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‘THE AMERICAN 


FOURNAL OF LITERATURE, SCIENCE, THE ARTS, AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS. 











VOL. XIII.—NO. 330. 





PHILADELPHIA, SATURDAY, DECEMBER 4, 1886. 


PRICE, 6 CENTS 








THE AMERICAN. 


VOLUME VIII. BEGUN OCTOBER 1886. 


THE AMERICAN aims at an honorable standard in literary excellence, an independent and fearless course, 
a catholic and fair-minded relation to controverted qnestions, and the study of the hopeful side of human 
affairs. 

Designing to justify its name, it represents unhesitatingly the form and substance of American 
principles. Perceiving no superiority in foreign institutions, it prefers those of its own country, and 
seeks to perfect them. It demands American independence, and denounces American subjection. It 
believes that subjection of American industry, or mechanical skill, or commerce, to the grasp of other 
nations, is a foolish and fatal policy. It holds the view that the social condition of our workmen is 
largely dependent on the Protective policy that guards them against the cheap and degraded labor of other 





countries, and that from every point of view alowering of that sogial condition would be deplorable. It 
therefore advocates a true Protective Tariff, designed to foster no monopoly, but to shield from destructive 
competition every legitimate industry suited to the natural conditions of the country. 


SOME RECENT EXPRESSIONS. 


From Iowa: 
Enclosed find 


of the Week ” is the best that I see. 
From New York (State): ‘ 


Ideem THE AMERICAN one of the best, if not the best, of the secular papers that come to me. 
Certainly there is not one that I read with more satisfaction and profit. 


my friends, and commend it. 
From North Carolina: 


Ihave received THE AMERICAN during the last year, and have read each issue as soon after it 


was in hand as my engagements would allow. 
tive in every issue. 


From a Member of the U. S. Senate: 


I find nearly always something profitable for me to read in each number. 


From an American in Europe: 


I never lay down the number of THE AMERICAN without thinking I will write to say what a 
I have just read in it a most sensible article on the Silver Question. It 
is sometimes too Pennsylvanian in its views both of Tariffand Currency fora New Euglander like 
myself, but in the main there is no paper which I read with so general assent and satisfaction. 


good paper I think it is. 








RAILROADS. 


BALTIMORE & OHIO R. R. 


IN EFFECT SEPTEMBER 19, 1886. 


TRAINS LEAVE DEPOT 24tH AND CHESTNUT 
STREETS, 


Temporary Approach, 24th and Walnut Streets, 
VIA WASHINGTON, 


PHILADELPHIA TO CINCINNATI, ST. LOUIS AND 
CHICAGO 


And all points West, Northwest and Southwest. 





Chicago Limited, . . ...... . 7.00 A.M. 
Arrives Chicago 9.30 A. M. next day. 
Cincinnati and St. Louis Limited, . - 11.00 A. M. 


Arrives Cincinnati 7.45 A. M. and St. Louis 6.40 P. M. 
nextday No extra fare on these trains. 
Chicago Express, . .. . 


ie is 5.00 P. M. 
Cincinnati and St. Louis Express, . 


- 5.00P. M. 


NO CHANGE OF CARS TO CHICAGO, CINCINNATI] 
AND ST. LOUIS. 

Express trains from Chicago arrive 12.30 noon, 12.00 
midnight ; from St. Louis and Cincinnati, 12.30 noon, 
6.05 P. M. 

Baggage called for and checked at hotels and resi- 
dences. Sleeping-car space reserved and full informa- 
tion furnished at 





Ticket Office, 883 Chestnut Street. 





C. K. Lonrp, 
Gen. Pass. Agt. 


C. R. MACKENZIR, 
Pass. Agt. 


B. DUNHAM, 
Gen. Manager 


date I am inquiring with myself what papers I can spare my poor 
eyes the pain, (or pleasure ?) of reading, and cannot put THE AMERICAN on the list. 





Its “ Review 
M. K. C. 


I am happy to show it to 
J.B. W. 


I have found it interesting and instruc- 
R. T. B. 


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THE AMERICAN. 





(Number 330 








THE AMERICAN 


A NATIONAL JOURNAL. 
PUBLISHED WEEKLY, ON EACH SATURDAY. 








THE AMERICAN COMPANY, LIMITED, PROPRIETORS. 
WHARTON BARKER, President. 
HowAkD M. JENKINS, Sec. and Treas. 





KOBERT ELLIS THOMPSON, Chief Editorial Contributor. 





Business and Editorial Offices: 
No. 921 ARCH STREET, PHILADELPHIA. 





CONTENTS OF THIS NUMBER: 


PAGE 
REVIEW OF THE WEEK, . ° : ; ° - 99 
EDITORIAL: 
Winter Conflict in Ireland, . ; : ‘ - 102 
SPECIAL ARTICLES: 
The Teachers of Preparatory Schools, 5 . 102 
The Late Dr. Magoon, . ‘ . ‘ , . 104 
Henry Muhlenberg, : : : ‘ : . 104 
REVIEWS: 
Elder’s ‘‘Manand Labor, . ; : < - 104 
Recent Fiction, ; . - 105 
“The Casting Away of Mrs. Lecks and Mrs. Ale- 
shine,” . ; ‘ ‘ ‘ : : . 106 
Holiday Books, ' . ; ‘ - 106 
Searing’s Edition of Virgil, . . : . - 107 
Anders’s ‘‘ House Plants as Sanitary Agents,’’ . 107 
Briefer Notices, x ° : ° A : . 108 
AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS, . 5 . ‘ - 108 
PERIODICAL LITERATURE, ‘ ‘ ® ‘ . 109 
ART NOTES, . ¢ ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘5 : ‘ . 109 
SCIENCE NOTES, . : ° R . ‘ j - 109 
THE ENLISTMENT OF LAFAYETTE, . ‘ ° . 110 
GENERAL GRANT'S DINNER WITH THE QUEEN, . 111 
PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED, . . . . : aa 
DRIFT, . ; . . ‘ ‘ ‘ ‘ < « 493 





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the continuance of his advertisement. 

CHECKS, POSTAL ORDERS, ETc., should be drawn to 
order of HOWARD M. JENKINS, TREASURER. 

*,* Address through post-office: ‘‘ THE AMERICAN, 
Box 924, Philadelphia.” 








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SAMUEL R. SHIPLEY, President. 

T. WISTAR BROWN, Vice-President. 

ASA S. WING, Vice-President and Actuary. 
JOSEPH ASHBROOK, Manager of Insurance Dep’t. 
J. ROBERTS FOULKE, Trust Officer. 


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THE AMERICAN. 








VOL. XIII.—NO. 330. 


PHILADELPHIA, SATURDAY DECEMBER 4, 1886. 


PRICE, 6 CENTS 








REVIEW OF THE WEEK. 
R. CLEVELAND certainly has not consulted his own dignity 
or that of his office in writing the letter to Mr. Garland in 
which he discusses the case of Mr. William A. Stone, till recently 
district attorney for Western Pennsylvania. Mr. Stone was dis- 
missed from that office at the same time as was Mr. Benton from 
the district attorneyship in Missouri. As Mr. Benton has been 
restored upon grounds which apply with still greater force in his 
case, he thought it best to call Mr. Garland’s attention to the fact 
that he had in no case been absent from his office while the United 
States court was in session, and in none for as much as twenty- 
four hours. He had made only two short speeches during the 
campaign, and he might have added that in making these he had 
done no more than was done by scores of Democratic office-hold- 

ers, who have not been visited with any censure. 

The substance of Mr. Cleveland’s long and undignified reply 
is that there is one rule for Democratic and another for Republican 
office-holders under a Democratic administration. He defines the 
holding of national office as being ‘“‘the service of the administra- 
tion,” and stamps as disloyal to duty any man in that service who 
does anything that may shake the confidence of the people in its 
character. By parity of reasoning it is the distinct duty of Demo- 
cratic office-holders “in the service of the administration” to lose 
no opportunity to strengthen the people in their confidence in the 
administration by speeches or otherwise. A lower and more 
partisan view of the public service never has been enunciated, not 
even by Mr. Grant, when, in an unguarded moment, he described 
himself as “the president of the Republican party.” There is but 
one step more for Mr. Cleveland, and it is to take all the federal 
office-holders into his personal service, classify them as his thanes, 
and denounce as disloyal any word or act which may tend to 
stand in the way of his political ambitions. And if we must have 
some substitute as the object of official loyalty, we would much 
prefer a man to the irresponsible congeries of individuals called 
“the administration.” If we do not put a false construction upon 
Mr. Cleveland’s recent utterances, it is one man and one only who 
is meant by the phrase in this letter. 

Apart from the very objectionable character of its contents, it 
was a great mistake in the President to have written such a letter. 
The dignity of the office forbids that its occupant should write 
communications which may provoke replies aud lead to contro- 
versies. Mr. Jefferson showed his good sense when he refused to 
appear in court as a witness in thetrial of Aaron Burr. Some of 
our Jeffersonian Democrats may profit by his example. In this 
case Mr. Cleveland has laid himself open to a very severe retort as 
to a matter of fact. Mr. Stone’s two brief speeches he describes 
as in harmony with the speeches made at Republican meetings, 
which are “ largely devoted to abuse and misrepresentation of the 
administration.” This statement Mr. Stone characterizes as a 
falsehood. He did not discuss the administration or anyone con- 
nected with it. Hespoke only on the Tariff and on Prohibition. 
Of course Mr. Cleveland supposed he was telling the truth; but 
this slip into a very grave misrepresentation of the facts shows 
the risks which a President must take when he begins to vindicate 
his official acts in long and excited communications of this kind. 





Mr. BAYARD’s diplomacy is not inert ; he is still on the watch 
to secure the interests of his country. The last news is that he 
has negotiated a treaty of reciprocity with the Tonga Islands. 
The group is about 250 square miles in extent, and has a popula- 
tion of about 150,000 people, who live on hogs, bananas and bread 
fruit. What they are’to send us or we to send them, does not yet 
It is true that they are on the route from San Francisco 


appear. 











to Sydney, but as this administration is laboring to put a stop to 
steam communication with that part of the world, we do not see 
what we have to gain by making friends alonga disused route. 
Nor are they within a distance at which we could have any inde- 
pendent commerce with them, as they are one of the more South- 
ern groups of Polynesia, and lie far nearer to New Zealand than 
to us. But still every little counts! If the Fisheries question is 
still unsettled, and the Canadians are still unpunished, the Tongas 
are safe. 





THE report of Mr. Trenholm, the Controller of the Currency, 
has as much interest for the business world as have those of the 
heads of departments. His recommendations as to the continuance 
of the national bank circulation would excite still more attention, 
if there were any reasonable likelihood that his advice would be 
taken by the majority in the House of Representatives. But it is 
the misfortune of this administration that it has little or ne influ- 
ence with its followers, even when it is clearly in the right. Mr. 
Trenholm himself seems to feel this, for although he eulogizes our 
present arrangement for securing the redemption of the bank- 
notes, and praises the national banking system as a whole, and 
answers some of the objections to it and to all banks, he does not 
make a single practical suggestion on the subject. At least we 
find nothing of the sort in the summary of his forthcoming report 
which has been given to the daily newspapers. He insists that we 
cannot go on as we have been doing in extinguishing this currency 
by paying the bonds which secure it; but he neither proposes to 
stop paying the bonds nor to substitute anything else in their 
place asa security. He merely says it is a subject for appropriate 
legislation, but leaves the country in the dark as to what he thinks 
the legislation ought tobe. Mr. Knox would at least have had some 
notion as to what we might attempt, or he would have discussed the 
various proposals which have been made, such as that of Mr. Coe 
of New York. Mr. Trenholm does not presume to have an opinion 
on a question on which he ought to rank as an expert. 

We do not see that it is either possible or desirable to go on 
with our present system of currency secured by national bonds. 
It is true that that method has worked well in supplying the needs 
of the older and richer portions of the country, which can afford a 
safe and costly currency. But the condemnation of the system is 
found in the figures of its distribution, and in the growing dis- 
satisfaction of the people of our less wealthy districts with our 
whole monetary system. The chief financial dangers of the country, 
the popularity of Greenback theories, and the continuance of the 
coinage of seventy-five cents’ worth of silverinto dollars, are all de- 
mands for a cheaper money than the national bank system can 
furnish, and these demands should be met and satisfied in some 
sane and safe way. If not, they will be met in ways which are 
neither sane nor safe. 





Mr. ATKINs, the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, appears to 
have organized a bureau of intelligence, in order to keep the news- 
papers posted as to the merits of his administration of that re- 
sponsible post. The New York Evening Post is the organ espe- 
cially favored with his communications, and its columns are al- 
ways open to eulogies of the non-partisan spirit he has shown as a 
Commissioner. The factsare that of sixty-one Indian agents on 
the frontier, just fifty have been removed by Mr. Atkins since he 
came into office. And by a singular coincidence every one of the 
fifty were Republicans, and their successors in every instance are 
Democrats. It is possible, of course, that none of this half a hun- 
dred were quite up to Mr. Atkins’ ideal of what an Indian agent 

| ought to be; but it is remarkable that among those who fell short 
| of this were the very men whom the life-long friends of the In- 














100 


THE AMERICAN. 





[Number 330 














dians regarded as the best men in this branch of the public service. 
There is no work in which practical experience is of greater im- 
portance ; and in no department of the national service has expe- 
rience been sacrificed more ruthlessly to partisan considerations. 
In no case has Mr. Atkins filled a vacant place by the promotion 
of men who had a practical acquaintance with the duties of the 
position. All his new men are green wood—Democrats for whom 
a place must be found. 

Another branch of Mr. Atkins’s non-partisan administration 
of Indian affairs is found in his treatment of the licensed traders. 
The Senate took steps to have this matter looked into, and in the 
recess of Congress quite a large body of facts has been brought to 
light. Several respectable firms have been ruined by the refusal 
to renew their license, and in every case they were Republicans, 
while the licenses were given to Democrats instead. Especially 
Mr. Atkins has been taking care of his friends in Tennessee in 
this matter of issuing traders’ licenses. Such partisanship is bad 
enough ; but the hypocrisy which calls it reform is abominable. 





THE Navy Department was somewhat anxious as the time 
drew near for the opening of bids for the new cruisers and gun- 
boats, and not a single bid had been forwarded. There seems to 
have been an agreement among the ship-builders to hand in their 
bids at the last moment only. Three companies only competed 
for the cruisers; the Cramps, of Philadelphia, the Harlan and 
Hollingsworth Company, of Wilmington, and the Union Iron 
Company, of San Francisco. The bids amount to a refusal to build 
one of the cruisers on the terms offered by the government. On 
the principle of accepting the lowest bid the Cramps get the con- 
tract for one cruiser and one gun-boat; the San Francisco Compa- 
ny the contract for the other cruiser ; and the Columbia Company 
of Baltimore the contract for the other gun-boat. The third crui- 
ser, the Baltimore, will probably be built by the Brooklyn Navy 
Yard. It is remarked as notable that neither New York nor 
Boston entered the competition, but the simple fact is that neither 
city has a yard for the building of iron ships. 

This still leaves unsettled the question of the armor for these 
cruisers. Mr. Whitney, as all the world knows, is anxious to get 
leave to purchase it abroad, and has put the agent ofa great 
French iron firm on the board which is to sit in judgment upon 
these vessels and the materials of which they are to be made. The 
House was quite ready to gratify this taste for an article of foreign 
manufacture, but the Senate interposed its veto. With the results 
of the election before its eyes, the House will not be so com- 
plaisant on this point; but it is almost certain that the Secretary 
will renew his proposal for leave to purchase steel-plates in 
Europe. That, however, would be too heavy a load for the party 
to carry in the next presidential election. The vote in 1858 to 
buy English gaspipes for the city of Washington was one of the 
last blows to the fortunes of the Democratic party ; and there 
are Democrats old enough to remember the fact. 





WHAT is very curious, in connection with the Navy Depart- 
ment and its cruisers, is the Atlanta business. This ship is one 
which Mr. Whitney took from Mr. Roach, and finished himself. 
And now that she is finishel, she has had three several trial trips 
in August, September, and November, with the result of showing 
that she does not nearly attain and maintain for six successive 
hours the power required. On the contrary, in attempting to do 
so, her machinery has continually failed at one place or another. 
Whether Mr. Nast will feel it necessary to reproduce his Dolphin 
picture in Harper’s Weekly may be a subject for speculation, but as 
Mr. Whitney and his folks have themselves finished the ship and 
put in her machinery,—after the plans of their Department, as in 
the Dolphin’s case,—it is probable the excellent Nast will not be so 
effusive with his satire this time. 





CONGRESS will reissemble on Monday. ‘The session, allowing 
for two weeks at Christmas, will cover about sixty secular days, 





which, as the appropriation bills must be acted on, gives sub- | and become a burden on the industrial energies of the country ? 


stantially no time at all for measures which will cause much dis- 
cussion. Some of those which were well advanced in one or the 
other branch last session may now be completed, but that will be 
all that will be possible. Comparatively, the session will be short, 
in every way. Mr. Dawes is said to be maturing a revenue bill in 
order to show that the Republicans are able to deal with the taxa- 
tion and surplus problem, and if he makes a good measure this 
may be very well as a demonstration for subsequent campaign 
use, while it can have no hope of immediate application in the 
Treasury department. 





THE Commissioners of the District of Columbia seem to have 
some original ideas on justice. No other body of judges both finds 
the accusation to be true, and punishes those who brought it to 
their attention. Two officers of the police force of the District re- 
cently charged some of their colleagues with playing the spy upon 
certain members of Congress. It was said that the object was to 
find out something to their disadvantage which could be used to 
constrain their votes. This wassaid to have been instigated by 
some high official under the national government, but his name is 
not given. The Commissioners seem to have been constrained by 
the evidence to find this charge true; and they thereupon dis- 
missed both the accused and the accusers from the force. This 
action has served only to excite theindignant attention of the 
public, to stimulate conjecture as to what official suggested such 
conduct to the police, and to lead to a demand for the removal of 
the Commissioners. 





MUvcH attention has been given to a refusal of Mr. Blaine to 
shake hands with Mr. Edmunds, when they met recently in New 
York. As this refusal came very soon after the publication of a 
letter written last year by Mr. Edmunds, to explain his refusal to 
take an active part in the campaign of 1884, the public probably is 
not wrong in connecting the two things. If this letter be—as we 
presume it is—a correct expression of what Mr. Edmunds felt at 
that time, and still feels, he certainly was right in refusing to ad- 
vocate Mr. Blaine’s election in 1884, and wrong in proposing to 
shake hands with Mr. Blaine in 1886. And Mr. Blaine was ex- 
cusable, certainly, in refusing to shake hands with him after the 
publication of such a letter. 

The real misfortune about this sort of business is its increase 
of personal bitterness in public affairs, and of distracting elements 
in party management. There was enough of it before Mr. Conk- 
ling’s friends in Oneida county elected Mr. Cleveland, and nobody 
was much surprised that they should do so, the danger that they 
would being one of the risks which Mr. Blaine’s friends insisted 
on taking with their eyes wide open, at Chicago, in ’84. It is true 
that but for accidents Mr. Blaine might have won, but it is also 
true that had the quarrel with Mr. Conkling been only a little less 
bitter, he would have won even with the accidents against him. 





WE may take it for granted that The Tribune is not going to 
continue its opposition to the Blair Bill this winter. In a recent 
editorial on “One Use for the Surplus” it suggests that it be ap- 
plied to educational purposes, and especially to industrial educa- 
tion. It says very justly that this is by far the most profitable use 
the government could make of the money it has to spare, as it is 
the one that will bear the most abundant harvest in the future. 

We do not say that this commits our contemporary to all the 
details of Mr. Blair’s measure. For the details we do not care. 
It is quite possible that a better bill might be drafted, although 
none has been offered as yet. But it certainly accepts the princi- 
ple of national aid in the great work of extinguishing illiteracy, 
and we hope it will show its consistency with this in the future. 

With the influx of skilled white labor into the mining aud 
manufacturing districts of the South, this question of national aid 
to the public schools assumes a new importance. Are the chil- 
dren of these workmen to sink to the level of the “ poor whites,” 








December 4, 1886.] 


THE AMERICAN. 


101 








They must do so under a system which supplies from 70 to 90 days 
of schooling every year, and employs only low-priced teachers. 
Nothing but national aid can remedy this defect; and the work- 
men of the South, with the cordial support of their brethren in the 
North, are demanding that. 





THE execution of the Chicago Anarchists, which was fixed for 
Wednesday of this week, has been postponed by the granting ofa 
writ which will bring the question of law before the supreme 
court of the state. Should this court decide that the jury on the 
trial of these anarchists was wrongly instructed in any mate- 
rial point of law, a new trial must be had. Butsuch a trial would 
be very difficult under the circumstances. Some of the important 
witnesses probably have put themselves out of reach, as they 
were induced to testify only by the promise of immunity for their 
own share in the conspiracy. Others are liable to break the force 
of their own testimony by unimportant variations, of which the 
counsel for the defence will make the most. The grant of a new 
trial, therefore, will amount to little less than an acquittal for 
these conspirators. But if they are entitled to it, they must have 
it. 
as possible in their treatment of such cases in the first instance. 
In the long run nothing is of more use to such offenders than to 
have a judge who is disposed to strain the law against them. We 

‘do not say that the judge did so in this case. Indeed the treat- 
ment the prisoners received at the hands of the court was such as 
to prove an anxiety that they should have the fullest fair play. 





AT the last gubernatorial election the Democrats carried Vir- 
ginia by 16,000 majority. In the recent elections the State was 
carried by 21,000 majority by the Congressional candidates who 
opposed the Free Trade platform of the Democrats. The solid 
south begins to feel the entering wedge. 





IT is evident that the Democrats do not enjoy the prospect 
which is ahead of them in Indiana. They seem to feel that their 
electioneering methods will not bear the searching examination 
to which the lower branch of the legislature is likely to subject 
them, and that good reason may be found for unseating so many 
Democrats that the Republicans will have a majority on joint- 
ballot. But we sincerely hope that nothing less than good reasons 
will be taken as ground for such action. Far better let the Dem- 
ocrats elect Mr. McDonald or some other of their men to the 
Senate, and then lay a good foundation for the future by sending 
to the State prison those who have broken the election laws. 
That plan has had a wholesome effect in Ohio, and has put the 
State once more strongly in the Republican column. It may do 
as much for Indiana. 

The Democrats have made their first move by claiming before 
the courts that there was no vacancy in the lieutenant-governor- 
ship of the State, to which a Republican was chosen in tie recent 
election. That sucha vacancy did exist was declared by both 
the Governor and the Attorney-General of the State, and the Dem- 
ocrats as well as the Republicans nominated a candidate for the of- 
fice. If the Democrat had been elected, he would have taken his 
seat without question. But as the State went Republican, the 
Democrats are putting forward Mr. Green Smith, the president 
pro tem. of the Senate, with the claim that he has the right to the 


office for the unexpired part of the term of the late lieutenant- | 


eee college athletic 

‘ " , a | € 3. 

penis i a its tet nieces — — | nent injuries inflicted, in the prize fights of thirty years past than 
‘ 8 ='P | in the football contests of the last ten years. Indeed the Marquis 


governor, who resigned to accept a federal office. 


The contest in the Ohio 
And as Mr. 


if anything should happen to Gov. Gray. 
Senate shows how important the former point is. 


Gray is a candidate for United States senator, if his party should 
prove able to elect one, he does not want to be debarred from such | 
an honor by the possibility that a Republican may succeed him. 
There is a general impression that this smart move to defeat the 
popular will is not likely to succeed. 


It would be well for judges to contemplate such consequences | 











LOUISIANA now has a case of social and political murder 
which perhaps may be looked into, or even involve somebody’s 
punishment. It is not one of the old-fashioned cases, but a new 
kind, in which the bulldozer has been bulldozed. It seems that 
two Polish Jews, named Witowski, who came into West Carroll 
Parish “ just before the war,’ have since grown rich in the way 
so successfully employed by their sort in Poland and Russia, lend- 
ing small sums at deadly rates of usury to their neighbors, and 
then ata pinch selling them out without remorse. Together with 
this they have had great political influence, have ‘“ packed juries 
and other branches of the local judiciary,” and when the “ nig- 
gers’’ were troublesome, put them down after the Wachita and 
Yazoo fashion. Now, a number of the neighbors have killed one 
of their tools, a Justice of the Peace named McKay, in a very free 
and open-handed manner, and seem to think they are getting even 
with the Witowskis. As we have said, perhaps the killers will be 
‘‘taken up,” but whether or not, this affair is one which shows 
how handily the Ku-Klux methods can be applied to bulldozer 
gentlemen as well as troublesome and “ sassy ” colored people. 
When the rule is once established it is likely to work both ways. 





Miss HELEN CAMPBELL, who is no less distinguished in 
philanthropy than in literature, has been asking the attention of 
New York to the wretchedness of its working women. There is 
no great city of the modern world which does not need to be told 
of its responsibilities to the weaker and more helpless classes, 
both of the workers and of those who cannot work. Our own 
city has enough of this misery at our own doors to employ all our 
energies. But New York probably is the worst city in the coun- 
try in this respect. It is so because, like London, it is a city of 
small industries mainly. Its labor is unorganized and isolated. 
It has few factories or other large centres of employment. And 
like every other community in our eastern states, it has an army 
of women who would rather starve with a needle in their hands, 
than do house work in any family but their own,—a feeling with 
which we have much sympathy. Asa consequence every open- 
ing for women is thronged, and competition in the absence of 
organization forces wages down to the starvation level. 

Temporary alleviations of this state of things may be found, 
and may be worth trying. But we think the best remedy will not 
come until we have so reorganized household service as to furnish 
employment for these women on terms acceptable to them. This 
will be done when we substitute codperative cooking, laundrying 
and house-care for the costly, imperfect and isolated methods now 
in use. In Norway they have tested the feasibility of cooperative 
cooking in both the great cities of the Kingdom. It is found that 
the cost of the prepared food is lower, the quality better, and that 
even the poor can no longer afford to cook at home, as the com- 
mon kitchen does the work at much lower cost. Our households 
are medizval in the clumsiness of their methods, and in the de- 
mands made upon the obedience of those who serve in them. 
Hence the refusal of any above the serf class to take service in 
them. 





Ir becomes more and more evident that foot-ball as played 
under the Rugby rules is a sport which should be prohibited in our 
American colleges. The brutal scenes at the recent game between 
Yale and Princeton show that this is a sport which cannot exer- 
cise any elevating influence upon the young men who engage in 
it. We might almost as well adopt the prize fight as a branch of 
Fewer lives have been lost, and fewer perma- 


of Queensberry’s rules for the prize ring furnish a degree of pro- 
tection to life and limb, which the Rugby rules in football do not 
permit of. 





MEXxiIco at last has abolished the old Spanish method of taxa- 
tion, by which each province of the country levied duties upon 
goods imported from the rest. For the future the frontier of the 































































a = 








102 THE AMERICAN. 





[Number 330 








republic will be the only customs line recognized by law, and 
goods will be given free admission into and transit across the State 
boundaries, when their owners have complied with the national 
laws. The state of things abolished by the amendment of the 
Constitution of the republic is exactly similar to that which ex- 
isted in America before 1789. It was in large measure the miseries 
this inflicted which forced the formation of a more perfect union 
under our Constitution. May it not be the case that much of the 
backwardness and the poverty of Mexico in like manner has been 
due to the want of a national fiscal system, and of unrestricted 
commerce between the provinces ? 

The Free Traders insist that these restrictions upon internal 
trade are a logical inference from protection, and that there ought 
to be a Protective Tariff between the several states of the Union. 
It is a sufficient answer to say that we found that arrangement 
nearly as bad as Free Trade, and that we have found a national 
Tariff tends to produce an equality of industrial condition through 
the whole country. 





THE latest news from London is to the effect that no progress 
has been made toward a settlement of the Fisheries dispute with 
Canada. The British Foreign Office is too much taken up with 
the Bulgarian question to have time for this lesser matter. It oc- 
curs to us that the Bulgarian question is not a very old one. We 
still count by weeks the period since the Russophile conspirators 
kidnapped Prince Alexander. How much progress toward a set- 
tlement can Mr. Bayard and Mr. Phelps report as made before 
that time? And how much freedom from other employments 
will Lord Iddesleigh require before he will find time to deal with 
our complaints? Has he put the matter off until he has ‘“ noth- 
ing else todo?” Ifso, we had better take a leaf out of Mr. Big- 
gar’s book. England was much too busy with other matters to 
give any attention to Ireland’s complaints, until Mr. Biggar made 
up his mind that Parliament should do nothing else if it did not 
attend to Ireland. It is neither necessary nor possible for us to 
obstruct the procedure of the British Empire; but the powers 
lodged by Congress in the hands of the executive make it quite 
possible to bring the British-Americans to terms within one month. 
When Mr. Cleveland reports in his annual message that “‘ no pro- 
gress has been made” toward a solution of the Fisheries Question 
will he have a good reason to give for his failure to use that pow- 
er in the interests of progress ? 





THERE is no better indication that the world moves than the 
fact that the London Companies have decided to sell their estates 
in Ulster to their tenants on easy terms. These estates were 
granted in the time of James I. in the hope that they would con- 
tribute to the prosperity of the country. For more than a quarter 
of a millennium these companies have been an incubus on Ireland. 
They did more than did any private landlords to drive the Scotch- 
Irish colonists across the Atlantic to America. They kept Lon- 
donderry county, one of the largest in Ulster, in a condition of un- 
der-population and general poverty. They spent a mere pittance 
on schools, and then blew their own trumpets as the benefactors of 
Ireland, while they divided among their members annually large 
sums extracted from their impoverished tenantry. Their whole 
career as Irish land-owners has proved how much worse a corpora- 
tion is than an individual can be in that capacity. For half a cen- 
tury Irish reformers have denounced their treatment of their es- 
tates; but not until now did they give any signs of relinquishing 
their hold upon them. 





THE prospect that Mr. Trevelyan would contest the vacant 
seat at Brighton as a Liberal, and in opposition to the Tory can- 
didate, Dr. Marriott, was welcomed in many quarters as a sign 
that the Liberal Unionists were edging away from their alliance 
with the Tories, and preparing for a reunion with their own party. 
But at the last moment Mr. Trevelyan’s heart seems to have 
failed him, or his Unionist friends to have overborne him. He de- 
clined to contest, and the Tory was chosen without opposition. It 








is hard to see what would have been gained by the election of Mr. 
Trevelyan. He has not given up his opposition to Home Rule; 
he even must have sustained the Tories on every other leading 
issue, to prevent their expulsion from power, as that would renew 
the risk of Home Rule. This is the course taken by his Unionist 
friends, who are Tories to all intents and purposes, with their Lib- 
eralism in abeyance until the Liberals shall have abandoned the 
Home Rule programme. Such Liberals are worse enemies of the 
Liberal party at this juncture than are the open Tories. The best 
thing to do with them is to read them out of the party, and let 
them go to their own place. And there is good reason to believe 
that they, like our ex-Republican friends, will gravitate to the 
other party in a brief time, if they are let alone. 





THE proposal of the British Post-Office to send the American 
mails by German steamers stopping at Southampton, rather than 
by British steamers stopping at Queenstown, has produced an out- 
burst of feeling which is not exactly in harmony with the doctrine 
of Free Trade. That the people of Cork and Queenstown should 
protest is natural enough, for Free Trade never was an Irish 
hobby, in spite of Mr. O’Connell’s adhesion to it. But that Liver- 
pool should protest even more loudly is rather amusing to 
Americans. The government is reminded that if German ships 
carry the mails more cheaply, it is because they are subsidized 
openly by their government, while the higher price paid to Liver- 
pool steamers covers a secret subsidy to British vessels. And 
they are warned that they will have no logical ground for refusing 
the Mediterranean mails to the French Messageries Company, 
which has offered to take them at lower rates than are paid to the 
British Peninsular and Oriental Company. The value of the out- 
ery is that it lets in the light upon the real character of the ar- 
rangement the British government has been making with native 
steamship companies. 

The government, however, might retort: We cannot be 
charged with showing any undue love for Free Trade principles 
in trying to get this done on the cheapest terms. It is exactly 
what America, the foremost of protectionist countries, has been 
doing for thirty years past. And the arrangement we are setting 
aside has been defended by Mr. David A. Wells, and other leading 
Free Traders of the States, as a just and proper one. 





THAT Bulgaria willnot have Prince Nicholas of Mingrelia, and 
that England, Austria and Italy will not assent to his being forced 
upon her, is all that is clearly made out as regards the Eastern 
question. It still is uncertain where Germany stands. The Em- 
peror, in opening the Diet, says he is on the best of terms with 
both his imperial brethren, and wants nothing but a few more 
soldiers to make him entirely happy. But the future lies in Bis- 
marck’s breast, and the Prince’s utterances though his son Her- 
bert are not friendly to the Russian policy. 








WINTER CONFLICT IN IRELAND. 


(= more the storm-signals are flying in Ireland. The Tory 

experiment of governing the country with a firmness which 
would deter the people from any general measures of resistance, 
has broken down. The Irish never have shown themselves easily 
frightened by administrative firmness of any kind or degree. 
They are the less likely to be so when they know that at least 
they have divided the English themselves, and that nearly half the 
people of Great Britain are on their side. 

The particular measures which have led to this collision of 
the government with the people at Sligo and elsewhere, are con- 
nected with the struggle over the fairness of the judicial rents. 
The tenants claim that the great fall in the price of provisions 
through the competion of America and of India has made it im- 
possible to pay the rents determined a few years back by Mr. 
Gladstone’s land courts. The landlords have taken advantage of 
this failure to pay as an opportunity to get rid of the tenants once 
for all, and thus to extinguish all those tenant interests in the 





December 4, 1886.) 


THE AMERICAN. 


103 








land which Mr. Gladstone created. The law favors the landlord 
by treating rent differently from any other debt. Any other 
creditor must sue in a court of law; a landlord may take the law 
into his own hands, and expel the tenant from possession by force 
without establishing his claim before a court of justice. The tenant, 
indeed, may sue the landlord after this eviction, and may secure 
redress for trespass, if he can prove that he owed nothing. But 
the burden of proof rests on him. 

Very recently, however, it was pointed out that there was a 
way of stopping summary eviction, and of compelling the landlord 
to sue for his rent, like any other creditor, and to take his chance 
of the verdict of a jury upon his claim. This was by paying the 
rent—or so much of it as the tenant proposed to pay—into the 
hands of trustees, and leaving it to be recovered by process of law. 

The first case of this kind is to come before the court of quar- 
ter sessions at Sligo. It concerns the tenants of a large estate in 
that neighborhood. But the tenants are satisfied that steps have 
been taken to prevent an impartial trial of the case. The panel 
summoned by the Sheriff is composed almost entirely of Protest- 
ants, as in the famous trial of Mr. O’Connell in 1843. Although 
the population of the town and the neighborhood is Roman Catho- 
lic by ten to one, very few Roman Catholics are on the list of pos- 
sible jurors, Now while it is not true that every Irish Protest- 
ant is an opponent of the League, or that every Irish Roman 
Catholic is friendly to it, it is true that broadly the difference in 

religion—especially outside of Ulster—coincides very iargely with 
the political cleavage. And it is therefore true that the religious 
affiliations ofthe panel furnish a general indication of their sym- 
pathy on the other question, and betray the purpose of the govern- 
ment to secure a verdict by packing the jury. 

In these circumstances the nationalist party called a mass 
meeting in Sligo to denounce this manipulation of the courts by 
the government. This act the government chose to regard as an 
attempt to intimidate the jury. For this reason the viceroy for- 
bade the meeting by proclamation. On thesurface of things there 
is an appearance of some justification for the act. But the Tories, 
with characteristic stupidity, abandoned this justification and dis- 
played their real motives, by summoning Mr. John Dillon before 
the highest court of justice to answer for the offence of praising 
these tenants for the course they have taken and advising others 
to follow theirexample. A more shameless defiance of the max- 
im that every man shall be held innocent until he has been proved 
guilty, there could not be. These Sligo county tenants have acted 
strictly within the bounds of the law thus far. They have done 
no more than oblige their landlord to recover his rent by the mere 
ordinary course of justice, instead of resorting to eviction. So 
far as the law has determined, they may have been quite right in 
paying nothing. But the Dublin executives assume that they 
have acted criminally, that Mr. Dillon has been lauding criminals 
in commending them, and has been advising to criminal acts when 
he urged others to follow theirexample. Ina word, Dublin Castle 
avows by this summons that it is retained for the landlords in the 
civil suit pending at Sligo; and it may be expected to act accord- 
ingly in the conduct of the trial. 

Nor can it be pleaded that the Irish tenants have no case 
against the evicting landlords, and are unworthy of sympathy 
from any quarter. On this point we have two important English 
witnesses as to the present situation. The first of these is Mr. 
Stead, of The Pall Mall Gazette, whose half-heartedness in the cause 
of Home Rule forbids his being regarded as an unfair witness. He 
has visited Ireland to see for himself; he has enjoyed every facility 
that the police and the land agents could afford him for learning 
the case against the tenants. His verdict is that the judicial rents 
cannot be paid, except in a few cases where the tenant has accu- 
mulated some capital, and then only by encroachment upon it. 
The other witness is Sir Redmond Buller, the English general who 
has been doing good service in putting down the Moonlighters in 
County Kerry. But General Buller, while determined to enforce 
the law, has no intention to give his personal support or sympathy 





to iniquities practiced under cover of the law. He told the Land 
Commission appointed by the Tory Government that the people 
were heartily attached to the League, that they would be foolish 
if they were not, as nothing but the League had been standing be- 
tween them and starvation. He distinctly refused to identify the 
League with the Moonlighters, whom it had denounced and tried 
to suppress. And in a few minutes he had made the Tories of the 
Commission so uncomfortable, that they did not prolong the ex- 
amination. 

Nothing of this is lost upon the English people. The Tories 
are upon their trial in Ireland. They won the last election upon 
the pledge to maintain the peace there without granting Home 
Rule. ‘‘ Enforcement of the law ” was their watchword. It now 
remains to be seen how they will carry out that pledge while ac- 
tively identifying themselves with an interest to which the Irish 
people as a wholeare unavoidably and inveterately hostile. They 
have taken the first step toward a repressive policy. That step 
involves others, for it enters upon a course which involves nothing 
less than the complete muzzling of public opinion in Ireland. 
And when that is accomplished they will only have diverted agi- 
tation and resistance from open to secret channels, and given a 
fresh lease of life to the irreconcilable party. 








THE TEACHERS OF PREPARATORY SCHOOLS. 
W HAT may prove an important step in the history of higher 
education in this country was made at the close of last 
week, at the University of Pennsylvania. On Friday afternoon, 
after the necessary preliminaries, Provost Pepper delivered an 
earnest address of welcome to the almost one hundred principals 
and teachers who had gathered pursuant to call for the purpose of 
forming a Schoolmasters’ Association. Dr. Pepper showed that 
in former times many colleges supported dependent preparatory 
schools, and the University of Pennsylvania, like the rest, had a 
University Grammar School. This however had long ceased to 
exist, but as the fitting schools had taken its place it was of great 
importance both to the school and the university that the most 
intimate relations should exist between the two. Dr. Pepper also 
explained the relations which had been established between the 
University and the Public School System, by the establishment of 
fifty free scholarships, and said that he for one would gladly see 
the college curriculum adjusted by the faculty of the University 
and a committee from the fitting schools. 

Prof. E. J. James read a paper on “ Professional Training of 
Teachers for our Higher Schools and Colleges.” He showed that 
while our Normal schools did good work in preparing lower 
grade teachers, we had no adequate provision for training for the 
higher grades, and advocated the establishment of chairs of Peda- 
gogy in our colleges, a course which but three or four American 
colleges have thus far taken. In Germany Pedagogy has been for 
some time recognized as a science, and Prof. James demonstrated 
from statistics what good results had been obtained. 

This paper caused considerable discussion. Superintendent 
McAllister was quite in the line with the speaker. He cited Mich- 
igan as having the best educational system in this country. Ped- 
agogy is taught in the University at Ann Arbor, and schools and 
University are thoroughly in harmony. President Magill of 
Swarthmore interjected a remark to the effect that if teaching was 
to be largely confined to women as heretofore, and if women were 
systematically excluded from colleges, chairs of Pedagogy would 
not be of much avail. 

The other important paper of the meeting was by Prof. 
Andrew F. West, of Princeton, on ‘‘ How to Improve our Classic- 
al Education.” 

The schoolmasters were entertained by the University of Penn- 
sylvania on Friday evening and by Haverford collegeon Saturday. 
After reaching the latter place a discussion was started on the re- 
lation of the fitting school to the college, in which the idea of sub- 
stituting a certificate of the school for an entrance examination 
was broached and favorably received. 

An organization was effected, (tke official title being ‘‘ The 
Schoolmasters’ Association ”’), by the election of the following of- 
ficers: President, Rev. James W. Robins; Vice-Presidents, John 
Meigs, Ph. D.; George Eastburne, A. M.; Secretary, George F. 
Martin; Treasurer, George A. Deacon; Executive Committee, 
Thomas M. Balliet, John Way, Jr., William Kershaw, E. C. Smith, 
J.C. McKenzie. 

The membership represents institutions in Pennsylvania, 
New York, New Jersey, Delaware and Maryland, and is excep- 
tionally good material. The proceedings of the convention were 
of a lively and practical nature, and were followed throughout by 





































































104 THE AMERICAN. 





| Number 330 














many persons interested in education who were not eligible to 
membership. 








THE LATE DR. MAGOON. 

HE death in this city, on Thanksgiving-day, of Elias Lyman 
Magoon, the distinguished Baptist divine, terminates an in- 
teresting and unique career. For half a century he has been the 
best-known man in the Baptist church, in America. But he was 
not less favorably known in circles very remote from those usu- 
ally frequented by churchmen and theologians. His services to 
art were only second to his services to the church, and his liter- 
ary instincts were unusually acute and broad. His history of 
struggle and triumph is being everywhere read. He was born in 
New Hampshire, October 20, 1810, and at the very bottom of the 
ladder. A bricklayer’s apprentice, he faithfully served his trade 
for several years. The first brick he ever laid was removed from 
its resting-place, set in bronze, an ink-well sunk in the centre, and 
out of that reminiscence of his laborious youth, he dipped the ink 
to write five books and countless sermons. With trowel and book 
he fought his way through Waterville College. It may be inter- 
esting to recall the fact that a short time after he left the college 
he was solicited by a widow to write a letter of introduction for 
her boy to carry to President Babcock. Magoon, who knew the 
boy, wrote favorably of him, closing his note with: ‘‘I think Mas- 
ter Benjamin will make a good scholar.” The “ Master Benjamin ” 
who went up to Waterville on Magoon’s recommendation was to 

become General Ben. Butler of Massachusetts. 

Magoon’s first charge was in Richmond, Va., and there in 
1842 he so splendidly defended the Jews against the grave accu- 
sations preferred against them, that after forty-four years Rabbi 
Jastrow appeared at his funeral to lay upon his coffin ‘* the wreath 
of Jewish gratitude.” He fearlessly preached anti-slavery doc- 
trines in the very citadel of slavery, until one morning Richmond 
was sown with pamphlets containing quotations from his sermons 
and closing in large type with: “If these things are so, we must 
either get rid of slavery or get rid of E. L. Magoon.” 

In London in 1844, his introductory letters and brilliant ad- 
dress made him many permanent friends in literary society. A 
friendship began with Dean Milman, then editing Gibbon, which 
lasted through life. Magoon was a frequent caller upon Barry 
Cornwall, Maria Edgeworth, and the veteran banker-poet, Samuel 
Rogers. It was on the occasion of his second trip to Europe in 
1854 that Magoon perfected that peerless collection of fine-art 
which he sold to Matthew Vassar for $20,000. Many of the most 
interesting prints in that collection were the gift of Samuel Rogers, 
then past ninety. John Britton, the author of a hundred illustra- 
ted books, filled the young American’s hands with many more. 
John Ruskin, to whom he had been introduced at Denmark Hill by 
Dean Milman,—and Magoon was, by the way, the first man to tell 
literary London the story of Ruskin’s separation from his young 





wife and the cause of it,—gave him three of the best water-colorsby | 
Turner ever brought to this country, together with the first sketch | 


which he himself as a boy of sixteen had made. In Paris in 1844 he | 


was present by special invitation at the French Academy when its 
President, Victor Hugo, received the father of modern criticism, 
Sainte-Beuve, to fill a gap in their immortal membership. 

Among the treasures which Magoon prized the most highly 
were the sacred remembrances of two Paris friends of world-wide 
renown ; a lock of hair from the head of Lacordaire, the great 
Catholic orator of Notre Dame, and a piece of marble chipped by 
2a nobleman’s hand from his tombstone at Soréze. These mute 
memories of the eloquent Dominican whom Magoon had so loved 
and venerated, were accompanied by several affectionate letters 


from the giver, who was none other than Count de Montalembert, | 
a born peer. During his stay in France, Magoon was unwittingly | 


the cause of an official act of some interest and importance. He 
had appeared at the Tuileries and been presented to Louis Philippe 
in citizen’s dress. The incident was written to Secretary of State 
Marcy, who brought it to the notice of Congress, whereupon it 
was resolved that no American should thenceforward be constrained 
to appear at foreign courts in prescribed uniform. 

The priceless collections of art and literature which, through 
a long and busy life, Magoon had accumulated, were,a few years 
ago, divided among several institutions of learning over the coun- 
try. Colby University, Bates College, Maine, Rochester Univer- 
sity, Newton Seminary, Metropolitan Museum of Art in New 
York, were among his beneficiaries, 

Magoon edited the first edition of Spurgeon’s Sermons that 
was published in this country. He wrote five books, all of which 
are now out of print : “ Orators of the American Revolution,’’ New 
York, 1848; ‘‘ Living Orators of America,” New York, 1849 ; “ Re- 
publican Christianity,’ Boston, 1848 ; ‘‘ Proverbs for the People,” 
Boston, 1849 ; and ‘“‘ Westward Empire,’”’ New York, 1856. 

There was nothing dogmatic in hischaracter. His convictions 
were profound, but never fixed themselves into an inflexible creed 


Ten years ago Mrs. Grundy set him down for a Catholic when he 

placed two saints in front of his church, and gave his valuable 

collection of Catholic literature to Cardinal McCloskey. He was 

certainly a Jew when he preached in the synagogue, and when he 

temporarily abandoned the Bible and read to his congregation 

from the “ Heathen Scriptures,” the religious world set him down 

for a Pagan. But above and beyond everything else was his grand 

humanity. It was an inspiration to be near him, and an education 

to be with him. He commanded the love and reverence of thou- 

sands who had felt the necromancy of his generosity. We have 

lost a great teacher, but the memory of hischaracter will not grow 

dim with us, until our eyes grow dim to all the world, and we 
stand with him “upon the dawn of the morning of millions of 
centuries.” ALBERT H. SMYTH. 








HENRY MUHLENBERG. 


ROF. J. M. MAISCH, of the Philadelphia College of Phar- 
macy, hasreprinted from Hoffmann’s Pharmaceutische Runds- 
chau, his Lecture on Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg as a 
botanist, originally read before the Philadelphia Pionier Verein. 
Henry Muhlenberg, the son of Henry Melchior Muhlenberg, a Ger- 
man clergyman who came to this country in 1743, and became the 
patriarch of the German Lutheran Church in North America, was 
born in Montgomery county, Pennsylvania, in 1753. Like his 
more famous elder brothers, General Peter Muhlenberg, born in 
1746, and Speaker Frederick A., the Speaker of Congress, born in 
1750, he was educated at Halle, and returning to this country, like 
them becamea clergyman. Settling in Philadelphia, he was forced 
to leave on the capture of the city in 1777, by the British army, 
and became in 1780 pastor of the Lutheran church in Lancaster, 
where he remained until his death in 1815, It was on his compul- 
sory exile to the country that he became a botanist, and Dr. Maisch 
gives a very exhaustive account of his industry in the region in 
which Muhlenberg lived, and in corresponding with other botan- 
ists, both in this country and abroad. Besides hisown numerous 
writings and his large collections, he was active in his endeavor to 
secure the codperation of other botanists in preparing a complete 
botany of America, enlisting for this purpose Michaux for South 
Carolina and Georgia, Kromsch for North Carolina, Greenway for 
Virginia and Maryland, Barton for New Jersey, Delaware and 
Lower Pennsylvania, Bartram and Marshall for other parts of 
that State, reserving his own district for himself, Mitchell for New 
York, and Cutler for New England. The work was not completed 
until Torrey and Gray undertook it in our own day, but Dr. Maisch 
shows, from Muhlenberg’s correspondence, that he did good service 
himself, and in encouraging his contemporary workers. The ac- 
count of the correspondence with foreign botanists too shows how 
useful a part Muhlenberg played, while among his visitors, Hum- 
boldt and Bonpland attest the respect entertained for him as a bot- 
anist known better abroad than at home. 








REVIEWS. 


MAN AND LAbor. _ A Series of Short and Simple Studies. By 
Cyrus Elder. Pp.216. 12mo. Belford, Clarke & Co., Chicago 
and New York. 

N R. ELDER has been in the habit of giving free and informal 

pi talks on the science of political economy in the Cambria 

Scientific Institute of Johnstown. These studies contain the sub- 

stance of what he had to say on the Labor question. As Johns- 

town is a centre of the iron industry, the audience Mr. Elder had 
to address was somewhat peculiar. He had to discuss labor 
problems before men whose interest in and acquaintance with 
those problems was of a very practical kind, and who therefore 
were extremely unlikely to be tolerant of any kind of twaddle or 
unreality. It might therefore be supposed by some that the 
ground taken in these essays would be of the hardest and least 
sentimental kind, and that no motives but the most selfish would 


' be recognized by either speaker or audience. But as a matter of 


| fact we find that in talking political science to this exceptional 


audience Mr. Elder repudiates altogether the selfish view of 
economic motive, rejects the English view that the mainspring of 
industrial activity is ‘avarice and the desire of progress,” recog- 
nizes the existence and potency of higher motives in his hearers, 
and by his social analysis of industrial action shows that it is the 
higher rather than the lower motive that controls the movement 
of society. 

It is, for instance, the common assumption of the “ orthodox 
economists” that physical exertion is naturally so distasteful to 
men that nothing but the constraint of want and hunger will 
move any sane man to make it. Mr. Elder appeals to the ob- 
servation and the experience of his audience in disproof of this 
assumption of men who never did a hard day’s manual work in 
their lives, and who therefore dogmatize about “man’s natural 





December 4, 1886.] 


THE AMERICAN. 


105 








aversion to labor.” Speaking to men who “ grind among the iron 
facts of life and have no time for self-deceptions,” he enumerates 
“love of labor, love of the family, love of neighbors, and love, of 
God” as economic forces of general efficiency, which the econ- 
omists of this English school are ignoring or denying. 

These studies cover nearly the whole field of economical in- 
vestigation, although they keep the promise of their title in treat- 
ing every question from the labor standpuint. We find especially 
interesting the simple way in which Mr. Elder explains and justi- 
fies the growth of capital, and its great services in fertilizing labor. 
He shows that many of the practical difficulties which beset the 
question of the distribution of earnings among laborers would re- 
main just as bothersome if the possession of the capital stock 
and implements of industry were made over to the working classes 
by their present owners. The inequalities of condition which dis- 
tinguish capitalists from laborers, exist essentialy within the 
laboring classes themselves, and no one would fight harder against 
equality of earnings than those who are now grumbling against the 
inequalities which do not suit them. But we think that Mr. Elder 
should have admitted the existence of essential grievances, from 
which not only the working classes but all classes suffer, in the 
creation of transportation monopolies by great capitalists, in the 
reaping of great profits by men who render no service in return, 
in the absorption of the unearned increment of social wealth in 
many cases by the few, and other practical abusés which tend to 
retard the operation of those natural laws by which the advance of 
society tends to the diffusion rather than the accumulation and 
concentration of wealth. It will not do to be too optimistic in this 
matter, or to tell the working man that everything is too lovely to 
be mended. 

We are glad to see that the subject of “ company stores ”’ is 
treated in this book from a point of view which is not the ordin- 
ary one. There are greater difficulties connected with the abo- 
lition of such stores than appear on the surface. So long as the 
practice of monthly payments continues in our great mining and 
manufacturing establishments, the possession of a large sum of 
money at the close of each month will prove a temptation to drink 
and extravagance too great for a large part of their workmen to 
resist. In these circumstances a credit system of purchases be- 
comes a kind of necessity, and can be conducted only under cir- 
cumstances which make payment certain. Either the company 
must keep such a store itself, or, as is often done, it must act as 
collecting agent for some store-keeper, and deduct from the work- 
man’s wages the price of the supplies which have been furnished 
to his family during the month. Under either arrangement there 
is an opening for unfair charges, which constitute a genuine griev- 
ance. Mr. Elder suggests as the best solution of the difficulty 
the passage of the law proposed by Mr. Sponsler at the last session 
of the legislature. This would convert all such stores into coédp- 
erative stores on the profit-sharing principle, and would place 
them under the supervision of the State authorities. We incline 
to think this a good suggestion, but since the Supreme Court has 
swept all restrictive legislation on the subject off the statute-book, 
there is no authority by which the legislature could require corpo- 
rations to come into this arrangement. 

Mr. Elder’s discussion of the land problem raised by Mr. 
George is as thorough as might be expected from a disciple of 
Henry C. Carey. He cuts up by the roots the “ orthodox ” fallacy 
on which Mr. George has built his fantastic inferences. 

“There are no original and indestructible powers of fertility 
in the soil.” As to all its productive properties, land is made by 
labor. The earth is simply the raw material of a machine which 
man must fashion for use, and he must be perpetually remaking 
it. Agriculture is an endless struggle with nature, in which the 
original elements of fertility in the soil count for but little in help- 
fulness: they are more than counterbalanced by the adverse forces 
which go along with them—the formidable and numerous ele- 
ments which must be encountered in subduing the richest soils, a 
labor which is nowhere fully accomplished. The history of the 
conquest of land in the United States discloses the largest courage, 
the hardest toil, and such thrift and vigor as have been displayed 
in no other industry. The same qualities put forth in any other 
work would have won much larger wealth ; and nobody needs to 
be in want of land, or of anything else, who possesses and will 
use them. 

“To talk about land as if it were a free gift of nature, which, 
like light and air, should belong to everybody and might be used 
by anybody, is nonsense. The cultivated land of the country has 
cost in labor, over and above its returns, more than it would sell 
for, if the labor is rated upon the basis of wages in other industries. 
The right of ownership of land in this country bas, within our own 
observation and memory, its origin in labor expended upon the 
land, which gives as complete and just a title as there can be to 
anything.” : 

We can commend these studies to all those who wish for a 











book for general use in which the great problems of capital and 
labor are treated from a right point of view, and in the hopeful 
and Christian spirit which is natural to the school of Henry C. Ca- 
rey. R. E. T. 





RECENT FICTION. . 

ROLAND BLAKE. By S. Weir Mitchell, M. D. 
York : Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

Katy oF CATOCTIN, or the Chain-Breakérs. By George Alfred 
Townsend. New York: D. Appleton & Co. 

THE MARQUIS OF PENALTA (Marta y Maria.) 
Palacio Taldis. Translated from the Spanish by Nathan Has- 
kell Dole. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co. 

A MIRAGE OF PROMISE. By Harriet Pennawell Belt. 
phia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 

JOHN JEROME, HIS THOUGHTS AND Ways. A Book Without a 
Beginning. By Jean Ingelow. Boston: Roberts Brothers. 
ACAULAY, in alluding to Englishmen of a certain great 

epoch, remarks that they possessed “ one eminent qualifica- 

tion for writing history ; they had spoken history, acted history, 
lived history.”” However this grasp of facts and absence of illu- 
sions which belong to an eye-witness of events may serve the his- 
torian, it is generally considered a disadvantage for the novelist 
to deal with incidents and characters which rest on a historical 
basis, but which are not far enough removed from everybody’s 
memory to allow of their thorough idealization in the author’s 
mind. The plots of the first two novels on our list turn on facts 
connected with the Civil War, and in each the writer has contrived 
in a measure to surmount the difficulties which belong to a fancy 
picture of an epoch so easily within the recollection of middle- 
aged people. The two books are nevertheless as dissimilar in 
treatment and in purpose as if they belonged to widely different 
categories. Dr. Mitcheil has simply made the war the background 
of his story and the powerfully impelling motive of his chief char- 
acters. In the filling up he hasshown tenderness, intrinsic knowl- 
edge of human nature, and feeling for outside nature and every- 
day homely humors and pathos. Mr. Townsend’s book, on the 
contrary, deals with types and personages, not men and women 
allied to our comprehension and sympathy. Still he has grasped 
the dominant idea of a great movement, and made a clear expo- 
sition of the causes and passions which led up to Lincoln’s assas- 
sination. As a romance his book has little charm; its exuberant 
and incoherent style, and its re-touched and overlaid outlines rob 
it of literary yalue; but as a chronicle of John Wilkes Booth’s 
career, and a réchauffée of the newspaper annals of an exciting 
period, it must arouse some passing interest. Mr. George Alfred 
Townsend counts, we believe, his connection with the events of 
April, 1865, as the most animating experience of his journalistic 
life, and it can perhaps hardly be wondered at that he longed to 
renew his old triumphs, and tell his old story over again. But 
such successes are barren of results so far as real literature is con- 
cerned. There is a great difference in the spirit in which these 
two writers worked, and in the effect their two novels produce 
upon us. 

Dr. Mitchell’s book is indeed one to be grateful for. It is in- 
terpenetrated by fine and true shades of thought, and worked out 
with delicacy and artistic feeling. It contains striking, even bril- 
liant incidents, yet its interest depends chiefly upon modifications 
of character. Dr. Mitchell’s bad spirits are apt to be psycholog- 
ically interesting, and in “ Roland Blake” he has made a careful 
study of a brother and sister, Richard and Octopia Darnell, both 
selfish and corrupt. Octopia, a vampirish invalid, imposes her 
whims and tyrannies upon a household whose peace she mars. 
Richard has a wider opportunity, does more harm, works deadlier 
ill. We meet him first in a midnight rendezvous, when he is sell- 
ing the secrets of the confederates for two thousand dollars in gold, 
to Roland Blake, a federal officer. After pocketing the price of 
his infamy, Richard tries to kill the witness of it, and fires at Ro- 
land, wounding him severely. Roland lives on nevertheless, as 


Boston and New 


By Don Armando 


Philadel- 


| heroes must until their appointed hour has struck, and destiny ap- 


points some strange meetings for the two afterwards. Roland, 
without any particular intention of benefiting his would-be mur- 
derer, manages to save his life on a battle-field. Later, both men 
love the same woman, and Richard, who has so far carelessly flung 
aside all the obligations which can bind a man to virtue and de- 
cency, is compelled to realize how wretched and barren a fate his 
heartlessness has worked out for himself. Whether in real life 
such a villain would have ended his career as Richard Darnell 
does, the reader may question, but nevertheless one is glad to have 
him dismember the world of his presence. In Roland Blake him- 
self we have the good old-fashioned hero, an energetic man, used 
to action, easily governing men and winning women. Nothing in 
the book is as pleasant as the account of Roland’s wooing of Va- 
leria down on the New Jersey shore, in which the author has dex- 
terously used his impressions of the solitary reaches of the great 




































































cesT, 





EReE ORS ROI FTL OEE STO 














106 THE AMERICAN. 





[N umber 330 








wide solitary, salt meadows, leveling away to far horizons through 
which wind tide-water creeks with no end and no beginning. One 
feels all the melancholy charm of the silver-grey sea-coast in these 
descriptions, the monotonous sand mounds, the whirring beat of 
the rising birds, the deep-eyed tranquil pools, and the shifting- 
hued swell of the waves breaking on the shore. 

As we have already said of Mr. Townsend’s book, ‘“‘ Katy of 
Catoctin ” rises to a climax of powerful interest in the latter part, 
and the author’s strong grasp of the terrible drama he describes 
goes far to redeem the redundance, the verbiage, the straining 
after interest which make the reading of two-thirds of the volume 
an actually laborious effort. However important the author may 
have considered it to preserve the dialect and characteristics of 
the German settlers in Maryland, the reader would have been bet- 
ter pleased with a few slight specimens of a speech and an idio- 
synerasy which contain little wisdom and no wit. In an uncouth 
dialect one welcomes a little fun, and of fun there is no shadgw 
here. The art of catching and preserving in the magic mirror of 
a novel the real character of a nation or a community belongs to 
but few writers. 

The Spanish novel, ‘ Marta y Maria,” translated under the 
title of ‘‘ The Marquis of Pefialta,” affords one of the happiest in- 
stances of an author’s skill in delineating, without conscious ef- 
fort, the most salient features of a society as wholly foreign to us 
as is that of a provincial town in Spain. We are growing more 
and more cosmopolitan in a literary sense, and have every advantage 
in studying, the works of novelists of all countries, whose range of 
power, breadth and prodigality of resource, show that genius does 
not belong exclusively to great writers of the past. But to turn 
to Spanish literature and find there a charming little masterpiece 
like this is affords a genuine surprise. ‘“‘ The Marquisof Pefialta ” 
is full of distinction ; its charm and flow are remarkable; it han- 
dles as easily the powerful and passionate realities of life, as the 
pretty and piquant possibilities. It takes social and private ex- 
istence in its broadest and deepest flow, yet is full of little tender- 
nesses and trivialties. It is the story of the two daughters of a 
high family in a Spanish city. Maria, the elder, is at first presen- 
tation an ardent Catholic devotee, and gradually her heart is won 
more and more away from her home, her family, and her aflianced 
lover, until she abandons all and takes the veil. The younger sis- 
ter, Marta, is the actual heroine of the book, and her joyous re- 
ality, her warm grasp of every-day feelings, duties and passions, 
make a charming contrast to the fainting and ecstatic enthusiast 
who has her vigils and fasts, and who has visions. Charm and 
piquancy could hardly go farther than in the scenes where the 
young Marquis helps Marta make a pie, and fold and put away 
the household linen. The whole effect of the story is peculiarly 
wholesome and animating. The interest is frankly and fearlessly 
thrown upon real life, and it is a life true in general to our best 
consciences, and to all the sweetest and finest elements of hu- 
manity. 

“A Mirage of Promise” strikes usas an unfortunate name 
for a book ; at least it is in this case unluckily appended toa story 
which hardly fulfils expectation, beginning fairly well—since it re- 
calls ‘* Mr. Gilfil’s Love Story,’—but dwindling more and more 
not only in interest but in clearness, until it is laid down with a 
feeling of wonder what it could all have been about. Theliterary 
skill of the book besides, we regret to add, is not to be praised. 
Writers must spend some labor and pains in acquiring the Eng- 
iish language before they can expect to put force and moving 
power into what they offer to the public 

It is a pleasure to have in store a chance to mention Miss In- 
gelow’s little volume, ‘John Jerome,” or “ A Book Without Be- 
ginning,” which is a work so full of wit, humor, wisdom and 
charm, that we not only recommend it to every reader, but should 
like to insist that it be read. Forit is full of a delicious quality 
which only the reader can feel. It seems quotable from beginning 
to end, and yet to quote is to lose the setting which is an essential 
part of the dainty and exquisite little pictures. It is not a story, 
and yet at the same time it indicates a delightful story. It is un- 
like anything else Miss Ingelow has done, and yet it contains the 
essence and the individuality of all Miss Ingelow’s work. Nobody 
except the author of “ Off the Skelligs ” could have written it, yet 
it is an unclassified flower, a new chord in music. 





THE CASTING AWAY OF Mrs. LEcCKS AND MRs. ALESHINE, by 

Frank R. Stockton. New York; The Century Co. 

“The Casting away of Mrs. Lecks and Mrs, Aleshine ” is in 
Mr. Stockton’s most delightful vein. ‘The unbroken gravity with 
which he deals with the most absurd conceptions must be the 
legacy of some remote Puritan or Covenanting ancestor whose 
blood has since been tempered with a livelier strain ; and it is this 
union of unbridled imagination with a perfectly controlled manner 
that makes his individuality. De Foe himself is not more serious 
in relating the adventures of his immortal hero than Mr. Stock- 








ton in the tale of his extraordinary castaways. This trait he has 
in common with one of the most delightful and individual of 
modern English writers. Mr. Robert Louis Stevenson has the 
same seriousness in treating an entirely impossible situation. He 
too takes his starting point for granted, and then gives the same 
sober, careful attention to the most plausible detail. Of course 
from this point the two writers diverge very widely. Mr. Steven- 
son is a poet and a sentimentalist, whose sense of humor, nice 
though it is, is subordinated to his sense of the picturesque, and 
whose grace of style and fineness of perception and touch are 
equaled by few of his contemporaries. Mr. Stockton’s imagination 
takes a very different form. It does not at all affect his views of 
life or character, for he looks at the world with remarkably keen, 
quick-sighted eyes. It is of the machinery of circumstances that 
his fancy is such complete master. His stories have all the be- 
wildering logic and irrelevancy of a dream. In the most fantastic 
situations his characters act in the most perfectly natural and 
common-sense manners. Mrs. Lecks and Mrs. Aleshine, though 
in surroundings as impossible as a Chinese landscape, are inimita- 
ble character-sketches. Anyone who is familiar with the rural 
parts of Pennsylvania and New Jersey can appreciate how ad- 
mirably they are drawn. They have not the Yankee quickness 
and shrewdness, nor the Yankee dialect ; but they have a plain- 
spoken honesty and simplicity of purpose, aud a supremely prac- 
tical common-sense that is almost stolidity in its refusal to be sur- 
prised unequal to any emergency. The hottest blood would be 
naturally cooled by a sudden immersion in sea-water; but the 
absolute sang-froid of these two women, after the final sinking of - 
the boat has abandoned them to the mercy of life-preservers in 
mid-ocean, has not often been equaled in a field of battle. 

‘“* After watching me attentively Mrs. Lecks did manage to move 
herself slowly through the smooth water, but poor Mrs. Aleshine 
could do nothing but splash. ‘If there was anythin’ to take hold 
of,’ she said tome, ‘I might get along, but I can’t get any grip in 
the water, though you seem to do it well enough. Look there!’ 
she added in a higher voice, ‘isn’t that an oar floatin’ over there? 
If you can get that for me I believe I can row myself much better 
than I can swim.’ This seemed an odd idea, but I swam over to 
the floating oar, and brought it to her. I was about to show her 
how she could best use it, but she declined my advice. ‘If I do it 
at all,’ she said, ‘I must do it in my own way.’ And, taking the 
oar in her strong hands, she began to ply it on the water, very 
much in the way in which she would handlea broom. At first 
she dipped the blade too deeply, but, correcting this error, she 
soon began to paddle herself along at aslow but steady rate. 
‘Capital!’ cried I. ‘ You do that admirably!’ ‘ Anybody who’s 
swept as many rooms as I have,’ she said, ‘ought to be able to 
handle anythin’ that can be used likea broom.’ . . . ‘There’s 
one thing,’ said Mrs. Lecks, ‘I would have been afraid of, if we 
hadn’t made preparations for it, and that’s sharks.’ ‘ Prepara- 
tions!’ Texclaimed. ‘How in the world did you prepare for 
sharks?’ ‘ Easy enough,’ said Mrs. Lecks. ‘‘ When we went down 
into our room to get ready to go away in the boats we both put on 
black stockin’s. I read that sharks never bite colored people, 
although if they see a white man in the water they’ll swap him 
up as quick as lightnin’ ; and black stockin’s was the nearest we 
could come to it. You see I thought as likeas not we’d have some 
sort of an upset before we got through.’ ‘It’s a great comfort’ re- 
marked Mrs. Aleshine, ‘and I’m very glad you thought of it Mrs. 
Lecks. After this I shall make it a rule: Black stockin’s for 
sharks.’ ‘I suppose in your case,’ said Mrs. Lecks, addressing me, 
‘dark trousers will do as well.’ To which I answered that I sin- 
cerely hoped they would. ‘ Another thing I’m thankful for,’ said 
Mrs. Aleshine, ‘is that I thought to put on a flannel skeert.’ ‘ And 
what’s the good of it,’ said Mrs. Lecks, ‘ when it’s soppin’ wet ?’ 
‘Flannel’s flannel,’ replied her friend, ‘ whether it’s wet or dry; 
and if you’d had the rheumatism as much as I have you’d know 
it.’”” ‘The whole little book is purely and delightfully funny from 
beginning to end, though it is impossible at the close not to share 
Mrs. Aleshine’s disappointment that the Dusante family remained 
unsolved, and that she could never settle it to her satisfaction 
““* whether Emily is the mother of Lucille or her daughter, or 
whether they are both children of Mr. Dusante, or whether he’s 
married to Lucille and Emily is his sister-in-law, or whether she’s 
his sister and not hers, or whether he’s the uncle and they’re his 
nieces, or whether Emily is an old lady and Mr. Dusante and 
Lucille are both her children, or whether they are two maiden 
ladies and Mr. Dusante is their brother, or whether Mr. Dusante 
is only a friend of the family, and boards here because no two 
women ought to live in such a lonely place without a man in the 
house.’” 





HoLipay Booxs. From J. B. Lippincott Co., Lee & Shepard, 
Worthington Company, Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 
A poem by Buchanan Read, “‘ The Closing Scene,” has been 











December 4, 1886.] 


THE AMERICAN. 


107 








taken by the J. B. Lippincott Co. for elaborate illustration as a 


work. The poem itself is short; it describes the country in the 
fall of the leaf, with the figure of a “‘ white-haired matron,” for 
whom 


“Death and Winter closed the autumn scene,” 


and it serves very well to give the artists lines to illustrate. The 
drawings are furnished by Hamilton Gibson, Bruce Crane, Ed- 
mund H. Garrett, Will H. Low, J. Francis Murphy, Chas. Melville 
Dewey, Bolton Jones, D. W. Tryon, W. L. Taylor, James B. Sword, 
and Howard Pyle,—Mr. Pyle contributing five out of the twenty 
full-page designs, and taking, of course, the figure pieces. Alto- 
gather it isa handsome volume, and does credit to the publish- 
ers. 

The “Fantasy ”’ of “‘ gle and the Elf,” by M. B. M. Toland, 
which the same publishers have used for illustration in a smaller 
volume, is a very slight fabric, but serves to carry a dozen pictures 
of beautiful naiads and an enamored elf, with surroundings of wa- 
ter, foliage and moonlight. ‘The illustrations are photogravures 
of drawings by W. St. John Harper, H. Siddons Mowbray, F. 8. 
Church, Hamilton Gibson, S. W. Van Schaick, Jessie Shepherd, 
and René T. Quelin. The work of paper-maker, printer and 
binder is well done. 

‘* Nature’s Hallelujah,” by Irene E. Jerome, (Boston: Lee & 
Shepard), is an arrangement of some fifty full-page illustrations 
from her own designs, accompanying passages of verse which she 
has selected. The poets drawn upon include Whittier, Longfel- 
low, Bryant, Lucy Larcom, Swinburne, Bayard Taylor, and others, 
and the lines taken usually present some conception of rural 
scenes, rocks, trees, flowers, foliage, birds, ete. Miss Jerome had 
already made herself a considerable reputation by work of this 
kind, and to the production of the present volume she has given, 
it is stated, the labor of the past three years. ‘The result,—her 
designs having been engraved by Mr. George T. Anthony,—is cer- 
tainly a very exquisite book, which deserves the attention of all 
who are seeking a holiday volume. Miss Jerome is most success- 
ful in her drawings of flowers, leaves, and the like; she evidently 
has not only a genuine enthusiasm for nature, but also a fine ar- 
tistic taste in selecting features for her pencil. Her landscape 
work is not so invariably good; a very satisfactory example is 
given on page 53 in a rocky fence-side, with flowers and grass 
springing up around, while the trees on page 25, and in a less de- 
gree the sea scene, on page 77, present an unpleasing contrast of 
harsh effect. The publishers have used sumptuous plate paper, 
and have furnished an elegant gold cloth cover, with one of the 
artist’s best designs on the front. 

A smaller work by the same artist, (same publishers), is ‘‘ The 
Message of the Blue-Bird.” ‘The plan is similar to the other, but 
there are only eight or. ten full-page illustrations, and a corres- 
ponding number of selections. The drawings are like the best of 
those in the large volume,—a bird swaying upon a branch, and 
pouring forth its song,—leaves, and flowers, and a glimpse of 
landscape. While it is a much less ambitious performance, it has 


this advantage, that it carries out its plan without an apparent | 


fault. 

Mrs. Susan E. Wallace has retold graphically the old legend of 
“ Ginevra,” the German maiden who on her wedding night hid 
herself in the old oak chest, and was never seen again nor her 
fate known until the workmen of a century later found her de- 
caying skeleton. Illustrations have been provided for it by Gen- 
Lew Wallace, who as an author is well known, but whose artistic 
skill was not so familiar. His pictures are good, and the publish- 
ers may be congratulated on an attractive holiday book, for the 
story itself has no small merit. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Stuart Phelps’s quaint and exquisite story, 
“The Madonna of the Tubs,” wherein is related the experiences 
of Ellen Jane Salt, the wife of fisherman Henry Salt, of Fair- 
harbor, has been illustrated in excellent taste by Messrs. Ross 
Turner and George H. Clements, and will find, we are sure, many 
to appreciate and buy it, both for the text and the pictures. (Bos- 
ton: Houghton, Mifflin & Co.) 





VIRGIL: THE First Six Books oF THE ASNEID. With Explana- 
tory Notes by Edward Searing, A. M. ‘The Bucolics and 
Georgics, with Explanatory Notes by Henry Clark Johnson, 
A. M., LL. B. Together with a complete Vocabulary. A.S. 
Barnes & Company, New York and Chicago. 

A distinguished critic has said that the chief obstacle to 
the appreciation of Shakespeare’s poetry is Shakesperean 
scholarship. A like remark may be made in regard to Virgil; in- 
deed, in regard to nearly every one of the classical poets. Virgil, 
however, has suffered rather more than others have at the hands 
of editors. ‘ 

The most ingenious commentary proves comparatively pow- 





| erless to obscure the beauty and force of Greek thought. 
holiday volume, the result being a very satisfactory piece of art | 





Homer 
remains impressive even to the boy whose teacher makes the 
Iliad simply a parsing-book. The same may be said of some of 
the Roman poets. Horace, for example, has a charm that even 
the dullest commentator cannot altogether hide from the dullest 
student. But in Virgil, especially in the Aneid, the depth of the 


| thought and the dignity of the style are such that unless all the 


freshness and force of the attention be given rather to them than 
to mere matters of external form, such as syntactical exceptions 
and rhythmical peculiarities and etymological details, the reader 
will inevitably lose the best of the poet’s meaning. Unfortunately 
this truth, although apparently self-evident, has nevertheless been 
seen by but few of the editors and teachers through whose aid 
nine persons out of ten gain their knowledge of Virgil. To be 
sure, one or two English and one or two German editions have 
been characterized by delicate appreciation rather than by pon- 
derous scholarship; but these are decided exceptions, exceptions 
too that American editors have not imitated. The school-boy in 
this country still sees the persons and the events of the Aineid 
through a strange medium of roots, and stems, and bits of gram- 
mar, and scraps of mythology, and odds and ends of antiquarian 
knowledge. Itis a great satisfaction, therefore, to note in the 
school edition under review a tendency to care more than is usual 
for the author’s meaning and his thought, and very little for mere 
miscellaneous information; a desire, in short, to make the student 
familiar with Virgil himself rather than with the “latest authori- 
ties” upon Virgil. Add to this excellence certain minor ad- 
vantages, such as the large fair page, the arrangement of the 
notes below the text, the good and in some cases admirable 
illustrations of places and of mythological and antiquarian sub- 


jects, and it will be clear that here is a book that may be strongly 


recommended to all. 





HovusE PLANTS AS SANITARY AGENTs, by J. M. Anders, M. D., 
Ph. D. Pp. 334. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 
Once in a great while a really fresh book which opens a fresh 

field appears. This is such a book. A few years back, when 

noticing some of Dr. Anders’ earlier papers upon this subject, a 

leading medical in London remarked that this new and promising 

field belonged exclusively to him, and it was hoped he would con- 
tinue to labor in it. The leading idea is to show (what still ap- 

pears to need showing) that plants, even blooming plants, in a 

sleeping room, so far from exerting an unhealthy influence, are all 

the while making the air in a better condition for human lungs. 

Beside this, however, the investigations of the author show many 

— things of hardly less interest even though less directly prac- 

tical. 

The quantity of carbon dioxide given off by plants at night is 
shown to be so small that it is positively lost sight of as compared 
with the quantity exhaled by the sleepers themselves; while on 
the other hand the oxygen given off by the plants could be shown 
to be large enough to be of benefit in decreasing the number of 
respirations,—a fact of vast importance to those exhausted by 
pulmonary troubles. Dr. Anders alludes to the theory recently 
advanced that house plants might be sometimes responsible for 
malarial poisoning in the house. This is disposed of briefly by the 
statement that whatever the cause may be the disease is too often 
named “malaria” as a term for an affection which the physician 
does not recognize, and that even if they should produce a genuine 
malarial attack the cause may readily be removed by “ re-potting 
the plants in fresh and untainted earth. Certain fragrant plants 
are injurious to certain individuals. The answer is simply, discard 
such species. 

The author shows that plants may be made available as a 
means of diffusing moisture in our living rooms. This fact alone 
is sufficient to give them no mean rank as sanitary agents. He 
also states that “ flowering plants in general possess the power to 
generate ozone: and odoriferous plants in particular are ener- 
getic ozone producers.” ‘The importance of this will be recognized 
when we remember that ozone “is the constant purifier of the 
atmosphere from all organic matter which passes into it and 
might accumulate.” Dr. Anders, however, not content with 
ascribing to plants in sleeping rooms the power of preventing 
disease, claims for them a curative power in bronchial and pul- 
monary complaints. He certainly makes out a very probable 
case for his favorites. 

Mr. Meehan has added a chapter on the care of house-plants. 
This alone is worth the cost of the volume to those who are in 
quest of such information. The last two chapters are devoted to 


a consideration of our forests,—not simply from the standpoint 
taken by the political economist, but in relation to their effects 
upon the salubrity of the atmosphere, and hence to the preven- 
tion and cure of disease. 

There are a few oversights in the proof-reading, and a slip also 
The first chapter contains much that 


in spelling Roan Mountain. 








THE AMERICAN. 





(Number 330 








was known and accepted before, and much in the way of senti- 
ment that is perhaps a little out of place in a book of so solid a 
character: and also frequent allusions to facts which are more 
fully and satisfactorily stated further on in the volume. These 
defects however are small in comparison with the real, sound, 
healthful, instructive character of the book. 

We can commend Dr. Anders’s work as one worthy of a wide 
circulation. J. T. RoTHROCK. 





BRIEFER NOTICES. 

HREE recent numbers of Cassell’s National Library (ten cents 
each) are ‘‘ Early Australian Voyages: Pelsart, Tasman and 
Dampier,” reprinted from Pinkerton’s admirable condensations in 
his great “ Collections of Voyages and Travels ;” “ Poems (1700- 
1714) by Alexander Pope ;” and Plutarch’s “ Lives of Demetrius, 
Mark Antony, and Themistocles,”’ in the translation of Lang- 
horne. This series is an interesting experiment, as it tests the 
possibility of reaching the largest reading public with books which 
are not works of fiction, and are in the main instructive as well as 

entertaining reading. We wish it every success. 

The Presbyterian Board of Publication have issued a third 
volume of the studies in natural science by Miss Ella Rodman 
Church. This time it is ‘‘ Talks by the Sea-Shore,” and we have 
found by actually trying its attractiveness upon a little girl, that 
it is a book which children will like to read. Of couse seaweeds, 
seashells and fishes are the theme, and the fifty-five illustrations 
are as good as we have seen in any work of the kind, and much 
superior in lifelike accuracy to many that appear in formal scien- 
tific treatises. We can imagine no more promising field for a 
wholesome religious literature. 

It is always interesting to see how geography is treated from 
the standpoint of another nationality than our own. We have 
such from Norway in Herr B. Gundersen’s ‘‘ Epitome of Political 
Geography, with an Introduction on Ethnography ” (Udtog af 
den Politiske Geografi. Med en Indledning om Ethnografien. Kris- 
tiania: Alb. Cammermeyer.) We observe asa peculiarity that 
the book has no fly ieaves, the title-page standing opposite the 
binding. The first twenty pages are given to general ethnogra- 
phy, and discuss the unity and variety of the human race, the dif- 
ferent degrees of culture, the forms of government, the religious 
beliefs, etc. In this the author seems to follow German authori- 
ties, but we never before found the Basque classed as Indo- 
Germans, or the Hamites of Northern Africa placed in a separate 
class from the Turanians. Twenty pages more are given to agen- 
eral account of Europe, closing with valuable tables of comparative 
statistics; but we are puzzled to see how these could be used 
educationally. Then the three Scandinavian kingdoms get sixty 
pages, or about a fouth of the book, while the United States (De 
forenede stater) getssix. We find no fault with this proportion, 
‘which is instructive, as showing that we do not fill as much space 
in the attention of mankind generally as our bigness makes us 
deserve. And,—what is very satisfactory,—every statement about 
us is accurate and well chosen. 

“The Book of American Figure Painters,” published by the 
J. B. Lippincott Co., is one of the most sumptuous issues of the 
American press. It has had the cooperation of forty of the best 
known native artists, and by the employment of the most im- 
proved mechanical means excellent results have been achieved. 
‘The volume is a folio of a size commensurate with its import- 
ance,—16 by 20 inches. It is an edition “de luxe” in the truest 
sense of the term, even a peculiar paper having been made ex- 
pressly for its use. The pictures forming the body of the book 
include reproductions both of drawings made for the purpose and 
of paintings that have been independently conceived. Each 
artist is represented in the photogravure reproductions but once. 
The price of this notable volume is $25. 


Mr. J. T. Trowbridge’s ‘‘ His One Fault,” having run its mag- 
azine course, is here presented (Lee & Shepard) in an attractive 
volume with the original illustrations, and we have no _ hesitation 
in pronouncing it as good a book for boys as the season offers or 
is likely to offer. Mr. Trowbridge in all his excellent work has 
done nothing better than this book. Kit Downimede’s “ one fault ” 
is heedlessness, or rather absent-mindedness, and the little tale 
teaches an unmistakable lesson, without being obtrusively didac- 
tic. It is athoroughly manly book ; interesting, amusing, instruc- 
tive, and full of hearty spirit and wholesome incident. 

Messrs. Lee & Shepard have come into possession of the plates 
of Richard M. Bache’s “ Young Wreckers of the Florida Reef,” 
formerly published by Claxton, Remsen & Co., of this city, and 
bring out a new edition (the sixth) of the favorite juvenile, with 
some new illustrations. ‘The Boy Wreckers” has merit, which 


indeed goes without saying, considering how it has survived. It 
is somewhat strained in its Indian-killing episodes, etc., but it suc- 


| cessfully combines instruction and amusement, and personal fa- 
miliarity with the scenes of the tale enabled the writer to make it 
very realistic. 

‘Charlie Lucken at School and College,” by Rev. H. C. Adams, 
(J. B. Lippincott Co.) is, we cannot help fearing, a rather mis- 
chievous specimen of boy literature. It is not a book of simple 
natural adventure like ‘‘ Tom Brown,” but an exploiting of more 
than questionable sensationalism. It narrates desperate “ barring- 
outs,” fights, encounters with burglars, heroic rescues by school 
boys of beautiful young ladies from drowning, and divers other 
matters of that general nature. A variety of appropriate illustra- 
tions are given, calculated to feverishly excite young readers, 
however they may amuse older ones. We do not regard the Rev. 
Mr. Adams’ work with much favor. 

‘Little Miss Weezy,” by Penn Shirley, (Lee & Shepard), is a 
pretty little juvenile, telling the baby adventures of Weezy Wozy, 
as she calls herself, otherwise Louisa Rowe. A book calculated to 
please young mothers. 

Messrs. Lee & Shepard have reproduced in miniature size, by 
a photographic method, several of their holiday art books, hereto- 
fore issued, the process carrying, of course, the text as well as the 
engravings. They are thus aflorded at a very moderate price, and 
some are fairly satisfactory, though the bindings of several,—in a 
horrible imitation of alligator skin,—are not attractive. On the 
whole the experiment seems hardly worth repeating. 

Two new issues in the ‘*‘ Monographs on Education” Series, by 
Messrs. D. C. Heath & Co., Boston, are an admirable essay on 
“The Study of Latin in the Preparatory Course,” by Professor E. 
P. Morris, of Williams College ; and another on ‘“ How to Teach 
Reading, and What to Read in School,” by Dr. G. Stanley Hall, 
of Johns Hopkins University. Prof. Morris insists upon the value 
of Latin as a training study; the use of the natural sciences in 
preparatory training he regards as “ only a question of money :” 
while modern languages, he thinks, are not to be so used, but 
should be taught in the lower schools, by the natural method. 

To his publications in French, W. R. Jenkins, New York, has 
added, in the series ‘ Contes Choisis,’”’ Edmond About’s lively 
story, ‘‘ Le Buste,” and in the series ‘‘ Romans Choisis,”’ that capi- 
tal tale by Erckmann-Chatrian, “ L’Ami Fritz.”” The former is 
number ten in its series; the latter number six. Both are in paper 
covers, but the typographic execution is very good. One excellent 
feature of the issues to which they belong is that they present the 
life and spirit of French literature without taking either its scum 
or its dregs. 

Six small volumes by Mrs. Sanborn Tenny, forming a Library 
of Natural History, for juvenile readers, are issued by Lee and 
Shepard, Boston, under the general title of ‘Young Folks’ Pic- 
tures and Stories of Animals.” Each volume is complete in itself, 
and the six treat of birds, quadrupeds, bees and other insects, 
fishes and reptiles, sea urchins, star fishes and corals, and sea 
shells and river shells. There are over five hundred illustrations 
on wood, and the series seems available, as the publishers claim, 
for supplementary reading in schools. 

Messrs. Estes and Lauriat issue three juvenile books, suitable 
for holiday sales. ‘These are their stand-bys of previous years, the 
annual volumes of the “ Our Little Ones” magazine, and the Eng- 
lish ‘‘ Chatterbox,” with a new book of travel and description by 
Hezekiah Butterworth, “ Zig-zag Journeys in the Sunny South.” 
All these are small quartos, and all profusely illustrated. The pic- 
ture work in “‘ Our Little Ones ” is on the American plan, and pre- 
sents many excellent — of our high results in wood en- 
graving; the English book presents a great contrast in its artistic 
features. The volume of the “ Zig-zag Journeys” carries us 
through the Southern States and over to some of the West India 
islands, and must prove entertaining, no doubt, to young readers. 








AUTHORS AND PUBLISHERS. 


A NEW Egyptian Romance by Prof. George Ebers is forthcom- 

ing, called, ‘‘ Die Nilbraut.”——-W. B. Ketchum (N. Y.) has 
nearly ready ‘ What shall we do with the Sunday-School as an 
Institution ?”” by Rev. Geo. L. Taylor.——It is stated that Paris 
authors threaten to “strike” against publishers whom they sus- 
pect of not keeping an exact account of the works they sell foran 
author, or of other trickery of that nature. 

There will be a good deal of interest to see the volume enti- 
tled, ‘‘ Agnes Surriage,” which the Ticknors have just ready. 
The author, Mr. Edwin Lassetter Bynner, has been a close student 
of the picturesque features of our early history, and it is to be 
hoped that his researches have enabled him to throw fresh light 
on the romantic story of his heroine. There is nothing more in- 
teresting in the annals of Boston than the experience of its courtly 





collector, Sir Henry Frankland, in making Agnes Surriage his 











December 4, 1886.] 





THE AMERICAN. 


109 





wife, and while her story has been felicitously told in verse, its 
poetic side has never been adequately depicted in prose. In Dr. 
Holmes’s poem, “Agnes,” the incidents which invest his heroine’s 
name with romantic interest are narrated with such dramatic viv- 
idness as to excite curiosity as to the facts upon which this essen- 
tially truthful recital rests. 


Mrs. Louise Chandler Moulton thinks of elaborating the 
sketches she wrote for Our Continent under the title of ‘Our 
Society,” for publication in book form.——The second and con- 
cluding volume of late Professor Max Duncker’s “History of 
Greece” will soon be issued by the Bentleys.——“ Under Blue 
Skies” is the title of an ‘“‘Art Juvenile” to be issued by the 
Worthington Co. It will include forty-eight water-color and 
monotone illustrations of child life, the pictures and the ac- 
companying verses being alike the work of Mrs. 8S. J. Brigham. 

“The Heart of the Weed,” a volume of poetry which Hough- 
ton, Mifflin & Co. have in press, is so thoroughly anonymous that 
no one at their office knows who wrote it——Theodore Aubanel, 
one of the Provengal poets, and a close friend of Mistral, is dead. 
——tThe Blackwoods, Edinburgh, have given up the retail part of 
their business, which has been a feature of it since the establish- 
ment of the house, intending in the future to devote their atten- 
tion entirely to publishing ——Miss Caroline Hazard’s memorial 
of the late Professor Diman, of Brown University, is in press in 
Boston.———A new series of Robert Schumann’s letters has just 
been published in Leipzig. It contains 150 letters, and nearly 400 
musicians are referred to in them. 


The next volume of the “ Encyclopedia Britannica,” which 
will get down as far as “ Sia,” will contain an article upon Shake- 
speare, by the editor, Thomas Spencer Baynes, LL. D., with a 
bibliography supplied by Mr. H. R. Tedder. Mr. Matthew Arnold 
writes upon Sainte-Beuve, Mr. Rossetti on Shelley, Professor 
Minto on Sir Walter Scott, and Mr. Saintsbury on Rousseau. 
Among the art articles is the ‘‘ Rubens” of M. Hymans, Professor 
Middleton contributing an article on “Schools of Painting.” 
Russia is treated of by Prince Krapotkine and Mr. Morfill. 


Several books for Christmas and gift-use are going through 
the press of D. Lothrop & Co. Among them are “My Land and 
Water Friends,” by Mary E. Bamford, sensible Natural History 
for children; ‘Nelly Marlow in Washington,” by Laura D. 
Nichols, an account of strolls among the curiosities in the Nation- 
al Museum in Washington; “All Among the Lighthouses,” by 
Mary Bradford Crowninsbield, the wife of Commander Crownin- 
shield, detailing a trip up the coast; “Sights Worth Seeing,” by 
visitors to Paris, Venice, and other great cities and places; 
‘Children’s Ballads,” romantic events in history; ‘‘ The Midnight 
Sun: The Tsar and the Nihilist,” an important contribution upon 
Russia and her affairs and her future. 

A popular edition of Lady Martin’s (Helen Faucit’s) papers 
“On Some of Shakespeare’s Female Characters,” is being prepared 
by Messrs. Blackwood.—Hon. Israel Coe, of Waterbury, Conn., 
the oldest surviving legislator of the state, and who was a member 
of the General Assembly of 1824, is writing a book of early remin- 
iscences. He is ninety-two years old.——Mr. Frederick Barnard, 
who made a success with his ‘‘ Character Sketches from Dickens,” 
has turned his pencil in the direction of another famous novelist, 
Thackeray, this portfolio like the Dickens being published by Cas- 
sell & Co. 

Leopold Von Ranke’s immense library—how many volumes 
no one knows—may possibly come to America. A well-known 
antiquarian is in correspondence with the heirs in regard to its 
purchase for an American institution. Ranke’s “ Hand Library,” 
as it is called, numbered 8,000 volumes, but the garret of the 
old mansion contains four or five times as many scattered about 
promiscuously on the floor. The motley mass is appalling, yet 
Ranke knew the place of each book, and required like knowledge 
from his assistant. The effort to please his master laid the seed 
of the terrible disease in poor Wiedermann, which has culminated 
in the clouded intellect, and added another to the list of martyrs 
to science. 


Henry Holt & Co. will publish immediately the last two vol- 
umes of the American edition of Symonds’s ‘‘ Renaissance in Italy.” 
Edward Everett Hale has written a new serial tale, called 
‘Mr. Tangier’s Vacations,” and it willsoon be begun in Mr. Hale’s 
magazine, Lend a Hand.—A new Encyclopedia of Education, 
under theeditorship of Mr. A. Sonnenschein and Rev. E. D. Price, 
is in course of preparation in London. 











PERIODICAL LITERATURE. 


‘W\HE December number of the English Illustrated Magazine is a 
double number, profusely illustrated. The descriptive arti- 
cles, carrying the illustrations, refer to Venice, to Surrey, London, 














and the Kentish hop-fields. Some of the engravings strike us as 
beyond the usual English mark in their execution,—for instance, 
a full-page, ‘‘ Milton Court Wheel,” in which the artist’s effects of 
light and shade are admirably preserved both by engraver and 
printer. 

The October number of the Quarterly Review has a remarka- 
bly intelligent and discriminating article on American poetry, 
taking for its starting-point Mr. E. C. Stedman’s recent volume, 
“ Poets of America,”’ which it recommends in strong terms. 

The Harvard Oration by Mr. Lowell and the Poem by Dr. 
a have already sent the December Atlantic into a third edi- 
jon. 

ART NOTES. 
TF\HE Sharples portraits, recently mentioned in this column, are 
now on exhibition at the Academy of the Fine Arts; this, by 
the way, being the only exhibition we are likely to be favored 
with this season at that conservative institution. ‘These portraits, 
fifteen in number, were all, except two, painted by Sharples, a 
pupil of Romney, and the friend of Copley, West and Peale, who 
was in this country during the last yearsof the 18th century. 
They were painted from life, and several of them were studied in 
Philadelphia. There are two portraits of Washington, one profile 
and one full face, and one of Martha Washington, full face and 
life size. The other important personages represented are Doctor 
Priestley, Robert Fulton, Chief Justice Marshall, and a number of 
famed beauties and dames of high degree of the Washington era. 
Two other portraits are by Captain Middleton, a British officer, 
who remained here several years after the war. These are Mary, 
the mother of Washington, and Mary Phillipse, traditionally 
known as Washington’s first love. The collection is of national 
importance and of the highest historic value. The portrait of Dr. 
Priestley should be secured if possible for the Academy of the Fine 
Arts, the Historical Society, or some other suitable depository in 
Philadelphia. ‘ 
Principal L. W. Miller, of the Pennsylvania Museum and School 
of Industrial Art, has been giving, by invitation of the Philadel- 
phia Teachers’ Institute, several courses of lectures on the Teach- 
ing of Drawing in Public Schools. Meetings have been held in 
several different sections of the city, and large classes have been 
in attendance, the whole the most gratifying evidence that has yet 
been given of a proper and healthy interest on the part of the 
teachers of this important but hitherto much neglected branch of 
education. 

The reconstructed American Art Association mentioned last 
week, comes promptly forward with an autumnal exhibition. It 
is said of this exhibition that it has gathered all the good work of 
the season, while the National Academy across the way has the 
unsuccessful canvases from the studios of the Academicians, eked 
out by contributions from second-class men and beginners. This 
unfavorable distinction is said to be due to the fact that the Na- 
tional Academy does not undertake to sell pictures, while the 
American Art Association is a commercial firm whose business it 
is to sell all the pictures they can at the highest prices they can 
get. That is one trouble with our Academy of the Fine Arts in 
respect of getting up exhibitions: the galleries are professedly not 
for the sale of pictures, and sales are only allowed as a tolerated 
trespass on the dignity of the Academy. This reserved position 
is proper enough fora Fine Art Museum to hold, but it is un- 
fortunate for the artists whose main object in contributing to ex- 
hibitions is to put their works before possible buyers. 

Among the noticeable contributions to the American Art 
Association are Wm. Edgar Marshall’s head and bust of Christ, 
on which the artist has been at work for ten years past. Wil- 
liam Page’s “I will: You shant!” painted probably thirty or for- 
ty years ago; Geo. W. Chambers’s landscape with negro figures 
entitled ‘‘The End of the Day;’? Thomas Anschutz’s “In the 
Garret ;” Frederick Juengling’s “In the Street;” Bruce Crane’s 
“ After the Rain;” J. Francis Murphy’s “Sunset;” Burr H. Nich- 
ols’ “Sunny Hours, Venice ;” two landscapes by Stephen Parrish; 
‘“‘Kastern Shore, Maryland,” by Clifford P. Grayson; and “ After 
a Storm,” by W. T. Richards. 


SCIENCE NOTES. 

RECENT accident which occurred at the Perkasie, Pa., tunnel 

X showsemphatically the importance of ventilation in such works. 
The tunnel is about half a mile long, and repairs were being made 
therein. On the 3rd inst. some fifty men were at work near the 
center of the tunnel, when a freight engine, unable to draw its 
train through the tunnel, became “stalled” near the place where 
the men were at work. Fresh coal was put in the locomotive fur- 
nace, and the fan blast set in motion. Soon the train started, 
when it acted as a piston in a cylinder, driving the gases from 

















110 


THE AMERICAN. 


[Number 830 








the furnace before it, and when the gases struck the men who 
were working in the tunnel, they nearly all fell as if dead. 
With no premonition, about forty of them became almost in- 
stantly unconscious, and fell as they stood. One of the men, 
only partially affected, made his way to the tunnel entrance and 
gave the alarm. A gravel train, with flat cars, happened to be 
standing there. It was run into the place of the accident, and the 
bodies of the fallen men were dragged upon the cars and taken 
out to the fresh air. All were supposed to be dead, but, to the 
surprise of the rescuers, the recently dead men soon began to 
show signs of life, and in a short time all were themselves again, 
except one man who had fallen into a pool of water on losing 
consciousness, and was evidently drowned. One of the un- 
conscious men was found hanging on a ladder, head downward, 
suspended by his feet. 

Dr. Shoemaker of this city has given in a late number of the 
Therapeutic Gazette a minute and interesting account of his feel- 
ings and impressions while under the influence of ether. In the 
first period, which was brief and without excitement, he was able 
to ask a rational question about the sheet with which he was to 
be covered; but immediately thereafter control over the vocal 
apparatus was lost. Of this he was conscious. Then came the 
second or unconscious period. Throughout this time there was 
present the single impression of “two endless parallel lines in 
swift longitudinal motion, each line being deflected at a certain 
point to form a wave.” All this was set on a misty background, 
showing little of the lines at once, though the lower line was 
clearly moving from left to right. The lower line gave ascending 
waves, which intersected with the descending waves of the upper 
line. There was also a low but distinct, constant whir, as if due 
to the running lines. These lines occupied the whole mental 
field. ‘There were no visions, no dreams of past experiences, not 
even a conception as to what being it was that was regarding the 
two lines, or that there was any such being. All trace of per- 
sonality was gone. Then the lines began to move irregularly ; 
the patient drew a deep breath: it dawned upon him that he was 
looking at the lines, and the third period (of recovery) was begun. 
Then came, in an order which could not be remembered, a series 
of curious impressions. He felt that he had glimpsed the essential 
nature of human existence. The lines were the existence of the 
soul, of his soul; and the waves were his animal life, and were 
thus a temporary modification of a primary condition. The idea 
was felt to be new and important, and ought by all means to be 
remembered. But the attempt was in vain; there was a spiritual 
power controlling him and preventing it. Though an unimagina- 
tive man, it took days to shake off the feeling that another phase 
of existence had been revealed. 


THE ENLISTMENT OF LAFAYETTE: 


’ AFAYETTE lost no time in putting into execution the resolution which 
he had taken at Metz. On his arrival in Paris, he soon concluded, from 
various slight indications, that nothing but opposition was to be expected 
from his family, and that he must depend entirely upon himself. To 
strengthen his purpose, to provide an answer to his own misgivings and 
discouragements, he adopted the motto Cur non? The first business was to 
form an acquaintance with the American agents. Silas Deane was officially 
ignored by the French Government, which was endeavoring to keep up ap- 
pearances with Engiand; but he was secretly dispatching arms and _ accou- 
trements to America, with the connivance of the Ministers and the help of 
the celebrated Beaumarchais, whose claims for repayment were destined to 
cause so painful a dispute with the United States. Deane was so closely 
watched by the spies of Lord Stormont, the English Ambassador, who was 
kept informed of all proceedings by the treacherous Bancroft, that it was 
exceedingly difficult to see him without exciting suspicion. Lafayette’s 
first action, therefore, was to make acquaintance with De Kalb, an officer of 
German origin, whom Choiseul had sent to America some years before, to 
report on the prospects of profitable French interference. De Kalb, himself, 
was arranging to go to the colonies ; he introduced Lafayette to Deane, and 
interpreted the short conversation which took place. Lafayette realized 
that his boyish countenance and inexperience were not strong recommenda- 
tions; he therefore made a great point of his zeal in the cause, and of the 
sensation that his departure would undoubtedly make. 

Deane was glad enough to meet this new ally ; he signed an agreement 
by which the young recruit should have the rank of major-general in the 
United States, and should be conveyed thither in a vessel about to be des- 
patched with munitions of war. Franklin and Lee soon after joined Deane 
as commissioners. But they were all so closely watched that it was only safe 
to communicate with them through Carmichael, an American then living 
in Paris. Secrecy was so important for Lafayette that he hardly knew where 
to look for necessary assistance. An application to the Marshal de Broglie 
met with strenuous opposition. ‘The old soldier could see nothing but dan- 
ger in the project. In several interviews he urged that the cause itself was 
doubtful, that the success of the colonies was very unlikely, that Lafayette 
was risking his own life and fortune, the peace of his family and connec- 
tions, without a prospect of reward. “I haveseen your uncle die in the 
wars of Italy, I have witnessed your father’s death at Minden, and I will 
not be accessary to the ruin of the last remaining branch of the family.’s 


1from an article by Bayard Tuckerman in The New Princeton Review, for No- 
yember. 














But, in response to the most urgent requests, he promised not to betray the 
plan he could not approve, and even indicated some officers who might be 
of service. Lafayette then confided his intentions to his brother-in-law, the 
Vicomte de Noailles, and to his uncle by marriage, the Vicomte de Ségur, son 
of the Ségur who scon afterward became Minister of War. To his great joy, 
they received his proposals with enthusiasm, and all three entered into an 
agreement of secrecy until the disposition of the Government could be as- 
certained and the arrangements for departure completed. But the secret 
was too glorious to be kept long. They endeavored to enlist the interest of 
some other young men, through whose indiscretion the affair came to the 
ears of the court, and an explosion of astonishment and disapprobation im- 
mediately followed. The Ministers feared that the departure as volunteers 
of noblemen of such rank would be interpreted by the English Government 
as an open acknowledgment of the intention of France to support the col- 
onies. Formal orders were at ouce issued to the young men to abandon their 
enterprise, while their families warmly reproached them for their folly and 

rashness. Ségur and Noailles, being dependent on their parents, were com- 
pelled reluctantly to acquiesce. Lafayette, conscious of his independence, 
was only irritated by opposition. He outwardly appeared to yield, but se- 
cretly determined that nothing should keep him from America. Cur non? 
At this juncture came another severe discouragement. News arrived that 
Washington had been defeated at Long Island, and was now retreating 
through New Jersey, with a ragged and suffering army of 3,000 men, before 
Howe’s victorious and well-accoutred troops. The credit of the colonies 
immediately fell; the cause seemed to the French too hopeless to be worth 
aiding, and it became impossible to send the vessel. The American Com- 
missioners honestly informed Lafayette of the state of affairs, and dis- 
couraged his perseverance. But, in this hour of adversity, Lafayette’s un- 
selfish devotion to what he believed a noble cause overcame every obstacle. 
Thanking Deane for his frankness, he said: ‘“ Until this moment, sir, you 
have seen only my zeal; now, perhaps, I may become really useful. I shall 
purchase a vessel myself to carry your officers. We must show our confi- 
dence in the cause, and it is in the time of your danger that I wish to share 
your fortunes.” The old people were not unjustified in their accusations of 
rashness and folly. Franklin, through Carmichael, assented giadly to this 
new proposal. But it was extremely difficult to procure a vessel without 
discovery by Lord Stormont. Fortunately, when the Comte de Broglie saw 

that Lafayette’s resolution was irrevocable, he lent asurreptitious assistance. 

M. du Boismartin, the count’s secretary, was despatched to Bordeaux, and 

there secured a ship. Repairs, however, were necessary, and some time must 
elapse before departure could be thought of. Meanwhile the secret must be 
kept. It happened opportunely that Lafayette had along-standing engage- 
ment with his cousin, the Prince de Poix, to take a journey to England. To 
fulfil this engagement was evidently the best way to disarm suspicion and 
pass the time until the vessel could be made ready. The two friends set out 
for London, where Lafayette’s uncle, the Marquis de Noailles, was embassa- 
dor, and on their arrival were treated with great distinction. Is was the cue 
of the English Government to keep up the appearance of undiminished 
friendship with France, and the arrival of the young strangers afforded a 
favorable opportunity for a demonstration of affection. Lafayette has re- 
corded his feelings of amusement on being presented to his Britannic Ma- 
jesty, against whom he was soon to be in arms; how he enjoyed dancing at 
the house of Lord George Germain, the secretary for the colonies, in compa- 
ny with Lord Rawdon, lately arrived from New York. At the opera he met 
Clinton, whom he was next to encounter at the Battle of Monmouth. His 
open expressions of sympathy with the rebels procured him an invitation to 
breakfast at Lord Shelburne’s, He has been accused by English writers of 
making use of his visit to obtain information, but he declined an invitation 
given by King George himself to see the military preparations then making 
at Portsmouth, and avoided every action which could be construed into a 
breach of confidence. When three weeks had passed amidst the gayeties of 
London, Lafayette could endure the delay no longer, and resolved to return 
to France and join his vessel. He told his uncle, the embassador, that he 
had taken a fancy to cross the Channel for a few days’ visit at home. The 
latter opposed the idea strongly, on the ground that so abrupt a departure 
would be disrespectful to the English Court. But, as Lafayette persisted, the 
Marquis de Noailles offered to give out that his nephew was sick, until his 
return, ‘I would not have proposed this stratagem,” said Lafayette, ‘‘ but I 
did not object to it.” 

After suffering severely from sea-sickness in the Channel, Lafayette ar- 
rived at De Kalb’s house in Paris, and proceeded thence to Chaillot, where 
he had his final interview with the American Commissioners, and gave his 
directions to the officers who were to accompany him. So far no suspicions 
were entertained by his family or at court that the project was still on foot. 
One morning, two months after the prohibition had been issued which dis- 
continued the conferences of himself, Ségur, and Noailles, Lafayette entered 
Ségur’s room in Paris at seven o’clock, in haste, carefully closed the door be- 
hind him, seated himself at Ségur’s bedside, and said ; ‘I am going to Ameri- 
ca. No one knowsit. ButI love you too well to set off without intrusting 
you with the secret.” ‘‘ And how have you been able,’ inquired Ségur “ to 
secure your passage? ’’ The story was soon told, and Ségur congratulated 
his friend on the success which he so much longed to share. 

Lafayette had hardly set out for Bordeaux when his departure became 
known to Lord Stormont, who immediately informed the Noailles family 
and the Ministers. On arriving at the seaport he found that the vessel was 
not yet ready. Soon after, on receiving an intimation that the court was 
fully informed of his proceedings, he suspended the repairs and set sail im- 
mediately for Passage, a neighboring portin Spain. There he was met by 
two officers who had followed by land from Bordeaux, bearing a peremptory 
lettre de cachet, which forbade him under the severest penalties to go to 
America, and commanded him to repair at once to Marseilles and there 
await further orders. The messengers also brought family letters which La- 
fayette himself described as terrible. They pointed out the certain conse- 
quences which might be expected from the power and the anger of the Gov- 
ernment, which would construe the departure of a military officer as treason. 
But what troubled Lafayette most was the undisguised displeasure of rela- 
tives and friends, and, above all, the thought of his wife and her condition. 
The Noailles projected a tour in Italy, and insisted that Lafayette should 








December 4, 1886.] 


THE AMERICAN. 


111 








join them at Marseilles and accompany them. But he felt that it was too 
late to withdraw. In obedience to the lettre de cachet, he left the vessel in 
safety at Passage, accompanied the king’s officers back to Bordeaux, and re- 
ported to the commandant there. Then he despatched letters to Paris, in 
the vain hope of bringing a change of sentiment. To his family he urged 
the worthiness of the cause in which he was engaged, and begged their sup- 
port. To the Ministers he justified his position, mentioning as precedents 
an Irish officer in the king’s service who had lately joined the British forces 
in America, and the case of Duportail and two other French engineers who 
had obtained permissiou to enter the American service. In one of his letters 
he let fall the remark that the Ministers could talk with better grace of the 
sanctity of his oath of allegiance when they began to observe their own 
pledges, a statement which was duly reported to the Government, and was 
too true not to excite anger. In this case, as in the interview with the Duc 
de Provence, Lafayette’s contempt for royalty and for the Ministry shows 
how little respect was felt for either by men who were familiar with them. 
A special courier carried a letter for De Cogny, an intimate friend of La- 
fayette’s, requesting him to ascertain as sovn as possible whether there was 
any chance that the Government would yield. The courier returned imme- 
diately with De Cogny’s reply, which was that the court was much incensed, 
and that there was not the remotest possibility that permission to sail would 
be granted. But one hope remained: to cross the Spanish border and em- 
bark before the royal messengers could arrive to arrest him. To Maurepas, 
the drivelling old Prime Minister, he wrote contemptuously that, receiving 
no reply to his letters, he took the Government’s silence to imply a tacit 
consent. Then, allowing the commandant at Bordeaux to believe that he 
was about to obey orders by repairing to Marseilles, he set out on the route 
to that city in a post-chaise, accompanied by an oflicer named De Mauroy, 
who was anxious to go to America. As soon as the carriage reached the 
open country, Lafayette disguised himself as a courier, and in that capacity 
galloped on ahead and ordered the relays. Leaving the Marseilles road, the 
party arrived at Bayonne, where occurred a delay of three hours. During 
this time Lafayette lay on the straw in the stable, in his disguise as courier. 
He was now pursuing the same route that he had lately passed over on his 
way from Passage to Bordeaux, in company with the royal officers, and there 
was danger of recognition. At a little village called St. Jean de Luz this 
actually happened, aud nearly proved fatal to the enterprise. As the pre- 
tended courier rode into the post-yard, and called for horses, he was recog- 
nized by the innkeeper’s daughter as a young gentleman whom she had 
seen driven by in a carriage but a few days before. Her surprise was evi- 
dent, but a sign from Lafayette made her understand that secrecy was de- 
sired. She required no more to remain faithful to the stranger. Soon after, 
when the officers in pursuit rode up and inquired if such a carriage had 
passed, she replied that she had seen a carriage, but it contained no such 
persons as were described. The baffled pursuers returned, and Lafayette 
arrived at Passage without further accident. After six months of constant 
effort, discouragement, and anxiety, he stood at last on the deck of the ship 
which his enthusiastic hope had christened La Victoire, and gave the order 
to set sail. 








GENERAL GRANT'S DINNER WITH THE QUEEN. 
ENERAL ADAM BADEAU has recently told (in the New York Tribune) 
the whole story of the Queen’s dinner-party in 1877 to General and 
Mrs. Grant. The invitation was in the ordinary form employed in the case 
of British subjects: ‘The lord steward has received her majesty’s commands 
to invite General and Mrs. Grant,” ete. The American minister and Mrs. 
Pierrepont received invitations, as did Badeau himself, but Mr. Jesse Grant 
was lett out,—rather to his gratification than otherwise. But his mother 
wanted him to be of the party, and a confidential hint from Badeau to his 
personal acquaintance, Sir John Cowell, master of the queen’s household, 
arranged the matter at once. On arriving at Windsor, they were informed 
that the Queen was out driving. ‘ Undoubtedly her majesty’s absence was 
planned,” says Badeau. The General and Mis. Grant were shown to their 
rooms,—the same which had been occupied by the Czar, and also by the duke 
of Edinburgh immediately after his marriage. Badeau and Jesse Grant 
were naturally quartered nearer the roof. Sir John Cowell followed them 
up and told them “ witha littleembarrassment”’ that they were to dine with 
the household (and not at the Queen’s table), but would be taken in andpre- 
sented to her majesty immediately dinner was over. Badeau was hurt but 
magnanimous, ‘I felt,” he says, “that I had been invited by a lady, and 
on arriving at her house was requested to sit at a different table from that 
to which I had been asked. This might be royal etiquette, but it was not 
good breeding, and it never happened to me at any other court. However, 
I was determined that no question affecting me should complicate the affair 
or iuterfere with General Grant’s success.” Young Mr. Jesse Grant would 
not have it, however. He had been invited to dine with the queen, he said, 
and before he would dine with the servants he would take the next train 
back to London. The general sympathized with the boy, Badeau explained 
the situation to Sir John, and the queen on her return from her drive com- 
manded Sir John to say that she would be happy to have Mr. Jesse Grant 
dine at her table. Badeau dined with the household. “ My companions 
were extremely affable,” he reports, “ and I thought they seemed to wish to 
make up for my disappointment so far as they could.” He Icarned after- 
ward that General Grant was requested to give his arm to Princess Christian 
-‘a distinet concession to him of rank equal to royalty.’ After dinner 
Badeau was presented to her majesty, who was very gracious to him. ‘I 
think she felt sorry that she had left me out,” he says, ‘and wanted to 
atone; at any rate she made me feel very pleasant for a moment or two, in 
spite of my disappointment.” As for the malicious story invented at the 
time by some scurrilous penny-a-liner about Mr. Jesse Grant’s saying to his 
father, ‘Pa, introduce her,’ Badeau pronounces it a lie out of the whole 
cloth. ‘‘ He behaved with propriety,” says Badeau. “ He held out for his 
point of etiquette as well as the royalties, and had won. He could afford to 
be polite.’ We notice with pleasure that Badeau, though he still has his 
opinion of the way in which be was treated on the occasion, is willing to 
make allowances for her majesty. ‘ From her own point of view,” he says, 
“she was extremely gracious throughout, and from anybody’s point of view 





(but mine) she was amiable. I suffered for others, which is of course very much 
to my credit. ButI certainly think the queen should have left out some of 
her own courtiers on an international occasion, rather than a foreign gen- 
tleman whom she had thought it became her dignity to invite to her table.” 








PUBLICATIONS RECEIVED. 

HousE PLANTS AS SANITARY AGENTS; or the Relation of Growing Vegeta- 
tion to Health and Disease. By J. M. Anders, M. D., Ph.D. Pp. 334. 
$1.50. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 

CHARLIE LUCKEN AT SCHOOL AND CoLLEGE. By the Rev. H. C. Adams. 
Pp. 408. $1.50. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 
GINEVRA, OR THE OLD OAK CuHEstT. A Christmas Carol. 
Wallace. With Illustrations by General Lew Wallace. 

New York: Worthington Co. 

THE MADONNA OF THE Tuss. By Elizabeth Stuart Phelps. Illustrated. Pp. 
94. $1.50. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin & Co. 

WoRTHINGTON’S ANNUAL. 1887. [Illustrated Holiday Juvenile.] Pp. 216. 


By Susan E. 
Pp. 60. $1.25. 





3 New York: Worthington Co. 

PERSIA AND THE PERSIANS. By 8S.G.W. Benjamin. Pp. 507. Illustrated. 
$5.00. Boston: Ticknor & Co. 

JEGLE AND THE ELF. A Fantasy. By M. B. M. Toland. Illustrated. 


{Holiday Volume.] Cloth. $2.00. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 


THE CLOSING ScENE. By Thomas Buchanan Read. Illustrated. [Holiday 
Volume.] Cloth. $3.00. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 


NATURE’s HALLELUJAH. Arrayed and Illustrated by Irene E. Jerome. 
{Holiday Volume.] Cloth. $6.00. Boston: Lee & Shepard. 

THE MESSAGE OF THE BLUE-BriRD. Arranged and Illustrated by Irene E. 
Jerome. [Holiday Volume.] Cloth. $2.00. Boston: Lec & Shepard. 

CHATTERBOX, 1886. Edited by Erskine Clark. Pp. 407. $1.25. Boston: 
Estes & Lauriat. 

OuR LITTLE ONES AND THE NURSERY. 18386. William T. Adams, {(‘‘ Oliver 
Optic”), Editor. Pp. 384. $1.75. Boston: Estes & Lauriat. 

A Zic-ZAG JOURNEY IN THE SUNNY SouTH; or Wonder Tales of Early 


American History. By Hezekiah Butterworth. Pp. 320. $1.75. Bos- 
ton: Estes & Lauriat. 

THE VoLCANO UNDER THE City. By a Volunteer Special. Pp. 350. $1.00. 
New York: Fords, Howard & Hulbert. 

SONNETS AND Lyrics. By Helen Jackson. (“H. H.”) Pp. 135. $1.00. 
Boston: Roberts Brothers. 

Two Prterims’ Proeress. By Joseph and Elizabeth Robins Pennell. Pp. 
181. $2.00. Boston: Roberts Brothers. 

VirroRiIA. By George Meredith. Pp. 500. $2.00. Boston: Roberts 
Brothers. 

RoNALD HALLIFAX; or He Would be a Sailor. By Arthur Lee Knight. 
Pp. 415. $2.00. London and New York: Frederick Warne & Co. 


Harry RAYMOND: His Adventures Among Pirates, Slavers, and Cannibals. 
By Verney Lovett Cameron. Pp. 320. $2.00. London and New York : 
Frederick Warne & Co. 








DRIFT. 


—In his annual report just made publie, the chief of ordnance, General 
Benet, says that the ordnance appropriation for the fiscal year is “ wholly 
inadequate.’’ He fully agrees with the board of fortifications that congress 
should appropriate $21,500,000 for gun metal, inaugurating the production of 
armor plates, laying foundations for forts, ete. An army gun factory is, he 
says, a great want. An appropriation of $6,000,000 for steel forgings would 
be, he believes, worth while. Of the immediate results of the course of the 
house of representatives, General Benet says: “ The department sustained 
serious injury through the failure of the regular fortifications appropriation 
bill at the last session, and its operations as regards armament for fortifica- 
tions for the fiscal year 1886-87 have practically ceased, and the personnel 
of the department employed on the work has been almost entirely dis- 
charged. The large force of skilled men at the Watertown arsenal, where 
the ten-inch wire guns, etc., were being constructed, has been discharged, 
and the expense and labor attending the recommencement of the work will 
be considerable. The difficulty of procuring good men will be increased by 
the feeling of uncertainty regarding the permanency of their employment.” 

—When last coercion on the grand scale was tried in Ireland, the Eng- 
lish prime minister trying it was one William Ewart Gladstone. A few 
radicals excepted, he had behind him and his policy the entire people of 
Great Britain, Tories and Liberals,—a practically unanimous anti-Irish senti- 
ment. Yet the policy was a flat failure. After locking up Mr. Parnell in 
Kilmainham, he had to let him out, and the Irish leader and the Irish 
cause emerged from the jail stronger than ever. In the present instance 
Lord Salisbury will have against him from the start a majority of the elec- 
tors of Scotland and Wales, and very nearly one-half the electors of Eng- 
land; and the opposition to his policy will be led by William Ewart Glad- 
stone. That is avery notable change in the conditions of the experiment, 
and the Irish politicians are fully awake to its significance and its promise. 


—** How are we getting along in the matter of fire insurance under the 
valued policy law?” said a keen New Hampshire citizen, repeating the 
question asked him by the Boston Bulletin representative. ‘ Well, I’ll tell 
Our situation is like that of a woman driving a horse. She can drive 





So Prevalent and so Fatal has Consumption become, that it is now everywhere 
dreaded as the great scourge of humanity: and yet, in their formative stages, all 
Pulmonary Complaints may be readily relieved and controlled by resorting promptly 
to Dr. Jayne’s Expectorant, s curative specially — to soothe and strengthen the 
Bronchial tubes, allay inflammation, and loosen and remove all obstructions. Itis a 


certain remedy for Asthma, and also for Coughs and Colds, 





8 EP TOS TV a Fis 


I ae ss 





poe 


\ 
iz 
} ™ 


112 


TRUST AND INSURANCE COMPANIES. 
CAPITAL, $1,000,000. 


The Guarantee, 


TRUST AND SAFE DEPOSIT COMPANY 
In its New Fire-Proof Building, 
Nos. 316, 318 & 320 Chestnut Street, 


IS PREPARED TO RENT SAFES IN ITS FIRE 
AND BURGLAR PROOF VAULTS, with Combination 
and Permutation Locks that can be opened only by 
the renter, at $9, $10, $14, $16 and $20; large sizes for 
corporations and bankers. ; 

ALLOW INTEREST ON DEPOSITSOF MONEY, 
ACT AS EXECUTOR, ADMINISTRATOR, GUAR- 
DIAN, Assignee, Committee, Receiver, Agent, Attor- 
ney, etc. 

EXECUTE TRUSTS of every kind under appoint- 
ment of States, Courts, Corporations or Individuals— 
holding Trust Funds separate and apart from all other 
assets of the Company. 

COLLECT INTEREST OR INCOME, and transact 
all other business authorized by its charter. 

RECEIVE FOR SAFE KEEPING, UNDER GUAR- 
ANTEE, VALUABLES of every description, such as 
Coupon, Registered and other Bonds, Certificates of 
Stock, Deeds, Mortgages, Coin, Plate, Jewelry, etc. 


ete. 
RECEIPT FOR AND SAFELY KEEP WILLS 


without charge. , ’ 
For further information, call at the office or send 


for a circular. 


THOMAS COCHRAN, President. 
EDWARD C. KNIGHT, Vice-President. 
JOHN S. BROWN, Treasurer. 
JOHN JAY GILROY, Secretary. 
RICHARD C. WINSHIP, Trust Officer. 


DIRECTORS. 
W. Rotch Wister, 
Alfred Fitler, 
Charles S. Hinchman, 
J. Dickinson Sergeant, 
Aaron Fries, 
Charles A. Sparks, 
Joseph Moore, Jr, 


Thomas Cochran, 
Faward C. Knight, 

J. Barlow Moorhead, 
Thomas MacKellar, 
John J. Stadiger, 
Clayton French, 


THE FIDELITY 


Insurance, Trust and Safe Deposit 
Company of Philadelphia. 


325-331 CHESTNUT STREET. 
Charter Perpetual. 


CAPITAL, $2,000,000. SURPLUS, $1,200,000. 


SECURITIES AND VALUABLES of every descri 
tion, including BONDS and STOCKS, PLATE, JEW- 
ELRY, DEEDS, etc., taken for SAFE KEEPING on 
SPECIAL GUARANTEE at the lowest rates. 

Vault Doors guarded by the Yale and Hall Time 
Locks. 

The Company also RENTS SAFES INSIDE ITS 
BURGLAR-PROOF VAULTS, at prices varying from 
$15 to $75, according to size. An extra size for corpor- 
ations and bankers; also, desirable safes in upper 
vaults for $10. Rooms and desks adjoining vaults pro- 
vided for safe-renters. 

DEPOSITS OF MONEY RECEIVED ON INTER- 


EST. 

INCOME COLLECTED and remitted for a moder- 
ate charge. B ae 

The Company acts as EXECUTOR, ADMINISTRA- 
TOR and CUARDIAN, and RECEIVES AND EXE- 
CUTES TRUSTS of every description from the courts, 
corporations and individuals. 

ALL TRUST FUNDS AND INVESTMENTS are 
kept separate and apart from the assets of the Compa- 
ny. As additional security, the Company has a special 
trust capital of $1,000,000, primarily responsible for its 
trust obligations. 2 

WILLS RECEIPTED FOR and safely kept without 


charge. 


STEPHEN A. CALDWELL, President. 

JOHN B. GEST, Vice-President, and in charge of the 
Trust Department. 

ROBERT PATTERSON, Treasurer and Secretary. 

CHAS. ATHERTON, Assistant Treasurer. 

R. L. WRIGHT, JR., Assistant Secretary. 


DIRECTORS. 


STREPNEN A. CALDWELL, Wiliam H. MERRICK, 
Epwarp W. CLARK, JOHN B. GEST, 
Grorce F. TYLER, Epwarp TT. STEEL, 


THOMAS DRAKE, 
C, A. GRISCOM, 
Jonsx ©, BULLITT. 


Henry C. GUBson, 
THOMAS MCKEAN, 














{Number 330 





THE AMERICAN. 





D WAREHOUSES. 


SEE 








21 and 23 S. Sixth Street, and S. E. Cor. of Del- 
aware Avenue and Arch Street, Phila. 


FOUNDED 1784. 


BYERYTHING of the best for the Farm, Garden or 
Country Seat, Over 1500 acres under cultivation 
— Landreths’ Garden Seeds. Landreths’ Rural 
egister and Almanac for 1885, with catalogue of seeds 
and directions for culture, in English and German 
free to all applicants. 





FURNITURE. 


40S HILLBORW @ g, 


DEALERS IN 


FURNITURE, BEDDING, 


AND 


DECORATIVE UPHOLSTERY. 


—— 


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PHILADELPHIA, 


MANUFACTURERS. 


—THE— 

William Cramp & Sons 
Ship and Engine 
Building Co. 
PHILADELPHIA. 


SHOEMAKERS. 


Jno. Parker Jr. & Co., 


20 SouTH EIGHTH ST. (NEAR CHESTNUT.) 


LADIES’ SHOES. 


Fine and Medium Grades Ready-Made 
or to Measure. 


OUR CUSTOM WORK 
is all of the best material and HAND-SEWED. 





No. 20 $8, EIGHTH STREET, PHILADA, 





INCORPORATED 1836, 





TRUST AND INSURANCE COS. 


THE GIRARD 


LIFE INSURANCE, ANNUITY AND TRUST 
Co. OF PHILADELPHIA. 


Office, 2020 Chestnut St. 





CHARTER PERPETUAL. 





INSURES LIVES, GRANTS ANNUITIES, ACTS 
AS EXECUTOR, ADMINISTRATOR, GUAR- 
DIAN, TRUSTEE, COMMITTEE OR RE- 
CEIVER, AND RECEIVES DE- 
POSITS ON INTEREST. 


President, John B. Garrett. 
Vice-President and Treasurer, Henry Tatnall, 
Actuary, William P. Huston. 
Assistant Treasurer, William N. Ely. 
Solicitor, Effingham B. Morris. 





The American Fire 
INSURANCE COMPANY. 


Office in Company’s Building, 


308 & 310 Walnut St., Phila. 


CASH CAPITAL, . . . . $500,000 00 
Reserve for reinsurance and f 

all other claims, . . . 1,070,003 99 
Surplus over all liabilities, . 528,957 89 


ToTAL AssETS, JANUARY Ist, 1886, 
$2,220,371.13. 


DIRECTORS: 
T. H. MONTGOMERY, WILLIAM W. PAUL, 


JOHN WELSH, P. S. HUTCHINSON, 
JOHN T. LEWIS, ALEXANDER BIDDLE, 
ISRAEL MORRIS, CHAS. P. PEROT, 


JOS. E. GILLINGHAM. 
THOMAS H. MONTGOMERY, President. 
ALBERT C. L. CRAWFORD, Secretary. 
RICHARD MARIS, Assistant Secretary. 





INSURANCE AT ACTUAL COST. 
CHARTERED 1835, 


NEW ENGLAND MUTUAL LIFE INSUR- 
ANCE COMPANY, 


SURPLUS -------+-+-+-+--. $2,395, 450.73 


No speculative features. Annual returns of surplus. 
Yearly progressive cash values fixed by Massachusetts 
law, indorsed on every policy. Eyual toan interest- 
bearing bond, with insurance at nominal cost. An 
excellent collateral. No forfeiture. 

Attention is also called to the NEW FEATURE IN 
LIFE INSURANCE adopted by this company, of issu- 
ing Endowment Policies for precisely the same pre- 
mium heretofore charged for whole Life Policies. 





JOS. M. GIBBENS, 
Secretary 


BENJ. F. STEVENS, 
President. 


MARSTON & WAKELIN, - GENERAL AGENTS, 
No. 133 S. Fourth Street, Philadelphia: 








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