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October 19: 
One dollar 


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soon to be published by TIME 

that tells the story of America through its art 

and artists—written the way rIME 1S written, 

in warm, colorful, vigorous prose that will 

hold your interest from cover to cover. 

‘ry A VFRTS Ty 
1) \ . I N 
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Mor than a book about painting, more than a book about painters, here is a book about 

America, seen fresh and whole. It is a book which you and your family will want to read, treasure, 

spend hours with—and go back to again and again. 

Its 328 pages are thronged with 250 superb full-color reproductions of American mastere 

pieces . . . more pages of brilliant color than any art book has ever brought to its readers. The 

text, in preparation for the past two years, summons up three centuries of America’s history as 

background for the masterpieces of American painting—and brings the artists, their works, and 

their times to life with wit, warmth, and fascinating anecdote. 

With the publication of AMERICAN PAINTING, American art comes into its own. This 

is a big book in both size and scope... . beautifully printed on fine, heavy paper . . . handsomely 

bound. Only through Time’s vast editorial and technical resources could such a magnificent book be 

published at a price within reach of every home in America 

Use the coupon below to reserve your copies of AMERICAN PAINTING at the special pre-publication price. 

540 North Michigan Ave., Chicago 11, Ill. 



Pe F at the limited pre-publication price: 
After November 1 the price of AMERICAN ¢ . Pe - : is - 
PAINTING will be $13.50 for the regular Ki Copies Regular Edition at $9.85 — Copies Deluxe Edition at $11.85 
edition and $15.50 for the deluxe edition t [J Bill me after publication date (J Enclosed is my check for $___ 

(specially bound and boxed). But if you 

order immediately, you can take advantage 

of this limited pre-publication price of only 

$9.85, regular edition $11.85, deluxe edition 


“Three Women of Brittany.” “The Fisherman” (1887) “Bathing Nymphs” 

Watercolor. 634” x 5”. Oil, 1734 x 21% inches. Oil, 21% x 13 imches. 
Appraised at $1200. Appraised at $7500. Appraised at $5250. 


66 Works by the 



who was acclaimed by Gauguin, Van Gogh 

and many important French Art critics 

The Hammer Galleries, known for their history-making quickly as possible and are therefore offering it—not at the 
sales of the William Randolph Hearst and other world- appraised current market value of this famous artist’s works 
famous art collections, are pleased to announce that they 
have acquired for immediate disposal the important collec- 
tion of Emile Bernard’s works which were assembled by 

the late Dr. Tito Vasella of Zurich, noted art patron and 7 
intimate friend of Bernard. art capitals. But to take advantage of it, you must act fast— 

—but at one-half the appraised prices. Here is an invest- 
ment opportunity that comes once in a life-time, because 
Post-Impressionist art is booming today in all the world’s 

We have been asked to convert this collection into cash as the exhibition and sale will last only two weeks. 

$101,400 for $50,700 

Included are oils and watercolors of Bernard’s famous Pont-Aven period, 

so eagerly sought after. The 66 works cover a wide range of landscape, figure 

and still-life subjects. Prices for this sale begin as low as $150. Every picture 

in the collection is included in the sale—nothing is held back. And every 
E one bears a plainly marked price tag. 

penile Barnerd is the The famous _ critic Sale Starts Monday, October 21, 9:30 a.m. 

painter to whom Vin- Guillaume Appolinaire, 
cent Van Gogh wrote in his published 
in 1886: “I value your “Letters”, said: “Not 
talent so highly, I since the Renaissance 
would like to acquire has there been a more 
gradually a small col accomplished man.” 
lection of your works.” o 

(Edition Vollard.) 
The art historian 
Henri Focillon in his 
monumental book, 

Paul Gauguin wrote “Painting of the 19th 
to him: “I shout from and 20th Centuries” 
all the roof tops, ‘take called Emile Bernard 51 EAST 57th STREET, NEW YORK 
notice of little Bernard, “the leading force in 
he is a great fellow.’” the symbolic interpre- 

(Edition Tonnere.) tation of art.” Tel: Plaza 8-0410 

and continues through Sat., Nov. 2 



announce the sale by Auction on Wednesday, 20th November of 



from the estate of the late FRANZ KOENIGS, HAARLEM, | 

and other owners. 

Fra Bartolommeo: A Medieval Town Fra Bartolommeo: Town on the Banks of a River 

Pen & Ink 84,” x 11%,” Pen & Ink 84%," x 11%" 

FRA BARTOLOMMEO DRAWINGS—lIllustrated Catalogue (63 plates) $3.00 
OLD MASTER PAINTINGS & DRAWINGS—Illustrated Catalogue $1.20 
May be obtained from 


Telephone: BOwling Green 9-0765 

34/35 New Bond Street, London W1 

Telephone: London Hyde Park 6545 Telegrams: Abinitio, Wesdo. London 


This month 

John Ashbery recently returned from France where 
he lectured at the University of Rennes. His book 
of poems, Some Trees, was published last year .. . 
Aline B. Saarinen, former Managing Editor of ART 
NEWs, art critic for The New York Times, recently 
was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship to finish her 

Randall Jarrell, 

well-known poet and farouche critic, inaugurates in 

book on American collectors 

these pages a new series of modern poetry on art. 
Contributions and suggestions will be welcomed by 
the editors Frederick J. Kiesler has put his 
theories on “endless” space into solid marble, alumin- 

um and glass in the new art gallery he here discusses. 


I'he boom in German Expressionism hits New York 
galleries and museums; Edith Hoffmann analyses its 
merits and demerits . . . Kupka’s little-known role in 
the invention of abstract painting . . . Re-evaluating 
some of the re-evaluations of the traditions of Amer- 

ican art . Mario Praz on Canova and his myth. 

Editor and President Alfred Frankfurter 
Executive Editor Thomas B. Hess 
Associate Editors Henry A. La Farge, Eleanor Munro 
Contributing Editor Henry McBride 
Editorial Associates Edith Burckhardt, Lawrence Campbell, 
Herbert D. Hale, Fairfield Porter, 
Irving Sandler, James Schuyler, 

Parker Tyler 

Design Director Bradbury Thompson 
Production M. L. Messina 

Vice-Pres.-Adv. Mgr. Gerald A. Cripps 
New York, N. ¥Y, 32 East Fifty-seventh Street 
rempleton 8-3730 

ARTyews is published monthly September to May, quarter 
ly June-July-August. Copyright 1957 by The Art Foundation 
Press, Inc., 32 East Fifty-seventh St., New York 22, N. Y. 
Subscription rates —- Full subscription: the ten monthly 
year; regular monthly edition only: $9 per year. (Foreign 
postage $1 per year additional). Single monthly issues $1. 

Credits: Donatello photographs, p. 37, courtesy Horst Janson. 

The Editor welcomes and is glad to consider mss and photographs 
sent with a view to publication. When unsuitable for publication, 
and if accompanied by return postage, every care will be exercised 
toward their return, although no responsibility for their safety is 
undertaken. Under no circumstances will the custody of any object 
of art whatever be accepted if sent to the magazine unsolicited for 
inspection. No opinions on authorship, authenticity or valuation can 
be given, nor can the magazine act as intermediary in sales. The 
complete contents of each issue of ARTNews are indexed in The 
4rt Index, published quarterly and available in public libraries. 
The name, cover, colorplates and entire contents of ARTNews are 
fully protected by copyright in the U.S. A. and in foreign countries 
and may not be reproduced in any manner, in whole or in part, 
without written consent. Title registered U. S. Patent Office. En- 
tered as second-class matter, Feb. 5, 1909, re-entered June 17, 1948, 
at the Post Office, New York, N. Y., under act of Mar. 3, 1879. 

October 1957 


New landmarks in old Italy 

Tomlin: the pleasures of color 

Grandeur of ideas is founded on precision of ideas 
Collecting modern masters on a master-plan 

The bronze David of Donatello 

The art of architecture for art 

Vitchell paints a picture 

The season’s biggest sale 

Major illustrations 

The Beheading of St. John the Baptist 
Number 1, 1949 

Queen Katherine’s Dream 


Drawings for architecture 


Still-life with Cat 


Editor’s letters 

Art news international 

Art news from Paris 

Art news from London 

Art in antiques 

Reviews and previews 
Coming auctions 


Amateur standing 

New sources, new materials 
Where and when to exhibit 
Competitions, scholarships 
The exhibition calendar 


Fifty-sixth year 
of continuous publication 

Volume 56, Number 6 


24 Milton Gendel 

28 John Ashbery 

30 William Blake 

32 Aline B. Saarinen 
36 Randall Jarrell 

38 Frederick J. Kiesler 
44 Irving Sandler 


24 Jacopo Bassano 

29 Tomlin, colorplate 

30 Blake, colorplate 

35 Boccioni, detail 

37 Donatello, details 

40 Frederick J. Kiesler 

47 Joan Mitchell, colorplate 
18 Bonnard, colorplate 


10 Pierre Schneider 
11 Lawrence Alloway 
12 Babette Craven 



70 Aaron Berkman 



A torso turns into a tightrope act 
performed by Paris’ famous clowns 
in Joan Miro’s The Brothers Fratel- 
lini, ca. 1927. It is in the distin- 
guished group of paintings and 
sculptures gathered in the past 
decade by Mr. and Mrs. Harry L. 
Winston of Detroit, who this month 
lend the collection to their home- 
town Institute of Arts. Next month 
the exhibition will set off on a na- 
tional tour [see article on pp. 32-35). 



Sculpture by 






Editor’s letters 


Professor Schapiro’s generally ex- 
cellent article, The liberating quality 
of avant-garde art [A.N., Summer 
‘57] makes one point to which | 
object, and another which I believe 
deserves clarification. 

I strongly object to the idea, now 
commonly held, that abstract art is 
moving away from nature. The root 
of this idea stems from the fact that 
nature, as thought of in Western 
countries, is an entity separate from 
man. Thus, “Man conquers Nature,” 
“Man harnesses Nature,” etc., and 
this outlook, in general, is consonant 
with our Greek-oriented way of look- 
ing at things, so prone to smash a 
unified reality into artificial, but 
conveniently handled, pieces 
In the broadest view, it is only now 
that Western painting is again ap- 
proaching unification with nature 

. great contemporary artists plumb 
the subtle, profound and unnamable 
truths of nature. 

My second quarrel is with the 
thought that an artist knows what 
“the appearance of randomness” 
looks like, and can somehow simu 
late it. Random patterns startle the 
investigator with their lack of what 
we intuitively conceive of as random 
design. I have constructed linear 
patterns using tables of statistically 
random numbers, and these patterns 
have shown interesting, even elegant, 
composition. Random order is order. 

| believe the relative importance 
of chance and randomness, in the 
arts, in relation to other means of 
attaining artistic insight, will stead- 
ily increase in future decades, just 
as it has steadily increased in all 
branches of science . 

George Brecht, 

New Brunswick, N. J. 


A Mr. William Stipe, who sounds 
the trumpet for the more realistic 
in art [A.n., May °57], asserted that 
abstract art is not here to stay. He 
goes further to state and I quote: 
“Let’s have more paintings like 
Whistler’s Mother. Everyone can just 
see how he loved his mother.” 

Obviously, Mr. Stipe does not 
know much about Whistler. Why, 
Whistler in his own words wrote 
that art “should stand alone, and 
appeal to the artistic sense of eye 
or ear, without confounding this 
with emotions entirely foreign to it, 
as devotion, pity, love, patriotism 
and the like. All these words have 
no kind of concern with it; and that 
is why I insist on calling my works 
‘arrangements’ and ‘harmonies.’ 
Take the picture of my mother ex- 
hibited as an Arrangement in Grey 
and Black. Now that is what it is. 
lo me it is interesting as a picture 
of my mother, but what can or 
ought the public to care about the 
identity of the portrait?” 

Jeanne Glennon, 

New York, N. Y. 


I quote from your issue of Summer 
97 [p. 52]: “Emphasis in print col- 
lecting has gradually shifted from 
the classics of Diirer and Rembrandt 

to rare early German and _ Italian 
examples. Powerful in its Gothi 
angularity is this anonymous German 
fifteenth-century metal-cut dotted 
print, The Man of Sorrows with 
Four Angels, in the Clarence Buck- 
ingham Collection, Art Institute of 

It is not my intention to detract 
from this magnificent example. One 
could not do so if he tried. But your 
word “gradually” is slightly mis- 
used. For almost twenty years the 
National Gallery of Art, Rosenwald 
Collection (now housed at Alver- 
thorpe Gallery, Jenkintown, Pa.) 
has had one of the largest and most 
important assemblages of fifteenth 
and early sixteenth-century woodcuts 
and metal-cuts in the world, There 
are, all told, approximately seven 
hundred examples, several of them 
earlier, larger and more important 
(including a fourteenth-century altar 
cloth) than the one _ illustrated. 
“Gradually” indeed! 

Lessing J. Rosenwald, 
Jenkintown, Pa. 


Is it possible that Irving Sandler 
[A.n., Apr. '57] is placing the Con- 
structivists and metal sculptors in 
the unfortunate position of being 
the “provincials” of the art world? 

In reviewing Herbert Read’s The 
{rt of Sculpture, Mr. Sandler begins 
by saying he feels proper due has 
not been given the book. But he 
winds up by saying that it means 
nothing to anybody. This illogical 
conclusion is an unfortunate result 
of fighting windmills. 

Herbert Read's book needs no de- 
fense. He set out to establish an 
esthetic of the art of s« ulpture and 
he did so 

Wood, wire, wax, stone, plastic, 
steel. copper, etcetera, go to it. With 
no chips on your shoulders. 

Chenoweth Hall, 
Prospect Harbor, Me 


For some time now your magazine 
has featured abstract art... I 
don’t dislike abstract art, but I do 
the exstremes [sic] in which some 
take it, if I may be pacific: Dreben- 
korn [sic] Segal, Grillo, Schapiro, 
Brancusi these men who waste 
hundreds of pounds of paint each 
year on horrible mistakes. 

There are some abstractionist 
[sic] who rate high in the art world 
and are sincere in their painting. 
They are truely [sic] the modern 
artist who give to their painting 
definite patterns and composition. 
Although most abstractionist don’t 
Utilize perspective porportion and 
definite visual compositions; some 
imperfectionist use this as an ex- 
cuse to paint poorly. They call it 
the liberation of art, the uncovering 
of the true ExspREssION [sic] of 
man. But what they do not know is 
what they are doing is very old in- 
deed. You can find these master- 
pieces in childrens play room trash- 
cans all over the world. 

Joseph Sudduth, 
New York, N. Y. 


Advance announcement to our readers 

You can now reserve your copy of the new 1958 


The 27th in this famous series 

coming on October 31, 1957 

ARTNEwWs ANNUAL has been newly expanded this 
year. During more than a quarter-century, this long- 
acclaimed yearbook has been famous for articles 
on painting, sculpture and design. Now for the first 
time, readers are invited to survey the fields of Mu- 
sic and Science as they relate to the visual arts. With 
ARTNEWS ANNUAL’s accustomed breadth. each ar- 
ticle scans the world-scene of a particular subject, 
relating its most modern aspects to a fresh re- 
interpretation of the classics. 

Over 200 pages, including more than forty full color-plates 
and approximately 200 large monochrome illustrations, the con- 
tents range from I5th-century Siena through Elizabethan England 
to the most modern painters in Paris and New York. 

Twelve of the color plates are being printed in an eight-color 
lithographic process by outstanding European craftsmen in color 
reproductions. These reproduce masterpieces of modern French 
paintings from Manet to Matisse. 

GIOVANNI DI PAOLO AND SASSETTA are two elusive masters 
of early Renaissance Siena, uniting elements of the Orient with 
the beginnings of Renaissance form. They also curiously fore- 
shadow the Surrealism of centuries later. John Pope-Hennessy, 
Curator of the Victoria and Albert Museum in London, author of 
the definitive book on these two and other Italian masters, writes 
an illuminating article. 

ENGLISH FURNITURE, porcelain, tapestries and silver, from 
the Elizbethan through the Georgian periods, belonging to Judge 
Irwin Untermyer, has been photographed for ARTNEWs ANNUAL 
by Stephen Colhoun. And Peter Quennell, England’s noted his- 
torian and essayist, writes on decorative art of these periods, and 
its relations to literature, the theater and courtly life. 

PAINTING—from Manet to Picasso and Matisse, from the private 
collection of Mrs. Albert D. Lasker, are printed in Europe in a 
special eight-color lithographic process. A fascinating anthology 
of comments by authors from Baudelaire to André Gide describes 
those epochal moments of the birth of Modern Taste. 

FRANZ KLINE AND MARK ROTHKO —two painters of the 
extreme advance-guard in the now nationally famous New York 
school of Abstract Expressionism, are explained and evaluated 
by Elaine de Kooning, herself a well-known painter. 

204 pages—(12% by 9% inches)—FORTY plates in 
full color and over 200 monochrome illustrations. 

THE ART OF SENGAI—the world-renowned, venerable in- 
terpreter of the Japanese Zen Buddhist beliefs to America, Dr. 
Daisetz Suzuki presents a forgotten Buddhist priest—artists of two 
centuries ago, whose ink drawings humorously illuminate the tenets 
of this mystic religion, now a vital influence upen many painters 
and sculptors. 

great American inventor-painters. By James Thomas Flexner, a 
famous critic-historian of the American past, this examines the 
sascinating little-known drawings, plans, mechanical projections 
of the inventors of the steamboat and the Morse code, as well as 
their less celebrated but historically important portrait paintings. 

ERIK SATIE—composer-friend of Debussy, Picasso, Picabia and 
other artists of early 20th-century Paris, and a major influence 
today on young musicians, Satie is here introduced by John Cage, 
internationally-known avant-garde composer, and Roger Shattuck, 
brilliant critic-translator of modern French literature. 

ARTNEWS OF THE YEAR —The authoritive, invaluable sum- 

ming up of the art events of the 1956-57 season. 

Note: As an ARTNeEws reader, you 
have the privilege now of ordering 
up to six copies of the limited Pub- 
lisher’s Edition of the 1958 
ANNUAL at only $2.95 (available 
only directly from ARTNEws). 

Fill in and mail this coupon today! 

To: ARTnews: 32 E. Fifty-seventh Street, 
New York 22, N.Y. 

Please check item desired 

() Enter my order for - " copies of 
the Publisher’s Edition of the 1958 ARTNews 
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() Enter my subscription to ARTNeEws for one 
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to cover above 




From our collection we offer representative works by 


and other selected examples of 19th and 20th century 
masters. J. B. Neumann, consultant to World House 
Galleries, has recently returned from Europe with a 

collection of major works by the German Expressionists. 


through November 2, 1957 

WORLD HOUSE galleries 

Madison Avenue at 77th Street, New York 21 

Art news international 

Lipton, Morandi top winners at Sao Paulo 

New York sculptor Seymour Lipton, one of eight vu.s. artists repre- 
sented at Sao Paulo’s Fourth Biennial of Modern Art, is the winner 
of a top prize for sculpture, offered by the Jockey Club of Sao Paulo. 
The top award in painting went to Giorgio Morandi. Other non- 
Brazilian prizewinners announced by the international jury are: 
Ben Nicholson (England), in painting; Jorge de Oteiza Embil 
(Spain), in sculpture; and Yozo Hamaguchi (Japan), in print-mak- 
ing. Jackson Pollock, who was seen in retrospective of 34 paintings 
and 29 drawings, received a special hors concours mention from the 
jury in connection with the main prize. His retrospective, which in- 
cludes many works never previously shown, is slated to travel to 
Europe following the closing of the Biennial. The only other one-man 
show to receive a special citation was that of Mare Chagall. 

Tour of New York private collections 

Eight outstanding private collections in New York are on the agenda 
for Contributing Members of the American Federation of Arts on 
Saturday, November 9. The tour will be the fifth in a series of visits 
sponsored by the Federation. Mrs. Edgar W. Garbisch, a.r.a. Chair- 
man of the Tour Committee, has announced that the following collec- 
tions will be included: Mr. John Crawford (Oriental art); Mr. and 
Mrs. Eliot Elisofon (primitive arts of Africa and the Pacific Islands 
and Pre-Columbian art, with twentieth-century paintings and draw- 
ings); Mr. and Mrs. Allan D. Emil (contemporary American, Eng 
lish and French paintings, and sculptures of many cultures); Mr. 
and Mrs. John Barry Ryan (Impressionist and Post-Impressionist 
paintings); Mr. and Mrs. Donald S. Stralem (Post-[mpressionist and 
modern Paris paintings, also some American trompe-loeils) ; Mr. and 
Mrs. Edward D. Stone (sculpture, paintings, decorative arts); Mr. 
and Mrs. Norman K. Winston (French nineteenth- and twentieth- 
century paintings, in Regency setting); Princess Evangeline Zalstem 
Zalessky (contemporary arts). For information, write Membership 
Secretary, The American Federation of Arts, 1083 Fifth Avenue, New 
York 28, or telephone Sacramento 2-2452. 


Maurice Sterne, well-known painter and sculptor, died in July, age 
79. He was honored with a one-man retrospective at the Museum of 
Modern Art in 1933. 

Saul Baizerman, New York sculptor known for his figures in ham 
mered copper [see A.N., Mar. °52|, died in September, age 67. 
Baizerman had one-man shows in London, Paris and Brussels. In 
1953 the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, displayed thirty-five of his 

Carl Schniewind, curator of prints and drawings at the Chicago Art 
Institute, died in August, age 57. Under him, the Institute’s collec- 
tion of prints and drawings became one of the most important in 
this country. 

C. T. Loo, for half a century one of the world’s foremost dealers and 
collectors of Oriental art [see A.n., Summer °50], died on Aug. 15, 
age 78. 

Moderns on parade in Boston 

Bostonians this fall will see two important exhibitions of modern art. 
Making its debut in this country, at the Institute of Contemporary 
Art, is a selection of forty canvases from the Musée National d’Art 
Moderne | Oct. 2-Nov. 17]. The show illustrates the various phases of 
the modern movement in France: from Picasso, Matisse and Rouault 

through the succeeding generation of de Staél and Gromaire, to the 
younger talents. Participating in the project are other institutions, to 
which the show will travel after leaving Boston: the Columbus Gal- 
lery of Fine Arts [Nov. 29-Dec. 29]; Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh 
[Jan. 15-Feb. 15]; Walker Art Center [Mar. 1-Apr. 15]. 

The second show is “European Masters of Our Time,” at Boston’s 
Museum of Fine Arts [Oct. 11-Nov. 17], an ambitious exhibition of 
some one hundred and thirty-five paintings and sculptures on loan 
from public and private collections throughout the country. The pan- 
orama opens with half a dozen works of the nineties and ranges 
through all countries and schools, closing with Nicolas de Staél as the 
most recent artist represented. 



will sell at auction on Friday, October 25 


the Properties of 

the late Mrs. Alice Pleydell-Bouverie, Monsieur S. Viasto 

an d others 



on Friday, Nov. 1 


The Mountebank P. Longhi the Properties of Madonna and Child—on panel 

23in by 20in 26in by 22in Giovanni Mansueti 


a nd oth ers 

Illustrated or plain catalogues available on application 

SS awe, Eble 4 _ FO yma a> 

Maisons Ouvrieres, Environs de Haumont Le Petite Dejeuner P. Bonnard 
(Nord) M. Utrillo 17in by 2lin 
19'4in by 26 in 


8, King Street, St. James’s, London, S.W. |. England 

Telephone: Trafalgar 9060 Telegrams & cables: Christiart, Piccy, London 


Art news from 

Paris by Pierre Schneider 

Sach is the abundance and transiency of shows by living artists 
during the summer months that only a survey, systematic and some- 
what arbitrary though it be, can hope to encompass the scene. | must 
confess, however, that such a survey strikes me as less arbitrary than 
it would have been a few years ago, for we are witnessing a stabiliza- 
tion, not to say a crystallization, of trends: the charting geographer 
no longer is in the position of having to map a restless sea. 

Geometric epigones 

Abstraction has been the esthetic phenomenon of our century. One 
may introduce yet a further distinction: prewar abstraction was pre- 
dominantly geometric; postwar abstraction is chiefly organic. Rigor- 
ous geometric abstraction, which never really struck root in France, 
seems to be on its last wooden leg. Its most dogged defenders belong 
to an earlier generation. Early drawings by Herbin (Galerie Simone 
Heller) show him skipping from system to system—a forced yet drab 
Fauvism and Expressionism, a 
before finding his permanent 

combination of studious 

Cubism, a quick turn with Orphism 
perch. Magnelli, too, in his collages (Galerie Berggruen), has re- 
mained faithful to cool, economical combinations. The gods. it seems, 
have deserted the Euclidian fields. No matter how much extraneous 
noise one might make, it will not mask the basic silence and dis- 
affection. A group of young artists exhibiting at Galerie Denise René 
have tried to stir up some excitement for the cause by firing off a 
manifesto in the old Montparnasse style, but to no avail. Youth does 
not thrive in graveyards. The variety allowed by intersecting per- 
pendiculars is unfortunately rather limited. Optical illusions, artificial] 
animation, controlled diagonal interferences and the like cannot bring 
real relief, as is evident in the Salon des Réalités Nouvelles, always a 
stronghold of geometric abstraction, and which, this year, has had 
to accept a large “impure” contingent: Schneider, Soulages, Zack, 
Bryen, Vieira da Silva and their younger contemporaries. Even the 
“Fifty Years of Abstract Painting.” 
Michel Seuphor, stalwart advocate of “pure” abstraction, in the base- 
ment of Galerie Creuze, dominated by Mondrian and Kandinsky (of 

wide survey, organized by 

the dry, cosmic toy-shop vein), has had to include more supple and 
subtle forms of non-figuration. This concession to “otherness,” as 
Seuphor’s counterpart, Michel Tapié would say, may be the most 

significant aspect of these two mammoth shows. 

From geometry to geology 

The civility of French taste will not take to geometry, unless its bone 
be veiled by flesh. Klee, rather than Mondrian, has inspired Manessier 
and his followers. Another way has been to admit geometry only as 
nature presents it—after all, had this not been Cézanne’s procedure 

a kind of geology rendered in what is often a Cézannian palette and 
brushwork? The master, here, has been Bazaine. Koenig, an Amer- 
ican artist active in France and plus royaliste que le roi in his taste- 
and total faithful 
disciple (Galerie Arnaud). What Bazaine is in a serious vein. Lanskoy 
is in a buoyant one. His latest show (Galerie Carré) displays greater 

fulness avoidance of tensions, shows himself a 

variety but also a certain dryness, behind which lurks the ghost of 
the early Léger, and even of Futurism. Nature, again, and more spe- 
cifically landscape, provide the unformulated catalyzer of Bernard 
Dufour’s mild-toned clusters of half-defined shapes (Galerie Pierre). 

It may seem strange to place a trend of which the prime mover is 
Soulages next to the geologists, for while the latter create static 
forms, the former jis dedicated to dynamic motions. However these 
motions are often so deliberate and controlled that it is not easy to 
distinguish them from shapes. It is practically impossible. sometimes, 

An idiom akin to Soulages 

to tell that dancer from the dance. may 

thus even serve to define still-lifes, as could be seen in canvases by 
Pellotier and Marfaing, at Galerie Heim, a new gallery where a very 

Soulagian black seems to furnish the dominant. 

Non-geometric abstraction 

But the great postwar phenomenon has been the rise of non-geometric 
abstraction. Judging from the sedateness which has overtaken the 
Salon de Mai, one would think its victory complete. Here again, this 
universal tendency has been given a local twist. While the new ab- 


Figure, oil on 


Giacometti’s Standing 

canvas, 1957, at the Galerie 

straction tends to be Expressionist in America (reference to the inner 
world), it is apt rather to be Impressionist (reference to the outer 
world) in France. The precursor is less Kandinsky than Monet. Even 
Bazaine, in his newest show (Galerie Maeght), paid homage to the 
master of Giverny. He has codified, hardened and broken into a 
hundred smithereens Monet’s ponds. 

André Masson, in his exhibition 

shows himself closer to the acidulous spectrum of Odilon Redon. The 

recent (Galerie Louise Leiris), 
Impressionist phase of recent years, which had followed his mythol- 
ogies, has now given way to a predominantly Abstract-Impressionist 
one. Masson’s virtuosity and intelligence become all the more obvi- 
ous. But the constants remain: a lucid precision, reflected by the 
sharp, swift draftsmanship, and a psychic restlessness mirrored by the 
loose whirl of color. 

A similar dialectic governs the work of Zao-Wou-Ki. His new paint- 
ings (Galerie de France), are both larger and more broadly, more 

spontaneously conceived than in the past. 

Staél’s way 

Tradition is conciliatory; and tradition still haunts Paris. In con- 
sequence, a painter who synthesized figuration and non-figuration was 
bound to faire école, as the saying goes. Such has been the case of 
de Staél. The formula of coincidence between independent (and more 
or less geometric) idiom and realistic (though simplified) image, 
derived from his later work is rather patly applied by Cailiyannis to 
Mediterranean landscapes (Galerie Dubourg and Galerie Mouradian- 
Vallotton). But a handshake does not make a friendship. A_ like 
synthesis, though more personal (especially in the watercolors), is 
arrived at by Byzantios, in his Mediterranean landscapes (Galerie 
Le Cercle). As for de Staél himself, there seems to have been a mis- 
understanding. The fascination exerted by his late oils (a number of 
which were exhibited at Galerie Dubourg), stems not from the afore- 
mentioned synthesis, but precisely from the fact that it has not been 
achieved, that a number of different solutions are pressed together 
around one theme, hence the disquieting yet captivating out-of-focus 
quality. For the eye insists, seeking to dissipate the tenacious blur. 

With different means, this is very much the procedure followed by 
Alberto Giacometti in his recent paintings and drawings (Galerie 
Maeght). Giacometti is a master of indecision achieved by the multi- 
plicity of precise indications. As a result, one is never quite sure 
whether his work is a failure or a success, ingenuous or ingenious, 
emergent or recessive. Somewhere, in this uncertainty, lies the secret 
of his art. But it is safely beyond reach: unlike most works, those of 

Giacometti provide questions, not answers. 

Art news from 

London by Lawrence Alloway 

academics and nobody mixed them up. In those days Henri Laurens, 

for example, was a modern because he had been a Cubist and he 
stylized his later nudes, thus asserting the “will of the artist” over 
“nature.” Now he appears as a very moderate, and literal modern. 

Anti-Cubist bronzes 
way, fair to 
the con- 

A show of Laurens’ bronzes (at Marlborough) is, in a 
the central Laurens by leaving out his most modern work 
structions and the polychromes. It begins in 1920, that is to say when 
he had turned Cubism to stone and to bronze. His ramshackle con- 
structed figures become monolithic solids; then, dropping their angles, 
they become Renoiresque and, later, streamlined. He used a Cunard 
Line imagery of undines, sirens, mermaids—some squat and compact, 
others twisting and serpentine. The latter, right up to his death in 
1954, echo such Matisse bronzes as La Serpentine and Two Negresses. 

Laurens’ development, which turned Cubism into something simple 
and usable, is parallel with Delaunay’s transformation of Orphism 
into an official 1951 that he 

always retained the “modern” rigor of his Cubist period. In fact, 

decorative style. Laurens claimed in 
however, like so many others of his generation, he began to take the 
word “Cubism” literally. On false Cubism 
which was said to be classical and architectonic (the real verities of 
humanist art). His post-1920 works are in fact anti-Cubist: full 

volumes and continuous planes absorbed his whole interest; ample 

this basis he created a 

swelling forms grew like bronze water-wings under his hands. But 
despite the collapse of his modernity he was a powerful professional 
sculptor, a master of stability and three-dimensional form in solid 

Local action 

Now that everybody does it painterly, abstract art no longer needs to 
be defined abstract art. 
Esthetic and national differences are clear to see: graphism versus 
Tachisme, for example: or the characteristic Italian mixture of the 
and pseudo-scientific. The German Gruppe 11 (New 
Vision Gallery) coincided with a group show of comparable British 

in terms of its unlikeness to geometrical 


painters and the contrast opened Londoners’ eyes to the specialization 
of the field. Gruppe 11 comes from Stuttgart and consists of Attila 
Biro, G. C. Kirchberger, G. K. Pfahler and Friederich Seiber. Their 
anti-graphic pictures tend to be dense and clotted, with a full range 
of values from black to white. Compared to French or Italian work. 
the tone present in the flux that 
gobbles up the paint and relief elements of their aformal paintings. 

Each year Gimpel’s selects several painters from the annual art 
students exhibition “Young Contemporaries” [A.N., May °57]; this 
year it is Richard Smith and Robyn Denny. Denny jumbles stencilled 
figures and collaged words against freely-swept paint patches—like 
a Kurt Schwitters who loves paint and reads the Art Directors Club 
Annual. Smith, with a more nimble touch than most British painters, 
spreads broad luminous strokes over the surface with a kind of im- 
personal involvement. Like other young painters who have taken up 
painterly abstraction, they have done so independently but also with- 

of German existentialism seems 

out a programme. 

Regency image makers 

The status of the painter, as developed in the Renaissance, depended 
in great part on classical learning; in the eighteenth century this 
broke down and painters no longer relied on a liberal education. All 
that was classical about Julius Caesar Ibbetson (1759-1817) was his 
name, which alluded to the method of his birth. He began as painter 
in a shipyard, graduated to picture-restorer and forger; he, and 
others like him, returned art to its unambitious pre-Renaissance 
craft-status, bereft of learning and the classics. He never approached 
high art but contributed to the flow of popular imagery maintained 
not only by his own small oils but also by prints and watercolors (by 
Morland, Wheatly, Rowlandson and others). He adapted Dutch 
realism to a soft picturesque style which generalized human figures 
as much as a mural style designed for long-distance viewing: this 
enabled him to paint with great rapidity, to which end he also used 

Or... upon a time the art world was divided into moderns and 4 highly-simplified palette. He used a cast of sailors, smugglers, 

farmers, gypsies and cattle in scenes of cottages, coves and castles, 
stereotypes comparable in some respects to comic strips and the soap 
opera. An exhibition of his work (Iveagh Bequest, Kenwood) was 
designed to meet the taste for Georgian trivia catered to by the 
British magazine Country Life. But the real interest of the exhibi- 
tion lay in Ibbetson’s position as a non-classical popular artist who 
converted easel painting into a sort of Regency mass medium, thus 
bringing into art the standard of quick consumption which marks the 
later development of popular art. 

Ibbetson went as draftsman on 
British ambassador to that country, but the trip did not affect his 
art at all. On the other hand, George Chinnery (1774-1852) is unique 
as a British artist of the period who spent most of his mature life 
in the East. London-born, Chinnery established a portrait practice in 
Ireland which he abandoned, along with his family, in 1802 to go to 
India. In 1825 he left for China, leaving, he estimated, debts of 
£40,000. He settled in Macao until his death, keeping contact with 
London by exhibiting regularly at the Royal Academy. 

His drawings and small oils of landscapes with figures adopt the 
picturesque style of late eighteenth- early nineteenth-century Eng- 
land to Eastern subjects. Slick paintings, lively incident, small scale 
and overproduction are characteristic of him, as of Ibbetson. Chin- 
nery was and remained a Westerner who adapted an old style to a new 
environment. He took various eighteenth-century conventions for the 
exotic and applied them to “the real thing.” His buildings often 
appear to have come from a Venetian capriccio, his figures from 
Rococo Chinoiseries. Cliché was given substance and the chaos of 

a mission to China, with the first 

the East a form. 

His portraits develop from routine late Georgian style in Ireland to 
a greater liveliness and character. Living on the spot he was able to 
assimilate the lesson of Joshua Reynolds’ primitivistic portraits. In 
Girl in Blue with a Fan, 1835-40 (in the Arts Council exhibition), 
Chinnery presents a sympathetic painting of a Chinese sitter, sur- 
rounded with a good many Oriental properties. Though he nears 
Victorian prettiness in the sitter he remains essentially Georgian. 
His sitters by their unlikeness to classic proportion or to European 
aristocracy test the primitivistic belief in the virtue of other races 
simple people. By traveling as far as he did to paint Chinnery con- 
firmed the eighteenth-century discovery of the humanity of the exotic. 

George Chinnery’s Girl in Blue with a Fan, 1835-40, 
lent by John Quilter to the Art Council Exhibition. 


ae a Coen eee 2 SEW TOR Cre Cream jugs and silver shapes 
As Little Buttercup sang: “Things are seldom what they seem,/Skim 
milk masquerades as cream.” 

As regards England in the eighteenth century, it is still a question 
when cream was first used with tea and by whom. According to some 
diarists it was a novelty in the 1780's. And yet in a catalogue of a 
six-day sale of Worcester porcelain held in London, December 1769, 
by Mr. Christie, there were listed eighty-one lots of complete tea and 
coffee equipages; each usually consists of forty-three pieces includ 
ing a milk pot and a cream ewer. 

On the other hand, milk had been taken with tea off and on through 
the centuries. In the Orient in the fourth and fifth centuries, the in- 
habitants of Yangtse-Kiang drank tea boiled together with spices, 
orange peel, salt and milk. By the eighth century, Luwuh, China’s 
first apostle of tea, drank tea with salt as the only other ingredient 
of the beverage. However, it was recorded during the seventeenth 
century in China that it was proper to add warm milk. When tea 
was introduced from the Orient to England in the 1650's, it was 
usually taken perfectly plain, but it was acceptable in good society to 
add sugar. By 1720 there was more freedom in the manner of tak- 
ing tea; allowing, of course, for poetic license, Matthew Prior wrote: 
“He thanked her on his bended knee;/Then drank a quart of milk 
ind tea.” 

Today it is customary to associate the cream jug with tea and 
coffee services; silver pitchers for cream and milk, however, were 
known in England long before they were made to match these sets. 
Both were used on various fruits and porridge. The earliest English 
silver milk jugs appear to date from the William and Mary period 
and were called “milk potts,” although on the London Assay Office 
records they were listed as “milk ewers.” Cream jugs followed some 
years later, coming into fashion by 1720. 

The most popular shape of the earliest cream jug was the baluster 
form, also called pear-shaped or pyriform. At first this had a plain 
foot rim; after a few years the base was elaborated on by a raised, 
spreading molding; a further variation was the use of three short 
scroll legs in place of molding and rim. Many forms used by the 
Western craftsmen, whether in metal or ceramics, were originally in- 
spired by Oriental wares, and although the impetus to use baluster 
shapes for tea equipage came from China, the form was popular in 
15th century England for silver and earthenware jugs and tankards as far back 

as the Tudor period. 
German figure of It is interesting to trace a form to its source, but it is a com 
Bl. Herman Michael plicated process; without going into detail, we can note the im 

mediate borrowings of one medium from another. By the middle of 
of Cologne the eighteenth century the English porcelain factories were getting 
under way. The baluster cream jug with the plain foot rim was 
copied by Worcester, Lowestoft, Caughley, Longton Hall and others, 
54” high. not to mention Chinese wares for export to England; the Chinese did 

not make cream jugs for home consumption. The baluster jug on 

in polychromed wood. 

three scroll feet was rarely made in porcelain in the early period. 
Chelsea made a pot somewhat like it, the body being covered by 
molded acanthus leaves and resting on stubby feet. 
1e next shape that became popular in silver was the helmet jug 

MOST DISTINGUISHED of around 1720. This was particularly successful in Dublin. The 

Pear-shaped silver jug, W. Gwillum, 

London, 1743. S. J. Shrubsole 

Worcester porcelain pear-shaped pit- 
cher, ca. 1755. William H. Lautz. 




York Antique and Art Dealers Association, Inc. 

was created to safeguard the interests of those who buy, sell or col- 
lect antiques and works of art. Here in New York City, the cultural 
center of America, these foremost dealers are mutually pledged, on a 
non-profit membership basis, to promote just, honorable and ethical 
trade practices and to offer expert advice in their specialized fields. 

The Association cordially invites you to visit shops identified by 
this insignia and make profitable use of its members’ knowledge and 
experience—whether to acquire a single piece or start a collection. 


ARTHUR ACKERMANN & Son, Inc., 50 East 57th Street 
A La View.e Russie, INc., 785 Fifth Avenue 

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Nancy McCLettanp, INc., 15 East 57th Street 
NBEDHAM’s ANTIQUES, INc., 143 East 57th Street C. Paterson, 746 Madison Avenue 

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THe ANTIQUE PorceLAIN Co., INc., 48 East 57th Street 
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Joun S. WALTON, 23 West 55th Street 

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New York 22, 

3.8920 ° 

Silver helmet-jug, S. Walker, Dub- 

lin, ca. 1755. Private Collection. 

Chinese porcelain helmet-jug, 
ca. 1770. The Art Exchange. 

earliest models in Ireland or England had a raised molded foot, then 
this, too, was supplanted by three legs often having lion masks where 
they join the body. The helmet shape was surely inspired by the 
rosewater ewers introduced into England by the French Huguenots. 
Strangely enough this design was taken up by the Chinese in their 
export porcelain and became a typical cream-jug form. Locally Bristol 
and New Hall were among the few factories that followed the style. 
The third form of silver cream jug to attain popularity before the 
middle of the eighteenth century was the inverted pyriform on a 
raised molded foot. The body was often embossed or chased in the 
contemporaneous Rococo fashion. This shape was also copied in 
porcelain although not as frequently as the baluster and helmet 
forms. Here again New Hall followed the lead of the silversmiths. 
ISABELLA BARCLAY INC Often a porcelain cream jug is referred to as a “silvershape.” 
9 Usually these turn out to be small-sized sauceboat types or variously 
shaped pitchers that have molded decoration which may _ possibly 
119 East 57th Street resemble the embossed or chased pattern on silverware. These pieces, 
except for the sauceboat type, rarely have a true prototype in silver. 
New York 22, N. Y. as of the most See porcelain cream-jug nai . the “Goat 
and Bee,” which is believed to be the earliest piece made at Chelsea; 
some examples are dated 1745. This rather elaborate jug is a flat 
tened pear shape which rests on two molded reclining goats at the 
" ~ ' base; there is a bee in relief below the spout. Coalport porcelain, 
j H A R L E S i P A T KE; R S ( ) N which did not exist until a few years after Chelsea’s demise, made a 
literal copy of the Chelsea jug, but the paste is quite unlike that of 
the original. There are several silver “Goat and Bee” jugs in exist- 

1724 and 1737 

tique & Art Deal 

ence, two of which are believed to have been made in 
and possibly were the source for this design. 

Another form of cream jug of a more homespun class is in the 
shape of a cow. There are quite a few examples of this in silver by 
several silversmiths. However the craftsman most frequently repre- 
sented by this bovine jug is John Schuppe, who worked in the third 
quarier of the eighteenth century. Contemporary porcelain cows are 
rare. The model did occur in the middle period of Longton Hall in 
the 1750°s. Most known cows were not porcelain but rather pottery 
such as Staffordshire and Dutch Delft. 

In a comprehensive survey of cream-jug profiles, there seems to 
have been greater imagination evinced by the designers of porcelain 
cream jugs than by the silversmiths, hence the limited number of 
porcelain types borrowed from the silver forms. Babette Craven 

Porcelain inverted-pyriform creamer, 

New Hall, ca. 1785. D.M.&P. Manheim. 

Lovis XVI Chiffonier FRENCH AND 

French 18th Century ENGLISH 

1Seh CENTURY ets Inverted pyriform pitcher, W. Brind, 

746 MADISON AVENUE + NEW YORK London, 1758. Museum Silver Shop. 



Fine Art Ltd. 

The Little Gypsy 
By Modigliani 

a6 9 ” 
32 x 21% 



Fully illustrated catalogue 
$2.00 (Including Postage) 


November - December 

17-18 Old Bond Street, London W.1. Cables: Bondarto 


Reviews and previews 

15-Nov. 2], 

David Smith { Widdifield; Oct. whose sculpture and 
some of whose drawings can be seen at the Museum of Modern -Art 
ind at Fine Arts Associates, exhibits two pieces of silver sculpture 
and about fourteen gouaches. The gouaches are Non-Objective and 
neither linear nor planar. Rather heavy, practically monochromatic 
color is defined by black which counts as drawing, either like wire, 
or the thick lines in Rouault. The form of each is like a background 
or setting for a larger reality, which one feels would be more of the 
same, They have the amorphousness or form of the inorganic: an 


addition of parts: tissues or crystals earth’s crust is 

crystalline. The skin is cellular, and its 
wholeness. Smith’s single conceit, that he expresses again and again, 

lies in its 
comes from his sense of himself. What is specific is larger than any 
drawing, it is the artist as a whole person: if the paintings seem to 

lack something, it is because Smith does not make works of art, but 
i body of work, therefore what is missing is all the rest of the 
work, which is in a way indivisible, that is, not adequately implied 
in a single example. Prices unquoted. F.P. 
David Smith [Fine Arts; to Oct. 12], the first to exercise an 

American flair for audacious and playful experiments in sculpture 
seems to lie in the trough of a wave at this 
as Ridge Runner and 

comparable to Picasso’s, 
point in his outstanding career. Pieces such 
Vorth-South Dancer throw out arabesque tentacles catching on ob- 
vious esthetic associations as well as on such utilitarian objects as a 
wheel and a weathervane. Yes, this is part of the point—just as 
some of the point of the large medal, Chicago March, is its known 
relation to money and to the abstract pastillage of antique coins; 
in turn, the brilliantly executed Raven might be made from litter in 
an industrial yard. When Picasso does similar things, he imbeds 
the trouvé in the work like a grin in the midst of a pokerface. Not 
so, Smith; he is, rather, the Vulcan of plastic art: the gifted “young” 
pioneer seeing just how much a distinguished plastic thing he can 
“make” of what he “finds.” Beautifully balanced and secure in their 
aérial space, The Bar-Head and Animal Weights—virtually Cubist 
cutouts from metal sheets and pipes—represent, I think, the zenith 
of Smith’s project of sculpture by tour-de-force: where, apart from 
sheer structural invention, the melt and the weld form those transi- 
tional passages that make one think: “This is really the way this 
metal object was meant!” Prices unquoted. P.T. 

Alexander Archipenko [Perls; Oct. 14-Nov. 9], one of the most 
prolific sculptors of the twentieth century, shows constantly all over 
the world (this is his 118th show); he 
many European—especially German—critics to be the most important 
living sculptor. Henry Moore acknowledges an indebtedness to him. 
His reputation in this country is not as great as it was in the ’twenties. 
He was one of the first Cubists similar 
to pre-World War I Picassos and Braques. He took Cézanne’s remark 

one-man is considered by 

his “sculpto-paintings” are 

Eilshemius’s The Bathers, 1918: 
“landscape of day-dream” 

Norman Bluhm’s Failing Day: 
“apprehended but unseen” 


about nature as cubes, cylinders and cones very literally and seriously. 
This remark makes the Platonic 
and Archipenko is looking for 

suggestion that the general is truer 
than the specific, the general, and 
seems to eschew accident and discovery. There is only the discovery 
made in advance: his work is thought out, and he keeps making a 
decision to be modern, which to him probably means metaphysical. 
He wants his work to be contemporary, to the extent of using ma- 
terials like formica. He wants his work to be inclusive, and he 
feet are most specific in their connotations, and these he slights. He 
and though he 


color and textures like mother-of-pearl mosaic. hands and 

likes that most generalized of forms, the egg, some- 
times breaks it, it is not in order to hatch the specific, but to let out 

another general idea. His color resembles that of totem poles, which 

for him are among the most admirable examples of polychrome 
sculpture. But he uses patina in some of the more recent small 
bronzes. In Brancusi, the general becomes specific; in Archipenko, 
it remains general. Prices unquoted. F.P 
Max Beckmann |[Viviano; Oct. 1-31], accompanied by a good 
illustrated catalogue, makes another posthumous appearance, this 
time with nineteen portraits, almost all exceptional, almost all from 

private collections. The earliest is the 1925 Portrait of Quappi (Mrs. 
the Self-Portrait in a Blue Jacket and 

works and the later, but, to 

Beckmann) and the last are 
Portrait of Mule D. 
There are 

Columbine, painted in 1950, the year he 
differences between the early 

judge from the paintings in this exhibition, not the great falling off 
in quality which some Germans, who own none of his paintings after 
1946, the year he came to the United States, have claimed. In the 
early paintings the forms around the figures appear more sensitively 
understood. As he grew older he appears to have sacrificed this 
sensitivity to a more powerful image. Prices unquoted. Lé. 

Emil Nolde [New; to Oct. 26] is the subject of a retrospective 
which is one of the main events in this season for German Expres- 
sionists. Ten oils, twenty watercolors and a group of lithographs 
1908 until 1930. The exhibition will be dis- 
cussed at some length in the next issue of ARTNews. 

cover his career from 

German Expressionism | Borgenicht; to Oct. 26], operating on 
the margin of the exhibition at the Modern Museum, emphasizes the 
paintings and graphic works of Nolde and Kirchner. There are also a 
few works by Rohlfs, Pechstein, Schmidt-Rottluff, Miiller, Heckel, 
Marc, Lehmbruck Barlach—the last represented by a bronze 
Choir Boy. There are striking and unusual prints by both Kirchner 
and Nolde, several watercolors and two landscapes in oil by Kirchner 
of Swiss mountains dating from the 1930's. Prices unquoted. a 


German prints, drawings {New Art Center; to Oct. 31] of the 
twentieth century is one of a galaxy of exhibitions clustered around 
the one at the Museum of Modern Art. This one opens a gallery ex- 
tension next door. All the well-known bad boys of German art are 
here, also some of the good boys. There is a selection of Nolde’s prints 
and a good watercolor, Peasant House on Worft; also large numbers 
from the portfolios of Pechstein, Dix, Kirchner, Feininger, Heckel, 
and some by Klee and Kandinsky. $49-$1,500. L.c. 

Arbit Blatas [Hirsch], Adler; to Oct. 12] is showing sprightly, 
theatrical impressions of the Three Penny Opera in oila for the third 
anniversary of the local production. They are literal interpretations, 
with spot-lit dramatic colors, a uniform stage composition and all of 
the painter’s enthusiasm for the play. $550-$2,500. H.D.H. 

Ldszlé Moholy-Nagy [Kleemann; to Oct. 31] was, probably more 
than any other man, the father of modern industrial design. His 
second posthumous show in New York consists of twenty-four pieces 
from the collection of Sybil Moholy-Nagy. The Bicyclist, 1919, some- 
what resembles Léger. In Berlin, in 1921, influenced by Schwitters, 
he made his first collages. In the spring of the same year he decided 
that a completely new beginning was necessary in order to express 
the technological world that obsessed him all his life; and though 

he was politically anti-Communist, his work was part of the artistic 
revolution that paralleled the economic and social revolution in Rus- 
sia. In 1923, Gropius invited him to teach at the Bauhaus. Though 
opposed to tradition, Leonardo was his model of the artist. Rather 
like the Bolsheviks, who made economic planning the most important 
activity of the State, and who believed in control from above, so he, 
believing that the amorality of the industrial age came from a lack of 
design in the environment, believed that the idea precedes action, and 
that control follows from a radical investigation of the elements of 
art, which he decided were light, color, texture and equilibrium. His 
art is thought out, therefore intellectual, and therefore, further, color 
always eluded him. His most original contribution was in the field of 
light; using mirrors and transparent materials, he was almost able to 
make light express depth without the illusion of reflection. Prices 
unquoted. F.P. 

Arnold Friedman [{Zabriskie; Sept. 30-Oct. 26] is seen in paint- 
ings dating mostly from the late ‘thirties until his death in 1946. It is 
a show with masterpieces in it by a painter who has in no way re- 
ceived his due. Not a retrospective, there is still a fine variety. At his 
most poetically realist, The Basin finds a loveliness in the actual. 
Smooth and stippled, the composition lifts up and up, a bus, cars, an 
esplanade, beyond the fluttering flag a wharf, a dayliner, the further 
shore and pale sky. Perfection of tonality creates a fixity for things 
in motion. It makes the joy of everyday as commanding and moral as 
any more strident message. Like Rousseau, his color exists in rela- 
tion to itself: a picture may appear greyed or pale, but gradually the 
distant houses clear into bright pips of color, the greenness ind 
rightness of the placing of each leaf is felt. There is a beauty of art 
of which Friedman was master, that takes infinite pains to make per- 
manent the effects the most casual: the symmetries of an untitled 
harbor view, off as only nature is, with just a touch for the distant 
ferry, its smoke so neatly discriminated from the sky. In his last pic- 
tures the color got fresher, objects became more abstracted though no 
less themselves, the pattering strokes (like Seurat’s dots) became 
vivid on their own: here marshaling into a branch, there quivering 
and isolate. Prices unquoted. J.S. 
Louis Eilshemius | Poindexter; Oct. 7-26] is of the American 
Romantic tradition, but his work is Arcadian rather than brooding. 
Nymphs gambol in pastel woodland settings; fresh-eyed maidens 
bounce their breasts in delight or shyly caress worn nerves. The real- 
ity of these lilting idyls lies in the accuracy with which Eilshemius 
captured the landscape of day-dream. If the pictures are primitive, 
they are made so by the naivete of a sophisticated artist who allows a 
gentle fancy to dictate his painting. Innocence is not gratuitous and 
crudity is not a struggle with medium—that’s just the way reveries 
look. The work is distinguished by a concern with the purity of the 

act of painting which makes it right. Prices unquoted. 1.H.S, 

Judith Rothschild [ Fried; to Oct. 19] has been living in California 
for six years. Before that she was with the Jane Street group (Le- 
land Bell, Nell Blaine, Jane Freilicher, Larry Rivers and others). 
Her return to New York with a handsome exhibition of paintings and 
drawings is also a return to nature. She has decided that Synthetic 
Cubism is the best bridge for her. The restraint, clarity and structure 
of her paintings suggest that with her, feeling and thinking do not 
come apart. Almost all the paintings are landscapes. There is usually 
the feeling of a landscape framed by something, a window, a plant, 
trees. These make alternate ways of entering her paintings. There is 
intimacy and the mark of a strong personality. $200-$1,200. Le. 

Matta [Moskin; to Oct. 31], still enjoying considerable attention, 
demonstrates here how adaptable his art is—small pencil drawing 
or large oil—to ordinary private rooms. When miniature, his ex- 
plosions invite the eye to inspect their anatomy at leisure and al- 
ways they make a constellation of centripetal form and color to push 
the wall alluringly back. At their largest, neonized brightness, his 
works are artfully spotted; sparklingly nuanced like jewels, tactilely 
nuanced like satin, At their most violent and complex—when they 
imply burning sanctuaries or torture chambers—their isometric plans 
communicate how full of oxygen are all these harassed relationships 
between traumatized machines and horribly beautiful “statues.” It 
is refreshing to find Isis worshipped in a society exultantly portrayed 
as the parade-ground of criminal robots. Prices unquoted. P.T. 

Norman Bluhm [Castelli; Oct. 1-26] has a handsome first New 
York one-man show. Before the war, Bluhm studied in Chicago with 
Mies van der Rohe, turned to painting, after the war lived for eleven 

Arnold Friedman: Hudson River; 

“greenness and rightness” 

Judith Rothschild: Baroque Still-life: 

“feeling and thinking” 

years in Paris. His style superficially resembles that of Sam Francis, 
with whom he was associated in Paris, but Bluhm’s expressivity, the 
quality of individual gesture and of the total gesture of the painting, 
most of all, subtlety and brilliance of color, make any question of 
who did what first beside the point. The earliest picture, Closerie des 
Lilas, a long horizontal of weeping brush strokes, blue below green, 
lovely as a river, shows what he has gone toward: a less rigid organ- 
ization, more freedom of stroke, more surprise in where color hap- 
pens. The recent Falling Day also is predominantly blue and green, 
but looking at it is like swimming and looking up through green 
branches, out of and into blue. Burning through the strokes like 
spots of sunlight, other colors strengthen the edge of the image, like 
an impression of things apprehended but unseen at the corner of 
the eye. Prices unquoted. J.S. 
Karel Appel [Jackson; to Oct. 26] is a well-known, thirty-six-year- 
old painter who, Sir Herbert Read writes in the catalogue for his 
third one-man show in New York, “comes from the same country as 
van Gogh and pursues van Gogh’s final fury into another world—the 
world van Gogh was seeking but did not find—the world of abstract 
expression.” The blurb concludes with: “Appel is one of the most 
vital painters of our time.” It is hard to say whose time Sir Herbert 
refers to; it is certainly not hard to think of a hundred and fifty liv- 
ing artists whose works show a great deal more vitality than Appel’s 
perfunctory gushes. His colors are spread like dentifrice across the 
canvas; they are thick, bright and cover shapes deriving from Du- 
buffet’s art brut. Animals and faces (some are “portraits” of well- 
known jazz-world people—another dodge from Dubuffet) are about as 
furious as television-commercial actors, and they do have a similar 
unwittingly comic allure. A comparison of this salon art with van 
Gogh’s emphasizes the level to which modern-art cant has been de- 

based. Prices unquoted. T.B.H. 

Georges Mathieu [Kootz; Oct. 1-19], famous Paris Immediatist, 
has refined his means, but if he has turned to the fierce elegant 
simplicities of couture (yellow on black; white on black; black, 
white and green), it is not a lighter weapon that he wields but a 
sharper one. His most casual stroke or scratch takes on the cal- 
culated elegance of Mallarmé advising artificial rather than real 
flowers for a ball (they don’t wilt or bruise). Often his lacquer finish 
is a joke about painting: how unplebeian can a picture be, how close 
to exquisite expertise? Prices unquoted. J.S. 

Doris Caesar {Weyhe; Oct. 14-Nov. 23], who has shown for thirty 
years at this gallery, has a retrospective of smaller sculptures. There 
are a few dramatic and religious pieces, but the main interest at- 
taches to the female figures that emphasize pelvic and abdominal 
distortions. The bronze is pleasing when it does not collapse into 
clay. Prices unquoted. J.S. 
Elisworth Kelly [Parsons; to Oct. 12], arriving with a one-man 
show for the second year after abandoning Paris for New York, is 
a Non-Objectivist who seems to translate the experience of geometric 
volumes into shadows cast upon plane surfaces. His paint is as flat 
and even as the wall of a room, for whose paneling—sometimes in 
series—his works seem designed. One such “staggered” series sug- 
gests Kelly’s most distinctive trait: the effect of interrupted contin- 
uities, for which, as with Mondrian, he has found an arrested equil- 
ibrium that works, at times, against solid colors so bright and con- 


Reviews and previews continued 

trasting that they jump. By diagonally placed mass and black cen- 

trality, a huge silhouette appears making a tension between white 
triangles carrying out the work’s rectangular margin and the white 

wall against which it is placed. Prices unquoted. P.T. 

Pissarro prints, drawings | Deitsch; Oct. 1-26) date from 1854 to 
about 1901. In this half-century of graphic output, the most prolific 
of any of the Impressionists, one senses a focal point of activity and 
ideas not of doctrinaire Impressionism but of extreme sensitivity to 
the artistic currents of the times. A loosely etched, lyrical River Bank, 
1863, comes straight out of Corot; in the manner of Degas is the 
free crayon study, Milkmaid; unmistakably related to Seurat are the 
crowded figures of the aquatint Vegetable Market, Pontoise, ca. 
1829. On the other hand, the curious Pointillist etching and aqua- 
tint technique of The Woman on the Road, 1879, or the bristling 
mesh of lines in his etched Self-Portrait, 1874, indicate continual 
original experimentation. All prints are from Pissarro’s collection, via 
his son Ludovic-Rodo, including the only known proof in the finished 
state of Grandmother (Effect of Light). Prices unquoted. H.L.F. 

Manolo [Chalette; to Oct. 31], Picasso’s contemporary and friend 
who died in 1944, appears in what is supposed to be a wave of revival. 
As a modernist, Manolo cultivated a personal vein close to Maillol’s 
in female nudes yet personal in its effort toward realism and char- 
acter. With little plastic invention as such, he could capture in three 
dimensions what Goya saw in Spanish women and put, Cubistically 
simplified, into a seated bullfighter what Michelangelo saw in the 
human contrapposto. There may be quarrels over Manolo’s value but 
his honesty and simplicity have an immediate if elliptic charm. Prices 
unquoted. P.T. 
John Button [De Nagy; to Oct. 19] makes you feel that being an 
artist is a good thing. From San Francisco and the University of 
California to begin with, he came to New York a few years ago and 
showed in the artists’ co-operative exhibitions at the Stable Gallery 
and in a three-man show here. His beginnings were in abstraction but 
that is now in his past. There are two kinds of paintings in this 
show: figures in a kind of Romantic-Classicist style; and intimist 
still-lifes, interiors, landscapes and city pictures. Nothing is too hum- 
irum, everything is worth painting. He has painted the red buildings 
of New York in their long evening monologues; the Coca-Cola sign 
floating upon the night tide; beaches and dunes emptied of people; 
and through the window of Candy Store a building across the street 
springs red sublime. Prices unquoted. Le 

Early nineteenth-century French paintings {Rosenberg:; to 
Oct. 12], as distinguished from the relative homogeneity of Impres- 
sionism, are distinctively individualistic within the prevailing Ro- 
mantic Zeitgeist. Both Delacroix and Ingres, in spite of their dif- 
ferences, seem to require a literary theme to stir their visual im- 
agination and memory: Ingres’ Charles V Entering Paris, a youthful 
work shown at the Salon of 1821, suggests in its cold precision a 
fifteenth-century Flemish miniature combined with brilliantly learned 
allusions to Giorgione, Raphael, Masaccio, etc.; Delacroix’s large 
Olinde and Sophronie, 1856, an episode from Tasso’s Jerusalem De- 
livered, is an intellectualized assimilation of Rubens’s grandiloquent 


Pissarro: Grandmother, etching, 1889: 

“only known proof in the finished state” 

Delacroix: Olinde et Sophronie, 1856: 

among “Early nineteenth-century French” 

gestures and tonal manipulation. By contrast, Corot’s The Pont-au- 
Change and the Palais de Justice (his only known view of Paris), 
1830, distills the poetic essence of that historic spot in sober topo- 
graphic objectivity. Passing to Courbet, who is represented here by 
threshold to art. Like a 
gymnastic exercise is the gigantic scale and youthful energy of his 
huge landscape, Ornans and the Loue Valley, which hung in the 
Salon of 1849 and was one of his first pictures accepted there. In his 
later canvases, particularly Winter Landscape in the Jura, 1875, the 
uncouth, massive impasto “actualizes” the forms of rocks and trees 

six canvases, is like crossing a modern 

with a force approaching Cézanne. Prices unquoted. H.L.F. 

Meltzer; Oct. 1-31] com- 
objets-d’art and 

Vorthwest American Indian objects 
prise an unusual show divided into artifacts 
bringing to both student and archeologist a chance to obtain large 


and small pieces authenticated by their previous inclusion in the 
Rasmussen Collection of the Portland (Ore.) Museum. There are 
prehistoric lanceheads and historic hats, costumes, baskets and a 
variety of spoons. $5-$800. P.T. 

Oct. 31] 
1-31] contain a 
former, a 

Pre-Columbian and African sculpture | Furman; to 
and Music before Columbus |Emmerich; Oct. 
few novel aspects of these currently favored arts. In the 
wide variety of objects ranges from Bombara ceremonial antelope 
heads and Benin wood and bronze altar accessories to terra cottas 
and small jades from almost every area of Pre-Columbian archae- 
Bat God, in human 
form. Powerfully also is a Late Mayan 
Vonkey, a statuette 500-800. Pre-Columbian 
pottery whistles, rattles, “maracas,” flutes, pan-pipes, oboes, etc., can 
be viewed in the From them the initiated can 
draw elemental sounds ranging from the hoot of to the lilt 
of seeds shaken in a gourd shape or the metallic crackle of a pebble 
dragged over a notched stick of jade. Only drums are 
though their use can be observed in some figurines of performers. And 
if the Aztec composers feeble Stravinsky, their 
music might like the background music, provided by this 
gallery, a recorded “Prelude and Presto for Ancient American In- 

struments,” by Peggy Glanville-Hicks. $25-$10,000. H.L.F. 

ology. Included is a handsome green jade Olme¢ 
anthropomorphic Classic 
clay dating ca. A.D. 
second of these shows. 

an owl 
missing, al- 
followers of 



Primitive panorama [d’Arcy; Oct.14-Nov. 14] includes Pre- 
Columbian, Pacific, African and Asian objects of a high standard of 
quality. A Dogon tellem—-sacrificial praying figure of a woman with 
arms raised over her head and flat fingers treated like an ornamental 
crest—is as intense as the arched and looming Easter Island figure 
of a girl. A skinny idol comes from the White Nile region; a power- 
ful Himyarit figure, from the Saudi Arabian culture; a figure of the 
Moi tribe, from Viet Nam. Prices unquoted. H.D.H. 

Mitchell Siporin (Downtown; to Oct. 7th], from Chicago, was one 
of the more successful muralists on the w.p.a. He is a professor of art 
at Brandeis University. His watercolors, in a very formal Cubistic 
style, are courtly and scholarly, and of a Byzantine complexity and 
indirectness. The subjects comment on personalities living and dead 
in the arts. The exhibition is called “Dialogues, Soliloquies and 
Choruses.” He uses photographs and prints, which makes the com- 

what is nis own is tne caricature that derives from 
$500-$1.000. F.P. 

ment second hand: 

the manner: it is vivid and sometimes irrelevant. 

Fleischman; to Oct. 15| offers a chart to inspect 
the ebb the off 
Fifty-seventh Street beat: a Fauvish palette still magnetizes the freest 

Members’ show 

the waves governed by and flow of modernism in 
of the abstractionists while the natural representational order keeps 
its integrity amid some very fluent, self-interested brushwork. Perhaps 
John Stanley. with his large cube-faceted cross-section of a city block. 
strikes the most 

ual note in the drive toward vogues of the moment. $75-$250. P.T. 

disclosing unaffectedly nude house-dwellers, individ- 

Ben Johnson | Zabriskie; Oct. 7-27| had a couple of Tiffany fel- 

lowships when young, became a successful businessman, quit and 
went back to painting and to Woodstock where he was born. His 
large oils of female nudes are boldly drafted in “up” color, flying 

to van Dongen extremes, His pictures are witty—a big bright red 

woman on a white ground drying her face on a towel—-but mannered. 
Prices unquoted. 5B. 
Robert Gwathmey | A. C. A.: to Oct. 19}, still painting to the 
manner born among stained glass, Tamayo and Picasso, puts on view 
the canvases of an eight-year interim between shows. Bringing suavity 

and color acumen to a rigid decorative formula, he can be depended 

upon—especially because of a new lyric sweetness—to furnish satis- 
faction for exactingly styled interiors. $750-$3,000. P.T. 
Ben Wilson | Salpeter; Oct. 7-26) has his seventh New York show. 

The style in these semi-abstract paintings is based on predominating 
Wilson’s work is most 

browns and stubble surfaces. interesting when 

the forms themselves to mood, as in 

The Law. When the 

matter and uses conventional gestures, 

he allows 

suggest a 

learus and artist leans too heavily on subject- 

sentimental illustration ensues 

which blocks emotional flow. $300-$750. LHS. 

Oct. 7 

outdoor show this fall is 
York City by Ralph Fasanella 

Washington Square's |to 
worth visiting to see the finished 

in unfinished state in his one-man show last May). 

(seen in \ triptych 
ilmost 12 feet across, it is one of the most engaging—and serious 
works of “primitive” painting to be exhibited in a long time. The 

particular beauty of the city—before it was raped by cheap modern 

irchitecture—is vigorously preserved. Prices unquoted. it. 

Knoedler: Oct. 

of which are bronze castings. 

Vary Callery 7-26| shows twenty-six sculptures, 

ill but five Her sculptures of animals 
ire the funniest: dogs chasing birds, poodles, a fat frog poised on its 

long thin legs, but her sculptures of people are concrete in gesture 

ind incident, not in the form, which is flat ribbons for limbs. long 
necks and tiny heads, a cliché body significant only as part of an 

ction. The acrobats readily suggest the other sculptures called Tree 

or Maze. The Finish Line is like news photography. The abstract 
sculptures suggest a continuing and perhaps deeper influence of 
David Smith, though the steel and brass Composition has her gay, 

friendly wit as well as his. Prices unquoted. F.P. 

M iré h: 

irtists with 

to Oct. 17 
i work 

Vembers group opens the season with all but 

two of twenty-six Among the better known 

Apres e. 

Ralph Fasanella’s New York City, 

11 feet wide: 
in Washington Square's outdoors show 

artists, Zogbaum has a small work marking something of a tangent 
for him, and Pasilis offers his usual saturated palette rededicated 
venturesomely to Non-Objectivism. Beauchamp eccentric 
head, William Gambini with an imposing self-portrait, Rocco Armento 
with a maimed “personage” in plaster, Burt Hasen with a vivacious 

with an 

organic-abstraction, seemed to this viewer to stand out among those 

found visible at the preview. $100-$500. P.T. 
Robert White | Davis: Oct. 4-26], young Long Island sculptor show- 
ing terra-cottas, bronzes and plaster casts for the first time, was 
largely trained in Rome. He has taken the themes that the Neo- 

Classicists made hackneyed—figures holding dolphins, Pegasus etc. 

and breathed new life into them. He does not appear to belong to 
today, but he does not belong to the National Sculpture Society either. 
He is more or less an Impressionist in the tradition of Rosso or 

melting effects. He seems prepared to tackle anything. $125-$5,000. L.c. 

light plays on his surfaces to produce shifting, rippling and 

Lamar Dodd | Grand Central Moderns; Oct. 22-Nov. 9|, head of the 
art department of the University of Georgia, redesigns the architec- 
ture of Venice and Istanbul to suggest mood but maintain local flavor. 
Contrasting feelings suggested by day and night give rise to different 
handling. In sunny white canvases. delicate line enhances and defines 
form. Expressionist nocturnal scenes are a departure for Dodd. In 
Swinging Gondolas, the propulsive line becomes color area; the archi- 

tecture is submerged in the agitated blackness. His oils are some- 
what over-constructed. Prices unquoted. 1.H.S. 
Stefano Cusumano | Passedoit; Oct. 7-Nov. 3] has changed his 

style so much he is almost another painter. His paintings of still-life 
and figures combine fluidly worked planes, pre-Cubist in structure 
with a kind ef Impressionism. There is no break with the appearances 
of nature. The planes of a figure or a head do not go beyond restate- 
ment and simplification. This would suggest an annoying pastiche. 
Actually his canvases are dignified. even monumental, except in one 

or two where he makes you over-aware of what appears to be a 
theory of composition. $150-$1,500. L.c. 
Art in interiors | Midtown: to Oct. 16!. an annual show. this vear 

has six interiors with paintings and sculpture quite literally in them 

but with little relation to them. A foyer and hall designed by Abra- 
ham Geller contain a painting by William C. Palmer and a small 
copper nude by Arlene Wingate has an entertaining series of draw- 
ings by Henry Koerner mounted on the sawtooth walls of the hall. 
An oratory by John Wisner in a Latin vein. with a Madonna 

by Fred Nagler. 

the introduction of such rooms in our recently saved metropolis. Paul 

is interesting only because we had not contemplated 

Cadmus’ biting Bar Italia almost disappears in an extraordinary study 
setting by Guy Roop. Prices unquoted. H.D.H 
Minna Citron’s | Delacorte; Oct. 15-Nov. 7] recent 
urbane, fluent abstractions, often with heavy incrustations of impasto, 

Canvases are 

that seem effortless and graceful. This feeling of finish may be due to 
carried the 
graphic art. In one of her latest canvases, Noce Blanca, patches of 

systematic processes over from set techniques of her 

glistening blacks and occasional flecks of vermillion and cadmium 

Continued on page 58 

Mary Callery’s / 

gay, friendly 

‘inish Line, 


wronze, 10 inches high: 



Public Auction Sales 


Sale October 16 at 8 p.m: 

by Charles Demuth 

Watercolors and oils, including landscapes, 

buildings, still lifes, figures, etc. 

Part One of the artist’s Collection 


Belonging to the Estate of the Late 

By Order of the Administrator 

Illustrated Catalogue 75¢ 


| ea 


Sale October 23 at 8 p.m. 


Works by del Piombo and other early masters. Pynacker, 
David Teniers the Younger, Maris, Israels and other 
Dutch masters, Portraits by Mignard, Lawrence and 
Romney. XIX century French works by Corot, Daubigny, 
L’Hermitte, etc. American paintings by Homer D. Martin 
and Daniel Ridgway Knight and examples by other 

Property of the Estate of the Late 

And From Other Owners 

Illustrated Catalogue 75¢ 


Coming auctions 

Lurcy leads calendar at Parke-Bernet 

The major auction event to come and undoubtedly of the season will 
be the Georges Lurcy sale of modern French paintings and eighteenth- 
century French furniture and objets d’art, at Parke-Bernet on Novem- 
ber 7, 8 and 9 | 48-49]. 

Preceding this, Oriental art from the estate of Allen J. Mercer 
and other sources will come under the hammer on October 9 and 10, 
after being on exhibition from October 5. One important item in this 
sale is an imperial embroidered Ko’ssu silk tapestry scroll of the 
Ch’ien Lung period. A Korean burgauté black-lacquer cabinet is in- 
cluded with some pieces of Chinese furniture; there are also carved 
minerals, porcelains, bronzes, enamels, jades. The next event on the 
calendar will be English and American furniture, early American 
silver and decorative objects from Mrs. Martha Drefs, Clayton, Mo., 
and other owners, on October 11 and 12. 

Demuth paintings 

A session completely devoted to Charles Demuth’s watercolors and 
oils is scheduled for October 16 at Parke-Bernet, after being on view 
from October 12. Belonging to the estate of the late Richard W. C. 
Weyand, the collection includes landscapes, buildings, still-lifes and 
figure-pieces. Another part of this Demuth collection, to include also 
drawings, will be sold later in the season. 

Old master, Barbizon paintings 

From the collection of the late Mrs. William K. Bixby, St. Louis, Mo., 
and other owners, old master and nineteenth-century paintings will be 
offered at Parke-Bernet on October 23, after being on view from the 
19th. A picture attributed to Sebastiano del Piombo, The Adulteress, 
is one of the earlier works in the sale. Then there are works by David 
Teniers the Younger, Maris, Josef Israels and other Dutch painters. 
A Romney, a Lawrence (Lady Neave) and a Mignard (Anne of 
Austria) are some of the portraits listed. Nineteenth-century French 
canvases include works by Corot, Daubigny, L’Hermitte and others; by 
Americans, Homer D. Martin and Daniel Ridgway Knight. 

Furniture and decorations 

Early American furniture and silver from the estate of Albert R. 
Whittier, Milton, Mass., and another owner, will be auctioned at 
Parke-Bernet on October 26, after being on view from the 19th. 
This will be followed by French and English eighteenth-century 
furniture and decorations from the estate of May McShane Jenkins, 
of Baltimore, on October 31. A number of Louis xv and xvi pieces 
bearing the stamp of Maitres ébénistes are included along with 
Sheraton, Chippendale, Hepplewhite and other examples. A ten-fold 
Coromandel lacquer screen is one of the attractions. There is also 
a group of blue Staffordshire ware, along with antique tea and dinner 
services, table glass and porcelain, silver. rugs and tapestries. 

In the R. Weyand sale at Parke-Bernet: 
Charles Demuth’s Zinnias, watercolor. 


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for the benefit of 


starting October 23rd 





through October 12th 

Ek ysteria, says a recent UNESCO report, is dying 
out in its Victorian form as a disease, but alcohol- 
ism and suicide are on the increase as seemingly 
compensatory neuroses. Where? Everywhere, to be 
sure, now that we have worldwide, supranational 
statistical bureaus; yet one wonders if it can be the 

whole truth according to Gallup and Kinsey. The 

laws of sampling would seem to enter into this—the reclassi- 
fication and recount by region and by economic and education- 
al stratum. How accurate was Gulliver in his generalities about 
the Brobdingnagians, and did he perhaps run into a small group 
of unusually class- and size-conscious Lilliputians who tied him 
down and also showed their maladjustments in other ways? 

Or, how trustworthy is any traveler's tale? There were recent 
days that now seem quite long ago when we took each one at 
face value. The first man into Paris with the armies of libera- 
tion in 1944, the first artist into Paris, the first one to speak 
with Picasso—the succession went on and on, to Berlin, to 
Tokyo, ultimately to Moscow. Certainly each served a purpose, 
even if they were like the blind Hindus and the elephant of 
which each touched only a respective trunk, tusk, torso, etc. and 
thought it represented the entire beast. But in those days we 
wanted news badly, and nowadays we are so well served where 
not surfeited that nobody looks to the returned traveler for 
that sort of report. 

Still, there is another area where no journalist, no socio- 
statistician of the world-state has yet operated, and perhaps 
never can: that immense uncharted polar mass which may be 
called the international ice-floe of exchange of ideas, of rap- 
ports of taste and style and philosophy. The heavy metaphor 
may be excused precisely because this is not a constant but a 
floating area. The traveler just returned from a slow ride on it 
is king. His story is at least as good as the next or the previous 
man’s: no two have actually been to exactly the same place, for 
between times one igloo of concepts has always drifted a little 
farther south, another moved a little nearer to toppling into 
the deep blue sea. No documentation to trip up the tale-teller: 
he is left alone in command of whatever part he chooses from 
his huge polar elephant. 

Can an art critic-historian who shuttles across the Atlantic 
Abroad, he 

has little function beyond specifically reviewing an occasional. 

four times a year be blamed for doing likewise? 
specially chosen exhibition or, most important, improving and 
reconditioning his own private store of knowledge and ex- 
perience. The topical tasks of reporting are covered, at least 
in this magazine, by highly competent local correspondents in 
each capital. Accordingly he seeks to extract those evanescent 
loftier truths from midway between the stratosphere and that 
metaphorical floating continent hereinbefore referred to. 

The major changes in general structure to be noted by the 
present traveler fall into two wide categories—naturally, the 
ones that interest him most: (1) creative tendencies in con- 
temporary painting and sculpture; (2) scholarship and con- 
servation of art of the past. To both of these, of course, the 
Europe-America syndrome must be applied not only in both 
directions but also keeping in mind the changes of air pressure 
on other levels than the arts. This is the place not to elucidate 
or explain, only to recall the succession of international and 
intercontinental developments since 1939, and especially since 
1945, which led from Yalta to Suez. Nobody could understand 
Leonardo da Vinci's re-settling for years until his death in 
France without comprehending the significance of Francois I's 
conclusive defeat of the Italians at Pavia. Nor can one begin 
to grasp the psychology underlying today’s motivating cur- 
rents in the arts without at least reminding oneself of the col- 
lective European ego that has sought to maintain itself between 


Transatlantic airdrome syndrome: Part | 

America by 

an increasingly 

the pulls from both Russia and 
defiant neutralism, especially in the intellectual and upper 
classes. It is this spirit that, justifiably or otherwise, culminated 
at Suez and whose aftermath is now being regarded in the grey 
light of the morning after. 

The purpose here being not to take sides but to constate. here 
is one man’s guess at the creative scene. There is little question 
any longer that the hegemony of style in advanced painting has 
been transferred from Paris to New York. Abstract Impression- 
ism has taken hold of younger studios, not only in Paris but 
in Rome and London, too, with something of the same adulation 
of the appurtenances of the youthful victors which produced the 
European adoration of U.S. jazz and movies after 1918. Nor is 
this in the studios alone: shrewd European dealers (some al- 
ready wearing Texas string ties and Elvis Presley sideburns) 
have begun to capitalize on the wider public interest, although 
it is in terms of followers rather than originators that most 
Europeans still see (and buy) the dominant postwar style 
created in New York—an exhibition of Sam Francis was virtual- 
ly sold out in London a few months ago, just as thirty years ago 
Americans were buying Dufy watercolors before they could as- 
similate the less digestible Matisses and Picassos. 

However, there is also a reverse direction to the winds that 
blow across those indeterminate fields of ideas, and it would 
be chauvinistic not to mention it here. Prompted most directly 
by such French imitators of the New York School as Georges 
Mathieu, particularly in his notable export performance clad 
in Samurai costume in Japan, one is tempted to conclude that 
Abstract Impressionism need not necessarily, nor even desirably, 
be an international style. Sometimes styles and whole ways of 
art sweep across continents and even oceans, at other times they 
flourish most brilliantly and memorably within the close ambi- 
ance of their inception, The followers of Caravaggio simultane- 
ously painted chiaroscuro everywhere north and south of Alps 
and Pyrenees; 
Italy, were utterly different contemporaries of Jan van Eyck 
and Rogier van der Weyden only one mountain range apart—as 

yet in another period Masaccio and Uccello, in 

were also Goya and Jacques-Louis David. 

Is there any reason why Parisians need paint like the Ecole 
de New York? Not only Mathieu’s somehow contrived auto- 
maticism, which makes one think of rock ‘n’ roll in the Hall 
of Mirrors at Versailles, but the whole group of Hartung, 
Soulages and the Milanese like Carmassi seems to an American 
only too regrettably like the self-conscious and far too well 
contained Charleston dancers in Paris of the 1920s. All of them 
forget that New York, and maybe most of America, is finally 
unpaintable in terms of nature as a pure subject, that our best 
painting. from Copley through Eakins to Pollock, has had to be 
essentially a studio art, where the artist paints his emotions 
without necessarily any direct image of the world or society 
about him. But in the age-old European tradition of the paint- 
er’s art being more or less comprehended, if not always upheld. 
by his public and occasionally even by the government, the 
artist simply does not have the same needs or the same repres- 
sions. Nor is the sky too high for him to paint it in reality, as 
it is in New York. Such of the very best of mature European 
artists who have made their own personal contributions to 
twentieth-century style as Giacometti and Balthus have shown 
how harmoniously they have associated their subject and their 
art with their real world. How much better for Europeans to 
paint thus than to imitate an essentially inimitable American 
jargon. As an enthusiastic American, one ceuld wish for no 
more than that there should be at least two world capitals of 
style, as incisively different and each as germane to its culture 
as once were Florence and Bruges. 

There is insufficient space here to go into the other category 
defined above, that having to do with the men and institutions 
that study and care for art. Less divided from the first category 
than might appear at first glance, there may be some useful 
items observed here for American museum officials and trustees, 
not to say a few European ones, too. It will follow shortly. a.r. 


By Milton Gendel 

New landmarks in old Italy 

l Bassano: The Beheading of St. John the Baptist, ea. 1550. 

Royal Gallery of Fine Arts, Copenhag 

Yaw — 

Bassano: bon-bourgeois master 

Bassano is a name that conjures up too many pic- 
tures: a plethora of domestic fowl and beasts in 
darkling landscapes. The figure of Jacopo, most 
notable of the painters’ dynasty that flourished for 
more than a hundred years, from the sixteenth 
well into the seventeenth century, in Bassano and 
Venice, has been obscured by a flood of bottega 
works. Living and working on the periphery of 
Venetian magnificence, Jacopo in his own time. had 

only a modest reputation, though he was much appreciated in 
his home city, to judge from the tax exemptions for professional 
merit he was granted in 1541, 1551 and 1566. Primarily he was 
known as a genre painter, despite the range of his subject- 
matter and treatment, which extends prodigiously beyond genre. 
Seventeenth-century critics, to whom his proto-Baroque vein 
appealed, ranked him among the greatest of the sixteenth-cen- 
tury painters, but in the eighteenth century he was condemned 
for his “incorrect” drawing and “bizarre and sterile” composi- 
tions. Subsequent criticism relegated him to a secondary role 
as an uneasy, repetitious artist, who imitated greater painters 
and was himself much imitated by even lesser followers. 

In fact the confusion of his paintings with those of his many 
assistants and followers obscured his personality for two cen- 
turies until the critic Roberto Longhi, some thirty years ago, 
pioneered the revaluation of his work and its separation from 
a bewildering mass of school pieces. A landmark in the con- 
tinuing process of reappraisal is the present Jacopo Bassano 
exhibition at the Ducal Palace in Venice—the latest in the 
series of great mostre for Venetian painters, from Titian in 
1935 to Giorgione in 1955. 

More than one hundred canvases assembled from collections 
in Italy, Europe, North and South America, and satisfyingly 
arranged by Pietro Zampetti, trace Jacopo’s career from his 
collaboration with his father on Lamentation over the Dead 
Christ to his last work, the large opulent Nativity in S. Giorgio 
Maggiore, Venice, which he executed with shop assistants 
in the last year of his life, 1592. [Continued on page 66] 

Bins Bassano (ca. 1514-1592), head of a whole tribe 
of painters of the same surname, is the latest subject of 
Venice’s grand biennial old master exhibitions. His develop- 
ment from provincial Renaissance narrative formulas 2 to 
a lyric Mannerist style 1 is traced in a series of over a 
hundred pictures. The show clarifies his position vis-a-vis 
Tintoretto (to whom some Bassanos are still attributed) 
and E] Greco 3 (on whom he must have had influence) and 
other contemporaries, and emphasizes his own fluent’ 
abilities as a painter of closely observed genre details 4. 

2 Bassano: Samson Slaying the Philistines, ca. 1540. 

Dresden Gallery 

3 Bassano (or early Greco) : Boy Blowing on an Ember. 

Palazzo Reale, Genoa 

4 Bassano: The Last Supper, ca. 1550, detail. 

Borghese Gallery, Rome 

Vew landmarks in old ltaly mntinued 

before cleaning 

Naples: paintings get a palace 

Or Italy’s premier picture collections, the two 
having a European as well as a regional range are 
the Brera in Milan and the Naples Pinacoteca. The 
Brera has been in good working order since its re- 

organization after the war. The Naples collection, 

9 Attic-Corinthian amphora with Dionysiac figures 

5 Masaccio: Crucifixion, ca. 1426, 6 Masaccio: Crucifixion, after cleaning ay 

10 Flash-photo inside a still-unopened Etruscan tomb. 

7 Rosso Fiorentino: Portrait of a Boy 

Ca t \ 

until this spring, was ill-housed and cramped—at close quarters 
with the archeological finds from Pompeii and Herculaneum 
in the National Museum at the center of the city. Six years ago 
work began on new galleries for the Pinacoteca in the eight- 
eenth-century palace called Capodimonte, after the name of the 
height to the north of Naples on which it is situated. The royal 

Medrano, architect of the San Carlo opera house, for Charles 

Palazzo di Capodimonte was designed by Giovanni 

ill, most enterprising of the Bourbons of Naples, who also built 
Versailles-like Caserta and conducted excavations at Pompei 
and Herculaneum. From his mother Elizabeth Farnese, Charles 
inherited the fabulous Farnese collections—part of which form 
the nucleus of the present Pinacoteca—and these he installed 

at Capodimonte in 1758. Artists and travelers soon were at- 


a i 
_— > 

8 Rococo porcelain room, 1757-59. 

Capodimonte museum, Naples 

tracted by the museum’s fame, among its visitors in the eight- 
eenth century were Winckelmann, Fragonard and Goethe. In 
1816 most of the works of art were transferred to the present 
National Museum in order to unite the principal Neapolitan 
collections of art and archeology; the palace at Capodimonte 
was used as a royal summer residence, and for two generations, 
until after World War II, was occupied by the family of the 
Duke d’Aosta. In 1948, after the palace had been freed for 
public use, State and municipal authorities decided to re- 
furbish it and its splendid grounds as a museum and park. 
Under the direction of Prof. Bruno Molajoli and with money 
supplied mainly by the Cassa per il Mezzogiorno (a fund for 
the development of Southern Italy which also supports import- 
ant projects aimed at increasing tour- [Continued on page 68] 

11 Important Attic pottery discovered by the new drilling method. 

WN apies famous picture gallery, with its Titians, Maso- 

linos, Brueghels, Goyas (it is one of the few international 
collections in Italy), has moved to luxurious new quarters 
in the Bourbon Capodimonte palace on a hill overlooking 
the city and the Bay. Two Correggio canvases were dis- 
covered in the storerooms; cleaning disclosed the rare 
motif of a Tree of Life in the great Masaccio Crucifixion 
5, 6, and permitted the reattribution of a portrait from 
Parmigianino to the Mannerist master Rosso Fiorentino 7. 
On the first storey of the palace is a series of refurbished 
royal suites; the most brilliant being a Rococo porcelain 
room 8 glittering with birds, monkeys and flowers, from the 
Capodimonte factory, a gift from Charles m to his queen. 

News from ancient Etruria 

T he revolution in Etruscology created by Carlo 
Lerici, a well-known prospecting mineralogist from 
Milan, has stepped-up tomb excavation to the 
point where new discoveries have become almost 

daily occurrences. The originality of Lerici’s 

method lies in the combination of geo-physical prospecting 
systems and the aerial surveys that have been used by arche- 
ologists for some time. When he started his campaign at the 
Monte Abbatone necropolis of Cerveteri last January, he local- 
ized his working area by means of aerial photographs, which 
revealed a pattern of color changes in the vegetation, indicating 
differences of ground-moisture content attributable to the pres- 
ence of subterranean tombs. Methodically covering the area 
along a grid of regularly spaced paths, at short intervals he 
ran electric current through the ground and graphed its re- 
sistance. At points showing a marked peak of resistance, a 3- 
inch drill was used to make a boring into which a rod bearing 
at its nose a Minax miniature camera and flash equipment was 
introduced. The Minax took twelve pictures, being turned thirty 
degrees each time, to complete a circular survey of the under- 
ground tomb [fig. 10]. 

With this system, in sixty working days since January, it 
has been possible to map and note some of the contents of 270 
tombs at Monte Abbatone, at a rate of three and a half a day. 
Besides the speed of discovery, the new method offers the great 
advantage of locating the entrance to the tomb for the excava- 
tors, which not only saves labor but helps avoid damage to the 
tomb itself and breakage to its contents. Avoiding damage to 
the walls is especially important in sites abounding in frescoed 
tombs such as Tarquinia, where Lerici has already begun “ex- 
ploration and hopes to find new wall paintings. Another of his 
teams is at work sounding the area of the lost Etruscan city 
of Vulci. 

Of the tombs discovered in the [Continued on page 67] 

New uses of aerial survey and geo-physical prospecting 
are bringing up gushers of Etruscan finds in Italy, under 
the direction of Carlo Lerici, a minerologist turned arche- 
ologist. Tombs, spotted from the air, localized electri- 
cally, are pierced by drills and photographed with miniature 
cameras 10. Then the proper entrance is made and such 
objects as the Attic wine-pitcher with a swan and the archaic 
amphora with a horse’s head 11 are brought to light. 

ction Mrs 

By John Ashbery 


Tomlin: Self-Portrait, 1932. 

Refined sensibility” and “esthetic preoccupation” 
are two of the clichés that are almost bound to crop 
up in any discussion of Bradley Walker Tomlin’s 
work. His retrospective now at the Whitney Mu- 

seum clearly shows that if his taste was not always 

is sure as is generally assumed, neither do his paintings lack 
a kind of virile profundity which transcends questions of re 
finement. It also gives the viewer familiar only with the canvases 
“gentleman” Abstract-Expressionist 
complicated ways by which he ap 

of Tomlin’s final years as a 
in opportunity to trace the 
proached this final realization of his gifts. 

The earliest works shown, The Red Box, 
woolly Self-Portrait, 1932 [ fig. 

unpromising, and one is surprised to 

1930, and the rather 
1], seem the work of a beginner, 
neither promising nor 
note that Tomlin was respectively thirty-one and thirty-three 
when he painted them. Though they are “realistic,” 
no the of the subject: surfaces 
delineated; shadows gouge irrational and 
wherever Tomlin felt they belonged. The color is muddy and 
“abstract.” The Red Box with of upended 

planes (suggesting a geological upheaval) and its preoccupa- 


they show 

concern for reality are un- 

holes here there 

its composition 

Two Figures and Easel, ca. 1937 

Lee Northrup 

3 Tomlin: Burial, 1943. 

Metropolitan Museum 

Tomlin: the pleasures of color 

tion with bands and scrolls might prefigure the later Tomlin, if 
only the famous taste were more in evidence. 
The next pictures, Two Figures and an Easel 

fig. 2 

freshness and vivacity, even a 

Collage (both 1937) have a 
whimsicality, that is completely lacking in the earlier ones. In 
spite of their lightness, they indicate how seriously Tomlin took 
his painting: a traditionalist, he was ready to revolutionize his 
art at a moment's notice if he felt the change were going to be 
justified. One is surprised to discover that the torn newspaper 
and the postage stamp in the collage are American, so Con- 
tinental is its general appearance. Two Figures and an Easel is 
in the tradition of romantic, esthetic Cubism and strongly sug 
gests la Fresnaye (as do many of the later Cubist pictures) 
Opposing forces clash pleasantly: the easel, a Tomlinesque 
gridiron out of his penultimate geometric phase, is slapped 
down in the center in defiance to the jumbled mass of the two 
figures, who circulate freely around the outer edges. The whole 
has a cockiness, a décousu casualness in which order is nonethe- 

less present, that make it perhaps the most successful of the 

early paintings shown. Though they look French, both these 
pictures have an American exquisiteness like Demuth’s. And 
though one feels that they are possibly over-esthetic in their 

approach, one should remember that it took real guts to be con- 
sidered esthetic in Socialist Realist America of the ‘thirties 
Around 1939 Tomlin began a period which was to last until the 

O.. oft the m t eleg 

tours the U.S. Trained by 

flat, with 


abstract, linear, 



color into a schem 

Parsons Gallery 

int nembers 
New York School, Bradley Walker 
(1899-1953) is subject of a retrospe 
opens this month at the Whitney 











Paris in the 1920s, 
he developed a Baroque brand of Cubism 2, 
often enriched by wreaths and statues 3. After 

the war, his style changed radically, becoming 



4 Tomlin: Tensions by Moonlight, 1948. 

5 Tomlin: Number 1, 1949 
( tion Ethel K. Schw acher 

middle ‘forties and which was, to this reviewer, a less happy one. 
Perhaps it is no accident that it coincided exactly with the war. 
Outward Preoccupation is an ectoplasmic still-life dominated by 
an unsmiling Cheshire cat: other more or less symbolic objects 
in the picture include another cat, a vase with a pattern of 
numbers and letters, a mandolin, a Cubistic Greek head, and a 
bust (probably of Tomlin himself) with real hair and whiskers! 
The title apparently comes from the fact that the two cats and 
the two heads are each gazing in a different direction. away 
from the center of the canvas. The objects are bunched in the 
center, while the outer space has been rather listlessly filled in 

with geometrical shapes and suggestions of sky. The drabness of 

the colors is deliberate but uninteresting nevertheless; they 
bleed over the outlines of the objects creating a blurred effect. 

His outward preoccupation seems to have distracted Tomlin: he 

is jooking in too many direction-, trying too many things at 
once. This blend of Cubism, realism and Surrealism is disturb- 
ing and unsatisfying. 

Similarly, the well-known To the Sea, 1942, presents an 
uneasy blend of realism and abstraction. The real objects in 
this painting are pale, transparent, and have an allegorical 
meaning: the wreath. the carved figurehead. the grey wing of a 
seagull or a graveyard angel. The shapes on the other hand 

are mostly real objects whose form [Continued on page 54 

By William Blake 

Grandeur of ideas is founded 

on precision of ideas 

Compiled by James Schuyler 

The only Man that e’er I knew 
Who did not make me almost spew 
Was Fuseli: he was both Turk & Jew 

And so, dear Christian Friends, how do you do? 

The Venetian and Flemish practice is broken lines, 
broken masses, and broken colors. Mr. B.’s prac- 
tice is unbroken lines, unbroken masses and un- 

broken colors. Their art is to lose form; his art is to 

find form, and to keep it. His arts are opposite to theirs in all 

The flush of health in flesh exposed to the open air, nourished 
by the spirits of forests and floods in that ancient happy period, 
which history has recorded, cannot be like the sickly daubs of 

I, is just two hundred years since the birth of William 
Blake; in 
ton, D.c., has arranged a snitably magnificent exhibition, 

celebration the National Gallery, Washing- 

borrowing rarely seen works from England and America 
2, 3, 4 and drawing largely on its own Rosenwald Col- 
lections 1. In honor of the event, poet James Schuyler has 
made a collage of the poet-painter-engraver’s own com- 
ments on art, which combine the bitterness of neglected 
genius with the insight of a remarkably thoughtful artist. 

2 Blake: 
{ssumption of Our Lady. 

Collection Queen Elizabeth u 

Titian or Rubens. Where will the copier of nature as it now is, 
find a civilized man, who is accustomed to go naked? Imagina- 
tion only can furnish us with coloring appropriate, such as is 
found in the Frescos of Rafael and Michael Angelo: the dis- 
position of forms always directs coloring in works of true art. 
As to a modern Man, stripped from his load of cloathing his is 
like a dead corpse. Hence Rubens, Titian, Correggio and all of 
that class, are like leather and chalk; their men are like leather, 
and their women like chalk, for the disposition of their forms 
will not admit of grand coloring. 

Without Minute Neatness of Execution The Sublime cannot 
exist! Grandeur of Ideas is founded on Precision of Ideas. 

To Nancy Flaxman 

How can I help thy Husband’s copying Me? 
Should that make difference ’twixt me & Thee? 

(As there is a class of men whose whole delight is the destruc- 
tion of men, so there is a class of artists, whose whole art and 
science is fabricated for the purpose of destroying art. Who 

these are is soon known: “by their [Continued on page 63] 

3 Blake: Pestilence, watercolor (Bible illustration) . 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts 

4 Blake: The Circle of the Life of Man (to illustrate Homer). 
Arlington Court, National Trust, England 

By Aline B. Saarinen 

Collecting modern masters 
on a master-plan 

The contents of the collection owned by Lydia 
and Harry L. Winston are as refreshing as its locale 

is improbable. Ever since their marriage in 1923, 
The Winstons at home among Calder and Dubuffet x 5 : . 7 : : 
the Winstons have lived in Birmingham, Michigan, 

a rapidly expanding suburb of Detroit where the 

Bun ng a national exhibition tour this month from home design of the Cadillac fin is of infinitely more mo- 

base, Detroit, are 107 paintings and sculptures bought since . £5 
1042 aa ment than the curve of a Brancusi bird and many 
1945 by Lydia and Harry Winston 1. Working with a mas . 
ter-plan to represent all major ‘isms” odern art, the . , 
——— — rt —_ = - modern . hey more people have heard of Harley Earle, head of 
traveled in search of many surviving “ists.” Thus a Picass« : 
ind Pevsner 3 were bought from the pope of Dada, Trista: General Motors Styling Division, than of Jackson 
I'zara; the widow of the Futurists’ leader, Marinetti, sold 

he important Balla 2 and three major Boccioni bronzes 5. Pollock. Surprisingly, the Winstons’ inconspicuous- 

3 Antoine Pevsner: Fauna of the Ocean, brass and wire, 1922 

ly typical house—Hansel-and-Gretel Suburbia of whitewashed 
brick aud red-brown shingles—contains perhaps the largest 
private collection of Futurist art in the world. Moreover its 
glass-enclosed sun porch, its living and dining rooms with 
squarish overstuffed furniture, its narrow stairway and dormer- 
windowed bedrooms are crowded with paintings and sculptures 
that eloquently document each of the heroic and histeric move- 
ments of twentieth-century art. 

Now the house is virtually stripped—except for a few such 
objects as a Gabo sculpture too fragile to travel and a Calder 
mobile specially made to hover over the stairwell [ fig. 1]—and 
the bulk of the collection is on view at the Detroit Institute of 
Art, whence it will travel to Richmond, San Francisco and 
Milwaukee. (The rare and wonderful group of 135 drawings by 
Boccioni, ranging from tenderly sketched family portraits to 
agitated Futurist experiments in expressing motion, will be 
given a special showing this winter at the Art Institute of Chi- 
cago, ) 

Harry Winston, now sixty-five years old, is an able, astute 
and successful Detroit lawyer. He commutes daily and spends 
weekend hours indulging in the painstaking hobby of wood- 
working. His wife, nearly six years his junior, is a housewife. 
mother of three, grandmother of five and an ardent trustee of 
Bennington College. On the surface, their informal, unpreten- 
tious way of life seems like their neighbors’, but the dedicated, 

Re —* 
2 Giacomo Balla: Injection of Futurism, 1913-14. 

es & 8 

systematic pursuit of modern art gives it totally other meaning 
and this odyssey has vastly expanded and enriched their private 

The roots of Lydia Winston’s interest in art lie far back. She 
was the eldest daughter of Albert Kahn, Detroit’s famous and 
successful Jekyll-and-Hyde architect. In one style, Kahn pro- 
vided handsome Neo-Renaissance mansions and clubs for the 
newspaper-publishing Booth family and the automotive execu- 
tives. In another, he pioneered the direct, spare and rational 
factory structures which generated the American tradition of 
efficient, beautiful industrial architecture. It is for the latter 
that he is remembered today, but it was in his opulent domestic 
architecture that he himself took pride. 

He had the nineteenth-century German’s reverence for the 
Renaissance. His children were immersed in books and talk of 
Renaissance art and their rooms were filled with sepia-toned 
reproductions of the Best Old Masters. Toward the end of his 
life, under the direction of an expatriate Detroit painter in 
Paris, he bought wisely of the Impressionists and, without any 
direction at all, fell for several brace of alleged Corots. 

His eldest daughter unquestionably felt herself his intellectual 
and artistic heir. Despite the fact that at Vassar she majored 
in biology rather than the fine arts, when she looked for “the 
outside interest” and “the community service” (which every 
Vassar girl feels are necessities along with marriage and 

Collecting modern masters continued 

motherhood), she turned eagerly to the fine and applied arts. 
She studied ceramics with Maija Grotell in the heydays of 
nearby Cranbrook. She mastered the throwing of pots and ap- 
plying of glazes with such proficiency that several of her works 
were distributed and exhibited commercially. In the process, 
she learned to understand and appreciate color and form in the 
abstract. On the community level, she worked passionately with 
the group who, in 1932, were starting the Detroit Artists’ 
Market, a community-sponsored, non-profit gallery for local 
artists. Although at this point the Winstons owned only a few 
pictures of some home-town boys, Lydia Winston’s horizons 
were widening. She had visited New York galleries; within a 
few years, with characteristic conscientiousness, she was en- 
gineering a series of local symposiums at which such New York 
artists as Louis Bouché and George Grosz talked and performed. 
The dinners which Harry Winston arranged for these occasions 
gave the Winstons their first taste of the pleasures of sharing 
the artists’ creative world and of learning about art from the 
“horse’s mouth.” This pleasure remained paramount. 

Lydia Winston might feel herself her father’s artistic heir, 
but she also felt the necessity of asserting her independence. 
The first rebellions were mild enough—the purchase for a few 
hundred dollars of watercolors by Chagall and Vlaminck from 
an international show at the Detroit museum. To Albert Kahn 
these were ridiculous daubs. But another father-figure strength- 
ened her resolve. She dropped into An American Place one 
morning in 1937. Alfred Stieglitz, charmed with this earnest, 
naive Middle Westerner, not only let her have a splendid 
Marin watercolor for less than $300 (her honest limit), but also 

4 Picabia: Portrait of Marie Laurencin, watercolor, ca. 

foun IN HAND 

talked to his eager listener of modern art and wrote to her of 
“the wonderful hours at An American Place this morning.” 

Two events transformed the mere haphazard buying of art 
into serious collecting. One was the death of Albert Kahn in 
1944, which gave Lydia Winston additional spending money. 
The other was the fruitful encounter in 1945 with the dealer 
Rose Fried, who was then running a gallery on Fifty-eighth 
Street called Pinacotheca. Rose Fried, herself an earnest young 
woman, a disciple of Katharine Dreier and a member of the 
board of the Société Anonyme, was specializing in and crusad- 
ing for Non-Objective and Cubist art, as much interested in the 
philosophic content and concepts behind the work of art as in 
the object itself. 

Lydia Winston was ripe for Rose Fried’s enthusiasm and in- 
struction. Everything she had seen and read and heard—includ- 
ing the intelligent lectures which E. P. Richardson (then head 
of education at the Detroit Institute of Art) had delivered years 
before—fell into place. She looked spellbound as examples of 
the Cubists, Constructionists, Futurists, Neo-Plasticists, Dada- 
ists and Surrealists were placed within her reach. In her mind 
a plan took shape: to illustrate the movements of twentieth- 
century art with significant examples and through living with 
them to know, as she says, “how vision and thought evolved” 
‘interwoven and over- 

and to discover how the movements are 

She began to buy with the master plan in mind. She never 
bought impulsively, never hastily. Prices for abstract and Sur- 
realist art were low in the 1940's (the delicate Schwitters col- 
lages, of which she has eight, were [Continued on page 64 

5S Boccioni: Antigrazioso, bronze, 1913. 

—_——-———-—— -— ~~ 

Ai tthougn representing almost all the European move 

ments in modern art, the Winston collection is particularly 
rich in examples of Italian Futurism. One of its prizes is 
the little-known bronze head of Boccioni’s aged mother in 
the planes-of-motion this artist perfected shortly before his 
death 5 [detail right]. Unsurprisingly the Winstons like 
documentary pictures, like the Picabia 4—a Dadaist work 
referring to a charming member of the Cubists’ circle. 

The bronze David of 


By Randall Jarrell 


A sworl in his right hand, a stone in his left hand, 

He is naked. Shod and naked. Hatted and naked. 

The ribbons of his leaf-wreathed, 
bronze-brimmed bonnet 
Are tasseleé; crisped into the folds of frills, 

Trills, graces, they lie in separation 

Among the curls that lie in separation 

Upon the shoulders. 

Lightly, as if accustomed, 
Loosely, as if indifferent, 
The boy holds in grace 
The stone molded, somehow, by the fingers, 
The sword alien, somehow, to the hand. 
The boy David 
Said of it: “There is none like that.” 
The boy David's 
Body shines in freshness, still unhandled, 
And thrusts its belly out a little in exact 
Shamelessness. Small, close, complacent, 
A labyrinth the gaze retraces, 
The navel, nipples, rib-case are the features 
Of a face that holds us like the whore Medusa’s 
Of a face that, like the genitals, is sexless. 
What sex has victory? 
The mouth’s cut Cupid’s-bow, the chin’s unwinning dimple 
Are tightened. a little oily, use, take, notice: 
Centering itself upon itself, the sleek 
Body with its too-large head, this green 
Fruit now forever green, this offending 
And efficient elegance draws subtly, supply, 
Between the world and itself, a shining 
Line of delimitation, demarcation. 
The body mirrors itself. 
Where the armpit becomes breast, 
Becomes back, a great crow’s-foot is slashed. 
Yet who would gash 
The sleek flesh so? the cast. filed. shining flesh? 
The cuts are folds: these are the folds of flesh 
That closes on itself as a knife closes. 

The right foot is planted on a wing. Bent back in ease 
Upon a supple knee—the toes cur] a little, grasping 
The crag upon which they are set in triumph— 

The left leg glides toward, the left foot lies upon 

A head. The head’s other wing (the head is bearded 

And winged and helmeted and bodiless ) 

Grows like a swan’s wing up inside the leg; 

Clothes, as the suit of a swan-maiden clothes, 

The leg. The wing reaches, almost. to the rounded 

Small childish buttocks. The dead wing warms the leg, 
The dead wing, crushed beneath the foot, is swan’s-down. 
Pillowed upon the rock, Goliath’s head 

Lies under the foot of David. 

Strong in defeat, in death rewarded, 
The head dreams what has destroyed it 
And is untouched by its destruction. 
The stone sunk in the forehead, say the Scriptures; 
There is no stone in the forehead. The head is helmed 
Or else, unguarded, perfect still. 
Borne high, borne long, borne in mastery, 
he head is fallen. 
The new light falls 
As if in tenderness, upon the face- 
Its masses shift for a moment, like an animal 
And settle, misshapen, into sleep: Goliath 
Snores a little in satisfaction. 

To so much strength, those overborne by it 
Seemed girls, and death came to it like a girl, 
Came to it, through the soft air, like a bird 
So that the boy is like a girl, is like a bird 
Standing on something it has pecked to death. 

The boy stands at ease, his hand upon his hip: 
The truth of victory. A Victory 

Angelic, almost, in indifference, 

An angel sent with no message but this triumph 
And alone, now, in his triumph, 

He looks down at the head and does not see it. 

Upon this head 
As upon a spire, the boy David dances, 
Dances, and is exalted. 

Blesséd are those brought low, 
Blesséd is defeat, sleep blesséd. blesséd death. 

iain a series of unpublished verse on art by lead- 
ing American poets is Randall Jarrell’s The bronze David 
of Donatello, David, ca. 1430, in Florence’s Bargello, was 
the first free-standing Renaissance nude. The slightly 
under-life-size statue may have been for a _ fountain. 

By Frederick J. Kiesler 

The art of architecture for art 

at ceo e NS Se RS Anh ee 

Looking into the curved wall-ceiling 

of the World House Gallery; below is 

the marble island with a moat of wa- 
ter; straight ahead, a_ sculptured 
column. Superimposed is architect 

Kiesler’s first drawing of the flow of 
space through the gallery. The wall 
ceiling is at the far right. Photographs 
of the gallery are by Ezra Stoller; it 
was built by Kiesler & Bartos, Archi 
tects, N. Y. Paintings are by Willem de 
Kooning and Georges Mathieu with a 

painting and sculpture by Boccioni 

Mu? S 

marked - wane. 

In. heteome 

repute, who sold a piece of art privately, was liable 
to be condemned as a prostitutioneer; eventually he 
was imprisoned; or, as in the case of Phidias, left 
to die. We put even Death to work for better prices 
and profit all around. Yet today the artist’s best 

friend, for acquiring food and fame, is the dealer. 

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{ good gallery is therefore a marketplace where various 
artifacts (let’s call them by the proper name) are sold, and 
sold for good money. This is not an essay on the socio-econo- 
mic conditions under which art is produced, galleried and 
sold; it is an essay, in numbered chapters, on the role the 
architect, who is called upon to design a gallery-market, is to 
play if he is to sell himself successfully. Successfully means 
that he must make the pictures and sculptures look as good 
as they are supposed to—or even better. If he achieves that, 
he is a good architect; if he does not, he has failed in his 
duties. He must know that he is an accomplice in a selling 

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S econd drawing of space flowing through the gallery, super- The art of architecture for art continued 
imposed on a photograph on the long upstairs room. The 
architect planned individual space and light for each exhibit. 

The paintings are by Kandinsky, Léger, Severini and Miro 

world of art-objects, and, as the rules of secret-orders go, he responsibility to “pure art”: he then is simply a functionalist. 
must stick to them once he has joined the ranks. That is, he provides as much and as well-lighted wall-area as 
The best thing he can do in this embarrassing situation, is technically possible, and, finances available, he may place 
to put it mildly, is to say to himself that, after all, he is not some chairs or a bench, some plants, and eventually a soft 
only helping the dealer to sell, and the artist to earn a living, floor-cover, on the premises. 
but even the promotion of art. It’s a pretty seductive situation As a matter of fact, neither the dealer nor the artist expect 
for any designer who lives on the fringe of Art and Architec- him to do more. Furthermore, they would resent his doing 
ture, of society at its upper levels and of publicity in a world more. The dealer wants to save money (and do most with a 
of ruthless competition. The moral question does not enter minimum of expense) and the artist is afraid that “a more” 
the field of consideration because it is, so to say, “hors con- might detract from his exhibited work. 
cours.” The moral question of art and commerce is, as far as 
the architect is concerned, a dead duck. It was shot down long 1 To make the present state of affairs of gallery-design clear, 
ago, and to revive the carcass, he feels, is beyond his strategic it is necessary to elucidate the meaning of “a more.” 
position. Besides, he actually does not take any responsibility “A more” is exactly the surplus that makes Shelter into 
for the type of paintings or sculpture exhibited. That respon- Architecture. Just that much and “no more.” In a gallery-design, 
sibility rests with the dealer and the artist. it means exceeding the mere physio-mechanical with its inher- 
The question is, can an architect do a good job, if he as- ent diet-esthetic, and infusing responsibility into every detail 
sociates his idea of true art with that of a dealer whose aims and into the total concept; that is, a definite belief in Art as a 
are predominantly for material gains and art is one of the part of Life. This life would be opposed to the habitual run of 
opportunities towards it? How far can he deny himself truth routine-orders, because the artist is never—can’t ever—be of 
in order to accept a business proposition which may not give his time. He is, always, by necessity, ahead of it. Time, his 
him the satisfaction of a chance to do a creative job? If the time, is the spring-board into the time beyond his time. And his 

job is “pure business,” he relieves himself a priori of any moral work is the bond between the Here and the Beyond. Art is the 


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finished plaster, glass 
and_ steel ___ structure. 

Nae, evel iy 1] : Ras 

Emphasis is on continu- 
ity and correlation of 

space for showing art 

visualized link between the Known and the Unknown. The artist 
poses the question; his work gives the answer. If it fails to give 
the answer to those attuned to it, he remains a prisoner of his 
time. He is a mere contemporary, for whom Art has only con- 
tempt. The comptoir of business will accept him if he has 
enough professional skill to bring the traditional way of paint- 
ing or sculpting up to the minute of fashion. His paintings will 
fit the interiors of the various homes like feathers a cap. They 
are trophies. Products of true art are not trophies; they are 
humble; they are the very expression of humility. The use of 
a true work of art as a trophy is a crucifixion. 

Thus one can readily see that the architect has to know his 
stand from the beginning. He cannot rely on others for inner 
directions. The measurements of the outer, the space, the place, 
the costs, are customary food for the grinding teeth of his 
office-machine. But his teeth, be they as sharp as the shark’s, 
will not be able to bite the substance of belief. Such an attack 
will find the substance is as elusive as ectoplasm. Belief, then, 
is the primary building material of architecture. It is also the 
building material of Art; that is, of the artifacts, painting and 
sculpture, down and inward from the walls of the Houses, em- 
bracing the pieces of furniture, every so-called practical unit of 
service, truly every object, be it flat (like a rug or a curtain) or 
three-dimensional (like a pot). It is the substance incarnate. 
Belief is the great TRANS-Former of the banal into the superior. 
It is the magic power given to the artist by nature. He can use 
it or misuse it, but he cannot escape its responsibilities—he can 
only delay—and this delay may take hundreds of years. 

We have shed this responsibility since the middle of the 
eighteenth century. It is only now, after two world wars, that 

The art of architecture for art continued 

we are shaken in our conceit of dominating peoples, as well as 
Nature itself. And while our scientists gain more and more 
power from the secrets of Nature’s structure, her materials and 
building methods, the creative artist has faced the opposite di- 
rection; instead of splitting and fission, he is regaining the 
wisdom of correlation and fusion. 

Correlation and not segregation is the belief of the artist 
and of the architect composing oday. To say that Art and 
Architecture should try again to UNITE, as it has become the 
fashion since the war, is putting the cart before the horse; be- 
cause, in order to pull the cart, the driver must know the road. 
Suppose the road does not exist? Detours become the safeguards. 

2 To illustrate the problem, let’s look into the circumstances 
under which the “World House Galleries,” in New York, were 

Herbert Mayer, a man of considerable wealth, decided to en 
ter the art-market. He had never been a dealer and, although in- 
terested in painting, he had never owned many. A man of action, 
he leased two floors in a city block-front, gave orders to an archi- 
tect to transform the space into an art gallery and left for 
Europe to buy paintings and sculpture. 

As architects, my associate, Armand Bartos, and I were con- 
fronted with an unusual situation. First, we did not know what 
paintings were to be exhibited (we were assured they were in 
the modern vein). Second, we were given complete freedom 
as to the character of the design. Third, a rather large sum of 
construction money was put at our disposal, with no strings 

An ideal situation! But as we started to plan, to design 
not so much in darkness but rather in too much light—doubts 
started to rise as to the validity of our own contribution, and, 
finally, as to the whole enterprise. Even the information that 
his basic idea of the gallery was to give “all” nations of the 
earth a place to exhibit year by year the work of their artists— 
even such a generous move could not banish our rising dilemma. 

Was it solely a Market-place? A Museum? A private col- 
lection open to the public? What public? What strata? And 
what was the balance between running expenses and _ invest- 
ment? And what balance of trends of art? 

The time was too short for clarification by correspondence. 
It was June. The gallery was to open December 12. We needed 
a minimum of three months construction time. Our minds were 
pressed hard between accepting and rejecting. Time was run- 
ning short. A decision had to be made. The decision forced 
itself into a twofold dictum: not to design a specific gallery. 
but a new type; and furthermore, to take full responsibility 
for the new concept—facing client, artists and chiefly our- 
selves. We realized now that this was, or had become, the pivot 
of the structure in all its implications. 

We, as artists, I argued, must know, and not fool ourselves, 
that we live in an interregnum. We, as a public, have no inner 
contact with art. As a people we have lost connection out- 
wardly as well as inwardly with art as it existed, for instance. 
in the time of the cave dwellers; or, if that is offensive to our 
civilized character, as it exists among the American Indians. 
There, art remains part of everyday life, a ritual closely inter- 
woven with fate; the expression of a faith into the interrela- 
tionship of cosmic forces with Man. Birth and death are the 
two gates which no man can escape; one for his Entrance, the 
other for his Exit. On his path from one to the other. he needs 
guidance. Guidance here stems from a belief, an instinctive as- 
suredness in continuity, in Eternity—that life exists before en- 
tering the first portal and that life continues after one has left 
the second. No one has ever been sure what type or form that 
continuum has—except ourselves. We seem to know that the 
Eternity of Man is a fable. His death is death for Eternity. We 
therefore have to make the best of our [Continued on page 50] 

1 Joan Mitchell in her studio in downtown New York. 


paints a picture 

acted away from the elders of Abstract-Expression- 

2 The artist’s palette. 

By Irving Sandler 

Photographs by Rudolph Burckhardt 

J oan Mitchell is a painter who hates esthetic 
labels. She agrees with Harry Holtzman that “the 
hardening of the categories causes art disease.” She 
finds particularly distasteful moral insinuations 
concerning “good” versus “bad” criteria, and in- 
sists that “there is no one way to paint; there is no 
single answer.” Miss Mitchell is reticent to talk 
about painting, so in order to approach the under- 
lying processes in her work, the Socratic method 
was needed, rejecting some classifications, modify- 
ing or keeping others. The catchphrase to which 
she objected least was “New York School,” and she 
readily admitted membership in that non-academy. 

Unlike some of the younger artists who have re- 


7 OB fos 


3 A broad stroke is applied with brush at arm’s length. 

ism, she sees herself as a “conservative,” although her pic- 
tures can hardly be described as hidebound. She not only ap- 
preciates the early struggles of the older painters, whose ef- 
forts expedited acceptance for those following them, but finds 
a number of qualities in their work that have a profound mean- 
ing for her. 

Those elements in New York painting to which she responds 
are difficult to isolate. They have little to do with technique, for 
although Miss Mitchell has assimilated some of the methods 
of Gorky, de Kooning, Kline, et al., she couldn’t pretend to 
know how they make their pictures. More significant is a feel- 
ing of familiarity she experiences when she looks at their work, 
specifically, a kindred involvement with space. 

Her concern with space is rooted in the impact of the city. 
“I am up against a wall looking for a view. If I looked out of 
my window, what would I paint?” She lives on the fourth floor 
of a lower East Side walk-up. Miss Mitchell has to remember 
her landscapes: “I carry my landscapes around with me.” They 
become the windows in her house; as Baudelaire wrote: “A man 
who looks out of an open window never sees as much as a 
man who looks out of a closed one.” 

The painting which Miss Mitchell started for this article was 
called Bridge [figs. 5, 6]. She titles pictures only at the re- 
quest of galleries, reviewers and friends. This work was dis- 
carded, and another was begun and completed. She jokingly 
named this painting George Swimming at Barnes Hole, but It 
Got too Cold. In both works, a recollected landscape provided 
the initial impulse, but the representational image was trans- 
formed in the artist’s imagination by feelings inspired by bridge 
and beach; in the one, sensations of girders and height and the 
varied meanings implicit in “spanning a void,” and in the other, 
thoughts of George, a dog she once owned, and a memorable 
summer day spent swimming in East Hampton, Long Island. 

Those feelings which she strives to express she defines as 
“the qualities which differentiate a line of poetry from a line 
of prose.” However, emotion must have an outside reference. 
and nature furnishes the external substance in her work. When 
asked what she felt about the word “nature,” she replied: “I 
hate it. It reminds me of some Nature-Lover Going Out Bird- 
Watching.” She dislikes compulsive attitudes toward nature, 
which for her has a simple meaning and beauty. “I feel like a 
little child coming up out of the basement and saying: who 
put the sidewalk there, who put the tree there?” Nature—coun- 
try and city—is that which is outside of her; it is the theater 
in which she lives, her decor. In this sense Miss Mitchell does 

4 Detail reveals the thin but complex texture. 

not like Non-Objective art: “what is so interesting about a 
square, circle and triangle?” 

But if nature supplies the raw material, the artist then sifts 
it through memory to convert it into the essential matter of her 
art. But not all remembered scenes are equally significant. 
There are those fleeting moments, those “almost supernatural 
states of soul,” as Baudelaire called them, during which “the 
profundity of life is entirely revealed in any scene, however 
ordinary, that presents itself before one. The scene becomes its 
symbol.” Miss Mitchell attempts to paint this sign, to re-create 
both the recalled landscape and the frame of mind she was in 
originally. Memory, as a storehouse of indelible images, be- 
comes her creative domain. 

However, a “state of soul” is indefinite, and cognition of the 
total “profundity of life,” unattainable. Still, if sparks of these 
are experienced, a yearning so poignant arises, so superior to 
what is accessible, that it can only be called “joy,” in C. S. 
Lewis’ sense of the word. The most complete satisfaction is 
achieved, not in the realization of the possible, but in the most 
intense desire for the illimitable. The lack of yearning for any 
length of time causes an inquietude and despondency, a sedu- 
lous longing for the yearning. Miss Mitchell paints to reawaken 
this desire. Her bridge, lake or beach must transcend the finite 
(what can be seen) and partake in some of the Infinite, ex- 
pressing its paradoxes and ambiguity. This is the “something 
more” that she means when she says: “The painting has to 
work, but it has to say something more than that the painting 
works.” In such transformations, the bridge leads to the Gates 
of Paradise, and the beach rims a lake in the Garden of Eden, 
the instant before the Fall. 

The expression of remembered joy has priority over the paint- 
ing process. The artist tries te forget herself while working. “I 
want to make myself available to myself. The moment that | 
am self-conscious, I cease painting. When I think of how I am 
doing it, I've been bored for some time, and I stop. I hate just 

Li. many members of the avant-garde New York School 
of abstractionists, Joan Mitchell often works on over-size 
canvases, so there must be room in her studio 1 to keep 
the painting at a distance. Large amounts of pigment are 
kept readily available in tins and on palettes 2. Working 
over a rough charcoal sketch of the structure, she attacks 
the canvas with brushes 3, 8, her fingers and sometimes rags. 

5 Joan Mitchell: Bridge, stage 1 

to fill in spots to cover a painting, and if I do so, it’s only be 
cause Lewitin once told me that the canvas would rot if it were 
not covered.” Yet spontaneity does not mean absence of craft. 
She would like to have her technique sufficiently at her finger- 
tips, so that “the commands of the mind may never be distorted 
by the hesitations of the hand” (Baudelaire). 

The artist chose to paint Bridge, because the image was a 
favorite. In a sense it is a synthetic symbol; she was born in 
Chicago near Lake Michigan, and the impress of city and water 
are central in her work. Moreover, she wanted to explore furthe 
a technical problem which developed in a recently completed 
diptych and in Harbor, December. In the latter picture, she ex- 
perimented with color areas, but as yet, these “painty” sections 

were not as accurate as her whiplash lines. 

Bridge was begun directly on an unstretched linen canvas 
90 inches high by 80 inches wide, and stapled to her studio 
wall. She sketched in charcoal a central horizontal stroke about 
which she composed an over-all linear structure. Turning al- 

Mitchell continued 

8 Joan Mitchell at work on Bridge 

7 George, stage 1 



The season 

One of the most exciting auction events in years 

promises to be the sale of the Georges Lurcy col- 
lection of modern French paintings and eighteenth- 
century French decorative arts, at Parke-Bernet on 
November 7, 8 and 9. The collection is described in 
a two-volume catalogue and, after a private show- 
ing, will be on view from November 2. The late 
Georges Lurcy was a well-known Parisian-born in- 

ternational banker who came to the United States in 1940 
and died here in 1953. During a period of about thirty-five years 
he assembled a collection which in these fields remains out- 
standing in this country. In painting, some seventy Impression- 
ist and School of Paris canvases include Renoir’s The Green- 
house, 1874, Pissarro’s Le Pont Neuf, 1901, Gauguin’s Mau 
Tapora 3, and Toulouse-Lautrec’s Aristide Bruant aux Ambas- 
sadeurs 4, from which the celebrated poster was made. But 
the personality of a collector is more easily revealed in the 
inédit of choices like Monet’s vaporous scene in his garden at 
Verceuil 2, the superb Bonnard interior 1, or Degas’ pastel 
study of the Russian dancers at the Folies Bergéres. Each ac- 
quisition seems the fruit of a special enthusiasm, controlled 
by a creative discernment which gives special meaning to such 
unexpected canvases as Raoul Dufy’s heroically scaled synthesis 
of Paris 5, or Braque’s still-life, Le Saucisson, 1948. The col- 
lection also includes an important group of Boudins, besides 
one or more canvases by Picasso, Soutine, Signac, Sisley, Derain, 
Matisse, Chagall, Utrillo, Segonzac and Vlaminck. 

Coinciding with the development of Impressionism in the 
1870s and ’80s was the rediscovery of the French dix-huitiéme. 
In direct filiation with the intuitions of the de Goncourts on 
Watteau and Boucher stands the climate of M. Lurcy’s mature 
taste in the decorative arts. Not since the dispersal of the 
collection of Mrs. Henry Walters in 1941 can a sale of French 
eighteenth-century furniture match the distinction of his ac- 
quisitions. A Louis x1v marquetry commode by André-Charles 
Boulle in sumptuous inlays of brass and tortoise shell, a pair 
of Lonis xv corner cabinets bearing the famous stamp R. V. 
L. c., commodes by Francois de Cuvilliés in the stately Bavarian 
Rococo style, pieces by Adam Weisweiler—one of the creators 
of the style Louis xvi are but a few examples by major ébénistes. 
Others are: by Philippe Claude Montigny, a handsome Louis 
xvi ebony and black leather bureau plat with mounts by 
Gouthiére, which was once owned by the great collector, Sir 
Richard Wallace; by Léonard Boudin, a Louis xv bombé 
commode originally for the Chateau de Compiégne and later 
in Derby House, London. Not to be overlooked are numerous un- 
signed, anonymous pieces of almost equal merit 6. In the flaming 
Rococo medium of gilt bronze are sconces by Pierre Gouthiére, 
and a Louis xv jasper ewer with bronze doré mounts designed by 
Francois Boucher. Sévres, Meissen and Chinese porcelains, olé 
French silver and Italian majolica are other categories which 
reflect a rare combination of imagination and flair for quality. 

2 Monet: 

Woman in a Garden, 188 

3 Gauguin: 

Vau Tapora (Citron Picking), 1892. 

5 Raoul Dufy: 
Paris, 6 1/3 feet high, 1934. 

4 Toulouse-Lautrec: 

Aristide Bruant 

aux Ambassadeurs, ca. 1892. 

6 Louis xv amaranth bureau plat. 

The architecture of art for art continued from page 43 

as “humanly” pos- 

time between the two portals, and live as fully 
sible. Our belief has changed from Eternity to Now. Of course this is 
too short a time to give birth to art. But it is plenty time to de- 
velop industry. And this we have done. The artist who is born into 
this world, not by his own choosing, is, under such conditions a 
truly displaced person. Socially speaking, he is persona non grata. 
Yet, by his very stigma as a specific individual, he has to, he must 
produce objects of art. What to do with it is, in truth, the great 
calamity of our civilization. His products must find an artificial place 
to rest, lest they perish. There is none a priori. The place has to be 
searched for, artificially created, and is finally bought in exchange 
for the painting. In this emergency, market-places had to be installed 
for selling and buying of art—art galleries! There, people inter- 
ested in this merchandise come, see and eventually acquire. Then the 
painting or sculpture finds a home—the naked walls of an apartment. 
The picture or sculpture will help to obliterate the bareness, the in- 
human aspect of empty walls and standard interiors. The wandering 
of the art product is thus brought to a halt. Temporarily. As soon as 
the owner changes his address, the painting changes its home, too. 
Its fate reminds me of the destiny of the “Wandering Jew.” When the 
owner dies, or the inheritors, then the painting either ends in a junk- 
pile, a gallery or in the vaults of a museum. 
3 Art has not always been on the go. But gradually—since the end- 
ing of the High-Renaissance—paintings started, one by one, to descend 
from their native walls or ceilings, clad in frames, memories of their 
architectural landscapes. Sculpture, too, stepped down from niches, 
pedestals and pediments, and started a mass exodus across the earth 

and they are still on the march. Homeless art is wandering cease- 
lessly throughout the civilized world, looking for a place to rest, a 
home where it might be reasonably appreciated, cared for and, 
eventually, loved. 

What then is the problem of an art-gallery today? 
products, the swiftness of their coming and departing demand a refuge 
for paintings and sculpture, a that halt, at least for a 

time, the rapid trade-winds and make possible the growth of a 

The diversity of 

home can 
relationship for which they were created. 

Therefore the first consideration in conceiving the gallery must be 
a design that would make conducive a meeting between painting and 
visitor. It would have to be a sort of planetary system, a world of 
its own (within the big wide world) where the latent potentialities 
of both are freed to act on each other. It seemed to me, the “chance 
of correlation” must be (so to say) built in an atmosphere of endless 
continuity, where the meeting will have an automatic chance of 
recurring; love at first sight is a rather rare phenomenon. 

In order to promote “correlation in continuity” within the two 
floors on Madison Avenue, it soon became clear, that, before any 
attempt of sketching and scaling could be drawn, a spatial as well 
as an ideological introduction to the world of art should be im- 
agined. One does not fall into art directly by a house door. And by 
introduction I do not mean a lobby. 

To help the “unbiased” approach to art 
possible), the fundamental hiatus between art and nature had to be 
unmistakably and immediately demonstrated. This was achieved by 
making the visitor step (as soon as he entered) on to an island of 
a square-area of the main exhibition hall. This island 

(and architecture, if 

white marble 
was actually separated from the surrounding wall by a river-bed of 
several feet (3 or 4), a trough filled with water (not deep) and 
bordered on the far edge with green foliage. From there rose the walls 
of a double-height space, three of which serve as carriers of 
paintings. Thus the visitors were first kept at bay from them, not 
only physically but though the unexpected shock of seeing the sepa- 
rating water-bed. It set them (invariably) aback, wondering, and 
actually stopped them in their customary run-through of galleries 
and museums. They were gently, but rather forcefully, arrested in 
their routine pattern of observation, paused and, at this moment, de- 
veloped the chances of correlation. It was the artists themselves and 
modern art-historians who objected most violently to the water. That 
the water with its cataract-sound and the foliage were abstracted 
symbols of nature, of that nature that fed their imagination, a source, 
that in modern artistry developed into a scourge, and that by its very 
realism could enhance the new reality they so desperately try to 
achieve—that did not occur to them. They thought it was an advertis- 
ing trick, slick, a decor, to detract from their work. What could the 
criterion for the proper judgment of their work be, if not art con- 
fronted with the very source of origin? BUT we must learn to under- 
stand that art has gradually broken its bonds with nature, not as in 


contrast to aims and methods of creation but in a promethean at- 
tempt to steal the fire in order 
artificial flame. Abstract art does not only represent a revolt against 
the petrified art of the past and its allied civilization, but a revolt 
against any parenthood, be it God, gods, the Trinity, pagan domina- 

all hierarchies of beliefs, all content. It contents itself 

to extinguish it and light its own 

tion, religion 
with itself. 

It was, and still is, a violent protest of young generations who feel 
they have been cheated of their rights to be as they are in art or life, 
having been forced to give themselves in war after war; to give them 
selves to save economic destructions of families and nations, and be 
eternally confronted with fossilized duties. The contemporary artist 
has torn Art from its mooring to the contents of the past. With passion 
he has captured Art for the Artist’s sake. The totems and tabus of 
traditions were obliterated. Freed of fundamental content—to be, was 

to act fast and furiously because a singie 

not to follow, but to act 
man’s life, even a genius’, is too short to recreate what blindfolded 
generations had evidently lost. What a glorious challenge! The canvas 
became a battlefield—relentless releases of brush strokes in almost 
automatic drives to capture the beat of an immediate life-impulse. 
The artist was out to create his own NATURE, the perfect antTI-Nature, 
the only possible contribution of man to Nature. This excursion of 
the last fifty years into the realm of absolute independence, of the 
abandonment of interdependence—no matter from where and where 
to—is a heroic effort of the artist of his basic 
freedom. But the prodigal son will, and must return. 

worthy allegiance to 

4 When he returns he will have acquired a new sense; one in addi- 
tion to his six sensory namely, the 
space-time. This was a gift of his time, bestowed upon him secretly 

a gift of his time to propel himself out of his 

correlatives, consciousness of 
during his wanderings: 
time into regions heretofore never reached by men of art. 
and philosophy have finally intertwined, and he got the message. And 
by that I mean the awareness of space-time as a working fact, not as 


i mystic perception. He will once more know that he belongs to a 
universe and not only to 56 Seventh Avenue, New York City, or to 
31, Avenue Reille, Paris, France. With that in his pocket, he can 
safely enter the Void of Art and pay his debts to history. He finally can 
proceed to transform the void. He depends neither on easel painting 
nor express himself. He has freed himself of the free- 
doms and styles of historic youth and begins to attach himself more 
closely and more widely to everyday facts in his new search for truth. 
Only there can he find himself; only there can he find seeds of crys 
tallizations such as painting, sculpture, of all the artifacts of genera 
tions to come. Not in museums, not in galleries, not in books, photo 

fresco to 

tabloids and color-pin-ups. 

5 To provide the play-space now for a world to come was impossible 
unless it was a matter of persistent belief. A belief that a 
principle of correlation could become the key to unlock the labyrinth 
of standardized modern art. There were clear indications of howling 
from its depth, of knocking from the inside, of outward pressures. 
Paintings, in the last decade, have strangely grown wider, much 
wider; particularly wider (not so much elongated). In France, in 
America, there was and is a growing tendency to expand the canvas 
from 2 to 20 feet in width. Few galleries are equipped to handle 
such space-monsters. Fewer private clients have room for it. The 
prices are accordingly larger too—yet the tendency persists, and it 
is not a fad. It is simply the need to expand beyond frames, beyond 
borders; a tendency to break through enclosings, be they of gold or 
simple wood baguettes or be they blocking walls to the left and right 
of a painting—a scream for elbow-room, for breathing space. 
Mondrian in the early ‘twenties had already thrown aside the en- 
closure of the frame, taped-over the shame of the exposed nail-heads 
along the edges and added significantly a piece of wall to the paint- 
ing by fastening it to a flat strip of wood. In other words, rather than 
hanging the painting, he attached a piece of wall to the painting, 
which now protruded—stepped forward into the room. It was no 
longer a decorative patch on the wall. It detached itself from the 
flat surface of a background, became more independent, and at the 
same time reached into the realm of three-dimensionality, ready for 
contact with “outer-space.” The step towards a new ritual of de- 
framing was inaugurated. In fact it was the premature answer to the 
coming of an ever-expanding Universe of Architecture, in spite of a 
consistently growing individualization of all the parts of our mass- 
made world. 
Even I, who came belatedly to execute sculptures and paintings, 




On View from Saturday, November 2 


Georges Lurcy 

Including Major Examples by 






Sale November 7at8 p: m.* 

* ADMISSION to Evening Painting Sale by Card Only, Apply to the Galleries 



Including Superb Examples by Maitres Ebénistes 




Sale November 8 and 9 at 1:45 p.m. 

DE LUXE CATALOGUES—Editions Limited 

Vol. I— PAINTINGS, all illustrated, twelve in color $5.00 
INGS, about one hundred illustrations, sixteen in gravure. 


Unillustrated Editions; Paintings 75¢—Furniture and Objets d’ Art, $1. 


had called them Galaxies, simply because | combined many panels 
(without frames), sometimes three, sometimes eight, into a single 
constellation. They were planned in strict intervals apart from each 
other: I also attached them nearer or further away from the wall, 
parallel to it or slightly inclined. Most of them protrude on elongated 
arms or are suspended from the ceiling. Detachment and independence 
from a wall, ceiling or floor became imperative; imperative because 
the unification of the various units of paintings (or sculpture or both) 
in their correlation and not the of an a 
priori enclosure. The unity of the environment had to sustain itself. 

had to be inherent result 
Perhaps a description of one Galaxy of paintings (of seven different 
units) will help illustrate this point of a plastic continuum. It started 
with one painting on the floor, jumped into relation over quite a dis- 
tance to another painting on the wall. This one was part of other 
neighboring panels, and the correlation finally continued (without 
physical contact) its composition towards the ceiling which already 
carried a large painting suspended 8 inches beneath the surface. 
Correlation from the ceiling downward towards the opposite wall 
continued with another panel and this way closed the cycle of turn 
and return. In other words, this was a spatial co-ordinate rather than 
a mural, consisting of paintings where the observer would find himself 
surrounded by them, not by a solid phalanx of walls, ceiling and floor, 
blocked and locked up, but by paintings placed in such strategi: 
points of the total structure of the room that they would add up to a 
complete but elastic enclosure. The paintings could be moved and 
adjusted to different sizes for different rooms. The composition could 
expand or contract in any direction, and became part of the sensitivity 
of those with it. Neither 
spatial elasticity. Whatever we, artists or architects or art-historians 
may think of this foray of painting and sculpture into the realm of 
the continuum, the fact remains that the intervals 
alone safeguard a definite code to interpret a message; and a mes- 
sage it has to be, the only link that will hold the plastic arts together. 
Most significantly, even the paint-patterns themselves of our mas- 
ters of abstract art, and those of their followers, have a drive either 
to push towards and beyond the edges of the canvas; or, like in- 
haling, loose brush-strokes huddle towards the centers of the canvas, 
gathering like herds during a storm before breaking loose again. 
Sculptors, too, have opened up their hermetic enclosures of form. 

living easel- nor mural-paintings grant 

the measures of 

They tore statues limb from limb, leaving vistas through their bodies 
like naked trees. Abstract or not abstract—sculptors were building 
with wind and void as much as with bronze and steel. The carousel of 
far-away horizons which shone through the sculpture, made it part 
of a wide universe. The visual solitude was broken. 

And so our gallery had to take dimensioning of wall-space into 
fresh scrutiny. The elasticity of architectural areas, regarding width 
and height and depth, had to be geared not only to existing norms of 
paintings and sculptures, but also to those new measures in process 
of crystallization. Evidently it already had to anticipate and provide 
for those unexpected but now frequent happenings of large stretches 
of far-flung images. But more than doing this or that, the urge for 
expressing space-continuity plastically became unmistakably a new 
law. It is exactly that subject-matter that the gallery attempted archi- 

6 Architecture took the lead; took the lead from Art. It took painting 
and sculpture by the hand and led them safely back home to archi- 
tecture. There they will be nurtured with patience and feel securely 
protected until maturity. 

Now, the two floors of the gallery were wrapped into a single 
elliptical enclosure. In this way they were unified, made into con- 
tinuous space. Floors of lower areas continued in hyperbolic curva- 
tures upward into the ceiling of the upper floor, sliding down and 
rising partly again, falling suddenly, as into air-pockets. They rose 
upward again, and finally downward, becoming a bent-wall at the 
other end of the long, long room; and did not stop in their flow there 
either; near the floor, the flow of the total elliptical enclosure sud- 
denly protruded into a bench, curled backwards (underneath), swung 
rapidly forward again into the floor, becoming actually the floor 
itself, rolling on and on thus concluding a new geometry of space. It 
was like a deep breath 
to art. With its curvatures, its contrasting planes, its segmented 
parabolas, flows, fins of sharp crystalline the 
illusion of endlessness seemed achieved. Yet, as in the structure of 
the atom, a galaxy of many particles, unified but diversified and highly 
individualized in all its components, so the total gallery, in spite of 
heing one vast organism, gave birth to innumerable hollows, cubes, 
hexagons, minor and major spatial co-ordinates—all future shelters, 

harbors, havens and proud shields, ready to carry the works of the 

an embrace of all the areas to be dedicated 

sinuous columns, 

artist—as if the mother-gallery was solely and only dedicated to the 

one and only painting or sculpture of the moment. 

7 A Gallery’s light must come out of darkness, and disappear into 
darkness. On its way it strikes the painting, the sculpture, the archi- 
tecture. It enwraps it with one, two or three luminous clouds, render- 
ing it visible, making it magical, seductive. But it never treats us 
children alike for all. No, that would be 
terpretation of democracy. Each painting demands its own frequencies 

one intensity a wrong in- 

of luminosity, its coolness or warmth, a halo, or none. One all-over 
blazing white light gives equality to walls and their paintings alike. 
Neither like it. They throw it back at you with the bleak glare of a 
grimace that can easily annihilate the sensitivity of both your retinas. 
To retain the contact between visitor and exhibit silence of light is 
essential. We felt we had to adhere strictly to that, and did, in spite 
of costs and technical shortcomings. But we also avoided the op- 
posite technique of museal illumination, namely, pin-pointing beams 
with their obvious voice of the barker appraising a merchandise. 

There arose an unexpected question to be seriously considered: the 
discrepancy between the light a picture was painted in and once 
lived with, and the “special” contemporary lighting it is subjected to. 
Not that we felt one should imitate, repeat more or less exactly the 
period-lighting, either of the artist’s studio or the painting’s homes 

but we simply could not see a Rembrandt against a white-washed 
wall showered with direct or indirect luminosity from incandescent 
If it could remain only a question of more or 
but if 


or fluorescent bulbs. 
less light, the answer would be not too difficult to arrive at; 
aware of the fact that whatever, we, as architects, are 
ning in a gallery amounts invariably to an introduction towards un 

we are 

derstanding or misinterpretation of the artist’s world, then certainly 
light in a gallery becomes a paramount problem. 

8 The individualization of each exhibit was the final goal. Naturally 
each needed isolation, but only such isolation as its character would 
demand and tolerate. Simply spacing them wide apart will not do. 

The obvious is disappointing. The bleakness of deliberately over- 
extended empty areas between paintings is a makeshift in dis-co- 
ordination and co-ordination. The problem had to be solved within 
the total continuum of a gallery. Architectural dimensioning, leading 
towards a new grammar of measures is the only possible solution to 
such an intricate problem of co-ordinating the plastic arts without 
sacrificing the individuality of each. In any case, the dimensioning of 
this to the next—and the fol- 
lowing to those opposite, directly facing or oblique—is all important 
to the initial approach—to the so-to-say invitation to a meeting be- 
tween the painting and the visitor. And certainly it is part of the 
cycle of relationships that will develop at once and immediately 
afterwards when he steps forward, aside, or looks backward—even if 
only casually to glance again, holding the first impression or deepen- 
suddenly viewing from a longer perspective. The object 
or sculpture) must remain the focus at any distance. To 

one adjoining wall area to the next 

ing it by 
achieve such spontaneously creative contacts, the measures of re- 
deed industrial-design modules are death-blows to Art-in-Architecture. 
But now a new esthetic can unfold its wings, freed from the prison 

lationships must avoid any standardized architectural modules. 

of the grid. 

9 The unique quality of a painting or of a sculpture defeats itself 
unique quality 

when facing the importance of content. have pinnacled 
quality as such. The build-up of a lifts, sky-lifts 
prices, not only of the “supposedly” one and only masterpiece but of 
the entire production of the particular artist—truthfully of all art 
and artists as long as they produce regularly and diligently. 

We all know that the extraordinary can only be produced by the 
extraordinary. He is called genius, and as such is uniaue. No com- 
munism, imperialism (they 
that. But at no time is the search for genius greater than in prosperity, 
because the premium for his product is the best investment. The 

have tried) or democracy can change 

average or near-genius talent resents the extraordinary not because 
he envies his gifts but because he has to follow him to appear unique. 
We cannot blame him for these thrusts at genius, because there is no 
honorable ground where he can grow according to his own need, and 
be esteemed and survive by the labors of his own talent. Society today 
forces the good talent, the ordinary, into the role of the extraor- 
dinary. To play this role is a must, even when he faces himself. 
Such a life is a continuous invitation to moral and artistic breakdown. 

But it seems only reasonable to assume that in a new co-ordination 
of social and creative factors, geared to the transformation of a 
basic belief in human relations into the plastic arts, be they archi- 

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Address [ 



tecture or the “fine arts.” artifacts down and up the 

such widespread correlation. each and every talent 

be himself and stop being someone else. Of course, art can 

i necessity, and 

’ ; } | 
if chance-survival and 

it_ neck-break-speed, the 

Art. But it must not be 

taken ou 

its product 

i world which is riding 


he jumped ove < base 

“7 ) ' t 
queness | lat t 

foundation is pin-pointed, the 

ist terrestrial rock-bottoms that form the 

resist to the 

that eternal 


ives which make mnformity and imitat 

rock is Art 

an artist gi g in his metamorphos 

us topple into ¢ 


iccount of essarily 

» Sten 
is time itself 


grades his vocation to empty 

=\ ni 



OLS allegories to ( uniqueness in professional 

\rt-in-Commerce that has elevated the 
hbevond the reach of the 

“Mvth of Unique Quality 

Of course, it is not only 

Extraordinary museums have helped 

to build the 


It is their prerogative. But 

when one dav the destiny of art will not be its isolation in a museun 

the picture's picture will change. The accent w be on the honesty 

painter, sculptor o1 

specih stvles or crutches of 


subterfuge of 

of the artist's interpretation of a content. be he 
Che trickeries of 

non-objectivity, neo 

irchitect techniques, 

realism tradition, then will. become the 

of bored ¢ the inevitable last resort ind 

tizens oF 
irtists in panic. The artist of today depends entirely on selling to the 
UNKNOWN; Art has become an open-market 

fate and 

indeed this is proof that 

commodity. In spite of this, his survival still rest with the 

dealer end curator. They remain his best hopes for fame and food. 

The growing education of the mind of the public at large has 

naturally also reached art and is now reaching out for architecture. 

But art and architecture need just as much necessary incubation-time 
as the growth of an embryo. If prematurely born, it must be put into 
in incubator. Perhaps most of our galleries and museums are 

nucleus of art’s creativity? 
in the outer orbits. But 

followers of Gutenberg 

How deeply can the mind penetrate the 

I believe it cannot at all, and remains forever 

if it could, wouldn't the readers, researchers 



But they are 

best Anowers of art? 
facts, but 

They are 

historians—be the 
know facts: not the 


Facts do not make art: Art transforms them. 

protessor S. 

not. only facts 

mutated from 

Tomlin: the pleasures of color 

iued from page 29 

happens to be geometric: the buildings. the railing. The same is 

true of The Burial | fig. 3 
Edwin In these 



pictures there is a poet 

with its apparent influence from 

Dickinson remainder: one 
lomlin trying to convey a deep and complicated message. But 
the surface is not interesting enough to persuade one to probe among 
these grey dull-colored 

Very different seem the almost Gorkyesque still-lifes of the middle 
such as The Must Change 1944 

reproduced in the catalogue but not figuring in the show) 

mists, squares and funereal statuary 

torties {rmor and the frrangement 

It’s too 
bad, as a matter of fact, that the crucial periods of Tomlin’s develop 
ment, such as the middle ‘thirties and the middle to late ‘forties. are not 

it the Whitney. Luckily 

important year ol all 

included from 

merely o i tew 

better documented several are 

fig. 4 


perhaps the most Tension by 
a daring new to Tomlin. It consists 


tresses and curves of a 

re veals 

strokes on a ground. These suggest many things: the 

young girl, a Cocteauesque minotaur, a 

Pierrot’s buttoned costume. Yet, as was not the case with the canvases 

1! the war period, the literary content has been dissolved into forms 

only for themselves. It is an 

De ath Cry 

which exist exciting picture So 1s its 
Here the strokes are 
forecasting the pictographs of 1949. Other 
Vumber 3, 1948, which is hi 

and the science-fiction-like 

companion, painted the same year. 

more elaborated. interest 
ng phenomena of this period include 
way between a still-life and a pictograph 
rhe varietv of the work indicates that Tomlin 

Moonlight that 

Waneuver for Position. 

found release in pictures like Tension by and more 

changes are in store 

tend back toward gentleness and 

ment. In Number 8, 1949 the nervous energy of a pattern which seems 

These, not surprisingly 

to be made up of scythes and swear-words in Chinese is tempered by 
was to be the central idea in all the pictures Tomlin painted until 
his death in 1953. What a difference black-and-white re- 
production of one like Number 10, 1952 

the sweet blue background. contrast between form and color 

between a 

and the actual painting! 

In the reproduction it is frightening: a buildup of tiny interlocking 

bands whose mere number causes a swift apprehension, like the sick 

into another mystery. Th ire 

corporeality. No 


on only can be 

one corporeality 
apprehe nded whe n not blo« ked 
be Vivi i 

lacts. Such transhgurat 

by terminological interference. the irrational cannot 

the rational. In human relations. understanding and 

of a living experience and not a matter of touch and go. The P 

| \ 
is only alive on the 1Otostats o1 

\\ ropolis, not im p 

he g ng galleries can claim confront the 

! ip 
student cet 2, 1 an original. But how well are these prepared 

f i meeting of t t and soul? Is art 

/ ; 

aostrac 1 

» “esthetics n 0.” the type ol il populace 

il large can feel and idopt 7 Does not the trend of fashion 


dream and need? 

push its way wav ahead of 

extraordinary goes with it hand in hand 

is the 

rope to whit h the cl ister re! I 
ind higher. More hang on unti 
Myth. The re 


are raised higher 

as reached the solar height of cluster remains 

below, in his shadow. Thus th becomes an Idol. He is 

admired, but rarely understood or loved. The Unique is not everybody's 

business. He has a Chinese wall around him. Impenetrable. His sol 

is inwardly endless: our solitude is longing outward 

is only one way to reach the populace in art—to 


to reach the holar and the school 

exclusive individual. the s« 

the elimination of the wil/ful Extraordinary, in rebuilding 

tent. the meaning of the arts. This ts everybody's business 
as | mentioned before, we live 

We have 

new one 

time to come, but now. However, 

interregnum: between two times missed the train which 

left four hundred years ago. and the has not vet arrived. The 

waiting room ol art 

Ss full ot people 

within its home—endless. Coming from 

\ gallery's life is back 
the painter’s world or the sculptor’s or the architect's to one’s own 

world. and from again reaching out fer the fruit of the crea 

could the Space and Place of a gallery be but a planetary system of 
work of the Artist and 

tive artist. there is a never-ending cycle of correlation else 

relation between the 

continuous its potential 



riage is won 

too, is “continuous tension.” and the prize: peace after mar- 

And silence can be heard again. 

hat the sight of the hundreds of windows in a skyscraper can 
heart of a New York resident. But in real life the 
(olive, black, 

purple or lime green) annihilate this impression: the picture is 

And we 

cause in the ilmost 
spiked here and there with 

“lus ous” colors 



p ile blue. 

and could almost be a fabric design. remember that 

lomlin’s hobby was interior decorating. 
If this 

he later 

times the weakness of 
drabness of most of the 
Now on 
ilmost childlike happiness over his 
And he 

why we like it. about its relation to the 

ultimate attitude toward color is at 

t paintings, it Is more often then strength. now, his 

employme nt of color has lacked certitude: the 
Cubist had the 

the other 

paintings never tone of a forceful utterance. 

hand each picture has a new color “scheme” that is 

bright and soothing: Tomlin’s 

liscovery of color is infectious seems to be saving something 

profound about color, about 

nore sordid aspects of life. In such a painting as the chic and power 

ful Vumber 20, 1949 the colors are drab but they are crisp and in 
which are at times like 

other times like 

viting. They are in harmony with the shapes 
fragments of an alphabet for our instruction and at 

look off the canvas. 
and others of the 

weapons or like arrows directing our Perhaps the 
simplest expression of the message of this picture 
late period is that both pleasure and pain exist in life and sometimes 
resemble each other. 


pink snowflakes. 

ind there 

The final canvases are the person- 

Falling suggests sadness but here the 
is no sadness. One comes back to bathe in the light and glamor of 

pure s! expression ot 

ality: vast vibrating with falling petals or 

fall has been arrested 

these paintings as one continues to pick up a paperweight filled with 
snow to shake it and see the falling start again. Amid these soft clash- 

feathery excitement Tomlin at last succeeded in creating 

out of disorder, and the result is one of the most convinc- 


an order 
ing expressions of joy in contemporary painting. 

will travel to ‘ ’ Museum (Raleigh) 
UL niversit , Angeles Pasadena Mu 
San Frar co seu M »n- Williams-Proctor 

Important Works of Art of 







Richly Illustrated Catalogue, compiled by leading scholars: $3.50 

Haldenstrasse 5 602 Madison Ave. at 57 Street 
Lucerne New York 22, N.Y. 


$5,000 in Prizes 

4000 Paintings & 250 Pieces of Sculpture 
to be exhibited 

ART: USA: 58 

Madison Square Garden, New York 
Jan. 17 through 26, 1958 

> The first of a series of juried annual exhibitions 
= of works by established and unknown American 
GALERIA DE ARTE CONTEMPORANEO painters and sculptors to emphasize the vitality 
and indicate the present trends of USA art today.* 
CONTEMPORARY PAINTINGS Painting deadline: Dec. 1, 1957—Sculpture dead- 
line: Nov. 15, 1957—Entry fee: $3.00 
EXHIBITIONS OF AMERICAN ee ino (ie ee cali 
ive man jury (McDowell system) consisting of 

League, Chairman; OGDEN PLEISSNER, Artist: 
SHALL, Editor & Publisher of ARTS; and an abstract 
LA GRAN AVENIDA-SABANA GRANDE artist yet to be selected. 

VENEZUELA *Write for entry blanks immediately to: ART:USA:58 

673 Madison Avenue, New York 21, N. Y. 

OCTOBER 1957 55 

an ancient tradition of rhythm and 

instruments, dances and melodies 

going back some 4000 years. “One 

thing I can affirm truthfully,’ the 

Friar Torquemada wrote home to 

Spain in 1539, “that not in all the 

Kingdoms of Christendom are there as many flutes, 

oboes, sackbuts, trumpets, horns and drums like in this 

land.” @ Often these instruments were imaginative sculp- 

ture—whistles and rattles in the form of animals whose 

sounds they reproduced, or dramatic figurines of danc- 

ers and musicians. Buried in the earth, safe from wars 

and destructions, some of this extraordinarily sensitive 

art has survived until today. @ If you would like to see, 

hear and play on these ancient instruments, come to the 

exhibition Music Before Columbus, during October. 

rth icy | 
e Ancient Sculpture | Modern Paintings 
*4 +” 
€w yO*" 18 EAST 77 STREET 11 T0 6 


Presented annually in the form of 

Cash Prizes to American artists 





Art news international 

Museum gifts and acquisitions 

The well-known Edward W. Root collection of twentieth-century 
American art has been bequeathed to two institutions with which Mr. 
Root was connected as advisor: the Munson-Williams-Proctor In- 
stitute of Utica, N. Y., and the Addison Gallery of American Art, 
Andover, Mass. The collection, which was singled out in 1953 as the 
first private collection of modern American painting to be shown 
at the Metropolitan Museum [see A.N., Mar. °53], is the result of 
some fifty vears of active. sensitive collecting. The earliest of Mr. 
Root’s purchases are paintings by Prendergast and Arthur B. Davies 
bought in 1913 from the Armory Show. Keeping in advance of most 
other American collections of the day, they come down to such con- 
temporaries as Pollock, Rothko and Tomlin. According to the be- 
quest, 217 items are willed to Utica, twenty to the Addison Gallery. 

Nearly three thousand pieces of American glass, in a collection 
formed by the late Mrs. Edith Olcott van Gerbig, have been given to 
the Wadsworth Atheneum of Hartford by her husband, Barend van 
Gerbig. Covering almost every aspect of American glass, the col- 
lection also contains early glassmaking tools and machinery as well 
as Mrs. van Gerbig’s library on glass. The gift is matched by an 
endowment from the donor amounting to approximately $250,000, 
which will be used for the construction of a special gallery to house 
the collection. 

More than a thousand photographic plates of paintings ranging 
from Italian and Flemish primitives to this century have been given 
to the Bibliothéque d’Art et Archéologie of the University of Paris 
by the international firm of Knoedler and Co. Representing paintings 
which have passed through the firm’s hands, they include important 
photographic documents, notably of little known canvases by Corot. 

Another collection of American art, stressing the nineteenth cen- 
tury, has been presented to Colby College, Shelby, Me.. by Mrs. 
Willard H. Cummings of Guilford, Me., and her sons, H. King Cum- 
mings and Willard W. Cummings. The paintings include canvases 
by J. B. Sword, Thomas Doughty, Thomas Birch, Samuel F. B. Morse 
and J. F. Kensett, besides for the most part artists connected with 

The first exhibition of new acquisitions at New York’s Museum of 
Primitive Art since its opening early this year is now on view [to 
Oct. 19]. It consists of fourteen pieces, the most important of which 
are two sculptured heads of exceptional interest. The first, dating 
from the third millennium s.c. is from the Cycladic Islands, was 
probably originally part of a mother goddess or fertility efigy. The 
other is a Mayan limestone head of the rain god Tlaloc from the 
famous site of Chichen-Itza, Yucatan, ca. a.p. 900-1200. 

An immense Spanish wrought iron choir screen, made for the 
Cathedral of Valladolid ca. 1668, has been acquired by the Metropoli- 
tan Museum and is being installed in the museum’s Medieval Sculp- 
ture Hall. It comes from the William Randolph Hearst Foundation. 

The University of Illinois has announced the gift of $300,000 from 
Herman C. Krannert, Indianapolis business executive. The gift will 

Marble head from Cycladic Islands, 2500 
p.c.; Museum of Primitive Art, New York. 


G. B. PITTONI (1687-1767) 

The Marriage of St. Catherine 

CANVAS, 30 x 190% inches 





77 Blvd. Haussmann 
Paris 8e Ely 20-57 



Sole {gent for: 




galerie chalette 

1100 MADISON AVENUE (82-83 ST.) 

Through October 






Andre Derain La Femme Assise 
Canvas. 24 x 20 inches 

Circa 1914 


29 Faubourg St. Honoré (Third Floor 

Tel. ANJou 2910 
Tel. ANJou 1565 

Master Drawings, Paintings 

and Sculpture 

sec | 

make possible the construction of a Museum to house the University 

collections, some of which were acquired as early as 1876. 

Graphic art at museum sales desks 

\ new project by the Print Council of America is to enlist co-opera 
tion of ten leading museums in the sale of original prints by Amer 
ican artists. Woodcuts, etchings, engravings and lithographs are to be 
offered at museum sales desks along with the museum’s usual line of 
color reproductions, books and posteards. Selected by the Print 
Council's Board of Directors, they include the works of Shan, Baskin, 
Cohn, Lasansky, Bradford, Schrag and others. The participating in 
stitutions are: the Baltimore, Brooklyn. Cincinnati, Columbus, Phila 
delphia, Minneapolis and San Francisco museums, the Wadsworth 
Atheneum in Hartford, the Brooks Memorial Gallery in) Memphis 
the Corcoran in Washington, p.c. The Print Council hopes to increase 

the list next vear. 

Reviews and previews continued from page 19 

yellow drifting across a satiny grey-black ground sufhce to precipitate 
an allegory of city lights. No symbol is intended, but simply the im- 

pact of transitory impressions, expertly recorded. $60-$1,300. ms.F. 

Chinese moderns |Mi Chou: Oct. 1-19] show various ways in 
which occidental attitudes have been absorbed. Walasse Ting (all 
names are placed in Western order), a Paris resident, offers an in 
tensely red and black abstraction Fire Dragon. Zao Wou-ki, well 
known in Europe and here, is working more abstractly than befor 
New Yorker Wing Dong exhibits one of his most clearly stated works 
in The Warrior with elements of Chinese calligraphy in it. Joe Dale 
seems the strangest of the group. He writes and scrawls on lava-like 
surfaces and paints abstract scroll paintings which look like classical 

Chinese landscape. $150-$1,000. L.A 

Hans Moller | Fine Arts; Oct. 15-Nov. 9| demonstrates again with 
striking clarity how he can give (to whomever) and _ take from 

Soulages, Rothko, Mathieu) lessons. Now committed to one rectangu 

lar swath of wide or extra-wide brush. he composes this unit ex 
travagantly or sparsely in werlapping transparencies often ! -embling 
dress fabrics and sometimes conveying the dry touch of the abstract 
purist he is. Prices unquoted P.1 

Merton D. Simpson | Barone: Oct. 1-16) was born in Charleston 
N. C.. trained at Cooper Union and N. Y. U.: he is also a collector 

ind dealer m Afric in ind Pre-( Jlumb in obypects His paintings 

warm, seductive in color and matiéere, usually have something to do 
with the sea. His big influence has been Rvder, but this is not par 
ticularly obvious in his work. He reduces mists, sprays, waves and 

ships to dissolving, going-round movements of intermerging planes, 
or opposes small chunky planes to each other. Prices unquoted. L.c. 
Elias Friedensohn | Hewitt: Oct. 2-31) is having his first one-man 
show in New York. His somber, powerful oils have some good quali 
ties. One that they do not have is originality. The lateral distortion 
of the human head has been seen before. and perhaps Malenkov is 
responsible as a living eXxa npl ot this distortion. In Mono hromes. 
Elias, (as he signs his pictures) deals with classical mythology 

Daedalus. Icarus and the judgment of Paris, and in this last his re 
duction of every human or divine head to an elongated oval reaches 

a point of absurdity. $150-$2.500 H.D.H 

Roberto Crippa | lolas; to Oct. 15], first made known to New York 
four vears ago, has turned from clever variations on Mondrian to 
itomic spiraling secreting color “drifts” or “planets” amid the 
Baroque overlay of black movement. Complex welded sculpture of 
man and beast echoes the feeling of these tangling parabolas, given 
still another metamorphosis in some torrid oils of savage totems. 
Cleverness may never be enough but Crippa’s bid to make it so is 

bold. Prices unquoted. P.T. 

Martin Janto { Artists; to Oct. 17], Milwaukee-born artist who has 
had one-man shows in Paris and Rome, makes a start in New York 
with a set of large paintings in which glazes. varnishes and other 
techniques of tradition have been used to produce untraditional re- 
sults. Thus Indian red, raw siena and yellow ocher become silver and 
gold; and against these colors and merging with them are large, almost 
surreal figurations, sometimes flatnesses, sometimes labyrinthal wan- 
derings of vegetable-minerals with toothed edges of line whose edges 


drip in a controlled direction like the teeth of a piece of farm ma- 
chinery. It is a more interesting show than this word-description sug- 

\ \ E are in the market to add to our extensive 

Stock of Fine Paintings. We are interested in 
purchasing examples of 18th, 19th and 20th Cen- 
tury American and French Schools and Old 

gests. Prices unquoted. 

Sylvia Wald {Grand Central Moderns; Oct. 7-19], known as a 
print-maker, shows Abstract Impressionist paintings in which the 
evolution of her creation of light is traced. The green-blue arboreal 

WE offer our wide experience in handling Estate 

dusk of the older canvases has turned to flowery red-orange-yellow == ; 
sunshine. The earlier work is based on brush strokes which stand as 988 matters for either the sale of individual paintings 

or entire Collections. 

individual lines and which form the central image. In the middle 
period, Miss Wald constructed her landscapes with areas of flat color. 
In recent works she welds the two methods. Prices unquoted. _ 1.H.S. 



alleries inc. 

YORK 21, 

Bruno Barborini {de Aenlle], an Italian-born Mexican painter 
who studied at the Naples Academy and has shown in Rome, Venice, 
Miami and Mexico, and who has executed private commissions for 
Pope Pius xu, presented in his first New York exhibition wash draw- 

21 EAST 67th ST., NEW N. Y. © LE 5-8810 


ings and oils painted on aluminum screens. His specialty is Sur- 

realist horror that finds desiccation, decay and a border line between 

death and life in ambiguous figures. Prices unquoted. F.P. 

Blanche Schmeidler | Feigl; Oct. 2-16), a native New Yorker who 
studied with Brecher and Vytlacil, has her first one-man show. These 
abstractions of landscape, figure and still-life are bland, warm (even 
when she employs cool colors) and soothing. Now one, now the other 

influence shows in her work. Only perhaps in the Canyon series are 
these separate ideas brought together. $185-$600. Lt. 

Umana |[Delacorte: to Oct. 14], a thoroughly Europeanized Col- 
ombian, shows versatility in the varied mediums of pen-and-ink, pen- 

Sept. 30-Nov. 2 

cil, watercolor, silver- and goldpoint drawings. Espousing the familiar 

props of Cubism, his portrait heads, still-lifes and figures indicate a 

skillful draftsman, able in a few lines to create an effective design. 

Prices unquoted. H.L.F. 

Reuther | Gallery 75; to Oct. 12], a German in the School of Paris, 
has shown widely in Europe and in South America. His theme is the 
bull-fight (symbolic of life). The picture organization is Cubist; men 

Sidney Janis 15 E. 57 

and animals are divided into flat, rectangular areas of colors out- 
lined in darker shades. Bulls, horses and matadors are equivalent; 

they are all lonely players in an impersonal game. There is no joy in 

color or message, yet the subjects have dignity and evoke, if not 

empathy, sympathy. $100-$500. 1.H.S. 
Contemporary French | Hervé: to Oct. 3| painters usually shown 

at this gallery—Vernard, Jacus, Buffet, Mottet, Yankel, Jansem 

are joined by a Clavé still-life and the works of two Americans: Tom 

Fogarty’s soft nudes and landscapes and the Kline-like inscriptions 

of William Waller. Prices unquoted. H.D.H. 

closed mondays 

Harold Cousins | Poindexter; to Oct. 5), an American now living 
in Paris, shows small welded steel constructions marked by grace- 

fulness, sophistication and wit. Elongated figures that maintain an in- 
the-round tangibility are epitomes of mythical characters. A wire y 
Phoenix, enveloped in flame-wings of metal planes, has a subtle com- 
plexity. The more abstract pieces lack verve, but those that record 

human attitude have a strutting virtuosity. $100-$300. 1.H.S 

Wallace Mitchell |{Schaefer: to Oct. 19], who teaches at Cran 
brook, shows orderly, patterned abstractions, close-keyed in color. 

meticulous in executions. Crossed Squares is like a dream about un- 
posted letters; Turnabout a non-functional abacus; /nterchange may 
be the most plotted picture of the year. Prices unquoted. J.S. 


French contemporaries | Findlay; to Oct. 19] are of the figura- 
tive wing of the School of Paris (with the exception of one semi- 

abstractionist, Yankel) and derive from nineteenth-century Post-Im- 

pressionism. Among the paintings are facile, decorative interiors and 
still-lifes by Babouline and Sienicki. $300-$1,500. 1.H.S. 


Ne Pamtings 

Louis Meys Juster; Oct. 8-26] is from the Hague, works in south- 
ern France and is having his first one-man show in America. His 
landscapes, still-lifes and portraits, done in chalky textures and with 
an astigmatic air seem very French, deriving from almost any of the 

Post-Impressionist masters, but they retain an individuality which 
it is difficult to describe, since it makes it sound Dutch. Meys’s work 

cannot be confined in a definition that pat. The calm and sober 
qualities observed in most of his landscapes are usually enlivened by 
a gay or nervous touch. The paintings have an easy, palatable im- 









19th and 20th CENTURY FRENCH 




PAINTINGS: 1955-56 

thru October 



“The Arts of Primitive Men” 

Oct. 14-Nov. 16 

“Mother and Child 

in Primitive Art” 
Nov. 18- Dec. 28 


19 East 76 Street 

Maori Bone Club New York, N. Y. 
New Zealand 15” High 

pression, but they have an underlying seriousness which is backed 
by a high standard of execution. $135-$655. H.D.H. 

Arlie Sinaiko |Bodley; Oct. 7-19] gave up medicine for sculpture. 
In this ten years’ retrospective, Sinaiko ranges widely in material and 
in manner, but the wood pieces are the best. The latest work, Thus 
Spake The Lord, is carved in worm-eaten wood; it could have been a 

talismanic remainder of prehistory. Prices unquoted. 1.H.S. 

John Krushenick {Camino; Oct. 25-Nov. 14] earns his first one- 
man show with studious though somewhat groping abstract variations 

on orthodox nude and still-life groups. The oils are less interesting 
than some tensile calligraphic drawings. $25-$800. P.T. 

Marcello Boccassi | Sagittarius; to Oct. 12], a young Florentine, 
has his first show in America of drawings and paintings, the latter 
mostly white-grey figures alone or in groups, sometimes strangely 
grouped in pairs, always silent, as uncommitted as flowers, in modest 
dimness, or with shadows falling over the eyes or upon one side of 

the face. Prices unquoted. ws 

Veda Reed | Morris; Oct. 1-19], a young artist from Tennessee, 
experiments with styles ranging from an Avery-like arbor scene to 
dark Abstract Impressionist landscapes. The sky line disappears in 
the recent paintings; the subject is spread out in flat patterns. The 

work is not distinctive but shows promise. Prices unquoted. 1.H.S. 

Umberto Romano | Heller; to Oct. 14}, Italian-born muralist and 
former head of the Worcester Museum school has not been showing 
for a number of years and his return announces his conversion to a 
kind of abstract symbolism. He works with mixed mediums—oil, 
encaustic, tempera, watercolor—and makes large, complicated messes. 

They are quite frightening. $300-$2,000. it. 

Gallery members | James; to Oct. 17] open the season for their 

fourth co-operative year. Gerald Samuels and Alvin Most top their 
fellows in terms of sheer skill and paint-pleasure; of course, “school” 

abstractionism, from Marin’s at one end to Hofmann’s at the other, 

holds safe sway. $45-$500. P.T. 

Oliver Chaffee Barzansky: to Oct. 5] was a founder of the Prov- 
incetown Art Association, he died in 1944. His memorial show dis- 
closes a familiar international “biology”: Cézanne and Derain foster- 
ing his landscape manner, Matisse guiding flower-pieces and _ por- 
traits, Picasso and neo-Picasso seeding the strange, civilized fruit of 
savage fetichism. Chaffee’s personal contribution was a sincere, un- 
encumbered ability to emulate the best. $50-$400. P.T. 

Felipe Orlando [de Aenlle; to Oct. 19] is a Mexican painter and 
writer on Caribbean folk music, on Vivaldi and Telemann. He was 
born in Cuba and has exhibited in the Venice Biennale and in the 
Museum of Modern Art. His paintings are like Tamayo, with a 
younger, more convincing fancy, and like the post-Guernica Picasso. 
They have a story-telling element that is small, intense and irrelevant. 
Prices unquoted. F.P. 
Stanley Hayes, Janina Domanska, Orval Kipp | Kottler; Oct. 
21-Nov. 2] in a three-man show, make the middle-named, from Poland, 
an Expressionist, appear exceedingly competent. Kipp is an illustrator 
who occasionally takes flight into semi-abstraction. Hayes is an Eng- 
lishman, naive, eccentric, not without interest. Prices unquoted. _L.c. 

Aesthetic-realists and friends | Terrain; Oct. 6-Nov. 3) subtitle 
their show, “The Opposites in Contemporary Art.” Two print-makers 
are outstanding; Chaim Koppelman’s False Crucifixion is a portentous 
omen, and works by Romas Viesulas have a teeth-gnashing anguish. 
Dorothy Koppelman’s desolate scenes seem warm when compared to 
the frigidity of Regina Dienes’ white landscape which even slashes of 
red cannot melt. $30-$300. 1.H.S. 

Haim Mendelsohn {Caravan| showed mixed watercolors and 
drawings from Europe. An irritating study of foliage explains his 
partiality for, and success with, the fields of Holland and the open 
plains of the south. His drawings range from tight, economic land- 
scapes to incisive figures recalling Zorn. $10-$60. H.D.H. 

Sidney Delevante [Gallery 75; Oct. 14-Nov. 6], a teacher at 
Cooper Union, uses Surrealist cartooning to create a world of bizarre 

creatures. DoodJing becomes a device of the imagination (rather than 


of the unconscious) to advance social, psychological or metaphysical 
comments (cryptic titles included). $100-$2,000. 1.H.S. 


American group (Arts; Oct. 8-18] contains interesting dark ab- 

y QO | N ( ; stractions by Erik Hoberg, Alice Palmer’s Parisian still-lifes, dark } 
realist portraits by Sadie Bordeaux. Prices unquoted. H.D.H. 

Opening show [Camino; Oct. 4-24] is the sort of one-work-apiece 
group where, though most shine with aptitude and there is no dearth 
of the latest New Yorkism, one would hesitate before identifying more 
than one or two exhibitors as finished stylists. Prices unquoted. P.T. 



Gladys Goldstein {Duveen-Graham; to Oct. 12], in her first New 
York one-man show, has an ingeniously modish way of giving atmos- 

pheres the density of abstract Cubism, used decoratively rather than / é \ 
structurally to denote objects. The complex paint-patterning, whether 
of Chinatown or the desert, tends to float rapidly to the picture 

plane like things bobbing to the surface of water. With expertly ® 
modulated palette and palette-knife, Miss Goldstein creates an im- 
pression of appealing virtuosity. $250-$600. P.T. 

Early American ships { Argosy; to Feb. 28) is the theme of this 
selection of nineteenth-century marine pictures. Most are primitive, Contemporary lamps with Orien- 
painted by sailors, but several (not the best) are by skilled illustra- 
tors. Noteworthy is Captain R. W. Foster’s The Destruction of The 
Steamship, City of Pittsburgh, 1852, which has a stark honesty and 

Old and Modern 

tal feeling, created for Bonniers 

by Isamu Noguchi, well-known 

©) in intuitive grasp of pictorial values. $75-$500. 1.H.S. American artist. Lamp 16” high, 
shade: white, white and black. 

Herbert Gilbert, Murray Tinkelman [Panoras; Oct. 7-19) or white and yellow. Comes 

both studied at Brooklyn Museum School and both are extremely ae sad 495 

aware of style. Beginning with a fully-developed abstract style has 
its dangers. In their case it results in a nice look but a lack of 

content. Gilbert works with clusters of color spots, sometimes with 
collages of canvas and paper spots. Tinkelman is more slashing and B QO N N | h R S 

dashing—but what’s he getting excited about? Prices unquoted. L.c. eS 

1 E. 57th Street 
New York City 

Lilyn Ford, Francis Motzer, Linda Giele | Kottler; Oct. 7-19), 
ill of New York, show together. Ford is a conventional painter with 
streaks of eccentricity. Motzer engages in double images and other a 

quiddities in a careful, ornamental manner. Giele paints faces with 

reproachful eyes. Prices unquoted. L.C. 

Six painters [ Arts; to Oct. 7] include the geological abstractions 
of Laura Doynn, quiet still-lifes by Jean Gunther, feathery impasto 
landscapes by Julia Brunner, the primitive Ben Eisner’s Studio, 
Marion Smithers’ leafy still-lifes, Connecticut scenes by Caroline 
Clark Marshall. $75-$500. H.D.H. 

Luigi Zuccheri [| Sagittarius; Oct. 14-27], a Venetian showing in 

America for the first time, paints small, darkish panels from the 
N, a / point of view of a puddle. The subjects—squid, duck, owl, frog 

’ ’ ) . > . ‘ 
JYOW avauaolé at only appear large, the surroundings, tiny. His squalid and old-masterly 

$1.25 each way of painting borders on being clumsy. Prices unquoted. Ez. 

THE Clemence Gregory [Fleischman; Oct. 22-Nov. 11], seen solo for 
SOCIAL HISTORY the first time in New York, reveals himself sensualist of Pollockism, 
OF ART liberally composing astronomic distances with profuse washes, pours, 
VOLUMESI& II throws and drips of oil paint. At his least inspired, he turns out 
brittle exercises in dripping horizons; at his most, he can whip up a 


by ARNOLD HAUSER vortex of color with some of Pollock’s power. $250-$500. PS. 
A comprehensive study, in concrete pre-columbian 
terms, of the social origins of art, John E. Coleman [Wittenborn] showed drypoints and aquatints / fri 
representing Volume I of the origi- of city scenes and dancers made up out of intersecting and inter- alrican 
nal edition, complete, unabridged, acting shadows. $20-$55. H.D.H. 

and fully illustrated and covering 
the Prehistoric, Ancient-Oriental, 
Greek and Roman, Medieval, Ren- 
aissance, Rococo and Baroque pe- 


Aaron Furman 

17 East 82 Street 
New York City 28 
LYceum 6-5513 


Horizon Artists group [Bodley; to Oct. 5], David Atkins, Isadore 
Eichen, Helmut Kallweit, Myron Mayers and C. B. Ross, banded to- 
gether to facilitate getting shows. Most of them have a predilection 
for brightly colored semi-abstraction. The result, however, is dull. 
Prices unquoted. 1.H.S. 

“A profound, provocative, and mon- 
umental work.” 
—Francis Henry Taylor 

Jane Frank [Kottler; Oct. 21-Nov. 2] of Baltimore has her first one- 
man show of uniformly-textured abstract paintings consisting of 
patches of tertiary colors close in value. The figurations derive from 
landscape sensations; the color is at times agreeable. $135-$500. L.c. 

“The most serious and comprehen- 
sive work of its kind that I know.” 
—Meyer Schapiro 

At most bookstores 
V inEAee BOOKS, INC. Stephen Burr (G Gallery; Oct. 1-25], in his first one-man show in 
501 Madison Ave., New York 22 New York, is showing massive animal figures constructed of planes 

October 1 to 
November 15, 1957 


“We're looking for 
people who 
like to draw...” 

say America’s 12 Most Famous 
Artists. If you like to draw, 
you probably can be trained to 
Make money as an artist, 
spare or full time. Find out 
with our 12-page Art Talent 
Test. Thousands paid $1 to 
take it. Now, get it free. If 
you show talent on the Test, 
you will be eligible for train- 
ing in your own home and 
spare time, under guidance of 
top professional artists. No 
obligation. Send your name, 
address and age to: Famous 
Artists Schools, Studio 355, 
Westport, Conn. 

Norman Rockwell 

jon Whitcomb 

Exhibition of 




thru October 



11 East 57th St., N. Y. 




601 MADISON AVE., N. Y. 

; "ROSE 


Oct. 21-Nov. 2 lst N.Y. Showing 

barzansky galleries 

1071 madison avenue, at 81 street 

ome Exhibition of Paintings by ===" 



Oct. 22-Nov. 2 

15 Venderbilt Ave., N.Y. C. mmm 

of parallel steel bars. Bird makes an extreme use of this technique 
with the bars jumbled together in upraised wings. Lascaux Bison has 
an orderly sequence of patches of bars in planes, like corduroy. Burr’s 
figures look like strong drawings given an extra dimension. Their 
inherent strength reaches a climax in Dying Bull which is almost 
over-dramatic. $150-$750. H.D.H. 

Alice Vogel, Abbe Rose Cox | Burr; Oct. 13-26| both appear to 
know a lot about flowers. But Cox’s watercolors fail to match knowl- 
edge with feeling. German-born Miss Vogel, less sophisticated, as- 
tonishes; her paintings are bursts of prim vitality; they go beyond 
awkwardness. Prices unquoted. ue: 
Alf J. Stromsted | Contemporary Arts; to Oct. 18), who is a pian- 
ist and electrical engineer as well as a painter, has his third one-man 
show here. His landscapes and groups of faceless people are painted 
in subdued colors and careful textures. Prices unquoted. H.D.H. 
Harriette Trifon |Panoras; Oct. 21-Nov. 2] is a rough-and-ready 
Expressionist of still-life, birds, sea and ships now having her third 
one-man show. Her colors are on the squally side and the excitement 
of her paint becomes monotonous because she lays it on thick with 
a palette knife and it always looks the same. Prices unquoted. Lt. 

Virginia Schnell |James; Oct. 18-Nov. 7], Philadelphian who 
studied with Carles and Hofmann, makes her New York debut with 
colorful compositions of mosaic-type rectangles. $75-$200. P.T. 

Hossein Behzad’s {Wildenstein; Oct. 1-12] gouache illustrations 
for the Rubaiyat closely follow the traditional styles of Persian minia- 
- Rose Schaffer’s | Barzansky; 
conventional genre scenes introduce her to New 

tures [prices unquoted] H.L.F. . 
Oct. 21-Nov. 2 
York [$30-$500] p.r. 

Susan B. Chambers [{Roerich; Oct. 6-Nov. 10] shows watercolors 
and drawings of landscapes and flowers which evoke the seasons in 
New Hampshire [$50-$200] . . . Senen Ubina (Little; Oct. 1-14 
shows a group of grey-faced women and children in rather sculptural 
oils [$150-$1,000] . . . Alwyn Lazansky (Contemporary Arts; Oct 
14-Nov. 1] offers abstract Cubisms in gentle colors | prices unquoted 
... Carlo Canevari | Little] showed nuns, choirboys and harlequins 
in humorous situations | $350-$475 . Paul A. Kotny Little 
showed charcoals and pastels of figures, flowers and landscapes in 

his American debut. [$40-$300]. H.D.H. 

Maria B. Cantarella {Grand Central; Oct. 22-Nov. 2] shows con- 
ventional portraits, still-lifes and landscapes | $300-$500 .. Zita 
Querido Bodley: Oct. 14-25], a former Hofmann student. shows 
bright, sentimental portraits, floral pieces, abstractions and collages 
in her debut [prices unquoted] .. . James Goldsworthy [{Crespi:; 
to Oct. 13], young Maryland artist who studied with Fritz Winter and 
Santomaso, manifests diverse Abstract-Expressionist influences [$55- 
$200) ... Louis Hill { Petite; Oct. 21-Nov. 2] shows bright pastoral 
scenes and dun cityscapes [$40-$500] ... Leon Kasparian [Crespi: 
to Oct. 13 probes 1 sticky subconscious in his first New York show; 
his cavernous abstractions gasp for air, but their gloominess comes 
partly from murky paint handling [$55-$200| .. . Orville Bulman 
Grand Central; Oct. 15-26] shows conventional Carib native scenes 
$350-$450| .. . Walter White {Crespi; Oct. 14-27] has a debut 
of smoldering abstractions; they appear fabricated but show promise 
$100-$300| .. . Charles Blum [Petite; Oct. 7-19] borrows from 
many manners; his paintings have a Mexican patina [$75-$500] 

Arthur Weithas {Bodley: Oct. 1-12! shows quick, amusing small 
watercolors and drawings in his first New York show | $50-$150]. 1.H.s. 

William Baumol { Collector's; Oct. 21-Nov. 2] shows painstaking 
Surreal allegories; some are playful, some are fierce | prices unquot- 
ed| ... Seena Donneson [Chase; Oct. 7-19] uses the palette-knife 
a lot in candid-camera-posed carcasses, portraits, still-lifes [prices 
unquoted ; Skaling White; Oct. 8-26] knifes up a storm in 
oils that merit their titles: Ghouls, Eight-Eyed Monster, Several- 

Headed Dragon. Some drawings are more Surrealist | prices unquot- 

ed| ... Robinson Mackee [{Chase: Oct. 21-Nov. 2] uses free ab- 
stract techniques in tightly designed canvases | prices unquoted] .. . 
Liuboslav Hutsaliuk | Boissevain; Oct. 1-30], known in Paris, has 
a New York debut of sweetly colored, sleekly styled oils, tempered by 
Buffet rigidities [$200-$600] ... Robert Dunn [Collectors; Oct. 
7-19] has a first one-man show of nudes in livid interiors and out-of- 
doors—like undressing in Celtic twilight [$90-$375]. J.S. 




Ro, : 




Stanley HAYES 
Orval KIPP 

Paintings + Oct. 21-Nov. 2 

3 EAST 65 STREET, N. Y. 



GALLERIES @ 21 E. 57 St., N. Y. C. 



john heller &*¢4F "> 

Through Oct. 12 

Loan Exhibition @ Sept. 30-Oct. 19 


ACA 63 E. 57, N. Y. 

through oct. 26 


1018 MADISON AVE. e 79 ST. 


Also Gallery Group 

665 North La Ciereca Bivd., Los Ance'es 


51, rue de Seine—PARIS—Dan: 91-10 









Blake: grandeur of ideas continued from page 31 

works ye shall know them.” All who endeavour to raise up a style Andrea Mantegna 

against Rafael, Mich. Angelo and the Antique; those who separate 
Painting from Drawing; who look if a picture is well Drawn, and if as 
it is, immediately cry out that it cannot be well Colored—those are 

the men. Illuminator 

To English Connoisseurs 


You must agree that Rubens was a Fool, 
And yet you make him master of your School 

And give more money for his slobberings 
Than you will give for Rafael’s finest Things. 
I understood Christ was a Carpenter 

And not a Brewer's Servant, my good Sir. that of miniaturist and illuminator, Mantegna emerges from this study 

Providing an episode in Renaissance art, humanism, and diplomacy, 

Professor Meiss assigns an altogether novel role to the great Mantegna 

To Hunt with a new and important place in the history of writing esse 

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Collecting modern masters continued from page 35 

priced around $85 apiece), but her budget was also small. She bought 
many things from Rose Fried, but she bought from other sources, too. 
rhe fine Klees came from Nierendorf. The Peruvian textile, which, to 
the Winstons’ amusement many experts mistake for a Klee, came from 
a Cranbrook student returning from South America. When she ac- 
companied her husband to California on a business trip in 1948, she 
saw the Arensbergs’ collections, ran into the dealer Earl Stendahl, 
and came back with the forceful Léger of 1912, the Gleizes and many 
Pre-Columbian pieces. 

Usually she deliberated about which artist or which movement in- 
terested her at a given moment or which was needed for the collec- 
tion. Then she studied reproductions, read, visited museums and 
searched diligently for the work she wanted. Sometimes the quest 
ended according to plan. Often, delightfully, it was diverted. In 1945 
she went into Peggy Guggenheim’s Art of This Century gallery on the 
track of a Masson and came out with a somberly rich Jackson Pollock 
($275 in those days). Another time, having pursued a certain Laurens 
sculpture to its home in a French private collection, she decided when 
she saw it that it was “too stuffy” and chose instead his compact, 
Cubist Man with a Moustache 

All this time Harry Winston was indulgently enjoying his wif 

endeavors. It seemed to him a rewarding outlet for her enthusiasm 

and energy and his inquiring mind was challenged by the works of 
art that were gradually filling his house. He had moments of pani 
every now and then, afraid lest the dealers were leading Lydia astray 
and concerned lest her preoccupation grow too avid. But, beginning 
in 1949, he became ensnared himself. He remains objectively amused 
by the machinations and vocabulary of the art world, but he is 
diverted by the adventures into which collecting has led him, has 
grown fond of the people he has met and is deeply involved with all 
the recent purchasing. Although he would never advise anyone to 
collect art in order to make profits, he proudly admits that Lydia’s 
“investments have turned out to be better than my own.” Equally 
proudly, the Winstons remark that they have never sold or traded 
their acquisitions 

Harry Winston’s involvement began with their first postwar 
ropean trip in 1949. “Lydia always goes abroad with a mission,” he 
explains. The fulfillment of these “missions” not only brought him 
into collecting as an equal and enthusiastic partner, but. because it 
involved meeting artists and collectors, gave a zest to the whole opera- 
tion. From 1949 their travels became regular, their activities accele- 
rated and their collection was immeasurably enriched 

The “missions” were various. They sought out Severini. climbed the 
six storeys to his studio and were directed by him to the Ballet Dancer 
in Paris which they subsequently purchased (and, afraid lest it lose 
its attached sequins in transit, carried personally in a taxicab from 
Paris to Cherbourg). They met Léger and Giacometti. They met 
Tristan Tzara in the course of a search for Picasso collages and pro- 
cured the Glass on a Table of 1914 because Tzara at that moment 
needed money to buy a house in the country. They were entranced by 
the man and with his collection, his conversation, his precious little 

illustrated books, of which they bought several. He sold them. among 

In the Winston collection show at the Detroit Institute of Arts: 
Boccioni’s bronze Development of a Bottle in Space, 1913. 




other things, the Pevsner sculpture [ fig. 3|, which he let them have for 
the same price they had paid previously for their Gabo, so that “we 
could have both brothers.” They called on Peggy Guggenheim in 
Venice and that unpredictable Signora took a warm liking to them, 
escorted them around in her dual-propeller gondola and introduced 
Italian artists she was sponsoring. 

oo, they discovered the Biennale. They have been to 

them to youn 
In Venice, 

each exhibition since 1950 and have bought consistently. As their 


confidence increases, they enjoy making discoveries. Capogrossi, San- 
tomaso, Deluigi are among those whose work they found by the 
Adriatic, along with a handsome, fugal painting by Torres-Garcia. 
The search for a Brancusi sculpture was one of the pleasantest ad- 
ventures. They were taken to the pristine studio in 1952 by Claire 
Guilbert, whom they had met earlier when looking at Picasso's 
ceramics at Vallauris. Already old and enfeebled, Brancusi was re 
luctant to part with any of his work. The negotiations were long, the 
meetings many and Harry Winston stood patiently by while the old 
man hugely and leisurely enjoyed the company of the two ladies 
Finally the deal for the Blond Negress was consummated—the first 
piece Brancusi had sold in nearly twenty years. The occasion was 
celebrated on the day of the Winstons’ departure with one of Bran- 
cusi’s famous self-cooked meals served on his plaster table. In the 
middle of lunch, the sculptor looked blackly at his guests and demand- 
ed his money. Contemptuously disdaining the proffered draft, he in- 
sisted on cash. Harry Winston dutifully left to go to the bank and re 
turned with a suitcase full of francs. The Blond Negress was theirs 
They also brought back a most fragile gift from Brancusi: a real 
egg which he had decorated with drawings of The Kiss on a pink 
ground. It was duly placed in a little glass egg-cup near the head. 
So deep was the Winstons’ admiration for the sculptor that they dis- 
regarded the odors that gradually emanated from the egg. which 
lown out. One day the Winstons’ housekeeper. whose 


had not been 


olfactory sensitivities were stronger than her esthetic ones, threw out 
the putrid object. Lydia discovered the loss in time. The egg was re 
trieved from the garbage. It now rests safely sous cloche. 

The Winstons bought their first Futurist work—a Balla—in 1953 
from Rose Fried. They were particularly responsive to this pre-World 

War I Italian movement with its belief in the beauty of machine forms 

and its concepts of Dynamism. Hence their visit to Severini, who had 

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been one of the original group, and their seeking out of Benedetta 
Marinetti, the widow of the movement's founder. As Lydia Winston 
points out, the movement had been short-lived, the output was com- 
paratively small and the work difficult to come by. But these obstacles 
only heightened the pleasures of the hunt. In 1952 they persuaded 
Mme. Marinetti to part with Balla’s important Injection of Futurism 
fig. 2], but when they inquired about buying one of her Boccioni 
sculptures she shut them off with a terse remark: “They are my life.” 
Undaunted, and now in competition with a powerful New York dealer, 
they renewed their acquaintance with her in 1956. The lady was coy 
and noncommittal for a long time. There were dinners, ballet, opera; 
they spent long hours browsing through Futurist documents. Finally 
she joined them in Venice and acquiesced. The Winstons now own the 
three great Boccioni sculptures: Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, 
{ntigrazioso | fig. 5}, Development of a Bottle in Space |p. 64]. They 
also have the unique and beautiful drawings. 

These last purchases are the most ambitious ones in the Winstons’ 
collecting career and in terms of cost represent about twenty per 
of the whole, but they have added greatly to the collection’s specia 

For a long time very little attention was paid to the Winstons’ pic 
tures. They were shown at Cranbrook in 1950, but caused little local 
stir or pride. In 1953, Katherine Kuh, searching for a particular 

Léger for the show she was putting on at the Art Institute of Chi- 


cago, located it in this remote Birmingham home. “She acted as if 
she had found the Holy Grail,” Lydia Winston recalls. But Katherine 
Kuh was also excited at discovering this whole unknown Middle 
Western operation. She quickly summoned Daniel C. Rich, Director 
of the Art Institute, to come to see it. News travels fast in the art 
world and museum men are quick to woo an interesting collector. 
Soon Alfred H. Barr, Jr., of the Museum of Modern Art was visiting. 
The University of Michigan showed the collection in the fall of 1955. 
Now, with the addition of the recent important pieces and, as E. P. 
Richardson says, “the large, representative, historically significant 
character of the collecting becoming plain,” the collection will make 
its nationwide tour. 

Having carried on their brave and interesting pursuit in a rather 
solitary way for so long, the Winstons are delighted with the recent 
recognition. In it they find a reassurance that whets their appetites. It 

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is safe to predict that on their biennial trip to Europe this coming 
summer they will not only buy the work of new, young talent at the 
Biennale in Venice but will ferret out, preferably from the artists 
themselves, some other significant examples to strengthen this uniquely 
and carefully formed documentary collection of twentieth-century art. 

Bassano continued from page 25 

Jacopo, born around 1514, was the son of the painter Francesco, 
surnamed da Ponte after a well-known bridge on the Brenta river at 
Bassano, where he had established his studio. Succeeding generations 
of the family were known alternatively as da Ponte or Bassano. From 
his father, Francesco the Elder (to distinguish him from one of 
Jacopo’s sons), a provincial follower of the Mantegna tradition, 
Jacopo learned the fundamentals of painting; but his introduction 
came in 1530, when as an adolescent he went to study with Bonifacio 
de’ Pitati in Venice. and came in contact with the grand currents of 
Venetian painting. 

By 1535 he was recognized as a master in his own right, for he was 
commissioned to execute three large canvases for the Palazzo Pretorio 
in Bassano, where he quietly spent the rest of his life. In these earliest 
of his known major works, the influence of Bonifacio is obvious, par- 
ticularly in the Christ and the Adulteress, yet the atmosphere of 
popular narrative and the realistic figure of the cripple introduce 
themes that will continue, with variations, throughout Jacopo’s work. 
The homely realism of the still-life detail from Supper at Emmaus 
(Citadella, Parish Church) and of the similar detail from Last 
Supper | fig. 4], are felicitous illustrations of this continuity, though 
the first, painted about 1538, is still in the manner of Bonifacio, and 
the second, from about 1550, is in Jacopo’s fully developed personal 
style, in which drawing is not conceived as boundary for color, and 
the freedom of touch recalls Tintoretto and Greco. 

Until about 1540 Bassano remains a gifted, conservative painter, 
continuing the fifteenth century’s quiet, balanced classicism, and 
coming strongly under the influence of Titian and Lorenzo Lotto 
Then he is « aught up in the revolution of Mannerism., first seen mainly 
through Parmigianino and prints of the Roman school, and frees him- 
self from the placid past in a series of extraordinary, often chaotic, 
( ompositions. 

The Entombment of the Parish House at Crosara S. Luca, near 
Vicenza, anticipates the Mannerist break with local tradition, in its 
single-plane composition and flat bright color, but in the figure 
clasping Christ’s legs a measure of classical Renaissance illusionism 
is still preserved. The complete adoption of Mannerist vocabulary, 
including its incoherencies, is seen in Samson Slaying the Philistines 
[fig. 2], St. Catherine and the Martyrs of Alexandria (Bassano 
Civic Museum) and Christ and Veronica (York Museum). Though 
these paintings have passages of great beauty, as a whole they are 
jumbled and almost comically agitated. Around 1550. however, 
Bassano paints a Mannerist masterpiece—the Copenhagen Decapita- 
tion of St. John the Baptist [{fig. 1|—which recalls and equals the 
best of Tuscan and Venetian Mannerism. 

In a unique throwback to medieval narrative method, two episodes 
separated in time, Herod’s banquet and the decapitation, are included 
in the same scene; but the great innovation of this canvas is in the 
richly dissonant, acerb color and the easy elegance of the brushwork. 
Closely related in composition to the Decapitation, the Cleveland 
Museum’s Lazarus and the Rich Man is the culmination of Bassano’s 
Mannerist phase after he adopts the intensely dramatic, luministic 
lighting that anticipates Caravaggio and the gradually darkening 
effects and splendid nocturnes of his own later work. 

Cooler, silvery tones and a magical, fantastic atmosphere imbued 
with pathos characterize another high point in Bassano’s activity: 
the period around and following 1560, to which belong the Vienna 
{doration of the Magi and its many variations (or school versions). 
Probably of about the same time, two minute panels, only a few 
inches high, The Archangel Raphael and the Madonna Receiving the 
Annunciation (Vicenza, Civic Museum), synthesize Jacopo’s mastery 
of fluid light and color; which is combined in the notable Enego altar- 
piece with elongated, contorted figures, and reaches an apogee of 
light-dissolved form in the spectacular Descent of the Holy Spirit 
(Bassano, Civic Museum). In a much later work, The Rectors of 
Vicenza Kneeling Before the Virgin, in the Vicenza Civic Museum, 
the dashing chromatic play gives a supernatural air to the otherwise 
countrified Madonna and Child. 

The Vienna Adoration, at one time attributed to El Greco. raises 
the question of the relations between the two painters, and from the 
close similarity in technique and spirit it would seem that there must 
have been some contact between the young Greco, during his stay in 



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Venice, and the mature Bassano. Among other works suggesting a 
connection is the famous Boy Blowing on an Ember [fig. 3], from 
the Royal Palace, Genoa. It is very likely that Bassano invented this 
subject, new to the art of his time, as he included it in several ver- 
sions of Adoration of the Shepherds, and it represents in dramatic 
nocturnal form the kind of homely theme that he consistently de- 
veloped. But the beautiful replica of Boy Blowing on an Ember at 
the Capodimonte museum in Naples is attributed to Greco, and the 
tantalizing question of the Bassano-Greco relationship remains to 
stimulate historians. 

Bassano’s importance in preparing the way for seventeenth-century 
genre and landscape painting is seen in the Tyssen collection’s 
Country Scene, an original essay in poetic realism that owes little to 
the main currents of contemporary Venetian art. It is the earliest 
example in sixteenth-century painting of country life treated as a 
subject in itself. The Earthly Garden, from the Doria Gallery, Rome, 
another instance of transfigured realism, is a large landscape with 
domestic animals and incidental figures of Adam and Eve, casually 
placed in the left-hand corner. A drawing for the two figures is shown 
in the exhibition with a series of sketches and drawings by Jacopo 
and his followers. Thirteen splendid portraits, including the Chicago 
Art Institute’s Bearded Man (attribution questioned) and the Kress 
Foundation’s brilliant Portrait of a Man, Jacopo’s only known signed 
portrait round out the show. 

Though Jacopo Bassano initiates the taste for the kind of genre 
painting that has such success at the end of the sixteenth and during 
the seventeenth century in Italy and Europe, the flood of Bassanesque 
genre pieces is the work of his school. Of Jacopo’s seven children. 
four sons worked with him, along with a cousin, Jacopo Apollonio 
and other assistants. Francesco the Younger (1549-1592), his col 
laborator on the huge Civezzano triptych, is credited with the de- 
tailed genre passages. Francesco committed suicide in 1592, the year 

Jacopo’s death, but the dynasty was continued by Giambattista 
(1553-1613), Leandro (1557-1622) and Gerolamo (1566-1621). 

Scholarship has not yet traced all the tangled interrelationships 
of the Bassanos, but the present exhibition makes it possible to fol- 
low the contours and many of the details of Jacopo’s career and to 
see him as an individual. Compared to his towering contemporaries 
in Venice—Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese—he may appear a middling 
figure, only occasionally raised to the heights by flashes of genius; 
and even leaving relativism aside he may seem somewhat provincial. 
at least part of the time, but it is this very aspect of the small-town 
bon bourgeois that leads him to create his most original and success- 
ful effects. 

{Incient Etruria continued from page 27 
Monte Abbatone campaign, only two or three had never been rifled, 
but ancient grave robbers generally made off with gold and treasure, 
leaving the rest of the funeral furniture behind, and a number of 
important finds of pottery have been made in the pilfered tombs. An 
average of ten pieces has been recovered from each excavation. One 
tomb, however, was furnished with sixty jars still containing corn 
and other foodstuffs. Also found in this tomb was a unique example 
of an imported Corinthian-style skyphos, prototypes for which have 
been unearthed in eastern Sicily. This two-handled cup of the mid- 
sixth century B.c. has bands of regular decorative patterns and a main 
zone around the body of the vessel with confronted sphinxes and 
bull facing a lion. A great discovery in another tomb was a kylix 
decorated with black-figure paintings of satyrs and maenads, and 
signed by Pamphaios, an Attic painter of the beginning of the fifth 
century B.c. Other important finds include a pinch-mouthed Attic- 
Corinthian wine pitcher of the second half of the sixth century, 
decorated with rosettes and a beautiful painting of a swan | fig. 11 
a small archaic Attic amphora, of about the same time, with a fine 
metopal decoration of a horse’s head and bust | fig. 11]; and an Attic- 
Corinthian amphora, also of the same period, with palmetto decora- 
tion on the neck, and on the body Dionysiac figures and a panther 
confronting a ram | fig. 9]. 

Only 120 of the 270 tombs located at Monte Abbatone have been 
excavated so far, as most of the tombs are filled with earth and the 
actual digging out of the artifacts is still a slow, painstaking proc- 
ess. Another difficulty is that the number of Government inspectors 
and museum personnel available for superintending the work and 
cataloguing the finds is limited, and before the present results of Dr. 
Lerici’s accelerated archeology are fully recorded, he may have gone 
on to photograph the Etruscologist’s dream: a sealed tomb containing 
manuscripts or inscriptions that will make it possible to understand 
the Etruscan language completely. 



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Naples: paintings to palace continued from page 27 

ism), the monumental building has been completely renovated with- 
out altering its historic facades of Naples-red stucco and buff stone 
trim. The new Capodimonte contains once more the Pinacoteca begun 
by the Farneses, and in addition has a museum of frequently comical 
nineteenth-century Neapolitan painting and sculpture and a royal 
household museum and collections 

The paintings have been installed on the upper floor of the two- 
storey palace, where the servants’ quarters and utility apartments of 
no historic interest were. Without changing their silhouettes, the roofs 
were glassed-in over a new framework of pre-compressed concrete to 
provide overhead lighting for the paintings. As Naples is often clear- 
skied with intense sunlight, systems of adjustable baffles and fins, 
electrically operated and manually controlled from each room, are 
used to cast an even light on the walls. The rather squat windows of 
the top floor are not used for lighting, but are screened by sections of 
wall and offer places for the visitor to pause and look at the view. 
The forty-five rooms have been pleasantly varied in size, shape and 
tone, so as to avoid monotonous regularity, but not so much as to im- 
pose the decorator’s personality that is often distractingly evident in 
postwar Italian museums. 

Of special interest in the gallery’s splendid pageant of Italian and 
European painting are the works that were cleaned and restored for 
the inauguration of the museum. In Masaccio’s Crucifixion, removal of 
the inet label, a later addition, revealed the rare subject of the Tree 
of Life springing from the top of the cross; the original background 
has also been recovered, as have the glinting colors of the figures 

figs. 5, 6]. Restoring of the obverse and reverse of Masolino’s pane] 
from the polyptych of S. Maria Maggiore has brought out the snow 
flakes in the scene of Pope Libero Founding the Basilica of S. Maria 
ad Nives, and on both panels the soft allusive original hues. The doubt- 
ful attribution to Botticelli of the Madonna and Child with Angels 
appears to be confirmed, now that cleaning has made the panel com- 
pletely legible; and the Mannerist Portrait of a Boy, formerly at- 
tributed to Parmigianino, in which a detailed interior has been re- 
covered, has been identified as a Rosso Fiorentino | fig. 7]. In the 
background of Giulio Romano's Sacred Family, which contains the 
most famous cat in Italian painting, a large canopied bed has emerged 
after cleaning; and Titian’s portrait of Pier Luigi Farnese, a ticklish 
job for the restorer because of the original intermingling of varnishes 
and paint, has regained life and such details as the gilt helmet that 
resembles closely the examples of the period shown in the royal 
armory on the floor below. Much of the colossal job of cleaning and 
restoring was done in the museum’s attic laboratories, whose modern 
equipment places it in a class with the celebrated /stituto Centrale 
del Restauro of Rome and the Central Laboratory of the Brussels 

In addition to familiar works which present a fresh aspect after 
having been cleaned, the gallery has several new exhibits, reacquired 
from its own storerooms (where they had lain neglected for genera 
tions) in the process of moving from the National Museum to Capodi 
monte. In this way, the early sixteenth-century pseudo-Bramantino 
triptych of Visitation, Nativity and Adoration of the Magi has been 
added to its predella, and the outstanding discovery of two lost Cor- 
reggios has been made. The Correggio canvases, representing St. 
Joseph and a donor, are done in tempera and in the foreground bear 
the date July 6, 1529, a date which confirms the close stylistic rela- 
tionship between these paintings and the frescoes in the dome of the 
cathedral of Parma (1530). These discoveries and the familiar trea- 

Nine paintings by Titian in the new installation 

at the palatial Capodimonte (Naples) museum. 



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sures of the National Gallery are arranged in two sections, with the 
first twenty rooms given to works from the thirteenth to the sixteenth 
century, and containing the original Farnese collection; and the 
rest of the forty-five rooms devoted to masters of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. A neat bar and lounge, half-way through the 
sequence of rooms, offers a convenient resting place, and from here a 
stairway leads to a panoramic terrace on the roof of the palace. The 
view is spectacular, embracing Naples, its bay, with Capri and Ischia 
in the background, and Vesuvius and the Sorrentine coast to the left. 
Ihe three rooms leading to the seventeenth- and eighteenth-century 
section show rotating exhibitions of drawings from the museum's 
large collection. Two grandiose cartoons (with pounce marks), 
Michelangelo’s for the three soldiers in the Crucifixion of St. Peter 
fresco of the Pauline Chapel at the Vatican, and Raphael's for the 
Moses of his second Vatican Stanza, are exhibited here. 

The most sumptuous of the rooms is lined with green silk and 
floored with slabs cut from an ancient block of African marble, 
mottled deep red and white, found in the Roman forum; it contains 
nine Titians [ p. 68}. 

The grandiose piano nobile, or first floor of the palace, houses 
besides the extensive galleries of nineteenth-century Neapolitan art, 
the collections of porcelain and Renaissance bronzes and medals 
and the armory of ancient weapons (after the one in Turin, the 
best in Italy), a simplified reconstruction of a royal suite of the 
late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. As in the Pinacoteca. 
the piéce-de-résistance of the suite, a small room entirely walled in 
porcelain, | fig. 8] has a history of peregrination. The Rococo re- 
vetment, with chinoiserie plaques and birds, monkeys, flowers and 
fruit perched on or twined around its ornate moldings, was a gift 
from Charles ut to his wife Maria Amalia, and was executed at the 
Capodimonte porcelain factory in 1757-59, when it was installed 
in the royal residence of Portici, south of Naples. In 1866 the walls 
were moved to Capodimonte, but the vaulted plaster ceiling, by the 
same hands as the porcelain decoration, was left behind. It has now 
been brought to Capodimonte and reunited with its walls, whose 
three-thousand pieces have been cleaned and remounted. The rarity 
of this eighteenth-century extravaganza of interior decoration justifies 
the immense labor that has gone into restoring and reconstituting 
its parts, including the elaborately playful porcelain chandelier. 
which had been reduced to a heap of minute fragments, filling two 
crates, by the air bombardments of 1943. The effect made by the 
porcelain room, the ballroom, the dining room and the rest of the 
royal suite is less overpowering than that of the background in a 
technicolor period movie of courtly high life. but much more con- 
vincing than that of the usual royal apartments, all over the Conti- 
nent, whose shabby grandeur may call up dull historic echoes but 
offers little pleasure to the eve. Discreetly cleaned and refurbished, 
with upholstery and draperies rewoven after their original patterns. 
Capodimonte’s royal rooms are probably the most attractive in 
Europe today, while its complex of museums is certainly among the 
most richly endowed in works of art, the best equipped and the 

most pleasingly arranged 

Mitchell paints a picture continued from page 47 

act, then I want to know what my brush is doing.” 

Miss Mitchell painted intermittently for several days, and then 
determined to abandon the picture. Unlike many New York artists, 
who scrape, scoop and change, she normally adds paint and rarely 
makes basic alterations, preferring, rather, to destroy the whole work. 
However in the case of Bridge, she hesitated and decided to save this 
canvas for future study. The picture was rejected because the feeling 


was not specific enough, and because the painting was not 
To her, accuracy involves a clear image produced in the translation 
of the substance of nature into the nature of memory. It also involves 
the mechanics of abstract painting, the creation of a positive-negative 
ambiguity necessary to achieve such clarity. “Lines.” for instance, 
“can’t just float in representational space.” When asked about color, 
she shrugged and said, “I guess I would wish it not to be what Hof- 
mann calls ‘monotonous,’ that is tonal and boring”; on light, “I hate 
it when it looks muddy [earthbound].” “Motion is important, but not 
in the Futurist sense. A movement should also sit still [the peregrina- 
tion of memory].” The artist’s armlong sweeps are always caught 
back in horizontal and vertical lines, giving her paintings their struc- 
ture. Above all, she must like her pictures. She stressed, “I am not 
a member of the make-it-ugly school.” Her works are, what Baudelaire 
called, “the mnemotechny of the beautiful.” 

After putting aside the first canvas, she became somewhat depressed 
and found it difficult to work. Yet she felt that she had to, so she 



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Antique Furniture 

Old Master Paintings Works of Art 

Telegrams: Paintings Telephone: 551529 





Oct. 14-26 

Oct. 1-12 

Upper Gallery 


10 Years of Sculpture: 1947-57 PAINTINGS 

Oct. 21-Nov. 2 

Oct. 7-19 

BODLEY GALLERY « 223 E. 60th St., N. Y. 

forced herself to paint, but what? Miss Mitchell needs a subject she 
likes in order to feel positively enough to work. A friend jokingly 
suggested that she paint a poodle she once had swimming. The dog, 
George, became the mnemonic catalyst which provided the remem- 
bered attitude, and the beach in East Hampton furnished the remem- 
bered landscape image, although once the painting was started, it 
took over. 

George Swimming at Barnes Hole began as a lambent yellow paint- 
ing [fig. 7], but during the second all-night session, the work 
changed. The lustrous yellows turned to opaque whites, and the feel- 
ing became bleak; therefore, “but It Got Too Cold.” The artist did 
not carry her buoyancy any further; the beach was transposed from 
summer to fall. It seemed as if the hurricane that struck East Hamp- 
ton in the autumn of 1954 invaded the picture. Since her early child- 
hood, lake storms have been a frightening symbol both of devasta- 
tion and attraction, and the sense of tempestuous waters appears 
frequently in her work. Miss Mitchell painted four hurricane canvases 
based on this experience in 1954. George is a return to this series, the 
realization of what was attempted then. This picture is less linear than 
her work in the intervening years. The contrast of the happy heat of 
the multi-colored central image, the shimmering water and the sun- 
streaked atmosphere with the fearful suggestion of the impending 
hurricane creates a remarkably subtle tension. 

Che artist stretched the finished canvas, which measured 86 by 78 
inches, without trimming any away, and decided to include it in her 
show at the Stable gallery that spring [A.N., Mar. °57]. She liked 
George, but felt that it still lacked a certain structure and an “ac- 
curacy in intensity.” When asked about her personal meanings in 
this work and their communication, she answered: “If a_ painting 
comes from them, then they don’t matter. Other people don’t have to 
see what I do in my work.” As time goes on, past pictures become in- 
creasingly remote, and Joan Mitchell tends to see them as others do, 

as paintings. The vital matter is transferred to works in progress 

Amateur standing 

Proportion and distortion 

A difficult problem for students to master is the adjusting of forms 
to a correct proportion and placement within the limited picture 
space. As discussed in this column last month, the primitives, like 

children, are not basically concerned with such problems, for they 
“write” their pictures naturally on the flat surface, which they more 
or less take for granted. Whatever illusion of reality is to be found in 
their art is suggested by the imagination. But as artists become more 
and more objective about life they become less satisfied with implica- 
tion, and search for devices to create the illusion of réality. Thus 
perspective was born. 

For clarification and convenience, we may roughly assemble the 
devices used by artists to create the illusion of existent forms on a 
flat surface into three areas: (a) psychological—which includes the 
symbolic and the metaphysical; (b) scientific perspective—or the 
quest for objectivity; (c) the formal—modern design and space 

In the first category is included most early and religious art, which 
relies heavily upon metaphor and symbol. This art disregards natural 
proportions and readily distorts anatomy for symbolic purposes. The 
Egyptians, for instance, portrayed their gods and kings larger than 
life in the heroic proportions befitting them, and left the more 
“normal” proportions for lesser beings. The Byzantines also related 
size and proportions to status. Equivalent procedures persist today 
among the self-taught, and also with many modern, disciplined artists, 
who find such means better suited to express their ideas. It is inter- 
esting to observe how deity shrinks in scale as “reality” and Human- 
ism take over, as in the Renaissance, where the human figure domi- 
nates the canvas. 

Comparatively, perspective (category b) allows no such freedom. 
A fortunately preserved preliminary study made by Leonardo da Vinci 
for his Adoration of the Magi shows how carefully the Renaissance 
masters planned their picture-space as ruled by the mathematics of 
one-point perspective. Their forms were also “distorted” but for dif- 
ferent purposes. They were made large or small as demanded by their 
placement within the perspective framework, with lines (of buildings, 
for instance) converging to meet the demands of what was then 
thought to be an inflexible visual law. Size now is not decided by 
hierarchical status or social caste but by an impersonal law, the 
mechanical perspective system. 

In the third category (c), forms are also distorted, but now to fit 
and fill areas preconditioned by a planned design and space upon the 


picture surface. Excellent examples of this may be found in the slubtle 
distortions in Matisse’s paintings, and in the more apparent but cer- 
tainly no less brilliant and possibly more ingeniously creative works 
by Picasso. The Race (1922), Picasso’s small tempera in his recent 
retrospective show at the Museum ef Modern Art in New York, 
demonstrates this principle with consummate mastery. The bodies, 
arms and legs of the two running figures (rendered in his mural, 
classical style) are “distorted” large or small to fit the requirements 
of an over-all pictorial design and structure. Picasso sacrificed human 
proportions in order to create a beautifully proportioned picture. 

In many modern paintings is a merging of the three categories 
briefly touched upon here. The contemporary painter with his ex- 
tended equipment has an unprecedented freedom for exploration. 

Lawyers who paint 

The 1957 art show of the Association of the Bar of the City of New 
York contained more than one hundred and twenty works by 58 mem- 
bers, some of whom revealed marked advances in this year’s display. 
Among these to be mentioned is the distinguished lawyer, author, 
lecturer and indefatigable weekend painter, Alexander Lindey. Learn- 
ing mainly from extensive gallery-going and museum study rather 
than from formal study, Alexander Lindey jealously reserves time 
from his other interests for painting, which he pursues with serious 
between a formalized kind of objectivity and ab- 
and experiment 

intent. Fluctuating 
straction, he finds in painting a means to explore 
with form and color. He possesses the rare attribute among amateurs 
of varying technique with idea and of searching in each work for a 
particular uniqueness. This freedom from set methods can be seen 
in several canvases in this show, from the clearly delineated, vividly 
colored Rockport, to the more smoothly formalized, abstracted Still- 
life with Book. 

Also prominent in the show were paintings by Whitney North 
Seymour, Jr. Since World War Il, Whitney Seymour has devoted 
his spare time, especially summers, to painting. Self-taught, he has 
crossed the amateur boundaries by having had work accepted by the 
Audubon Artists, the National Academy and others. Although he 
has painted extensively abroad, his works here were of New York, 
and revealed a style well suited to interpret the city’s aspect. In 
large areas of heavily impastoed colors, he interprets Twin Houses 
off Commerce Street, Foley Square and Majestic Theatre in decora- 
tive patterns of broad sunlight and shadow. 

A more recent adherent to painting, Daniel H. Riesner, states, “In 
1952 I came to the realization that my knowledge of painting was so 
abysmally lacking that it would be wise, from a purely cultural 
standpoint, to find out what was going on in the world of art.” Be- 
ginning with tours of galleries and museums, he eventually realized 
he had to know more about techniques if he were to enlarge his sense 
of appreciation. Thus began the avocational pursuit which occupies 
much of his spare time. Maturing rapidly, his expressionistic Jan, 
Rooftops and Bottle and Bowl construct into well-ordered assemblages 
of lines and color-planes which play in vivid complementary contrasts. 

Also prominent in the show was David Solinger’s Deep Purple, a 
Non-Objective arrangement of muted colors and organic shapes which 
reflect his absorption with the avant-garde movement. Others to be 
mentioned were R. A. Wormser’s ingenious constructions of wire and 
colored stones; J. C. Jaqua’s thickly painted Circus at the Garden; 
Alfred Appel’s Autumn Still-life; Samuel A. Berger’s Hillside Town: 
Julius Isaac’s /nterior and his recent Portrait of My Wife: John 
W. Thompson’s Scrap; Meyer Merman’s Intimations; the veteran 
painter James N. Rosenberg’s Olive Trees near Jerusalem: Leffert 

Holz’s romantic Summit and Evetide; and the amusing portrait of 

the painter Sidney Dickenson by Paul Shaw. Oriental influence was 
faron Berkman 

seen in W. Sully’s Grapevine and Swallow. 


In the Lawyer’s Guild Show: A. Lindey’s Still-life with Bottles, 
[left]; Whitney N. Seymour, Jr.’s Twin House off Commerce Street, 




PERLS GALLERIES 1016 Madison Ave., New York 21, N. Y. 

Loan Exhibition 


SCULPTURE: 1927-1957 

Oct. 14 
-Nov. 23 

WEYHE GALLERY * 794 Lexington Ave., New York 


1 Avenue de Messine, PARIS 


twenty contemporary painters 



OCTOBER 15, 1957 - MARCH 15, 1958 


Broadway, between 155 & 156 Streets 


October 14 to November 1 

CONTEMPORARY ARTS INC. 802 Lexington Ave. at 62nd St. 



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Where and when to exhibit 

dlbany, N. Y. Print Club Biennial, Dec. 
6-30. Open to all. All mediums. Prizes. Fee 
$3. Cards due Oct. 16, work Oct. 25. Write 
Alice Schafer Hawthorne Ave Albany. 
Birmingham, Ala. Wier. So inn., Nov 
30. Open to all. Opaque and transparent 
Fee $1 for non-members. Prizes. Cards due 
Oct. 15: work Oct. 20. Write Belle Comer, 
Birmingham Mus 
Hartford, Conn. Wier. Ann Wadsworth 
Atheneum, Nov. 12-Dec. 8. Conn. only. Wier 
and gouache. Work due Nov. 1. Jury, prizes, 
fee $5. Write: Mrs. Warren Creamer, Farm- 
ngton, Conn 
Evansville, Ind. Ann. Tri State Exh., Nov 
3-30. All within 150 miles, All mediums. Jury 
awards. $2 per 3 objects. Work due Oct 
16. Write: Florita Eichel, Evansville Mus 
Los Angeles, Cal. Wier. So Exh Dee 
1-29. Open to all. Wer pastel, tempera 
Jury handling fee Prizes Write Elsa 
Warner 332 S. Serr . t 
Vassillon, O. 22nd 

resent and 

Fulbright Awards. 
tud for 1958.9 

stesinn wit 
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Rome, Italy. Ameri« 
lowships for indepe 
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' U.S. citizens for 
1958 th poss 

ilbany, \. 

Laynor, Oct 

ithion, Mich. ( 

dndover, Mass. A 

Oct. 27. 

itlanta, Ga. Assoc 
Raltimore, Md. Mu 

Oct. 15. Walters eapor 
Beverly Hills, Cal. Per! 
8-Nov. 9 

Birmingham, Ala. Mus.: 
19; Kennedy, Oct. 6-Nov. 
Roston, Mass. Cont. Inst ont. Fr., Oct. 2- 
Nov. 17. Mus Mod. Masters; Doré, Bresdin 
Redon, to Nov. 4; Te Oct. 2-31. Doll & 
Richards: Hamburger, to Nov. 19 

Buffalo, N. Y. Albright: Buffalo archit 
Oct. 9: Old master Oct. 2-Nov 
Cambridge, Mass. Fogg: Baer coll 

Nov. 12 

Canton, NV. Y. Univ Miller, to 
Chattanooga, Tenn. Hunter Gall 

Uhimann, Oct. 20-Nov. 10 

Chicago, ll. Art Inst Villon, to Oct. 20: 
Picasso, Oct. 29-Dec. 8; Goodman Coll., to 
Nov. 2; Pre-Columt to Nov. 24. “A* Gall 
3-man show, Oct. 6-31 

Cincinnati, O. Mus Lautrec, to Oct. 20 
Lipchitz, Fgevpt Vesopot ulpt Oct 4 
Nov. 5; Polish print Oct. 15-Nov. 15; 
Yugoslav prints, Oct. 25-Dec 

Colorado Sps., Cole. Art Cate 

Oct. 22-Nov. 17 

Dallas, Tex. Mus Local ann., Oct. 5-30 
N. Eur. Oct. 5-31: Lautre Oct. 5-Nov. 10 
Davenport, Ta. Gall Matthews, Oct. 6-27 
Davton, ©. Art Inst Pre-Columb., Oct 
16-Nov. 17 

De Kalb, Ill. College: Bodmer. to Oct 1 
Denver, Col. Mus Harlequin, to Nov. 10 
Des Moines, lowa. Art Cotr Lipchitz, to 
Oct. 15. 

Detroit, Mich. Inst.: Winston coll., to Nov. 3. 
Exeter, N. H. Lamont: Bertoia, Oct. 3-24 
Fort Salonga, L. I. Art Cntr Lazuk, to 
Oct. 19 

Fort Worth, Tex. Art Contr Waldman 
lwgs., to Oct. 6 

Fredonia, NV. Y. College Printmkrs., to 
Oct. 26 

Geneseo. V. Y. College: Weers Oct. 6-2 
Grand Rapids, Mich. Gall.: Master prints, 
to Nov. 1 

Hartford, Conn. Wadsworth Ath.: Conn 
olls., Oct. 4-Nov. 23 Dwes to Oct. 27 
Houston, Tex. Cont. Mus Metal sculpt., 
Oct. 17-Dec. 1. Mus.: Morgan Lib., Oct. 8 
Nov. 3. 

Kansas City, Mo. Nelson Gall.: Wild West, 
to Nov. 15 

LaJolla, Cal. Art Cotr.: Klimo, to Oct. 20; 
Field, to Oct. 13; Trail, Oct. 23-Nov. 24. 
Lexington, Ken. U.: New Talent, U.S.A., 
to Oct. 30 

Lincoln, Mass. DeCordova Mus.: Kamberg 
coll., to Nov. 17 

fudubon, to Oct 

mediums. Jury, prizes. No fees. Work due 
Oct. 26. Write: Albert Hise, Massillon Mus 
Massillon, Ohio 

New York City. Cit Center Monthly 
juried exhs. Open to all. Oils, Prizes. Entries 
due Oct. 10, 11. Write: Ruth Yates, 58 W. 
ST St... Ass 

Philadelphia, Pa. Pyramid Club Ann., Oct 
25-Nov. 30. Oil, sculpt., crafts. Write: Hur 
bert Howard, 15-17 W. Girard Ave 
San Antonio, Tex. San Antonio R 
Group, Oct. 12-13. Oil, wter., cerams., crafts 
Fee $3.00 for non-membe Jury prizes 
Write: Harold Roney, ite 8, Box 294B, 
Leon Springs, Texas 

Washington, D. C. 12th Ann. Exh., Corcorar 
Gallery, Nov. 22-Jan. 5. Open to all artists 
living within 50 miles of Wash. Ptg sculpt 
minor arts. Jurv: awards. Fee $1, 50 cents 
for prints and cerams., Work due Oct. 11, 12 
Write Gudmuad Vigtel Corcoran Gallery 
Youngstown, Ohio. Anr Nov $- Dec 15 
For artists within 25 miles. All mediums 
Vr s. Work due Oct. 27 rite Butler Inst 

residence, travel allowance. Special 
research fellowships, in classical studies and 
urt history only, carry a $2,500 a yr. stipend 
Write, by De 1, 1957: American Academy 
i Rome 101 Park Ave., N.Y 
Opportunity Fellowships. Open to all cit- 
ns of the U.S., including territorial resi 
ents, who have not had full opportunity to 
due to al « 
g of residence: 
1 for any training o 
developing talent 
range from $1,000 t 
Nov. 30, awards 
rtunity Fe 

Logan, Utah. Union: Calif. ptg., Oct. 6 
Los Angeles, Cal. UCLA Hofmann Oct 
6-Nov. 4. Mus Cont. Dutch, Callot, Henr 
to Oct. 20. Robles Gall Barnet, to Oct. 31 
Louisville, Ky. Speed Mus Local shou 
"57 Corcoran Biennial, to Oct. 22: Youngs 
Eurs Oct 3-23. Gall Ames., to Nov. 9 
Wadison, Wis. Lib Jap. prints, Oct. 6-2 
Vilwaukee, Wis sllege : Picasso, to Oct 
Minneapolis, Minn. Art Inst.: 

to Oct. 13; Wi » rints, tt 

Walker Minn 
Gramatte Oct 
Montclair, N. 
Oct. 27 
Vontreal, Can. M 
6: Eng. masters. to 
Newark, N J. Mus 

Cont how, to Oct 

New Haven, Conn. 

Oct. 6-27 

Vorthampton, Mass. 

Oct. 29 

Oberlin, O. Allen Mus 

15; Saito, to Oct. 28 

Omaha, Neb. Josivn 

Pasadena, Cal. Mus.: Zacks 

13. Lib Jap prints, Oct. 6 

Pensacola, Fla. Gall Bigelo 
Philadelphia, Pa. Acad.: Li 

12-Nov 17 Art Alliance 

Zipin, Steg, Oct. 4-23 Serwaz 

Oct. 4-Nov. 3; Segal, Dobkin, Oct 

17: Hankin, Oct 24-Nov. 23: Flannery. 
29-Nov. 23. Lib Prints, to Oct. 25. 
China-Jap., to Oct. 15. 

Pittsburgh, Pa. Carnegic Piranesi, to Nov 
17; Golomb, Oct. 13-Nov. 10: Beal ill., t 
Nov. 13; 19th-cen. Amer., Oct. 17-Dec. 1 
Portland, Ore. Mus Cont. Fr., Johanson 
to Oct. 13 Local shou Oct. 19-Nov. 13 
Price, to Nov. 17. Studio: James, to Oct. 30 
Providence, R. 1. Sc! of Des.: Picasso, 
to Oct. 20 

Richmond, Va. Mus Near East, to Oct 
13; Roszak, Oct. 11-24; Lat. Amer. archit 
Oct. 25-Dec. 1. 

Roswell, N. M. Mus Pre-Columb., Wig- 
gins, to Oct. 30 

St. Louis, Mo. Mus.: Monet, to Oct. 22; 
Local graphs., to Oct. 31 

San Francisco, Cal. Mus.: Annual, to Oct 
6: Asia, Oct. 28-Dec. 1. Palace of Hon 
Villasinor, Sibley, to Nov. 10; Master prints, 
to Nov. 3 

San José, Cal. Mus.: Kokoschka, to Oct 
7: Western, Oct. 9-30. 

Santa Barbara, Cal. Mus.: Ital. prints, to 
Oct. 27. 

Seattle, Wash. Mus.: Calif., Germ. prints 
to Oct. 22; Karolik coll., to Nov. 3; Zum- 
busch, Oct. 24-31. 

Stanford, Cal. U.: Jap. prints, Oct. 5-27 
Toledo, O. Mus.: Séo Paolo, Oct. 8-Nov. 17 
Urbana, Ill. Univ.: Jap., Oct. 6-24; Cont 
show, to Oct. 27. 







835 Madison Ave. betw. 69 & 70 Sts. 

HARRIETTE Paintings 


Oct. 21 - Nov. 2 

PANORAS ° 62 W. 56 St. 


Oct. 22-Nov. 9 

Grand Central Moderns 
AVE., N. Y. 

Paintings + Oct. 14-Nov. 2 

GALLERY . 15 E. 57 

ROBERT Paintings 


Ist one-man show Oct. 7-19 



sone FRANK 

Paintings * Oct. 21-Nov. 2 

mms EAST 65 ST., N. 








40 E. 68 

Oct. 15 - Nov. 2 



john heller {3 :c.: ‘7 

63 East 57 
ct. 14-Nov. 2 


stable gallery * 924 7th Ave. 








231 East 60 St. 


LOUIS Oct. 7 - Nov. 2 


POINDEXTE @ 2! West 56 Street 
JUdson 6-6630 



Oct. 21 - Nov. 9 


Oct. 7 - Nov. 2 


PASSEDOIT oc. ron & tox 
oct. 15 - NOV. 9 

WILLARD 23 West 56 

4 EAST 88 ST. (Mon.-Sat. 1-6) 



ee Oct. 31 

Oct. 1-26 




New Paintings 


Oct. 7-26 

————"42 EAST 57 ST., N. Y. 

PETER Oct. 21 - Nov. 16 


SCULPTURE 1952-57 


820 Madison Ave. 
at 68 Street 

The exhibition calendar 

Washington, D. 
Nov 16; ¢ 1 : 
Oct 2-No 3; 4-mar h Oct. 9 
N 10. Nat. Gall tlak t t Wash 
I Hoyt, Oct. 6-3 

New York City &, 

4.4.4. 712 Fif ( 
4.C.4. 63 I 7 

flan 32 E. 65 

iillison 32 

de Aentle 

d°’Arcy 19 I 

irgent 256 

irgosy 116 ft 

irtists’ 851 Le 

irts 62 W vA 1 

irt Students League 21 

fvant-Garde 166 Lex. K 

Babcock 805 Ma Y 

Barbizon 140 E. 6 

Barone 1018 Mad 

Barsansky 107) 

Berry-Hill 743 Fiftl 

Bodley 223 E. 60 

W eeitha to Oct 

oO 1 Oct. 14-26 
Oct. 28-N 

Boissevain 31 E. 63 

Borgenicht 1018 Mad 

Brooklyn Mus. Easter 

Burr 108 W 
Camino %2 F 
Caravan | 
Carlebach 937 
Carstairs \1 
Castelli 4 F 
Chalette 1100 Mad 
Chase 31 E. 6 

China House 125 ft 
City Cnter 131 W 
Cloisters Tryon Pk 
Collectors 49 W 

Contemporaries 992 
Cont. Arts 802 

Crespi 2 

Davida 245 


Delius 24 

Durlacher 11 } 5 
Duveen I 79 Old 
Duveen-Graham 1014 Mad 

Eggleston %9 Ma 
Emmerich 18 E. 7 
Este 32 E. 65 
Feigl 601 Mad 
Findlay 11 W 
Fine Arts 41 FE 


French 210 Ff 
Fried 40 E. 68 
Furman 17 E. 82 
Gal. G. 200 E. 59 
Gal. 75 30 E. 75 t 
Delevante, Oct. 14-Nov. 6 
Geejon 157 E. 28 Cont. Amer., to Oct. 31 
Graham 1014 Mad Amer., Oct. 10-31 
Grand Central 15 Vanderbilt 
Bullman, Oct. 14-26, Cantarella, Oct. 22-Nov. 2 
Grand Central Mod. 1018 Mad 
Cheney, to Oct. 4, Wald, Sept. 7-19 
Dodd, Oct. 22 v. 9 
Greenwich 71 Wash Pl 
Cont. Amer., Oct. 17-Nov. 16 
Cuggenheim Mus. 7 E. 72 Acquis., to Oct. 6 
Hammer 51 E. 57 Klute, Oct. 1-12 
Bernard, Oct. 22-Nov. 2 
Hansa 210 Cen Pk. S. Sculpt., to Oct. 14 
Hartert 22 E. 5 Fr., Amer., to Oct. 31 
Heller 63 ¥ Romano, to Oct. 12 
Martin, Oct. 15-Nov. 2 
Herve 611 Mad. Cont mer r » Oct. 31 
Hewitt 29 E. 65 Friede hn, Oct. 2-31 
Hirschl, Adler 21 E. 67 1 » On 12 
Hispanic Soc. Broadway 5 
Huntington sculpt. Span. mss 
Oct. 15-March 15 
IGAS 65 W. 56 Cont. print Oct. 15-Nov. 15 
Jolas 123 E. 55 Crippa, to Oct. 15 
Jackson 32 E. 69 Appel, to Oct. 26 
James 70 E. 12 Cont. Amer., to Oct. 17 
Schnell, Oct. 18-Nov. 7 
Voliano, to Oct. 5 
Meys, Oct. 8-26 
Janis 15 E. 57 Mondrian, to Nov. 2 
Jewish Mus. 92 & Fifth Walinska, to Oct. 31 
Kaufman 92 & Lex. Cont. Amer., Oct. 19-31 
Kennedy 785 Fifth Calpina, to Oct. 30 
Kleemann 11 E. 68 Moholy-Nagy, to Oct. 31 
Knoedler 14 E. 57 
Callery sculpt., Oct. 7-26 

Juster 154 E 

Winnipeg, Can. Gall Harri 
Worcester, Mass. Mus Leseur, 
Dex ] 

Youngstown, O. Butler Inst 
Oct. 6-27 

inless othe wise specified 

Kootz 1016 Mad 
Cont dmer 
Kottler 3 E. 65 Schaefer 
un show, Oct. 7-19 
Krasner 1061 Mad. Cont 
Kraushaar 1055 Mad. Cont 
A 4 
Little Studio 67 Mad 

Warch 95 FE 

Marino 6 W 

Watisse 41 | 7 

Meltzer 38 W. 57 Ame 

Vetropolitan Mus. 82 

Greek eases. Faces 

imer. ptg., 

Wi Chou % W. 56 ¢ 

Widtown 17 Ff 

Wilech 21 | 67 ¢ 
Morris 174 Waver 
Woskin 4 ft 
Morgan Lib. 29 E. %6 
Wus. Modern Art 11 W 
Smith sculpt 
Cont. Gern 
Mus. City V. ¥Y. 103 & Fifti 

Mus. Primitive Arts 15 
de Nagy 24 E. 67 

Nat. Acad. Design 10% 
New 601 Mad 
New Arts Center 1193 Lex 
Newhouse 15 F x? Old 
V. ¥Y. Pub. Lib. 42 & Fifth 
Vew School 66 W. 12 ¢ 
Newton 11 FE 7 Old 
Viveau 962 Mad uty. Oct 
V.Y.U. 80 Wasi < DI Oct 
Panoras 62 W 
Parma }\\11 de Groot, Oct 
Parsons 15 Ff elly Oct 
eshall, Oct. 14-No 
Passedoit 121 fF usumano, Oct. 7-N 
Peridot 820 Mad nDov, to Oct 
P. Grippe sculpt., Oct. 21-N 
Perls 1016 Mad rchipenk Oct. 14-N 
Petite 129 W. 5 tlum, Oct 
Pietrantonio 26 4 urd, t Oct 
Poindexter 21 W 
Hedge 7 


Portraits 136 E 1 
Regional Arts 139 E. 47 

Bertson, Oct. 21-N 
Rehn 683 Fifth Meyer, Oct. 14-N 
Roerich 319 W. 107 Chambers, Oct. 6-Nov 
RoKo 925 Mad Polakovw, to Oct 

Lewen, Oct. 14-Nov 
Rosenberg 20 FE. 79 19th-cent. Fr., to Oct 
Sagittarius 46 E. 57 Bocca to Oct 

Zuccheri, t. 14-27 

Saidenberg 10 FE. 77 Picasso, to Nov 
St. Etienne 4% W. 57 Prin Oct. 21-N 
Salpeter 42 E. 57 B. Wilson, ¢ 
B. Schaefer 32 E. 57 W. Mitchell, to Oct 

Mar ano, Oct. 21-Nov 
Schaeffer 983 Park Old masters, to Oct 
Schonemen 63 E. 57 Mod. Fr., to Oct 
Sculpture Center 167 E. 69 Amino, to Oct 
Segy 708 Lex Africa, to Nov 
J. Seligmann 5 FE. 57 U.N. annit to Oct 
Stable 924 Seventh Biala, Oct. 14-Nov 
Studio 22 F 13 Cont. Amer., Oct 
Sudamericana 866 Lex. Frau, to Oct 

Acuha, Oct. 21-Nov 

Talent Unltd. 61 Grove Amer to Oct 
Tanager 9% E. 10 Cont. Amer to Oct 
Terrain 20 W. 16 Cont. Amer., Oct. 6-Nov 
Theater East 211 E. 60 

Cont. Amer... to Nov 

Tiffany 727 Fifth Signolini sculpt., Oct.8-2 

Van Diemen 21 E. 57 Fr., Amers., to Oct 
Village Art Center 39 Grove 

Cont ulpt., to Oct 

Viviane 42 E. 57 Beckmann, to Oct 
M. Walker 117 E. 57 Amers., Fr., to Oct 
Wellons 17 E. 64 Cont. Amer., to Oct 
West 10th 191 W. 10 Cont. Amer., to Oct 
Wevyhe 794 Lex Cont. Amer., to Oct 
Caesar sculpt., Oct. 14-Nov 

White 42 E. 57 Laughlin, to Oct 
Skaling, Oct. 8 

Whitney Mus. 22 W. 54 Tomlin, to Nov 
Davis, Oct. 4-Nov 
Widdifield 818 Mad. Mayan sculpt., to Oct 
D. Smith dwegs.. 
Wildenstein 19 E. 64 Behzad, to Oct. 
Amer. ptg., Oct. 23-Nov 

Willard 23 W. 56 Seliger. to Oct 

Early Amer. sculpt., Oct. 15-Nov. 

Wittenborn 1018 Mad 
Copland liths., to Oct 
Scher} liths., Oct. 14 

World House 97 Mad 
Mod. Germ., to Oct. 
Young | E. 57 Old masters, to Oct. 
Zabriskie 32 E. 65 Beck, to Oct. 
Friedman, to Oct. 26; Johnson, to Oct 

sculpt., Oct. 15-Nov. 2 

to October 5 

Charles BLUM 
Louis Hill 

Petite Galerie * 129 W. 56, N. Y. 

October 7-19 

Oct. 21-Nov. 2 


to Oct. 12 


Oct. 14-Nov. 6 



30 £75 ST NY 


OCT. 21-NOV. 2 


31 E. 64 * LE 9-3991 

CALVERT Oct. 14-Nov. 2 



GALLERY e 15 E. 57 ST., N.Y.C. 


october 8-26 


@ recent paintings and drawings 

42 E. 57 ST., N.Y. 

WILLIAM J. Paintings 


Oct. 21-Nov. 2 



Guest Exhibition 
October 7-19 

Grand Central Moderns 
(at 79th St.) 1018 MADISON AVE., N. Y. 



Sept. 30-Oct. 18 

802 Lexington Ave. at 62nd St. 



Oct. 2-16 
FEIGL GALLERY 601 Madison Ave. 

at 57th St. 


eo = hr ll O!hCUM 







NEW YORK 21, N. Y. 

5 > 



Exhibition October-November 1957 


Illustrated Catalogue 



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