Sally's lack of friends and her growing 
general unhappiness. At that time she was living with an aunt, since her 
father was dead and her mother had deserted the family some time after his 
death. Her sister was living with another aunt in a different city. Since the 
time of the mother's desertion there had been frequent moves to different 
relatives so that her school attendance was quite erratic. Her responses to the 
lSB—High School Form are quoted below. 

1. I like . . . nice people, teachers and Miss Anderson, Burns. 

2. The happiest time . . . was when I started to school. My father was alive. 

3. I want to know ... a lot of things. 

4. At home ... I haven't got a home. 

5. I regret . . . that I don't know more. I would like to learn. 

6. At bedtime ... I lay thinking of the day. 

7. Boys . . . are sometimes nice and sometimes bad. 

8. The best . . . people are the ones who give you encouragement. 

9. What annoys me ... is for someone 

10. People . . . are nice usually but I suppose I met the unusual. 

11. A mother . . . should be a wonderful person. 

12. I feel . . . like a cynic but I'm not really. 

13. My greatest fear ... is that I can't succeed. 

14. In the lower grades ... I was an average student. 

15. I can't ... I believe there is nothing I can't do if I once set myself to do it. 

16. Sports . . . football is the best sport. 

17. When I was younger ... I loved to read and even then I tried to dislike people. 

18. My nerves . . . are terrible. I go to pieces at the slightest things not outward but 
always inside. 

19. Other kids . . . are some good, others bad. 

20. I suffer . . . inside when I'm fussed at. 

21. I failed . . . myself when I was raised. 

22. Reading ... is a very grand recreation. 

23. My mind ... is a thing that will give me an edge over the other kids because I like 
to read and study. I would like to improve. 

24. The future ... is dark but I got to make good. 

25. I need ... a friend. A friend is someone who knows all about you and likes you 
just the same. 

26. Dating ... is O.K. unless it is with a fresh boy. 

27. I am best when ... I am in a jolly mood. 

28. Sometimes ... I love to read and write essays. 

29. What pains me ... is teachers who have no interest in their students. 

30. I hate . . . people who kick other people around. 

31. At school ... I like to talk with the teachers on how to improve my mind. 

32. I am very . . . very unhappy, but I always have been so it's nothing new. 

33. The only trouble ... is that I am extremely nervous. 

34. I wish . . . that I was living by myself. 

35. My father . . . was the very best friend I ever had. 

36. I secretly . . . like people but don't want to. 

37. I . . . sometimes like myself but sometimes I hate my action. 

38. Dancing ... is a favorite pastime for others but not for me. 

39. My greatest worry is . . . that I might go crazy. 

40. Most girls . . . are nice kids. 

47 



Analysis 
Familial Attitudes 

In speaking of her father, Sally says (items 2 and 35)— "The happiest time 
. . . was when I started to school. My father was alive." "My father . . . was 
the very best friend I ever had." This suggests certainly that the subject identi- 
fied very closely with her father, and that he represented for her a source of 
warmth and security which she did not find in the mother. Apparently the 
mother could not, or at least did not, fill the role of satisfier of the subject's 
basic needs since Sally remarks in item 11, "A mother . . . should be a wonder- 
ful person." 

It would seem also that her present placement offers her little satisfaction, 
for she indicates her hostile feeling by saying in item 4, "At home ... I haven't 
got a home." In a later statement (item 34) she rejects it altogether— "I wish 
. . . that I was living by myself." 

Social and Sexual Attitudes 

Running throughout this whole record are indications of an unhappy social 
adjustment in the broadest sense. She feels warmth for people and would like 
a lasting, understanding relationship with them (items 1 and 25). However, 
she is afraid of their rejection so that she protects herself by assuming a cynical 
attitude (item 12) and by making strong criticism of others. Illustrative of this 
are items 10 and 30— "People . . . are nice usually but I suppose I met the 
unusual." "I hate . . . people who kick other people around." These defenses 
are not very strong and require effort on her part (item 17); as a result she 
finds herself liking others in spite of her felt rejection (item 36). Altogether 
she feels lonely and unwanted so that she comments summarily (item 32), "I 
am very . . . very unhappy, but I always have been so it's nothing new." 

It seems that for the most part Sally seeks satisfaction of her strong needs 
for acceptance from older people and is less concerned with peer group relation- 
ships. Apparently the most available pathway for such acceptance is through 
teachers (items 1 and 31), and when this pathway is blocked off she feels even 
more rejected and frustrated, causing her to say (item 29), "What pains me 
... is teachers who have no interest in their students." 

There are only limited indications of her peer relationships and those are 
mostly ambivalent in nature (items 7, 26 and 19)— "Boys . . . are sometimes 
nice and sometimes bad." "Dating ... is O.K. unless it is with a fresh boy." 
"Other kids . . . are some good, others bad." It would seem, however, that 
she does not mix much with individuals her age, and there is one indication 
that she does not share common satisfactions with them (item 38)— "Dancing 
... is a favorite pastime for others but not for me." 

Her activities seem to be largely of the spectator or solitary type, as illus- 
trated in these comments (items 16 and 22)— "Sports . . . football is the best 
sport." "Reading ... is a very grand recreation." Such nonsocial activities 
may be a form of compensation to minimize the frustrations of lack of social 
relationships. 

48 



General Attitudes 

There is at least one indication that she feels inferior and inadequate as a 
student since she states in item 5, "I regret . . . that I don't know more. I 
would like to learn." Apparently her means of compensation is through the 
stereotypes of interest often expressed by good students, such as (items 3, 5 
and 28)— "I want to know ... a lot of things." "I regret . . . that I don't 
know more. I would like to learn." "Sometimes ... I love to read and write 
essays." Concomitant is her strong need to succeed in the academic field, as 
seen in item 23, "My mind ... is a thing that will give me an edge over the 
other kids because I like to read and study. I would like to improve." 

Character Traits 

"My greatest fear ... is that I can't succeed." "The future ... is dark 
but I got to make good." These statements (items 13 and 24) illustrate her 
strong fear of failure and her need to succeed, since failure would be tanta- 
mount to having to accept her feelings of inadequacy as real. Recognition for 
accomplishment as a result of interest and determination is the mode by which 
she hopes to be able to satisfy her needs, since she says (items 15 and 23)— "I 
can't ... I believe there is nothing I can't do if I once set myself to do it." 
"My mind ... is a thing that will give me an edge over the other kids because 
I like to read and study. I would like to improve." 

Although she shows little insight into causes or, at any rate, gives little 
expression to them, she is greatly concerned about her nervousness and fears 
insanity (item 39). She states (items 18 and 20)— "My nerves ... are terrible. 
I go to pieces at the slightest things not outward but always inside." "I suffer 
. . inside when I'm fussed at." 

To some extent she feels picked on and discriminated against, since she says 
(items 20 and 30)— "I suffer . . . inside when I'm fussed at." "I hate . 
people who kick other people around." To meet these feelings she occasionally 
becomes aggressive toward others (items 10 and 29)— "People ... are nice 
usually but I suppose I met the unusual." "What pains me ... is teachers 
who have no interest in their students." In other cases she turns the hostile 
feelings inward and places the blame on herself, as in items 21 and 37— "I failed 
. . . myself when I was raised." "I . . . sometimes like myself but sometimes 
I hate my action." 

Summary 

This is the record of a girl who has a strong need for acceptance and 
warmth, but has few ways to satisfy it. It would seem that at an early age 
her only means of satisfying basic needs was her father, and that after his 
death she was without even this. Apparently this has resulted in a search for 
warmth and acceptance, particularly from some older person, but without much 
success. On the whole she is much less concerned about her relationships with 
her peers. 

49 



Her reactions to frustration of needs are aggression occasionally, which is 
directed toward others as well as herself, and channelizing her efforts toward 
recognition for success. As far as she is concerned, an education and acceptance 
from teachers is the most available pathway open to her. 

Contribution of the ISB 

Evidence from the record indicates that selection of a suitable clinician for 
this individual would not be a difficult matter. It may be seen that a male of 
any age or a young female would probably be most effective, but the essential 
requirement is that the therapist be able to give continued warm acceptance. 

All things point to this girl as being a good treatment risk: she is able to 
form and wants a warm relationship without fear of rejection; she is dissatisfied 
with the present state of affairs and desires a change; her defenses are not 
strong; and she is mature enough and intelligent enough to be able to develop 
more than superficial insights and accept interpretations. 

The record also suggests that as treatment progresses and she is secure in 
the relationship, then it may be wise to channelize her modes of satisfaction 
to peer group relations rather than to reinforce the seeking of parent substitutes. 



50 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

1. BELL, J. E. Projective techniques. New York: Longmans, Green and Co., 1948, 
pp. 45-72. 

2. BROWN, S. W. The use of an incomplete sentences test for the study of attitudes 
toward negroes. (Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, in progress.) 

3. HADLEY, J. M., and KENNEDY, V. E. A comparison between performance on a 
sentence completion test and academic success. Educ. Psychol. Meas., 1949, 9, 649-670. 

4. HOLZBERG, J., TEICHER, A., and TAYLOR, J. L. Contributions of clinical psychology 
to military neuropsychiatry in an army psychiatric hospital. /. clin. Psychol., 1947, 
3, 84-95. 

5. HUTT, M. L. The use of projective methods of personality measurement in army 
medical installations. /. clin. Psychol., 1945, 1, 134-140. 

6. MORTON, R. B. A controlled experiment in psychotherapy based on Rotter's social 
learning theory of personality. (Ph.D. dissertation, Ohio State University, 1949.) 

7. MURRAY, H. A., et al. Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University 
Press, 1939, pp. 530-545. 

8. ROHDE, A. R. Explorations in personality by the sentence completion method. /. appl. 
Psychol, 1946, 30, 169-181. 

9. . A note on the use of the sentence completions test in military installations since 

the beginning of World War II. /. consult. Psychol, 1948, 12, 190-193. 

^Jd\ ROTTER, J. B. Thematic Apperception Tests: Suggestions for administration and inter- 
pretation. /. Personality, 1946, 15, 70-92. 

11. ROTTER, J. B., and WILLERMAN, B. The incomplete sentences test as a method of 
studying personality. /. consult. Psychol, 1947, 11, 43-48. 

12. ROTTER, J. B., RAFFERTY, J., and SCHACHTITZ, E. Validation of the Rotter Incom- 
plete Sentences Blank for college screening. /. consult. Psychol, 1949, 13, 348-356. 

13. ROTTER, J. B. (In Anderson, H., and Anderson, G. Projective techniques.) The 
sentence completion method. New York: Prentice Hall, Inc. In press. 

14. SACKS, J. M. Effect upon projective responses of stimuli referring to the subject and 
to others. /. consult. Psychol, 1949, 13, 12-21. 

15. SHOR, J. Report on a verbal projective technique. /. clin. Psychol, 1946, 2, 279-282. 

16. STEIN, M. I. The thematic apperception test. Cambridge: Addison- Wesley Press, Inc., 
1948. Pp. 91. 

17. TOMKINS, S. S. The thematic apperception test. New York: Grune and Stratton, 
1947. Pp. 297. 



51 



PART II 



SCORING MANUALS 

It will be noted that examples have been omitted at some scoring levels. 
This is attributable to the fact that no responses which could reasonably be 
scored at those levels were found among the cases used to construct the scoring 
manuals. It is entirely possible that the user of the ISB will find a response 
which he feels should be placed at a level for which no example is given here; 
the general directions and ideology for scoring will govern the placement in 
such cases. 

The examiner is cautioned against using interchangeably the scoring manuals 
for male and female records. In constructing the scoring manuals, it was found 
that responses made by male and female subjects can not be scored by using 
the same criteria. 

The designated weights (0-6) used in scoring and the categories (P3-C3) 
have been noted beside each group of responses. 

Examples quoted in the scoring manuals have been scored on the basis of 
both content and length. For the convenience of the examiner, those responses 
which have been given an additional point in the direction of "C" because of 
length are marked with an asterisk. 



54 



SCORING EXAMPLES FOR MALE RECORDS 



I like . . . 

'6) C3. to know if I am going crazy 

[5) C2. security; to be alone; to be away from crowds; to be happy 

[4) CI. girls who don't smoke and drink; intellectual people; quiet people; (philosophical 
speculations); (solitary hobbies— e.g., reading; hunting and fishing by myself) 

N. to observe people; to eat; (foods); (seasons); hunting and fishing (unqualified) 

PI. sports; to have a good time; school; (social hobbies); (specific persons) 

P2. people; (any equivalent aspect of socialization); cold beer; girls; dancing; my wife 

P3. a great many things; most everything 

2. The happiest time . . . 

[6) C3. (negation, e.g., ends badly; goes wrong) 

[5) C2. is never to return again; is over; was in combat; (past condition in which regret is 
stated); (will be when ) 

[4) CI. is when discussing philosophy; was during childhood; will be at home; was in the 
Army (Navy); (solitary activity— e.g., long walks in the country) 

'3) N. working; in high school; (a season); (a time of day); (a date); (a place) 

2) PI. when I met ; was a vacation trip; a summer experience; when I came back to 

the United States; when exams are over; (with some person); when I pledged 

'1) P2. is yet to come; is ahead; need not be the good old days only; when I got married; 
to make someone else happy; (social activities involving a group) 

[O) P3. is now 

3. I want to know . . . 

C3. why I am alive; why I was born; how I can straighten myself out; how I can get 

over my troubles; how to solve my problems; (why any symptom of maladjustment 

is present ) 
C2. (how to solve personal problems of adjustment— e.g., how to be more popular; how 

to have more friends); how to get along with the fellows better; whether I will 

succeed or not 

CI. about life; of the mysteries of fife; about marriage; what life is all about; about 
the future; (how to obtain specific personal satisfaction— e.g., get better grades; 
a girl) 

N. what this (test) is all about; you; your name; why; (information, general) 
PI. everything; (information as to hobbies, vocations, sports); more about people 
P2. 
P3. 



55 



4. Back home . . . 

(6) C3. there are always arguments; I hate it; I hate to go there; (any strong negative 
statement)* is M«vj -krSfcy 

(5) C2. I felt secure, but it did not improve my condition; I wish I were; (desire to get 
away from home); (strong desire to be home) 

(4) CI. was the happiest time of my life; (expressed superiority of home conditions— e.g., 
people are more friendly); (mildly negative statement— e.g., I did nothing par- 
ticularly important; nothing ever happened) 

(3) N. on the farm; in Indiana; for keeps; I have (enumeration of family); (descrip- 
tion of normal home activity) 

(2) PI. (mildly positive statement about home without implying strong desire to be home— 
e.g., I had a good time; I love to go there for vacations) 

(1) P2. are a couple of swell parents; are fine friends 

(0) P3. 



5. I regret . . . 

(6) C3. being born; living; being a failure; (specific act with guilt) 

(5) C2. that I can't make up my mind; intellectual deficiency; my inability to concentrate; 

my inability to get along with people; not being socially active; that I am still 

single at 26; not having had a vigorous Me; my past; losing friends; ( any mistake, 

personality deficiency or inferiority); (inability to discover cause of some symptom) 
(4) CI. poor grades; my ignorance of subject matter; wasted time; time in the army; 

(academic deficiency); (mild dissatisfaction with present affairs); (specific acts 

or instances of bad judgment) 
(3) N. that I was late this morning; that I missed— (movie or play); to see bad test grades; 

to inform you; that I have but one life to give for my country; the war; (external 

social conditions not immediately affecting the subject) 
(2) PI. that I am taking this test; not being a millionaire 
(1) P2. very little; nothing 
(0) P3. that I am not fishing; to hear the alarm clock 



6. At bedtime . . . 

(6) C3. I can't sleep; I become depressed 

(5) C2. I review the day's events; I like to drink (hard liquor); I think; I have trouble in 

sleeping; I dream a lot 
(4) CI. I don't want to go to bed; I feel awake; I think about the future; I read the Bible; 

I pray; I plan the next day; I can relax 
(3) N. I get ready for bed; I talk with my wife; I drink a glass of milk; I am tired 
(2) PI. I wish the day was longer 
(1) P2. I am sleepy; I go to sleep; I go to bed; I retire 
(0) P3. I go to sleep right away; I brush my teeth 



56 



7. Boys . . . 

(6) C3. I like fellows who do not try to show that they are better than I*; are the only 

ones to be trusted 
(5 

(4 



(3 
(2 
(1 
(0 

8. 
(6 

(5 

(4 

(3 

(2 
(1 
(0 

9. 

(6 
(5 

(4 

(3 

(2 
(1 
(0 



C2. do like me; can be good friends 

CI. generally seem to lack the aesthetic sense girls possess; are good friends— that is, 
some of them 

N. will be boys; like football (any sport); are stronger than girls; have more freedom 
than girls; are noisy 

PI. (statement of mild superiority tending toward humor— e.g., are the more reason- 
able of the sexes; are easier to get along with than girls) 

P2. are regular; are good company; (statement of good fellowship); and girls get 
together 

P3. 



The best . . . 

C3. friends are animals like dogs and cats; years of my life are wasted; (negation— 

e.g., turns out bad) 
C2. does not always bring happiness; companion I ever had was my mother (father); 

was in childhood days; I can do, I do not always do; (definite implication of 

past which is not to return) 
CI. is sometimes not good enough; is supposed to be in college; does not always work 

out; buddy I had is gone 
N. is none too good; singer is ; (magazine, book, etc., is ); things in life 

are free; things must be worked for 

PI. friend I have is ; person I know is ; (experience, time) 

P2. woman is my wife; is my marriage 
P3. is yet to come; (optimism); is now 

What annoys me . . . 

C3. everything; is life; women; people; swearing 

C2. is that I make few decisions; that I am unable to straighten things out by myself; 

crowds; typing; noise; my back; my nerves; is that I am not interested in anything 

in particular; (symptoms); (things about self or others' reaction to self— e.g., to 

have someone bawl me out) 
CI. girls smoking; the ignorance of others; conceit; (kinds of people— e.g., stuck-up 

people); (stereotyped prejudices); (an academic subject) 
N. red tape; inefficiency; classical music; reckless driving; referee baiters; gritting of 

teeth; chewing gum; insects; does not annoy other people; (weather) 
PI. this test 

P2. completing this sentence 
P3. nothing; people who squeeze the toothpaste tube in the middle 



57 



10. People . . . 

(6) C3. disturb me; worry me; never understand me; frighten me; have it in for me; are 

hateful 
(5) C2. annoy me; (strong criticism of people in general— e.g., destroy what they build; 

have a deplorable sense of value); (indication of unfavorable attitude toward sub- 
ject— e.g., think that I am a snob) 
(4) CI. can be got along with if you try; do not cooperate enough; run around in circles 

most of the time 
(3) N. are sometimes good, sometimes bad; who are truthful will be rewarded; work to 

achieve something; inhabit the world; are interesting to study; ( stereotypes— e.g., 

are funny; are crazy) 
(2) PI. are interesting; are fascinating; are nice 
(1) P2. are good; are basically good; I like 
(0) P3. are fun; I like them all; are wonderful; are the salt of the earth; touch wet paint 

in spite of wet paint signs 



11. A mother . . . 

(6) C3. (extreme conflict, stated or implied failure of mother) 

(5) C2. can be very trying; can be exasperating at times; has many burdens; suffers; is a 

person who does everything she can for you; (most should responses— e.g., should 

help her children) 
(4) CI. holds the responsibility of shaping the lives of her children; is the most beautiful 

thing in the world; is getting old; is dear to her children 
(3) N. has many responsibilities; is the chief determiner of a child's personality; has 

children 

(2) PI. is a man's best friend; is a good pal; I'm very fond of mine; is swell; is a good guide 
(1) P2. 
(0) P3. 



12. I feel . . . 

(6) C3. upset all the time; pretty bad often; bad; no good; resentful; peculiar; (resentment 

of personal treatment) 
(5) C2. unsure; insignificant; the need for something to protect and love; I can succeed if 

I try; I can better myself 
(4) CI. I don't know why I'm at school; obligation; better in summer than winter; I am 

making a definite contribution to my fellowmen; I am master of my fate; I am 

in a rut; tired; (resentment toward external conditions) 
(3) N. best after taking a shower; terrible with this cold in my head; sorry for anyone 

who is bashful; sentimental at times; best after a good night's sleep; sleepy; hot; 

(song titles— e.g., like a motherless child); (desire for something not dependent on 

personality factors— e.g., like a coke; I'd like to go fishing) 
(2) PI. OK; all right; with my hands; as if I could annihilate my chemistry difficulties 
(1) P2. swell; good; fine; like a feather in the breeze 
(0) P3. happy; wonderful 



58 



13. My greatest fear . . . 

C3. I have no fear; is going crazy; not getting over my difficulties; doing something 
wrong; (being like someone); (return of symptoms or difficulties) 

C2. is that I will never get married; myself; snakes; ill health; failure; burning to 
death; heights; death; darkness; the future 

CI. is fear itself; flying over water; financial insecurity; is before midterms; fire; wind; 
water; hurting someone; (political fears) 

N. nothing; was in combat 

PI. is over now 

P2. does not disturb me much 

P3. 



14. In high school . . . 

C3. it was like being in jail; I was a child in a lost wilderness; I was extremely self- 
conscious and backward 

C2. I did interesting things— often alone; I was socially inactive; I was better off; I 
hated to read; I was bored 

CI. I hated to study; I neglected my opportunities; I played around daydreaming 
when I should have been learning to study*; I got along with most people; I was 
no shining star; I was a poor student; I made good grades, but I was socially 
inactive 

N. I didn't study much; I played too much; one should study if one wants to go to 
college 

PI. I did all right; I was a good student; (statement of liking sports or subjects) 

P2. happy days; my principal reminded me of a grizzly bear; (statement of participa- 
tion in sports or activities) 

P3. I had a lot of good fun 



15. I can't . . . 

) C3. take as much as others can; keep from worrying about the future; sleep nights; 
think straight; (escape persistent thoughts) 

) C2. sit still; do much; get interested in social activities; get enthused about my present 
choice of vocation; concentrate; study; make myself do things; accept my physical 
limitation; (forget a specific person); (stand any kind of person or condition) 

) CI. concentrate at times; get the best of reading; express my thoughts; (study specific 
subject matter) 

) N. believe 22 years of my life have passed; appreciate poetry; (specific skills— e.g., 
swim; play bridge; play tennis); (get around to do something); (understand some- 
thing: subject matter, fact, or information— e.g., understand why psychology is not 
given in high school) 

> PI. complain; wait until I get married; think what to say here; figure out what this is 
all about; do more than time permits 

> P2. be two places at one time 

> P3. 



59 



16. Sports . . . 

(6) C3. 

(5) C2. do not interest me; bore me; afford relief; are my chief escape; I am not a very 

good athlete; I don't like 

(4) CI. I like to look at, but not participate; (and vice versa); I don't like except football 

(any specific sport) 

(3) N. are a great part of American life; are in the limelight; are interesting 

(2) PI. are developers of team work; are my favorite pastime; are a favorite topic of con- 

versation; are an important part of life; are interesting to me; (mention of favorite 
sport or sports) 

( 1 ) P2. are fun; I love them 
(00 P3. 

17. When I was a child . . . 

(6) C3. I was physically inferior; I was frail; I was sick; I was miserable; I was unhappy; 

I was moody 

(5) C2. I was often punished; I was very uncertain about things; I was happier; I was 

very shy and backward; things were different; I was pushed around by others; 
I was spoiled; I was taught to obey; I stayed by myself; I had few friends 

(4) CI. I was shy; I had everything; J was ljad; no plans for my schooling were made; I 

fought with (sibling),; .we Were poor 

(3) N. I acted like a chtKi; I spake as a child; I was mischievous; I had no worries; I 

spent much tMie"with my grandparents; I was more or less wild; I wanted to be 
a doctor 

(2) PI. I loved sports; I liked to ; I was active; I liked adventure 

( 1 ) P2. I was happy; I enjoyed life; I was always gay 
(0) P3. I had a wonderful time; I built soap box racers 



18. My nerves . . . 

(6) C3. trouble me a lot; are shot to hell; are shot; are terrible; often worry me; are being 

shattered 
(5) C2. are very poor; have been on edge since the war; are inwardly causing personal 

discomfort; are less steady since two years ago; are always on edge; are hard to 

control; are jumpy; are unsteady; are on edge at home (or social situations) 
(4) CI. are not as calm as they should be; never bother me outwardly; are jumpy during 

arguments (or other exciting situations); bother me at times; are a set-back at 

times; are as good as anyone else's 
(3) N. conduct impulses; are in my body 

(2) PI. are fairly steady; are not much better or worse than average 
( 1 ) P2. are pretty good; are OK; are all right; are normal; don't bother me 
(0) P3. are very steady; are sound; are good 



60 



19. Other people . . . 

(6) C3. worry me; laugh at me; are no good 

(5) C2. annoy me; aggravate me; irritate me; don't seem to be very impressed with me; 

have the same trouble, but in a lesser degree; are superior to me; are happier; 

are better off; don't worry as I do; interest me from a psychological but not per- 
sonal viewpoint; I envy 
(4) CI. don't bother me very much; tell me I have a wonderful personality; are no better 

than I; always succeed and so can I; have their problems too 
(3) N. seem busy coming and going; in our community are fairly resourceful; have their 

own minds; have their lives and I have mine; are sometimes nice; are different; 

are some good and some bad; might think different but who cares; have fun; are 

interesting to observe 
(2) PI. interest me; usually like me; amuse me; are entitled to their own opinions; are 

OK; are usually very nice to me; get along with me; have fun too 
(1) P2. are friendly 
(0) P3. are swell 



20. I suffer . . . 

(6) C3. mentally as well as physically; consistently; from dizzy spells; too much; from not 

being wanted 
(5) C2. from self-consciousness as limiting as a physical ailment; from not having enough 
intimate friends; a need of clarifying my problem; from an inferiority complex; 
humiliation; mentally when I do bad; from a nervous condition; not fitting in; 
from lack of security; from being too easy going with some people; loneliness; 
(psychosomatic symptoms— e.g., headaches) 
(4) CI. little physical pain; from a slight inferiority complex; possibly a little mentally; 
when I see others suffer; (from limitations imposed by actual disease); (physical 
symptoms— e.g., from myopia, from sinus) 
N. in cold (or hot) weather; in final exams; after drinking 
PI. little; mostly from study; no disadvantage 
P2. from cold ears on mornings such as today 
P3. from nothing 



21. I failed . . . 

i) C3. as a human being; as a man; miserably; to live in my youth— I just existed; to 

find happiness; in life 
<) C2. often; to accept my limitation and adjust to it; to see my mistake in time; somehow 

to take care of myself; in love; in flying; in the army 
t) CI. to apply myself; in becoming a good student; to train my mind to concentrate; too 

many courses; to find satisfaction in glamorous gals; to make a hit with her; 

(academic failure with rationalization— e.g., accounting because I could not force 

myself to do something uninteresting to me) 

I) N. to keep an appointment; at nothing; (an academic subject with no added rationali- 
zation ) 

I) PI. to get up in the morning; but keep on trying; to get the point of this test 
.) P2. to hear the alarm clock 
)) P3. 

61 



22. Reading . . . 

General: A "C" response is one which suggests that reading is the chief source of satis- 
faction, whereas "P" responses imply enjoyment of reading but not the probable substitu- 
tion of reading for other activities. 

(6) C3. hurts my eyes 

(5) C2. is enjoyable if I can relax for a while; is quite a problem for me; out loud is my 

weak point; is difficult for me; is slow for me 
(4) CI. novels and magazines takes too much of my time; is not my specialty; is my favorite 

occupation (hobby, pastime) 
(3) N. and writing are taught in grade school; is broadening; is interesting; does us all 

good; is my chief source of information; is something I wish I had more time 
(2) PI. is a pleasant pastime; is becoming a hobby; is a favorite pastime 
(1) P2. is a pleasure; I love to read 
(0) P3. 



23. My mind . . . 

(6) C3. is all mixed up; is confused; is so mixed up at times; is in a whirl 

(5) C2. wanders too much on many things; is confused as to the future; is all right— only 
something happened I don't fully understand; is not made up; doesn't seem to 
be perfectly clear; is free from turmoil when I'm happy; runs away in imaginative 
thinking; wanders; is unable to concentrate 

(4) CI. I can control and manage most of the time; often wanders when I should be atten- 
tive; 'is capable of^sgrbing anything if it is presented right; can be changed too 
easily; is set upon being a. success; sometimes seems dull in school, yet alert on 
the outside; ?isn't^as' organized as I would like; is too analytical— I should be more 
carefree; wanders 'half of the time; is on the whole better than average, but can't 
seem to concentrate* 

(3) *N. is my most precious faculty; is dull in the morning; wanders during lectures some- 
times; is made up; is a blank 

(2) PI. is active about something most of the time; usually decides on one thing and then 
sticks to it 

(1) P2. is made up as to what field I will enter after graduation*; is open to new ideas; 
is OK; average; normal; remembers well 

(0) P3. is clear; is good 



62 



24. The future . . . 

C3. is in vain; I hate to think about; is black; is hopeless; I have no future 

C2. is what I'm worried about; depends on whether I shall be able to change my life*; 

is very undecided for me, as I'm torn between two different ways of life*; is dark 
CI. offers me the hope of achieving my finest ambitions and eliminating my difficulties*; 

looks rather black for the future of our country; is black for the world; keeps me 

wondering 
N. is difficult to predict; is uncertain; of the country (or the world) depends on ; 

is not clear; will tell; is yet to come; looms 
PI. I hope to become a good ; I hope to be of more service to humanity; depends 

on the present; looks better than the past; is what I make it; holds so many hopes 

and things undone for me; I hope to get a good steady job and a nice girl for a 

wife*; must be planned for; should be bright 
P2. is bright; looks very bright; OK; good 
P3. holds happiness; is full of promise; I shall try to make a happy venturesome event; 

looks wonderful 

I need . . . 

C3. help; to find myself; someone to depend upon; solitude; help in solving my problem; 

guidance which I couldn't get at home; courage to be happy; genuine confidence 

in myself based on an acceptance of my physical limitations* 
C2. to have some things taken care of; more social practice; guidance; nothing that I 

couldn't have if I really wanted it; more friends; confidence; more money, more 

time and more friends 
CI. to consider my judgment with more respect; determination and will power; to 

succeed in my profession; to be able to speak more effectively before people; to 

be married; a rest; sleep 
N. to make good grades; some help in German; money; a wife 
PI. but learn what I do not know; a new suit; just about $10,000; something to eat; 

a new car; (housing) 
P2. nothing; more time for all my interests 
P3. 

Marriage . . . 

C3. is a mistake 

C2. is my one thought of happiness— a beginning; is the one way that I think I could 
attain my goal in life*; is a way out; makes more responsibilities; will do much 
to help me; is all right for the right people; if you have the right mate 

CI. is one of the greatest tests of social adjustment; will give those a completeness of 
fife; is a wonderful thing, but should be taken more seriously; is necessary; is fine 
with the right person; (most if statements) 

N. in these days has more chance of making good than a few years ago; is something 
I desire, but not until I have sown my wild oats; is a thing of the future; is a 
sacred thing; is a private affair; is a noble institution; for some completes an ambition 

PI. is a wonderful institution— but who likes institutions?; for me is comradeship and 
companionship throughout the years; companionship I hope I soon may enjoy; is 
a wonderful idea; is a good thing; is something everybody should indulge in; is 
something to look forward to 

P2. 

P3. has made me very happy; is wonderful 

63 



27. I am best when . . . 

General: To clarify the distinction between "C" and "P" responses— a response which has 
the implication that the individual feels adequate and secure with only a limited or 
restricted group of people whom he knows very well, is scored "C"; whereas a response 
which has merely the implication that he likes to be with friends, is a "P" response. 

(6) C3. with inferiors 

(5) C2. alone; by myself; I do not worry about my maladjustments; I rid myself of feelings 

of incompetence; I am happy; at home 
(4) CI. things are working out; I am exhibiting my talents; I had a good night's sleep; 

alone with one person; I understand something; I'm with people I know well and 

who know me well*' 
(3) N. I am working; busy; well-rested and under pressure; I do things that give me joy; 

I'm calm and cool; I'm fresh; I feel good; when I get up in the morning; after 

breakfast; (using academic skills) 
(2) PI. I am asleep; I am with people I like; I'm with people I know well; having a 

party; when I'm awake; (on vacations) 
(1) P2. with people (general) 
(0) P3. 



28. Sometimes . . . 

(6) C3. I think I'm going crazy; things seem hopeless; I think people watch me; I wish 
hadn't been born; I become completely discouraged; I wish it would all end; I 
wonder what's the use; I'm afraid of everything and everybody; (hopelessness; 
suicidal wishes); I wonder if it's all worth the trouble 

(5) C2. I can't sleep; I get the blues; I am moody and quiet; I wonder why; I am lonely; 
I am unhappy; I feel as though I should give up school; I worry; people's selfish- 
ness thoroughly disgusts me; I wish I were back in the army; (any psychosomatic 
symptoms— e.g., I get headaches) 

(4) CI. I feel a little jumpy when things are popping fast; my parents worry too much; it 
is much better not to speak out of turn; I try too hard; I lose all my foresight; 
get very temperamental; I wonder where all my thoughts come from; plans do 
not work out 

(3) N. I feel like traveling; I wonder; (song titles) 

(2) PI. I am happy; I like to do things on the spur of the moment*; I like to— (any 
activity); I'd like to get married 

(1) P2. I feel like a long vacation with pay; I am exuberantly happy; I wonder who made 
up these tests 

(0) P3. 



64 



29. What pains me . . . 

(6) C3. my home life; fear; seeing blood 

(5) C2. a moaning person; is to be humiliated; is that my parents are still supporting me; 
is if I give up school I won't have the required background for success*; is that 
I have no goals; are selfish people; are cruel people; are jealous people; (people 
who make one feel insecure); (psychosomatic complaints) 

(4) CI. people who brag; show-offs; my lack of will power; injustice going on; laziness; 
overeating; (physical complaints— e.g., my teeth); (social or political conditions, 
nonpersonal in nature) 

(3) N. low grades; doing exercises; piling unnecessary work on students; the crowded 
conditions in this school; (foods); does not pain others 

(2) PI. getting up too early; two midterms in one day; pains most people 

(1) P2. is not important; nothing 

(0) P3. a blow in the solar plexis 

30. I hate . . . 

(6) C3. people; almost everyone; to be nervous or afraid; to think of people ridiculing my 
parents' fives; smoking, drinking, carousing, and cursing 

(5) C2. cruel people; selfish people; this place; confusion; being made a fool of; selfishness; 
conceit, intolerance and unkindness; to be bossed by those inferior to me; to not 
know whether I'm coming or going; to meet people 

(4) CI. to wait on or for people; to be only a little guy financially; people who don't tell 
the truth; small details and routine existence; women who smoke; to see people 
crying; conventional ways; doing things I don't like 

(3) N. cold north wind in January; war; (weather); (kinds of foods) 

(2) PI. political speeches; two tests in the same day; getting up in the morning 

(1) P2. none, nothing, and I hope I shall never; nothing; nobody 

(0) P3. warm beer 

31. This school . . . 

(6) C3. I hate 

(5) C2. is further from home than I would like; gives me no relief; lacks an atmosphere 
of reality; is no good; is disorganized 

(4) CI. works on a mass production basis; is not conducive to working; is merely a machine 
to grind out diplomas; is too big; (is too radical or too conservative) 

(3) N. is a big one; is overcrowded; is not as good as it could be, nor as bad; is average; 
like many others is not divorced from politics 

(2) PI. is OK; is all right 

(1) P2. is my favorite; is a good school; has many opportunities; is more interesting; starts 
too early in the morning 

(0) P3. is swell 



65 



32. I am very . . . 

(6) C3. nervous; unhappy; lonesome; discontented with myself; confused 

(5) C2. undeveloped in many respects; dissatisfied with school; self-conscious at times; 

touchy on the subject of my parents; lonesome at times; unrestful; resentful of 

all individual or group privileges; ambitious for security of an economic independence 
(4) CI. inconsistent in my thoughts; susceptible to suggestions; sentimental at times; sorry 

about my lack of proper education; restless at times; uncomfortable at times; 

grateful for (help); sorry; glad something is being done; determined to do 

well; frank; blunt 
(3) N. studious sometimes; tired of this test; cold; hot 
(2) PI. normal as far as I'm concerned; glad I started college; interested in— (activity); 

fond of my friends; interested in helping people; important to "I"; (fond of ); 

(happy about ) 

(1) P2. lucky; alert; happy— ( activity ) 

(0) P3. happy; happy with my wife; satisfied with fife 



33. The only trouble . . . 

(6) C3. is that I worry about my mother (or father); I can't think; is an inner confusion 

(5) C2. is getting adjusted; is that it is such a complex situation; is insufficiency of self- 
confidence; is I don't know why I'm the way I am; is my lack of happiness; is 
being too self-conscious; too many troubles; is indecision; (psychosomatic symptoms 
—e.g., is constipation); is too often by the time you get anywhere you're old 
enough to die* 

(4) CI. is my folks live too far from this state; is that I'm young and inexperienced; with 
this school is the social life is too strong; with school is its incompleteness; is with 
school; life has too many complications; with society is that people do not have 
a chance to act decent*; here is getting a date; is inability to study; is financial 

(3) N. with most sports is intensive training to keep in physical fitness*; with the library 
is that it's too stuffy; is the long hours needed for studying; (climate); (weather) 

(2) PI. is not serious; is filling this out; is that there are not more hours in the day 

(1) P2. no trouble; is nothing 

(0) P3. 



34. I wish . . . 

(6) C3. I were different; I were never born 

(5) C2. I could be as natural and confident as most people; to know what people think of 

me; I had a definite goal in fife; I could forget I'll be like my father; I were settled 

and happy; I was able to utilize my intelligence; I were home 
(4) CI. I was married; I was on my own; I could arrange my time better; I had all the 

money I need; my folks lived nearer; for love and happiness; I were through with 

school 
(3) N. I were in (place); this quarter would end soon; the state would give the 

G.I.'s a bonus; I could get a 3.5 grade average; (some person ) —would visit me; 

(something for betterment of society) 
(2) PI. to gain more knowledge; I could see as much as can be seen; do more things; (to 

learn a sport or social skill) 

(1) P2. 

(0) P3. I had a good glass of beer 

66 



My father . . . 

G3. promises many things and never keeps them; is the male responsible for my 

existence; wasn't very good; was a fool; and I have many arguments; is an alcoholic 
C2. and I were never buddies; is in pretty bad shape; is hard to understand; is stern 
CI. is in bad health; is good to me, but we have little spiritual communion; cannot 

supply me with everything; never had much of a chance; is proud; is sensitive; 

lives in 

N. is home; is a salesman; is dead; had all his teeth pulled; is a hard worker; is living 
PI. is good to me; is very intelligent, though not highly educated; is an ideal to me; 

is an excellent mechanic; is a good hard working man; is the kindest, most honest 

man I have ever known 
P2. is extremely caustic and reactionary, but I love him; is OK; is all right; is a good 

man 
P3. is the greatest dad in the world; is a swell guy; is a good joe; is a good companion 



36. I secretly . . . 

C3. wish he (anyone) were dead; worry whether or not I'm crazy; hate my father 

(or any relative); indulge in masturbation 
C2. wish I could make friends more easily; wonder if I think this worse than it 

actually is; worry about (symptoms); want to be a great success 
CI. look out for myself first; confide in ; dislike girls who drink or smoke; envy; 

wish for success as (something specific); need advice 

N. hope to graduate; have many ideas; have my opinion; hope; (concern over human 

progress); (desire to travel) 
PI. have ambitions of owning a Cadillac; hope to be a (some skilled occupation); 

wish I could play the piano 
P2. have no secrets 
P3. don't dislike anyone; am proud to be a father; enjoy being married; wish I could 

make some dandelion wine 



37. I . . . 

(6) C3. am confused; can't think clearly; dread marriage; (expression of guilt); (strong 
rejection of people); want love, happiness, and to understand myself 

(5) C2. hope things are cleared up all right; have been forced to neglect many important 
things; am torn between two goals; hope this does some good; am embarrassed 
pretty easily; (psychosomatic symptoms) 

(4) CI. should be more optimistic I suppose; would love to settle down with a high pay- 
ing job; talk too darn much; want to be a successful husband; (physical symptoms) 

(3) N. wonder what the purpose of this questionnaire is; work at ; can't think of 

anything to say 

(2) PI. am happiest when busiest; always try to do my best at new problems; am determined 
to make something of myself; ( ambition— specific ) 

(1) P2. believe this would be a good place to write nothing; — ya got me; like to dance; 
don't want a million dollars to make my dreams come true"; am easily satisfied; 
am OK 

(0) P3. feel good 

67 



38. Dancing . . . 

(6) C3. is one thing I hate 

(5) C2. seems to be the only pastime enjoyed by students here; does not appeal to me; 

doesn't interest me; is all right, if you like it, but I don't care too much for it* 
(4) CI. wish I could; a pleasure I get little of; something I don't have much time for 

any more; takes time and plenty of practice; I would like to improve in; I like, 

but I'm not good at; is tiresome; is fun, but my wife doesn't like it; is my only 

outlet 
(3) N. is all right; is OK; is fun with the right people 
(2) PI. gives relaxation; is a good way to spend an evening when out with a date*; is 

fun if you know how 
(1) P2. is fun; is my favorite recreation; is a wonderful pastime; I love it; appeals to me; 

is a good way of meeting nice girls 
(0) P3. 



39. My greatest worry is . . . 

(6) C3. if I'll make my wife happy; going crazy; will I ever get better; will I ever be 
happy; if anything has left a handicap or scar on my life; my aggravating, disgust- 
ing illness; (sex) 

(5) C2. self-consciousness will prevent me from being what I hope; divorce or forced mar- 
riage; how to become happy; maiming; myself; that I'll continue on as I am; I 
will fail to attain my goal in life; failure; school and marriage; getting a girl friend; 
(family affairs); (health of relatives); (psychosomatic symptoms) 

(4) CI. is college; not to complete my education; concerning entrance into professional 
school; money; exams 

(3) N. an idea for a theme; just before midterms; (concern over society or nonpersonal 
things) 

(2) PI. 

(1) P2. don't have any 

(0) P3. 



40. Most girls . . . 

(6) C3. are no good; can't be trusted; give you a bad time; don't appreciate the responsi- 
bilities of motherhood 

(5) C2. don't bother me; are only looking for husbands; don't impress me; are dull; are 
attractive until their personalities disappoint me; are too self-centered; are nuts; 
are a pain in the neck; (general statement of low morality) 

(4) CI. are fine, if I could have one; are pleasant, but frivolous; are eager beavers; are 
looking for husbands; are really nice, but too affected; are fickle; are too frivolous; 
smoke too much; use too much paint; can't make up their minds 

(3) N. are particular in way of dress; are weaker and weigh less than boys; like to wear 
pretty clothes; like dancing; are hard to understand; (stereotyped wise-cracks) 

(2) PI. I enjoy their company; are nice; are OK; interest me; are good dancers 

( 1 ) P2. are all right; are easy to get along with; are attractive; like me; appeal to me 

(0) P3. are a lot of fun; are good kids 



68 



SCORING EXAMPLES FOR FEMALE RECORDSf 



1. I like . . . 

C3. 

C2. to be happy; to be liked and to have praise and recognition; to be alone; security; 

to be away from crowds; true friends; peace of mind 
CI. to be on the go doing something all the time; to fight; (solitary hobbies— e.g., 

reading); to feel that my work is well done; to help people; to be loved 
N. to he on the grass and listen to music; to eat; flowers; (foods); (magazines); 

( seasons ) 
PI. to have a good time; sports; to live; to go to school; dancing; good fun; (activity 

with ); (a male name) 

P2. to have a good time with people; dancing, parties and sports; (any equivalent 

aspect of socialization); being with people; to meet people; most people; children; 

so many things 
P3. just about everything and everyone 



2. The happiest time . . . 

I) C3. (negation— e.g., ends badly; goes wrong) 
) C2. (past condition in which regret is stated); is never to return; is over; is supposed 

to be in school; is when I have a feeling of accomplishment 
) CI. (solitary activities); long walks in the country; was during childhood; will be at 

home; when I received a leading role in the church play; was when I was in the 

sixth grade 
I) N. (a season); (a time of day); (a place); was working; was in high school; is 

when I'm busiest; is Christmas; (with people in a certain profession or field) 
l) PI. (with some person); when I met ; was a vacation trip; a summer experience; 

(a social date); was when I started going steady; will be my wedding; was the 

summer at the pool; when I pledged the sorority; is week ends 
) P2. has. been since I started high school; (social activities with a group); is yet to 

come; is ahead; was when I got married; is to make someone happy; has been 

college; is when I'm with people; is with friends 
P3. is now 



t The authors wish to acknowledge their gratitude to Miss Eva Schachtitz who had the 
major responsibility for developing the scoring examples for the female records and who 
aided in the over-all validation study. 



3. I want to know . . . 

(6) C3. why I am alive; why I was born; (why any symptom of maladjustment is 

present); how I can straighten myself out; how I can overcome fear; how I can 

get over my troubles 
(5) C2. (how to solve personal problems of adjustment— e.g., how to be more popular); 

what my mental capability is; if I'll be successful; how to aid my mother to be 

happy; how to find religion; more about relaxing; how to live happily; what 

others think of me; why I am not more popular with men 
(4) CI. how to get what I want; what life is all about; what I'm going to major in; how 

people tick; how the mind works; what started life on earth; the mysteries of life; 

how to study more efficiently; why I don't get better grades; why there is so much 

social injustice 
(3) N. what this paper is for; what this test is all about; (general information); more 

about psychology; more; more about marriage; more people; what the future holds 
(2) PI. more about people; (information as to hobbies, vocations and sports); as much as 

I can about everything; everyone; all the answers; a little about everything; how to 

play the piano; how to dance 
(1) P2. 
(0) P3. 



4. Back home . . . 

(6) C3. I am not surrounded by all the evil as I am here; I feel uneasy and suppressed; 
I am bored and lonely and irritable; everyone is tense and it is difficult to be 
natural; I want to find quiet and harmony; (any strong negative statement) 

(5) C2. (strong desire to be home); (desire to get away from home— e.g., is just across 
the city and I have never escaped it); there are few ties; the family needs harmony 
and I am of no help; I sometimes feel very unhappy; it isn't always happy; I have 
no desire to return; I wish I were; I was dissatisfied; is both peace and confusion; 
is peace; is confusion; is love; is security 

(4) CI. I work very hard; I act differently than here; I have lost contact with a great 
many friends; my mental life is much easier; (expressed superiority of home condi- 
tions); I have the feeling of belonging; my little sister is ill; people think I am 
too independent; (mildly negative statement); people are different— not as cultural; 
I can relax 

(3) N. (enumeration of family); we have mountains; the weather is warmer; for keeps; 
is a small town in Indiana; we hiked a great deal; in Indiana; it is quiet and 
peaceful; I act the same; (description of normal home activity) 

(2) PI. I like to go; is the most wonderful place on the earth; good to go at the end of 
a trying day; are the people I really love; I have a lot of fun; (mildly positive 
statement about home without implying strong desire to be home) 

( 1 ) P2. I enjoy being in my home with my family; I have a wonderful family 

(0) P3. are many friends 



70 



5. I regret . . . 

i) C3. the mess I've made of my life; being born; living; being a failure; that I'm not 
more affectionate; (specific act with guilt feelings) 

) C2. (mistake, personality deficiency or inferiority); that I can't make up my mind; 
my past; my inability to concentrate; that more people will not do God's Holy 
will; I wasted high school emotionally and academically; not having made the 
most of past opportunities; I am not more intelligent; I don't have a normal social 
life; so much wasted time in my life; coming to college; what I say to people 

.) CI. (academic deficiency); (ignorance of subject matter); not working harder in high 
school; I've never had any working experience; my swearing when I'm angry; 
that my disposition is not always pleasant; being inconsiderate of my friends; my 
past schooling was inadequate; ever starting out in home economics; the many 
caustic things I have said; past happenings, but do not expect to let them color 
my fife; that I am not married; (specific acts or instances of bad judgment); (mild 
dissatisfaction with present affairs); many things; wasting time 

1) N. to inform you; that I have but one fife to give for my country; shopping and not 
finding anything; leaving music out of my childhood; I can't go home this week 
end; that time moves so fast; (external social conditions not immediately affecting 
subject ) 

1) PI. I do not find time for all I want to do*; I cannot play the piano 
) P2. nothing; very little 

I) P3. to hear the alarm clock 



6. At bedtime . . . 

i) C3. I often feel sorry for myself; I can't sleep 

!) C2. I lay awake thinking; I day dream; I review the day's events; I have trouble with 

sleeping 
t) CI. I do not like to have people bother me; I dislike going to bed; I still have so 

much to do; I'm still studying; I want to be sleepy; (I wish for ) 

I) N. (I get ready for bed— e.g., put up hair, etc.); I'm tired; I read; I listen to the 

radio; I like music; I pray; I plan my next day; I think of pleasant events in the 

future; I take a bath; I'm glad to retire 
!) PI. rest seems good 

.) P2. I'm sleepy; I go to sleep; I'm ready to sleep 
I) P3. I sleep soundly; I go to sleep immediately 



71 



7. Boys . . . 

(6) C3. grow up to be nasty men; frighten me 

(5) C2. regard women as glandular beings; seem strange to me; I wish I could be at ease 

with them; don't bother me anymore; are human and should be judged so; used 

to frighten me; may be good friends without romantic interest; think women are 

inferior; I don't understand 
(4) CI. are only of secondary interest to me at this time; are pests, especially small ones; 

do interest me if they have reached a mature level; are nicer than girls; are nice 

but worthless; never grow up; can be wonderful, but some are horrible; have 

more freedom than girls; are wonderful when they are understanding 
(3) N. love to tease their sisters; are made of snails and puppy dog tails; here are more 

polite than at home; are rather wild until they mature; are more apt mechanically; 

are important to every girl; play more rough than girls 
(2) PI. are very nice; fascinate me; are interesting; are interesting and contradictory 

phenomena; that I know well I like 
(1) P2. I enjoy their company and companionship; are a lot of fun 
(0) P3. are wonderful companions; can be wonderful friends; are wonderful; are a lot of 

fun— but I like men 



8. The best . . . 

(6) C3. (negation— e.g., turns out bad); person I know is dead; thing I could possibly 
receive would be peace of mind, contentment, and happiness*; friend I have is 
pinned and consequently spends all her time with the boy* 

(5) C2. time was this summer because people liked me; does not always bring happiness; 
(definite implications of past which is not to return— e.g., was in childhood days); 
thing of life is peace of mind 

(4) CI. things are those of nature; dressed and groomed women are my ideal; friend is 
one who accepts you as you are; accomplishment is to achieve understanding; does 
not always appear to be so; is what I desire for myself; attitude is to mind your 
own business; friend I ever had is gone 

(3) N. feeling comes when I listen to Beethoven; things in life have to be worked for; 
is for you; of my life is spent out of doors; things in life are free; I'm capable of 
doing is what I'm striving for; is not good enough; is happiness; (magazine, book, 

etc., is ); (season is ); (food is ); (sport or recreation is ); 

(college is ) 

(2) PI. (experience was ); friend I have is (name); person I know is 

(1) P2. 

(0) P3. is yet to come; (optimism); time is now 



72 



What annoys me . . . 

C3. is fear of my family dying; everything; is life; is men; are people 

C2. is my inability to put my thoughts into action; is myself; is talking; to be kidded 
a lot; to be misunderstood; (things about self or others' reactions to self); 
( symptoms ) 

CI. (kinds of people— e.g., stuck-up, narrow, etc.); people who talk when I'm trying 
to read; stinginess; people who continually talk about themselves; insincerity; 
whispering in the library; waiting for people; when people ask me about my 
private affairs; slowness in anyone; sloppy eating habits; excessive noise when I'm 
studying; (academic difficulty— e.g., is that I can't get zoology); my roommate 
shuffling her bedroom slippers; constant chatter; false friends; (lands of speech or 
accents— e.g., slow talking) 

N. when people crack their chewing gum; every prof thinking that his is the only 
class I have; depends upon my state of mind; chalk screeching on the black- 
board; red tape; inefficiency; reckless drivers; insects; cheating on exams; (weather) 

PI. this test; completing this test 

P2. loose buttons to be sewn 

P3. nothing 

10. People . . . 

C3. disturb me; worry me; never understand me; frighten me; have it in for me; 

are hateful; I used to take at face value, but now I have become wary 
C2. (strong criticism of people in general); waste so much time doing insignificant 

things; too often live by a false sense of what is important*; as a rule don't care 

about others; annoy me; are boring; (indication of unfavorable attitude toward 

the subject) 
CI. should be more considerate; must be studied; are noisy; should try to be tactful; 

sometimes bore me 
N. (stereotypes); are funny; have more fun than anybody; are always hurrying in the 

Western world; are so different; inhabit the world; are sometimes good, sometimes 

bad; are crazy 
PI. are nice; are interesting; are easy to talk with if you show an interest; are easy 

to talk with; are complicated, but interesting; fascinate me 
P2. are interesting and I like nearly all I meet; I like; are good; are basically good; 

are friendly 
P3. are my best friends; are fun to meet and be with; are fun; I like them all; are 

wonderful; are the salt of the earth; touch wet paint in spite of wet paint signs 



73 



11. A mother . . . 

(6) C3. is an unfortunate necessity; (extreme conflict); (stated or implied failure of mother); 
is the only one you can depend upon for love and everything*; should be devoted 
but not to the extent where she tries to run her child's life* 

(5) C2. (most should responses); should show an interest in her children's friends; should 

try to bring up her children according to the teachings of the Holy Bible;* should 
live and grow with her child and show him affection; should not lose her in 
dividuality in catering to her family; interferes with her child's development; 
whether wisely or not usually loves her children; should be lovable; rules her 
family; should not try to dominate her daughter 

(4) CI. must have an awareness of the importance she plays in shaping her children's 

attitudes*; should see that her children develop abilities; tries to protect her 
children too much; has great obligations 

(3) N. has a difficult and often thankless task; must have patience and a sense of humor; 

tries to do the best she can for her children; is the strongest influence over her 
child; is the most important person in a household; is the person we always fall 
back on during troubles; understands her children; can be the most wonderful 
person in the world 

(2) PI. is someone who is more like a very close friend; and to be a good mother is my 

aim; can be very understanding; is the most valuable person in the world; is a 
wonderful person; is a person worth having 

( 1 ) P2. is a girl's best friend; is a wonderful friend and companion; I'm very fond of 

mine; is swell; is what I hope to be 

(0) P3. 

12. I feel . . . 

(6) C3. tense and uncertain with little or no direction; upset all the time; pretty bad 

often; resentful; peculiar; (resentment of personal treatment); sad most of the time 

(5) C2. with God's help I can five according to His Holy Word*; I am a stranger to 

myself; insecure and inadequate; sorry for myself too much of the time; as 
though I were wasting my time; as though I were wasting my time in school; 
lost; unsure; very unhappy if I can't make my own decisions; inadequate with 
boys; tired most of the time; blue sometimes; afraid of the future; entirely too 
much; anxious about the future; ill when I go to zoology class 

(4) CI. I should like to meet some one and marry; guilty that I cut class; deeply— most 

people should and do; dissatisfied at times; I'm not doing as well as I should in 
school; indebted to my parents; tired; (resentment toward external conditions) 

(3) N. I could sleep for a month; spring in the air; that college is a good experience for 

everyone suited for it*; euphoric when listening to music; chilly; (song titles— e.g., 
sometimes like a motherless child); (desire for something not dependent on per- 
sonality factors— e.g., like a coke) 

(2) PI. sorry for the person who has to read these tests; OK; all right; confident in the 

future 

(1) P2. secure most of the time; very good today; fine; good; swell 
(0) P3. happy; wonderful 



74 



13. My greatest fear . . . 

(6) C3. is of my family dying; is that mother will harm herself and that I will be the 
cause or blamed; doing something wrong; someone finding out; being ridiculed; 
being a complete failure in life; is that which comes when I don't know what I'm 
afraid of or why 

(5) C2. is my inability to attain my goals; poverty and not being recognized; is making a 
fool of myself; continuing fife without friends and being lonely; is myself; is 
whether or not I can be a successful wife; is that my marriage will not please my 
mother; is of the future; is I will be an old maid; is unhappiness; is loneliness; 
is being hurt emotionally; is speaking before a group; is failure; (personal in- 
adequacy) 

(4) CI. is poverty; is high winds; is choosing the wrong vocation; is death; is the dark; is 
snakes; is falling off something high; is marrying the wrong person; is being run 
over by a train; is poor grades; is personal injury and pain; is being an invalid; 
is drowning; is fire; is water; is ill health 

(3) N. is that I may not get the summer job I want*; is nothing 

(2) PI. is over 

(1) P2. does not disturb me much 

(0) P3. 



14. In high school . . . 

(6) C3. I was very unhappy; I was unpopular 

(5) C2. I didn't have enough self-confidence; I was too self-conscious; some of this dif- 
ficulty started; I was better off; I wasn't very happy; I was socially inactive; I was 
an isolate; I was too shy; I was happier than I then realized; I didn't think or 
do much; I was sensitive about having a limp 

(4) CI. I had few contacts outside of my own group; everything was so different from 
college; I wish I had learned more; I hated to study; I was a poor student; I 
had few dates 

(3) N. one should study if one wants to go to college; we had few sports or social 

activities; I took ; many students are undecided concerning vocational plans; 

I read a great deal 

(2) PI. I was a good student; I was a leader; (statement of liking sports or subjects) 

(1) P2. I was very happy; I had fun; I was very active in all social functions; I always 
got stuck with making posters; (statement of participation in sports or activities) 

(0) P3. I had a good time, but not as good as college; we had lots of fun; I had many 
swell times; I had a wonderful time 



75 



15. I can't . . . 

(6) C3. relax and not worry; sleep nights; think straight; keep from worrying about the 
future; seem to find anything that really interests me; (escape persistent thoughts) 

(5) C2. feel at ease with strangers very readily; seem to tell people what I think or feel; 
find a goal that satisfies me; talk intimately with those nearest me; sleep sometimes; 
get interested in social activities; concentrate; study; (stand any kind of people 
or condition); (forget a specific person); (exhibit some specific skill, with ration- 
alization— e.g., I can't play tennis— I have never tried); (understand why people 
are so stupid or selfish or insincere) 

(4) CI. spell and it keeps me from getting good grades; remember things well; decide 
about the future; do original thinking; talk before a group with confidence; choose 
my vocation; concentrate at times; be nice to people I don't like; make up my 
mind; (study specific subject matter) 

spell; (specific skills— e.g.', sing, swim, play piano, etc.); (understand subject matter, 
fact or information) 

is a negative attitude; do as many things as I would like to do; do more than time 
permits; think what to say here 
be two places at one time 



16. Sports . . . 

(6) C3. 

(5) C2. are all right for other people; interest me very little; do not interest me as much 

as they should; used to interest me a great deal, but not so now* 
(4) CI. are something I wish I'd taken up in high school; I want to learn to do them; 

interest me a little; are of little interest except ; are my main interest in 

life; are something I like, but am poor at doing 

such as golf and tennis are difficult to master; are a good outlet for excess energy; 

are relaxing to attend or listen to; are all right; are interesting 

I like (mention of favorite sports or sport); are fun to watch; are my favorite 

pastime; are one of my greatest interests; are marvelous exercise and exciting to 

watch; are pleasant; are very enjoyable; intrigue me 

are fun; are my second love; I love; are tops 



(3) 


N. 


(2) 


PI. 


(1) 


P2. 


(0) 


P3. 



(3) 


N. 


(2) 


PI. 


(1) 


P2 


(0) 


P3 



76 



L7. When I was a child . . . 

I C3. I was lonely and unhappy; I almost died; I was physically inferior; I was fra'' 
I was sick; I was miserable; I was unhappy; I was moody; I was always sick . 
my stomach; I spent most of my time in a hospital; I was afraid of my father 

I C2. we had a happy complete home until it was broken; I played little with other 
children; I had great fear of people; I wanted attention and praise; I drank too 
much beauty; I was often punished; I was happier; I stayed by myself; I had 
few friends; I was very emotional; I was dominated by my sister; I was spoiled 

I CI. I was very small; my mother worked away from home; I was not nervous; I was 
very shy; I had a horrible temper; I can't remember; I was very quiet; we had 
a very limited income; I was fat; I was skinny 

I N. I was blond and skinny; I was a tomboy; I was spanked but twice; there were 
few girls in the neighborhood; I was a constant companion of my father; I lived 
on a farm; I spake as a child; I always was outdoors; I played with dolls; I 

traveled a lot; I wanted to be a (occupation); I wanted to grow up 

1 2) PI. I had a vivid imagination and interesting life; I always found something to do; 
I spent most of my happy times with my cousin; I liked school; I climbed trees; 
I liked to ; the gang always did what I did; I was carefree and unconcerned 

I P2. I was happy; I enjoyed life; I was always gay 

) P3. I had a wonderful time; I liked to make mud pies 

L8. My nerves . . . 

) C3. are almost always on edge; are shot; trouble me a lot; are terrible; often worry me 
) C2. like peace and quiet; are bad; are demonstrated in my relationship with my family; 

often get the better of me; are unsteady; have gotten worse since I came here; 

are jumpy sometimes at night; are on end; are too taut 
) CI. are normal, but I may have an excess of tension; are no worse than other people's; 

are easily upset when I am in a mood; are jumpy after a trying incident; are fairly 

normal although I am nervous; could be better; become fatigued if I don't get 

enough rest; are sometimes jittery; are suppressed 
) N. conduct impulses; are in my body 
) PI. do not seem to get on edge very readily; are fairly stable most of the time; are 

fairly good; are usually calm; seldom get the best of me; are well controlled 
) P2. are normal; don't bother me; are in good condition 
) P3. are fine; must get bored continually relaying messages to my brain; are very good; 

are steady 

L9. Other people . . . 

) C3. I seem to be afraid of them; laugh at me; are no good; annoy me 

) C2. seem to get along better than I; are just like I am— frustrated; fascinate me until 

I know them— then I'm disappointed; seem to have more confidence than I do; 

don't seem to care about anything but themselves; seem self-wrapped and remote; 

who lack depth of character try my patience; have a tendency to misjudge me; 

make me feel inferior; are very cruel at times; are happier; I envy; annoy me 

by ; often annoy me; (are stupid, narrow-minded, etc.) 

) CI. have their troubles too; are necessary for a well-rounded existence; don't bother 

me very much; have better study habits; are needed to make me happy 
) N. for the most part are like other people; are different; are always a mystery 
) PI. should enjoy the world as I; interest me; kid me 
) P2. have so much to offer me in just being acquainted; are usually friendly; I enjoy 

talking to them 
) P3. are swell; use sugar in their tea 

77 



20. I suffer . . . 

(6) C3. I really do; I suffer from anything; periods of depression; when people snub me 
or speak sharply to me; from people not wanting me; consistently; mentally as 
well as physically 

(5) C2. from a feeling of inferiority; from inability to warm up to people; from inability 
to make up my mind; mentally often, but physically seldom; from fatigue; when 
I have to recite in class; from love; from lack of self-confidence; in a crowd of 
unknown people; from loneliness; when I hurt others; (psychosomatic symptoms— 
e.g., insomnia, headaches, etc.) , 

(4) CI. from no physical ailments; from lack of sleep; when I see others hurt; (physical 
ailments— e.g., sinus, cramps, etc.) 

(3) N. from a cold at the present; sitting through a dull class; from being so busy; in 
final exams; not knowing how to cook; from putting things off; (in cold or hot 
weather); from laziness 

(2) PI. mostly from study; no disadvantage 

(1) P2. very little; no physical or mental strain; little 

(0) P3. from nothing; not at all 



21. I failed . . . 

(6) C3. to be of much use to anyone; miserably; to find happiness 

(5) C2. to accomplish my goal; no one but myself; so many things that people expected 
me to do; to live up to my father's ideals; to fulfill my mother's expectation; to 
get love and attention when I was a child; to learn to control my emotions; to 
develop socially; to learn how to relax; often to see my mistakes in time; to stick 
to my convictions; to develop as pleasing a personality as I would like; to get 
the man I really loved; to develop a desirable relationship with my mother; the 
things I never tried 

(4) CI. (academic failure with rationalization); to make as good grades as I had planned; 
a course and got a positive value from it; to take advantages of all opportunities 
in high school; to study enough last quarter; nothing I really tried to do 
(academic subject with no rationalization); nothing; to read the assignment; to 
like accounting; to do everything I planned; to make an appointment 
to finish a sweater; to get up in the morning; to get the point of this test; but 
keep on trying 
to hear the alarm ring 



(3) 


N. 


(2) 


PI. 


(1) 


P2. 


(0) 


P3. 



78 



22. Reading . . . 

General: A "C" response is one which suggests that reading is the chief source of satis- 
faction, whereas "P" responses imply enjoyment of reading but not the probable substitu- 
tion of reading for other activities. 

(6) C3. is a means of escape 

(5) C2. is one of the few things that can give lasting enjoyment*; is easier for me when 

I am alone; is difficult for me; is one of my weak points; gives me little enjoyment; 

is good exercise to improve one's concentration power 
(4) CI. is my favorite occupation (hobby, pastime); can be a world in itself; makes me 

sleepy; relaxes me; is enjoyable if not technically dry 
(3) N. and writing are taught in school; is broadening; is interesting; is good for rainy 

days; is something I do a lot of; the newspaper is a daily pastime; was my best 

skill in school; I enjoy reading poetry; used to be a main occupation but not 

anymore 
(2) PI. is a pleasant pastime; is an enjoyable hobby; is a favorite hobby; is one of my 

hobbies; is very worthwhile 
(1) P2. is a pleasure; I love to read; is something that I enjoy very much; is fun 
(0) P3. 



23. My mind . . . 

(6) C3. is confused; is all mixed up; is so mixed up at times; is in a whirl; is almost a 

complete blank when I am confronted with a certain teacher I detest* 
(5) C2. tires me sometimes— I wish it could stop thinking; functions well when I am not 

tense or aware of myself*; is often disorganized; is not made up; is a complete 

blank most of the time; sometimes becomes very confused; is unable to concentrate; 

demands explanation of my friends' and my own behavior 
(4) CI. I wish it would comprehend more; is not well trained for thinking; should be 

stimulated; is bored; wanders; is easily swayed; is mediocre; is only average; is 

occupied with the future; seems to work overtime 
(3) N. is a blank; is made up; is a mystery to me; is an enigma; is full of many things; is 

dull in the morning; is lazy but good;— there is no mind in psychology 
(2) PI. is easily made up; is active; is average 

(1) P2. is open to new ideas; is made up as to my goals (vocation) 
(0) P3. seems free and uncluttered; is alert and stable; is clear; is good 



79 



24. The future . . . 

C3. seems to hold little; is in vain; looks black; is hopeless; I hate to think about; 

I have no future 
C2. worries me a little because I can't seem to choose a vocation that interests me ; 

seems none too secure; worries me; is dark; is too uncertain; makes the present 

bearable 
CI. is not planned; holds much in store if I know what to search for"; is black for 

the world; keeps me wondering 
N. is uncertain; is vague; is unknown; is indefinite; is unpredictable; is ahead; seems 

never to arrive; will tell; reflects on the past; holds many surprises; looks dark 

according to some of our learned men; of the world (society) depends on 

PI. seems rosy at times and hazy at others; is of great interest to me; (statement of 

any realistic plans for future); is planned as much as it can be; depends on the 

present; is uncertain but nice; looks brighter than the past has been 
P2. is full of wonder and expectation— but so unpredictable; looks good; never worries 

me; seems pretty bright 
P3. looks well; seems very bright; is lined up and promising; holds happiness; looks 

wonderful 



I need . . . 

C3. help; to find myself; solitude; help in solving my problems 

C2. love, affection and security; someone to be interested in my success or failure; 

a feeling of usefulness; someone to understand me; someone to stand with me; 

love; friendly companionship of others; more close friends; someone I can depend 

upon; more self-confidence; to grow up 
CI. to deal more with people; money; (to lose or gain weight); more sleep most of 

the time; more time for meditation; more will power; better study habits; help 

in school work; special help in chemistry 
N. (items of clothing or articles of use); to get good grades; to be busy; a vacation; 

lots of things 
PI. more time to complete this test; more free time; something to eat; a man 
P2. nothing; more time for all my interests 
P3. 



Marriage . . . 

C3. is a mistake; is not for me 

C2. is often merely an expected standard of society; is bliss for 99 per cent of the 
people; seems to fit so few couples well; I want after I have attained my goal 

CI. (most if statements— e.g., is wonderful if you marry the right person); is a 
wonderful institution if handled fairly; has advantages and disadvantages; is a 
great test of adjustment; is more important than anything; is not all bliss; does 
not interest me right now; is a long way off for me 

N. is in the picture; in about five years; after graduation; is the foundation of the 
home; is an institution; is a private affair; is a serious step 

PI. is something I hope the near future holds for me; is one of my goals; is some- 
thing I am looking forward to; is my future; is my next big step; is important for 
me; intrigues me; is a great institution 

P2. is real companionship; I am all for it 

P3. has made me very happy; is wonderful 

80 



I am best when . . . 

General: To clarify the distinction between "C" and "P" responses— a response which has 
the implication that the individual feels adequate and secure with only a limited or 
restricted group of people whom she knows very well, is scored "C"; whereas a response 
which has merely the implication that she likes to be with friends, is a "P" response. 

C3. 

C2. alone; I forget others are around; I am secure; I have recognition; people appreciate 

me; I am encouraged but not dominated; I have confidence; I am at ease; excited 

and emotional 
CI. alone with one person who knows me well; I am with people I know well; with 

true friends; in familiar surroundings 
N. I am happy; I am busy; I have completed an assigned task; (weather— e.g., when 

it is warm); that is the question when; I am rested 
PI. I can help someone; doing something I enjoy; I am asleep; someone laughs at 

my jokes; I am creating; (participation in activity) 
P2. with a crowd of friends; with people (in general) 
P3. 



28. Sometimes . . . 

C3. I wonder what I am living for; I get very discouraged; I would like to run away; 
I think there is no use; I become very depressed; things seem hopeless; I am 
afraid of everything; I am stupidly sensitive; I feel blue and sorry for myself; 
(hopelessness and suicidal wishes) 

C2. I am very lonely; I get into bad moods; I am blue; I am temperamental and 
restless; I wish my life had been different; I wish I were an island native and 
could relax; I wonder about God; I get discouraged; I could cry; I worry about 
things of no major importance; I wish I were a boy; I get very homesick 

CI. I feel like quitting school; I daydream too often; I wish I had a career which 
interested me; I wish I know what the future holds; I like to be by myself; what 
I must do is not the things I want to do*; I would like to move from this city; 
I wonder why I have been so fortunate; I feel very important; I'm afraid I won't 
be able to reach my goals; it is hard to concentrate; I say the dumbest things; 
I get bored; I get homesick 

N. I am happy, sometimes I am blue; I feel I could write; I wonder; I'd like to sleep 
and sleep 

PI. ambulance sirens sound like subway cars; I feel I could do anything; I like to 

(any activity); I'd like more recreation 

P2. people think I make bread pudding too often; I am very happy; I wonder who 
made these tests 

P3. 



81 



29. What pains me . . . 

(6) C3. is my home life; is to be unwanted 

( 5 ) C2. is people's indifference to each other; is not getting anywhere; is having to function 
in a social situation; is that I don't know the wise thing to do until I have done 
the unwise*; is not physical but mental; is to see my family lack anything; is to 
hurt someone; is to make someone unhappy; my weight; is criticism; is not doing 
things as well as I should; is to see blood; (psychosomatic complaints); (people 
who threaten) 

(4) CI. is lack of beauty in everyday life; people who make fun of my field; arrogant 
people; people who gripe; conceited people; embarrassing situations; when I know 
something and can't express it; is that I eat too much; my facial expression which 
appears as boredom; to see someone being hurt; to see people suffer needlessly^ 
people with bad manners; (physical complaints) 

(3) N. (weather); low grades; piling unnecessary work on students; lack of time; race 
prejudice; (political viewpoints); does not pain others 

(2) PI. is getting up early in the morning; is the alarm clock; two tests in one day; pains 
most people 

(1) P2. is not important; nothing 

(0) P3. 



30. I hate . . . 

(6) C3. people; almost everyone; to be nervous or afraid; myself; men; not being liked by 
others 

(5) C2. some of the conditions imposed by fife; to ask people to do things; people who 
are insensitive to others; my inconsistencies of mind; being told what to do; over- 
affectionate people; week ends alone; to be unable to answer a question in class; 
not to do the best work possible; flighty girls; two-faced men; (religious or racial 
groups) 

(4) CI. to eat alone; bad manners; stinginess; to have to do anything at a specific time; 
to worry about money; (kinds of people generally considered offensive— e.g., 
snobs); narrow minds; to hurt people; not doing something well; to do something 
I don't like; (specific school subjects) 

(3) N. intolerance; prejudice; (kinds of books or movies); our lunches at the dorm; to 
write letters; blue jeans; (weather); cats; insects; (kinds of food— e.g., turnips); 
the word "hate" 

(2) PI. to get up in the morning; climbing four flights of stairs daily in U-Hall; (acceptedly 
unpleasant tasks— e.g., to wash dishes) 

(1) P2. never; nothing; nobody; to come back from vacation 

(0) P3. 



82 



31. This school . . . 

) C3. is a very cold, unfriendly place; I hate it; is driving me nuts 

) C2. (strong criticism of school— e.g., is no good); is very disorganized; is very imper- 
sonal and hurried 

) CI. is too big; works on a mass production basis; is merely a machine; is too crowded 
to accomplish its purpose; has good courses but poor system of grading; I prefer 
smaller colleges; is a very rushing one; (mild criticism of school); is run by 
politics; has helped me a lot 

) N. is typically midwestern; is overcrowded; is a big one; is very large; is a busy 
place; is average 

) PI. is stimulating; has a lot to offer; has many opportunities; has a good department 

) P2. I like very much; is a good school in most respects 

) P3. has lived up to all my expectations; is wonderful; is hard to beat; is swell 



I am very . . . 

C3. nervous; unhappy; lonesome; dissatisfied with myself; confused at this time 

C2. anxious to make better adjustments; glad I was able to express my feelings; con- 
cerned about my family; emotional; moody at times; self-centered; self-conscious; 
self-conscious about my size; introspective; conscientious; extreme 

CI. happy when I really understand something; undecided about a choice of vocation; 
sorry I can't be a doctor; fickle; sorry I fell in love; particular about the men 
I go out with; frank at times; (worried about specific subjects, grades); much 
against women smoking; sympathetic and understanding; sorry when I say mean 
things 

N. glad it is spring and the flowers are out; certain I am spending too much time 
fining out this sheet; hungry; sleepy; thirsty; tired; (anxious to see someone) 

PI. interested in (any activity); glad I came to this school; interested in what goes 

on about me; friendly; fond of my friends; agreeable to most things people want 
to do; good at (any activity) 

P2. satisfied with school; happy in (any activity) 

P3. happy; contented 



. The only trouble . . . 

(6) C3. is worry about my family; is I can't think; is that I am afraid of social situations 

(5) C2. is too many troubles; is that I wonder if I am selfish; with the world is the people; 
is that everyone is too self-centered; is governing myself; is I lose interest in many 
things; is lack of confidence; is I can't reconcile myself to failure; is I must report 
most of my moves and activities to my parents ; is I don't have time to reach 
my goals; is jealousy; is worrying about grades 

(4) CI. with school is that classes are too large; is that I haven't a hobby; with me is 
that I am lazy; is financial; is too much hurrying; with being short is the physical 
inconvenience; is I have to study; is making good grades; is that I have to work 
while I am in school 

(3) N. is that the world is so unsettled; (weather, climate); is the long hours needed for 
studying; with dorm life is the food 

(2) PI. is too much to do and too little time; only 24 hours in a day; is getting up so 
early 

(1) P2. is little; is nothing; no trouble; with my landlady is her marked forgetfulness 

(0) P3. when I bake is that the food disappears too quickly 

83 



34. I wish . . . 

(6) C3. I was different; I had never been born; I had a normal social life 

(5) C2. I were completely independent; I could feel that some day I will be useful; I 

would have gotten help sooner; I were more self-confident; I had a more pleasing 
personality; I were more intelligent; I were home; I had a definite goal in life; 
I could marry someone with qualities like my dad; I could do something very 
well or the best 

(4) CI. that everyone were really content; I could get better grades; I could decide upon 

a vocation; I had wisdom, understanding and wealth; I had more money; I were 
out of school and could be married; to be a success in life; I were capable of 

majoring in ; I were very sophisticated; I could go "active" in my sorority; 

it was years from now; I were married 

(3) N. I would get a letter from ; I would get a 4. grade average; I were in 

(place); I could find a (dress, article shopped for); that winter would pass; 

I were graduating; I knew what the future holds 

(2) PI. I knew the purpose of this questionnaire; I had more time; I could travel; I could 

help others more; (to learn a sport or skill); to gain more knowledge 

(1) P2. 

(0) P3. for nothing more 

35. My father . . . 

(6) C3. hasn't been home since I was 12 years old; still frightens me; is a stranger to me; 

is alcoholic 

(5) C2. isn't going to change and I wish he would; is not ambitious enough; is pretty 

strict; and I were never too close; has always made us work very hard at home; 
is (was) so good to me; antagonizes me; is angry with me; isn't sociable at home; 
is dead but I think of him a lot 

(4) CI. is really a good person but does not know how to warm up to people*; seems 

more understanding than my mother; I wonder if I'll ever meet anyone as grand; 
worries about me too much; is a very quiet man; is the best man I know 

(3) N. is a successful businessman; is a (occupation); raised a large family; is hard- 

working; is in (place); is dead (with no feeling expressed about father's death) 

(2) PI. is quite a character; cultivated my interests in sports; (activity with father— e.g., 

and I discuss current events daily); is OK; is all right; has my respect and 
admiration; is a good man; is wonderful 

( 1 ) P2. is a very handsome and intelligent metallurgist; has a complete head of hair- 

hurrah!; is very nice 
(0) P3. has a wonderful sense of humor; is very congenial; is a lot of fun; is a good guy 



84 



I. I secretly . . . 

;) C3. fear people; wish I could feel toward a man as I feel toward my roommate; 

hate (person) 

) C2. am unsure of myself; do things my parents would not approve of; wish to be 

well-liked and happy; wish I had more friends of the opposite sex; dislike my 

mother; hope I'll be famous 
) CI. wish something would happen; wish I could get married; would like to be 

extremely wealthy; wish I had talent; wish I had gone on with music; strive for 

self-improvement; wish I had never quit my job; want to go home tonight; admire 

people who reach their goals 
(3) N. daydream; feel very ignorant of foreign affairs; am glad I am small; want to be 

a success; admire certain people; smoke 
(2) PI. want to be successful as a ; want to be a (occupation); talk to myself 

once in a while; wish I could paint better; wish I could sing; wish I could travel; 

enjoy listening to others' conversation; am in love; want a home and family 
(1) P2. have no secrets; if I tell you it won't be a secret; would like a big shining car 
(0) P3. don't dislike anyone 



37. I . . . 

(6) C3. hate myself sometimes; am confused; (expression of guilt); (strong rejection of 

people ) 
(5) C2. hope I can stay in school; think too much about myself; must learn how to think 

for myself; want only to be happy; am lonely 
(4) CI. hope to meet some nice boy soon; wish I were married; want to like everyone; 

would like to be out of college; think of I too much; want to make my parents 

proud of me 
(3) N. is a personal pronoun; is the most used letter of the alphabet; am 19; am an 

average college girl; am filling this in; have so much to do; long for sea and 

mountains; am free, white and twenty-one 
(2) PI. learned to fly; am learning to drive; am silly at times; love to have long roles 

in plays; love to dance; wish I could sleep longer 
(1) P2. enjoy talking with people; have a wonderful time with friends; am tired about 

thinking of ends of sentences 
(0) P3. feel good 



38. Dancing . . . 

(6) C3. frightens me; makes me self-conscious 

(5) C2. seems to be the only pastime enjoyed by students here; does not appeal to me; 

does not interest me; I wish I were more graceful 
(4) CI. is not one of my favorite pastimes; I would like to improve in; I like but I am 

not good at 
(3) N. is all right; is OK; by Katherine Dunham is most unusual; takes grace and skill; 

in the dark 

(2) PI. I like to; I enjoy; is what I prefer to do on a date; appeals to me 

(1) P2. is fun; is my favorite recreation; is a wonderful pastime; I love it; is delightful; is 

very enjoyable 
(0) P3. 

85 



39. My greatest worry is . . . 

(6) C3. other people finding out about my past; will I ever become happy; getting along 
with my family; a nervous breakdown 

(5) C2. my future; being at ease with people; my dependence upon others; that I won't 

attain my goal; flunking out; not being accepted; disappointing my parents; (health 
of relatives); doing something to hurt my parents; failure; men; myself; my mother; 
(family affairs); (psychosomatic symptoms); self -consciousness; how to become 
happy; what others think; becoming economically dependent upon others; the future 

(4) CI. graduating; (general school work); financial; passing midterms; my temper; (specific 

course or courses); whether I accomplish all I want to; not getting married; getting 
in the wrong vocation 

(3) N. (writing specific paper, specific examination); this busy week; my business; (con- 

cern over society or non-personal things) 

(2) PI. 

(1) P2. not very much; don't have any 

(0) P3. 

40. Most girls . . . 

(6) C3. are either giddy, self-centered, boy-crazy or narrow; are shallow, superficial, and 

lack true understanding 

(5) C2. live by a false sense of values;— I get along as well with them as they get along 

with each other*; have a false personality; are too engrossed in themselves; are not 
what they pretend to be; take things easier than I; are only interested in men; 
have more dates than I do; are too superficial 

(4) CI. chatter about nothing; are nice as casual friends; seem to be looking for a man; 

are fickle; aren't as dignified as they might be; are flirts; have trouble getting 
adjusted to college life; gossip too much 

(3) N. marry sooner or later; are neat; in Columbus wear no hats; are two people; are 

very self-reliant; gossip; worry about clothes; are pleasant looking 

(2) PI. have bigger worries than I do; like me; I associate with are swell 

(1) P2. are loads of fun; are fun to be with 
(0) P3. are friendly; are swell 



86 



17. When I was a child . . . 

) C3. I was lonely and unhappy; I almost died; I was physically inferior; I was fra'" 
I was sick; I was miserable; I was unhappy; I was moody; I was always sick . 
my stomach; I spent most of my time in a hospital; I was afraid of my father 

) C2. we had a happy complete home until it was broken; I played little with other 
children; I had great fear of people; I wanted attention and praise; I drank too 
much beauty; I was often punished; I was happier; I stayed by myself; I had 
few friends; I was very emotional; I was dominated by my sister; I was spoiled 

) CI. I was very small; my mother worked away from home; I was not nervous; I was 
very shy; I had a horrible temper; I can't remember; I was very quiet; we had 
a very limited income; I was fat; I was skinny 

) N. I was blond and skinny; I was a tomboy; I was spanked but twice; there were 
few girls in the neighborhood; I was a constant companion of my father; I lived 
on a farm; I spake as a child; I always was outdoors; I played with dolls; I 
traveled a lot; I wanted to be a (occupation); I wanted to grow up 

) PI. I had a vivid imagination and interesting life; I always found something to do; 
I spent most of my happy times with my cousin; I liked school; I climbed trees; 
I liked to ; the gang always did what I did; I was carefree and unconcerned 

) P2. I was happy; I enjoyed life; I was always gay 

) P3. I had a wonderful time; I liked to make mud pies 

18. My nerves . . . 

i) C3. are almost always on edge; are shot; trouble me a lot; are terrible; often worry me 
) C2. like peace and quiet; are bad; are demonstrated in my relationship with my family; 

often get the better of me; are unsteady; have gotten worse since I came here; 

are jumpy sometimes at night; are on end; are too taut 
) CI. are normal, but I may have an excess of tension; are no worse than other people's; 

are easily upset when I am in a mood; are jumpy after a trying incident; are fairly 

normal although I am nervous; could be better; become fatigued if I don't get 

enough rest; are sometimes jittery; are suppressed 
l) N. conduct impulses; are in my body 
1) PI. do not seem to get on edge very readily; are fairly stable most of the time; are 

fairly good; are usually calm; seldom get the best of me; are well controlled 
) P2. are normal; don't bother me; are in good condition 
') P3. are fine; must get bored continually relaying messages to my brain; are very good; 

are steady 

19. Other people . . . 

I) C3. I seem to be afraid of them; laugh at me; are no good; annoy me 

!) C2. seem to get along better than I; are just like I am— frustrated; fascinate me until 

I know them— then I'm disappointed; seem to have more confidence than I do; 

don't seem to care about anything but themselves; seem self-wrapped and remote; 

who lack depth of character try my patience; have a tendency to misjudge me; 

make me feel inferior; are very cruel at times; are happier; I envy; annoy me 

by ; often annoy me; (are stupid, narrow-minded, etc.) 

I) CI. have their troubles too; are necessary for a well-rounded existence; don't bother 

me very much; have better study habits; are needed to make me happy 
N. for the most part are like other people; are different; are always a mystery 
5) PI. should enjoy the world as I; interest me; kid me 
.) P2. have so much to offer me in just being acquainted; are usually friendly; I enjoy 

talking to them 
)) P3. are swell; use sugar in their tea 

77 



20. I suffer . . . 

(6) C3. I really do; I suffer from anything; periods of depression; when people snub me 
or speak sharply to me; from people not wanting me; consistently; mentally as 
well as physically 

(5) C2. from a feeling of inferiority; from inability to warm up to people; from inability 
to make up my mind; mentally often, but physically seldom; from fatigue; when 
I have to recite in class; from love; from lack of self-confidence; in a crowd of 
unknown people; from loneliness; when I hurt others; (psychosomatic symptoms— 
e.g., insomnia, headaches, etc.) 

(4) CI. from no physical ailments; from lack of sleep; when I see others hurt; (physical 

ailments— e.g., sinus, cramps, etc.) 
(3) N. from a cold at the present; sitting through a dull class; from being so busy; in 

final exams; not knowing how to cook; from putting things off; (in cold or hot 

weather); from laziness 
(2) PI. mostly from study; no disadvantage 
(1) P2. very little; no physical or mental strain; little 
(0) P3. from nothing; not at all 



21. I failed . . . 

(6) C3. to be of much use to anyone; miserably; to find happiness 

(5) C2. to accomplish my goal; no one but myself; so many things that people expected 
me to do; to live up to my father's ideals; to fulfill my mother's expectation; to 
get love and attention when I was a child; to learn to control my emotions; to 
develop socially; to learn how to relax; often to see my mistakes in time; to stick 
to my convictions; to develop as pleasing a personality as I would like; to get 
the man I really loved; to develop a desirable relationship with my mother; the 
things I never tried 

(4) CI. (academic failure with rationalization ) ; to make as good grades as I had planned; 
a course and got a positive value from it; to take advantages of all opportunities 
in high school; to study enough last quarter; nothing I really tried to do 
(academic subject with no rationalization); nothing; to read the assignment; to 
like accounting; to do everything I planned; to make an appointment 
to finish a sweater; to get up in the morning; to get the point of this test; but 
keep on trying 
to hear the alarm ring 



(3) 


N. 


(2) 


PI 


(1) 


P2 


(0) 


P3 



78 



22. Reading . . . 

General: A "C" response is one which suggests that reading is the chief source of satis- 
faction, whereas "P" responses imply enjoyment of reading but not the probable substitu- 
tion of reading for other activities. 

(6) C3. is a means of escape 

(5) C2. is one of the few things that can give lasting enjoyment*; is easier for me when 

I am alone; is difficult for me; is one of my weak points; gives me little enjoyment; 

is good exercise to improve one's concentration power 
(4) CI. is my favorite occupation (hobby, pastime); can be a world in itself; makes me 

sleepy; relaxes me; is enjoyable if not technically dry 
(3) N. and writing are taught in school; is broadening; is interesting; is good for rainy 

days; is something I do a lot of; the newspaper is a daily pastime; was my best 

skill in school; I enjoy reading poetry; used to be a main occupation but not 

anymore 
(2) PI. is a pleasant pastime; is an enjoyable hobby; is a favorite hobby; is one of my 

hobbies; is very worthwhile 
( 1 ) P2. is a pleasure; I love to read; is something that I enjoy very much; is fun 
(0) P3. 



23. My mind . . . 

(6) C3. is confused; is all mixed up; is so mixed up at times; is in a whirl; is almost a 

complete blank when I am confronted with a certain teacher I detest* 
(5) C2. tires me sometimes— I wish it could stop thinking; functions well when I am not 

tense or aware of myself*; is often disorganized; is not made up; is a complete 

blank most of the time; sometimes becomes very confused; is unable to concentrate; 

demands explanation of my friends' and my own behavior 
(4) CI. I wish it would comprehend more; is not well trained for thinking; should be 

stimulated; is bored; wanders; is easily swayed; is mediocre; is only average; is 

occupied with the future; seems to work overtime 
(3) N. is a blank; is made up; is a mystery to me; is an enigma; is full of many things; is 

dull in the morning; is lazy but good;— there is no mind in psychology 
(2) PI. is easily made up; is active; is average 

( 1 ) P2. is open to new ideas; is made up as to my goals ( vocation ) 
(0) P3. seems free and uncluttered; is alert and stable; is clear; is good 



79 



24. The future . . . 

(6) C3. seems to hold little; is in vain; looks black; is hopeless; I hate to think about; 

I have no future 
(5) C2. Worries me a little because I can't seem to choose a vocation that interests me°; 

seems none too secure; worries me; is dark; is too uncertain; makes the present 

bearable 
(4) CI. is not planned; holds much in store if I know what to search for*; is black for 

the world; keeps me wondering 
(3) N. is uncertain; is vague; is unknown; is indefinite; is unpredictable; is ahead; seems 

never to arrive; will tell; reflects on the past; holds many surprises; looks dark 

according to some of our learned men; of the world (society) depends on 

(2) PI. seems rosy at times and hazy at others; is of great interest to me; (statement of 

any realistic plans for future); is planned as much as it can be; depends on the 

present; is uncertain but nice; looks brighter than the past has been 
( 1 ) P2. is full of wonder and expectation— but so unpredictable; looks good; never worries 

me; seems pretty bright 
(0) P3. looks well; seems very bright; is lined up and promising; holds happiness; looks 

wonderful 



25. I need . . . 

(6) C3. help; to find myself; solitude; help in solving my problems 

(5) C2. love, affection and security; someone to be interested in my success or failure; 

a feeling of usefulness; someone to understand me; someone to stand with me; 

love; friendly companionship of others; more close friends; someone I can depend 

upon; more self-confidence; to grow up 
(4) CI. to deal more with people; money; (to lose or gain weight); more sleep most of 

the time; more time for meditation; more will power; better study habits; help 

in school work; special help in chemistry 
(3) N. (items of clothing or articles of use); to get good grades; to be busy; a vacation; 

lots of things 
(2) PI. more time to complete this test; more free time; something to eat; a man 
( 1 ) P2. nothing; more time for all my interests 
(0) P3. 



26. Marriage . . . 

(6) C3. is a mistake; is not for me 

(5) C2. is often merely an expected standard of society; is bliss for 99 per cent of the 
people; seems to fit so few couples well; I want after I have attained my goal 

(4) CI. (most if statements— e.g., is wonderful if you marry the right person); is a 
wonderful institution if handled fairly; has advantages and disadvantages; is a 
great test of adjustment; is more important than anything; is not all bliss ; does 
not interest me right now; is a long way off for me 

(3) N. is in the picture; in about five years; after graduation; is the foundation of the 
home; is an institution; is a private affair; is a serious step 

(2) PI. is something I hope the near future holds for me; is one of my goals; is some- 
thing I am looking forward to; is my future; is my next big step; is important for 
me; intrigues me; is a great institution 

( 1 ) P2. is real companionship; I am all for it 

(0) P3. has made me very happy; is wonderful 

80 



27. I am best when . . . 

General: To clarify the distinction between "C" and "P" responses— a response which has 
the implication that the individual feels adequate and secure with only a limited or 
restricted group of people whom she knows very well, is scored "C"; whereas a response 
which has merely the implication that she likes to be with friends, is a "P" response. 

C3. 

C2. alone; I forget others are around; I am secure; I have recognition; people appreciate 

me; I am encouraged but not dominated; I have confidence; I am at ease; excited 

and emotional 
CI. alone with one person who knows me well; I am with people I know well; with 

true friends; in familiar surroundings 
N. I am happy; I am busy; I have completed an assigned task; (weather— e.g., when 

it is warm); that is the question when; I am rested 
PI. I can help someone; doing something I enjoy; I am asleep; someone laughs at 

my jokes; I am creating; (participation in activity) 
P2. with a crowd of friends; with people (in general) 
P3. 



28. Sometimes . . . 

i) C3. I wonder what I am living for; I get very discouraged; I would like to run away; 
I think there is no use; I become very depressed; things seem hopeless; I am 
afraid of everything; I am stupidly sensitive; I feel blue and sorry for myself; 
(hopelessness and suicidal wishes) 
i) C2. I am very lonely; I get into bad moods; I am blue; I am temperamental and 
restless; I wish my fife had been different; I wish I were an island native and 
could relax; I wonder about God; I get discouraged; I could cry; I worry about 
things of no major importance; I wish I were a boy; I get very homesick 
[) CI. I feel like quitting school; I daydream too often; I wish I had a career which 
interested me; I wish I know what the future holds; I like to be by myself; what 
I must do is not the things I want to do*; I would like to move from this city; 
I wonder why I have been so fortunate; I feel very important; I'm afraid I won't 
be able to reach my goals; it is hard to concentrate; I say the dumbest tilings; 
I get bored; I get homesick 

N. I am happy, sometimes I am blue; I feel I could write; I wonder; I'd like to sleep 
and sleep 

PI. ambulance sirens sound like subway cars; I feel I could do anything; I like to 

(any activity); I'd like more recreation 

P2. people think I make bread pudding too often; I am very happy; I wonder who 
made these tests 

P3. 



81 



(3) 


N. 


(2) 


PI 


(1) 


P2 


(0) 


P3 



29. What pains me . . . 

(6) C3. is my home life; is to be unwanted 

( 5 ) C2. is people's indifference to each other; is not getting anywhere; is having to function 
in a social situation; is that I don't know the wise thing to do until I have done 
the unwise*; is not physical but mental; is to see my family lack anything; is to 
hurt someone; is to make someone unhappy; my weight; is criticism; is not doing 
things as well as I should; is to see blood; (psychosomatic complaints); (people 
who threaten) 

(4) CI. is lack of beauty in everyday life; people who make fun of my field; arrogant 
people; people who gripe; conceited people; embarrassing situations; when I know 
something and can't express it; is that I eat too much; my facial expression which 
appears as boredom; to see someone being hurt; to see people suffer needlessly; 
people with bad manners; (physical complaints) 

(weather); low grades; piling unnecessary work on students; lack of time; race 
prejudice; (political viewpoints); does not pain others 

is getting up early in the morning; is the alarm clock; two tests in one day; pains 
most people 
is not important; nothing 



30. I hate . . . 

(6) C3. people; almost everyone; to be nervous or afraid; myself; men; not being liked by 
others 

(5) C2. some of the conditions imposed by life; to ask people to do things; people who 
are insensitive to others; my inconsistencies of mind; being told what to do; over- 
affectionate people; week ends alone; to be unable to answer a question in class; 
not to do the best work possible; flighty girls; two-faced men; (religious or racial 
groups) 

(4) CI. to eat alone; bad manners; stinginess; to have to do anything at a specific time; 
to worry about money; (kinds of people generally considered offensive— e.g., 
snobs); narrow minds; to hurt people; not doing something well; to do something 
I don't like; (specific school subjects) 

(3) N. intolerance; prejudice; (kinds of books or movies); our lunches at the dorm; to 
write letters; blue jeans; (weather); cats; insects; (kinds of food— e.g., turnips); 
the word "hate" 

(2) PI. to get up in the morning; climbing four flights of stairs daily in U-Hall; (acceptedly 
unpleasant tasks— e.g., to wash dishes) 

( 1 ) P2. never; nothing; nobody; to come back from vacation 

(0) P3. 



82 



81. This school . . . 

(6) C3. is a very cold, unfriendly place; I hate it; is driving me nuts 

(5) C2. (strong criticism of school— e.g., is no good); is very disorganized; is very imper- 
sonal and hurried 

(4) CI. is too big; works on a mass production basis; is merely a machine; is too crowded 
to accomplish its purpose; has good courses but poor system of grading; I prefer 
smaller colleges; is a very rushing one; (mild criticism of school); is run by 
politics; has helped me a lot 

(3) N. is typically midwestern; is overcrowded; is a big one; is very large; is a busy 
place; is average 

(2) PI. is stimulating; has a lot to offer; has many opportunities; has a good department 

[1) P2. I like very much; is a good school in most respects 

(0) P3. has lived up to all my expectations; is wonderful; is hard to beat; is swell 



32. I am very . . . 

(6) C3. nervous; unhappy; lonesome; dissatisfied with myself; confused at this time 

(5) C2. anxious to make better adjustments; glad I was able to express my feelings; con- 
cerned about my family; emotional; moody at times; self-centered; self-conscious; 
self-conscious about my size; introspective; conscientious; extreme 

(4) CI. happy when I really understand something; undecided about a choice of vocation; 
sorry I can't be a doctor; fickle; sorry I fell in love; particular about the men 
I go out with; frank at times; (worried about specific subjects, grades); much 
against women smoking; sympathetic and understanding; sorry when I say mean 
things 

(3) N. glad it is spring and the flowers are out; certain I am spending too much time 
fining out this sheet; hungry; sleepy; thirsty; tired; (anxious to see someone) 

(2) PI. interested in (any activity); glad I came to this school; interested in what goes 

on about me; friendly; fond of my friends; agreeable to most things people want 
to do; good at (any activity) 

(1) P2. satisfied with school; happy in (any activity) 

(0) P3. happy; contented 



33. The only trouble . . . 

(6) C3. is worry about my family; is I can't think; is that I am afraid of social situations 

(5) C2. is too many troubles; is that I wonder if I am selfish; with the world is the people; 
is that everyone is too self-centered; is governing myself; is I lose interest in many 
things; is lack of confidence; is I can't reconcile myself to failure; is I must report 
most of my moves and activities to my parents*; is I don't have time to reach 
my goals; is jealousy; is worrying about grades 

(4) CI. with school is that classes are too large; is that I haven't a hobby; with me is 
that I am lazy; is financial; is too much hurrying; with being short is the physical 
inconvenience; is I have to study; is making good grades; is that I have to work 
while I am in school 

(3) N. is that the world is so unsettled; (weather, climate); is the long hours needed for 
studying; with dorm fife is the food 

(2) PI. is too much to do and too little time; only 24 hours in a day; is getting up so 
early 

(1) P2. is little; is nothing; no trouble; with my landlady is her marked forgetfulness 
(0) P3. when I bake is that the food disappears too quickly 

83 



34. I wish . . . 

(6) C3. I was different; I had never been born; I had a normal social life 

(5) C2. I were completely independent; I could feel that some day I will be useful; I 
would have gotten help sooner; I were more self-confident; I had a more pleasing 
personality; I were more intelligent; I were home; I had a definite goal in life; 
I could marry someone with qualities like my dad; I could do something very 
well or the best 

(4) CI. that everyone were really content; I could get better grades; I could decide upon 
a vocation; I had wisdom, understanding and wealth; I had more money; I were 
out of school and could be married; to be a success in life; I were capable of 

majoring in ; I were very sophisticated; I could go "active" in my sorority; 

it was years from now; I were married 

(3) N. I would get a letter from ; I would get a 4. grade average; I were in- 



(place); I could find a (dress, article shopped for); that winter would pass; 

I were graduating; I knew what the future holds 

(2) PI. I knew the purpose of this questionnaire; I had more time; I could travel; I could 

help others more; (to learn a sport or skill); to gain more knowledge 

(1) P2. 

(0) P3. for nothing more 

35. My father . . . 

(6) C3. hasn't been home since I was 12 years old; still frightens me; is a stranger to me; 

is alcoholic 
(5) C2. isn't going to change and I wish he would; is not ambitious enough; is pretty 

strict; and I were never too close; has always made us work very hard at home; 

is (was) so good to me; antagonizes me; is angry with me; isn't sociable at home; 

is dead but I think of him a lot 
(4) CI. is really a good person but does not know how to warm up to people*; seems 

more understanding than my mother; I wonder if I'll ever meet anyone as grand; 

worries about me too much; is a very quiet man; is the best man I know 

(3) N. is a successful businessman; is a (occupation); raised a large family; is hard- 

working; is in (place); is dead (with no feeling expressed about father's death) 

(2) PI. is quite a character; cultivated my interests in sports; (activity with father— e.g., 

and I discuss current events daily); is OK; is all right; has my respect and 
admiration; is a good man; is wonderful 

( 1 ) P2. is a very handsome and intelligent metallurgist; has a complete head of hair- 

hurrah!; is very nice 
(0) P3. has a wonderful sense of humor; is very congenial; is a lot of fun; is a good guy 



84 



36. I secretly 



C3. fear people; wish I could feel toward a man as I feel toward my roommate; 

hate (person) 

C2. am unsure of myself; do things my parents would not approve of; wish to be 

well-liked and happy; wish I had more friends of the opposite sex; dislike my 

mother; hope I'll be famous 
CI. wish something would happen; wish I could get married; would like to be 

extremely wealthy; wish I had talent; wish I had gone on with music; strive for 

self-improvement; wish I had never quit my job; want to go home tonight; admire 

people who reach their goals 
N. daydream; feel very ignorant of foreign affairs; am glad I am small; want to be 

a success; admire certain people; smoke 
PI. want to be successful as a ; want to be a (occupation); talk to myself 

once in a while; wish I could paint better; wish I could sing; wish I could travel; 

enjoy listening to others' conversation; am in love; want a home and family 
P2. have no secrets; if I tell you it won't be a secret; would like a big shining car 
P3. don't dislike anyone 



37. I . . . 



C3. hate myself sometimes; am confused; (expression of guilt); (strong rejection of 

people ) 
C2. hope I can stay in school; think too much about myself; must learn how to think 

for myself; want only to be happy; am lonely 
CI. hope to meet some nice boy soon; wish I were married; want to like everyone; 

would like to be out of college; think of I too much; want to make my parents 

proud of me 
N. is a personal pronoun; is the most used letter of the alphabet; am 19; am an 

average college girl; am filling this in; have so much to do; long for sea and 

mountains; am free, white and twenty-one 
PI. learned to fly; am learning to drive; am silly at times; love to have long roles 

in plays; love to dance; wish I could sleep longer 
P2. enjoy talking with people; have a wonderful time with friends; am tired about 

thinking of ends of sentences 
P3. feel good 



38. Dancing . . . 

i) C3. frightens me; makes me self-conscious 
) C2. seems to be the only pastime enjoyed by students here; does not appeal to me; 

does not interest me; I wish I were more graceful 
(4) CI. is not one of my favorite pastimes; I would like to improve in; I like but I am 

not good at 
(3) N. is all right; is OK; by Katherine Dunham is most unusual; takes grace and skill; 

in the dark 

(2) PI. I like to; I enjoy; is what I prefer to do on a date; appeals to me 

(1) P2. is fun; is my favorite recreation; is a wonderful pastime; I love it; is delightful; is 

very enjoyable 
(0) P3. 

85 



39. My greatest worry is . . . 

(6) C3. other people finding out about my past; will I ever become happy; getting along 
with my family; a nervous breakdown 

(5) C2. my future; being at ease with people; my dependence upon others; that I won't 

attain my goal; flunking out; not being accepted; disappointing my parents; (health 
of relatives ) ; doing something to hurt my parents; failure; men; myself; my mother; 
(family affairs); (psychosomatic symptoms); self-consciousness; how to become 
happy; what others think; becoming economically dependent upon others; the future 

(4) CI. graduating; (general school work); financial; passing midterms; my temper; (specific 

course or courses); whether I accomplish all I want to; not getting married; getting 
in the wrong vocation 

(3) N. (writing specific paper, specific examination); this busy week; my business; (con- 

cern over society or non-personal things) 

(2) PL 

(1) P2. not very much; don't have any 
(0) P3. 

40. Most girls . . . 

(6) C3. are either giddy, self-centered, boy-crazy or narrow; are shallow, superficial, and 

lack true understanding 

(5) C2. live by a false sense of values;— I get along as well with them as they get along 

with each other*; have a false personality; are too engrossed in themselves; are not 
what they pretend to be; take things easier than I; are only interested in men; 
have more dates than I do; are too superficial 

(4) CI. chatter about nothing; are nice as casual friends; seem to be looking for a man; 

are fickle; aren't as dignified as they might be; are flirts; have trouble getting 
adjusted to college life; gossip too much 

(3) N. marry sooner or later; are neat; in Columbus wear no hats; are two people; are 

very self-reliant; gossip; worry about clothes; are pleasant looking 

(2) PL have bigger worries than I do; like me; I associate with are swell 
(1) P2. are loads of fun; are fun to be with 

(0) P3. are friendly; are swell 



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