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THE DENTAL DIGEST 


GEORGE WOOD CLAPP, D.D.S., Editor 


Published monthly by The Dentists’ Supply Company, Candler Bldg., 
Times Square, 220 West 42d Street, New York, U.S. A., to whom all com- 
munications relative to subscriptions, advertising, etc., should be addressed. 

Subscription price, including postage, $1.00 per year to all parts of the 
United States, Philippines, Guam, Cuba, Porto Rico, Mexico and Hawaiian 
Islands. To Canada, $1.40. To all other countries, $1.75. 

Articles intended for publication and correspondence regarding the same 
should be addressed Epitor DENTAL DicEstT, Candler Bldg., Times Square, 
220 West 42d Street, New York, N. Y. 

The editor and publishers are not responsible for the views of authors ex- 
pressed in these pages. ‘ 

Entered as second-class matter at New York, January 29, 1909, under the 
Act of March 3, 1879. 


~ Vol. XX FEBRUARY, 1914 





No. 2 


THE TEMPERAMENTAL SELECTION OF ARTIFICIAL TEETH, 
A FALLACY * 


By J. Leon Witu1ams, D.D.S., L.D.S., Lonpon, Enexann, 
Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 


I believe the reading and publication of this paper marks an epoch 
in that part of dentistry with which it deals. It shows that our 
methods of selecting artificial teeth have been unscientific. Every dentist 
of experience knows that they have only too often been unsatisfactory. 

That portion of the paper which is to appear in the next issue 
supports the assertions in this part by many illustrations which cannot 
be included this month. 

This entire paper is preparatory to the constructive work on the 
selection of teeth which is expected to appear in the April issue. 

I know what is coming, and I advise those of you who are interested 
in doing artistic prosthetic dentistry to master what is offered in this 
series. You will find it surprisingly easy to do.—Ep1Tor. 


In an ancient book in which there are many wise sayings it is writ- 
ten: “‘ To everything there is a season, and a time to every purpose under 
the heavens—a time to kill and a time to heal; a time to break down 
and a time to build up.” To-night I shall address myself solely to the 
former of those two functions. I have to undertake, in the short space 
of an hour or so, to break down the old system of prosthetic dentistry. 

From the standpoint of the reasonableness and force of the proofs 
at hand, the task seems to me not a difficult one, but I should be a poor 
student of human nature if I had not discovered that it is far easier 
to convince a man’s reason than it is to break up the established routine 


* Read before The First District Dental Society, New York, December 8, 1913. 








64 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


of his bad habits in craftsmanship. It is in that American Spirit which 
says, in the language of the people, “ The best we can have is none too 
good,” that I have come here to-day to ask you to discard, to throw away, 
to utterly destroy and obliterate a system in prosthetic dentistry that 
has existed far too long, and to establish in its place something more in 
keeping with the reputation for progress and scientific achievement and 
character that our country enjoys, in other fields, throughout the world. 

I believe that the chief reason why prosthetic dentistry has fallen so 
low in the estimation of the profession is that most dentists have an 
instinctive feeling that with such teeth as have heretofore been supplied, 
no amount of effort on their part would produce satisfactory scientific 
and artistic results. I wish, therefore, to try and make it clear why the 
present system is weak and poor. I want to point out its imperfections 
and fallacies, its dogmatic assumptions that have no foundations, its 
ignorance of scientific facts and artistic principles, so that there may 
be no qualms of conscience, no shadow of regret in saying good-bye to 
it, and so that you shall know exactly why you wish to say “Good-bye 
forever! ” 

But to produce a perfect system of artificial teeth there is required 
not only an intimate knowledge of all the facts of nature, but also fa- 
miliarity with the principles of design through which a harmony of re- 
lated parts, that is often absent in nature, may be secured. This very 
essential qualification for the production of artificial teeth seems to have 
been entirely overlooked. 

As a matter of fact, no serious attempt has ever before been made to 
investigate any portion of this field with scientific thoroughness and 
accuracy. 

All the honors in dentistry have been reserved for other departments, 
with the result that many men who have national reputations in what is 
ealled operative dentistry, make a mighty poor showing when they turn 
their hands to dental prosthesis. 

Whether or not the reason for this is the one I have suggested, it 
is nevertheless certain that this branch of practice presents a far finer 
opportunity for the exercise of artistic skill, scientific knowledge and 
sound judgment than is to be found in any other phase of dentistry. 

You will, I think, be able to see more clearly the relation and sig- 
nificance of the facts presented if I state specifically the main objects 
I have in view in this paper. I shall attempt to destroy all belief in 
temperamental forms of teeth, for I regard this as one of the most 
fundamental errors in the present system. I shall try to show that while 
there are slight variations in the teeth of different peoples, there is no 
such thing as racial types of teeth. I hope to convince you that the 











TEMPERAMENTAL SELECTION OF ARTIFICIAL TEETH 65 


oft-repeated statement that nature always produces teeth in harmony 
with face and feature is a mistake due to lack of careful observation. 

If I succeed in this undertaking you can see that not much will re- 
main of the present system of tooth selection in prosthetic dentistry. 

Let us begin, then, with the subject of temperamental classification 
of teeth. And let me note at the outset that some of our best writers on 
dental prosthesis say quite frankly that they make use of this theory for 
lack of a better. 

In his excellent book, recently published, my good friend, Dr. Wilson 
of Cleveland, has introduced a brief résumé of the theory, but I think I 
discover evidences that he is not altogether satisfied with it. Other writ- 
ers, after admitting that there are great variations within the limits of 
the normal, afterwards say that with few exceptions the forms and con- 
tours of the teeth are harmonious with those of the body, but they give 
us neither principles nor facts on which such a statement is founded. 

One author says further that “ It is difficult, in some cases, to decide 
positively to which variety (of temperament) a special case belongs. . . . 
Not infrequently the indications are even contradictory . . . and no 
rule can be given that will not fail in numerous instances.” I submit 
that a theory of this character is much more likely to mislead than guide 
the student and beginner, and that it would have been better to drop it 
altogether in dentistry, as was done in other branches of science long ago. 
But this course has not been taken, and the theory still has some ardent 
and dogmatic advocates. It is better therefore to subject the claims of 
this teaching to a thorough critical examination before putting forward 
the new classification. 

Let us first glance at the great, authoritative modern works of ref- 
erence to see what they have to say on the subject of temperament. 

Our first effort is a little disappointing. 

We open the Encyclopedia Britannica at the place where the word 
should be, but we do not find it. It is completely ignored. We consult 
the New American Encyclopedia of Science and do not fare much better. 
The word is there, it is true, but used in a sense that denotes nothing of 
the physical or mental characteristics of human beings. It simply has 
reference to certain technical matters about musical instruments. 
Gould’s Dictionary of Medicine says that the word is spoken of as a 
vague term or a term vaguely applied. This authority further says 
that although the original doctrine has long since lost its significance, it 
is permissible to use it in describing predisposition to types of mental 
action: and that is the manner in which it is sometimes used by good 
modern writers. Jonathan Hutchinson, F. R. S., with whose work on the 
teeth you are all familiar, made a careful examination of the claims of 











66 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


the temperamentalists and here is his verdict: “ As yet I fear we must 
say that the labors of the physiognomist and those of the students of tem- 
perament have been alike disappointing. Whoever will set himself the 
task of attempting to classify a given number of individuals according to 
their temperaments will, I think, soon find himself baffled.” 

The simple truth of the matter is that this whole theory of tem- 
perament has been completely discredited and entirely abandoned by 
all scientific men of standing—except a few of those who rule over the 
destinies of dentistry. And for them I fear that a mere reference to 
authorities, however eminent, will hardly be sufficient. We shall have 
to go a little deeper into the matter, to completely satisfy them. 


Se Soo vas em &] 


NERVOUS BILIOUS SANGUINEOUS 


ha Lh o§ 
le | 











Illustration No. 1. 


Many of you may remember that in the paper which I read here 
three years ago I pointed out that there was really no foundation for the 
theory of temperamental forms of teeth. I exhibited photographs of in- 
dividuals of precisely the same temperaments, according to the rules of 
the theory, but showing teeth widely different in shape. Since then text- 
books on prosthetic dentistry have appeared in which this theory is given 
a prominent place. But even more significant perhaps is the prominence 
given to this theory in the recently issued catalogs of two of the oldest 
and more prominent manufacturers of artificial teeth. I say “ more sig- 
nificant ” because the prominent manufacturers have the best of reasons 
for making it their business to know the general trend of belief and 
opinion in the profession. 








TEMPERAMENTAL SELECTION OF ARTIFICIAL TEETH 


In the latest catalog of one of the largest and oldest firms in England 
we find the illustrations of the three sets of teeth in the lower row of illus- 
tration No. 1, page 66, and at the bottom of the page on which they 
are shown, we read: “ The dentures illustrated above are distinctly 
typical of the temperaments described by Spurzheim.” 

The temperaments represented in the three dentures I have selected 
are supposed to be the “ sanguine,” the “ bilious,” and the “ nervous.” I 
will ask you to look very closely at the central incisors, always the most 
characteristic teeth in any given set, and see if you can detect the very 
least typical difference. The teeth are not only of one type but they are 
very nearly indistinguishable as to form and size. Except as to color, 
there is not a ghost of a reason why these sets should not all change places, 

A representative American firm has also published illustrations of 
teeth designed for the pure temperaments, as shown in the upper row of 
illustration No. 1, page 66. 

Please compare the corresponding types of the two manufacturers. 
No comment from me is necessary, and I will make none, except to say 
that these teeth are not made by firms whose reputation is ever called in 
question. They are firms which are rightly and justly jealous of the 
high reputation they have honorably earned. But can you look at the 
specimens by these two companies, each claiming its own work as typical, 
and each so widely different from the other as to make comparison posi- 
tively grotesque, without thinking that it is about time we heard the 
last of temperamental classification of teeth; that it is about time we 
began looking for something a little more scientific as a basis for tooth 
form, and also, if I may say so, about time that some one designated and 
officially indorsed by the profession to express their views and wishes, 
took a hand in the designing of artificial teeth ? 

In one of the catalogs I have referred to, a writer is quoted as say- 
ing: “In these temperamental differences, no single sign is more signifi- 
cant than is to be found in the physical characteristiics of the teeth— 
their size, shape, color, density and alignment being as much an index 
as is the distinctive complexion, the color of the eyes, hair, ete.” <A 
little farther down the page it is said: “ The law of harmony thus found 
in nature between the teeth and other physical characteristics requires— 
etc., ete. And once more, “ The careful observation and recording of 
these co-relations would go far toward making prosthetic dentistry an 
exact science.” Here we have three variations of an assumption that 
nature always produces teeth that in form and size are in perfect har- 
mony with the face and the individual features of the face. We often 
meet this assumption in our text-books and in magazine articles. Is 
there anything more evident to us as we walk up and down the streets 











68 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


or stand in any place where our fellow mortals congregate than the 
incongruities of nature? Even the most fortunate of us would probably 
not be willing to give an absolutely unqualified receipt in full to nature 
on taking a critical survey of himself in his mirror. Why, then, should 
we assume that nature always produces teeth in perfect harmony with 
face and features? Why should they be an exception to the almost uni- 
versal rule to the contrary in other particulars? The only explanation 
I can suggest for this strange inconsistency is that an acceptance of the 
temperamental theory made it necessary. It is, in fact, a phase of that 
theory. And when we have once given out unreserved consent to a 
theory it is astounding how completely oblivious we become to the most 
obvious facts. Let me put a few of the facts bearing on this question 
before you. Illustration No. 2 shows a photograph of two skulls. You 





Illustration No. 2. 


will observe that the difference in general contour is very marked. But 
the teeth, you see, are identical in size and type. If either set is in 
perfect harmony with size and contour of the face, the other set cannot 
possibly be so. 

Illustration No. 3 shows two more, a very wide and a very narrow 
skull. Think what a striking difference there must have been in the 
facial contour of the two individuals those skulls represent. But you see 
the widest and shortest teeth are in the long, narrow skull. Illustration 
No. 4 shows two more from the Andaman Islands—both skulls from the 
same race. Here again the smaller skull has the larger teeth. Note also 
that they are of a different type. Illustration No. 5, page 71, shows 
four skulls so nearly alike in size and contour that a single set of teeth 








TEMPERAMENTAL SELECTION OF ARTIFICIAL TEETH 69 


would be just as suitable for one as another of them, but look at the 
difference in the natural teeth. In illustration No. 6, page 72, are 
shown four more. These skulls are of a very different type from the 
four preceding ones, but they are, as you see, of one type. A glance at 
the teeth is sufficient to show them to be unlike each other and to dem- 
onstrate the mistakes of nature. I could take up the whole evening in 
showing you examples of this sort, but as further proof on this point 
will appear incidentally when I am considering other phases of my sub- 
ject, I will not dwell longer on it now. Unless some one can advance 
satisfactory reasons for believing that nature is more solicitous about 
the harmonious relations of our dental organs with other features than 
she is about those of our eyes, ears, or noses, we will conclude that the 
subject is always open to the intelligent criticisms of an artist in teeth. 





Illustration No. 3. 


The advocates of the temperamental theory assume that when a man 
and a woman of opposite temperaments mate, the offspring will be a 
blend of the two temperaments. To a certain limited extent this may 
sometimes be the case, but more frequently we see a juxtaposition, so to 
say, of the salient features of both parents. This might have been known 
either from observation or from a knowledge of the more recent re- 
searches in heredity. 

The works of Mendel, Weissman, Galton, Thomson, Bateson and 
others have made it clear that certain characters are dominant in one 
parent and other characters in the other. One child may inherit the 
general facial peculiarities of the father, and the complexion, color of 
eyes and hair, and the teeth of the mother. In another child these con- 











70 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


ditions may be reversed. In Sicily, that old battle-ground of the races, 
where the blood of the blue-eyed, fair-haired followers of Norman 
Roger has mingled with that of the Arabs, I have often seen just such 
effects of this crossing of types as I have mentioned, and one may see 
in Ireland people with black hair, dark skin and blue eyes. 

What is the value of the temperamental theory of tooth form 
in instances like these ? 

And now, consider for a moment the basis on which the whole theory 
rests. It is founded on the idea of four groups or classes of individuals 
called the pure temperamental types and known as the sanguine, the 
nervous, the bilious and the lymphatic, in accordance with the alleged 
dominance of the physiological functioning of the blood, the nerves, the 





Illustration No. 4.—Two skulls from the Andaman Islands. 


bile, or the lymph. What do the advocates of this theory mean by the 
dominance of these systems? Obviously but one thing can be meant, and 
that is that the action of the heart or the liver or the lymphatic system 
or the nervous system is stronger or dominant in the individuals char- 
acterized by these terms. People of the sanguine temperament should 
show a stronger action of the heart, those of the bilious temperament 
greater activity of the liver, and people of the nervous temperament 
should be distinguished by greater intellectual achievements and brain 
power generally. 

Well, I have a large collection of photographs of some of the most 
eminent persons of this country and Europe and I find that all forms of 
faces and physical characteristics are included among the ablest and 
most intellectual people of the world. 














TEMPERAMENTAL SELECTION OF ARTIFICIAL TEETH 71 


Who has ever conducted any real scientific experiments to prove 
anything about temperament as indicative of physical characteristics ? 
Who has ever determined the temperament of a negro or an Arab? Are 
the individuals of all races, except Europeans, alike in their physical 
and psychical characters? If not, what physical peculiarities in a China- 
man, a native of Australia or a Hindoo correspond to those alleged to be 
indicative of the nervo-sanguine temperament in an American ? 





Illustration No. 5.—Four skulls so nearly alike in size and contour that a single set 
of teeth would be as suitable for one as another of them, yet there is a difference 


in the natural teeth. 


Who has ever got together, even a dozen people of one temperament, 
selecting them by their alleged physical, temperamental peculiarities 
without looking at their teeth, and then examined the teeth to see if 
they were all alike or of one type. 

If that simple experiment had ever been made it would have been 











72 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


seen that this pretentious structure is as frail as a house of cards and 
as empty as a soap bubble. A recent writer in the Edinburgh Review 
says: “ The greatest discovery ever made in philosophy was that the 
way to discover whether a thing is present is to look and see. It was 


proclaimed by Aristotle in the ancient world and by Francis Bacon in 





Illustration No. 6. 


the modern world.” The extent to which that single rule is neglected 
is one of the astounding things of life. 

And now let me lay before you the final crushing proofs of the utter 
futility and fallacy of this theory. 

What is the origin of those physical characteristics that are called 
temperamental? Illustration No. 7 shows pictures from life in which 
are represented the three great races from which it is believed all the 
modern peoples of the earth have arisen. The black race is represented 








TEMPERAMENTAL SELECTION OF ARTIFICIAL TEETH 73 


by the South African, the yellow Mongolian race by the Chinese, and 
the Caucasian peoples by the Parisian. The three distinct types of 
skulls, long, broad and medium, most characteristic of distinct races, 
are also represented in these three types. 

The portraits | have just shown may be taken as the modern repre- 
sentatives of those ancient races. Broadly speaking, the fair races, and, 
to a large extent, the yellow races, are found in Northern and Central 
Europe and Asia, while the darker races occupy the Equatorial and 
Southern regions. From the mingling of those light and dark races, the 
working of the principle of variation, and the modifying effects of 
climate and general environment, there has arisen all the racial or tem- 
peramental characters that the widely varied inhabitants of the earth 
exhibit. 





Illustration No. 7.—Representatives of the three great races from which it is believed 
most of the modern peoples have arisen. 


What we really know beyond controversy is that everything de- 
noted by the term temperament must have arisen in or originated 
from race. We can see clearly enough that most of the peculiarities 
described as sanguine must have been transmitted by the Caucasian 
race, while the bilious features were inherited from the dark races, and 
the Mongols have most of the distinctive traits called “ lymphatic.” 

If we now open a book such as Stewart’s on “ Our Temperaments}” 
the latest and best work on the subject that I have seen, and find por- 
traits of such individuals as those now shown on the screen, we know 
that the physical or so-called temperamental characters which they pre- 
sent did not arise spontaneously and without cause. The immediate 
ancestors of that man with red hair and blue eyes were not natives 
of Africa. The parents of that swarthy individual with dark com- 








74 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


plexion and black eyes and hair were not full-blooded Swedes or Nor- 
wegians and we can predict with reasonable certainty that there is a 
Mongolian strain in that so-called lymphatic person with the pipe who 
looks so comfortable and altogether satisfied with himself. In other 
words, we can discover no special trait or characteristic in these in- 
dividuals who are supposed to be representative of the different tem- 
peraments, that is not even more clearly shown in the representatives 
of the great races which were exhibited a moment ago. In fact, the 
only difference is that these temperamental types are further removed, 
by crossing, from their racial origin. The real significance of the term 
“pure temperament ” is that the individual instance shows, in a mixed 
race, an unusual reversion to the dominant type. The mixed tempera- 
ments are simply the result of the mingling of the blood of different 
races, somewhat modified, in the event of migration, by changed en- 
vironment. 

If, therefore, there is such a thing as a sanguine type of tooth or a 
bilious type of tooth, they must have originated in the sanguine and 
bilious races. If there are special, characteristic temperamental forms 
of teeth, there must have been racial forms from which they were de- 
rived. There is no possibility of evading the logic of that conclusion. 
And I think it has always been assumed by our profession that there 
are racial forms of teeth. I think that you will find many references in 
our literature to this supposed fact. 

Now, a racial form of tooth must mean a distinctive form peculiar 
toarace. But if I am able to show you that there is no such thing as 
a racial form of tooth, if I can prove beyond all possibility of doubt 
that there are certain primary forms of teeth which are, in their gen- 
eral typal characteristics common to all races, light and dark, ancient 
and modern, savage and civilized, then I submit that even the un- 
reasonable minority will have to agree that all belief in a temperamental 
type of tooth must go. 

There are certain differences as to size and small differences in pro- 
portion of width to length in teeth of the same general type in different 
races. but as to essential differences in type, there are none. 

When I began my work of investigating the forms of human teeth 
at the Royal College of Surgeons, in London, it was with the belief that 
there were racial types of teeth. I had no doubt about it. I had so 
often seen statements to that effect that I simply assumed that it was 
true. And when I did not succeed in finding any form of tooth char- 
acteristic of race I concluded that my failure was due to race admixture. 

I pursued this study for nearly a year, and during that time I was 
accurnulating a great store of individual human teeth. The largest lot 











TEMPERAMENTAL SELECTION OF ARTIFICIAL TEETH 75 


that 1eached me from any one source came from the University of Pitts- 
burg by the kindness of Dean Friesell. But for his interest and gen- 
erous action I doubt if the discovery I am about to lay before you would 
have been made. One day it occurred to me that it would be a good 
idea to begin sorting and arranging the central incisors into groups. 
(I had long seen that these were the most characteristic of human 
teeth.) As I proceeded in the work it became evident after a time that. 
I was accumulating three very strongly marked groups with a larger 
number partaking more or less of the combined features of those three 
groups, but generally with the features of one or other of the three 
groups dominant in every individual tooth. When I had finished ar- 
ranging my incisors in this way I again went to the Museum of the 
Royal College of Surgeons to see what light this discovery would throw 
on further study there. I was more than a little surprised to find these 
three types of teeth in almost every group of skulls which contained 
a dozen, or even less, with the incisor teeth intact. My long search 
for something fundamental had been rewarded. I had at last got what 
I was after—the key to tooth form. All along I had seen that there 
were different types of teeth in all the different races, but the co-relation 
of these different forms had never struck me until I went there with 
the knowledge of what to look for. I knew instantly that I had got 
Nature’s secret of design in human teeth, and I knew that it would now 
be possible to beat her in her own work, for nature, working more or 
less blindly, makes endless mistakes, as I have previously indicated, 
while we, working more or less intelligently, can avoid those mistakes. 
The moment I saw that the existence of three types of teeth was the 
fundamental fact in human tooth form I knew that it would be possible 
to design beautiful and anatomically correct forms of teeth if I never 
saw a human tooth again. 


(This article is expected to be continued in the March issue.) 


DR. J. N. CROUSE, DIED JANUARY 16, 1914 


Word has just been received of the death of Dr. J. N. Crouse, who 
founded this magazine. He has been in continuous practice since 1864. 











76 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


HOW A DENTAL SOCIETY ARRANGED A VERY INTERESTING 
PROGRAM 


By Wiru1am H. Povatt, D.D.S., New York. 


Tue problem of arranging an interesting meeting for a small Den- 
tal Society is ofttimes a serious one. At least the Livingston County 
Dental Society found it to be such. 

The plan adhered to was to allow the member who entertained 
the club to prepare a paper or give a clinic. Sometimes he invited other 
members to assist him. The meetings were quarterly, and prior to 
last year the host bore the expense of the entertainment. This has 
been changed ; we now have a “ Dutch Treat,” the host simply arranges 
the program and furnishes the use of his office and cigars. In due time 
it became the privilege of the writer to entertain this club. The thought 
occurred—Why not ask each man what he would like to have presented, 
what trouble was he having and what advice would he like. To this 
end I asked each of our members to send in not less than three ques- 
tions. It took several following letters to get even one question out 
of some of them, but in the end I had a good supply. These questions 
I arranged in proper form and made thirty copies of the same. I 
gave twenty of these copies to a representative of one of our Dental Sup- 
ply Houses, asking him to hand them to good live wires along his route. 
Out of these twenty I received answers from eighteen. 

In case anyone should adopt this plan of arranging for a pro- 
gram, I have one word of advice to offer. See that you get a good dental 
agent to distribute your material, be sure to ask him to distribute your 
questions among men whom he feels sure will have interest enough in 
their fellowman to answer your request. The remaining ten copies I 
mailed to dental college deans and to editors of dental journals. 

I am frank to say that the replies that were of any practical value 
were from men on the firing line. 

I am very sure that a man just out of a dental college will feel that 
these questions are not befitting men who have been in practice from 
ten to twenty years. I know very well that on the day of my gradu- 
ation I would have looked upon them as childish. But I have become 
wise with experience, and after twenty years I look upon some of them 
as presenting for discussion a few of the most troublesome incidents of 
our practice. I am not alone in this belief for out of my thirty sets of 
questions I received twenty-three complete answers, and on only 
one question did a majority agree. Seven men; good men at that, 
admitted that they could not answer one of the questions. I give 











HOW A DENTAL SOCIETY ARRANGED A PROGRAM 77 


the questions with the answers which we, as a society, thought were 
the best. 

1. Do you advise ever crowning a tooth without first removing pulp 
and filling root canals ? 

Answer.—I do not advise crowning a tooth without first removing 
nerve and properly filling canals, except in cases where the pulp has 
receded to such an extent as to permit all necessary shaping without 
causing any pain whatever, i. e., old patients. 

Twelve out of thirteen answered in like manner. 

2. How do you account for the granulation of the plaster in only 
the model portion of an investment when a plate has been left in the 
vuleanizer an undue length of time? 

Answer.—If a plate is flasked ready for the vuleanizer and allowed 
to dry out for a few days you will find after vulcanizing that the whole 
investment including cast will be granular. I attribute this granulation 
of only the model portion to be due to the difference in time at which 
the two mixes are made. Chemically, one atom of calcium sulphate 
will take up two atoms of water forming one molecule of plaster of 
Paris. During the setting process the heat developed causes the ex- 
cess of water to evaporate, at the time of investing the cast takes up a 
great deal of the excess water from the freshly mixed investment, which 
water is loosely held in the pores of the cast, around which is the freshly 
mixed investment of plaster without an excess of water. Under steam 
pressure this excess of water in the cast is converted into steam causing 
a breaking up of the cast, hence the granulations. This is only a theory 
of mine. 

A college dean answered—Freeing of the sulphur during vuleaniz- 
ing. Sulphuret of Mercury. 

One editor stated that he never saw such a condition. 

3. How do you account for the thermal changes that sometimes 
effect a devitalized and properly filled tooth ? 

Answer.—If filled with metal any liquid taken into the mouth 
above or below normal will produce an action on it. 

A determination of the blood to the peridental membrane from some 
source of irritation, the cause sometimes difficult to determine. 

One editor stated that no such condition could obtain in a properly 
filled tooth. 

4. How do you treat a blind abscess ? 

Answer.—Establish a fistula. Then thorough curettement of api- 
cal area. 

5. Is a man justified in making extractions in the anterior part 
of the mouth for the correction of an irregularity, when the patient for 











78 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


financial or other reasons cannot have an elaborate operation? (The 
removal of a bicuspid for instance. ) 

Answer. Yes, the removal of the first or second bicuspid. 

Fifteen working dentists answered in this manner. ‘Two deans 
answered likewise. 

6. Do you ever use pressure anesthesia after the use of arsenic in 
case you find a portion of the nerve not devitalized ? 

Answer.—Five reported that they did and had never had any 
trouble. One said it was of no use. The others applied some sooth- 
ing remedy and waited perhaps a week or longer for the final removal 
of pulp. 

7. Do you hesitate to extract a tooth in an acute stage of perice- 
mentitis? If you do not, what precautions, if any, do you take? In 
answering this question kindly remember that old-time dentistry for- 
bade the extraction of an “ ulcerated ” tooth. And that there are many 
people in the country who still adhere to the belief promulgated by 
old-time dentistry. 

ANSwER.—Twenty answers were received like the following: 

I do not hesitate to extract a tooth in any stage of pericementitis 
or abscess. I take only the precautions that we should take in any case 
of extraction. 

8. How do you take care of the buccal roots of the upper molars 
when the canals are so small that they cannot be found with a small 
broach ? 

AnswerR.—No two agreed. The majority said, “ Let them alone.” 
One said, “ With sulphuric acid, ad ee and perseverance the 
root canals can be found in all cases.’ 

9. When you apply arsenic to a pulp, ise long do you allow it to 
remain ? 

Answer.—Where arsenic is applied directly to the pulp I think 
it is dangerous to allow it to remain more than from two to three days. 
Where it is not applied directly to the pulp I allow it to remain from 
two days to a week, depending upon the proximity of the pulp, age of 
patient, ete. 

Several reported that they allowed the arsenic to remain a week 
in all cases. 

10. How do you treat abnormal sensitiveness of the gingival mar- 
gin of a tooth? 

Answer.—Cut out and fill if case is very troublesome. If not, 
have patient apply bicarbonate of soda by finger, from time to time as 
needed. 

There was not one adequate solution of this problem. Every rem- 











HOW A DENTAL SOCIETY ARRANGED A PROGRAM 79 


edy suggested had its faults; in the case of most of them the cure would 
be worse than the disease. 

11. What has been your experience with contour gold inlays in the 
centrals and laterals?’ Have you had any drop out leaving the dentine 
perfectly clean. All the cement clinging to the inlay? If so, what has 
been your remedy ? 

Answer.—Fourteen reported that they had become practically dis- 
couraged with contour inlays in the laterals and centrals. Four had 
never lost an inlay. 

The best answer seemed to be as follows: 

“ My experience with contour gold inlays in the centrals and later- 
als has been very satisfactory where the cavities were rightly prepared ; 
in probably one-half the cases it has been necessary to devitalize in 
order to get the proper retentive form. 

I have had inlays drop out leaving the dentine perfectly clean. I 
attribute the cause to not having properly dried or a faulty mix 
of cement. I find it a very good practice to moisten cavity with cement 
liquid and redrying before cementing inlay.” 

The slightest moistening of the cavity with the cement liquid is 
recommended by Dr. W. V.-B. Ames, but he does not specify that the 
cavity should be redried. In the hands of the writer this method has 
helped, but has not altogether remedied the trouble. 

12. How do you treat a pericemental abscess ? 

Answer.—Four reported there was no such thing. 

Five said they found that devitalizing the tooth sometimes had 
been of help. 

Eight reported that extraction was the only remedy. 

13. How do you take care of the smallest portion of nerve some- 
times found alive at the extreme apex of a root ? 

Answer.—The majority applied phenol or a mild formalin solu- 
tion, leaving the application in the tooth from a week to a month. 
One reported—aAs a rule I take care of the smallest portion of nerve 
found alive at the extreme apex of root by the use of sulphuric acid 
followed up with sodium dioxide. 

14. What is the best stunt or the most useful procedure that has 
come to dentistry within the past five years? Either a method of treat- 
ment, a filling material, an instrument or appliance, can be taken into 
consideration in the answering of the question. 

To this question there were answers galore, no two alike. Many 
were pet schemes that seemed to us to have no real practical value. 

Gold inlays were mentioned, also silicate cement. One spoke of a 











80 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


patented attachment of lower partial plates. It was a money-maker 
he said. 

Out of all the answers we chose this one. In doing so we hardly 
placed ourselves in the capacity of an authority, not one of us had 
ever tried the method, we simply looked upon it as something which 
might develop into a relief from many troubles. 

The best stunt that has come to us of late is the use of nitrous 
oxid and oxygen for the removal of psychical fear on the part of our 
patients and the painless preparation of cavities. The man who mas- 
ters N20 & O plus suggestion (something easier said than done) for 
this kind of work, need have no fear as to his future. But many will 
fail in its use. 

The second best answer, and to some of us it seemed the best, was: 

The new moulds of artificial teeth now on the market. 

It is a curious fact, that out of twenty answers no two were alike. 
These replies came from men in towns and in cities, from men with 
large clientele and from men doing a fair business. Sonie of these men 
command large fees for their work, while others get but medium prices, 
yet on the last no two are agreed. 

This closed the list of questions I sent out. It is impossible to de- 
scribe the discussion they invoked. It was picturesque, unique, and 
at times very forceful, but at all times it was most interesting. Our 
meeting opened at eight o’clock the next morning and closed at two 
o’clock. There was not a dry moment, every man expressed himself as 
having the time of his life. Try the scheme and you will be surprised 
and entertained. 


CHIROPRACTIC WILL RESTORE THE NORMAL POWERS OF 
MASTICATION * 


G. R. Batrp, D.C., Toronto. 


I don’t know anything about Chiropractic by that name, but I 
know a good deal about Osteopathy, and for certain troubles, at least, 
I am in hearty sympathy with it. I have received great personal bene- 
fits from its intelligent practice. So have members of my family and 


my friends. 
The trouble referred to in H. M.’s letter is evidently not a trouble 


with the teeth. This answer may aid in correcting it.—EpITor. 


Reaping in your last month’s number that advice was wanted on 

a case of difficult mastication, I would submit the following. 
Every function in the body is governed by nerve impulse; every 

* An answer to “H. M.,” December, 1913, Diczst, page 678. 








CHIROPRACTIC WILL RESTORE POWERS OF MASTICATION 81 


cell, tissue and organ is maintained and repaired under the guiding 
power of nerve impulse. There is not a cell in the body whose activity 
and integrity as a co-ordinating unit of a living human being is not de- 
pendent on the impulse which some minute nerve fibril conducts to it. 
This controlling nerve impulse governs the rate of growth and repro- 
duction, and co-ordinates the activities of the cells which are the ana- 
tomical and physiological units of the body. 

The series of experiments which disclosed this great truth began 
eighteen years ago—in 1895. They were the beginning of a new 
and distinct science. 

The keynote of that discovery was that in every case of disease, the 
nerve or nerves leading to the diseased tissue or organ was impinged 
upon or stretched, or both, at the place or places where they emerged 
from the spine—that is, at the intervertebral foramen or foramina. 
This was a revolutionary discovery, for anatomists had always main- 
tained that it was impossible for a vertebra to become misplaced unless 
fractured. 

Therefore the idea of the possibility of nerves being impinged, upon 
the slight displacement or subluxation of a vertebra; of the pairs form- 
ing the foramina, through which the spinal nerves emerge, was never 
thought of. Dr. D. D. Palmer discovered not only that they could 
be thus slightly displaced or subluxated without fracture, but, further, 
that by a method which he developed they could be replaced by hand, 
thus removing the pressure from the nerves, and experiment proved 
that when this pressure was removed from the nerves, the tissue or 
organs supplied by them gradually returned to health, in many cases 
the return to normal was so rapid as to be amazing. 

First, deafness, then heart disease, and in succession all forms of 
disease were relieved. To-day, by his method, chiropractors in Amer- 
ica and Europe are constantly restoring to health sufferers from all 
forms of disease. That discovery was the greatest discovery that biology 
has known. 

Chiropractic with its new philosophy of the etiology of disease, and 
the art of adjusting subluxated vertebre by hand, is absolutely indis- 
pensable to health. It is a method of adjusting by hand, for the pur- 
pose of replacing into their normal position, vertebrae which have 
become slightly displaced, and hence out of normal alignment. Such 
a displacement, technically known as a subluxation, has the effect of 
abnormally decreasing or enlarging the size of the little openings known 
as intervertebral foramina. It is through these openings that the nerves 
supplying the various parts of the body pass, after branching from the 
spinal cord. If these openings are decreased in size the nerves pass- 











82 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


ing through them will be pinched. In this event the flow of nerve 
impulse, which should pass over these nerves from the brain to every 
organ tissue and cell in the body is impeded or cut off, with the result 
that the organ, tissue or cell does not receive its energy. 

When these bones are adjusted into their normal position, the 
foramina are reopened ; the stimulus from the brain flows to the periph- 
ery, and the result is health. In the case in question, I would expect 
to find subluxations at 1st or 2d and 3d or 4th Cervical, and 6th or 7th 
Thoracic, vertebre rotated to the left. 

Many of these ideas were obtained from an article by Clare P. 
Johnston, D.C., L.L.B. 


A SECOND MOLAR WITH UPPER THIRD MOLAR ATTACHED 


By Wm. Gitmore Best, D.D.S., Berra, Ky. 


Enciosep you will find a photograph of a second molar, upper 
with a third molar attached to it. I have boiled this tooth thoroughly 
thinking that it was attached only by cartilage, but find that the two 
are absolutely grown together. I notice in the Dicrst from time to time 
several freak teeth, and I thought that it would be of interest to some 
one to have a look at this one as I believe that it is a rare thing, or at 
least I have never seen one similar to it in my practice. 





The history of this tooth is one that might be of interest. The lady 
suffered for a considerable time with pain in that side of the face 
and went to several medical men but never had relief. After extrac- 
tion of the tooth, the pain has absolutely subsided, and it has given 
no trouble at all. 











RELIEF INSURANCE WORK 83 


RELIEF INSURANCE WORK 


New York, N. Y., DecemBer 29, 1913. 
Editor Dentat Dicest: 

Dear Str: If you can find space for the enclosed article, it would 
be greatly appreciated by the Committee and all those interested in the 
Relief Insurance work. You may not be aware that this fund was 
originally started from the San Francisco disaster, and is steadily grow- 
ing, not only to meet such disasters, but also to assist the worthy den- 
tists who are incapacitated from their livelihood. 

The Committee hopes to bring this matter to a National prominence, 
whereby a house may be maintained and aid given to all dentists or 
those dependent upon them for their support. 

A short editorial from your pen would be appreciated, and it would 
give me much personal pleasure to send you additional articles should 
you care to keep your subscribers fully informed as to the workings 
of the Committee. 

Thanking you for any consideration in this matter and wishing 
you the season’s compliments, I am 

Yours sincerely, 
B. 8S. Sears. 

Have you an accident policy ? 

Have you a disability policy ? 

Have you a health policy ? 

Have you a policy protecting your family ? 

Have you sent your annual subscription to the National Dental As- 
sociation’s Benefit Insurance Fund ? 

National Dental Association 
Relief Insurance Fund Committee. 


BE FRE URRK KK OS BR Re ORR State Dental Society. 
I hereby subscribe ($ ) annually as long as I am financially 
able, to the Benefit Insurance Fund of the National Dental Association. 


OEE a 


The above can be sent to your State Secretary or direct to one of 
the Committee, which is as follows: 

L. G. Noel, 5274 Church St., Nashville, Tenn. 

E. S. Gaylord, 63 Trumbull St., New Haven, Conn. 

Wm, T, Chambers, 504 California Bldg., Denver, Colo, 








84 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


The Christmas seals will net over $5,000 from the present indica- 
tions. It is for you personally to boost the annual subscriptions, for 
this fund will require the subscriptions of all dentists, and those 
making annual contributions will be the first to be considered worthy 
of assistance as they require it. 


WHAT POSSIBILITY WAS THERE OF ARTICULATING TEETH 
FOR THIS CASE ON ANY SAVE A GYSI ADAPTABLE 
ARTICULATOR ? 


The patient was seventy years old and had been without teeth for 
eight years. Absorption of the ridges of both jaws was complete, so 
that the upper jaw was very hard and narrow and the lower arch was 
much wider from side to side than the upper. 

The irregular loss of the teeth and the long period without teeth 
had so deranged the normal mechanical movements of the jaw that the 
records were as follows: 

Right rotation point nearly at median line of head. Left rotation 
point as far outside the left condyle as the articulator permits. 

Inclination of forward condyle paths: right 20°, left 45°. 

Inclination of lateral paths: right 15°, left 25°. 

It is evident that proper records of such irregularities and the ad- 
justment of teeth to fit them, could be made only by the use of the 
Gysi Adaptable Articulator. 


Editor Denar Dicest: 

In December DicEst, on page 678, is a letter from H. M. in regard 
to a patient who complains of his powers of mastication. 

This is undoubtedly a nervous condition and should be referred 
to the proper physician. Muscular weaknesses of all sorts, as a result 
of “ nerves,” are well known to neurologists. W. L. H. 








The age of the quadruped is to go out—the age of the brain 
and of the heart is to come in. The time will come when the evil 
forms we have known can no more be recognized.—Hmerson. 



























VSINESS BUILDING 












Success may come from many things; 
but you will never find a true success 


achieved without courage. 
—The Founder of Business. 


HOW I FORCED FORTUNE TO SMILE* 


The average young man sees the advantage of saving money, but 
he is unwilling to endure any personal inconvenience or deny himself 
any indulgence to accomplish it. 

Any able-bodied wage or salary earner can save money and 
become financially independent if he is willing to enforce rigid rules 
of economy and take advantage of chances to better himself. 

One difference between a frugal man and a spendthrift is that to 
the frugal man a dime looks like a dollar, and to the spendthrift a 
dollar looks like a dime. 

Few fortunes are made by 
Success in business means meeting your financial obligations, 
From the Financial Philosophy of a Young Jew. 


business trickery or get-rich-quick 


methods. 
not evading them. 





I am a young Jew. Ten years ago I did not possess a dime that 
I could call my own. To-day, if I am not rich in the present day ac- 
ceptance of the term, I am at least independent, the owner of much val- 
uable real estate and in such a position that it would be impossible to 
embarrass me in a business way. This change in my worldly condition 
has not come about through any brilliant coup in frenzied finance nor 
extraordinary stroke of good fortune. What I have done in the way of 
bettering myself might be accomplished by any young man earning such 
an income as skilled workers receive the country over in every trade and 
In the hope that it may benefit others of the army of young 


profession. 
“can’t get anything ahead these 


men who are complaining that they 
days,” I am going to tell something of my experience in “runing a shoe- 
string up to a factory.” 

Ten years ago | was the proprietor of a little store on Independence 
Avenue, but the income from that did not exceed a dollar beyond a bare 
living. That is to say, I did not have a dollar left at the end of a month’s 
business, for the reason that I, after the manner of the average young 


” all surplus cash outside my living expenses, consid- 


man, “ blew in 
As a matter of 


ering my income too insignificant to be worth saving. 
fact, the net income from the store averaged a trifle more than the wages 


paid a skilled mechanic. I worked hard and played hard. 


* Courtesy of J. H. Blachly, D.D.S. 








86 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


While conducting my little affairs in that slipshod fashion I decided 
to be married and my first experience in the practice of economy was to 
save a few dollars to pay my wedding expenses, including a present for 
the bride. When the wedding supper was over I was broke again. I even 
owed for part of the stock in my store. 

I married a girl of my own race, and she was not long in discovering 
that my financial status was considerably below sea level. She demanded 
a reckoning, and in the discussion of our affairs that followed, I awoke 
to the fact that I never could hope to amount to anything unless I found 
a way tosave money. My idea had been that this could be accomplished 
only by devising some means to make more money, but my wife recited 
the old saying that “it is not what you earn, it’s what you save, that 
counts,” and she hammered it into me in such a way that it came to have 
a meaning. 

My wife and I began our life of economy by “ setting up house- 
keeping ” in a couple of uninviting little rooms over the store. My wife 
did the shopping for the table, and while we had enough to eat, we be- 
came strangers to luxuries and the more expensive foods. We relent- 
lessly cut off every unnecessary expense—and every day we found some 
additional leak in the pocketbook that we had overlooked previously. 
T cut out the theaters, the social visits in front of saloon bars, shaking 
dice for cigars and the cigars themselves; I wore soft shirts made and 
laundered by my wife, and cut my laundry bills down to a whisper; 
we even decided that street car riding was a luxury, and cut that out, 
walking wherever it was necessary for us to go. 

We hadn’t been leading the frugal life a month until I realized 
how quickly, pitifully, insignificant savings ran into respectable sums. 
It dawned on me that one difference between the frugal man and the 
spendthrift was that to a frugal man a dime looked like a dollar, and to 
the spendthrift a dollar looked like a dime. A dime ceased to be merely 
two street car rides or two beers to me, and became a tenth of a dollar. 
I even developed a profound respect and some affection for nickels. 

But, save as we would, the rate of accumulation did not seem to 
justify a hope of attaining wealth in many, many years. The possibilities 
of the little store were limited and I began looking about for oppor- 
tunities to pick up an honest dollar outside my business—the first 
tentative excursions into other fields of a budding capitalist inclined to 
speculation. For I had become a capitalist compared to my former 
condition—we had saved at the end of eight months, by the strictest 
self-denial, more than $800. 

The flood of 1903 gave me an opportunity for a number of modest 











HOW I FORCED FORTUNE TO, SMILE 87 


fliers in a speculative way. High water and mud damaged much mer- 
chandise in the West Bottoms, and I bought such of this as was within 
my means and promised a profit. Among other purchases was a carload 
of nails, bought from a wholesale hardware firm and sold to a sash and 
door factory at a profit of two cents a pound. I made over $200 on that 
deal. I also bought damaged rope and mud encrusted case goods of 
wine. The wine cost me fifty cents a case, and after I had scrubbed 
the Kaw River clay from the bottles I sold them for $2.40 a case. 
I never overlooked an opportunity to make a dollar or a dime, though 
I never made a “ shady ” transaction or charged a man a cent of usuri- 
ous interest. 

By the merest chance one day I overheard scraps of a conversation 
indicating that a certain wealthy man was negotiating for a piece of 
North Side real estate, and that the deal was hanging fire because of 
a difference of $500 in the price asked and offered. I had heard such 
things in the past, but they had meant nothing to me. Now I had an 
eye out for money and I sized up every proposition with a view to pos- 
sible personal gain. I knew the capitalist that was ‘“ dickering ” for the 
piece of property, knew that he was a sharp trader but made up my 
mind that he was determined to have the property or he would not 
have pressed the negotiations so far. I decided to take a big chance. 
I went to the agent handling the property, offered the price asked and 
paid a thousand dollars down. Then I got word to the capitalist that 
the place he had been negotiating for was sold. Within a week he took 
the purchase off my hands, paying me $250 for forestalling him. I 
don’t know what would have happened if he hadn’t taken the property. 

That was such easy money that I redoubled my alertness in watching 
for real estate bargains that might be “swung” with a little capital. 
Soon I heard of an opportunity, but the size of the deal staggered me. 
I knew of a Kansas City apartment house, owned by a Philadelphia 
investment company, that had “ run down ” and lost some of its earning 
value in the hands of a careless agent. The price asked for the apart- 
ment house was $11,000, and it could be bought for $1,500 down and 
payments of $1,000 a year with interest. I had the $1,500, but how 
about the future? IT bought the place and broke myself making the first 
payment. 


RICH—IN INDEBTEDNESS. 


This was about a year after my marriage. Can you imagine a 
man, who a year before had been penniless, assuming a debt of $9,500, 
and that with practically no increase in income? I took the risk after 








88 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


my wife and I had talked over the situation and made up our minds 
that we would survive the worst that could happen to us—lose the prop- 
erty and finish where we started, with nothing. 

But we didn’t lose. I gave that apartment house a thorough over- 
hauling with my own hands, repaired the sagging hinges, broken win- 
dows and rickety steps, and freshened it with paint here and there. I 
threw out non-paying tenants and replaced them with tenants who paid 
their rent promptly. In two months the apartment house was bringing in 
a gross income of $2,080 a year, $1,080 above the amount of the annual 
payments I had obligated myself to make. And it has continued to 
bring in that amount, because I have looked after my tenants and keep 
the apartment house in perfect repair. My success with this venture was 
such that the Philadelphia investment company turned over to me the 
bulk of their rental collections from other Kansas City property and I 
drew a percentage of profit from those. 

That $11,000 plunge was the real beginning of my rise to financial 
independence. I now own three apartment houses, all acquired on 
practically the same terms, and three desirable residences, one of which, 
property worth $4,500 or $5,000, is my house. I owe less than $700 
and if pressed by necessity I could raise $10,000 in forty-eight hours’ 
time without inconvenience to myself or my friends. JI never made a 
dishonest dollar in my life and I have even found time to help a few 
acquaintances to a start on the road to financial peace of mind. Few 
fortunes, I am convinced, are made by business trickery or get-rich-quick 
methods. Success in business means meeting your financial obligations, 
not evading them. I have fought fairly for what I have, and to-day, if 
I should die, my wife and children would have somewhere between 
$35,000 and $50,000 on which to live. 


MY WORST AND MY BEST LUCK. 


Some may say that I have been lucky, but luck has not been with me 
any more than it will be with any man who is making an honest and 
intelligent effort to get ahead. As a matter of fact, I have had some 
very bad luck. Early in my financial career, if such it may be called, 
I invested $700 in a bond concern that failed just when I needed my 
money. Ten cents on the dollar was the best I ever realized from that 
venture. At one time and another I loaned over $900, taking mort- 
gages on household goods for security and finished with a loss of over 
$600. I had my savings in a Kansas City bank a few years ago when 
that institution closed its doors. While the affairs of the bank were 
being adjusted and scrip was being issued to depositors, a payment on 











HOW I FORCED FORTUNE TO SMILE 89 


some property I had bought fell due and the bank’s scrip would not 
be accepted. I ran around Kansas City like a crazy man for three 
days before I found a friend who was willing to lend the necessary cash, 
which he had in gold in a safe deposit vault. Such things could scarcely 
be called “ good luck.” 

The best luck that came to me was the woman I married. She was 
the first to awaken in me some sense of responsibility in the world, 
and she first set the example of self-denial and frugality that made 
saving possible for us. And in the ten years since our marriage she has 
never complained when there was a necessity of foregoing any indul- 
gence that involved expense. While we are “ out of the woods,” so far 
as any danger of privation is concerned, it has not been so long ago 
that I was closely pressed for ready money. At that time my wife said 
to me one day: “TI wish you would let me have $10.” I had to refuse 
her, because I had obligations to meet that required every cent I could 
command, and I would rather starve than fail to meet an obligation. 
She knew that we were worth a good many thousand dollars at the 
time, but she never uttered a word of discontent at my refusal, because 
she knew that she was welcome under ordinary conditions to anything 
and everything we had. 

The “ lucky ” man is the man who works and saves and seizes every 
chance that presents itself. There is no real trouble about saving. My 
wife and I “skimped,” but we suffered no real hardship, and the experi- 
ence only intensified our enjoyment of the comparative opulence of to- 
day. Any able-bodied wage or salary earner can save money and be- 
come financially independent if he is willing to enforce rigid rules of 
economy and take advantage of chances to better himself. The trou- 
ble with the average young man, married or single, is that he doesn’t 
like to sacrifice any of his pleasures. The average young man sees the 
advantage of saving money, but he is unwilling to endure any personal 
inconvenience or deny himself any indulgence to accomplish it. 

In these days, when the cost of living is so great, no matter what 
economy is practised, no ambitious man will be satisfied with what 
he can save from his wages or salary, and his only hope for more rapid 
advancement is in speculation. That, intelligently carried out, is not 
particularly dangerous. There are innumerable small investments that 
are practically “sure things” so far as any danger of actual loss is 
concerned, and it is seldom that at least a little profit cannot be squeezed 
out of any transaction where a man has the ready money to clinch a 
bargain at the right moment. I have never lost a dime in a real estate 
investment, for instance, and I am no smarter than the average young 








90 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


man; but I have bought only when I could see real and removable 
causes for depressed values and where I could see a way in which to 
improve the selling value or the earning capacity of the property. I 
expect to be worth a real fortune—something past the hundred thou- 
sand mark—before I am through. But I am not a miser—as my fam- 
ily and I journey through life we expect to live by the way. I am 
after money because I want the best there is, as good as any other fellow 
has, and spending money. is the only way to get it. Saving, however, 
comes before spending. 

Incidentally there is a lot of fun, along with the self-denial, in sav- 
ing money. Frugal living can be made a sort of picnic, like camping 
out; and the possession of a growing bank account is a wonderful stiff- 
ener for the backbone of your self-esteem. And a few years of strict 
economy doesn’t lessen your capacity for the enjoyment of the good 
things of life, rather increases it. 

Try it and see.—Kansas City Star. 





A GOOD OFFICE INVENTORY 


The dentist whose office burns out will devoutly wish for a book 
such as mentioned here. Unfortunately, I have no funds from which 
to supply them. It is quite a simple matter to make out such an 
inventory and put it in a safe place away from the office. It may prove 
very valuable.—EpITor. 


Dear Docror Crarp: In my attempt to submit figures in answer 
to your questions, I became impressed on how important it was for a 
man to have a good inventory of his office. I venture to say that not 
one man in ten knows exactly what he has. 

Some years ago I found on the market a little book that simplified 
the taking of an inventory in one’s home. Every room was provided 
for on a separate page, and as a suggestion, many articles of furniture 
were mentioned in connection with each room. 

Now you are out to benefit our profession, you are giving the pro- 
fession many things that are of service. Why not give them one of 
these books? There are none to be purchased, they must be arranged 
and adapted to our use. But you can do it, and it will be a Godsend 


to a man who has a fire. 
Sincerely, 


Pe. . W. 








DENTAL CREDITS AND OTHER THINGS 91 


DENTAL CREDITS AND OTHER THINGS 


By G. E. Harter, Torepo, Onto. 


To the credit of the profession let it be said that this credit, ex- 
tended by dealers in dental goods, upon no other basis than the good 
will of the debtor, is not very often abused ; yet sometimes it is treated 
in such manner as to lead the observer to conclude that it is not ap- 
preciated as it should be; as the most valuable asset that the dentist has. 

In no other line, so far as I know, do beginners owe so much to the 
leniency of those from whom they buy goods; in no other line can a 
young man secure such a long line of credit, upon such easy terms, 
often extended time after time to suit the needs or convenience of the 
debtor. J wonder how many dentists remember this, when, in later 
life, the house to which they owe their start, finds it necessary to re- 
mind them, with some emphasis at times, that bills must be paid within 
certain well-known limits of time / 

The men who own and operate dental depots must work within cer- 
tain established lines as to the payment.of bills if they would retain 
their own credit; and, without that credit, modern business operations 
would be wholly impossible. These men are subject to the same laws 
as are those who owe them. ‘Therefore, if dentists would try to under- 
stand them, try to put themselves in their places, it would seem that 
greater effort would be made to comply with their very reasonable re- 
quirements as to the payment of accounts. 

Of course, your supply house wants your orders; for the purpose of 
making the buying of your supplies as easy and convenient for you as 
possible, traveling men are sent out, at great expense, who carry ex- 
tensive stocks of the kinds of goods that you are most likely to need, and 
your convenience is consulted and deferred to in many ways. Among 
the concessions made is that of credit; and, so long as this concession 
is not abused, the dealer can go along year after year, carrying your 
account ; but this cannot be done unless bills are paid when due. 

Just consider your own business: suppose that your patients ask 
you for credit, or take it without asking; suppose that when you need 
money and ask for it, no attention is paid to your request for payment ; 
suppose that you learn that some of your delinquent debtors are paying 
cash for services rendered by some competitor of yours in your own 
field. What would you think of that kind of treatment? How would 
you feel about it? Well, dealers are men, too; and they feel just about 
as you would. 








92 THE DENTAL DIGEST : 


Suppose, again, that you had requested payment from such a pa- 
tient, not once, but several times, as kindly and as politely as you know 
how, and had tried to make him understand that you needed the money ; 
that you were borrowing money to keep things going, and paying for 
the use of it, just because he and a good many others like him had 
neglected to pay when payment was due, even a good deal past due; 
and suppose that, instead of paying his bill, or part of it, or, at least, 
explaining to you why he was unable to pay you, he should simply 
ignore your request, or if he paid any attention to it at all, write and 
abuse you. What would you do? What would you feel like doing, 
whether you did it or not? 

I often wonder if dentists who do not pay ever think what might 
happen to them if some time or other the dental dealers should or- 
ganize a little credit department just among themselves, as is so fre- 
quently done in other lines, and report to each other every such case, 
giving full particulars of their experience in trying to collect money 
due; and that, following such report, every dealer should refuse fur- 
ther credit. Wouldn’t that make things just a trifle embarrassing for 
the dentists reported ? 

Quite aside from all ethical considerations, leaving all idea of 
what each man owes every other man out of the question, ordinary 
common sense would suggest that a man who needs credit, who cannot 
well get along in his business without it, should do everything in his 
power to deserve credit and preserve it when once acquired, instead 
of, seemingly, doing all that he can to forfeit it. Your good name is 
worth more to you than any other asset, and, once lost, is mighty hard 
to regain. 

In the dental profession a man’s good name, and his reputation 
for fair dealing, prompt payment of bills included, is, usually, his 
sole “ worth” as a business risk. Unlike most kinds of property, such 
a basis for credit cannot be taken away from him and cannot be lost 
except by his own acts. This fact makes such a reputation by far the 
most valuable of assets and should be zealously guarded, protected and 
fostered, and not frittered away by carelessness, lack of promptness, 
indifference or neglect. 

I personally know a dentist who has a fine personality, is well liked 
by many, has a very fair practice, and who ought to be a leader in 
his community. Yet that man has so neglected his business reputation 
that he cannot buy as much as a facing without laying down the money 
in advance. Too bad? Of course it is; especially as that fact has 
reacted upon his general character, so that his reputation along other 








PRIZE CONTEST 93 


lines has suffered also, until to-day he bears in face and manner an 
unmistakable index to his unreliability. 

Every man owes it to himself to build up and maintain a reputa- 
tion for reliability and uprightness; and the prompt payment of busi- 
ness as well as merely personal accounts will go further toward the 
achievement of that end than any other thing—further, it seems to 
me, than all other things combined; since unreliability in one direc- 
tion is a fertile seed that sprouts and grows and spreads until it may 
choke out all the finer qualities of the man and leave his old age a 
barren waste of regrets.—The Dental Summary. 


PRIZE CONTEST 
With the year 1914 begins the 30th anniversary of the 


“ OSTERR.-UNGAR. VIERTELJAHRSSCHRIFT FUR ZAHNHEILKUNDE.” 
Vienna (Austria) 1. Petersplatz 7. 


In commemmoration the editor offers three prizes as follows: 
I. 1000 Kronen = £40 = $200 

II. 600 Kronen = £24 = $120 

III. 400 Kronen = £16 — $80 


for scientific work from any branch of dentistry, theoretical or prac- 
tical, but awarded according to its clinical value. 

Herr Reg.-Rat Professor Dr. Julius Scheff has accepted the chair- 
manship of the committee to judge and award prizes. 


CONTEST REQUIREMENTS. 


I. The contest is open to dentists of all countries. In case the 
work is in a foreign language a German translation is to be included 
with the application. 

II. The work must be that which has not before appeared in print. 

III. The work must be anonymously sent in bearing a certain word 
of identification with a sealed envelope, bearing the same word, contain- 
ing the contestant’s name and address. 

IV. The contest closes May 15, 1914, as prizes are awarded July 
15, 1914. 

V. The successful works will be published in the Osterr.-Ungar. 
Vierteljahrsschrift fiir Zahnheilkunde when its size permits. 

VI. The editor claims the privilege to publish at the customary 
remuneration any of the works of the unsuccessful contestants. 








94 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


FOURTH ANNUAL OUTING OSHKOSH DENTAL SOCIETY 


What Dr. Gifford writes is better than any little article I could 
“fix up.” I wish dentists everywhere were on such a friendly basis. 
What would happen to “ price competition ” then 7—EpITor. 


Editor Dentat Digest: 

Enctosep find photo of the Fourth Annual Outing of the Oshkosh 
Dental Society. A cottage is at our disposal where everyone enjoys 
himself for three days. Of course, there are some that do not attend, 
but they are always sorry when they hear of the good times. Oshkosh 
has one of the best Dental Societies of any city, and instead of hating 
our competitor we are all on friendly terms. The picture shows for 


itself. 


3 < Pia 





1, Dr. J. J. Geary; 2, Dr. Geo. Stratton; 3, Dr. J. L. Bender; 4, Dr. C. C. Finney; 
5, Dr. Geo. Gehbe; 6, Dr. John Ritter (Chicago) ; 7, Dr. A. C. Gifford; 8, Dr. A. E. 
Palmer (Milwaukee) ; 9, Dr. John F. Mortell; 10, Dr. C. C. Norris; 11, Prof. Paul 


Gerstinkorn (Milwaukee). 


Fix up a little item from these facts and insert in the good old Drn- 
TAL Diaest. 
Respectfully, 
A. C. Girrorp. 








ANSWER TO D.J.’S “FRIENDLY CRITICISM OF BROTHER BILL” 95 


REMARKS IN ANSWER TO D. J.’S “FRIENDLY CRITICISM OF 
BROTHER BILL” * 


We all know, as has been said, “ You cannot get something for 
nothing.” We must give value for value received in some way. Not 
all dentists “can put first-class work into any mouth,” for I am very 
sorry to say not all can do first-class work. 

I believe a first-class man at his trade or profession is born, not 
made, just as a good artist or musician. The taste for these things is 
born in them, they inherit the gift, and with that foundation to work 
upon, they are instructed and educated along that line. After the 
foundation is laid, perhaps some are more fortunate than others in the 
selection of location, etc., and it seems to me, with a large field to work 
in, we should have as good a chance as the next man. 

I think all dentists have that bugbear to buck against, “ Cheap- 
ness in all things,” and must be bright enough and smart enough, and 
right up to the mark also in the business part, to meet these propositions 
which come to us in this way. If you wish to do the better grades of 
work in some communities you must hammer, hammer at the Educa- 
tional Side day in and out. 

The majority with whom we have to deal cannot see why some 
should receive a fee of $8.00 or $10.00 for a gold or part gold and 
porcelain crown, or porcelain entire, with absolute honesty throughout 
the whole transaction, while the faker will do the same thing appar- 
ently for about half. Such men are the ones making the money in 
dentistry, while the honest, painstaking fellow can just about get by 
with his honest methods. 

We like to make a living, and a good one, and it is possible to do 
so trying to save teeth. If work can be accomplished rapidly and well 
at the same time, then that is one way we may overcome, in a degree, 
the cheapness of the other fellow and also bring into play the educa- 
tional part and make your argument a strong one; most people will 
listen to reason. 

There is no such thing in some communities as honesty among 
fellow-workers in the same business. It’s how can IT do the other fellow 
first, or so he will not find it out? 

There are many who have had experiences similar to your own and 
have seen some hard times. 

It certainly is very hard to advise; one way to overcome part of it 
is to make every move count, and hustle, providing you can get the 
material to hustle on. 

* December DicEst, 1913, p. 702. 








96 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


This is a very bad time, especially in some parts, and some who 
have boasted of a good practice are doing very little. 

I gather, in part, from Brother Bill’s remarks, not that he can 
increase one’s business, but that he is trying to help many as regards 
the possibilities they might have before them; be alive to the fact of 
every conceivable opening. 

The following is a case in practice illustrating the above. A patient 
came to a certain dentist, complaining of a pain in the face, could not 
sleep nights, and had been to two dentists previous to calling on this 
dentist. Their version of the case was neuralgia. A physician was 
visited, who advised him to go to a dentist who would be thorough 
in examination. The patient had been unable to sleep for nearly two 
weeks. A cavity was found in the upper right wisdom tooth; it was 
treated for inflammation of pulp and exposure; the patient retired 
that night and slept soundly. In a mouth that two men could find 
nothing the matter, another found, after careful inspection, enough 
the matter to need at least three appointments which brought him in 
the small sum of $30.00 and the good-will of said patient. 

Case of asleep at the switch; I guess this illustration goes to show 
that not all, even when needing work, seem to be able to find it. 

I do not like the idea of putting on more gold crowns to come out 
even or for making a profit on the lot. I think I would prefer filling, 
and with good instruments and an idea just what is to be done, I think 
in the long run I could come out ahead. 

One can drill himself to become very expert and expeditious, and 
material for fillings certainly costs less than gold for crowns, especially 
if made of alloy. 

I am up against the same proposition. I crown seldom, unless it 
is the only thing that can be done, and when necessary to do so I do it. 

If I must crown for $5.00, I give them a $5.00 crown, and so on 
up the scale, and I do it as well for the fee as possible, and consume 
as little time as possible also. 

T don’t care what the cost is, nor how much you might expect for 
a salary, if you have not the material to work upon in the case of large 
or small fees you do not make the net amount you think you should get. 

I will tell you one reason for this; the non-getting together of the 
dentists of a community and establishing uniform fees for the common 
every-day services to the public, honesty to the other fellow, and a free 
exchange of confidences. 

Until that time comes, if ever it does, you and many others are up 


against it, unless you make up your mind to do as the other fellow is 
doing. W. C. M. 








RIDING ON THE WRONG TRAIN 97 


RIDING ON THE WRONG TRAIN 


Our friend D. J., who has written of his complaint in the Decem- 
ber Diaxst, page 702, about making $5 gold crowns and thinks he must 
do so, is riding on the wrong train and had better change cars; if he 
don’t he had better do like the fellow that bought a girl a Christmas 
present and then found out she was engaged to the “ other fellow.” 
Just print the sign, “ Everybody kick me,” and hang it on his coat 
tail. 

If he decides to change cars the first thing he wants to do is to 
subscribe for a correspondence course in Salesmanship, then get busy 
and do a little talking to his patients, and use this for a motto: “ A 
tooth well filled is a darned sight better than a cheap crown,” and he will 
find out that the crowns he does put on will average $10, the price 
he seems to think he ought to get; also let him remember that one ten- 
dollar crown will net him more than three five-dollar crowns considering 
his time and material. 

The next thing he wants to do is to learn to manipulate alloy in 
large contour fillings and stop crowning every tooth that comes along 
aching with a cavity the size of a pea; those teeth will net him as much, 
or nearly so, as his five-dollar crowns. 

Stop being a tinsmith and be a dentist. Your patients will pay the 
fee and go away singing your praises to the sky, and if they can’t 
send their friends to you, they will drag them to your office by the coat 
collar. 

In this enlightened day, people want their teeth saved not canned. 

I used to ride on the same train that D. J. is now on, but jumped 
off before she stopped and made a running jump for the one headed 
the other way. 

I am afraid D. J. is a little like I found a classmate of mine. Sev- 
eral years ago I was visiting in a small town back east where this class- 
mate was trying to practise. Upon entering his office, I found it 
twenty-five years behind the times; he was still using the stubs that 
remained of his college outfit. Of instruments there wasn’t a sign; 
there was not a dental journal in his office. He didn’t know how to 
make a gold or porcelain inlay, or a cast aluminum plate; was not a 
member of either the local or state society, and could not afford a va- 
eation. Yet his only competitor had his office closed and was away on 
a six-weeks vacation. 

Before I left that office my friend promised me to subscribe for 
several journals and join the state society and attend their meetings, 
and be one of the boys. HH. B. 








98 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


EXPERIENCES 


IN REFERENCE TO “E. J. KS ETHICS.” 


Editor Dentat Digest: 

Beine a reader of the Denrat Dicest for several years, I wish 
to say I have read my share of the good things found in same, and 
also the Tommy Rot, and high-flying ethics, written by the men that 
begin at the top, and then go up. I began at the bottom and am not 
far from there yet. Would like to comment on E. J. K.’s ethics in 
December number of the Dicrst. He claims that the man who makes 
a gold crown for incisor in this day and age is either a grafter or 
does not know any better dentistry, nor is a gold crown for same even 
indicated. Now this may be true with his practice, but he does not 
consider the man located as I am, in a small town not far from the 
mountain people, who want gold crowns, and nothing else will do them. 
I get from $5 to $7 for one, and if I refuse to do the practice, there 
is a dentist four doors from me that puts them on for $3. Now I need 
the money. Is there gold indicated in this case or not? It takes from 
forty to sixty minutes to make one. 

I do not belong to any ethical Dental Society of any kind, but out 
of my three competitors the worst one is the ethical one that talks like 
E. J. K. and does like myself, as he pleases, which is to cut the 
price on me. 


W. C. 


Editor Dentat Digest: 

E. J. K., in December Dicerst, page 695, says: “ The man that will 
make a gold cap for an incisor in this day and age is either a grafter 
or does not know any better dentistry.” I sometimes make crowns for 
incisors and I do not consider myself as much of a grafter as the spe- 
cialist on pyorrhea. 

The patient wants them, thinks he is not getting his money’s 
worth if another kind is offered, thinks them pretty and says: “If 
you won’t put it on the fellow in the next block will.” I have offered 
to give patients a twenty-year written guarantee on another kind of 
crown and to make it for the same price and have failed to convince 
them that it was as good or better. No doubt E. J. K. would let them 
go to the other fellow, but I don’t. I consider that I can make the 
crown as well as the other fellow and can make a profit, so if nothing 








EXPERIENCES 99 


else will do, I might as well have the profit. Have numerous requests 
to put gold on sound teeth. One young man said, “I can have either 
a gold ring or a gold tooth for my birthday, and I want the gold tooth.” 
Have had requests to set diamonds in teeth. 

E. J. K. says he never was taught to make a gold crown and thanks 
heaven for it. He advises “ the grafter ” to take a post-graduate course 
in bridgework. If he cuts off every tooth he uses for an abutment, I 
advise him to take the post-graduate course. If the plumber he speaks 
of refused to set the sink in the room in which it was wanted, but 
insisted on putting it in another, he would likely get “the fellow in 
the next block ” to set it. 

A few words about the extraction of the thirty-one teeth “ that 
could have been saved ” and the fitting of artificial dentures. I don’t 
claim to cure pyorrhea although I treat many cases. Have often tried 
and failed. Suppose I need another post-graduate course. Have re- 
ferred case after case to the specialists and have had few take their 
treatments. Many times it is their prices that scare them away, but 
one said, “ If I did all he advises to do besides taking his treatment, 
I would not have time for my business but would spend all my time 
on my teeth.” “ We will extract the teeth as they fail and I’ll wear 
partial plates and later full ones.” 

Another patient, who was assured a cure, made ten or twelve 200 
mile trips and paid $6 per treatment; was told a year later that the 
reason he did not get cured was because he did not treat long enough. 
Have seen the specialist amputate the lingual root of an upper molar, 
charging a fat fee and the tooth was extracted with the fingers two 
months later. Who is the grafter ? 

I have extracted less than “ 31 teeth that could have been saved ” 
(for a year or two) and made artificial dentures that the patient is as 
proud of as E. J. K. is of his own. Got $20 in small installments for 
the job; think I gave the patient better service than any specialist’s 
treatment could have done (had he worked for nothing) without the 
help of the patient. Certainly that mouth is cleaner than it has been 
at any time in the last 20 years. Have I lowered myself in the esti- 
mation of E. J. K. by “such a travesty on dental skill?” I thought 
T had done something to conserve the health and prolong the life of 
my patient. I may be a grafter or lacking in dental skill, but I would 
like to see some who have had the advantage of the aforesaid post- 
graduate course, and who are perhaps making ten times what I do, come 
out and practice as they write and see how well it pays the rest.— 


P. W. D. 








100 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


Editor Dentat Dicest: 

I note a letter on page 699, December Dicrsr, from E. H. S. in 
regard to a simple, sure and swift cure for pyorrhea. 

I know a fellow who can cure cancer—he admits it himself. The 
wonderful simple remedy (?) was discovered by an Indian who told 
it to this man’s mother just before he died! This fellow to whom I 
refer would be perfectly willing to journey to New York to demonstrate 
his cure if his expenses were paid. 

No case of pyorrhea can be cured in eight minutes, we all know 
that. If one treatment is sufficient for a cure it must be so simple that 
it could be stated in a letter and save all the trouble of a trip to New 
York. H. L. W. 


Editor Den'rat Dicest: 

If you had been located in a town of 1,100 population twelve years 
with fair schools, good churches, water works and electric lights, had 
built a modern home, and were doing $2,500 net practice, would you 
sell out and go to the city if you had a good acquaintance there ? 

I am asking this, hoping some one who has tried changing location, 
or has been practising in city, will reply. 

I am twenty-eight years old, my personal appearance, habits and 
manner will compare favorably with the average. 

Object is to get better school and social advantages the city offers 
for children. .. a 


ANOTHER WILL HELP THE DIGEST CLUB. 


Editor Dentat Digest: 

I reap your call for members of a Digest Club in the November 
issue. At the time I thought I could be of no use to you, but since 
reading the December issue, wherein one man offers to help and then 
complains that he has not been sufficiently suecessful—yet has raised 
five children, owns his home and still has a good practice—I feel 
that he should thank the good Lord for the blessings bestowed upon 
him and keep on doing good as he has in the past twenty years. 

I have been in the profession for ten years, and have a home and 
only one child with a very small amount of money, yet I am very 
thankful for this, and I hope to acquire more as I grow older and 
can do more good. 

I will be glad to help if I can. 

Yours very truly, 
R. J. F. 








LETTER TO THE EDITOR 101 


LETTER TO THE EDITOR 


The following was written partly as a letter and partly as an 
article, but both are good enough to publish.—EDITor. 


Dear Dr. Crarr: 

Just as you believe in keeping at figuring the cost of each dental 
operation, so I believe that your articles only represent the man who 
is busy and hasn’t nerve enough to ask honest pay for what he does or, 
in other words, to take the proper advantage of his opportunities 

But the man whose patients are few and far between hasn’t nerve 
enough to ask for high fees for fear he will lose what little business 
he already has. It is my experience, with both my personal and many 
dental friends, that there is but one way open to increase business, and 
that is to resort to the use of “ printers’ ink,” and when one has plenty 
of patients and can afford to lose a few, then, and then only, can one 
afford to ask higher fees. All dentists get slack spells, and I find when 
such slack times come along that I can’t get high fees, and if I ask 
them I usually lose the patient. 

Give me a real busy day, when my office has from one to five wait- 
ing to see me—that is the day I can close a contract for most any 
figure I want to ask. This has also been the experience of some of my 
intimate friends. I will relate the story of a dentsct whose office is in 
New York, in a very fine neighborhood, where he has a fine, high-class 
practice, gotten by high-class advertising. 

He ran into a slack period, and he told me of several experiences 
he had trying to get work.” A stranger came in his office, saying she 
wanted a silver filling put in her tooth. He told her an ordinary silver 
filling would cost $1.00, and one nicely put in and contoured and pol- 
ished down next day would cost $1.50. At this she began yelling in 
a loud voice, “ A dollar and a half, a dollar and a half! Why, T never 
paid more than fifty cents for one in my life,” and she made for the 
door without even saying good-by or thank you. 

The same afternoon a very ordinary looking woman came in and 
wanted to know how much he would charge for a six-tooth bridge. His 
morning experience had scared him, and he quoted the lowest price he 
ever had for bridgework, $6.00 a tooth. The woman informed him 
that he was a robber and her dentist would do it for $24.00 and guar- 
antee it for twenty years. He had several such experiences. Two 
weeks later, when business was unusually good, he asked a woman 
$72.00 for a six-tooth bridge, and she was perfectly satisfied. He was 
getting from $2.00 to $3.00 for amalgam fillings, and everybody pleased 
and satisfied. A. Ef. 








102 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


“D, J.” REPLIES TO BROTHER BILL’S LETTER 


Dear Broruer Biii: 

I have read your answer in the December Dicxrst,* a number of 
times, and the more I read it the less I know what would be the appro- 
priate words or spirit in which to answer. 

First, I want to assure you that I am not beaten to a frazzle or 
otherwise. I never had time to be beaten and now less than ever. 

The dominant thought I intended to express was that from a purely 
business standpoint, the local condition with which I was surrounded 
were not such as would permit the business returns that I felt entitled 
to. Now you suggest that I look out for a more favorable location, 
and even suggest the possibility of my gradually entering into a side 
line. All of which is along the lines I have been thinking out, but 
now, Brother Bill, if circumstances such as we have discussed warrant 
my making one or more of the changes you suggest, would any of these 
changes warrant the idea that I was beaten ? 

I believe, for the feeling is strongly ingrained in me, that this 
world owes me at least as much as it accords our animal servants by 
law, and that within certain bounds I am reasonably sure of at least 
that much. But that much is not enough. It may do for the animal, 
but not for the man. Up to a certain point man is purely animal 
from every angle from which he can be observed. His purely animal 
wants supplied, the man element in him may assert itself. 

In brief, the hardships and privations of the upward rise of the 
race are repeated in the individual, and where we find a race or nation 
bearing the evidences of culture and of moral and intellectual attain- 
ment, we find that a measure of progress has been made that has 
raised that race or nation above the immediate need of a cencentrated 
effort to acquire its material necessities alone. 

In other words, the food and clothing questions settled, the ideals 
of the race rise up and manifest themselves. 

Now an ideal is just as tangible and material in its nature as the 
entity that expresses it. Down through the course of the ages I have 
traveled hand in hand with sage and seer, with priest and prophet. TI 
have hung on their very lips and know their innermost thoughts. T 
have revelled in the glory of old Israel, the splendor of Egypt and in 
the wonderful attainments of the Greek. Word for word I know the 
teachings of Moses and the prophets, of the Greek philosophers and 
Roman poets. Every clime and every age, every teacher, every thinker 

*See pages 702 and 707, December, 1913, DiaEsrt, 








“D. J."{ REPLIES TO, BROTHER BILL’S}/ LETTER 103 


and every worker have laid me under obligations for the efforts they 
have made and the attainments they secured. 

Yet none of these constitutes an ideal. Others may have the ideals 
if I may get the money, till such time as I do get the money. 

This does not mean an amount beyond reason but such an amount 
as will permit the development of the ideal without the necessity of 
giving thought to material conditions. 

In rebuttal it will not be necessary for you to point out that the 
great ideals of earth came from and through the lowly. They each lived 
in accordance with the way and manner of their times. You and I 
must live in accordance with the way and manner and spirit of our 
times. 

Once I thought I had ideals. Either I never had or they proved 
themselves such stuff as dreams are made of. As matters are shaping 
themselves, I feel that I would have no use for an ideal were one to 
present itself. It has become almost axiomatic that business is no place 
for an ideal, and my problem is a purely business one. 

The world is busily engaged in strangling ideals at their inception 
and placing its seal of approval on the brow of material attainment. 

It is not humor that impels the world to inquire, not “ Where did 
you get it?” but “ How much did you get?” It is a real tangible some- 
thing that is not conducive to the health or well-being of an ideal; 
and while this state of affairs prevails, it looks to me as though the 
welfare of the ideal must suffer. Why it is only a week or two ago 
that the daily papers reported a case where a Michigan judge on sen- 
tencing a man convicted of robbing a bank of two hundred thousand 
dollars, told him, substantially “ you need not feel cast down over the 
prospects of your sentence for there is no prison made that will hold 
a man with money and active friends.” 

Now in less than two years that man will be at liberty, with two 
hundred thousand perfectly good dollars, putting on a conspicuous 
“front” and lording it over a few poor devils that he robbed of those 
dollars, and in the course of time he will join the church, and sing 
Hallelujahs and tell his less fortunate friends what beautiful things 
ideals are, all of which “ listens well,” but has very little bearing on the 
problem of bread and butter. 

The professional man of to-day is successful in just the measure of 
his financial returns. 

However, I am thankful for the existence of the idealist, the man 
who looks beyond the sordid of to-day and paints in hopeful colors 
the promise of a better to-morrow. He is the man of genius and the 








104 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


sunlight of progress always falls first on the brow of those pioneers 
of thought who lead every advance into the attainments of the future. 

If you ever come to this beautiful town of ours, Brother Bill, that 
I have tried to sanctify by my presence and which I propose to strip 
to the last shred of my ability, call around and let me tell you all that 
I would like to. I will try to make things pleasant for you while you 
are here, and I promise that you shall go home with material for another 
chapter a little different from anything you have yet written. In clos- 
ing I want to express my thanks and appreciation for the kindly spirit 
you have shown, my regret that the bulk of your well-intended advice 
is not applicable, and to repeat the hope that some time in the future 
you may accept my hospitality. 

Sincerely yours, 
D. J. 


PROFITS;[IN {DENTISTRY 


A certain dentist who of late has given attention to his costs of 
practice sends in the following report of costs and receipts from a few 


operations. 
These reports were chosen at random from his files. The costs in- 


clude his salary. 








Costs. Receipts. 
Re ee ne ae er $5.30 $5.25 
ee nthe ips vg ait to oA S 7.70 4.00 
ee SPY re nee ae ae ee ee 5.10 2.00 
SE Be As eae, es 6 -bis, Bava 7.00 7.25 
Bee eRe eos eh at ews 1.68 1.50 
Ee ee ee er 2.50 1.50 
EE ghia paed abe w hese e 1.69 1.50 
ee aye Bs Wadatewy ew keen 8.10 8.00 
ye at eee ee ee 10.10 10.00 
ES er eee ee eee ere 2.90 2.00 
| Pe ee ae ee ee 8.30 9.00 
te ee ea 12.75 15.00 
rebate Eien see RE 21.50 19.00 
ON SE ae ee ne eee 3.75 3.00 

$98.37 $89.00 


On 14 operations he received $9.37 less than his proper salary. 
The salary was not estimated at too high a figure——Enrror. 











ct 
a 


; ia acai 


~~ BROTHER BILLS 














= 
ME 


AB NCNNUNUHNUAGGNN AUER ELM LAA 








REPLY TO D. J."S LETTER ON 
PAGE 102 


My pear Docror: Your letter published in this issue gets so close 
down to the bedrock of experience that I cannot refrain from comment- 
ing on it, in the hope that if such suggestions as I can make do not 
help you, they may help someone else in like position. 

You say first of all that the world owes you as much as it owes its 
animal servants. The world’s treatment of its domestic animals is 
simple in the extreme. It consists in keeping them in condition to 
render useful service for a certain period, and in knocking them on 
the heads as soon as that period of service is over. If you were 
the slave of some intelligent master, you would be accorded better treat- 
ment. I have been through the country where slaves were once held, 
and have talked for hours with men who owned slaves and with men 
who were slaves. No doubt exists in my mind that many slaves were 
physically better off than many colored people are to-day. But as one 
old gray-haired darkey expressed it to me: “ Boss, I may have been 
better off in some ways as a slave, but, Lord, there’s nothing like being 
your own property and knowing that your family’s yours.” 

V’ve wondered a good many times what the world owes us who are 
not some one’s else property, but I’ve never arrived at any intelligent 
solution. In fact, in my own ease, I long ago abandoned the notion 
that it owed me anything. I don’t know what put it in my debt, so 
that it is bound to support me. I can’t think of anything I’ve ever done 
for it that it should be beholden to me. 

On the other hand, I can think of a very great deal I owe the world. 
I didn’t fight and starve and bleed and die in ages past that I might 
be mentally, physically, spiritually and politically as free as IT am. My 
immediate parents didn’t. But hundreds of thousands of men and 
women, whose names I don’t even know, did. And I profit just as much by 
what they did as though I was the blood descendant of the noblest of them. 

I didn’t starve and freeze with Washington and his troops or suf- 
fer with Lincoln and his helpers, that this country might have the 
opportunity of fulfilling a great destiny. I haven’t denied myself lux- 








106 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


uries to burn the midnight oil in studies to decrease disease and advance 
science in any helpful way. In fact, what I have done has been largely 
for myself and my friends. And, really, I can’t see that it has put 
the world in my debt. The mere fact that I am a human being and 
have tried to do a man’s work enables me to call on its charity. But 
I don’t want to call on charity. And I want to avoid that condition of 
need in which charity becomes my only resource. 

I know without asking, that you feel this way. Every self-respect- 
ing man must. And not until hunger has gnawed more than once could 
we stomach the thought of unearned bread. I know some lazy men who 
say, “ The world owes me a living, and I propose to let it pay its debts.” 
But they are men in whom laziness has drowned out self-respect. And 
if the scales were evenly balanced, it would doubtless be found that the 
world’s debts to them would be too slight to support them. 

I believe the world has for you just what you can take from it. 
The extent of your takings will depend on your ability and some other 
circumstances. The manner of your taking will depend on your ideals 
and your fidelity tothem. If your ideals are low, you will take as much 
as you can and render as little. If your ideals are high, you will try 
to take enough for your needs and some over, but will seek to render 
more than you take, so that the world shall be better for what you have 
done, even though you profited in the doing. 

You say that until you get the money, others may have the ideals. 
I feel quite sure that I do not read from these lines just what you 
meant to write into them. Taken literally they would mean that you 
will abandon all your ideals until you get the money, and then come 
back to them. 

It seems to me that you have confused some ideals with others. 
There are some ideals which find but little place in our minds while 
we are confronted with dire necessity. But there are others which 
should always stay with us, such as the ideals of honor and duty to 
ourselves and others. The straits should be sore indeed before these 
ideals are abandoned. But I know from experience that when I am face 
to face with the problem of getting a living for my family, I have no 
time for the ideals of the poets and sages. I don’t want to even think 
about them. I want to occupy myself with thoughts of how to get the 
money to buy Bill, Jr., the pair of shoes he needs, and his sister the 
cloth for a new dress. But I want the ideals of honor to guide my get- 
ting, just as I am sure you want them to guide you. And I want these 
ideals to be the arbiters between my patient and me, so that if I am 
making gold crowns for $5 T shall make just as good a crown as I can 
for $5 dollars, including reasonable compensation for my services. But 








BROTHER BILL’S LETTERS 107 


I should not feel in the least bound to make a crown that cost me $5 
without my compensation. 

Don’t get the idea that I am an idealist at the expense of my com- 
fort. I don’t like to go ill fed. I don’t even like to miss a second help- 
ing of dessert if I happen to want it. I don’t like cheap clothes or 
frayed neckties. I like to walk on Oriental rugs at home, just as far 
as I can afford them and just as expensive as the purse affords. I like 
to keep a car and some one to clean it and care for it. I love vaca- 
tion trips, and other things of that sort. In fact, one of my friends 
who doesn’t like me very well says he never saw anyone who likes the 
luxuries of life better and I guess he’s right. Many of them I can’t 
have for lack of means. Many of them I can’t afford, even with money 
in pocket, because I must save that money for future needs. But 
Mrs. Bill and I can look in the face of every luxury we have to-day, and 
say that we don’t want it at the expense of what we call “ our working 
ideals.” 

And now I want to utilize part of your letter as a text for saying 
in another way some things that I have long been trying to say re- 
garding the influence of good business conduct on the lives of those 
of us who earn our livings by the practice of dentistry. The sum and 
substance of it is that good business conduct is a great factor in putting 
a man into that financial condition where he can have and enjoy other 
ideals than those merely of honor and professional service. 

I don’t know how it is with you, but I get very tired’ of working 
along, day in and day out, in the same path, merely seeing people, 
serving them, doing good and being a good dentist, citizen and father. 
I get tired of merely thinking about things to be bought and bills to be 
paid. I want to get away from it occasionally, to mentally straighten 
up and look around, to see fine pictures and beautiful nature, to hear 
good music, to read good books or stories. And every once in a while 
I want to rest, merely lie back somewhere and be lazy. I cannot do this 
with debts pressing me, or without money in the bank for immediate 
needs. But if I have some funds in hand so that the fact of losing 
possible earnings at the office does not worry me, I can do all these 
things happily. And after a little while, perhaps not more than a 
single day or two, I come back to my work with the feeling of new 
blood in my brain and new interest in my work. 

And as I get older, I prize more and more the opportunities to take 
vacations with Mrs. Bill, not necessarily expensive ones, but real vaca- 
tions of a few days at a time, with an occasional one of a few weeks. 
She and I are slipping through life so quietly that we do not realize 
how the years are passing until the youngsters begin whispering to her 








108 |THE {DENTAL' DIGEST; 


about my birthday present, and to me about hers. And then, one day, 
all too soon, they come marching in with a birthday cake. And as Mrs. 
Bill and I sit quietly talking that evening, we recognize that another 
year has gone, and that all the opportunities for the good times it 
offered went with it. There aren’t so many years left, either. 

Now those of us who earn our livings cannot have these pleasures 
unless we exercise good business management, for we must get our 
surplus funds by carefully saving relatively small amounts. You may 
have all the professional skill that heart could wish, and it will not bring 
you funds or leisure. The people with whom we deal all seem to under- 
stand that the world has for them only what they can take, and they 
propose to take it as cheaply as possible. If they can take service from 
you for half what it is worth, they will do it. And if you have not good 
business sense, you will not know whether you receive for it a fee which 
compensates you or not. In fact, the more I associate with dentists, the 
more I am convinced that only the extraordinarily sensible ones among 
us know whether or not our fees are profitable, and how much the 
profit is. And not one in a hundred, when confronted by a proposition 
like yours, knows just how much of material and service he can afford 
to put into a $5 crown. 

Now get it clearly in mind that the world doesn’t owe you profitable 
fees, if you’re not clever enough to get them. Humanity may be divided 
into two classes, the workers and the paupers. The workers get just 
as much justice as they are strong enough to take; charity supports the 
others. If you’re a worker, you are entitled to just as nearly the full 
measure of your dues as you are able to command; you'll get no more. 

The patients who come to our offices do not know what proper fees 
are. We have never taught most of them how to appreciate dentistry, 
to say nothing of judging what services are worth. We have no right 
to blame them for their conceptions. Mere professional ability will 
never educate them out of their present attitudes. That is the task of 
our business ability. We shall doubtless have many failures, such as 
you have mentioned in relation to crown work, and as all of us are 
conscious of in other lines. But in proportion as our patients can be 
instructed, and as we know what to teach them and how to teach it, 
our fees can be made remunerative. 

Sometimes I think it is hardly worth while to help dentists learn 
how to really make profits, because we are such wretched business men 
when it comes to the handling of those profits. Once in a while, I meet 
a dentist who has acquired assets worth having. But in about 95 
per cent of cases, there are very few assets, or they are of questionable 
character. Most of us seem to think that money is made for immediate 








BROTHER BILL’S LETTERS 109 


spending. Spent sometime it must be, of course. But that doesn’t 
mean that if you earn five thousand dollars a year, and have normal 
expectation of life, you are entitled to spend all the five thousand now, 
because you may not be lucky enough to die on the last day you are 
capable of earning money. Whether you wish it or not, your life may 
be strung along for years after you cease to earn. And if you haven’t 
strung along the spending of your assets, you may come to be a charge 
on your friends or on society in general, as so many members of our 
profession have through this very fault of unwise spending. 

It is a pleasure to spend money for sane enjoyment. Fine home 
furnishings, fine clothes, liberal entertaining, travel, and many other 
delights which do not intoxicate, bring happy hours in the present, 
and unhappy ones in the future if they are purchased at the expense 
of the future. One of my friends recently perceived this and sold his 
automobile for a fraction of what it cost. In telling of it to a friend 
he said, “I figure I made at least a thousand dollars.” 

“* How is that,” said the friend, when you lost all these hundreds? ” 

“Tt wasn’t the car that was eating me up, but the entertaining that 
grew out of it. I’m a thousand dollars ahead on dinners I shall not 
have to buy.” 

I’m trying to get my professional brethren to see these things and 
order their courses wisely merely so that they may have surplus means 
and a little leisure time to enjoy life before they leave it. I’ve spent my 
life getting ready to work or working. I expect to spend the balance 
of it working. But all the atmosphere of the work is lightened by the 
fact that once in a while I can let up long enough to refresh myself and 
enjoy some of the good things in life. And it is made happier by 
the fact that once in a while I can do something that does somebody 
else good, something that I am not to be paid for by that person. In 
other words, I’m beginning to enjoy some of my more modest ideals. 

The possibility of exercising even these ideals comes because The 
Big Idea taught me to get what my services were worth, and because 
Mrs. Bill has been a real helpmeet in caring for what The Big Idea 
brought in. I’d rather have such ideals and the opportunity for their 
exercise, than to be the most successful rascal who ever took from his 
fellows that which he had not earned and to which he had no right. 

I hope that you may keep, amid your difficulties, the ideals of honor 
and service, and that they and the exercise of business sense may bring 
you to the place where time and means for the exercise of other ideals 
will be possible. 








ay 
rE 





7SPRACTICAL HINTS 


[This department is in charge of Dr. 
V. ©. Smedley, 604 California Bldg., 
Denver, Colo. To avoid unnecessary de- 
lay, Hints, Questions and Answers should 
be sent direct to him. ]* 


o 





if 


i 


Ciasps or Cast Gotp Conrra-1npicaTeD.—The casting of gold 
clasps is not to be recommended. The elasticity of the gold, essential 
in a clasp or spur, is destroyed by casting, while in drawing or swaging 
this quality of the material is preserved.—Le Monde Dentaire, per 
Revue Trimestrielle Belge de Stomatologie.—The Dental Cosmos. 

(Unless there is some better way than I have ever discovered or 
acquired of contouring and fitting clasp metal plate to conform to the 
shape of the tooth it is desired to clasp, I believe the cast clasp is far 
preferable. It has less elasticity it is true, but in my opinion the fact 
that it hugs the supporting tooth closely throughout its entire shape 
instead of having an irregular bearing to wear and strain upon it, is of 
far greater importance than the lack of elasticity —V. C. 8S.) 


SEPARATING THE FLasx.—The flask should never be placed in hot 
water to separate, but should be heated in an oven or over a Bunsen 
stove to a temperature not exceeding 140 degrees F., which is sufficient 
to soften the wax. 

Removal of the Wax.—When the flask is separated the base plate 
is removed and the bulk of softened wax taken out with instruments in 
the usual manner. The matrix side of the flask is set on an incline, 
and boiling water allowed to fall from a considerable height into the 
matrix, the idea being to remove the wax in as short a time and with 
as little water as possible, to prevent the plaster from becoming saturated. 
The second section of the flask containing the cast usually requires no 
treatment. 

Vulcanization.—All cases should be vulcanized in steam and not 
under water, as saturated plaster readily distorts under high tempera- 
ture, and slight, continued pressure. Any flask in which there is a small 
excess of rubber present is subjected to pressure until the rubber hardens, 
so care should be taken to preserve the integrity of the plaster as fully 


*In order to make this department as live, entertaining and helpful as possible, 
questions and answers, as well as hints of a practical nature, are solicited. 








.PRACTICAL HINTS 111 


as possible-—Abstract from paper by Dr. J. H. Prornero—Journal 
of Allied Societies. 


Tue Discotorineg Errect oF THE O1Ls oF CLove anp Ornna- 
mon.—The drugs that cause more discoloration of the teeth than all 
others combined are oil of cloves and oil of cinnamon. Neither of these 
oils should ever be placed in a pulpless tooth, as they are very penetrat- 
ing, the oil of cloves being more so, and when sealed in the dried root 
canal and pulp chamber of a tooth with large dentinal tumuli they will 
penetrate the dentin, and it will soon show a yellowish cast, which 
darkens with age, just as these oils do in a bottle exposed to the light.— 
W. O. Tarsort, Dental Brief. (The Dental Summary. ) 


Some Uses or H,O,.—To cleanse blood-stained root-canals and 
cavities, apply H,O, on cotton. Equally effective in removing blood 
stains from coat sleeves, ete. Try it; it works like magic.—M. J. 
Ruzicka, D.D.S., Prague, Neb.—The Dental Review. 

(Drop the cotton root-canal dressing that you have just removed 
from a canal that you think you have sterilized into a few drops of 
H,0O, and watch for effervescence.—V. C. S.) 


Removine Praster From a Denturre.—The last particles of plas- 
ter which may adhere to the unpolished surface of a vulcanite plate 
can be entirely removed without any difficulty by placing the plate when 
polished into a solution of lysol. The stronger the solution, the less 
time required for removal of the last trace.—Hdwards Dental Quarterly. 
(The Dental Register.) 


Mopetine Compounp To Ostain a Suarp Impresston.—Dr. 
George F. Logan, Philadelphia, demonstrated at the recent New Jersey 
State Dental Society meeting a method for obtaining a sharp impression 
with modeling compound. Immediately before inserting the mass of 
plastic modeling compound in position he gives it a slight coating of 
vaselin, and as soon as it is in position he quickly chills it with ethyl 
chlorid spray. The harder varieties of the compound, which require 
a high heat to soften, and that set quickly, are not sufficiently plastic 
to take the sharp lines. The more plastic varieties are somewhat “tacky,” 
and have a tendency to cling rather than to glide over surfaces against 
which they are pressed; this is overcome by the vaselin. They also set 
slowly, and during the setting process have a tendency to “creep,” or 
leave the surface against which the compound is moulded. The ethyl 
chlorid spray can be quickly directed against the entire surface of the 
impression tray, and promptly checks this creeping; its continued ap- 
plication for a few seconds thoroughly chills the impression through 








112 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


and through, and so hardens it that it can be removed without distortion. 
Impressions taken in this manner are as sharp as with plaster.—The 


Dental Brief. 


Atayine Pain Arter Extraction.—To allay pain following the 
extraction of a tooth, the wound is rinsed with a warm solution of hydro- 
gen dioxid, followed by insufflation of orthoform powder. If no sprayer 
is available the wound can be coated by means of a cotton tampon 
dipped into this powder.—Oesterreichische Zeitschrift fuer Stomato- 
logie.—The Dental Cosmos. 

(A pellet of cotton saturated with extract of witch-hazel and inserted 
into the socket of an extracted tooth will allay after-extraction pain 
almost instantly. Patients can also relieve themselves after reaching 
home by holding witch-hazel in the mouth.—V. C. 8S.) 


A Mertuop or Maxine Crown.—lI first make my carving com- 
pound by taking a cake of modeling compound and soften in boiling 
water. Into this knead pulverized Sunshine Stove Polish as long as 
the softened compound will hold together. The two must be thoroughly 
mixed and rolled into sticks for future use. Make the band as in any 
other sectional method. After it has been fitted take a small piece of 
the carving compound (or metalline) and place it on the tooth and 
band after having softened it in the open flame or hot water and have 
patient close teeth firmly together. Wait one or two minutes or cool 
with water and remove and carve cusps. Replace and correct the oc- 
clusion anatomically. Remove cusp from band and smooth base level 
with band. The next step is to set the cusps inside of a ring over which 
Sharps fusible metal is poured. As soon as cool, the cusp form may 
be removed, and if the ring is of the right size it may be used in 
connection with a swager or a bullet, or a large shot which has previ- 
ously been oiled may be driven into the mould. In this manner I can 
make a perfect crown from every standpoint in from three-quarters of 
an hour to an hour and a half, including grinding stump, polishing, and 
cementing crown.—F. W. Brownrretp, D.D.S., Ricn Hii1, Mo. 


Repatrine Vutcanite Prates.—I never use wax in making re- 
pairs on vulcanite work. It matters not whether the plate is broken 
entirely through or whether it is broken in two, three or more pieces. 
In fitting the parts together if one part breaks, begin with the thick- 
est part of the break, holding the joints carefully together with 
thumb and finger (by a little practice you are enabled to do this), 
then with your stick of wax or spatula, drop a little wax on lateral side 
of plate over fracture but not in it. Let the wax cool and then proceed 








PRACTICAL HINTS 113 


to attach the other pieces in the same way; then reverse the plate 
and fill with plaster. When it is hardened you can remove the whole 
plate from model if you choose, and I usually do. Discard the frac- 
tured pieces and cut out as much of the old plate as you wish, back 
to the rim that holds the teeth if necessary. ‘Then in case you desire 
to renew the pink or gum color a part or all the way round, it’s all 
the same, discard the old; then dry out the model for a few moments, 
the dryer the better. Now take a piece of plate rubber a quarter of 
an inch square, saturate a small piece of cotton as large as the end 
of your little finger, with chloroform, and move it around over the 
model until well coated, not thick but enough to make it well colored 
with rubber. Cut rubber in small pieces and place them carefully over 
the model, avoiding getting the rubber thicker in some places than 
others (it is easy when you have a little practice). Then take a clean 
hot spatula and smooth all as you want the work when vulcanized. 
Treat the gum front the same way; smooth all carefully with spatula. 
Finally take your piece of cotton saturated with chloroform and pass it 
over the fresh rubber, paying attention to the margins. It will fasten 
all to the model, the chloroform will evaporate in five minutes, when 
it can be flasked and vulcanized. Slots or holes in old plates are not 
necessary ; the simple roughening of old plate where the new is to go 
is all that is necessary. I usually tie the broken plate to the model with 
a little dental thread—just twice around is all sufficient. This is not 
necessary except when the inside of the plate is all cut out. If plate 
stays to model during process, that is all you want. I have been doing 
this for forty years and do not remember a failure. I often make par- 
tial plates this way and have to-day made two partials, one upper with 
five teeth and a lower with seven. Treat the models same as above. 
For repairs, place rubber where you want it, clean teeth to be used 
with chloroform, pass each tooth through alcohol flame with foil car- 
riers and place it on rubber and with a small napkin to keep it from 
burning, on face and buccal surface of tooth; gently force it to place 
with thumb and it will go as easy as in wax, and you can make the 
occlusion just as well or better. Go over all with a hot spatula care- 
fully even to festoons about the teeth, not forgetting finally to go over 
all with the swab of chloroform. It is past the experimental stage with 
me. I have been doing it for thirty years and more.—F. H. Houen- 
ton, D.D.S., Daytona, Fra. 





True courage is like a kite; a contrary wind raises it higher.— 
J. Petit-Senn. 




















TEETH AND TAXES 


By M. Evanertine Jorpan, D.DS., 
Los Aner rs, Cat. 








Tue neglect of children’s teeth is increasing the taxes of the United 
States many millions of dollars each year. 

Dr. Ebersole, the Chairman of the National Committee on Oral 
Hygiene, tells us that in the city of Cleveland 97 per cent. of the school 
children need dental care for their teeth. He says that these children 
take one-fifth longer to get through school, that is, when their mouths 
are put into a healthy condition they can do 20 per cent. more work. 
It is estimated that this is an annual loss to the tax-payers of Cleveland 
of half a million dollars. Cleveland is only one city in the United 
States, and conditions are similar in all communities. 

This is only one way in which neglected teeth increase taxes. The 
cost of caring for young criminals might be greatly lessened by keep- 
ing the mouths of poor children in a healthy condition. We should then 
have fewer young criminals, because workers in Juvenile Courts find 
decayed teeth one of the predisposing causes of viciousness and de- 
linquency. Often these children become honest and upright when their 
mouths are made healthy. A step farther and the cost of maintaining 
prisons, courts and penitentiaries would be lessened if there were fewer 
criminals growing up to fill them. 

Hospitals are a great expense. Those who work in clinics for 
tuberculous children tell us that such children always have decayed 
teeth. Go into any hospital and examine the mouths of the inmates 
and you will be satisfied that if their teeth had been kept in repair 
many of them would not need to be there. 

Another heavy item of expense to the taxpayer is asylums for the 
insane, which each year are being more crowded. Some of these un- 
happy people would be well and self-supporting if their teeth had been 
cared fcr, but now they are a tax upon the people. 

And last but saddest of all, when old age is reached many people 
must be cared for by the State, because they were unsuccessful in life. 
One-fifth of their strength was wasted by neglected teeth. 

This is needless waste and is largely due to the fact that people 
think because the deciduous or baby teeth are to be shed that they 
need no care. Nothing was ever farther from the truth. These teeth 








MEDICAL AND DENTAL INSPECTION OF SCHOOL CHILDREN 115 


are needed for use between the age of two and twelve, and under our 
present state of civilization every dollar spent in keeping the mouth in 
perfect health from the age of five to fifteen brings returns in health 
and strength more than three dollars later on. 

The reasons for this are plain: 1st, Teeth are more liable to decay 
under puberty ; 2d, The child is making more rapid growth in body and 
mind during these ten years than at any other period of its life, there- 
fore any interference with the health is most serious; 3d, The child 
is not able to resist disease unless in perfect health; 4th, When the 
mouth is unhealthy the decayed teeth are ideal breeding spots for 
the disease germs which later are distributed over the body. 

Decay of the teeth, which is properly called caries of the teeth, 
may be prevented, but cannot be cured. Once a hole is made in a tooth 
it can only be patched with a filling or a crown. 

By beginning to care for the teeth in the right way as soon as 
they appear one may have a perfect set of permanent teeth for his 
whole life. 

Are the taxpayers willing to continue paying these needless mil- 
lions or will they take measures for prevention ?—Oral Health. 


THE NEED OF MEDICAL AND DENTAL INSPECTION OF 
SCHOOL CHILDREN 


By W. F. Scuwenxer, D.D.S., Nesrasxa Ciry, NEs. 
7 ] ? 


Dr. W. F. Schwenker, of Nebraska City, Neb., has contributed to 
the Bulletin of the Department of Health of his city an interesting 
and instructive article on the value of nasal and dental examinations 
for every pupil. 

My small boy brought home yesterday a form furnished by the 
publie schools of New York State, on which the family physician is to 
fill in the results of a physical examination. A few of the more 
important questions concerning the teeth are also asked. This exami- 
nation of every pupil is compulsory and may be made by the authori- 
ties if the parents or guardians are negligent.—EnpI!TorR. 


Tur Chinese pay a doctor to keep them in good health; but Ameri- 
cans are like the man who locked the stable door after the horse was 
stolen. We wait until pain and trouble compel us to visit or call a 
physician, dentist or oculist. 

Many children are troubled with adenoids in the mouth and throat, 
some suffer from enlarged tonsils, some cannot breathe through the 
nose, on account of a growth called polypus; which compels them to be 
mouth breathers, and they inhale all dirt and germs which would be ex- 
eluded by the vibrissee of hairs in the nostrils. Unless these growths 








116 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


are removed in youth the child’s open mouth gradually causes an idiotic 
facial expression, and lung trouble. Breathing the cold winter air 
through the mouth, instead of it being warmed by the nose, often causes 
trouble, because of the inflammation of the eustachian tube, which leads 
from the mouth to the middle ear; to hear well the air pressure on both 
sides of the drum must be equal. All school children should have their 
teeth and mouth examined twice a year. “ An ounce of prevention ” 
will save pain, time, and expense. Even though the house and clothing 
are fumigated and disinfected ; very often diphtheria, scarlet fever, and 
other disease germs are carried in hollow or decayed teeth, and in a short 
time members of the same family and their children become infected with 
the troubles of these disease carriers. 

The mouth and nose are the places where most infectious disease 
germs enter. By having your teeth looked after every year and brushing 
the teeth after each meal or at least twice a day you can keep them in 
good condition ; a person with a healthy mouth is seldom sick. Let your 
physician remove the adenoids or diseased tonsils before your child be- 
comes a physical and mental dwarf. Don’t forget that an examination 
of eyes and ears in early youth may prevent poor eyesight or defective 
hearing. Earache, eye trouble, and bad breath are often caused by a 
decayed, abscessed tooth. Headache may be due to weak eyes or stomach 
trouble caused by bad teeth and the bolting of food; relief now may pre- 
vent a permanent injury. 

Tf your boy is a terror in school and at home and unable to keep up 
with his studies and classmates, have his mouth, throat, nose, and eyes 
examined ; perhaps adenoids or some bad teeth are the cause of his ac- 
tions. Teachers and parents should know a child that is bad and seems 
dull or stupid may be handicapped by something. Often after the re- 
moval of the cause, and the correction of the trouble, he increases his 
efficiency from 50 to 90 per cent and similarly improves in behavior. 
Tf boys and girls can keep up with their classes it will make them more 
ambitious and save many dollars’ teaching expense to city, county, and 


State.-—Bulletin of the Department of Health (City of Nebraska). 


WORLD’S GREATEST EXPOSITION TWO-THIRDS COMPLETED 


At this time, a little more than one year before its formal 
opening day, February 20, 1915, the Panama-Pacific International 
Exposition is more than two-thirds completed. This estimate is based 
upon the total amount of work necessary in the complete preparation of 
the exposition. Every department of the exposition is pronounced by 








WORLD’S GREATEST EXPOSITION TWO-THIRDS COMPLETED 117 


executives familiar with the organization of universal expositions to 
be further advanced than were those of any of the greatest expositions 
held in America at a similar pre-exposition period. Twenty-seven of 
the world’s nations have accepted the invitation conveyed through the 
Department of State; this record is unprecedented at a time one year 
and less than one-half before the opening. Thirty-five states have 
selected sites for state pavilions. Almost seven thousand applications 
for concession privileges have been received. The applications for ex- 
hibit space would, if all were granted, exhaust the entire exhibit area. 

Construction is far advanced. The most difficult part in exposi- 
tion building is past. An immense amount of preparatory work has 
been accomplished. Ten of the fourteen huge exhibit palaces are now 
under construction. One building, the service building, is completed. 
Contracts for three additional buildings will be let within a short period. 

All buildings are being built under the contracts with definite limits 
for their completion. A number of the most noted sculptors in America 
have advanced far in the preparation of the sculptural models to be re- 
produced upon the exposition grounds. Under the direction of Mr. 
A. Stirling Calder some of the most important models are being enlarged 
in the sculptural warehouses. 

A phase of the exposition in which it will stand alone among all 
great expositions of America and Europe will be found in its representa- 
tion of the South and Central American republics. These nations will 
participate upon a great scale. 

More than 140 great congresses and conventions, many of them of 
international interest and importance, have voted to meet in San Fran- 
cisco in 1915. This number will undoubtedly be greatly augmented. 
Many conventions will not take final action until 1914, owing to a 
usual custom to choose the annual meeting place but one year in advance 
of the time of meeting. To accommodate these great bodies, which will 
bring together many of the world’s most brilliant minds, the exposi- 
tion company voted $1,000,000 for an auditorium at the civic center. 
First work upon this building has started. 

About 3,500 men are now employed upon the exposition grounds. 
The esplanade, to lie before the main exhibit palaces, has been sown to 
grass the freight ferry slip at the eastern end of the esplanade; this is 
completed and work on the passenger ferry slip is under way; the 
yacht harbor at the opposite end of the esplanade is practically finished ; 
a considerable portion of the grounds is under railway track and within 
a short period cargoes may be unloaded at the freight ferry slips and 
transported by rail to any part of the exposition grounds. The exposi- 
tion company operates its own railway. 








118 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


PRICE-MAINTENANCE ENCOURAGES INDIVIDUAL 
ENTERPRISE 


By Louis D. Branpets. 


Tue American people are wisely determined to restrict the exist- 
ence and operation of private monopolies. The recent efforts that have 
been made to limit the right of a manufacturer to maintain the price 
at which his article should be sold to the consumer have been inspired 
by a motive that is good—the desire for free competition—but they 
have been misdirected. If successful, they will result in the very thing 
that they seek to curb—monopoly. 

Price-maintenance—the trade policy by which an individual manu- 
facturer of a trade-marked article insures that article reaching all 
consumers at the same price—instead of being part of the trust move- 
ment is one of the strongest forces of the progressive movement which 
favors individual enterprise. 


THE ARTICLE WITH INDIVIDUALITY. 


There is no justification in fixing the retail price of an article 
without individuality. Such articles do not carry the guarantee of 
value that identifies them with the reputation of the man who made 
them. But the independent manufacturer of an article that bears his 
name or trade-mark says in effect: 

“ That which I create, in which I embody my experience, to which 
I give my reputation, is my own property. By my own effort I have 
created a product valuable not only to myself but to the consumer, for 
I have endowed this specific article with qualities which the consumer 
desires and which the consumer may confidently rely upon receiving 
when he purchases my article in the original package. It is essential 
that consumers should have confidence in the fairness of my price as 
well as in the quality of my product. To be able to buy such an article 
with those qualities is quite as much of value to the purchaser as it is 
of value to the maker to find customers for it.” 


THE DISTINCTION DRAWN. 


There is no improper restraint of trade when an independent manu- 
facturer in a competitive business settles the price at which the article 
he makes shall be sold to the consumer. There is dangerous restraint 
of trade when prices are fixed on a common article of trade by a 
monopoly or combination of manufacturers. 

The independent manufacturer may not arbitrarily establish the 
price at which his article is to be sold to the consumer. If he would 








PRICE-MAINTENANCE ENCOURAGES ENTERPRISE 119 


succeed he must adjust it to active and potential competition and 
various other influences that are beyond his control. There is no 
danger of profits being too large as long as the field of competition is 
kept open; as long as the incentive to effort is preserved; and the op- 
portunity of individual development is kept untrammeled. And in any 
branch of trade in which such competitive conditions exist we may 
safely allow a manufacturer to maintain the price at which his article 
may be sold to the consumer. 


PRICE-MAINTENANCE ENCOURAGES COMPETITION. 


Competition is encouraged, not suppressed, by permitting each of 
a dozen manufacturers of safety razors or breakfast foods to maintain 
the price at which his article is to be sold to the consumer. 

By permitting price-maintenance each maker is enabled to pursue 
his business under conditions deemed by him most favorable for the 
widest distribution of his product at a fair price. He may open up 
a new sphere of merchandising which would have been impossible with- 
out price protection. The whole world can be drawn into the field. 
Every dealer, every small stationer, every small druggist, every small 
hardware man can be made a purveyor of the article, and it becomes 
available to the public in the shortest time and the easiest manner. 

Price-cutting of the one-priced trade-marked article is frequently 
used as a puller-in to tempt customers who may buy other goods of 
unfamiliar value at high prices. It tends to eliminate the small dealer 
who is a necessary and convenient factor for the widest distribution ; 
and ultimately, by discrediting the sale of the article at a fair price, it 
ruins the market for it. 


ABOLISH MONOPOLY BUT NOT PRICE-MAINTENANCE. 


Our efforts, therefore, should be directed not to abolishing price- 
maintenance by the individual competitive manufacturer, but to abolish- 
ing monopoly, the source of real oppression in fixed prices. The 
resolution adopted by the National Federation of Retail Merchants at 
its annual convention draws clearly the distinction pointed out above. 
The resolution declared that the fixing of retail prices in and of itself 
is an aid to competition; among other reasons, because it prevents the 
extension of the trust and chain stores into fields not now occupied 
by them. But the resolution also expresses the united voice of the 
retailers against monopoly and against those combinations to restrain 
trade against which the Sherman law is specifically directed. 

Manufacturers and retailers are getting this distinction clearly in 
their minds, and it must soon be generally recognized by the public. 








120 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


What is needed is clear thinking and effective educational work which 
will make the distinction clear to the whole people. Only in this way 
ean there be preserved to the independent manufacturer his most po- 
tent weapon against monopoly—the privilege of making public and 
making permanent the price at which his product may be sold in 
every State in the Union.—Scribner’s Magazine. 


POPULAR DENTAL EDUCATION * 


The New York Sunday American of November 12, 1913, contained 
the following interesting and instructive illustration and copy. Unfor- 
tunately not all the “copy” in the article was as good as that here 
reproduced, and some of it bore marks of the activities of the “ press 
agent.” However, let us be thankful for the good that is done, even if 
some evil is mixed with it.—Ep1Tor. 


WHY YOU SHOULD WATCH YOUR LOWER BACK TEETH AND YOUR UPPER 


rR 


FRONT ONES. 


ee A ue 4 / HN 


\) 


tl iy HN ‘4 ii a me 


oe 


Three / 


In this diagram the black spots show the proportion of tooth sub- 
stance which must be replaced by the dentist in the average mouth. 
In the upper jaw the front tooth will be 65 per cent. artificial, the next 
47 per cent., the third 31 per cent., the fourth 40 per cent., the fifth 
44 per cent., the sixth 47 per cent., the seventh 22 per cent. and the 
wisdom tooth only 11 per cent. 

On the lower jaw the front tooth should be only 6 per cent., second 
7 per cent., third 64 per cent., fourth 13 per cent., fifth 23 per cent., 
sixth and seventh 43 per cent. and the wisdom tooth 18 per cent. 


ies 





* Courtesy of F. M. Whittemore, New York. 








GYSI’S WORK TO BE DUPLICATED ON THE PACIFIC COAST 121 


PROFESSOR GYSI’S WORK TO BE DUPLICATED ON THE 
PACIFIC COAST 


By tue Eprror. 


Just as this issue is going to press, information reaches me that 
Dr. C. J. R. Engstrom, Associate Professor of Prosthetic Dentistry, 
University of Southern California, will conduct a post-graduate course 
in anatomical articulation, at his college, beginning March 2, 1914. 

Dr. Engstrom was well equipped to get the best out of Professor 
Gysi’s course, which he attended in New York last summer, and the 
members of the profession on the Pacific Coast are to be congratulated 
that this information has been carried to them. It is understood also 
that Dr. F. W. Hergert, of Seattle, will give a similar course for the 
benefit of dentists in the territory about Seattle. 

I am somewhat familiar with the extent of preparations made by 
Dr. Engstrom to impart to his fellows the knowledge he gained, and 
I feel sure that dentists attending will be greatly benefited, while 
many dentists who do not attend will say, as others have said to me 
since Professor Gysi returned to Europe, “ How I wish I had taken 
his course.” 

Gysi Adaptable Articulators will be used. Membership in the class 
is limited to ten dentists. 





Editor Drenvat Dicest: 

Tue past four or five years I have been making a posterior porcelain 
crown. For this purpose I have used Twentieth Century diatoric 
teeth and acolite metal. I have experienced some trouble in getting 
molar teeth that were large enough, but I have had better results with 
the Twentieth Century Moulds than any other. 

I have tried the Goslee crown, but with not as good results. My 
method is to grind the tooth down as I would for any other porcelain 
crown, and then ream out the three canals or two canals, if it is a 
lower tooth, having the canals parallel. I proceed then to make a pat- 
tern with impression wax, having ground the tooth previously to articu- 
late with the case. 

The acolite metal is cast directly into the tooth. I find this makes a 
very practical crown, easily made, and fills the place of a porcelain 
posterior crown. 

If the matter interests you I would be pleased to hear from you. 

& ¥. Cc. 












a 
_S————— 


al eal e 
oe) 


Tue Mepicat anv Sanitary Inspection oF Scuoots. By 8S. W. New- 
mayer, A.B., M.D., in charge of the Division of Child Hygiene, 
Bureau of Health, Philadelphia. 21mo, 318 pages, with 71 engrav- 
ings and 14 full page plates. Cloth, $2.50, net. Lea & Febiger, 
Publishers, Philadelphia and New York, 1918. 

In this volume the writer has endeavored to prepare a guide to the 
physical examination of school children, for the physician, nurse and 
teacher, therefore the chapters on the sanitation of school buildings have 
received special attention. There is, perhaps, no one who is better 
equipped for giving information on this subject than Dr. Newmayer, who 
has had “ twelve years’ experience in the work of medical inspection of 
school children and three years in charge of the Division of Child Hy- 
giene.” 

The book is divided into four parts: Part 1, ADMINISTRATION—GEN- 
ERAL ConsiperaTions; Part II, Tue Scuoot Bourirpine anp 
Grounps; Part III, Inrectious, Contagious anD ComMuUNICABLE D1s- 
EASES; Part IV, Puystcat DeFrects. 

To the last chapter—Physical Defects—we would call particular 
attention, notably that part of it which treats of the Method of Inspect- 
ing Pupils. If this routine were religiously followed there would un- 
questionably be much less systemic and mental diseases in the schools. 

The pages which treat of vision are of special interest; many a child 
has been considered a dunce or stupid because he made mistakes in dis- 
tinguishing letters, and the necessity for a thorough test for acuity of 
vision meets with our hearty approbation. A glance at the illustration 
opposite to page 202—View of a Class-room as it Appears to a Child 
Suffering from Astigmatism—will give some idea how defective sight 
must affect the vision of a child. 

Considerable space is given to the teeth, normal and abnormal and to 
their treatment in children; also to the work of the Dental Clinics. An 
illustration of a Specimen Examination Chart is given on page 211. 

A list of questions for Civil Service Examinations is given for those 
wishing to become school medical inspectors. 

The text is quite profusely illustrated, which makes the book of ex- 
ceptional value as a guide to those who are interested in medical and 
sanitary inspection of the schools. 








SOCIETY AND OTHER NOTES 123 


SOCIETY AND OTHER NOTES 


IXKENTUCKY. 
The Kentucky State Dental Association will hold a four-days’ post-graduate 
course at the Seelbach Hotel, in Louisville, March 9-12, 1914.—CHARLES R. 
SHACKLETTE, Secretary. 


ILLINOIS. 
The Illinois State Dental Society will hold its Golden Anniversary at La 
Salle Hotel, Chicago, March 23-26, 1914.—Hrnry L. WHIPPLE, Wells Building, 
Quincy, Secretary. 


A WARNING. 
December 23, 1914. 
Hditor DENTAL DIGEST: 

I think perhaps it would be well for you to notify the dentists through your 
journal of a man who is taking subscriptions for Harper’s Weekly and giving a set 
of books with same for $5. He calls only on doctors and dentists, is a slick talker, 
tells you that you had sent your name in and he was calling in response to it. He 
gives his name as G. A. Wright, New York, The Co-Operative Publishing Company. 
He is about twenty-eight to thirty, weighs 175 to 180, light hair, red-faced man; 
wears a brown suit and cap. If apprehended, notify McClure Publishing Company, 
New York. You can do as you like about this, but I know you are always ready 
to help dentists, so thought I would let you know. He has been working in Ohio; 
he may be working in some other State now. ‘The Periodical Publishing Company 
are after him. 

Respectfully yours, 
Dr. J. B. GRIFFITHS. 


THE McCLURE BUILDING, 
Fourth Avenue and Twentieth Street, 


New York, December 19, 1913. 
Mr. J. B. GRIFFITHS, 
Jackson, Ohio. 

DEAR SiR: Your communication of the 16th received and contents noted. 

We have no agent by the name of G. A. Wright authorized to take subscrip- 
tions to Harper’s Weekly and a set of books in payment of $5. 

We have received a great many complaints in regard to this man, and have 
put the matter in the hands of the Periodical Publishers’ Association for prosecu- 
tion, and they have notified the Chief of Police throughout Ohio, and we do not 
know where he is located and up to the present time we have been unable to 
apprehend him. 

We are also unable to locate the Co-Operative Publishing Company and do not 
figure there is any company by this name. There is someone having these receipts 
printed and we are endeavoring to trace down this proposition. 

Very sorry Harper’s Weekly has been misrepresented to you, and if you will 
fill out the identification blank enclosed and forward it into us, with the receipt 
this man gave you, and in case we apprehend this man you will be willing to 
appear as a witness if we need your service, will enter up your subscription to 
Harper’s for one year, but cannot give you a set of books, as we have no such offer 
out. We are under no obligations to enter up your subscription, but rather than 





124 THE DENTAL DIGEST 


have the Weekly misrepresented, and you will agree to appear as a witness, we 
will do so. 

Upon receipt of a reply to this communication and your receipt and identifica- 
tion blank, which will be turned over to the Periodical Publishers’ Association for 
investigation, will enter up your subscription as stated above. 

Yours very truly, 
McCcureE Pustications, Inc., 
A. 8. Moore, Mgr. Agency Dept. 


FUTURE EVENTS 


Connecticut State Dental Seciety Meeting, Hartford, April 21-23, 1914—Arruur V. 
PRENTIS, New London, Secretary. 

Illinois State Dental Society, Golden Anniversary, March 23-26, 1914.—Henry L. 
WHIPPLE, Wells Bldg., Quincy, Secretary. 

Indiana State Dental Association Meeting, Indianapolis, Ind., held in German House, 
May 19-21, 1914. 

Kentucky State Dental Association Meeting, held in Seelbach Hotel, Louisville, 
March 9-12.—CHARLES R. SHACKLETTE, Secretary. 


Massachusetts--The American Manufacturers of Dental Equipment and Supplies 
will exhibit at the Bancroft Hotel, Worcester, February 3-5, 1914. 


Minnesota State Dental Association Meeting, Duluth, August 6-8, 1914.—BENJAMIN 
Sanpy, Syndicate Bldg., Minneapolis, Secretary. 


Missouri State Dental Association Meeting, St. Louis, April 21-22, 1914. 


New Jersey State Dental Association Meeting, held in North End Hotel, Ocean Grove, 
N. J., July 15-18, 1914. 


New York—National Dental Association Meeting, Rochester, July 7-10, 1914.—HoMER 
C. Brown, President ; Otto U. Kine, Huntington, Ind., Secretary. 

New York—Forty-sixth Annual Meeting of State of New York, at Albany, N. Y., 
May 14-16, 1914. 

Panama-Pacific Dental Congress, San Francisco, Cal., August, 1915. 

The Southern Branch of the National Dental Association will hold its next regular 
meeting at Atlanta, Ga. Date not decided.i—Jesse L. WILLIAMS, Correspond- 
ing Secretary. 

Texas—The Thirty-fourth Annual Meeting of the Texas State Dental Association 
will be held at Fort Worth, Texas, April 13-17, 1914.—J. G. Fire, Secretary. 
Canada—Canadian Dental Association, first meeting, Winnipeg, May 26-29, 1914.— 

Wa. H. Garvin, Secretary. 

England—Sixth International Dental Congress, London, August 3-8, 1914. 

Washington State Dental Examination Board convenes at Seattle, May, 1914.—R. L. 
Moak, Montesano, Secretary.