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Six Lessons on Shorthand 



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P.B. TepiDleton 




THE LIBRARY 

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THE UNIVERSITY 

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LAWVEli 



SIX LESSONS 



ON 



SHORT-HAND; 



WITH AiiliK 



OBSERVATIONS AND AD VICES ^'^ ^^^kl 



AS TO THE 



PRACTICE OF THE ART, 



THE DIFFERENT CLASSES OF SPEAKERS WHOM A WRITER 

MAY HAFE TO FOLLOW, AND THE BEST AND CHEAPEST 

MATERIALS TO USE IN WRITING. 



BY P. B. TEMPLETON. 



LONDON : 
\V. S ORR <k CO. AMEN COKNKR, PATERNOSTER ROW. 

MANCHF.STKU : 
UANKS a Co. ST. ANN'S SQUAJIE i A. HEYU'COD, OLDHAM STREET; 

AND MAY BE HAD OF ALL BOOKSELLERS. 

1840. 



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MANCHESTER: 
PRINTED BY A. HEYWOOD, OLDHAM STREET. 



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PREFACE. 



The writer of these pages believing that there was much room 
for improvement in the mode of treating the art of Short-Hand, has 
ventured to present to the public this treatise, hoping that in some 
respects it may be found worthy of the attention of those wlio 
desire to attain proficiency in this useful art. To urge anything 
here by way of encomium on the advantages of Stenography would 
be out of place, it being supposed that all who attempt to acquire 
this art are fully impressed with its importance and utility as a 

branch of education. The few observations which remain to be 

j^ made by way of preface, shall therefore be confined to the claims 
^ which the author would set up in favour of this little manual, with 
*'' a remark or two in reference to itinerant teachers. 

First, the author would observe that his book is written by a 
PRACTICAL MAN — one who has had many years experience iu 
Short-Hand writing, both for his own private purposes, and for the 
benefit of the public, in connexion with the newspaper press iu 
some of the largest towns in this country, where, as a matter of 
course, the most able in the profession only are engaged. 

The value of this first claim, tlien, consists iu the fact that 
most, if not all, of the popular treatises on this subject now extant, 
have been written by men who have had little or no practical ac- 
quaintance with Short-Hand, and who could not therefore be rea- 
sonably expected to lay down the theory of an art, which they could 
|Z not practise, with the same degree of regularity and precision as 
one who for some years has followed it as his daily employment. 
Such, indeed, we find to be the case ; for even the best of these 
treatises are but heterogenous masses of materials, without method 
or arrangement, in which historical notices of the art, with other 
iiterarj" curiosities, are mixed up indiscriminately with the rules 
which constitute its theory ; and thus the pupil, who, perhaps, has 
little time to spare in matters of that sort, and less inclination to be 
perplexed, i-i tormented with the trouble of sifting that which i!< 
necessary from that which is curious, and of forming a system of 



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rrangement for himself, which, from his ignorance of the art, if 
from no other cause, must be exceedingly imperfect. 

To mention the names of books of this description would be but a 
waste of time and paper : take the best extant, as an example — 
" Harding's Universal System " — and the truth of the 
observations already made will need no futher demonstration. 
Another, and perhaps the worst and most contemptible of these pro- 
ductions is entitled " M'Dougall's Improved System of Short-Hand." 
This production would not on any account have been mentioned 
here, were it not for the circumstance of its having been put forth 
in Manchester. It is only necessary to say that it is a complete 
plagiarism from Harding's — or in other words, " a literary theft," 
without the shadow of a claim to recommend it, and put together 
by a man who, there is every reason to believe, could not write 
twenty lines of Short Hand after an ordinary speaker if he were to 
receive in consideration thereof as many thousand pounds. It is 
much to be regretted that too many of the books on this subject 
have been written by persons of this character. The result is 
sufficiently obvious in the disgust with which persons turn from the 
pursuit of Short-Hand, after attempting to acquire it from such 
worthless instructors. 

In the second place, the author trusts that his arrangement of 
the lessons will be found to be not only very clear and simple, but 
also different from, and much more natural than the arrangements 
generally adopted. It is customary first to give a few rules as to 
the mode of spelling, and then to direct the learner to the Short- 
Hand alphabet. This is a most absurd method of procedure, inas- 
much as the strangeness of the characters, added to the difficulty 
of abbreviated orthography, ushers the learner into a labyrinth from 
which he can scarcely by any means escape, unless he gives up the 
acquisition of the art as a hopeless task. lu this little treatise, 
the learner is gradually led on from the simplest to the most difficult 
mode of abbrenation, before any Short-Hand characters are in- 
troduced to his notice, excepting a few arbitraries. He is taught 
to do all that the best system of Stenography requires to be done, in 
the common hand which he has been accustomed to write all his 
lifetime, and has then nothing to do but to learn and adopt an al- 
phabet more simple in its character. 

TEACHERS OF SHORT HAND. 

The student of Short-Hand who is in possession of a well ar- 
r-anged treatise on the subject, seldom needs a teacher unless he is 



too idle to think for himself. In all branches of education a good 
teacher is useful occasionally ; but it unfortunatelv happens th:'.t 
most, if not all of those itinerating teachers of Short-Hand who 
profess to do so much in so little time, are a set of barefaced im- 
postors who live upon the credulity of the public, and who are as 
ignorant of the practice of what they profess to teach, as any black 
inhabitant of Africa who never saw a book. The advertisemenls 
which they publish are generally so worded as to induce the unwary 
to suppose that by taking three, four, or six lessons " of an hour 
each," they will be enabled to write " as fast as a person can 
speak."' The lessons are tried — the fee, of course, being paid is 
ADVANCE. Those who have been thus cheated out of their money, 
and befooled into the bargain, can best tell at what price they 
afterwards value these insti-uctions. 

As a caution against the deceptions practised by these unblushing 
empirics, the author will mention one or two instances of attempted 
imposture which have come under his own observation. 

Between three and four years ago a person named Buck, who 
had been for some time in Manchester professing to teach writing, 
mental calculations, short-hand, &c., found his way to Middleton, a 
little town about midwoy between Manchester and Rochdale, where 
he issued flaming bills announcing the wonders he was about to 
perform in the way of communicating knowledge. The author of 
this treatise happening to be passing through the town, in company 
with a friend, who is also a good Stenograjiher, was induced, by 
way of curiosity, to call upon this professor for the purpose of seeing 
what his capabilities were in reference to Short-Hand. The worthy 
teacher, after showing his alphabet, and reiterating his assurances 
that if we took his four or six lessons, we should be very competent 
Short-Hand writers, exhibited a specimen of what one of his pupils 
had done with the aid of his instructions. This specimen, which 
wa-s written upon the first side of a common sheet of writing paper, 
(which side, by the way, was not half filled, the writing, too, being 
in a very large character) — this specimen we were assured, con- 
tained the whole of a sermon which had occupied three quarters of 
an hour in its delivery. Having expressed our astonishment that 
so much matter could be (iomprised within so limited a space, the 
professor, in order to convince our stubborn understandings, began 
to read it. The task, however, was not quite so easy as was 
expected ; and after having gone over, in the most bungling fashion, 
four or five lines, which w;is about one-third of the whole specimen. 



an(5 occupied something like a minute and a half in the reading, the 
gentleman, with the greatest possible composure, laid down his spe- 
cimen, and proceeded to expatiate on the extraordinary things that 
might be achieved by Stenography. "We assured him that we had 
often heard what wonderful feats Short-Hand writers could accom- 
plish, but that nothing that we had either heard or seen was at 
all to be compared with the superiority of his system, which seem- 
ingly could enable a pupil to take down a sermon occupying three- 
quarters of an hour in its delivery, the whole of which he might 
afterwards read in five minutes ! The gentleman had not another 
word to say ; and we left him to enjoy his feelings on the discovery 
that his attempted imposition was detected. This is but one of a 
thousand instances of the kind that might be related. The fact 
was, that the whole of the specimen, had it been written out 
and printed, would not have filled half of one of the pages of this 
book. It is needless, however, to multiply instances of this sort of 
imposition. Were it requisite, another might be related which has 
occurred this very day in the presence of the author, by a person 
who in a large advertisement professes to teach Short-Hand in 
three lessons. 

Beyond the preface of this treatise, everything which does not 
immediately relate to the acquisition of Stenography has been care- 
fully excluded, chiefly on the ground that the learner might not 
have his attention occupied with matters which are foreign to the 
object he has in view. For historical information respecting this 
art — which by the way is but of little worth — there are abundant 
other sources. 

The author has to acknowledge himself indebted to Mr. Taylor's 
system for the alphabet, which, in his opinion, is the best that 
has been adopted, and produces the neatest and most lineal 
writing. He will only add, that whatever may be the merits or the 
demerits of this little publication, he submits it with confidence to 
the candour of an enlightened public, hoping that such of his bre- 
thren of the press as may honour it with a notice in their periodi- 
cals, will not be sparing in their criticisms. 



Manchester, August \st, 1840. 



SIX LESSONS ON SHORT HAND. 



Expedition being the object of Short-Hand, the first principle 
of this art is to express all words by the least number of letters 
that can be made to stand for them. The first thing, therefore, to 
which the learner must direct his attention is the mode of spelling 
which Short-Hand writers adopt for this purpose. Should the 
learner try to write a sentence or two after a speaker, in the com- 
mon long-hand, he will soon find that by the time he has written 
one or two words the speaker will be perhaps twenty or thirty words 
before him ; and by the time he has finished the first sentence in 
writing, the speaker will probably have given utterance to more than 
a dozen. This will at once furnish a convincing proof, if any were 
wanting, of the necessity of an extensive system of abbreviation. 
Short-Hand furnishes this system of abbrenation in a twofold man- 
ner — first by the adoption of an entirely different mode of spelling 
from that which is employed for the ordinary purposes of writing, and, 
secondly, by the substitution of signs for the alphabet, which are 
much more simple, and consequently much more readily written 
than the signs used in our common alphabet. Thus the letter s in 
this system of Short-Hand is made by a simple horizontal stroke in 
this manner — ; the letter t by a perpendicular stroke, as | , 
and all the other letters are represented by strokes almost equally 
as simple. By comparing these two modes of making letters the 
learner will find that while he makes one common s, he may make 
three of the same letter in Short-Hand — — -^. The same 
ob8er\-ation will apply to the letter t | , and all the other letters 
of the Short-Hand alphabet. 

Having thus briefiy, and, it is hoped, plainly pointed out the two 
great principles of abbreviation, which form what we may call the 
very essence of Short-Hand, they will be treated of separately, 
and the rules which belong to each of these modes of abbreviation 
will be laid down as concisely as possible, hoping that the learner 
will bear in mind what has already been said respecting them. 



LESSON I. 

MODE OF SPELLING. 

It has already been stated that Short-Hand consists of two 
modes of abbreviation, one being a different way of spelling worda 
from that which is in ordinary use, the other the adoption of more 
simple characters to represent the letters of the alphabet. 

The mode of spelling may be divided into two very simple lessons 
of which this shall be the first. 

Two or three very short, and very simple rules wiU be quite 
sufficient to lead the learner to the greatest perfection in the per- 
formance of this part of his task. 

Rule 1st. — The first general rule, then, is to spell all words aa 
they are pronounced, leaving out most of the vowels.* To those 
who have never attempted to do this it will perhaps appear a very 
difficult task ; on trial, however, nothing will be found to be more 
easy. Thus, desk, pen, table, cloth, chair, window, glass, must be 
written dsk, pn, tbl,klth, chr, wndo, gls. 

Rule 2nd. — When two consonants of the same name come 
together without a vowel between them, (as tt in potter, mm in 
command), one of these consonants must be omitted, asptr (potter) 
kmnd (command). Should a vowel come between two consonants 
of the same name, as between ss in sister, or mm in remembtr, 
then both of the consonants must be written as sstr, rmmbr. 

Rule 3rd. — To prevent confusion, and also to limit the number 
of letters, some of the letters of the alphabet which have more than 
one power, are made to stand for others ; thus g has two powers — 
a hard one as in goose — a soft one as in general. To secure the 
true pronounciation of the word, therefore, while we should write 
gs for goose, we must write jnri for general, because in the latter 
word the g has a soft power, or, as some would call it, a " soft 
sound." The letter c has two powers, one hard, like k, as in the 
words command, copper, the other soft like s, as in the words incense, 
pretence &c. Instead, therefore, of using the letter c at all, the 

• To those who know uothing of grammar it may be necessary to state that 
the letters of the alphabet are divided into vowels and consonants. The vowels 
are a, e, i. o, u ; the other letters, b, d, f, g, h, j, k, 1, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, 
y, z, are cousouanta. 



learner must always use either k or s, as tmnd (command) kpr 
(copper) nsns (incense) prtns (pretence). Z has the power of s, and 
is rapidly giving place in very many words to that letter. S is 
therefore always written for it, as in the word tyraniae, which in 
Short-Hand would be written trns. C, g, and s, are the only letters 
which have two sounds ; this rule, therefore, will be of very easy 
application. 

"When the letters "ph" come together and sound like the letter 
f, that letter must be written instead of ph ; as frnsy for phrenzy, 
prgrf for paragraph. This, of course, comes under the general rule 
of spelling words as they are pronounced, and would be observed by 
the learner without specific directions. 

These three simple rules contain all that is necessarj- for spelling 
words of one syllable ; and the best thing the learnsr can do in 
order to perfect himself in this first lesson will be to write frequently 
the following short exercises until he can copy them in the abbrevi- 
ated manner with as much rapidity as he would write them in the 
usual way. To facilitate his progress, the first four of these 
exercises are given in the contracted form. 

To save time and trouble the learner may as well introduce into 
his practice of this lesson the list of " arbiti-aries," which he will 
find in plate No. 1. Arbitraries are marks which represent words 
without any relation to the alphabet. A moderate nunibar of them 
are exceedingly useful, especially if they are well selected. Such 
words as "and the," "of the," "in the," and many others are of 
very fi-equent occurrence. It is better therefore to hare simple 
marks which will represent them, than to have on every occasion to 
spell them. Nothing can be simpler than to make a mark like 
an apostrophe thus, ' for the conjunction "and:" another mark 
like a comma , for the article "the," or the two together, thus, 
', for "and the." Again, two dots placed horizontally, thus . . 
may represent "of the;" when placed with an inclination, thus,.' 
they may stand for "in the." Other marks, equally simple, are 
used as arbitraries In practising this first lesson it would be well 
for the student to keep this list before him. He has already been 
informed that it will be found in Plate No. 1. 

EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE. 

Observation. — In t/ie specimena of contraction the learner 
will now and then meet with an aslerinlc, which is made thus (*). 
When he meets with this character he nutsl understund that the 



10 

word for which it is placed may he represented by one of the 
arbitrary marks, a list of which he will keep before him when he 
is practising. They would have been introduced into these speci- 
mens of contraction, but jmnters have no types to represent such 
viurks. 

EXERCISE I. 

There were two men who went to a wood to cut down trees 
Each of them had a saw and an axe. They cut down two birch 
trees, three elms and five oaks. It was hard work ; but the men 
were strong, and their tools were sharp, and they did the whole in 
less than a day. Next day each of them brought a horse and a 
cart, and took the trees home with them, and put them in a yard, 
where they will be kept till they are fit for use. 

EXERCISE r. CONTRACTED. 

Thr wr 2 men w wnt t . wd t kt dn trs- 

Ecli f thm ad . sw ' n ax. • kt dn 2 

brch tfs, 3 1ms, ' 5 oks. T ws rd vrrk; bt ^ 

mn wr strng, ' thr tls wr shrp, ' • dd , wl n 

Is thn . da. Next da ech f thm brt . hrs ' . 

krt ' tk the trs ome w thm ' pt thm n . yrd 
wr * wl b kpt tl • r ft fr use. 

EXERCISE II. 

When we are on the road or in the street we should take care 
that no harm comes to us. If we do not take heed, a horse, or a 
cart, or chaise, or coach may knock us down, and if it does not kill 
us, may at the least bruise us, or break a limb. Boys and girls 
are apt to think so much of their play as not to mind the risk which 
they run ; but this is wrong, and we are not wise if we do not 
keep out of the way of what would hurt us, and are so rash as not 
to run off till the horse or chaise is close upon us. 

KXERCISE II. CONTRACTED. 

Wn w r n , rd r .• strt w shd tk kr tht n 

rm kms t ». F w d nt tk hd . hrs r . krt r shs, 

r kch ma nk s dn, ' f t ds nt kl s, ma t 

t Ist brs s r brk . Im. Bs ' grls r pt t thnk s 
mch f thr pla s nt t mnd , rsk wh * rn; bt 

ths 8 mg ' w r nt ws f w d nt kp * , vra 

f wt wd rt s, ' r s rsh s at t tn ff tl , hrs 
r shs s kls pn s. 



11 



EXERCISE III. 

John threw a stone down the street. He did not mean to do 
harm ; but just as the stone went out of his hand an old man came 
in the way, and it struck his head and made it bleed, and the wound 
gave him great pain. John ran oif as fast as he could ; and it may 
be that he does not know how much harm he has done. But if he 
knows this, and is a good boy, it will vex him, and make him grieve 
to think that he has hurt the old man, and he will look on it as a 
sin to have been so void of thought as to do so rash a thing. All 
boys should learn from this not to throw stones where there is the 
least risk of harm to old or young. 

EXERCISE III. CONTRACTED. 

John thrw . stn dn , strt. H dd nt mn t d 
rm; bt jst s , stn wnt • s nd n Id mn km 
.• wa ' t strk s ed ' md t bid, ', wnd gv m 
grt pn. John rn f s fst s h kd ; ' t ma b tht 
h ds nt no ow mch rm h s dn. Bt f h nos 
ths, ' s . gd boy t wl vx m ' mk m grv t 
thnk tht h s hrt , Id mn, ' h wl Ik n t s . 
sn t hv bn s vd f tht s t d s rsh . thng. L bs 
shd Im frm ths nt t thro stns wr thr s , 1st rsk 
f rm t Id r yng. 

EXERCISE IV. 

It was God that made me at first ; it is he that still keeps me in 
life ; it is from him that all the good things come which are in my 
lot, and it was he who sent Christ to save me. I wish that I 
could love him and fear him, and do his will, and pray to him as I 
ought. It is a great sin to break the Lord's day, or to take his 
name in vain, or to play with those who walk in the paths of sin. 
He hates all such things, and in his wrath will come upon those 
who do them. I pray that I may not think bad thoughts, nor 
speak bad words, nor do bad deeds. 

EXERCISE IV. CONTRACTED. 

T ws G tht md m t frst; |- h tht stl kps m 
n If I - frm m tht 1 , gd thgs km wh r n mi It 
' t ws he who snt krst t bv m. ' wrsh tht ' 
kd Iv m ' fr m. ' d 8 wl, ' pra t m 



v 



I 



ote. 



I - . grt sn t brk , Lrd's da r t tk s nm 



12 

n vn, r t pla wth ths who wk . • pths f sn. H 

ats 1 sell tlings ' n hs rth wl km pn tks who d 

thtn. ' pra that ' ma nt thnk bd thts, nr spk bd 
wrds, nr d bd dds. 

EXERCISE V. 

Come, let us praise God for he is very great ; let us bless him for 
he is very good. He made all things — the sun to rule the day, the 
moon to shine by night. He made the great whale that swims in 
the sea, and the little worm that crawls on the ground. The little 
birds sing praises to God when they warble sweetly in the green 
shade. I will praise him with my voice, for I may praise him 
though I am but a child. A few years ago I was a little infant, 
and I could not speak at all, and I did not know the great name of 
God, for my reason was not come to me ; but now I can speak and 
I will praise him. I can think of all his favours, and my heart 
shall love him. Let him call me and I will come to him ; let him 
command nnd I will obey. When I am older I will praise him 
better, and I will never forget God as long as my life remains 
in me. 

EXERCISE VI. 

The Robin is a well known bird. Its forehead, throat, and breast 
are of a deep orange or reddish colour; the head, the hind part of 
the neck, the back, and the tail are of an ash colour, tinged with 
green ; the colour of the wings is somewhat darker, and the edges 
inclined to yellow. The bill, legs and feet are of a dusky hoe. It 
builds its nest sometimes in the crevice of a mossy bank, and at 
other times in the thickest coverts. It lays four or five eggs of a 
dirty white colour, streaked with red ; its young are very tender 
and are rarely brought up except by the parent bird. Its song is 
very soft and sweet, and is of the greater value that we enjoy it 
during almost the whole of winter, when the other songsters of the 
grove are either silent or out of tune. It turns very tame in 
winter ; and when the weather grows severe it is not afraid to enter 
the abodes of man, and to bop into the kitchen or parlour in quest 
of food, and to become almost an inmate of tlie house. It is 
chiefly on this account that every body instead of hurting the 
Robin or dri\'ing it away, looks on it with pleasure, and gives it a 
hearty welcome, and treats it with the greatest kindness. 

Each of these exercises will be found written in Short-Hand 
characters, at the end of the hook, on the third and fourth plates. 
They are given as specimens of Short-Hand, which the learner may 
compare with his own writing when he has learned the Short-Hand 
alphabet and the method of joining Short-hand letters. He must 
not however meddle with them until he has studied and practised 
well the second lesson to which we will now proceed. 



13 

LESSO.N II. 

MODE OF SPELLING CONTINUED. 

Having perfected himself in the first lesson the learner will now 
proceed to try the second, which he will recollect still relates to the 
mode of spelling. 

The rules given in the first lesson, with the list of arbitraries 
are quite sufficient for the spelling of all words of one syllable, and 
for very many of two, and even of three syllables ; but there is still 
something necessary for the contraction of many words of two, 
three, and four or more syllables. Most words of this class are 
compounded, or made up of different parts, and may be divided into 
the prejij:, the root, and the terininatiou. Thus the word " pre- 
concep-tion" will furnish an example. This word, though it is 
used as a common English word, is of Latin origin, and is made of 
two Latin words, the preposition "/)r«e," and the noun " coiiceptio" 
which means " a taking or putting of things together.'' ^^ Conceptio" 
is itself a compound word without the '■'• prae^^' and is formed of 
the Latin preposition " oft«," which means with, or together, 
and of the Latin verb " capio " I take, and thus from " con " and 
" capio" is formed the Latin noun " conceptio" and hence is 
derived our English word " conception." The learner must not be 
alarmed at this little dissertation on the composition of words. A 
little care and attention will soon make him master of this branch 
of his study, even though he has never studied the Latin language. 
Indeed the author of this little treatise is acquainted with many 
excellent reporters who know no more about Latin than one of the 
untutored aborigines of our native country when it was first in- 
vaded by Julius Caesar. Besides there are several little treatisets 
on this subject, (among the number, Oswald's, or Wood's " Ety- 
mological Manual ") which will be of real service to the learner, 
not only in the acquisition of Short-Hand, but in the still higher 
and more important acquisition of a sound knowledge of the for- 
mation of his own language. But we must return to the subject 
of our lesson. 

We have said and shown that words of two or more syllables are 
compounded. Words of two syllables are sometimes divided into 
tht prefix* and the root, as in the word " con-tain," " con " being 

• The prefix ia generally that part of a word which comes first as " con " in 
"con-tain." '\hK roat i.*i\n: iiiiudle uortion of the word as "ten'" in "con- 
ten-tiou." Tie termituitiun ia ihi- last division of the word as " tion " in 
"con-ten-liou.' This however is not always the case. See above. 



14 



the prefix, and " tain" the root, — and sometimes into the root and 
the termhuition^ as in the word " ten-ant" "ten " being the root, 
and " ant " the termination. Both of these words are derived from 
the same Latin word (the verb Teneo, I hold). Words of three 
or more syllables frequently have all these three divisions, as con- 
cep-tion, re-demp-tion, com-mis-sion, &c. The learner will bear 
in mind that all that has been said in this second lesson is prepara- 
tory to the instruction contained in the following paragraph. 

The mode of spelling having been divided into two parts, the 
second of which we are now treating of, it must be observed that 
to shorten the spelling of long words we adopt contractions for the 
prefixes and terminations. Thus, for the word " con-eep-tion " we 
write " k-sp-s," " k " standing for the prefix " con,'' " sp " for the 
root " cep," and " s " for the termination " tion." This may have 
an awkward appearance when written in long-hand characters; but 
when it is put in short-hand characters its appearance is neat and 
uniform From this it will at once be percieved that "k " frequently 
stands for the prefix, " con," and " s " for the termination," tion " 
or " sion." Thus again, " con-ver-sion " will be written" k-vr-s," 
and so with all the other prefixes and terminations. To facilitate 
the progress of the learner the following table of the prefixes and 
terminations which each letter represents is given : — 



LBTTEB9. 


PREFIXES. 


TERUINATIONS. 


ALPHABETICAL WOHDB. 


b 


abs- obs- ob- 


-ble -bly 


be, by 


d 


de- des- 


— dom — ened — ed 


do 


f 




-ful 


of, if 


g 




—age 


go, good, God 


h 


hypo- 


— hood 


have, he 


k 


con- com- accom- 


—acle — icle —kind 


can 


1 




—less 


all. Lord, will 


in 


mis- ma^i- 


— raent — mental — ly 


me, my 


n 


ititer- uuder- 


— ance —ant — ness 


an, in, hanu, no 


P 


par- pre- pro- pub- 




upon, up 


r 


re- recora- repre- 


— ary — cry 


are, our, or 


a 


satis- signi- circuin-J 
sub- super- C 


— sion — tion 


his, is, as, us. 


t 


trans- 


—ate — ity — tude 


that, to, into 


w 


with- 


— with 


with, which, who 


X 


extra- 




esampie, except 


y 




-ify 


you 


sb 




—shall — tial —ship 


shall, should 


ih 






though 



15 

Tbe learner will now proceed to practise his lessons in the mode 
of spelling, observing what ha^ been said on the subject of prefixes 
and terminations, and also putting the arbitraries into use. For 
this purpose a short speech is appended. 

On the last column of the foregoing table will be observed a lirt 
of words, under the head of " Alphabetical "Words," that is to say, 
" words represented by a single letter of the alphabet." Thus the 
letter b may stand for " be"or " by ;" f for " of" or " if;" g for 
*' go, good," &c. A little practice will soon obviate any seeming 
confusion which this may create ; and, in Short-Hand, this matter 
will be rendered more easy than it can be in Long-Hand, from the 
pecuUar nature of the characters. A great advantage will be de- 
rived in point of expedition, by making each letter of the alphabet 
represent one or more words ; and practice soon renders them 
familiar in reading notes. 

It may be as well at this stage of our progress to observe to the 
learner that when he is able to put his knowledge thus far into suc- 
cessful practice, he possesses all the elements of Stenography, 
(another name for Short-Hand,) which were possessed and practised 
by many of the most successful reporters, some eight or ten years 
ago. Indeed there are yet three or four gentlemen in Manchester, 
who, at that time, figured as newspaper reporters, without any greater 
amount of Short-Hand knowledge ; and whose reports, so far as the 
substance of speeches was concerned, were, no doubt, generally pretty 
accurate. Time, however, and an increasing demand for knowledge, 
have shown that something more was requisite ; and hence, in ad- 
dition to the mode of abbreviation taught in these two lessons on 
spelling, were invented Short-Hand Characters. To those students 
who do not wish the trouble of learning a Short-Hand Alphabet, 
all that is requisite for attaining a considerable degree of proficiency 
in taking notes has already been given ; and the author hopes he 
does not flatter himself, when he says that it has perhaps been given 
in a better arranged, and more intelligible form than in any pre- 
ceding treatise. 

The following speech is re-written in the contracted form, to give 
the learner everj' opportunity of successfully applying his knowledge 
of the mode of spelling. This once perfectly acquired, one of the 
greatest difficulties in the acquisition of Short-Hand will be over- 
come. 

In cases of difficulty in deciphering notes, " Nye's Short-Hand 
Dictionarj-," published by Sinipkia and Marshall, will be very useful. 



16 



EXERCISE 711. 

C. MARIUS TO THE ROMANS, ON THEIR HESITATING TO AP- 
POINT HIM GENERAL IN THE EXPEDITION AGAINST 
JUGCRTHA, MERELY ON ACCOUNT OF HIS EXTRACTION. 

It is but too common, my countrymen, to observe a material 
difference between the behaviour of those who stand candidates for 
places of power and trust, before and after their obtaining them. 
They solicit them in one manner, and execute them in another. 
They set out with a great appearance of activity, humilit)-, and 
moderation, and they quickly fall into slhth, pride, and avarice. 
It is, undoubtedly, no easy matter to discharge, to the general 
satisfaction, the duty of a supreme commander in troublesome times. 
I am, I hope, duly sensible of the importance of the office I propose 
to take upon me, for the service of my country. To carry on, with 
effect, an expensive war, and yet be frugal of the public money ; to 
oblige those to serve, whom it may be delicate to ofifend ; to con- 
duct, at the same time, a complicated variety of operations ; to 
concert measures at home answerable to the state of things abroad; 
and to gain every valuable end, in spite of opposition from the 
envious, the factious, and the disaffected ; to do all this, my 
countrj'men, is more difficult, than is generally thought. And, 
besides the disadvantages which are common to me with all others 
in eminent stations, my case is, in this respect, peculiarly hard ; 
that whereas a commander of Patrician rank, if he is guilty of a 
neglect, or breach of duty, has his great connexions, the antiquity 
of his family, the important services of his ancestors, and the mul- 
titudes he has by power engaged in his interest, to screen him from 
condign punishment, my whole safety depends upon myself, which 
renders it the more indispensibly necessary for me to take care, that 
my conduct be clear and unexceptionable. Besides, I am well 
aware, my countrymen, that the eye of the public is upon me ; and 
that, though the impartial, who prefer the real advantages of the 
commonwealth to all other considerations, favour my pretensions, 
the Patricians want nothing so much, as an occasion against me. 
It is, therefore, my fixed resolution, to use my best endeavours 
that you be not disappointed in me, and that their indirect designs 
against me be defeated. I have, from my youth, been familiar with 
toils and with dangers. I was faithful to your interests, my country- 
men, when I served you for no reward, but that of honour. It is 
not my design to betray you now that you have conferred upon me 
a place of profit. You have committed to my conduct the war 
against Jugurtha. The Patricians are offended at this. But where 
would be the wisdom of giving such a commnnd to one of their 
honourable body, a person of illustrious birth, of ancient family, of 
innumerable statues, but — of no experience? What ervi'ie would 
his long line of dead ancestors, or his multitude of motionless statues 
do his country in the day of battle ? What could such a general 



17 

do, but, in his trepidation and inexperience, have recourse to some 
inferior commander, for direction in difliculties, to which he vs-as 
not- himself equal :' Thus, your Patrician general would, in fact, 
have a general over him ; so that the acting commander would still 
he a Plebeian. So true is this, ray countrymen, that I have myself , 
known those, who have been chosen consuls, begin then to read the 
history of their own country, of which, till that time, they were 
totally ignorant ; that is, they first obtained the employment, and 
then bethought themselves of the qualifications necessary for the 
proper discharge of it. I submit to your judgment, Romans, on 
which side the advantage lies, when a comparison is made between 
Patrician haughtiness, and Plebeian experience. The very actions 
wiich they have only read, I have partly seen and partly ^nyself 
achieved. What they know by reading, I know by action. They 
are pleased to slight my m'ean birth ; I despise their mean charac- 
ters. Want of birtli and fortune is the objection against me ; want 
of personal worth against them. But are not all men of the same 
species ? What can make a difference between one man and 
another, but the endowments of the mind ? For my part, I shall 
always look upon the bravest man as the noblest man. Suppose it 
were inquired of the fathers of such Patricians as Albinus and 
Bestia, whether, if they bad their choice, they would desire sons of 
their character, or of mine ; what would they answer, but that they 
should wish the worthiest to be their sons ? If the Patricians have 
reason to despise me, let them likewise despise their ancestors, 
whose nobility was the fruit of their virtue. Do they envy the 
honours bestowed upon me ? Let them en\'j- likewise my labours, 
ray abstinence, and the dangers I have undergone for my country, 
by which I have acquired them. But those worthless men lead 
such a life of inactivity, as if they despised any honours you can 
bestow ; whilst they aspire to honours, as if they had deserved 
them by the most industrious virtue. They arrogate the rewards 
of activity for their having enjoyed the pleasures of luxury. Yet 
none can be more lavish thah they are, in praise of their ancestors'; 
and they imagine they honour themselves by celebrating their fore- 
lathers, whereas they do the very contrary ; for, as much as their 
ancestors were distinguished for their virtues, so much are they 
disgraced by their vices. The glory of ancestors casts a light, in- 
deed, upon their posterity, but it only serves to show what the 
descendants are. It alike exhibits to public view their degeneracy 
and their worth. I own. I cannot boast of the deeds of my fore- 
!f r-i ; but I hope I may answer the cavils of the Patricians, l)y. 
iin,' up in defence of what I have myself done. Ol'serve, now, 
my countrymen, the injustice of the Patricians. They arrogate to 
them.selves honours on account of the exi)loits done by their, fore- 
fathers, whilst they will not allow me the due praise for performing 
the very name sort of actions in 'my own perstin. He has no sta- 
tHCi», they en,-, of his family. He can trace no venerable line of 
anccKtnrs. — What then ! • Is it mutter of more praise to disgrafc 
'•ni-'s illuKtrious ancestors than to beconi ■ illustrious by his own 

B 



18 

Sood behaviour ;' What if I can show no statues of my family ? 
I can show'the standards, the armour, and the trappings, which I 
have myself taken from the vanquished ; I can show the scars of 
those wounds, which I have received by facing tlie enemies of my 
country. These are my statues. These are" the honours I boast 
of ; not left me by inheritance, as theirs ; but earned by toil, by 
abstinence, by valour, amidst clouds of dust, and seas of blood, 
scenes of action, where those etfeminate Patricians, who endeavour, 
by indirect means, to depreciate me in your esteem, have never 
dared to show their faces. Sallust. 



EXERCISE SEVENTH CONTRACTED. 

j— bt too kmn m kntrmn t bsrv . mtrl dfr-n 

* , bhvr f ths w stnd knddts fr piss f pwr ' trst 
bfr ' ftr thr btn-g thm. * slst thra n wn mnr ' 
exkt thm n nthr. * st out w . grt appr-n f ktv-y 
ml-y ' mdr-s ' * kkly fl t slth prd ' vrs. \— 
udtdly n esy mtr t d-chrg t , gnrl s-fk-s , dty f 
. sprm kmndr n trblsm tms. ' m • ope duly sns-b 

mprt-n .. ofs ' p-ps t tk p m fr , srvs f m 
kntry. T kry n w efkt n xpnsv wr ' jt b frgl 
. . pblk mny t big ths t srv wffi t m b 'dlkt t 
fnd t k-dkt t , sm tm . k-plktd vr-y f opr-s t 
k-srt msrs t ome nsr-b t , stt f thugs brd ' t gn 

* vl-b nd n spt f ps-s frm , nvious , fkious ', 
d-fktd t d 1 ths m kntrmn s mr dfklt thn s gnrly 
tht. ' bsds , d-dvntgs wh r kmn t m w 1 thrs n 
mn-n st-s m ks s n ths rspkt pklrly hrd : t wrs . 
kmndr f Ptrshn rnk f h s glty f . nglkt r brch 
f dty hs s grt k-k-s , ntk-ty f s fmly , mprt-n 
srvss f s nsstrs ', mlt-ts h as b pwr nggd n s 
ntrst t skrn m frm k-dn punsh-m, m wl sfty dpnds 
p mslf, w rndrs t , mr ndspns-b nssry fr m t tk 
kr t m k-dkt b klr nxp-b, Bsds, ' m wl wt 
m kutrmn t , eye .. pblk s p m ; ' t tho' , 
mpr-sh w p-fr , rl dvntgs .. kmnwlth t 1 thr k-sdr-§ 
fvr m p-tn-s , Ptrshns wnt s mch s n ok-s gnst 
m. I — thrfr m fxd rsl-s t use m bst ndvrs t u 
b nt d-pntd n m. ' t thr ndrkt dsns gnst m m b 
dftd. ' h frm m yth bn fmlr w tls ' w dngrs. 
' ws fth-f t yr ntrst m kntrm wn i srvd y fr n 
rw'rd bt t f onr. i nt m dsn t bti'a u nw tub 



19 

k-frd p m . p]s f p-ft U h kmtd t m k-dkt , 
wr gust Jugurth. , Ptr.shns r fndd t ths. Bt wr 
wd b , ws-d f gv-g scb . kmnd t wn f thr onr-b 
bdy, , prsn f Istrious brth, f nsh-n fmly, f nmr-b stts, 
bt f n xpr-n ? Wt srvs wd . s Ing In f dd nsstrs, 

or s mlt-t f ms-l stts d s kntry .• d f btl P Wt 
kd scb • gnrl d bt n s trpd-s ' nxpr-n h r-krs t 
sm nfrr kmndr fr drk-s n dfklts t wh he ws nt mslf 
= ? Tbs yr Ptrsn gnrl wd n fkt b . gnrl ovr 
m so t , kt-g kmndr wd stl b . Plbn. So tru 
s ths m kntrm t ' h myslf nn ths w h bn cbsn 
k-sls bgn thn t rd , hstry f thr wn kntry f w tl 
t tm • wr ttly gnr-n i. e, • frst btnd , mpl-m, 
' thn btht thmslvs .. klfk-s nss-y fr , p-pr d-chg f t.- 
' s-mt t yr gdg-m Romans n w sd , dyntg lies 
wn . k-prsn s md * Ptrsn ht-n, ' Plbn xpr-n. , vry 
ak-s w • h nly rd ' h prtly sn ' prtly mslf chvd. 
Wt • n b rd-g ' n b ak-s. 7 • r plsd t sit m 
mn brth: ' dsps thr mn • Wnt f brth ' frtn s 
, bjk-s gnst m; wnt f prsnl wrth gnst tbra. Bt r 
nt 1 ma .. sm spsies ? Wt k mk . dfr-n * wn 
ran ' nthr bt , ndw-m .. mnd .f» fr m prt ' sh 

alws Ik p , brvst mn s , nblst mn. Sps t wr 
nqrd .. fthrs f sch Ptrsns s Albinus ' Bestia, wthr 
f • hd thr chs • wd dsr sns f thr * r f mn ? 
Wt wd • nsr bt t • shd wsh , wrthst t b thr 
sns.!' If ^ Ptrsns h rsn t dsps m It thm Ikws 
dsps thr nsstrs ws nbl-y ws , frt f thr vrtu. D 

• nvy , onrs bstwd p m .? Lt thm nvy Ikws m 
Ibra m b-tn-a ', dngrs • ! h ndrgn fr m kntry b w 

• h aqrd thm. Bt ths WTth-l mn Id sch . If f nktssy 
s f • dspsd any onrs u k bstw wist * spr t onrs 
s f • ad dsrv-d thm b , mst ndstrious vrtu., • arg-t 
, rwrds f ktv-y fr thr hv-g njd , plsrs f Ixry. Yt 
nn k b mr Ivsh tbn • r, in prs f thr nsstrs ; ' • 
mgn • onr thmslvs b slbrt-g thr frfthrs wras • d , 
vry • fr 8 nich s thr nsstrs wr d-tngshd fr thr vrtus, 
s mch r • d-grsd b thr vcs. , glry f nsstrs ksts 
. It ndd p thr pstr-y bt t nly srvs t shw wt , 
dsnd-n r. It aik xbts t pblk vw thr dgnrsy ' thr 
wrth. I wn ' knt bst .. dds f ni frfthrs: lit ' 



s 



20 

hp ' m nsr , kvls .. Ptrsns b stnd-g p n dfns f 
wt ! h nislf dii. li-srv nw in kutrm , njsts 

Ptr,sns. * rg-t t thmslvs onrs ii lent .. xplts dn b thr 
iVftbrs, wl.st * i nt alw m , du prs fr p-frm-g , 
vry sm sit f ak-s n in wn prsn. " H as n stts," 
* kri " f s fmly ; h k tvs n vnr-b In f nsstrs." — 
Wt then? — I mtr f inr prs t d-grs wns Istiious nsstrs 
thn t bkm Istrious b s wn g bhvr ? Wt f ' k 
shw n stts f ra fml ? ' k shw , stndrds , rnir 
', trp-gs, w ' h mslf tkn frm , vnqshd ; ' k shw 
, skrs f ths wnds w ' h red b fs-g , nmies f m 
kntry. Ths r m stts; ths i- , onrs I bst f; nt 
Ift in b nrt-n as thrs ; bt rnd b tl b b-tn-n b vh' 
indst kids f dst ' ss f bid sns f ak-s wr ths fmn-t 
Ptrsns w ndvr b ndrkt mns t dprs-t m in yr stin 
h nvr drd t shw thr fss. 



LESSON THIRD. 



THE ALPHABET. 



The mode of spelling, together with the application of the prefixes 
and terminations, having been perfectly acquired, the next step to 
be taken is the acquisition of the Short Hand alphabet, which will 
be found in the first column of the first plate. Opposite to each of 
the consonant and double consonant marks is placed a dot, to shew 
the learner at what point of the letter he is to begin to form it. 

It will be observed, "that the alphabet consists of looped, curved, 
and straight characters, distinguished from each other by their hori- 
zontal, perpendicular, or oblique position. Much has been said, by 
dift'eret^ writers on Stenography, with a view to prove that looped 
charac/ers are inconvenient, and opposed to expedition. The very 
reverse (Sif this, however, is the fact ; for the looped characters, in- 
stead of being more difficult in their joinings, as has been commonly 
supposed by those unacquainted with the practice of Short Hand, 
are much more easy than most of the straight ones ; the angles with 
the loops being much less difficult to form than without them, besides 
their adding greatly to the beauty of the writing. It will doubtless 
occur to the learner, that the lett^^rs d and r, are both represented 
by a similar mark. This may appea^ at first sight likely to create 
confusion ; but, in joining the letters, nothing of this kind can arise. 



■2\ 

because the d is always written downwards from the right to the left, 
while the r is always written upwards from the left to the right ; and 
when this letter stands alone, or represents a prefix or termination, 
it is denoted by the other small character, thus v. it will also be 
remarked that there are two characters for the letter m', the one 
made in the reverse form to the other. This is a matter of great 
convenience ; the uppermost character joining much more readily 
with the letters b, d,/, g, h, k, p, t, and th ; while the reverse, or 
lower character, joins easier with the letters /, m, u, r, s, and sh. 

Perfection in writing and reading the alphabet is of the greatest 
importance. The learner should not therefore attempt to go a 
single step further^ until he can write everj' character, in a distinct 
and legible form, not less than six times in a minute. This 
being once accomplished, the learner will find one of the greatest 
impediments to his progress removed. 

THE ARBITRARIES. 

Of the arbitraries it is unnecessary to say a single word. The 
pupil's common sense will tell him how to make them, and when to 
increase their number. ' 



LESSON FOURTH. 

JOINING OF THE CHARACTERS. 

On Plate Second, the learner will find a table, by which he may 
easily ascertain how any two consonants should be joined together ; 
thus, if it be required to know how to join mw together, look at 
the top of the table for the letter m ; then cast the eye downwards 
till it comes opposite the letter Jt», and on the line at the point 
forming the right angle between the two letters, will be found the 
Short Hand characters for these two letters. The same thing must 
be done in finding any other combinations : thus, suppose we want 
to find all the combinations in the word " impress ; " we must look 
at the top for ;«, and then go down the line till we come opposite ^>, 
where we shall find mp joined together. We must then take 7^ at 
the top and go down the line till we come opposite to the letter r, 
where we will find yyr; then look at the top for r, and go down the 
line till we come opposite to », where will be found the combination 
rs ; and these three combinatioas, iiip, jrr, and rs will make mprs, 
the Short Hand characters for the word. 

la a word, the joining of characters is effected by making them 
all follow each other in th«ir natural order. 



22 

LESSON FIFTH. 

PLACES OF THE VOWELS. 

The learner, on reference to the alphabet, will find that the vowels 
u, e, and / are all represented by a single dot, thus, [ .] ; and that 
o and u are represented by a kind of apostrophic mark, thus, [']. 
The ditFevence between these vowels is denoted by their respective 
positions in reference to the consonant characters ; for instance, on 
plate third, it will be observed that ah is made by a dot on the left 
of the letter b at the top : that el is made by a dot on the left of 
b opposite the middle ; and that ib is made by a dot on the left, 
opposite the bottom. Ob is made by the comma or apostrophic 
mark on the left, opposite the top of the letter ; and ub by the same 
mark, opposite the middle of the letter. When the vowel comes 
after the consonant, it must of course be placed on the right, as in 
ba, 6e, bij &c. This rule holds good with reference to the letters 
S, d, /, g, h, p, t, ch and th^ all of which are made from the top to the 
bottom, either perpendicularly or obliquely, to the right or left. But 
then the pupil will say, there are the letters with a horizontal posirion, 
such as k, m, ?«, s, w, x, aud s/i. Very well: in such case, when 
the vowel comes before the consonant, it must be made above it ; 
when after the consonant, it must be made below it ; as in the ex- 
ample on plate third, ak, ek, ik, Sec. Still the pupil will say, there 
are the letters I, r, and </, which are made upwards. Well, in this 
case, al must be made by a dot at the bottom of the letter on the 
left, as will be seen by reference to the example in plate third. 

By first-rate Short Hand writers, vowels are very seldom used. 



LESSON SIXTH. 
The learner will now proceed to the exercises on plates 3, 4, 5, 6, 
7, and 8. He must take them one by one, and endeavour to read 
them, referring, in cases where he has any difficulty, to the exer- 
cises in plain English. When he is able to read readily the first six 
exercises, he may proceed to write them, and as many other exer- 
cises in words of one syllable, as he feels disposed to try. When 
he can read and write these exercises with tolerable rapidity, he 
must next commence with reading the long exercise, which com- 
mences near the top of plate 5. Being able to read it well, he 
must then write it ; and compare his Short Hand with that which 
he finds in the book. When he can write this exercise correctly, 
the pupil may then go on writing anything he pleases. 



23 

ADDITIONAL OBSERVATIONS. 

When the pupil has learned all that we have now taught him, he 
will still find that something is wanted to enable him to follow a 
speaker with ease. The only remedy for this is practice. To write 
Short Hand well, after any or every speaker, is almost as difficult 
of attainment as a new language ; but practice is the only way 
to perfection. 

advice as to practice. 

The pupil should first accustom himself to write after a person 
reading very slowly some easy composition, and should always 
m£ike a point of reading his writing to the person who read to him, 
in order that he may ascertain whether or not he has correctly 
taken dowTi what was read. In cases where a person cannot be 
had as a reader, the pupil must exercise himself bj' copying two or 
three speeches, or something of the kind. He must then find some 
very deliberate speaker, and try his skill in endeavouring to follow 
him. This may be at first a matter of difficulty, because the en- 
gagements of young men are generally of such a nature, as to pre- 
clude them from many opportunities of this kind. But they are not 
engaged on Sundays ; and 9, sermon at church, or chapel, delivered 
in a distinct tone of voice, by a deliberate speaker, will be the finest 
practice the pupil caa have» Some weak-minded enthusiasts who 
occupy pulpits, may declaim against what they term, " the Dese- 
cration of the bouse of God," and the " Profanation of the Sabbath." 
Never mind them ; let them rave on. Such men always have more 
zeal than knowledge ; and a ready answer may be found to their 
foolish objections to this practice, by saying, that if a sermon is good 
for anything to be heard, it is good for sometking more, to be written ; 
that if it is not worth writing, it is not worth hearing ; and that surely 
it can be no "Desecration of the house of God" to render perma- 
nent, by taking it down in Short Hand, what the preachers general- 
ly call " the Word of God." No sensible man can object to tliis 
practice. He who does so is either a fool or an impostor who is 
afraid of his divinity being brought to the test of common sense. 

THE easiest speakers TO FOLLOW. 

The easiest speakers to write after, are usually those who are 
most eloquent; who give a full and distinct enunciation to all their 
syllables ; who make use of the proper pauses for the points ; and 
who distinguish such of their words as they intend to be emphatic, 
by the time they dwell upon them. Mr. George Thompson, the 
eloquent lecturer on British India, may be mentioned as affording 



24 

an illustrarion of tlie author's view of " an easy speaker to write, 
after," the whole of whose lectures on this subject were taken ver- 
hntim by the author, as reporter for the Manchester Times. 

On the other hand, conversational speakers are always the most 
difficult to report. These men often splutter out their words in 
heaps, without a pause, without emphasis, and in the most confused 
and disorderly manner it is possible to conceive. In such cases, all 
that can be done is to take down as much as possible, leaving out 
such of the words as the sense will supply. 

MATERIALS FOR WRITING WITH. 

A few years ago, pencils were chiefly used for reporting : they 
are now, however, gradually going out 6f use, and giving place to 
steel pens. The paper should be tolerably good, having a smooth 
surface. A fine pointed Steel Pen, with some of " Stephens's "Writ- 
ing Fluid," will make the clearest writing; and, where much of it 
has to be read, it has not such a tendency to injure the sight as de- 
ciphering pencil marks. 

The cheapest way of making books for taking notes is, to have a 
loose back in an oblong form, v/hich may be obtained for a shilling 
or eighteenpence, and will last for manj' years. The paper should be 
cut across the middle, and may be fastened into the loose back with 
a piece of narrow tape. "When it is all written upon, it may be 
taken out, and preserved almost as well as if it were bound. One 
of the small bottle inkstands, which will not spill the ink, will be 
found most convenient whon the pupil has to write with his book on 
his knee. In such case, it may be slung upon the thumb of the left 
hand, bj' means of a small piece of string attached to the neck of 
the bottle. A pen-case, which will bold a dozen steel pens ready 
for immediate use, may be obtained at almost any stationer's shop, 
for the price of ninepence or a shilling. 

The author is not aware of anything more that is requisite to be 
said ; he therefore leaves the pupil to pursue his course, recommend- 
ing him to PERSEVERE, and not to give way at any Ijttle difficulties 
which may by chance present themselves, but to exercise his power 
of thought, and his ingenuity ; and by this means he cannot possibly 
fail of success. 



PRINTED BY A. HFYWOOR, OI.DTTA'*! =TR1TT. M \ NT n F.CTF !! . 



Plate I. 



THE 

ALPHABET 

j WITH THE 

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Plate II. 



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oxercide 3'udt, Taae <0. 






Sxercvde oecowD. 

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<r^ . r-^ <r\ P /^/ % L — /^ ' ITS y^ y^ <rv— \ o 



Cjcctctac 2fftitD. 



v/- L ' — . 3 ^: ; ^ J^ o-^ ' o-^' o— >A / 



J /^ 'V- 6^v /; 



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Plate ir. 



\?- s— I ^ ^ :> c '->- €^ V <^ a- lit 'I 6~\~ y (L^ 



l/a-etci;>c 



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< <^ ^ ^// «-» <^ ' ">/ C?— \ ^ V S-' '-«-• 6^_ <-^ rd- 



yxercidc 



owctfi. 



' ,Ky — • bV '-^' t/ - i- V," H ' 'VI sf \ ■• f' ,<^ 



Plate- V. 






CJC€tci.^e Seventfi. 
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«-/ V "V' V ^ \ ^ ' rn ^. ' V /:- ''tp ^/ 7 

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v^ '/O- 2/-, <r- / /- ^ o- ^^ ^~ / _^ ,^ SL-, ; 

V/ ^ y -^ <y~ ^ "^^ V-/ 6A r^ ' a-x tiV- ' 



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Phte VII. 
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Tart of tfic ptcfoce of tfiid ^oolc. 

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\n , 'P- e<'^-A I — ^ — 'V ^ , Ph\ o-i^ s^ 

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Plat^ I'll! 






/ <^T_^- O^— Q~- C /r>f- <LH e^ ^ ^ V^ <L^ 
^ ' ?-/tcuc'i. <^'2- \ ' — ^'^ "/ C. /"A- €/ c^ C; ^v; 

^ --^ „^"', tf-^ \>^ >* -^^' ^ <^^^ -^ c^ 

i_ p ^x^^ /; /y' i!^/ V. /: O' ^"i- ^ >^'V^w 



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