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THE 


JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, 


1} 
tr 


WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT, 





~~ GANNEL COAL. 





the Metropolis, Its joint products of gas of high 
illuminating power, and coke of good quality, make it 
one of the most economical coals known. The Crystal 
Palace was lighted from it in 1851, and the Post-office, 
and Times Office, are at present. 

FIRE-CLAY RETORTS and PIPES. 
FiRE-BRICKS (marked ‘‘ RAMSAY”) OF ALL 
DESCRIPTIONS. 

G.H, Ramsay, Broad-chare, New-castle-on-Tyne. 
Manufactory established in 1804. 







































Will be published in a few days, 


(pBSEEV ATIONS on the Paper read 
by JOHN SHUTTLEWORTH, Esq., before the 
British Association at Manchester, on 


THE MANCHESTER GAS-WORKS. 























WATER SUPPLY, AND SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 
Price 3d. each, or 5s. per 25 copies. 
W. B. Kina, 11, Bolt Court, Fleet Street, Lonpon. 


| 
|— aby Aenean 








Now ready, Part I., in 8vo., price 9:., sewed, 


A MANUAL OF CHEMISTRY, 
Descriptive and Theoretical, By Wittiam 
Opto, M.B., F.R.S., Fellow of the Royal College of 
Physicians, Secretary to the Chemical Society, and 
Professor of Practical Chemistry in Guy’s Hospital. 

London: LonacmMan, GREEN, LONGMAN, and KoBertTs, 








ANTED, Second-hand Iron Tanks, 


either Cast or Wrought, to contain from 
10,000 to 100,000 gallons. Must be thoroughly sound, 
and capable of holding hot oil. 
Address, stating price, &c., to X. ¥. Z., Mr. C. H. 
May’s Advertisement Office, 28, Clement’s Lane, Lom- 
bard Street, City. 





























TO GAS COMPANIES. 











Situation as MANAGER of a small Gas-Work. 
Good reference from last situation. 
Address, C. J., at the Orrice of this JourNaAL. 

















TO GAS COMPANIES, &c. 


WANtED, by an Active Young 


Man, a Situation as INSPECTOR or DIS- 
TRICT-CLERK. Is acquainted with the mode of 
testing Gas by Bromine and the Photometer, has some 
knowledge of Chemistry, is a good Draughtsman and 
Surveyor, and has been lately employed in two of the 
Metropolitan companies works. Age 29; salary mode- 
rate; good references; no objection to go abroad. 
Address, p.p., to T. D. B., 65, Lincoln Street, Bow 
Road, MILE Enp, FE. 
























































Vor. X. N° 234—13 Year.] LONDON, OCTOBER 8, 1861. 


RAMSAY'S NEWCASTLE CANNEL | 


has become the principal Cannel Coal used in | 


{Reprinted from the JOURNAL oF Gas LIGHTING, | 


WANTED, by the Advertiser, a. 









COWEN’S PATENT FIRE-CLAY RETORTS. 


JOsEru COWEN and CO, 
BLAYDON BURN, NEAR NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE, _ 


Were the only parties to whom a PRIZE MEDAL was 
awarded at the GREAT EXHIBITION of 1851, for “‘ Gas 
Rerorts and OTHER OBJECTS in FIRB CLay.” 

J.C. and Co. have been for many,years the most 
extensive Manufacturers of Fire-Clay Retorts in the 
United Kingdom; and orders for Fire-Clay Retorts 
of all shapes and dimensions, Fire Bricks, and every 


their Works as above. 
COWEN’S GARESFIELD COAL AND COKE, 
Coal and Coke Office, 
_ Quay Sipe, NEWCASsTLE-ON-TYNE. 





FIRST PRIZE IN THE PARIS EXHIBITION, 


ley oe sat 





OHN RUSSELL AND CO, 


THE OLD TUBE WORKS, 
CHURCH HILL, WEDNESBURY; 
ALMA WORKS, 

WALSALL, STAFFORDSHIRE; 
and 69, UPPER THAMES STREET, LONDON, 
Original Manufacturers of Wrought-Tron Gas Tubes | 
and Holders of the present Patents; Inventors and 
First Makers of LAP-WELDED FLUES for Steam 

Boilers. 

J. R.and Co, make al! kinds of Tubes and Fittings 
for Gas, Steam, and Water, and the largest Orders 
may be executed in afew days. 

Gun Metal, and all other kinds of Cocks, 8Stocke, | 
Dies, and Taps, Galvanised Tubes, &c. 

N.B. All Goods thoroughly Tested before sent out, 
and Warranted. 





EONI’S Patent Adamas Gas- | 
BURNERS (secured by Her Majesty’s Royal 
Letters Patent), are entirely free from liability to 
CORROSION, injury from Heat, or danger of Frac- 
ture,and are UNALTERABLE in the dimensions of | 
their Apertures. 

Uniformity in the consumption of Gas is obtained | 
by the process of manufacture, which ensures that the 
Burners shall be of precisely similar pattern. 

The Adamas Burners are confidently reeommended 
to Gas-l’itters, Consumers, and Companies. | 

Sole Manufacturer and Patentee in Great Britain, | 
S. Lgon1, Adamas Works, St. Paul Street, New North | 
Road, Lonpon, N. 


other article in Fire Clay, are promptly executed at 


Subscription { 15s.in Advance ]DOUBLE fio. 
per Ann. @ 18sCredit. Price 1s. 


| BLAYDON BURN AND LOW BENWELL FIRE- 
CLAY RETORT AND FIRE-BRICK WORKS, 
NEAR NEWCASTLE-ON-I'YNE. 


| 
Witlun COCHRAN CARR begs 


most respectfully to thank the Metropolitan, 
Provincial, and Continental Gas Companies for their pa- 
tronage for several years past, and to intimate that he 
has rebuilt and enlarged his extensive premises for the 
| Manufacture of CLAY RETORTS; and thatheis now 
prepared to execute thelargest orders with punctuality 
and despatch. Orders for FLRE-CLAY RETORTS, || 
of all shapes and sizes, FIRE-BRICKS, and all other 
Articles in Fire-Clay, executed on the shortest notice, 

and on the most reasonable terms. 

London Agents: 
JAMES LAWRIE & Cov., 
63, OLv Broap Staeet, City, LONDON. 





TO GAS COMPANIES, 


THE Advertiser, who has had the 


Management of Gas-Works, during the last three 
years, at home and abroad, is desirous of obtaining a 
situation as MANAGER or INSPECTOR of Works. 
Can give good Testimonials, &c. 

Address, O. P. Q., care of Mr. Kine, 11, Bolt Court, | 
Fleet Street, LONDON. 





STATION-METER. 


ANTED, a Second-hand Station- | 
METER, in perfect order, suitable for 4 in. 

Mains. {] 
Particulars and Price to be sent to Mr. FEARENSIDE, | | 
Solicitor, Burton, WESTMORELAND, \| 





! 
WANTED, GAS-WORKS TO PURCHASE | | 
OR LEASE. | 
THE County and General Gas’ 
CONSUMERS COMPANY (Limited) are desirous | 
of purchasing or leasing GAS-WORKS on equitable | | 
terms. 
Application to be made to the Engineer of the Com- | | 
pany, Mr. H. P. STEPHENSON, 58, PALL MALL, S.W. | 


ORLESTON and Southtown Gas- || 
WORKS, | 
WANTED immediately, a steady respectable Man, | | 
who thoroughly understands the Manufacture and Dis- 
tribution of Gas in Iron Retorts, the Laying of Mains | 
and Services, the Fixing and Repairing of Meters, 
and the Setting of Retorts. As the Works are swall, 
he will have to perform all the duties required, with 
the assistance of a lad in the summer, and a man in | 
winter. 
There is a comforiable dwelling-house on the pre- 
mises. | 
Applications, stating age and qualifications, with | 
Testimonials of character and fitness, may be sent to 
C.J, PaLmer, Esq., the Secretary to the Gorleston 
Gas Company, 28, Regent Street, GreaT YARMOUTH. 








THE 













IMPERIAL 


BIiRMINGHAM, 


Manufacturers of Wrought-fron Tubes and Fittings, 


FOR GAS, STEAM, AND WATER. 


AND 


IRON TUBE 


(SUCCESSORS TO GEORGE B. LLOYD & CO.,) | 
GAS STREET AND BERKLEY STREET, | 


COMPANY, 


PATENT GLASS ENAMELLED AND GALVANIZED TUBES, 


LAP-WELDED I[RON BOILER TUBES. | 

















WOLVERHAMPTON 


Estasiisuep 1840, 


JOHN EUNSON «& SON, | 


Gas Engineers, and Manufacturers of Clay Retorts 


AND FIRE GOODS IN GENERAL, 


WOLVERHAMPTON. 





Retort Mouthpieces, Bolts, Nuts, and every description of Wrought-Iron Work, 





RETORT WORKS. 


« 
































682 THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT, [Oct. 8, 1861. 











MEDALS AWARDED TO 
THOMAS GLOVER’S 
PATENT DRY GAS-METERS. 


LORD REDESDALE’'S “SALE OF GAS ACT.” 


DRY METERS VERSUS WET METEBS. 
LONDON, February 25, 1861. | 


Tuomas Grover begs to call the attention of Gas Companies and others to a few facts, which, if duly considered, must 
lead to most important conclusions :— 

1, That since Taomas GLover commenced to manufacture his Patent Dry Gas-Meters (which is now upwards of 15 
years), every Wet Meter Maker of any importance in England has been compelled to manufacture Dry Gas-Meters ; and in 
| the Journat or Gas Lieutina, of date of 12th of February, 1861, Messrs. William Parkinson and Co., successors to the late 
Samuel Crossley, advertise that they ‘intend manufacturing Dry as well as” Wet Meters, and it is worthy of particular notice 
that they intend to do so “after 40 years experience in manufacturing Wet Gas-Meters of such a quality that has enabled) 
them, as they say, to maintain a superiority over all other; and this, be it also particularly noticed, after they had advertised) 
'|in the Journat or Gas Licurtine, January 29, 1861, “their improved low-spouted Gas-Meter with new patent float arrange- | 

ment, which entirely overcomes the difficulty experienced by ordinary Wet Meter.” 
2. That it is quite consistent with Taomas Giover’s knowledge that Wet Gas-Meters, called “ low-spouted ”’ or ‘ com-| 
|| pensating Wet Meters,” have already been proved to be incapable of continuous working or registration, and for this reason 
the manufacturers of these Meters have been induced to seek the repeal of Lord Redesdale’s (righteous) Sale of Gas Act. 

3. That every year the Patent Dry Gas-Meter manufactured by Tuomas Grover has risen in favour with Gas Companies 
'}and Gas Consumers, placing him in the proud position of being the largest manufacturer of Gas-Meters in the country. 


Tuomas Grover guarantees his Patent Dry Gas-Meters to meet all the requirements of the ‘‘ Sale of Gas Act,” to give 
accurate and unvarying registration with steady lights; and, from their peculiar construction, cannot be tampered with, and 
may be fixed in open situations even above or below the level of the lights. They work with less pressure than Wet Meters, 
and are not affected by the most severe frost. 

Tuomas Grover guarantees to uphold all Meters sold by him for 5 years free of expense to the purchaser, or for a| 
|| trifling per centage per annum will contract with any Gas Company to uphold their Meters of his manufacture for a series of 
years ; and, at the conclusion of such contract, to leave the Meters all in perfect working order. 


N. B.— Agents in several parts of England are wanted. Apply by letter, or personally. 


WILLIAM PARKINSON AND CQO. 


| (SUCCESSORS TO SAMUEL CROSLEY), | 
|| FATENT WET AND DRY GAS-METER MANUFACTURERS, &c.' 


| COTTAGE LANE, CITY ROAD, LONDON, EC. 


i} 


| Zstablishes 1816. 


PEN EAT Pye Kr ED ED TT TES rr 
PATENT EMPROVED WET METER. 

| W. P. and Co. invite especial attention to this Meter, which entirely overcomes the difficulty to which ordinary | 
‘Wet Meters are subjected, owing to the short range of the Float, which is necessary, in order to meet the requirements 
!lof the Sale of Gas Act. | 

























| 
' 










7 

| “It is weil known that in Meters constructed so that the valve will close when the water is drawn off to such a point as to render them 3 per cent. slow | 
the lights are liable to t i the valve by a sudden increase of pressure. To meet this difficulty, Mr. Pinchbeck has att gg es 
i is reversed, and any such increase of pressure, in his Meter, raises the value instead of depressing it. he| 





fingenious and simple arrar 
\fact of the improvemer 
venience it is designed 


: PATENT IMPROVED DRY METER, 


Which W. P. and Co. pledge themselves to mannfacture with the same quality of materials and workmanship as in their 

? ® «> - / » ° a. J + s+ 
Wet Meter, thereby giving Gas Companies and others the advantage of procuring a first-rate Dry as well as a Wet 
Meter, which, hitherto, they have been unable to do. 


STATION-METERS AND GOVERNORS, 


“Which can be scen at all the London Gas-Works. Also Liverpool, Manchester, Sheffield, Nottingham, Belfast, Glasgow, Bir- 
mingham, Dublin, Bristol, Leeds, Leicester, Brighton, Southampton, Sunderland, Wolverhampton, Bradford, Norwich, &c., &e, 


TEST GASHOLDERS, EXPERIMENTAL METERS, EXHAUSTER REGULATORS, 
MINUTE CLOCKS, PRESSURE GAUGES, PHOTOMETERS, PRESSURE REGISTERS, &c. 


ssrs. W. Parkinson and Co. is a sutlicient guarantee that it practically and effectually remedies the ineon-| 
IGHTING } 







. ‘ 
—JOURNAL OF 


t” 















ase at 












































Oct. 8, 1861.] 





CONTENTS. 


Leading Articles:— 
Notes upon Passing Events. . . . .. . 
The Manchester System of GasSupply . . . . . . . « « 686 
Circular to Gas Companies . . «=. . 
Correspondence :— 
The Metropolitan Board and the Sale of Gas Act. . . 
Register of New Patents :— 
Clayton, C., Breedon, J., and Schneider, A.—Self-Acting Socket . . 691 
Mennons, M. A. F.—Improvements in Gas Stop-Cocks . . . . . 691 
Bailey, W.—Improvements in Globesor Shades. . . . . 
Brookes, W.—Improvements in Apparatus for Measuring Gas. . . 692 
Hawksley, G.—Improvements in Apparatus for Measuring Water. . 692 





Applications for Letters Patent. . . . . . «© © + © « «© 692 
Grants of Provisional Protection . . . . . c+ = « oie 
ee «< + + + se se we 6 eS ee - 693 


Miscellaneous News :— 

'| Costs of the Bolton Corporation in an Unsuccessful Attempt to Obtain 
| the Gas-Works, 1861 . . . . ... . . Soe ae 
|| Meeting of the South Metropolitan Gas Company. 2 4 oe 
'| Metropolis Gas Supply—City of London Court of Sewers . . . . 6% 
|| Metropolitan Board of Works . . . . . . «© © «© 
|| The Reading Gas Companies and the Local Board . . . . . . 697 
|| Some Account of the Manchester Gas-Works. . . . . . . « 699 
| Report of the ParisGas Company . . . . ... =... . @l 

On the Influence of Atmospheric Pressure upon some of the Phenomena 

| ere are ee ere ee 
|| American Legislation for the Inspection and Stamping of Gas-Meters. 704 


On the Artificial Production of Alizarine . . . . . . - + 708 
On the Detection of Bisulphide of Carbon in Coal-Gas . . . . « 705 
Experiments on Allan’s Compensating Meter . . . . . « « 706 
Kinver, Staffordshire. . . . 2. 2 «2 « « ek + ee 
Destruction of Fish by Gas Liquor. . . . .« . + e we 706 
Dr. J. Northcote Vinen’s Fortnightly Report on the Gas Supplied by 


the Surrey Consumers Company. . el er ae. a 





TO CORRESPONDENTS. 





| Cuas. Dyen.—T!’e doubt the good taste of attacks by servants on their late 

| employers, especially when they assume a libellous character, and we must 

| ¢laim to exercise some discretion in giving publicity to such attacks. 

A Constant Reader must have read the JourRNAL very carelessiy, or he would 
have found in previous numbers the answers we give to his ixquiries in 
another column. 





| NOTICES. 

The subscription is 15s, per annum, if paid in advance during the month 
of January, or 18s. credit, in two sums of 9s. each, in July and 
January of each year. Post-Office orders must be made payable at the 
Charing-Cross Money-Order Office, to William H. Bennett, No, 42, 
Parliament Street, Westminster. 


—_—————————————— 





subsequent numbers on each successive alternate Tuesday. 
tamped copies, when forwarded by post, must be folded so as to expose 


letters, 

This Journat has been duly registered at the General Post Office for 
transmission abroad. 

All Communications to be addressed to the Editor, No. 42, Parliament 
Street, Westminster; and orders for Advertisements to the Publisher, 
Mr. W. B. King, No. 11, Bolt Court, Fleet Street. 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, 








TUESDAY, OCTOBER 8, 1861. 





NOTES UPON PASSING EVENTS. 
Tue Minutes of the Committee of the Privy Council on Eda- 
cation are exciting the sensation and the opposition to be 
expected whenever a money interest is touched. 
propose a reform, and no reform was ever effected without 
pinching the pockets of those who have profited by the evils 
to be excised. The fact that the proposed Minutes will cut 
off the prospects of many pupil teachers, and impair the pre- 
sent and future income of many certificated schoolmasters, 
who have been cramming themselves in order to pass the 
ordeals enacted by the Minutes about to be superseded, cannot 
and ought not to be evaded ; but the change is not a whit the 
less needful, because it is hard on the army of schoolmasters. 


of what we will call. parliamentary education—for Parliament 
pays for it—to the only people who were enthusiastic about it 
—the doctrinaires—the good people of Sir Kaye Shuttleworth’s 
school, who honestly believed that it was a national duty to 
cram paupers and little smock-frocked bumpkins with as much 








The fact is, that we have, for a series of years, left the management | ; 
| a strong remedy was required and applied. 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 683 || 


| with praise, and the losers neglected. 


' 
| 








to their future probable pursuits. These enthusiasts did not look 
on the national system of education as a means of making good i 
ploughmen, carters, blacksmiths, soldiers or sailors, neat, | 
obedient dairymaids, or handy servants; but of developing) 
the brains of occasional prodigies. ‘They made a race of edu-| 
cation, in which the winners were applauded and intoxicated 
The whole tendency of} 


| the system was to induce schoolmasters and mistresses to coa- 


centrate their efforts on their cleverest pupils. The teacher's 
payment, reputation, and promotion did not depend on the 
general proficiency of the school, but on producing a few bright 
particular stars, to remain in the first class long past the age 
at which the hard-handed class usually go into the world to 
get their living. The result was, a crowd of little parrots, 
learning phrases by rote, and thus astonishing casual visitors ; | 
but unable to read, much less to write or cypher, in a useful 
manner. If any objection was raised to this system of forcing 
and “starring,” it was set down to an ignorant aristocratic 
prejudice against educating the labouring classes; and a list 
of illustrious men who, self-educated, had risen from the ranks, 
was cited to show the propriety of fishing in parish schools for 
a Watt or a Stephenson. Some years ago, the intelligent | 
manager of a pauper school in the neighbourhood of Londoa, | 
where the modern high educational system was early applied, 
asked a well-known baronet what he was going to do with the | 
bovs who, under his influence, had been taught enough elegant 
and useless knowledge to disdain the only callings they were 
ever likely to have a chance of following? ‘* Ah!” replied 
the worthy ‘‘idealist,” ‘that is my greatest source of 
anxiety; but I shall never be satisfied until I get the 





| cleverest of the poor-house scholars an opening as clerks in 


| them, without being fit for a white-handed employment: 1}: 


||The next number will be published on Tuesday, October 22, and the | 


” 


the Government offices.” When boys and girls whose voce- 
tion it is to earn a living by hand labour of some kind, can read 
easily, write fluently, and cypher correctly, a legitimate means 
of advancement in life has been bestowed upon them, as wel 
as a source of instruction and recreation in leisure hours, if 
they have a taste that way; but, when they are retained t 
an unusual age at school, and imbued with an inordinate ide: 
the value of mere book knowledge, it constantly happens that 
they become discontented with the only livelihocd open 

? 
nine times out of ten, it will be found that these village pro- 
digies have been forced at the expense of the rest of the schoo! 
—a very natural result, as gentlemen of moderate me answ! 
have a gardener, with a taste for horticultural prizes, will acknow - 


| ledge—the care which ought to be bestowed on fruits for des- 


te Ee | sert, and vegetables for the pot, is apt to be concentrated on a 
the stamp; they are otherwise liable to the full postage charge for | oe “he. ; Sagem ; 
| few choice specimens designed for competition at flower and 


| fruit shows. 


On a subject about which so much has been 
written, a single practical illustration will be more effective 
than a whole volume of abstract arguments. In a village in a 
purely rural district, where we were lately visiting the squire, 
are the pauper schools of a very large union. These schools 
were, a few years ago, conducted by a certificated schoolmaster 
and schoolmistress ; of course, they were assisted by Govern- 
ment funds, and inspected by a Government inspector. The 
schoolmaster and schoolmistress, anxious for the increase of 


| salary, and certificates leading to promotion, which depended 
| on the condition of their first classes, took the greatest pains first 
| to cram their best pupils, and next, to keep them at school as 


long as possible. 
selected ones—not 


Universities, were astonished at the range of their acquiremen*s 


Wonderful was the proficiency of thes 


| and the promptness of theirreplies. But, after a certain period, 


| 


The Minutes | two facts became painfully evident—first, that the mob of 


little stupid ones left school with no useful education, and « 
great hatred for everything in the shape of print; and, next 
that the first classes made very bad and very discontented ser- 
vants, carters, ploughmen, and dairymaids, When they left 
school, they were above their business, and fit for nothing 
else. The farmers and their wives, who paid the poor-rates, 
were naturally discontented with the management. ‘The poor- 
house became unreasonably full of boys and girls whom no 
farmer would hire, and of girls who returned from service not 
unfrequently disgraced. The disease became so virulent, that 
The certificated 


| master and mistress were replaced by two decent people, wha 


| 
| 
| 


looked to spending their days, without promotion, in the unica 
schools ; the Government grant was surrendered; the oficia/ 


visits of the inspector of schools were declined, although he 


literature and science as possible, without regard to their age or | was still invited to come as a fricnd, and ask any questions he 


' 






































684 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 





pleased. At the time of our visit in August last, the new plan 
had been some time in operation, and with perfect success. 
The children were well and evenly taught useful things; they 
were made good servants and labourers.. The number for hire 
in the poorhouse had been diminished from 100 to less than 
50; and the inspector, in a recent unofficial visit, had admitted 
that the elements of educstion were exceedingly well taught. 
If the girls could not explain the use of the globes, or answer 
|| questions in astronomy, they could read distinctly, sew neatly, 
‘Jand looked forward, as promotion, to being servants on wages ; 
while the boys went to plough at an age when hard work was 
as pleasant as school confinement. As to the schoolmasters 








“ase for consideration, and for compensation where justly due. 
The whole subject of the revised Minutes will, doubtless, 
be discussed in the next session of Parliament; we trust 
the result will be to establish the principle that the assist- 
ance of the State should be given, not to discover and 
‘}educate prodigies, but to instruct ordinary intellects in the 
knowledge most likely to be useful to labouring men and 
|;women. Infant schools and elementary schools are the 
||foundation of a civilized and orderly community. Free 
| libraries, cheap books, and adult night schools, will give ample 
||opportunities to the select few who are qualified to learn higher 
||things than a parish school can teach. 
The charge of want of taste in works of art, so generally 
‘attributed to Englishmen by foreigners, is amply supported by 
the drinking fountains lately erected in London and it suburbs. 
Where these fountains have been set up at the cost of a not 
very wealthy temperance society, it is not surprising that they 
should have gone commercially to work, and purchased a 
cheap durable article from some wholesale iron manufacturer, 
who turns fountains out in quantity, without any special regard 
to situation or proportion. But, where a wealthy man de- 
|'sires to benefit the thirsty and temperate, and at the same time 
‘;commemorate his own virtues and success, it is surprising that 
{the assistance of a sculptor or architect of talent, if not genius, 
‘lis not called in. There are a number of drinking fountains on 
\|the great highway between Hammersmith and the Strand 
which call for no comment, because they are simply conduits, 
|| with. very little attempt at ornamentation, placed in an unob- 
| trusive manner on the roadside, for the benefit of thirsty 
‘travellers ; and very useful they have been this summer. That 
erected by the Hon. Miss Eden, in Kensington Gore, where a 
\stream trickles from a fissured rock into a shell of white 
i|marble, is a pretty design, which, however, proves that white 
; marble is not suited to the English climate. Already this 
; modest structure is disfigured by green mould and a murky 
metropolitan deposit of smoke and dust combined. In a fine 
situation opposite St. Mary-le-Strand, a fountain, lighted by 
a lamp at night, flows under an absurdly small dome, in what 
, may be called the cast-iron Greek style. It is rendered utterly 
insignificant by the grand portico of the church towering over 
it. This fountain, however, is better than one in the Euston 
| Road, near the junction with the Edgware Road, which has 
the grave fault of being placed almost out of reach of the 
principal water-drinkers of the metropolis—the small boys. 
In Pieet Street a fountain, after the fashion of a cheap tomb- 
stone, has been erected by an alderman, apparently as a hint 
to advertising tailors, for, when you take away the donor’s 
coat of arms, and the inscription recording his ascending 











| 


dignities, there is only room on the meagre marble arch 
for a text of Seripture, thus making a pretence of piety 


a foundation for vanity. Proceeding onward to the Royal 


jaexchance, 
out by the Citv surveyor as worthy of a grand monument 
ci art, we a fountain set up by the Temperance 
Society—pretty encugh if it had been placed in a small 
-garden, near a summer-house, but painfully paltry under 
magnificent facade of the Royal Exchange. There 
ouly one consolation for the justly discontented—these 
trampery conduits are not calculated to last long; in a few 
rs time, the taste in such architecture may have improved. 
J. Thomas's water-works in Kensington Gardens—not 
vet supplied with water, by-the-bye—show that we have 
irtist if those who desire to hand down their names 
) the water-Cri:kers of posterity are ready to pay the price. 
Perhaps Cubitt, twiee Lord Mayor of London, may decide to 
| .cave some such permanent monument of his double reign. 
M. Voreade, in his chronicle of September, gives a rather 
| pungent sketch of the last form of imperial adulations. It 


Md ) 
Anu 


yei 
1 
AY 


s of taste, 


who will be injured by the contemplated changes, theirs is a | 











, /so recently erected is considerable, and is found unequally 
a site which has more than once been pointed 


is well known to all those who have travelled off the lines , 
of the great military highways that, throughout the greater | 
part of France, what we should call the parish roads, are either | 


wanting, or ina wretched condition; in so bad a state, that many 
fertile districts cannot send their produce to railroad stations 


fOct. 8, 1861. |, 


or market towns within twenty miles, during the rainy season, | 


The laborious processes which must be worked through to 
enable a village to make or mend a road, have often been 
described—the French Government theory being that all 
wisdom is centred in Paris. The Emperor has lately very 
wisely decreed the application of a million sterling to making 
or mending the local roads, and thus satisfactorily answered 
complaints and petitions, of many years standing, from 
numerous insignificant communities. The sum is not very 
large ; not half as much as was lent to assist landowners to 
drain their Irish estates; not a nineteenth part as much as 
private enterprise has found to make railroads in Ireland—a 
country not so rich as France. The grant, sagacious as it is, 
costs the Emperor nothing personally. Nevertheless, M, 
Forcade tells us that the eighty-nine councils-general, which 
meet once a year to devote nine or ten days to the considera- 
tion of the wants of their respective departments, have all 
filled up the principal space of their reports with laudations 
of the Emperor’s gracious goodness in giving them part of 
their own money for local roads. Thank Heaven! in this 
country, neither queen nor prince can make us a present out 
of the taxes. ‘To listen,” says M. Forcade, ‘‘to these 
solemn discourses, it would seem as if local roads were a 
modern invention, and as if a country which spends annually 
upwards of twelve millions (sterling) on railroads, and besides 
contributing enormously to the adornment of Paris, is about 
to spend several million francs in building an opera-house, is 
doing something wonderful in bestowing one million pounds 
on the promotion of agriculture. Schoolboys we are, and 
schoolboys we shall be, to the end of the chapter; never tired 
of learning by rote, and repeating complimentary speeches full 
of sound, signifying nothing, as we bow before our masters to 
receive the prizes they deign to bestow. When shall we learn 
to become straightforward and practical in politics § O sancta 
simplicitas !—we cry with John Huss.” 


The report of the commission on the decay of the stone of 
the palace of Westminster has been published. It is a cau- 
tious document, carefully infiltrated with saving adjectives ; but, 
the appendix of evidence contains a mass of really useful informa- 
tion. It must be admitted that the commission was well and 
carefully selected ; and included a more than common number 
of able, competent, and independent men—of architects, engi- 
neers, and chemists. The following is the pith of the report. 
The commission was appointed to inquire into—1st, the extent 
and position of the decay; 2nd, the causes; 3rd, the best 
means of preserving the stone from further injury; 4th, the 
qualities of the stone to be recommended for future use. As 
to the first question, it is proved that the stone was much 
more likely to decay in damp and sheltered situations than 
where exposed to the full action of atmospheric influences. It 
does xot appear that the decay is attributable to the stones not 
being placed in the same relative situations as they occupied in 
the quarry. As aninstance, the stone of the elaborately carved 
shield of arms under the range of first-floor windows of the 
palace of Westminster, and used for the purposes of the most 
delicate ornamentation, are universally placed perpendicularly 
to their natural position in the quarry; yet they present few 
if any symptoms of decay. The actual decay for a building 


distributed over the latest and earlier parts of the palace. It 
first made its appearance about seven years after the com- 
mencement of the work. The change of colour in the stone, 
and “the fretting out of the surface,” which are the first 


symptoms, lead the commission to apprehend that more mis- 


chief exists than is apparent. The decay appears for the most 
part on plain surfaces, the elaborately-wrought portions, unless 
under projections, are not seriously affected. ‘The commission 
consider that at present the decay does not affect the stability 
of the building.” The stone recommended by the commission 
appointed to examine the quarries of England before the palace 
was contracted for, was from the quarries of Bolsover Moor ; 
but, before the work was begun, it was found that blocks 
could not be procured of sufficient size. Upwards of 20,000 


| cubic feet were procured from the ancient quarries, supposed 


to have been used in building Southwell Minster, at Mansfield | 


| Woodhouse, and this stone has stood remarkably well, but its | 






































Oct. 8, 1861.] 





Ibe obtained. The rest of the stone was procured from 
‘quarries at Anston. A foreman employed on the palace at 
‘Westminster, gave evidence that certain beds in these 
‘Anston quarries were liable to decay even in the quarry, 
land that he had rejected them. It seems that Mr. C. 
'H. Smith, one of the commissioners appointed to assist the 
‘architect in selecting the stone for the Houses of Parliament, 
jjand a practical man, offered, for a salary of £150 a year, 
to examine the blocks of stone as they came in, and reject all 
‘that were defective—a duty he actually performed for Mr. 
||Tite at the Royal Exchange ; but, although he was ordered to 
begin, it could not be settled whether he was to be paid by the 
architect or the Government, and so the old story of spoiling 
the broth to save a halfpenny worth of salt was repeated. 
The commission, as far as can be gathered from the very 
guarded terms they use, have come to the conclusion that no 
chemical application has been as yet invented that will arrest 
with ceftainty the deterioration of stone which has begun 
to decay, and they finally referred that question to the in- 
vestigation of chemists. They report that magnesian lime- 
stone, when subject to the specially deleterious influences of a 





render it an unsafe material for metropolitan buildings, while 
“Portland stone, which has been used from the date of St. 
Paul’s downwards with most successful results, is to be ob- 
tained in any quantity, in blocks of any size, beautiful in 
colour and texture, reasonable in price, not so hard as Anston 
stone, and yet with a power of resisting the influences of the 
atmosphere, that leaves little to be desired.” But even Port- 
land stone ‘should be carefully selected by an agent at the 
quarries.” Finally, the commission recommend that the archi- 
tect of the palace should have the assistance of scientific 
chemists in making experiments, with such preservatives as 
may from time to time be suggested by competent authorities. 
In the course of the inquiry, Mr. G. R. Burnell, C.E., one of 
the commissioners, visited Paris, provided with official introduc- 
tions, but at his own expense, and the following are the results 
of his inquiries :—In Paris, the materials used in building are 
very carefully selected, of a better quality than those employed 
in London, and not exposed to such an injurious atmosphere 
as that of London—the absence of coal smoke making a 
remarkable difference. French architects invariably select the 
harder, and more crystalline varieties of the pure carbonites of 
lime, for positions where the material islikely totake up any water 
either by capillary attraction or from rainfall. The sheltered por- 
tions of the work are executed with the more imperfect and 
the less crystalline descriptions of stone; where more earthy 
stones are exposed to the effects of the weather, they decay 
very rapidly. The rule of using stones, according to their 
quality for special situations, is prescribed very particularly and 
distinctly in all specifications. Hardly a stone is allowed to 
go into a French building of any importance without its passing 
through the hands of an inspector. In England, we confine our 
attention exclusively to Caen stone; but, in France, use is made 
of oolitic beds which yield much better and more lasting stone 
than Caen stone. The prevalent opinion of French engineers, 
architects, and chemists, is that the whole subject of the pre- 
servation of stone or the cure of stone, that has already begun 
jt decay, is still in an unsatisfactory state. M. Viollet le Duc, 
jabout eight years ago, applied D’Almagne’s process, which 
consists in the application of a silicate pumped through a fire- 
engine, to the south-east side of the transept of Nétre Dame. 
That not being the side most exposed to rain, and it seems to 
have arrested evident decay, and answered very well. The stone 
is now hard, and the disintegration stopped. The prevalent 
opinion in France seems to be that the application of the sili- 
cate of potash presents the greatest chances of success. But 
M. Hervé Mangon, a very eminent practical chemist, who has 
long paid special attention to the subject, does not share that 
opinion, and considers that a process adopted by Baron Gros, 
to prepare a foundation for his paintings in the interior of the 
dome of the Pantheon, about twenty-four years since, is the 
most reliable medium. The Baron first dried the surface of the 
interior of the dome as much as possible by braziers, and then 
applied a mixture, containing one part wax to three parts of 
oil, and one-tenth in weight of litharge, the mixture being 
heated to about boiling point, and then applied to the stone. 
||M. Mangon considered the magnesian limestone an exceedingly 
dangerous class of materials for town buildings. If magnesian 
limestone commenced to decay, he should recommend simply 


| 
| 
| 














London atmosphere, is subject to causes of decay, which | 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT, 


use was discontinued because blocks of sufficient size could not | 


' 
| 





| 








saturating the stone with a mixture of oil and wax; if that want 
objected to, he would apply a free solution of phosphoric acid| 
recently patented by M. Coignet. 

In the course of his evidence, Mr. Burnell called attention 
to the building value of ‘‘ Garth stone,” a millstone grit of the | 
North Wales formation, to be had near Ruabon, close to the 
canal and railway. It may be obtained in blocks of almost any 
dimensions, at singularly low prices. ‘‘In the Vale of Llan- 
gollen, six miles from the quarries, it is now used in walls 


| faced on two sides, about 18 inches to 20 inches in thickness, 


at the rate of 2}d. per foot cube.” A very important technical 
report from the chemists who undertook special inquiries for’ 
the commission, is contained in the appendix. \! 

The evidence of Mr. Nicholas Charles Szerelmey, the 
author of the secret process for arresting decay in stone, which 
was patronized by the late Sir Charles Barry, and discon- 
tinued by Mr. Edward Barry, is very odd, and requires more 
faith than the commission appear to have had at their command. 
In answer to one question, he said he did not use any bitumi- 
nous substance in his secret compound ; but, a little later, he 
said he used ‘‘ asphaltum from the Dead Sea,” which ‘ cannot 
be dissolved either in water, or spirit, or oil.” On being 
asked where he got it from? he answered, ‘‘ I have fetched it 
myself, through a certain person; you cannot get it in Lon- 


- | 
don.” ‘Nobody knows it as an article of commerce.” ‘“1)| 
| was, at one time, very happy that nobody knew it.” Then, he}! 
is asked, ‘‘ How does it come from Syria to England?”’ He, 


replies, ‘‘I am in correspondence with a gentleman, and he} 
sends it me. It is black at first, and I transfer it to another’ 
colour.” The committee were forbearing, and no member': 
said, ‘‘ Very like a whale!” Mr. Gascoigne, one of the}! 
superintendents of Mr. Freak, the eminent builder, gave evi- 
dence that M. Szerelmey’s composition had been applied to || 
the Roman cement front of Lady Bethune’s house, No. 13,'! 
Prince’s Gardens, and failed utterly—pecled off like bad paint. || 
This compositicn has lately been applied to the Gresham Ciub, 
while Mr. Ransome’s has been washed over the Institute of 
Civil Engineers—two well-known buildings. In a few years, | 
our readers can go and see the result for themselves. 
Newspapers from Australia tell of the continued progress of | 
the useful and ornamental arts in all the colonies in that ex- 
traordinary country; although from various causes, chiefly 
the opposition of the working classes, emigration has, for two 
or three years, almost ceased to increase the population. The 
mistake of excluding labour has now been discovered, and at- 
tempts are to be made to revive the interest the working classes 
of England once had in the land of gold-finding and sieep-| 
feeding. A telegraphic communication has been completed, 
from Adelaide, in South Australia, through the colony of, 
Victoria, on to New South Wales, and thence to the latest! 
colony of all—Queensland. Steam navigation seems making! 
great progress. A small river steamboat, intended to convey| 


passengers and produce on the Clarence river, had just been! 
5 J j 

eet || 

rer | 


in of 


launched. Her length, 86 feet; width, 16 feet; depth, 

6 inches; her draught, loaded, estimated at 3 feet; and } | 
speed, at eight knots an hour. She is built of iri pine, a 
light timber well suited for shallow rivers; her d:ck-fittings of 


5 
J 


ngs 0 
Australian cedar; and she is propelled by one paddle-wheel, 
fixed over the stern, driven by a horizontal high-pressure en- | 
gine of 16-horse power, with a tubular boiler. A boat of the} 
same construction, built at the same yard, the first of the kind, | 
has been plying successfully for two years on the Paramatta’ 
river. The Hotham, a screw-steamer of 10 tons burden, sent 
out from England on the deck of a ship, had arrived safely at 
Sydney from Melbourne, in spite of a succession of gales, and) 
was about to proceed to the Gulf of Carpentaria in search of | 
an overland exploring expedition. The Kembla, . river steamer | 
of 250 tons, built in Glasgow for the Illawarra Steam Naviga- 
tion Company, had arrived out, and sailed on her first trip. 
Thus, the Australians have by slow degrees taken advantage | 
of their shallow bar rivers. The Sydney Morning Herald con- 
tains a description of an apparatus for manufacturing gas from 
oil or butter for family use. The inventor, a Mr. Marshall, | 
undertakes to make 120 cubic feet of gas from 12Ibs. of butter, | 
or a gallon and a half of oil-refuse, costing three shillings. It 
is recommended as simple and unexpensive, for places where | 
gas-works have not yet been established. Of course, its eco-| 
nomy must turn on the value of the raw material. Three shil- 
lings for 12Ibs. of butter seems a very low price even for the 
commonest article of the kind. The machine itself does not 
appear to differ from other apparatus intended for the same 





ee 








685 | 






t 
q 
(] 
) 




















i 686 


| prpoce, i ievented ond dented in this country thirty years 
|ago, because coal was found cheaper than the cheapest oil. | 
|We refer to this project because it might suit one of Mr. | 
Alderman Mechi’s agricultural pupils, who could light his dairy 

‘|—~a favourite fancy of the worthy alderman—with the butter 

,@f his own cows. 

‘| The fine arts are not neglected in New South Wales, where 
|a Yew years ago the extent of the wine-cellar was the chief out- 
| ward and visible sign of wealth and fashion, A Mr. ‘Smart has 

|| built a gallery in his villa for a ccllection of specimens of | 
ithe ancient masters, chiefly purchased at Lord Northwick’s 


‘sale, while a Mr. Mort more wisely, has filled his house with 
‘| water-colour drawings by our most eminent living artists. | i 


| Both these gentlemen are endeavouring to cultivate the tastes 
of their fellow colonists by admitting the public free on certain 
Jays. 

The colonies of New South Wales and Victoria promise to 
«eud numerous varied and bulky contributions to the Exhibi- 
‘sion of 1862. In New South Wales, the Rev. W. B. Clarke, 
the geologist who first propounded the theory that gold would 
ve discovered in Australia, is engaged in making a classified col- 

tion of the minerals of New South Wa ales ; ‘other gentlemer 
e arranging specimens of wool, of agricultural protnets mm, of 
e timber, trees, and building stones. Mr. Ledger, the intro 
cer of a flock of lamas and alpacas, proposes to kil! and i 
beng animals bred in the colony, in order. to show the results 

his attempts to substitute, by judicious crossings and selections, 

the more valuable for the coarser tribes and breeds. In Victor ia, 
| the Legislature have not been contented with voting money, but | 
have appointed a gentleman to canvass for contributions. In | 
! numbers, he seems to have been more successful than in qua- 
lity. Specimens of wool, gold, and grain, and samples of the 
'nativ e woods, collected by Dr. Mueller, the head of the Botanic | 
| Ge wden, will legitimately represent the present and future 
resources of the colony. We also hear with satisfaction of a 
raised map, ona considerable scale, showing the natural fea- 
tures of Victoria—mits coast-line, mountains, watercourses, 
plains, forests, roads, railways-—the alienated and the Crown | 
lands—the gold-fields. Such a map will be a most appros | 
priate and valuable contribution, But it is painful to read of | 
‘the vast expense which some colouists are incurring in order to 
prepare and send over articles of the most useless, tasteless, 
‘and absurd description. For instance, we hear of ‘‘a speci- 
men of penmanship” which will take eight months labour, 

nd ‘cost a patriotic colonist £800, without the frame and 
glass.” The Victorians have been rejoicing over the opening 
‘of the Murray River Railway to Woodend, a section of nearly 
50 miles, which taps one of the principal gold-fields, and, 
‘rossing a dividing range 1900 feet above the level of low 
water at Hobson’s “Bay, “and the highest point on the whole 
line, thus arrives at ‘ the key of the ‘Victoria railway system.” 
‘The satisfaction of the colonists has been displayed in a solid 
form. Amongst the manufactured articles displayed in the 

Victorian section of the Great Exhibition of 1862, will be a 
Bier inkstand, valued at £700, which was presented to Mrs. 
Bruce, the contractor’s wife, at a ball given in ‘the goods- 
shed at Woodend, to celebrate the opening of this important 
section of the Murray River Railway.” 











| 





‘rom a report of a lecture delivered at the Melbourne 
‘Mechanics Institute by Mr. Edward Wilson, of the Argus 





wspaper, it appears that the work of acclimatizing European 
fishes is being pursued vigorously, and with con- 

iderable success. The skylar k and the thrush were breeding 
freely in a wild state, and “not only making various neis ng 
bourhoods vocal, but absolutely, by force of example, com- 
pvelling the native birds to improve their song notes.” A 
number of fallow-deer had been turned out, and taken readily 
to bush-life. Several kinds of English pond fish had been safely 
brought over, and transferred to the native waters; and a 
fine Australian fish, the Murray River Cod, had been success- 

fully transplanted, to use a buil, and established in the Vic- 
torian River, Yarra. A collection of birds, amongst others | 
the Indian curassow, gold, silver, and common pheasants, 

Ceylon peafowl, American, and other waterfowl], were being | 
: repared in the Botanic Gardens for transfer to wild land, and 

it was thought that all would eventually thrive, and increase 

in the thousands of acres of colonial bush-land. but it is the | 
introduction of the salmon that the greatest efforts have been 
made, and are making in the three colonies of Victoria, New 
Sevth Wales, and Tasmania. Mr. Wilson asserted that the 
main difficulty in the propagation of salmon in the colony lay 


iede and f 





THE JOURNAL CF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT, 


| in the importation of live spawn, but he was sanguine of success ; 


_ sterlet and sander, two pond fish much esteemed in that coun- 


' which was first violated by the Manchester Gas Act of 1824. 


(Oct. 8, 1861. 





the undertaking was in the hands of Mr. Lincoln of London, an 
eminent maker of aquariums, and would be tried during the 
next spawning season. He also hoped to introduce the Russian 





try, which attain considerable size. The salmon ova sent out to}! 
Tasmania last year, lived to the sixtieth day of the voyage, || 
and then perished in consequence of the supply of ice falling 
short. The Parliament of New South Wales, in its last)| 
session, voted £20 for the survey of the Snowy and Shoal- || 
haven rivers, with a view to determine their suitable.) 
ness for the propagation of salmon. The Snowy River | 
is fed by streams from mountains which attain an extreme | 
height of 7000 feet above the level of the sea; on their | 
summits, snow remains in patches all the year round. In one | 
of these snow-fed streams, the breeding-ponds would be placed. || 
Bat, as this river runs for 150 miles through Victorian terri- 
tory, a salmon-preserving treaty between the two colonies | 
would be necessary. Unfortunately, universal suffrage and | 
vote by ballot, contrary to the theory of our Manchester || 
friends, have created a war of custom-houses, and a protection- | 
of-native-industry party in Australia. {| 

The Chinese have actually colonized a quarter of the city of || 
Melbourne with their British wives and half-bred children, 
*‘ whose numbers are gradually increasing.” Few tradesmen 
seem to thrive in the Chinese quarter who do not hang out 
signs in the Chinese character. A court-house has lately been 
erected by the Celestials, in Little Bourke Street, in which 
disputes among them are to be settled after their own customs 
and laws. It is built of brick, with a front of white stone; 
the columns of the first story Ionic, and the second composite ; 
the floors of black and white marble. The cost was £1733. 
And these are the people whom the ruffans of New South 
Wales, encouraged by popularity-hunting politicians, have 
been violently driving from the gold-iields, where they work 
on ground which would be unprofitable to a less industrious, 
ingenious, and frugal people. 





THE MANCHESTER SYSTEM OF GAS SUPPLY. 
Ix another part of this number of the Journat, will be found | 
a reprint of a paper read by Mr. Shuttleworth in the statistical 


| section of the British Association, entitled, ‘‘ Some Account of 


the’ Manchester Gas-Works,” which has been published at) 
the unanimous request of that section, for the purpose of dis- 
tributing it among the local authorities of the United Kingdom. 


In this paper, the supposed advantages of the Manchester 


system of supplying gas are ably set forth, and it may be re-| 
garded in the light of a formal exposition of that system, 
and an invitation to discuss its merits. The plan it advocates) 
is that of applying the public funds by a municipal body, to 
carrying on the manufacture of gas for the public benefit, 
and of appropriating the profits arising from the sale of 
gas to town improvements, or to other local purposes. We 
have, as often as occasion presented itself, strongly protested 
against that system, considering it to be objectionable in prin- 
ciple, and hurtful in practice, and now that it has been 
prominently brought to notice, and has received the sanction 
of one of the sections of the British Association, we feel called 
upon lefend the opinion we have consistently maintained, 
and to show that the vaunted gas supply of Manchester has 
always been inferior to that of other towns that are sup- 
plied by private enterprise, though Manchester was more| 
favourably circumstanced for the supply of gas, by local 
authorities, than is now possible in any other town in the 
United Kingdom. 

There was sound policy in the established principle of legis- 
lation, not to permit municipal bodies to become traders, 


to 


The same objection applies, in a minor degree, to the carrying | 
on of trades by local authorities as by the Government. It 
tends to destroy the spirit of commercial enterprise and the | 


| independence of the people ; it opens the door to extensive job- 


bery ; and the trading operations, so conducted, want the vigour 
and careft 11 inspection of individual interest, which are essen- 
tial to good management. It places the gas-consuming rate- | 
payers completely at the mercy of the non-consuming rate- 
payers, who, in all large towns, form a majority of the rate- | 
paying body; and, by charging a high price for gas, the || 


| majority are enabled to reduce their own rates at the expense || 


of the gas-consuming minority. The moral control which the/ 
































Oct. 8, 1861.} 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 


687 





—h 


wanting when municipal bodies become traders, the certain 
effect of the system being to create monopolies of the most 
objectionable and oppressive character, which the majority of 
the ratepayers have a direct interest in maintaining. 

The violation of the principle that had been previously ad- 
hered to, was not the result of deliberate unbiassed considera- 
by Parliament, but it was, as Mr. Shuttleworth acknowledges, 
attributable rather to fortuitous circumstances. The Com- 
missioners of Police in Manchester had been empowered by an 
old Act to light the town; but, as an Act passed many 
years before gas lighting was known could not confer power 


missioners applied to Parliament, in 1824, to obtain that power. 
At the same time, a bill was introduced for the establishment 
of a company to light the town with oil or other gas, and Mr. 
Shuttleworth admits that, in consequence of the feeling in 
favour of the established principle of legislation, the promoters 
might have succeeded, in opposition to the commissioners, had 
they not resorted to gross frauds in getting up petitions in 
support of their bill, which proceeding excited great indigna- 
tion, and produced a reactionary influence in favour of the pro- 
ject of the commissioners. The defeat of the Oil-Gas Bill was 
thus speedily followed by the passing of the Manchester Gas Act. 
Considering these circumstances, Mr. Shuttleworth is not war- 
ranted in asserting, as he does, that the passing of that Act was a 


which gas-works especially are subservient, are more likely to be 
secured by a general establishment, conducted under effective 
public control, by a public body, than by any private associa- 
tion founded solely for private gain. In short, that such 
establishments are not only legitimate in principle, but are 
even the best, because the most certain and convenient, means 


not be otherwise effected, and which claim public approval 
as conducive to the good appearance of cities and the general 
comfort, convenience, and health of their inhabitants.” It 
requires a fertile imagination to draw so many important infer- 
ences of the intentions of the Legislature from premises so 
slight ; and we shall have further occasion to notice that, in 
Mr. Shuttleworth’s eager advocacy of a system with which he 





case. 


ture in the early period of gas lighting, when the production 
of gas was scarcely recognized as a manufacturing process, the 
views of Parliament are, at the present day, directly opposed 
to the appropriation by local authorities of gas profits to other 
than gas purposes. 

Manchester is commonly adduced as a model town for the 
|| supply of gas, but it may be proved by Mr. Shuttleworth’s 
|| own statements, and by undisputed facts, that the gas supply by 





fear of competition exercises over gas companies is altogether | 


| ciation was formed to protect their interests. 


| works at Manchester as when they are directed against the 


to manufacture and supply gas to private consumers, the com- | 
| poration. 


practical recognition of the principle, ‘‘ that the objects to | 


of effecting those important public improvements which pro- | 
gress and circumstances make necessary in towns, which might | 


has become identified, he has made several other representa- | 
tions which present erroneous views of the real facts of the | 
We shall be able to prove also by substantial evidence | 
|\that, whatever might have been the intention of the Legisla- 


||the corporation of Manchester has not only failed to give satis- | 


| faction to the consumers, but that it has failed as a commercial 


|undertaking, when compared with other towns where gas is | 


.| supplied by private enterprise. We shall consider, in the first 
\ place, whether the system has been satisfactory to the gas 
| consumers. 


It is admitted by Mr. Shuttleworth that, during ten years | 
after the Act was obtained, there was great dissatisfaction, and | 


| that a continual agitation was kept up by the consumers of 
|| as, until at length the commissioners determined, on the 
|| report of a sub-committee, to sell the gas-works. That reso- 
| lution was only withdrawn on the appointment of the late Mr. 
|| Wroe to the comptrollership of the works. The great admi- 


‘nistrative abilities of that gentleman rescued the gas concern 


|price from 10s. 6d. per 1000 feet to 5s. 9d., and raised the 
annual profit from £10,200 to £31,700. But, even to the time 
that the powers of the commissioners were transferred to the 
Corporation, in June, 1843, the question whether the gas- 
works should be permanently vested in the local authorities, 








of the commissioners from a state of dissolution ; and, during | 
| | the succeeding ten years of his management, he reduced the | 





continued unsettled, and no provision was consequently made | refer. Mr. Shuttleworth must have been fully aware that the 
for the extension of the works, so as adequately to provide for | gas accounts for the year ended in June last would exhibit a 
the increased demand for gas. In that year, Mr. Shuttleworth | great falling off in the gross profits, compared with the year 
was elected chairman of the gas committee; and, under his preceding, though the full effect of the present prices can only 
energetic and able direction, the corporation system of gas | be ascertained when the accounts for the year ending in June, 
supply received its full and perfect development. Nevertheless, | 1862, are published. 


it failed to satisfy the consumers, whose discontent arose at 
length to such a height that, in 1859, a gas consumers asso- 
Mr. Flintoff | 
was invited to assist in making out a charge of mismanage- 
ment; and, though we are not inclined to place much reliance | 
on his representations, as much importance may at least be 
attached to them when they condemn the corporation gas- 


gas companies works at Edinburgh, Glasgow, and other 
places where discontent prevails among the consumers of gas. 
It may be noticed also, that the charges sometimes made 
against gas companies of giving short measure, have been in 
no case so strongly supported as against the Manchester cor- 
It was stated in evidence before the parliamentary 
committee on the metropolis gas inquiry, that the Liverpool | 
Gas Company gave more gas than Manchester for the same | 
nominal quantity, and that a large majority of the meters in 

use in Manchester registered against the consumers—in some | 
instances, as much as 25 and even 35 per cent. This accusa- 
tion of unfair dealing was strengthened by the fact, that the 
remuneration of the officer who had the control of the meters | 
was dependent on the quantity of gas broughtto charge. The 

discontents in Manchester culminated at length in the ejec- | 
tion of Mr. Shuttleworth from the gas committee, and in the 

adoption of resolutions against the future appropriation of gas 
profits to the diminution of the water-rates and to town) 
improvements—objects which had all along been considered as | 
essential features of the Manchester system. | 





| that that system which has been held up for imitation, has | 


been a continual source of dissatisfaction in the model town | 
where it has been most successfully established, and that the 
gas consumers have, after a long struggle, compelled the cor- | 
poration to abandon the principle in which its chief advantages | 
were supposed to consist. 

In considering the economical results of the supply of gas 
by the local authorities of Manchester, it must be borne in 
mind that the system was commenced there in the early stages 
of gas lighting, when there was a clear field for its operations, 
and the vested interests to be purchased were comparatively 
trifling. The Manchester commissioners purchased, in 1824, 
the original works in Water Street, and the mains and service- 
pipes, for the small sum of £34,000. In 1837, they purchased 
the Hulme station for £12,402. Of the whole capital invested | 
in the undertaking, which, in June, 1860, amounted to 
£501,328, those sums only were expended in the purchase of 
the works from the original proprietors. Owing to these 
favourable circumstances, the capital on which interest has to 
be paid is less than it could possibly have been had the ground 
been occupied by the works and mains of one or more large 
companies. Under the same systems of management, the gas 
profits at Manchester should, therefore, have been greater than 
at Liverpool, where two competing companies amalgamated 
after an unnecessary expenditure. But the contrary is the 
fact. In the accounts quoted by Mr. Shuttleworth for the | 
year ending June 30, 1860, the gross profits are stated to have 
been £64,779 on the production of 779,150,000 feet of gas, 
and the average charge is thus calculated to have been 
3s. 107d. per 1000 feet. That estimated charge is founded, | 
however, on the whole quantity made, and not on the quantity | 
sold. The average Liverpool price, by a similar mode of calcula- 
tion, would be only 3s. 3}d. per 1000 feet, thus showing a differ- 
ence in favour of the consumer of gas in Liverpool of 7 5d. per 1000 
feet, or £24,348 for the year. There is an appearance of unfair- 
ness and of a desire to mislead the public in Mr. Shuttleworth’s 
representations of the price of gas in Manchester, which indi-| 
cate a feeling that that is the weak point in his case. There 
was no necessity to deduce the price of gas from the quantity 
produced, and the rental during the year. It was a well- 
known fact that the actual charge during the first six months 
of the year was 5s. per 1000 feet, and 4s. 6d. for the last half 
of the year, and not an average of 3s. 10}d. The present 
prices are also mentioned in connexion with the accounts for 
1860, so as to make it appear that the stated amounts of profit 
were derived from the prices now charged, which average 9d. 
per 1000 feet less than those of the year to which the accounts 




















Thus it appears || 





| 
| 





Se ge 




















688 


The towns of Manchester and Liverpool are well adapted to 
test the comparative merits of the systems of gas supply by a 
municipal body and by private association. The population is 
about the same, the source of supply of coal is at an equal dis- 
tance from both, and in each town the two systems are con- 
ducted with great ability. The practical result has, however, 
been greatly in favour of the supply by private enterprise, as 
will be seen by the following statement of facts :— 

The price of gas in Manchester was maintained until the end 
of 1859 at 5s. per 1000 feet, to all consumers whose gas-rents 

were less than £50 per annum. In Liverpool, the price from 
'| January, 1845, to January, 1855, was 4s. 6d.; it was then 
||reduced to 4s.; and, in January, 1858, a further reduction 
| took place to 3s. 9d., at which price it has remained. At the 
'same time that the consumers have been supplied with cannel 
i gas at that low rate, the company have divided 10 per cent. on 
their share capital, which is the highest amount of dividend 
|! allowed by their Act. The illuminating power of the gas sup- 
|plied in Liverpool was also for many years far superior to that 
\of Manchester. Until 1851, a large quantity of common coal 
| was used for the manufacture of gas in Manchester, while the 
| best Wigan cannel was exclusively used in Liverpool. The dif- 
ference in illuminating power was stated by Mr. J. T. Cooper, 
before the committee on the Metropolis Water Supply, in 
1851, to be as much as 48 per cent. in favour of the Liverpool 
gas. In that year, the quality of the Manchester gas was im- 
proved, and the illuminating power has since continued nearly 
;equal in both towns. The following table shows the com- 
parative prices of gas in Liverpool and in Manchester since 








62rds. per cent. higher than the Liverpool price—making a 

difference in favour of the Liverpool consumers of more than 

£10,000 a year :— 

TABLE showing the Comparative Prices of Gas in Manchester and Liverpool 
since 1845, 


Price per 1000 Cubic Feet of 
Gas to Consumers of 





Superiority of Liver- 
pool Gas to 
Manchester Gas, as 


Manchester Price, 


less than 260,000 Cubic in Excess of 


Year, Feet per Annum. Liverpool Price. determined by 
Manchester. Liverpool. Mr. J, T. Cooper. 
1845 6s. Od. 4s. 6d. - 933'33 p.ct. 25 p.ct. 
1846 6 @. 6 .s« OS s 
1847 > 0 46... Bs , 
1848 5 0 4 6 i — 
1849 5 0 e 6 6s BER ws 
1850 5 0 Ss «BER. 
1851 5 0 4 6 ae) aa a . 
1852 5 0 4 6 i ok 
1855 5 0 eS ¢.. i oe ) ao 
! 1854 5 9 4 6 ads 
1855 5 90 o ¢ . < Se es 
1856 5 0 4.0 «na Bes 
1858 5 0 SOD: sw See. 
1859 5 0 a oe 33°33, 
1860 4 6 $9. 20°00 ,, . 
1861 se sn) OS COE .4 


Considerable stress has been laid on the allowance of large 
discounts to wholesale consumers in Manchester, but these 
'}discounts are limited toa small number of consumersy The 
|| following table, presented to the Metropolis Water Committee, 
jin 1851, by Mr. King, exhibits the discounts then allowed 
at Manchester, and which continued until Dec. 25, 1859 :— 





Dis- 


























Rate Re- Gross Sener Reduced 
Cubic Feet per count duced | Amountof; “~ of Amount of 
oe 1000 oper Rate | Rate per Discount Rate per 
Feet. Cent. per 1000.) Annum. ac. | Annui, 
ie ’ ; s. da. ee < sd), £€ sd. £ s.d. 
Under 200,000 . 5 0 None... oo ee +e 
200.000 . 5 0 23'4 103 5000; 1 5 0' 4815 0 
» 400,000. 5 0 od }4 9 10006) 500 9% 0 0 
» 600,000. 5 0 74; 4 ; 15000 11 5 0 18815 0 
» 800,000. 5 0 10 4 6 20000, 20 0 60 180 0 0) 
1,200,000. 5 0 12 4 43) 30000 3710 0 26710 0' 
» 2,000,000 . 5 0 16 614 8 50000;!75 0 0 425 0 0 
+» 3000000. 5 0 173 4 14, 75090 185 5 0; 61815 O 
| ’ 5,000,000. 5 0. 20 4 0 | 195009 250 0 0 |1000 0 0 
The scale of discounts now allowed is :— 
Rate Dis- Reduced Gross | i .! Reduced 
Cubic Fect. per | count Rate Amount of ——- | Amount of 
000 | per per 1000 tate per . Rate per 
Feet. | Cent Feet. Annum. : Discount. yey 
E oe & lg es 4) «a & Sat. (S04! © ge & | 
Under 200,000 . 4 0 - a a ee oe 
200000. 4 0/2 18: 811 4000 1/0168, 39 34 
» _900,000. 4 0,4 3 4 310 10000 | 4 84! 95168 
» 1,000,000. 4 0/6 5 9 38 9 20000 {12 10 0} 187 100 
|] » 1000000. 4 0/8 6 8 3 8 30000 [2% 00/275 00 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 


1845, and it will be seen that the Manchester price is still | 


under the most favourable circumstances, has failed to give 


| Gas-works have been constructed, principally by private enter- 


| raised with public funds; but the Legislature have hitherto, 


[Oct. 8, 1861. 





In order to appreciate the effect of these discounts on the 
average price of gas, it is necessary to ascertain the proportion 
of consumers entitled to them ; and on this point we gain in- 
formation from the report of the gas committee for the year 
ending June 30, 1860. From that report, it appears that the 
total number of meters then in use was 30,328, of which only 
432 were meters for the supply of 45 lights and upwards; 
and, as a 45-light meter is the size that corresponds with an 
annual consumption of 200,000 cubic feet, there would appear 
to be 29,896 consumers who burn less than 200,000 feet per'| | 


. ; 
annum, and are, consequently, not entitled to any discount.) 


Some of the 432 are, no doubt, very large consumers, who | 
would make their own gas were it not supplied to them at a| 
lower rate than to the retail consumer; but, as there are no! 
mills nor factories in Liverpool, and but-few consumers who | 
burn more than 200,000 feet per annum, we may fairly com- | 
pare the maximum price of Manchester with the uniform price || 
of Liverpool, and it will be easily seen, from the foregoing || 
statements, to what extent the Manchester consumer of gas} 
has been prejudiced by the system which Mr. Shuttleworth, 
advocates as having supplied to the inhabitants ‘‘ the best and 
cheapest light that exists.” The vaunted £700,000 applied to! 
the improvement of the town, out of the gas profits, besides a! 
large portion of the cost of the gas-works themselves, were ex- | 
tracted exclusively from the pockets of the consumers of gas, by | 
exacting a much higher price than was charged in any other large | 
town similarly situated. The gas consumers actively bestirred 

themselves in 1859, to throw off, as well as they could, the || 
incubus that oppressed them. On the Sth of October, a | 
motion was carried, at a meeting of the town council, against | 
Mr. Alderman Shuttleworth’s ‘remonstrance, to reduce the | 
price of gas to 4s. 6d.; and, in the following November, he | 
lost his election, and ceased to be a member of the gas com- i 
mittee. The price has been since further reduced to 4s., and || 
the Manchester system of applying the profits from the sale of || 
gas to town improvements has been virtually abandoned in the || 
town where it took its rise. In the discussion that followed | 
the reading of Mr. Shuttleworth’s paper, Mr. Dyson, one of| 
the members of the corporation, expressed the opinion that the) 
public were entitled to be supplied with gas at cost price; and) 
that, we believe, will be the ultimate result, though such a 
proposition was characterized by Mr. Shuttleworth as “ most | 
extravagant.” It remains to be seen what will be the effect) 
of the reduction to 4s. per 1000 feet, and whether at that 
price there will be much surplus to appropriate, after paying’ 
imterest on the borrowed capital, and providing a sinking-fund | 
for the repayment of the principal. | 











We have shown that the supply of gas by local authorities, | 


satisfaction to the consumers, and has not been economically 
successful ; but, even assuming the case to have been other-| 
wise, it would be impossible now to imitate the example of 
Manchester with advantage. Thirty-seven years have entirely | 
changed the position of gas lighting throughout the country. | 
prise, in nearly every city, town, and village of sufficient size | 
to maintain such establishments. Vested rights and interests’ 
have been acquired, the purchase of which must be the first) 
step towards carrying the Manchester system into operation, | 
and such interests can only be purchased by paying the owners | 
premiums ranging as high as 150 per cent. on the capital ex-| 
pended. Some of our socialist politicians have proposed to! 
reduce the value of existing gas-works, by a competition to be 


uniformly refused to sanction such fraudulent schemes, and the | 
following premiums, paid in places where gas-works have| 
been sold to municipal bodies during the last twenty-four) 
years, show how highly the shareholders of the different com-| 
panies have been bribed, to transfer their interest in those 
undertakings :— 


Taste of the Sums paid for £100 of Share Capital of Gas Companies on the 
Purchase of the Gas-Works by Corporaticns or Commisswners in the 
undermentioned Towns, 

Sum paid for £106 





Name. Date. of Share Capital. 
Birkenhead . 1858 £220 
Burnley . ‘ 1854 300 
Bury, Lancashire 1857 250 
Darlington 1854 200 
MO «6 lw 1856 240 
Macclesfield. . . 1861 250 
Oldham . 1837 200 
Rochdale . 1844 167 

1861 159 





Sowerby Bridge 





cameraman 















































Oct. 8, 1861.] 


It will be seen that, with one exception, the highest premium 
(150 per cent.) was paid on the last sale—that of Macclesfield 
—which is a strong proof that the commercial value of such 
undertakings is in the ascendant. 

In the discussion of Mr. Shuttleworth’s paper, the Mayor of 
Manchester alluded to the difficulties that now exist to the 
| transfer of gas-works to local authorities, which he attributed 
|to the rapacity of shareholders in demanding to be secured 10 
per cent. on their investment ; and to that cause he ascribed 
| the failure of the attempt of the Bolton corporation to introduce 
the Manchester system into that town. He ought rather to 
have attributed it to the patriotism and self-denial of the share- 
holders of the Bolton Gas Company, who refused to be bribed 
| by a premium of 144 per cent. on their original share capital, and 
| who grounded their refusal on the impolicy of the system, and 
\its abuses. They alleged, and proved to the satisfaction of an 
able committee of the House of Commons, that gas-works in 
‘the hands of municipal corporations are made the instruments 
‘by which the consumers of gas are taxed for purposes that 

should be effected by the ratepayers at large ; that in adjacent 
|towns, under precisely parallel circumstances, gas is supplied 
by private enterprise at lower rates than by local authorities ; 
and that, while the profits of the gas companies are limited to 
10 per cent. on their capital, and in some cases to less, muni- 
‘cipal corporations boast of realizing profits of 12, and even of 
| 23 per cent., by their exorbitant charges for gas. The com- 
|mittee, after a lengthened inquiry, resolved not to permit any 
of the profits of the Bolton Gas-Works—in the event of their 
being purchased by the corporation—to be appropriated to the 
general improvement of the town, but required that they should 
|be applied to the reduction of the price of gas. The Bolton 
corporation had endeavoured by their bill to obtain power to 
compete with the gas company for the supply of gas, in order 
to compel the company to sell their works at a lower rate; 
but that part of the preamble was struck out by the committee, 
who amended the clauses relating to gas profits, so as to pro- 
vide that they should be applied to the payment of the interest 
on moneys borrowed; to the payment of the current expenses 
incident to maintaining, repairing, and managing the gas- 
works and the supply of gas; to provide a sinking-fund, for 
paying off the borrowed capital; and to other purposes con- 
nected with the supply of gas. It was further provided, that 
any surplus should be invested in Government securities, to 
{form a reserved fund of £10,000, and, when the fund had 
|accumulated to that amount, the corporation was, “from time 
to time, to reduce the rate for gas supplied by them, so as to 
prevent there being a surplus of their revenue arising from the 
— and to exhaust the dividends or interest on the 

und.” 
The Bolton corporation were still anxious to possess the 
|gas-works, clogged even with these restrictions on the appro- 
priation of the profits, although it would have pledged the 
‘credit of the ratepayers for the exclusive benefit of the con- 
\sumers of gas. They hoped to be able at some future period 
,to procure the repeal of the restrictions, but the firmness of 
‘the gas company in refusing to agree to a sale on any terms 
'was fatal under a standing order of the House of Lords; and, 
jat a subsequent stage of the bill, all the clauses granting 
power to buy the works of the gas company were struck out. 
| This abortive attempt, at a cost to the ratepayers of £3570, to 
get possession of the property of the Bolton Gas Company, 
ought to be a warning to others who may contemplate a simi- 
lar inroad on private enterprise. 

The advantages supposed to be derived from the supply of gas 
by municipal bodies depend on the facility which they possess of 
borrowing money on the security of the local rates; but, when 
vested interests have to be purchased, this advantage disap- 
pears. When, as in the case of Macclesfield, for example, 
150 per cent. premium is paid to an existing company, the 
interest on the capital borrowed to make the purchase would, 
at the lowest rate, amount to more than 10 per cent. on the 
share capital of the company. Even assuming that the gas- 
works when managed by the local authorities were to realize, 
at previous prices, more than 10 per cent. on the original 
share capital, the ratepayers would receive no benefit, if the 
principle of the Bolton case be established in gas legislation, 
as it most probably will be; and, if the profits fell short of 
that amount, they would experience an annual loss, in addition 
to having incurred the responsibility of repaying the borrowed 
purchase money. If, on the other hand, the local authorities 
were permitted to appropriate the profits of the gas-works as 

















THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 





689 


they pleased, and to charge any price, then the gas consumers 
would suffer even more severely than they have done in Man- 
chester. In neither case, would any economical advantage be 
gained by now adopting the system of supplying gas by muni- 
cipal authorities, whilst it has the effect of creating monopolies 
of the worst kind that afford cover for abuses for which no 
remedy is provided, 





Circular to Gas Compantes. 


Tue election of three meter inspectors for the metropolis, by 
the Metropolitan Board of Works, took place on Friday last. 
At a preliminary meeting of a committee of the whole board, 
the number of candidates was reduced from 158 to 12. The 
names of those thus selected were :—Messrs. Airey, Billows, 
Curley, Davey, Dethridge, Gomme, Land, P. La Roche, 
Mills, Pearson, Taunton, and Ward. After a succession of 
votings by which the number was reduced one each time, the 
show of hands was finally in favour of Mr. Mills, Mr. Deth- 
ridge, and Mr. Airey. Mr. Mills, who obtained the greatest 
number of votes, has, for some years past, discharged the 
duties of meter inspector in the south metropolitan district, in 
an able manner and with the strictest impartiality. A testi- 
monial on his behalf was presented to the board, signed by 
several hundreds of the principal gas consumers of the district, 
and his upright conduct had secured for him the good wishes 
of the gas companies, and of the majority of meter manufac- 
turers. His success was considered certain, and we have no 
doubt he will fulfil the duties of his new office with credit to 
himself and advantage to the public. Mr. Dethridge is an 
old member of the gas-fitting trade in the metropolis, and 
was president of the association of gas-fitters formed in 1851 
to promote an exhibition, at the Polytechnic Institution, of 
apparatus used in the distribution and combustion of gas. He 
has filled the highest offices in the parish, in which he has for 
many years resided, and is much respected by all who know 
him. Mr. Airey is an unknown and untried man; but, this 
is no reason why he should not perform his duties in a satis- 
factory manner. He has before him, in Mr. Taunton’s fall, an 
example of the fate that attends the exercise of ministerial 
functions in a partisan spirit, and it is to be hoped that such 
a warning will not be lost upon him. 

The selections made by the board from the host of candi- 
dates are very creditable to their judgment, and manifest their 
intention not to permit themselves to be made the tools of any 
parties, by the appointment of men whose experience and 
social position are guarantees of the ability and impartiality 
with which they will discharge their duties. It remains to be 
seen whether the board will be equally successful in the mea- 
sures they adopt for providing the meter inspectors with the 
means for carrying on their operations. It seems to be their 
intention at present to have three somewhat costly permanent 
establishments for testing meters—one in the rear of the 
offices of the board, in Spring Gardens; one in Southwark ; 
and another in the eastern or north-eastern district ; to one of 
which meters must be taken to be tested and stamped. It 
seems to us, however, that the plan proposed by the town 
councils of Edinburgh and Sheffield might be adopted with 
great advantage in the metropolis. In those towns, it has 
been resolved to allow meters to be tested and stamped on the 
premises of such manufacturers and repairers as shall provide 
suitable places, fitted up with stamped gasholders, and all 
needful apparatus, to which the inspector alone can have 
access. If such arrangement were sanctioned by the board, 
the gas companies and meter makers would, no doubt, gladly 
provide the required establishments at their own cost, and 
thus avoid the inconvenience of having to send their meters to 
a distance to be stamped. A letter which had been sent to 
the chairman, recommending the adoption of that plan, was 
referred to the general committee ; but Mr. Thwaites expressed 
objections to it, on the ground that the testing offices should 
be entirely disconnected from the works of the gas companies 
and meter makers. There would, indeed, be good reason to 
object to such a proposition if the places to be provided were 
accessible to the servants of the companies or of the meter 
makers, and if the testing apparatus were not stamped. But 
it is proposed that the inspectors should have as absolute pos- 
session of the rooms, as if they were rented by the board, and 
were apart from the works; and, as the correctness of the 
gasholders to be used would be verified at the Exchequer 









































690 





THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 








office, the objection to the plan, raised on the possibility that 
it might interfere with the independent action of the inspectors, 
has no substantial foundation. The fitting up of a number of 
such separate offices for testing meters would be a great relief 
to the board, in the first cost of the apparatus, and in the rent 
of the premises; and, by that means, the delay that must 
otherwise occur, before such permanent testing offices as the 
board contemplate can be completed, would not produce much 
inconvenience. In the present difficulty of getting meters 
stamped, some of the London makers are sending them to 
be stamped to the provincial towns where the Act has been 
put in operation. 

For the purpose of obtaining correct information regarding 
the number of meters now in use in the metropolis, a circular 
has been addressed by the superintending architect of the 
Board of Works to all the metropolitan gas companies, request- 
ing answers to the following questions :— 


1. The number of meters now in use. 

2. The number of meters fixed yearly. 

3. The number of meters removed from any premises from any causes 
and replaced by others tested by the company. 

4. The like meters tested by public authority. 

5. The number of meters kept in store by the company. 

6. The nature of the arrangements prevailing between the gas com- 
pany and the meter makers regarding delivery of meters into stock. 

7. The number of meters required as stock by the company. 

8. The probable number of meters owned by gas consumers. 


It is difficult to perceive the object for which answers are 
required to some of those questions; that, for instance, 
respecting the nature of the arrangements between the compa- 
nies and the meter makers. The circular concludes, however, 
with the assurance that “‘ it is the desire of the board to pro- 
vide every facility, so far as required of them, to meet public 
convenience in reference to the testing of gas-meters.” We 
feel convinced that nothing would afford more facility and 
would meet public convenience more fully than the testing of 
meters on the premises of the makers or repairers. That 
arrangement would greatly simplify the requirements of the 
Sale of Gas Act, and it would save the pockets of the rate- 
payers as well as of the manufacturers. 


We learn from some remarks made by Mr. Carpmael, at 
the meeting of the Metropolitan Board, that in our comments 
on his suggestions respecting the duties of meter inspectors, 
we attributed to him views which he does not entertain. We 
should regret to misrepresent the opinions of any one; but we 
are not aware of the precise point on which Mr, Carpmael 
considers we have done him injustice. We warned the board 
against attempting to increase the powers conferred on them 
by Parliament ; and the lesson they have received from Mr. 
Cowper, the First Commissioner of Her Majesty’s Works, and 
the severe castigation they have since received on that subject 
from our powerful contemporary the Times, should be sufficient 
to check their assumption of powers which do not belong 
to them. 

We hoped that the notice published in our last, of the 
places in which the Sale of Gas Act would come into 
operation on the 13th inst., would have been sufficient to 
‘remove all doubt respecting the effect of the amendments made 
‘in some of the provisions of the Act; but, as many who style 
, themselves “‘ constant readers” have made further inquiries on 
| the subject, we subjoin the names of the places which, accord- 
|ing to the most recent information, have adopted the Act. In 
| those places, the fixing of an unstamped meter for use, on and 
‘after Monday next, renders the person fixing it liable to a 
| penalty of £5 :— 





ENGLAND. \ Congleton. 
| Abingdon. | Coventry. 
| Ashton-under-Lyne. | Dartmouth. 
' Banbury. | Derby. 
| Bath. Devonport. 
ee —asiguaaa 
ideford over. 
| Birmingham. Droitwich. 
Blackburn. Durham. 
| Bolton. Exeter. 
| Boston. Falmouth. 
Bradford. Glastonbury. 
Bridgnorth. Gloucester, and all towns in 
| Bristol. | Gloucestershire, the Act having 


' Buckingham. been adopted by the county 


| Bury St. Edmund’s. justices. 

| Cambridge. | Godalming. 

| Canterbury. Gravesend. 
Carlisle. Hartlepool. 
Chepping Wycombe. | Hastings. 

, Chichester. Helston. 
Chippenham. | Hereford. 
Clitheroe. Hythe. 
Colchester. | Ipswich. 








fOct. 8, 1861 
ENGLAND—(continued). Sandwich. 

Kendal. Scarborough. 
Kidderminster. Sheffield. 
King’s Lynn. a. 
Kingston-upon-Hull. —— ge. 
Kingston-upon-Thames. Stamford. 
Lancaster. Sunderland. 
Leeds. Tewkesbury. 
Leicester. Tynemouth. 
Lichfield. Wakefield. 
Lincoln. Wallingford. 
Liverpool. Warrington. 
London (City), and the districts — 

within the jurisdiction of the Vells. 

Metropolitan Board of Works. oe 
Louth. indsor, New. 
Ludlow. Wisbeach. 
Macclesfield. Wolverhampton. 
Maidstone. Worcester. 
Manchester. ae 
Marlborough. ork. 
Middlesborough. : 
Monmouth. WALES. 
Morpeth. Carmarthen. 
ate . 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
Newport (Isle of Wight). SCOTLAND. 
Newport (Monmouthshire). Aberdeen. | 
Northampton. Dundee. 
Nottingham. Edinburgh. 
Oldham. Inverkeithing. 
Oxford. Perth. 
Penryn. 
Penzance. IRELAND 
Plymouth. " . 
Portsmouth. Armagh. 
Preston. Belfast. 
Reading. Cork. 
Rochester. Dublin. 
Salford. Limerick. 
Salisbury. Londonderry. 





In all other towns in the United Kingdom, unstamped meters 
may be fixed, after the 13th instant, without incurring any 
penalty. The suburban gas companies are bound to fix 
stamped meters within the limits of the metropolis, as defined, 
by the Metropolis Local Management Act; but, beyond those 
limits, they are at liberty to fix any kind of meters. | 
The reply of the local board of Reading to the reports of 
Mr. Spice has, as we predicted, called forth a rejoinder from) 
the latter, in defence of the gas companies, which will be found, 
in another column. Mr. Spice examines and replies to the 
charges preferred by the local board at great length, and, 
shows that in most instances they have no foundation. It) 
appears that the flourishing account given of the effect of cor- 
poration management in the model town of Burton-upon-Trent, 
has been got up in the same way as Mr. Shuttleworth’s repre-| 
sentation of the economical advantages of the Manchester 
system, in his paper read at the meeting of the British Asso- 
ciation. Credit has been given to the Burton Gas-Works for 
sums of money paid out of profits to the public funds, and also 
for the low prices at which gas is supplied, as if the profits 
had arisen from the present prices; though, in point of fact, 
the reduction from the charge of 5s. per 1000 feet took place 
only in June last, and whether the prices now charged will 
yield a profit or a loss, cannot be known. Mr. Spice’s re- 
joinder, though somewhat discursive, is well worth perusal. 
Some of the London journals continue to comment on the 
advance of the price of gas in the City, and, as usual, they ex- 
hibit great want of knowledge of the subject. They do not 
seem to be aware that the price now charged by the gas com- 
panies in the City, is the lowest rate that has been charged by 
nearly all the gas companies in other parts of the metropolis 
for some years past. Apparently ignorant of that fact, the 
City Press advises the City authorities to take advantage of the 
40th section of the Metropolis Gas Act, which provides that 
“no company shall advance the price of gas above the rate 
taken by such company on the Ist of January 1860;” but, 
the succeeding words of the sentence have unaccountably been| 
overlooked, ‘‘ whenever such rate is at or above four shillings and | 
sixpence per one thousand cubic feet.” The City gas companies 
are, by that section, clearly authorized to charge 4s. 6d., with-| 
out being required to show that there has been “such increase, 
in the cost of gas, or any other circumstances affecting the 
company as will warrant such advance.” If the writers in the 
journals would take the trouble to read carefully the Metro-| 
polis Gas Act, they would avoid at least some of the blunders 
which expose their ignorance of gas affairs. 
The attempts made by Mr. Flintoff to cross the border — 
been of no avail, for the many letters he has written from 
Edinburgh to the Newcastle papers have failed to excite a 
desire to hear his voice on the banks of the Tyne. He has, 





















































Oct. 8, 1861.] 





however, been extending his scene of action northward, in 
Scotland, the fair town of Perth and “‘ Bonnie Dundee ” having 
been favoured with his presence. There, as elsewhere, he 
has repeated the oft-told tale of the exorbitant charges of the 
gas companies, of processes of gas-making by which gas can 
be produced for little or nothing, and of his own achievements 
in saving thousands upon thousands of pounds to the con- 
sumers of gas in every town that he has visited. When re- 
counting to his audience at Perth the great victories he had 
gained over gas companies, he is reported to have said— 
“they had surrendered, and that apparently to the greatest 
cheat who ever walked on the face of this or any other 
country.” His audience cheered the announcement, and we 
will not gainsay it. Having given that character of himself, 
it could not be expected that he would be very complimentary 
tous. The Journat or Gas Licutine was well abused, and 
he alluded to our statements of his adventures at Sheffield as 
being remote from truth. There are, however, some stubborn 
facts which remain steadfast amidst storms of contradiction, 
and, though it may please Mr. Flintoff to vaunt of the benefits 
derived from his new gas company at Sheffield, the fact is un- 
deniable, that the supply of gas at 3s. per 1000 feet, from 
May 1, 1850, to June 30, 1854, and at 4s., from the latter 
date to June 30, 1855, entailed a loss on his company of 
£1596. 3s. 4d., as certified under the hand of the chairman of 
the company. It seems that Mr. Flintoff changed his tactics 
at Dundee, and, instead of advocating the formation of an in- 
dependent consumers company, he recommended the purchase 
of the existing works by the commissioners, after first adopting 
the dishonest expedient of getting up a competition to reduce 
the value of the shares—which, he asserts, might thus be re- 
duced to one-fifth their present estimate. 

There must be something very exciting in the air, or other- 
wise, of Dundee, to judge from the extra tone of extravagance 
in which Mr. Flintoff indulged there, and from his allusions 
to a subject which, in his calmer moments, he might have been 
inclined to avoid. After laying it down ‘‘as a principle which 
could be applied to every town in the three kingdoms that, if 
he were to put up a new gas-work, he would do it in all cases 
at one-half the old cost, and, in many cases, at one-third of the 


at Dundee had already gained from the new company which had 
been established there. That company, he said, “ at its for- 
mation, promised to do wonders in the matter of illumination ; 
to turn the world upside down; and, in short, to supply gas 
for something like nothing. But all that was just smoke.” 
Surely Mr. Flintoff, when he saw his words reported the next 
morning, must have burned with vexation on recognizing the 
correct picture he had drawn of himself. We ought, perhaps, 
to be content with the portraits he drew at Perth and 
at Dundee, but another sketch of him, by the apostle of the 
system of gas supply which Mr. Flintoff now recommends, is 
80 opposite, that we are tempted to reproduce it, to give treble 
assurance of the likeness. Mr. Shuttleworth, in his exposition 
of the Manchester Gas-Works, after ridiculing some of the 
crude and absurd projects for the manufacture of gas, proceeded 
to observe ;— 


_ But even this scheme to make gas free of all cost and without nuisance, 
is exceeded by another authority on gas-making. At a meeting in Sheffield, 
to lay the foundation-stone of the new gas-works there, a Mr. Flintoff said: 
“Gas is an article which very few persons understand, except in the shape 
of paying for it. But it isan article which you ought to understand, and 
which you easily might, for its manufacture is one of the simplest processes 
in existence, and a child might now understand the making of gas. Coals 
in London are sold at 14s. per ton. A ton of coals will yield 10,000 feet of 
gas,and produce 13cwt. of coke, which in London is worth 9s.; tar and 
other residuums, Is.; leaving the cost of 10,000 cubic feet in London 4s. 
Now, look at Sheffield. .A ton of coal costs 6s.; the coke sells for 5s. 4d.; 
tar, 1s. 3d.; ammoniacal liquor, 6d.; so that, for 6s. expended in coals, you 
get} 10,000 feet of gas, and put 1s. into pocket.” A report of these pro- 
ceedings in Sheffield was published as a pamphlet in Manchester; and, on 
the faith of these statements, Mr. Flintoff was brought hither about a year 
ago, and ostentatiously paraded by his patrons through the different wards 
of this city as a lecturer on the subject of gas. He has since fulfilled en- 
sagements of the same kind in Edinburgh, Dublin, and elsewhere. From 
this appearance of activity in the demand for Mr. Flintoff’s communications, 
it seems that a taste for novelties of intelligence is quite as popular in the 
United Kingdom as for the ordinary realities of life. 


The publication in our columns of the report of the opera- 


'|tions of the Paris Gas Company for the year 1860 has been 


delayed by the claims upon our space of a more urgent cha- 
racter, but will be found elsewhere in our present issue. The 
gas sold in the year has reached the enormous quantity of 
2484 million cubic feet, while the gas-rental has increased to 
£678,474; and the dividends have risen from 8 per cent., 
which was the rate paid after the fusion of the six companies, 





THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 


amotnt,”’ he alluded to the experience which the gas consumers | 





691 





in 1856, to 14 per cent. in 1860. A sinking-fund has also 
been formed for the redemption of the share capital in fifty 
years. After 1871, the municipal authorities divide with the 
company, in equal proportions, all excess of profit beyond 10 
per cent.; but, till that period arrives, the whole of the profits 
are divisible among the shareholders. The present price of the 
500 fr. share is 910 frs. 

The first part of a most valuable ‘‘ Manual of Chemistry,” 
by Dr. Odling, the distinguished Professor of Practical 


Chemistry at Guy’s Hospital, has just been published by), 
We purpose in an early number || 
to devote some space to a critical review of its contents, and, | 


Messrs. Longman and Co. 


in the meantime, we recommend it to our readers as one of the 
ablest text-books of chemical science which has ever issued 
from the press. 








Correspondence. 


THE METROPOLITAN BOARD AND THE 
SALE OF GAS ACT. 

Srz,—I am anxious to call attention, as promptly as possible, to 
the nature of the temporary erections proposed by the Metropo- 
litan Board to be used as testing premises until the permanent ones 
can be got ready, as I observe that galvanized iron is intended to 
be employed for such temporary structures. Now, considering 


that uniformity of temperature is one of the great points to be|/ 


attended to in testing meters according to the Act of Parliament, 
and that there will be great difficulty in maintaining anything like 
a uniform temperature in buildings so constructed, I hope you will 
afford me an opportunity of drawing the attention of the bourd to 
the matter, by the publication of this letter, before it is too late. 

As I have now retired from the gas-meter business, and have no 
longer any pecuniary interest in the matter, I trust my observa- 
tions will be regarded, as they really are perfectly disinterested, 
and prompted only by a desire to see the Act carried out speedily, 
and with as little inconvenience as possible to all classes of the 
community. 


London, Oct, 7, 1861. 


dieagtsier of Mew Patents. 


679.—Cuar.es Ciayton, James Breepon, and ALFRED ScuNeEIDeER, all 
of Deptford, Kent, for “A self-acting socket for taps, fire-plugs, and 
such like purposes.’ Provisional protection only obtained. Dated 
March 18, 1861. 


WitiraAm Cros.ey. 








This invention consists in forming the sockets for taps or fire-plugs in || 


such a manner that, when the tap or plug is withdrawn, the water or other 


liquid is prevented from escaping. When used for casks or vats, they | 
also prevent the rush of atmospheric air into the vessel when empty, | | 


thereby keeping such vessels sweet until again required for use, It is 
proposed to form the socket of a piece of metal-tubing of suitable size and 
length, with a circular nozzle on its front end, the other end being closed 
by a metal plug. Within this tube is a spiral or other spring, which 
forces a piston within the tube up to the interior of the nozzle. The 
socket has a female screw made in the interior of its nozzle, for the 
reception of the threaded end of the tap. 

The socket having been inserted in the vessel, the tap has to be screwed 
into the nozzle, by which means the piston is driven back, and the liquid 
flows through a hole or holes made at about the centre of the socket, a 
corresponding hole being made in the threaded part of the tap. As the 
tap is unscrewed, the piston follows it; so that, by the time the tap is 
quite out, the piston is in close contact with the interior of the nozzle, 
thus preventing the passing of atmospheric air into the vessel; or, if 
any liquid is still left within, it is so far prevented being injured by the 
atmospheric influence. 

These sockets are especially adapted for fire-plugs, as, by this means, 
the socket may be opened in an instant without the attendance of a turn- 
cock, 


707.—Marc Antone Francois Mennons, of the British and Foreign 

Patent Offices, 39, Rue de l’Echiquier, Paris, France, for ** Jmprove- 

ments in gas stop-cocks.” A communication from Messrs. A. Massey, 

G. Jullien, and E, Jullien, of Paris. Patent dated March 21, 1861. 
The invention consists in a peculiar application of valves to gas stop- 
cocks, by means of which, combined with certain modifications in the 
general construction, all escape of gas is prevented, even during the 
cleaning of the apparatus. 

In one modification, the combination consists of an ordinary barrel, and 
of a second barrel of a larger diameter in which is lodged the valve. 
This valve is constantly pressed by a spring against the bottom of the 
first barrel. A hollow plug, in which is pierced an orifice, gives passage 
to the gas by the outlet-pipe. When this plug is set in its position, its 
hind extremity, which is longer than the first barrel, displaces the valve 
compressing the spring, and allows the gas to pass to the interior by aper- 
tures made for the purpose. When the orifice in the plug is brought 
into communication with the outlet-pipe, the gas escapes in passing 
successively by the above-named aperture, and by the interior of the plug. 
When the latter is turned half way, the outlet-pipe is closed by the plain 
surface, and the supply of gas is completely shut off. When the plug 
requires to be withdrawn, the valve, acted on by the spring, covers the 























—. 











692 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 


= 
[Oct. 8, 1861. 











opening of the first barrel, which it closes hermetically, thus intercepting 
completely the flow of gas. By this arrangement, the cleaning, or oiling 
of the apparatus is easily effected, while all loss of gas is avoided. The 
plugs are guided and maintained in the vessel either by catches or by 
caps. The former may be either mounted on pivots or on slides, and 
they serve to secure the plug in the barrel, while limiting its range hy 
means of checks. The movement on the screw-caps is limited in the 
same manner. 

The claim is for the improved construction and arrangement of gas 
stop-cocks, comprising one or several escape-preventing valves, distributed 
and actuated substantially as hereinbefore set forth. 


747.—Wii1am Battery, of Horsley Fields Chemical Works, Wolver- 
hampton, Stafford, for ‘‘ Improvements in the manufacture of globes or 
shades, and chimneys for lamps, gas-lights, or gas-burners.” Provisional 
protection only obtained. Dated March 25, 1861. 
This invention has for its object the manufacture of globes or shades, and 
chimneys for lamps or gas-burners in such a manner that they shall be 
more economical in their cost, less liable to crack or break by heat, and 
more desirable for the preservation of the eyesight than those commonly 
manufactured for the purpose. In carrying out the invention, it is pro- 
posed to use bottle-glass for the before-named purpose, in lieu of the 
white or fluid-glass ordinarily used; and colouring such bottle-glass in 
its process of manufacture with any required tint, thus attaining the 
above object. 


749.—Witi1am Brooxss, of 73, Chancery Lane, Middlesex, civil engi- 
neer and patent agent, for ‘‘ Improvements in means or apparatus for 
measuring gas.’ A communication from William Richards, of Barce- 

lona, in the Kingdom of Spain. Patent dated March 25, 1861. 

The improvements relate, in the first place, to means of arranging parts 
of wet gas-meters that the float may rise and fall with the water sur- 
rounding the wheel. For this purpose, a separate compartment for the 
float is by a suitable opening in communication with the chamber for the 
measuring-wheel, and the float compartment opens through the valve in 
connexion with the float, into a chamber with a passage to the outlet. 

The improvements relate, secondly, to that description of measuring- 
apparatus where the measuring-wheel, or series of compartments rotates 
or undulates at an inclination to the horizon, by applying rotary or 
slide-valves for the conveyance of the gas to and from the various cham- 
bers; the seat of the valve or valves being attached to the wheel. In the 
rotary motion, the cover is maintained in the same position by suitable 
studs attached to the upper support for the bearing of the axle, so that the 
cover remains still whilst the seat of the valve revolves, thus admitting 
of the ingress and egress of the gas. When slide-valves are employed, 
the eccentric will be placed in like manner to the support of the bearing 
of the shaft, so that with suitable rods the wheel in motion changes 
the position of the valves. In the undulating motion, the cover of the 
valve is caused to rotate by studs on the crank, or the eccentric will be 
placed on the crank to give motion to slide-valves. 

Thirdly, the improvements relate to the application of metal hinges to 
the parts of moveable metal diaphragms for dry meters, composed of one 
or several pieces, so constructed that the flexible material shall be in loose 
folds, and so arranged as to prevent strain on it. 


844.—Grorce Hawxstry, of Three Mill Lane, Bromley-by-Bow, 

Middlesex, for ‘Improvements in apparatus for measuring water, and 

other liquids. Provisional protection only obtained. Dated April 6, 

1861. 

This invention has for its object improvements in apparatus for measuring 
water, and other liquids. For this purpose, a trough, of a V shape, is 
employed, with another similar trough, a little smaller in size, inverted 
on to it, so that the edges of the smaller trough rest on, and fit closely 
against, the upper parts of the sides of the first trough. Thus a space, of 
a diamond form, is enclosed by the sides of the two troughs, and this 
space is shut in at the ends of the upper trough, which are of a diamond 
form, and fit closely to the sides of the lower trough. The space thus en- 
closed is divided by a partition, also of a diamond form, fixed in the centre 
of the lower trough, so that thus two chambers are formed; and, as when 
the apparatus is at work the inverted trough slides to and fro on the other, 
the capacity of each chamber is alternately increased or diminished. Each 
of these chambers is furnished with a passage to conduct the liquid to be 
measured into and out of the chambers, These passages terminate at one 
end in openings close alongside to the central partition of the lower 
trough, and at their other ends in openings on a flat plate, on which a D- 
valve works, and between these two openings is a third opening, by which 
the liquid, after it has been measured, escapes from the meter. 

The whole of the apparatus already described is enclosed in a casing, to 
which the liquid to be measured is admitted, and it will be seen that the 
pressure of this liquid on the two troughs tends to keep them in contact 
the one with the other, and that the liquid will be able to pass from the 
casing through the passage which happens at the time not to be closed by 
the D-valve, into one of the chambers enclosed by the troughs. When 
this takes place, the pressure on the end of the outer chamber (which 
pressure is no longer balanced) causes the upper trough to slide on the 
lower, so as to enlarge the capacity of the chamber into which the liquid 
is entering. ‘This goes on till the valve is made to cover the first passage 
and open the passage to the other chamber, when the motion of the trough 
will be reversed, and the liquid which the first chamber contained will be 
forced out of it into the hollow of the D-valve, and thence through the 
outlet-passage. 

The valve is worked in the following manner:—The upper trough, as 
it slides on the lower, is caused to give a partial rotation to an axis on 
which is an arm carrying at its end a small roller, the bearing of which is 
capable of sliding longitudinally on the arm, and is pressed constantly 
away from the axis by aspring. The roller just mentioned rests en- 
tirely on an arc or curved bar, mounted on its axis at its centre, so that 
it can tip, or partly rotate thereon, and the are is furnished with a catch 
at each end to lock, or hold it at its extreme positions. Suppose, then, 
that the roller, on the vibrating-arm, is resting on one end of the rocking- 
arc, which end is at its lowest position, and held there by the catch-at 
the other end of the rocking-arec, which locks it; the sliding-trough 





now commences its motion, and carries with it the vibrating-arm, the 
roller running along the arc, which constantly forces it against the pres- 
sure of the spring up the arm, and towards the axis. This goes on until 
the sliding-trough has passed over the required distance, when a projection 
on the ing-arm throws off the catch, and frees the rocking-are which 
is then immediately forced down by the roller and its spring, when it 
again becomes locked by the catch at the other end, and this motion of 
the rocking-arc by suitable levers and parts, actuates the D-valve. As 
the sliding-trough returns, the movements above described recur. The 
sliding-trough is made to actuate a counter in any convenient manner, 

It will readily be seen that the space ite tone | by the troughs, may, if 
desired, be divided into four or more chambers, in place of into two only, 
the method of action still remaining the same, as above described ; also 
that other valves may be substituted for the D-valve. 





APPLICATIONS FOR LETTERS PATENT. 
2350.—Brooxe Smiru, of the firm of Martineau and Smith, of Birming- 
ham, Warwick, manufacturers, for ‘“‘ Improvements in taps and cocks,” 
Sept. 20, 1861. 
2361.—Lovuis Rupotrpu Boner, of 2, Thavies Inn, Holborn, London, 


for “ Improvements in gaseliers, and in ventilating apparatus connected 


therewith.” Sept. 21, 1861. 


2363.—Hznry and Francis CuristoPuer Cocxey, of the Frome Iron 


Foundry, Somerset, engineers, for ‘“ Improvements in apparatus em- 
ployed in the manufacture of gas.” Sept, 21, 1861. 

2377.—JoserH Jacos, of Briinn, Austria, but at present residing in 
Golden Square, London, for “Improvements in the mode of, and 
apparatus for, obtaining and treating gas, and the application thereof to 
various purposes, parts of which improvements are applicable to the 
manufacture of iron and steel.” A communication, Sept. 23, 1861. 

2391.—Henry Punnett, of Glasgow, N.B., engineer and manufacturer 
of warming and ventilating apparatus, for ‘‘ Improvements in construct- 
ing and arranging warming apparatus.” Sept. 25, 1861. 

2396.—Tuomas Ricuarpson, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, chemist, for 
“ Tmprovements in the manufacture of muriate of iron for the purifica- 
tion of coal-gas.” Sept. 25, 1861. 

2397.—Joun Vaucuan, of Middlesborough, York, ironmaster, for 
“Tmprovements in treating gas produced by blast-furnaces to other 
furnaces, stoves, boilers, or other apparatus where gas may be em- 
ployed.” Sept. 25, 1861. 

2415.—Grorce Smirx, of Liverpool, Lancaster, brass and Britannia 
metal finisher, for “‘ Improvements applicable to gas-meters.’’ Sept. 27, 
1861. 

2426.—Dernny Lane, of Cork, Secretary of the Cork Gas Consumers 
Company, for “ Improvements in apparatus whereby to regulate the 
passage or flow of gas, water, and other fluids.” Sept. 28, 1861. 

2444.—Oscar Ocrave Lesourp, of Paris, France, but temporarily 
residing in Panton Street, London, for ‘‘ Improvements in joining pipes 
and tubes, or in forming or securing the joints thereof.” Oct. 1, 1861. 

2450.—J ames Hesrorp of Cunliffe Street Works, Bolton-le-Moors, Lan- 
caster, millwright and engineer, for ‘Certain improvements in steam- 
engines, and in valves for steam and other fluids. Oct. 2, 1861. 

2473.—Wit11aM Mataw, of Skinner Street, London, gas engineer, for 
‘¢Improvements in gasholders, and in apparatus for testing gas 
meters ; also in apparatus for the manufacture of gas.” Oct. 3, 1861. 


GRANTS OF PROVISIONAL PROTECTION. 

1692.—Ricuarp Jo.ey, of 47, St. John Street, Smithfield, London, for 
‘An improved apparatus for heating, cooling, or drying, infusing, ex- 
tracting, or absorbing vapours and gas for manufacturing, medical, or 
domestic purposes, and for preserving liquids and solids, alimentary 
or otherwise.” July 3, 1861. 

1760.—GrorcE Rypit, of Dewsbury, York, for “An improved smoke 
consumer and condenser, suitable for factories, railway-engines, steam- 
ships, furnaces, brick-kilns, cinder-ovens, bakehouses, and other pur- 
poses, namely, ventilation of factories, Houses of Parliament, places of 
public worship, public institutions, dwelling-houses, streets, coal-mines, 
railway tunnels, mineral mines, iron-works.”’ July 13, 1861. 

1834,—Micuar. Henry, of 84, Fleet Street London, patent agent, for 
“Tmprovements in the method of, and apparatus for, obtaining an 
increased effect from lights.” A communication. July 20, 1861. 

2085.—Anprew Sremn, of Edinburgh, Midlothian, N.B., mechanical 
engineer, for “‘ Improvements in distillation.” Aug. 21, 1861. 

2265.—Cuartes Greaves, of Old Ford, Bow, Middlesex, civil engineer, 
for “Improvements in apparatus for preventing waste of water from 
service-pipes or cisterns.” Sept. 12, 1861. 

2287.—Wit11aM Henry Crispin, of Marsh Gate Lane, Stratford, Essex, 
copper-smelter, for “Improvements in the manufacture of curved an 
angular paper tubes and pipes.” Sept. 14, 1861. 

2326.—Epwarp ALFRED CowPEr, of 35a Great George Street, West- 
minster, Middlesex, for ‘“‘ Improvement in apparatus for freeing gases 
from dust and other particles of matter floating therein, and for causing 
vapours or gases to be absorbed by liquids.” Sept. 18, 1861. 

2361.—Lovis RupoteH Bopmer, of 2, Thavies Inn, Holborn, London, 
for “Improvements in gaseliers and in ventilating apparatus connected 
therewith.” Sept. 21, 1861. 

2397.—Joun Vavauan, of Middlesborough, York, ironmaster, for “ Im- 
provements in treating gas produced by blast-furnaces, in its passage 
from the blast-furnaces, to other furnaces, stoves, boilers, or other 
apparatus where gas may be employed.” Sept. 25, 1861. 






























































Oct. 8, 1861.] 


693 





NOTICES TO PROCEED. 


1268.—Witu1am Henry Bennett, of 42, Parliament Street, Westmin- 
ster, for “ Improvements in apparatus for regulating the supply of gas.” 
A communication. May 18, 1861. 

1291.—Marc Antoine Francois Mennons, of the British and Foreign 
Patent Offices, 39, Rue de 1’Echiquier, Paris, for “ Improvements in 
the coupling or connecting joints -of pipes for the conveyance of liquid, 
fluid, or solid bodies.” A communication. May 21, 1861. 

1350.—Joun Henry Jounson, of 47, Lincoln’s Inn Fields, London, and 
166, Buchanan Street, Glasgow, N.B., gentleman, for “ Improvements 
in apparatus for regulating the pressure of gas.’’ A communication. 
May 30, 1861. 

1453.—Joun Farranp Crarkez, of 26, Moorgate Street, London, gas 
and steam engineer, for “‘ Improvements in apparatus for regulating the 
supply of fluids.” June 7, 1861. 

1717.—Rosert Ancus Smitu, of 20, Devonshire Street, Manchester, for 
“ Improvements in purifying gas.” July 6, 1861. 

2221,—Joun Rem, of Leith, Mid-Lothian, N.B., gas engineer, for ‘‘ Im- 

provements in the treatment of gas, and the apparatus employed therein, 

with a view to its more accurate measurement in wet gas-meters.” 

Sept. 5, 1861. 

2301.—Martiv Rar, of Manchester, Lancaster, agent, for ‘ Improve- 

ments in lamps.” Sept. 16, 1861. 


Miscellaneous News. 








COSTS OF THE BOLTON CORPORATION, IN AN 
UNSUCCESSFUL ATTEMPT TO OBTAIN THE GAS-WORKS, 1861. 
Dyson and Co., parliamentary agents, professional 


charges . £ 342 17 11 


























Do., for counsel’s fees, and other disbursements 1397 2 1 
£1940 0 0 

J. Knowles, town-clerk, professional charges. . £150 0 0 

Do., for travelling, and other expenses and dis- 

baresments. . 1. «© - «© « © «© © os BH 
-_ 288 18 9 

Winder and Broadbent, professional charges. . £9410 0 

Do., for travelling, and other expenses . . . 4L 5 0 
135 15 0 
SAMUEL HuGueEs, professional evidence, time, and expenses 200 0 0 
John Leigh ~ .  « 29698 
Alfred Penny = me : 2 88 18 0 
Henry Eaton oe « i- 60 0 0 
C. A. Cawley * ” — 63 0 0 
David Chadwick os mn . & 82 0 0 
Thomas Livesey i. . * 37 12 0 
John Nuttall, services and evidence, time and expenses . . 910 0 
Edward Hill * * — 10 10 0 
William Lee a o oe 1010 O 
William Hall * % ce 1010 0 
Henry Brierley ee in oe ss 1010 0 
Thomas Teal = - — 13 0 0 
Alfred Bird se . ay 10 0 0 
Daniel Knott a mo oS 10 0 0 
Robert Haslam * ‘eo o! 8 0 0 
John Allen ve is .- Se 8 0 0 
tobert Howarth i. » ae 12 5 0 
James Galloway * ni . & 1 0 0 
Mrs. Parvin a ns ete 712 0 
Mrs. Hardcastle . i a 9 0 0 
Police-sergeant Grimes, disburscments and expenses —— 410 
James Taylor < ™ i 40 0 
William Slater » ie = 700 
T. F. Chappé ” ” . 10 0 0 
John Brandwood * ee é.e 8 0 0 
John Sharples a ~ — 1219 0 
John Brown ss o ‘a 1215 0 
Edward Barlow, disbursements . . . . . . . 233 9 O 
J. R. Wolfenden, om 7 se 23 9 0 

Henry Baylis, travelling and other expenses . £916 6 

Do., disbursements in London. . . . . . 20 1 0 
_—_ 2917 6 

Charles Naylor, travelling and other expenses . 412 2 6 

Do., disbursementsin London. . .. . 17 8 OU 
——- 2910 6 
Richard Carling, travelling expenses, and disbursements . 14 0 6 

Waterlow and Sons, for printing and lithography, and sta- 
tionery ce ws Bee ae eee S ee 8 ee ee 
James Hudsmith, for printing and advertising . 2. 2 |. 34 4 38 
Henry Whewell ” ” ew) iS! oe 12 3 8 
Thomas Cunliffe » ” a a ee oe 815 0 
Robert Kenyon, for printing . . . . «+ »« « «=. 3.0 6 
Henry Bradbury, for ordnance maps . . . . . « « . 73 
C. H. Job and Co,, for tracing-paper . . . . —— 3° 4 «0 
William Burrow, for making boxes . . ae 1 5 0 
London and North-Western Railway Company, for carriage 212 8 
Edmund Holden and Co.,forcab-hire . . ... . . 013 6 
£3570 2 3 


SOUTH METROPOLITAN GASLIGHT AND COKE COMPANY. 


_ The Ordinary Half-Yearly Meeting of Proprietors was held at the London 
Tavern, on Tuesday, the 1st of October—T. B. Simpson, Esq., in the chair. 
The Secretary (Mr. Livesey) read the advertisement, the seal of the 
company was affixed to the register, aud the minutes of the last half-yearly 
meeting read. 
The following report of the directors was presented :— 

The directors have much pleasure in again meeting the proprietors, and in sub- 
mitting to them such a statement of the progress of the company, during the last 
half year, as will, they hope, be considered satisfactory. 

Since the meeting in April last, the works have been considerably improved—the 
coal-stores have been enlarged, and the purifying power increased ; an additional 
exhauster has also been fixed, and, at the present time, there is in course of erection 








| 


| 
| 
| 
| 


a large tank, which will be completed before the termination of the year; and the 
gasholder, already contracted for, will be finished before the autumn of next year. 

In addition to t extensions, it will be necessary, in the early part of next year, 
to build another retort-house, and a second chimney-shaft, which, together with the 
outlay for the tank and gasholder, and some other necessary improvements, will in- 
volve an outlay of £18,000 to £20,000. The directors have, therefore, made a call 
of 30s. per share, payable on the 28th instant, and purpose making two others of 30s. 
and 20s. respectively, payable at intervals of two months between each. 

The accounts, which will be read to the meeting, are made out in accordance with 
the form directed by the Secretary of State, and, by reference to the figures, it will 
be seen that the rental for gas, and receipts for products, &c., for the half year, 
amount to £37,596. 16s. 5d., and the expenditure for the same period to £25,385. 
3s. 4d.—leaving a balance of £12,211. 13s, 1d. to be appropriated at this meeting. 

From this balance the directors propose to set aside £1000 for depreciation of 


| plant, the amount to the debit of that account having been reduced, within the last 


six months, to a greater extent than this sum by the removal of two of the original 
gasholders, which have been unserviceable for some time. 





The directors, in conclusion, recommend that a dividend of 5 per cent. for the | 


half year be now declared, and that the balance of the account be carried to the 
credit of the reserve-fund. 

The CuairmMan: Gentlemen, in moving that the report be adopted and 
entered on the minutes, I have but little to add to what is contained in that 
document. The first is, our meetings are of that general nature, having 
now arrived at such a state of prosperity, that we have only a bare statement 
of facts connected with the working of our establishment to Jay before you. 
Many of you are aware, some, indeed, may not be, that we have not always 
met our proprietors under such circumstances. ‘There was a time when 


| we could offer you no dividend at all; and, subsequently, when we could 


only offer you a very small one—something like 25 per cent.; when the 


| majority of my brother directors joined the board, | believe we had but 








just reached 4 per cent.: but now, we have reached the top of the tree, and 
are enabled to give you the maximum dividend allowed by Act of Parlia- 
ment—viz., 10 per cent. per annum. Henceforth, whatever amount of pro- 
sperity may attend our operations, this will be the limit of your profits. I 
only hope that the same success which we now enjoy may be continued, 
and that we may always be in a position te pay you all that the Legis- 
lature considers you are entitled to receive. The accounts which will be 
presented to day are in a different form to those previously laid on the table. 
These accounts are rendered according to a form prepared under the 
direction of the Secretary of State, and they will in future always be laid 
before you in the same form. Probably, on this occasion, you will have a 
little difficulty in comparing the figures With those of former half years, 
but this trouble will not be felt hereafter. At the present time, the public 
mind in the City of London is agitated a great deal in reference to the 
operations of the new Act for regulating the supply of the gas to the metro- 
polis. It has been said, in a public place, that that Act is wholly one- 
sided—that it has been framed entirely for the benefit of the gas companies, 
and that the interests of the consumers are left unprotected. All I can say 
upon the subject is, that the gas companies had nothing to do with the 
passing of that Act. On the contrary, we opposed it, and, as far as we are 
concerned, except in so far as it legalizes the districting, and thus does away 
with a great deal of unpleasantness between neighbouring companies, we 
would much rather have remained in our former position. The present 
Act, under which our affairs are regulated, is rather annoying and trouble- 
some, and will, I fear, be still more so, although it certainly does, as | have 
said, relieve us from the unpleasantness of opposition with those around us. 
We are now on amicable terms with all other companies, and | hope that 
state of things will continue, and, that so far as the Act of Parliament is 
concerned, the public will find that, iustead of being entirely in our favour, 
it is really and truly in favour of themselves. It has been made a matter 
of complaint that, before any examination of the quality of our gas can 
be made, the companies must have three hours notice. You are quite 
aware that, under the new Act of Parliament, we are obliged to sup- 
ply gas of a much higher illumivating quality as well as of greatly in- 
creased purity, and, in order that it may be ascertained whether we are 
carrying out the intentions of the Legislature in this respect, we are 
required to provide testing-places within 1000 yards of our works, 
where the gas may be at all times examined—the only limitation being, 
that before such examination is made, we shall have three hours notice. 
The grievance which it is thought that three hours notice creates is this, 
that within that period, we can completely alter the quality of our gas, 
and thus defeat the object for which the examination is to be made. But 
this, I need hardly tell you, is absurd. If, indeed, we had all the appliances 
for the purpose—empty gasholders, and retorts heated and ready to be 
charged—some little change might take place in three hours; but, to sup- 
pose that, with the works in constant operation, and the mains all full, we 
could send in a supply of better gas within that time, is absurd. Another 
complaint is that, under the new Act, we can demand security from persons 
desirous to have our gas laid on. Ido not know that there is anything 
very hard or extraordinary in that. We are bound to supply gas, nolens 
volens; and, therefore, it is not too much to ask from those of whom we 
have any doubt, that they should give us some security—that what we 
supply them with should be ultimately paid for. 1 believe the committee 
which has been appointed, to consider the whole question, by the corpora- 
tion, will find, upon investigation, that so far from this being a hardship 
upon the consumers, it is only a just and proper regulation under the cir- 
cumstances in which the gas companies of the metropolis are placed. There 
is another thing which just now is agitating the public mind, and which 
has been taken up by the Commissioners of Sewers, and that is, with 
reference to the supply to the public lamps. It is thought that a great 
saving may be effected by naphthalizing the gas. It is possible 
that, to a certain extent, some saving may be effected; but, I am 
persuaded that nothing like the amount which has been supposed, 
because the apparatus and arrangements necessary to carry the plan 
into effect will materially increase the expense in that direction. While 
the public are making these complaints against the gas companies, 
it should be remembered that we are exposed to considerable risk ané@ 
danger of loss from a variety of causes, and amongst these from the care- 
lessness of our own servants. You are doubtless aware that a large com- 
pany in the City have just lost from £30,000 to £35,000, owing to an 
explosion of gas through the carelessness of their men, which resulted in the 
destruction of a large house in Wood Street. This is a very serious thing, 
and we are all liable to such accidents; therefore, looking at the position in 
which the companies are placed, I think we are entitled to some considera- 
tion. A great deal of prejudice has been excited against the companies; 
but I hope, and believe, that the time is coming when, as the result of 
investigation, the public will be convinced that the charges brought against 
us by those who promoted the bill in Parliament, are altogether erroneous, 
and very unjust. With these few remarks, I will conclude by moving— 
“ That the report just read be received, and entered on the minutes.” 

The motion having been adopted, Mr. Livesey read the following state- 
ments of account :— 






































they had reason to be very well satisfied with the existing state of things. 
He might be allowed to say a word with reference to the cost of extensions. 
The proprictors were aware that it was intended to make calls, which, 
eventually, would amount to £4 per share. The directors had a new tank, 
and other works in course of erection, which would swallow up the balance 
in hand. It was quite true that they had a surplus of the old capital; but, 
it was necessary they should have something at the bank for working 
expenses. The sum now invested in consols was a special reserve for 
depreciation of plant. 

A vote of thanks to the chairman and board of directors was then cor- 
dially adopted; and, having been suitably acknowledged, the proceedings 
terminated. 


METROPOLIS GAS SUPPLY. 
City Court or SEWERs, GUILDHALL, TuEsDAY, OcTOBER 1. 

At the Meeting of the Commissioners held this day—Deputy CurisTIE 
in the chair, 

Alderman Dak«n said he had rather expected to hear a report from the 
select committee, to whom the question of the supply of gas to the City of 
London was referred. In reference to that question, he felt desirous to 
recall the attention of the court to a correspondence which took place 
between the commissioners and the Great Central Gas Company, in 
February and March last. At that time, their consideration was directed 
to the important point of the mode of testing the illuminating power and 

urity of the gas supplied to the citizens, under the provisions of the 
Metropolis Gas Act of last year. By the Great Central Company's Act, 
the gas had been hitherto tested in the City at the place of consumption, 
and it was regarded by some members of the court rather as a hardship 
that, under the new Act, they would be required to test the gas in future 
within 1000 yards of the place of manufacture, which, as far as the com- 
pany which he represented were concerned, would be at a great distance 
from the City boundary. The court, therefore, directed the chief clerk 
to address thefollowing letter to the company :— 

METROPOLIS GAS ACT, 1860. 
Sewers Office, Guildhall, Feb. 9, 1861. 

Sir,—In reference to the provisions of the above Act, and more particularly to the 
27th clause, I am directed by the committee of the Commissioners of Sewers who 
have the same under consideration, to inquire of the directors of the Great Central 
Gas Consumers Company, who have, it is understood, laid on their gas to the house 
of Dr. Letheby, who acts as chemical examiner of gas for this City, whether they 
will accept of the tests which he may, from time to time, there make of their gas, 
as fully satisfying the requirements of the said 27th clause, although Dr. Letheby’s 
house is situate at more than 1000 yards from the works of the Great Central Gas 
Company.—I am, sir, your very obedient servant. 

(Signed) JosErH Daw, Principal Clerk. 
R. M. Massey, Esq. 


To that letter, the company made the following reply:— 
























































EEE = — ae — —— <= 
Tien cies 
| - Panne ae = aT a NN ee 
| 694 THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. [Oct. 8, 1861. 
Dr. Working the Establishment, for the Half Year ended June 30, 1861. Cr. 
, To Gas rental— By Management— 
Privatelights. . . . . . « « « £23,46915 4 <a ae ee ea 6 £500 0 0 
Public ditto, including the amount paid ee Seo s Ss «6 905 0 0 
for lighting, cleaning, and repairing . 5,512 18 7 Collectors . ... . . 448 5 8 
——_—— £28,982 13 11 Rent and taxes for offices . . . . . 8617 6 
sia ont de or incl a a a ae ie an on ee 74 3 6 Stationery, printing, and general charges 858 19 4 
| Residual products— : Ce « oe es ee ees 3110 0 
| Sa eee le £2,830 12 6 
Pe 2.6 + b + ees & 6 173 9 9 Manufacture of gas— 
se Sh oh au we eo Oe 731 1 6 eae eo Me Se eS £11,390 19 9 
pe . 338 17 4 i aaa 371 18 3 
—— 7,991 8 9 Supervision and labour . 5,764 1 4 
vp wa... ho a a a a 279 15 7 Tools and implements ee ae e 610 2 6 
Miscellaneomsreceipts, . . . . ... 6 « se 268 14 8 Ordinary repairs and maintenance 1,454 10 4 
Rent, rates, and taxes of works, &c. 1,005 11 4 
——— 20,507 3 6 
Distribution, including services and mains, ordi- 1] 
nary repairs, and maintenance . ie - £39213 7 | 
Improvements and extensions 722 11 4 
Meters—restoring and replacing . . 259 9 4 
SS ae ea ee 265 15 6 
1,640 9 9 
Law and parliamentary charges. . . . . 4415 8 
Bad debts andallowances,. . . . . 2 + + «© «© « 272 111 
ee ee et Ae Se ee eo @ 12,211 13 1 
£37,596 16 5 £37,596 16 5 
Dr. Balances, to June 30, 1861. Cr. 
ES ee ae ee ae £152,000 0 0 | By Amountexpendedon works . . . . . « «© «© «© + .£127,622 16 10 
} ig esas bree, rit a, os bm wae eee 14,604 18 4 Ditto due to the company— 
ee . 9g 6 SS a ek ee se Oe ew ee ee ene SS CI ce, he en . £12,707 15 8 
| 5c ao a Wid Tig at. Lage ig, ee “pl ee ee 2,101 8 4 RS Gon ey eke Caos oe 585 2 7 
| I, ig. gk wt ws Se oe ee ew 20917 4 es ¢€ 6 t+ oe ee & 432 14 10 
I gl ia veg gh’ <p is gh, GbR ae oa Ge 47 10 0 aa re . 314 12 5 
PE «te cee ec cen ee a iw RE 14,010 5 6 
Stock— 
Pe <a ek ae ee £3,376 4 2 
SS ee ae ee 69 7 9 
SEES ee ee 1,223 3 4 
|| Service-pipes . . .... 356 13 8 
| Sa er ae 85617 9 
| General stores. . . ; 971 9 6 
| : 6,853 16 2 
|| Cash— 
| ie ae ne £10,500 4 2 
|| { PONG a 6 6 Sh % Ke 70 9 4 
| = 10,570 13 6 
1] Investment— 
| East India debentures . . . . . . £6,886 5 0 
1 j Reduced Three per Cents. a a 915 0 0 
|| 7,801 5 0 
|| | Investment— 
| | | Consols for reserve-fund ., . . .« .« we ¢ 14,380 19 10 
! } Ditto for investment-fund. . .. . — 6,092 12 0 
'| £187,362 8 10 | £187,362 8 10 
| The CHarmMan moved the reception of the accounts which was agreed | Great Central Gas Consumers Company, 
| to. He then moved—“ That a dividend of 5 per cent. for the half year Sir,—In reply to your letter of the 9th ult ee on teeta tog bag a 
° : sp Sir,— J 9 9 4 ‘ y a a a 
} ending the 30th of June last, be now declared pay able at the company’s main for the purpose of supplying gas to Dr. Letheby’s laboratory ; and Iam de- 
bankers on and after the 9th inst. | sired by the directors to say they are willing to accept the tests which Dr. Letheby 
|| The motion was adopted. | may, from time to time, make at his house, in Finsbury Square, as satisfying the 
|| The Cuarrmay, in answer to several inquiries, said the company were | requirements of the 27th section of the Metropolis Gas Act, 1860.—I am, sir, your 
|| not now allowed to declare any bonus in addition to the dividend, nor as _—, R. M. Massey. 
|| would they be able to pay anything on account of back dividends. The | J. Daw, Esq. 
| Act of Parliament allowed them £20,000 as a reserve-fund, to be applied | He thought it was very desirable that this correspondence should be | 
|| in making good any deficiency which might hereafter arise. That money | brought under the attention of the special committee, and, with that object 
|| would be invested in consols, and could not be used for any other purpose. | in yiew, he begged leave to lay copies of the letters before the court. Un 
| Looking to their present position, and comparing it to the past, he thought | behalf of the company, he wished also to state, that they were fully pre- 
They had no 


pared to carry out that contract with the commissioners. 
wish to evade, in any way, the original obligations under which they were | 
placed, and they had, therefore, at the request of Dr. Letheby, laid a main} 
to his house, at a cost to themselves of £62. 15s., in order that he might | 
more conveniently, than at the company’s office in Coleman Street, 
examine the gas at all times. They had also supplied Dr. Letheby with a || 
complete set of apparatus at his laboratory in the London Hospital, which | | 
was inuch nearer to the company’s works, so that he had every facility | 
which it was in their power to afford in making his analyses. The com- 
pany were quite willing that in future the practice which had hitherto pre- 
vailed should be pursued, and he would just direct attention to the 27th 
clause of the Metropolis Gas Act, which seemed to him to leave the ques- 
tion as to the place where the experiments should be made to be settled by 
arrangement between the local authorities and the company supplying the 
gas. The clause provided that, within six months after the passing of the 
Act, the gas company should cause to be erected in some convenient place, 
as near as may be to 1000 yards from their works (such place, in case 
of dispute between the company and the local authority to be fixed by 
a police magistrate, upon the application of either party, after hearing the 
parties theron), an experimental meter, furnished with a suitable burner 
capable of consuming 5 cubic feet of gas per hour, with other necessary 
apparatus for testing the illuminating power of the gas. The clause, there- 
fore, left it to the local authority and the gas company to settle the place 
where the experiments should be made, and the place agreed upon between 
them would be the legal place under the Act. He moved that the cor- 
— which he had read be referred to the select committee. 

he CuarrnMan: The court are to understand that you are quite con- 
tent with Dr. Letheby’s residence as a testing-place? 

Alderman Dakin: Quite so, as satisfying the requirements of the Metro- 
polis Gas Act. 

The CuHarrmMAN: There is another point. The Act of Parliament states 
that the gas company shall be entitled to three hours notice before the 
examiner has access to the experimental meter. Are you willing that Dr. 
Letheby should take the tests at any time? Do you waive your right toa 
three hours notice ? 

Alderman Daktn: Quite so. We leave him to make the tests at any time 
he chooses to doit. 1 thought it due to the company to call the attention 
of the court to this correspondence. 

Mr. De Jersey: I beg to second the motion. I think we must all agree 
that the statement of the worthy alderman is extremely ingenuous, and 
does great credit to the company which he represents. Iam quite sure, 
from that statement, that we have to do with a very respectable and 
honourable body of men; and, I have no doubt, the committee will be able 
to make a satisfactory arrangement. 

Deputy Corney: You mean not only that the correspondence but the 
admission should be referred to the committee. 





















































ee 











Oct. 8, 1861.] 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 695 








Mr. De Jersey: It is the communication made to the court, which 
includes the correspondence and the admission. 
The CHAIRMAN: The communication is that Alderman Dakin, on the 
t of the company, waives their right to the three hours notice, and also 
to the place of testing the gas being within 1000 yards of the works. 
Alderman Dakin: Quite so. 
The motion was then put and carried. 


| METROPOLITAN BOARD OF WORKS. 
Frimay, Sept. 27. 
The usual Weekly Meeting of the Board was held this day—Mr. THwaITEs 
in the chair. 








THE EMBANKMENT OF THE THAMES. 


mittee :— 

Yonr committee have to report that, in obedience to the resolution of your ho- 
nourable board of the 20th inst. (No. 2), referring to them, for consideration, the 
correspondence between the First Commissioner of Her ws Works, &c., and 
the chairman of the board, on the subject of the Thames embankment, and as to the 
course to be pursued with reference to the proposed bill for carrying out the works, 
|| they have carefully considered the subject. 


addressed to him by Mr. Baxter, the parliamentary agent, stating that he had been 
instructed by Mr. Cowper to prepare the notices, and arrange for the preparation of 
the bill; and that Mr. Cowper was desirous that he should consult with your chair- 
|! man as to any suggestions which might occur to him with reference thereto: and, 
|| having reference to all the circumstances of the case, your committee, after much 
|| consideration, have arrived at the conclusion, that the most eligible course to be 
pursued, with reference to the proposed bill, would be, that the chairman should 
receive communications which the parliamentary agents for the bill are instructed 
by the Chief Commissioner of Works, &c., to make to him; that he should consult 
with them as to the preparation of the notices and the draft bill, and should report 
from time to time to your committee; and they accordingly recommend that course 
for the approval of your honourable board. 

Mr. WILKInson moved the adoption of the report. He stated that there 
| were two courses open to the committee in this matter. The one was, to 
leave it to the commissioner to have the notices and bill prepared, and so 
to wait till the scheme was thus fully developed; and the other would be 
for the board to act as on an equality with the Government, in the prepara- 
j tion of this bill. It was thought most advisable to take the latter course, 
| and for their chairman to be put into correspondence with the parliamentary 
| agent of the Government, according to the suggestions of Mr. Cowper. He 
thought the board should be true to itself, and not give up one inch of the 
ground that belonged tothem. They should not, however, oppose the Go- 
vernment, but concede to them as far as related to such a portion of this 
work as did not properly fall within the province of the board to construct, 
and for the carrying out of which they did not possess the requisite funds; 
but, as to the remaining portion of the work, which specially belonged to 
their jurisdiction, they ought neither to be subordinate to, nor wait upon, 
'| the Government, but act with them. 

Mr. FREEMAN seconded the motion. 

Deputy Harrison moved the following amendment:—* That the report 
be referred back to the committee, with power to confer by deputation with 
|| any member of Her Majesty’s Government, or other public bodies or persons, 

upon the subject of the proposed bill, and generally upon the question of 
|the Thames Embankment, and report as required by the 58th section of the 
| Metropolis Local Management Act.” He contended that the board had no 

authority whatever to transfer their powers to the hands of any one indi- 
| vidual; and that, being influenced by the highest considerations for the 
| mg good, they ought to appoint a committee, with the chairman at their 
| head, with power to confer upon this important subject. By acting in this 
| manner, they would keep within the provisions of the Act of Parliament. 
| He believed that questions of great nicety would arise with reference to the 
{embankment of the Thames, and that some of these would involve points 
{touching the Surrey side of the river, which would require very careful 

consideration. There were other parties besides Her Majesty's Govern- 








|ment interested in the adjustment of these questions: there were the | 
He thought, under all | 


| Thames Conservancy Commissioners, for instance. 
the circumstances, it would be more satisfactory to the public if, instead of 
appointing the chairman alone, they deputed a committee to take into full 
| consideration a subject which was of vital importance to the inhabitants of 
the metropolis. 
| Mr. Leace seconded the amendment. He said there was no practical 
| difference between the chairman reporting to the whole board from time to 
| time, and a committee reporting to them in like manner. In both cases, 
the final decision and legal confirmation would rest with the board. 

Mr. Eckerr supported the recommendation of the committee, and said 
that the carrying out of that recommendation would not place any undue 
authority in the hands of the chairman. It had been said in some few 
quarters, that the board were not the proper parties to carry out the em- 
bankment of the Thames; but that was not the general opinion. He be- 
lieved the board stood better in the eyes of the public than was supposed 
by some gentlemen; and that, if a prejudice was entertained against it by 
a few, that prejudice was the result of certain false representations. 

Mr. WiLkinson briefly replied. 

The board then divided, when the amendment was lost, and the original 
motion carried by a large majority. 


GAS INSPECTORS OFFICES. 

The CLERK read the following further report from the superintending 
architect, relative to inquiries he had made respecting premises for gas in- 

spectors offices :— 
| Superintending Architect’s Department, Spring Gardens, S.W., 

Sept. 23, 1861. 

On further considering the positions of premises for these offices, 1 find that the 
portion of Mr. Little’s yard, &c., which cun be obtained, would be convenient for 
five gas companies in the eastern district, viz. :— 

The Independent Gas-Works, at Haggerston. 
The Imperial works, at Haggerston and St. Pancras. 
The Commercial works, at Stepney. 
The Ratcliff works, at St. George’s-in-the-East. 
The Great Central works, at Bow Common. 
Also, for many meter makers toward the City Road. 

On the southern side of the metropolis, there are eight principal gas-works, be- 
longing to four companies, and five others only conditionally subject to some of the 
Gas Act’s provisions :— 

The Phenix Gas Company, at Vauxhall, and Thames Street, Greenwich. 
The Surrey Consumers, 293, Rotherhithe Street. 
The South Metropolitan, Canal Bridge, Old Kent Road, 
The London, Vauxhall, High Street, and Nine Elms. 
The Crystal Palace District, Sydenham. 
| The Woolwich Consumers. 
| The Woolwich Equitable. 
} The Eltham. 
The Wandsworth. 











| from the 





These principal companies, and several of the large meter makers, being near 
Southwark or Lambeth, the search for premises has been made mostly towards the 
centre. In addition to the premises in Dover Road, mentioned in my former 
report, there is a chapel in the London Koad, which can be had on lease for nine 
years, at £52. 10s. This chapel fronts the street, and is about 86 feet long by 27 feet 
wide ; but, at the eastern end, there is an additional space, 34 feet by 21 feet, which, 
being well lighted, would, if partitioned off, form an excellent apartment for the 
testing apparatus. The ceiling is lofty and well ventilated, being 19 fect 7 inches 
oor. Under the whole floor of the chapel (except under the addition at 
the east end), there is a clear space 7 feet high ; and, in the ground below, thirty 
years since, bodies were interred. The chapel is, perhaps, the best of the two, as 


| requiring least alteration, and affording great space on one floor, equal to 2700 


| superficial feet. 


The CrerK read the following report from the main drainage com- | 


The chairman of your honourable board has laid before your committee a letter, | 


The lease of the chapel contains conditions against numerous 
noxious trades, or occupying the ground for any other purpose, apparently or other- 
wise, injurious or offensive to a neighbourhood, without the consent in writing of 
the lessor; also, to rebuild the chapel in case of fire, &c. x : 

In the western district, are situated the works of four companies, viz. :— 

The Western Gas-Works, at Kensall Green. 

The Imperial, at Stamford Bridge, Fulham. 

The Equitable, at Lupus Street, Pimlico. 

The Chartered, at Holywell Street, Westminster. 

As no place could be found suitable, I have spoken to Mr. Pennethorne about a 
| license to build on the back part of the offices, if the board should so incline, and he 
is prepared to recommend, on the application coming to him in the ordinary way. 
He apprehends no objection, as the building would not be lofty. I have since 
written to the Commissioners of Woods and Forests relative to this matter, and re- 
questing the necessary permission. - 

I have also made inquiry as to the facilities for obtaining corrugated iron build- 
ings. The principal makers could supply such buildings, 60 feet by 25, for about 
£200, or, if felted and floored, souhely £100 more; and the work could be com- 
pleted in about two weeks. Such buildings are saleable after being used. 

On inquiry at Messrs. Parkinson’s works, it appears that the six gasholders they 
were ordered to make are now ready, but they cannot yet be received or tested at 
the Government office, on account of others being on hand for other places; and it 
will require ten, or fourteen days probably, before the board’s meters can be tested. 
The piping, test-tables, and other apparatus for three offices, have been ordered of 
Messrs. Parkinson, and they promise to forward the work as rapidly as possible ; 
but, even then, the offices would not be ready for use under two or three months. 

It will, evidently, therefore, be impossible, with these preparations, to meet the 
demand, and I would beg to recommend the board to give further orders for gas- 
holders and works, and the employment of other makers for some of the works, in 
order that future delay may be avoided. 

The assistance which will be needed in each inspector’s office will be, at least, two 
active intelligent men, anda boy. The mode of their selection will require to be 
settled. Grorce Vuiuiamy, Superintending Architect. 


The reading of this letter gave rise to a brief conversation, in which Mr. 
Carpmael and Mr. H. L. Taylor took part. Referring to the editorial re- 
marks on this subject in the last number of the Journat or Gas Licut- 
1nG, Mr. CarrMAEt said the writer of the article had misapprehended his 
intention in the suggestions which he offered at the last meeting of the 
board. Indeed, he was entirely averse to the plan which it was stated he 
had in contemplation, and a perusal of the report of his speech would cer- 
tainly not warrant the canlietien that he thought “a head-inspector of 
meters, and several subordinate ones, would be preferable in the metropolis 
to having three or more of equal authority.” 
It was then moved by Mr. Le Breton, seconded by Mr. CARPMAEL, and 
carried unanimously—“ That the committee be authorized to take all such 
| measures as they may seem advisable for obtaining sites for the offices of 
the inspectors of gas-meters, and for the alteration or erection of proper 
buildings, reporting the course taken from time to time to the board for 
approval.” 

| TESTING THE GASHOLDERS. 

The following letter from Mr. Bowen, of the Comptroller-General's office, 
relative to the testing of the gasholders prepared by the board, was read:— 

Comptroller-Gencral’s Office, Exchequer, Sept. 19, 1861. 

Sir,—I am requested by the Assistant-Comptroller to acknowledge the receipt of 
your letter of Sept. (without date), 1861, addressed to the Right Hon. Lord Monteagle, 
&c., stating that Messrs. Parkinson and Co,, gas-meter makers, have received in- 
structions from the Metropolitan Board of Works to prepare six 10-feet gasholders 
for the testing of gas-meters, some of which are ready to be forwarded to the Ex- 
chequer to be tested, and requesting that instructions may be given by his lordship 

to receive and test such holders with the least possible delay. 
/ And Iam directed by him to inform you that the gasholders will be received for 
examination and verification at as early a date as can be appointed, notice of which 
shall be given. At present, we have many applications prior to yours, which must 
be disposed of before receiving and verifying the gasholders mentioned in your 


| letter.—I have the honour to be, sir, your most obedient, humble servant, 





John Thwaites, Esq., Joun Bowen. 


Metropolitan Board of Works, Spring Gardens. 


The CHarrMAN said that no doubt Mr. Bowen would do his duty in the 
matter, so soon as the Exchequer should be in a position to institute the 
test. 

The letter was ordered to lie on the table. 


Fripay, Ocr. 4. 


At the Meeting of the Board this day, 
The CLERK read the following report from the committee of the whole 
board, to whom it was referred to examine the claims of the 158 candidates 
for the office of gas-meter inspectors under the Sale of Gas Act:— 
Your honourable board having, on the 20th of September instant, referred the 
several applications for the appointment of inspectors of gas-meters to your com- 
mittee for consideration and report, with an instruction to select twelve whom they 
should consider best qualified for the office, your committee have now to report their 
proceedings. 
All the candidates were invited to attend before your committee, and a very large 
proportion of them availed themselves of the invitation, and your committee, having 
considered their several qualifications, have selected the under-mentioned persons, 
whom they deem best qualified for the office, and they accordingly submit their 
names, in alphabetical order, for the consideration of your honourable board. 
Airey, Mr. H., 37, Culford Street North, De Beauvoir Town. 
Billows, Mr. H. B., Gas-works, Queenstown, Ireland. 
Curley, Mr. E. A., 18, Woodbridge Street. 
Davey, Mr. E. M., 13, Paradise Terrace, Liverpool Road. 
Dethridge, Mr. G., 32, Gerrard Street, Soho. 
Gomme, Mr. W. L., King Street, Hammersmith. 
Land, Mr. W., Bridge Road, Stratford. 
La Roche, Mr. P., 6, Blackland Terrace, Chelsea. 
Mills, Mr. G., 96, Borough Road. 
Pearson, Mr. C., Jun., 55, Finchley Road, Kennington Park. 
‘Taunton, Mr. F. A., 28, Lothian Road, Camberwell New Road. 
Ward, Mr. W. J., 4, North Parade, Derby, 

All which the committee beg to submit. 


Mr. Huenes: I beg to move the adoption of that report. 

Mr. R. Taytor: I second the motion. 

The report was accordingly adopted. 

Mr. H. L. Tayxor said he did not think it would be policy to proceed to 
the election this day. There was nothing on the paper of business to in- 
form members that it was the intention of the board to proceed to the 
election at this meeting, and it struck him that it was hardly fair towards 





























696 


THE JOURNAL OF @AS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 





[Oct. 8, 1861. 





the candidates to adopt that course. He was quite sure that no member of 
the board would desire to do anything which might be complained of by 
any of the gentlemen who had been selected by the committee. He had no 
doubt that the committee had exercised a large amount of discretion in the 
selection they had made; at the same time, there was no particular disad- 
vantage in adjourning the further consideration of the question for another 
week. If that were done, the candidates would have an opportunity 
afforded them for seeing the various members of the board, which, up to 
the present time, they had not been able todo. The members of the board 
lived far and wide, and there was a difficulty in the way of their being 
found at all times. Without, therefore, exposing himself to the charge of 
desiring to delay the matter, he thought he was justified in the course he 
was taking; and, if the board agreed with him, the candidates would be 
able to put their respective claims before the members individually, and of 
soliciting their votes for the appointment. He would accordingly move— 
“ That the election of the three inspectors be put off until Friday next.” 

Mr. Patmer: I think it is impossible for us to adopt that course, 
because——— 

The Cuarrman: The motion is not seconded. Now, gentlemen, what 
course will you adopt? 

Mr. D'IrFanGer: I think we had better adopt the usual course of putting 
all the names successively to the vote, and striking out the candidate who 
— the fewest number on each show of hands, until the list is reduced 
to three. 

This recommendation was adopted; and, on the motion of Mr. FREEMAN, 
the candidates were previously called down from the gallery and invited to 
take their seats in the court below the bar. 

The result of the several votes was as follows:— 


Ist Show 2nd 3rd 4th Sth 6th 7th Final 
Ws BATS 4... cocccvcecseese Bb... DB “6b..8.623.3..239 
Mr. Dethridge ......... a fe Pe eS 20... 21... 22... 17 
| eee vosee Woe Me BB 17 eo... B.. H 
re 14,..15.. 16 19 Ra es Ba B 
Mr. Taunton ........ vosee BP oe We BD 9 9 12 8 
pS errs Ee co WE ce 10 Bw 3 
BS ED cccusececcseuege oe Law Bio Bey F 
Oe errr Bin Bus @ 2 
eS Pree Os. Ses & 
MP, TBBG 6060200008 eneeuwe 74 [os 
2 eS 1 
MES. GOIRG - 5.0000 s0ccsceeee 0 


Messrs. Airey, Dethridge, and Mills, having obtained the highest number 
of votes, the chairman proceeded to put the question, that these gentlemen 
be appointed inspectors, whereupon. 
Mr. LEGGE rose to suggest whether it would not be better to bind the 
mngectere to particular districts? 

The CuarrMan: You can appoint them to any districts after you 
have elected them. 
The motion was then put and carried unanimously. 
Mr. Eckert: Is it clearly understood that these appointments are made 
free from any future claims for compensation? 
The Cuamrman: They are subject to the usual conditions. 
Mr. H. L. Taytor: What are the “usual conditions.” 1 should like to 
have them stated here, so that everybody may understand them. 
The Cierk: In the case of the election of district surveyors in July last, 
it was resolved that, the parties nominated shou'd be appointed subject to 
the condition that they should make no claim for compensation in conse- 
uence of any diminution of income arising from future alterations in the 
ees of the office by this board or otherwise. 

The CuarrMan: These inspectors will be appointed during the pleasure 
of the board, and will have no right to compensation.. 
Mr. Lecce: I think it should be clearly understood that they are so ap- 
| pointed, and that they will not be entitled to compensation, in the event of 
any diminution in the fees. 
| lhe Cuarrman: There are no fees; they will have a fixed salary. 

Mr. Pius: I think it should be added, that they will have no right to 








| 
| ‘compensation for loss of office. 

| Mr. Witkinson: Nor under any circumstances. 

|| Mr. Puriurps then moved—* That the candidates be appointed during 
| the pleasure of the board, and on the condition that there shall be no claim 
| for compensation on dismissal from office.” 

| Mr. D'IrFANGER seconded the motion. 

Deputy Harrison said the question could not be put, because the board 
had already made the appointments. These inspectors were elected as all 
| other officers of the board were. The board might hereafter increase or 

diminish the salaries, but they could not now alter the conditions of the 
}appointment. The board would better consult their position by refraining 
from passing such a resolution, for it must be manifest that these gentle- 
| men were elected during pleasure, and subject to such regulations as from 
| time to time the board might adopt. 

| Mr. D'lrrancer said it was only right that the inspectors should clearly 
understand the nature of the circumstances under which they were elected. 

Mr. Pxituirs was surprised that Deputy Harrison should raise an ob- 
jection, because a similar course had always been pursued in the election of 
| | district surveyors. a 

Deputy Harrison: Not after the surveyors were appointed. 

| | The CHarRMAN said the course was adopted in the case of district sur- 
|| Veyors, in consequence of the peculiarity of the relations which existed be- 
|| tween those officers and the board. District surveyors appointed prior to 
|| the Ist of January, 1856, were entitled to compensation; those who were 
|| appointed subsequently held the office during the pleasure of the board, and 
|| without any claim for compensation. In the present instance, the matter 
|| was wholly in the hands of the board. 

| Mr. Eckert said it was clearly understood, before the question was put, 
| 





|, that no claim for compensation could be made, and the election proceeded 
upon that principle. 
| The Cuamman said no question of compensation could arise. These 
|, gentlemen were not elected to receive fees in the discharge of their duties; 
|; they would have fixed salaries at the pleasure of the board, and it was 
|, competent, therefore, for the board to dismiss them at any time for any 
|| reason which to the board might seem sufficient. 
|, Mr. Eckerr said, so long as that was understood by the board, and by 
|, the candidates, he was content. He for one was very much opposed to 
giving compensation to men who for years had had good offices at large 
| salaries. 
|| The Cuatrman said the Act of Parliament was very clear upon the point 
| where it gave to the justices or town councils the powers, which as far as 
||the metropolis was concerned, were vested in the board. They had power 
“to suspend or dismiss any inspector so appointed, or to appoint additional 


were willing to accept the office on those conditions, so that no disappoint- 
ment might hereafter be felt by them should their services be no longer re- 
quired, or the office itself discontinued. 

Mr. BinGoop said, if there was an error in adopting the resolution, it was 
an error in the right direction, and might prevent any future mistake or 
misapprehension. 

The Cuarrman: It cuts both ways. 

Mr. Eckert: Does the chairman rule that the question cannot be put ? 

— CuatrmMan: No; you can express your opinion in any way you 

please. 

On the question being put, 

Mr. Peckerr moved, and Mr. Eckerr seconded, as an amendment, the 
omission of all the words after—‘ That the candidates be appointed during 
the pleasure of the board.” 

Mr. WiLkinson said the motion clearly raised the question whether, 
under ed other circumstances than that mentioned, a claim for compensa- 
tion might not exist. He confessed that, looking at the provisions of the 
Metropolis Local Management Act, he did not see how a doubt need be 
entertained upon the subject. The only clause which empowered them 
to deal with compensations was one which referred to old officers of the 
late commissioners of sewers, or existing paving boards, or other trusts. 
But the board had no power to grant compensation to their own officers, 
who were appointed during the pleasure of the board, and at fixed salaries. 
He quite agreed with Mr. Bidgood that in all cases where a doubt existed, 
it was advisable to be explicit, and put down in print what they meant, and 
what they desired the candidates to understand. But here it was not so. 
At the same time, if the motion were so worded as to exclude the possibility 
of a claim for compensation arising under any circumstances, he should be 
content; otherwise, he must vote for the amendment. 

The amendment was then put and carried by 18 to 6. 

The CHarrMan, addressing Messrs. Airey, Dethridge, and Mills, said: I 
have the pleasure to inform you that the board have elected you, during 
their pleasure, as gas-meter inspectors, and they will hereafter appoint you 
to your respective districts. I suppose you are prepared to commence your 
duties at once? 

The inspectors each answered in the affirmative. 

The CHarrman: While we are upon this subject, it will be as well, 
perhaps, to state that it seems clear that we shall require more instruments 
than we have at present ordered. You have conferred upon the committee 
certain powers with regard to the sites for offices, and other matters of the 
kind, and you will, perhaps now, give them power to order such further 
instruments as they may find to be necessary. There is no time to be lost, 
as the instruments will have to be made and stamped. 

wt al Harrison: Have the committee reported what more they will 
want 

The CHArrMAN: They will report from time to time. 

Deputy Harrison: I think, if they require anything further, they should 
report the fact to the board. The matter cannot press for a few days. The 
board ought to be consulted on all these matters, and know what it is pro- 
posed to expend. 

The CHairmMan: We shall require about five more instruments. 

Deputy Harrison: I dare say we shall. I should like to know what 
~~ will cost? 

he Cuatrman: Abont £25 apiece. 

Mr. Pecketr: As the committee consists of the whole board, I think we 
might trust them to do what is right. 

Deputy Harrison: Whether that is so or not, we have no right, under 
the Act of Parliament, to clothe the committee with such powers. 

At the request of Mr. Phillips, the clerk read the several resolutions of 
the board, appointing and instructing the committee, and at the request of 
Deputy Harrison, the 58th section of the Metropolis Local Management 
Act, having reference to the duties and powers of committees, was read. 

The CHAIRMAN said the attention of the committee had been called to 
the clause in question. It was manifest that no act of the committee was 
valid unless confirmed by the board, but the section did not make it neces- 
sary for them to report until they had done something. Usually speaking, | 
the recommendations of a committee were brought up for approval before 
any step was taken; but, it was within the discretion of the board, when 
any matter pressed, to refer it to a committee to carry out. He would only 
just intimate that with regard to the Sale of Gas Act, there were some 
matters which required very prompt attention, and there was a mass of 
details which it was utterly impossible for the board to carry out, except 
through a committee. With reference to the instruments, for example, || 
they did not desire-to possess one more nor less than necessary; but, it 
was essential that steps should be taken immediately to obtain the requisite | 
number, and there was no better mode of ascertaining and determining | 
that than to give adequate powers to the committee, trusting that when || 
they reported what they had done, the board would concur in their arrange- | | 
ments. He did not anticipate any difference of opinion on the matter. | 

Mr. PxHitires moved, “ That the committee be authorized to procure || 
such additional instruments, for testing meters, as they may deem neces- | 
sary, and report the expense thereof for the approval of the board.” i 

Mr. Eckerr suggested the addition of the words, “ not exceeding such a | | 
sum of money as the board may now determine.” He thought there ought | , 
to be some limit beyond which the committee could not go. 

Mr. FREEMAN said before the motion was put, he should like to know!| 
definitely what the powers of the committee were. If the board were not || 
inclined to put some reliance upon the committee, it was quite clear that| 
the members would not devote the necessary time to carry out the object | 
for which they were appointed. Either they ought to have power to do all |, 
that was necessary to bring the Act into operation, or the board should || 
take the matter into its own hands. The committee, if their labours were | 
to be worth anything, should be authorized to procure the necessary 
instruments, so as to get the inspectors to work as quickly as possible. |’ 
There were multitudes of complaints made against the board by meter 
makers who had to send to Edinburgh, and Liverpool, and other places, to || 
get their meters stamped, because the arrangements in the metropolis were | | 
not complete for the purpose. Ifthe committee were obliged to come up |; 
for instructions, every time they required to take some step, the board |, 
would do better without the committee at all, and settle all the business here | | 
at once. | 

Mr. Hueues said there was another very important question—viz., the |’ 
question of obtaining temporary premises. His impression was that if they || 
were to erect oflices, as recommended by the‘superintending architect, they || 
would not be in a position to set the inspectors to work for the next two 
months, He would ask whether it was right that the testing of meters. 
should be delayed for that period, while there were already complaints all 
over the metropolis that meters had to be sent to a great distance in order 















inspectors from time to time, as occasion may require.” 





to obtain the necessary verification before they could be fixed? He thought 











Mr. H. L. TAYLoR said it would be well to know whether the candidates 



































\ = 
Na 








Oct. 8, 1861.] 





the committee should be intrusted with full powers to make every arrange- 
ment; and, if that were the case, he saw not the smallest difficulty in getting 
to work very speedily—say in a week or ten days. On the other hand, if 
this course were not adopted, great delay must ensue; and the complaints 
which were daily made against them, for not putting the Act in force, would 
be largely increased. For his own part, he thought it would be better to 
have only a small committee to take charge of the matter: but, if it was 
naar tee to have a committee of the whole board, by all means let that 
committee have full powers to arrange with reference to all the matters 
requiring attention, whether relating to the ordering of the instruments, or 
to the procuring of premises, both temporary and permanent. 

On the motion being put, 

Mr. BipGcoop asked the meaning of the words, “and report the expense 
thereof, for the approval of the board.” 

The Cuarrman: There is no doubt the board must and will approve the 
acts of the committee. 

Mr. Brncoop: If it is so understood that nothing is to be bought—— 
(No, no.) But I know that, if it is done, some one, at the next meeting, 
will rise and say that it is utterly irregular. ’ 

The Cuarrman: I think it is clearly understood, first, that the committee 
will have power to purchase such instruments as the public service requires ; 
and, secondly, having done so, they will report to the board, who will 
signify their approval. 

The motion was then put and carried. 

The CHatrman: A letter has been received this morning, from one of 
the largest meter manufacturers, pointing out the condition of the trade at 
this moment, and the great inconvenience they are sustaining, by reason of 
there being no office where they can have their meters tested. He repre- 
sents that he has written to several country places, to ascertain whether 
they can stamp his meters; and he has, I believe, obtained the assistance 
of the office at Bristol, and elsewhere. The trade is evidently in that con- 
dition, that it becomes quite a serious matter; and this gentleman offers, if 
the board are in a difficulty, to lend them four or five instruments, free of 
cost, for six months, which can be taken to the Exchequer to be verified 
and stamped, as soon as we have a place in which to put them. 

Mr. D'lrFanGERr asked that the letter might be read. os : 

The CLERK accordingly read a letter signed “ Thomas Glover,” in which 
the writer said, “To expedite the opening of the temporary office, I am 
willing to give your honourable board, without og the use of ten new 
testing gasholders, which can be stamped at the Exchequer under your 
orders; and I have little doubt there are other meter makers who would be 
willing to give the same assistance in order to be relieved from the dilemma, 
arising from the want of the proper facilities for testing meters.” é 
On the motion of Mr. D'Iffanger, the letter was referred to the committee. 
Mr. Samupa said he had received a letter from a gentleman, who sug- 
om that the board might avail themselves to a very large extent—per- 

aps permanently, but at all events in the first stages of their operations— 
of the establishments of the meter makers, and gas companies themselves, 
by having a place on their premises separated off and under the entire 
control of the board, where instruments might be fixed and employed by 
their inspectors only for the testing of meters. It appeared that all the meter 
makers complained of having to send their meters to a distance to be 
tested, by which they were extremely liable to be damaged, and he (Mr. 
Samuda) thought, without “going into the detail of the matter, that under 
proper restrictions, this suggestion might be carried out, and, if so, it would 
much expedite the operations of the board. 
The CxarrMan said the letter which the honourable member referred to 
was addressed to himself, and it had been referred to the committee. No 
doubt it would be convenient to gas companies, if such a course could be 
adopted; but, he thought the board would look with a great deal of care 
and consideration at the matter before they established on their premises 
an office for the purpose of testing the correctness of the instrument with 
which the article they supplied was to be measured. He thought such an 
office should be entirely Tescanested from the companies, in the same way 
that the Act directed that the inspectors should be. It would be a pity for 
the board to be in any way connected either with the gas companies or 
with the manufacturers of meters. 
Mr. HuGHEs moved—“ That, pending the construction of the permanent 
testing houses, the committee have power to make temporary arrangements 
for the purpose of testing meters.” His motion, he said, had reference to 
the providing of temporary premises, which he believed could be done in 
the course of a week, so as to satisfy the pressing requirements of the trade, 
and of the public; for if,as he said before, they suffered two months to 
elapse while they provided permanent buildings before anything was done, 
there would be great dissatisfaction expressed by all parties. 
Mr. FrEEMAN seconded the motion, though he felt that it was quite un- 
necessary, as the committee had full powers already. 


Mr. Eckert suggested some modification of the terms of the motion, be- 
cause the word “arrangements” was capable of great latitude of meaning. 
He would limit the time to three or six months, and the expense to be in- 
curred for such temporary purpose to £100. (No, no.) Was he to 
understand that the necessary “arrangements” for three months would ex- 
ceed £100? (Yes.) Then he very much doubted the propriety of the 
— recommended in the motion; but he would say, limit the expense 
to £120. 

Deputy Harrison said, if the committee had power to take the necessary 
steps, as suggested by Mr. Freeman, then this motion was unnecessary; if 
they had not, then it was altogether a new subject, for which notice of 
motion must be given. This was a most inconvenient way of transacting 
business. The board had been strongly advised not to take temporary pre- 
mises, but at once to fit up permanent establishments. The great desi- 
deratum was to have their standards fixed in such a way that they would 
not be liable from vibration, or any kind of motion, to be changed in their 
position. The present motion was opposed to the advice that had been 
given to them on high authority, and he should oppose it. There need not 
be many days delay in providing the sort of building they needed, which 
would be of a most inexpensive character, and free from all kinds of orna- 
mentation. He thought it better to dismiss at once all idea of temporary 
premises, persuaded that they might, upon their own ground, provide a 
suitable place of a permanent character in ten days. 

The CuarkMan said it could not be ready in two months. 

_ Depnty Harrison said he did not underrate the importance of the ques- 
tion, and he was anxious to start fair, and proceed from the first in a right 
direction. And, though he was told that a permanent place could not be 
provided in two months, he felt persuaded they might put up some build- 
ings in a fortnight, which would be well adapted for all the work they 
would have to do for some time to come. It would be very inconvenient 
to fix their instruments, and then have to move them; it would also be 





THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 





697 


more expensive than some members of the board imagine, and, therefore, 
he was anxious to begin, and go on right. 

Mr. Freeman regretted that Deputy Harrison had not attended the com- 
mittee. Had he done so, he would have known that they gave a great deal 
of attention to the subject, and that it was not until after they had had a 
report from the architect, and had been assisted by the advice of Mr. 
Samuda and Mr. Carpmael, that they arrived at the conclusion that perma- 
nent buildings could not be ready in less than from six weeks to two || 
months. The question then was, whether they should suspend the opera- | | 
tions of the Act for that period, and tell the meter makers, the gas compa- 
nies, and the public, that they could do nothing in the interval to meet 
their requirements? or whether they would go to the comparatively small 
cost of providing such temporary premises as would enable the inspectors, 
at all events, to stamp scme meters? That was the question before the 
committee; and, as prudent men, they judged that, while preparing the 
permanent buildings as quickly as posite, they were bound to make such 
temporary arrangements as would prevent a serious injury to the trade, |; 
and would serve to sustain the credit of the board. 

Mr. Dixon agreed, in many respects, with what his friend, Deput, 
Harrison, had said. There was a piece of ground belonging to the beard, 
in the new street leading to Covent Garden, upon which he would under- || 
take, in three weeks, to have a permanent building erected for the a arg 
of a testing-house, the expense of which should not exceed £500. He felt, 
therefore, that it was quite needless to go to the expense of putting up a 
sg A building. 

r. D'lrranGer said the public would have good ground of complaint 
against the board, if they lost any time in getting everything ready for 
carrying out the provisions of the Act in this respect. But it was utterly 
impossible that they could get a suitable building put up in three weeks. 

r. CRELLIN did not doubt the ability of his friend, Mr. Dixon, seeing 
how successful he had been in reference to the plans for the Victoria Park 
approaches; and he was very anxious, knowing the inconvenience to which 
meter-makers were exposed, that the most speedy measures should be 
adopted. The board would deserve the bad character which was sometimes 
given them, if they did not use every exertion to save the trade from the 
necessity to which they were now subject—of having to send their meters 
into the country to be tested and stamped. 

Mr. Huaues, in reply, said there appeared to be a misapprehension as to 
the scope of his motion. It was supposed that it contemplated the erection 
of a aay sang egrets but, in proposing it, he had no such intention. 
His idea was, that some existing buildings might be procured, which would 
sufficiently answer the purpose of the beard until the permanent structures 
were prepared, and their arrangements definitely settled. 

The motion was then put and carried. 





THE READING GAS COMPANIES AND THE LOCAL BOARD. 
To the Local Board of Health of the Borough of Reading. 

Gentlemen—I feel called upon to address you upon the question of the supply of 
gas to the public lamps in your borough, because of the prominence os to my 
name in a handbill, issued, if not by your authority, at least on your behalf by one 
of the members of your board, and your clerk with an appearance of authority ; and 
as my notice of the statements, or some of the statements contained in that bill, must 
unavoidably be lengthy, I will, for the facility of reference, refer to them in the 
order in which they occur. 

First, is a reference to the lapse of time (five weeks) between the date of the meet- 
ing and the appearance of the report, in which the proceedings are criticised by me ; 
as to this, I claim credit for forbearance in delaying so long to expose as I have 
done, the errors exhibited in the report of the proceedings, as given in the Reading | 
Mercury, of the 27th of July, with the hope which I expressed when at Reading, | | 
that wiser counsels might prevail at your su uent meetings, which were expected | 
to be held on the subject ; but, when these hopes were Gusceuies, I felt bound to 
lose no more time in m: the promise which I le verbally to the joint 
committees of the gas com es, to furnish them with my specific objections to the 
specification which you had issued to them, and to state in writing my view of the j 
case generally; and this I did in two separate documents, one being dated the 2Ist | 
and the other the 28th of August. 1 | 

The latter of these two documents, which has been published in the R | 
papers, is spoken of in your handbill as containing ‘scurrilous personalities.” I | | 
can say A —— that the gentlemen whose signatures appear at the end of the bill 
really do not know the meaning of the word “scurrilous,” or they would not have | | 
applied it to my report to the Reading gas i so or not, I am | | 
content that the general public should judge. 

In the same paragraph, these gentlemen, speaking of my report, say they will not | 
** consume time in replying to its numerous contradictions of statements, alleged to 
have been, but, in fact, not made by us;”’ the meaning is this, they will reply to 
nothing which is inconvenient or unpalatable to them, while they will assert any- | 
thing which they can pick up anywhere if they think it will tell against the gas 1 
companies; but how they can poe pr mh fmt that in myreport I havecontradicted 
“*statements which they have not made,” I cannot imagine, and I challengethem tothe | 
proof; the fact being that I had nothing else on which to found my remarks but | 
the report of the sayings and doings of these gentlemen, which was given in the 
Reading Mercury of the 27th of July, and every ratepayer in Reading can satisfy | 
himself, by a reference to that report, that I have alleged nothing as having been | | 
said by them beyond what they are there reported to have said. 

Next comes a false charge of the companies —— you to pay them ‘‘no less 
than £1300 a year for lighting the public lamps,” the fact being that, at the price | 
offered, the cost per annum would be only £1200. 

As to the tax imposed on every ratepayer of 6d. in the pound, is it not 
impose the tax in your administrative capacity to pay for the light require 
interests of these same ratepayers? 

And as to the amount, 6d. in the pound, where, I ask, is the town similarly situ- | 
ated and as well lighted as ing, where the lighting rate is less than 6d. in the | 
pound? Gentlemen, you must know that it is not a high rate, and yet to inflame! 
the public mind and get up a cry for a “‘corporation gas-work,”’ these advocates of 
yours, put at the end of this statement of ‘‘6d. in the pound,’’ a note of admira- | 
tion ! which is intended to have the effect of a note of alarm. . | 

Next comes a grave charge against the gas companies ; they “‘deal in gas for the 
benefit of themselves only.’’ What asin! I hope it is not sinful to ask, for whose benefit 
but their own do people employ their own property in “‘ trading speculations?” But, 
worse than this, these wicked companies have entered into an arrangement between , 
themselves, to promote their own interests in such a way as must be, and has been | 
proved to be, for the benefit of the public! Shocking!! 

Now for a few words upon this astonishing pom | i ’ : 

The Union Company, when established, did succeed in lowering the price nearly 
one-half, and, as time rolled on, they profited by experience ; and, by doing that 
wicked thing “‘ districting,’ were enabled to éffect a further reduction of 1s. and 
1s. 6d. per 1000 feet, according to the amount of consumption ; and, thus the public, 
after having been benefited by competition, were, by this arrang t, benefited 
still further. 

As to the ** agreement,’’ it was not entered into ‘‘ six years ago,’’ it being now 
only three years of age ; and, itcan be proved to have resulted not only advan- 
tageously to the companies, but, to the gas consumers, to whom the price was 
reduced, as a first consequence of the saving thus effected by the companies, as 
already shown. . 

I have yet to learn that it can be true, that the ‘ very condition of the existence” 
of the new company is, ‘‘ competition with the other ;” I rather think the sounder 
rule to be, that the first “condition of the existence”? of any trading concern is 
success. 

Again, dismissing the ‘nonsense about loss of ‘‘free commercial action,” and 








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Son wiert arene eee 


























698 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 





Oct. 8, 1861. 





the “‘ means of redress afforded by meaxs of competition,” as not worth a reply, I 
notice the statement that ‘‘the price of gas in Reading is now fixed not with 
reference to the cost of its production, &c., but to the amount of profit which 
must be obtained in order to pay handsome dividends on the capitals of two com- 
panies instead of one, and to maintain the costly extravagance of two separate 
works instead of one.” 

What will the gentlemen who make this statement say, when you are informed 
that the manager ‘of the very wonderful Corporation Gas-Works at Burton, says of 
Reading, ‘‘ It must not be supposed that each company has provided a work capable 
of supplying the whole town, and have now to share the customers between them, 
for the storage capacity of both works together is only about equal to the daily make 
of gas by each in mid-winter, and neither is capable of supplying any very large 
increase in the present consumption without incurring additional outlay of capital 
in enlarging their works and mains;” thus, it may be taken as proved, by their 
own witness, that the power of both works combined is only equal to the demand. 

As to the capital employed, whether it may be more than is represented by the 
structural value of the works or not, I venture to inform you that, if ever the time 
should arrive when the corporation of Reading ry | have the requisite authority to 
buy these works, they will have to pay for them a larger sum than the capitals of 
the two companies amount to; and, further, I say that no man who understands his 
business, will say that a gas-work to supply 40 millions of cubic feet of gas per 
annum, through more than 25 miles of main, can be erected, and working capital 
supplied, for a less sum than £30,000. 

But how, gentlemen, do you think these philosophers propose to lessen the so- 
called “costly extravagance’’ of maintaining two separate works? why, simply by 
calling into existence a third ! I am thus forcibly reminded of the story of an Irish- 
man, who had read of a stove which would effect a saving of 50 per cent. in fuel, 
Pat asked what 50 per cent. meant, and, on being told it was one-half, he, with some 
glee exclaimed, ‘‘sure, then, if one stove will save half, I’ll buy two, and I shall 
save the whole.” At Reading, two works are a cause of extravagant loss, and the 
remedy is to have a third; this is really charming. 

But, gentlemen, let me tell you that, although, if you can find any person or 
persons insane enough to build works to supply your public lamps with gas, you can, 
under the powers invested in you, authorize such persons to open the roads and 
paths, to lay the requisite mains and service-pipes, you cannot give the requisite 
authority to lay a single service-pipe for the supply of gas toa private customer ; 
neither can you erect works for youselves, for either public or private parposes 
without the authority of Parliament ; and, if such authority should ever be given 
you, which is exceedingly doubtful, you may rest assured that a condition precedent 
will be, that you purchase, by valuation, in the usual way, the works, mains, and 
business of the two companies now supplying the borough; and, by the time you 
have done this and built on ferra firma, the castles which at present your advo- 
= have only built in the air, you will want a sum of, not £30,000, but £50,000 at 
east. 

Now for the “ first fruit’’ of the monopoly—a rise in the charge for public lamps 
from £2. 17s. to £4; well, be it so, if £2. 17s. was wrong, and £4 was right, it was 
time to correct a wrong which had through the folly of competition existed so many 
years, to the benefit of such of the ratepayers who were not gas consumers, and the 
injury of the gas companies, and all the private consumers of gas, for the latter 
made good to some extent the loss occasioned to the companies, by paying a higher 
price than would otherwise have been requisite for their supply. 

Then follow some remarks upon objections raised as to ‘‘ the conditions of the 
eontract.”’ 

I do not know what conditions were objected to formerly, but I do know that the 
conditions sought to be imposed upon the companies now, are not only most absurd 
but altogether impracticable, and I cannot help thinking that they were drawn up 
in this arbitrary and impracticable way, more by cunning design, and with a 
view to ulterior measures, than through ignorance; but the animus which I have 
referred to is clearly exhibited in the passage which runs thus: ‘‘and which mode 
of action invariably marks the conduct of trading companies,’’ &c. This is the sore 
place, Reading is supplied with gas by two “trading companies,’’ and it should 
only be supplied by the corporation of the borough. 

Next we see, “‘ that this attempt at exaction was, toa great extent, frustrated by 
the measures adopted by the board of health by the companies reducing their demand 
from £4 to £3. 5s. per lamp.’”’ 

Do not these gentlemen know that, to be guilty of suppressio veri, is as bad as 
being guilty of suggestio falsi’? Why suppress the fact that, for the £4, each burner 
was to consume, on an average, 5 feet per hour, and that, for £3. 5s., only 4 feet 
per hour was to be given? and thus the companies conceded nothing, while, as the 
difference in the quantity of light afforded by 4 feet in lieu of 5-feet burners would 
be practically, in round numbers, 40 per cent. less, and the price being only 20 per 
cent. less, the board, in their clever management as the trustees of the ratepayers, 
would be losers in the bargain to the extent of the difference ; in other words, they 
saved in money 20 per cent., and lost in light 40 per cent., and this in a town where 
the lamps are miserably few in number, compared with the area lighted. The com- 
meg I believe, did what they could to prevent the adoption of these 4-feet burners, 
ut deemed it expedient to yield—not, however, through “ fear of consequences.’’ 
And now for ‘‘the second fruit of the monopoly ;” the gas consumer is said to 
be ‘* fixed with the payment of an unreasonable price for the gas supplied to him for 
his private consumption ; also, that since 1855 a trifling reduction has been made, 
but considerably less than in other towns, and less also than what a fair competition 
would have secured in Reading.”’ 

Really I do not remember ever having read a document in which paragraph after 
paragraph contained statements so diametrically and obviously opposed to truth. 
The facts are these—the “‘ monopoly’’ complained of did not take place, as I have 
already said, in 1855, nor until three years later. Up to that time, by competition, 
fair and earnest in character, the price of gas to the private consumer had been 
brought down to 7s. per 1000 feet net, in cases where the consumption was small, 
and, soon after the cessation of competition, this price was reduced to 5s. 6d. net. 
A benefit was thus conferred on the private ec far ¢ ding in value the 
trifling additional charge made for the public lamps; and, as to this reduction being 
** considerably less than has taken place in other towns,’ where is the town in 
which the price of gas has been reduced considerably more than 1s. 6d. per 1000 feet 
in the last three years? Gentlemen, I do not believe your advocates can point toa 
single town in which a considerably greater reduction than 1s. 6d. per 1000 feet has 
been made in this period of time, and, until they do, this wild and unsupported 
statement of theirs cannot be received as truth. 

And, again, this reduction of 1s. 6d. per 1000 feet, is said to ‘‘bear no adequate 
proportion to the very large diminution in the cost of the manufacture of gas, which 
of late years has taken place, from various causes.”’ 

Gentlemen, I assert that this statement is the very opposite of the truth of the 
case; the reduction in the cost of the manufacture from any and all causes and im- 
provements combined, since the Reading companies made the reduction of eighteen 
pence, does not amount to eighteen farthings per 1000 feet, nor anything like it ; 
and, as to the one town referred to, where the price is 2s., it is owing to a reckless 
competition between two companies, and not one farthing hus been paid in that case 
for the use of the capital employed. Ruin has been, and is still, staring both com- 
panies in the face, and the only question for some time has been, which company 
can hold out longest !—a state of things which, no doubt, Messrs. Simonds and 
Rogers would be pleased to see in existence in Reading ; but what this fact has to 
do with the sum which may be required per 1000 feet to pay a dividend on the 
capital employed in Reading I cannot conceive, and, as to its being ‘‘ a commentary,’’ 
I cannot help asking, do these gentlemen know what a commentary is? But, is it 
not true that I have said 2s. 6d. per 1000 feet is required for such purpose in Read- 
ing; I merely stated as you may find, on reference to my report, that 2s. 3d, was 
required by the Great Central Gas Company in London, to pay a dividend of 8 per 
cent. on their capital, and this statement rests on facts and proofs which are patent 
to the world ; but, instead of stating that 2s. 6d. was required for such purpose at 
Reading, I said, that sum, at the most, was all that would be /eft for it out of the 
5s. per 1000, which I again assert is all that is realized by the Reading companies, 
for all the gas they sell; but, from this 2s. 6d., various deductions have to be made for 
rates, taxes, salaries, depreciation of plant, and other incidental expenses, not in- 
cluded in the calculation of the cost of the gas, which materially reduce the amount 
strictly available for dividend. 

What to say to the next assertion of these gentlemen I scarcely know. They say: 
** We believe it can be shown, beyond all doubt, that gas can be made and sold at 
Reading under 4s. per 1000 feet to the private consumer, at a profit ample to pay a 
liberal dividend upon an adequate capital.’’ Ican only conclude that they are ready 
to believe anything rather than the truth, for they have furnished proof of their ac- 











quaintance with the details of the parliamentary contestof last* year, between the 
authorities of the various parishes in the metropolis, and the thirteen gas companies 
supplying London, and they must therefore know the result, which was to confirm 
each company in its own chosen district, and to establish and confirm the general 
price charged in the metropolis, that being 4s. 6d.; the only clause which can 
operate to oblige the companies to charge less, being an excess of profits above 10 
per cent. on their capital, and this, too, after hearing all the evidence which could 
be scraped together, from all parts of the country, concerning the wonderful doings 
in the towns where the works are managed by corporations. 

But, although 4s. 6d. has been thus authoritatively declared to be a fair price in 
London, where the gas rental on a single mile of main will range from £1200 to 
£1400 or £1500 a year, they assert that at Reading, where gas will cost, in the first 
instance, not less than 6d. per 1000 feet more than in London, and where the rental 
will probably be much less than £400 per mile of main, “less than 4s. would pay .”” 
And the gentlemen who make this statement plume themselves as being ‘‘ good citi- 
zens and faithful trustees of the interests of the ratepayers ;” but who constituted 
them ‘trustees of the interests of the ratepayers” in the matter? Gentlemen, 
neither they nor yourselves, as members of the local board, have anything to do 
with the matter of charge or price of gas to private gas consumers; you have not a 
shred of authority for interfering, as a board, in the matter ; all that concerns you 
in your public capacity, as “trustees of the interests of the ratepayers,” is the 
price of gas for the public lamps; and, if this position of mine is disputed, let Mr. 
Rogers point out to you the section of the Public Health Act which gives you power 
to interfere, in any way, with the price which the gas companies may charge any 
other of their customers than yourselves; in seeking, if you do seek, to meddle with 
this question, you will be travelling beyond record, and assuming the functions of 
the Imperial Parliament. k 

And, now, gentlemen, passing over five or six paragraphs containing nothing, I 
come to a statement of ‘‘ the considerations which satisfied you that £3 per lamp 
was an excessive price,’’ and these I will answer seriatim :— 

lst.—-“‘ The average price paid during the eighteen years, ending in 1855, 
£2. 15s. 4d. per lamp.’’ 

This, I venture to say, is no reason at all; this price being much below what it 
should have been, in fairness to the private consumers, who were charged, probably, 
at that time more than double this rate ; while, according to the showing of one of 
your advocates, the difference should only be 25 per cent. (See statement of Mr. 
Rogers, in Reading Mercury, of the 27th of July), and I may add that Parliament 
ruled last year that the proper price to be charged for public lamps, is the lowest 
price charged to any private consumer in the district. 

2nd.—*‘ The actual cost of the manufacture being (stated to be) largely reduced 
of late years, therefore the charge should be reduced.”’ 

But, is it true, that the actual cost has been so /argely reduced? Gas-makers are 
not aware that it is so; and, if it were so, the reduction in pricejmade of late years 
generally throughout the country, and certainly in Reading, has far exceeded any 
diminntion in the cost; but, at the same time, it does not follow, that in any case 
where the price charged for the public lamps was too /ow, so low indeed as to be 
unfair to the private consumer, that such price should never be raised. 


3rd.— “‘ The number of public lamps being greatly increased, the price should 
therefore be reduced.” Pes: 

On the principle, I suppose, which a wholesale boot and shoe manufacturer is said 
to have found profitable, who declared that he lost money by every pair of boots and 
shoes which he sold, but he made it answer by selling so many. Surely it is worth 
while to prove first that the low price yielded a profit, before adopting this as a 
reason for reduction ? 

4th.—“ Nothwithstanding all these circumstances calling for a reduction, a 
higher price is now demanded than was paid during the eighteen years prior 
to the ‘ monopoly.’ ”’ 

Certainly, and for the reasons already given, and to argue the opposite is as good 
as to say, if a man once plays the fool he should always play the fool, or (as in 
eighteen years the bulk of the shares in a gas-work may change hands) the former 
shareholders having foolishly supplied the lamps at an absurdly low and unremune- 
tive rate, the present shareholders are bound to be equally foolish. 


5th.—* The lamps should burn 4 feet per hour, and the board has ascertained 
that this has not been the case.” 

The board may have been ¢o/d that 4 feet per hour has not been consumed, but it 
is wrong to say that the board has ascertained this, which means having had proof 
of it; and it amounts to a charge of fraud against the gas companies—a charge 
recklessly made in the name of the board, without a shadow of proof to sustain it. 


6th.—“ The actual testing of the consumption of gas by public lamps in some 
places having been shown to be less, in some instances, than was agreed for.”’ 

Very likely ; and, suppose it to be so, in how many cases are the results of the 
very opposite character! This charge, which was trumped up against the London 
companies, was dismissed by the parliamentary committee last year with contempt, 
and I will not further discuss it. 

7th.—‘“* Having regard to facts such as those referred to in consideration No. 6, 
it was not just that the quantity of gas consumed after midnight should be 
estimated to be 4 feet per hour.”’ 

Not just, in short, to consider that the Reading gas companies had honourably 
fulfilled their contract, nothwithstanding there is not a shadow of proof to the con- 
trary, because, forsooth, some interested professional agitators have got up such 
charges against other companies, in other places ! 

8th.—* If, therefore, a contract were again to be entered into for paying a price 
per lamp, per annum, estimated on the consumption of a given quantity per 
hour, it was but equitable that a reduction should be made in the price, cor- 
responding to the time during which a deficient quantity of gas was known to 
be consumed.’’ 

I do not know, gentlemen, whether to call this curious, novel, singular, erratic, 
ingenious, extraordinary, or what; the language is English, but the argument is 
pure Irish. I was obliged, when I had read this, to *‘ hark back,” and go over the 
ground again, to get the true scent. The translation of this eighth ‘* consideration ”’ 
is, that having arranged and finally settled the terms of a contract with the Reading 
gas companies, it would be but equitable to come to the conclusion that they would 
not fulfil the obligation it imposed upon them! Very well; as a matter of taste, 
skill, and logical acumen, it is @ specimen, but not worth a reply. 


9th.—* In addition to the other grounds for reduction of price, it is claimed 
because the estimated price per 1000 feet was believed to be excessive in 
itself.’’ 
This is the same thing in another form—simply a stated belief that the price asked 
was too high—and has been already answered. 


from 2s. to 4s. in excess of what would be fair. 

This is the same thing over again, there being only one price proposed for the 
service as a whole, that price being £3 per lamp, which, as your have been advised, 
you think too high; all I can say is, that Iam sorry you have been so badly ad 
vised. 

1lth.—Contains no ‘‘ consideration ”’ at all, but refers again to all the others, in 
effect thus :—In consideration of all the preceding considerations, we consider 
&e. 

And these considerations, gentlemen, are said to have satisfied you ; I must say I 
grieve to hear it, inasmuch as they do not contain a single reason or argument, 
except, indeed, the Irish argument contained in No. 8. 3 

Now I come to the remarks upon the arbitration question; and what I have said 
upon this subject I take my stand upon. I say the member of your board who pro- 
posed it (a gas director), was literally put down, and the proposition snubbed—it 
was made to put an end to all further unpleasantness among neighbours and friends, 
and for no other reason ; and, if it had been accepted, it would have prevented the 
publication of the absurdities uttered at the meeting of the 25th of July, and also of 
those contained in the handbill dated the 9th of September,—expositions of folly 
almost without a parallel in the history of gas controversies. 

But we are told, in reference to a letter sent by the companies to the board, con- 
taining an offer of reference, that,it was ‘‘ clogged by some very peculiar conditions.” 
I know of only one peculiar condition contained in this letter, which is, that neither 
party should be represented at the arbitration by their ‘‘/egal advisers.’’ 


10th.—* The amount charged for lighting and extinguishing the lamps was 
” 



































Oct. 8, 1861.] 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT, 


699 





One reason for this, I suppose, was, that the affair might stand a better chance of 
being speedily settled; and another, that there might not be any heavy /awyers 
bills ; and it appears that this condition prevented the acceptance of the offer—the 
proper price to pay for lighting public lamps could not be settled without /awyers. 
Of course not; what should engineers know about the matter? Nothing like law ; 
I remember having heard of a cemetery company, not a hundred miles from Read- 
ing, spending £700 in law, for the sole purpose of enabling themselves to borrow 
£1000; and I have been told that this same company, with a lawyer for a clerk, 
expended, in some ten or a dozen years, £2900 in law, the original capital of the 
company being only £3000! 
As to the inconsistency sought to be fistened on me in speaking of arbitration as 
“fair,” and afterwards condemning it as being ‘‘ neither called for nor ad- 
visable,” I have to say in reply to this charge, that sensible men will not read my 
remarks, and extract such a meaning from them as these /earned men have; a 
course of action may, I apprehend, be described as “fair,’? and it may, at the 
same time, be absurdly fair, inasmuch as it may involve the voluntary surrender of 
an undoubted right, and, therefore, be unadvisable; and I say, distinctly, that the 
directors, in making the offer of arbitration, went too far for the sake of peace. 
They took, also, a wrong step in making the offer to reduce the price for lighting 
the public lamps, which they ought rather to have raised than lowered ; and, instead 
thereof, would have pursued a more consistent and proper course, to have reduced 
the price now charged to private consumers. 


the “‘peculiar conditions”? with which this was “clogged /’? Why, that referees 
were to determine the price to be paid, not only for the public lamps, but by private 
consumers also; and this, too, not simply with reference to the capital actually 
invested, but that the calculations were to be ‘‘ based upon a per centage of 7 per 
cent. upon a properly expended capital ;’’ a very modest proposal, which, in plain 
words, means, that, at the inst: of the Reading local board of health, an inquisi- 
tion was to be opened, to inquire into the general question of the entire gas supply 
of the borough, to examine the affairs of the gas companies, to obtain evidence 
against them from their own books if possible, which might hereafter be made to 
tellin favour of the establishment of the contemplated Corporation Gas-Works ; 
or, failing this, to endeavour to find that they had expended some portion of their 
capital unwisely, and to strike such portion of their capital out of the account, as 
not being entitled under the reference to dividend; in other words, to confiscate 
such portion of the property of the gas companies; and, finally, to limit the divi- 
dend on the remaining portion to a sum, 3 per cent, less than Parliament, if now 
legislating for the same companies, would allow them upon the whole! and because 
the companies would not consent to such a reference as this, they are described as 
being guilty of a “‘ disingenuous subterfuge.” 

Then comes a piece of “practical instruction not to be overlooked ;’’ certainly 
not; I, for one, should be sorry to overlook the fact, and have, indeed, already 
referred to it, namely, the fact that these two very ‘‘ good citizens and faithful 
trustees” have, on behalf of you, the board of health, “ pressed the consideration 
of the price of gas quite as much in the interest of the private consumer as that of 
the public consumer.” No doubt they have, and they have, on this point, meddled 
with that which does not concern them in their official capacity in connexion with 
your board; and you gentlemen, if you rightly understand your own position as a 
public body, know very well that you have nothing whatever to with, nor any con- 
trol over, the gas companies in the matter of private consumption. 

Now we come to a question which has received some attention on a previous 
occasion : ‘‘ what is a fair price for 1000 feet, to be paid for gas in Reading?” and 
again we are taken to Burton-upon-Trent to have this problem solved, and are now 
told that in this town, ‘‘ the cost of producing, and the proper price to be paid for 
gas, has been fully realized.’’ 

I pass over the question of cost at Burton, haying already dealt with Mr. 
Simonds’s figures under this head, and will now illustrate the second part of the 
question,—the price to be paid. Your advocates speak here of that which ‘“ has 
been fully realized,” and yet, unfortunately, have quoted the prices which are now 
being charged, and from which at present no results can have been realized. I 
must confess I was scarcely prepared to believe that these gentlemen could, not- 
withstanding the inveteracy of their hostility to the gas companies, deliberately 
misrepresent facts as they have in the Burton case; but, since writing my report to 
the joint committee, I have obtained some information about Burton, and what do I 
find in a letter, which I have before me, dated from the Commissioners Clerks 
Office, Burton, August 27, 1861, and signed by the commissioners clerk, Wm. 
Coxon? Why the following statements :— 

** The price was 5s. per 1000 cubic feet until the 30th of June last.’’ 

“« The public lights were charged £3. 17s. each, up to the 30th of June last.” 
Whatever ‘‘results,” therefore, have been “ fully realized,’’ have been realized 
from selling gas at 5s. per 1000 feet, and not at 4s. 2d. as Mr. Simonds has told us; 





|} and it is also to be observed that this gentleman has carefully kept out of view the 


fact, that the public lamps have been charged £3. 17s., and are even now charged 
at £3. 12s. Again the ratepayers of Reading are told, in this handbill, that at 
Burton ‘the sum of £1900 was handed over to the public funds in hard cash, in 
reduction of the rates of the town,” out of the profits of last year; but I happen 
to have also before me a printed report of the proceedings, and I find there, that 
instead of £1900, the true sum so handed over is only £1287. 10d. 3d. ; so much for 
the accuracy of Messrs. Simonds and Rogers, and as to all the rest of the clap-trap 
about Burton, and the absurd pretensions put forth by these amateurs about the 
cost of gas at Reading, as to which they have thus afforded proof that they know 
nothing, I am content to leave it to speak for itself. 

Let the board of health go to Parliament and ask for, and obtain, and exercise 
its authority to buy the existing works, and carry out something grand and worthy 
of a great corporation, and a capital of £50,000 at least will be required. Then, 
gentlemen, you would have the satisfaction of possessing gas-works, belonging to 
you as a corporate body, as you have already the satisfaction and honour of being 
the owners and managers of an imposing pile of buildings at one corner of your town, 
which you have dignified with the title of “ Abattoirs,”’ which I suppose might 
have been made useful and remunerative if they had only been properly designed! 
At present, however, I am told they are nearly useless, a monument, silently pro- 
claiming the want of skill or judgment on the part of the corporation, in providing, 
or attempting to provide, for a public want; and now the ratepayers, at whose 
expense this splendid monument has been raised, are invited to sanction another, 
and far more important corporation experiment ;—a corporation which has failed 
to provide suitable accommodation for butchers, is held up as more likely to provide 
efficiently for the wants of gas consumers, than those who, dealing with their own 
funds have, for more than twenty years, performed this service. 

To talk of Manchester, where it is notorious that for years the gas consumers 
have been most shamefully overcharged by the corporation, to such an extent, 
indeed, that it is probable the overcharge alone has amounted to nearly the value of 
the gas-works—leaving out of the question the amount of the additional overcharge 
occasioned by the high-spouted meters for which the Manchester corporation gas 
committee has been famous—is in short, to talk of, one of the worst places in the 
country which can be mentioned as a model; but, suppose Manchester had been in 
~ honest, and true, and fair, have you in Reading any Manchester cotton-mills 
ani War h ': i i 
as many a small country town? 

And now, having returned from Manchester, let us look at Walsall; here the 
corporation were, till a recent period, charging ¢wice as much for gas as they are 
now, and would, beyond all doubt, have gone on thus abominably overcharging the 
gas consumers, for the benefit of such of the ratepayers as are not gas consumers, 
but for the introduction of the mains of the Birmingham Gas Company, by which 
means they were compelled to come down to the present price, and their boasted 
dividend is only calculated upon a small part of the capital employed. 

_Gentlemen, having gone through the statements contained in this very extraor- 
dinary bill, I will conclude by repeating that now the Imperial Parliament has 
decided that boards of health, and other public bodies, have no right to be supplied 
on better terms than the lowest private consumer, I believe the true course of action 
which the gas companies should have adopted, in the first instance, would have 
been to have increased the charge for public lighting and reduced the price to their 
private customers, instead of offering, as they did, to make a reduction which was 
tantamount to 8s. 6d. a lamp, the board of health being charged already much 
lower than the private consumers generally. 


I am, gentlemen, your obedient servant, 
County Chambers, Cornhill, London, Sept. 19, 1861. 





R. P. Srice. 











SOME ACCOUNT OF THE MANCHESTER GAS-WORKS. 
By Joun SHuTTLEWoRTH, Esq., 
Late Chairman of the Manchester Gas Committee. 
{Read in the Statistical Section of the British Association, at Manchester, 
September 7, 1861.] 

I believe it is understood that one of the objects which the British Asso- 
ciation is desirous of having particularly attended to by the communities 
among which it annually assembles, is the exposition of such facts in con- 
nexion with the locality as are of a kind to illustrate any of the branches of 
knowledge to which the association devotes its inquiries. 

In accordance with this general object, I venture to lay before the statis- 
tical section some particulars of the gas establishment in this city. 

The subject is interesting, as it relates to an instance of a large and suc- 
cessful application of one of the most important improvements in social 


,; economy that have distinguished modern times. But, besides the interest 


Now for the proposal for a reference made on behalf of the local board. What were | 


ing, many of them, from a single service-pipe as much gas | . é 4 . 4 . 54 
| gaze at it, manifesting, by their eager and intense curiosity, a vague sort of 





which attaches to the subject on this account, there are circumstances con- 
nected with it which may be justly considered to invest it, in this city, with 
some special claim to general attention. 

Perhaps the most important of these circumstances is the fact that Man- 
chester is the first place in which the regular and complete application of 
gas for economical purposes was successfully tested. This was effected under 
the direction of Mr. William Murdoch, in 1805, at the cotton mill of Messrs, 
Philips and Lee. Before this time, Mr. Murdoch, as an experiment, had 
lighted his own house, at Redruth, in Cornwall, and had also lighted up a 
part of the works of Messrs, Boulton and Watt, at Soho. It is, however, 
evident that he considered these instances rather as experiments and trials 
than as complete applications of gas lighting ; for, in his communication on 
the subject to the Royal Society, and for which he received the society’s gold 
medal, he makes the lighting of Philips and Lee’s mill the title of his paper, 
and says he prefers ‘‘giving the results of the apparatus there on account of 
its greater extent and the greater uniformity of lights, which rendered a 
comparison of the lights less difficult.” This reference to the lighting of 
Messrs. V’bilips and Lee’s mill, as the first extensive and important instance 
of gas lighting, has made Manchester a sort of starting point in all historical 
notices of the subject. 

Another circumstance tending tothe same effect is this: when the illumi- 
nating power of coal-gas first became known, and for a long period after, its 
general use was prevented by the offensive and noxious effluvia emitted in 
its combustion. The removal of the injurious elements which caused this 
objection was a direct result of the scientific investigations of our distin- 
guished townsman, the late Dr. Henry. In the first place, his recommenda- 
tion of lime as a purifying agent, and afterwards his systematic and elabo- 
rate analyses of the constituents of gas, suggested the me as of neutralizing 
or removing its deleterious qualities, and of thus rendering it available for 
general use. 

There is also another fact, indirectly connected with the subject, in which 
Manchester is concerned, that is likewise entitled to attention. The Act 
5 Geo. IV., c. 133, which passed in 1824, under which the commissioners of 
police for Manchester were authorized to establish gas-works for lighting the 
town and supplying the public, is, I believe, the first Act ever granted by 
Parliament that empowered a municipal body to apply public funds to the 
carrying on of a manufacturing business for the benetit ot the public. Until 
that Act was obtained, it was an established principle in the legislation 
of this country not to permit public bodies to become traders. Circumstances, 
however, caused an effort to be made in Manchester to procure the abandon- 
ment of this parliamentary restriction. The effort, though surrounded with 
difficulty, from private opposition and the natural reluctance of Parliament 
to depart, for the first time, from its accustomed practice, was successful. 
The prohibitive policy of Government, in such cases, was abolished; and 
the precedent thereby enacted for Manchester has been very extensively 
followed elsewhere, to the great advantage of the public. 

It appears then, that, in connexion with gas, Manchester enjoys the dis- 
tinction of being the locality where its practical use, on a large scale, was 
first shown; of ranking among its citizens the eminent chemist by whose 
researches its purification was effected; and of removing the parliamentary 
restrictions that prevented municipal bodies from deriving profits, for public 
uses, from its manufacture. 

The success that had attended the use of gas in Philips and Lee’s mill, 
and other exhibitions of it elsewhere, particularly those under the direction 
of Mr. Winsor, a German, in London, excited the public mind to such a 
degree with regard to the pecuniary advantages that might be derived from 
its use, that a joint-stock company, called the * National Light and Heat 
Company”’—the first company established to supply gas to the public—was 
eagerly formed under the temptation of advantages held out, in what has 
since been designated the “ flaming prospectus ’’ of Mr. Winsor, a prospectus 
which promised to every subscriber of £5 an annual dividend of £590, and the 
chance of ten times that amount, with other advantages. It may be easil 
ee, that those agreeable assurances were not realized; indeed, } 
believe the first dividend of any kind from the National Light and Heat 
Company is still in abeyance. 

The failure of this scheme, however, did not prevent the use of gas from 
gradually extending. In Manchester, the commissioners of police, who 
managed the affairs of the town under an old police Act, the 32nd Geo. IIL, 
which passed in 1792, took an early interest in its progress. They presumed, 
no doubt, that the power to light the town, which this Act conferred, im- 
plied also a power to manufacture the light, and that they might, therefore, 
sooner or later, be able to apply it profitably to the lighting of the street 
lamps. They began its public use about 1807, on a very small scale, by 
fixing a single lamp over the door of the then police office, in Police Street, 
at the bottom of King Street. I well remember the sensation which this 
lamp produced, and the crowds that, night after night, gathered in front to 


impression that an element of nature was being developed that would be 
useful to mankind. This experiment was soon extended to the lighting of 
the entire premises occupied by the commissioners; and this further exten- 
sion was succeeded by applying it to some of the street lamps in the most 
frequented parts of the town. 

As the use ef gas thus spread, its superiority to all other light made the 
public anxious to obtain it for private consumption, and several public 
meetings were held for the purpose of urging the commissioners of police to 
extend the works so as to supply the general demand. In compliance with 
the feeling thus manifested, the commissioners made a formal appeal to the 
leypayers at large, by calling a meeting specially for the purpose of obtaining 
an express sanction for that object, and of adopting the necessary means of 
carrying it intoeffect. This meeting took place on the 30th of April, 1817, and 
resolved unanimously—‘ That it will be expedient to adopt the proposed 
mode of lighting the central parts of the town with gas, and for the purpose 
of effecting this object to raise the police-rate from 15d. to 18d. in the pound.” 

Authorized by this and other public demonstrations, large sums were ex- 




















ls 














700 THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 


[Oct. 8, 1861. 


i 





pended in increasing the gas-works, and their general management was in- 
trusted to a committee of police commissioners, denominated “ the gas com- 
mittee.” 

Under this system the gas-works continued to be managed until, in 1823, 
some litigation was threatened to try the right of the commissioners of police 
to manufacture and sell gas to private customers. As the law on the subject 
seemed uncertain, it was thought desirable to obtain a special Act of Parlia- 
ment to legalize what had been done, and to give power to continue the 
works, prescribing the application of the funds derived from them. The in- 
tention to apply for such an Act was — announced; but, while the 
commissioners were preparing the preliminaries for the purpose, a notice 
appeared on the 20th of September, 1823, from persons entirely unknown in 

anchester, and without any previous intimation of their intention, to apply 
to Parliament for a bill to authorize the establishment of a ‘* Manchester 
Imperial Joint-Stock Oil-Gas Company, to light with oil or gas the town and 
parish of Manchester.” On this notice appearing, measures were taken to 
oppose the project, and at the same time to promote the previously intended 
purpose of obtaining a Gas Act forthe town. In furtherance of these objects, 
meetings were held in Manchester, Salford, Hulme, Ardwick, and the other 
won of the parish. Though the opposition to the Oil-Gas Bill was thus 
formidable, yet its promoters, relying on the practice of Parliament, to which 
I have alluded, continued their efforts, and might have succeeded; but, in 
getting up petitions in favour of their bill, they had resorted to the grossest 

uds in attaching forged and fictitious signatures; and, on these frauds 
being proved to the committee of the House of Commons by the clearest 
evidence, the committee, to which both bills had been referred, at once in- 
dignantly rejected the Oil-Gas Bill, and adjourned without making any re- 
port, alleging that they dispensed with this customary formality in parlia- 


the very highest capabilities for business, and at once made the in-|! 
fluence of his talents apparent in the increased prosperity of the gas 
department. Though new to the establishment, and without ,experience | 
of the business, in the first ae he reduced the price 5 per cent., raised | 
the production from 88 million cubic feet to 96 million, or 9 per cent.,| 
and increased the profit from £10,200 to £13,500, or 34 per cent. In! 
the second year, he reduced the price 10 per cent., making the reduction of 
the two vears 165 per cent., raised the production 33 = cent, and the profit 
80 per cent. ‘The prosperity of the works was equally striking through the ' 
whole term of ten years during which he was connected with them. In 
that period, he reduced the price from 10s, 6d. to 53, 9d., and raised the 
annual profit from £10,200 to £31,700. For an authoritative statement if | 
the extent to which the public of Manchester are indebted to Mr. Wroe, I 
take the liberty of referring to a remarkable report made by the finance || 
committee, bearing date the 22nd of August, 1842. In that document, it is | 
shown with a full and clear detail of all particulars, that the benefit derived 
by the town from Mr. Wroe’s services amounted to an annual sum of || 
£45,416. This report is, no doubt, accessible at the town-hall. It is a docu- | | 
ment which ought to be printed for general circulation, as it contains the || 
particulars of the services of one whose ability and usefulness have hitherto | 
been, and may for ever remain, without an equal in this city, and who has 
not yet had justice done to his unparalleled value and worth as a public servant. | | 
Still, with respect to this establishment, and the affairs of the town, cir- | 
cumstances were occasionally arising to indicate the necessity of some more 
comprehensive and efficient mode of municipal government than ordinary 
police Acts could supply. The business and magnitude of this, and man 
other large towns of the kingdom, had clearly outgrown the powers which | 
could be embodied in such Acts. To correct abuses, and to meet the social | 
ities that were constantly presenting themselves, the Act for the | 








mentary page from a motive of mercy to the parties, i as 
they could not make a report without bringing the authors of the fraud and 
contempt to justice. So strong and general was the indignation excited in 
the House, that on an attempt being made, a few days after, to revive the 
committee, the motion was negatived, not in vhe usual way, by a quiet, 
orderly vote, but, as it is stated in the newspaper reports of the time, ** by a 
thunder of noes.”” The resentment thus provoked by one party had, perhaps, 
a reactionary influence in favour of the oiher, for the defeat of the Oil-Gas 
Bill was speedily followed by the passing of the Manchester Act. 

The passing of this Act (5 Geo. IV., c. 133, 1824), authorizing the Man- 
chester Gas-Works, and prescribing their future management, was a prac- 
tical recognition of the principle that such establishments might be created 
by Bape funds, and be conducted by public bodies for the public benefit ; 
and further than this, that the objects to which gas-works especially are 
subservient are more likely to be secured by a general establishment, con- 
ducted under effective public control, by a public body, than by any private 
association founded solely for private gain. In short, that such establish- 
ments are not only legitimate in principle, but are even the best, because 
the most certain and convenient, means of effecting those most important 
public improvements which progress and circumstances make necessary in 
towns, which might not be otherwise effected, and which claim — 
approval as conducive to the good appearance of cities, and the general com- 
fort, convenience, and health of their inhabitants. 

This Act (5 Geo. IV., c. 133) was valuable mainly, for removing restric- 
tions on municipal bodies in such matters ; for legalizing what had been pre- 
viously done; authorizing the continuance of the works, and directing the 
appropriation of the profits. In these respects, the Act was of great impor- 
tance; but it unfortunately left the constitution of the body, which, under 
the Act of 1792, governed the town, and from which the gas directors had to 

chosen, unaltered: thus continuing a vicious system of administration in 
full force, with the almost certainty of creating future difficulties. By this 
Act, the governing body was not composed of a limited number of persons, 
chosen as representatives by their fellow-townsmen, but was constituted of 
all the inhabitants who paid a rent of £30 a year. Those who did this, were 
entitled to become commissioners of police. é 

Under such a system, it is clear that whenever there was any strong col- 
lision of opinion on public questions, persons, on both sides, would qualify 
in such numbers as utterly to destroy the deliberative character of the public 
meetings that might be held; and such was the case. 

In the proceedings, both with respect to gas, and other public affairs, that 
took place for years after the passing of this Act, so great was the excitement 
that prevailed, that crowds of qualified inhabitants became commissioners of 
police; and, for a long period, the meetings that were held were charac- 
terized by the most disgraceful turbulence and disorder. As an illustration of 
the extent to which this excitement prevailed, is the fact, that in 1827, at 
one meeting alone, no less than 665 persons qualified as commissioners. At 
these meetings the most extravagant propositions were brought forward, such 
for instance, as that gas should be supplied to the consumers at cost price. 
The parties most prominent and offensive in this violent agitation were 
chiefly the lowest class of shopkeepers and publicans; and, though the good 
sense of the public at large constantly defeated the attempts to thwart the 
objects of the gas directors, yet the gas directors were subjected to so much 
personal trouble and annoyance through the memorable struggles which 
attended the applications to Parliament for amendments to the existing local 
Acts, in the years 1828, 1830, 1831, and subsequently, that with the view of 
getting rid of the works, in 1833 they appointed a sub-committee to consider 
and report on the eubject. On the 8th of January, 1834, the sub-committee 
reported—* That as the works are now completed, and the town is supplied 
with gas, the time seems to have arrived when the works may be sold 
with advantage.” On receiving this report, the gas board resolved— 
“That the opinions na ene in the report just presented, recommending 
the sale of the gas-works, met with the approbation of this board, and that 
the report be laid before the next meeting of the commissioners of police.’ 
On the same day this report was presented to the commissioners of police, 
a discussion ensued, and the question was postponed to the 5th of 
February, 1834. On that day, at a meeting of the commissioners, it was 
moved by Mr. Birley, and seconded by Mr. Braidley—‘* That the commis- 
sioners approve of the report of the directors, and recommend the directors 
to adopt the necessary measures for carrying the suggestions it contains 
into effect.” On this an amendment was moved by Mr. Neild, and seconded 
by Mr. Adshead, approving of the past management and declaring the 
desirableness of retaining the works. Though the amendment was carried, 
yet the — was again brought before a meeting of commissioners on the 
9th of April, when Mr. John Edward Taylor moved, aud Mr. Neild seconded, 
a resolution—‘ That power should be taken in a new Act to sell the works, 
should future circumstances make it desirable.’ This motion, however, was 
withdrawn, on a general understanding that all objections tothe management 
should be discontinued for the future. The further agitation of this subject 
seems to have been suspended by the appointment, at the time, of the late 
Mr. Thomas Wroe to the comptrollership of the gas-works, and of the com- 
missioners generally. This event, from the benefits that resulted, form as 
distinct epoch in the history of the gas-works. Mr. Wroe was endowed with 








regulation of municipal corporations; was passed in 1835, For the intro- || 
duction of that Act to Manchester, the public is mainly indebted to the pre-— 
sent Mr. Alderman Neild, who originated the movement to obtain it, and |! 
was untiring in his exertions until that end was accomplished. 
The introduction of the Municipal Act to Manchester, among its many || 
other advantages, gave a security and permanence to the gas establishment, || 
which it could not be considered to possess previously. The consequences | 
have been highly important. To the inhabitants it has supplied the best} 
and cheapest light that exists. To the public at large it has contributed || 
regularly funds for widening old and forming new streets to an extent that 
has afforded needful accommodation for the vast increase of traffic, of popula- 
tion, and merchandise, that has grown up among us, and which, without || 
such aid, would probably have been actually prevented by the want of the 
space, in the sireets and thoroughfares, which was essential to its existence. 
In both social and political economy, facility of communication and transit || 
is one of the most important elements of national prosperity, and 
demands unceasing attention to every available means of securing it. In 
this respect, the Manchester Gas-works have been especially useful. 
Before their establishment, it was the standing and universal reproach 
of Manchester that it was the worst and most inconveniently built town in|! 
Europe. It possessed no fund for general improvement, and was so rapidly 
increasing as to make, from day to day, the necessity of such a fund more 
alarmingly apparent. Without the funds derived from the gas-works, the 
necessity, the physical necessity, for wider and shorter streets, would either 
have put a stop to the growth of the traffic, or have rendered absolutely im-| | 
perative, a resort to large improvement-rates ; thus, not only most injuriously | | 
affecting the value of property throughout the town, but also of checking and 
depressing all other interests, 
Such were the exigencies of the town in this respect, that at a meeting of| | 
the commissioners of police, in 1827, a scheme of necessary improvements, | | 
to meet the advancing wants of the community, was publicly brought for- 
ward, which involved an estimated cost of from one to one and a half million 
sterling. Whatever may be thought of the efficacy of improvement-rates as 
a resource in such an emergency, I certainly felt on that occasion (having || 
had some experience in matters of the kind) it was a happy circumstance for 
Manchester, in a threatened necessity of such vital importance to its pro- 
sperity, that a fund existed, in the profits of the gas-works, of sufficient 
magnitude to equal the demand. That these estimates were not overrated is 
clear from the fact that, in addition to improvements still in progress and 
still wanted, the payments from the gas profits, for the purposes then con- 
templated, have amounted to more than £700,000, besides debts incurred |! 
that are yet owing. 
The time allowed for the reading of papers to the sections of the association | | 
necessarily limits this communication to a statement of general results, and 
must be my apology for what I feel to be its very desultory and imperfect | | 
character. Those results are comprehended in the following summary :— |! 
With respect, then, to the protits of the works from the commencement. | | 
In the first year (1818), they amounted to £263. 10s. 5d. In the following!| 
seven years, to 1824, when the first Gas Act was obtained, they amounted to| | 
about £20,000, or about £3000 a year; and of this, £15,000 to £17,000 was! | 
paid towards the erection of the town-hall. From 1825 to 1839 inclusive— |, 
that is, from the date of the first Gas Act to the grant of the charter, a period , 
of fifteen years—the profit was nearly £172,000, or an average of £11,500 
a year; and from 1840, when I became a member of the gas committee, to | 
1859, when that connexion ceased, a term of nineteen years, they amounted | | 
to £660,000, or an average of nearly £35,000 a year, or treble that of the, 
preceding fifteen years, though in the first ten years of that period the price 
was reduced more than 46 percent. In the same division of periods the re- 
duction of price wus as follows:—At the commencement of the works, as 
no means were in operation of measuring the gas consumed, the price was | 
graduated according to the capacity of the jet burners that were used, the} 
length of the flame, and the time of burning. Under this system, the scale | 
of charge is so complicated as to admit of only a very loose approximation of | , 
the rate. This will be apparent from the list I hold in my hand, which | 
contains no less than minety-six different conditions to regulate the price, || 
with a separate charge to each. On this scale, the charge at the commence- || 
ment of the works was certainly not less than 16s. per 1000 cubic feet. From ' 
1825 to 1889, a period during which gas-meters were used, the price was | 
reduced, by nine successive changes, from 14s. to 7s. 6d. per 1000 feet, or 
nearly 463 per cent. From 1840 to 1859, by tive changes, the medium price 
was lowered from 7s, 6d. to 4s, 6d., or more than 46} per cent.; and, but for 
a resolution of the town council, in 1851, by which one-half the profits was 
diverted from improvements to relieve the water-rate, would certainly have 
been reduced at that time, now ten years ago, toa medium of 4s. per 1000 feet. 
The charter was granted on the 28th of October, 1838, but the litigation 
of its validity prevented the powers of the commissioners of police for lighting 
from being transferred to the corporation till the 28th of June, 1843. At 
that time, I was the vice-chairman of the gas committee, and in the same 
year was elected chairman. 
From the uncertainty which seems to have existed up to this time as to 
the gas-works remaining a permanent establishment of the town, no sys- 





{ 



































Oct. 8, 1861.] 


tematic plan appears to have been formed with a view to future extensions, 
either with respect to the street-mains or the stations, But, on the stabilit: 

of the gas-works being secured as public property, by their connexion wit 

the corporation, these serious defects were remedied. A map of the street- 
mains was made, showing their exact position in the streets and their dimen- 
sions, which had not been done before ; and an arterial system of mains was 
carefully constructed for future requirements. At the same time, large plots 
of land were added to the principal stations, and plans made in contemplation 


||of future enlargements, so that extensions might be introduced, not as mere 
|| supplemental and isolated works, but as systematic and sectional adjuncts of a 


uniform, general, and comprehensive scheme. 

The adoption and progress of these methodical arrangements, together with 
great improvements in the organization of the office 4 
blished facility, accuracy, and economy in the administration of the depart- 
ment by the clerks and managers, and, at the same time, have relieved the 
gas committee of much of the trouble of superintendence, aud have also, to 
a considerable extent, secured, on their part, a steady and consistent course of 
management—a condition obviously of great importance in a trading concern, 
of which the directors are a fluctuating body, having for the most part neither 
special qualifications for the business, nor personal interest in its prosperity. 

The manufacture of gas is a subject on which crude and absurd opinions 
and theories abound; and, in some instances, as in the case of the hydro- 
carbon gas, such schemes receive the sanction of high scientific authority. 
Of some of these schemes, I may venture to notice a few as examples. 

In the Wakefield House of Correction, it has been officially stated, I be- 
lieve, in a report of the governor, that the gas made there for lighting it 
costs only 53d. for 1000 cubic feet. 

Some years ago, a proposal, elaborately drawn up, was circulated, to form 
a company to light Bristol with the hydrogen gas which was generated in 
the docks of that city by the spontaneous decomposition of the stagnant 
water; the projectors, seemingly, not knowing that hydrogen gas possesses 
no useful illuminating power. 

Ihave in my hand an advertisement, signed by the patentee, of a patent 
for making gas, in which * the patentee engages to erect a rtable apparatus 
for brilliantly illuminating railways and other places, castles, halls, and the 
mansions of the noble aud the wealthy, with a rich cil-gas, from bones and 
other refuse, free of all cost, and without nuisance, the coke of the bones 
paying all expenses.” 

ut even this scheme, to make gas “ free of all cost, and without nuisance,” 
is exceeded by another authority on gas-making. At a meeting in Sheffield, 
to lay the foundation-stone of the new gas-works there, a Mr. Flintoff said: 
‘Gas is an article which very few persons understand, except in the shape 
of paying for it. But it isan article which you ought to understand, and 


|| which you easily might, for its manufacture is one of the simplest processes 


in existence, and a child may now understand the making of gas. Coals in 
London are sold at 14s. per ton. A ton of coals will yield 10,000 feet 
of gas, and produce 13 ewt. of coke, which in London is worth 9s.; tar 
and other residuums, ls.; leaving the cost of 10,000 cubic feet in London 
4s. Now, look at Sheffield. A ton of coal costs 6s.; the coke sells for 


|| 5s. 4d. ; tar, 1s, 3d.; ammoniacal liquor, 6d.; so that, for 6s, expended in 
||coals, you get 10,000 feet of gas., and put 1s. into pocket.” 


A report of 
these proceedings in Sheffield was published as a pamphlet in Manchester ; 


|| and, on the faith of these statements, Mr. Flintoff was brought hither about 
|| a year ago, and ostentatiously paraded by his patrons through the different 


wards of this city, as a lecturer on the subject of gas. He has since fulfilled 
engagements of the same kind in Edinburgh, Dublin, and elsewhere. From 
this appearance of activity in the demand for Mr. Flintoff’s communications, 
it seems that a taste for novelties of intelligence is quite as popular in the 
United Kingdom as for the ordinary realities of common sense. 

The principal facts, which show the extent and general character of these 
works, are, according to the last published report of the gas committee, to 


|} June 24, 1860, as follows :— 


Amount of capital, £501,328. 14s, 11d. 
Amount of gas produced in year ending June, 1860, 779,150,000 cubic feet. 
Amount of rental, £154,658. 4s. 2d., 
equal to an average charge of about 3s. 103d. per 1000 feet. 
The price of gas within the city is from 3s, 8d. to 4s., or a medium of 
38. 10d.; beyond the city, 4s, 2d. to 4s. 6d., or a medium of 4s, 4d. 
The cost of cannel. . £56,177 19 11 equal to 1s, 33d. per 1000 ft. 
Labourers wages, salaries, ma- 
terials, wear and tear of 
mains, poundage, taxes, and 
wees st ll 43,377 18 2 
Depreciation . . . . « 5,000 0 


£104,555 18 
Lesscokeandresidual products 14,111 19 


Total net cost of production . £90,443 18 11 or 2s, 39d. per 1000 feet. 


ob 


nore 


Interest on loans and liquida- 
tion of debts. . . . £29,561 17 10 

Net profit (nearly 1ld. per 
000 feet) . . . . . 38,217 17 O or £7. 0s. 6d. per cent. on 

——- the capital. 

Gross (do. 20d.do.) . . . £64,779 14 10 or £12, 18s. do. 


The quantity of cannel consumed is stated to be 76,039 tons, which shows 
a production of 10,240 feet per ton. Until 1832, there is no account of the 
gas produced from a ton ofcannel. In that year, it is stated that 49,686,000 
feet of gas were made from 7144 tons, which is equal to 6850 feet per ton. 

The length of street-mains is about 260 miles. 

The illuminating power of the gas is a standard of 25 candles, or, practi- 
cally, about 23, 

In this slight and fragmentary account of the Manchester Gas-Works, I 
have aimed only to convey a very genera) sketch of their origin and progress ; 
of their magnitude and power ; and of the important objects to which they 
have been subservient. ‘Their future condition and utility depend on the gas 
committee and the town council. To both these bodies respective duties are 
assigned. To the gas committee, the duty of general management, involving, 
as the first and most important object, attention to the quality of the gas, so 
as to secure the highest purity and illuminating power. To the town council, 
the duty of determining the price, a duty which demands, on behalf of the 
consumers, a just consideration of their interests, in fixing it as low as is 
commensurate with the amount of the capital employed, and the nature of 
the business carried on. These are the principles of the policy which has 
been pursued for many years past—a policy which has been attended with 
great advantage to all interests concerned, and which, if steadily and pru- 
dently pursued, may be reasonably expected to afford, not only a continuance, 
but a regularly-increasing augmentation of the benefits of which it has been 
a certain and important source, 








epartment, have esta- | 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 701 





PARIS GAS COMPANY. 
REPORT PRESENTED TO THE GENERAL MEETING, HELD MARCH 27, 1861. 


Gentlemen,—We now render = an account of the results of our opera- 
tions during the year 1860, and bring before you the situation of the com- 
pany on December 31 last. But it is our duty, in the first place, to inform 
you that the projected treaty to which you gave your approbation on the 
14th of September, 1860, has been definitively realized. The general con- 
ditions which are already known to you have undergone no change. If 
some verbal modifications have been made in certain articles, it has only 
been to render the sense more clear; the substance remains the same. 

‘The new treaty required some changes in the statutes of the company, 
which have been submitted to the superior authorities with your consent, 
and these changes have been approved by the Imperial decree of the 9th o 
February last. 

The company consequently found itself charged with the supply of all 
the gas which will be consumed not only within the line of the fortifica- 
tions, but also in several localities of the new suburbs, especially in the 
town of St. Denis. . 

With reference to this new treaty we will not repeat the conditions, which 
have already. been sufficiently explained to you; but, it may not perhaps be 
useless now that we are definitively under the régime which it has created, 
briefly to recall to you the combination upon which it reposes, and the 
guarantees and securities that attach to it. 

The extension of the limits of Paris required that the supply of gas, re- 
strained by the treaty of 1855 to the old zone, should be extended to the whole 
network of suburbs. To this end, the company offered its assistance to the 
municipal authorities; but, the new zone being inferior in its resources to 
the ancient one, and they alone being entitled to take the initiative in such 
measures as might be necessary for establishing an equilibrium, it was not 
possible for the company to charge itself with the supply of gas within this 
zone, except upon conditions which did not compromise, under any circum- 
stances, the revenue assured to its shareholders in the ancient network. 

The municipal authorities admitted these conditions. For a period of 
twelve years, they took upon themselves all chance of loss in the supply of 
the zone annexed, guaranteeing to the capital employed a minimum revenue 
of 10 per cent. 

You have duly appreciated the advantages resulting from the creation of 
this capital in new shares at par which participate in the profits of the old 
shares upon the footing of perfect equality, and which have been distributed 
exclusively among the shareholders. Thanks to this concession, we have 
really nothing to fear from any decrease in the profits guaranteed by the 
treaty of 1855 upon our old capital. The ascertained increase in the con- 
sumption of gas during the current year, leads us even to hope that the 
profits may be increased in the same degree to the whole of our actual capital. 

Let us add that the new treaty has put an end to certain difficulties 
which had arisen between the municipal authorities and the company, and 
has prevented the possibility of their return. Of those difficulties, we will 
only allude to that relating to the illuminating power of the gas. The 
charges raised against the company in this respect were entirely without 
foundation, as a slight explanation will prove to you. The burners used 
give more or less light from the same quantity of gas according to their 
form. ‘The treaty of 1855, in repeating the conditions of the treaty of 1846, 
relative to the illuminating power of the gas supplied to the public lights, 
had reserved to the authorities the right to choose the burners to be 
employed for this purpose. But, at the moment of the conclusion of the 
treaty of 1855, no specific burner had been prescribed to the company; no 
new verification had been made upon the burners employed for this pur- 
pose since 1846. It was only fifteen months afterwards, when the authori- 
ties made this verification, it was admitted that the existing burners did 
not comply with the conditions of the treaty. 

If the experiments which led to this result had been made with the 
model burners called Fresnel, designated in 1846 by the authorities, there 
would have been no insufficiency of light to the burners. But another 
form was employed; and, instead of attributing the feebleness of the light 
produced to the imperfect instrument used, it was attributed to the quality 
of the gas. The consequence of this error was to compromise the responsi- 
bility of the company, and to oblige it to furnish the stipulated amount of 
light by an instrument which it had not chosen, and the imperfections of 
which it had pointed out. 

We found ourselves, therefore, under the necessity of objecting to an in- 
terpretation which was contrary to the —_ of the contract, and we are 
happy in having to acknowledge that the authorities, after having sub- 
mitted the question to eminent men of science, have recognized the justice 
of our reclamations. 

Experience having proved that the street lamp-burners, with a narrow 
slit, required an excess of pressure, and diminished considerably the illu- 
minating power, a burner with a large slit, which had been proposed by the 
company, has been adopted, and has been substituted for the old burner 
throughout the whole of Paris since the 1st of January last. The public 
has thus obtained double the quantity of light, while the total consumption 
of gas has only been augmented 14 per cent. 

In order to prevent, for the future, all doubt, the illuminating power of 
the gas has been determined by a series of experiments made with the 
greatest care, and the mode of operation has been minutely described, both 
in the treaty and in a special memorandum. The administrative testin 
will cease to be made with the burners used for public lighting, and, for the 
future, will be performed with a standard burner, easy to define, and 
applied in the manner prescribed by the new contract. 

The company will obtain from this verification the official proof that the 
gas delivered to the consumers is of the quality required by the contract; 
difficulties on this ground, therefore, are rendered impossible, 

We also congratulate ourselves that the verifications which the municipal 
administration has been called upon to make, in connexion with the new 
treaty, has completely initiated them into the details of our industry. The 
examination which it undertook, and the appreciation that it has been able 
to make of the ramifications of our service, and the innumerable details 
which it comprises, have excited its interest, and obtained for us its confi- 
dence. Our undertaking, in effect, has to provide for the public lighting 
upon a length of nearly 500 miles of public roads. It supplies gas along 
this line to 48,000 consumers; and the number of servants and workmen 
that it employs is about 4000. 

You will thus see, gentlemen, that, by the treaty which extends our ser- 
vice to the whole network of Paris, and thus gives to our former rights a 
new development, we are placed in possession of the largest undertaking 
connected with gas which has been concentrated in the hands of one com- 
pany. 

Our undertaking has followed the law of progression of previous years, 
In 1859, the quantity of gas supplied amounted to 2,225,429,758 cubic feet, 
In 1860, we delivered for consumption 2,472,120,000 cubic feet from our 








— 








—_ 








4 
+ = 


THE JOURNAL OF G 








702 





receipts for gas, which in 1859 were £603,863, have increased in 1860 to 
£678,474. These figures constitute an increase of 11°63 per cent. upon the 
consumption, and 12°36 per cent. upon the receipts. It must, however, be 
remarked that the consumption and the receipts have been slightly aug- 
mented, during the last quarter of 1860, by the exceptional circumstance 
that we have been obliged to furnish gas from our works at La Villette and 
the Ternes to the district of the Northern Company, the works at Batig- 
nolles not having been able to produce the quantity which was necessary 
to supply the demand. 

Coals.—The average price of coals is again slightly below that of the 
year 1859; the difference is about 2 per cent. 

Coke.—The measures taken for the sale of coke have relieved us not only 
of the quantity made during the year, but also of the large stock on hand 
on the lst of January, 1860. We have by these means been able to avoid 
the expense of storing it, and the consequent loss in bulk arising therefrom. 
We have thus saved about 6/10ths of a penny per bushel, or about 9 per 
cent, in value. The use of coke for domestic purposes is increasing, and we 
favour this development by continuing to introduce all the improvements 
in its manufacture of which it is susceptible. 

Heating Apparatus.—Last year, we informed you that the company had 
caused apparatus to be manufactured for the purpose of obtaining heat at 
once economical, easy, and healthy, by the combustion of coke. This 
manufacture has hot been undertaken with any view to profit, but solely 
with the intention of increasing the use of coke for domestic purposes. 

Of these apparatus, we sold in 1860 1344 
And only sold in 1859 382 


The increase, therefore, is . - « 962 

We believe that this sale will increase considerably in 1861; and, with 
this view, we are taking measures to offer nearly 3000 of these apparatus to 
the public for the ensuing winter. All these apparatus act well, and give 
general satisfaction. The selling price, which is the cost price, is very low, 
and does not exceed, on the average, 34s. each, which we hope to reduce 
still lower. This measure has not been without influence upon the increase 
of the consumption of coke in Paris. 

Chemical Products.—The ammoniacal liquors produced from the distilla- 
tion of coals are, as you are already aware, manufactured on joint account 
with the contractor. They are converted into liquid ammonia, and the 
sulphate and carbonate of ammonia. This manufacture has produced, in 
1860, a profit to the company of £3068, over and above the cost of purifying 
the gas, which is at the charge of this department. These expenses, in 
1860, amounted to £6574—viz., for materials, £3566, and labour, £3008. 
You will perceive, gentlemen, that the profits of this year are less than 


cause of this diminution arises from a fall in the price of all the ammo- 

niacal products. 

The following is an abstract of the working accounts :— 
EXPENSES. 

The quantity of coal distilled during the 

ear has been 283,795 tons (including 

oghead and cannel coal) which has cost £284,629 16 

11,819 tons of coal have been used as fuel, 


_ 


‘ 
































costing ° - mee 7 s 
L206 419 3 D9 
Gas in store on the Ist of January, 1860 ke = 251 4 
Municipal charges, viz.— 
Duty on gas aa anti AN ct £43,178 17 7 
Rent payable for use of sub-soil 8,000 0 0 
Charges incidental to the lighting of 
the city, the maintenance of the 
lamps, &c., and loss on the allowance 
given in the tariff of charges . 2,599 0 0 
Making a total of . S —_ 53,777 17 7 
Government charges, viz.— 
Subsidies = . ° £320 0 0 
Taxes ° ° 3,785 18 1 
— 4,105 18 1 
Maintenance of the works, furnaces, retorts, pipes and 
apparatus. . . «©. « «© © © «© © © « « « 44,199 19 §& 
Salaries and labour at the stations . £37,688 2 4 
Expenses at the central establishment . 27,556 10 0 
Making together i ie ———._ 65,244 12 4 
General expenses at the stations, and expenses connected 
with the distillation. aa ° a + 18418 11 7 
Generalexpenses . . . . .. . _— 11,910 16 8 
Interest on loans and debenture capital - 38,929 13 4 
Subscription to benefit-fund. . . . 4 - ke 9 7 
Ditto to annuity-fund. ‘ 1,020 0 0 
Total expenses ° -£535,817 6 5 
INCOME. 
2,484,415,653 cubic feet of gas supplied to 
consumers* . . . . . . - « » £678,474 12 6 
Coke, atter deducting the quantity con- 
sumed as fuel <r 2s oc ke a oO 
. eae 11,959 3 10 
Gas in store, Dec. 31, 1860 188 8 9 
Discounts and allowances . . . . 6,080 16 9 
Rent of cocks, services-pipe, and meters 18,826 8 IL 
RUOMGQMOMNERED «1 6 6 ce et es 110 6 8 
Profit from the fire-brick and sundry 
EU. + «.s.s «= ©. 7,126 15 6 
Ditto from the manufacture of chemical 
OO «4 we 4 . ‘ * 3,068 5 10 
Total income i are £868,036 1 10 
The excess of income over expenditure thus amounts to .£332,218 15 3 
Out of this sum, a first dividend of 20s. per 
share was paid on the 6th of October 
last,amountingto . . . . . . . £110,000 0 0 
And we have, in compliance with the Sta- 
tutes, carried to the reserve-fund the 
OOE. « «+ + . oe 8 5,789 9 4 
Making together 115,789 9 4 
The profit remaining up to Dee. 31 is, therefore . . -£216,429 & 11 

















* The gas supplied to the public lamps amounted to £39, 295. 6s. 6d. out of this sum. 





AS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT, 


works, exclusive of the works at Batignolles, St. Denis, and St. Mandé. Our | 


those of the previous year, when they amounted to £5026. The principal 





[Oct. 8, 1861. 


| Brought forward . .. . ‘ -£216,429 5 11 
, And the balance brought from preceding years . . . ~. 14,218 10 0 | 
Leaving as balance disposable on Dec. 31, 1860 . - £230,647 15 11) 
We propose to you to fix the dividend for 
the year 1860 at £2. 16s. per share, : 
making i+. sw os o + 2 eee 9-s | 

' Deducting from this sum the dividend of 
20s. per share paid on Oct. 6 . ‘ 





110,000 0 0 








The supplemental dividend to be paid on | 
April 6 will be 36s. per share . - £198,000 0 0 

And the sum to be carried to the reserve- 
fund “a ° 28,977 5 1 





226,977 5 1 
Leav 


ing a balance to be carried forward to the account for 
ee a ae ae ee 


° ° . £ 3,670 10 10 





The total reserve for the year 1860 amountsto . . . 
Which, added to the previous reserve, increases this fund to 


its maximum of. . 80,000 0 0 


EXPENSES ON CAPITAL AccounNT. 
The principal expenses carried to capital account during the year 1860, 
are :— 
1. The sums paid for the concessions and works of Batignolles, Saint | 
Denis, and Saint Mandé. : : 
2. The value of the works in the Rue de Valenciennes, at La Villette, 


. £34,766 14 10 | 





| 
| 


which we have purchased for the purpose of establishing a manufactory for | | 


patent fuel. (We employ for this purpose the coals less suitable for oe 


production of gas, mixed with coke-dust, which we find difficult of sale.) 
Within the works, our principal expenses have been :— 
At La Villette, for the construction of new coke-ovens; new purifying- 
houses, with all their accessories; and the junctions with the Northern 
Railway, and the line which encircles Paris. 


At the Ternes, for the reconstruction of buildings and workshops, which | 


the opening of the Boulevard de I’Etoile compelled us to demolish. (This | 
expense has been covered by the indemnity paid to us by the town.) | 


At the Vaugirard station, by the extension of the works, and the con- | 
struction of new furnaces and new condensers. | 


| 


Lastly, the advantages of exhausters being now fully proved, we have | 


erected them in all the works where tliey did not previously exist. 
Land.—Seeing the constant development in the consumption of gas, we | 


| have thought it prudent to provide for the increase of the producing power || 


| of our works. For this purpose, we have purchased at La Villette 3} acres, 
and at Vaugirard 3% acres of land. That at Vaugirard will be made use of 
| in the course of the present year. 
|  Mains—The length of pipes has been extended in the course of the 
| year by 66 miles,as much for the purpose of conforming to the requi- | 
| sitions of the municipal authorities as for supplying the demand for 
| lighting, when the consumers enter into an engagement which assures us « 
sufficient reniuneration for our expenses, 
| ‘Lhe toliowing is an abstract of the expenses on capital account during 
| the year 1860:— 
| On the 31st of December, 1860, the fixed capital of the 
| companyamountedto. .. . ‘ - +» £3,316,425 
| On the 31st of December, 1859, it was 2,965,083 


year 1860, | 


| The expenditure on capital account during the 
° + « - £ 351,342 


was, therefore 


This may be subdivided as follows:— 
1. The works of Batignolles, St. Denis, | 


and St.Mandé .... - £141,362 8 0 
2. The works for patent fuel at La 

Villette . ....- =. - 413000 0 0 
3. Interest on landed property not used 

in carrying on the works > 57,934 10 0 
4, Expenses on purchase of land. 3,397 1 1 





£215,693 19 1 
From which deduct, indemnity re- 
ceived from the sale of a portion of 
the works at the Ternes. a 


13,980 0 0 








£201,713 19 1 
5. Land purchased . ° . ° 20,882 11 1 
6. Extensions at the works . ‘ 84,012 19 6) 
7. Extensions of mains . ee . . 30,294 2 4 
8. Service-pipes and meters for hire . ° ° 12,164 11 3 | 
9. Plant for the carriage of materials. ° ° 1,604 19 6 
10. Materials and tools et se 6 679 6 4 


Making together . eos 

This increase in the expenditure is caused principally by the augmenta- | 
tion in our producing power, and in the meaus for carrying on the under- 
taking; and you are well aware, gentlemen, experience has proved that | 

expenses having for their object the increase of the production of gas, far | 

from being a charge, become a new source of profit. | 
In 1855, the year preceding our constitution, the quantity of gas pro- 
duced was . . «  1,342,008,000 cubic teet. 


In 1856 . ; ‘ 1,556,693,964 

=~ Me. a fe 1,845,649,476 ” 

— 1858 . ‘ ea .  2,045,502,920 

— 1859 . ; ‘ » «© © 9225,487,740 » 

— 1860 . . « « «© « « - « 2,484,409,968 ” 
So that, during the first five years of our operations, the increase has been 
eighty-five per cent. 


Upon the promulgation of the Imperial decre of the 9th of February last 
we took steps for the delivery of provisional titles of new shares. These 
titles were to remain in the names of the persons receiving them until 
payment of the calls in full. The delivery of these titles will commence on | 
the 15th of April; and, in order that the names of the persons entitled to; 
them may be inscribed with the necessary regularity, the owners are 
requested to deposit, from the 1st of April, their receipts for the first pay- 


ment into the bank of the Crédit Mobilier. 





ee 








. £351,342 8 1) 


} 
| 























Oct. 8, 1861.] 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 


703 





capital account 


You have seen, gentlemen, that our expenditure on 
A Dr dee tees £3,316,425 13 0 


amounts to. o «© @%s 
Deducting from this sum :— 








1. The share capital £3,360,000 
2. The debenture do. . . 414,920 

£3,774,920 
Upon which there remains to be called up 888,894 


2,886,026 0 0 


The amount of paid-up and borrowed capital is . 








Thé expenditure on capital account consequently 
exceeds thissum by . . . < + om ‘ £430,399 13 0 


It is for covering this sum, of which a portion has been temporarily ad- 
vanced to us on current account, that you authorized us, in our meeting of 
the 14th of September last, to realize the credits opened in preceding delibe- 
rations of the general meeting, by means of loans on debentures reim- 
bursable by annuities. The moment has now come for the emission of 
these debentures, and the application of the products in repayment of the 
advances made to us. After this reimbursement is made, we can reserve 
the four-fifths payable on the new shares, which payments are to take 
place yearly, to the works which may be required for carrying gas into the 
new zone, or for supplying the increased consumption. 

The council of administration, usiug the authorization you have given 
them, have therefore resolved to emit 22,700 debentures of £20 each, reim- 
bursable at par in 45 annuities, to date from 1861, the same as the 25,300 
already emitted. 

These debentures will produce the same interest as the first, the same 
conditions for their amortissement will apply to them, and they will conse- 
quently be of the same value. The price of our first-emitted debentures 
has risen to £18. 16s., and it is now £18. 10s. Under these circumstances, 
the council of administration thought that the new debentures should be 
distributed exclusively among the shareholders, at a price below that quoted 
at the Bourse, and in the proportion of one debenture for seven shares. For 
this purpose, it has been decided that a subscription should be open, from 
the 6th to the 20th of April, at the office of the Crédit Mobilier, where each 
shareholder will have the faculty of subscribing for the number of deben- 
tures to which he is entitled in right of his shares. The price of the deben- 
tures thus subscribed for, with the dividend from the 1st of January last, 
will be £17. 12s. each, payable in cash. For the purpose of affording to all 
shareholders the means of participating in this subscription, sevenths will 
be delivered, which, within six months, must be united in groups of seven, 
and exchanged against definitive titles, it being understood that the inte- 
rest will only be paid upon the coupons detached from these titles. The 
subscription-list will close on the 20th of April, and the debentures which 
shall not have been claimed at that period, will remain at the disposal of the 
council of administration, to be ultimately sold as it may seem best for the 
interests of the company. 

The qo thoroughfares which are to pass through our landed pro- 
perty in Paris, still wait a definitive solution; but such delays, gentlemen, 
are not prejudicial to us, for these properties, which, on the Ist of January, 
1856, were estimated at £231,738, have already acquired a considerably 
increased value, which time can only augment. The profit on this increased 
value can only be obtained by not pressing the sale of our lands. But, for 
the purpose of replacing the capital, provisionally unproductive, we have 
had to augment, in an equivalent proportion, the borrowed capital, the 
interest upon which bears heavily upon the undertaking, and reduces, pro 
tanto, the amount of the dividend. Now, so as not to absorb in the assets 
of the capital account, to the injury of the manufacturing account, a value 
which should be divided amongst the shareholders, it is necessary that, as 
the sales of this property take place, and upon the increased value being 
realized, the interest of the capital represented by them on the Ist of 
January, 1856, should be credited to the manufacturing account. ‘The 
principle of this restitution is incontestable; and, in order to insure the 
exact application of it, a special account of it appears in the balance-sheet 
we have put before you. 

Compagnie du Nord—The company called the Compagnie du Nord was 
annexed to ours on the conditions we announced to you at the last meeting. 
According to the terms of the Act passed before M. Mocquard, of the 7th of 
February last, the consideration agreed to be paid to this company in ex- 
change for its undertaking, was immediately handed over, alter the torma- 
lities of transfer and of freedom from mortgage. 

Compagnie de 1 Est.—We have already reported to you the acquisition 
that we have made of shares in the Company of St. Mandé. You know 
that this company has continued to carry on its operations under its old 
firm, and in the independent condition that it held under its statutes. The 
motives for this provisional state of things having ceased, in consequence of 
the arrangement agreed to between the company and M. Foucart, according 
to the Act deposited with M. Mocquard on the 20th of February, 1861, we 
are now in possession of all the rights of the old company. The separate 
working — a profit to the Compagnie Parisienne, for the year 1860, of 
£8640. This profit, and that arising from the Compagnie du Nord, will 
appear in the accounts for 1861. 

Benefit-Fund.—The benefit-fund was founded to give our servants and 
workmen who fall ill, or are wounded in the exercise of their functions, the 
medical and pharmaceutical aid of which they may stand in need, and the 
& balf of their salaries or wages during their illness. Eight medical men are 
charged with this service. They have, in the year 1860, visited at their 
homes 2021 sick, the mean duration of whose illness has been eight days. 
The expenses of this service have amounted to. . - £3048 10 9 
The 1 per cent. retained upon the salaries and wages, and the 

sum equal to this retention accorded by the company, with 





the fines, amountedto . . . . . ++ + « « 3064 4 10 
The resources have, therefore, sufficed for the claims upon the 

funds, and the balance to the credit of the preceding year 

has remained intact, amountingto. . . . . . . + 76819 2 


Annuity-Fund.—This fund ought not to commence to be used for the 
purpose of pensions before the 1st of July, 1881, as it is only at that 
period that the agents who entered into the service of the company at its 
commencement, on the Ist of January, 1856, would have completed twenty- 
five years of service; but the regulation permits exceptional relief to be 
granted temporarily to old servants who may have become incapable of 
continuing their work. This faculty has been used, and the relief thus 
afforded amounts to £76 16s. per annum. 

This fund possessed, on the 31st of December, 1860, a sum of £2690. 2s. 5d., 
and, in addition, 100 debentures and 13} shares in the company, of which 
4} were new shares. 











ON THE INFLUENCE OF ATMOSPHERIC 
PRESSURE UPON SOME OF THE PHENOMENA OF COMBUSTION. 
By Dr. Epwarp FRANKLAND, F.R.S., &c. 
{Abstract of a paper read before the Royal Society, June 20.] 

The author has concluded his experiments upon this subject; and, in 
addition to the details of the results which have been recorded in a paper 
read before the Royal Institution in March last,* communicates the 
following :— 

Although the rate of burning of candles and other similar combustibles, 
whose flames depend upon the volatilization and ignition of combustible 
matter in contact with atmospheric air, is not perceptibly affected by the 
pressure of the supporting medium, yet this is not true of all combustibles. 
The rate of burning of self-supporting combustibles, like the time-fuses of 
shells, depends essentially upon the pressurc of the medium in which they 
are deflagrated. Attention was first called to this fact by Quartermaster 
Mitchell,t who found that the fuses of shells burned longer at elevated stations 
than when ignited near the level of the sea. The results of the author's 
experiments with six-inch or thirty-seconds fuses burned in artificially rare- 
fied air, are embodied in the following table:— 





| 


Increase of | Reduction of Increase of 











| 
Average Average | 
Pressure of Air | Time of Time of Pressure cor- | Time for each 
in Inches Defiagration | Burning over | responding | Diminution of 
o! of Six- | preceding | with Increase | One Inch 
Mercury. | Inch Fuse. | Observation. of Time. Pressure. 
| Second : @ 1 | Inches. Seconds. 
30°40 i 30°33 | | 
28°25 32°25 1°92 2°15 } “893 
25°70 34°75 2°50 | 2°55 | “980 
22°45 37°75 3°00 | 3°25 *925 
19°65 41°50 | 3°75 | 2°80 } 1°339 
15°95 45°50 4°00 | 3°70 | 1°081 





There are here evident indications of the rate of retardation being some- 
what greater at low than at comparatively high pressures; but, neglecting 
these indications, the above numbers give 1-043 second as the average re- 
tardation in the six-inch or thirty-seconds fuse for each inch of mercurial 
pressure removed. This result agrees closely with that obtained by 
Quartermaster Mitchell, if we except those fuses which he burned at the 
greatest altitude; and in reference to which some error must obviously 
have crept in. The following table shows Mr. Mitchell’s results uniformly 
with those in the last table. The fuses which he employed were fifteen- 
seconds or three-inch ones, and their times of combustion have therefore 
been multiplied by two, in order to bring them into comparison with the 
six-inch fuses which were used in the author’s experiments :— 











Pressure | Average Increase of Reduction of Increase of 
te) Time of Time of Pressure cor- | Time for each 
Air in Inches | Combustion Combustion | responding | Diminution of 
of | of Six- over last | to Increase One Inch 
Mercury. Inch Fuse. Observation. of Time. Pressure. 
j 
Seconds. Seconds, Inches. Seconds. 
29°61 j 28°50 
26°75 | 31° 56 3°06 2°86 1°070 
23°95 | 34°20 2°64 2°80 “943 
22°93 j 36°25 2°05 97 2°113 








Here, omitting the last determination as abnormal, we have the average 
retardation, in the combustion of a six-inch fuse, for each diminution of 
one-inch mercurial pressure, equal to 1°007 second, which coincides almost 
exactly with the number (1°043) deduced from the author's experiments. 

The results of both series of observations may therefore be embodied in 
the following law:—The increments in time are proportional to the decre- 
ments in pressure. For all practical purposes the following rule may be 
adopted :—Each diminution of one inch of barometrical pressure causes a 
retardation of one second in a thirty-seconds fuse; or, each diminution of 
atmospheric pressure to the extent of one mercurial inch increases the time 
of burning by one-thirtieth. 

This retardation in the burning of time-fuses, by the reduction of at- 
mospheric pressure, will probably merit the attention of artillery officers. 
Up to the present moment, these fuses have been carefully prepared so as 
to burn, at Woolwich, a certain number of seconds; but such time of com- 
bustion at the sea-level is no longer maintained when the fuses are used in 
more elevated localities. Even the ordinary fluctuations of the barometer 
in our latitude must render the time of the combustion of these fuses liable 
to a variation of about 10 per cent. Thus a fuse driven to burn thirty 
seconds when the barometer stands at 31 inches, would burn thirty-three 
seconds if the barometer fell to 28 inches. Even the height to which a 
shell attains in its flight must exert an appreciable influence upon the 
burning of its time-fuse; to a still greater extent, however, must the time} 
of combustion be affected by the position of the fuse during the flight of} 
the shell. If it precede the shell, the time of burning must obviously be} 
considerably shorter than if it follow in the comparatively vacuous space 
behind the shell. 

The apparently opposite conclusions to which we are led as regards the 
influence of ctaeaphesie pressure upon the rate of combustion, by the ex- 
periments upon candles on the one hand, and upon time-fuses on the other, 
are by no means irreconcileable; in fact, an examination into the conditions 
of combustion in the two cases scarcely leaves room for the expectation of 
any other result. In the combustion of a candle, the author proves that, 
at all pressures, there is a sufficient supply of melted combustible matter 
kept up at the base of the exposed portion of the wick—the capillarity of 
the latter is not affected by pressure; and, as the temperature of the flame 
is also proved to remain practically constant, effecting the evaporation of 
the same amount of combustible matter under all pressures, it follows that 
the rate of consumption of a candle must be nearly or quite independent of 
the pressure of the surrounding medium, In the deflagration of time-fuses, 
the conditions are obviously very different. Here the combustible matter 
never comes into contact with atmospheric oxygen until it has been ejected 
from the fuse-case. Unlike the candle, the composition contains within 
itself the oxygen necessary for combustion, and a certain degree of heat 
only is necessary to bring about chemical combination. If this heat were 
applied simultaneously to every part of the fuse-composition, the whole 
would burn almost instantaneously. Under ordinary circumstances, how- 














* See page 152 of this volume of the JourNat. 
+ Proceed. Royal Soc., vol. vii., p. 316. 
































704 THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 


—_—__4 


[Oct. 8, 1861. 





ever, the fuse burns only ata disc dicular to its axis; and the time 
snonpint in its deflagration bel nds w the rapidity with 
which each successive layer of composition is heated to the temperature at 
which chemical combination takes place. This heat, necessary to deflagra- 
tion, is evidently derived from the products of the combustion of the im- 
ee layer of composition; and the amount of heat thus 
communicated to the next unburnt layer must depend, in great measure, 
upon the number of particles of these heated products which come into 
contact with that layer. Now, as a large proportion of these products are 
gaseous, it follows that, if ee of the surrounding medium be re- 
duced, the number of igni 8 particles in contact at any one 
moment with the still unignited disc of composition will also be diminished. 
Hence, the slower rate of deflagration in rarefied air. 

With regard to the effect of atm pressure upon the light of gas- 
flames, the author thus expresses the conclusion arrived at:—Of 100 units 
of light emitted by a gas-flame burning in air at a pressure of 30 inches of 
mercury, 5°1 units are extinguished by each reduction of one mercurial 
inch of atmospheric pressure. Hence, the decrease in illuminating power is 
directly proportional to the decrease in atmospheric pressure. 

This law is also proved to apply to gas, the illuminating power of which 
has been doubled by naphthalization; and, consequently, it may be re- 
one as applying to flames in which hydrocarbons are the source of 
ight. 


The investigation has also been extended to the effect of compressed 
atmospheres upon the light of combustion. Great difficulties were experi- 
enced in this branch of the inquiry, as gas could not be used, and recourse 
must therefore be had to other combustibles, which, as already pointed out, 
are liable to certain irregularities. Owing to these and other difficulties, 
satisfactory determinations could ay be made between one and two atmos- 
pheres. In these determinations, the lamp which replaced the e imental 
gas-flame was supplied with — alcohol—a liquid which, whilst afford- 
ing an a amount of light under one-atmosphere pressure, was 
found to burn under two atmospheres without smoke, although at a some- 
what mene pressure it began to evolve unconsumed carbon. The results 
obtained approximate closely to those indicated by the above law deduced 
from the corresponding determinations in rarefied atmospheres, as will be 
seen from the following table, in which, the mean of eleven observations is 
given under each experiment; the column headed “ calculated ” containin 
the numbers deduced from the rate of variation of luminosity in rarefi 
air:— 

Illuminating Power. 

Pressure. Observed.” Caloulated. 

1 Atmosphere. ...... 100 oo ee 100 
2 Atmospheres first. .... 263°7 .... 258 
2 Atmospheres second ... 261°3 .... 253 


Further determinations, in which the illuminating power at three and 
four-atmospheres pressure was compared, yielded results differing widely 
from this law, and indicating a much more rapid increase of light; but, as 
the liability to errors increases greatly at these ere pressures, little con- 
fidence is placed in the numbers. The lamp was fed with a mixture of five 
parts of vinic alcohol and one part of amylic alcohol; it had no appreciable 
illuminating effect under ordinary atmospheric pressure :— 

Tiluminating Power. 

viene Observed. Caleulated. 
3 Atmospheres. ...... 406 - 406 
4 Atmospheres. ...... 959 .... 559 


In tracing the couse of this variation of light under different atmospheric 
pressures, the author calls attention to the conditions upon which the light 
of ordinary flames depends. He shows that it is derived almost exclusively 
from the separation of carbon particles within the flame, and that it is in- 
creased by the augmentation of the amount of carbon thus precipitated, 
and by an increased temperature in the fame; whilst it is diminished by 
the separation of less carbon, and by a reduction of temperature. The 
temperature of flame is not materially altered by the rarefaction of the 
supporting medium; and hence the loss of light cannot arise from a reduc- 
tion of temperature. On the other hand, the separation of carbon particles 
is greatly augmented by increased pressure; thus, candles evolve much 
smoke when burned under a pressure of two atmospheres; whilst even a 
small alcohol flame, which burns with a pure blue light at ordinary pres- 
sures, becomes highly luminous in air four times compressed. Flames 
which smoke at ordinary pressures become smokeless in rarefied air, and 
undergo more complete combustion. Whilst, therefore, the light of flames 
is due to the separation of carbon particles, the latter owe their momentary 
existence to the absence of sufficient oxygen for their combustion; conse- 
prey any influence which causes the more rapid interpenetration of the 
ame-gases and exterior air, must reduce the amount of precipitated 
carbon, and consequently, also, the luminosity of the flame. refaction 
exercises precisely such an influence by increasing, as it is well known to 
do, the mobility of the gaseous particles, and thus causing the access of a 
larger amount of oxygen to the region of the flame where precipitated 
carbon produces luminosity. 
An analysis of the gases evolved from a candle-flame, burning under a 
pressure of only eight mercurial inches, proved that there was perfect 
combustion even at this low pressure. 
In conclusion, the influence of atmospheric pressure upon the phenomena 
of combustion may be thus summed up:— 
1. The rate of burning of candles and other similar combustibles, whose 
flames depend upon the volatilization and ignition of combustible matter in 
contact with atmospheric air, is not perceptibly affected by the pressure of 
the supporting medium. 
2. The rate of burning of self-supporting combustibles, like time-fuses, 
depends upon the rapidity of fusion of the combustible composition, which 
rapidity of fusion is diminished by the more rapid removal of the heated 
gases from the surface of the composition. Hence, the rate of burning of 
combustibles of this class depends upon the pressure of the medium in 
which they are consumed. In the case of time-fuses, the increments in the 
time of burning are proportional to the decrements in the pressure of the 
surrounding medium. 
3. The luminosity of ordinary flames depends upon the pressure of the 
supporting medium; and, between certain limits, the decrease in illumi- 
nating power is directly proportional to the decrease in atmospheric pres- 
sure. 
4, The variation in the illuminating power of flame by alterations in the 
pressure of the supporting medium depends chiefly, if not entirely, upon 
the ready access of atmospheric oxygen to, or its comparative exclusion 
from, the interior of the flame. 
5. Down to a certain minimum limit, the more rarefied the atmosphere 
in which flame burns, the more complete is its combustion. 











AMERICAN LEGISLATION 
FOR THE INSPECTION AND STAMPING OF GAS-METERS. 
CoMMONWEALTH OF MASSACHUSETTS. 

AN ACT FOR THE INSPECTION OF GAS-METERS, THE 
PROTECTION OF GAS CONSUMERS, AND THE PROTECTION AND REGULATION 
OF GASLIGHT COMPANIES. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of ives, in General Court 
assembled, and by the authority of the same, as follows :— 

Secrion 1. The governor shall, with the advice and consent of the coun- 
cil, appoint an inspector of gas-meters and of illuminating gas, whose office 
shall be in the city of Boston, and whose duty it shall be when required, as 
hereinafter provided, to inspect, examine, prove, and ascertain the accuracy 
of any and all gas-meters to be used for measuring the quantity of illumi- 
nating gas to be furnished to or for the use of any person or persons; and, 
when found to be correct, to seal, stamp, or mark, all such meters, and 
each of them, with some suitable device, and with his name, the date of his 
inspection, and the number of burners it is calculated to supply. Such 
device shall be recorded in the office of the secretary of the Commonwealth. 

2. He shall hold his office for the term of three years from the time of 
his appointment, and until the appointment of his successor, but may be 
removed by the governor and council at their pleasure, and he shall receive 
an annual salary of three thousand dollars, which shall include his office- 
rent and expenses, to be paid out of the treasury on the warrant of his 
excellency the governor. Such inspector shall not in any way or manner, 
directly or indirectly, be interested pecuniarily in the manufacture or sale 
of illuminating gas or gas-meters, or of any article or commodity used by 
gaslight companies, or for any purpose connected with the consumption of 
gas, or with any gas company; and shall not give certificates or written 
opinions to any maker or vendor of any meter, or of any such article or 
commodity; and he shall be duly sworn to the faithful performance of his 
duties, and shall give bonds in the sum of five thousand dollars for the 
faithful discharge of the same; y however, that no warrant shall be 
drawn for the whole, or any part of the salary of said commissioner, for 
any larger amount than may have been actually paid into the treasury of 

the Commonwealth. ; F 

3. Said inspector shall, within three months after his appointment, 
furnish to the treasurer and receiver-general a list of all the gaslight com- 

panies in operation in the Commonwealth; and his salary for the year then 
commenced, and annually thereafter, shall be assessed and paid into the 
treasury of the Commonwealth by the several gaslight — in this 
Commonwealth, in amounts proportionate to their apprai valuation, as 
declared in the returns required in the general statutes of this Common- 
wealth, chapter sixty-eight, section twenty ; and, in case such gaslight com- 
panies, or any or either of them, shall refuse or neglect to pay. into the 
treasury the amount or portion of said salary which shall be by said 
treasurer required of them respectively, for the space of thirty days after 
written notice given by said treasurer to them respectively, to make such 
payment, then the said treasurer shall institute an action in the name of, 
and for the use of, the Commonwealth, against any such delinquent gas- 
light company for their said portion or amount of such salary, with interest 
thereon at the rate of ten per cent. per annum, from the time when said 
notice to make such payment was given, and the costs of the action. : 

4. Whenever the inspector shall find himself unable to attend to his 
duties in any city or town of said county, he shall appoint temporarily, and 
for such time as he may deem expedient, one or more deputy-inspectors of 
meters for such county, who shall act under his direction; they shail be 
duly sworn to the faithful performance of their duties, and shall not in any 
manner be connected with, or employed by any gas company, and shall be 
subject to the same disabilities as are set forth in section second, and shall 
be paid by fees for examining, comparing, and testing gas-meters, with or 
without stamping them, which fees shall be twenty-five cents for each 

meter delivering a cubic foot of gas in four or more revolutions, vibrations, 
or complete repetitions of its action, and thirty cents for each meter deli- 
vering a cubic foot of gas in any less number of revolutions as heretofore 
described, and for each meter thus delivering more than one cubic foot of 
gas as before named, the further sum of twenty cents for every additional 
cubic foot of gas delivered: provided, however that, in all cases of inspection 
by the deputy-inspector, the gas company or consumer may appeal to the 
state inspector from the deputy-inspector’s decision. i 

5. The standard or unit of measure for the sale of illuminating gas by 
meter shall be the cubic foot containing sixty-two and three hundred 
twenty-one one-thousandth pounds a weight of distilled or rain- 
water, weighed in air of the temperature of sixty-two degrees Fahrenheit 
scale, the barometer being at thirty inches. 

6. No meter shall be set after the first day of October eighteen hundred 
= =, unless it be sealed and stamped in the manner required by 
this Act. 

7. There shall be provided at the expense of the gas companies of the 
Commonwealth, at the office of the ins’ r,@ standard measure of the 
cubic foot, and such other apparatus as in his judgment shall be necessary 
for the faithful performance of the duties of his office. 

8. Every gaslight company with a capital paid in of one hundred 
thousand dollars, or more, and every maker and vendor of meters, shall set 
up at some convenient place upon their premises a gasholder, to be tested, 
and if correct. stamped and sealed, containing five or more cubic feet, by 
means of which meters shall be tested at the average pressure at which gas 
is supplied in the city or town where they are to be used; attention being 
paid to the temperature of the room where the trial is made, of the 
apparatus, and of the gas. There shall be provided by every gaslight com- 
pany, a test-meter of a construction approved by the inspector and stamped 
by him, to be used in cities and towns where no test-gasholders are pro- 
vided, or whenever proving by a gasholder is impracticable or inconvenient. 
In the examination of a meter, the inspector shall see that it is of an ap- 
proved principle, and shall give his particular attention to the measure of 
the dial-plate; he shall prove the meter when set level, and for each 
burner which the manufacturer has stamped it to register, it shall be 
capable of passing gas accurately at the rate of six cubic feet per hour; 
and no dry meter shall be stamped correct which varies more than two per 
cent. from the standard measure of the cubic foot, and no wet meter shall 
be stamped correct, which is capable of registering more than two per cent. 
against the consumer, and five per cent. against the company. He shall 
keep at his office a correct record of all meters inspected by him, with their 
proof at the time of inspection, which record shall be open at all times for 
examination by the officers of any gaslight company in this Common- 

wealth. 

9. Meters in use shall be tested on the request of the consumer, or the 
gaslight company, in the presence of the consumer, if desired, with ed 
apparatus, as provided for in section eight, by the inspector or deputy- 








a 

























morass 0 












































Oct. 8, 1861.] 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 


705 





inspector. Ifthe meter is found to be correct, the party requesting the 
inspection shall pay the fees named in section four, and the expense of 
removing the same for the purpose of being tested, and the re-inspection 
shall be stamped on the meter. If proved incorrect, the gaslight company 


to the consumer. . 
10. Illuminating gas shall not be merchantable in this Commonwealth 


consuming five cubic feet per hour shall give alight as measured by the 
photomometric apparatus in ordinary use, of not less than twelve standard 
sperm candles, each consuming one hundred and twenty grains per hour. 

very gas is to be tested with the burner, and under the pressure best 
adapted to it, and the result shall be calculated at a temperature of sixty 
degrees Fahrenheit. Whenever requested by the mayor and aldermen of 
any city, or the selectmen of any town, the inspector shall report to them 


|| standard, and also whether it is sufficiently well purified from sulphuretted 
hydrogen, ammonia, and carbonic acid. : 
11. Any officer or servant of a gaslight company, duly authorized in 
writing by the president, treasurer, agent, or secretary of said company, 
may, at any reasonable time, enter any premises lighted with gas supplied 
||by such company, for the purpose of examining or removing the meters, 
pipes, fittings, and works, for supplying or regulating the supply of gas, and 
of ascertaining the quantity of gas consumed or supplied; and, if any per- 
\}son shall at any time, directly or indirectly, prevent or hinder any such 
officer or servant from so entering any such premises, or from making such 
examination or removal, such officer or servant may make complaint under 
'|}oath to any justice of the peace of the county wherein such premises are 
|| situated, stating the facts in the case so far as he bas knowledge thereof, 
||}and the said justice may thereupon issne a warrant directed to the sheriff 
|| or either of his deputies, or to any constable of the city or town where such 
||company is located, commanding him to take sufficient aid, and repair to 
||said premises, accompanied by such officer or servant, who shall examine 
||such meters, pipes, fittings, and works, for supplying or regulating the sup- 
ply of gas, and of ascertuinig the quantity of gas consumed or supplied 
therein, and if required, remove any meters, pipes, fittings, and works, 
belonging to said company. 
||™12. If any person or persons supplied with gas neglects or refuses to pay 
the amount due for the same, or for the rent of the meter or other articles 


from entering the premises of such person or persons. In such cases the 
officers, servants, or workmen of the gaslight company, may, after twenty- 
four hours notice, enter the premises of such parties, between the hours of 
eight in the forenoon and four in the afternoon, and separate and take 
away such meter, or other property of the company, and may disconnect 
any meter, pipes, fittings, or other works, whether the property of the 
company or not, from the mains or pipe of the company. ; 

13. Every person who wilfully or fraudulently injures, or suffers to be 

||injured, any meter, pipes, or fittings belonging to any such gaslight com- 
||pany, or prevents any meter from duly registering the quantity of gas sup- 
|| plied through the same, or in any way hinders or interferes with its proper 
|{action or just registration, or fraudulently burns the gas of said company, 
||or wastes the same, shall for every such offence forfeit and pay te the com- 
\| pany not more than one hundred dollars, to be recovered in an action of 
ltort to be brought by the company against such offender; and, in addition 
thereto, shall pay the company the amount of damage by them sustained 
by reason of such injury, prevention, waste, consumption or hindrance. 
14. Every person who attaches any pipe to any main or pipe belonging 
jto any such gaslight company, or otherwise burns, or uses, or causes to be 
jused, any gas supplied by said company, without their written consent, 
junless the same passes through a meter set by the company, shall forfeit 
jand pay to said company the same fine and in the same manner as declared 
jin section thirteen. 





land shall take effect July first, eighteen hundred and sixty-one. 


| 
ON THE ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION OF 
By M. Z. Rovssin. 


ALIZARINE. 


(From the Comptes Rendus.| 

I have already pointed out binitronaphthaline as a fruitful source of 
coloured products; the action of alkaline reducers, such as sulphides and 
protosalts of tin, dissolved in caustic potash, cyanide of potassium, Xc., 
yield with this substance very rich red violet, and blue derivatives. When 
the reducing agents are acid, as, for instance, when a mixture of zine and 
weak sulphuric acid is employed, or iron filings and acetic acid, minute 
grains of tin ‘and hydrochloric acid, &c., the binitronaputhaline undergoes 
no alteration. Inquiring into the cause of this unexpected resistance, has 
led me to study more carefully than heretofore the properties of binitro- 
naphthaline. Among those most deserving attention, the following is 
| beyond all others remarkable :— ‘ a: 

By making concentrated sulphuric acid react on crystallized binitro- 


liquid becomes amber colour. Only after long boiling will concentrated 
sulphuric acid begin to react on this substance. Binitronaphthaline is pre- 
cipitated with its primitive whiteness, when these acid solutions are 
weakened with water. This remarkable stability of an organic molecule in 
presence of so energetic a reagent as hot concentrated sulphuric acid, calls 
\to mind an analogous reaction. If powdered madder-root is treated by con- 
centrated sulphuric acid at 100° C., all its organic materials are cart onized. 
Only one among them can resist this violent treatment, and that is the 
colouring matter of the root itself,—namely, alizarine. Now, all chemists 








|perties, denote that probably it belongs to the naphthalic series. _ 
| The formula of alizarine is generally represented by C.>H,0¢; that of 
\binitronaphthaline by C,,H, (NO,).. An opportune reducing agent, 
|Which, by carrying off two molecules of oxygen, and making nitrogen pass 
jto the siate of ammonia, would probably convert binitronaphthaline into 
jalizarine. Experience has confirmed this idea. By the following process, 
artificial alizarine may be prepared :— 
| Introduce a mixture of binitronaphthaline and concentrated sulphuric 
acid into a large porcelain capsule, heated in a sand-bath. When the tem- 
ama is raised, binitrona hthaline dissolves completely in sulphuric acid. 
hen the mixture reaches 200° C., throw in minute grains of zinc, and in a 
few instants sulphurous acid is disengaged. ‘The operation takes about half 
an hour. Then, if adrop of the acid mixture is made to fall into cold water, 
it develops a beautiful red-violet colour, owing to the formation of alizarine. 
|Sometimes, the reaction becomes energetic, if a large mass is operated upon, 














iknow that the formula of the latter substance, as well as its principal pro- | 


shall pay such expenses, and shall furnish a new meter without any charge | 


which has a minimum value of less than twelve candles; that is, a burner | 


| this jelly appears, under the microscope, to be composed of a mass of yin | 


whether the gas supplied in the respective city or town is of the legal | 


| dissolves in aleohol and ether. 


hired by him or them of the company, such company may stop the gas | 


15. This Act shall apply to all companies who manufacture gas for sale, | 


| solution are then mixed in a test-tube, with about sixty or seventy drops 


| an orange-coloured precipitate, appearing either immediately or very shortly 


naphthaline no reaction is produced. When the temperature of the liquid | 
is raised to 250° C, binitronaphthaline dissolves completely, as soon as the | 





if there is too much zinc, and if the temperature is not carefully attended to. 
In such a case, the sulphuric acid boils rapidly ; abundant white vapours are 
disengaged with extraordinary noise and violence. It must be added that 
the latter inconvenience is easily avoided by adding only small quantities of 
granulated zinc, and by watching the temperature. When this accident 
does happen, the proportion of alizarine is greatly diminished, but still a 
pa rm quantity remains in the residue. , . 

The reaction over, dilute the liquid with eight or ten times its volume of 
water, and then boil it. In a few minutes, throw the liquid on a filter. 
Cooling causes it to deposit alizarine, in the form of a red jelly, sometimes 
adhering to the vessels, sometimes suspended in the liquid. In either case, | | 


distinct ‘pointed filiform crystals. The mother-waters are coloured dar 
red, and hold in solution large quantities of alizarine. They can be imme- 
diately used for dyeing, after dilution with water and proper saturation. 
They contain large quantities of sulphate of ammonia. ‘Some undissolved 
alizarine remains on the filter, which is easily carried off by caustic alkalies 
or carbonates, and precipitated anew by acids. 

In the preceding reaction, zinc can be replaced by various substances; for | | 
example, tin, iron, mercury, sulphur, charcoal, &c., &c.,—in a word, by all 
bodies, simple or compound, organic or inorganic, which react upon and 
reduce sulphuric acid at a high temperature. 

The two following equations describe the reaction :— 

CopHe(NOg)o + jo2M + ,e(8O;.HO) = C,9H,O,) + 
— —_~ 
Binitronaphthaline. Alizarine. 
o(SO,.NH,0) +,.SO,.MO + SO, + ,,.HO. | 
CopHy(NO,g)o + yoC + 34(SO3.HO) = CypH,O, + 
a _——- 
Binitronaphthaline. Alizarine. 
o(SO3.NH,O) + ,,CO, + ,.SO,+,HO. 

In the first equation, it is a metal which reacts on sulphuric acid. In the| | 
second, it is the carbon itself. || 

The alizarine obtained by the preceding process possesses all the character- | | 
isties and reactions of ordinary alizarine. Almost insoluble in water, it | 
It volatilizes between 215° and 240°, with a}| 
yellow vapour, yielding dark red, crystalline needles; but the colour of |’ 
these crystals is rather variable. Hydrochloric and concentrated sulphuric || 
acid will not attack it. It dissolves in caustic and carbonated alkalies, with | ' 
a beautiful deep blue-purple colour; acids precipitate this solution in| | 
orange-red flakes. Like madder alizarine, it furnishes most beautifully | | 
coloured lakes. Artificial alizarine dyes like natural alizarine, and imparts 
the same pure tints. 

The elementary analysis of madder alizarine has hitherto given variable | | 
results. Doubtless, the reason is the difficulty of freeing the natural pro- || 
duct from impurities. The elementary analysis (which I shall make in aj} 
few days) of artificial alizarine, will definitively establish the formula of | | 
this important colouring matter. | 

M. Dumas, while presenting the preceding paper in the name of its|| 
author, remarked, that the identity of alizarine with M. Roussin’s artificial | | 

roduct was not thoroughly established. The elementary analysis of the}! 

atter has not yet been made. It has not as yet been possible to test certain | | 
applications to dyeing, and printing processes characteristic of alizarine. It | 
is to be hoped that the commission nominated will decide the question | 
promptly, the interests at stake being considerable. 
ON THE DETECTION OF BISULPHIDE OF CARBON IN COAL-GAS || 
By Dr. E. HEerzoe. \| 

[From the Chemischen Centralblatt. || 

A solution is prepared by saturating absolute alcohol with ammonia gas. | 
Then a concentrated aqueous solution of acetate of lead is made, and, to 
insure saturation, a small portion of the solid salt is left in contact. Both 
these fluids must be preserved in well-stoppered bottles. 

The gas to be tested, may be conveniently delivered from a length of 
vulcanized india-rubber tubing, to the end of which is adapted a narrow | 
| 
} 
| 





| 





| 
| 


| 
| 
| 


glass tube, about five or six inches long. Five drops of the sugar of lead 


of the alcoholic ammonia. No precipitate will be formed, providing the 
latter solution has not been allowed to absorb any carbonic acid. 
The glass tube delivering the supply of coal-gas, is now immersed in the 
mixed solution to a depth just sufticient to allow the gas to be forced out by 
the existing pressure, and to escape in small bubbles. In the event of bisul- 
phide of carbon being present, the liquid becomes gradually coloured, and 
soon afterwards a yellowish-red precipitate is formed, which, by longer 
action, assumes a brownish colour. If carbonic acid existed originally in 
the gas, then a white precipitate is thrown down, which imparts to the 
yellow-red a somewhat lighter colour. 
As a confirmatory experiment, the gas may be first passed through the! 
alcohol ammonia fluid alone and the lead solution subsequently added, when | 


afterwards, will be formed if bisulphide of carbon is present. In order nd 
meet the objection that sulphuretted hydrogen may perhaps have occasioned 
this reaction, let some of the gas first be passed through a small quantity of 
the simple lead solution. The smallest trace of sulphurgtted hydrogen 
causes a blackening of the liquid, whereas bisu)phide of oarbon does not 
alter it in the slightest degree. 

It should be mentioned that, if the yellow-red precipitate be allowed to 
remain under the fluid, it gradually changes colour, and becomes white after 
the lapse of about twenty-four hours. If, however, the precipitate be 
filtered immediately, slightly washed, and dried, it becomes a dark brown. 

With regard to the explanation of the chemical reactions which occur in 
this process, the interesting observations made by MM. Zeise and Debus 
may be quoted as proving that, by the action of sulphide of carbon on 
ammonia, according to the concentration and temperature of the fluids, and 
the proportion borne by the ammonia to the sulphide, so will the relative 
amounts of the products of decomposition vary. In concentrated solutions, 
and when ammonia is in excess, sulphocarbonate of ammonium and sulpho- 
cyanide of ammonium are formed ; in dilute fluids, and when sulphide of 
carbon is in excess, xanthonate of ammonia. Therefore, by this experi- 
ment, one or other product will preponderate according to circumstances, 
dependent upon the larger or smaller quantity of sulphide of carbon con- 
tained in the gas. In any case, compounds of lead are formed corresponding 
to the ammonia compounds, which possess at first an orange-red and after- 
wards a golden-yellow colour. 

Notwithstanding the complicated nature of the chemical reactions in- 
volved in the testing of gas by this process, the author recommends its 
adoption on account of the practical simplicity which, in his hands, attended 
the working of a great number of comparative experiments. 














ee 








| 














706 


EXPERIMENTS MADE BY THE BOROUGH INSPECTOR OF 
METERS IN LIVERPOOL, ON ALLAN'S COMPENSATING METER. 


Tasxez I. 
5-Light Meter (100,094 Laidlaw's Make), Allan's Patent. 
Meter charged regularly to top of the fountain. 















































Time. Difference per Cent. Rate 
ts EIT Gas- POR Re Me nie <a 
- Meter. | older per 
Begin. End. * | Fast. | Slow. | Fast. | Slow. | Hour. 
15°0 21°9 4 feet. 3°95 “05 a lf | 39° 
23°0 29°6 4 sy 3°95 “05 om lj 39°34 
20 cubic inches of water drawn off. 
| 350 | 41°6 | 4feet. | 3°95 | “05 | .. | We! .. | 39°84 
| 20 cubic inches of water drawn off. 

46°0 | 52°6 | 4feet. | 3°96 | °04 | » g [ .« | ae 
20 cubic inches of water drawn off. 

S70 | 36 | fet. | S06 | OB | .. | 2 | wo | Wee 

20 cubic inches of water drawn off. 

00 | 16°38 | diet. | SOO | Oe TT . | 2 | . | we 
i. pis a a, 
| TABLE II. 

Meter level, and charged to the top of the fountain. 
LOS Des Ae aie eee ot 
Time. m Difference per Cent. Rate 
eR me Meter. holder poe = = 
| Begin. | End. * | Fast. | Slow. | Fast. | Slow. | Hour. 
| 26°30 38°43. | lfoot. | 09875 | 0125] .. 1 7° 
0°30 9°13 4 feet. 3°95 05 a 1 | 27°5 
1] 20 cubic inches of water taken out. 
33°30 | 35°44 | 1foot. | 0°9875 | °01295] .. | 12 | .. | 27° 
20 cubic inches of water taken out. 
38°30 | 45°46 | foot. | 0°9875 | ‘0125] .. | WF | .. | 8°25 
20 cubic inches of water taken out. 
43°0 | 45°26 | lfoot. | 0°9875 | °0125|,.. | lg } | 246 
| 20 cubic inches of water taken out. 
| 49°90 | 53°0 | Ifoot. | O99 | ‘OL | .. | 1 Jf. | 15°0 
(Signed) DaniEL Horton. 








Kinver, STAFFORDSHIRE.—This fast improving town was, on Saturday 
‘last, the scene of some little excitement, arising from the circumstance that 
|on that night the town was, for the first time, supplied with gas. The 35th 
| Staffordshire Volunteer Rifle Corps promenaded the streets, and with the har- 
| mony from the Whittington brass band, a few de joie from the artillery of 
| Hyde Iron-Works, and a merry peal from the church bells, formed an event 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 





| fish has just occurred in the river Ribble, in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 
| A number of men were employed to empty of its water a large tank, at the 
| gas-works at Settle, and they, ignorant of the poisonous quality of the water, 
| allowed it to flow into a sewer, which discharges itself into the Ribble, and 


| trout stream were poisoned. The fish consisted of trout, salmon fry, chub, 
| pike, and a few salmon. Immense quantities of dead fish were taken out of 
| the river, one man having got as much as 1 ewt., and the poisoning extends 
| for thirty miles down the river, and into several well-known spawning 
| grounds for salmon. 


| a few weeks later, for then the principal portion of the trout would have 
| been spawning in the numerous feeders of the river, and would have escaped 
| the deadly influence of the poison. 


which will be long remembered. This beneficial addition to the comfort of | 


the inhabitants is owing principally to the worthy secretary to the company, 
|Mr. Davis, who, being fully persuaded of the advantages to be derived, 
|succeeded in forming a company under the Limited Liability Act, with 





[Oct. 8, 1861. 


a board of directors of some of the most influential gentlemen of the 
neighbourhood, being composed of T. Y. Lee, - the chairman ; 
. Lea, Esq., treasurer ; Williams, Esq., Ben Williams, Esq., T, 
M. Woodyatt, Esq., and T. Boulton, Esq.; and, as a sign of the 
great confidence reposed in them, not a single share is now in the 
market. The works are most conveniently situated on the bank of the canal, 
near the Lock Inn, and fronting the turnpike road, and comprise every 
necessary for the profitable carrying out of the manufacture. The appa- 
ratus was supplied by Messrs. Wm. Richardson and Co., the well-known firm 
of Dudley, and is as perfect and workmanlike as it can well be. The main 
pipes are from Messrs. Cochrane and Co., of Woodside. We understand some 
money and wine changed owners in consequence of the works having been 
so rapidly completed. The thanks of the shareholders are certainly due to 
the superintending directors, T. M. Woodyatt, Esq., and T. Boulton, Esq., 
for the great attention they have given during the erection of their works, 
which will no doubt, in the course of a short time, be in a condition to 
return a fair interest upon the investment. As a mark of satisfaction, it is 
intended to give, by a public subscription, a good dinner to all the workmen 
employed in the erection.—Birmingham Daily Post. ; 
ESTRUCTION OF Fish By Gas Liquvor.—A lamentable destruction of 









the consequence was that nearly the whole of the fish in that well-known 


The unfortunate admission of the poisonous water into | 
the river has been more destructive to the finny tribe than if it had happened 


Dr. J. Norrucore VINEN’s FortTNIGHTLY ReEroRT ON THE Gas SuP- 
PLIED BY THE SURREY ConsuMERS CoMPANY.— 





1861. Number Maximum Minimum Average 
Week of Light. Light. Light. 
ending. Observations. Candles. Candles. Candles. 
Wet. 2t . . « & ° 2 ae 9°93 <<. = 
Mm cis « OS aw ee 9°85 . . 10°80 


” 

The volume of hydrocarbons present averaged 4 per cent. ; carbonic acid, 1°25 
per cent.; sulphuretted hydrogen, none. On testing for ammonia, on Sep- 
tember 18, 21, 23, and 28, none could be detected. The maximum pressure 
was 3inches and 2/l0ths; the minimum, 2/l0ths. The ordinary working 
pressure averaged about 1 inch. During the last three or four weeks, the 
quantity of gas supplied has been larger than for some time previously, but. 
the illuminating power is not equal to the parliamentary standard. The St. 
lave’s and Rotherhithe district boards have, consequently, authorized Dr. 
Vinen to give the three hours notice prescribed by the Metropolis Gas Act, 
preparatory to testing the gas and enforcing the penalties, should it then be 
found to be less than the parliamentary standard of 12 candles for the 5-feet 
argand burner. 











Advertisements. 








M. RICHARDSON and CO., 
Iron Roor, GASHOLDER, AND Gas 
APPARATUS MANUFACTURERS, 
TUNNEL FOUNDRY, DUDLEY. 


F. SIMMONDS and SON, 
RETORT anv BOILER-SETTERS, 
AND CONTRACTORS FOR GAs- WORKS IN GENERAL, FOR 
MATERIALS AND LABOUR, OR LABOUR ONLY. 








OFFICE: 
2, YORK PLACE, KINGSLAND ROAD, N.E. 
Contractors at the Chartered Gas- Works, 
Curtain Road, and numerous Provincial Gas- Works. 
W ALTER MABON, Engineer, 

ARDWICK IRON WORKS, FAIRFIELD STREET 
MANCHESTER, 
Manufacturer of 

IRON TANKS for Gasholders, Railway Stations, &c. 
GASHOLDERS.—Extensive premises at Gorton, 
solely for the manufacture of Gasholders, and other 

heavy Wrought-Iron Structures. 
GAS APPARATUS.—W. M. hasan extensive assort- 
ment of patterns for Purifiers from 4 feet to 15 feet 


| square, also round ones from 4 feet to 10 feet diameter; 


Scrubbers, Condensers, Washers, Columns, Girders, 


|j}and Tripod Patterns, suitable for Gasholders, from 
|| 10 feet to 150 feet diameter, either Single-lift or Tele- 


scope. Contractor for Gas Works of any Magnitude, 
Designs, Specifications, and Estimates furnished. 

WROUGHT and CAST IRON ROOFS for Railway 
Stations, Gas Works, Warehouses, and Sheds, pre- 
pared for Slates or for Corrugated Iron. 

IRON HOUSES, either for Dwellings, Marufac- 
tories, or Public Buildings. 

PIPESand VALVES, for Gasand Water, from2 inches 
to 48 inches bore. 


AMES FERGUSON and CO., Lessees 
@F of the Auchinheath and Craignethan Gas Coal- 
fields (the most extensive and valuable in the parish of 
Lesmahago), respectfully intimate to the Managers of 
Gas-Works and Consumers of Gas Coal, that they are 
prepared to ship the best quality of the above well- 
known COALS at Glasgow or Leith; and alsoto deliver 
them at the railway stations upon, or connected with, 
the Caledonian Railway, to any extent which may be 
required, 

Price, free on board, or delivered at the railway sta- 
tions, may be learned by addressing James Ferguson 
and Ce., Gas-Coal Works, Lesmahago. 

Shipping Agent for Glasgow: 
MR. ALEXANDER STRATTON, 
159, West GEORGE STREET. 


UPWARD’S 
PATENT DRILLING APPARATUS 


FOR GAS AND WATER-MAINS., 





No. 1.—RATCHET-BRACE, DRILL-PostTs, CLIPs, 
Botts, Tar-DRILL, and Nut, for }, 1, 1} in., £9 1 0 
No. 2.—RATCHET-BRACE, DRILL-Posts, CLIPs, 


MADE BY 
BRYAN DONKIN & CO., ENGINEERS, 





Near Grange Road, Bermondsey, 
SOLE LICENSEES. 


| Company, payable at the London and Westminster 
| Bank, No.1, St. James’s Square, on or before the 9th 
| day of November next. 


| amount of the call by the day appointed for payment 
| thereof, he will be required to pay interest for the same 


Bouts, Tap-DRILL, & Nut, for 14 and 2ins., 10 6 0 | 


| 


FoeurtaBLe Gaslight 





W ANTED, a good Second-hand 
DRY-LIME PURIFIER, 10 ft. by 5 ft., and 
3 ft. high. 

Apply to the Falmouth Gas-Works. 





DWARD SANDELL, 
ACCOUNTANT AND AUDITOR, 
4, SKINNER’S PLACE, SISE LANE, LONDON, E.C, 
Joint Stock Companies Books kept by contract, and 
Annual Statements prepared or audited, in accordance 
with the Limited Liability Law. 





T° be sold cheap, Two Governors 
by Parkinson and Co.—one for 10-inch, and one 
for 6-inch connexions. They are both in very good 
condition, having only been in use a few years. 
For price, &c., apply to Mr. E. 8. CATHELS, Gas- 
Works, SHREWSBURY. 





Company- 
Orrice, 21, JouN STREET, ADELPHI. 


NOTICE is hereby given, that a CALL of £5 per 
Share has been made on the New £25 Shares in this 


if any bolder of such New Shares do not pay the 





at the rate of £5 per centum per annum from the day 
appointed to the time of actual payment. 
By Order of the Board of Directors, 
SAMUEL ANDREWS, Secretary. 
No. 21, John Street, Adelphi, London, 
October 1, 1861. 











AND EVERY DESCRIPTION OF 


LIVESEY FIRE-CLAY WORKS, 
NEAR BLACKBURN, LANCASHIRE. 


ORLANDO BROTHERS, 
MANUFACTURER OF PATENT CLAY RETORTS, 


TUBULAR CLAZED SEWERACE PIPES, BENDS, JUNCTIONS, ETC. 
FIRE-BRICKS, TILES, BLOCKS, AND CHIMNEY-TOPS. 












































Oct. 8, 1861.) 


THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 


707 





L AM P-P OS T §! 
suitable for entrances to Public Buildings, as 

well as ordinary street lighting, in upwards of 100 
| different patterns. 


IMPROVED MACHINE-MADE BURNERS 
WROUGHT-IRON BATSWINGS, 

For RaILway STATIONS AND MARKBTS, 
GAS-FITTINGS, CHANDELIERS, 
AND IRON TUBES OF EVERY KIND 
SUPPLIED ON THE Best TERMS, 

AT THE WORKS, 
BARTHOLOMEW STREET, 
BIRMINGHAM. 


WiLtiam BLEWS AND SONS’ | 


LOBULAR LAMPS prass 
of superior manufacture, in Copper, Tin, Cast 
and Wrought Iron. 
Please address in full, W1LL14M Hoop, 12, Upper 
|| Thames Street, Lonpon. 


| 


| a NO CHIMNEY WANTED 

FOR RICKETS & HAMMOND’S PATENT CALORIFERE GAS- 
STOVES, in Churches, Halis, or Shops; and for Conservatories, or any 
close apartment, a Pipe can be attached to carry away the burnt air. 
Wy) y 


9, 10, 11, 



















ae. 
& MU AS 











Sp g 
STRAND, LONDON.—LIBERAL DISCOUNT TO 








AGAR STREET, 





BEST AND CHEAPEST SLUICE-COCK. 





BR 


— 


~ 


OWN AND MAY’S P 


Brass face, 6d. 


~~ 


ATENT. 


Abeve 3-inch diameter, price 10s, per inch. sti nch extra. 


Can be taken to pieces without being removed rom the line of Piping. 


NORTH WILTS FOUNDRY, DEVIZES. 


Wholesale Agents, Messrs. S. and E. RANSOME, 31, Essex Street, Strand, E.C., 
Where 2 Sample may be seen. 


WALTER FORD, 
LATE 
PADDON and FORD, 
@AS-METER AND APPARATUS WORKS, 
GRAY’S INN ROAD, LONDON. 
OF WET AND DRY GAS-METERS, STATION-METERS, 
GOVERNORS, &e. Ke. 
A large number of STATION: METERS, up to 80,000 feet per hour (being by far the largest in use), and 


MANUFACTURER 


| GOVERNORS for MAINS, up to 24 inches, nave been constructed by Paddon and Ford, These Meters 


and Governors possess peculiar advantages as regards strength and freedom of action. 
Sole Manufacturer of PADDON’S PATENT STREET-LAMP REGULATORS, for insuring 
any required consumption. ‘Chese Regulators are in general and increasing use, and references can be given to 
|, Gas Companies who use them for every Lamp. 


EDWIN DIXON, 


WOLVERHAMPTON PATENT WROUGHT-IRON TUBE WORKS, 
Originally established in 1833, 


Manufacturer of Gas and other Tubes, Fittings, and articles of every description belonging to Gas, Water, or | 


Steam. 
E. D. had the honour of receiving the 
PRIZE MEDAL 
warded to this Manufacture by the COUNCIL of the GREAT ENGLISH EXHIBITION of 1851; and from 


he latter date has supplied many towns exclusively with GALVANIZED and other Tubes for Gas and 
| Water, under GOVERNMENT ENGINEERS, 
| 
|| A City, containing 150,000 inhabitants, 
|| has recently been entirely supplied with Tubes made at the above-named Works, and several others with 
| populations nearly as great; in fact, the reputation now acquired induces this notice to the public. 
Large Stocks generally on hand, averaging from one to three hundred thousand feet. 


HYDRAULIC PRESS TUBES, 


to resist 6000 lbs. and upwards to the square inch, extensively manufactured. 


STOCK DIES and SCREWING TACKLE 


E. 


STOURBRIDGE FIRE-CLAY WORKS. 
BAKER and 


(Contractors to Government). 

24 WHARF, HARROW ROAD, PADDINGTON, W. 
Every article mavufactured at their own Works and 
7 Mines, Brierley Hill. 


FIRE-BRICKS, Lumps, Squares, Tiles, 
and Gas Retorts of all dimensions. 


CRUCIBLE and CEMENT CLAYS. 
GARDEN EDGINGS, of various pat- 


terns. 


BUFF and ORNAMENTAL TILES. 
CLINKERS and STABLE PAVINGS, 


noted for hardness and durability, being perfectly non- 
absorbent. 
Shipments on the shortest notice. 


EORGE CUTLER & CQ, 
GAS ENGINEERS, &c., 
London Gasholder and Boiler Works, 
8, Warr, WeENLocKk Roap, City Roap, 
LONDON. 


Rye, Nov. 12, 1860. 
Dear Sirs,—I consider it incumbent on me to acquaint 
you that the alterations recently made on the Rye Gas- 
Works—viz., the addition of a NEWLY-IMPROVED 
WASHER, and other work for the Purification of Gas, 
executed by the experienced workmen under your able 
supervision—are perfectly satisfactory to the Company, 

and the Gas is now as pure as it can be made. 
I am, dear Sirs, your obedient servant, 
CHARLEs Tuomas, Superintendent, 
Rye Gas-Works. 


N., 





Messrs. Cutler and Co. 


EST and GREGSON, Gas-Mete 
MANUFACTURERS, &e. 
UNION STREET, OLDHAM. 

Station and Experimental Meters, Gas Pressure 
Registers, Gauges, Experimental Gasholders, Go- 
vernors, Slide Valves, &c. &c. 

W. and G, would respectfully call the attention of 
Gas Engineers and Managers to their Station-meters, 
having made and erected the largest in use at the 
present time, two of which may be seen at the Stock- 
port and Liverpool Gas Works, on application to the 
respective Engineers. 








Now ready, 


OL. IX. of the JOURNAL of GAS 


LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, and SANI- 


| TARY IMPROVEMENT, for 1860, price 2ls., bound 


in cloth and lettered. A few copies of Vols. 11., III, 
IV., V., VI., VIL, and VIIL. are still on sale, 
W. B. K1na, 11, Bolt Court, Fleet Street. 


Just Published, price 3s., by Post, 3s. 2d., 


HE CHEMISTRY OF GAS 
LIGHTING, 
with an Appendix containing a description of the 
different processes for the Manufacture of Colouring 
Matters from Coal Tar. 
Re-arranged and reprinted from the JOURNAL OF 
Gas LIGHTING. 
LONDON: WILLIAM B. KING, 11, Bott Court, 
FuEeT STREET, E.C. 


Cc. HOLMES & CO. 
a GAS ENGINEERS, . 
WHITESTONE IRON WorRKS, HUDDERSFIELD. 
Manufacturers of Gas Apparatus, Gasholders, Iron 
Tanks, Roofs, &c. &e. 
Contractors for the Erection of Gas-Works through- 





| Out of any magnitude. 





of the best possible descripton. 
| Every Tube carefully tested with Hydraulic Pressure before leaving the Works, 





Plans, Specifications, and Estimates prepared. 

Makers of the Combined, Condensinz, and Purifying 
Apparatus (especially adapted for exportation), uniting 
simplicity and compactness with great efficiency and 
facility of working. 

References given to Works where it is in operation. 





AMUEL CUTLER, Gasholder 
MAKER and CONTRACTOR 
For Tanks, Roofs, Purifiers, Condensers, Erection 
and Alteration of Works and every description of 
Gas APPARATUS, 
PROVIDENCE IRON WORKS, 
MILL WALL, POPLAR. LONDON, E, 
Main Laying and Gas-Works erected complete. 


ADDISON POTTER, 


WILLINGTON QUAY, 
NEAR NEWCAS8TLE-UPON-TYNE, 
Manufacturer of Clay Retorts, Fire Uricks,and every 
description of Fire Clay Goods, 











ESTABLISHED 17 YEARS. 
FFICE for the Procuration of 
LETTERS PATENT,and the REGISTRATION 
of DESIGNS. JoserpH WILLCOcCK and Co., Patent 
Agents and Engineers, Successors to Messrs. Barlow 
and Co., 89, Chancery Lane, Lonpon, W.C. 

GRATIS, and post free, * THE INVENTOR’S 
MANUAL;” also a pamphlet, * L’Obtention de Pa- 
tentes Anglaises;”” 500 MECHANICAL MOVE- 
MENTS; the first part of Kinematics, or the Trans- 
formation of Motion. By JoseruH WiLtcock, C.E., 
Mem. Soc. of Eng. May ve hadat the above address, 
and of any Bookseller. Price 2s. 6d. The second 
part is app hi pletion, and will shortly be 
announced. 
































708 THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT, [Oct. 8, 1861. 
OBERT MACLAREN and CO, | TESLIES PATENTS: Gas and | (WILLIAM STEPHENSON & SONS, 














. Balancer FOUNDRY, GLAsGow. . = Pcs as pa ony increased in THROCKLEY, 

apufacturers of all sizes of Cast-Iron Main Pipes, by | value.—60, Conduit Street, LonpoN, W. 

animproved Patent. General Ironfounders, Gas En- NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE, 

gineers, and Wrought-Iron Tube Makers. ESLIE’S PATEN TS: Up to | MANUFACTURERS or EVERY DESCRIPTION or 

p Forty Candle Gas.—60, Conduit Street, LonDON, FIRE BRICKS, CLAY RETORTS, LUMPS, TILES, 
OUSE and CO., Boiler and | w. a | ae 
GASHOLDER MAKERS, ’ : | 76, KING WILLIAM STREET, CITY 

GLOBE PATENT TUBE WORKS, ESLIE’S PATENTS: Licenses A large stock of Fire-Clay Goods always on hand in 


WEDNESBURY, for England, Scotland, and Ireland, the 86 De- London, at the lowest wharf prices, at Messrs, 
Beg to draw the attention of Engineers and Managers pence France and Belgium.—€0, Conduit Street, | Curistig & Co.’s Wharf,64, Bankside, SOUTHWARK. 
of Gas Works to the superior quality of the Article savage tonehe 























they manufacture, both in respect of theironemployed 
and fe — a te it is — ~y in ES LIE’S P ATEN TS: The ARRI § and PE AR $ 0 N, 
proof of which they can refer to the testimonials of the National Waste Heaps at Collieries UTIL1zED for | 
most eminent Gas Engineers, and the experience of | Gas purposes.—60, Conduit Street, Lonpon, W. BEST GLASS-HOUSE POT AND CRUCIBLE CLAY. 
theprincipalofthelarge Gas Companiesofthekingdom, | —_— MANUFACTURERS OF 
Orders promptly executed. EORGE BOWE R, FIRE BRICKS, GAS RETORTS, &C, 
i GAS ENGINEER, MANUFACTURER, Senneee Se ee eee wenns, 
. 8 ° 
0 Mr. BENJAMIN WHITEHOUSE, AnD —— TRACTS, Late in the occupation of I. and W. King. 
GASHOLDER MAKER, as vag suse’, rae a rae Originally J. Pideock, Esq. 
- Leferences to between and 2 as-Works De- NB. A quantity of best Clay Retores in stock, viz.— 
WESTBROMWICH, Nzak BIRMINGHAM. signed and Erected by the Advertiser. Circulars, 14 inches, 15 inches. 16 inches. 


D’s, 16X12, 15x 14, 2016, 16x18. 





Sir,—I feel great pleasure in expressing my satisfac- 
tion at the manner in which you discharged your 
duties as CONTRACTOR for the TELESCOPIC GAS- 
HOLDER, 150 feet diameter and 60 feet deep, erected 
at this Company’s Nine Elm Station in 1857, From 





BELGIAN CLAY RETORTS. 
LBERT KELLER, Ghent.—The 


removal of the import duties on Earthenware 


AMES NEWTON, 
(Established 1820,) 





|| that period to the present I have closely watched its ermitting the entry of Clay Retorts into England, 
working, and have never found the least defect either Albert Keller, of Ghent, begs to draw the attention of —_ << ae aa MERSRAIE, 
i workmanship or material. the Gas Companies of London, and other Cities, to olesale and for Exportation, 
During the recent heavy gales the Gasholder, | the very superior quality of the RETORTS manu- FALCON DOCK, 78 anp 79, BANKSIDE, 
| although containing upwards of 1,000,000 cubic feet of | factured by him. They can be made of any size, in one SOUTHWARK, LONDON 
Gas, showed no perceptible indications of itsinfluence, | piece, and of any form. The price will bein proportion | pgpor for STOURBRIDGE aNp NEWCASTLE 
but worked as ee ee z the weight, and very moderate in comparison to FIRE-BRICKS, LUMPS TILES and CLAY 
ARD JONES. their value. pater ie bode , , 
Engineer to the London Gaslight Company. Communiations, addressed to ALBERT KELLER | at any Ae See eee 
Vauxhall, London, Nov. 9, 1859. GHENT, will receive immediate attention. GAS AND WATER WORKS. 








WILLIAM INGHAM AND SONS, 
WORTLEY FIRE-BRIOK AND RETORT WORKS, 


HI ——— yes —— 


—— 





W. INGHAM and SONS, having for many years been extensively engaged in the Manufacture of 
RETORTS AND FIRE-BRICKS FROM THE CELEBRATED WORTLEY FIRE-CLAY, 
beg to call especial attention to their RETORTS, which have for many seasons proved to be uusurpassed in quality by any in the Kingdom, their FREEDOM FROM 
CRACKS and’ the ADHESION OF CARBON rendering them worthy the attention of all parties interested in the making of Gas. 
The Works are of such magnitude as to ensure the prompt execution of orders to any extent, 
Estimates for Setting, or Bricklayers sent when required. 


GAS OVENS IN SEGMENTS OF EQUAL QUALITY. 
A large stock of Fire-Bricks, Fire-Clay, Terra Cotta, and Drain-Pipes of all sizes kept in London at CHRISTIE & CO.— 
Wharf, 64, Bankside, Southwark, where all particulars of Prices, &c., may be obtained. 
N.B.—Ezport orders continue to have prompt attention. 


WILLIAM SUGG, 


| MANUFACTURER 0 
PATENT DRY AND WATER GAS-METERS, TEST GASHOLDERS, AND APPARATUS, 


| “EVANS’S” PHOTOMETERS, | 


| Experimental Meters, Minute Clocks, &c., Station Meters and Governors, 
STREET-LAMP GOVERNORS AND LAVA BURNERS, 
19 and 20, MARSHAM STREET, WESTMINSTER. 


| 
'FIRE-CLAY GAS RETORTS, 


| 
'|Made of the most refractory Clay in the world, possessing extraordinary properties of contraction and expansion without 


cracking ; having a true form, and perfect internal smoothness. 


| GLAZED SEWERAGE & WATER-PIPES. 


|| Made up to five feet diameter. Vitrified Pipes, for conveying Water under pressure, made, laid, and guaranteed to stand a 
|| required pressure for six months. Every description of sanitary goods. 


FIRE-BRICKS, IRON, GLASS, & COPPER FURNACES. 


A Pamphlet of Testimonials forwarded on application. Export Orders receive special attention for delivery, free on board, | 
at Liverpool, Hull, or London. Manchester Dépét, Mill Street, Great Ancoats; F. Tesseyman, Agent. 


EDWARD BROOKE, Fieldhouse Fire-Clay Works, Huddersfield. 





























| 
























































Oct. 8, 1861.] THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, 


& SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. 





F. & C. OSLER, 


45, OXFORD STREET, LONDON; 
Manufactory—Broad Street, Birmingnam— Established 1807, 


MANUFACTURERS OF GLASS CHANDELIERS, GLASS 
LUSTRES, TABLE GLASS, &c. &c. 
ELEGANT CRYSTAL GLASS CHANDELIERS, for GAS, from £4 upwards 


(Made from ‘‘Rroeistzrep’’ Destens), with GLass BRANCHES, &c.; suitable 
for DRAWING-ROoOMS and BALL-rRooms. The more extensive use of Gas in 
private dwellings has induced Messrs. OsLER to direct their particular atten- 
tion to the manufacture of this clas: of articles—which, with a view to their 
general adoption, are offered at very moderate prices. Purchasers can select from 
a great variety of patterns, to which additions are being constantly made. 

faxaTRres, CONCERT, ASSEMBLY, aND Batt Rooms LIGHTED BY EsTIMaTB 
ON THE LowasTtT TERMS. 








ALPHA TUBE-WORKS, 
WALSALL, STAFFORDSHIRE. 





y GH PRES 
at Ss on ESSup I Ma 
S 


Established 1830. 


LAMBERT BROTHERS, 


OF 





MANUFACTURERS 


Wrought-Iron Welded Tubes 


and Fittings, 
FOR GAS & HIGH-PRESSURE WATER & STEAM. 


BRYAN DONKIN & CO. 


keep always on stock their 


IMPROVED GAS VALVES 


?, per inch 








from 2 inches to 18 inches, price lls. 6d. to 13s. 6 diameter 


List of prices, with full dimensions of all sizes up to 27 inches, to be 
had on application, 


These Valveg are all proved to 30 Ibs. on the square inch before leaving 
the works. 
BRYAN DONKIN & CO, 
ENGINEERS, 
NEAR GRANGE ROAD, BERMONDSEY. 





Soo 


HOLMAN’S PATENT DOUBLE-ACTION PUMPS 


Prove their general adaptation. They are adopted by 
CIVIL, MARINE, MANUFACTURING, AND MECHANICAL ENGINEERS. 


For Pumping TAR. AMMONIACAL LIQUOR, WATER, WORT, and other fluids, their intrinsic excellence 
is too well known to need description. 

8. HOLMAN tenders his hearty thank: to all Patrons, and is prepared to 
Public and Private Establishments, and Irrigation of Lands,on any scale 

Sole London Agent of the Williams’s Perran Foundry Compa 
and other Steam-Engines, heavy Machinery, Cas atings, 8 and Fors 





undertake the Supply of Towns, 


2 of Cornish Pumping, Winding, 






London Agent for Tangye’ s Patent Hyd: ‘aulie Presses, Jacks, Lift abs, Cranes, Blocks, &e 
ALL KINDS OF HYDRAULIC AND STEAM MACHINERY FOR HOME USE O8 EXPORT. 
Cornish Boilers of superior construction, Steam«Cocks, Cauges, and Fittings. 


__§, HOLMAN, C.HLE,, 18, CANNON STREET, EC. 
WwW. J. HOLLANDS, 


IRON MERCHANT axp AGENT, 
AND 


Wholesale and Retail Charcoal and Coke Dealer, and Grinder, 














12, BANKSIDE, and GREAT SUFFOLK STREET. SOUTHWARK, §f.E. 
ALL GOODS KEPT IN STOCK, AND SUPPLIED AT MAUFACTU — S$ PRISES, 
_ Cast-Iron Socket, Flanch, Hot Water-Pipes and Connexions, 0d Gas, Water, and Steam purposes, Rain- 
Vater-Pipes and Guttering, &e. Furn ree-Pans and Stable-Fitt : . 
» Ke. 8 ype anterns, Co J Rceesters prs, Wro i t-lro 









of ev 
Street-Posts, 





| ew-Cocks, Sluix 
| Cast-Iron Colurns 
jand Pum p-Casting o ve, Mill, and Lathe 
| » for Soap and Chemical Works, Galvan zed Ci ust- “a ” Ia rs , fo 
[rad "Newens tle Fire-Bricks, Retorts, Lumps, Tiles, and Clay. Mz Me ut ble Tr rol 1c 
jtvact. Double-Refined M: achinery Oil. Ire n Borings. Salamm yniae and Sulp 
| Castings made in Town or C wuntry, on the shortest notice, to sketches, Drawing 
} 

| 







Ts ank “Plates, 
od. Cast-Iron 
r Stourbri dge 
Pipe-Laying g by Co 


an 
‘Gird 








hur 





3, or Patterns. 





Best Animal Charcoal, for Sugar Ketiners, and Case-Har neck sd 
Prepared Fuel for Smokeless Stoves guaranteed. 
verized Carson. ¢ 
Gypsum of th 


Best prepared Wood Charcoale 
oe and Water Filters. Chemists and Druggists supplied with Puls 

, and Coal-Dust, and superior strong Coke, tor Foundry purposes 
Sulphate of Ammonia. 


Estimates given, and Orders ly Post punctually attended to the same day. 


Granulated Chareval for 
Yhareoal and Coke Blact 
finest and purest qua 





ke 








AGENT For 


BECK’S PATENT STOP-VALVES, 
For Gas, Water, Steam, and General Purposes, and 


DAVIS'S PATENT COMBINED SMALL-COKE OR BREEZE OVEN, & SMOKE CONSUMER. 














| Gs 


Wirriam RICHARDSON 
(LATE OF DUDLEY), 


CONSULTING ENGINEER, 
PATENTEE OF THE VERTICAL OVEN RETORT 
No. 367, PersHore Roan, 
BIRMINGHAM. 


JAMES OAKES and CO., 
ALFRETON IRON WORKS, DERBYSHIRE, 
AND 
WENLOCK !RON WHARF, 20, WHARF 
CITY ROAD, LONDON, 
Beg to inform Gas and Water Companies and the public, 
that they keep in stock in London all the CASTINGS 
in general use in Gas and Water Works, including 
best cold-blast Iron Retorts, Socket and Flange Pipes 
of all sizes, Pends, Branches, Syphons, Lamp Columns 
of various patterns, &c. 
N.B.—Orders for Cast-iron Tanks, Girders, Celumne, 
Cylinders, and all irregular castings, will have immedi- 
ate attention. 





CHARLES Horstey, Agent. 
C. H. is prepared to carry out the warming and ven- 
tilation of public buildings, &c.; also civil engineering 
in nated 


IRTLEY IRON WORKS, 
CHESTER-LE-STREET, 
DURHAM. 

Manufactory for every description of Casting and 
Machinery for Gas Works and Water Works. 
Warehouse in London for Cast-iron Pipes and Con- 
nections of all sizes and in any quantity, Scott’s Wharf, 
Bankside, Southwark. 
Office in London, Mr. E, M. Perxtns, 78, Lombard 
Street. 





ON ROGERSON and CO., 
NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE & MIDDLESBRO’- 
ON-TEES. 

Wrought and Cast Iron Pipes, Cast-Iron Retorts, and 

all kinds of Foundry Work necessary for Gas-Works. 

Fire-Bricks and Clay Retorts. Gas Coals of every 
description. Pig, Bar, and wate ison. 

Lonpon Hov 

12, ROYAL EXCHANGE BUILDINGS. 





GAS COAL. 


EAL, WALKER, and CO., Coal and | 


COKE MERCHANTS, No. 1, Walker's Buildings, 
SHEFFIELD, beg to inform the Directors and Managers 
of Gas Companies, that they are in a position to con- 
tract for the supply of the different sorts of best Gas 
Coal, such as best Silkstone, Barnsley, and others, at 
the lowest prices, which may be kad on application at 
the above Office. 


ALFRED PENNY, | _ as and 
CONSULTING ENGIN 
WENLocK IRON neem 


709 | 


ROAD, 





21 & 22, WHARF ROAD, CITY ROAD, LONDON. | 


Mr. Penny having had a large experience in the 
construction, alteration, and 1 ement of Gas- 
Works, begs to inform the Directors of Gas ¢ I 
that he may be consulted on all matters app 
thereto. He also manufactures Gasholders, Pu 
and ail the various —- used in Gas-Works, : 
keeps in stock Retor lec - 
Bends, Branches, ‘ 


vane, ape cific 















cations, and Estimates prepared. 





"Stoves, | Gas Baths, Gas Cooking 
PPARATUS, w arranted the best in igland, 
at PuILitps’s, the original inventor a 

and general gasefitter, &c., 55, 
Hill, Lonpon, E.C. 

PATENT SAFETY ATLAS CHANDE LIERS, Sun 
ind Star Burners, Outside Lamps, Pat ¥ 
Lamps, Portable Coppers for either 
Tube in’ Fittings. Best quality for 
Hot Ween, Soe. &e. 
















EORGE ANDERSON, Gas and 


CONSULTING ENGINE ER, 
104, LEADENHALL STREET, LONDON (E.C.). 
DIRECT-ACTING GAS-EXHAUSTERS, 


supplied either with or without Steam-Engines a 
Boilers. 
FOUR- WAY DIAPH acm oe 
nswers the > of E yrdi 


pplied to Pi 





, While the Connecti 


simplified. 
RETORT SETTINGS, 
designed to be heated by Tar alone, and with a total 
absence of Smoke, 
: giving references an d every in - 
ed on application as above, 





Tllustrated circular 
formation, may be obtain 


ENJAMIN GIBBONS, Jun, 
DEEPDALE FI RE-CLAY & BRICK WULKS, 
Near DUDLEY, 
Manufacturer of every description 
Lumps, Quarries, Shields, FL 
or shape required. 
PIRE-CLAY RETORTS, 
TO Monat on Drawina. 

B. G. begs to call the attention cf Gas Companies to 
his Fire-Clay Retorts, which have been used with great 
satisfaction in some of the largest Gas-Works in the 
Metropolis and many Proviacial Towns in England, 

Refereuces given, if required. 








of Fire-Bricks, 
e Covers, &c., to any size 











~——_- 





























710 THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT. [Oct. 8, 1861. 


‘TRUSS’S PATENT ELASTIC PIPE-JOINT, 
FOR GAS AND WATER-MAINS, AND STEAM PIPING, 


Is the only perrect joint that has ever been constructed, and supplies the long-felt desideratum, by allowing for the expansion 
and contraction of metals, and for oscillation and deflection, without impairing the joint. Gas Companies will effect an incal- 
culable saving in adopting it, as compared with the present imperfect mode of jointing. 

Drawings, Estimates, and every particular, furnished on application to 


THOMAS SEAVILLE TRUSS, C.E., 53, GRACECHURCH STREET, LONDON, E.C. 


RK LATDLAW & SON, 


GAS BNGINEERS, IRON & BRASS FOUNDERS, 
Alliance Foundry, 147, East Milton Street, and Barrowfield Iron-Works, 
GLASGOW; 
anp at SIMON SQUARE, EDINBURGH; 


MANUFACTURERS OF 
STATION & CONSUMERS METERS, ALL SIZES; 
WROUGHT-IRON TUBES, ror GAS, WATER, & STEAM; CAST-IRON RETORTS & PIPES; 
HYDRAULIC MAINS, CONDENSERS, WASHERS, SCRUBBERS, PURIFIERS, & TANKS, 
GASEOLDERS; 

GOVERNORS SLIDE-VALVES, &e.; 

WROUGHT & CAST IRON ROOFS & HOUSES. 

Contractors jor Gas-Works of any Magnitude. Plans, Specifications, and Estimates furnished. 


| CLECG’S 
| NEW PATENT HYDRAULIC GAS-METER. 
BISCHOFF, BROWN, & CO., ae 


















LANGHAM WORKS, 


GEORGE STREET, 








MANUFACTURERS 


GREAT PORTLAND STREET, 


SOLE LICENSEES, LONDON, W. 








This Meter is the last and one of the greatest achievements of the late Samuen Cusee, C.E., in his connexion with the 
|Manufacture and use of Gas, and, without presumption, it may be confidently affirmed to be the only Meter extant that can be 
relied upon to measure correctly, to work with the minimum of pressure, and steadiness of light. It cannot be tampered with 





by tilting or otherwise, and will be of great durability. 
This Meter is constructed on an entirely new principle, and, when once adjusted, will always remain the same under all | 
circumstances. The quantity or height of the water in it has no effect on its capacity. The immense importance and economy | 
lof this to Gas Companies who are obliged to employ so many inspectors, doing their utmost to prevent tampering with the| 
| Meters, is so obvious, that they will be able to appreciate its advantages over all other Wet Meters, where the varying height | 
of the water regulates the capacity, and is, in consequence, a perpetual source of annoyance, bad feeling, and litigation, between | 

the Gas Companies and consumers. 
The following experiments clearly point out our advantages, and can be readily tested :— 





Old Water Meter. Clegg’s New Patent Hydraulic Gas-Meter. 

on : : Ry ‘ yaL , » é : a 

: pints above the line .. Sights .. aay pr oe fast. Water on the line linch pressure 5 lights 3 per cent. slow. 
| ” v ’ 45 H 5 1 
_ ee ; aa ' .* a 1 pint below eos 5 3 , 
Water on the line a « ae e . I 1 ; Ta ; re ; 

1 pint below the line 7S «ww «« F a. 7" * — *: _ = © . = 
13 ” ” 5 ” o. 71 ” ” : 99 a9 13 2” ” vo ” right 

1} Pm 5 i 10 as 2 is 2” 3 ” 2 Pte 29 


| 

” ee o- | 
A fluctuation of 233 per cent. A fluctuation of } per cent. 
| The Dram, from its peculiar construction, presents scarcely any resistance when moving through the water; and, its 
|} weight being taken off its axis by an air vessel, it revolves with the slightest pressure. 

The comparative absence of friction in the Drum reduces the wear and tear, and enables it to be made of the strongest 
materials, which will keep it in working order longer than any other Meter. 

It is approved and adopted by the principal London and Country Gas Companies, and is guaranteed to comply with the 
“Sale of Gas Act,” as this Meter, beyond all doubt, works within a shorter range of registration than any other Meter 
manufactured. 

































































Oct. 8, 1861.] THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT, 711 









PATENT SELF-ADJUSTING & COMPENSATING GAS-METERS 
CANNOT BE OVER OR UNDERCHARGED WITH WATER, 


and they consequently register the quantity of Gas consumed with greater accuracy than Meters in which the Water-Line is variable. 


MANUFACTURED BY 


I. BRIGGS, 


(Late CROSLEY & CO.,) 
GAS-METER MANUFACTURER, 
1038, SOUTHWARK BRIDGE ROAD, LONDON, S&.E. 


N.B. The Patent Self-Adjusting and Compensating Apparatus may be applied to the ordinary Meter. 


Manufacturer of LOWE’S PATENT MOTIVE-POWER METER, for situations where there is an inadequacy of pressure to 
supply the special requirements of certain consumers in low grounds during the.day or night. 


Also, Manufacturer of EXPERIMENT METERS, GOVERNORS, MINUTE-CLOCKS, PHOTOMETERS, &c., &c., similar 
to those used by Mr. King, of Liverpool. 


I. BRIGGS is also prepared to supply Gas Companies and others with 


DUPLICATES of Mr. KING’S CUBIC FOOT TRANSFERRER, 


isimilar to that manufactured by Crosley & Co., and verified by the ASTRONOMER-ROYAL, and Prorrssor MILLER, of Cam- 
bridge, on behalf of the Government, which was deposited by them in the Office of the COMPTROLLER-GENERAL of the 
EXCHEQUER, before Nov. 13, 1859, in compliance with the “ Act for Regulating Measures used in Sales of Gas,” He also supplies 


TEST GASHOLDERS, 
Graduated by the Standard Cubie Foot. 


KING BROTHERS, 
STOURBRIDGE FIRE-BRICK AND RETORT WORKS. 


HEAD on MOUTH PIECE 








KING BROTHERS beg especially to call the attention of Gas Companies to the superiority of their Retorts, which are made from the celebrated STOURBRIDGE 
FIRE-CLAY. Mr. King has patented a Kiln for burning Retorts, by which Patent all Cold Air is excluded from the Kiln while burning, thus rendering them FREE 
FROM CRACKS AND CORRECT IN FORM. By great care in Manufacturing, combined with the advantages in burning,a VERY SMOOTH SURFACE is obtained, 
rendering them less liable to carbonize. 


Retort Ovens, Fire-Bricks, Guards, Saddles, Rabbitted Burs, Flues, and Quarries, are all Manufactured of the same quality of Clay. 
Every Retort and Brick is branded “‘ King Brothers, Stourbridge.” 








comnapemegtaiy 1708. 
JOSEPH CLIFF, 


WORTLEY FIRE-BRICK WORKS, near LEEDS. 





THESE RETORTS are unrivalled in excellence, being the BEST FINISHED INTERNALLY, and THE MOST CORRECT IN FoRM, of any in the Kingdom, From the peculiar 
| Composition used in working up the face of the material, they are rendered unusually smooth, close, and FREE FROM SURFACE CRACKS, thus, in a great measure, preventing 
leakage and the adhesion of carbon to their interior surface. 
To meet the yearly increasing demand of UPWARDS OF THIRTY SEASONS and to carry out the late improvements in the manufacture, the Premises have been 
re-erected and much eularged, aud Engineers may rely WITH CONFIDENCE on their orders being completed with a greater regard to despatch than by any other House, 
THE WORKS ARE WELL SITUATED 
( LONDON, LIVERPOCL, 
For EXPORT from the Ports of HULL, MIDDLESBRO’, 

| HARTLEPOOL, and STOCKTON. 

FIRE-BRICKS, LUMPS, GUARDS, TILES, AND CLAY OF THE SAME QUALITY. 





























M. P. NEWTON, London Agent, No. 4, Wharf, King’s Cross Goods Station. 





celfasaahliaiahaueeesseceiapesbememctes nesses ee a ERTL TTD on amma 





































CROLL, RAITT, AND CoO, 


Manufacturers of Croll’s Patent Improved 


DRY GAS-METER, 


| | 
Are prepared to supply their Meters duly stamped, under the authority of the Sale of Gas! 
Act, 22nd and 28rd Vic., Cap. 6. 

Fees tor Stamping charged on Invoice. 
FACTORY: 
CANAL BRIDGE, KINGSLAND ROAD, LONDON, N.E. 


| ALEXANDER WRIGHT, 





712 THE JOURNAL OF GAS LIGHTING, WATER SUPPLY, & SANITARY IMPROVEMENT, (Oct. 8, 1861. | 
| 
} 
| 























55 and 55a, MILLBANK STREET, WESTMINSTER, S$. W., 
MANUFACTURER OF 
| CONSUMERS’ COMPENSATING & NON-COMPENSATING WET GAS-METERS, 
| Of the best material and workmanship, carefully adjusted to meet the requirements of the SALES OF GAS ACT. 
STATION-METERS & GCOVERNORS, 

WRIGHT'S REGISTERING PRESSURE-GAUGE, EXHAUSTER REGISTER, & REGULATOR;|: 

STANDARD TEST GASHOLDERS; 
Consumers’ Governors; Inspectors’ Pocket, King’s, and all other kinds of Pressure-Gauges; Thermometers 
for Condensers, Pressure Registers, &c., &c., 
EXPERIMENTAL TESTING APPARATUS, | 
Employed by the best experimenters in this country and on the continent, and by the Gas Testers in the London districts. | 
|PHOTOMETERS, SPECIFIC GRAVITY APPARATUS, BI-SULPHURET OF CARBON TEST, THOMPSCN’S BROMINE} 

AND HEATING POWER OF FUEL TESTS, IMPROVED ALKALIMETER, EXPERIMENTAL METERS 

AND GOVERNORS, MINUTE CLOCKS, Xe., &e. 

||“ Analysis of Gas for Practical Men,” by A. Wricut, M. Inst. C.E., post-free for 13 Stamps. Paice-Lists on ApPLICATION. | 

































JAMES MEACOCK, | 


PATEN? DRY AND WET GAS-METER MANUFACTURER, 


7, SNOW HILL, AND 16, WEST STREET, LONDON. 
ESTABLISHED 1836. 


J. M. invites attention to his Improvements in EXPERIMENTAL WET GAS-METERS, by 
which he renders impossible any Leakage from the Stuffing-Box. 


| 
These METERS are lanier ad to meet all the eee of the SALE OF GAS ACT 
















GOVERNORS, STATION.METERS, PHOTOMETERS, 


EXPERIMENTAL TESTING GASHOLDERS, HIGH-PRESSURE GAUGES, 
AND ALL APPARATUS IN USE AT THE GAS MANUFACTORY. 















D. HULETT and CO., 55 and 56, HIGH HOLBORN, LONDON, 
PATENTEES ani MANUFACTURERS of the ONLY GOOD MERCURIAL GAS REGULATOR, 
|| invite the attention of Gas Compe wnies and the Trade generally to their Improved GAS-METERS, which they warrant equal to 
‘jany in Quality, Workmanship, and Simplicity of Construction, and the only Meters from which Gas cannot be obtained without || 
being duly registered. MANUFACTURERS OF 
GAS CHANDELIERS, GLASS LUSTRES, HALL LANTERNS, VESTIBULES, BRACKETS, PENDANTS; 
DOUBLE CONE, ALBERT, SHADOWLESS, & EVERY DESCRIPTION OF BURNER, UNION JETS, BATSWINGS, ETC.; 
IMPROVED FULL-WAY CARTER’S VALVES (much approved of); 
GAS-STOVES, and every article connected with Gas Apparatus. 
\CAST & WROUGHT-IRON PIPE, BLACK & GALVANIZED. COPPER. TIN, BRASS, & COMPOSITION TUBING. 
D HULETT’S IMPROVED SERVICE CLEANSER 


| 

| for clearing out Mains, Services, and Interior Fittings—60s. net. 
| 
| 



















Boyle’s Patent Silvered Glass Combination Reflectors and Outside Lanterns. 
{| Sole Manufacturers of Church and Mann's Photometer. 
{ Large Pattern Books, with every description of Gas-Fittings, Chandeliers, &c., with complete Book of Prices, 12s. 





ED 











London: Printed by Wi11am Bovenroy Krno (at the office of Joseph Clayton, 17, Bouverie Street, F leet Street) ; and published by him at No. 11, Bolt Court, 
Fleet Street, in the City of London.—Tuesday, October 8, 1861,