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THE  UNIVERSITY 


OF  ILLINOIS 


LIBRARY 


FROM  THE 


HIT3CTURE 


BUILDING 


UNIVERSITY  OF  ILLINOIS 
LIBRARY 


Volume 


tnis  .o  iv. 

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PAPERS 


HEAD  AT 


Institute  of  iritis  ij  Architects, 


SESSION  1853—54. 


USUI  CIVIUM,  DECORI  URBIUM. 


LONDON: 

PUBLISHED  AT  THE  ROOMS  OF  THE  INSTITUTE,  16,  GROSVENOR  STREET. 


1854. 


PRINTED  BY 


J.  DAVY  AND  SONS,  137,  LONG  ACRE. 


INDEX 


TITLE. 

AUTHOR. 

DATE. 

PAGE. 

Some  Remarks  upon  the  Buildings  of 
Lille  in  France ; and  a description  of 
a fine  Collection  of  original  Drawings 
by  the  Great  Italian  Masters. 

T.  L.  Donaldson. 

Nov.  14th, 

1853. 

1—  10 

On  the  application  of  Painted  Glass  to 
Buildings  in  various  styles  of  Archi- 
tecture. 

C.  Winston. 

Nov.  28th 

11 

11—  25 

Discussion  on  the  same  continued. 

— 

Dec.  12  th 

11 

27-  30 

Communication  from  the  Honorary 
Secretary  for  Foreign  Correspondence 

T.  L.  Donaldson. 

Jan.  9th, 

1854. 

31—  35 

Description  of  the  French  Method  of 
constructing  Iron  Floors. 

H.  H.  Burnell. 

Jan.  9th 

11 

36—  40 

Discussion  on  the  same  continued. 

— 

Jan.  23rd 

11 

41—  51 

Discussion  on  the  same  continued. 

— 

Feb.  6th 

11 

53—  61 

Discussion  on  the  same  concluded. 

— 

Feb.  20th 

11 

63—  74 

A Brief  Account  of  the  Louvre  and 
Tuilieries,  Paris ; with  a general  de- 
scription of  various  projects  for  their 
completion 

T.  L.  Donaldson. 

March  6 th 

11 

75—  86 

On  the  Drainage  of  Buildings  and 
Streets  in  the  Metropolis. 

W.  A.  Boulnois. 

Mar.  20th 

11 

87—  98 

Discussion  on  the  same  continued. 

— 

April  3rd 

11 

99—106 

On  the  Open  Spaces  of  our  Metropolis. 

S.  Angell. 

May  8th 

11 

107—121 

Discussion  on  the  Drainage  of  Buildings 
and  Streets  in  the  Metropolis  con- 
cluded. 

— 

May  15th 

11 

123—128 

On  some  recent  Discoveries  at  Foun- 
tains Abbey 

Earl  De  Grey,  K.G. 

May  29th 

11 

129—136 

On  the  influence  of  some  External 
Agents  on  the  Durability  of  Building 
Materials. 

Geo.  R.  Burnell,  C.E. 

June  5th 

11 

137—153 

On  Architecture  as  represented  in  Pic- 
tures. 

H.Twining,  Esq. 

June  12th 

11 

155—159 

On  the  Topography  and  Antiquities  of 
Constantinople. 

Rev.  R.  Burgess,  B.D. 

June  26th 

11 

161—172 

U 


'ii. 


> 

■ 


SOME  REMARKS  UPON  TIIE  BUILDINGS  OF  LILLE  IN  FRANCE,  AND  A DESCRIPTION 
OF  A FINE  COLLECTION  OF  ORIGINAL  DRAWINGS  BY  THE  GREAT  ITALIAN 
MASTERS,  BEQUEATHED  TO  LILLE,  HIS  NATIVE  TOWN,  BY  THE  LATE  MONS. 
WICAR,  DIRECTOR  OF  THE  ACADEMY  OF  NAPLES;  PARTICULARLY  IN  REFERENCE 
TO  A SERIES  OF  ARCHITECTURAL  SKETCHES  ATTRIBUTED  TO  MICHAEL  ANGELO. 
WITH  ILLUSTRATIONS. 

By  T.  L.  Donaldson,  Honorary  Secretary  for  Foreign  Correspondence. 

Read  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  November  14th,  1853. 


The  City  of  Lille  has  hitherto  been  more  remarkable  for  the  extent  and  strength  of  its  fortifications,  which 
were  deemed  a masterpiece  of  the  great  Vauban,  than  for  its  architectural  monuments;  for  although  its 
Hotel  de  Ville  still  retains  some  points  of  architectural  and  antiquarian  interest,  and  some  of  the  churches 
evince  considerable  elegance  and  skill  in  design,  yet  they  do  not  boast  any  very  remote  antiquity,  are  not 
distinguished  for  their  decoration,  and  its  tallest  spires  and  towers  have  been  destroyed  during  sieges  at 
various  periods;  the  most  disastrous  of  which  was  the  nine  days’  bombardment  by  the  Austrians  in  1792, 
under  the  Prince  of  Saxe  Teschen,  which  brought  down  some  of  its  loftiest  and  proudest  monuments. 

There  are  two  “ Places ,”  nearly  together;  one  of  considerable  size,  the  other  much  smaller.  Some  of 
the  streets  are  of  tolerable  width,  and  run  in  straight  lines  to  the  city  gates.  Many  of  the  houses  are 
attributed  to  the  times  when  the  Spaniards  ruled  the  country,  in  the  16th  and  17th  centuries,  and  exhibit 
signs  of  affluence  and  ease;  the  fronts  being  much  decorated  with  pilasters,  enriched  capitals,  capriciously 
decorated  doors  and  windows  of  the  Italian  taste  and  of  heavy  proportions. 

There  are  six  parish  churches,  three  of  which  are  Gothic.  S.  Maurice,  the  Cathedral,  is  remarkable 
for  its  five  aisles  of  equal  height,  divided  by  cylindrical  pillars.  The  end  is  apsidal,  the  sides  being 
formed  into  polygonal  chapels,  like  those  at  Westminster  Abbey.  The  effect  of  the  various  vistas 
of  the  interior  is  very  striking,  and  the  combination  of  the  several  parts  produces  most  pleasing  and 
effective  groupings.  The  Church  of  S.  Sauveur  had  once  a noble  stone  spire  with  pierced  tracery,  but  the 
cannon  balls  of  the  Austrians  brought  it  to  the  ground  in  1792.  The  Church  of  S.  Catherine,  a Gothic 
structure,  seemed  to  me  peculiarly  adapted  for  one  of  our  churches,  as  it  consists  of  a nave  and  side 
aisles  divided  by  cylindrical  pillars,  which  being  twelve  diameters  apart,  offer  little  obstruction  to  the 
sight.  The  Church  of  the  Magdalen,  of  Italian  design,  has  a central  circular  hall  as  it  were,  with  a circular 
aisle  around  it,  from  which  radiate  the  choir  in  an  easterly  direction,  and  corresponding  chapels  to  the  noi  th 
and  south,  with  considerable  effect.  The  two  other  churches  are  those  of  S.  Andre,  and  the  Jesuits’,  on  the 
usual  Italian  model,  divided  by  columns  and  piers;  spacious,  airy  and  simple,  and  on  a noble  scale.  In  the 
last  of  these  considerable  appearance  of  extent  is  given  by  the  end  of  the  side  aisles  being  painted  to 
represent  a distant  vista:  by  this  expedient  great  lightness  of  effect  is  given,  and  the  deadness  of  a blank 
wall  avoided,  although  it  must  be  considered  to  be  somewhat  a meretricious  expedient.  There  are 
several  modern  buildings  of  considerable  importance,  among  which  is  a Lycee,  of  great  extent  of  plan,  now 
in  course  of  erection,  and  the  Hotel  de  Ville,  formerly  the  Palais  de  Rihour.  So  much  of  the  old  part 
of  this  edifice  as  now  remains,  is  of  the  Gothic  style;  it  was  originally  enlarged  and  completed  in  1430, 
by  Philippe  le  Bon,  Duke  of  Burgundy  and  Count  of  Flanders,  whose  device  of  the  flint  and  steel  is 
gracefully  introduced  on  the  staircase,  in  the  ornaments  of  the  groined  vaulting  of  the  interpenetration 
character,  the  mouldings  of  which  are  very  curiously  interlaced.  Besides  this  staircase  there  are  few 
remains  of  the  ancient  fabric,  which  is  now  being  superseded  by  the  spacious  and  noble  structure,  rising 
from  the  designs  of  Mons.  Benvignat.  But  there  is  still  ail  old  lofty  hall  with  a groined  ceiling,  called 


2 


the  Salle  du  Conclave,  which  also  contains  some  fine  paintings,  well  combining  with  its  architecture  and 
fittings.  Mons.  Benvignat  and  the  authorities  have  every  disposition  to  retain  these  striking  features  of 
the  old  Palais,  associated  as  they  are  with  many  historical  circumstances,  such  as  the  holding  the  second 
chapter  of  the  Golden  Fleece  in  1431;  the  meeting  of  Charles  V.  and  our  Henry  VIII.  in  1541,  and  with 
brief  residences  of  Louis  XIV.  in  1G70,  and  of  Louis  XV.  in  1744. 

The  old  Palais  de  Rihour  was  so  generally  dilapidated,  that  a few  years  ago  it  was  determined  to  take 
it  down,  and  erect  on  the  site  a new  Hotel  de  Ville;  and  the  work  was  confided  to  Mons.  Benvignat,  who 
has  designed  it  on  an  ample  scale,  with  lofty  storeys,  grand  vestibules  and  halls,  spacious  staircases,  and  well 
lighted  picture  galleries.  The  columns  are  of  the  blue  lias  formation  procured  from  Belgium  near  Tournay, 
the  shafts  being  monoliths,  and  the  pedestals  and  bases  also  in  single  blocks  of  considerable  dimensions. 

The  Museum,  the  City  Library,  and  Municipal  Offices  are  contained  within  this  fine  building.  You 
will  remember  that  on  a former  occasion,  when  I described  to  you  the  public  institutions  of  Caen  and 
Arras,  I alluded  to  the  noble  munificence  and  public  spirit  with  which  the  principal  cities  of  France  were 
endowed  with  institutions  on  a grand  scale,  and  of  an  useful  and  intellectual  character:  and  it  must  be 
acknowledged  that,  however  detrimental  the  octroi  may  be  considered  to  the  commerce  of  a place,  its 
revenues  have  procured  to  the  leading  cities  of  France,  institutions  and  edifices  which  we  may  well  envy  them; 
and  we  can  hardly  hope  that  the  merely  permissive  character  of  recent  enactments  in  this  country  can  ever 
realise  such  results  as  have  been  effected  in  France.  A majestic  staircase,  adorned  in  part  with  casts  from 
our  Elgin  marbles,  leads  to  the  Public  Museum  of  Lille,  which  consists  of  seven  rooms  of  noble  dimensions, 
four  of  them  containing  some  very  creditable  productions  of  ancient  and  modern  painters,  and  copies  of 
some  pictures  by  Paul  Veronese,  Raphael,  Rubens,  Vandyke,  and  other  leading  masters. 

But  the  most  precious  portion  of  these  works  of  art  is  a collection  containing  about  1200  original 
drawings;  197  attributed  to  Michael  Angelo,  3 to  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  68  to  Raphael,  13  to  Masaccio,  6 to 
Andrea  del  Sarto,  9 to  Bandinelli,  1 to  Paolo  Veronese,  1 to  Perugino,  1 to  Gian.  Bellino,  8 to  Annibale 
Caracci,  2 to  Coreggio,  17  to  Carlo  Dolci,  10  to  Fra  Bartolomeo,  15  to  Francia,  8 to  Guercino,  5 to 
Ghirlandajo,  3 to  Giulio  Romano,  1 to  Palma,  5 to  Parmegiano,  6 to  Poussin,  2 to  Tintoretto,  8 to  Titian, 
2 to  Albert  Diirer,  3 to  Lucas  de  Leyde,  1 to  Rembrandt,  and  1 to  David. 

Many  of  these  are  apparently  first  sketches  of  pictures,  which  have  since  acquired  the  highest  repu- 
tation, and  shew  the  gradual  steps  by  which  the  great  masters  progressively  improved  the  rude  embryos  of 
their  first  thoughts ; and  in  order  to  compare  the  original  ideas  with  the  finished  works,  there  are  engravings 
of  the  pictures  as  completed.  Some  are  in  pencil,  others  in  black  or  red  chalk,  and  several  in  bistre. 
A most  lovely  model  in  wax,  attributed  to  Raphael,  of  a female  head  the  size  of  life  colored  to  nature,  the 
contour,  pose  and  expression  of  which  recal  the  perfection  of  Greek  art,  rivets  the  attention  of  every  visitor. 
It  is  fractured  in  the  neck,  and  evidently  is  of  so  frail  a nature  that,  however  anxious  has  been  the  desire  to 
take  a cast,  the  success  seems  too  hazardous  to  justify  the  attempt.  The  drapery  covering  the  bust,  and  the 
pedestal  are  of  terra-cotta  of  a later  period.  I consider  this  the  gem  of  the  collection. 

To  architects  the  most  precious  portion  of  the  drawings,  is  a series  of  185  sketches  of  architectural  sub- 
jects attributed  to  the  pencil  of  Michael  Angelo.  They  are  now  mounted  in  glazed  frames,  so  arranged  as  to 
shew  both  sides  of  the  sheets,  as  they  originally  were  in  a sketch  book,  and  with  drawings  on  both  sides, 
the  size  8 inches  by  5.  They  are  generally  drawn  in  bistre,  and  the  plans  tinted  with  a light  shade  of 
that  color.  To  some  there  are  dimensions ; others  have  the  words  a discliretione  e no  e misurato  : sometimes 
the  word  anticlio  is  added.  They  consist  of  plans,  sections,  details,  and  some  few  elevations,  of  various 
ancient  and  modern  buildings.  Among  the  former  are  the  arches  of  Titus,  Septimius  Severus,  Janus,  and 
Constantine,  at  Rome;  of  Augustus  at  Pola,  in  Istria;  a plan  and  details  of  the  Coliseum.  Some  seem  to 
be  plans  of  HSdicula  or  tombs,  like  those  then  abounding  in  the  Campagna;  and  I find  No.  439  to  be 
identical  with  the  plan  of  plate  24  of  Montano's  Scelta  di  varii  Tempietti  Antichi.  There  is  a sketch  in 


3 


pencil  of  the  drum,  under  the  cupola  of  S.  Peter’s  at  Rome,  as  designed  and  executed  by  Michael  Angelo, 
with  the  abutment  piers  and  coupled  engaged  columns,  instead  of  the  continuous  colonnade  of  previous 
designs,  whether  by  Bramante  or  S.  Gallo;  and  above  are  some  loose  lines  in  pencil  indicating  the  dome, 
though  not  very  definitely,  and  more  like  the  Pantheon  than  S.  Peter’s.  There  are  several  drawings  of  the 
parts  of  the  Church  of  S.  Pietro  in  Montorio,  which  was  designed  and  built  by  Bramante,  the  cotemporary 
of  Michael  Angelo  and  uncle  of  Raphael ; and  many  sketches  of  the  Baptistery  at  Florence,  of  the  Lantern 
of  S.  Lorenzo,  a plan  of  the  Chiesa  degli  Angeli  by  Brunelleschi,  and  other  buildings  in  that  city,  and 
particularly  of  the  Medicean  Library,  designed  and  almost  entirely  executed  by  Michael  Angelo,  but  com- 
pleted by  Vasari,  to  which  I shall  again  more  particularly  allude.  There  are  sketches  of  vases,  arabesques, 
pulpits,  and  groups  of  trophies  of  ancient  Roman  armour. 

During  the  short  period  of  time  that  I was  enabled  to  devote  to  the  careful  examination  of  these 
drawings,  I sketched  off  some  of  the  plans,  which  I have  had  since  drawn  out  to  about  twice  the  size  of  the 
originals,  in  order  to  give  an  idea  of  the  interesting  character  of  the  series.  One  of  these,  enlarged  more 
than  the  others  on  account  of  its  importance,  gives  a restoration  of  the  Ruin  in  the  Campo  Vaccino,  known 
as  the  Temple  of  Peace,  or  as  our  friend  Mr.  Burgess,  and  other  antiquaries,  call  it,  the  Basilica  of  Con- 
stantine. It  gave  rise  to  some  discussion,  when  Mr.  Burgess  favored  us  during  the  last  Session  with  his 
instructive  paper  on  the  ancient  Basilica  and  early  Christian  Temple.  The  sketch  contains  these  original 
remarkable  words  upon  it  in  Italian : “ (questa  una  pianta  d'una  chiesa  moderna  no  so  di  chi  sia  mano)’’ ; 
“ this  is  a plan  of  a modern  church  by  I know  not  what  hand.”  Now  the  restoration  of  this  ruin,  as  you 
are  aware,  has  puzzled  antiquarians  and  architects  from  the  time  of  Serlio  to  that  of  Palladio,  and  down  to 
the  present  period.  Its  name,  its  destination  and  its  plan  have  been  a constant  enigma:  but  it  appears 
stranger  still,  if  Michael  Angelo  be  the  author  of  these  sketches,  that  he  should  copy  the  idea  of  another, 
call  it  a modern  church,  and  say  he  knew  not  by  what  hand,  when  from  his  constant  residence  at  Rome, 
he  must  have  had  a thorough  knowledge  of  the  pile,  whose  three  arches  rise  with  such  majestic  grandeur 
among  the  ruins  of  the  Campo  Vaccino,  and  his  eye,  familiar  with  the  building,  must  have  recognized  at 
once  an  adaptation  and  not  a “ chiesa  moderna .”  A curious  coincidence  is,  that  he  himself,  whether  before 
the  date  of  this  sketch  or  after  it  is  impossible  to  say,  converted  a similar  hall  in  the  Baths  of  Diocletian  to 
the  purposes  of  religious  worship.  The  church,  a majestic  one  from  its  size  and  simplicity,  is  known  as  the 
Madonna  degli  Angeli,  and  is  interesting  also  to  artists  as  containing  the  tombs  of  Carlo  Maratti  and  Salvator 
Rosa;  the  grand  hall  is  198  ft.  long  by  84ft.  wide,  independently  of  the  end  chapels,  which  give  an 
additional  length  of  65  ft.  each,  making  a total  length  of  328  ft.  These  measurements  were  taken  by 
Mr.  Hardwick  and  myself,  when  we  were  together  in  Rome  in  1818. 

This  sketch  suggests  many  remarkable  considerations.  It  omits  the  large  lateral  niche;  it  fills  in 
small  columns  between  the  large  arches  of  the  nave,  and  thus  decidedly  separates  the  central  nave  from  the 
side  aisles;  it  adds  small  columns  to  the  niches,  as  though  each  had  a tabernacle,  as  in  the  Pantheon,  a 
very  probable  conclusion.  But  the  most  important  circumstance  is  the  addition,  at  one  end,  of  a noble 
portico  of  large  proportions ; where  from  the  time  of  Serlio  to  the  present  period,  comprehending  Palladio 
and  Canina,  the  space  is  supposed  to  be  occupied  by  a paltry  arcade.  As  such  a feature  is  irreconcileable 
with  the  broad  treatment  of  the  rest  of  the  edifice,  and  considering  the  arcade  to  be  a construction  of  more 
recent  times,  it  seems  more  consistent  with  the  true  spirit  of  the  original  design  to  give  it  a more 
dignified  facade,  than  that  of  Palladio  or  Canina,  so  as  to  be  accordant  with  its  size  and  disposition,  main- 
taining its  importance  with  the  Temple  of  Venus  and  Rome  immediately  adjacent,  and  the  other  magnificent 
buildings  of  the  Roman  Forum,  to  which  it  is  contiguous. 

Our  friend,  Mons.  Hittorff,  to  whom  I sent  a copy  of  this  sketch,  has  called  my  attention  to  the 
similarity  between  the  plan  of  this  portico,  and  that  of  a portico  to  S.  Peter’s  attributed  to  Michael  Angelo ; 
they  are  placed  side  by  side  on  one  of  the  illustrations  now  exhibited,  the  only  difference  consisting  in  the 


4 


number  of  the  columns, — the  one  being  for  a tetrastyle,  the  other  for  a hexastyle  portico,  and  the  projection  of 
the  porticos  being  respectively  two  and  three  intercolumniations.  But  our  distinguished  Honorary  and 
Corresponding  Fellow,  calls  attention  to  another  suggestion  presented  by  the  plan,  which  forcibly  revives  an 
early  impression  upon  his  mind,  that  the  primitive  plan  of  S.  Peter’s  at  Rome,  as  designed  by  Bramante, 
consisting  of  a simple  Greek  cross,  and  divested  of  its  superfluous  accessories,  would  seem  to  have  been 
suggested  by  the  plan  of  this  ruin,  with  which  in  its  main  lines  and  features  it  palpably  corresponds. 

Such  are  some  of  the  speculations,  which  arise  from  the  contemplation  of  this  plan  and  the  startling 
words — “ chiesa  moderna  no  so  di  chi  sia  mano." 

I shall  not  perplex  you  nor  myself  by  any  lengthened  speculations  upon  the  real  character  and 
destination  of  this  edifice.  Its  plan  is  wholly  at  variance  with  the  type  presented  in  any  known  temple  of 
the  Greeks  or  Romans:  hence  the  name  of  Temple  of  Peace  seems  inappropriate.  Its  plan  is  no  less 
discordant  from  the  precepts  of  Vitruvius,  or  any  other  basilica  in  ancient  Rome,  hence  the  term  Basilica 
of  Constantine  would  remove  it  from  the  usual  basilican  canon;  and  experience  does  not  teach  us  that  the 
Romans  of  later  times  departed  very  materially  or  radically  from  established  previous  types.  But  its 
vicinity  to  the  Domus  Aurea  of  Nero  makes  me  inclined  to  consider  it  as  a vestibule  to  that  noble  palace, 
partially  saved  from  the  conflagration,  restored,  added  to  by  Maxentius,  and  possibly  christened  with  a new 
name  in  periods  much  subsequent  to  its  original  erection — And  now  Eequiescat  in  Pace. 

The  next  sketch,  to  which  I invite  attention,  is  that  of  the  plan  of  the  Vestibule  to  the  Medicean 
Library  at  Florence.  Those,  who  have  visited  that  building,  will  remember  the  vestibule  and  its  strangely 
planned  flight  of  steps,  leading  up  into  the  library:  and  they  will  recal  the  columns  sunk  in  the  walls, 
and  other  grotesque  mixtures  of  heterogenous  forms  in  the  details,  which  fully  bear  out  what  Vasari  says 
of  Michael  Angelo,*  and  who  thinks  to  praise  the  master  for  having  “ composed  a decoration  of”  what  he 
calls,  “ a richer  and  more  varied  character  than  had  ever  before  been  adopted,  either  by  ancient  or  modern 
masters.  The  beautiful  cornices,”  says  he,  “ the  capitals,  the  bases,  the  doors,  the  niches,  were  all  very 
different  from  those  in  common  use,  and  from  what  was  considered  measure , rule  and  order  by  Vitruvius  and 
the  ancients ; to  whose  rules  he  would  not  restrict  himself.  But  this  boldness  on  his  part  has  encouraged 
other  artists  to  an  injudicious  imitation,  and  new  fancies  are  continually  seen,  many  of  which  belong  to 
1 grottesche,’  rather  than  to  the  wholesome  rules  of  ornamentation.  Artists,”  continues  Vasari,  “ are  never- 
theless under  great  obligations  to  Michaelagnolo,  seeing  that  he  has  thus  broken  the  barriers  and  chains, 
whereby  they  were  perpetually  compelled  to  walk  in  a beaten  path,  while  he  still  more  effectually  completed 
this  liberation,  and  made  known  his  own  views  in  the  Library  of  San  Lorenzo,  erected  at  the  same  place. 
The  admirable  distribution  of  the  windows,  the  construction  of  the  ceiling,  and  the  fine  entrance  of  the 
vestibule,  can  never  sufficiently  be  extolled.  Boldness  and  grace  are  in  the  work  as  a whole,  and  in  every 
part:  in  the  cornices,  the  corbels,  the  niches  for  statues,  the  commodious  staircase  and  its  fanciful  divisions 
— in  all  the  building,  at  a word,  which  is  so  unlike  the  common  fashion  of  treatment,  that  every  one  stands 
amazed  at  the  sight  thereof.” 

The  Medicean  Family  having  collected  a vast  quantity  of  very  fine  manuscripts  of  the  classic  authors 
from  the  Greeks,  who  had  been  driven  from  Constantinople,  and  from  other  sources,  were  anxious  to 
provide  a receptacle  worthy  so  rich  a treasure. | Clement  VII,  one  of  the  Medicean  Popes,  was  desirous  of 
establishing  memorials  to  his  fame  in  sculpture,  painting  and  architecture,  as  Leo  and  his  other  predecessors 
had  done.  This  was  about  1625,  and  Michael  Angelo  was  summoned  to  Florence  to  design  the  library, 
to  be  called  that  of  San  Lorenzo,  with  a new  sacristy  to  the  church,  wherein  the  Pope  proposed  to  erect  the 


* Vasari’s  Lives,  translated  by  Mrs.  Foster,  vol.  v.  p.  272. 


t Page  271. 


marble  tombs  of  his  forefathers,*  two  to  enclose  the  remains  of  the  fathers  of  the  two  Popes,  Lorenzo  the 
elder  and  Giuliano  his  brother,  with  those  of  Giuliano  Duke  of  Nemours,  the  brother  of  Leo,  and  of 
Lorenzo  Duke  of  Urbino  his  nephew. 

Eight  years  afterwards,  in  1533,  Pope  Clement  died,f  when  the  works  then  proceeding  at  the  library 
and  sacristy  in  Florence,  which,  notwithstanding  all  the  efforts  made,  were  not  yet  finished,  were  at  once 
laid  aside.  Towards  the  middle  of  1555,  during  the  time  of  Paul  III,  “ Duke  Cosinio  had  sent  Tribolo 
to  Home,  to  try  if  he  could  persuade  Michaelagnolo  to  return  to  Florence,  there  to  finish  the  sacristy  of 
San  Lorenzo ; but  the  master  had  excused  himself,  saying,  that  he  was  become  old,  might  no  longer  endure 
the  fatigue  of  labor,  and  could  not  leave  Eome.  Tribolo  then  enquired  as  to  the  steps  for  the  library  of 
San  Lorenzo,  for  which  Michaelagnolo  had  caused  many  of  the  stones  to  be  prepared,  but  for  which  no 
model  nor  any  certain  indication  of  the  form  in  which  they  were  to  be  constructed,  could  be  found.  It  is 
true,  that  there  were  some  few  sketches  of  a pavement  and  other  things  in  terra,  yet  the  correct  and  final 
design  of  the  work  could  not  be  ascertained.  But  not  all  the  entreaties  of  Tribolo,  although  he  brought  in 
the  name  of  the  Duke,  could  move  Michelagnolo  to  say  more  than  that  he  did  not  remember.  The  Duke 
then  commanded  Vasari  to  write  to  the  master,  since  it  was  hoped  that  for  the  love  of  him,  Michelagnolo 
would  perhaps  say  something,  which  might  enable  them  to  bring  the  work  to  conclusion.  Vasari  wrote  to 
him  accordingly  as  the  Duke  desired,  adding,  that  of  all  which  had  to  be  done  Vasari  was  to  be  the 
director,  and  would  do  everything  with  the  utmost  fidelity,  taking  care  of  every  minutia,  as  of  a work  of 
his  own.  To  this  Michelagnolo  replied  by  sending  the  plans  for  the  work  in  a letter,  written  by  his  own 
hand,  on  the  28th  Sepr.  1555.  ‘ Messer  Giorgio,  my  dear  friend — About  the  staircase,  whereof  there  has 

been  so  much  said,  believe  me,  that  if  I could  remember  how  I had  arranged  it,  I should  not  require  so 
many  entreaties.  There  is  a certain  stair,  that  comes  into  my  thoughts  like  a dream;  but  I do  not  think  it 
is  exactly  the  one  which  I had  planned  at  that  time,  seeing  that  it  appears  to  be  but  a clumsy  affair ; I 
will  describe  it  for  you  nevertheless.  I took  a number  of  oval  boxes,  each  about  one  palm  deep,  but  not  of 
equal  length  and  breadth.  The  first  and  largest  I placed  on  the  pavement  at  such  distance  from  the  wall 
of  the  door,  as  seemed  to  be  required  by  the  greater  or  lesser  degree  of  steepness  you  may  wish  to  give  to 
the  stair.  Over  this  was  placed  another,  smaller  in  all  directions,  and  leaving  sufficient  room  on  that 
beneath  for  the  foot  to  rest  on  in  ascending;  thus  diminishing  each  step  as  it  gradually  retires  towards  the 
door;  the  uppermost  step  being  exactly  of  the  width  required  for  the  door  itself.  This  part  of  the  oval 
steps  must  have  two  wings,  one  right,  the  other  left.  The  steps  of  the  wings  to  rise  by  similar  degrees,  but 
not  to  be  oval  in  form.  The  ascent  by  the  middle  flight,  from  the  centre  to  the  upper  part,  shall  be  for 
the  Signore;  the  turn  of  the  wings  must  be  towards  the  wall.  But  from  the  centre  downwards  to  the 
pavement,  they  shall  be  kept  at  the  distance  of  about  three  palms,  in  such  sort  that  the  basement  of  the 
vestibule  shall  not  be  infringed  upon  in  any  part.  What  I am  writing  is  a thing  to  be  laughed  at,  but  I 
know  well  that  you  will  find  something  suitable  to  your  purpose.’  ”1 

In  a brief  conversation  on  the  subject,  which  I had  with  Monsieur  Benvignat,  the  architect  of  Lille,  he 
gave  it  as  his  opinion,  that  the  sketch  exhibited  in  the  Wicar  collection  is  the  original  idea  of  Michael  Angelo; 
that  he  had  lost  the  book,  and  forgotten  this  his  first  conception.  But  the  sketch  is  equally  at  variance  with 
the  master's  letter  just  quoted,  and  the  staircase  as  executed.  The  sketch  presents  an  oval  series  of  steps, 


* Vasari’s  Lives,  translated  by  Mrs.  Foster,  vol.  v.  p.  272.  f Page  282. 

J Gave  n bis  Carteggio,  makes  it  doubtful  whether  Vasari  finished  these  steps  or  not;  and  a Florentine  commentator  says, 
“ Although  Michael  Angelo  had  left  the  steps,  the  balustrade,  and  many  other  parts  of  this  work  in  a state  of  preparation,  it  is 
manifest  that  Vasari  did  not  succeed  in  comprehending  the  master's  wish.  He  constructed  a magnificent  flight  of  steps,  without 
doubt,  hut  not  that  intended  by  Michael  Angelo.” — See  Ru;gieri,  Studio  d'Architettura  Civile  ; also  Rossi.  Libreria  2/edicea 
Laurenziana. 


6 


half  without  and  half  within  the  door  of  the  library ; but  the  number  would  not  have  accomplished  half  the 
height  to  which  it  was  necessary  to  rise,  and  although  oval  like  the  boxes  alluded  to  by  Michael  Angelo, 
there  are  no  side  steps. 

So  restricted  is  the  vestibule,  that  the  intrusion  upon  the  space  of  the  floor,  by  the  capricious  form 
given  to  the  flight  as  executed,  leaves  very  inadequate  room  for  the  landing  at  the  bottom  of  the  stairs;  and 
if  any  method  could  have  been  devised  of  gaining  space  by  making  some  of  the  steps  rise  within  the  doorway, 
much  convenience  would  have  been  gained.  I am  inclined  therefore  to  think  that  this  sketch  is  a slight 
idea  of  Vasari’s,  founded  upon  some  vague  rumour  of  Michael  Angelo’s  arrangement,  to  try  how  it  could  be 
carried  into  execution,  before  he  had  received  the  master’s  formal  instructions. 

This  brings  us  to  the  consideration  of  the  important  question,  who  was  the  real  author  of  these  sketches  ? 
My  own  impression  is,  that  the  whole  booh  may  be  attributed  to  Vasari  himself — that  all  the  sketches  of  the 
Library,  of  the  Cupolino  of  the  Sepulchral  Chapel,  and  of  the  other  details  of  Michael  Angelo’s  work,  were 
taken  for  his  own  guidance,  or  for  the  purpose  of  sending  off  copies  to  the  Master,  to  enable  him  to  give  the 
proper  instructions  to  direct  Vasari’s  proceedings  in  the  completion  of  the  buildings  confided  to  his  care. 

The  sketches  generally  are  executed  with  a certain  ready  freedom  of  hand  and  no  great  care : but 
some  are  drawn  with  much  delicacy  and  with  considerable  precision  and  minuteness  of  form.  Hardly 
more  than  two  or  three  evince  that  bold  and  vigorons  freedom  of  treatment,  which  we  are  accustomed 
to  consider  as  characteristic  of  the  Maestro,  as  Vasari  repeatedly  calls  him.  One  circumstance 
particularly  struck  me,  and  that  was  the  numerous  sketches  of  the  circular  chapel  built  in  the  cloister  court 
of  S.  Pietro  a Montorio,  by  Bramante.  This  building  excited  vast  admiration  at  the  time,  and  Serlio  himself 
gives  the  plans,  elevations  and  sections  of  it  in  his  work  next  to  those  of  the  cupola  of  S.  Peter’s,  and  among 
the  numerous  illustrations  of  ancient  buildings,  and  Palladio  also  gives  it  among  his  ancient  edifices.  Other 
writers  of  the  time  mention  it  with  unqualified  praise.  It  would  therefore  be  no  wonder  if  a Vasari,  who 
was  employed  upon  designs  and  models  for  tombs  at  S.  Pietro  a Montorio  by  order  of  Julius  III.,  should 
have  sketched  parts  and  kept  a record  of  such  details.  But  that  Michael  Angelo,  who  despised  the  trammels 
of  ancient  art,  should  condescend  to  the  task  of  minutely  drawing  the  work  of  a cotemporary,  and  that 
cotemporary  no  friend  of  his,  but  the  uncle  and  supporter  of  his  rival  Raphael,  and  one,  who  crossed  him 
in  his  great  work  for  the  tomb  of  Julius,  seems  beyond  probability,  however  noble  were  many  impulses  of 
Michael  Angelo’s  generous  nature.  I am  given  to  understand,  that  many  French  artists,  who  have  visited 
the  Wicar  collection,  concur  in  my  opinion  as  to  the  propriety  of  not  attributing  this  collection  of  sketches 
to  Michael  Angelo ; and  a distinguished  member  of  the  French  Institute,  a great  amateur  and  connoisseur, 
assures  my  friend  Hittorff,  that  he  had  traced  the  writing  on  some  of  these  drawings,  and  that  it  did  not  at 
all  accord  with  that  of  the  great  master.  I am  therefore  confirmed  in  the  conviction,  that  these  architec- 
tural sketches  are  not  the  production  of  Michael  Angelo. 

I shall  now  notice  a letter  from  Francois  I.  to  MichaelAngelo ; but  before  I put  you  in  possession  of  this 
most  precious  of  the  treasures  of  the  Wicart  collection,  it  is  necessary  for  me  to  give  a few  particulars  of 
one,  to  whom  it  refers,  and  which  I shall  do  by  quoting  another  passage  or  two  from  Vasari.  Francesco 
Primaticcio  was  sent  by  the  Duke  Frederigo  of  Mantua  to  France,  at  the  request  of  Francis  I.,  who,  having 
heard  of  the  decorations,  with  which  he  was  adorning  the  Palazzo  del  T,  desired  to  have  an  able  artist  to 
execute  like  works  for  him  at  Fontainebleau,  and  elsewhere.  Primaticcio,  according  to  Vasari,  was  the  first 
to  paint  frescoes  of  any  account  for  the  French  king,  and  we  all  know  how  admirably  he  succeeded  in  the 
great  and  superb  ball  room  at  Fontainebleau. 

“ King  Francis,  being  much  pleased  with  the  conduct  and  proceedings  of  Primaticcio,  sent  him  in  1540 
to  Rome,  he  having  put  the  wish,  according  to  Benvenuto  Cellini, f into  that  monarch’s  head  to  possess 
antiques.  He  purchased  several  antiques  in  marble,  and  served  the  king  so  diligently,  that  what  with 


* Vasari's  Lives,  translated  by  Mrs.  Foster,  vol.  v.  p.  371.  t Vita,  vol.  ii.  p.  131,  Ediz.  di  Milano,  1811,  8vo. 


7 


heads,  trunks,  and  entire  figures,  he  bought  in  no  long  time  125  pieces.  At  the  same  time  Primaticcio 
caused  Barozzi  da  Vignola  and  others  to  copy  the  bronze  horse  of  the  Capitol,  the  greater  part  of  the  relievi 
of  the  column,  (probably  Trajan’s,)  the  statue  of  Commodus,  the  Venus,  Laocoon,  the  Tiber,  the  Nile,  and 
the  statue  of  Cleopatra,  which  are  in  the  Belvedere,  and  all  which  were  to  be  cast  in  bronze.” 

“ Being  recalled  to  Paris  he  returned  immediately.  But,  before  attending  to  any  other  occupation, 
Primaticcio  caused  the  greater  part  of  those  antiques  to  be  cast,  when  all  succeeded  so  well,  that  they  might 
be  taken  for  veritable  works  of  antiquity,  as  may  still  be  seen”  says  Vasari  “ in  the  Queen’s  garden  at 
Fontainebleau,  where  they  were  placed  to  the  great  satisfaction  of  King  Francis,  who  may  be  said  to  have 
there  made  another  Rome.” 

“ The  king,  perceiving  that  he  had  been  well  served  during  the  eight  years,  that  Primaticcio  had  been 
with  him,  appointed  the  painter  to  be  one  of  his  Chamberlains.  And  shortly  after  (in  1544  that  is  to  say) 
his  Majesty  made  him  Abbot  of  S.  Martin  (at  Troyes.)  ” 

The  document,  which  rendered  necessary  these  preliminary  remarks,  is  as  follows: 

Sr  Michelangelo  pourceque  jay  grant  desir  davoir  quelques  besognes  de  vre  ouvrage  jay  donne 
charge  a labbe  de  Sainct  Martin  de  Troyes  pnt  porteur  que  jenvoye  pardela  den  recouvrir  vous  priant 
si  vous  avez  quelques  choses  excellentes  faictes  a son  arrivee  les  luy  voulloir  bailler  en  les  vous  bien  payant 
ainsique  je  luy  ay  donne  charge  Et  davantaige  voulloir  estre  contant  pour  lamour  de  moy  quil  molle  le 
christ  de  la  Minervef  et  la  n~re  dame  de  la  febre  | affinque  jen  puisse  aorner  lune  de  mes  cbappelles 
comme  de  chose  que  Ion  ma  asseure  estre  des  plus  exquises  et  excellentes  en  v~ re  art.  Priant  dieu  Sr 
Michelango  (sic)  quil  vous  ayt  en  sagarde.  Escript  a Sainct  germain  en  Laye  le  VIIIC  jour  de  feurier  mv°xlv. 
FRANCOYS. 

No.  199.  Delaubespine. 

This  letter  proves  that  Primaticcio  must  have  made  a second  visit  to  Italy  for  the  purpose  of  collecting 
more  works  of  art,  and  its  truly  princely  sentiments  evince  the  taste,  the  liberality,  and  high-minded  gene- 
rosity of  a real  lover  of  the  fine  arts.  How  fortunate  has  France  been  for  three  centuries  in  having  princes  who 
felt,  that  the  fine  arts  can  contribute  essentially  to  the  refinement,  the  happiness,  and  prosperity  of  a nation. 
This  spirit  has  endowed  Fontainebleau,  Paris,  and  Versailles  with  the  masterly  productions  of  the  greatest 
minds  in  Italy  and  France.  The  lower  orders  have  their  enjoyments  in  common  with  the  princes,  the 
nobles,  and  gentry  of  the  land;  and  they  grow  up  imbued  with  the  love  of  that  art,  which  is  so  mixed  up 
with  their  holiday  enjoyments,  that  it  becomes  a necessity,  as  it  were,  from  their  being  used  to  it  from  their 
earliest  years ; and  they  are  thus  unconsciously  educated  by  the  contemplation  of  the  finest  works.  How 
far  are  we  in  this  respect  behind  our  neighbours.  The  gardens  of  the  Tuilleries  have  no  parallel  with  our 
royal  residence  of  Buckingham  Palace ; and  Fontainebleau  puts  to  shame  the  courts,  and  terraces,  and  gardens, 
and  walks  of  Windsor  Castle,  which  contain  hardly  a single  statue,  group,  or  fountain,  or  other  art  acces- 
sories of  any  consequence,  and  appear  cold  and  meagre,  and  poverty  stricken  from  the  want  of  such 
accompaniments.  So  niggardly  and  deficient  in  art  feeling  have  those  authorities  been,  who  have  hitherto  had 
to  provide  for  the  palaces  of  our  Sovereigns,  and  the  places  of  public  resort  for  the  people.  Often  was 
Francois  I.  thwarted  by  his  ministers  in  his  munificent  desire  to  promote  the  fine  arts,  but  he  was  not  to  be 
turned  away  from  an  object,  which  he  knew  would  gratify  his  people  and  ennoble  his  country.  And  well 
has  this  noble  spirit  been  rewarded  for  his  early  enlightened  cultivation  of  the  fine  arts,  for  his  example 


* This  celebrated  statue  is  still  preserved  in  the  Church  of  the  Minerva,  near  the  Pantheon,  Rome. 

t This  statue  was,  according  to  Vasari,  executed  for  the  Cardinale  di  S.  Dionigi,  to  put  in  old  S.  Peter’s,  in  the  Chapel  of 
the  Virgin  Mary  of  the  Fever.  I have  made  ineffectual  enquiries  to  ascertain  precisely  where  this  statue  is.  Mons.  Hittorff 
thinks  it  the  Madonna  della  Pieta,  the  cast  of  which  was  in  one  of  the  chapels  of  Fontainebleau  up  to  the  time  of  the  Revolution. 
Probably  it  may  be  the  Pieta  of  S.  Peter’s,  at  Rome,  re-named  after  the  time  of  Vasari. 


8 


has  been  followed  by  the  continued  munificence  of  succeeding  monarchs  and  ministers,  which  has  produced 
that  superiority  in  the  art  productions  of  their  manufactures,  which  enables  them  to  compete  so  successfully 
with  the  mere  mechanical  skill  and  industry  of  other  nations. 

Michael  Angelo  has  been  the  main  topic,  to  which  I have  been  so  bold  as  to  claim  your  attention; 
and  surely  his  position  as  an  artist  claims  for  him  the  respect  and  admiration  of  every  painter,  sculptor 
and  architect.  And  although  he  was  a great  innovator  in  architecture,  and  introduced  a license,  which 
was  most  pernicious  to  the  art,  yet  we  cannot  but  recollect  that  we  owe  to  him  the  simplicity  of  design, 
to  which  he  reduced  the  cupola  and  other  decorations  of  S.  Peter’s,  which  had  been  sadly  corrupted  by  the 
immediate  successors  of  Bramante,  whose  original  conception  had  been  lost.  Yasari  mentions*  that  “ while 
Antonio  San  Gallo  lived,  Pope  Paul  had  permitted  him  to  continue  the  building  of  the  Farnese  Palace. 
But  the  upper  cornice  on  the  outside  was  still  wanting;  and  his  Holiness  now  desired,  that  this  should  be 
added  by  Michael  Angelo,  after  his  own  design  and  under  his  direction.  The  master,  therefore,  not 
willing  to  disoblige  the  Pope,  who  esteemed  and  favored  him  so  much,  made  a model  in  wood,  seven  braccia 
long  (13jft.),  and  of  the  exact  size  which  the  cornice  was  to  be.  This  he  caused  to  be  fixed  on  one  of 
the  angles  of  the  palace,  that  the  effect  might  be  seen,  when,  as  the  Pontiff  and  all  Rome  with  him  were  much 
pleased  therewith,  it  was  put  in  execution,  proving  to  be  the  most  beautiful  and  varied  cornice  ever  erected, 
either  by  the  ancients  or  moderns.f  He  continued  the  great  court  also,  constructing  two  ranges  of  columns 
over  those  first  erected,  with  the  most  beautiful  windows,  and  a great  variety  of  rich  ornaments,  ending 
with  the  great  cornice ; all  of  these  works  being  so  beautiful,  that  this  Court  by  the  labor  of  Michael  Angelo 
has  now  become  the  finest  of  all  Europe.” 

You  will  doubtless  remember  the  beautiful  picture  by  Haghe  in  the  New  Water  Color  Exhibition  of 
the  year  1848,!  representing  Michael  Angelo,  himself  an  old  man,  nursing  by  his  midnight  lamp  his  faithful 
servant  Urbino,  who  was  ill;  his  master  sleeping  at  night  in  his  clothes  beside  him,  the  better  to  watch  for 
his  comforts.  Yasari  gives  the  following  touching  letter  written  to  him  by  Michael  Angelo  on  this  occasion: 
“ My  dear  Messer  Giorgio — I can  but  ill  write  at  this  time,  yet  to  reply  to  your  letter  I will  try  to  say 
something.  You  know  that  Urbino  is  dead,  and  herein  have  I received  a great  mercy  from  God,  but  to 
my  heavy  grief  and  infinite  loss.  The  mercy  is  this,  that  whereas  in  his  life  he  has  kept  me  living,  so  in 
his  death  he  hath  taught  me  to  die,  not  only  without  regret,  but  with  the  desire  to  depart.  I have  had 
him  twenty-six  years,  have  ever  found  him  singularly  faithful,  and  now,  that  I have  made  him  rich,  and 
hoped  to  have  in  him  the  staff  and  support  of  my  old  age,  he  has  disappeared  from  my  sight,  nor  have  I 
now  left  any  other  hope,  than  that  of  rejoining  him  in  paradise.  But  of  this  God  has  given  me  a foretaste, 
in  the  most  blessed  death  that  he  has  died : his  own  departure  did  not  grieve  him  (so  much)  as  did  the 
leaving  me  in  this  treacherous  world  with  so  many  troubles.  Truly  is  the  best  part  of  my  being  now  gone 
with  him,  nor  is  anything  now  left  me,  except  an  infinite  sorrow.  And  herewith  I bid  you  farewell.” 

I have  been  insensibly  led,  by  the  interest,  which  attaches  to  the  talents  and  character  of  this  great 
man,  to  depart  from  the  immediate  subject  of  my  paper,  and  to  conclude  my  remarks  by  an  allusion  to  his 
works  at  the  Farnese,  and  by  the  contemplation  for  a moment  of  the  affecting  incident,  which  lays  open  the 
inmost  soul  of  Michael  Angelo,  and  shews  him  with  the  tenderest  regard  as  a kind  master,  and  the  finest 
feelings  of  the  most  pious  resignation  in  the  contemplation  of  his  own  not  far  distant  end, — as  exemplary 
as  a Christian,  as  he  had  been  eminent  and  admirable  as  an  artist.  But  I will  now  conclude,  and  trust, 


* Vasari’s  Lives,  translated  by  Mrs.  Foster,  vol.  v.  pp.  296-7. 

f The  cornice  to  the  Strozzi  Palace  at  Florence,  must  have  suggested  to  Michael  Angelo  the  grandiose  character  of  that  of 
the  Farnese  of  Rome. 


J See  Illustrated  London  News,  22nd  July  1848. 


9 


that  I may  not  be  considered  too  presumptuous  in  so  boldly  offering  my  opinion  as  to  the  authorship  of 
these  architectural  sketches.  Whosesoever  they  may  be,  whether  Michael  Angelo’s,  or  Vasari’s,  or  any 
other  artist’s,  they  are  extremely  curious  and  interesting  in  the  history  of  our  art.  I hope  that  none  of  my 
professional  brethren,  who  have  not  yet  seen  these  drawings,  will  now  pass  through  Lille  without  visiting 
this  fine  collection.  They  will  then,  in  addition  to  the  delight  they  will  experience  in  seeing  the  masterly 
thought- renderings  of  other  great  men,  be  enabled  to  judge  for  themselves  and  to  decide;  whether  I am 
wrong  or  right  in  hesitating  to  attribute  to  the  mighty  Florentine  these  architectural  sketches,  which  well 
deserve  the  minutest  attention  from  every  lover  of  architecture. 


The  President,  Earl  de  Grey,  called  upon  the  Meeting  to  award  their  thanks  to  Mr.  Donaldson,  for 
his  interesting  and  valuable  paper,  which  he  was  confident  they  would  do  unanimously. 

Mr.  Tite,  Fellow,  stated  it  had  happened  to  him,  in  the  summer  of  last  year,  to  be  detained  in  Lille 
for  five  hours  on  a wet  afternoon,  waiting  for  the  train  to  Calais,  when  he  was  directed  to  the  Musee,  in 
order  to  pass  a portion  of  that  time.  Proceeding  to  the  rather  magnificent  Hotel  de  Ville  described  by 
Mr.  Donaldson,  of  which  he  had  never  heard  before,  he  was  astonished  to  find,  not  only  the  marvellous 
collection  of  drawings  referred  to,  but  an  extensive  and  interesting  museum,  illustrative  of  art,  antiquity 
and  ethnology.  So  easily  might  Lille  be  visited,  and  so  well  did  the  collection  deserve  further  inquiry,  that 
he  strongly  recommended  his  hearers  to  go  there.  In  reference  to  the  architectural  portion  of  the  drawings, 
he  was  sorry  to  find  that  Mr.  Donaldson  considered  they  were  not,  as  he  (Mr.  Tite)  had  fondly  hoped,  the 
work  of  Michael  Angelo.  Mr.  Donaldson  had  brought  forward  strong  reasons  in  support  of  his  opinion; 
and  to  his  judgment  and  knowledge  of  the  subject,  he  must  at  once  defer.  He  had  himself  copied  from  one 
of  the  drawings  the  name  of  Michael  Angelo,  which  was  clearly  written  upon  it ; and  it  would  be  very  easy 
to  compare  that  with  his  undoubted  autograph,  so  as  to  settle  the  question.  One  of  the  largest  of  the 
drawings  appeared  to  him  to  be  the  first  sketch  of  the  great  architect  for  the  dome  of  St.  Peter’s,  with  the 
double  cupola.  He  was  informed  at  Lille  that  M.  Wicar  was  employed  by  Napoleon  Buonaparte  in  Italy, 
to  collect  works  of  art,  and  that  in  doing  so  he  helped  himself  to  these  drawings,  which  he  bequeathed  on 
his  decease  to  his  native  city.  In  addition  to  the  interesting  letter  of  Francis  I.  which  Mr.  Donaldson  had 
read,  he  begged  to  read  the  following,  from  Buonaparte  to  M.  Wicar,  which  was  exhibited  with  the 
drawings ; and  which,  notwithstanding  certain  peculiarities  of  diction,  he  had  no  doubt  was  dictated  by 
Buonaparte  himself,  in  1796,  from  Milan. 


Armee  d'ltalie. 

Eepublique  Franqaise. 

Liberte,  Egalite. 

Au  Quartier  General. 

Milan  le  22  Prarial. 

Au  4e  de  la  Eepublique — une  et  indivisible. 

Bonaparte  General  en  Chef  de  l’Armee  d’ltalie. 

Au  M.  Wicart,  peintre  a Florence. 

J’ai  re^u  votre  lettre  du  9 Prarial.  Je  ’ny  ai  point  rec;u  les  esquisses  que  vous  m’  vez 
annonciez. 


Je  vous  engage  a continuer  d’occuper  votre  talent  d’objets  dignes  de  rhoimne  qui  pense. 
Je  serai  toujours  fort  aise  de  pouvoir  de  vous  etre  bon  a quelque  chose. 


BONAPARTE. 


The  sketches  generally  were  singularly  curious  and  beautiful ; and  he  had  been  so  much  struck  with  them 
that  he  had  contemplated  interesting  the  architects  of  France,  with  a view  to  have  them  published  in 
lithography;  which  might  be  easily  and  cheaply  done;  and  he  would  suggest  to  the  Council  that  they  might 


10 


be  able  to  promote  this  object.  Whoever  was  the  author  of  the  sketches,  he  thought  they  might  prove  very 
useful  in  restoring  the  magnificence  of  ancient ‘Rome.  With  regard  to  the  Basilica  of  Constantine,  he 
should  be  very  glad  to  believe  that  there  had  been  such  a portico  as  the  drawing  referred  to  by 
Mr.  Donaldson  indicated.-  He  believed,  however,  that  both  Palladio  and  Canina  (the  latter  especially)  were 
quite  inclined  to  include  a portico  in  their  restorations  of  that  building;  but  that  it  would  be  found  that 
there  could  not  have  been  such  a portico,  unless  indeed  the  Via  Sacra  could  be  supposed  to  have  passed 
within  it.  The  Institute  were  under  the  greatest  obligation  to  Mr.  Donaldson  for  the  attention  he  had  given 
to  the  illustration  of  these  works, — which  were  undoubtedly  the  production  of  some  very  clever  man,  if  not 
of  the  great  maestro  himself. 

Mr.  Donaldson  stated  that  he  had  intimated  to  M.  Benvignat,  who  was  a member  of  the  Commission, 
having  the  care  of  these  drawings,  that  he  was  sure  the  Institute  would  be  much  pleased  to  have  tracings 
of  them;  but  that  gentleman  believed  this  would  not  be  possible,  inasmuch  as  the  Commission  had  the 
intention  of  publishing  them  very  shortly.  It  would,  however,  be  desirable  to  express  the  interest  which 
this  Institute  felt  in  the  matter,  with  a view  of  promoting  that  result. 

Mr.  Bell,  M.P.  Fellow,  bore  testimony  to  the  extreme  value  and  interest  of  the  drawings,  both  in  an 
architectural  and  artistic  point  of  view.  He  had  himself  intended  to  revisit  them,  and  prepared  a paper  on 
the  subject;  but  he  rejoiced  that,  in  directing  Mr.  Donaldson’s  attention  to  them,  he  had  ensured  its  being 
much  more  ably  done. 

The  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Donaldson  was  then  carried. 

Some  specimens  of  serpentine  from  the  Lizard,  Cornwall,  were  exhibited  by  Messrs.  Brace  and  Colt. 
These  specimens  excited  general  admiration  from  their  large  size,  high  polish,  and  extreme  beauty  of 
colour, — and  it  was  stated  that  the  defects  arising  from  the  brittleness  of  the  material,  and  its  liability  to 
decay,  were  almost  entirely  obviated  when  the  stone  was  raised  from  some  depth  below  the  surface;  in 
which  case  it  was  also  procured  in  much  larger  slabs.  Mr.  Tite  and  Mr.  Donaldson  insisted  upon  the  above 
defects  in  this  otherwise  beautiful  material,  as  hitherto  worked;  but  a hope  was  expressed  that,  with 
improved  mechanical  appliances,  much  better  specimens  might  in  future  be  brought  into  the  market. 

In  answer  to  these  observations,  Mr.  Brace  gave  a short  explanation  of  the  operations  at  the  quarries 
referred  to.  He  stated  that  he  and  Mr.  Colt  were  the  first  persons  who  had  ventured  to  open  quarries  of 
any  considerable  depth ; that  the  experiment  had  been  highly  successful,  stone  having  been  obtained  vastly 
superior  both  in  colour  and  working  qualities  to  any  that  had  hitherto  been  produced ; that  there  was  every 
prospect  of  blocks  of  large  size  being  readily  obtained,  of  great  variety  in  colour  and  general  appearance; 
that  the  specimens  shewn  would  compete  in  point  of  price  with  marbles  of  very  inferior  quality ; and  that 
there  was  no  doubt  that  the  objections  that  had  been  raised  to  stone  obtained  from  the  surface  and  the 
beach,  portions  of  which  had  recently  been  used,  would  be  entirely  overcome,  as  stone  of  sound  quality  was 
readily  obtainable  from  the  lower  depths  of  their  quarries.  Mr.  Brace  read  an  extract  from  the  Geological 
Observer  of  Sir  Henry  de  la  Beche,  in  reference  to  the  composition  of  the  stone,  to  the  following  effect: 

Taking  the  composition  of  serpentine  and  of  olivine  from  the  thirteen  analyses,  of  each  by  several 
chemists,  such  as  are  given  by  Professor  Nicoll  in  his  Manual  of  Mineralogy,  the  similarity  or  difference 
would  be  as  follows — 


Serpentine. 

Olivine. 

Silica  

41  , 

. 99 

41  . 92 

Magnesia  

40  . 

. 24 

46  . 67 

Oxide  of  Iron  

....  3 . 

. 38 

10  . 75 

Water  

12 

. 68 

The  Meeting  was  then  adjourned  to  the  28th  of  November. 


ON  THE  APPLICATION  OF  PAINTED  GLASS  TO  BUILDINGS  IN  VARIOUS 

STYLES  OF  ARCHITECTURE. 

Read  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  November  28th,  1853. 

By  C.  Winston,  Honorary  Member. 

In  composing  this  paper  on  Painted  Glass  with  reference  to  its  employment  in  Buildings  in  various  styles 
of  Architecture,  I have  endeavoured  as  much  as  possible  to  keep  in  mind  the  practical  objects  of  this 
Society.  Many  matters,  therefore,  of  interest  to  the  antiquary,  will  be  passed  unnoticed,  or  with  a brief 
allusion  to  them — my  object  being,  as  far  as  I am  able,  to  supply  an  answer  to  the  question,  What  is  the 
kind  of  painted  glass  best  suited  to  a building  of  a given  character? 

On  a question  so  wide  and  complicated,  it  is  not  only  natural  that  very  different  opinions  should  exist, 
but  extremely  difficult  to  ascertain  which  is  the  most  correct.  The  inadequacy  of  language  to  express 
ideas  so  subtle  as  those  of  which  questions  of  taste  are  composed,  must  ever  be  an  insuperable  obstacle  to 
bringing  questions  of  taste  to  a certain  determination  by  argument:  a consideration  which  is  condemnatory 
of  the  modern  vice  of  dogmatizing  upon  such  subjects.  And  the  nature  of  the  only  remaining  tribunal — 
the  concurrent  opinion  of  men  of  taste — that  is  of  men  who  have  given  their  attention  to  such  matters,  and 
whose  views  are  respected  by  others  engaged  in  the  same  pursuits — of  itself  sanctions  a great  latitude  of 
sentiment.  The  feelings  and  habits,  the  education  and  temperament  of  individuals,  even  their  natural 
appreciation  of  form  or  colour,  all  insensibly  influencing  their  opinions  on  a subject  respecting  which 
there  exists  no  definite  standard.  I am  therefore  very  far  from  claiming  any  sort  of  infallibility  for  the 
views  I am  about  to  submit  to  your  consideration — views  which  I shall  attempt  to  support  rather  by 
calling  your  attention  to  objects  with  which  you  are  already  familiar,  than  by  elaborate  argument. 

The  variety  of  buildings  which  may  require  to  be  decorated  with  painted  glass  is  great.  Some  are  in 
the  Greek,  or  Palladian  styles  of  architecture,  others  are  in  the  Gothic  styles;  and  each  building  may  be 
more  or  less  grave  or  solemn  in  its  aspect  than  others  of  its  class.  Such  differences  in  the  buildings 
demand,  of  course,  corresponding  differences  in  their  painted  windows.  But  before  entering  upon  this 
topic,  it  will  be  convenient  to  declare  what  I believe  to  be  the  best  subjects  for  glass  painting,  and  the  best 
mode  of  executing  them.  With  regard  to  the  mode  of  executing  glass  paintings,  I will  recall  your  attention 
to  a paper  which  I read  here,  about  a year  ago,  on  the  Methods  of  Painting  upon  Glass.*  In  which,  after 
stating  that  there  were  three  distinct  modes  of  executing  glass  paintings,  viz.  by  the  mosaic  method,  in  which 
the  local  colouring  of  the  picture  is  produced  by  means  of  glass  coloured  in  its  manufacture,  the  shadows 
and  outlines  only  being  executed  with  an  enamel  colour;  by  the  enamel  method,  in  which  the  colouring  of 
the  design  is  effected  by  using  enamel  colours;  and  by  the  mosaic  enamel  method,  by  which  the  colouring 
of  the  picture  is  produced  by  a combination  of  the  two  former  methods, — I concluded  that  the  mosaic 
method  was  the  best;  because  it  was,  from  the  nature  of  the  thing,  more  favourable  than  either  of  the 
others  to  a display  of  the  translucent  quality  of  glass,  and  consequently  of  its  brilliant  and  powerful 
colours — whilst,  at  the  same  time,  it  afforded  the  means  of  executing  works  as  highly  pictorial  as  the 
windows  of  the  transepts  and  north  chapel  of  Brussels  Cathedral — works  which  maintain  their  superiority 
in  point  of  effect,  when  compared  with  a series  of  later  examples,  including  some  of  the  most  beautiful 
specimens  that  modern  continental  art  can  boast.  This  conclusion — for  the  soundness  of  which  I must 
refer  you  to  the  paper  I have  named,  and  to  the  works  of  art  therein  mentioned — will  confine  our  inquiry 
to  what  are  the  subjects  best  adapted  for  representation  in  glass  paintings,  executed  according  to  the 
mosaic  method. 


* “ On  the  Methods  of  Painting  upon  glass,”  read  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Institnte,  7th  March,  1853,  ami 
published  in  the  Transactions. 


12 


These  subjects  may  be  divided  into  the  following  classes : — Patterns,  similar  to  those  used  throughout 
the  Mediaeval  period,  and  which  usually  consist  of  ornamental  work  in  white  glass,  but  sometimes  of 
scrolls  of  foliage,  either  white  or  coloured,  on  a coloured  ground.  Pictures,  where  the  objects  are 
represented  as  seen  in  one  plane,  as  in  a bas-relief — such  as  we  see  in  the  painted  windows  of  the  12th  and 
13th  centuries;  and  pictures,  where  the  objects  are  represented  as  occupying  several  planes,  as  in  nature — 
such  as  we  meet  with  in  the  painted  windows  of  the  first  half  of  the  16th  century;  and,  of  course, 
compositions  consisting  entirely  of  such  patterns  or  pictures,  or  partly  of  patterns  and  partly  of  pictures. 
To  avoid  any  possible  misconception,  I should  perhaps  here  state,  that  any  reference  to  Mediaeval  examples 
in  this  paper  is  made  only  for  the  purpose  of  illustration,  and  not  with  any  intention  of  conveying  an 
impression  that  they  are  fit  objects  of  imitation.  Most  valuable  hints  are  doubtless  to  be  obtained  from 
an  enlightened  examination  of  such  examples;  but  before  we  think  of  copying  them,  we  ought  to  be  quite 
sure  that  they  are  worth  copying;  and  I will  undertake  to  say  that  not  one  ancient  example  of  painted 
glass,  except,  perhaps,  those  consisting  of  pattern  work,  can  be  considered  as  a perfect  model  for  imitation. 
All,  with  the  trifling  exceptions  I have  named,  of  whatever  date,  are  defective  in  one  way  or  another, 
either  in  composition,  drawing,  or  general  effect.  Even  the  finest  cinque  cento  examples,  which,  taken 
collectively,  are  perhaps  of  all  ancient  examples  the  least  open  to  criticism,  were  done  at  a time  when  the 
human  figure  was  but  imperfectly  understood  by  the  glass  painters.  And  with  regard  to  the  often  expressed 
notion,  that  it  is  better  to  submit  to  copies  of  medieval  examples  than  trust  to  modern  invention,  permit  me 
to  say  that  a more  unjust  imputation  against  the  taste  and  skill  of  the  19th  century  never  was  made,  or  a 
more  complete  apology  conceived  for  indolence  and  incapacity.  Whose  fault  is  it,  I would  ask,  that  low 
art,  at  least  in  regard  to  glass  painting,  should  seem  to  be  almost  inseparably  associated  with  what  are 
called  Church  principles  of  architecture  ? Are  not  the  patrons  of  the  art  to  blame  for  indolently  acquiescing 
in  and  sanctioning  a mere  system  of  copying,  because  they  have  not  sufficient  energy  to  study  glass 
painting  thoroughly,  and  make  themselves  acquainted  with  its  principles?  We  may  depend  on  it,  if  glass 
painting,  or  I may  say  art  in  general,  had  a practical  bearing  on  the  affairs  of  life,  instead  of  only 
furnishing  a means  of  amusement,  we  should  no  more  hear  of  currency  being  given  to  such  doctrines 
respecting  it,  than  we  now  hear  engineers  advocating  our  going  back  to  the  single-condensing  steam  engine, 
or  travellers  by  railway  yearning  for  a return  to  the  old  horse  tracks. 

The  patterns  to  which  I have  alluded,  do  obviously  comply  with  the  conditions  of  the  mosaic  method 
in  the  fullest  and  simplest  manner;  for  the  brilliancy  of  the  glass  is  altogether  unsubdued  in  these  works, 
and  the  mechanical  construction  of  the  window  is  in  harmony  with  their  design — the  leadwork  connecting 
the  pieces  of  glass,  either  forming  an  integral  part  of  the  pattern,  or  else  actually  constituting  the  pattern 
itself.  I may  illustrate  my  meaning  by  a reference  to  familiar  examples,  such  as  the  Five  Sisters,  at  York, 
and  the  geometrical  pattern  works,  executed  in  white  glass,  so  common  in  the  17th  century,  particularly 
on  the  Continent,  of  which  engravings  have  occasionally  appeared  in  the  “ Builder.” 

Turning  from  these,  the  works  which  next  appear  the  most  completely  and  simply  to  comply  with  the 
conditions  of  the  mosaic  method,  are  the  pictures  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries;  for,  of  all  pictures,  these 
admit  of  the  employment  of  glass  of  the  most  powerful  hue,  and  the  least  diminish  its  brilliancy.  Here 
also,  the  leadwork  is  made  conducive  to  the  effect  of  the  design.  It  is  true  that  in  the  cinque  cento  style 
we  meet  with  pictures  in  which,  as  in  a bas-relief,  all  objects  are  represented  as  occupying  one  plane  as 
effectively  as  in  a picture  of  the  earlier  period;  but  in  no  glass  paintings  is  the  bas-relief  principle  of 
representation  effectively  carried  out  with  so  much  simplicity  as  in  the  pictures  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries. 
This,  I apprehend,  is  owing  no  less  to  the  nature  of  the  glass  of  which  these  works  are  formed,  than  to 
the  composition  of  the  picture.  This  glass,  when  compared  with  the  glass  used  in  later  times,  is  remarkable 
for  its  apparent  solidity — a quality  which,  without  sensibly  detracting  from  the  brilliancy  of  the  glass, 


13 


imparts  great  depth  and  richness  to  its  hues.  Hence  the  artists  of  that  early  period  were  able  to  leave 
large  breadths  of  glass  in  their  pictures  unincumbered  with  any  enamel  colour — with  which,  in  the  mosaic 
style,  as  I have  already  informed  you,  the  painting  of  the  picture  is  performed — without  incurring  the  risk 
of  producing  a weak  or  flimsy  effect.  We  all  are  aware  of  the  fact,  that  the  shields  of  arms  and  the  panel 
grounds,  which  in  later  years  were  so  profusely  adorned  with  diaper  patterns,  executed  with  the  enamel 
brown  paint,  are  in  the  works  of  this  period  usually  left  quite  plain — the  artists  appearing  to  rely  for  effect 
on  the  tone  and  richness  of  the  material  itself.  So  we  perceive,  on  examining  a figure  in  any  one  of  these 
early  pictures,  that  whilst  the  deepest  shadows  are  represented  in  the  simplest  manner  by  opaque  lines, 
and  the  shadows  in  half-tint  by  a slight  wash  of  enamel  brown,  the  proportion  of  the  glass  left  quite 
clear  for  the  high  lights,  is  much  larger  than  in  later  glass  paintings.  That  such  a simple  mode  of 
execution,  if  applied  to  a more  pellucid  and  watery  material,  must  necessarily  produce  only  a poor  and 
flimsy  effect,  may  be  learnt  from  the  modern  copies  of  13th  century  glass.  But  without  dwelling  on  this 
point,  I will  call  your  attention  to  the  composition  of  a 12th  or  13th  century  picture,  as  of  itself  ensuring 
distinctness  without  the  aid  of  any  great  breadth  of  shadow.  This  is  simple  enough : it  consists  in 
arranging  the  figures  in  one  line,  usually  on  a bar  crossing  the  picture;  in  keeping  the  action  of  the 
figures  as  much  as  possible  in  the  direction  of  the  plane  of  the  picture,  and  in  insulating  and  separating 
the  figures  by  the  ground  of  the  picture — a treatment,  as  you  perceive,  corresponding  with  that  of  an 
antique  bas-relief.  And  since  this  treatment  is  in  general  more  intelligibly  carried  out  in  the  earlier 
examples,  I think  we  may  venture  to  ascribe  it  to  the  fuller  influence  of  classical  art  at  an  early  period  of 
glass  painting.  In  addition  to  this,  as  a general  rule,  the  colouring  of  the  figures  is  kept  lighter  than  that 
of  the  ground  of  the  panel.  Of  course  these  remarks  are  derived  from  an  examination  of  a great  many 
examples.  I mention  this,  because  I could  easily  contradict  almost  every  one  of  them  by  a reference  to 
particular  works.  It  is  from  a majority  of  specimens  only  that  a general  principle  is  to  be  collected.  The 
subjects  to  which  I have  just  alluded  are  necessarily  characterized  by  a certain  archaic  formality,  arising 
from  the  stiffness  of  the  colouring,  and  the  simplicity  of  the  design  and  execution.  I have  now  to  direct 
your  attention  to  subjects  of  another  class,  as  remarkable  for  their  pictorial  effect.  I mean  the  picture 
glass  paintings  of  the  first  half,  or  more  correctly,  of  the  seeond  quarter  of  the  16th  century.  These 
works  are  in  many  respects  the  very  opposites  to  those  just  described.  Their  colouring  is  harmonious 
rather  than  deep,  and  they  are  highly  finished — peculiarities  which  I could  shew  to  be  connected  with  the 
nature  of  the  glass  employed  in  these  works,  which,  without  being  as  flimsy  and  pellucid  as  ordinary 
modern  glass,  is  yet  very  inferior  in  depth  and  richness  to  that  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries.  Still 
these  works  will  be  found  to  comply  with  the  conditions  of  the  mosaic  method,  after  making  allowance  for 
their  different  nature,  equally  with  the  works  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries;  and  I hope  I shall  be  able 
to  prove  that  they  are  entitled  to  equal  estimation.  Their  composition  is  various,  consisting  sometimes,  as 
in  the  pictures  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries,  only  of  a line  of  figures  occupying  a single  plane;  but 
more  commonly  of  a group — of  foreground  figures,  it  is  true,  but  which  in  parts  recedes  from  the  eye : the 
figures  not  unfrequently  occupying  in  plan,  the  arc  of  a semi-circle,  as  in  some  of  Raphael’s  designs ; and 
beyond  the  figures  some  distant  object  is  usually  represented,  such  as  the  sky,  or  a landscape.  The 
picture,  therefore,  is  designed  on  the  principle  of  representing  depth,  and,  in  the  best  examples,  is  executed 
in  such  a manner  as  to  produce  the  effect  of  depth.  The  means  resorted  to  for  this  purpose  are  very 
simple.  First  may  be  noticed,  the  choice  of  such  subjects  as  are  capable,  without  a violation  of  probability, 
of  being  represented  in  a somewhat  severe,  if  not  harsh  manner:  thus  a landscape,  or  a sea  piece,  a full 
idea  of  which  cannot  be  conveyed  without  representing  the  graduated  tints  and  soft  outlines  of  nature,  was 
never,  at  this  period,  selected  as  the  principal  subject  of  a glass  painting.  On  the  contrary,  when  a 
landscape  background  is  adopted,  it  is  used  merely  as  an  accessory,  to  set  off  and  relieve  a group  of 


14 


foreground  figures,  in  which  all  the  interest  of  the  composition  centres.  And,  secondly,  we  may  remark, 
that  all  the  objects  in  the  picture  are  represented  as  if  they  were  seen  under  the  influence  of  broad 
sunshine — a mode  of  treatment  the  most  favourable,  not  only  to  a display  of  bright  lights  and  sharp 
decided  shadows,  but  to  the  general  transparency  of  the  picture,  it  being  possible  by  this  means  to 
separate  the  various  objects  from  each  other,  without  having  recourse  to  extensive  masses  of  shadow  or 
concentration  of  light,  the  use  of  which,  however  effective  in  the  works  of  Rembrandt  and  other  oil 
painters,  is  wholly  unsuited  to  the  conditions  of  glass  painting,  on  account  of  its  very  limited  scale 
of  transparent  shade.  The  heaviness  resulting  from  the  adoption  of  the  opposite  principle,  of  concentrating 
the  light  in  the  middle  of  the  picture  and  keeping  the  rest  in  comparative  obscurity,  is  shewn  in  the  upper 
subject  of  the  west  window  of  New  College  Chapel,  Oxford,  and  in  the  west  window  of  Magdalen  College 
Chapel,  and  in  a variety  of  modern  works ; and  the  superiority  of  the  sunshine  principle  becomes  apparent 
on  comparing  these  works  with  others  in  which  it  is  adopted,  as  the  windows  of  the  North  Chapel  of 
Brussels  Cathedral,  those  of  St.  Jacques  Church,  Liege,  or  the  windows  of  Lichfield  Cathedral. 

A glance  at  the  drawings  on  the  wall,  of  portions  of  the  glass  at  Brussels  and  Lichfield  will  explain 
my  meaning  better  than  any  words  I can  employ.  We  there  see,  that  the  figures  are  cut  out  from  the 
background,  and  the  architecture  from  the  sky  or  landscape;  as  much  by  the  opposition  of  light  and  shade, 
as  by  the  local  colours : and  thus  the  crispness  and  clearness  of  a sunshine  effect  is  not  only  highly  condu- 
cive to  the  brilliancy  of  the  window,  but  is  most  favourable  to  the  concealment  of  the  leads,  which  form 
part  of  and  are  wholly  lost  in  the  sharply  defined  shadows  with  which  the  foreground  objects  are  bounded, 
and  even  in  the  background  are  on  a close  view  not  unfrequently  absorbed  in  the  colouring,  but  at  all 
events  pass  unobserved  in  the  general  crispness  of  the  picture,  when  it  is  viewed  from  the  proper  distance. 
Of  course  I am  not  speaking  of  the  broad  modern  lead,  used  in  repairs  of  old  glass,  but  of  the  ancient  leads 
themselves,  which  never  until  almost  the  beginning  of  the  17th  century  exceeded  ^ of  an  inch  in  width. 
In  cinque  cento  glass  paintings  therefore,  the  leadwork  forms  an  integral  part  of  the  design,  equally  as  in 
a 12th  or  13th  century  picture.  And  these  works  also  evince  a thorough  compliance  with  the  mosaic 
system  in  preserving  the  translucent  qualities  of  glass.  A cinque  cento  glass  picture,  notwithstanding 
the  power  of  its  shadows  and  high  finish,  which  entirely  save  it  from  the  charge  of  weakness  or  poverty,  is 
still  a brilliant  and  diaphanous  glass  picture;  owing,  partly  to  the  crisp  treatment  alluded  to,  partly  to  the 
care  taken  to  leave  considerable  portions  of  the  glass,  though  not  such  relatively  large  portions  as  may  be 
seen  in  the  works  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries,  unencumbered  with  enamel  brown.  But  without  going 
further  into  the  minutias  of  the  subject,  I will  ask  any  one  accustomed  to  compare  glass  paintings  of  diffe- 
rent dates,  whether  in  any  so  high  a pictorial  effect  has  been  produced  with  so  little  diminution  of  brilliancy, 
as  in  the  works  of  the  2nd  quarter  of  the  16th  century. 

You  will  perceive  that  from  this  summary  I have  omitted  all  notice  of  glass  paintings  of  the  14th  and 
1 5th  centuries.  I have  done  so  from  a conviction  that  the  nearest  approach  to  an  artistically  flat  style  of 
representation  is  to  be  found  in  the  works  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries;  and  that  the  nearest  approach 
to  an  artistically  rotund  style  of  representation  is  to  be  found  in  the  works  of  the  second  quarter  of  the 
16th  century:  and  that  there  is  nothing  to  choose  between  a really  flat  and  a really  rotund  style.  At 
first  sight  there  is,  I admit,  but  little  difference  between  a 13th  century  and  a 14th  century  picture,  in 
point  of  composition ; but  a closer  examination  generally  brings  to  light  various  minute  differences,  tending 
to  shew,  either  that  the  artists  of  the  14th  century  were  already  contemplating  a change  from  flatness  to 
rotundity  of  representation,  or  that  they  did  not  strictly  adhere  to  their  predecessors’  rules  for  ensuring 
distinctness  in  a flat  style.  The  inconsistency,  not  unfrequently  seen  in  works  of  the  13th  century,  of 
representing  the  figure  in  relief,  but  omitting  to  indicate  the  recess  of  the  niche  in  which  the  figure  is 
supposed  to  stand — a mistake  which  perhaps  arose  from  imitating  in  glass  too  literally  the  designs  of 


15 


ancient  goldsmiths’  work,  where,  as  every  body  knows,  embossed  figures  are  often  stuck  on  a fiat  ground, 
having  architectural  forms  drawn  in  outline  upon  it — is  repeated  and  exaggerated  in  pictures  of  the  14th 
century.  Indeed,  most  of  the  14th  century  groups  that,  according  to  the  usual  fashion  of  the  day,  are 
surmounted  with  shrine  work,  look  just  like  groups  painted  on  flat  panels,  fringed  by  way  of  ornament 
with  spires  and  crockets ; so  completely  does  the  apparent  flatness  of  the  canopy — rendered  no  doubt  more 
conspicuous  by  the  increased  elaboration  of  its  details — correspond  with  the  flatness  of  an  ordinary  panel. 
And  the  figures  themselves,  owing  partly  to  the  increased  breadth  of  their  draperies,  inattention  to  the 
principle  of  insulating  them  by  means  of  the  ground  colour  of  the  panel,  and  a bad  selection  of  the  colours 
of  the  drapery,  certainly  do  not  in  general  appear  at  a distance  so  distinct  as  the  figures  in  a 13th  century 
picture.  I therefore  cannot  but  regard  the  14th  century  style  of  glass  painting  as  inferior  to  the  13th,  and 
the  15th  century  style  as  inferior  to  that  of  the  14th.  The  15th  century  was  evidently  passed  in  the 
effort  to  get  out  of  a flat  style  of  representation  into  a rotund  one.  It  is  true  that  all  the  pictures  of  this 
period  appear  to  be  flat,  but  they  are  flat  in  effect  only,  and  not  on  principle;  their  flatness  is  the  result  of 
imbecility,  not  of  design.  They  are  designed  as  much  on  the  principle  of  depth  as  a cinque  cento  glass 
painting,  but  they  do  not,  like  it,  produce  the  effect  of  depth,  because  their  designers  were  ignorant  of  the 
means  of  attaining  the  desired  result.  As  in  a cinque  cento  glass  painting,  so  in  one  of  the  15th  century, 
the  figures  are  not  unfrequently  arranged  on  the  arc  of  a semi-circle,  and  are  not  cut  out  or  separated  from 
each  other  by  stiff  colour.  And  that  the  intention  was  to  represent  depth  is  plain  from  the  representation 
of  distant  objects,  of  sky  and  landscape,  coloured  with  considerable  regard  to  the  hues  of  nature;  but, 
contrary  to  the  practice  of  the  cinque  cento  artists,  the  shadows  are  sometimes  misplaced,  and  are  always 
too  weak;  and  the  gradations  of  colouring,  though  such  gradations  might  have  been  as  easily 
made  as  in  cinque  cento  work — the  nature  of  the  material  being  the  same  in  both  cases — are  not  sufficiently 
attended  to.  Hence  the  glass  pictures  of  the  15th  century,  beautiful  as  they  sometimes  are  in  detail, 
remind  one  in  general  of  an  assemblage  of  court  cards.  They  frequently  produce  no  other  effect,  even  at  a 
moderate  distance,  than  that  of  a mosaic  composed  of  strangely-shaped  pieces  of  glass  of  various  colours.  1 
think,  therefore,  that  we  may  leave  the  works  of  the  14th  and  15th  centuries  as  objects  chiefly  interesting 
to  the  antiquary. 

Having  thus  indicated,  as  briefly  as  I could,  the  sort  of  subjects  which  appear  to  be  most  suited  for 
glass  paintings,  I will  endeavour  to  shew  what  sort  of  glass  paintings  are  best  suited  for  particular  buildings. 
And  here  the  real  difficulty  of  the  subject  may  be  said  to  commence ; for  since  no  example  of  contemporary 
glazing  is  to  be  found  in  any  building  earlier  than  the  middle  ages,  it  is  only  by  analogy  that  we  can  arrive 
at  the  fitness  of  painted  glass  for  classical  buildings,  if  we  rely  on  experience  as  a guide ; and  in  a matter 
of  this  sort,  I fear  there  is  no  guide  so  trustworthy  as  experience.  It  will  be  admitted,  I apprehend,  that 
the  earlier  Gothic  styles  are  more  severe  in  their  architectural  character  than  the  later  ones ; and  I think  that 
you  will  likewise  admit,  on  reflection,  that  the  glass  most  in  harmony  with  Gothic  buildings  in  the  Norman 
or  early  English  styles,  is  that  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries.  I have  tried  for  a long  time  past  to  discover 
the  reason  of  this  conformity,  and  have  arrived  at  the  conclusion  that  the  harmony  between  the  painted 
windows  and  the  architecture  depends  far  more  on  the  colouring  of  the  windows  than  on  their  design.  I 
have  often  contemplated  the  general  effect  of  13th  century,  of  15th  century,  and  even  of  16th  century 
painted  glass,  in  the  windows  of  a Norman  or  Early  English  building,  from  a distance  too  great  for 
admitting  of  my  making  out  the  design  with  any  degree  of  distinctness,  and  have  invariably  observed  that 
the  colouring  of  the  earlier  glass  most  accorded  with  the  character  of  the  architecture,  and  that  the  harmony 
was  the  same,  whether  the  windows  were  almost  entirely  formed  of  white  glass,  like  the  Five  Sisters  at 
York,  or  were  richly  coloured,  as  at  Bourges  or  Canterbury.  As  might  have  been  expected,  I have  not 
met  with  the  same  opportunities  of  contrasting  the  effect  of  13th  century  painted  glass  with  that  of  the 


16 


15th  or  16th  century,  in  reference  to  its  harmony  with  the  architecture  of  the  16th  century,  but  such 
experiments  as  I have  been  able  to  make  have  tended  to  create  an  impression  on  my  mind,  that  the  glass 
paintings  of  the  15th  and  16th  centuries  do  harmonize  more  completely  with  the  character  of  the  archi- 
tecture of  the  15th  century  than  the  glass  paintings  of  the  13th.  However,  without  pressing  the  last  point, 

I will  venture  to  express  a firm  belief  that  the  colouring  of  a 16th  century  glass  painting  does  harmonize 
better  with  the  character  of  a building  in  the  Renaissance  style,  than  that  of  a 13th  century  glass  painting. 

In  these  conclusions  I would  beg  you  to  observe  that  I have  been  influenced  by  the  general  effect  of 
the  glass  painting,  rather  than  by  its  force,  because  I have  remarked  that  good  cinque  cento  glass  paintings, 
which  are  hardly  if  at  all  inferior  in  power  to  Early  English  ones,  do  not  in  general  harmonize  with  13th 
century  buildings  so  completely  as  the  windows  of  the  13th  century.  The  inference  I draw  from  these 
experiments  is,  that  there  is  an  analogy  between  the  colouring  of  12th  and  13th  century  windows,  and 
buildings  remarkable  for  the  gravity  and  solemnity  of  their  appearance.  And  this,  when  the  nature  of  the 
colouring  of  these  windows  is  analysed,  will  I think  be  found  to  accord  with  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds’  views. 
He  says  in  his  4th  discourse,  “with  respect  to  colouring,  though  it  may  appear  at  first  a part  of  painting 
merely  mechanical,  yet  it  still  has  its  rules,  and  those  grounded  on  that  presiding  principle,  which  regulates 
both  the  great  and  the  little  in  the  study  of  the  painter.  By  this  the  first  effect  of  the  picture  is  produced, 
and  as  this  is  performed,  the  spectator,  as  he  walks  the  gallery,  will  stop  or  pass  along.  To  give  a general 
air  of  grandeur  at  first  view,  all  trifling  or  artful  play  of  little  lights,  or  an  attention  to  a variety  of  tints, 
is  to  be  avoided.  A quietness  and  simplicity  must  reign  over  the  whole  work,  to  which  a breadth  of 
uniform  and  simple  colour  will  very  much  contribute.  Grandeur  of  effect  is  produced  by  two  different 
ways,  which  seem  entirely  opposed  to  each  other.  One  is  by  reducing  the  colours  to  little  more  than 
chiaro-oscuro,  which  was  the  practice  of  the  Bolognian  schools,  and  the  other  by  making  the  colours  very 
distinct  and  forcible,  such  as  we  see  in  those  of  Rome  and  Florence.  But  still  the  presiding  principle  of 
both  those  manners  is  simplicity.  Certainly  nothing  can  be  more  simple  than  monotony : and  the  distinct 
blue,  red,  and  yellow  colours,  which  we  see  in  the  draperies  of  the  Roman  and  Florentine  schools,  though 
they  have  not  that  kind  of  harmony  which  is  produced  by  a variety  of  broken  and  transparent  colours, 
have  that  effect  of  grandeur  which  was  intended.  Perhaps  these  distinct  colours  strike  the  mind  more 
forcibly,  from  there  not  being  any  great  union  between  them;  as  martial  music,  which  is  intended  to  rouse 
the  nobler  passions,  has  its  effect  from  the  sudden  and  strongly  marked  transitions  from  one  note  to  another, 
which  that  style  of  music  requires ; whilst  in  that  which  is  intended  to  move  the  softer  passions,  the  notes 
mperceptibly  melt  into  one  another.”  Now  if  we  compare  the  colouring  of  a 13th  century  glass  painting 
with  that  of  a cinque  cento  one,  we  perceive  that  the  colouring  of  the  former  consists  of  an  assemblage  of 
powerful,  distinct,  positive  tints,  skilfully  arranged,  but  more  on  the  simple  principle  of  a mosaic,  than  on 
the  more  blended  principle  of  a painting.  Whilst  the  tints  of  the  latter  are  less  forcible,  less  decided,  and 
more  blended  together.  I have  seen  some  cinque  cento  glass  pictures  in  which  there  is  no  red,  and  but 
little  positive  blue,  the  colouring  being  almost  entirely  composed  of  secondary  tints,  and  in  which  the 
transition  from  one  tint  to  another,  is  scarcely  more  marked  or  sudden,  than  is  the  case  in  some  of  Titian’s 
pictures.  These  considerations  may  perhaps  be  sufficient  of  themselves  to  justify  the  opinion  that  the 
colouring  of  an  Early  English  glass  painting  is  more  calculated  to  produce  a grave  and  solemn  effect  than 
that  of  a cinque  cento  one ; but  in  acceding  to  this  opinion  we  ought  not  to  overlook  the  fact,  that  the  tone 
of  colour  of  an  Early  English  glass  painting  is  cool,  and  that  the  tone  of  colour  of  a cinque  cento  glass 
painting  is  warm,  and  that  a cool  tone  of  colour  of  itself  has  a tendency  to  produce  a grave  effect,  and  a 
warm  tone  to  produce  a gay  effect.  If  these  views  are  correct,  it  follows  that  we  ought  not  only  to  continue 
to  employ  for  the  windows  of  12th  and  13th  century  buildings,  glass  paintings  similar  to  those  of  the  12th 
and  13th  centuries,  as  regards  the  tone  and  principle  of  the  colouring,  but  that  we  ought  to  glaze  in  a 


17 


similar  manner,  the  windows  of  all  other  buildings  which  can  be  said  to  possess  an  air  of  gravity  and 
solemnity  equal  to  that  of  a 12th  or  13th  century  building:  using  of  course,  weaker  colours,  warmer 
tones,  and  a more  elaborate  mode  of  execution  for  the  windows  of  buildings  in  a less  severe  style.  Some 
people  are  of  opinion  that  in  no  style  but  the  Gothic  can  so  solemn  an  effect  be  produced,  but  it  seems  to 
me  that  the  solemn  character  of  a building,  depends  rather  on  its  plan  and  arrangement,  than  on  the  style 
of  its  details.  A Norman  cathedral  is  as  solemn  as  a Gothic  one,  and  parts  of  the  Coliseum  at  Rome  are, 

I am  told,  as  gloomy  and  solemn  as  the  aisles  of  a Norman  building.  The  rule  therefore  might  well  apply 
to  certain  ecclesiastical  buildings  in  the  Roman  style  of  architecture,  and  I see  no  reason  why  it  should  not 
equally  apply  to  certain  ecclesiastical  buildings  in  the  Greek  style:  certainly  these  buildings,  owing  to  the 
simplicity  of  their  plan,  do  not  possess  the  gloomy  effect  of  a Gothic  cathedral,  but  the  extreme  severity  of 
the  architecture  imparts  to  them  an  air  of  gravity  and  solemnity,  which  I apprehend  is  rarely  equalled  by 
a 12th  or  13th  century  building  of  corresponding  dimensions. 

I am  quite  aware  that  the  employment  of  rich  and  deep  colouring  in  windows  has  a tendency  to 
diminish  the  apparent  size  of  a building,  and  I am  ready  to  admit  that  it  is  to  a fear  of  producing  this 
result,  that  we  may  attribute  the  modern  practice  of  decorating  the  windows  of  a Greek  building,  with 
glass  too  faint  in  its  hues  to  rescue  it  from  the  imputation  of  washiness.  But  it  is  by  no  means  necessary 
to  go  into  the  opposite  extreme.  A glass  painting  entirely  composed  of  white  glass,  would  harmonize  with 
the  character  of  Greek  architecture  equally  as  one  principally  composed  of  coloured  glass ; provided  that 
the  white  glass  was,  like  that  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries,  solid  in  appearance,  and  had  a rich 
cool  tone.  And  even  when  the  employment  of  a larger  proportion  of  coloured  glass  might  be  desirable,  it 
would  always  be  possible  to  make  the  window  recede  from  the  eye,  by  using  in  it  a predominating  quantity 
of  blue  and  white.  But  whether  the  advocates  for  powerfully  coloured,  or  for  white  windows,  as  being 
most  in  keeping  with  the  character  of  a Greek  building,  are  right,  I trust  that  all  will  agree  in  preferring 
rich  tints  to  poor  ones.  Had  the  ancient  Greeks  glazed  their  windows,  we  may  be  certain  that  they  would 
have  used  glass  of  rich  tint,  whether  it  was  white  or  whether  it  was  coloured.  For  amongst  all  the  ancient 
Greek  glass  vessels  that  I have  examined,  I have  never  met  with  any  of  a poor  tint,  or  flimsy  appearance 
in  point  of  colour  or  texture  of  the  glass.  And  indeed  so  closely  does  the  glass  composing  these  remains 
resemble  in  its  appearance  and  chemical  analysis,  the  window  glass  of  the  12th  century  (from  which  that 
of  the  13th  differs  but  little)  that  were  I desirous  of  forming  an  idea  of  what  Greek  window  glass  would 
have  been  like,  I should  endeavour  to  call  to  recollection  the  tints  of  Suger’s  glass  at  St.  Denys,  or  that 
of  the  glass  in  the  W.  triplet  of  Chartres.  And  besides,  the  remains  of  strong  colour  used  in  the  decoration 
of  ancient  Greek  buildings,  leads  to  the  inference  that  the  ancients,  had  they  used  window  glass  at  all, 
would  have  employed  that  possessing  a rich  tint,  from  choice  as  well  as  necessity.  We  are  still  less 
without  authority  to  guide  us  in  regard  to  the  design  for  windows  proper  for  ecclesiastical  buildings  in  the 
Greek  or  Roman  style  of  architecture.  The  views  I have  expressed  with  reference  to  the  colouring  of  these 
windows,  must  confine  me  to  an  advocacy  of  a simple  flat  system  of  representation,  because  pictures  composed 
on  the  principle  of  representing  depth,  cannot  properly  be  executed  in  glass  entirely  consisting  of  strong 
rich  tints.  The  only  attempt  I have  hitherto  seen  at  designing  windows  for  a Greek  building,  is  at  the 
Church  of  St.  Vincent  de  Paul  at  Paris.  But  however  worthy  of  notice  these  windows  may  be  as  an 
embodiment  of  a new  idea,  they  are  neither  sufficiently  delicate  in  design,  nor  simple  in  execution,  to  serve 
as  models  for  our  imitation.  It  is  very  possible  that  this  defectiveness  may  be  in  a great  measure  attribu- 
table to  the  thinness  and  watery  character  of  the  glass  of  which  they  are  composed,  and  to  the  efforts  of  the 
artist  to  disguise  the  badness  of  the  material  by  a more  elaborate  execution ; but  such  expedients  are  no 
longer  necessary,  since  as  I have  before  informed  you,*  the  manufacture  of  12th  century  glass  has  been 

* See  paper  “ on  a revived  manufacture  of  coloured  glass  used  in  ancient  windows,”  read  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of 
the  Institute,  14th  June,  1852,  and  published  in  the  Transactions. 


18 


revived ; and  which  I have  always  considered  the  more  fortunate,  on  account  of  the  use  that  might  be  made 
of  it,  in  the  embellishment  of  classical  architecture,  consistently  with  which,  unlike  the  Gothic,  art  may  be 
fully  developed.  There  can  be  no  doubt  that  valuable  hints  might  be  derived  from  an  examination  of  the 
designs  of  ancient  sculpture,  and  even  of  tessellated  pavements.  Indeed  classical  designs,  admirably  adapted 
for  glass  paintings,  are  engraved  from  sculpture  in  Pistolesi’s  Vatican,  the  most  remarkable  one  is  given  in 
the  2nd  vol,  plate  3,*  These  designs  consist  of  figures  and  ornaments  in  one  plane,  and  therefore  if 
executed  in  glass,  as  I have  recommended,  would  a good  deal  resemble  some  of  the  works  of  the  12th  and 
13th  centuries.  These  mediaeval  works,  must  appear  to  the  most  careless  observer  to  be  defective  in  many 
respects,  particularly  in  relief.  When  viewed  closely,  the  intention  of  the  artist  to  bring  out  the  various 
projections  of  the  figure  and  drapery,  by  means  of  strong  black  lines,  is  often  admirable,  especially  as  seen 
in  the  heads  of  the  figures;  but,  sometimes  from  want  of  boldness,  sometimes  from  a want  of  knowledge 
where  to  place  the  shadow,  early  English  figures  in  glass,  when  viewed  from  a little  distance,  are  too  apt 
to  appear  like  flat  surfaces;  quite  as  flat,  if  not  more  so,  as  the  men  and  horses  appear  to  be  in  those 
copies  of  the  inner  frieze  of  the  Parthenon,  which,  placed  in  situations  distant  from  the  eye,  and  exposed  to 
the  influence  of  full  light,  are  used  to  decorate  the  outsides  of  some  of  our  public  buildings.  I am  far  from 
agreeing  with  those  who  contend  that  no  greater  relief  ought  to  be  imparted  to  a simple  flat  glass  painting, 
than  is  given  to  those  flat  relievi  from  the  cella  of  the  Parthenon.  For  those  who  urge  such  views,  seem  to 
have  entirely  overlooked  the  original  situation  of  these  relievi,  placed  where  no  direct  light  could  reach  them. 
To  use  the  words  of  one  of  our  most  accomplished  artists:  “ it  is  a great  mistake  to  suppose  that  the  flat 
style  of  relief  was  intended  to  appear  flat,  and  it  is  a great  mistake  to  apply  it  in  situations,  as  in  the  open 
air,  where  it  must  appear  so,  and  be  indistinct  besides.”!  In  accordance  with  this  authority,  I will  venture 
to  say,  that  quite  as  much  relief  ought  to  be  given  to  the  figures  in  the  simplest  and  flattest  glass  painting, 
as  is  given  to  the  alti  relievi  in  the  metopes  of  the  Parthenon,  which  were  intended  to  be  seen  in  the  open 
air,  and  from  a distance.  I throw  out  these  observations  however,  rather  with  reference  to  those  who  may 
be  about  to  design  simple  flat  glass  paintings  for  mediaeval  buildings.  For  since  I am  perfectly  sure  that 
none  but  first-rate  artists  can  design  windows  fit  for  classical  buildings,  I may  well  be  content  to  leave  the 
matter  entirely  in  their  hands:  and  can  only  express  my  surprise  that  a field  so  favourable  to  a display 
of  the  highest  art,  should  have  been  so  long  neglected.  Flaxman’s  labours  sufficiently  shew  the  possibility 
of  employing  the  exquisite  language  of  the  ancients  to  express  true  Christian  sentiment;  and  some  of  his 
choicest  designs  might  advantageously  be  reproduced  in  painted  windows  for  classical  buildings,  were  it 
only  by  way  of  proving  to  the  public,  what  works  of  art  painted  windows  might  become  in  competent 
hands. 

I shall  trouble  you  with  but  few  remarks  on  the  selection  of  glass  paintings  for  buildings  in  the  Palladian 
style  of  architecture,  in  which  I would  include  all  Wren’s  churches,  and  even  St.  Paul’s  itself;  for  though 
that  building  has  in  parts  a Roman  severity,  its  interior  in  particular,  bears  many  marks  of  the  taste  of  the 
17th  century,  especially  in  the  ornamental  details.  Such  buildings  taken  on  the  whole,  are  less  severe  in 
character  than  true  Roman  or  Grecian  buildings,  and  therefore  would  seem  to  require  a corresponding 
relaxation  in  the  character  of  their  painted  windows.  In  my  opinion,  no  greater  mistake  is  oommitted 
than  when  a stiff  Byzantine  style  of  decoration  is  applied  to  the  windows  of  a Palladian  building.  I have 
heard  it  defended  on  the  ground  that  since  such  glass  would  harmonize  with  the  character  of  a Roman 
building,  it  ought  equally  to  harmonize  with  the  character  of  a Palladian  one — because  both  styles  of 
architecture  have  a common  origin — in  the  old  Roman:  an  argument  which  is  at  once  disposed  of  by  the 
remark,  that  the  Romanesque  style  betrays  its  more  immediate  origin,  in  the  Greek  character  of  its 


* “ II  Vaticano  descritto  ed  illustrato  da  Erasmo  Pistolesi,” — Roma,  1829;  see  also  vol.  5,  plate  81,  and  vol.  2,  plate  4. 
f “ Contributions  to  the  Literature  of  the  Fine  Arts,”  by  Sir  Charles  Eastlake,  Pres.  R.A.,  p.  104. 


19 


ornaments,  and  some  of  its  mouldings,  from  which  character  the  Palladian  is  free.  I have  also  heard  it 
defended  on  the  supposed  necessity  of  imparting  a more  religious  air  to  a Palladian  church.  But  surely 
there  must  be  other  and  more  legitimate  ways  of  increasing  the  solemnity  of  a building,  than  by  the  intro- 
duction of  incongruous  ornaments  and  decorations,  which  oppress  the  architecture  by  their  severity.  Who 
would  think  of  encrusting  the  walls  of  St.  Paul’s  Cathedral  with  stiff  Byzantine  mosaics  ? I believe  that 
it  is  amongst  the  works  of  the  cinque  cento  period  that  the  true  models  for  painted  windows  suitable  for 
Palladian  churches  are  to  be  sought.  Amongst  these  works,  as  has  been  remarked,  many  varieties  of  design 
and  character  may  be  seen.  Some  are  more  solemn  and  grave  than  others,  but  the  blended,  and 
comparatively  undecided  colouring  of  even  the  most  simple,  renders  them  less  solemn  and  severe  than  the 
ordinary  works  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries.  In  most  matters  of  detail  also,  cinque  cento  glass  paintings 
accord  with  Palladian  architecture.  So  that  on  the  whole,  the  cinque  cento  style  of  glass  painting,  as 
developed  in  its  best  specimens,  seems  more  suited  than  any  other  known  style  for  the  windows  of  Palladian 
buildings. 

In  adopting  this  style,  the  glass  painter,  as  before-stated,  is  by  no  means  confined  to  the  use  of  pictures 
having  receding  backgrounds,  but  may  use  as  flat  a composition  as  a line  of  well  relieved  figures,  placed  in 
front  of  a sheet  of  tapestry:  or  even,  in  small  works,  or  in  the  accessory  parts  of  greater  works,  would  find 
authority  for  the  employment  of  well  relieved  figures  on  perfectly  flat  coloured  grounds.  The  use  of 
receding  pictures  in  painted  glass  in  any  building,  of  any  style,  has  however  been  strenuously  objected  to; 
and  the  present  seems  a good  opportunity  of  inquiring  a little  into  the  validity  of  the  objection. 

It  proceeds,  as  far  as  I can  understand,  on  two  grounds.  The  first  being,  the  supposed  unfitness  of  the 
material  for  any  sort  of  representation  more  pictorial  than  the  mosaics  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries. 
The  second,  the  supposed  impropriety  of  representing  a receding  picture  on  the  wall  of  any  building. 
In  support  of  the  first  ground  of  objection,  we  are  told  that  a glass  painting  reverses  the  conditions  of 
nature,  by  making  the  lights  transparent,  and  the  shadows  opaque ; that  the  violence  of  its  colouring  is 
wholly  opposed  to  pictorial  effect,  and  that  to  bound  objects  with  black  lines  is  reprehensible  on  every 
artistic  consideration.  The  first  of  these  arguments  is  at  once  disposed  of  by  the  observation,  that  we  have 
nothing  to  do  with  anything  but  the  effect  of  a glass  painting;  and  that  when  the  material  is,  like  that  of 
the  cinque  cento  period,  of  a horn-like  texture ; the  high  lights  do  not  appear  to  be  less  solid  than  the 
shadows. 

With  regard  to  the  two  other  objections,  I admit  that  they  would  be  unanswerable,  if  it  was  true  that 
an  artist  was  precluded  from  painting  a picture  under  any  other  than  the  most  favourable  conditions.  But 
to  assert  this  would  be  to  fly  in  the  face  of  all  authority — and  what  is  worse,  to  contradict  all  experience. 
According  to  such  a rule,  Baphael  was  blameable  for  making  designs  such  as  the  Cartoons,  to  be  worked 
in  tapestry — “ a mode  of  representation,”  says  Sir  Charles  Eastlake,  “ which  in  the  early  part  of  the 
16th  century  was  far  from  exhibiting  even  the  comparative  force  of  colour,  and  light,  and  shade,  which  it 
afterwards  attained.”  He  should,  according  to  the  above  rule,  have  condescended  to  no  means  of  repre- 
sentation less  complete  than  what  oil  painting  affords.  Nevertheless,  his  availing  himself  of  such  restricted 
means  of  representation,  which  doubtless  was  imposed  on  him  by  some  necessary  condition,  so  far  from 
being  made  a matter  of  imputation,  has  but  increased  the  reputation  of  the  artist.  To  use  again  the  words 
of  Sir  Charles  Eastlake,  whose  admirable  Essay  on  the  Styles  and  Methods  of  Painting,  should  be  carefully 
read  by  those  who  interest  themselves  in  glass  painting, — “ With  a view  to  such  faint  transcripts  (the 
tapestries)  the  great  artist  worked.  He  knew  that  his  drawings  would  be  transferred  to  them,  and  that  in 
the  tapestries  alone,  possibly,  his  designs  might  live.  Distinctness  was  nevertheless  attained  without  any 
sacrifice  of  such  of  the  proper  attributes  of  painting  as  were  compatible  with  the  means  employed,  and 
without  any  violation  of  probability.  When  we  consider  the  great  qualities  which  were  combined  with 


20 


these  requisites, — when  we  find  that  such  apparently  unpromising  conditions  had  the  effect  of  raising  even 
Raphael  above  himself,  we  can  hardly  refuse  to  admit,  that  a due  employment  of  limited  means  of 
representation  may  at  least  invite  attention  to  the  most  important  attributes  of  art.”  * Unless  therefore 
the  conditions  of  glass  painting  are  so  opposed  to  pictorial  effect,  as  to  render  the  attempt  to  produce  it 
nugatory,  I can  see  no  possible  reason  for  an  artist  declining  to  fill  the  windows  of  a building  with  pictures, 
in  which  the  art  of  representation  is  carried  further  than  in  the  glass  paintings  of  the  12th  and  13th 
centuries.  In  many  cases  it  might  be  extremely  desirable  that  he  should  do  so — for  there  are  subjects,  very 
proper  to  be  represented  in  places  of  worship,  which  are  either  wholly  incapable  of  representation  in  a simple 
flat  style ; or  when  attempted  to  be  so  represented,  only  prove  how  easily  the  line  which  separates  sublimity 
from  absurdity  may  be  overstepped.  But  when  pictures  in  painted  glass,  representing  receding  objects, 
actually  do  exist,  in  the  contemplation  of  which  we  forget  the  limited  means  the  artist  had  at  command, 
and  in  which  excellencies  are  discovered,  such  as  are  unattainable  except  in  a painted  window;  the  ground 
of  objection  to  which  I have  addressed  myself  appears  to  fail  altogether. 

The  remaining  objection,  that  it  is  wrong  to  represent  a receding  picture  on  the  wall  of  a building,  and 
consequently  in  a window,  the  glazed  surface  of  which  is  but  a continuance  of  that  wall — seems  to  rest 
less  on  a consideration  of  facts,  or  the  dictates  of  our  external  senses,  than  on  a sort  of  mock  philosophy, 
which  seeks  to  escape  laborious  investigation,  by  the  enunciation  of  a “ principle  ” — than  which,  by  the 
way,  nothing  is  more  easy.  It  may  be  conceded  that  to  carry  a receding  picture  all  round  a room  produces 
an  ill  effect.  But  pictures,  though  representing  the  effect  of  depth  and  distance  even  almost  to  illusion, 
are  admitted  to  be  allowable,  provided  they  occupy  only  a portion  of  the  wall,  either  by  being  hung  against 
it  in  a frame,  or  by  being  actually  painted  upon  it, — the  latter  sort  indeed  can  plead  the  testimony  of  ages 
in  its  favour.  If  then  a glass  painting  should  have  the  illusion  of  distance,  it  would  be  unobjectionable, — 
because,  necessarily,  it  could  occupy  only  part  of  the  side  of  the  room  or  building  containing  it.  And  as 
we  are  accustomed  to  see  out  of  a building,  by  looking  through  its  windows,  those  who  mistook  the  painting 
for  a real  object,  might  easily  stretch  the  imagination  a little  further,  and  conclude  that  it  was  some  object 
placed  outside  the  building,  until  its  unreality  became  apparent  from  the  figures  continuing  to  remain 
motionless.  But,  in  truth,  I suspect  that  no  one  ever  mistook  the  representation  of  any  object  in  a painted 
window,  not  even  a landscape,  for  the  reality,  or  except  whilst  his  attention  was  exclusively  devoted  to  the 
painting,  imagined  that  his  view  extended  beyond  the  limits  of  the  building:  a feeling  which  for  the 
moment  might  be  equally  excited  by  the  contemplation  of  a picture  hung  in  a frame  against  the  wall.  The 
instant  the  glass  painting  was  regarded  with  reference  to  the  building,  it  would  be  perceived  to  be  nothing 
else  than  a coloured  superficies,  whose  plane  lay  in  the  same  direction  with  that  of  the  wall  in  which  it 
was  inserted.  It  might  indeed  sometimes  happen  that  for  the  sake  of  preserving  distinctness  at  a very  great 
distance,  a glass  painting,  in  which  figures  were  represented  on  a flat  ground,  would  be  preferable  to  one 
having  a receding  background.  But  I think  that  the  glass  painter  need  be  deterred  by  no  other  consideration 
from  employing  a receding  design,  if  he  thought  proper.  Indeed,  a glass  painting  having  a sky  or  landscape 
background,  such  as  we  meet  with  in  good  cinque  cento  examples  in  general,  would  be  peculiarly  suitable 
for  a window  at  the  end  of  a building,  on  account  of  the  retiring  nature  of  most  of  its  hues.  I conclude 
therefore  that  in  the  preparation  of  painted  windows  for  classical  edifices,  the  artist  has  the  choice  of  a more 
or  less  severe  style  of  representation,  to  be  used  according  to  the  character  of  the  building  he  is  required  to 
decorate;  and  that  the  type  of  the  one  style  is  to  be  found  in  the  remains  of  12th  and  13th  century 
mosaics,  and  that  the  type  of  the  other  is  to  be  found  in  the  glass  paintings  of  the  second  quarter  of  the 
16  th  century.  The  artist  might,  I apprehend,  be  guided  by  similar  principles  in  preparing  painted 
windows  for  buildings  in  the  Gothic  styles. 


* “ Contributions  to  the  Literature  of  the  Fine  Arts,”  by  Sir  Charles  Eastlake,  p.  133. 


21 


I have  already  stated  my  belief  that  the  glass  paintings  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries  are  most  in 
harmony  with  the  architecture  of  those  respective  periods,  and  therefore  think  that  such  of  those  works 
as  most  consistently  carry  out  the  simple  flat  style  of  representation  ought  to  be  regarded,  with  but  few 
exceptions,  not  indeed  as  objects  to  be  reproduced  in  copies,  but  as  guides  to  assist  the  artist  in  forming  new 
and  original  designs.  The  principle  of  an  ancient  composition  might  be  more  strictly  adhered  to  now  than 
at  any  former  period,  on  account  of  the  revived  manufacture  of  the  window  glass  of  the  12  th  century;  but 
this  recommendation  would  by  no  means  involve  the  necessity  of  copying  the  object  itself.  Indeed  nothing 
is  more  thoroughly  opposed  to  sound  sense,  and  good  taste,  than  a mere  servile  copy  of  an  ancient  glass 
painting,  or  a copy  with  such  trifling  modifications  as  to  be  little  else  than  a servile  copy.  If  intended  as  a 
counterfeit,  it  must  fail  in  its  object — for  none  but  the  inexperienced  are  likely  to  be  deceived  by  it — and 
once  known  to  be  a counterfeit,  it  would  lose  all  interest  from  association  with  bye-gone  ages.  If  intended 
to  pass  for  nothing  more  than  a copy,  under  the  bona  fide  impression,  that  nothing  except  a copy  of  ancient 
painted  glass  will  harmonize  with  Gothic  architecture — it  serves  but  as  a cover  for  indolence — it  can 
advance  nothing,  because  a copy  is  sure  to  fall  short  of  the  original  in  all  real  merit ; and  besides  this,  its 
production  amounts  to  an  unconscious  satire  on  Gothic  architecture,  when  we  consider  the  imperfect  state 
of  the  art  of  representation  as  displayed  in  ancient  windows.  The  only  true  course  is  to  treat  every 
modern  work  in  painted  glass,  as  an  original  work  of  the  19th  century, — and  as  such,  to  test  it  according 
to  intelligible  rules  of  taste.  The  inquiry  ought  no  longer  to  be  confined  to  the  narrow  issue  of  conformity 
with  some  ancient  authority,  but  should  extend  to  a consideration  of  its  intrinsic  merit  as  a work  of  art,  and 
its  extrinsic  merit  as  being  in  harmony  with  the  architecture  with  which  it  is  associated.  To  prescribe 
so  wide  a field  of  inquiry  might,  indeed,  prove  inconvenient  to  certain  critics,  but  would  certainly  tend  to 
a more  zealous  investigation  of  the  principles  of  ancient  art  than  heretofore,  and  to  the  production  of  works 
more  worthy  of  the  19th  century : in  short,  it  is  by  this  means  only  that  any  progress  can  be  made.  A 19th 
century  window,  designed  for  a 12th  or  13th  century  building,  ought  not  only  to  harmonize  with  the 
architecture  in  the  quality  and  treatment  of  its  colouring,  but  besides  restraining  conventionality  within  due 
bounds,  should  likewise  be  free  not  merely  from  the  bad  drawing,  but  from  the  quaint  and  contorted 
attitudes  of  the  figures  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries;  attitudes  which,  however  fashionable  they  might 
have  been  at  that  period,  are  shocking  to  our  present  tastes  and  feelings.  It  should,  in  fact,  reproduce 
nothing  but  the  art  of  that  period,  the  genuineness  of  which  will  only  appear  the  plainer,  when  the  film  of 
bad  taste  and  deformity  is  stripped  from  it,  through  which  we  are  now  obliged  to  penetrate  before  we  can 
fairly  see  it.  I should  add,  that  in  designing  a window  for  a 12tli  century  building,  the  artist  can  never 
do  wrong  in  going  at  once  to  the  fountain  head,  and  correcting  his  taste  by  the  remains  of  classical  art, 
whose  influence  is  so  easily  recognised  in  the  glass  paintings  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries. 

A consideration  of  the  colouring  best  suited  for  the  windows  of  a 14th  century  building  presents 
an  interesting  subject  of  inquiry,  but  into  which  I cannot,  for  want  of  time,  particularly  enter.  The 
glazing  of  the  14th  century,  until  about  the  year  1380,  in  respect  of  the  quality  and  disposition 
of  its  colouring,  holds  in  general  a sort  of  middle  place  between  the  rich  mosaics  of  the  loth  century  and 
the  paler  picture  glass  paintings  of  the  15th  century.  Its  individual  colours  being  as  cool,  and  almost,  if 
not  quite,  as  powerful  as  those  of  the  13th  century — but  being  intermixed  with  a much  larger  proportion 
of  white  glass,  and  used  in  broader  masses.  But  this  difference  in  the  character  of  the  colouring  seems 
attributable  rather  to  the  nature  of  the  designs  which  became  fashionable  in  the  14th  century,  than  to  any 
definite  abstract  principle.  But  however  this  may  be,  there  is  one  lesson  to  be  learnt  from  the  works  of 
the  14th  century,  if  not  from  those  of  the  latter  part  of  the  13th,  which  is — that  the  glazing  which  chiefly 
consists  of  white  glass  is  more  favourable  to  the  effect  of  window  tracery,  than  that  which  consists  of  a 
mass  of  intensely  rich  colours.  For  the  latter  tends  to  confuse  the  tracery,  unless  indeed  the  direction  of 


22 


the  principal  lines  of  the  glass  composition  are  strongly  opposed  to  the  lines  of  the  stonework,  in  which 
case  there  is  a sufficient  contrast  between  the  stone  tracery,  and  the  deep  coloured  glass,  to  render  the 
former  perfectly  distinct.  Thus  the  mullions  and  tracery  come  out  strongly  in  some  of  the  clerestory 
windows  at  Bourges,  and  in  the  windows  of  York  Chapter  House,  where  the  glazing  is  principally  white, 
but  are  not  so  easily  made  out  in  the  windows  of  the  Sainte  Chapelle  at  Paris,  which  are  filled  with  richly 
coloured  glass.  On  the  other  hand,  the  mullions  of  the  southern  rose  at  Chartres,  which  is  likewise  filled 
with  richly  coloured  mosaics,  shew  themselves  distincly — as  appears  from  the  diagram  I now  exhibit.  Here 
the  principal  lines  of  the  stonework  diverge,  like  rays,  from  the  centre  of  the  window,  whilst  the  principal 
lines  of  the  glass  composition  form  concentric  circles.  The  star-like  effect  of  this,  and  many  other  rose 
windows  of  the  13th  century  (the  north  rose  of  Notre  Dame  at  Paris,  is  another  example);  thus  being 
produced  by  the  opposition  of  two  distinct  designs, — one  of  which,  the  stone  design,  appears  as  if  it  was 
laid  upon  the  other.  If  this  consideration  should  lead  to  the  conclusion  that  glazing,  principally  consisting 
of  white  glass,  is  best  suited  for  the  windows  of  buildings  in  the  Decorated  style  of  architecture,  there  can 
be  little  doubt,  I apprehend,  that  the  best  designs  would  be  those  consisting  of  pattern-work  painted  on 
white  glass,  of  which  there  are  numerous  and  beautiful  examples  in  the  Cathedrals  of  York  and  Exeter, 
Merton  Chapel,  Oxford,  and  other  places,  with  or  without  the  enrichment  of  inserted  panels,  containing 
groups,  or  single  figures,  on  stiff  coloured  grounds,  executed  in  the  simple  flat  style  before-mentioned. 
I would  on  no  account  advocate  the  use  of  figures  and  canopies,  because  the  stiff  character  of  the  colouring, 
which  does  not  materially  differ  from  that  of  the  13th  century,  is  unfavourable  to  such  a display  of  light 
and  shade  as  is  necessary  to  make  the  canopies  seem  as  if  they  projected  forward.  I have  heard  the 
flatness  of  decorated  figures  and  canopies  defended  on  the  score  of  their  resemblance  to  some  of  the 
published  outlines  ofthe  German  engraver,  Eetsch ; but  these  outlines  are  only  intended  for  near  inspection, 
by  which  alone,  the  varying  thickness  of  the  outline,  which  produces  the  effect  of  light  and  shade,  can  be 
appreciated.  At  a distance,  these  designs  would,  of  course,  be  invisible;  or  if  enlarged  in  painted  glass, 
as  I have  also  heard  recommended,  would  appear  flat  and  thin:  just  as  a copy  of  a 14th  century 
monumental  brass  would  look  if  executed  in  painted  glass. 

The  change  in  the  nature  of  the  material  in  1380,  or  thereabouts,  and  the  substitution  of  glass,  such 
as  we  see  used  in  the  works  of  the  15th  and  16th  centuries,  for  the  deep  intense  tints  previously  employed, 
is,  like  many  other  points  connected  with  the  history  of  an  art,  one  on  which  no  light  has  hitherto  been 
thrown.  It  is  but  a conjecture  that  the  change  was  brought  about  by  the  glass-makers  in  Germany.  But 
I think  we  may  conclude,  from  the  fact  that  glass  painting  was  becoming  more  pictorial  just  before  the 
change  in  the  material,  and  that  it  became  still  more  pictorial  after  it,  that  the  lowering  of  the  different 
tints  in  depth,  was  intended  to  second  the  efforts  of  the  artist  to  produce  glass  pictures  in  preference  to  glass 
mosaics.  One  is  tempted  to  infer  the  existence  of  some  harmony  between  the  character  of  the  architecture, 
and  the  delicate  tints  and  silvery  tone  of  the  glass  of  the  15th  century,  from  their  having  been  so  long 
associated  together.  And,  in  one  respect,  the  glass  is  no  doubt  well  suited  to  the  architecture.  For  even 
the  most  elaborately  painted  window  is,  owing  to  the  lightness  of  its  hues,  never  confused  with  the  stone- 
work. And  experience  has  abundantly  shewn  that  the  effective  pictures  of  the  16th  century  harmonize  as 
well  with  the  architecture  of  the  15th  as  the  imperfect  productions  of  that  period.  There  is  no  apparent 
difference  between  the  architecture  of  the  windows  of  Fairford  Church,  Gloucestershire,  and  that  of  the 
windows  of  churches  quite  half  a century  earlier ; and  yet  the  1 6th  century  glass,  with  which  these  windows 
are  filled,  is  in  perfect  harmony  with  the  character  of  the  building.  I therefore  think  that  windows  for 
15th  century  buildings  should  be  designed  on  the  model  of  the  glass  paintings  of  the  16th  century;  in 
which  case  the  artist  might  consistently  employ  canopies,  if  he  thought  proper.  The  most  splendid  Gothic 
canopies  in  glass,  that  I have  ever  seen,  are  in  two  of  the  windows  of  Munich  Cathedral;  one  is  dated  1503. 


23 


These  canopies  are  so  painted  as  to  appear  like  what  they  profess  to  be — hollow  niches.  As  a general  rule 
it  appears  more  satisfactory  that  one  scale  of  figures  should  be  preserved  throughout  a window,  than  that 
the  size  of  the  figures  should  be  regulated  by  the  sizes  of  the  lights  they  occupy;  as  in  most  Gothic 
examples.  In  the  cinque  cento  period  the  uniformity  of  scale  was  preserved,  not  unfrequently,  by  the 
employment  of  angel  boys,  instead  of  full  grown  figures,  to  fill  the  smaller  tracery  lights.  At  Fairford, 
and  other  places,  the  expedient  adopted  is  the  use  of  demi  figures  in  the  tracery  lights. 

In  the  15th  as  well  as  in  the  16th  century,  it  was  a not  uncommon  practice  to  extend  the  designof 
a glass  painting  beyond  the  limits  of  a single  light.  In  some  instances  the  entire  window  is  filled  with  a 
single  picture,  which  is  spread  over  the  whole  opening,  independently  of  the  mullions.  So  great  an  outcry 
has  however  been  raised  against  this  practice,  that  it  seems  worth  while  to  say  a few  words  in  justification 
of  it.  In  the  first  place,  there  is  not,  I conceive,  a greater  violation  of  principle  committed,  in  laying  as  it 
were  the  design  of  Perpendicular  tracery  work,  over  the  design  of  a 15th  century  picture  in  glass,  than  is 
committed  in  laying  the  design  of  a 13th  century  rose  window  over  the  design  of  its  glazing.  The  stone- 
work of  the  window  sustains  no  injury  of  effect,  on  the  contrary  it  is  rendered  more  distinct  by  the  opposi- 
tion of  its  design  to  that  of  the  glass.  Neither  is  the  glass  painting  injured  by  being  cut  by  the  stonework, 
for  as  remarked  by  a member  of  this  society  on  a former  occasion,  the  force  of  imagination  is  such,  that 
the  design  may  be  preserved  in  all  its  unity,  through  any  number  of  lights:  an  observation  which,  I 
think,  will  be  admitted  to  be  true  by  those  who  have  been  in  the  habit  of  looking  at  such  works  with  an 
unbiassed  eye.  But  the  practice  may  be  defended  on  another,  and  perhaps  less  questionable,  ground — on 
the  score  of  necessity.  Our  ancestors  were  in  the  habit  of  representing  in  their  windows  vast  numbers  of 
legendary  saints : but  modern  practice  is  in  general  so  opposed  to  this,  as  in  effect  to  limit  the  choice  of 
the  artist  to  representations  of  our  Saviour,  the  four  Evangelists,  the  twelve  Apostles,  occasionally  the 
Virgin  Mary,  and  some  of  the  Prophets  and  Patriarchs.  I believe  that  I am  speaking  within  compass  when 
I say  that  his  choice  does  not  extend  beyond  three  dozen  single  figures.  Consequently  monotony  is 
inevitable,  unless  recourse  is  had  to  groups  of  figures.  Here  indeed  the  means  of  selection  is  almost 
unlimited.  Flaxman  declares  (Works,  p.  337),  that  it  may  be  affirmed  “ without  danger  of  exaggeration, 
that  many  hundred  subjects  are  to  be  found  in  the  sacred  writings,  which,  being  ably  designed,  would  be 
new  to  the  beholder.”  But  in  order  to  ensure  a sufficient  scale  for  the  figures,  the  group  must  not 
unfrequently  be  extended  beyond  the  limits  of  a single  light.  Upon  the  ground  of  necessity,  therefore,  we 
may  well  justify  the  carrying  a glass  picture  across  a window,  to  a certain  extent  irrespective  of  the 
mullions.  And  I should  perhaps  add,  that  when  we  consider  that  painted  windows  by  their  size  might  not 
unfrequently  offer  a field  for  the  talents  of  the  historic  painter,  it  seems  unadvisable  to  scare  artists  from  it, 
by  imposing  conditions,  which  were  often  broken  through  by  the  mediaeval  painters  themselves. 

In  conclusion,  I will  repeat  what  I stated  at  the  outset,  that  I claim  no  infallibility  for  any  of  the  views 
I have  advanced.  I am  conscious  of  having  approached  delicate  ground  more  than  once;  especially  in  the 
course  of  my  remarks  on  the  sort  of  glass  paintings  best  suited  for  buildings  in  the  classical  styles.  On 
this  point  I consider  that  I have  but  raised  questions  which  wiser  heads  than  mine  must  solve.  My  object 
will  have  been  accomplished  if  I have  added  but  one  grain  of  information  to  the  common  stock:  or 
if  I have  succeeded  in  proving  that  there  is  no  mystery  in  glass  painting;  that  it  is  a branch  of  the  Fine 
Arts,  distinguished  from  others  only  by  certain  conditions,  and  that  the  same  sober  rules  of  criticism  equally 
apply  to  the  productions  of  the  glass  painter.  To  take  a familiar  instance — we  sometimes  hear  it  disputed 
whether  the  flesh  ought  to  be  coloured  or  left  white,  in  a glass  painting;  the  opponents  of  tinted  flesh 
urging  the  impossibility  of  imitating  nature  exactly  in  this  respect.  The  answer  is  obvious  enough.  The 
whole  colouring  of  a glass  painting  is  highly  conventional,  whether  it  be  of  the  draperies,  of  the  flesh,  of 
the  sky,  or  of  any  other  object;  still  so  long  as  it  does  not  exceed  the  limits  of  conventionality — a point  to 


24 


be  ascertained  only  by  observation  and  general  opinion — the  eye  and  imagination  are  satisfied.  We  should 
be  startled  and  disgusted  at  seeing  flesh  painted  green  or  blue,  but  the  complacency  with  which  pink  or  white 
flesh  in  a glass  painting  is  regarded  by  the  generality  of  mankind,  is  a sufficient  proof  that  neither  of  those  tints 
contradicts  nature  too  violently ; and  therefore,  that  the  artist  does  not  exceed  the  limits  of  conventionality 
in  using  either  white  or  tinted  flesh,  at  his  discretion.  The  wide  range  of  this  paper,  and  the  necessity  of 
confining  its  length  within  reasonable  limits,  has  of  course  compelled  me  to  touch  on  several  topics  in  a very 
cursory  manner:  and  especially  that  relating  to  the  actual  mode  of  executing  a glass  painting,  on  which 
the  argument  in  favour  of  the  mosaic  system  almost  entirely  depends.  However  as  I went  into  this  subject 
at  great  length,  in  a little  work  which  I published  in  1847,*  and  of  which  there  is  a copy  in  your  library, 
I must  refer  those  to  it  who  are  inclined  to  pursue  the  matter  further.  It  may  seem  superfluous  to  those 
who  have  read  this  book,  to  assure  you  that  there  is  a perfect  consistency  between  it  and  such  views  as  I 
have  just  expressed;  but  as  certain  writers  are  in  the  habit  of  taunting  me  with  inconsistency,  I may  as 
well  state  that  the  only  foundation  for  the  charge  is  this — That  perceiving  at  the  time  when  that  book  was 
written,  that  modern  copies  of  the  13th  century  windows,  besides  being  very  raw  in  colour,  were,  owing  to 
the  extreme  pellucidness  of  the  glass  then  in  use,  thin  and  poor  in  effect — the  most  favourable  examples 
never  having  a more  imposing  air  than  a veneer  of  an  old  window  might  be  expected  to  have,  and  that  the 
process  of  antiquating  the  glass,  that  is  dulling  it  over  with  enamel  brown  in  imitation  of  the  effect 
of  age,  only  produced  dulness  without  imparting  depth — I ventured  to  suggest  the  adoption  of  shadows, 
such  as  we  see  in  cinque  cento  work,  as  well  as  a broader  style  of  colouring  than  was  used  in  the  mosaics 
of  the  13th  century,  as  a means  of  correcting  the  flimsiness,  without  destroying  the  brilliancy  of  the 
material,  and  at  all  events  of  giving  'power  to  the  work.  And  that  since  the  manufacture  of  the  12th 
century  glass  has  been  revived,  I have  advocated  a nearer  approach  to  ancient  precedents,  both  in  the 
execution  of  the  painting,  and  the  method  of  its  colouring.  I trust  this  brief  explanation  will  finally 
dispose  of  the  charge  to  which  I have  alluded;  a charge  which  never  would  have  been  made,  any  more 
than  the  absurd  misrepresentation,  that  I have  at  any  time  recommended  the  universal  employment  of  the 
cinque  cento  style,  details  and  all,  had  it  not  been  for  those  writers’  ignorance  of  the  subject  on  which  they 
professed  to  write,  and  their  consequent  inability  to  comprehend  any  argument  in  relation  to  it,  which  is 
founded  on  general  views.  To  you,  gentlemen,  1 am  indebted  for  the  patience  with  which  you  have 
listened  to  so  long  and  dry  a discourse. 

The  Chairman,  Mr.  T.  Id.  Wyatt,  V.P.,  having  adverted  to  the  great  interest  and  importance  of  the 
subject,  especially  in  the  novelty  and  boldness  of  some  of  Mr.  Winston’s  views,  suggested  that  the  discussion 
of  the  paper  might  be  advantageously  postponed  until  the  next  meeting,  when  he  hoped  that  gentleman 
might  be  able  to  attend. 

Mr.  Winston  having  assented  to  this  suggestion,  it  was  agreed  that  the  discussion  should  take  place  at 
the  Meeting  on  the  12th  of  December. 

M.  Rochas  exhibited  some  specimens  of  stone,  prepared  and  hardened  by  a new  process,  to  resist  the 
effects  of  the  atmosphere. 

Mr.  G.  G.  Scott,  Fellow,  suggested  that  a Committee  should  be  appointed  by  the  Institute  to  consider 
thoroughly  the  subject  of  the  prevention  of  decay  in  building  stone.  Architects  were  obliged  to  use  soft 
stones,  which  sometimes  proved  durable  in  country  places,  whereas  they  decayed  rapidly  in  the  mfetropolis. 
Caen  stone  had  not  been  found  to  stand  as  it  did  in  former  times ; and  if,  as  M.  Rochas  stated,  he  was  able, 


* “ An  Inquiry  into  the  difference  of  Style  observable  in  ancient  Glass  1 lutings,  with  Hints  on  Glass  Painting,  by  an  Amateur,” 
p.  238,  et  seq. 


25 


by  a very  simple  and  moderately  expensive  process,  to  render  it  durable,  it  was  certainly  a most  important 
discovery.  He  understood  that  the  process  was  being  used  in  the  works  in  progress  at  Notre  Dame,  in 
Paris;  and  if  successful,  its  adoption  was  more  necessary  in  this  country  than  in  France.  It  was  highly 
important  that  its  value  should  be  tested  by  the  Institute  most  fully. 

Mr.  Godwin,  Fellow,  also  urged  the  importance  of  the  subject,  and  the  propriety  of  referring  it  to  a 
Committee;  which  might  also  consider  the  project  of  Mr.  Hutchinson  for  the  same  purpose,  which  had 
been  tried  at  Tonbridge  Wells. 

Mr.  Jennings,  Fellow,  believed  Mr.  Hutchinson’s  project  had  not  succeeded.  Its  object  was  rather  to 
keep  out  damp  than  to  preserve  the  stone. 

Mr.  C.  H.  Smith,  Visitor,  concurred  in  the  importance  of  the  question,  and  stated  that  there  were  now 
in  London  many  ship  loads  of  stone  which  ought  never  to  have  been  imported,  and  which  had  only  been 
brought  here  from  mistaken  feelings  of  economy.  There  were  many  plans  for  arresting  decay  in  stone,  and 
some  of  them  were  practicable  and  desirable  upon  a small  scale ; but  there  was  great  difficulty  in  applying 
them  extensively. 

Mr.  Scott  alluded  to  another  process,  consisting  in  the  employment  of  an  oleaginous  composition, 
which  he  had  some  time  ago  suggested  to  the  Dean  and  Chapter  of  Westminster. 

Mr.  Burnell,  Visitor,  observed  that  the  attention  of  the  Committee  should  not  be  limited  to  the 
different  processes  referred  to,  but  they  should  ascertain,  if  possible,  the  causes  of  decay  in  stone;  inas- 
much as  the  same  kind  of  stone  was  often  employed  in  different  localities  with  very  different  results. 


ON  THE  APPLICATION  OF  PAINTED  GLASS  TO  BUILDINGS  IN  VARIOUS 

STYLES  OF  ARCHITECTURE. 


Being  a Discussion  held  at  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  December  12,  1853. 


The  Chairman,  Mr.  T.  II.  Wyatt,  V.P.,  invited  Mr.  Trotman,  Visitor,  to  give  some  explanation  of  the 
drawings  exhibited  by  him. 

Mr.  Trotman  proceeded  to  describe  the  subjects  in  chronological  order.  The  first  was  one  of  a series 
of  four  subjects  relating  to  the  history  of  Christ,  from  the  Church  of  Rivenhall,  Essex,  which  had  been 
procured  from  Tours  some  years  ago  by  the  present  Vicar,  for  the  decoration  of  the  church.  These 
specimens  dated  from  about  the  beginning  of  the  1 2th  century.  The  whole  of  the  ground  colour  was  a rich 
bright  blue;  a quantity  of  green  was  intermixed  with  this  in  the  figures,  and  great  relief  and  brilliancy  was 
given  to  the  design  by  the  introduction  of  characteristic  lines  of  white.  Mr.  Trotman  next  referred  to 
similar  specimens  from  Canterbury  Cathedral,  and  to  four  subjects  from  York  Cathedral,  the  most 
perfect,  out  of  seven,  representing  the  corporeal  Acts  of  Mercy — Giving  shelter  to  the  Houseless, 
Visiting  the  Sick,  &c.  Two  large  drawings  of  windows  in  the  Church  of  West  Wickham,  Kent,  representing 
the  Virgin  and  Infant  Saviour,  and  the  Virgin  and  St.  Anne,  were  next  noticed ; these  being  of  the  latter 
half  of  the  15th  century.  A Nativity  from  Great  Malvern  Church;  one  of  the  heraldic  badges  from  the 
East  end  of  Henry  the  Seventh’s  Chapel;  the  Visit  of  the  Queen  of  Sheba  to  King  Solomon,  from  Fairford 
Church,  Gloucestershire;  and  an  interesting  specimen  from  the  Hammermen’s  Chapel  in  the  Cowgate, 
Edinburgh,  representing  the  National  Arms  of  Scotland  (“  the  Scottish  Lion  ”),  were  then  referred  to  and 
described ; and  Mr.  Trotman  further  directed  attention  to  a series  of  small  drawings  of  painted  glass  from 
the  Continent,  including  specimens  from  Paris,  Rouen,  Brussels,  Cologne,  &c.  Mr.  Trotman  expressed  his 
concurrence  in  the  views  of  Mr.  Winston  generally,  and  regretted  that  some  false  principles  should  have 
been  promulgated  on  the  subject  of  glass  painting  by  Mr.  Redgrave,  in  the  Catalogue  of  the  Contents  of 
the  Museum  of  Ornamental  Art,  that  gentleman  having  objected  to  the  introduction  of  shadows,  and  observed 
that  “ glass  painting  should  consist  of  flat  tints  without  shadow.”  On  the  contrary,  he  (Mr.  Trotman) 
considered  that  if  shadow  were  to  be  omitted,  there  must  be  an  end  of  glass  painting ; and  certainly  the  folds 
of  drapery,  &c.,  could  not  be  better  represented  by  outline  than  by  shadow,  especially  as  painted  windows 
must  be  seen  from  a great  distance.  The  real  question  was,  to  what  extent  the  principle  of  shadow  and 
rotundity  should  be  carried.  Some  of  the  medallions  in  Canterbury  Cathedral  were  in  simple  outline, 
whilst  the  East  window  of  St.  Bride’s  Church  (the  Descent  from  the  Cross,  by  Muss,  after  Rubens)  was 
remarkable  for  depth  of  shadow ; and  each  of  these  alike  failed  to  realize  the  resources  of  glass  painting. 
The  object  to  be  attained  was  the  highest  degree  of  brilliancy  consistent  with  a high  degree  of  art;  and  he 
therefore  could  not  sufficiently  admire  the  sentiments  of  Mr.  Winston,  who  had  given  a severe  blow  to  the 
merely  antiquarian  view  of  the  subject,  and  to  the  fallacy  of  direct  imitation  of  Mediaeval  glass  painting. 
Ward  and  Nixon,  in  their  work  at  Westminster  Abbey,  were  to  be  commended  for  not  adhering  too  rigidly 
to  the  old  models,  although  they  had  not  succeeded  in  developing  all  the  resources  of  the  art.  As  a general 
principle,  in  order  to  insure  that  brilliancy  which  glass  offered,  it  was  necessary  to  treat  every  subject  with 
considerable  subdivision,  and  great  attention  to  detail.  In  some  modern  glass  painting  much  of  the  interest 
was  lost  by  a neglect  of  accessories  and  details,  and  the  modern  glass  at  Cologne  Cathedral  was  objectionable 
in  this  respect,  as  it  consisted  of  single  figures  with  large  masses  of  drapery.  By  subdivision  he  meant  a 
more  complicated  style  of  composition  than  was  necessary  in  any  other  kind  of  painting.  Thus,  the  Church 
of  St.  Vincent  de  Paul,  at  Paris,  possessed  some  of  the  finest  specimens  of  modern  glass;  but  from  the 
figures  being  too  colossal,  and  occupying  each  one  window,  the  subjects  were  less  interesting,  and  less 
brilliancy  was  obtained,  than  a different  treatment  would  have  insured.  The  effect  of  colossal  figures  in 


28 


glass  painting  tended  to  diminish  the  apparent  magnitude  of  the  building,  and  was  exemplified  at  the  East  end 
of  the  Chapel  of  Eton  College,  where  the  windows  of  Mr.  Willement  had  an  injurious  effect.  Upon  the 
whole,  he  considered  it  would  be  very  wrong  to  study  the  specimens  exhibited  with  a servile  regard  to 
precedent,  but  rather  as  offering  so  many  steps  towards  the  attainment  of  a good  and  effective  style.  The 
human  figure  must  be  considered  essential,  either  singly  or  in  groups,  as  windows  representing  only  foliage, 
&c.,  could  not  be  interesting,  and  should  rather  be  classed  as  ornamentation  than  art.  The  subjects  should 
be  on  as  small  a scale  as  was  consistent  with  distinctness,  and,  so  long  as  the  necessary  brilliancy  was  not 
detracted  from,  there  was  no  limit  to  the  application  of  shadow.  Useful  hints  might  be  taken  from 
sculpture  in  relievo,  and  from  such  works  as  the  bronze  Gates  by  Ghiberti,  at  Florence,  care  being  taken 
to  render  the  figures  important  and  the  accessories  subordinate. 

The  Rev.  J.  L.  Petit,  Honorary  Member,  concurred  with  Mr.  Winston,  whose  object,  it  appeared, 
was  to  combine  the  merits  of  the  glass  of  the  12th  and  13th  centuries,  with  a degree  of  art  and  beauty  not  then 
obtained;  and  in  so  doing  he  would  not  violate  the  principles  of  that  era,  when  the  artists  got  the  best 
models  and  drew  as  well  as  they  could.  Servile  imitation  should  be  scrupulously  avoided,  and  if  works  of 
art  of  a high  character  were  unsuited  to  Gothic  buildings,  then  the  Gothic  was  not  the  style  for  the  age. 
The  architect  should  make  himself  independent  of  the  painter  and  the  sculptor ; but  when  their  aid  was 
offered  in  the  finest  art,  he  should  be  able  to  exalt  that  art,  and  so  to  place  the  specimens  of  it 
that  they  should  appear  exalted  even  in  their  subordination  to  the  architect.  Thus  the  Grecian,  the 
Roman  and  the  Italian  styles,  admitted  of  the  application  of  art  in  its  highest  character;  and  so  the 
Mediaeval  architecture  admitted  the  best  specimens  of  art  that  could  then  be  obtained.  If,  on  the  contrary, 
at  the  present  time  Gothic  and  the  highest  art  were  incompatible,  that  style  ought  not  to  be  pursued. 
Architects  should  endeavour  to  revive,  to  modify,  and  improve  it;  but  if  they  could  not  make  it  a 
noble  style,  let  it  be  abandoned. 

Mr.  E.  T.  Parris,  Visitor,  drew  attention  to  the  cartoons  of  Raffaele  as  being,  in  his  opinion, 
composed  upon  principles  similar  to  those  which  should  regulate  glass  painting.  In  those  works  every 
relief  was  gained  by  an  opposition  of  colour,  rather  than  by  shadow ; and,  as  in  the  best  stained  glass,  the 
horizon  was  very  high,  its  line  being  always  broken  by  colour  or  form  of  some  sort — in  one  instance  by  a 
house  on  fire,  the  object  of  introducing  which  could  only  proceed  from  some  artistic  principle.  He  fully 
agreed  with  the  remarks  of  Mr.  Winston.  Many  painted  glass  windows  had  been  erected  from  his 
(Mr.  Parris’)  designs,  but  he  was  generally  trammelled  by  the  person  who  had  the  order.  He  had  declined 
the  work  at  Westminster  Abbey,  executed  by  Mr.  Nixon,  for  this  reason. 

Mr.  Papworth,  Fellow,  observed  that  the  discussion  had  been  directed  rather  to  the  best  styles  of 
glass  painting  for  Medieval  architecture,  than  to  “ the  proper  application  of  painted  glass  to  buildings  in 
various  styles  of  architecture.”  The  question  to  be  laid  before  them  by  Mr.  Winston,  was  whether  they 
ought  to  have  any  stained  glass  at  all.  Stained  glass  either  was  or  was  not  a necessity  to  the  architect, 
and  it  would  be  well  to  settle  this  as  a principle.  In  the  majority  of  the  works  of  modern  architects 
the  question  was  a difficult  one.  They  could  not  all  build  churches  and  fill  the  windows  with  stained  glass, 
or  decorate  old  churches  in  the  same  way,  their  business  being  rather  with  a great  variety  of  public  and 
domestic  buildings;  and  the  difficulty  was  whether  painted  glass  was  applicable  to  domestic  uses,  and  if  so, 
what  style  should  be  adopted.  The  reply  to  this  question  would  answer  the  previous  enquiry — whether 
they  were  to  have  painted  glass  at  all.  He  considered  there  was  a great  deal  of  merit  in  that  kind  of  glass 
which  had  been  largely  introduced  since  1800,  consisting  chiefly  of  ground  glass,  with  arabesques  and 
other  ornaments  painted  upon  it.  Probably  Mr.  Winston  would  state  whether  he  thought  that  kind  of 
painting  applicable  to  the  wants  and  purposes  of  the  present  day. 

Mr.  Alfred  Bailey  observed  that  there  was  one  variety  of  Mediaeval  painted  glass  which  had  not  been 


29 


referred  to.  This  was  to  be  found  in  the  minor  towns  of  Central  Italy,  and  appeared  to  have  been  executed 
late  in  the  15th  century,  and  designed  on  totally  different  principles  to  any  other  kind.  They  resembled  in 
general  design  the  English  glass  of  the  13th  century,  but  instead  of  the  colours  being  arranged  in  small 
lines,  they  were  introduced  in  large  masses,  giving  a broad  effect  of  colour.  Figures  were  introduced  but 
sparingly,  and  generally  small ; which  was  remarkable,  considering  the  perfection  attained  in  the  F ine  Arts 
at  that  period.  Mr.  Bailey  referred  to  specimens  at  Arezzo,  Perugia,  and  Assisi.  With  regard  to  the 
question  of  the  style  of  art  suitable  to  painted  glass,  he  believed  that  a finished  pictorial  composition  was 
not  suited  to  that  material.  In  S.  Petronio,  at  Bologna,  two  of  the  grandest  figures  designed  by  Michael 
Angelo  were  introduced  in  stained  glass,  with  a great  deal  of  light  and  shade,  and  produced  a most  unpleasant 
effect.  Mr.  Winston  did  not  object  to  shadows,  perspective,  and  even  landscape  back-grounds,  but  it  required 
great  study  to  know  what  effect  a picture  would  have,  and  whether  it  was  a fit  subject  to  permit  the  passage 
of  light.  None  of  our  best  artists  would  like  a good  picture  to  be  placed  in  the  situation  of  a painted 
blind.  Architects  often  neglected  to  consider  where  they  should  place  painted  windows,  and  a very  bad 
effect  was  sometimes  produced  by  having  them  at  the  level  of  the  eye.  A grand  and  broad  effect  of  colour 
should  be  sought  for  rather  than  a result  resembling  patch  work ; and  the  architect  should  especially 
remember  the  importance  of  painted  windows,  as  striking  the  immediate  attention  of  the  spectator  on  entering 
the  building;  and,  consequently,  if  these  were  too  much  elaborated,  they  must  detract  from  the  effect  of 
the  building  itself. 

Mr.  Twining,  Visitor,  was  of  opinion  that  stained  glass  should  not  be  made  to  compete  with  oil 
paintings,  but  should  be  rather  of  an  ornamental  character.  Painted  windows  being  generally  placed  at  a 
considerable  height,  were  not  adapted  by  position  to  receive  representations  of  landscapes, — especially  of 
flat  scenery;  and  moreover  architectural  subjects  seen  in  an  elevated  position  must  be  represented  by  false 
perspective.  The  representation  of  groups  on  different  panes  was  objectionable,  because  the  metallic  slips 
which  formed  their  outlines  were  necessarily  of  the  same  thickness  throughout. 

Mr.  Hesketh,  Fellow,  called  attention  to  some  books  containing  a series  of  original  illuminations  from 
MSS.  on  vellum,  collected  by  Major  Macdonald  in  Arabia,  Syria,  and  Italy.  The  beauty  of  these  illu- 
minations, and  the  principles  upon  which  they  were  designed  and  coloured,  admirably  adapted  them  for 
imitation  in  glass  painting.  In  reference  to  paucity  of  subjects  for  stained  glass,  he  might  suggest  the 
metaphorical  subjects  abounding  in  the  Scriptures, — such,  for  instance,  as  the  meeting  of  Righteousness 
and  Peace;  and  many  others,  which  Flaxman  had  mentioned  as  never  having  been  treated  by  artists. 

Mr.  Talbot  Bury,  Fellow,  regretted  that  a sufficient  amount  of  talent  had  not  hitherto  been  brought 
to  bear  upon  glass  painting.  He  agreed  with  Mr.  Winston  that  those  designs  in  which  the  light  was 
centralized  were  failures,  because  the  objects  represented  must  be  transparent  or  semi-transparent.  One 
obstacle  to  enlisting  talented  artists  as  glass  painters  arose  from  the  mania  for  collecting  specimens  of  old 
glass  of  any  kind,  and  putting  them  together  as  “ ruins,” — or  copying  and  imitating  them.  Again,  a first- 
rate  painter  would  not  be  fettered  by  a glass  cutter,  or  by  any  rules  or  dogmas  as  to  the  style  of  drawing 
he  should  adopt.  The  advice  of  the  artist  was  too  often  neglected,  and  people  would  not  give  sufficient 
remuneration  for  his  work — that  was  the  true  cause  of  the  inferiority  of  the  art.  It  had  become  a 
matter  of  competition,  and  the  person  who  gave  the  most  glass  and  the  most  colour  for  the  money,  was 
employed,  without  regard  to  merit.  Individuals,  committees,  and  the  clergy,  were  alike  ignorant  of  the 
principles  of  the  art,  and  were  too  often  influenced  by  a mere  prejudice  in  favour  of  antiquity.  He  wished, 
therefore,  that  Mr.  Winston’s  paper  could  be  extensively  circulated,  for  the  dissemination  of  good  taste. 
So  long  as  nine-tenths  of  the  world  preferred  the  barbarisms  of  antiquity  to  the  finest  works,  he  did  not 
know  what  could  be  done  to  improve  the  art  of  glass  painting.  Mr.  Bury  referred  to  a drawing  of  the  east 
window  from  Lincoln’s  Inn  Chapel,  &c.,  as  an  illustration  of  bad  taste  in  modern  work.  He  agreed  with 


30 


Mr.  Winston  that  by  an  artist  the  mullions  dividing  a window  might  be  overlooked;  but  that  was  not  the 
case  with  others,  and  when,  as  in  some  instances,  a canopy  or  other  object  on  the  glass  was  completely 
divided  by  a mullion,  as  in  a German  specimen  among  the  drawings,  the  effect  was  very  bad. 

Mr.  Winston,  Honorary  Member,  expressed  the  great  pleasure  and  instruction  he  had  derived 
from  the  discussion  on  the  subject  of  his  paper.  Not  being  a professed  artist,  he  had  been  obliged 
to  study  the  subject  in  a desultory  way,  and  rather  by  actual  observation  and  comparison  than  by  deep 
reflection.  Hence,  he  had  not  given  his  attention  to  the  subject  of  painted  glass  for  domestic  purposes. 
He  agreed  with  Mr.  Trotman  as  to  the  principle  of  subdivision,  and  in  his  objection  to  colossal  figures. 
Some  of  the  figures  in  ancient  windows  did  not  appear  so  large  as  they  actually  were,  in  consequence 
of  their  skilful  treatment  by  the  artist.  A figure  of  St.  Christopher,  at  Strasbuxg  Cathedral,  of  the 
12th  or  13th  century,  was  nearly  fourteen  feet  high;  but  the  drapery  was  broken  in  every  direction 
by  lines  of  different  colours,  and  there  was  little  or  no  shadow;  so  that  the  general  effect  to  the  eye 
was  similar  to  that  of  a mass  of  colours,  or  a regular  pattern.  The  remarks  of  Mr.  Parris,  as  to  the 
Cartoons  of  Raffaele,  were  new  to  him,  and  he  quite  agreed  with  them.  Sir  C.  Eastlake  had  also  pointed 
out  the  manner  in  which  Kaffaele  had  adapted  his  compositions  to  their  execution  in  a material 
incapable  of  any  great  effect  of  depth.  He  agreed  with  Mr.  Pap  worth  that  ornamented  ground  glass 
had  much  merit.  It  looked  somewhat  flimsy ; but  it  was  very  pretty,  and  certainly  better  than  plain  glass. 
It  might  be  a question  how  far  painted  glass  was  suited  to  modern  domestic  habits.  Mr.  Winston  mentioned 
the  round  patterns  seen  in  German  glass,  and  Mr.  Powell’s  patent  for  stamping  glass.  The  weight  of  this 
latter  material,  however,  rendered  it  objectionable  for  a window  to  be  raised  and  lowered,  but  it  was  well  suited 
to  staircase  windows,  &c.  What  he  had  stated  respecting  the  flat  and  the  rotund  style  of  glass  painting 
should  be  borne  in  mind;  and  the  material  should  not  be  forced  beyond  its  capabilities.  The  early  MSS. 
certainly  contained  valuable  hints  in  their  illuminations.  Mr.  Bury’s  remarks  on  the  question  of  the  cost 
of  good  windows  were  perfectly  true ; and  it  was  impossible  to  deny  the  superiority  of  foreign  stained  glass. 
The  specimens  in  the  Great  Exhibition  of  1851  amply  proved  this.  These  were  works  produced  under 
the  fostering  patronage  of  powerful  individuals.  It  should  be  remembered  that  not  only  was  there  an 
objection  to  pay  adequately  for  good  works,  but  that  a vast  deal  of  money  was  wasted  on  bad  works.  It 
would  be  better  to  have  one  good  one  than  fifty  bad  ones.  The  erection  of  one  fine  window  in  a church  was 
sufficient  for  a generation,  and  doing  more  than  that  in  an  imperfect  way,  was  only  impeding  what  might  be 
better  done  hereafter.  It  was  the  province  of  architects  to  elevate  this  art  by  impressing  its  importance 
upon  their  employers;  and  he  felt  sure  that  there  would  be  no  want  of  skilful  designers,  if  proper 
encouragement  were  offered  to  them. 

The  Chairman,  in  proposing  a vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Winston,  concurred  in  the  necessity  of  architects 
forcing  their  employers  in  every  possible  case  to  encourage  a higher  style  of  art.  He  would  never  himself 
be  a party  to  the  erection  of  a stained  glass  window,  unless  he  had  a choice  both  of  the  cartoon  and  the 
artist.  Their  difficulties  had  arisen  from  a combination  of  circumstances, — of  which  not  the  least  was  the 
fact,  that  the  whole  world  professed  to  be  critics,  especially  in  Mediaeval  art,  and  acknowledged  no  judgment 
but  their  own.  He  took  occasion  to  refer  to  the  new  window  in  Mr.  Hope’s  church,  in  Margaret  Street, 
which  he  described  as  most  unsatisfactory,  though  he  had  met  several  persons  who  considered  it  the  finest  of 
modern  specimens. 

Thanks  were  voted  to  Mr.  Winston  for  his  paper  and  further  remarks,  as  well  as  to  Messrs.  Trotman, 
Bury,  and  others,  who  had  exhibited  the  drawings  on  the  walls,  and  the  Meeting  adjourned  to 
January  9th,  1854. 


2&ogaI  5it$»titute  of  UnttM)  Slrcijttccts' 


Communication  from  the  Honorary  Secretary  of  Foreign  Correspondence,  January  9th,  1854. 


Gentlemen, 

I have  to  announce  to  you  various  events  of  a chequered  character,  which  have  occurred  abroad 
since  our  last  meeting.  You  will  learn  with  much  satisfaction  that  the  Institute  of  France  have  elected  our 
Honorary  and  Corresponding  Member,  Herr  Zanth  of  Stuttgard,  a Corresponding  Member  of  that  distin- 
guished body ; an  election  equally  honorable  to  both  parties : to  our  professional  brother,  as  a testimony  to 
his  distinguished  merits  as  an  architect,  and  to  the  Institute  of  France,  as  evincing  the  discrimination  with 
which  they  recognise  foreign  talent.  A curious  incident  adds  interest  to  the  event : one  of  our  colleagues, 
and  member  of  that  Institute,  as  soon  as  the  election  was  decided,  dispatched  a message  by  telegraph  to 
Wurtemberg  to  announce  the  fact.  It  had  of  course  to  pass,  in  its  course  of  some  hundreds  of  miles, 
through  several  States,  and  to  incur  some  delay  in  the  delivery ; it,  however,  reached  its  destination  in  two 
hours,  and  in  two  more  the  zealous  friend  at  Paris  had  the  satisfaction  of  knowing  that  the  welcome 
message  had  arrived,  and  of  receiving  Herr  Zauth's  acknowledgments  for  the  promptitude  with  which  the 
gratifying  announcement  had  been  made  to  reach  him. 

At  our  first  meeting  of  the  session  in  November  last,  it  was  my  duty  to  communicate  to  you  the  death 
of  our  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Member,  Monsieur  Fontaine.  I little  expected  so  soon  to  have  to 
inform  you  of  other  losses  from  among  those  with  whom  I stood  at  the  tomb  of  Percier  and  Fontaine,  when 
I had  to  express  to  those  around  me  your  sympathy  in  the  loss  which  France  had  then  experienced — little 
did  I think,  as  the  venerable  and  accomplished  Achille  Leclere  stood  trembling,  weeping,  his  grey  hair 
floating  in  the  wind,  and  uttering  the  few  words  to  which  his  grief  gave  vent,  that  he  was  standing  himself 
on  the  verge  of  eternity:  but  he,  too,  has  followed  his  brother  architect.  On  the  26th  of  December  last 
his  remains  were  accompanied  to  the  Cimetiere  du  Nord,  amid  the  regrets  of  his  colleagues,  his  friends  and 
his  pupils;  and  eulogiums  were  pronounced  by  Messrs.  Raoul  Rochette,  Vinet,  Visconti  and  Isabelle. 

It  appears  that  Monsieur  Leclere  carried  of  the  Chrand  Prix  in  1808,  at  twenty-two  years  of  age — a 
very  unusual  circumstance  in  the  life  of  an  architect.  The  programme  of  the  competition  was  a large 
establishment  of  public  and  private  baths  for  the  capital ; and  the  manner  in  which  he  had  carried  out  his 
conception  was  most  remarkable.  During  his  residence  at  Rome  the  studies  of  the  young  pensionnaire 
were  always  well  chosen,  and  conscientiously  and  well  executed.  His  restoration  of  the  Pantheon  was  the 
crowning  point  of  his  many  researches  amongst  antique  monuments,  and  placed  him  amongst  the  most 
distinguished  architects  who  had  given  their  attention  to  the  restoration  of  that  magnificent  building  of  the 
Augustan  age.  M.  Leclere  also  made  an  interesting  collection  of  studies  on  the  modern  edifices  of  Italy. 
A student  in  the  celebrated  school  of  Percier,  whose  taste  and  learned  maxims  extended  throughout  Europe, 
the  pupil,  after  his  return  to  Paris,  was  attached  by  his  worthy  master  to  the  administrative  department  of 
the  Conseil  des  Batimens,  in  whose  works  he  took  part  for  thirty  years ; and  when  the  celebrated  Professor 
was  unable  to  continue  his  labors  in  the  school,  he  entrusted  them  to  the  direction  of  Monsieur  Leclere. 
These  circumstances  were  the  chief  cause  which  prevented  M.  Leclere  from  being  engaged  in  the  erection 
of  more  public  buildings;  however,  he  executed  in  France  many  large  country  houses,  and  in  Paris  some 
of  the  finest  houses  of  modern  times.  One  of  the  most  remarkable  monuments  in  the  Eastern  Cemetery  of 
Paris,  that  of  Casimir  Perier,  was  designed  and  executed  under  his  direction.  His  brilliant  debut  as  pupil, 

E 


32 


and  his  subsequent  works  as  pensionnaire  of  the  Academy,  were  followed  by  M.  Leclere's  early  entrance 
into  the  Institute,  where  he  was  called  upon  to  take  part  in  the  works  of  the  Professors  in  the  School  of 
Fine  Arts,  who  appointed  him  “ Archiviste."  Of  a kind  and  conciliating  disposition,  full  of  love  for  his 
art,  persevering  in  those  principles  which  he  believed  to  be  the  best,  encouraging  those  pupils  who  were 
studious  and  distinguished,  M.  Leelere  well  deserves  all  the  encomiums  which  accompany  his  memory  to 
the  tomb.  M.  Leelere  presented  to  this  Institute  some  very  important  tracings  of  the  constructions  of  the 
Pantheon  at  Rome,  next  the  portico,  with  a view  to  explain  whether  the  portico  formed  a portion  of 
the  original  design,  or  was  a subsequent  addition  of  a later  period:  they  are  preserved  in  our  collection  of 
original  designs  and  drawings,  which  are  now  forming  a very  valuable  series. 

In  the  funeral  cortege  of  Mons.  Leelere,  just  noticed,  you  will  perhaps  have  remarked  the  name  of 
Visconti,  as  one  of  those  who  addressed  the  assembly  at  the  grave  of  his  friend;  within  one  short  week 
Visconti  was  himself  cut  off  suddenly  by  an  apoplectic  fit,  and  borne  to  the  cemetery  of  Pere  la  Chaise 
amidst  the  grief  of  all  France — and  may  I not  add?  of  all  Europe.  Mons.  Visconti  was  present  on  Thursday 
the  29th  of  December  at  the  first  meeting  of  the  Commission  for  the  Exhibition  of  1855,  at  the  Palais 
Royal,  under  the  Prince  Napoleon,  and  remained  there  from  1 to  half  past  3 o’clock;  he  then  left,  and 
went  to  his  office  at  the  Louvre  with  a friend,  M.  Semard;  with  him  he  had  an  animated  conversation,  and 
having  to  dine  out,  he  asked  for  his  carriage,  but  it  being  then  only  half  past  4,  and  earlier  than  the  time 
he  usually  quitted  the  works,  it  had  not  arrived,  and  he  sent  for  a hackney  carriage.  M.  Semard  saw  him 
into  the  carriage,  and  it  drove  off,  and  soon  reached  his  residence ; the  coachman  got  down  and  opened  the 
door,  when  he  found  Mons.  Visconti  quite  dead. 

He  had  just  reached  the  culminating  point  of  glory  for  an  artist,  by  having  had  confided  to  him  the 
completion  of  the  Louvre,  which  had  occupied  the  genius  of  French  architects  for  two  centuries.  He  had 
reaped  the  fruits  of  laborious  and  profound  studies  in  the  very  highest  departments  of  our  art,  by  solving 
the  problem,  which  seemed  to  present  difficulties  apparently  irreconcileable  and  almost  insurmountable; 
and  he  had  commenced,  and  to  a great  extent  carried  into  effect  (to  the  height  of  30  feet  in  some  parts) 
with  inconceivable  rapidity,  the  outlines  of  his  grand  design,  which  united  all  suffrages,  and  promises  to 
render  the  Palaces  of  the  Louvre  and  Tuilleries  the  finest  sovereign-residences  in  the  world.  At  the  same 
time  it  must  be  confessed  that  the  conceptions  of  other  architeets,  as  Percier  and  Fontaine,  and  more  recently, 
of  Mons.  Dusillon,  had  considerably  assisted  him  in  the  solution. 

I had  from  his  own  lips  the  following  account  of  his  appointment  to  this  important  work.  He  received 
very  unexpectedly,  about  three  years  since,  a notice  from  the  officer  of  the  household  of  the  President  of 
the  Republic,  to  the  effect  that  he  would  be  received  next  day  at  the  Elysee  Bourbon  at  a certain  hour;  he 
duly  attended,  and  was  soon  ushered  into  the  Cabinet  of  the  Chief  of  the  State,  by  whom  he  was  received 
most  courteously.  “ It  appears  to  me,”  said  Louis  Napoleon,  “ that  the  Palace  of  the  Louvre  should  no 
longer  remain  in  a condition  which  reflects  disgrace  on  the  Government,  and  it  is  desirable  that  employment 
should  be  provided  for  the  working  classes ; I have  therefore  conceived  the  design  for  the  completion  of 
this  palace,  which  I wish  you  to  undertake."  “ Sir,"  replied  Visconti,  “ I am  gratified  by  so  honorable  a 
mark  of  your  confidence,  but  I venture  to  remind  you  that  Mons.  Duban  is  architect  of  the  Louvre,  and  it 
is  impossible  for  me  to  interfere  with  a position  which  he  fills  with  so  much  credit  and  ability."  “ True,” 
replied  the  President,  “ but  Mons.  Duban  is  architect  of  the  works  of  the  Old  Louvre;  I wish  you  to 
undertake  this  appointment  as  architect  of  the  works  of  the  New  Louvre,  which  are  to  be  quite  distinct,  and  to 
be  a charge  entirely  separate,  and  not  interfering  with  or  superseding  the  other.”  “ In  that  case,”  said 
Mons.  Visconti,  “ I am  quite  at  your  command.”  The  Prince  then  explained  a scheme  that  he  had  himself 
conceived  and  roughly  sketched,  which  he  wished  Visconti  to  draw  out  architecturally,  and  asked  how 
much  time  would  be  required.  When  informed  a month,  he  said  “ Well,  in  a month  I shall  expect  you 


33 


to  come,  and  you  shall  be  admitted  at  once.”  At  the  end  of  that  time,  Mons.  Visconti  took  the  plans,  and 
submitted  them  to  the  President,  who  highly  approved  of  the  manner  in  which  his  views  had  been  carried 
out.  Mons.  Visconti  then  ventured  to  suggest  that,  in  the  course  of  study  to  which  the  plans  had  given 
rise,  it  had  occurred  to  him  that  a much  nobler  aud  more  desirable  arrangement  could  be  adopted,  which 
he  should  wish  to  submit  to  his  Highness’  approval.  The  Prince  immediately  encouraged  the  architect  to 
develop  his  views,  and  this  he  did  in  his  succinct,  clear  and  convincing  manner,  so  as  to  carry  the 
conviction  of  the  President,  who  then  asked  him  how  much  time  he  would  require  to  prepare  the  necessary 
drawings.  Six  weeks.  “ Enough,”  said  L.  Napoleon,  “ and  in  six  weeks  bring  me  your  project 
thoroughly  considered.”  Accordingly,  in  six  weeks  Visconti  again  attended  at  the  Elys6e  Bourbon ; but, 
during  the  interval,  the  Republic  had  become  an  Empire,  and  the  President  Emperor.  It  was  sufficient  for 
Louis  Napoleon  to  see  the  design  which  his  architect  had  prepared;  his  ready  aptitude  seized  all  the 
superiority  of  the  arrangements  proposed,  and  he  expressed  himself  perfectly  satisfied.  Taking  out  a paper 
from  his  breast  pocket,  he  presented  it  to  Visconti,  saying,  “ Take  this  document;  it  constitutes  you 
architect  of  the  new  works  of  the  Louvre.”  In  fact,  it  proved  to  be  a formal  document,  signed  by  the 
proper  authorities.  The  Emperor  desired  him  to  be  ready  to  attend  a council  in  a few  days,  and  explain 
the  plan,  and  to  be  prepared  with  general  estimates  as  to  the  cost.  Our  architect,  of  course,  was  punctual 
to  the  appointment,  and  while  awaiting  the  meeting  of  the  council,  engaged  in  conversation  with  several  of 
the  members.  Being  anxious  to  ascertain  their  sentiments,  he  asked  their  opinion:  one  thought  it  a very 
fine  design ; another,  that  it  must  cost  a great  deal  of  money ; but  none  would  venture  to  pronounce  that  it 
was  a desirable  and  executable  project.  At  length  the  council  met,  and  the  most  vehement  objections 
were  taken  to  the  idea;  the  principal  one  being,  I believe,  to  its  vast  cost.  At  length  the  chief  minister 
said,  “ It  is  the  wish  of  the  Emperor.”  These  words  at  once  calmed  the  storm,  like  oil  poured  upon  the 
waves;  not  a dissentient  was  heard;  many  raised  their  voices  in  praise  of  the  noble  conception  of  the 
Emperor,  and  the  immense  talent  of  the  architect;  and  the  requisite  millions  no  longer  forming  any 
obstacle,  the  design  was  approved,  and  ordered  for  execution  with  the  necessary  funds. 

I do  not  at  the  moment  call  to  mind  any  very  large  public  building  that  Mons.  Visconti  has  erected 
at  Paris ; but  the  monument  of  Moliere  in  the  Rue  Richelieu,  the  fountain  on  the  site  of  the  old  Opera 
Place  Louvois,  the  noble  fountain  of  the  Place  S.  Sulpice  with  the  sedent  statues  of  the  four  great  Doctors 
of  the  Gallican  church,  a fine  fa9ade  at  the  angle  of  two  streets  in  the  Rue  Neuve  des  Petits  Champs,  and 
lastly,  the  tomb  of  the  Emperor  Napoleon  under  the  dome  of  the  Invalides,  attest  the  fertile  imagination, 
originality,  knowledge  and  taste  of  Visconti,  and  doubtless  contributed  to  indicate  to  Louis  Napoleon  one 
capable  of  realising  the  noblest  projects  in  his  art. 

In  October  last  I experienced  many  marked  attentions  from  our  colleague,  due  doubtless  to  the 
position  I hold  among  you  as  your  Foreign  Secretary.  He  received  me  at  his  house,  and  I must  own  that 
his  reception  rooms  displayed  refinement  and  elegance  superior  to  any  other  private  residence  in  Paris. 
The  furniture  was  of  a superb  description,  and  full-sized  chiffonnieres  of  black  ebony  with  glazed  fronts 
contained  most  exquisite  enamels  of  various  sizes,  dishes  and  vases  of  Raphael  and  Lucca  della  Robbia 
ware,  or  china  of  the  revival ; there  were  fine  bronzes  and  choice  pictures : in  fact,  one  seemed  to  breathe 
an  atmosphere  of  art,  evidencing  the  host  a man  of  refined  taste,  and  one  who  possessed  a perfect 
discriminating  relish  for  all  the  arts. 

He  was  heir  to  a great  European  name,  one  of  a family  distinguished  for  archseological  learning,  and 
has  nobly  maintained  the  reputation  of  his  ancestors.  His  personal  presence  did  not  seem  to  indicate  the 
noble  qualities  within  him;  but  his  exalted  genius,  his  simple  unaffected  manners,  his  cordial  address,  his 
loyal  and  generous  sentiments  were  the  confidence,  the  esteem  and  admiration  of  all  who  were  admitted  to 
his  friendship.  I need  hardly  say  how  highly  he  valued  the  gratifying  compliment  paid  him  by  this 


34 


Institute  in  electing  him  an  Honorary  Member.  He  entrusted  me  for  presentation  with  a copy  of  the  work 
shewing  his  design  for  the  completion  of  the  Louvre,  inscribed  with  his  own  hand,  and,  at  my  request,  has 
sent  you  full-sized  drawings  of  certain  iron  girders  for  the  floors,  one  of  70  ft.  span,  which  he  purposed 
employing.  At  some  future  evening,  with  your  permission,  I may  perhaps  give  a history  of  the  Louvre  and 
Tuilleries,  note  the  various  projects  for  their  union,  describe  that  of  our  lamented  colleague,  and  explain 
some  points  of  ingenious  construction  in  the  floors. 

Last  Wednesday,  only  five  days  ago,  his  remains  were  deposited  in  Pere  la  Chaise,  followed  by  one 
of  the  carriages  of  the  Emperor,  and  attended  by  many  Ministers  of  State  and  noble  functionaries,  the 
leading  men  in  science,  literature,  and  the  fine  arts ; his  pall  borne  by  the  most  distinguished  men  in 
France,  and  accompanied  by  the  tears  and  regrets  of  several  hundred  workmen,  who  felt  that  they  had  lost 
indeed  a noble  leader.  The  long  line  of  streets,  which  led  to  the  cemetery,  abounded  with  testimonies  of 
respect  to  the  memory  of  this  great  man.  And  a Minister  of  State,  the  perpetual  Secretary  of  the  Academy 
of  Fine  Arts,  our  colleague,  Mons.  Caristie,  Mons.  Rohault  de  Fleury,  and  Mons.  le  Baron  Paul  de 
Richemont  successively  addressed  the  thousands  assembled,  as  did  also  our  Honorary  and  Corresponding 
Member,  Mons.  Hittorff,  from  whose  touching  discourse  I borrow  a few  sentences,  which  seem  penetrated 
with  a due  appreciation  of  the  character  of  his  colleague  and  friend. 

“ The  loss  ” said  Mons.  Hittorff  “ of  an  artist,  who  united  the  highest  faculties  of  the  mind  to  the  no 
less  noble  qualities  of  the  heart,  is  afflicting  to  those  who  were  privileged  to  possess  the  opportunities  of 
appreciating  in  him  those  high  natural  gifts.  But  when,  as  now,  this  artist  is  carried  off  in  the  midst  of 
the  most  important  works,  at  the  moment  when  he  might  naturally  look  forward,  as  we  all  might,  to  their 
happy  completion  and  glorious  success,  this  loss  is  no  longer  a mere  family  bereavement,  it  is  a public 
calamity.  Certainly  in  the  immense  and  grandiose  work,  which  fell  to  the  lot  of  Visconti,  it  required,  in 
addition  to  the  conception  of  the  architect,  a rare  combination  of  circumstances  to  carry  up,  in  less  than 
two  years,  that  which  had  occupied  nearly  half  a century  under  the  greatest  of  our  kings;  it  required  still 
more  to  know  how,  as  did  our  friend,  by  incessant  activity,  by  a rapid  coup  d’oeil,  by  a discernment  as 
prompt  as  just,  to  render  available  all  those  precious  elements,  and  to  organize  an  army,  as  it  were,  of  able 
and  intelligent  assistants  and  artificers  to  carry  out  the  work. 

“ The  head  of  the  State  was  doubtless  glad  to  connect  his  name  with  the  completion  of  the  finest 
palace  in  the  world,  and  perhaps,  still  more  to  recall  by  such  a work,  minds  which  had  too  long  been  led 
astray;  nor  did  the  architect  peril  his  fair  fame  in  this  surprising  rapidity  of  execution,  which  astonished 
all  Paris,  and  excited  the  wonder  of  those  foreigners  who  flocked  hither.  Mons.  Visconti  bestowed  the 
utmost  care  upon  the  soundness  of  the  construction,  as  upon  the  exquisite  beauty  of  the  design.  These 
incessant  occupations  and  flattering  combination  of  circumstances  did  not  at  all  alter  the  natural  character 
of  our  friend.  Although  naturally  aware  of  his  own  capacity,  surrounded  by  numerous  gifts  of  fortune, 
raised  to  the  enviable  position  of  Architect  to  his  Emperor,  Member  of  the  Institute  of  France,  President 
of  the  Central  Society  of  Architects,  nothing  altered  the  constant  amenity  of  his  character,  he  was  still  the 
same  unaffected  modest  man,  always  ready  to  oblige,  and  ever  disposed  to  recognise  the  merit  of  others.” 

To  such  an  eulogium  it  is  unnecessary  for  me  to  add  one  word;  but,  in  conclusion,  I beg  to  notice  an 
inadvertant  expression  which  escaped  M.  Rohault  de  Fleury  in  his  address — it  is  contained  in  these  words, 
“ it  has  been  said  with  just  reason  that  the  loss  of  Monsieur  Visconti  is  irreparable."  To  his  family  and 
friends  such  a bereavement  is  irreparable:  but  you  and  I,  gentlemen,  must  feel,  that  however  great  this  loss 
may  be  to  architecture,  it  cannot  be  irreparable  to  France,  when  she  possesses  so  many  men  of  such 
distinguished  talents  to  uphold  the  high  rank  which  she  has  attained  in  the  commonwealth  of  the  arts. 

It  is  my  melancholy  duty  to  announce  also  the  death  of  Mons.  Gau,  also  our  Honorary  and  Corres- 
ponding Member,  author  of  the  noble  work  on  Nubia,  and  architect  of  the  new  Gothic  church,  S.  Clotilde, 


35 


in  the  Faubourg  S.  Germain.  M.  Gau  had  also  erected  a very  extensive  prison  at  Paris,  and  had 
executed  various  other  works  of  considerable  importance.  He  was  a native  of  Cologne,  but  had  passed  his 
professional  life  at  Paris. 

These  few  notes,  hastily  put  together,  may  prove  to  our  professional  brethren  abroad,  that  we  are 
watching  their  works,  admiring  their  talents,  sharing  their  sympathies.  Let  Architecture,  at  all  events, 
produce  harmony  and  good  feeling  among  all  her  sons,  in  whatever  country  they  may  be. 


The  following  is  an  extract  from  Mons.  HittorfTs  address,  on  the  9th  of  January  instant,  at  the  tomb 
of  his  countryman  and  brother  architect : — 

“ M.  Gau  naquit  avec  de  rares  dispositions  pour  ^architecture,  et  aprbs  avoir  suivi  pendant  plusieurs  annbes  notre  bcole  des 
Beaux- Arts  il  partit  pour  Rome  en  1817.  II  y fit  de  fortes  dtudes,  releva  et  publia  les  plans  du  Vatican  et  mesura  les  plus 
intdressans  momunens  antiques  et  modernes  de  l’ltalie.  Preparti  par  le  cdldbre  Niebuhr  b,  une  exploratione  de  l’Egypte,  il 
executa  avec  un  force  de  caractere  inouie,  la  perilleuse  et  difficile  entreprise  de  completer  o lui  seul,  par  le  recueil  des  monumens 
eleven  entre  la  premidre  et  la  seconde  cataracte,  l’immortel  ouvrage  de  l’expedition  Franfaise  sur  les  bords  du  Nil.  Tout  le  monde 
reudit  justice  a ce  beau  travail  qui  porte  l’empreinte  de  la  conscience  et  du  talent  et  qui  fixa  les  opinions  des  savans  sur  l’origine 
et  le  dbveloppement  de  ^architecture  Egyptienne  dans  la  Nubie.  N'eut-il  publie  que  cette  oeuvre,  elle  suffirait  d la  gloire  de 
son  nom.  Mais  M.  Gau  y ajouta  un  nouveau  lustre  en  completant  et  en  achevant,  avec  non  moins  le  talent,  le  remarquable 
ouvrage  de  Mazois  sur  les  Ruines  de  Pomptie,  et  en  se  livrant  avec  un  succes  mbritb  a la  pratique  de  son  art.  Successivement 
architecte  des  travaux  d’art  d’un  de  nos  premiers  chemins  de  fer,  de  l’administration  des  hospices,  de  la  Banque  de  France,  de  la 
ville  de  Paris,  partout  1’habile  artist  sut  faire  apprbcier  un  grand  savoir,  mdri  par  de  fortes  6tudes,  et  reuni  a une  rigide  intbgritb. 
Qualitbs  bminentes  qui  lui  valurent  de  nomoreux  et  importans  travaux  particuliers.  Toutefois,  la  construction  la  plus  importante 
qui  occupa  M.  Gau,  pendant  les  dernieres  vingt  annbes  de  sa  vie,  ce  fut  la  conception  et  l’exdcution  de  la  nouvelle  dglise  de  Sainte 

Clotilde Hblas!  cette  basilique  dont  1’achbvement  dut  etre  le  reve  de  bonheur  de  la  fin  de  sa  vie,  qu’il  vit  abritbe  de  sa 

belle  couverture  en  fer,  dont  les  grosses  constructions  furent  achevbes  sous  ses  yeux,  une  cruelle  maladie  priva  son  auteur  d'y 
avoir  pu  mettre  les  pieds  depuis  prbs  de  deux  annees!  Quelle  ne  dut  pas  etre  la  doulenr  du  pauvre  artiste  lorsque,  sans  espoir 
de  retrouver  la  facultb  de  ses  membres  paralyses,  la  pensbe  de  ne  jamais  contempler  accomplie  sa  belle  oeuvre,  vint  l’accabler  de 
sa  poignante  rbalite ! ” 


DESCRIPTION  OF  THE  FRENCH  METHOD  OF  CONSTRUCTING  IRON 

FLOORS. 

Read  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  January  9th,  1854. 

By  H.  H.  Burnell,  Associate. 


In  describing  the  system  of  the  “ Planchers  en  fer,”  or  Wrought  Iron  Floors,  it  is  not  my  intention  to  enter 
into  a detailed  account  of  the  various  experiments  made  before  the  systems  now  so  generally  used  in  Paris 
were  brought  to  their  present  state  of  perfection, — to  occupy  your  time  with  calculations  of  the  resisting 
powers  of  rolled  iron,  or  discuss  the  suitability  of  the  forms  adopted;  but  avoiding  all  that  might  tend  to 
embarrass  the  question,  I propose  to  confine  myself  to  a succinct  and  simple  description  of  the  systems 
now  most  frequently  executed,  and  to  furnish  such  practical  information  as  I have  obtained  by  visiting  the 
works  where  they  are  employed,  and  hearing  the  opinions  of  the  architects  conducting  them. 

It  would  seem  that,  for  some  years  past,  floors  composed  of  rolled  iron  joists  have  been  occasionally 
executed  in  Paris;  in  most  cases,  the  joists  were  flat  and  without  flanges:  such  constructions  were  known 
as  the  Systeme  Vaux.  The  systems  to  which  I am  about  to  draw  attention  are  little  more  than  an 
improvement  in  the  form  of  the  joist,  and  may  be  said  to  have  come  into  general  use  at  the  commencement 
of  the  extensive  alterations  in  the  Rue  de  Rivoli,  in  the  spring  of  the  year  1852. 

In  the  various  works  treating  on  the  subject  several  systems  are  described,  but  upon  visiting  the 
Parisian  buildings  now  in  progress,  we  perceive  but  two:  one  purporting  to  be  the  system  of  Mons.  Thuasne, 
and  the  other  appearing  to  be  that  of  any  one  who  may  get  an  order  to  execute  it.  From  the  observations 
made  by  parties  conversant  with  the  matter,  I am  induced  to  believe  that  the  different  systems  are  no 
longer  recognised  in  general  practice,  and  that  the  architect  or  builder  combines  at  pleasure  the  advantages 
of  all. 

— The  “ Systeme  Thuasne  ” may  be  described  as  being  composed  of  joists  of  iron,  rolled  in  the  form  of 
the  double  T>  and  slightly  arched  in  the  proportion  of  0.005  metre  in  the  metre,  or  of  1 in  200.  They  are 
placed  at  the  distance  of  1.00  metre  (or  3 ft.  3J  in.)  from  centre  to  centre,  and  are  united  by  interties,  formed 
of  flat  iron  bars,  fixed  at  the  same  distance  of  one  metre  apart.  These  interties  rest  on  the  lower  flanges 
of  the  joists,  and  are  let  into  wrought  iron  bands  fixed  round  them;  a small  pin  is  then  driven  through  the 
hole  at  the  extremity  of  the  intertie,  between  the  joist  and  the  band,  and  the  transverse  tie  is  formed. 

The  fantons  are  light  iron  rods,  fron  | to  \ in.  square,  of  the  same  length  as  the  joists,  and  parallel 
with  them ; they  are  laid  on  the  interties,  and  bound  to  them  with  copper  wire,  and  may  be  said  to  take  the 
place  of  the  ceiling  laths.  Some  of  the  joists  and  interties  next  the  walls  have  their  ends  so  formed  as  to 
make  them  act  as  ties ; thus  the  ends  of  the  system  being  firmly  built  into  the  walls,  the  sides  of  the  house  are 
effectually  united-  The  iron-work  is  usually  painted,  and  allowed  to  dry  thoroughly,  before  it  is  brought 
to  the  place  of  construction. 

The  above-described  net-work  of  iron  being  completed,  the  next  process  is  the  plastering  or  grouting. 
This  process  differs  so  materially  from  the  English  mode  of  forming  a ceiling,  and  is  so  important  a part 
of  the  scheme,  that  it  requires  to  be  understood  before  the  success  of  the  whole  can  be  comprehended.  It 
is  done  thus : a board  or  flat  centering  is  placed  under  the  part  intended  to  be  filled  in ; a grouting 
composed  of  the  coarsest  quality  of  plaster  is  then  poured  in  upon  it,  and  running  in  between  the  lower 
portions  of  the  iron-work,  it  stops  against  the  board  beneath,  and  forms  the  ceiling  of  the  room  below, 
which  one  coat  of  fine  plaster  serves  to  finish.  The  plastering  thus  applied  is  from  2|  to  3 inches  thick, 
and  sets  in  about  half  an  hour;  it  shortly  becomes  as  hard  as  stone,  and  assists  much  to  stiffen  the  floor. 

The  second  system  referred  to  differs  in  some  degree  from  the  first,  the  joists  being  placed  nearer 
together,  perhaps  from  2 ft.  4 in.  to  3 ft.  apart.  The  interties  are  formed  of  iron  bars,  from  § to  in. 
square,  bent  at  the  ends  so  as  to  clip  the  upper  flange  of  the  joist,  and  again  crooked  downwards  to  rest  on 
the  lower  one;  the  elbow  so  made  pressing  against  the  side  of  the  joist,  a strut  and  tie  is  at  once  formed 


Yinccut  Bi  :■  Xrtg 


SYSTEM  THUASNE 


SYSTEM  IN  CENERAL  USE 


FRENCH  METHOD  OF  CONSTRUCTING  IRON  FLOORS.  ('■page'  3GJ 


37 


between  the  joists.  Interties  upon  this  principle  are  of  course  made  as  nearly  as  possible  of  the  same  size, 
and  when  placed  between  the  joists,  a blow  with  the  hammer  is  sufficient  to  fix  them  in  their  position,  and 
make  them  touch  at  the  required  points.  They  are  placed  about  3 ft.  apart,  and  as  nearly  as  may  be  in  a 
direct  line,  so  that  one  may  resist  the  action  of  the  other.  The  fantons  or  light  iron  rods  lying  parallel 
with  the  joists  are  laid  on  the  interties,  and  the  grouting  performed  as  in  the  former  method.  The  floors 
of  the  New  Louvre  are  made  upon  this  principle,  and  filled  in  with  pottery. 

It  need  scarcely  be  remarked  of  these  rolled  iron  joists,  that  they  may  be  made  of  any  intermediate 
thickness  between  the  stoutest  and  lightest  of  the  patterns  given,  the  depth  of  course  remaining  the  same. 
This  offers  some  advantages,  particularly  in  France,  where  iron  is  dear,  and  the  apartments  divided  into 
rooms  of  very  different  dimensions;  as,  in  many  cases,  it  may  be  desirable  that  the  floor  of  the  smaller 
room  should  be  of  the  same  depth  as  that  of  the  larger  one;  but  the  span  being  less,  the  lighter  description 
of  joist  would  suffice,  the  internal  walls  being  assumed  to  have  the  necessary  strength  to  take  the  bearing. 

As  I have  elsewhere  observed,  the  grouting  is  always  more  or  less  of  plaster,  but  in  many  cases  the 
space  between  the  joists  is  filled  with  pottery,  that  is  to  say,  small  cylinders  of  baked  earth,  about  7\  in. 
high  and  4 in.  in  diameter,  having  the  ends  closed,  and  somewhat  resembling  flower  pots;  these  are  bedded 
in  a layer  of  plaster,  poured  in  between  the  lower  portions  of  the  iron-work,  and  then  receive  a grouting  to 
fill  in  the  interstices.  Perforated  bricks,  and  pipes  like  those  used  to  form  land  drains,  are  manufactured 
for  the  purpose,  but  are  rarely  used.  Where  a wooden  floor  is  required  (which  is  frequently  the  case)  it 
is  nailed  to  small  joists  notched  in  between  the  iron  joists;  sometimes,  however,  where  economy  of  space  is 
less  an  object,  the  wood  joists  are  laid  across  the  top  of  the  iron  work. 

With  regard  to  the  relative  merits  of  the  two  systems,  little  need  be  said : that  of  M.  Thuasne  binds 
the  joists  more  effectually  at  the  bottom,  where  they  are  best  calculated  to  resist  the  expansion  of  the 
plaster,  and  it  may  also  be  accompanied  with  some  trifling  economy  of  iron,  but  notwithstanding  this,  it 
has  the  character  of  being  on  the  whole  the  dearer,  and  on  this  account  the  other  method  is  more  generally 
adopted.  Both  offer  advantages  on  the  score  of  being  easily  fixed,  and  when  executed  with  common 
intelligence,  answer  well,  producing  a light  fire-proof  floor  in  two-thirds  of  the  space  of  the  ordinary 
wooden  construction.  It  will  be  seen  that  floors  made  upon  either  of  these  principles  are  as  incombustible 
and  sound-proof  as  most  others  professing  to  offer  the  same  advantages.  It  is  clear  that  violent  heat,  if 
long  continued,  would  calcine  the  plaster  and  ultimately  bend  the  joists;  but  even  in  this  case,  were 
pottery  of  any  kind  judiciously  employed,  it  would  offer  a serious  opposition  to  the  flames,  and  would  be 
infinitely  less  dangerous  to  those  in  or  near  the  building  than  cast  iron  girders  or  joists  with  heavy  masses 
depending  upon  them.  I have  here,  however,  alluded  to  an  extreme  case,  as  it  is  highly  improbable  that 
an  extensive  conflagration  should  take  place  where  the  floors  and  staircase  are  of  incombustible  materials. 

It  is  with  some  misgiving  that  I speak  concerning  the  cost,  feeling  that  it  is  unlikely  that  a common 
calculation  made  from  the  French  tarifs  should  be  found  a correct  guide  to  the  expense  in  England,  as  so 
much  depends  on  the  skill  and  enterprize  of  the  parties  undertaking  the  manufacture,  the  effect  of 
competition,  and  the  demand  for  the  material.  Perhaps  for  present  purposes  it  may  suffice  to  consider 
the  probable  prices  in  England  to  be  the  same  as  those  of  Paris,  for  it  should  be  remembered  that  though 
we  have  iron  in  greater  abundance,  the  wages  of  English  exceed  those  of  French  workmen.  The  want  of 
a material  like  the  French  plaster  will  next  be  felt.  I am  not  aware  that  we  have  anything  that  effectually 
takes  its  place  at  a moderate  expense.  The  price  of  French  plaster  in  London  is  32s.  or  33s.  per  ton, 
about  30  per  cent,  dearer  than  in  Paris ; but  I believe  I am  correct  in  saying  that  this  plaster,  when  fresh, 
may  be  mixed  with  an  equal  quantity  of  sand,  cinders,  or  ground  brick,  and  answer  the  purpose  in  question. 
The  cost  of  grouting  in  England  must  therefore  be  considered  as  double  that  of  Paris. 

The  accompanying  table  is  translated  from  a tarif  of  prices  circulated  by  Mons.  Thuasne  last  year ; 
it  also  gives  the  weights  and  depths  of  the  floors  for  the  various  spans. 


38 


Paris  Prices: 


Bearings. 

Depth  of 
Joist. 

Depth  of 
Floor 
complete. 

Weight 
per  Square. 

Iron  Work, 
per  Square. 

Including 
Grouting, 
(12  Shillings) 
per  Square. 

FT. 

IN.  FT. 

IN. 

INCHES. 

INCHES. 

lbs. 

£. 

s. 

d. 

£. 

s. 

d. 

From  10 

0 to  11 

6 

4 

71 

• 8 

370 

2 

19 

5 

3 

11 

5 

11 

6 — 13 

0 

4f 

7 1 

‘ 8 

420 

3 

6 

5 

3 

18 

5 

13 

0 — 16 

6 

5* 

Q5 

465 

3 

14 

4 

4 

6 

4 

16 

6 — 20 

0 

H 

H 

510 

4 

1 

9 

4 

13 

9 

20 

0 — 23 

0 

n 

io* 

605 

4 

17 

6 

5 

9 

6 

23 

0 — 26 

0 

8| 

nf 

700 

5 

12 

4 

6 

4 

4 

I regret  that  I am  not  in  a position  to  furnish  more  ample  information  on  this  head,  and  that  I am 
unable  to  produce  accounts  of  some  experiments  which  might  convey  an  idea  of  the  resisting  powers  of 
the  floors  when  complete,  though  I know  that  these  experiments  have  been  made;  but,  perhaps,  the  general 
adoption  of  one  or  other  of  the  methods  may  be  received  as  the  best  guarantee  of  their  results  being 
satisfactory. 

In  connexion  with  the  subject  of  the  general  use  of  iron  in  France,  much  might  be  said  on  the 
French  manner  of  constructing  wrought  iron  girders,  but  as  the  most  remarkable  of  these  are  to  be  found 
in  the  buildings  of  the  new  Louvre;  and  as  we  have  just  heard  that  all  matters  connected  with  that 
important  building  will  be  treated  at  a future  meeting  by  our  Honorary  Secretary  for  Foreign  Corres- 
pondence, I shall  abstain  from  offering  any  remarks  on  the  subject. 

In  conclusion,  I would  add  that  I have  been  induced  to  offer  the  foregoing  remarks,  because  I conceive 
that  an  invention  that  is  well  received  in  a city  so  important  as  Paris,  must  be  practically  interesting  to 
us,  particularly  if  in  our  own  country  the  advantage  of  that  invention  be  partially  wanting;  it  is  true  that 
our  mode  of  building  and  inhabiting  our  houses  differs  generally  from  that  of  the  French  capital,  where 
they  are  usually  let  in  apartments  or  flats,  but  in  many  instances  the  same  arrangements  occur  here,  and 
in  such  cases,  at  least,  we  might  avail  ourselves  of  the  experience  of  our  talented  neighbours.  Many 
prejudices  and  conflicting  interests  must  be  overcome  before  any  invention  can  be  generally  adopted;  those 
of  the  Parisian  building  world  seemed  to  have  yielded  readily  to  the  desire  to  improve,  and  the  opportunities 
offered  to  the  development  of  a new  method  by  the  extensive  character  of  their  alterations;  and  though 
the  improvements  in  our  own  metropolis  proceed  with  less  vigour,  we  may  endeavour  to  evince  as  little 
prejudice  as  our  neighbours  in  our  enquiry  into  the  merits  of  that  principle,  which  constructively  has  done 
its  part  to  invest  their  newly-erected  buildings  with  stability  and  refinement  worthy  of  the  age. 

The  Chairman,  Mr.  G.  Godwin,  Fellow,  observed  that  the  questions  of  weight  and  expence  were  among 
the  most  important  in  reference  to  the  construction  of  iron  floors;  and  it  would  be  desirable  to  compare 
the  method  described  by  Mr.  Burnell  with  similar  plans  which  had  been  adopted  in  England.  Mr.  Hosking 
in  his  book  on  “ Building  in  Towns,”  had  described  a method  of  flooring  used  in  Paris,  and  some  floors 
upon  a similar  principle  had,  he  believed,  been  constructed  at  Messrs.  Clowes’s  printing  office,  and  had 
been  found  to  answer  exceedingly  well. 

Mr.  Fowler,  Fellow,  inquired  what  was  the  effect  of  weights  on  the  floors  described  in  reference 
to  elasticity.  Although  doubtless  strong,  the  joists  were  apparently  slight;  and  he  wished  to  know  whether 
any  particular  deflection  might  take  place,  in  the  case  of  persons  dancing  on  such  floors. 

Mr.  Burnell  stated  that  the  Revue  Generale  de  l’Architecture  gave  the  following  experiment  made 


.39 


upon  a floor  1G  ft.  span  (systeme  Vaux)  the  joists  being  5j  in.  deep,  § in.  thick,  and  cambered  2 in.  in  tin. 
1G  ft.  Upon  the  grouting  being  filled  in  the  camber  was  reduced  to  1|  in.;  upon  the  floor  being  loaded 
with  1,000  lb.  per  yard  super,  it  was  reduced  to  1T\  in.,  and  after  forty-eight  hours  pressure  again 
decreased  to  1 in.,  the  deflection  from  the  load  being  | in.;  the  weight  being  removed,  the  floor  resumed  a 
camber  of  1^-,  having  lost  in  the  experiment.  When  filled  in  with  pottery,  these  floors  were  lighter, 
but  the  filling  in  with  solid  plaster  formed  the  whole,  in  his  opinion,  into  a stronger  and  more  solid  mass. 

Mr.  G.  R.  Burnell,  C.E.  referred  to  a paper  read  by  himself  at  the  Institute  in  1849,  in  which  he  had 
alluded  to  Vaux’s  system.  Since  that  time  several  works  had  been  published  on  the  subject, — the  most 
recent  and  the  best  being  one  by  General  Morin,  who  in  the  fourth  volume  of  his  “ Cours  de  Construction 
gave  an  elaborate  set  of  experiments  on  the  resistance  of  these  floors,  and  the  formula  on  which  their 
thickness  and  general  dimensions  might  be  calculated.  From  these  experiments  it  appeared  that  a floor  of 
26  ft.  span  shewed  a deflection  of  seven  centimetres,  with  a weight  of  70  lb.  on  the  square  foot,  in  addition 
to  the  weight  of  the  floor  itself.  It  appeared  to  him  (Mr.  G.  R.  Burnell)  that  one  of  the  great  objections 
to  the  modern  French  system  of  filling  in  with  plaster,  was  not  so  much  the  weight  as  the  expansive  action 
of  the  plaster.  In  practice  the  effect  of  this  was  to  bring  the  floor  down  nearly  half  the  amount  of 
deflection,  produced  by  the  extreme  load  which  the  floor  would  bear.  The  use  of  pottery  was  therefore 
preferable,  and  it  would  be  especially  so  in  this  country,  where  plaster  of  Paris  was  comparatively 
expensive.  The  conflagrations  which  had  lately  occurred  in  the  city  rendered  it  important  to  devise  some 
incombustible  flooring;  and  it  was  to  be  much  regretted  that  in  England  insurance  from  fire  was  a tenant’s 
tax,  instead  of  being  a landlord’s  tax,  as  in  France,  because  there  was  no  inducement  to  builders  and 
landlords  in  this  country  to  construct  fire-proof  houses. 

Mr.  Donaldson,  Hon.  Sec.,  observed  that  the  rent  was  regirlated  in  each  case  with  reference  to  this 
fact,  and  the  Chairman  considered  that  the  prevalence  of  short  leases,  instead  of  freeholds,  might  equally 
explain  it. 

Mr.  Pap  worth,  Fellow,  referred  to  a house  in  Hinde  Street,  Manchester  Square,  built  by  Dr.  Gillies, 
the  Scottish  historian,  the  roof  of  which  was  made  of  cast  iron  bars,  little  more  than  4 t inches  deep,  with 
a sufficient  flange,  and  filled  in  with  flower  pots,  precisely  as  in  the  French  method,  but  cambered  so  as  to 
form  a vault.  This  had  always  stood  exceedingly  well  until  the  walls  began  to  settle:  there  was  then  a 
fracture  which  had  caused  considerable  trouble;  but  that  had  been  remedied,  and  the  roof  still  stood  very 
well  indeed.  With  respect  to  the  expansion  of  the  plaster,  mentioned  by  Mr.  G.  R.  Burnell,  he  could  not 
understand  why  it  should  press  downwards,  when  there  was  no  abutment  above  to  pi’event  it  expanding  in 
an  upward  direction. 

Mr.  Fowler  observed  that  it  had  an  abutment  above;  being  turned  up  against  the  joist,  in  a form 
equivalent  to  a curve ; and,  therefore,  if  expansion  did  take  place,  it  must  press  downwards. 

Mr.  Piper,  Visitor,  stated  that  the  plaster  would  expand  in  all  directions.  The  floor  at  Messrs.  Clowes’s 
warehouse,  referred  to  by  the  Chairman,  was  of  the  ordinary  construction,  with  timber  joists;  but  a plaster 
of  Paris  ceiling  was  attached  to  it,  or  a sort  of  flat  centering  was  fixed  and  secured  below  the  joists, 
and  the  plaster  was  filled  in  from  above  the  laths ; the  laths  being  of  oak,  and  stronger  than  usual,  both  in 
material  and  scantling,  and  placed  at  a wider  interval.  The  plaster  therefore  passed  through  and  formed 
the  ceiling  below,  and  a sort  of  pugging  above ; it  consisted  of  two  parts  of  sand  to  one  of  plaster.  The 
floor  was  constructed  of  three  courses  of  plain  tiles,  in  order  to  make  it  a perfectly  fire-proof  and  air-proof 
chamber,  used  as  a drying  room ; no  bad  effects  had  arisen  from  the  expansion  of  the  plaster.  With 
reference  to  the  use  of  cast  iron  in  floors,  he  had  had  great  experience  in  those  constructed  on  Fox  and 
Barrett’s  principle;  and  it  had  always  occurred  to  him  that  cast  iron  was  an  unsound  material  to  be 
subjected  to  a permanent  set,  and  to  be  strained  as  a floor  was  liable  to  be;  and  therefore  the  introduction 
of  rolled  iron  joists,  which  were  produced  so  successfully  at  the  Butterley  Works,  was  a great  advantage. 
Six  floors  had  been  constructed  with  cast  iron  joists  in  the  Albert  Buildings,  Spitalfields;  and  at  the  top  of 

e 2 


40 


the  building  a defective  joist  broke,  and  fell  down  vertically,  striking  out  one  joist  in  every  floor  as  it  fell, 
without  disturbing  the  rest — an  illustration  of  the  extreme  brittleness  of  the  material.  Regarding  the  con- 
crete as  an  addition  to  the  weight,  without  being  any  addition  to  the  strength,  or  having  any  natural  cohesion 
or  connexion  with  the  iron,  he  had  not  been  prepared  to  expect  a very  firm  floor  as  the  result  of  the  combi- 
nation, in  a span  of  eighteen  to  twenty  feet,  in  a coach  manufactory  in  Regent  Street;  but  on  the  contrary, 
he  was  surprised  to  find  that,  when  the  mass  became  set,  it  was  rigid  to  an  extraordinary  extent,  forming  a 
kind  of  uniform  landing,  in  which  there  was  a good  brotherhood  between  the  concrete  and  the  iron,  the 
whole  forming  a trustworthy  mass.  With  regard  to  the  cost,  his  experience  had  shewn  him  that  in 
Messrs.  Fox  and  Barrett’s  construction  it  was  equal  to  that  of  an  ordinary  floor,  with  the  addition  of  the 
price  of  the  floor  boards;  but  the  present  state  of  the  iron  market  would  somewhat  interfere  with  that 
calculation.  From  the  actual  rigidity  to  which  he  had  referred,  he  was  disposed  to  think  the  French  floors 
described  would  have  a great  amount  of  strength.  Alluding  generally  to  the  facilities  for  the  spread  of  fire 
in  houses,  by  means  of  skirtings,  staircases,  quarter  partitions  and  roofs,  as  at  present  constructed,  he 
illustrated  the  power  of  an  ordinary  plaster  ceiling  to  resist  the  action  of  fire,  by  referring  to  a severe  fire 
on  his  own  premises,  which  began  in  the  shop,  and  spreading  upwards  by  the  staircase  ignited  the  roof, 
and  then  burnt  downwards.  The  first  floor  was  however  left  entirely  perfect,  and  the  second  nearly  so; 
the  only  obstacle  to  the  fire  reaching  them  being  the  plaster  ceiling  of  the  ground  floor,  where  the  fire 
commenced. 

Mr.  Barrett,  Visitor,  said  that,  from  the  remarks  made  this  evening,  he  was  more  convinced  than 
ever  that  the  use  of  iron  in  the  construction  of  floors  was  only  a question  of  time.  With  regard  to  these 
French  floors,  their  liability  to  deflection  was  a radical  defect,  as  no  finished  floor  ought  to  be  liable  to  the 
slightest  deflection  or  want  of  rigidity.  The  system  described  could  moreover  prevail  only  where  plaster 
was  abundant  — as  in  Derbyshire,  Leicestershire,  Nottinghamshire.  Objections  were  also  raised  to 
plaster  on  the  ground  of  its  imparting  a disagreeable  smell,  and  of  its  tendency  to  swell.  He  had 
adopted  rolled  iron  in  his  own  method  in  consequence  of  the  prejudice  against  cast  iron  joists,  and  he 
proceeded  upon  this  safe  principle:  that,  taking  the  concrete  as  so  much  dead  weight,  his  joists  were 
so  proportioned  that  that  dead  weight,  together  with  the  extreme  load  which  could  subsequently  come  upon 
the  floor,  should  not  exceed  the  elastic  limit  of  the  iron.  He  used  rolled  iron  joists  for  spaces  not  exceeding 
24  feet.  On  reference  to  the  table  of  weights  used  in  Paris,  he  found  that  the  French  floors  had  not  more 
than  half  the  strength  of  his  own;  thus,  with  a bearing  of  from  16  feet  6 to  20  feet,  the  French  used  a 
weight  of  iron  of  510  lbs.  per  square,  whereas  he  should  use  8 cwt.,  in  addition  to  the  difference  in  the 
weight  of  the  grouting;  and  therefore,  if  the  French  floors  were  safe  with  5 cwt.  of  iron,  his  floors  must  be 
more  than  safe  with  8 cwt.;  and  the  cost  of  the  latter,  in  joists  only  18  inches  to  2 feet  apart,  as  compared 
with  a timber  floor,  was  about  7 to  1 0 per  cent,  additional.  The  thickness  of  concrete,  on  his  plan,  in  a 
floor  of  20  feet  span,  would  be  7 inches  from  the  flange  of  the  joint,  the  whole  substance  being  12  inches 
thick,  including  2 inches  for  the  floor  itself;  and  as  a question  of  expense,  it  would  be  very  easy  to  reduce 
the  strength  of  the  iron  (and  with  perfect  safety),  so  as  to  bring  down  the  cost  to  that  of  an  ordinary 
timber  pugged  floor. 

The  Chairman,  observing  that  it  was  impossible  to  overrate  the  importance  of  the  subject,  suggested 
an  adjournment  of  the  discussion,  in  order  to  elicit  the  careful  and  deliberate  opinions  of  the  members, 
rather  than  their  hasty  and  unconsidered  observations. 

Mr.  C.  H.  Smith,  Visitor,  stated,  for  the  consideration  of  the  Members,  the  fact  that  no  material  could 
be  more  destructive  to  iron,  especially  wrought  iron,  than  plaster  of  Paris.  The  girders  might  be  coated 
with  some  material  to  protect  them,  but  in  moving  them  about  it  was  liable  to  be  chipped  off ; and  if  the 
smallest  pinhole  were  exposed  to  the  plaster  of  Paris,  the  iron  would  be  corroded.  On  the  contrary,  lime 
tended  to  preserve  iron ; and  therefore  a coating  of  2 \ inches  of  ordinary  mortar  next  to  the  girders,  before 
using  the  plaster  of  Paris,  might  be  desirable.  The  Meeting  then  adjourned. 


rollow 


m 

Piaster 


Cast  Iron.  Girder 


Vat'.ti.t  lith  j:.-,;  J jar-i-T. 


Scale  Oaeixcli  to  afoot. 


Cement 


MESS"8  FOX  AND  BARRETT’S  FIRE- PROOF  FLOORS  . (pGLge/  4-/  J 


ON  THE  FRENCH  METHOD  OF  CONSTRUCTING  IRON  FLOORS. 


Being  a Discussion  (in  continuation  of  that  which  took  place  at  the  previous  Meeting)  held  at  the  Ordinary 
General  Meeting  of  the  Eoyal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  January  23rd,  1854. 


Mr.  Barrett,  Assoc:  Inst:  C.E.,  requested  permission  to  read  a Paper  containing  some  further  explanation 
of  the  system  of  fire-proof  construction  with  which  he  was  connected,  and  which  was  known  as  “ Fox  and 
Barrett’s  patent.” 

The  objects  accomplished  by  this  system,  whether  applied  to  Public  Buildings,  Dwelling  Houses, 
Warehouses,  Mills,  or  other  structures,  are  as  follows: — 

To  make  each  floor,  as  well  as  the  roof  of  the  building,  fire-proof,  so  that  fire  can  neither  be 
communicated  from  one  story  to  another,  nor  be  introduced  into  the  building  by  burning  away  the 
roof : — 

To  avoid  all  lateral  thrust,  or  weakening  effect,  upon  the  walls;  and  to  distribute  the  weight  over 
them,  instead  of  concentrating  it  on  certain  points : — 

To  secure  the  building  from  the  attacks  of  dry-rot : — 

To  give  increased  solidity,  firmness,  and  durability  to  the  structure : — 

To  render  the  floors  practically  sound-proof,  when  finished  with  a boarded  surface : — 

And  to  combine  these  advantages  with  great  simplicity  and  economy  of  construction,  and  a much  less 
thickness  of  floor  than  is  usually  required. 

These  objects  are  accomplished  by  forming  the  floors  of  the  buildings  of  materials  as  imperishable  as 
the  walls  themselves,  the  leading  features  of  the  system  being,  the  substitution  of  girders  and  joists,  either 
of  wrought  or  cast  iron,  for  those  of  timber,  and  the  employment  of  layers  of  incombustible  materials, 
supported  by,  and  consolidated  with  the  joists;  the  whole,  when  combined,  forming  a solid  fire-proof 
foundation,  adapted  to  receive  a finished  surface,  either  of  cement,  asphalte,  tile,  slate,  stone,  or  other 
material;  or  upon  which  foundation  the  ordinary  boarded  surface,  upon  light  sleepers,  or  bevilled  fillets, 
may  be  laid  down. 

The  principle  of  construction,  as  applied  in  its  most  simple  form,  is  shown  in  drawing  No.  1.*  The 
joists  are  fixed  as  the  building  proceeds,  the  ends  being  firmly  built  into  the  walls ; and  the  floor  is  after- 
wards formed  by  light  strips  of  wood,  being  first  laid  across  from  joist  to  joist,  bearing  on  the  bottom  flange, 
and  having  narrow  spaces  between  them.  Upon  these  is  spread  a layer  of  coarse  mortar,  which  is  pressed 
down  between  the  strips,  so  as  to  form,  with  them,  a rough  and  uneven  surface  for  the  pricking-up  coat  of 
the  ceiling;  the  subsequent  application  of  which  thoroughly  imbeds  the  strips  in  mortar.  A layer  of  con- 
crete is  then  applied,  of  the  requisite  thickness  to  ensure  the  necessary  rigidity  in  the  floors.  This 
thickness  is  determined  by  the  nature  of  the  building,  the  width  of  bearing,  and  the  required  degree  of 
strength.  The  ceiling  is  applied  of  such  a thickness  as  to  perfectly  imbed  the  flanges  of  the  joists,  and 
thus  protect  them  from  the  action  of  fire  from  below.  A fire-proof  foundation  is  thus  formed,  which, 
when  thoroughly  consolidated  by  the  perfect  setting  of  the  concrete,  is  of  great  strength  and  rigidity; 
while  the  pressure  upon  the  walls  is  strictly  vertical.  The  finished  surface  of  the  floor  is  applied  when 
the  concrete  is  set  and  dry. 

The  joists  are  made  of  a form  combining  strength,  lightness,  and  economy;  their  section  depends  upon 
the  nature  and  uses  of  the  building  to  which  they  are  to  be  applied,  and  in  all  cases  they  are  proved,  before 


The  drawings  referred  to  were  exhibited  at  the  Meeting,  but  cannot  be  published  with  the  present  Report. 


42 


they  are  fixed,  to  an  extent  more  than  equal  to  the  greatest  load  that  can  ever  be  brought  upon  them,  care 
being  taken  that  this  proof  is  within  one-third  of  the  breaking  weight  in  the  use  of  cast  iron,  and  within 
the  elastic  limit  of  the  material  in  the  use  of  wrought  iron.  This  precaution  may  perhaps  be  considered 
unnecessary  with  the  latter  material,  more  especially  as  the  mode  of  construction  is  one  which,  in  effect, 
ties  the  whole  of  the  ironwork  together.  It  is,  however,  more  satisfactory  to  prove  the  joists,  and  it  is  done 
with  a lever  at  the  most  trifling  cost. 

The  strips,  which  answer  the  double  purpose  of  a foundation  for  the  concrete,  and  a key  for  the 
ceiling,  may  be  made  of  any  non-combustible  material  instead  of  wood ; but  it  will  be  seen  that  these  strips 
are  so  placed  that  their  ignition  is  impossible,  as  they  are  completely  imbedded  in  the  mortar,  and  have  a 
superincumbent  mass  of  concrete,  which  prevents  the  establishment  of  any  current  of  air,  and  renders  them 
practically  proof  against  fire.  This  has  been  proved  on  several  occasions.  Amongst  other  materials  that 
can  be  substituted  for  these  wood  strips,  small  draining  pipes  may  be  mentioned,  and  if  made  of  a triangular 
form,  they  give  an  excellent  key  for  the  ceiling. 

The  concrete  is  formed  of  the  materials  most  readily  obtained  in  the  locality  of  the  building,  such  as 
fine  gravel  or  ballast,  burnt  clay,  or  broken  brick,  mixed  with  a proper  proportion  of  good  stone  lime,  the 
whole  being  laid  on  moist  and  well  trodden  in. 

For  the  finished  surface  of  floor,  besides  the  ordinary  flooring  boards,  cements  of  different  kinds,  such 
as  Portland,  Keene’s,  and  Parian,  may  be  used.  Asphalte,  metallic  lava,  slates,  and  tiles,  in  cement,  have 
also  been  employed  as  a finished  surface,  both  for  floors  and  roofs. 

In  applying  this  system  to  dwelling  houses  and  similar  buildings,  the  joists  are  first  tested  singly  to 
bear  weights  equal  to  from  120  to  150  lbs.  per  square  foot  of  floor;  that  test  being  in  the  case  of  the 
employment  of  cast  iron,  one-third  of  the  breaking  weight,  and  in  the  case  of  wrought  or  rolled  iron,  the 
elastic  limit  of  the  metal.  For  buildings  of  a different  character,  and  requiring  stronger  floors,  the  strength 
and  the  test  are  increased  so  as  to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  structure.  The  joists  are  then  fixed  on  the 
walls,  and  when  built  upon,  they  form  a series  of  ties  which  greatly  strengthen  the  building.  A con- 
siderable accession  of  strength  is  given  to  the  joists  by  their  ends  being  thus  firmly  fixed  in  the  walls,  and 
every  successive  step  in  the  process  of  construction  tends  both  to  develope  additional  strength,  and  also  to 
protect  the  joists  from  the  effect  of  impact  or  concussion.  The  strips  or  pipes  are  the  groundwork  of  a 
continuous  strut,  which  is  completed  by  the  subsequent  application  of  the  mortar  and  concrete,  the  latter 
completely  imbedding  the  whole  of  the  ironwork,  which  is  pressed  equally  on  both  sides,  and  the  concrete 
well  trodden  under  the  upper  flanges  of  the  joists.  Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  the  force  of  compression  acts 
upon  the  joists  only  through  the  medium  of  the  concrete.  What  the  actual  addition  is  to  the  original 
strength  of  the  joists,  by  in  the  first  place  firmly  fixing  the  ends,  and  then  by  the  perfect  union  and  com- 
bination obtained  in  the  process  of  construction,  has  not  been  ascertained ; but  an  idea  of  the  enormous 
weight  that  would  be  required  to  break  down  a floor  may  be  thus  obtained: — Supposing  the  room  to  be 
18  feet  square,  thus  containing  324  square  feet  in  area;  the  joists,  having  an  original  working  strength  of 
120  to  150  lbs.  per  foot,  the  average  ultimate  strength  is  405  lbs.  per  foot,  and  if  it  is  assumed  that  an 
increase  of  25  per  cent,  only,  is  obtained  by  the  fixing,  and  the  consolidation  of  the  entire  mass,  the 
breaking  weight  is  500  lbs.  per  square  foot,  which,  multiplied  by  the  number  of  feet,  324,  gives  1446  cwt., 
or  upwards  of  72  tons,  as  the  load  required  to  break  down  the  floor  of  a room  18  feet  square;  and  this  it 
should  be  remembered  is  not  a floor  in  which  extra  strength  is  provided,  but  merely  the  room  of  an 
ordinary  dwelling  house,  which,  if  packed  with  200  people,  or  as  full  as  the  “Black  Hole"  at  Calcutta, 
would  only  be  loaded  with  15  tons,  or  about  one -fifth  of  the  breaking  weight  of  the  floor.  In  assuming 
25  per  cent,  as  the  gain  in  strength,  a low  estimate  is  taken,  for  an  increase  of  twice  this,  or  50  per  cent,  is 
commonly  reckoned  as  due  to  the  firmly  fixing  of  a beam  alone ; while  the  great  principle  of  this  system  is 


43 


the  gradual  developement  of  strength  and  firmness ; the  effect  of  the  load  being  transferred,  through  the 
medium  of  the  concrete,  to  the  walls,  or  other  vertical  supports;  the  entire  floor  becoming  in  effect,  one 
large  beam  with  iron  ribs.  This  calculation  has  reference  to  the  use  of  joists  of  cast  iron;  with  joists  of 
wrought  or  rolled  iron,  the  ultimate  strength  would  be  considerably  greater. 

There  is  of  course  a limit  to  which  single  joists  can  be  carried  on  this  system,  but  as  rooms  24  feet  in 
width  have  been  constructed  with  them,  and  without  the  use  of  main  girders,  it  is  very  rarely  that  the 
latter  are  required  for  dwelling  houses  and  buildings  of  the  same  class.  When,  however,  the  span  much 
exceeds  20  feet,  the  adoption  of  girders,  with  minor  joists  bearing  upon  their  flanges,  is  the  most  economical 
method.  In  this  way  floors  of  60  feet  span  have  been  constructed,  the  girders  having  an  intermediate 
bearing  on  columns  placed  20  feet  apart.  Floors  of  30,  36,  and  42  feet  span  have  also  been  constructed 
with  girders  and  joists,  without  the  aid  of  columns. 

It  may  be  said,  therefore,  that  there  is  scarcely  a limit  to  the  application  of  the  system  as  regards  the 
space  to  be  covered,  while  there  is  probably  no  kind  of  building  to  which  it  is  not  capable  of  being  adapted. 
Besides  public  buildings  of  different  kinds,  such  as  hospitals,  lunatic  asylums,  and  workhouses ; buildings 
for  records,  railway  offices,  banks,  hotels,  exhibition  rooms,  baths  and  wash-houses,  training  institutions 
and  schools,  Ac.,  the  system  has  been  extensively  adopted  in  private  buildings,  such  as  mansions  and 
dwelling  houses,  offices  and  chambers,  and  dwellings  for  the  working  classes.  It  has  also  been  employed  in 
the  construction  of  warehouses  and  mills. 

This  system  of  construction  is  not  therefore  to  be  regarded  as  a mere  theory,  but  as  one  which  has 
been  very  extensively  applied,  and  has  moreover  stood  the  test  of  an  experience  of  twenty  years : I mention 
this  first  to  disclaim  all  merit  whatever  in  having  originated  it.  It  is  to  a member  of  the  medical  profession, 
recently  deceased,  Dr.  Henry  Hawes  Fox,  that  we  owe  the  introduction  of  this  principle  of  construction. 
That  gentleman  erected  in  the  years  1833-34  an  extensive  private  lunatic  asylum  in  Gloucestershire,  and 
built  it  entirely  upon  this  principle,  and  ten  years  afterwards,  in  the  year  1844,  at  the  urgent  solicitation 
of  his  friends,  and  as  the  only  means  of  bringing  a valuable  invention,  which  had  on  several  occasions 
saved  the  building  from  destruction  by  fire,  into  general  use,  he  was  induced  to  patent  it.  My  own  con- 
nexion with  it  dates  from  the  year  1848,  since  which  period  it  has,  as  I have  said,  been  applied  successfully 
to  almost  every  description  of  building.  Another  reason  for  my  mentioning  the  early  employment  of  this 
mode  of  construction,  and  the  date  and  object  of  its  being  patented  in  England,  is,  that  it  has  struck  me 
that  some  persons  may  possibly  imagine  that  the  principle  may  have  been  borrowed  from  the  French 
system,  described  in  Mr.  Burnell’s  paper.  Nothing  could  be  more  erroneous  than  such  a supposition;  a 
comparison  of  dates  indeed  at  once  sets  this  question  at  rest,  the  patent  having  been  taken  out  in  1844,  ten 
years  after  its  successful  employment  by  the  patentee,  while,  as  I gather  from  Mr.  Burnell's  paper,  the 
employment  of  the  French  system  is  comparatively  of  recent  date. 

In  1850  I visited  Paris  myself,  with  letters  of  introduction  to  various  architects,  only  one  of  whom 
referred  to  the  use  of  iron  there.  Fie  told  me  that  a building  was  then  in  course  of  erection,  and  recom- 
mended me  to  see  it,  which  I did:  it  was  the  Hospice  de  la  Republique,  near  the  Northern  Railway  Station. 
The  floors  were  formed  by  means  of  girders  of  wrought  iron,  consisting  of  two  rectangular  bars,  the  lower 
one  straight,  and  the  upper  one  arched  or  curved,  both  placed  on  edge,  and  the  two  occasionally  tied 
together  by  vertical  straps.  These  were  placed  about  5 ft.  apart ; cross  bars  4 ft.  apart  were  carried  at 
right  angles  with  the  girders,  and  three  smaller  flat  bars  on  edge  ran  between  each  girder:  spaces  of  about 
4 ft.  x 15  in.  were  thus  formed,  and  these  spaces  were  filled  in  with  pottery,  slightly  wedge-shaped, 
imbedded  in  plaster;  dwarf  walls  were  built  on  the  top  of  the  pots  to  receive  timber  joists,  upon  which  the 
floor  boards  were  laid.  The  whole  appeared  to  be  a very  expensive  mode  of  construction,  occupying  a 
depth  of  about  18  in.  for  a span  of  3 J metres  or  11  ft.  6 in.  This  was  the  only  instance  I heard  of,  at  a 


44 


period  six  years  subsequent  to  the  date  of  the  patent.  But  independently  of  priority  of  date,  it  will  be 
seen  on  close  examination  that  the  two  systems  differ  both  structurally  and  economically,  the  only  point  of 
resemblance  being  the  form  of  the  joists,  which  are  alike,  except  that  the  French  joist  is  made  to  taper 
towards  the  centre,  or  neutral  axis.  The  peculiar  form  of  intertie  adopted  in  Paris  is  available  where 
plaster  is  abundant,  the  chemical  constituents  of  this  material  enabling  it  to  set  so  rapidly,  that  a 
considerable  open  space  can  be  filled  in  without  any  intervening  support.  These  interties  however  are 
necessarily  much  more  expensive  than  the  strips  upon  which  the  concrete  is  laid,  in  my  system,  and  which 
are  the  mere  refuse  of  a builder’s  yard.  The  material  used  for  filling  in  is  different,  both  as  regards  its 
thickness,  its  tendency  to  expand,  its  possible  effect  on  the  iron,  and  the  strong  affinity  of  gypsum  for 
ammonia;  and  the  final  results  of  the  two  modes  of  construction  are  different, — the  one  producing  a 
finished  floor,  admitted  to  be  subject  to  deflection,  with  an  ordinary  load,  and  the  other  producing  a floor  of 
very  great  rigidity. 

In  illustration  of  the  method  of  applying  this  system  in  cases  of  extended  bearings,  where  the  use  of 
girders  is  necessary,  the  drawings  Nos.  2 and  3 and  from  7 to  11  are  exhibited.  No.  2 is  a section 
illustrating  the  application  of  the  system  with  both  girders  and  joists  of  cast  iron,  and  shews  the  method  of 
construction  employed  at  a large  flax  mill  at  Newry,  the  plan  of  one  floor  of  which  is  given  in  No.  3,  an 
Ironmongery  Warehouse  at  Bristol,  St.  Mark’s  College,  Chelsea,  the  Metropolitan  Convalescent  Asylum, 
and  various  other  public  and  private  buildings.  The  girders,  a section  of  which  is  shewn,  bear  either 
upon  columns  or  walls,  and  the  joists,  which  are  shewn  in  elevation,  run  at  right  angles  to  the  girders,  and 
are  cast  with  a shoulder  to  drop  over  the  flange  of  the  girder,  and  form  a tie.  The  depth  of  the  girders  is 
of  course  in  all  cases  adapted  to  the  span,  and  when  this  depth  is  greater  than  the  thickness  of  the  floor, 
an  intermediate  flange,  supported  by  side  feathers,  is  cast  upon  the  girder.  The  projection  below  the 
ceiling  line  should  be  covered  either  with  plaster  or  fire-proof  cement,  and  take  the  form  of  a moulded 
beam,  as  shewn  in  the  figure,  drawing  No.  2.  The  thickness  of  the  floor  in  this  construction  rarely 
exceeds  10  or  12  in.,  and  the  saving  of  space  as  compared  with  the  iron  girder  and  brick  arch  system,  will 
be  understood  from  the  fact  that  a depth  of  20  in.  is  required  at  the  springing  line  of  the  arches.  This 
difference,  in  a mill  or  warehouse  several  stories  in  height,  will  either  economize  3 or  4 ft.  of  walling  all 
round  the  building,  or  give  an  increased  height  in  the  different  floors.  Drawing  No.  7 shews  the 
combination  of  wrought  iron  boiler  plate  girders  and  cast  iron  joists,  as  adopted  at  the  recently  erected 
extensive  additions  to  Guy’s  Hospital,  where  the  rooms  are  from  21  ft.  to  30  ft.  wide.  The  main  girders 
have  cast  brackets  riveted  to  the  web  to  receive  the  joists,  which  are  of  cast  iron  with  shouldered  ends,  to 
drop  into  the  brackets:  considerably  more  than  an  acre  of  floor  has  already  been  so  constructed  in  this 
building.  Drawing  No.  8 shews  the  application  of  wrought  iron  exclusively;  both  girders  and  joists  being 
of  this  material.  The  girders,  which  are  also  of  boiler  plate,  have  an  additional  or  intermediate  flange  of 
angle  iron,  to  give  the  requisite  bearing  for  the  joists ; which  latter  are  of  rolled  iron,  and  are  occasionally 
tied  to  the  girders  by  small  angle  plates,  bolted  or  riveted  on.  This  application  of  the  principle  has  been 
adopted  in  various  public  buildings,  (amongst  which  may  be  mentioned,  the  Foundling  and  Brompton 
Hospitals,  the  New  Offices  of  the  London  and  Brighton  and  the  Bristol  and  Exeter  Railway  Companies, 
Her  Majesty’s  New  Highland  Residence,  Balmoral,  &c.),  42  ft.  being  the  extreme  width  of  bearing  to  which 
it  has  been  at  present  carried ; but  there  is  no  difficulty  in  extending  it  much  beyond  this,  as  the  adaptation 
of  boiler  plate  girders  to  this  system  of  construction,  combined  with  joists  of  rolled  iron,  provides  for  every 
possible  contingency,  whether  as  regards  width  of  bearing,  strength  of  floors,  or  liability  to  impact,  or 
vibration.  In  cases,  however,  where  the  use  of  columns  can  be  admitted  to  shorten  the  bearings  to 
9 or  10  ft.,  the  same  advantages  may  be  secured  by  the  adoption  of  rolled  iron,  for  both  girders  and  joists, 
thus  avoiding  the  use  of  riveted  plate  and  angle  iron  girders,  the  labor  on  which  necessarily  makes  them 


45 


somewhat  expensive.  Diagrams  illustrating  this  double  application  of  rolled  iron  are  shewn,  drawing  No.  9 
being  the  plan  of  a floor  63  X 28  ft.,  with  a row  of  cast  iron  columns  running  down  the  centre:  these 
columns  support  a line  of  rolled  iron  girders,  which  pass  through  a hole  left  in  the  top  of  the  column,  as  in 
drawings  Nos.  10  and  11.  The  joists  are  carried  over  the  backs  of  the  girders,  and  are  rolled  of  a length 
to  span  the  full  width  of  the  building,  including  the  bearing  on  each  of  the  side  walls.  The  advantage  of 
having  the  joists  rolled  in  long  lengths,  and  fixed  with  an  intermediate  support  on  the  main  girders,  is  a 
most  important  one,  not  only  as  affording  an  efficient  tie  to  the  building,  but  as  greatly  increasing  the 
strength  of  the  floor;  this  is  an  advantage  which  is  peculiar  to  the  use  of  wrought  iron.  The  ends  of  the 
joists  may  be  either  pierced  and  secured  to  the  walls  by  a rod  or  S piece,  or  they  may  be  bolted  to  a plate 
of  iron  built  into  the  wall.  The  extreme  ends  of  the  girders  being  also  secured  to  the  walls,  a tie  in  each 
direction  is  given,  and  the  whole  forms  a framework  of  wrought  iron,  possessing  immense  strength,  each 
part  affording  efficient  aid  to  the  rest.  In  buildings  of  greater  width,  the  addition  of  another  line  of 
columns  would  enable  the  same  arrangement  to  be  adopted;  the  joists  being  in  that  case  rolled  in  long  and 
short  lengths,  placed  alternately  so  as  to  break  joint,  and  bolted  or  riveted  together  at  the  points  where  they 
take  a bearing  on  the  girders. 

I have  already  remarked,  at  the  former  Meeting,  that  from  prejudice  against  cast  iron  joists,  though 
they  have  been  very  extensively  and  successfully  used,  I was  induced  three  or  four  years  ago  to  turn  my 
attention  to  wrought  iron.  But  here  I had  to  break  entirely  new  ground,  to  institute  experiments,  and  to 
overcome  many  obstacles  from  the  manufacturers.  The  main  question  was  as  to  sufficiency  of  strength  in 
a section  of  a form  best  adapted  for  the  purpose — the  I shape — but  for  the  manufacture  of  which  no  rolls 
were  in  existence.  Experiments  were  therefore  tried  on  X shaped  bars,  and  a formula  deduced  from  these, 
and  acted  upon  by  my  having  rolls  prepared  from  4 to  8 inches  deep  of  the  X section.  Subsequent 
experiments  on  these  had  fully  verified  the  correctness  of  the  formula,  but  I had  not  carried  my  experiments 
more  than  60  per  cent,  beyond  the  limit  of  elasticity,  this  amount  of  strain  producing  a permanent  set  of 
only  of  an  inch.  I had  heard  that  iron  joists  were  coming  into  use  in  France,  but  knew  nothing  of  the 
strength  they  employed,  and  have  never  seen  either  the  joists  or  floors  to  this  day.  I have  however  recently 
obtained  some  information  as  to  the  strength  considered  sufficient  in  Paris:  a friend  who  is  about  to  build 
there  had  sent  me  some  particulars  obtained  from  the  engineer  of  the  company  manufacturing  the  joists, 
and  a printed  statement  of  experiments  on  their  strength.  This  information  and  these  experiments  are 
important  as  bearing  on  the  question  of  cost,  to  which  I will  almost  immediately  refer.  It  seems  that 
under  no  circumstances,  and  except  in  a very  extraordinary  case,  would  they  place  the  joists  less  than  from 
70  to  80  centimetres  apart;  and  for  a floor  of  6 metres,  joists  12  centimetres  deep,  and  weighing  14  or  15 
kilogrammes  per  metre,  would  be  used. 

I think  the  first  point  to  establish  is  the  sufficiency,  or  rather  the  actual  strength,  of  the  joists,  of  the 
scantling  used  in  Paris,  and  the  table  of  experiments  enables  us  to  examine  this : — 

Joists  of  12  centimetres  deep,  and  weighing  15  kilogrammes  per  metre,  were  proved  at  bearings  of  4, 
6,  8 and  10  metres.  Converting  these  into  English  dimensions,  we  have  for  the  bearing  of  6 metres, 
19  ft.  8£  in.;  for  the  depth  of  the  joist,  4f  in.;  for  the  weight  per  ft.  run,  10  lb;  and  for  the  mean  distance 
apart,  75  centimetres,  or  30  in.  From  the  table  I find  that  a joist  of  these  dimensions  was  proved  at 
6 metres  bearing  with  2000  kilogrammes  on  centre,  which  is  equal  to  4000  distributed,  or  8800  lb.  English. 
The  area  of  floor  this  joist  would  carry  is  — 

19  ft.  8 in.  X 2 ft.  6 in.  = 49  ft.  2 in.  and  8800  lb.  -r-  49  ft.  2 in.  = 179  lb.  per  foot  super. 

But  a similar  joist  was  proved  with  the  same  weight  at  8 metres  bearing,  which  is  equal  to  5333  kilog.  at 
6 metres: 


5333  kilog.  = 11730  lb.  English  -r-  49  ft.  2 in.  = 240  lb.  per  foot  super. 


46 


But  even  this  did  not  reach  its  limit  of  ultimate  strength,  for  the  joist  was  further  tested  at  10  metres 
bearing,  until  the  deflection  was  increased  to  the  extent  of  just  50  per  cent,  beyond  the  last  load.  It  may 
therefore  be  safely  assumed,  that  a load  of  300  lb.  per  square  foot  of  floor,  would  not  have  broken  the  joist. 

None  of  the  joists  I use  have  been  tested  to  anything  like  this  extent,  for  as  I have  said,  I have 
proceeded  upon  the  principle  that  the  joists  should  not  be  loaded  beyond  their  elastic  limit.  We  however 

easily  arrive  at  the  strength  of  such  a joist  as  I have  been  referring  to  (for  the  purposes  of  comparison)  by 

adopting  the  simple  and  universally  received  formula,  that  the  strength  is  as  the  depth2  X thickness,  and  I 
will  reduce  both  this  joist  and  the  one  I have  used  (and  which  forms  the  basis  of  my  calculations  of 
comparative  cost  with  a timber  floor)  to  rectangular  bars,  and  compare  them : 

Taking  first  the  French  joist — a weight  of  10  lb.  per  ft.  gives  a sectional  area  of  just  3 square  in.; 
and  a rectangular  bar  of  this  area  and  4f  in.  deep,  would  give  the  following  result : — 

15  kilogrammes  per  m&tre  = 10  lb.  per  ft.  = 3 sq.  in.  = 4’752  * '63  = 14-214 
while  the  English  joist  = 161b  „ = 4-8  „ = 72  * '686  = 33-614 

And  further, — 

14-214  -7-  19'.8"  x 30"  = ‘289  per  square  foot, 
and  33-614  20/.0"  x 24''  = -840  „ 

Giving  the  result  of  a comparison  of  strength  just  1 to  3 ; while  a comparison  of  weight  would  stand  thus : 
Each  French  joist  carries  19'.8"  x 30"  = 49'.2"  and  weighs  220  lbs.  = 450  lb.  per  square. 

Each  English  joist  „ 20'.0"  x 24"  = 40'.0"  „ 352  lbs.  = 880  „ 

Very  nearly  as  1 to  2. 

Now  the  conclusion  seems  unavoidable,  that  if,  as  I have  demonstrated,  the  breaking  load  of  the  French 
scantling  of  joist  is  equal  to  300  lb.  per  square  foot,  it  is  in  my  case  equal  to  900  lb.  per  square  foot;  but 
even  this  is  assuming  that  no  strength  whatever  is  derived  from  the  principle  of  construction,  while  I believe 
that  with  properly  constructed  floors,  that  is,  with  good  concrete  of  the  proper  thickness,  these  results, 
satisfactory  as  they  are,  may  be  increased  by  at  least  50  per  cent. 

Turning  now  to  the  question  of  cost,  the  following  statement  has  been  prepared  of  the  approximate 
comparative  cost  of  a floor  for  a room  12  ft.  square,  and  for  one  20  ft.  square,  constructed  on  the  fire-proof 
principle,  and  with  timber.  The  results  are  as  follows : 

Room  1 2' : 0"  x 1 2' : 0"  Room  2</ : 0"  x 2(/ : 0" 
£.  s.  d.  £.  s.  d. 


Fire-proof  floor,  formed  with  strong  joists  of  rolled  iron,  and  a cement 

surface  7 14  10  32  4 3 

Deduct  excess  of  iron  in  joists  to  reduce  them  to  the  strength 

of  the  French  scantling  1 17  10  10  12  1 


Cost  of  fire-proof  floor 517  0 2112  2 

Add  difference  of  cost  between  1 in.  flooring  boards  and  a cement 
surface  25s.  per  square  1 16  0 5 0 0 


Cost  of  fire-proof  floor  with  boarded  surface 7130  2612  2 

Cost  of  timber  floor  pugged  8 15  4 31  12  3 


These  calculations  are  made  with  the  price  of  iron  nearly  50  per  cent,  above  that  of  eighteen  months 
ago,  and  much  dearer  than  for  many  years  past. 


47 


The  details  of  these  calculations  are  given  below:- 

lloom  12' : 0"  x 12' : 0". 

Fire-proof  floor  formed  with  strong  joists  of  rolled  iron  and 
cement  surface : — 

Five  rolled  joists,  13'  3"  long,  8.}  lbs.  per 
foot — 113  lb.  each--5  cwt.  5 lbs.  @ 

15s 3 15  8 

Concrete,  &c.,  ceiling  and  cement  sur- 
face of  floor,  55s.  per  square  3 19  2 


£7  14  10 

Deduct  excess  of  iron  in  joists  to  reduce 
them  to  the  strength  of  the  French 
scantlings,  £3.  15s.  8(1.-+-  2 1 17  10 


Cost  of  fire-proof  floor 5 17  0 

Add  difference  of  cost  between  1 inch 
flooring  boards  and  a cement  surface, 

25s.  per  square 1 16  0 


Cost  of  fire-proof  floor  with  boarded  surface  ...  £7  13  0 


Room  20' : 0"  y 20' : 0". 

Fire-proof  floor  formed  with  strong  joists  of  rolled  iron  and 
cement  surface: — 

Nine  rolled  joists,  22'  0"  long,  16  lbs.  per 


foot — 352  lbs.  each — 28  cwt.  1 qr.  4 lbs. 

@ 15s 21  4 3 

Concrete,  &c. — ceiling  and  cement  surface 

of  floor,  55s.  per  square 11  0 0 


£32  4 3 

Deduct  excess  of  iron  in  joists  to  reduce 
them  to  the  strength  of  the  French 
scantlings,  £21.  4s.  3d.  -f-  2 10  12  1 


Cost  of  fire-proof  floor  21  12  2 

Add  difference  of  cost  between  1 inch 
flooring  boards  and  a cement  surface, 

25s.  per  square  5 0 0 


Cost  of  fire-proof  floor  with  boarded  surface  ...  £26  12  2 

Timber  Floor  and  Ceiling  of  a substantial  kind — 

17  joists,  22'  0"  long,  12"  x 2f"  = 85| 


ft.  cube,  @ 3s 12  17  3 

Wall  plates,  40  ft.  run,  4g"  x3  = 3f  „ Oil  3 
2 wrought  iron  ties,  f"  diam.  with  screws, 

&c.,  40  ft.  @7  Id 1 5 0 

Herring  bone  strutting,  3s.  per  square  ...  0 12  0 

Half  brick  trimmer  and  centering,  6'  0"  x 

2'  0"  @ Is 0 12  0 

4 squares  l\"  battens,  @ 42s.  per  square.  8 8 0 

44£  yds.  lath  and  plaster  ceiling,  @ Is.  6(7.  3 6 9 

4 squares  fillets,  sound  boarding  and  pug- 
ging, @ 20s 4 0 0 


Cost  of  timber  floor,  pugged £31  12  3 


Timber  Floor — 

11  joists,  13' 6"  long,  9"  x 2"  = 18£ 

cubic  feet  @ 3s 2 15  6 

Wall  plates,  24  ft.  run,  4£"  x 3"  = „ 0 6 9 

Herring  bone  strutting,  3s.  per  square  ..046 
Half  brick  trimmer  and  centering,  4'  0" 

x 2'  0" 0 8 0 

144  ft.  sup.  1 in.  flooring  boards,  @ 35 s. 

per  square 2 10  5 

1 6 yards  lath  and  plaster  ceiling,  @ Is.  4d.  114 
144  ft.  sup.  fillets,  sound  boarding  and 
pugging,  @ 20s.  per  square 1 8 10 


Cost  of  timber  floor,  pugged £8  15  4 


Mr.  Barrett  stated,  in  reference  to  the  practicability  of  reducing  the  scantlings  of  the  joists  on  his 
principle,  that  although  it  might  not  be  desirable  to  reduce  them  to  the  French  standard,  he  had  no  doubt 
rolled  iron  joists  of  an  intermediate  strength  between  those  used  in  Paris  and  his  own,  might  be  employed 
with  safety,  and  thus  bring  down  the  cost  of  a fire-proof  floor  with  a boarded  surface  to  that  of  an 
ordinary  pugged  timber  floor.  M.  Thomas,  an  eminent  Parisian  builder,  had  adopted  Fox  and  Barrett’s 
principle  in  several  houses  in  Paris,  using  joists  of  the  strength  generally  employed  there,  and  he  had  found 
the  floors  superior  to  the  French  system,  which  was  defective  from  its  want  of  rigidity,  and  from  allowing 
the  transmission  of  sound  when  the  hollow  pots  were  used  in  combination  with  the  plaster.  Mr.  Barrett 
concluded  by  observing,  that  it  might  be  considered  that  he  had  a personal  interest  in  advocating  the 
English  system.  Undoubtedly  as  the  proprietor  of  the  patent,  to  a certain  extent  he  had;  but  his  interest 
in  the  patent  was  for  a very  limited  period, — a period  which  would  be  totally  inadequate  to  repay  even 
one-half  of  the  very  large  sum  which  had  been  sunk  in  establishing  it.  Independently  of  personal  con- 
siderations however,  the  subject  was  one  of  general  interest;  and  as  the  losses  by  fire  in  this  country  were 
reckoned  by  millions  of  pounds  annually,  he  might  say  it  was  one  of  national  interest.  Certainly,  the 
general  introduction  of  a system  which  must  promote  the  use  of  iron  (a  material  for  the  production  of 
which  our  resources  were  unlimited,  and  in  the  manufacture  of  which  native  skill  only  was  employed) 
should  be  encouraged  in  every  possible  way. 

The  Chairman,  Mr.  Mocatta,  V.P.  said,  that  as  architects  they  must  feel  the  importance  and  advantage 
of  an  incombustible  and  imperishable  floor.  With  reference  to  cost,  it  appeared  desirable  to  ascertain  the 
degree  of  lightness  which  would  be  free  from  vibration  and  deflection,  in  order  to  avoid  a very  expensive 


48 


mode  of  construction.  Mr.  Barrett’s  system  was,  he  believed,  the  development  of  that  executed  some  years 
ago  in  Gloucestershire  by  Dr.  Fox,  which  excited  much  interest  at  the  time.  With  respect  to  one  matter 
of  detail  in  Mr.  Barrett’s  system, — namely,  the  small  laths  placed  between  the  joists  to  receive  the  concrete, 
he  inquired  whether  those  laths  were  not  very  slight  to  carry  so  great  a weight,  as  if  they  were  liable 
to  become  bent,  the  consequence  would  probably  be  a cracked  ceiling. 

Mr.  Barrett  stated  that  these  laths  were  merely  used  as  a support  to  the  concrete,  till  it  became  set. 
They  were  1 in.  square  by  24  in.  long,  between  the  bearings  on  the  iron  joists;  the  weight  upon  them  being 
only  -j^th  of  their  breaking  weight.  As  the  concrete  became  set,  the  structure  became  wholly  independent 
of  these  strips,  and  if  it  were  practicable  to  remove  them,  the  structure  would  for  any  purposes  of 
strength  be  complete  without  them.  He  had  constructed  many  acres  of  flooring  in  this  way,  and  not  the 
slightest  difficulty  had  arisen  from  the  cause  suggested. 

Mr.  Tite,  Fellow,  said,  it  appeared  to  him  that  the  present  question  was  a little  involved  in  a 
discussion  raised  some  time  ago  by  the  late  Professor  Cowper,  who  had  brought  before  the  Institute  the 
wonderful  merits  of  construction  adopted  in  the  Crystal  Palace,  and  told  them  that  they  were  behind  hand 
in  all  inventions,  and  had  to  learn  everything  from  the  Engineers,  especially  the  use  of  iron.  Now  he, 
Mr.  Tite,  freely  admitted  the  ingenious  application  of  familiar  principles  which  the  French  system  of 
flooring  displayed ; but  the  question  of  cost,  referred  to  by  the  Chairman,  was  probably  the  main  reason 
why  iron  joists  of  this  character  had  not  been  more  extensively  used.  Architects  had  certainly  been  taught 
by  the  Engineers  to  be  more  extravagant  than  they  used  to  be,  but  to  an  architect  the  question  of  cost 
must  be  one  of  the  gravest  consideration.  It  was  true  that  in  Paris  they  had  seen  a great  deal  of  the 
application  of  wrought  iron  joists  by  Visconti  and  others,  but  he  felt  bound  to  claim  a perfect  acquaintance 
with  this  matter  in  his  own  experience  of  some  twenty-eight  years.  There  was,  in  fact,  nothing  new  in  the 
principle,  either  as  respected  the  iron  or  the  concrete.  Mr.  Tite  then  adverted  to  the  early  methods  of  forming 
floors : first  by  a row  of  beams  placed  side  by  side,  the  least  dimensions  downwards,  and  of  an  uniform 
substance,  and  afterwards  by  means  of  strong  heavy  girders  or  bearing  beams  of  oak,  producing  the 
greatest  possible  rigidity.  This  system,  introduced  in  Italy,  was  adopted  by  Sir  C.  Wren,  and  when  (after 
the  fire  of  London)  oak  became  scarce,  fir  was  used  in  the  same  way.  This  however,  being  more  elastic, 
was  found  to  bend,  and  a system  of  trussing  girders  by  the  insertion  of  iron  was  adopted,  and  gradually 
carried  to  a great  extent.  (Mr.  Tite  described,  and  illustrated  by  sketching,  several  of  the  varieties  of 
trussed  girders  formerly  in  use).  Sir  Robert  (then  Mr.)  Smirke  at  length  introduced  the  cast  iron  girder, 
and  the  use  of  concrete  (the  latter  in  the  foundations  of  the  Penitentiary,  which  had  failed).  Feeling  the 
defects  of  the  old  systems  of  flooring,  and  believing  that  they  might  be  remedied  by  the  employment  of 
cast  iron  girders,  Sir  R.  Smirke,  after  consulting  Mr.  John  Rennie,  introduced  the  use  of  them,  and  had 
told  him  (Mr.  Tite)  that  the  first  he  used  was  of  the  extraordinary  length  of  34  feet,  without  a support 
between  the  walls.  The  next  step  was  made  by  Mr.  Farrell,  a smith,  who  was  employed  under  Sir  R. 
Smirke  at  the  Custom  House,  and  he,  regarding  cast  iron  as  a very  brittle  and  dangerous  material,  pro- 
posed the  use  of  wrought  iron,  for  which  he  took  out  a patent;  and  between  that  system  of  Mr.  Farrell’s, 
and  the  systems  now  under  discussion,  there  was  in  fact  no  difference  whatever,  except  in  the  ingenuity  of 
the  means  which  had  brought  to  bear  upon  the  latter.  In  France  earthen  pots  or  plaster  were  used  with  iron 
rods  between  the  joists,  in  England  concrete  and  wooden  laths;  but  these  were  merely  improvements  on  the 
patent  of  Mr.  Farrell,  who  suggested  that  the  space  between  the  joists  might  be  filled  in  with  any  fire-proof 
material.  The  joist  adopted  by  him  was  of  this  form  _L,  and  as  he  could  not  get  rolled  iron,  he  rivetted 
the  parts  together.  Mr.  Tite  stated,  that  he  had  used  the  system  described,  many  years  ago  in  a large 
public  school,  where  a cheap  fire-proof  floor  was  required,  with  complete  success,  and  when  he  last  saw 
this  construction  it  was  as  perfect  as  when  first  erected.  The  space  between  the  joists  was  in  this  case  about 


49 


4 ft.  and  filled  in  with  4 in.  and  6 in.  Yorkshire  landing,  which  gave  a good  upper  as  well  as  under  surface, 
the  interstices  being  filled  with  Roman  cement,  and  the  ceiling  formed  of  the  same  material.  This  was  applied 
to  a space  of  300  feet  long,  and  on  an  average  15  feet  wide.  Important  as  this  subject  was,  Mr.  Tite 
proceeded  to  express  his  opinion  that,  the  systems  of  flooring  referred  to,  were  not  applicable  to  architecture 
in  its  more  important  forms.  They  might  do  for  a range  of  offices,  an  hospital,  or  any  building  where 
plain  ceilings  were  sufficient;  but  the  architect  had  to  consider  decoration,  and  must  apply  his  means 
accordingly;  and  it  would  often  happen  that  the  ordinary  mode  of  construction  introduced  by  Sir  R. 
Smirke,  with  subsequent  improvements,  was  better  adapted  to  such  purposes,  than  novelties  of  more 
recent  invention.  With  regard  to  fire-proofing,  the  world  was  not  satified  with  actual  safety,  but  required 
that  no  part  of  a building  should  be  combustible,  even  if  no  danger  could  arise  from  its  becoming  ignited. 
Thus,  at  the  Royal  Exchange,  where  he  had  employed  cast  iron  girders,  with  arches  in  cement,  the 
improper  substitution  of  a new  stove  for  the  one  fixed  by  his  directions,  had  caused  fire  to  communicate  to 
the  frame  of  a blank  window.  This  frame  however  might  have  been  entirely  consumed  without  the 
slightest  injury  to  the  building,  but  the  public  was  not  satisfied:  an  inquest  was  held  as  to  the  cause  of  the 
fire,  and  great  complaints  were  made  that  the  building  was  not  incombustible  in  every  part.  With  regard 
to  the  safety  in  the  use  of  concrete,  as  a protection  from  fire,  especially  when  the  concrete  was  only  a few 
inches  in  thickness,  Mr.  Tite  expressed  much  doubt,  considering  it  inferior  to  the  York  landings  employed 
by  himself  as  above  mentioned.  Mr.  Farrell  had  sent  to  Sir  R.  Smirke  a description  with  drawings  of  his 
method,  and  the  reply  of  Sir  Robert  was  that  he  had  done  the  same  thing  himself  for  twenty  years,  only 
turning  the  girder  with  the  flange  upwards  f,  instead  of  downwards.  Whether  Sir  Robert  had  done  this 
in  cast  or  in  wrought  iron  however,  and  to  what  extent  did  not  appear.  He,  Mr.  Tite,  should  have  used 
wrought  iron  joists  upon  Mr.  Farrell’s  plan  more  generally,  but  for  the  improvements  and  popularity  of 
cast  iron  girders ; and  should  certainly  have  employed  iron  much  more  extensively,  but  for  the  great  question 
of  expence.  He  was  very  glad  the  subject  had  been  discussed,  as  it  would  be  of  the  greatest  possible 
advantage,  if  a cheap  and  durable  floor  could  be  constructed,  which  should  be  fire-proof  in  the  honest 
sense  of  the  word. 

Mr.  T.  H.  Wyatt,  Y.P.  considered  that  the  present  was  not  a question  of  precedency,  but  of  general 
applicability;  and  as  he  had  been  one  of  the  first  to  use  Messrs.  Fox  and  Barrett’s  system  extensively,  and 
had  employed  it  to  the  extent  of  1400  or  1500  squares,  he  begged  to  say  a few  words  in  its  favor.  In  the 
Wiltshire  Lunatic  Asylum,  erected  by  him,  it  was  essential  that  the  estimates  should  not  be  exceeded. 
Originally  a judicious  system  of  pugging  had  been  contemplated,  but  by  the  adoption  of  Fox  and  Barrett’s 
system,  not  one  shilling  had  been  added  to  the  cost,  and  the  results  had  been  most  satisfactory.  He  had 
tested  the  deflection  of  the  joists  employed,  and  found  it  very  slight  indeed,  and  he  was  convinced  that  any 
sound  wall  would  bear  the  weight  of  this  construction,  amounting  as  it  did  to  not  more  than  78  lbs.  for  each 
superficial  foot  of  flooring.  Mr.  Wyatt  confirmed  the  experience  of  Mr.  Piper  as  to  any  needless  doubts 
which  might  be  felt  respecting  safety  of  the  construction,  until  rigidity  was  imparted  to  it  by  the  concrete 
filling  in.  This  desirable  result  however  was  obtained  in  a most  remarkably  degree.  In  the  building 
referred  to  he  had  used  joists  up  to  16  ft.  bearing,  but  others  of  larger  bearings  since  employed  had  been 
equally  satisfactory.  He  had  felt  some  misgivings  as  to  the  possible  decay  of  the  wooden  strips  resting 
upon  the  joists,  but  he  believed  that,  as  Mr.  Barrett  stated,  they  might  with  safety  be  removed  as  soon  as  the 
concrete  had  set.  The  only  serious  doubt  was  as  to  the  action  of  any  damp  which  might  arise  from  the 
concrete,  supposing  the  wooden  floor  to  be  laid  covering  it  before  it  had  had  time  to  become  thoroughly  dry. 
He  had  used  a boarded  surface  of  floor  with  this  system,  though  if  he  were  building  a house  for  himself, 
he  would  prefer  one  of  cement.  There  were  (he  believed)  no  wooden  floors  in  the  asylum  built  by  Dr.  Fox. 
With  respect  to  the  depth  of  the  iron  joists,  he  had  examined  Mr.  Barrett’s  calculations,  and  was 

f 2 


50 


convinced  they  were  free  from  all  possible  risk,  and  might  be  made  from  a considerably  reduced  formula, 
and  yet  be  within  the  mark  of  safety.  Mr.  Wyatt  then  adverted  to  the  action  of  a body  of  flame  upon 
ordinary  plaster,  and  described  some  experiments  made  by  Mr.  Hardwick  at  the  St.  Katharine’s  Docks,  in 
which  plaster  slabs  1§  to  1|  in.  thick,  screwed  to  the  underside  of  the  wooden  joists,  were  exposed  to 
violent  flames  from  tar  barrels,  and  shewed  that  very  little  fear  need  be  entertained  of  the  effect  of  fire 
upon  a ceiling,  even  if  the  whole  contents  of  the  room  were  to  become  ignited.  From  this  he  inferred  that 
the  laths  employed  in  Fox  and  Barrett’s  system  did  not  constitute  any  objection  to  it;  and  he  added  that  he 
considered  it  one  which  was  really  well  deserving  the  attention  of  the  Members  of  the  Institute. 

Mr.  I’ Ax  son,  Fellow,  also  spoke  in  favor  of  Fox  and  Barrett’s  system,  and  considered  that  although 
both  that  and  the  French  system  might  have  some  analogy  to  the  old  methods  described  by  Mr.  Tite,  they 
shewed  a great  advance  upon  those  methods.  The  concrete  and  other  substances  were  superior  to  York 
landing,  inasmuch  as  they  tightened  up  the  joists,  and  gave  its  chief  value  to  the  construction.  The 
elasticity  of  the  joists,  until  they  were  filled  in,  was  most  remarkable,  but  in  about  six  or  eight  months 
after  completion,  the  floor  became  perfectly  rigid.  He  had  employed  Mr.  Barrett’s  system  in  a large 
dwelling  house,  45  ft.  by  26  in  dimensions,  and  the  cost  of  the  iron  did  not  exceed  £90.;  the  whole  of  the 
timber  being  saved. 

Mr.  Tite  explained  that  the  York  stone  in  Mr.  Farrell’s  plan  was  perfectly  connected  with  the  iron  by 
means  of  the  cement. 

Mr.  Boulnois,  Associate,  stated  that  it  had  been  asserted  by  Mr.  Brunei,  that  the  concrete  was  very 
liable  to  become  disintegrated,  and  so  to  part  from  the  joists  in  Fox  and  Barrett’s  system,  and  to  leave  them 
hanging  up  like  so  many  laths.  He  had  used  the  system  for  a 19  ft.  bearing  three  years  ago,  employing 
joists  without  any  upper  flange,  but  the  floor  was  subject  to  considerable  vibration,  which  might  be 
increased  beyond  the  control  of  the  architect — for  instance,  if  used  for  dancing.  He  wished  to  know  if 
the  concrete  formed  a rigid  slab  equivalent  to  the  stone  employed  by  Mr.  Tite;  and  whether  in  Mr.  Barrett’s 
experience  he  had  ever  found  the  concrete  shaken  off  from  the  joists. 

Mr.  Barrett  said  that  he  had  not.  The  concrete  could  not  be  acted  upon  from  below,  nor  from 
above,  except  by  a complete  disruption  of  the  upper  part.  He  considered  that  Mr.  Boulnois  was  altogether 
begging  the  question  by  assuming  the  fact  of  vibration,  which  he  could  not  allow  to  be  taken  for  granted. 
After  an  experience  of  twenty  years  with  bearings  of  as  much  as  18  feet,  subject  to  all  the  ordinary  wear 
and  tear  of  a dwelling  house,  he  could  not  conceive  the  possibility  of  such  a result  as  the  concrete  becoming 
loose. 

Mr.  Boulnois  could  confirm  Mr.  Barrett’s  opinion  by  his  knowledge  of  the  floor  at  Messrs.  Nurse’s 
coach  factory,  in  Regent  Street.  There  was  a sag  in  that  floor,  in  consequence  either  of  the  joists  not  being 
cambered,  or  not  being  supported  in  the  middle;  but  that  sagging  had  never  increased,  although  the  floor 
was  subject  to  very  great  vibration  from  carriages  being  moved  over  it,  nor  had  the  concrete  been 
disintegrated.  These,  however,  were  matters  which  patentees  ought  to  be  able  to  speak  to,  without  leaving 
architects  to  find  them  out. 

Mr.  Barrett  said  that  he  had  no  means  of  finding  out  such  a fact,  which  was  not  necessarily  correct 
simply  because  Mr.  Brunei  had  asserted  its  possibility.  He  must  be  content  with  referring  to  his  own 
experience,  confirmed  as  that  had  been  by  Mr.  Boulnois  himself. 

Mr.  Tite  called  attention  to  the  question  of  Mr.  Boulnois  as  to  the  degree  of  strength  and  rigidity  of 
the  concrete,  taken  alone;  and  objection  to  a wooden  floor  over  the  concrete  on  the  score  of  expense. 

Mr.  I’ Anson  adverted  to  the  advantages  of  Portland  cement  for  a flooring. 

Mr.  Piper,  Visitor,  said  that  his  own  gateway  was  covered  with  rolled  iron  joists,  filled  in  with 
common  York  paving,  and  then  (to  meet  the  requirements  of  the  old  Building  Act)  covered  with  concrete 


51 


so  as  to  make  a thickness  of  14  inches.  He  had,  however,  ceased  to  use  this  method,  observing  that  York 
paving  was  exceedingly  destructible  by  fire,  and  that  practically  it  did  not  furnish  a fire  proof  floor.  With 
reference  to  the  doubt  suggested  by  Mr.  Boulnois,  he  believed  the  patent  floors  would  be  found  to  move 
altogether,  if  at  all;  that  there  was  in  fact  a close  union  between  the  concrete  and  the  metal,  and  no 
distinction  in  the  amount  of  vibration  of  each.  A floor  over  a stable,  subject  to  all  the  wear  of  a loft  and 
granary,  had  stood  for  six  years  (covered  with  Portland  cement)  without  the  slightest  disintegration. 
Mr.  Piper  concurred  with  previous  speakers  as  to  the  resistance  of  plaster  to  the  action  of  fire,  and  there- 
fore considered  the  laths  used  by  Mr.  Barrett  were  perfectly  safe. 

Mr.  Tite  enquired  what  experience  there  had  been  of  the  action  of  fire  on  concrete.  He  apprehended 
if  there  were  flint  stones  in  it  the  concrete  would  split  and  yield  under  the  action  of  fire. 

Mr.  White,  Visitor,  referred  to  the  fire  at  Mr.  Aid.  Humphreys’s  warehouses,  in  February  1851, 
where  he  believed  the  concrete  alone  prevented  the  spread  of  the  fire  to  the  vaults,  which  were  filled  with 
valuable  and  combustible  goods. 

Mr.  Barrett  read  an  extract  from  the  Times  Newspaper  of  the  21st  February,  1851,  in  confirmation 
of  this  statement.  He  added  that  several  fires  had  occurred  in  the  building  erected  by  Dr.  Fox.  On  one 
occasion  all  the  furniture  in  a room,  and  on  another  occasion  a four-post  bedstead  and  furniture,  had  been 
reduced  to  ashes  without  injury  to  the  ceilings.  Mr.  Piper  could  probably  explain  the  circumstances 
attending  the  fire  at  Messrs.  Collard’s  manufactory  at  Camden  Town. 

Mr.  Piper  said  that  there  the  upper  floors  were  on  iron  girders,  but  not  fire  proof.  The  basement 
was  covered  with  a light  ceiling  on  Fox  and  Barrett’s  patent,  and  with  ordinary  care  on  the  part  of  the 
firemen  it  would  have  preserved  the  property  below.  The  firemen  however  would  not  interfere,  and  what 
was  termed  a second  fire  took  place  and  destroyed  the  contents  of  the  basement  story.  Mr.  Barrett  read 
the  official  report  of  Mr,  Baker,  the  district  surveyor,  to  the  official  referees,  describing  in  detail  the 
circumstances  referred  to,  and  which  concluded  thus:  ‘‘From  the  foregoing  statement,  there  is  no  reason 
“ whatever  to  doubt  the  efficiency  of  Fox  and  Barrett’s  patent,  when  applied  as  a sound  fire-proof  party 
“ structure ; on  the  contrary,  I am  well  pleased  with  it,  and  even  with  its  resistance  to  very  great  concussion, 
“ when  the  latter  is  spread  over  a surface ; I only  wish  it  had  resisted  the  single  and  more  pointed  attacks 
“ as  well  as  the  combined.”  These  “ pointed  attacks”  refer  to  the  fall  of  iron  columns  and  girders  from  a 
height  of  30  ft.  upon  a fire-proof  ceiling,  never  intended  to  carry  anything  but  itself. 

Mr.  Tite  contended  that  York  stone  would  not  yield  to  a fire  above  it,  and  again  inquired  for  any 
proof  of  the  effectual  resistance  of  concrete  to  the  action  of  fire. 

Mr.  Barrett  said  his  system  had  resisted  fire  in  dwelling  houses  frequently,  but  it  had  not  been 
tested  by  a fire  in  any  large  warehouse. 

Mr.  Scoles,  Hon.  Sec.,  observed,  that  if  the  ceilings  were  plastered  -where  these  fires  occurred  the 
concrete  had  not  been  tested. 

Mr.  Hesketh,  Fellow,  thought  the  case  of  Mr.  Aid.  Humphrey’s  warehouses  unsatisfactory  as  a proof 
of  the  value  of  concrete.  The  fire  did  not  get  under  that  floor,  and  it  was  protected  from  above  by  the 
rubbish  which  fell  upon  it. 

Mr.  Boulnois  contended  it  was  the  duty  of  the  patentee  to  settle  this  point,  which  he  might  easily  do 
by  erecting  an  experimental  house  and  setting  fire  to  it. 

Mr.  Donaldson,  Hon.  Sec.  For.  Cor. — No  architect  would  use  such  a ceiling  without  plastering  it, 
and  it  was  in  evidence  that  intense  and  long  continued  heat  would  not  damage  the  plaster. 

Mr.  Boulnois  complained  that  insurance  companies  made  no  reduction  in  their  charges  where  the 
patent  was  used.  If  the  patentees  proved  it  to  be  fire-proof  this  object  might  be  attained. 

Mr.  Barrett  said  this  rested  with  the  proprietor  of  the  building.  The  house  in  whch  his  own  offices 


52 


were,  cost  £3000.  or  £4000.,  and  was  only  insured  for  £600.,  just  to  cover  the  little  damage  that  could 
arise.  Mr.  Tite  having  referred  to  covenants  to  insure  leaseholds  to  two-thirds  the  value,  Mr.  Wyatt 
said  he  had  advised  the  Wiltshire  magistrates  not  to  insure  their  lunatic  asylum;  and  Mr.  Barrett 
said  that  in  the  case  of  the  Royal  Porcelain  Works  at  Worcester,  where  his  system  had  been  introduced, 
the  insurance  had  been  reduced  from  7s.  6d.  to  Is.  6d.  per  cent. 

Mr.  C.  H.  Smith,  Visitor,  referred  to  the  causes  which  rendered  some  of  the  varieties  of  laminated 
York  stone,  used  for  fire-proof  construction,  more  destructible  by  fire  than  others.  Those  termed  self-faced, 
having  been  naturally  divided,  and  containing  more  clay  to  absorb  moisture,  which  would  be  converted  into 
steam  by  great  heat,  and  consequently  split,  were  the  most'  unfit  for  the  purpose.  Under  ordinary 
circumstances  he  was  of  opinion  that  concrete,  properly  made,  would  bear  a very  considerable  degree  of 
heat;  perhaps  more  than  Yorkshire  stone. 

At  the  suggestion  of  the  Chairman,  the  discussion  was  again  adjourned. 


ON  THE  FRENCH  AND  OTHER  METHODS  OF  CONSTRUCTING  IRON 

FLOORS. 

Being  a Discussion  (in  continuation)  held  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute 

of  British  Architects,  February  6th,  1854. 


The  Discussion  of  Mr.  Burnell’s  paper  “ On  the  French  Method  of  Constructing  Iron  Floors”  being 
resumed,  Mr.  C.  C.  Nelson",  Hon.  Sec.,  observed  that  on  comparing  the  French  and  the  English 
systems,  which  had  been  brought  under  consideration,  one  great  point  of  similarity  was  found 
between  them,  inasmuch  as  the  main  supports  in  each  were  the  rolled  iron  joists  ; on  the  other  hand 
these  joists  were  much  closer  together  in  the  English  than  in  the  French  system,  in  which  latter, 
however,  the  iron  entretoises,  or  transverse  rods,  were  placed  further  apart  than  the  wooden  laths  in 
the  English  system;  while  the  material  used  for  the  filling  in  differed  materially,  being  plaster  of  Paris, 
or  plaster  and  hollow  earthenware  pots  in  one  case,  and  concrete,  formed  of  lime,  sand  and  gravel,  in 
the  other.  Neither  of  the  systems  under  discussion  could  be  considered  perfectly  novel;  and  indeed, 
so  far  back  as  the  year  1849,  a paper  was  read  to  the  Institute  by  Mr.  Donaldson,  describing  a mode 
of  construction  adopted  by  an  engineer  named  Thompson,  in  a bridge  over  a railway  near  Glasgow,  in 
which  tubular  iron  girders,  of  boiler  plate  -f  in.  thick,  were  made  solid  by  the  introduction  of  concrete 
between  the  plates  to  render  them  unyielding  and  rigid ; the  girders  being  then  tied  and  framed 
together  with  bars  of  iron,  the  space  between  them  was  filled  in  by  arched  brick  work.  With 
reference  to  the  question  which  had  been  raised  at  the  former  meeting  as  to  the  expansion  of  concrete, 
Mr.  Nelson  referred  to  the  “ Essay  on  Concrete,”  by  Mr.  Godwin,  in  the  first  volume  of  the  Transac- 
tions of  the  Institute,  for  which  the  first  medal  of  the  Institute  was  awarded  in  1886,  as  containing 
(in  pages  23,  29,  and  39,)  the  results  of  experience  on  the  subject,  clearly  proving  that  concrete  in 
setting  did  expand.  As  to  the  nature  of  the  French  plaster,  M.  Delassaux  had  forwarded  the  following 
communication  in  1846,  describing  the  difference  between  that  material  and  the  “plaster  of  Paris”  used 
in  this  country,  from  which  it  would  appear  that  the  former  was  a much  better  material  than  the 
latter  : — “ The  English  plaster  stone  is  a sulphate  of  lime,  destitute  of  water,  except  a small  portion  of 
sulphuric  acid ; it  is  in  fact  an  imperfect  alabaster.  The  consequences  of  the  chemical  composition  of 
this  stone  are,  that  burnt  and  reduced  to  powder  in  the  usual  way,  it  is  not  capable  of  resisting  the 
vicissitudes  of  the  weather,  and  the  small  quantity  of  sulphuric  acid  it  contains  prevents  its  setting 
quickly  or  becoming  hard.  It  can  consequently  only  be  employed  for  interior  plastering,  and  generally 
for  works  requiring  but  little  solidity — its  employment  in  construction  is  thus  very  limited.  The 
stone  of  the  French  plaster  of  the  environs  of  Paris  is  a sulphate  of  lime  composed  in  the  best 
proportions,  the  acids  being  almost  equal  to  the  bases ; properly  burnt  it  preserves  all  its  acid 
properties,  and  reduced  to  powder  and  mixed  it  becomes  very  hard  in  one  day.  Unlike  the  English 
plaster  there  is  no  need  to  grind  it  very  fine,  on  the  contrary  for  strong  work  it  is  better  to  be  rather 
coarse ; it  is  only  in  decoration  that  it  is  employed  as  fine  as  the  English.  In  France,  along  the 
borders  of  the  Seine,  the  houses  are  constructed  with  this  material ; for  solid  construction,  grouting 
the  joints  of  stones,  for  exterior  and  interior  decoration,  and  masonry  generally,  plaster  of  Paris  is 
employed ; for  the  latter  purpose  the  powder  is  used  rather  coarse ; mixed  with  water  it  forms  a 
factitious  crystallization,  which  adhering  to  the  materials  employed  gives  them  greater  rigidity — thus  a 
vault  formed  of  stones  badly  dressed  and  ordinary  mortar  would  have  but  little  strength,  but  the  use 
of  plaster  with  its  properties  of  adhesion  and  augmentation  of  volume  would  insure  solid  and 
durable  work.”  In  February  1849,  Mr.  Charles  Barry  read  a paper  describing  a system,  patented 


Q 


54 


by  Mr.  Beardmore,  C.E.,  in  which  the  same  reliance  was  placed  upon  concrete,  formed  of  Portland 
cement  and  shingle,  for  stiffening  wrought  iron,  as  in  Messrs.  Fox  and  Barrett’s  flooring,  drain  pipes 
being  in  some  cases  introduced  with  the  concrete  for  the  purpose  of  lightness.  For  a span  of  20  ft., 
iron  plates,  12  in.  deep,  4 in.  thick,  and  2 ft.  6 in.  apart,  were  used,  a layer  of  concrete,  5 in.  thick,  being 
placed  between  them,  on  horizontal  plates  of  iron,  ^ thick,  secured  by  rivets  to  the  sides  of  the 
upright  bearers.  The  author  thus  described  the  use  of  the  concrete.  “ The  uniform  pressure  of 
the  concrete  against  the  surface  of  the  web,  and  under  the  upper  flanges  of  the  beam,  produces  the 
effect  of  a continuous  strut,  and  enables  any  sheet,  however  thin,  to  assume  the  true  character  of  a 
beam  or  girder.”  For  a span  of  15  to  18  ft.  the  depth  of  floor  would  be  7|  in. ; from  16  to  20  ft., 
12  in.  Mr.  Beardmore  “ considered  his  floors  to  be  fire-proof  from  their  mode  of  construction  ; not 
liable  to  disintegration  when  exposed  to  fierce  flame,  as  brick  arches  are  by  their  falling  off  in  flakes, 
nor  to  be  destroyed  by  sudden  cooling  when  highly  heated.  The  thinness  of  the  floor,  when  contrasted 
with  one  of  cast  iron,  and  the  absence  of  all  lateral  pressure,  and  consequent  necessity  for  tye-bolts, 
were  further  advantages ; in  addition  to  which  the  concrete  was  a necessary  element  of  the  floor  itself, 
not  a weight  independent  of  it,  and  it  rendered  the  whole,  as  it  were,  one  continuous  beam,  thus  making 
it  nearly  impossible  to  accumulate  a great  weight  on  any  one  spot.”  Mr.  Nelson  added  that  he  had 
received  communications  on  the  subject  under  discussion  from  Mr.  C.  H.  Smith  and  Mr.  Gr.  B.  Burnell, 
who  were  now  present. 

Mr.  H.  H.  Burnell,  Associate,  read  the  following  extracts  from  letters  which  he  had  received 
from  Paris,  in  reply  to  questions  which  he  had  forwarded  since  the  first  evening’s  discussion. 

From  M.  Piot,  Sub- Architect  employed  at  the  works  of  the  Tuileries  and  Louvre : — 

You  ask  me  for  some  account  of  the  iron  floors  we  are  now  using  in  the  new  buildings  of  the 
Louvre.  These  floors  are  generally  composed  of  girders  and  joists  of  the  X form.  The  joists 
are  so  proportioned  that  the  deflection  of  the  floor  under  a load  of  700  kilog.  per  superficial  metre,  or 
143  lbs.  per  square  foot,  shall  not  exceed  20  centimetres  (or  4 in.)  which  may  be  thus  explained : 
We  suppose  that  four  persons  might  stand  in  the  space  of  a superficial  metre  (or  104  square  feet),  and 
that  their  joint  weights  might  equal  300  kilog.  or  661  lbs.,  we  add  as  the  weight  of  the  interties, 
fantons,  pottery,  small  wooden  joists,  and  floors,  50  kilog.,  making  350  kilog.  We  double  this  load  to 
make  it  equal  to  walking  or  dancing,  and  thus  we  arrive  at  the  above  named  700  kilog.  (1544  lbs). 
M.  Piot  gives  the  following  Table  of  the  spans,  weights,  and  depths  of  the  joists  employed  in  the  floors 
of  the  Louvre 


SPANS. 

WEIGHT  OF 
JOISTS 

PER  YARD  RUN. 

DEPTHS 

OF 

JOISTS. 

Ft. 

In. 

fb. 

Inches. 

6 

7 

18 

4 

9 

10 

22 

44 

13 

2 

40 

54 

16 

5 

50 

6| 

18 

1 

54 

n 

21 

5 

60 

n 

25 

0 

76 

84 

We  have  adopted  the  above  mentioned  spans,  placing  the  joists  80  centimetres,  or  2 ft.  7\  in.  from 
centre  to  centre,  the  interties  1 metre,  or  3 ft.  34  in.  apart ; the  fantons  are  placed  20  centimetres,  or 
7 1 in.  from  each  other,  and  serve  to  support  the  pottery  in  the  usual  way.  The  pottery  is  thoroughly 
bedded  and  plastered  on  both  sides,  rendering  the  floor  as  nearly  as  possible  sound-proof,  and  infinitely 


55 


superior  in  this  respect  to  the  ordinary  methods.  The  strength  may  be  judged  of  by  the  fact  that 
some  have  been  proved  to  1500  kilog.  per  superficial  metre,  or  307  lbs.  per  square  foot,  and  the 
deflection  did  not  exceed  3 centimetres,  or  1 in.  in  the  middle.  In  first  class  buildings  the  filliug-in  is 
generally  of  pottery  or  hollow  bricks,  but  in  private  houses  they  usually  content  themselves  with 
plaster  alone,  it  is  considered  inferior  and  less  sound  proof.  In  general  the  wrought-irou  floors  are 
found  to  bo  of  the  necessary  strength,  and  may  be  regarded  as  a great  improvement,  but  in  France, 
and  particularly  in  Paris,  the  spirit  of  speculation  is  prone  to  exact  too  much  from  the  material  it 
employs. 

From  M.  Lebas  : — I received  the  letter  you  were  good  enough  to  send  me,  and  was  glad  to  hear 
that  you  had  written  to  M.  Piot  on  the  subject,  for  he  is  the  most  capable  of  giving  the  desired 
information,  as  he  unites  great  experience  with  practice,  which  is  better  than  all  the  theories.  He  has 
no  doubt  given  you  all  the  necessary  proportions  of  the  floors  of  the  Louvre.  Though  it  is  certain  that 
with  these  floors  there  is  a small  amount  of  vibration,  it  is  no  less  certain  that  when  used  with  common 
judgment  they  offer  the  desirable  qualities  of  strength,  durability,  and  incombustibility.  Had  I to 
undertake  a building  of  importance  I should  unhesitatingly  adopt  this  system,  which  I consider 
excellent. 

M.  Charles  Hittorff  remarks  that,  for  dwelling  houses,  the  weight  on  the  entire  floor  should  not 
exceed  one-fourth  or  one-fifth  of  the  breaking  weight,  or  limits  of  deflection  of  the  joists,  and  that  it 
should  bear  the  weight  of  four  persons  = 300  kilog.  (661  lbs.)  per  superficial  metre  (66  lbs.  per  foot 
superficial) . When  these  limits  are  surpassed,  a disagreeable  vibration  and  a disposition  to  transmit 
sound  is  the  result.  As  yet,  the  floors  well  filled  in  with  pottery,  or  hollow  bricks,  have  developed  no 
symptoms  of  failure,  either  with  respect  to  vibration  or  transmission  of  sound ; but  they  are  consider- 
ably dearer  than  those  of  wood,  though  the  manufacturers  (quoting  the  first  or  cheapest  system) 
pretend  the  contrary.  This  kind  of  economy  is  much  to  be  regretted,  as  it  may  be  the  means  of  causing 
accidents,  which  would  tend  to  create  a prejudice  against  this  mode  of  construction.  The  difficulties 
of  rolling  render  the  production  of  large  joists  very  doubtful  as  regards  the  equality  of  texture,  and  in 
many  instances  those  of  from  22  ft.  to  24  ft.  long,  and  from  81  in.  to  101  in.  deep,  have  broken  on 
being  proved ; but  nothing  is  to  be  feared  from  the  employment  of  these  methods  for  moderate  spans. 

M.  Hittorff  has  never  known  that  these  iron  floors  have  been  filled  in  with  concrete,  wrhich,  in  his 
opinion,  would  be  to  load  the  floor  unnecessarily.  The  iron  work  is  painted  with  a coat  of  litharge  to 
prevent  oxydation ; sometimes  this  precaution  is  neglected,  and  without  ill  effects ; for  after  all,  the 
oxydation  can  only  take  place  by  the  double  action  of  the  oxygen  of  the  air  and  water.  The  iron 
embedded  in  plaster  is  at  once  covered  with  a coat  of  rust,  but  this  action  soon  ceases  when  the 
plaster  is  of  a sufficient  thickness  (say  f in.)  to  exclude  the  air.  This  fact  is  sufficiently  proved  by  the 
fragments  of  iron  we  constantly  find,  while  demolishing  our  old  buildings,  in  a perfect  state  of  preser- 
vation, though  they  have  never  been  painted. 

Lastly,  a communication  from  M.  Dumont : Of  the  two  systems  of  wrought  iron  floors  that  you 

mentioned,  this  one  is  almost  exclusively  employed  here.  Prudent  builders  never  allow  the  depth  of 
the  joist  to  be  less  than  ^th  part  of  the  span.  The  filling  in  between  the  joists  is  generally  of 
pottery  or  hollow  bricks,  bedded  in  plaster ; when  the  builder  is  not  too  sparing  of  his  plaster,  and  the 
spaces  properly  filled  in,  the  necessary  rigidity  is  obtained.  We  avoid  the  use  of  concrete,  on  account 
of  its  weight;  we  find  nothing  answer  so  well  in  every  respect  as  the  pottery.  We  paint  our  iron 
work  with  one  or  two  coats  of  litharge,  according  as  the  speculator  may  be  disposed.  As  to  the  quality 
of  the  work,  I may  state  that,  up  to  the  present  time,  the  ceilings  have  not  suffered  from  discoloration 
by  the  oxide  of  iron ; I believe  that,  in  the  first  instance,  the  paint  is  sufficient  to  protect  the  iron 
from  the  humidity  and  the  corrosive  qualities  of  the  plaster,  and  at  a later  period,  the  plaster  in  its 
turn  protects  the  iron  from  atmospheric  influences.  It  must  be  acknowledged  that  experience,  as  yet, 


56 


can  say  little  on  the  matter.  In  twenty,  fifty  or  a hundred  years,  we  shall  be  better  able  to  judge  of 
the  systems,  but  at  the  present  moment  they  are  so  much  in  favour  with  us,  that  we  very  rarely  have 
recourse  to  the  old  methods.  In  four  houses  that  we  are  now  erecting  in  the  Eue  de  Eivoli  we  have 
used  these  floors,  three  of  them  opposite  the  Tour  de  St.  Jacques,  and  the  other  (which  is  the  most 
important)  between  the  Eue  de  Bourdomais  and  the  Eue  des  Dechargeurs ; we  do  not  yet  know  the 
numbers. 

Mr.  Burnell  then  read  the  following  remarks : 

From  these  communications  we  may  briefly  sum  up  the  following  facts : — That  the  planchers  en 
fer,  if  properly  carried  out,  succeed,  but  that  they,  in  common  with  all  other  modes  of  construction, 
are  capable  of  being  executed  badly.  We  learn  that  the  floors  of  the  Louvre,  though  upon  the  same 
principle,  are  stronger  than  those  ordinarily  used  for  dwelling  houses.  That  joists  of  the  depth  and 
weight  indicated  in  the  table  furnished  by  M.  Piot,  if  placed  2 ft.  7 Jr  in.  apart  and  properly  filled  in,  will 
produce  a floor  whose  deflection  shall  not  exceed  f in.  in  the  centre,  under  a load  of  143  lbs.  per 
superficial  foot ; and  that  there  are  others  executed  in  the  Louvre  that  have  borne  307  lbs.  per  square 
foot,  with  only  1 in.  deflection  in  the  middle.  That  for  the  floors  of  dwelling  houses,  the  weight  on 
the  floor  should  not  exceed  one-fourth  or  one-fifth  of  the  breaking  weight  of  the  joist,  or  that  the 
depth  of  the  joist  should  not  be  less  than  ^th  of  the  span,  when  placed  about  2 ft.  6 or  3 ft.  apart ; 
and  lastly,  that  no  ill  effects  have  at  present  been  experienced  from  the  contact  of  the  iron  with  the 
plaster. 

As  I have  before  said,  my  object  in  drawing  your  attention  to  the  matter  in  question  was  to  induce 
a due  appreciation  of  that  which  seemed  successful,  but  not  to  extol  it  beyond  its  merits.  I think  we 
must  all  perceive  that  a valuable  lesson  is  to  be  learned  by  the  study  of  these  French  methods,  when 
we  consider  their  lightness,  and  the  small  space  they  occupy,  when  compared  with  the  fire-proof  floors 
we  have  been  in  the  habit  of  executing.  The  introduction  of  interties  between  the  joists  must  surely 
be  important,  when  the  filling-in  is  of  a material  that  swells  in  the  process  of  setting,  to  say  nothing 
of  their  use  as  transverse  ties.  The  ceiling  appears  to  offer  its  advantages  on  the  score  of  durability 
and  convenient  execution ; for  how  much  more  easy  must  it  be  for  the  workman  to  adjust  a flat 
centering  beneath  the  joists,  and  form  the  ceiling  by  the  simple  operation  of  pouring  a composition  in 
upon  it,  than  the  tedious  process  involved  in  our  own  method  of  lathing,  and  applying  the  various 
coats  of  plaster,  in  a very  inconvenient  position,  from  the  under  side.  This  mode  of  grouting  from 
above  is  not  peculiar  to  iron  floors,  but  it  requires  a material  that  sets  with  moderate  rapidity,  which 
with  us  is  more  costly  than  with  the  French. 

I believe  that  the  rare  occurrence  of  serious  conflagrations  in  France  is  mainly  attributable  to  the 
use  of  solid  plaster  ceilings.  All  seem  to  agree  that  the  frequent  losses  by  fire,  the  discreditable 
condition  of  many  newly-built  houses,  the  fall  of  others,  and  the  threatening  aspect  of  the  many 
more  which  must  inevitably  share  the  same  fate,  were  there  not  a special  Providence  over  ignorance 
and  knavery,  are  sufficient  causes  to  justify  any  attempt  to  introduce  improvement ; and  when  we 
consider  the  rapid  occupation  of  very  desirable  positions  by  endless  piles  of  mud  and  bricks, 
exhibiting  little  but  a disposition  to  speculate  and  low  cunning,  we  must  all  regret  that  our  already 
great  metropolis  should  continue  to  extend  itself  under  the  guidance  of  parties  so  little  capable  or 
disposed  to  develope  constructive  or  artistic  talent. 

Mr.  Christopher,  Fellow,  felt  called  on  to  offer  some  remarks  upon  what  had  been  called  the  English 
system,  as  the  results  of  considerable  experience.  He  had  spoken  warmly  in  favour  of  that  system 
when  it  was  first  introduced,  and  still  thought  well  of  it,  though  it  had  not  been  so  much  improved  as 
he  had  expected.  With  regard  to  the  kind  of  finished  flooring  used  upon  the  concrete,  he  observed 
that  Portland  cement  in  connection  with  elastic  iron  was  objectionable  from  its  rigidity  and  brittleness  ; 
and  in  many  instances  within  his  own  knowledge  it  had  cracked.  Indeed,  he  did  not  know  of  a case  in 


57 


which  it  had  remained  sound  for  three  years.  Tins  had  been  the  case  both  with  floors  and  with  flat 
roofs,  after  remaining  perfect  for  twelve  months  ; and,  as  they  were  aware,  when  the  Portland  cement 
was  once  cracked,  water  spilt  would  penetrate  through  the  concrete,  and  in  the  case  of  a floor  would 
stain  the  ceiling  below,  whilst  in  that  of  a roof  the  damage  would  be  much  more  serious ; as  there  it 
was  impossible  to  repair  effectually  the  cement.  It  was  difficult  to  account  for  this  failure,  but 
probably,  as  one  of  Mr.  Burnell’s  French  correspondents  suggested,  it  might  be  owing  to  the  expan- 
sion of  the  concrete.  Whether  the  fault  was  in  the  cement  or  in  the  concrete,  he  had  had  failures  in 
three  roofs.  However,  the  system  admitted  of  other  modes  of  finish,  and  amongst  these  he  might 
observe  that  he  had  found  the  metallic  lava  of  Messrs.  Orsi  and  Armani  quite  successful  after  two 
years  trial.  The  ceilings  on  the  French  system  were,  in  his  opinion,  better  than  those  on  the  English 
plan.  In  the  latter  there  was  the  want  of  a good  key,  and  this  was  a serious  objection  where  the 
plaster  was  1|  or  1^  in.  thick,  while  under  the  flanges  of  the  joists  and  girders  there  was  no  key  at  all, 
and  several  serious  falls  of  the  ceiling  had  taken  place.  In  the  French  system  this  could  not  happen, 
the  whole  mass  being  poured  in  from  above ; but  in  the  English  a separate  material  was  applied  to 
form  the  ceiling  from  below.  As  the  object  of  this  discussion  was  to  ascertain  the  truth,  he  felt 
bound  to  say  there  had  been  several  instances  of  ceilings  giving  way,  not  only  under  roofs,  perhaps 
from  the  faultiness  of  the  cement  coating,  but  also  in  the  floors  below,  and  he  had  found  it  neces- 
sary very  recently  to  take  down  the  whole  of  several  ceilings,  in  order  to  quiet  the  apprehensions  of 
the  tenants  on  this  score.  Another  serious  objection  to  the  English  system,  especially  in  London, 
where  expedition  was  required  and  ground  rents  high,  was  the  time  necessary  for  the  materials  to  dry. 
The  drying  of  a mass  of  material  8 or  9 inches  thick  and  full  of  water,  if  in  a confined  situation,  was 
indeed  almost  an  impossibility.  He  had  a case  in  which  it  had  not  dried  even  in  two  years,  and  in 
which  it  had  been  necessary  to  take  up  the  surface  of  the  lower  floors  entirely,  and  to  employ  another 
material.  The  floors  in  that  case  had  been  of  lime  and  sand ; after  the  building  had  been  shut  up  for 
two  months,  the  workmen  (who  were  provided  with  slippers)  went  in  to  hang  the  doors,  and  the 
surfaces  were  consequently  so  worn  and  broken  that  they  were  destroyed.  In  the  lower  part  of 
this  building  Portland  cement  was  substituted  for  the  original  finish,  and  he  might  observe,  as 
an  exception  to  his  former  statement,  that  as  a basement  finish  that  material,  about  li  in.  thick, 
answered  exceedingly  well,  the  damp  tending  to  preserve  it.  In  this  case  the  cement  was  laid  on  a 
concrete  bed,  4 to  5 in.  thick,  upon  the  well  rammed  earth.  As  he  had  remarked  some  years 
ago,  Fox  and  Barrett’s  system  admitted  of  the  best  plans  of  ventilation  and  artificial  warming,  but  this 
point  did  not  appear  to  have  been  much  attended  to.  This,  indeed,  with  such  a mode  of  construction, 
was  more  necessary  than  in  the  ordinary  plan.  The  floors  were  so  solid  from  wall  to  wall  that  no  air 
could  get  through  them,  and  therefore  a special  supply  was  necessary.  From  the  same  cause  there 
had  arisen  a want  of  draught  to  the  fire  places,  and  consequently  smoky  chimnies.  Mr.  Christopher 
then  proceeded  to  the  question  of  cost,  in  which  he  differed  altogether  with  Mr.  Barrett.  He  had 
gone  into  estimates  with  that  gentleman  when  iron  was  only  half  its  present  price,  of  £15.  per  ton, 
and  they  could  not  reduce  the  price  of  a floor  on  his  plan  to  the  cost  of  an  ordinary  timber 
floor ; on  the  contrary,  it  was  about  the  cost  of  a timber  floor  of  the  best  description,  made  in  the 
best  way.  He  objected  to  the  course  pursued  by  Mr.  Barrett  in  his  calculations  read  at  the  last 
meeting,  and  to  the  deductions  he  had  made  from  the  price  of  his  floors  in  order  to  bring  the  cost 
down  to  the  lowest  possible  figure.  Thus  Mr.  Barrett  made  a deduction  for  an  assumed  excess  of 
strength,  but  he  (Mr.  Christopher)  could  not  admit  that  for  a moment.  To  any  person  employing  his 
patent,  Mr.  Barrett  would  certainly  not  recommend  any  reduction  of  strength  to  correspond  with  this 
deduction  from  the  price.  Indeed,  instead  of  making  any  deduction  from  the  cost  of  the  patent 
system,  he  (Mr.  Christopher)  thought  certain  additions  should  be  made.  In  the  first  place  better 
foundations  were  required  than  for  ordinary  construction.  These  would  be  necessary  even  in  the 


58 


country,  on  a maiden  soil,  and  in  a second  rate  house  in  Pall  Mall  he  estimated  the  extra  cost  for  the 
foundations,  which  were  essential  in  using  this  solid  and  massive  description  of  fire  proofing,  at  £ 20. 
In  the  Thames  Chambers,  an  extra  first  rate  building,  upwards  of  10,000  feet  of  hoop  iron  were  used, 
at  a cost  of  £46.,  rather  more  than  half  of  which,  or  £ 25.,  he  had  considered  necessary  in  consequence 
of  adopting  Fox  and  Barrett’s  system.  Then  again,  there  was  the  license  for  the  use  of  the  patent  to 
be  added,  which,  in  a dwelling  house,  would  be  from  £10.  to  £80.  It  did  not  appear,  moreover, 
whether  the  hoisting  and  fixing  of  the  joists  were  included  in  Mr.  Barrett’s  price.  [Mr.  Babeett 
said  they  were  included].  Then  expense  was  incurred  in  cutting  and  trimming  the  joists  for  chimney 
breasts  and  projections  which  in  the  case  of  the  Thames  Chambers,  where  there  were  fifty-five  squares 
of  flooring,  he  estimated  at  £ 10.  There  was  the  painting  the  lower  flanges  of  the  joists,  which  he 
thought  very  advisable,  and  more  so  after  inspecting  the  result  of  Mr.  Smith’s  experiments  on  the  table, 
and  which  the  French  architects  appeared  also  to  think  necessary.  [The  Chairman,  Mr.  T.  H.  Wyatt, 
said,  the  statement  of  M.  Hittorff  was  that  the  painting  might  be  dispensed  with ; that  its  absence 
did  not  seem  to  produce  any  ill  effects.]  In  all  good  rooms  it  would  be  also  necessary  to  have  a 
wooden  fillet  for  nailing  the  carpets  to.  Mr.  Christopher’s  estimates,  framed  on  the  result  of  his 
experience,  would  therefore  be  as  follows  : — 

For  a Room  12  ft.  X 12  ft.  = 1 sq.  44  ft. 

£.  s.  d. 

Fire-proof  floor  with  cement  surface — Mr.  Barrett’s 

price,  omitting  his  deduction 7 14  10 

Add  for  extra  foundation  and  bond  1 3 0 

License  for  use  of  patent  0 14  4 

Hoisting,  fixing,  cutting,  and  painting — say 0 7 10 

10  0 0 

Add  extra  for  boarded  surface  1 16  0 

£11  16  0 

Cost  of  timber  floor,  pugged — Mr.  Barrett’s  price...  8 15  4 

Excess  in  cost  of  fire-proof  floor £ 3 0 0 


Upon  the  whole,  therefore,  he  thought  Mr.  Barrett’s  estimates  were  not  to  be  depended  upon. 

Mr.  C.  H.  Smith,  Visitor,  called  the  attention  of  the  Meeting  to  some  specimens  in  illustration 
of  the  effect  of  plaster  upon  iron.  In  these  specimens  he  had  placed  different  materials  in  contact 
with  iron  on  the  day  after  the  last  meeting  (a  fortnight  ago),  and  the  results  were  now  evident.  In 
one  specimen  plaster  of  Paris  alone  was  used,  in  another  plaster  mixed  with  sand,  and  in  another 
mortar,  or  lime  and  sand  in  equal  proportions.  In  the  latter  not  the  slightest  trace  of  rust  was 
perceptible,  although  the  interior  of  the  mass  was  still  in  a very  soft  state,  whilst  in  the  other 
specimens,  especially  with  the  plaster  of  Paris,  the  iron  was  sensibly  affected.  Plaster  of  Paris 
decreased  in  hardness  in  proportion  to  its  age.  As  an  illustration  of  this,  Mr.  Smith  stated  that  he 
was  employed  some  years  ago  to  remove  from  the  residence  of  Mr.  Prince  Hoare,  at  Bath,  to  London, 
eight  or  ten  large  casts  from  the  antique,  which  had  been  there  a hundred  years,  but  he  only  succeeded 
in  removing  two  of  them  safely,  the  rest  having  fallen  entirely  to  pieces.  Lime,  on  the  contrary, 
increased  in  hardness  with  age,  and  iron  in  contact  with  it  was  not  affected.  As  the  specimens  proved, 
plaster  was  most  injurious.  Paint  would  protect  the  iron,  but  if  it  became  rubbed  off,  even  in  the 
smallest  pin  hole,  the  plaster  would  communicate  oxydation  to  the  iron,  to  an  extent  almost  beyond 


For  a Room  20  ft.  x 20  ft.  = 4 sq. 

£.  s.  d. 

Ffte-proof  floor  with  cement  surface — Mr.  Barrett’s 

price,  omitting  his  deduction  32  4 3 

Extra  coat  on  ceibng,  44i  yds. — at  2d.  0 7 5 

Extra  foundations — at  7s.  per  sq 1 8 0 

Extra  boop-iron  bond — at  9s 1 16  0 

License  for  use  of  patent — at  10s 2 0 0 

Hoisting,  fixing,  cutting,  and  painting — at  5s.  ...  1 0 0 

Wood  filleting  for  carpets — say  10  0 

39  15  8 

Add  extra  for  boarded  surface,  with  1 jin.  battens, 

at  32s 6 8 0 

£46  3 8 

Cost  of  timber  floor  and  ceibng  of  best  description, 

Mr.  Barrett’s  price  31  12  3 

Excess  in  cost  of  fire-proof  floor  ...  £ 14  11  5 


59 


belief,  and,  in  fact,  would  in  time  entirely  destroy  the  iron.  He  believed  it  would  be  found  almost 
impossible  to  fix  iron  joists  in  a building  so  that  the  paint  or  other  coating  used  to  protect  it  should 
not  be  rubbed  oil'  in  some  parts,  and  even  galvanized  iron  was  subject  to  tho  same  objection. 

Mr.  Garling,  Fellow,  enquired  if  the  old  casts  referred  to  by  Mr.  Smith  bad  been  exposed  to 
damp. 

Mr.  Smith  said  they  bad  not ; but  that  there  was  always  a sufficient  amount  of  moisture  in  the 
atmosphere  to  facilitate  the  decay  of  plaster. 

Mr.  Garling  referred  to  some  plaster  floors  which  he  had  seen  in  Lincolnshire,  in  the  vicinity  of 
the  quarries.  These  consisted  of  a body  of  coarse  plaster,  with  about  an  eighth  to  a quarter  of  an  inch 
of  fine  plaster  as  a surface,  very  finely  and  smoothly  trowelled ; and  although  these  were  from  100  to 
150  years  old,  they  were  now  as  hard  as  marble.  He  had  also  occasion  to  take  down  tho  plastering  of 
the  walls  of  some  rooms  in  the  same  neighbourhood,  which  was  at  least  300  years  old ; this  was 
30  or  40  years  ago,  and,  speaking  from  recollection,  his  impression  was  that  the  plaster  in  that  case 
was  quite  as  hard  as  in  the  floors. 

Mr.  Scores,  Hon.  Sec.,  suggested  that  these  floors  were  possibly  of  lime,  and  not  plaster ; but 

Mr.  Garling  was  quite  sure  they  were  of  plaster. 

Mr.  G.  It.  Burnell,  C.E.,  referred  to  the  work  of  Bondelet — L’Art  de  Batir — on  the  different 
nature  of  lime  and  plaster  as  to  durability,  in  confirmation  of  Mr.  Smith’s  remarks,  and  read  some 
portion  of  his  letter  to  Mr.  Nelson:  “ I would  call  your  attention,  and  that  of  the  members  of  the 

Institute,  to  a work  I mentioned  on  the  last  evening ; it  is  M.  Eck’s  ‘ Traite  de  la  Construction, 

Poteries,  Eer,  Fonte  et  Tole,”  in  2 vols.  fol.  Paris,  1841;  in  which  will  be  found  many  very  remarkable 
illustrations  of  the  application  of  those  various  materials  to  purposes  which  rarely  are  thought  of  in 
England.  It  is  an  extremely  valuable  work,  and  if  it  had  been  better  known  here,  probably  much 
money  might  have  been  saved  by  preventing  parties  from  taking  out  patents  for  systems  already 
largely  employed ; and  at  any  rate,  the  study  of  M.  Eck’s  book  would  have  suggested  many  valuable 
liints  to  both  architects  and  engineers.  At  the  same  time,  I would  also  beg  to  call  the  attention  of 

the  Institute  to  a Note  I published  myself  in  the  Builder  of  1849,  page  350,  in  which  I gave  a short 

description  of  the  application  of  the  H shaped  rolled  iron : I allude  to  this  because  I have  reason  to 
believe  that  the  application  of  this  kind  of  bar  iron  to  flooring  purposes  has  been  patented  subsequently 
to  the  publication  of  my  note  in  the  Builder.  In  Paris,  it  was  used,  to  my  knowledge,  in  1848.”  The 
nature  and  application  of  compound  wrought  iron  beams  with  earthen  pots  for  roofs  were  described 
by  Eck  as  known  so  long  ago  as  1780,  in  whose  work  an  account  was  given  of  the  church  of  San 
Vitale,  at  Eavenna,  the  dome  of  which  is  formed  of  oil  jars,  laid  horizontally ; a fact  which  would 
set  at  rest  the  question  of  the  supposed  novelty  of  this  use  of  pottery. 

Mr.  Scores,  Hon.  Sec.,  referred  to  the  use  of  similar  materials,  in  the  Eoman  period,  in  Syracuse, 
and  Mr.  Donaldson  added  also  that  they  were  employed  likewise  in  the  Circus  of  Caracalla. 

Mr.  G.  E.  Burnell  read  a further  portion  of  his  letter  to  Mr.  Nelson : 

“ The  formulae  given  by  General  Morin  are  as  follow:  1st.  For  the  system  Vaux,  he  considers 

that  the  bars  are  exposed  to  the  action  of  a load  distributed  equally  throughout  their  whole  length, 
and  that  the  ends  are  fixed  in  the  walls ; the  weights  and  dimensions  are  calculated  in  metres  and 


kilogrammes.  Then,  calling  the  height  of  the  bars,  or  main  ribs  = b 
Their  width  - - - - - = a 

The  load  per  metre  lineal  - - - = p 

The  clear  span  - - - - = C 

The  coefficient  of  the  resistance  of  wrought  iron  = 2,000,000 

pC2 

ab 2 — - 


2,000,000 


60 


In  practice,  the  load  per  metre  lineal  usually  applied  (at  least,  for  the  purposes  of  calculation)  is 
53.28  kil.,  or  about  37  lbs.  per  foot  lineal ; and  the  joists  or  bars  are  placed  at  distances  of  about 
2 ft.  6 in.  apart. 

“ 2nd.  In  the  cases  where  rolled  H rails  are  used,  the  height  b,  and  the  projection  of  the  flanges 
are  constant  for  the  same  class  of  rail,  and  the  thickness  of  the  flanges  is  usually  Jg-th  of  b.  The 
thickness  of  the  centre  web  el  is  the  only  element  of  the  problem  in  these  cases  which  varies,  according 
to  the  resistance  to  be  given  to  the  bars.  Then,  calling  the  total  load  = 2 P,  and  the  total  bearing 
= 2 C,  and  the  resistance  for  this  form  of  section  R,  = 6,000,000,  we  have 


— = -f-  0,  0903  aft- 


in  which  I 
the  neutral  axis  of  the  bar, 


the  moment  of  inertia  of  the  section  in  function  of  the  height  b,  and  vl  = the  height  of 

It  I 

The  ordinary  formula  — , = P C,  then  becomes 


PC 


left  + 0,0903a  b2=  ^ = 

* ’ R 6,000,000 


and  from  this 


PC 


0,54a'. 


1,000,00062 

When  the  proportions  between  the  thickness  of  the  flanges  and  the  height  differ,  the  general  formula 


i I j ab3  — ah' 3 

becomes  -,  = l = 

v b 


, in  which  V = the  space  between  the  ribs. 


“ I was  not  quite  correct  in  the  observations  I made  upon  the  deflection  of  these  floors,  on  the 
occasion  of  your  last  meeting,  and  I therefore  send  you  a translation  of  an  experiment  recorded  in 
pages  331  and  332  of  vol.  IY.  of  General  Morin’s  * Lecjons  de  Mecanique  Pratique,’  which  treats  of 
the  resistance  of  materials. 

“ A floor  of  about  23  ft.  span  (7  metres),  on  the  system  Vaux,  with  joists  2 ft.  6 apart,  7|in. 
deep  by  0.36  of  an  inch  in  thickness,  cross  ties  0.63  of  an  inch  square,  and  split  rod  laths  0.43 
of  an  inch  square,  the  joists  bearing  about  1 ft.  on  the  walls,  was  loaded  with  a weight  equal  to  102  lbs. 
per  foot  superficial  over  the  whole  surface.  The  iron  work  was  set  with  a camber  of  about  2f  in.  when 
in  place ; the  filling  in  with  plaster  brought  this  down  to  1.58  in. ; and  when  the  load  was  applied,  the 
floor  sunk  to  1.17  in.  below  the  horizontal  line,  which  deflection  ultimately  became  (after  24  hours) 
3.17  in.  On  removing  the  load,  the  floor  rose  2 in.,  and  on  further  removing  the  plaster  filling  the 
iron  work,  rose  nearly  to  its  original  camber,  or  to  2.36  in.  above  the  horizontal  line.  General  Morin 
remarks  that  this  proves  that  the  iron  retained  its  original  elasticity  to  a great  extent,  and  that  the 
plastering  contributed  greatly  to  the  permanent  deflection. 

“ Mr.  Barrett’s  objection  to  the  use  of  the  French  floors — that  they  were  not  perfectly  inflexible, 
and  his  statement  that  the  plaster  used  in  the  Midland  Counties  was  objected  to  on  account  of  its 
organic  smell,  seem  both  to  require  notice ; for,  in  the  first  place,  a mere  augmentation  of  the  scant- 
lings would  give  any  required  rigidity ; and,  in  the  second,  Mr.  Barrett  appears  to  have  overlooked 
the  fact  that  the  French  plaster,  both  geologically  and  lithologically,  differs  from  that  of  our  Midland 
Counties.” 

Now,  the  French  plaster  contained  carbonate  of  lime,  which  the  English  plaster  did  not.  Possibly 
English  plaster,  used  in  large  masses,  might  give  out  some  odour ; but  certainly  he  could  state  from 
experience  that  the  plaster  used  in  Paris  was  not  open  to  that  objection.  Where  French  plaster  was 
used  in  conjunction  with  brick-work,  a remarkable  degree  of  efflorescence  took  place,  which  might 
arise  from  animal  matter  either  in  the  bricks  or  in  the  plaster,  or  perhaps  in  both.  At  all  events 


61 


animal  matter  did  not  exist  in  the  French  plaster  to  any  objectionable  extent.  Mr.  C.  H.  Smith’s 
statement  that  lime  protected  iron  from  rust  should  bo  received  with  caution.  All  the  wrought-iron 
bridges  in  France  had  been  built  upon  the  principle  laid  down  by  Yicat,  that  no  oxydation  could  take 
place  whilst  iron  was  immersed  in  slacked  lime  ; and  accordingly  the  tying-down  rods  of  these  bridges 
were  bedded  in  wells,  with  a paste  of  chalk  lime  carefully  rammed  in.  Yet  all  those  bridges  had  fallen  ; 
that  at  Angers  at  a time  when  GOO  person  were  upon  it,  more  than  400  of  whom  were  drowned.  The 
explanation  of  this  failure  possibly  was,  that  the  action  of  the  load  upon  the  bridge  set  the  chains  in  a 
state  of  vibration,  which,  though  not  perceptible  to  the  eye,  was  yet  sufficient  to  detach  the  rods  from 
the  lime  in  which  they  were  embedded ; upon  which  water  could  get  in,  and  the  oxydation  would 
commence.  Mr.  Smith’s  principle  was  correct ; but  in  a floor  of  any  kind  there  must  be  some  degree 
of  vibration,  which  would  tend  to  detach  the  joists  or  girders  from  a bed  of  lime  in  which  they  might 
be  placed.  He  believed,  in  fact,  that  concrete  or  lime  in  any  form  was  not  better  than  plaster,  which 
being  more  hygrometric  than  the  mortar  would  rather  protect  the  iron  more  securely.  Practically,  in 
a house,  the  plaster  was  a sufficient  defence  to  the  iron,  and  this  was  what  the  French  architects 
meant,  when  they  said  they  had  not  noticed  any  rust  in  the  use  of  this  material. 

Mr.  Smith  observed  that  it  was  not  necessary  that  lime  should  be  absolutely  in  contact  with  iron 
to  protect  it  from  rust.  Thus  the  dealers  in  polished  steel  goods,  such  as  needles,  did  not  coat  every 
article  with  lime,  but  merely  placed  here  and  there  amongst  them  a piece  of  quick  lime  in  paper,  which 
kept  them  in  a polished  state  as  long  as  the  lime  continued  in  a caustic  condition. 

Mr.  G-.  R.  Burnell  said  that  this  remark  did  not  apply  to  the  French  bridges.  In  the  case  put 
by  Mr.  Smith,  the  caustic  lime  not  being  as  yet  converted  into  a hydrate,  acted  by  absorbing  moisture 
from  the  atmosphere. 

Mr.  Carling  suggested  that  if  the  chains  of  the  French  bridges  were  bundles  of  wires  instead  of 
solid  bars,  the  interstices  in  the  wires  might  have  conducted  the  water  into  the  wells. 

The  Chairman  stated  that  the  names  of  two  gentlemen  had  been  given  to  him  as  wishing  to  offer 
some  remarks  upon  the  subject ; and  that  it  would  be  only  fair  to  Mr.  Barrett  to  allow  him  to  say  a 
few  words  in  reply  to  Mr.  Christopher.  As  therefore  the  discussion  had  already  occupied  the  usual 
time,  he  proposed  that  it  should  be  further  adjourned  till  the  next  ordinary  meeting. 

Mr.  Barrett,  in  reference  to  Mr.  Christopher’s  statement  that  extra  foundations  were  necessary 
in  using  the  patent  system  of  flooring,  begged  to  appeal  to  Air.  Beck,  who  might  not  be  able  to  attend 
at  the  next  meeting.  As  architect  to  the  Metropolitan  Association,  that  gentleman  had  erected  a 
building  five  stories  in  height,  all  the  floors  as  well  as  the  roof  of  which  were  fire-proof ; and  he  would 
no  doubt  bear  testimony  to  the  fact  that  extra  foundations  were  not  used  there. 

Air.  Beck,  Associate,  said  that  this  was  the  fact,  and  that,  in  the  case  referred  to,  he  had  not 
introduced  any  additional  brickwork  in  the  foundations,  in  consequent  of  using  Alessrs.  Fox  and 
Barrett’s  floors. 

The  discussion  was  then  again  adjourned. 


* 


ON  THE  FRENCH  AND  OTHER  METHODS  OF  CONSTRUCTING  IRON 

FLOORS. 


Being  a Discussion  (in  continuation)  held  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute 

of  British  Architects,  February  20th,  1854. 


The  discussion,  which  had  already  occupied  the  attention  of  the  three  previous  meetings,  was  resumed 
by  Mr.  C.  C.  Nelson,  Hon.  Sec.,  reading  the  following  communication  from  Mr.  H.  J.  Stevens, 
Fellow,  of  Derby. 

“ I beg  to  offer  the  following  information  as  to  the  nature  of  the  floors  to  which  Mr.  Garling 
alluded  during  the  discussion  at  the  Institute  on  the  6th  instant. 

“Gypsum,  or  plaster,  from  the  quarries  near  Derby,  and  parts  of  Nottinghamshire,  is  very  exten- 
sively used  for  chamber  flooring  in  this  district — and  its  durability,  when  properly  prepared  and  lai  d 
down,  fully  equals  what  Mr.  Garling  asserted.  The  coarsest  description  of  gypsum  is  used,  and  after 
calcination,  is  broken  down  with  wooden  flails.  It  is  kept  in  a dry  state,  and  when  laid,  is  mixed 
with  water  to  the  consistence  of  rough  mortar,  and  spread  over  the  wood  joists  on  reeds  or  laths  to 
a uniform  thickness  of  2 inches  to  2-|  inches.  It  hardens  very  rapidly,  and  the  workmen  use  a long 
float  of  wood  for  levelling  it,  and  on  the  second  or  third  day,  it  is  polished  off  with  boulder  stones 
or  trowels.  It  is  desirable  that  the  surface  should  not  be  broken  by  using  the  floors  too  soon  after 
they  are  laid:  it  is  also  usual  to  give  an  increased  hardness  by  a coat  of  linseed-oil,  and  in  Notting- 
hamshire the  floors  are  painted,  and  look  extremely  well.  Two  sides  of  the  room  have  wood  fillets 
laid  down,  varying  in  thickness  with  the  superficies  of  the  floor,  which  being  removed  immediately 
after  it  is  laid  allow  for  the  expansion,  which  is  not  only  very  considerable,  but  continues  for  some  time. 
Floors  of  this  material  are  very  strong,  and  are  extremely  well  suited  for  cottages,  being,  in  this 
district,  much  cheaper  than  inch  white  deal — 2s.  3 d.  to  2s.  9 d.  per  superficial  yard  is  the  builder’s 
price  for  laying  them  down,  including  reeds,  laths  for  securing  the  reeds,  and  plaster.  The  under 
surfaces  of  the  joists  are  edged,  and  sometimes  planed,  and  the  ceiling  is  formed  by  the  plastering  of 
the  reeds  between  the  floor  timbers,  for  which  an  extra  3d.  per  yard  is  sufficient.  These  floors  are  to  a 
certain  extent  fire-proof,  and  having  a smooth  surface  are  easily  cleaned,  and  afford  no  harbour  for 
vermin ; on  these  accounts,  as  well  as  for  their  cheapness  and  durability,  plaster  floors,  as  they 
are  called,  are  almost  invariably  adopted  in  the  Midland  Counties,  where  the  carriage  of  the  material 
does  not  operate  as  an  objection.  Mr.  Garling  is  wrong  as  to  the  finer  quality  being  laid  over  the 
coarser  material.  I believe  what  is  herein  stated  will  give  you  the  detail  of  the  process,  and  I have 
only  further  to  observe,  that  it  admits  of  being  burnt  over  again,  and  it  is  considered  desirable  that  a 
certain  proportion  of  old  plaster  should  be  mixed  with  the  new  ; when  that  is  the  case  the  floors  are 
found  to  set  harder.  I have  seen  this  coarse  flooring  plaster  used  externally  as  pane  work  in 
half-timbered  construction,  and  believe  it  to  have  been  two  or  three  hundred  years  since  it  was  worked 
into  the  building. 

“ I offer  these  observations  for  the  information  of  the  members  of  the  Institute,  as  there  does  not 
appear  to  be  a clear  notion  of  the  uses  to  which  the  gypsum  of  this  neighbourhood  has  been 
applied  for  many  centuries.  It  is  is  not  improbable  that  the  material  may  be  adopted  for  flooring 
in  connexion  with  a system  of  fire-proof  construction,  and  it  might  be  desirable  for  some  of  our 
scientific  members  to  examine  and  analyse  its  composition.  I am  disposed  to  disagree  with 
Mr.  Christopher  as  to  the  extra  expense  necessarily  incurred  by  the  adoption  of  Fox  and  Barrett’s 

H 


64 


system  of  fire-proof  construction,  but  as  the  Chairman  of  the  last  meeting  has  given  Mr.  Barrett  an 
opportunity  of  replying  to  Mr.  Christopher’s  statement,  I have  no  doubt  that  gentleman  will  easily 
bring  proofs  that  neither  extra  foundations,  nor  hoop-iron  bond  are  required,  that  the  hoisting,  etc., 
are  included  in  Mr.  Barrett’s  statement  of  cost,  and  that  wood  filleting  for  carpets  cannot  be 
necessary  where  a boarded  surface  is  added.” 

Mr.  T.  H.  Wyatt,  Y.P.,  having  before  expressed  a strong  opinion  in  favour  of  Messrs.  Fox  and 
Barrett's  system,  was  anxious  that  it  should  not  be  supposed  that  he  had  adopted  it  without  mature 
consideration.  He  had  heard  with  surprise  and  pain  the  strong  remarks  of  Mr.  Christopher,  objecting 
to  this  system,  for  he  could  not  but  remember  that  his  own  attention  had  been  first  directed  to  the 
patent  by  a pamphlet  of  Mr.  Christopher’s  published  in  1848,  which  eulogised  the  system  in  a manner, 
compared  with  which,  any  praise  which  he  (Mr.  Wyatt)  had  given  to  it,  was  as  cold  as  possible. 
Certainly,  his  own  experience,  together  with  that  of  his  friends,  Mr.  Salvin,  Mr.  Clarke,  Mr.  Rhode 
Hawkins,  and  others,  who  had  used  it  largely,  justified  the  opinions  he  had  already  expressed.  He, 
himself,  had  never  used  it  for  roofs ; neither  had  he  used  cement  floors ; and  he  was  strongly  of 
opinion  that  the  failures  which  Mr.  Christopher  referred  to,  had  arisen  from  an  injudicious  application 
of  the  system  rather  than  from  any  inherent  defect.  A principal  objection  raised  by  Mr.  Christopher, 
was  the  want  of  a good  key  for  the  ceilings ; but  having  used  the  system  successfully  in  four  or  five 
large  buildings,  especially  in  the  Wiltshire  Lunatic  Asylum,  where,  from  the  constant  vibration  in  the 
refractory  cells  and  in  the  corridors,  the  ceilings  were  subjected  to  the  severest  test,  he  felt  convinced 
that  any  failure  elsewhere  must  have  proceeded  from  bad  workmanship  ; and  in  this  opinion  he  was  con- 
firmed by  the  friends  already  mentioned.  With  respect  to  the  time  necessary  for  the  drying  of  the 
concrete,  he  thought  it  rather  desirable  than  otherwise,  that  a check  should  be  given  to  the  rapidity 
with  which  buildings  are  now  carried  up  ; and  in  his  own  practice,  he  had  not  found  the  difficulty  to 
exist  with  a proper  supply  of  air  and  provision  of  fire-places,  which  did  not  exist  in  one  of  the 
buildings  erected  by  Mr.  Christopher.  Mr.  Christopher,  in  his  pamphlet,  had  thus  described  the 
excellence  of  the  ceilings  at  Northwoods : — “ The  ceilings  are  finished,  and  appear  as  usual,  but  equalling 
the  best,  as  they  remain  for  fifteen  years  without  a crack!”  Mr.  Christopher  had  objected  to  the 
solidity  of  the  patent  floors,  as  interfering  with  the  supply  of  air  to  the  fire-places.  He  (Mr.  Wyatt), 
thought  it  was  much  better  to  depend  upon  an  artificial  supply  of  air  than  upon  that  which  came 
through  the  interstices  of  the  floor,  bringing  dust  with  it ; and  the  objection,  if  any,  applied  equally 
to  a good  wooden  floor,  properly  tongued  and  pugged.  On  the  question  of  cost,  Mr.  Christopher  had 
now  given  an  opinion  directly  at  variance  with  that  expressed  in  his  pamphlet,  in  pages  3 and  7,  of 
which  he  stated  that,  “ Buildings  may  now  be  constructed  fire-proof  without  increasing  the  cost  of 
erection  ; the  above  grand  desideratum  in  the  art  of  building  is  now  no  longer  theoretical,  but  a fact 
supported  by  just  such  testimony  as  could  be  desired,  viz,  the  existence  of  a building  on  a large 
scale  erected  throughout  in  the  manner  referred  to,  which  has  not  cost  more  than  if  it  had  been 
constructed  in  the  ordinary  way.  The  roofs — at  from  one-half  to  one-third  the  cost  of  the 
usual  roof. — Economical,  rather  less  costly  in  first  construction,  and  much  less  in  use,  from 
being  indestructible .”  As  he  (Mr.  Wyatt),  had  before  mentioned,  the  adoption  of  Fox  and  Barrett’s 

system  in  the  Wilts  Lunatic  Asylum,  had  not  involved  the  expenditure  of  an  additional 
shilling  beyond  the  original  estimates.  He  certainly  could  not  suppose  that  any  extra  strength 
in  the  foundations  was  necessary  in  this  system.  The  only  difference  in  the  weight  sustained 
by  them,  as  compared  with  a case  where  ordinary  floors  were  used,  would  amount  to  four  hundred 
weight  on  the  square  foot  in  a building  of  five  stories  ; and  no  prudent  architect  would  make  foundations 
so  weak  that  they  could  not  sustain  so  small  an  extra  weight  as  this,  a tithe  of  the  crushing  weight. 


65 


In  his  pamphlet,  Mr.  Christopher  had  expressed  a very  different  opinion,  and  stated  that,  “ the 
requisite  strength  is  fully  developed  by  combination  and  perfect  union,  giving  equally  sustained  solidity 
to  every  part,  while  from  the  lightness  of  the  floors  and  roofs,  and  their  being  quite  level,  (without 
lateral  thrusts)  the  enclosing  walls  need  not  bo  thicker  than  usual.”  For  the  same  reason,  ho  (Mr. 
Wyatt)  did  not  conceive  the  use  of  an  extra  quantity  of  hoop  iron  bonding  at  all  necessary.  In  the 
case  of  the  Thames  Chambers,  referred  to  by  Mr.  Christopher,  the  nature  of  the  locality  might  have 
suggested  this  precaution,  which  under  ordinary  circumstances  was  unnecessary.  The  objection 
raised  as  to  the  expense  of  cutting  and  trimming  joists  to  suit  openings  and  chimney  breasts,  bore 
rather  hardly  upon  the  system,  especially  as  the  patentees  took  great  pains  to  prepare  their  joists  and 
girders  accurately.  Generally,  Mr.  Christopher  had  been  very  severe  upon  the  estimates  of  Mr. 
Barrett.  He  (Mr.  Wyatt),  had  not  gone  minutely  into  those  estimates,  but  he  had  sent  them  to  a 
Surveyor  in  whom  lie  could  place  confidence,  who  stated  that  they  were  perfectly  honest,  and  applicable 
to  the  present  time.  It  was  not  fair  to  compare  this  system  with  a wooden  floor,  as  it  should  rather 
be  compared  with  the  French  or  some  other  kind  of  fire-proof  flooring,  and  if  that  were  done,  he 
believed  the  result  would  be  in  its  favour.  After  a long  discussion  on  the  subject,  the  Institution  of 
Civil  Engineers  had  approved  of  the  plan,  the  Inspectors  of  Prisons  and  the  Official  Referees  had  also 
treated  it  as  a satisfactory  and  efficient  fire-proof  construction ; and  he  had  himself  found  it  to  answer 
all  his  expectations.  Whether  this  system  or  the  French  system  should  be  considered  preferable,  one 
important  point  suggested  itself  in  the  present  discussion,  namely,  that  a very  heavy  responsibility 
would  rest  upon  them  and  their  successors,  as  architects,  if  they  should  disregard  the  fact,  that  there 
were  systems  known  by  which  essentially  fire-proof  construction  could  be  attained  with  very  little  extra 
expense  ; and  it  was  their  duty  therefore  to  test  these  systems  as  severely  as  possible,  and  to  employ 
one  of  them  whenever  they  had  the  opportunity  of  doing  so. 

In  reply  to  some  inquiries  Mr.  Wyatt  added  that  some  of  the  rooms  in  the  Wiltshire  Lunatic- 
Asylum  were  16  and  18  ft.  by  24  ft. ; the  corridors  being  150  ft.  by  12  ft.  The  rigidity  of  the  floors 
was  remarkable,  and  the  only  doubt  which  ever  arose  in  his  mind  had  been  caused  by  the  appearance 
of  a dark  line  on  the  ceiling  immediately  under  each  joist.  This  he  had  thought  proceeded  from  some 
chemical  action,  but  it  had  been  entirely  removed  by  the  second  coat  of  lime  whiting. 

Mr.  Papwoeth,  Fellow,  referred  to  the  letter  of  Mr.  Stevens  of  Derby,  and  inquired  what 
amount  of  space  in  proportion  to  the  whole  superficies  should  be  left  around  a plaster  surface  to  allow 
of  its  expansion.  His  own  experience  suggested  that  an  inch  and  a half  on  every  side  of  a floor  for 
every  ten  superficial  feet  would  not  be  too  much. 

Mr.  Wyatt  concurred  in  this  opinion,  and  referred  to  a loft  at  the  seat  of  Lord  Cardigan  in 
Northamptonshire,  where  the  walls  had  bulged  from  the  expansion  of  a plaster  floor,  although  a space 
had  been  left  originally  to  provide  for  this  occurrence. 

The  Chairman,  Mr.  Inman,  Y.P.,  stated  that  floors  of  plaster,  sometimes  mixed  with  coal 
ashes,  were  in  general  use  in  large  mansions  in  the  vicinity  of  London  about  eighty  or  hundred 
years  ago.  This  was  the  case  in  some  of  the  upper  floors  at  Hampton  Court  Palace,  where  a 
layer  of  cockle-shells  about  two  inches  in  thickness  was  also  introduced  in  the  floors,  for  the  purpose 
of  deadening  sound. 

Mr.  Boulnois,  Associate,  observed,  that  in  his  experience  of  Fox  and  Barrett’s  system  he 
had  never  found  the  ceilings  give  way,  though  he  had  employed  plaster  of  Paris  to  guage  them. 
From  his  remarks  at  a former  meeting  it  might  have  been  supposed  that  he  disapproved  of  this 
system,  but  on  the  contrary,  he  thought  it  an  admirable  system,  and  by  far  the  best  mode  of  fire- 
proofing ever  introduced.  One  great  advantage  which  it  possessed  was  that  of  economizing  height, 

h 2 


66 


which  was  a point  of  the  greatest  importance  in  London.  With  respect  to  Mr.  Christopher’s  opinions 
as  expressed  in  his  pamphlet  and  those  which  he  had  now  put  forth,  it  should  be  remembered  that 
that  gentleman  had  in  the  first  instance  been  led  to  publish  his  opinions  without  having  had 
any  actual  practical  experience  of  the  system.  This  experience  he  had  since  had,  and,  as  the 
meeting  knew,  it  had  proved  unfortunate  to  him,  inasmuch  as  he  had  been  subjected  to  an  action  at 
law  and  other  difficulties.  He  (Mr.  Bottlnois)  therefore  contended,  that  it  was  the  duty  of  the 
patentees  to  ascertain  and  remove  .all  such  difficulties  and  defects  as  Mr.  Christopher  had  met  with  in 
his  practice,  and  not  to  allow  the  task  to  devolve  on  the  architect  employing  their  system  of  flooring. 

Mr.  H.  H.  Burnell,  Associate,  contended  that  the  French  system  presented  greater 
economy  of  space  than  the  English,  and  that  the  latter  was  very  defective  in  respect  to  its  giving  no 
key  for  the  ceiling. 

Mr.  Barrett  and  Mr.  Wyatt  expressed  a contrary  opinion  on  the  latter  point. 

Mr.  Wyatt  said  he  had  no  doubt  that  Mr.  Christopher  had  written  his  pamphlet,  “Notes  of  a 
Visit  to  Northwoods,”  with  the  most  perfect  conscientiousness,  but  after  expressing  himself  so 
very  strongly  in  favour  of  the  system  there  used,  and  leading  others  to  adopt  it,  he  of  all  persons 
should  have  dealt  as  leniently  as  possible  with  any  defects  to  which  it  might  be  liable.  For  himself 
he  had  found  that  the  system  fully  justified  the  praise  which  Mr.  Christopher  originally  bestowed 
upon  it. 

Mr.  Christopher,  Fellow,  reminded  the  members  that  at  the  commencement  of  his  former 
remarks  he  had  stated  that  he  thought  very  highly  of  Messrs.  Fox  and  Barrett’s  system.  He  had 
made  minute  inquiries  of  Dr.  Fox,  of  his  architect,  and  of  the  workmen  at  “ Northwoods,”  and  was  led 
to  express  his  opinion  very  strongly  in  the  pamphlet  quoted  by  Mr.  Wyatt ; and  he  still  thought  that  for 
all  practical  purposes,  this  system  from  its  economy  was  superior  to  any  other  for  fire  proof  construc- 
tion. He  was  therefore  gratified  to  find  that  Mr.  Wyatt,  after  his  extensive  experience,  did  not  think 
the  warm  approval  which  he  (Mr.  Christopher)  had  formerly  expressed  in  any  respect  overcharged. 
On  reading  the  remarks  which  he  had  made  at  the  last  meeting,  he  confessed  they  appeared  rather 
strong,  and  he  should  be  sorry  if  they  were  to  injure  the  patentee.  Still,  however,  after  four  or  five  years 
experience,  he  had  found  imperfections  in  the  system  which  had  occasioned  him  much  annoyance  and 
loss,  and  he  felt  bound  to  caution  his  professional  brethren  on  the  subject.  These  it  was  true  were 
comparatively  little  defects,  and  he  did  not  wish  to  magnify  them.  He  was  not  desirous  to  retract 
any  of  his  former  remarks  as  he  believed  them  to  be  strictly  correct,  with  the  exception  of  an  obvious 
error  of  £1.  for  fillets  to  a boarded  floor  in  the  estimate  for  a room  of  20  ft.  x 20  ft.  Mr.  Beck, 
in  reply  to  an  appeal  from  Mr.  Barrett,  had  stated  that  he  did  not  think  it  necessary  to  make  any 
addition  to  “ the  footings  of  the  walls”  for  this  system  ; but  what  he  (Mr.  Christopher)  considered 
necessary  was  to  increase  the  “ foundations,”  a distinction  recognized  in  the  Building  Act  and  by 
other  authorities.  It  was  essential  to  be  very  careful  with  the  foundations  where  this  system  was 
employed,  especially  if  a rigid  material  like  Portland  cement  were  to  be  used  for  the  floors.  Hoop-iron 
bonding  he  considered  necessary,  as  in  the  patent  system  there  was  no  provision  for  a tie,  and  no  sub- 
stitute for  the  timber  plates  used  in  ordinary  construction.  Again,  the  play  of  the  iron  joists  before  the 
concrete  was  filled  in  was  objectionable,  and  liable  to  loosen  the  green  brick  work ; and  it  had  obliged 
him  to  take  out  the  arches  over  openings  and  substitute  stout  iron  lintels.  He  had  not  ventured  to 
offer  the  remarks  he  had  made  in  any  case  from  the  result  of  one  or  two  failures  only , and  in  all  cases 
first  rate  builders  had  been  employed  by  him,  and  no  expense  or  pains  had  been  spared.  On  the 
subject  of  cost  he  had  confined  himself  to  Mr.  Barrett's  estimates,  published  in  the  Transactions,  and 
the  question  was,  are  those  correct  and  not  what  the  Wilts  asylum  may  have  cost  some  years  ago,  when 


67 


iron  was  at  less  than  half  its  present  price.  With  reference  to  tho  question  of  cost  generally,  he 
(Mr.  Christopher)  should  not  have  entered  upon  the  subject,  if  Mr.  Barrett  had  not  endeavoured  to 
shew  that  his  fire-proof  floors  could  now  ho  constructed  cheaper  than  ordinary  floors  of  the  best  kind. 
Mr.  Barrett  had  made  a deduction  of  one  half  the  cost  of  the  iron  from  his  estimate  for  “ excess  of 
strength,”  and  this  deduction  was  one  which  he  (Mr.  Christopher)  thought  quite  unwarranted; 
because  if  the  strength  of  tho  floors  were  proportionably  diminished,  they  would  not  be  safe. 

Mr.  Wyatt.  What  Mr.  Barrett  said  was  that  he  would  not  like  to  take  the  responsibility  of  the 
lightness  of  the  French  mode  of  construction,  but  that  a great  reduction  in  his  standard  of  strength 
might  safely  be  made. 

Mr.  Christopher  repeated  that  Mr.  Barrett’s  estimates  were  incorrect ; that  when  he  went 
into  the  matter  with  that  gentleman  they  had  found  it  impossible  to  reduce  the  price  to  that  of  an 
ordinary  timber  floor,  and  that  the  additions  made  by  him  to  Mr.  Barrett’s  estimate  for  cutting  and 
trimming  joists,  the  use  of  the  license,  &c.  were  fair  and  moderate  additions.  Carefully  detailed 
accounts  had  been  kept  of  the  recent  buildings  erected  under  his  direction  to  test  the  result,  and  from 
these  he  had  quoted,  but  Mr.  Wyatt  admitted  he  had  not  gone  into  the  estimates.  Another  point  that 
deserved  consideration  was  that  many  persons  would  desire  a wooden  floor  upon  the  concrete  founda- 
tion ; and  in  that  case  a considerable  extra  cost  was  incurred,  and  some  of  the  advantages  were  lost, 
as  the  building  was  less  fire-proof,  the  floor  afforded  a harbour  for  vermin,  and  was  liable  to  rot,  besides 
which  there  was  a loss  of  space.  With  respect  to  the  roofing  it  should  be  observed,  that  at  Northwoods 
the  concrete  roofs  were  all  finished  with  tarred  paper  and  sand,  which  had  been  found  successful. 
The  Building  Act  however  precluded  the  use  of  these  materials  in  London,  and  therefore  cement  alone 
was  used,  which  had  failed,  as  before  described.  Now  although  this  question  had  been  discussed 
chiefly  with  reference  to  floors,  it  appeared  to  him  that  the  roof  was  the  most  important  consideration 
with  respect  to  fire-proofing,  as  many  buildings  had  been  ignited  through  the  roof  from  fires  in  adja- 
cent buildings,  and  certainly  if  floors  could  be  constructed  on  this  principle  at  the  same  cost  as  ordi- 
nary floors,  roofs  coidd  be  constructed  at  less  than  half  the  ordinary  cost. 

Mr.  Barrett  wished  first  to  offer  a few  remarks  in  reference  to  some  observations  made  by 
Mr.  Tite  at  a former  meeting.  That  gentleman  stated  that  the  system  of  fire-proof  construction,  which 
Mr.  Barrett  had  explained,  was  very  similar  to  one  which  he  (Mr.  Tite)  had  himself  used  twenty-eight 
years  ago.  There  were,  however,  important  differences,  both  in  the  principle  and  the  cost.  In 
the  plan  referred  to  by  Mr.  Tite,  the  stone  landings  were  merely  a modification  of  the  iron  girder 
and  brick  arch  system  ; they  were  a dead  weight  upon  the  girders,  and  not  an  element  of  strength  ; 
while  in  his  own  plan  the  union  and  combination  of  the  different  materials  produced  a great  increase 
of  strength  and  rigidity,  and  at  a small  expense.  In  the  one  case  these  important  qualities  were 
derived  from  the  iron, — -a  costly  material ; and  in  the  other  from  the  concrete,  a very  inexpensive  one. 
But  the  real  question  was,  not  whether  any  of  these  materials  had  been  previously  used  iu  the 
construction  of  floors,  it  was  rather  whether  they  had  been  so  arranged  and  combined  as  to  produce  a 
satisfactory  floor  of  incombustible  materials  at  a cost  little,  if  at  all  exceeding,  that  of  the  ordinary 
timber  construction ; whether  in  fact  it  could  be  said  before  the  introduction  of  this  system  (as  it  had 
been  said  by  Mr.  Wyatt)  that  a large  and  important  public  building  had  been  constructed  on  a fire- 
proof principle  without  incurring  one  shilling  additional  expense.  Beckoning  the  cost  of  the 
4-incli  and  6-inch  self-faced  stone  landings,  at  prices  furnished  to  him  by  a contractor,  viz. — Is.  6 d. 
and  2s.  per  foot,  and  assuming  the  iron  to  be  no  heavier  than  in  his  own  case,  the  actual  cost  would  be 
more  than  double  that  of  his  construction ; thus — 


Room  12  X 12. 


68 


Room  20  x 20. 


£.  s.  d. 

144  ft  — 4 in.  Landing — at  Is.  6 d 10  16  0 

Iron  Work  as  at  page  47 3 15  8 

Facing  Surface  and  forming  Cement  Ceiling,  6 d. 

per  ft 3 12  0 


£18  3 8 

Instead  of  7 14  10 


Difference  £10  8 10 


£.  s.  d. 

400  ft. — 6 in.  Landing — at  2s 40  0 0 

Iron  Work  as  at  page  47  21  4 3 

Facing  Surface,  &c.,  6d.  per  ft  10  0 0 


£71  4 3 

Instead  of 32  4 3 

Difference £39  0 0 


He  thought,  therefore,  there  was  sufficient  reason  for  such  a system  never  having  come  into  general 
use.  Mr.  Tite  had  also  referred  to  the  decoration  of  ceilings,  hut  he  could  not  imagine  any  difficulty 
whatever  to  exist  on  this  head,  and  if  none  was  found  in  erecting  a residence  for  the  highest  personage 
in  the  realm,  there  was  little  probability  of  its  occurring  elsewhere.  Certainly  any  kind  of  decoration 
that  could  he  combined  with  the  girder  and  arch  system  could,  with  at  least  equal  facility,  he  applied 
to  his  construction  : hut  upon  this  point  any  member  present  might  satisfy  himself  hy  inspecting  the 
New  Offices  and  Station  of  the  Brighton  Railway  Company  at  London  Bridge,  where  the  system  was 
carried  out  on  a very  extensive  scale,  some  of  the  bearings  exceeding  thirty-five  feet,  and  where  many 
of  the  ceilings  were  of  a highly  decorated  character.  Mr.  Tite  had  also  spoken  of  the  possibility  of  the 
concrete  yielding  under  the  action  of  fire  if  it  were  formed  with  flints.  This  material  was,  however, 
never  used  for  the  purpose  ; the  concrete  being  made  of  fine  gravel  or  ballast,  broken  brick  or  tile, 
burnt  earth,  and  lime.  Upon  this  point  he  thought  an  important  consideration  had  been  overlooked, 
viz. — the  fact  that  in  warehouses  where  large  fires  occurred,  they  were  mainly  owing  to  the  circum- 
stance that  the  timber  floors  themselves  afforded  both  the  fuel  and  a ready  supply  of  air  to  support  and 
extend  the  fire,  which  would  burn  but  slowly  till  it  had  consumed  a portion  of  the  floor,  so  as  to  obtain 
a supply  of  air.  The  case,  however,  was  very  different,  if  instead  of  a floor  being  of  a highly 
inflammable  nature,  it  was  formed  of  a solid  mass  of  incombustible  materials  twelve  inches  thick,  by 
which  the  supply  both  of  fuel  and  of  air  would  be  cut  off.  The  fire,  generating  an  atmosphere 
which  will  not  support  combustion,  would  under  such  circumstances  probably  burn  itself  out.  Even 
supposing  any  intense  degree  of  heat  to  be  generated,  before  it  could  act  injuriously  on  con- 
crete it  was  probable  that  it  would  quite  destroy  a brick  arch,  either  by  disintegration  or  by  the 
arch’s  own  expansion  ; and  the  consequences  which  might  result  from  the  failure  of  a single  arch 
in  a building  were  fearfully  exemplified  in  the  fall  of  a cotton  mill  at  Oldham  some  years  ago,  the 
replacing  of  one  of  the  arches  which  had  settled  having  led  to  the  breaking  of  the  iron  beams  from  the 
lateral  thrust  of  the  adjoining  arches,  and  the  sudden  and  instantaneous  destruction  of  the  entire 
building — a calamity  which  could  never  possibly  happen  with  his  plan  of  construction. 

With  regard  to  the  objections  raised  by  Mr.  Christopher  at  the  last  meeting,  there  could  be  no 
question  that  Portland  cement  should  never  have  been  applied  as  a finished  covering  for  roofs, 
but  that  gentleman  had  not  stated  that  he  had  himself  preferred  it  and  introduced  it.  Indeed  he  was 
the  first  to  erect  a roof  upon  the  principle  since  the  completion  of  the  original  building,  the  roofs 
of  which  he,  “aftercareful  inspection,  ’’greatly  admired,  and  described  in  1848  as  being  “marvel- 
lously simple  and  inexpensive  while  efficacious,  being  perfectly  water-proof,  and  much  more  impervious 
to  the  variations  of  temperature  than  the  usual  roofs  ; — those  built  eight  years  since  being  perfect,  and 
the  ceilings  under  them  without  a stain.” 


69 


Mr.  Christopher  had  adhered  strictly  to  the  construction  of  these  roofs,  except  in  that  part  which 
in  his  case  had  failed,  viz.,  the  finished  covering,  which  he  had  formed  of  Portland  cement,  instead  of 
tarred  paper  and  sand,  the  use  of  which  was  said  to  be  prohibited  by  the  Metropolitan  Buildings  Act. 
It  had  been  intimated  by  that  gentleman,  that  the  failure  of  the  cement  covering  might  have  been 
occasioned  by  the  expansion  of  the  concrete  ; but  the  fact  of  its  remaining  sound  for  twelve  months, 
shews  that  it  could  not  have  arisen  from  that  cause.  Concrete  does  unquestionably  expand  in  setting , 
but  not  afterwards.  Mr.  Christopher  had  moreover  told  him,  that  the  experience  of  a brother  architect 
showed  that  when  Portland  cement  was  laid  on  brick  arches,  there  was  the  same  uncertainty  as  to  the 
result.  It  was  however,  admitted,  that  metallic  lava  answered,  and  he  might  add,  that  asphalte,  tiles 
in  cement,  and  slates  in  cement,  had  also  been  applied  with  perfect  success. 

As  a finished  surface  for  floors,  Portland  cement  had  answered  perfectly  in  several  instances, 
but  it  was  a very  uncertain  material,  and  in  those  cases  where  the  floors  were  not  to  be  carpeted  or 
covered,  or  where  a slight  superficial  defect  was  of  consequence,  it  would  be  better  to  use  a cement  of 
another  description,  such  as  Keene’s,  which  had  been  substituted  for  Portland  in  a large  building 
lately  erected  by  Mr.  Clarke — the  Metropolitan  Convalescent  Asylum — at  an  additional  cost  of  only 
£30.,  and  it  certainly  looked  much  better. 

With  reference  to  the  ceilings,  and  the  alleged  want  of  a good  key  having  occasioned  several  falls  ; 
Mr.  Barrett  first  observed,  that  if  this  really  were  a radical  defect  in  the  system,  it  admitted  of  a very 
simple  remedy,  for  nothing  could  be  easier  than  to  attach  the  ordinary  lath  and  plaster  ceiling  by 
means  of  light  fillets  placed  parallel  with  the  joists.  So  far,  however,  from  the  key  being  defective, 
he  had  been  assured  by  practical  men,  plasterers,  and  foremen,  that  the  key  was  a much  better  one 
than  in  the  ordinary  construction,  from  the  greater  strength  of  the  laths.  He  had  communicated  with 
several  members  of  the  profession  who  had  used  the  system  largely,  upon  this  and  other  objections 
stated  by  Mr.  Christopher ; amongst  them  were  Mr.  Wyatt,  who  had  had  from  1,400  to  1,500  squares 
of  flooring  constructed ; Mr.  Rhode  Hawkins,  530  squares  ; Mr.  Brandon,  900  squares  ; Mr.  Clarke, 
400  squares  ; Mr.  Salvin,  500  squares ; Mr.  Holland,  1,200  squares  ; and  Mr.  Piper,  1,400  squares  ; in 
the  aggregate  several  thousand  squares  ; and  it  was  remarkable  that  out  of  so  large  a quantity  no 
instance  should  have  occurred  of  a ceiling  falling.  In  Mr.  Christopher’s  case,  he  believed  it  to  have 
arisen  from  his  having  kept  coke  fires  in  the  middle  of  the  room,  upon  the  concrete,  for  several  iveeks 
in  succession,  to  dry  the  plastering  of  the  walls  ; as  the  portion  of  ceiling  which  fell  was  directly  under 
one  of  these  fires.  The  report  of  a Committee  of  Magistrates  who  visited  Kortli woods  to  see  the 
original  building,  was  to  this  effect. 

“ Our  attention  was  first  directed  to  the  very  beautiful  and  perfect  appearance  of  the  ceilings  of 
the  rooms,  (after  fourteen  years’  duration),  which  are  in  fact  a part  of  the  fire-proof  floor ; these 
ceilings,  even  after  so  long  a period,  presented  a perfectly  plane  and  level  surface,  and  were  quite  free 
from  cracks  and  Mr.  Christopher’s  own  report  of  this  building  was  “the  ceilings  are  finished  and 
appear  as  usual,  but  equalling  the  best,  as  they  remain  for  fifteen  years  without  a crack !” 
Mr.  Christopher  had  also  stated  in  reference  to  the  ceilings  of  the  building,  the  roof  covering  of  which 
had  failed,  “ the  ceilings  were  everywhere  entirely  free  from  cracks,  and  decidedly  more  perfect  than 
in  ordinary  buildings.” 

He  begged  permission  to  read  the  following  letters  from  some  of  the  gentlemen  he  had  referred  to. 

Fbom  Mb.  Joseph  Claeke,  Fellow: — 

I feel  I ought  to  add  my  testimony  to  what  I consider  the  full  success  of  your  patent, 
which  I have  adopted  in  several  important  buildings  for  some  years  past.  I must  say  that  I have  not 
met  with  a single  failure,  and  certainly  on  the  points  of  objection  which  I hear  have  been  raised : — 


70 


1st.  That  the  adoption  of  the  system  involves  greater  expense  in  Foundations.  These  I have 
never  considered  it  necessary  to  increase  in  the  least,  in  fact  in  one  work  I am  now  carrying  out  on 
your  principle,  I even  reduced  the  depth,  and  on  a site  of  which  I had  a little  apprehension. 

From  the  confidence  I have  in  the  perfectly  horizontal  bond  and  tie  given  to  the  Walls,  I am 
satisfied  that  in  the  Oxford  and  the  Gloucester  and  Bristol  Training  Institutions,  (both  stone  build- 
ings) I derived  much  greater  advantage  than  if  I had  adopted  the  common  mode  of  Timber  floors. 

2ndly.  As  regards  a greater  chance  of  smoky  chimnies,  I have  been  singularly  fortunate  in  all 
the  buildings  thus  constructed,  and  I can  refer  you  to  the  Convalescent  Hospital  at  Walton,  where 
not  a single  chimney  smokes  out  of  nearly  fifty,  which  have  been  in  operation  for  months,  even  before 
the  building  was  complete,  that  it  might  be  ready  for  the  patients. 

As  to  the  3rd  objection,  that  the  ceilings  are  apt  to  fall,  I have  carefully  examined  many  hundred 
squares,  executed  on  your  principle,  and  I do  not  find  the  slightest  tendency  of  the  kind. 

I am  so  fully  convinced  of  the  value  of  your  invention  that  I am  prepared  to  recommend  it,  parti- 
cularly since  the  adoption  of  wrought  iron,  for  every  class  of  building. 

From  Mr.  Bhode  Hawkins  : — 

There  are  three  points  on  which  you  ask  my  opinion  of  the  fire-proof  floors  used  at  the  new 
buildings  at  Guy’s  Hospital. 

1st.  With  regard  to  the  necessity  of  using  more  solid  foundations  in  consequence  of  the  increased 
weight  of  the  floors.  I have  to  say  that  though  your  floors  are  heavy  as  compared  with  ordinary 
wood  floors,  yet  as  the  weight  of  the  floor  is  after  all  but  a small  portion  of  the  whole  weight  which  a 
foundation  has  to  carry,  I do  not  think  that  the  extra  weight  should  be  considered  for  a moment ; as 
to  the  necessity  of  additional  ties  to  the  walls,  if  the  girders  and  joists  are  of  sufficient  strength,  the 
weight  will  be  conveyed  directly  on  to  the  walls,  and  resolve  itself  into  a mere  crushing  force,  and 
ordinary  brick  walls  are  competent  to  carry  five  or  ten  times  the  weight  which  is  generally  put  upon 
them.  With  regard  to  the  ceilings,  I have  only  to  say  that  at  Guy’s  Hospital  I know  of  no  ceiling 
having  given  way,  the  key  seems  to  me  to  be  a very  strong  one,  and  I see  no  reason  to  apprehend 
any  accident  of  the  sort.  The  ceilings  have  been  finished  nearly  a year  and  a half,  and  are  perfectly 
good  now.  With  regard  to  the  floors  causing  smoky  chimnies  I have  little  to  say,  as  I have  not  tried 
the  plan  in  an  ordinary  dwelling-house.  At  Guy’s  Hospital  the  smoke  is  carried  in  a long  smoke  tube 
into  a lofty  shaft  where  there  is  a considerable  draught,  and  none  of  the  chimnies  smoke  ; but  I must 
add,  that  I think  that  where  it  is  necessary  to  supply  air  to  the  fire-places,  it  should  be  done  as  a 
system,  and  not  left  to  the  chances  of  drawing  the  air  through  the  floors,  and  with  it  a large  quantity 
of  dust  and  dirt. 


From  Mr.  B.  W.  Armstrong: — 

In  reply  to  your  query  whether  I deemed  it  necessary  to  go  to  extra  expense  with  the  foun- 
dations of  the  buildings  in  which  I introduced  your  patent  fire-proof  flooring,  beyond  that  which  I 
would  have  done  had  I used  timber  floors  ; I beg  to  say  the  buildings  in  which  I used  your  system  of 
flooring,  being  for  factory  purposes,  I considered  it  expedient  to  provide  foundations  sufficient  for  any 
emergency,  and  therefore  (lid  not  allow  the  fact  of  the  floors  being  heavier  than  timber  floors  to  influ- 
ence me  in  any  way.  As  to  the  broad  question  for  buildings  in  general,  much  must  depend  on  the 
number  of  floors  and  the  proportion  of  bearing  points  to  the  void  or  area  to  be  supported  on  those 
points,  but  I think  few  would  venture  to  erect  buildings  with  timber  floors  on  foundations  that  would 
not  be  equal  to  the  sustaining  of  the  additional  weight  of  floors  constructed  on  your  principle,  as  in 


71 


my  opinion  it  would  be  narrowing  tlio  point  far  beyond  the  limits  of  practical  application.  I have 
not  in  any  instance  found  it  necessary  to  introduce  any  additional  “ ties ” for  the  floors  than  that  given 
by  the  joists. 


From  Mb.  Thomas  Pipeb, 

The  result  of  my  experience  with  floors  constructed  on  your  principle,  is  that  no  additional 
foundations  or  tics  are  required  beyond  what  would  be  requisite  and  necessary  for  good  building  on 
any  principle.  That  the  ceilings  are  not  more  liable  to  fall  than  ceilings  on  laths  in  the  ordinary  way, 
indeed  I cannot  charge  my  memory  with  any  instance  of  a ceiling  falling  in  any  of  the  works  carried 
out  on  your  plan.  As  to  smoky  chimnies  they  are  no  novelty  unhappily,  and  though  the  tendency  of 
the  greater  accuracy  of  all  building  operations  is  unquestionably  to  limit  the  supply  of  air  and  so 
retard  the  escape  of  smoke,  I have  noticed  no  difference  between  what  occurs  with  your  floors  and  a 
thoroughly  good  wood  floor  of  the  ordinary  construction  pugged  in  the  usual  way. 

Mr.  Brandon  states  that  “ he  has  never  had  cause  to  increase  the  strength  of  foundations, 
or  the  walls,  or  ties  in  the  walls.  He  has  never  known  any  defect  whatever  in  the  ceilings,  except  an 
occasional  very  minute  crack,  such  as  might  be  found  in  those  of  the  ordinary  construction,  perhaps  10 
or  12  such  in  a building,  containing  800  squares,  and  he  has  never  known  an  instance  of  chimnies 
smoking.” 

With  regard  to  the  time  required  for  the  floors  to  dry,  it  depended  on  the  season,  but  they  were 
always  dry  as  soon  as  the  walls  and  plastering  made  it  safe  or  prudent  to  occupy  the  building ; at 
some  floors  lately  constructed  at  Windsor  Castle,  the  rooms  were  occupied  in  six  weeks  from  the 
receipt  of  the  joists.  The  house  in  the  Adelphi  referred  to  by  Mr.  Christopher,  was  begun  in  April 
1850,  and  though  it  was  a large  building  containing  nearly  30  rooms,  and  lying  close  to  the  river,  it 
was  occupied  in  March  1851,  although  there  had  been  several  delays.  The  peculiarities  of  the  other 
building  he  referred  to  should  have  been  stated : it  was  in  a hollow,  with  lofty  buildings  at  the  back, 
two  high  flank  walls,  and  a narrow  mews  in  front ; there  was  in  fact  no  possibility  of  establishing  a 
current  of  air  through  it,  even  if  its  construction  had  admitted ; but  the  fact  was,  that  out  of  42 
rooms,  only  18  had  fire-places,  and  the  24  rooms  which  were  without  fire-places  were  all  so  constructed 
that  there  could  be  no  current  of  air  through  them,  and  12  of  them  were  lighted  only  from  the  staircase. 
These  circumstances  were  quite  sufficient  to  accoimt  for  its  taking  a longer  time  than  usual  to  dry. 

With  respect  to  ventilation  and  artificial  warming,  it  was  quite  true  that  facilities  were  afforded 
by  the  system,  if  those  adopting  it  would  avail  themselves  of  them  ; but  that  they  were  more  necessary 
than  in  the  common  method  was  not  the  fact ; and  as  regarded  loss  of  draught  to  fires  by  the  floors 
not  affording  a supply  of  air,  it  struck  him  that  this  was  rather  an  advantage  than  otherwise,  as  cold 
draughts  to  the  feet  and  legs  were  always  objectionable ; indeed  Mr.  Christopher  himself  had  been 
one  of  the  first  to  point  out  this  as  an  advantage  of  the  system.  Certainly  this  had  never  been  com- 
plained of  by  any  one  else,  and  numerous  enquiries  had  satisfied  him  that  the  complaint  had  no  real 
existence.  In  speaking  of  North  woods,  Mr.  Christopher  had  stated  that  “ regarded  simply  as 
a residence,  it  was  most  comfortable.”  And  so  satisfied  were  the  Metropolitan  Association  for 
Improving  the  Dwellings  of  the  Working  Classes  with  this  system  of  construction,  in  one  of  their 
buildings  containing  186  rooms,  that  the  Secretary  had  written  as  follows : — 


72 


From  Mr.  Gatliff,  Secretary  of  the  Metropolitan  Association  for  Improving  the  Dwellings  of  the 

Industrious  Classes. 

“ In  reply  to  your  inquiry  as  to  the  success  of  your  fire-proof  flooring  in  the  186  rooms  in 
which  it  was  used  by  the  above  Asssociation,  I beg  to  say  that  an  accident  not  having  occurred  to  test 
its  qualities  in  that  particular,  I cannot  say  more  than  that  from  the  opinion  I have  formed,  I should 
recommend  its  adoption  in  between  3 and  400  more  rooms  about  to  be  constructed  by  this  Associa- 
tion in  Guy  Street,  in  the  Borough  of  Southwark,  and  more  especially  from  its  being  sound- proof,  which 
we  find  a great  inconvenience  from,  in  about  the  same  number  of  rooms  in  the  Old  St.  Pancras 
Boad.” 

It  was  stated  in  the  Ninth  Beport  of  the  Directors  of  this  Association,  that  in  the  family  dwellings 
above  referred  to,  providing  accommodation  for  60  families,  not  a single  death  had  occurred  in  the 
course  of  the  preceding  year,  out  of  an  average  population  of  300 ; a circumstance  which  may  be  pre- 
sumed to  indicate  that  the  system  is  not  without  its  advantages  as  regards  the  health  and  comfort  of 
the  occupants  : and  besides  the  circumstance  of  the  building  being  fire-proof,  the  Association  has 
found  that  on  certain  other  points  this  system  of  construction  possesses  advantages  which  are  of  much 
importance  in  buildings  of  this  character,  being  “ very  instrumental  in  preventing  the  travelling  of 
sound  from  floor  to  floor,  of  vermin,  of  offensive  smells,  and  of  the  filtration  of  water  in  case  of 
accident  from  the  overflowing  of  cisterns  or  otherwise.”  These  floors  had  a boarded  finished  surface. 

These  facts  he  thought  rather  indicated  that  the  system  was  advantageous  as  regarded  the  health 
of  the  occupants  of  the  buildings,  and  this  could  not  be  said  of  smoky  and  ill-ventilated  dwellings. 

The  alleged  necessity  for  better  foundations  and  ties,  was  perhaps  best  met  by  the  letters  already 
quoted : they  were  not  provided  in  the  five-story  building  mentioned  at  the  last  meeting,  nor  at  the 
large  Hotel  at  Carlisle,  lately  erected  by  Mr.  Saivin  ; and  he  referred  particularly  to  these  two  works, 
because  the  plans  of  both  were  originally  prepared  for  timber  floors,  and  no  alterations  were  made  by 
the  introduction  of  the  fire  proof  system ; nor  could  he  find  that  they  had  been  increased  in  any 
instance.  In  the  original  building  at  Northwoods,  and  many  others,  no  ties  whatever  were  provided. 

As  to  the  License,  although  the  charge  was  rather  for  the  information  supplied,  yet  it  could  easily 
be  shewn  that  it  was  soon  repaid  by  the  saving  in  the  fire-insurance.  This  saving  on  the  building  in 
the  Adelphi  was  £4.  10s.  per  annum,  repaying  the  charge  in  less  than  seven  years,  and  after  that  time 
becoming  an  annual  saving  to  that  extent  in  perpetuity. 

The  charge  for  cutting  and  trimming  joists  was  certainly  an  error,  as  the  castings  were  not  adapted 
for  trimming ; the  building  had  been  altered  during  its  progress,  and  some  little  expense  might  possibly 
have  been  incurred  on  that  ground.  The  painting  of  the  joists  was  by  no  means  necessary. 

Upon  the  question  of  cost,  Mr.  Christopher  had  stated  that  the  estimates  were  not  to  be  depended 
on,  and  he  had  given  a calculation  of  his  own,  making  additions,  to  every  one  of  which  he,  Mr.  Barrett, 
altogether  demurred,  and  for  which  he  had  shewn  there  was  no  foundation,  as  they  had  not  been 
incurred  by  any  other  architects.  The  figures  he  had  originally  given  in  page  46,  spoke  for  themselves, 
and  showed  the  cost  with  the  iron  of  the  strength  he  usually  employed,  and  also  of  that  used 
in  Paris.  He  did  not  however  recommend  a reduction  to  their  standard,  but  had  stated  that  some 
reduction  might  very  safely  be  made,  and  he  had  actually  had  floors  constructed  with  joists  25  per 
cent  less  in  strength  than  those  which  formed  the  basis  of  his  calculations,  and  with  perfectly  satis- 
factory results.  He  had  no  doubt  whatever  that  the  joists  he  used  were  much  in  excess  in  point  of 
strength,  and  he  was  confirmed  in  this  view  by  the  fact  that  those  of  extra  strength  described  in 
Mr.  Burnell’s  table  as  employed  at  the  Louvre  (see  page  54)  were  not  so  strong  as  those  he  had  employed 


73 


for  ordinary  dwelling-houses.  Mr.  Christopher’s  conclusions  were  therefore  altogether  erroneous  as 
to  the  possibility  of  reducing  the  strength,  and  the  cost  of  the  iron  work  fixed,  Mr.  Barrett  had  actu- 
ally reckoned  at  10s.  per  ton  more  than  the  price  at  which  it  had  been  lately  undertaken.  The  cost 
of  the  roof,  the  cement  covering  of  which  had  failed,  was  according  to  Mr.  Christopher’s  own  state- 
ments as  follows : — 

“ The  roof  with  ceilings  and  cement  surface  had  cost  £74  ; While  an  ordinary  slated  roof  with 
coiling,  would  have  cost  £232  ; and  a lead  roof  would  have  cost  £300”.  If  the  cost  of  an  additional 
covering  of  metallic  lava  £40  were  added  to  the  cost  of  the  roof  with  a cement  surface  £74,  the  total 
cost  would  be  £114,  against  £232,  shewing  a saving  of  £118  or  £3  per  square  on  the  quantity  of 
flooring  in  the  building. 

Mr.  Christopher  had  stated  that  the  object  of  this  discussion  was  to  ascertain  the  truth,  but  this 
could  only  be  done  by  the  whole  truth  being  stated,  and  that  Mr.  Barrett  must  contend  had  not  been 
done  in  the  several  objections  he  had  raised. 

Mr.  Scoles,  Hon.  Sec.  inquired  whether  concrete  had  been  really  found  to  be  fire-proof,  and 
stated  that  a large  mass  which  he  had  put  into  an  ordinary  fire  had  crumbled  entirely  in  less  than 
five  minutes. 

Mr.  Babeett  argued  that  this  was  not  a conclusive  test,  indeed  the  plaster  slabs  mentioned  by 
Mr.  Wyatt  at  a previous  meeting  would  have  been  destroyed  under  similar  circumstances.  It  was  in 
evidence  that  his  concrete  floors  would  be  protected  by  the  plaster  ceiling,  and  where  injury  had  arisen 
it  was  only  by  the  long  continued  action  of  fires  made  for  drying  the  plastering  of  the  walls. 

Me.  Papwobth  observed  that  in  his  opinion  no  really  fire-proof  floor  or  roof  had  yet  been 
mentioned.  An  Obelisk  erected  in  1776  on  Putney  Heath,  by  order  of  the  Corporation  of  London, 
commemorated  the  satisfaction  felt  by  committees  of  that  body  with  experiments  made  in  1776, 
described  in  a pamphlet,  printed  in  1785,  and  entitled  “ an  account  of  the  invention  and  use  of  fire- 
plates  for  the  security  of  buildings  and  ships  against  fire.”  The  author,  Mr.  David  Hartley,  was 
Member  of  Parliament  for  Hull.  A reprint  with  additions  by  his  nephew  in  1834,  stated  that  “ resist- 
ance to  every  possible  degree  of  fire,  such  as  in  distillers’  shops,  or  turpentine  warehouses,  may  be 
accomplished  by  applying  the  fireplates  above  and  below  the  timbers  with  dry  sand  or  rubbish 
between  them  : in  experiments  repeatedly  tried  with  this  double  application,  the  room  was  filled  from 
the  floor  to  the  ceiling  with  faggots  and  pitch  and  tar.  As  to  common  dwelling  houses  ; when  the 
single  application  of  the  fireplates  was  used  in  the  experimental  house,  where  also  air  bricks  were  pro- 
vided to  the  floors,  the  trials  were  continued  from  day  to  day  to  the  same  part  of  the  ceiling  and 
timbers  of  the  house  a great  number  of  times  after  the  plasterwork  was  burnt  down  and  destroyed, 
but  the  timbers  could  never  be  set  fire  to,  so  as  to  burn  of  themselves,  nor  could  the  fire  ever  spread 
sideways  ; as  long  as  the  burning  faggots  were  applied  to  the  timbers,  they  were  charred  perhaps  to  the 
depth  of  an  inch  of  their  substance ; but  the  fireplates  over  them  acted  as  an  unconquerable  extin- 
guisher, preventing  them  from  taking  fire  and  burning  of  themselves.”  Boiled  copper-plates  are 
specified  as  well  as  those  of  painted  iron  ; tinned  or  galvanized  iron  or  zinc  would  be  equally  applicable. 
In  1774,  the  sum  of  £2500  was  voted  to  the  inventor  by  the  House  of  Commons,  and  in  1777,  the 
patent  was  extended  for  thirty-one  years  from  that  time.  The  experiments  he  made  however  shewed 
that  the  only  way  to  check  a fire  was  to  prevent  the  access  of  air ; for  flame  would  inevitably  calcine 
such  materials  as  concrete  and  plaster.  The  various  systems  of  iron  flooring  which  had  been  discussed 
were  valuable  as  precautionary  measures,  and  worthy  of  attention,  and  Mr.  Papworth  had,  therefore, 
much  pleasure  in  moving  the  thanks  of  the  meeting  to  Mr.  Burnell  and  Mr.  Barrett  for  their  com- 
munications. 


74 


Mr.  H.  H.  Burnell  explained,  that  although  violent  and  long  continued  heat  would  destroy 
the  French  floors,  yet  the  earthenware  pots  would  be  a great  impediment  to  the  spread  of  any 
moderate  fire. 

Mr.  Tarring,  Fellow  said,  that  in  the  West  of  England  where  concrete  or  lime  ash  floors  were 
much  used  in  common  houses,  the  concrete  failed  or  became  rotten  in  the  parts  nearest  to  the  fire-place, 
hut  when  formed  of  lime  mixed  with  sand  and  hair,  it  would  last  longer  in  that  position  than  when 
composed  of  gravel.  Plaster  ceilings  would  resist  fire,  hut  cement  would  not,  as  that  material  soon 
yielded  to  heat.  In  old  malt  houses  in  the  West  of  England,  with  concrete  floors  5 to  6 inches  in 
thickness,  he  had  seen  the  walls  though  built  of  stone  2 ft.  6 in.  to  3 feet  thick,  bulged  out  three  to 
four  inches  on  each  side  by  the  expansion  of  the  concrete. 

The  Chairman  reminded  the  meeting  of  the  different  effect  which  fire  would  produce  on  timber 
and  on  metal,  from  the  former  being  a nonconductor  and  the  latter  a conductor  of  heat.  Such  effect 
should  be  guarded  against  in  a fire-proof  construction,  so  that  the  metal  might  not  conduct  the  heat 
to  the  wood.  Experience  had  shewn  that  in  the  event  of  a fire  breaking  out,  the  grand  object  was  to 
get  it  under  within  the  first  quarter  of  an  hour,  and  to  aid  in  accomplishing  this,  the  Building  Act 
had  wisely  restricted  the  cubical  contents  of  each  division  to  be  separated  by  walls  in  warehouses  and 
similar  buildings. 

At  the  suggestion  of  the  Chairman,  the  vote  of  thanks  was  extended  to  all  the  Foreign  and 
English  gentlemen  who  had  furnished  remarks  upon  the  subject,  and  the  meeting  then  adjourned. 


Note. — Mr.  Christopher  thinks  that  the  apparent  difference  in  the  testimony  borne  by  Mr.  Wyatt  and  by  himself  in  reference 
to  Fox  and  Barrett’s  patent  may  probably  be  explained  by  the  fact  that  Mr.  Christopher’s  experience  has  been  almost  wholly 
confined  to  London,  while  Mr.  Wyatt’s  appears  to  have  been  restricted  to  the  country.  In  London  the  frequently  disturbed 
state  of  the  soil  and  the  height  of  the  buildings  require  extra  foundations,  while  the  numerous  windows,  confined  to  the  hacks 
and  fronts  with  small  piers  of  separation,  and  many  difficulties  of  construction,  demand  extra  iron  bonds.  The  long  unpierced 
party  walls,  the  contracted  areas  at  the  backs  of  the  houses,  and  the  want  of  sun  in  front,  retard  the  drying,  while  the  same 
causes,  coupled  with  the  smallness  of  the  rooms  in  chambers  and  dwelling-houses,  compared  with  the  large  dormitories  and 
corridors  in  Asylums  will,  in  some  measure,  explain  why  the  loss  of  draught  to  the  fires  from  the  absence  of  hollow  floors  and 
partitions  is  so  felt  in  these  solid  houses.  Mr.  Christopher  thinks  that  none  of  these  difficulties  would  occur  at  Northwoods, 
situated  in  the  midst  of  a park,  or  to  the  buildings  which  Mr.  Wyatt,  Mr.  Clark  and  others,  have  superintended  in  the  country  - 
Mr.  Christopher  wishes  to  state  that  neither  pains  nor  expense  were  spared  to  secure  the  most  perfect  execution  of  the  buildings 
carried  up  under  his  superintendence  in  respect  to  materials  and  workmanship. 


A BRIEF  ACCOUNT  OF  THE  PALACES  OP  THE  LOUVRE  AND  T CILERIES,  PARIS, 
PROM  THEIR  FIRST  ERECTION  TO  THE  PRESENT  TIME;  WITH  A GENERAL 
DESCRIPTION  OP  VARIOUS  PROJECTS  POR  THEIR  COMPLETION  AND 
JUNCTION,  PARTICULARLY  THE  ONE  ACCORDING  TO  THE  DESIGNS  OP  THE 
LATE  MONSIEUR  VISCONTI,  HONORARY  AND  CORRESPONDING  MEMBER, 
NOW  IN  COURSE  OF  ERECTION. 

By  T.  L.  Donaldson,  Honorary  Secretary  for  Foreign  Correspondence. 

Read  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  6th  March,  1854. 

First  Epoch,  or,  The  Pettdal. 

A Map,  supposed  to  be  of  the  period  of  Dagobert  the  1st.,  the  authenticity  of  which,  however,  is  much 
contested,  would  lead  to  the  supposition,  that  the  Louvre  already  existed  as  a hunting  palace  at  that 
time — that  is,  a.d.  633.  But  the  first  precise  mention  of  the  Louvre  would  appear  to  be  under  Louis 
le  Gros,  1108,  who  received  the  oaths  of  fidelity  to  him  at  the  Louvre,  at  that  time  regarded  as  an 
important  fortress.  It  was  placed  just  outside  the  town,  on  the  bank  of  the  Seine,  where  its  position 
commanded  the  approach  to  Paris  on  this  side,  and  defended  the  city  from  the  attacks  on  this  quarter, 
the  main  road  passing  inside  its  exterior  defences. 

Philip  Augustus  (1180-1223)  rebuilt  and  made  considerable  additions  to  it.  He  constructed  the 
great  Donjon  tower  in  the  centre,  as  a state  prison,  and  for  the  safety  of  his  treasure,  96  ft.  high  and 
48  ft.  in  diameter,  the  walls  being  13  ft.  thick  at  bottom  and  12  ft.  at  top,  and  surrounded  by 
a ditch. 

Charles  V.  (1370-80)  was  the  first  king  after  Philip  Augustus,  who  embellished  the  Louvre, 
hitherto  more  distinguished  as  a strong  fortress  than  a kingly  residence  attractive  by  the  graces  of  art 
and  embellishments  of  taste.  The  reign  of  this  king  was  most  favourable  for  architecture  and 
sculpture,  as  he  was  fond  of  the  magnificence  of  the  kingly  state,  and  loved  the  arts  as  adding  to  its 
value  and  conferring  true  beauty.  He  enlarged  and  adorned  many  royal  residences,  and  erected  many 
castles,  as  those  of  Creil  and  of  the  Bastille.  He  added  considerably  to  Vincennes.  Mons.  De  Clarac 
gives  a plan  of  the  chateau  of  the  Louvre,  founded  on  the  works  of  Sauval,  who  wrote  at  the  time  of 
Louis  XIV,  and  whose  book  is  intitled  “ (Euvres  Royales and  although  Sauval  has  no  plan,  he  is  so 
minutely  particularly  in  his  description  of  each  portion  of  the  castle  and  dependencies  as  to  afford 
authority  for  every  part.  The  enclosure  of  the  Louvre,  comprehending  the  fosses,  but  exclusive  of  the 
outer  works,  was  nearly  square,  measuring  360  ft.  towards  the  river,  and  342  ft.  in  the  other  direction. 
At  the  angle  of  the  outworks  next  Paris,  and  close  to  the  Seine,  there  was  a lofty  tower,  opposite  to  a 
corresponding  one,  the  Tour  de  Nesle,  on  the  other  side  of  the  river,  and  which  forms  a prominent 
object  in  the  old  prints  of  Paris  by  Silvestre  and  others,  a line  of  wall  fortified  by  towers  afforded 
security  from  attack  on  the  side  next  the  river,  and  formed  an  enclosed  space  outside  the  chateau. 
This  angle  tower  was  possibly  the  Tour  de  Vindal  of  those  times,  and,  as  a leading  position,  probably 
had  under  it  the  sluice  gates,  which  regulated  the  quantity  of  water  in  the  fosses  secure  from  any 
attack,  which  might  leave  the  ditches  dry.  Attached  to  it  was  the  Gate  of  Paris,  flanked  by  circular 
towers,  and  a corresponding  one,  the  Porte  Neuve,  was  at  the  other  end  of  the  court. 

Near  the  Gate  of  Paris  is  an  entrance  into  one  of  the  “ bassecours”  of  the  chateau,  leading  to  the 
gate  of  the  tete  du  pont,  close  to  the  central  towers  of  the  fa?ade  facing  the  river.  Here,  also,  was  an 
entrance  to  the  gardens  laid  out  in  beds,  with  a trellis  at  the  further  end,  and  immediately  in  connexion 


I 


76 


with  the  dependencies.  It  will  be  remarked  that  this  gate  at  the  tete  du  pont  has  a lateral  entrance, 
not  immediately  fronting  the  entrance  towers  of  the  castle,  a precaution  observable  in  other  castles, 
as  affording  greater  security  to  the  approaches. 

The  fosses  were  not  all  of  equal  width,  varying  from  32  ft.  to  48  ft.  wide,  and  about  20  ft.  deep. 
On  the  side  next  Paris  were  the  offices  of  the  chateau  outside  the  fosse,  and  containing  those  depen- 
dencies required  for  the  service  of  the  Royal  Family.  Towards  the  north  and  outside  the  fosse  was 
the  “ grand  jar  din,"  or  grand  park,  and,  being  outside  the  city,  it  produced  abundance  of  vegetables, 
fruits,  and  flowers.  On  the  west  side,  and  near  its  south-west  angle,  was  the  arsenal  of  the  artillery 
establishment,  with  courts  and  buildings  necessary  for  all  the  works,  as  the  foundry,  stores,  and  work- 
shops, &c.  connected  with  that  arm  of  military  warfare  ; and  attached  to  it  was  an  ample  residence 
and  garden  for  the  master  of  the  artillery. 

Near  the  street  of  the  Froidmanteau  there  was,  ever  since  1333,  the  menagerie,  a usual  appendage 
to  royal  residences  of  that  period,  and  which  also  remained  in  the  Tower  of  London  up  to  within  our 
own  time.  Here  were  kept  rare  animals,  brought  at  a great  expence  from  foreign  lands,  which  served 
as  a curious  show,  and  sometimes  afforded  sport  by  being  made  to  fight  each  other.  Charles  Y.  had 
one  in  his  Hotel  de  S.  Paul,  a record  of  which  is  retained  in  the  name  of  a street,  Hue  des  Lions,  which 
was  carried  through  the  spot  formerly  occupied  by  the  menageries  : so  frequent  is  it  that  names  of 
streets  hand  down  traditionally  the  former  purposes  for  which  certain  sites  once  served.  Having  thus 
generally  noticed  the  arrangements  connected  with  the  fortifications  and  the  domestic  arrangements  of 
the  basse  cour,  gardens,  and  arsenal,  &c.,  we  shall  proceed  to  examine  the  body  of  the  castle  itself. 

The  central  court  was  about  206  ft.  x 197  ft.  square,  entirely  surrounded  by  buildings,  with  the 
central  Donjon  in  the  middle.  Raimond  du  Temple  was  the  master  of  the  works,  or  architect  to 
Charles  V.,  and  executed  the  various  additions  and  alterations  which  were  made  at  this  time,  not  only 
to  the  chateau  of  the  Louvre,  but  also  to  that  of  Vincennes.  The  several  towers  had  each  a specific 
name,  particularly  those  at  the  angles,  which  were  called  respectively  next  S.  Nicholas,  next  the 
Seine,  next  the  great  garden,  according  to  their  position,  and  are  represented  in  various  views  of 
remote  periods  as  still  existing,  as  in  those  of  Quesnel,  Sylvestre,  &c.,  in  various  manuscripts  as  late 
as  the  16th  century. 

Each  entrance  was  flanked  by  two  towers,  but  that  towards  the  Seine  being  the  principal  one,  was 
strengthened  by  being  of  larger  dimensions.  Over  the  centre  was  apparently  the  clock  tower  ; probably 
the  clock  was  placed  there  by  Charles  Y.  about  1370,  when  public  clocks  were  first  generally  introduced 
in  Paris,  for  doubtless  that  enlightened  prince,  the  first  to  patronize  any  novel  invention,  had  one 
placed  at  the  Palace  by  Henri  de  Yie. 

On  the  west  side  there  would  appear  to  have  been  an  entrance  equally  important  with  that  next  the 
river,  flanked  by  two  towers,  with  a drawbridge  and  two  turrets,  forming,  as  it  were,  a tete  du  pont ; 
and  there  is  an  ample  open  court  or  space  outside  the  precincts  of  the  castle,  next  the  Rue  Froidinanteau, 
affording  access  to  the  artillery  arsenal,  and  the  menagerie  already  mentioned. 

On  the  north  side  there  was  only  a secondary  class  of  exit  for  the  purpose  of  reaching  the  great 
garden  over  a light  bridge. 

On  the  east  side  is  a central  secondary  entrance,  flanked  on  the  outside,  and  leading  by  a 
drawbridge  to  the  domestic  offices,  an  arrangement  apparently  founded  on  the  authority  of  Sauval’s 
description. 

The  central  Donjon  Tower  communicates  with  the  buildings,  which  surround  the  court  by  a 
bridge  and  a narrow  gallery  leading  to  a grand  circular  staircase  (la  grande  vis),  affording  access  to 
the  upper  floors.  It  was  in  a circular  tower,  61|  ft.  high,  with  a terrace  on  the  top.  This  staircase 


77 


which  existed  up  to  the  time  of  Louis  XIII.,  is  mentioned  by  Sauval  as  having  been  a chef  d’oeuvre 
of  Raimond  du  Temple,  the  architect  and  sculptor,  both  in  point  of  construction  and  decoration. 
There  were  ten  large  statues  on  pedestals ; the  mouldings  were  richly  carved. 

We  will  now  consider  the  arrangement  of  the  apartments,  on  the  authority  of  Sauval,  who 
appears,  according  to  the  registry  of  the  “ (Euvres  lioyaux,”  to  have  followed  the  order  of  the  several 
rooms  and  halls.  The  apartments  of  reception  and  ceremony  were  on  the  west  side,  the  apartments 
of  the  King  and  Queen  to  the  south,  next  the  river.  Those  of  the  Queen  on  the  east  side  of  the 
principal  entrance  consisted  of  two  large  chambers,  cabinets,  and  garderobes,  an  oratory,  and  bath. 
On  the  western  side  of  the  entrance  was  a noble  hall,  called  “ Salle  Neuve  de  la  Heine,” 
54  ft.  long  x 27  wide ; and  at  one  end  of  it  the  tower  of  the  Library,  to  which  there  was  access  by 
a small  circular  staircase  in  the  thickness  of  the  wall  from  a vestibule  opening  immediately  into  the 
court.  Although  dignified  with  the  name  of  Library,  the  apartment  destined  to  receive  books  was 
not  necessarily  large  in  extent ; for,  before  the  invention  of  printing,  as  all  books  were,  of  course,  in 
manuscript,  the  amplest  fortune  could  not  boast  a very  numerous  collection,  frequently  more  used  by 
the  chaplain  than  the  owner.  It  is  a question  whether  Charles  V.,  on  the  death  of  his  father,  John, 
had  ten  or  twenty  volumes.  About  one  hundred  years  before  printing  was  discovered,  nine  hundred 
volumes  was  a very  considerable  number.  Charles  V.  had  collected  them  from  all  countries ; he 
sought  those  most  beautifully  written  and  emblazoned,  and  had  them  richly  bound,  and  he  allowed 
any  one  the  privilege  to  consult  them  who  was  distinguished  by  his  learning,  or  known  to  be 
studious ; and  for  this  purpose  the  library  was  open  by  day,  and  in  the  evening.  It  is  a curious 
circumstance,  that  forty-nine  years  after  the  death  of  Charles  V. — that  is,  in  1429 — the  Duke  of 
Bedford,  then  Regent  of  the  kingdom,  purchased  the  collection  of  works,  then  only  853  in  number, 
which  were  sold  for  £2,323.  of  our  present  money,  and  sent  over  to  England.* 

It  may  be  well  imagined  that  this  Royal  residence  was  embellished  with  becoming  decorations, 
and  that  the  furniture,  fittings-up,  and  other  accompaniments  were  of  corresponding  beauty  and 
magnificence.  But  after  the  time  of  Charles  Y.  (1380)  it  was  much  neglected ; Charles  YI.  only 
added  to  the  fortifications,  and  the  immediately  succeeding  monarchs  no  longer  occupied  it  as  their 
residence. 

Second  Epoch,  or  The  Renaissance. 

We  now  enter  upon  the  second  epoch  in  the  history  of  the  Louvre,  which  had  hitherto  served  as 
a fortress  and  a castle. 

About  140  years  after  the  death  of  Charles  Y.  Francis  I.  mounted  the  throne ; he  was  a 
monarch,  wrho  deeply  felt  the  charms  of  art,  appreciated  their  value,  and  by  his  enlightened  taste 
created  a school,  which  has  held  ever  since  a first  rank  in  Europe.  He  turned  his  attention  to  the 
embellishment  of  Paris,  and  while  the  Popes  and  Medeci  were  promoting  the  fine  arts  in  Italy,  he 
encouraged  them  in  France,  and  by  his  favour  and  liberality  attracted  the  Italian  artists  to  France, 
where  they  found  an  honourable  reception. 

Francois  I.  perceived  at  once  the  vast  changes,  which  the  feudal  Castle  of  the  Louvre  required 
in  order  to  make  it  accord  with  the  wants  of  a more  refined  age.  He  resolved  to  destroy  the  greater 
portion,  and  to  rebuild  it  on  a new  plan.  In  fact,  it  is  generally  more  easy  and  judicious,  and  often 
also  less  expensive,  to  construct  an  edifice  altogether  anew  rather  than  to  make  ancient  constructions 
accord  with  new  arrangements. 


* On  this  matter  I am  kindly  referred  by  Sir  Henry  Ellis  to  the  following  work — Bibliotheque  Protypographique  ou 
Libraries  des  fils  du  Roi  Jean,  Charles  Y,  Jean  de  Barri,  Philippe  de  Bourgogne,  et  les  siens.  De  l'Imprimerie  de  Crapelet 
4to.  Paris,  1830.  The  name  of  J.  Barrois  is  attached  to  the  Preface. 


78 


D’ArgenviUe  is  of  opinion  that  the  new  works  were  commenced  about  1540 ; and  it  is  supposed 
that  Pierre  Lescot,  then  about  30  years  old,  had  charge  of  the  project.  But  during  the  reign  of  that 
monarch,  it  would  seem,  that  the  operations  rather  consisted  in  pulling  down  the  old  building,  and  in 
arranging  a noble  hall  in  it,  since  known,  from  its  decoration,  as  the  Salle  des  Caryatides.  Lescot 
continued  his  operations  under  Henri  II.,  Francois  II.,  Charles  IS.,  and  Henri  III.,  and  called  in 
aid  the  rare  talents  of  Jean  Goujon  and  Paul  Ponce  to  execute  the  sculptures.  Whether  Francois  I. 
contemplated  the  great  enlargement,  which  the  Louvre  subequently  received,  cannot  be  ascertained, 
as  the  plans  of  the  architect  have  not  been  preserved,  and  Lescot  only  operated  upon  the  south  and 
west  sides  of  the  old  chateau,  which  were  only  half  as  long  as  they  are  at  present.  He  gave  the 
elevations  the  renaissance  character  of  decoration,  converting  the  circular  angle  towers  into  simple 
flat  projections.  He  was  influenced  by  the  feelings  which  directed  the  architects  of  the  mediaeval 
period.  The  outside  of  their  chateaux  and  palaces  were  simple  and  severe,  defying  attack  ; but  they 
rendered  then-  interior  courts  more  rich  in  ornamental  detail,  as  being  secure  from  danger ; the 
windows  were  more  spacious  as  offering  no  facilities  to  any  enemy  in  that  position,  and  they  sought 
to  give  a more  cheerful  character,  where  the  sombre  appearance  of  the  building  would  have  offered 
no  advantages.  So  Lescot  made  his  exterior  plain  in  feature,  but  the  interior  of  the  court  revels  in 
excess  of  ornament,  profusely  lavished.  Columns  and  pilasters,  richly  carved  cornices,  pediments, 
imposts  and  panels,  statues,  bas  reliefs  and  sculptures  throughout,  produce  a dazzling  brilliancy,  which 
bewilders  the  attention  and  evinces  a great  want  of  repose.  But  Lescot  was  a great  master  in  his 
art,  and  for  his  noble  conceptions  was  made  Canon  of  the  Cathedral  of  Paris  and  Abbot  of  Clagny 
near  Versailles,  thus  uniting  the  crozier  to  the  T square.  Serlio,  who  was  in  France  at  this  period, 
is  supposed  to  have  been  occupied  upon  the  Louvre,  and  to  have  made  a design  for  it ; but  Lescot’s 
was  preferred,  even,  it  is  said,  with  the  concurrence  of  the  frank  Italian,  who  acknowledged,  as  it  is 
affirmed,  the  superiority  of  his  rival’s  desigu.  Serlio  died  in  1552,  passing  the  latter  years  of  his  life 
at  Lyons  and  Fontainebleau,  highly  respected  for  his  talent,  but  tormented  by  the  gout  and  miserably 
poor.  Parts  of  the  chateau  of  Fontainebleau  are  attributed  to  him. 

Catherine  de  Medici,  widow  of  Henri,  undertook  a work  about  1564,  which  hereafter  much 
influenced  all  operations  connected  with  the  Louvre,  and  of  which  it  was  henceforth  to  form  an 
integral  part.  This  Queen  determined  to  erect  a country  palace  just  outside  of  Paris,  but  not  too 
remote  from  the  Louvre,  in  a plain  where  there  were  certain  tile  kilns,  and  which  gave  the  name  to 
this  palace  of  the  kings  and  emperors  of  France — I mean  the  Tuileries.  She  called  in  the  taste  and 
skill  of  Philibert  de  l’Orme,  already  advantageously  known  under  Francois  I.  for  works  at  Fontainebleau, 
Meudon,  Villers  Cotterets,  in  the  tombs  of  the  Vallois,  and  for  the  chai’ming  gem,  the  chateau  d’Anet, 
which  he  built  for  Diane  de  Poictiers.  He  associated  with  him  Jean  Bullant,  a man  of  no  mean  repu- 
tation, and  they  together  designed  a magnificent  project,  of  which  they  executed  only  a fragment,  as  it 
were,  such  as  the  banqueting  house  of  Whitehall  is  to  the  grandiose  project  for  the  Palace  of  Charles  I., 
as  fully  designed  by  Inigo  Jones. 

The  complete  plan  for  the  Palace  of  the  Tuileries  of  Catherine  de  Medici  consisted  of  a parralel- 
logram  895  ft.  x 555  ft.,  with  three  courts,  the  central  one  being  much  larger  than  the  others,  as 
according  to  the  plan  in  Ducenean  and  Durand's  paralel  it  measures  377  ft.  X 295  ft.,  the  two  smaller 
ones  each  as  long  as  the  large  court  though  less  wide.  The  rooms  and  galleries  appear  to  be  from 
(10  m.  to  12  m.)  33  ft.  to  40  ft.  wide,  and  some  of  the  galleries  426  ft.  long  X 36  ft.  wide,  with  noble 
staircases,  chapels  and  other  palatial  arrangements  on  the  most  magnificent  scale.  One  front  only, 
however,  was  executed  of  this  stupendous  project,  the  rest,  had  it  been  carried  into  effect,  would  have 
occupied  a considerable  portion,  at  least  one-third,  of  the  present  court  of  the  Carousel.  This  gigantic 


79 


conception,  even  in  its  reduced  part,  was  incomplete  when.  Delorme  died,  in  1570,  and  never  inhabited 
by  the  Dowager  Queen,  whose  capricious  taste  was  taken  up  with  the  erection  of  another  palace  upon 
the  site  of  the  present  “ Halle  au  bled,”  first  called  the  Hotel  de  la  Heine  and  afterwards  the  Hotel  de 
Poisson,  the  expense  of  which  absorbed  the  funds  intended  for  the  Tuilcries. 

It  was  during  the  progress  of  these  worhi  that  an  addition  was  made  to  the  Louvre,  by  bringing 
out  from  its  S.  W.  angle  the  gallery  which  runs  down  towards  the  Seine.  It  was  only  one  story 
high,  covered  by  a terrace,  like  the  projecting  wings  of  the  Palazzo  Pitti,  of  Florence,  which  possibly 
gave  rise  to  the  idea  in  the  mind  of  the  Queen,  a Florentine  by  birth. 

At  this  period  then  the  Louvre  and  Tuileries  present  the  following  aspect.  We  find  the  W.  and 
S.  sides  of  the  chateau  as  they  were  modernised  by  Lescot,  under  Francois  I.  and  Henry  II. ; but  the 
other  sides  of  the  chateau  presented  still  the  aspect  of  a fortress  or  prison,  although  many  of  its  towers 
had  been  taken  down.  The  projecting  gallery  struck  out  from  the  S.  W.  corner  towards  the  Seine, 
and  some  imagine  that  possibly  it  was  continued  for  a certain  length  along  the  side  of  the  river.  In 
the  distance  was  the  fragment  of  the  Tuileries  contemplated  by  Catherine  de  Medici,  and  partly 
erected  by  Philibert  De  Lorme  and  Jean  Bullant.  Such  was  the  state  of  these  two  palaces,  when 
Henry  IY.  mounted  the  throne ; and  as  soon  as  he  was  at  leisure,  he  determined  energetically  to 
embellish  that  Paris,  which  he  had  purchased  at  the  sacrifice  of  his  religion.  He  carried  out  the 
works,  that  united  the  two  palaces  by  continuing  the  gallery  along  the  bank  of  the  Seine,  and 
prolonging  that  end  of  the  Tuileries.  He  added  an  upper  story  to  the  projecting  wing  of  the  Louvre, 
at  the  S.  W.  corner,  upon  which  works  Du  Cer^eau  was  first  employed,  until  he  left  France  in  1598. 
Du  Cer<jeau  was  succeeded  by  Du  Perac,  and  after  him  in  1602  Metezeau  took  part  in  these 
operations.  Henry  IY.  also  completed  the  Pont  Neuf  and  the  Hotel  de  Yille.  It  is  also  worthy  of 
incidental  notice,  that  Cosmo  II,  Grand  Duke  of  Tuscany,  from  the  affection  he  bore  to  Henry  IY, 
who  had  married  Marie  de  Medicis,  after  his  death  sent  an  equestrian  statue  to  Paris,  when 
Louis  XIII.  ascended  the  throne,  and  this  was  the  first  monument  of  the  sort  put  up  at  Paris  in 
memory  of  the  French  monarchs. 

It  was  under  the  son  of  Henri  IY.  that  the  Louvre  first  commenced  its  development  upon  its 
present  large  scale.  During  the  able  ministry  of  Richelieu  its  present  extent  was  contemplated,  which 
rendered  its  court  four  times  the  size  of  its  original  dimension.  Le  Mercier  was  employed  as  the 
architect,  and  he  extended  the  two  sides  already  altered  and  faced  by  Pierre  Lescot,  and  completed 
the  square  by  adding  the  two  other  long  sides ; the  principal  entrance  was  under  the  Central  Pavilion, 
next  the  Tuileries.  This  however  he  rendered  overpoweringly  lofty  by  adding  an  attic  with  colossal 
caryatides,  which  crush  by  their  gigantic  proportions  the  details  of  the  lower  stories.  Le  Mercier 
only  executed  the  entrance  story  of  these  new  parts,  and  pulled  down  the  Northern  and  Eastern  sides 
of  the  old  chateau.  The  grand  entrance  in  the  centre  of  the  North  side  is  enriched  with  coupled 
Ionic  columns,  the  idea  of  the  wrhole  arrangement  being  supposed  by  Argenville  to  have  been  inspired 
by  the  entrance  vestibule  of  the  Farnese  Palace,  at  Rome,  and  somewhat  similar  to  the  more  recent 
noble  entrance  vestibule  of  our  Somerset  House,  by  Sir  W.  Chambers,  which  it  might  perhaps  have 
suggested. 

In  1660,  that  is  after  thirty-six  years’  service  in  works  of  the  highest  order,  carried  out  with  the 
greatest  talent,  Le  Mercier  died  wretchedly  poor  like  his  predecessor  Serlio.  At  this  time  Louis  XIV. 
reigned,  and  Le  Y au  was  directed  to  continue  the  works  at  the  Louvre,  and  he  carried  them  on  with 
an  activity  which  was  peculiarly  his  characteristic.  He  also  extended  Northwards  the  Palace  of  the 
Tuileries,  so  as  to  correspond  with  and  equal  in  length  the  South  end,  already  erected  by  Henri  IY. 
But  in  1664,  the  great  Colbert  being  minister,  a man  of  enlarged  ideas  and  noble  conceptions,  found 


80 


that  the  style  of  Le  Yau  was  not  sufficiently  dignified,  and  did  not  correspond  with  the  magnificence, 
which  should  distinguish  a royal  palace.  Although  immense  sums  had  been  expended  by  Le  Vau,  he 
determined  at  once  to  stop  the  works  and  reconsider  the  design,  which  had  been  too  hastily  adopted, 
convinced  that  posterity  did  not  at  all  consider  the  cost  of  a building,  if  its  beauty  answered 
expectation,  whereas  no  consideration  of  economy  ever  reconciles  after  ages  to  an  unsightly  inap- 
propriate edifice. 

Thied  Epoch,  oe  The  Extension. 

Colbert  consequently  determined  to  throw  open  the  whole  matter  to  public  competition,  and  the 
architects  of  Paris  were  invited  to  send  in  designs.  It  appeared,  however,  that  although  the  profes- 
sional brethren  of  Le  Yau  had  been  willing  and  ready  to  prove,  by  very  sound  arguments  and 
criticisms,  the  defects  of  Le  Vau’s  design,  they  were  incompetent  to  conceive  others  of  superior  merit, 
aud  they  were  rejected.  But  there  was  an  eminent  physician,  a mere  amateur  of  art,  who  submitted 
a project,  which,  novel  in  idea,  bold  in  conception  and  dignified  in  character,  seemed  to  equal  the 
expectations  of  the  magnificent  Louis  XIV.  and  his  minister.  Claude  Perrault,  supported  by  the 
personal  influence  of  his  brother  Charles,  who  was  Secretary  to  Colbert,  was  fortunate  enough  to  have 
his  plan  regarded  with  great  favour,  particularly  as  Le  Vau’s,  which  had  been  sent  to  Home  to  Nicolas 
Poussin  to  submit  to  the  judgment  of  the  architects  there,  had  been  generally  condemned.  Then  the 
artists  of  Italy  were  invited  to  submit  designs  for  the  completion  of  the  Louvre ; and  although 
numerous  projects  were  sent  in,  still  it  appeared  that  the  Italian  artists,  yielding  to  too  lively  and 
irregulated  a fancy,  did  not  limit  themselves  to  practical  ideas,  but  gave  themselves  up  to  fantastic 
notions,  which  did  not  fulfil  any  of  the  conditions  and  restrictions  required  by  the  actual  state  of  the 
buildirig. 

Louis  XIV.  and  his  advisers,  disappointed  at  this  result,  and  distrusting  their  own  judgment  as  to 
the  design  of  their  own  countryman  Perrault,  a physician,  and  not  an  architect  by  profession,  were 
anxious  to  try  whether  the  palace  of  the  capital  of  Prance  might  not  find  its  architect,  worthy  of 
its  high  importance,  in  the  illustrious  genius  of  Home,  who  had  added  so  much  magnificence  to 
S.  Peter’s  by  the  enchanting  porticoes  of  its  fore-court,  and  had  embellished  Borne  and  other  parts  of 
Italy  by  conceptions  of  the  highest  class.  Borne  was  essentially  the  republic  of  the  fine  arts  in  all 
periods.  Sculptor,  decorator,  painter,  or  what  not,  every  one  conceived  himself  capable  of  being  an 
architect ; and  Borne  owes  some  of  its  most  remarkable,  though,  perhaps,  not  its  most  beautiful 
monuments,  to  men  who,  without  going  through  the  preparatory  ordeal  of  professional  study  and 
apprenticeship,  had  the  courage — perhaps  I should  say  temerity — to  think  themselves  competent, 
prepared  designs,  and,  by  favour,  were  appointed  to  execute  them. 

Bernini,  then  in  the  ascendant,  had  certainly,  by  his  colonade  of  St.  Peter’s,  the  Baldachino,  and 
staircase  of  the  Vatican,  and  the  Church  of  l’Arricia,  proved  that  he  combined  fancy  with  judgment, 
skill,  and  taste,  to  a very  eminent  degree.  His  reputation  dazzled  the  French  King ; and  Bernini  was 
invited  to  come  to  Paris  to  see  the  Louvre,  and  prepare  a design.  The  cavaliere  anticipated  a Caesar’s 
victory,  and  the  “ veni,  vidi,  vici,”  result  of  the  Great  Eoman.  His  journey  to  Paris  was  a triumphal 
progress.  Deputations  went  out  to  meet  him  with  speeches  and  memorials,  as  he  approached  the  prin- 
cipal cities  of  Italy  and  France.  When  he  neared  Paris,  an  officer  of  the  Court  offered  him  the 
greetings  of  the  “ Grand  Monarque,”  and  a royal  equipage  and  princely  retinue  conducted  the  no  less 
illustrious  artist  to  the  anticipated  scene  of  his  future  triumphal  glory,  where  a noble  mansion  and 
munificent  allowances  awaited  him  and  his  assistants.  But  although  caressed  by  the  king  and  Colbert 
and  the  courtiers  around  the  royal  presence,  the  noble  minded  Bernini  found  that  there  were  attacks 


81 


which  genius,  generosity,  and  frankness  could  not  resist.  The  men  he  was  brought  to  supplant  called 
in  question  his  talent,  caricatured  and  maligned  his  intentions,  defamed  his  works  ; a tide  of  defamation 
set  in  upon  him.  Under  such  unexpected  malignant  persecution,  his  imagination  left  him ; he  made 
a design,  given  in  Durand’s  Parallel,  which  too  much  ignored  all  that  had  been  done  before.  Although 
remarkable  for  simplicity,  and  nobleness  of  plan,  and  breadth  of  effect  in  the  elevations,  it  certainly 
did  not  answer  the  expectation  formed,  and  he  soon  left  Paris  disappointed,  yet  not  without  munificent 
tokens  of  the  regard  and  esteem  of  Louis  XIY.  and  his  courtiers,  who  admired  his  brilliant  talents, 
and  respected  his  fine  personal  character. 

Perrault  then  resumed  the  place,  which  his  previous  success  had  gained  him.  His  plans  were 
adopted,  and  on  the  17th  October,  1665,  Louis  XIY.  laid  the  first  stone  with  great  ceremony ; and  so 
great  had  become  the  impatience  to  which  all  the  above-mentioned  obstacles  had  given  rise,  that  the 
works  were  commenced,  and  carried  on  with  such  order,  that  the  new  faqade  with  the  colonnade  was 
completed  in  five  years.  It  would  seem  that  Perrault  had  adhered  to  the  plan  originally  laid  out  by 
Le  Mesurier  and  carried  on  by  Le  Yau,  and  had  merely  increased  the  depth  of  the  mass  of  buildings 
on  the  south  and  east  sides  of  the  Court.  I shall  not  stop  to  describe  the  features  of  Perrault’ s design, 
so  well  known  to  those,  who  have  visited  Paris  and  admired  the  noble  colonnade  of  the  Louvre.  I 
shall  only  allude  to  one  remarkable  evidence  of  the  character  of  the  execution.  The  two  inclined 
cornices  of  the  central  pediment  consists  each  of  a single  block  of  stone,  54  French  ft.  long,  8 ft.  broad, 
and  18  in.  deep.  Practical  men  will  understand  the  difficulty  of  raising  such  colossal  masses  100  ft. 
high  and  setting  them  in  their  place ; and  it  is  but  just  to  bear  this  testimony  to  the  architects  of  this 
period,  that  the  constructions  executed  for  Louis  XIY.,  though  carried  on  with  extreme  haste,  are  of 
the  most  solid,  durable,  and  substantial  nature  : they  were  composed  of  the  best  materials,  set  out  with 
all  the  most  intricate  skill  of  their  celebrated  science  of  the  “ coupe  des  Pierres.”  I inspected  a portion 
of  the  grand  flight  of  steps  of  the  terraces  of  Versailles  with  my  friend  Mons.  Xepveu,  under  whose 
direction  that  palace,  during  the  reign  of  Louis  Philippe,  underwent  considerable  alterations  and 
received  extensive  additions.  That  gentleman  pointed  out  to  me  the  extreme  care,  regardless  of 
expense,  with  which  the  constructions  generally  of  Louis  XIY.  were  executed,  and  he  assured  me 
that  the  whole  palace  was  carried  out  with  the  like  scientific  skill  and  attention. 

The  Louvre,  by  1671,  received  its  external  coating  of  the  colonnade,  and  had  had  £380,000 
expended  upon  this  new  part,  without  receiving  any  of  the  internal  fittings  ; in  fact,  we  may  consider 
that  Perrault  had  laid  out  an  amount  equal  to  £800,000  of  our  time,  on  the  mere  carcase,  as  it  were,  of  his 
operations  during  these  eight  years.  But  a new  fancy,  and  that  one  no  trifling  project,  had  been  begun 
about  the  same  time  as  the  Louvre — I mean  the  new  Palace  of  Versailles,  where  Louis  XIV.  wished 
to  create  a new  city  and  palace  for  the  residence  of  himself  and  courtiers,  in  the  midst  of  a sandy 
barren  desert.  In  twenty-seven  years  Versailles  absorbed  £3,246,000.  money  of  that  period, 
which  we  may  consider  equal  to  seven  millions  of  the  present  time.  About  £900,000  of  our  money 
were  expended  in  the  year  1686  alone.  This  new  project  cast  into  the  shade  the  old  Louvre  of  his 
ancestors,  and  as  the  purse,  even  of  Louis  XIV.,  could  not  bear  the  continued  drain  of  two  such 
palaces,  the  Louvre  was  left  unfinished  as  it  was,  little  more  than  a bare  carcase. 

This  state  of  neglect  continued  for  70  or  80  years,  until  the  middle  of  the  last  century,  when 
the  Louvre,  instead  of  being  a complete  palace,  with  its  internal  fittings  duly  in  order  and  a degree  of 
arrangement  prevailing,  was  but  a mass  of  incoherent  divisions,  appropriated  to  various  incongruous 
uses  ; devoid  of  the  finishings  usual  even  in  ordinary  dwellings,  many  of  the  windows  unglazed,  nay, 
unsashed  ; in  parts  without  roof;  portions  occupied  as  warehouses  and  stables,  or  used  for  ateliers  bv 


82 


painters,  sculptors,  modellers,  and  various  trades,  and  even  for  baser  purposes.  In  some  parts  on  the 
north  side  private  dwellings  were  attached  to  the  very  walls.  Monsieur  de  Marigny,  superintendant  of 
the  royal  buildings,  remedied  many  of  the  gross  abuses  to  which  the  Louvre  had  been  subjected.  Mons. 
Gabriel,  the  most  celebrated  architect  of  that  period,  and  who  erected  the  elegant  “garde  meuble”  in 
the  “ Place  de  la  Concorde,”  was  charged  with  the  completion  of  the  facades  and  other  works,  which 
he  carried  on  with  great  zeal  and  taste  ; and  after  his  death  Soufflot  continued  the  operation.  But 
the  usual  fate  of  this  unfortunate  palace  never  abandoned  it ; and  after  a few  years  the  energy  of 
reparation  and  completion  relaxed,  and  this  noble  building,  which,  during  the  120  years  of  the  joint 
reigns  of  Louis  XIY.  and  XV.,  had  been  begun,  left  off,  and  resumed,  abandoned  again  and  again,  was 
still,  when  Louis  XYI.  mounted  the  throne,  an  incomplete  palace,  and  almost  as  uninhabitable  as  when 
M.  de  Marigny  commenced  the  Herculean  task  of  cleaning  out  the  Augean  stable.  The  sad  misfor- 
tunes of  Louis  XYI.  and  the  horrors  of  the  French  Revolution  supervened,  put  a stop  to  all  public 
works,  whether  useful  or  ornamental,  and  matters  resumed  their  usual  state  of  chaotic  disorder,  leaving 
the  occupation  of  its  corridors,  halls,  and  chambers  to  the  chance  of  the  most  violent,  daring,  and 
ungovernable  “ sans  culotte,”  who  claimed  a portion  for  his  right,  as  a citizen  privilege  of  “ first  come 
first  served.”  It  was  as  a town  taken  by  storm. 

Fourth  Epoch,  or  The  Imperial. 

At  length  Napoleon  Bonaparte  was  declared  Emperor  in  1804,  the  star  of  the  conqueror 
revived  the  past  glories  of  the  Tuileries  and  the  Louvre,  and  a new  era  opened  upon  these  palaces. 
The  most  valued  spoils  of  his  Italian  victories  consisted  in  the  treasures  of  art,  which  he  directed  to  be 
transported  to  Paris  ; but  where  were  they  to  be  placed  ? The  vast  scale  of  accommodation,  which  the 
Louvre  offered,  proved  to  be  peculiarly  adapted  for  the  purpose,  and  M.  Raimond,  architect,  was 
directed  to  prepare  the  halls  and  chambers  to  receive  the  new  acquisitions — a vast  and  difficult  opera- 
tion, which  he  carried  on  with  much  ability  and  rapidity  until  his  death  in  1805.  He  was  succeeded 
by  Messrs.  Percier  and  Fontaine,  who  had  to  reconcile  the  various  incoherent  parts,  which  existed  in 
the  elevations  of  the  different  sides  of  the  court — to  add  in  one  part  and  to  suppress  in  another ; and 
they,  with  consummate  skill,  at  length  completed  the  court  in  about  24  years  time,  giving  it  that 
harmonious  ensemble,  which  it  at  present  offers,  and  which  seems  to  be  the  result, — not  of  several  ages 
each  with  its  peculiar  style, — not  of  numerous  architects  with  different  views  and  various  tastes- — but 
almost  as  though  it  were  of  one  period  and  of  one  master  mind.  Thus  the  completion  of  the  Louvre, 
both  with  regard  to  its  structure  and  decoration,  was  accomplished  within  the  first  thirty  years  of  the 
present  century.  It  is  not  my  intention  to  enter  upon  a critical  review  of  the  discrepances  of  style, 
arrangement,  or  taste  in  the  various  parts  of  the  Louvre.  It  appears  rather  a matter  of  congratulation 
than  of  criticism,  when  we  consider  that,  amidst  all  the  fatalities  of  its  career,  it  should  have  escaped  a 
total  shipwreck ; and  that  the  noble  mindedness  of  great  men  of  state,  and  the  exquisite  skill  of  her 
architects,  and  their  respect  for  the  labours  of  their  predecessors,  should,  under  such  obstacles,  at 
length  have  preserved  and  handed  down  to  us  a monument  of  the  very  highest  class  of  art.  The 
Louvre  forms  a precious  historical  page  in  the  annals  of  architecture,  tracing  with  little  interruption 
the  various  modifications  of  taste  during  three  centuries.  The  exterior  fi^ades  and  the  internal 
elevations  are  in  themselves  harmonious,  though  discordant  from  each  other,  and  yet  not  offering  so 
strong  a contrast  as  to  shock  one’s  prepossessions ; and,  in  fact,  they  nowhere  evince  deficiency  of 
study,  nor  an  absence  of  the  very  highest  qualities  of  artistic  merit,  whether  in  the  conception  or 
execution. 


83 


Fifth  Eroon,  oh  Tiie  Completion. 

Wo  will  now  turn  to  contemplate  the  great  architectural  fact  of  the  present  day,  the  completion 
of  the  Louvre  and  Tuilcries,  by  their  combination  in  every  part,  so  as  to  form  a congruous  whole. 
Perrault  had  originally  designed  a project  for  this  purpose,  but  here  the  deficiency  of  his  ability  as  an 
architect  made  itself  apparent.  If  executed,  the  addition  would  have  thrown  into  the  shade  the 
Tuileries  and  the  Louvre.  lie  encumbered  the  intermediate  space  with  20  courts  or  vacant  “ places,” 
square,  oblong,  octagonal,  round,  and  eliptic ; he  surrounded  them  with  edifices  of  all  sizes,  and  of  as 
varied  forms.  He  lost  all  the  breadth,  of  which  the  area  admitted,  and  destroyed  the  dignity  of  ample 
space.  The  able  Desgodetz  vindicated  his  profession,  towards  the  end  of  the  17th  century,  by  a more 
noble  arrangement,  simple,  and  well  understood ; and,  by  a judicious  disposition  of  certain  masses  of 
buildings,  he  masqued  the  differences  of  levels  and  lines,  which  existed  between  the  two  palaces. 

The  Emperor  Napoleon  entertained  the  idea  of  uniting  the  two  palaces,  but  the  practicability 
seemed  beyond  realization ; for  there  existed  an  entire  quarter  of  the  town  between  the  two,  consisting 
of  churches,  palaces,  streets,  public  institutions,  and  private  houses,  the  mere  purchase  of  which,  and 
compensation  for  the  trades  and  privileges  of  the  inhabitants,  seemed  likely  to  absorb  a considerable 
portion  of  a whole  year’s  income  of  the  Empire.  However,  numerous  projects  had  been  prepared  from 
1800  to  1812,  and  the  illustrations  before^ou  present  about  20  designs,  from  the  hands  of  some  of  the 
most  distinguished  architects  of  the  day.  That  of  Messrs.  Percier  and  Fontaine  was  approved  by  the 
government,  and  in  consequence  the  north  side  of  the  Carrousel  was,  in  1811,  begun  to  be  enclosed 
for  the  length  of  about  700  ft.,  by  a building  corresponding  with  the  Gallery  of  Henri  IV.  on  the  south 
side.  The  Triumphal  Arch  of  the  Carrousel  from  their  design  had  already  been  erected.  The  first 
stone  was  laid  in  1806,  arid  the  cost,  which  amounted  to  £40,000,  was  paid  by  funds  derived  from  the 
conquest  of  Holland.  Thus  did  the  conquered  provinces  of  France  provide  the  means  for  the 
memorials  of  their  own  subjugation. 

It  is  obvious,  from  an  inspection  of  the  plans,  that  one  great  difficulty,  in  the  geometrical  disposi- 
tion for  the  union  of  the  two  palaces,  consisted  in  the  want  of  verticalism  and  parallelism  between  the 
block  of  the  Louvre,  the  long  wing  that  united  the  palaces,  and  the  extended  front  of  the  Tuileries. 

' To  reconcile  these  differences  and  produce  symmetry  of  effect  was  the  great  stumbling-block  of  all 
parties,  who,  forgetting  how  ill  able  the  eye  is  to  detect  slight  differences  in  execution,  and  small 
divergencies  of  parallelism  in  distant  masses  of  building,  sought  to  reconcile  these  incongruities  by 
intermediate  masses,  and  expedients  of  circular  ends  to  the  court,  or  by  subdivision  and  diminution  of 
the  “ Place  du  Carrousel,”  sacrificing  the  noble  character  produced  by  vast  space,  and  limiting  the 
“ Coljpo  d’Occhio .”  It  was  apparent,  also,  to  some,  that  the  Tuileries  was  deficient  in  domestic  offices, 
residences  for  the  household  officers  and  persons  attached  to  the  Court,  and  particularly  in  residential 
accommodation  for  the  immediate  family  of  the  Sovereign,  the  grand  suites  of  saloons  and  apartments 
for  Court  ceremonials  absorbing  almost  entirely  the  rooms  required  for  domestic  comfort.  Some  of  the 
projects  provided  new  wings,  and  “corps  de  batimens”  attached  to  the  Tuileries,  next  the  garden  ; 
others  on  the  other  side  of  that  palace,  next  the  Carrousel.  It  had  been,  ever  since  1805,  a favourite 
project  to  transfer  the  great  national  library  of  the  Hue  Bichelieu  to  the  new  constructions ; and, 
throughout,  one  of  the  absolute  conditions  was  to  maintain  the  two  main  thoroughfares  for  even  public 
vehicles,  which  have  existed  ever  since  the  time  of  Louis  XV. 

Louis  XVIII.  continued,  in  1820,  the  wing  constructed  by  Napoleon,  for  an  extent  of  some  70  or 
80  feet.  He  died  in  1828,  and  the  brief  reign  of  Charles  X.  succeeded,  but  no  further  addition  was 
made.  Louis  Philippe,  although  promoting  architectural  works  in  Paris,  thought  it  wiser  to  complete 

i 2 


84 


the  other  public  edifices,  which  he  found  in  progress  when  he  mounted  the  throne,  rather  than  to  begin 
a new  project  of  such  enormous  cost.  These  were  numerous  and  expensive  operations,  and  certainly 
Paris,  at  his  expulsion,  had  assumed  a more  complete  aspect  than  it  had  ever  hitherto  done.  After 
the  Revolution  of  February,  when  the  Republic  was  proclaimed,  the  project  of  the  junction  of  the 
palaces  was  revived,  as  a judicious  mode  of  tranquillizing  the  turbulent  disposition  of  the  working 
classes,  apt  to  create  “ emeutes"  when  not  employed. 

In  1835,  Mons.  Brunet  Debaines,  now  of  Havre,  and  our  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Member, 
prepared  a very  fine  and  comprehensive  plan  for  the  additional  family  and  household  accommodation 
in  connection  with  the  Tuileries,  and  for  the  allocation  of  the  N ational  Library,  galleries  for  the 
exhibition  of  works  of  industry,  and  also  for  the  opera  house  and  chateau  d’eau  in  the  Place  du  Palais 
Royal.  He  forms  a central  square  in  the  Carrousel,  900  ft.  wide  by  750  ft.  long : at  each  corner  of  the 
present  Carrousel,  next  the  Tuileries  and  next  the  Louvre,  he  forms  masses  of  buildings  with  a central 
court,  projecting  about  200  ft.  into  the  court  from  the  long  sides,  north  and  south,  extending  400  ft. 
from  the  Tuileries  and  the  Louvre  respectively  : thus  resolving  the  great  court  into  a species  of  Greek 
cross.  In  each  of  the  masses  of  buildings  next  the  Tuileries  he  forms  two  courts  for  stables  and 
coach-houses,  domestic  offices,  accommodation  for  the  persons  attached  to  the  Court,  and  family 
conveniences  for  the  Royal  Family,  compactly  disposed.  The  courts  next  the  Louvre  are  respectively 
appropriated  to  buildings  for  the  library,  and  to  an  extension  of  the  picture  galleries. 

My  friend  Mons.  Dusillion  exhibited  a design  in  1849,  the  leading  features  of  which  are  similar 
to  Mons.  Visconti’s.  He  continues  the  wing  begun  by  Napoleon  up  to  the  place  opened  in  front  of 
the  Palais  Royal ; here  the  line  of  frontage  then  breaks  back  about  25  ft.,  and  its  direction  is  changed 
so  as  to  be  at  right  angles  to  the  place  and  to  the  axis  of  his  new  building.  By  another  slight  break 
just  beyond  the  place  it  forms  another  recess,  and  is  continued  until  it  comes  in  a fine  with  the  wing 
of  the  Louvre  built  by  Percier  and  Fontaine,  where  it  turns  round  to  meet  the  Carrousel.  At 
the  distance  from  the  Tuileries  of  about  two-thirds  the  length  of  the  court,  Mons.  Dusillion  throws  a 
building  quite  across  on  the  fine  of  the  axis  of  the  Place  du  Palais  Royal,  with  two  projecting  wings 
producing  a noble  inner  court  next  the  Louvre,  500  ft.  wide  by  400  ft.  deep,  called  that  of  the 
Bibliotheque  Nationale,  and  smaller  courts,  100  ft.  wide,  are  enclosed  within  the  “ corps  de  hatimens.” 
His  conception  is  simple  and  dignified.  He  preserves  the  axial  allinements,  and  still  a noble  extent 
for  the  Carrousel  of  1050  ft.  x 900  ft.  Faithful  to  one  idea,  Mons.  Dusillion  devotes  the  whole  of 
his  new  building  to  the  reception  of  the  vast  collection  of  books,  medals,  and  other  objects  of  the 
great  National  Library,  by  a very  imposing  and  convenient  distribution  of  halls,  staircases,  and  galleries ; 
and  their  junction  with  the  Louvre  is  direct  and  easy.  Any  addition  to  the  domestic  accommodation 
of  the  palac  e of  the  Tuileries  forms  no  part  of  this  design. 


The  Design  oe  Monsieuk  Visconti. 

tr** 

To  comprehend  properly  this  project,  we  must  understand  the  programme  traced  by  the  hand  of 
his  Sovereign,  and  which  it  had  to  satisfy ; the  idea  of  transferring  the  National  Library  to  this  site 
was  abandoned.  The  Emperor  Louis  Napoleon  wished,  that  accommodation  should  be  provided  for 
the  residence  and  administration  of  his  two  Ministers,  to  whom  was  confided  the  execution  of  all 
public  affairs.  His  Majesty  also  desired  that  provision  should  be  made  for  the  periodical  exhibition 
of  the  works  of  modem  artists,  so  as  to  relieve  the  pictures  of  the  old  masters  in  the  Louvre  from 
being  covered  up,  and  those  galleries  from  being  appropriated  for  that  purpose,  as  had  hitherto  been 
necessarily  the  case.  There  was  to  be  stabling  for  140  horses,  and  coach-houses  for  50  carriages  for  the 
use  of  the  Emperor  and  public  purposes. 


85 


Let  us  now  see  how  this  has  been  accomplished.  Mons.  Yisconti  has  continued  the  line  of  front 
next  the  Rue  de  Rivoli  in  one  continuous  direction,  and  without  any  other  break  than  slight 
projections  here  and  there  to  relieve  the  monotony  of  an  uninterrupted  faqade.  On  the  axis  of  the 
Placo  du  Palais  Royal  he  introduces  a central  entrance  to  the  ministries,  and  carries  out  into  the 
Carrousel  a block  of  building  700  ft.  long  x 290  ft.  deep,  projecting  into  the  grande  place  230  ft., 
and  containing  twq  large  courts  averaging  200  ft.  x 140,  and  one  less  court  140  ft.  x 80.  This 
block  he  appropriates  to  the  two  Ministries  of  State  and  their  dependencies.  Prom  the  long  gallery 
next  the  Seine  he  throws  out  a like  block  into  the  Carrousel,  600  ft.  long  x 230  ft.  deep,  with  two  courts 
larger  than  those  previously  described,  and  a similar  smaller  court.  A very  grand  staircase  will  lead 
to  the  first  floor,  which,  as  well  as  the  entrance  floor,  is  to  be  appropriated  to  the  annual  exhibition  of 
modem  works  of  art;  they  will  also  connect  with  the  galleries  of  the  Louvre  containing  the  old 
masters.  In  the  centre  will  be  a most  splendid  hall,  two  stories  high,  richly  decorated,  67  ft.  wide, 
200ft.  long;  this  will  be  used  for  the  meeting  of  the  “Corps  d’Etat”  when  the  Emperor  wishes  to 
convoke  them.  There  will  be  a riding-house  of  like  size  beneath  in  one  clear  span,  and  in  the 
basement  story  the  stabling  for  140  horses,  and  under  the  old  gallery  next  the  Seine  the  coach-houses 
for  the  50  carriages. 

The  central  block  in  the  right  wing  facing  the  Palais  Royal,  and  on  the  same  axis  as  it,  will 
form  a noble  entrance  hall,  vestibule,  and  thoroughfare  for  foot-passengers  and  private  carriages  going 
from  the  Place  du  Palais  Royal  to  the  Place  Louis  Napoleon,  as  the  space  between  the  two  wings  is 
to  be  called,  the  centre  being  occupied  by  ornamental  gardens,  like  the  square  gardens  in  London, 
with  fountains  and  statues  of  Louis  XIY.  and  Napoleon  I.  In  the  centre,  porticoes  will  face  the 
Place  Louis  Napoleon,  decorated  with  marble  statues  of  the  great  men  of  Prance,  and  the  whole 
architecture  will  correspond  in  style  with  that  of  the  Louvre,  with  a more  discriminate  use  of 
decoration  and  a greater  relief  by  contrast.  The  present  plain  front  of  the  Louvre  facing  the 
Tuileries  will  be  made  to  correspond  with  the  new  building  by  a little  more  ornamentation  than  it  at 
a ' present  possesses,  for  when  originally  designed  by  Pierre  Lescot,  it  only  faced  inferior  streets  and 
dwellings,  and  was  therefore  executed  with  great  simplicity  and  absence  of  decoration.  To  those 
so  well  competent  to  judge  of  the  ability  and  reasonableness  of  this  disposition  of  plan  it  is  needless 
for  me  to  offer  any  comment  upon  the  skill  and  taste  which  have  conceived  it.  But  I cannot  forbear 
to  observe  that  it  harmonizes  and  blends  together  the  two  incongruous  and  apparently  incompatible 
masses  of  the  old  palaces — it  reconciles  the  obliquity  of  the  wings — it  preserves  the  vista  from  the 
facade  of  the  Tuileries  up  to  the  Louvre — by  the  judicious  contraction  of  the  Place  Louis  Napoleon 
it  renders  appreciable  the  vastness  of  the  Carrousel,*  still  of  gigantic  extent,  about  900  ft.  square, 
sufficient  to  manoeuvre  squadrons  of  cavalry,  and  encamp  (in  case  of  -need)  its  thousands  of  troops. 
There  still,  however,  remains  to  be  provided  domestic,  family,  and  household  accommodation  for  the 
comfort  of  the  Royal  inhabitants,  and  hereafter  will  have  to  be  added  in  contiguity  to  the  Tuileries, 
and,  either  in  the  Carrousel  or  on  the  garden  side,  masses  of  building,  to  render  this  a comfortably 
habitable,  as  well  as  the  most  vast  and  sumptuous  palatial  residence  in  the  world.  — 

These  colossal  operations  of  the  Louvre  are  but  part  of  a vast  series  of  improvements  now 
carrying  out,  as  you  are  aware,  in  Paris.  The  present  Emperor,  with  his  usual  penetration,  feels  the 
full  importance  of  giving  employment  to  the  industrial  classes,  of  encouraging  the  fine  arts,  as  among 
the  finest  illustrations  of  his  reign,  and  contributing  to  the  refinement  of  the  people  and  the 
improvement  of  manufacturing  productions.  He  equally  appreciates  all  the  influences  upon  the 


* Size  of  Lincoln’s  Inn  Square,  845  ft.  X 625.  Size  of  Russell  Square,  700  ft.  square. 


health  of  the  metropolis,  and  the  advantages  to  commerce  derivable  from  clearing  away  the  old 
closely  confined  quarters,  and  opening  up  new  lines  of  thoroughfares.  The  works  at  the  Louvre  are 
a portion  of  this  extensive  scale  of  operations  to  be  promptly  and  vigorously  carried  out.  The  decree 
for  the  works  necessary  for  this  object  was  dated  the  12th  March,  1852,  and  a sum  of  one  minion 
and  twbnty-seven  thousand  pounds  to  be  expended  in  five  years,  judged  requisite.  The  first  stone 
was  laid  on  the  25th  July  following,  and  at  the  end  of  the  same  year  the  north  wing  had  been 
carried  up  61  ft.  above  the  level  of  the  Eue  de  Rivoli.  During  the  last  year  the  contracts  were 
entered  into  for  the  masonry,  carpentry,  and  iron  work  for  nearly  all  the  parts  of  the  new  buildings 
to  the  extent  of  £800,000.  In  March  last  year  1200  workmen  were  employed,  increasing  in 
numbers  until  November,  when  3000  were  on  the  works,  and  in  December,  2000. 

192,000  cube  yards  of  earth  have  been  removed ; and  there  have  been  worked  up — 109,000 
cubic  yards  of  stone  and  concrete  ; 300,000  kilogramme  of  iron  are  already  used. 

In  1852  were  expended £47,800 

„ 1853  „ 227,040 

Making  together 27 4,840 

Besides  other  outlays,  amounting  to 48,714 

Already  expended £323,554 

The  premature  death  of  our  lamented  friend  Mons.  Visconti,  the  highly  gifted  architect,  in 
December  last  was  a grievous  loss;  but  so  unremitting  had  been  his  attention,  so  ready  his 
conception,  that,  when  I visited  Paris  in  October  last,  he  showed  me  between  150  and  200  drawings 
of  details,  which  he  had  prepared ; and  in  which  the  particulars  were  so  minutely  specified,  that  the 
work,  if  carried  out  agreeably  to  them,  will  have  that  unity  and  grandeur  of  conception  and  refinement 
of  taste  in  every  part,  that  will  stamp  this  as  one  of  the  greatest  works  of  the  age.  The  architect, 
with  noble  disinterestedness  casting  aside  all  personal  considerations,  bas  conformed  to  the  style 
of  the  original  type,  and  will  leave  it  as  an  inspiration  of  the  16th  century,  matured  by  the  experience, 
refinement,  and  masculine  good  sense  of  the  19th. 


Note. — The  preceding  historical  details  are  founded  upon  the  information  contained  in  the  following  Works,  in  addition  to  the 
writer’s  personal  knowledge  of  the  buildings  in  question: — Des  p|us  excellents  Bastiments  de  France;  par  Jacques 
Androuet  Du  Cerceau,  2 vols.  folio,  Paris,  1576-1607.  Memoires  sur  la  Reunion  du  Palais  Imperial  des  Tuileries  et  du 
Louvre,  et  Plans  de  diverses  dispositions  pour  l’achevement  de  la  Place  du  Carrousel;  par  Baltard,  Architecte,  folio, 
Paris,  1811.  Arc  de  Triomphe  des  Tuileries,  Irige  en  1806,  d’apres  les  dessins  etsous  la  direction  de  MM.  C.  Percier  et 
P.  F.  L.  Fontaine,  oblong  folio,  Paris,  no  date:  (containing  numerous  projects  by  various  authors  for  the  union  of  the 
Louvre  and  Tuileries.)  Projet  de  Restauration  et  de  Reunion  des  Tuileries  au  Louvre;  par  L.  Fortune  Brunet-Debaines, 
Architecte,  small  folio,  1835.  Description  Historique  et  Graphique  du  Louvre  et  des  Tuileries;  par  M.  le  Comte  De 
Clarac,  Conservateur  des  Antiques  du  Louvre,  8vo.  Paris,  1853. 


1 Side  of  the  CU(  Chateaus, altered 
by  Francois lrt  k Henri  2 
Heme  Lescot,.  \rvh  Jam  BtMtmtJadp 
1 Hr/in  Z Ducrrccau, Arch, 

3.3  Catherine  Jr  Mediae 
4 /)-  Philibert,  d&Lomte  FJestn 

Piiillomt,  Arche 

5.5.  Henri,  Z-  ThieerceatU/.  Arch, 


G.  G Louis  13 . Let; rumor,  Arch 
7.3.t I S Louis  15  Le,  Vote,  Arch/, 

!). !).  ,9  D°  PerrauU/ , Arch 

10  Napoleon,  1;  Per  are’  He 
Fonlouti/u , ArchF 
7/  Lours  IS : Dr 
\\  J'i  13  Louies  Nap  clean 
Visconti/,  Art Jt/. 


PLACE  DU 


PALAIS  ROYAL 


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Ymcent  Brooks  LiLho.  S?  Cavern  C-ai  den  Loon  on 


Z' 


PLAN  OF  THE  LOUVRE  & T U I LE R I ES  , PA R I S , 

ji  ith  the  culdztimsForthe  Completion  k Utu/m  of  these  Palaces 


ON  THE  DRAINAGE  OF  BUILDINGS  AND  STREETS  IN  THE  METROPOLIS. 


By  W.  A.  Boulnois,  Associate. 

Read  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  March  20th,  1854. 


In  venturing  to  offer  a paper  on  this  subject  to  the  Institute  I have  not  been  influenced  by  a desire  to 
communicate  any  special  experience  or  information  of  my  own,  but  simply  by  a wish  to  induce  a 
discussion  upon  the  controversy  which,  as  we  all  know,  has  long  existed,  upon  the  methods  and 
schemes  of  house  drainage.  The  question  lately  received  a great  deal  of  attention  at  the  Institution  of 
Civil  Engineers,  and  complaints  have  been  loudly  made  by  some  of  the  disputants  that  their  opinions 
did  not  receive  sufficient  notice  in  those  digests  or  summaries  of  the  proceedings  in  which  the 
Institution  is  wont  to  condense  the  information  derived  from  a debate.  Here  they  will  be  able  to 
express  their  opinions  without  reservation,  none  of  our  principal  members  being,  as  far  as  I am  aware, 
pledged,  as  they  contend  the  principal  members  of  the  other  house  were,  to  one  side  of  the  question  ; 
and  they  will  be  reported  precisely  in  proportion  to  the  clearness  and  accuracy  of  their  remarks. 

Every  member  of  this  Institute  is,  I am  sure,  anxious  that  the  subject  of  drains  shoidd  be  well 
ventilated,  however  doubtful  he  may  be  as  to  the  manner  in  which  the  drains  themselves  can  best  be  so. 

It  would  really  appear  strange  to  any  man  unacquainted  with  the  deep-rooted  prejudices,  and  the 
hot-headed  partisanship  of  Englishmen,  that  a matter  involving  their  most  important  interest,  their 
health,  their  money  and  their  pride,  shoidd  not  ere  this  have  been  fixed  upon  such  principles,  that 
though  there  might  remain  a disappointed  opposing  few,  the  vast  majority  would  have  been  entirely  of 
one  mind.  When  we  consider  the  composition  and  character  of  the  respective  Boards  of  Metropolitan 
Commissioners  of  Sewers,  since  the  public  has  been  roused  to  the  need  of  efficient  servants  in  that 
capacity,  the  talent  and  abdity  of  almost  all  their  officers,  we  are  fairly  surprised  that  a controversy 
should  be  stdl  raging  as  well  on  the  things  to  be  done  as  the  manner  of  doing  them.  It  is  not 
too  much  to  say  that  the  ablest  men  of  the  kingdom  have  occupied  themselves  generally  with  the 
sewer  question.  It  has  been  the  disagreement  of  professional  men  upon  details,  which  has  alone  pre- 
vented their  labour  from  bearing  fruit.  And  now  that  we  are  nearer  to  a settlement  of  the  question, 
we  find  that  the  finances  necessary  to  carry  out  the  measure,  have  not  been  considered  or  provided 
for,  as  it  was  not  worth  while  to  prepare  the  way  for  expenditure,  whdst  the  manner  in  which  the 
money  should  be  spent  was  undetermined.  Surely  it  should  be  the  earnest  wish  of  all  right-minded 
men,  without  prejudice  against  new-fangled  notions,  as  they  are  termed,  on  the  one  hand,  or  an 
absurd  retention  of  theories  unsupported  by  practice  on  the  other,  to  arrive  at  such  a conclusion  on 
this  subject  as  shall  obviate  the  evils  complained  of.  This  is  not  to  be  done  by  avoiding  controversy 
within  such  walls  as  these  or  in  papers  and  pamphlets,  in  which  facts  and  opinions  can  be  stated  and 
refuted,  but  by  abstaining  from  abuse  of  all  parts  of  a given  system  of  drainage,  because  one’s  own 
nostrum  is  not  in  it ; by  abstaining  from  false  and  overstrained  statements  of  wasteful  expenditure  as 
it  is  termed,  because  our  own  nostrum  is  not  experimented  upon ; and  especially  from  a system  of 
hand  grenade  penny-a-line  warfare,  which  has  been  the  destruction  of  all  the  respect  usually  felt  by 
the  public  for  bodies  of  scientific  men  who  are  desirous  to  serve  it  with  honour. 

It  is  a custom  with  architects  now,  I think,  much  more  honoured  in  the  observance  than  in  the 
breach,  to  begin  all  descriptions  of  practice  with  a reference  to  the  ancient  methods.  I cannot  do  the 
justice  to  this  part  of  the  subject  which  it  deserves,  and  which  many  here  present  could,  but  in  con- 

K 


88 


firmation  of  what  was  said  the  other  night  as  to  the  antiquity  of  the  claims  which  most  modern 
inventors  set  up,  I may  refer  to  some  portions  of  tubular  drains  brought  from  Ephesus  and  Miletus 
by  my  friend  Mr.  Falkener,  which  are  now  on  the  table.  I learn  from  him  that  there  is  ocular 
demonstration  of  the  use  of  similar  drains  at  Pompeii ; in  one  case  the  hollow  in  which  the  pan  was 
bedded  in  the  wall  clearly  indicates  its  shape  ; it  was  on  the  first  floor,  and  from  the  curious  arrange- 
ment of  the  syphons,  which  are  described  as  existing  in  the  ornamental  arches  of  the  City,  we 
may  fairly  conclude  that  the  Pompeians  had  water  closets.  As  the  drains  were  laid  under 
the  ornamental  pavements  through  the  principal  portions  of  the  house,  and  centred  in  the  impluvium 
passing  away  in  one  channel  through  the  prothyrum  or  passage,  we  may  conclude  that  probably,  from 
a greater  fall,  better  workmanship,  and  the  constant  running  of  water  which  took  place  from 
the  fountain  in  each  house,  they  did  not  require  to  he  so  frequently  laid  open  as  ours  do.  No 
excavations  have  been  made  which  shew  the  size  of  the  sewers  in  the  streets  at  Pompeii,  and  it  is 
greatly  to  he  wished  that  some  one  competent  would  investigate  this  subject — permission  would 
readily  be  granted  for  the  purpose  by  the  authorities  at  Naples  to  any  one  so  well  recommended,  as  an 
advocate  of  the  pipe  system  would  now  probably  be,  by  the  Secretary  of  State  for  the  Home 
Department. 

At  Pompeii  there  are  indications  that  the  same  construction  of  the  street  water-courses  under  the 
pavement  or  trottoir,  which  exists  now  in  the  Corso,  at  Eome,  was  practised. 

I have  endeavoured  to  explain  this  by  the  drawing  on  the  wall : the  water-course  is  entirely  under 
the  pavement,  which  is  of  travertine,  hollowed  to  form  a series  of  long  arches  over  it.  There  are  some 
advantages  connected  with  this  method  which  might  warrant  its  adoption  in  our  streets ; a much 
greater  fall  could  he  given  to  the  water-course  so  as  to  obviate  those  elongated  puddles,  which  after 
heavy  rains  are  not  uncommon  near  the  gulley  heads  in  our  streets  : the  kirbs  would  not  he  so  much 
worn  as  they  are  at  present  from  the  custom  of  using  them  as  trams  by  weighty  carts,  and  the  horses 
would  he  relieved  from  the  strains — necessary  to  remove  heavily  laden  vehicles  from  them.  I have 
been  informed  that  this  is  the  most  fruitful  cause  of  jibbing  in  horses,  and  that  in  some  parts  of  Lon- 
don it  is  a serious  injury  to  the  omnibus  proprietors. 

The  pipe  drainage  advocates  having  antiquity  on  their  side  as  regards  house  drains,  it  is  satis- 
factory, on  the  score  of  an  even  debate,  to  find  for  the  large  sewer  advocates,  the  cloaca  maxima  at 
Eome.  We  are,  however,  indebted  for  more  than  would  first  appear  of  our  present  system  to  the 
Eomans.  Our  system  of  sewers  originated  in  the  covering  in  of  open  water  courses,  and  at  the  Eleet- 
ditch  and  the  Wallbrook  sewers,  old  Eoman  brickwork  is  intermingled  with  modern  work,  or 
was  until  quite  recently.  The  present  adaptation  of  the  sewers  has  been  the  growth  of  a long  and 
very  costly  rule  of  thumb  system.  All  the  men  who  have  since  Wren’s  time  been  consulted 
about  sewers,  and  they  are  not  few,  were  probably  unable  to  apply,  even  if  they  were  acquainted  with, 
the  principles  of  hydrodynamics.  They  were  employed  on  piecemeal  improvements,  and  it  is  fortunate 
for  us  that  the  earliest  of  them  did  their  work  so  well  as  to  set  tolerable  examples  before  the  ignorant 
parish  authorities  and  inefficient  surveyors,  who,  until  comparatively  modern  times,  have  managed 
the  drainage  of  London.  It  is  a subject  of  great  congratulation,  as  it  seems  to  me,  that  of  the 
1,000  miles  of  sewers  constructed  under  the  Commissioners,  and  the  50  miles  of  City  sewers,  there 
should  be  such  a large  proportion  which  is  useful,  when  we  consider  its  progressive  development,  the 
divided  interests  which  have  worked  it  out,  and  the  uncertain  and  hap-hazard  way  in  which  the 
extensions  to  this  great  town  have  been  made.  It  is  quite  certain,  moreover,  that  we  have  derived  all 
our  present  knowledge  of  the  subject  from  the  imperfections  of  the  previous  works,  so  that  we  have 
in  that  way  largely  benefited  by  the  mistakes  of  our  forefathers. 


89 


The  division  of  the  subject  of  the  removal  of  refuse  from  the  buildings  and  streets  of  the  metro- 
polis, which  is  most  simple,  and  admits  of  the  readiest  discussion,  is  into  drainage,  sewerage,  and 
outeall.  Drainage  has  to  be  considered  under  the  head  of  subsoil  drainage , surface  drainage,  and 
house  drainage.  The  necessity  of  subsoil  drainage  in  a locality  entirely  sublaid  by  an  impermeable 
stratum,  such  as  the  London  clay,  needs  no  argument ; and  though  it  has  been,  and  is  ignored  by 
many  Sanitary  Keformers,  it  is  in  fact  almost  as  important  as  the  house  drainage.  Damp  soils  and 
damp  basements  to  houses  are  as  constant  and  as  deadly  destroyers  of  human  life  as  all  the  foul 
emanations  of  undrained  refuse.  The  economy  of  effecting  this  subsoil  drainage  by  the  same  sewer 
which  is  to  convey  the  house  drainage  admits  of  no  question,  as  it  seems  to  me  ; and  it  is 
very  efficienty  provided  for  by  the  construction  now  adopted  in  the  sewers  of  the  Metropolitan  Com- 
mission, which  are  built  in  cement  to  the  height  of  the  internal  flow,  and  in  mortar  over  this,  which 
admits  of  the  percolation  of  the  water  in  the  soil  above  and  around  them.  The  City  has  long  been  pre- 
eminent in  respect  of  its  subsoil  drainage  over  almost  all  towns  in  the  world. 

One  of  the  places  most  insisted  upon  as  an  experimental  proof  of  the  efficacy  of  the  pipe  drainage 
is  Tottenham.  Now  there  is  a portion  of  Tottenham,  lately  called  Marsh  Lane,  but  now  Northum- 
berland Park,  where  the  system  of  the  Board  of  Health  has  been  most  efficiently  carried  out 
by  Mr.  Pilbrow ; the  houses  are  well  drained,  but  the  subsoil  drainage  not  being  provided  for,  the 
basements  after  heavy  rains  stand  in  water : the  year  before  last  the  water  rose  in  the  basements 
of  some,  which  I had  occasion  to  visit,  18  inches,  and  had  so  saturated  the  walls  as  to  injure  them 
permanently.  Had  the  drainage  been  according  to  the  system  of  the  Metropolitan  Commissioners  of 
Sewers,  this  most  serious  evil  would  have  been  avoided,  and  the  house  drainage  equally  good. 
I am  aware  that  a sufficient  fall  could  only  have  been  obtained  at  a great  distance,  and  that  the  pre- 
sent system  is  the  only  one  the  place  could  yet  pay  for ; but  it  affords  a strong  proof  of  the  great  gain 
which,  when  there  is  opportunity,  arises  from  the  combining  the  subsoil  and  house  drainage. 

The  surface  drainage,  by  which  is  meant  the  removal  of  the  rain  water,  is  that  branch  of  the 
subject  which  opens  up  the  question  of  small  or  large  sewers.  The  rain-water  which  falls  on  a given 
area,  would  seem  to  be  specially  intended  for  the  cleansing  of  the  refuse  which  may  be  on  the  surface, 
and  very  good  reasons  should  be  given  why  this  is  objectionable  as  applied  through  the  sewers  before 
we  depart  from  so  natural  and  obvious  a use  of  them.  The  chief  reason  given  by  those  who  seek  to 
separate  surface  and  house  drainage  is  an  economical  one,  the  cost  of  the  sewers  they  say  may  be 
reduced  to  such  an  extent  that  you  can  have  two  systems,  one  for  house  and  the  other  for  surface 
drains,  at  a less  expenditure  than  you  can  construct  your  sewer  large  enough  for  both.  Now  granting 
for  the  moment  that  the  systems  of  small  sewers  will  do  for  house  drainage,  as  perhaps  it  will  in  some 
special  and  favourable  cases,  it  is  unquestionable  that  sewers  large  enough  for  the  passage  of  a man 
to  clean  them  would  be  required  for  the  rain  water  or  surface  drainage  in  this  metropolis,  the  detritus 
from  Macadamized  roads  forms  a concrete  much  more  difficult  to  remove  than  all  obstructions  in 
sullage,  and  no  gulleys  (of  which  one  of  the  best  forms  as  found  in  the  experience  of  the  Metropolitan 
Commissioners  is  exhibited  on  the  wall,)  are  able  to  prevent  this  deposit  from  accumulating  in  our 
sewers. 

We  in  this  Metropolis,  with  our  levels,  if  we  desire  to  be  able  to  cross  our  streets  without  boats, 
and  occupy  the  basements  of  our  houses  for  more  than  two  hundred  and  fifty  out  of  the  three  hundred 
and  sixty-five  days  in  the  year,  must  have  sewers  for  the  rain  water,  not  of  the  theoretical  size  requisite 
to  carry  off  a given  rainfall,  but  of  size  sufficient  to  admit  of  these  sewers  being  approached  for  cleaning. 

The  economical  reasoning  therefore  fails. 

The  theory  so  carefully  elaborated  in  some  of  the  treatises  on  drainage,  of  forming  surface  drains 


90 


literally  at  the  surface,  and  only  covered  by  the  requisite  thickness  of  stone  or  other  material  to  pro- 
tect them  from  the  carriage  traffic,  and  admit  of  their  being  easily  cleansed  of  the  road-dirt,  forgets 
that  the  front  areas  and  rear  portions  of  London  houses,  the  gardens,  and  the  basement  areas  are 
usually  12  or  14  feet  below  the  street  level,  and  totally  neglects  them. 

Having  then  the  necessity  for  large  sewers  for  the  surface  drainage,  and  of  deep  sewers  for  the 
subsoil  drainage,  we  are  next  to  inquire  into  their  applicability  to  house  drainage,  or  the  substitution 
of  other  methods.  Great  improvements  have  within  the  last  half  century  taken  place  in  the  house 
drainage  of  the  Metropolis,  independent  of  the  question  of  the  size  of  the  drains.  Cesspools  are,  I 
believe,  no  longer  contended  for.  Water-closets  are  considered  essentials  by  a class  of  people,  whose 
fathers  would  have  as  soon  expected  to  ride  in  their  own  coaches  as  use  them ; and  that  periodical  and 
dreadful  infliction  upon  Mr.  Paterfamilias  of  “something  wrong  with  the  drains”  is  within  the 
houses  at  any  rate,  less  frequent  than  formerly.  This  last  effect  is  doubtless  attributable  to  the 
general  use  of  the  tubular  pottery  drain,  not  that  all  the  improvements  have  been  made  with  it,  but 
because  the  builders  and  bricklayers  who  would  not  use  it,  were  compelled  in  support  of  their  preju- 
dice in  favour  of  the  old  barrel  drain,  and  for  the  honour  of  the  cause,  to  build  their  brick  drains  some- 
what more  smoothly  than  they  had  been  in  the  habit  of  doing.  The  main  cause  of  improvement, 
however,  is  the  information  which  was  given  to  practical  men  by  scientific  men  upon  the  necessity  of 
an  uniform  inclination  in  place  of  the  flat  incline  and  sudden  fall  near  the  sewer,  which  was  commonly 
adopted  in  house  drains,  and  the  knowledge  which  has  reached  even  housemaids  and  footmen,  that  a 
good  scour  of  water  through  the  drains  is  better  obtained  by  a plug  under  the  lifted  water-closet 
handle  during  the  coming  in  of  the  water  supply  than  by  the  old  and  time  honoured  expedient  of 
pouring  pailful  by  pailful  down  the  grating  in  the  back  area. 

Greatly  indebted  we  are  to  the  sanitary  reformers  on  this  subject,  and  we  may  offer  ourselves  the 
same  congratulations  upon  their  experience  as  we  do  on  the  practices  of  our  fathers ; we  know  now 
what  to  avoid.  Their  two  inch  pipes  from  sinks,  three  inch  house  drains,  and  four  inch  combined 
drains,  are  now  as  much  things  of  the  past  amongst  practical  men  as  a cess-pool  under  the  centre  of 
the  front  kitchens ; four  inch  pipes  from  sinks,  and  six  inch  from  water-closets,  are  the  smallest  which 
practice  has  warranted  us  in  adopting.  Theory  proves,  and  proves  satisfactorily  that  a three  inch 
pipe  with  the  inclination  ordinarily  obtainable  in  London,  would  be  enough  to  carry  off  the  refuse 
from  a first  class  house,  but  practice  has  discovered  such  frequent  stoppages  even  of  four  inch  pipes, 
that  they  are  now  scarcely  ever  used. 

I could  give  the  history  of  numerous  and  various  individual  failures  which  have  arisen,  but  others 
will  occur  to  all  the  members.  We  are  sometimes  told  that  these  are  preventible  stoppages,  and  that 
the  small  drain  gives  increased  cleansing  power  to  the  water  in  the  contents,  and  is  so  much  better  as 
to  warrant  the  adoption  of  the  means  to  prevent  the  insertion  of  improper  substances  at  greater  cost 
than  we  are  now  accustomed  to  do  : in  other  words,  that  the  trap  should  be  improved  and  altered.  How 
often  would  even  the  three  inch  drain  be  quite  full  of  water  so  as  to  push  the  substance  in  suspense 
before  it  P This  great  and  inherent  evil  of  stoppages  is  sometimes  met  by  saying  that  you  must  teach 
the  people  not  to  put  matters  down  the  drain  which  will  cause  stoppage,  and  that  a population  must 
be  thoroughly  imbued  with  the  belief  that  the  omission  and  commission  of  sins  against  the  drains  will 
cause  a recoil  upon  themselves  in  disease  and  death ; but  we  must  change  the  character  of  the  human 
mind  before  this  desirable  period  will  arrive ; do  not  men  commit  sins  of  omission  and  commission 
upon  the  ducts  and  sewers  in  their  own  bodies,  knowing  that  they  will  recoil  in  the  shape  of  disease 
and  death  ? 

The  most  fruitful  causes  of  the  failure  of  pipes  have  been  the  joints ; butt  joints  are  specially  liable 


91 


to  this  observation  : when  laid  in  ground  which  is  not  very  solid  and  consistent,  the  lengths  are 
liable  to  shift  and  an  irregularity  causes  a lodgement  of  a small  portion  of  the  matters  floating  down  ; 
once  begun,  the  evil  speedily  accumulates,  the  obstruction  gathers  from  each  passing  substance  which 
is  not  of  sufficient  tenacity  to  resist  it,  and  eventually  entirely  chokes  the  pipe. 

With  reference  to  -whole  socket  pipes,  practical  men  are  divided  in  their  opinion  as  to  whether 
they  are  best  set  in  clay  or  cement ; for  my  own  part  I think  it  essential  to  pipe  drainage  that  no 
extraneous  matter  should  possibly  get  into  the  pipe  from  the  outside,  and  I think  they  are  best  set  in 
cement.  All  bouse  drains  are  best  waterproof,  a stoppage  may,  if  this  is  not  the  case,  exist  for  a long 
time  in  a drain  without  detection,  as  the  fluid  sewage  oozes  through  the  joints  and  saturates  the  sur- 
rounding ground.  In  a gravelly  or  sandy  soil  this  evil  may  have  been  proceeding  for  months  without 
notice.  Half  socket  pipes  I think  are  the  best,  as  they  offer  the  opportunity  of  removal  without  breaking 
them  upon  the  occurrence  of  stoppages,  and  it  is  more  easy  to  determine  when  they  are  accurately 
laid,  the  upper  semicircles  of  the  two  pipes  abutting  against  one  another  affording  a good  test  of  this. 
The  thicknesses  of  the  pipes  have,  with  very  sound  judgment,  as  it  seems  to  me,  been  increased  by  the 
resolution  of  the  Metropolitan  Commissioners  of  Sewers  ; they  must  now  be  I in.  for  4 in.,  f for  6 in., 
1 in.  for  9 in.,  and  II  in.  for  12  in.  beyond  this.  The  Commissioners  do  not  permit  pipe  drains  within 
their  jurisdiction,  as  they  have  been  found  to  break  and  cause  great  damage  and  expense. 

The  glazing  of  the  tubes  inside,  though  very  desirable  and  of  indirect  utility  in  causing  a better 
pipe  to  be  burnt  than  would  otherwise  be,  is  not  of  any  material  assistance  to  the  flow  of  the  sewage 
matter  through  them.  There  forms  in  all  sewers  a sort  of  slime  against  the  sides  and  bottom,  which 
is  after  a very  short  period  as  efficacious  in  giving  a smoothness  of  bore  as  the  most  expensive  glaze 
would  be.  Too  much  attention  cannot  be  paid  to  the  bedding  of  the  tubes  at  a true  inclination,  a 
very  small  error  in  the  levels  being  of  much  more  importance  than  in  a large  drain,  where  there  is 
opportunity  for  adjustment  of  an  even  inclination  in  the  current : it  is  obvious  that  3 inches  wrong 
with  a 6 in.  tube  on  a very  flat  incline,  will  be  equivalent  to  the  stopping  up  of  half  the  tube. 

With  reference  to  the  question  of  using  back  combined  drainage , or  a separate  drain  from  each  house 
to  the  sewer  in  the  street,  there  are  many  considerations  which  are  not  usually  taken  into  account  by 
those  who  advocate  the  first  of  these  systems.  We  have  seen  that  street  sewers  are  necessary  on 
account  of  the  necessity  for  surface  drains,  and  that  they  must  be  so  large  for  this  special  purpose  as 
to  admit  of  their  being  applied  also  to  receive  the  house  (drainage , (I  do  not  apprehend  that  the  most 
earnest  advocate  of  back  drainage  ever  proposed  that  the  surface  drainage  of  the  street  should  be  at 
the  rear  of  the  houses).  We  have  then  to  consider  whether  it  is  better  that  the  block  of  houses 
should  be  drained  at  the  rear  in  the  back  courts  or  gardens  by  a combined  drain  which  is  turned  into 
this  sewer  at  one  point,  or  that  each  house  in  the  block  should  have  its  separate  opening  into  this 
sewer.  I pass  by  the  considerations  of  invasion  of  private  property  involved  in  the  combined  back 
system,  and  the  more  serious  danger  of  intentional  stoppage  and  cutting  off  the  drains,  of  which 
perhaps  nearly  all  of  us  here  have  seen  instances,  as  they  are  by  no  means  uncommon.  I pass  by  the 
necessity  which  in  almost  all  cases  there  would  be,  that  the  combined  drainage  of  the  whole  block 
should  flow  under  the  end  return  house,  and  the  much  greater  liability  there  would  be  that  a stoppage 
should  occur  in  the  small  drain,  say  of  12  in.  diameter,  than  in  the  sewer  in  the  front,  and  that  all  the 
inmates  of  houses  in  the  block  would  be  the  sufferers  for  the  neglect  of  one.  I pass  by  these  conside- 
rations, though  they  are  enough  to  prevent  the  adoption  of  back  drainage  without  strong  local  reasons 
in  its  favour,  and  I come  to  the  main  point  at  issue  between  the  advocates  of  one  system  and  the 
other,  viz.  the  economy.  Now,  first  we  must  have  a drain  from  the  front  area  in  all  streets,  so  that 
we  have  the  length  of  the  drain  from  the  front  area  to  the  water-closets,  and  sink  in  the  basements 


92 


and  the  back  area,  if  there  is  one,  to  set  against  the  length  of  the  drain  from  the  water-closet  and 
sink  to  the  back  combined  drain,  and  the  frontage  of  this  combined  drain  along  the  house.  Almost 
invariably  with  modern  houses  in  blocks,  there  are  rear  projections,  which  are  quite  as  wide  as  the 
front  area,  generally  they  are  wider,  we  have  therefore  to  set  the  extra  length  of  the  pipe  in  the  house, 
(on  the  supposition  that  the  sink  and  water-closets  are  at  the  rear  as  they  usually  are)  against  the 
frontage,  and  we  have  in  this  to  set  12  in.  pipe  frontage,  and  one  12  in.  T piece,  diminishing  to  6 in. 
against  a straight  6 in.  pipe  through  the  house.  It  is  clear  that  in  nineteen  cases  out  of  twenty,  back 
combined  drainage  would  be  more  expensive  than  separate  front  drainage,  provided  they  were  both 
equally  well  done.  It  suits  well  perhaps  with  the  views  of  speculative  builders  in  outlying  parts  of 
the  town,  where  there  are  no  basements  to  the  houses,  and  surface  drainage  is  not  yet  provided  for ; 
the  parishes  not  having  had  the  roads  and  pathways  handed  over  to  them  ; to  obtain  permission  to 
insert  all  along  the  rear  of  their  blocks  before  their  garden,  or  back  court  fence  walls  are  up,  a cheap 
15  in.  drain  instead  of  an  efficient  sewer  in  the  street ; but  it  is  of  immense  importance  that  their  views 
should  not  be  complied  with  to  the  prejudice  of  the  health  of  the  inhabitants  of  their  houses,  and  the 
property  of  the  persons  who  purchase  their  interest  in  the  houses  when  they  have  let  them. 

Were  each  man  who  builds  in  this  country  his  own  freeholder,  there  would  be  no  question  as  to  the 
combined  back  drainage,  it  would  not  be  tolerated  ; and  because  we  have  a vicious  system  of  lease- 
holds which  enables  such  propositions  to  be  entertained  and  to  be  hailed  by  some  of  the  small  builders, 
are  we  to  be  told  that  the  Commissioners  of  Metropolitan  Sewers,  who  have  wisely  permitted  the 
system  only  under  such  local  circumstances  as  make  it  obviously  desirable,  are  neglecting  the  objects 
of  their  appointment  and  stifling  the  truth. 

We  now  come  to  the  second  division  of  the  subject — Sewerage,  by  which  is  meant  the  arterial 
drainage  from  the  house  drains  to  the  out-fall. 

We  have  arrived  in  considering  subsoil  and  surface  drainage  at  the  fact,  that  a sewer  larger  than 
the  theoretical  size  is  necessary,  and  after  making  due  allowance  on  that  account,  we  can  with  tolerable 
accuracy  determine  what  should  be  the  sizes  of  the  sewers.  As  they  gradually  approach  their  outfalls 
they  receive  increased  amounts  of  drainage  from  the  increased  area  they  traverse  ; the  average  of  the 
make  of  sewage  over  a given  area  of  inhabited  houses  in  London  has  been  tolerably  accurately 
obtained  by  experiment. 

It  is  found  that  in  six  hours  in  each  day,  as  much  sewage  comes  down  as  during  the  remaining 
eighteen  hours  ; the  rainfall  is  taken  by  the  engineers  to  the  Metropolitan  and  City  Commissioners 
at  2\  in.  over  the  entire  area,  after  making  proper  deductions  for  the  effect  of  evaporation  and 
absorption  in  dry  ground,  and  upon  the  formula  of  the  square  root  of  the  hydraulic  mean  depth, 
multiplied  by  twice  the  fall  in  feet  per  mile,  minus  one-tenth  for  friction,  equalling  the  velocity  in  feet 
per  second,  the  capacity  of  the  sewer  can  be  calculated.  It  is  a fact  seldom  admitted  by  pipe  sewer 
advocates,  but  nevertheless  true,  that  many  of  the  old  London  sewers  are  too  small,  as  well  as  many 
too  large,  upon  this  principle. 

It  is  sometimes  forgotten  in  the  controversy  on  the  part  of  the  pipe  advocates,  that  upon  true 
hydraulic  principles,  the  sizes  of  the  sewers  as  calculated  for  their  drainage  capability  only,  soon  reach 
such  dimensions  as  that  pipes  are  no  longer  available,  even  if  they  answered  their  ends.  Besides, 
were  they  laid  with  reference  only  to  the  immediate  requirement  in  places  where  they  would  be  suffici- 
ently large  for  it,  they  do  not  admit  of  extension  to  embrace  the  drainage  of  an  increased  number  of 
houses,  a point  very  necessary  to  be  considered  on  all  grounds. 

Pipe  sewerage  may  be  said  to  have  been  well  tried  in  the  Metropolis,  and  to  have  failed.  On  the 
wall,  are  instances,  by  no  means  the  worst  of  the  condition  of  pipe  sewers,  as  ascertained  by  Mr. 


93 


Bazalgette,  the  engineer  to  the  Metropolitan  Commissioners,  by  their  order.  Many  of  these  it  appears 
were  habitually  flushed,  and  the  investigations  were  made  by  the  officer  to  the  Commission,  solely  with  a 
view  to  ascertain  the  applicability  of  pipe  sewers  in  the  future  operations  of  the  Commission.  The 
present  shape  adopted  by  the  Commission,  answers  as  far  as  its  bottom  goes  all  the  ends  of  a circular 
sewer  in  diminished  friction,  and  as  the  perimeter  widens,  it  must,  (by  the  well-known  principle  of 
hydraulics  that  the  resistance  of  every  particle  of  the  fluid  is  in  direct  ratio  to  the  perimeter  of  the 
section,  and  inversely,  as  the  area  of  its  section)  give  beyond  the  semicircle  a greater  velocity  in  feet 
per  second. 

The  sewers  now  built  under  both  Commissions,  are  constructed  upon  sound  hydraulic  principles, 
and  we  may  hope  that  there  is  no  waste  of  public  money  for  want  of  an  ample  scientific  knowledge, 
both  of  the  requirements,  and  the  best  method  of  answering  them. 

There  are  details  connected  with  the  sewerage  which  it  is  worth  while  to  allude  to,  as  many 
differences  of  opinion  exist  upon  them  : the  ventilation  of  the  sewers  is  one  of  these  : it  is  admitted  on 
all  hands,  I believe,  that  till  we  have  a perfect  water  supply,  and  our  sewers  are  scoured  as  those  of 
Paris  now  are,  by  strong  streams  of  water,  provision  must  be  made  for  the  occasional  passage  of 
labourers  in  them  to  cleanse  them.  And  even  when  this  much  to-be-longed-for  time  arrives,  entrance 
will  be  necessary  for  the  repairs,  which  will  be  rendered  more  frequently  requisite  by  the  scouring. 
If  the  sewers  are  to  have  labourers  in  them  they  must  be  ventilated,  and  it  is  a question  which  is  the 
best  method  of  effecting  this ; many  schemes  have  been  proposed. 

A direct  air  shaft  leading  to  the  centre  of  the  street  is  adopted  by  the  Metropolitan  and  City 
Commissioners,  though,  they  admit,  that  it  is  open  to  great  objection.  A plan  which  has  been  used 
with  success  in  many  places,  is  to  connect  the  rain  water  stack  pipes  with  the  sewer.  Mr.  Varley,  the 
water  colour  painter,  read  a paper  at  this  Institute,  in  1846,  descriptive  of  this  method ; his  diagram  is 
on  the  wall.  Shafts  and  furnaces  for  draft  have  been  proposed,  but  would  entail  enormous  cost.  It 
has  been  proposed  to  compel  all  persons  having  steam  boilers  for  manufacturing  purposes,  as  brewers, 
mechanical  engineers,  and  the  like,  to  admit  the  foul  air  from  sewers  to  their  chimney  shafts,  but  it  is 
doubtful  whether  this  would  answer.  The  chimney  shafts  would  hardly  always  be  in  the  highest  levels 
and  very  long  adits  would  have  in  most  cases  to  be  run  to  the  nearest  sewer.  Dr.  Buckland  came 
down  here  one  day  to  propose  that  the  gas  lamps,  in  certain  requisite  numbers,  should  be  connected 
with  the  sewers  by  shafts,  and  that  iron  cylinders  should  convey  the  foul  air  outside  the  stalk  of  the 
lamp  to  the  flame  which  would  consume  it,  or  destroy  its  noxious  qualities. 

Some  have  proposed,  that  every  house  to  be  built  or  re-built,  should  be  compelled  to  have  a flue 
in  the  party  wall  for  the  use  of  the  Commissioners  of  Sewers,  should  they  need  it,  to  ventilate  the 
sewer  at  that  part ; this  does  not  seem  an  impracticable  plan,  and  perhaps  it  will  be  considered  in  the 
New  Building  Act,  which,  we  have  been  informed,  is  now  in  the  hands  of  the  Board  of  Health.  At 
any  rate,  ventilation  in  the  sewers  must  be  provided. 

Flushing,  is  a point  to  be  noticed  in  the  consideration  of  sewers.  Great  improvement  has  been 
made  in  this  method  of  cleansing  the  sewers,  and  with  a perfect  water  supply,  there  is  no  reason  why 
it  should  not  be  extended  to  such  a degree,  as  to  almost  entirely  obviate  other  methods,  except  in  flat 
situations,  where  raking  will  probably  always  be  requisite. 

A system  of  flushing  has  been  proposed  by  Mr.  Jennings,  (whose  clever  contrivances  in  connec- 
tion with  drainage  details,  entitle  him  to  the  thanks  of  all  architects  and  sanitary  reformers,  and  some 
of  whose  inventions  surround  us),  in  which  the  accumulated  refuse  of  each  day  is  released  at  a given 
moment  from  a receptacle  constructed  under  each  house,  any  number,  say  100,  such  receptacles  being 
opened  at  once  by  the  aid  of  wires  and  cranks,  or  electricity,  it  is  supposed  a rush  would  take  place 


94 


down  the  sewers  which  would  clear  everything  away  with  it.  Another  invention  by  Mr.  Salter,  to 
which  my  attention  has  been  brought  by  Mr.  Jennings,  is  the  self-acting  flushing  gate,  in  which  by 
an  outflow  pipe  from  the  upper  level,  communicating  with  a tilted  box  on  the  lower  level,  or  in  the 
side  entrance,  the  sewer  itself,  when  full,  forces  up  a catch  lever  and  releases  the  gate.  It  is  very 
ingenious,  and  is  recommended  from  experience  by  the  authorities  at  Leeds. 

Time  will  not  permit  me  to  treat  of  the  many  other  matters  connected  with  the  sewers,  which 
will,  I hope,  come  out  in  discussion,  hut  we  must  pass  to  the  Outfall,  on  which  I can  say  but  very 
little,  except  that  having  read  digests  of  all  the  schemes  submitted  in  competition  to  the  Commis- 
sioners of  Sewers,  I do  not  believe  there  is  one  except  that  of  Mr.  McLean,  for  intercepting  the 
higher  levels,  and  taking  the  lower  under  the  Thames  at  Vauxhall,  which  is  practicable,  without  such 
an  enormous  outlay  of  money  as  to  quite  preclude  it  from  consideration.  The  engineer  who  devoted  so 
much  time  to  the  question,  and  whose  health  failed  him  in  the  attempt  to  conduct  the  multiplicity  of  detail 
connected  with  his  office  simultaneously  with  the  designing  of  a great  scheme,  died  before  he  could 
mature  it,  and  it  remained  for  Messrs.  Bazalgette  and  Haywood  to  work  out  pLns  for  the  main  drain- 
age of  the  Metropolis.  It  may  he  shortly  said  of  this  scheme,  that  the  new  sewers  proposed  intercept 
the  present  at  various  levels,  and  form  of  themselves  the  sewers  of  the  districts  through  which  they 
pass.  The  schemes  have  met  the  approval  of  Sir  "William  Cubitt  and  Mr.  Robert  Stephenson, 
both  eminently  practical  men,  and  it  is  satisfactory  to  find  that  Lord  Palmerston  does  not  include 
them  in  his  condemnation  of  the  Metropolitan  Commissioners’  plans. 

Were  Lord  Palmerston  for  one  week  at  the  Sewers’  Office,  or  even  had  he  to  make  application 
there  so  frequently  as  we  all  have,  he  would  have  long  considered  before  he  took  such  a violent  course  as 
to  declare  the  whole  of  the  proceedings  of  the  Metropolitan  Commissioners,  since  they  had  been  in 
office,  erroneous.  Lord  Palmerston  would  have  known,  that  at  any  rate  they  had  endeavoured  to  get 
at  the  truth ; he  would  have  known,  that  seeing  the  rock  the  two  previous  Commissions  had  split 
upon,  viz.,  chimerical  scheming  in  the  one  case,  and  a neglect  of  detail  for  a grand  measure  in  the 
other,  the  Commissioners  were  now  only  anxious  to  do  their  work  so  that  it  should  be  lasting  and 
beneficial.  He  would  have  known,  that  their  officers  were  selected  with  the  utmost  care,  and  that  no 
crotchets  now  took  up  the  time  of  these  officers ; no  endeavours  to  make  out  cases,  which,  if  proved, 
could  not  be  carried  out  without  an  entire  remodelling  of  the  whole  Metropolis ; no  rival  schemes 
within  the  very  executive  office  of  the  Commission  taking  up  the  time  which  the  public  was  paying 
for  ; and  before  he  took  a step  likely  always  to  deter  sound  men  from  engaging  in  the  public  service 
voluntarily,  he  would  have  waited  till  he  was  better  informed  than  he  could  be  by  a letter  containing 
heads  of  a controversy,  most  of  which  are  long  since  settled  in  practical  men’s  minds,  and  every  one 
of  which,  had  he  asked  information  of  the  Commissioners,  they  could  have  given  him  sound  opinions 
upon. 

I have  been  this  evening  informed,  on  undoubted  authority,  that  an  epidemic  caused  by  malaria 
or  the  leakage  of  the  drains,  has  again  broken  out  at  Croydon ; these  warnings  require  the  earnest 
attention  of  us  all,  and  they  are  additional  reasons  why,  when  no  such  complaints  as  are  made  about 
the  Croydon  drainage  can  be  made  of  the  present  well-tried  system  of  the  Metropolitan  Commission, 
such  a sanatary  coup  d’  4 tat,  as  it  has  been  described  to  be,  as  the  abolition  of  the  present  Commission, 
upon  a presumption  that  a new  and  untried  system  is  the  best,  is  particularly  to  be  reprehended. 

The  Chaiemait  (Mr.  Mocatta,  V.P.,)  congratulated  the  meeting  on  the  very  able  manner  in 
which  a subject  of  vital  importance  to  the  health  of  the  metropolis  had  been  brought  forward,  and 
hoped  that  its  discussion  might  elicit  valuable  opinions  to  assist  in  the  adoption  of  a perfect  system  of 


95 


drainage  throughout  the  country.  Considering  that  this  great  question  had  been  much  discussed,  and 
that  more  experiments  had  been  made  in  this  than  in  any  other  country,  it  was  most  extraordinary  that 
they  had  not  hitherto  been  able  to  arrive  at  any  correct  conclusion  on  the  subject. 

Mr.  Gakling  (Fellow)  said,  that  he  was  much  gratified  to  learn  that  Mr.  Boulnois  had  a decided 
objection  to  the  use  of  pipes  for  sewers,  and  also  to  small  sewers  generally.  Indeed,  lie  considered  pipe 
servers  to  be  both  defective  and  unscientific  for  the  metropolis  or  for  any  large  town,  as  the  sewers  for 
such  places  ought  to  be  large  enough  to  enable  workmen  to  enter,  and  examine  and  cleanse  them.  A 
12-in.  pipe  sewer  had  been  lately  made  in  Hatton  Garden  about  1000  ft.  long,  intended  for  the 
drainage  of  the  houses,  as  well  as  for  the  surface.  This  size  he  considered  vastly  too  small,  even 
to  carry  off  the  water  from  the  area  it  was  constructed  to  drain.  For  in  a thunder  storm,  such  as 
sometimes  occurred,  and  which,  therefore,  ought  to  be  provided  for,  sufficient  water  might  fall  in  one 
hour  to  fill  such  an  aperture  completely  full  for  a length  upwards  of  three  miles  long,  or  about  some 
sixteen  times  its  extent,  so  that  in  the  event  of  a stoppage,  or  the  water  not  running  off  with 
sufficient  velocity,  the  consequences  might  be  most  serious ; and,  indeed,  there  were  now  repeated 
complaints  of  its  being  the  cause  of  stoppages  and  overflows  in  the  street  in  heavy  rains,  though  with 
very  little  more  than  the  surface  water  from  the  street  at  present  running  into  it.  With  reference 
to  this  pipe  sewer  Mr.  Garling  afterwards  observed,  that  in  order  to  aid  its  current,  it  was  laid 
with  a fall  of  1|  in.  in  10  ft.,  or  equal  to  55  ft.  in  a mile,  a fall  so  utterly  impracticable  on  a large 
scale,  that  supposing  a sewer  with  such  a current  to  be  laid  down  in  Oxford  Street  (which  was  about 
l!  mile  long)  and  with  a water  bed  12  ft.  deep  below  the  surface  of  the  street  at  one  end,  it  would  be 
60  ft.  above  that  surface,  or  as  high  as  the  roofs  of  the  highest  houses  at  the  other  end.  The  liability  to 
fracture  of  pipes  used  as  sewers  was  another  objection  to  the  system  for  the  drainage  of  any  large  city, 
from  the  difficulty  of  ascertaining  the  exact  place  of  the  defect.  The  drainage  of  houses  by  pipes, 
assuming  a separate  drain  to  each,  was  less  objectionable  ; but  even  in  house  drains  a pipe,  6 in.  bore, 
was  not  ordinarily  large  enough.  He  thought  there  could  be  no  doubt  that  small  drains  became  stopped 
up  much  more  frequently  than  large  ones ; and  he  believed  that  the  water  ordinary  flowing  in  from 
closets  and  sinks  was  not  sufficient  to  cleanse  the  small  drains  commonly  used.  He  knew 
an  instance  of  a small  dram,  only  10  ft.  long,  which  was  connected  with  a 4.V  in.  soldered 
soil  and  rain  water  pipe,  being  choked  up  for  some  months,  nothwithstanding  there  was  a head  of 
water  standing  45  ft.  high  in  the  pipe,  and  when  the  drain  was  opened,  the  water  flowed  from  the 
opening  like  a fountain,  spouting  up  seven  or  eight  feet,  and  yet  it  had  not  been  able  to  force  its 
passage  through  this  short  length  of  small  drain.  Again,  there  was  an  absolute  necessity  for  the 
admission  of  air  into  drains  or  the  water  would  not  flow;  this  may  be  by  an  air  vent  having 
communication  with  the  external  air  as  high  up  as  possible  to  avoid  smell,  or  else  with  the  sewer, 
which  latter  some  might  think  strange.  A very  frequent  cause  of  drains  being  stopped  was  their  being 
“ air-bound,”  as  it  was  termed  ; and  another  evil  resulting  from  this  was,  that  if  the  air  was  not 
allowed  to  flow  into,  and  escape  from  the  drains  by  some  other  way,  the  water  would  be  drawn  out,  or 
forced  out  of  the  air  traps,  as  the  case  might  be,  and  a stench  would  arise  in  consequence.  If  a drain 
was  not  as  hermetically  sealed  as  it  could  be  by  art,  except  the  necessary  vents  just  named,  it  would 
always  smell ; and  a frequent  defect  causing  this  was  the  imperfect  connection  of  the  soil  and  rain 
water  pipes  with  the  drain.  These  pipes  should  always  have  proper  flanges  at  the  junction  bedded  in 
brickwork  in  cement.  One  objection  to  pipe  drains  was,  that  in  case  of  a defect  it  was  difficult  to 
discover  its  exact  position  without  breaking  up,  perhaps,  the  entire  drain,  or  great  part  of  it ; and 
therefore  a cemented  brick  drain,  or  a drain  covered  with  slate  or  stone,  was  preferable  in 
that  respect ; and  this  remark  of  course  applied  equally  to  pipe  sewers.  With  regard  to  back  drainage 

K 2 


96 


he  quite  agreed  with  the  arguments  urged  by  Mr.  Boulnois  ; and  a further  objection  was  to  be  found 
in  the  fact  that  what  was  an  area  or  a back  garden  at  present  might  hereafter,  and  perhaps  very  soon, 
be  built  upon,  and  converted  into  a house  or  warehouse  ; and,  therefore,  a drain  properly  placed  there 
as  an  external  drain  at  one  time,  would  afterwards  become  an  internal  one.  Experience  had  amply 
shewn  the  force  of  this  remark,  not  only  in  the  city,  and  in  places  like  Oxford  Street  and  Piccadilly, 
where  scarcely  a back  yard  was  left,  but  in  the  suburbs.  Moreover,  in  back  drainage,  which  was  not 
separate  drainage  of  each  house,  there  would  also  be  a difficulty  arising  from  the  opposing  interest 
of  the  different  occupiers,  who  would  constantly  object  to  having  the  drains  in  their  premises 
opened  to  discover  defects,  from  which  perhaps  their  neighbours,  and  not  themselves,  might 
be  sufferers.  The  drainage  of  every  house  should  be  distinct  from  that  of  the  neighbouring 
houses — there  should  be  no  dram  running  from  one  house  under  the  others — in  which  case  the  base- 
ment at  the  lowest  level  might  suffer  from  the  defect  in  the  di’ain  of  the  higher  one.  A case  came  to 
his  knowledge  in  Spencer  Street,  where  a house  became  almost  uninhabitable  from  the  stoppage  of  the 
drain  in  other  property  which  it  ran  through  at  the  back,  and  the  occupant  had  made  repeated  efforts 
to  get  it  opened,  but  without  success.  His  appeal  to  the  ground  landlord’s  agent  was  in  vain ; 
neither  the  parish  authorities,  nor  the  Commissioners  of  Sewers,  he  was  told,  could  give  him  any 
relief ; and  he  at  last  found  that  his  only  resource  would  be  to  apply  to  the  Court  of  Chancery.  Cases 
of  this  kind  would  constantly  occur  under  the  back  drainage  system,  and  an  immense  amount  of 
litigation  and  inconvenience  would  ensue.  Nearly  thirty  years  ago  he  had  himself  advocated  in  a 
public  Journal  many  parts  of  the  system  recently  proposed.  He  had  then  declared  that  no  sewerage 
whatever  ought  to  go  into  the  Thames  at  any  place  above  Grays ; that  on  the  North  side  of  the  river 
there  should  be  a main  sewer — say  from  Chelsea  to  Grays  Reach ; that  at  or  about  Chelsea  there 
should  be  large  tidal  reservoirs  to  he  filled  at  high  water,  and  at  about  two-thirds  ebb  this  water 
should  be  used  occasionally  for  the  purpose  of  flushing  the  sewers ; and  that  two  large  reservoirs 
should  be  formed  at  Grays  apart  from  all  dwelling-houses,  where  the  sewerage  should  be  alternately 
first  in  one  and  then  in  the  other,  decomposed  by  chemical  means,  and  removed  in  barges. 
Mr.  Garling  concluded  by  repeating  his  objection  to  pipe  sewers  and  small  drains  of  all  sorts.  As  a 
general  rule  he  scarcely  knew  a small  drain  that  did  not  choke  up,  nor  a large  one  that  did. 

Mr.  Haywood,  C.E.,  with  reference  first  to  the  question  of  main  sewers  stated,  that  he  was  not 
a thoroughgoing  advocate  for  brick  sewers  alone,  having  himself  used  and  intending  still  to  use  pipes ; but 
he  did  so  only  to  the  extent,  to  which,  in  his  opinion,  pipes  might  properly  be  applied,  and  not  to  the 
extent  of  the  telescopic  system  as  it  might  be  termed.  And  in  this  he  differed  with  many  advocates 
of  the  tubular  system.  He  considered  that  every  town  should  be  judged  of  by  its  own  conditions,  and 
that  the  main  streets  of  all  towns  of  ordinary  size  should  have  sewers  large  enough  for  men  to 
enter,  the  minor  streets  being  left  to  the  judgment  of  the  engineer.  It  was  necessary  that  sewers,  or 
ducts  of  some  kind,  should  be  provided  for  carrying  off  rain  water  or  storm  water,  house  drainage  and 
subsoil  drainage : the  latter  was  a most  important  point,  because  a dry  basement  was  a most 
invaluable  advantage ; and  it  was  almost  as  important  that  a house  should  be  dry,  as  that  it  should  be 
free  from  smells.  The  question  of  the  best  mode  of  accomplishing  all  the  desired  objects  was  in  reality 
how  this  could  be  most  ecomonically  performed,  for  it  might  be  done  in  two  or  three  ways.  Some 
persons  advocated  three  sets  of  sewers  for  this  purpose.  He  thought,  however,  that  as  a new  theory 
could  not  he  tested  for  many  years,  until  it  was  so,  a brick  sewer,  large  enough  for  men  to 
enter,  which  had  been  found  to  answer  all  the  purposes,  as  being  the  most  simple,  was  the  best. 
He  was  convinced  that  a brick  sewer  would  be  found  to  answer  every  purpose  that  could  be  effected 
by  two  or  three  sets  of  pipes.  Sewers  ought  to  be  monumental  in  their  character,  and  if  constructed 


97 


in  our  day,  nono  of  us  ought  to  expect  to  see  thorn  replaced  by  new  ones.  They  ought,  indeed,  at 
least,  to  last  for  a century,  and  the  sewer  in  the  main  street  of  a town  ought  never  to  be  broken  up 
till  it  was  worn  out.  A sower,  whether  of  brick  or  pipe,  so  small  that  a man  could  not  enter  it, 
should  never  be  employed  in  such  a street.  That  brick  sewers  would  drain  the  subsoil  effectually 
might  be  illustrated  by  the  fact  that  throughout  the  city  generally  they  had  been  ablo  to  lower  the  sur- 
face of  the  water  in  the  gravel  as  much  as  six  or  eight  feet ; and  the  basements  of  many  houses,  which 
twenty-five  years  ago  had  been  almost  useless,  were  now  available  for  the  stowage  of  the  most 
costly  materials,  such  as  silks  and  other  goods,  and  numerous  other  purposes.  He  believed  the  rate- 
able value  of  the  property  thus  gained  was  not  less  than  from  £20,000.  to  £30,000.  a year.  He  had 
now  a great  number  of  sewers  which  had  not  been  opened  for  years,  and  which,  he  believed,  never 
would  need  to  be  opened  again.  With  regard  to  stoppages  in  pipe  sewers,  it  was  stated  by  their 
advocates,  that  it  was  very  easy  to  obviate  them,  as  they  were  always  found  to  be  preventible  stoppages, 
but  where  stoppages  occurred  repeatedly  from  similar  causes  they  could  not  be  called  preventible,  but 
rather  constant  and  uupreventible  stoppages,  and  to  that  every  sewer  was  subject.  Within  the  last 
few  days  one  of  his  pipes  had  been  stopped  from  end  to  end.  He  had  built  about  120  or  130  pipe 
sewers,  and  having  used  extreme  care  in  their  construction  he  had  only  had  one  breakage.  With 
regard  to  the  breakage  of  pipes,  of  course  that  could  be  obviated,  as  it  would  be  very  easy  to  make 
pipes  strong  enough  for  all  purposes,  and  the  breakage  of  pipes  could  not  be  well  alleged  as  a reason  for 
not  using  them.  He  had  had  two  or  three  trifling  stoppages  in  his  pipe  sewers,  and  recently  there  had 
been  one  of  a serious  nature  in  Leadenhall  Market,  a place,  the  surface  of  which,  of  course,  could  not 
be  broken  up  with  impunity,  or  without  causing  great  inconvenience.  The  houses  draining  into 
that  pipe  sewer  were  occupied  by  respectable  tradesmen,  to  whom  money  was  not  an  object,  and  every 
appliance  had  been  used  in  the  houses  to  make  both  drains  and  sewer  self-acting.  The  pipe,  however, 
was  stopped  from  end  to  end,  and  he  could  not  tell  the  cause  of  it,  nor  whether  that  cause  was  pre- 
ventible or  not.  He  had  opened  the  sewer  in  three  places  in  a length  of  135  ft.,  but  had  not 
broken  the  pipes.  It  was  doubtful  whether  that  sewer  could  ever  be  restored  to  its  integrity  again. 
Referring  to  one  of  Mr.  Boulnois’  diagrams  he  stated,  that  when  a soft  bed  of  deposited  matter  once 
accumulated  in  a sewer,  it  became  a nucleus  which  impeded  everything  passing  through  it.  If  he 
might  be  permitted  to  allude  to  published  books,  he  would  refer  to  a blue  book  which  contained  a 
diagram  of  the  sewer  in  Holborn,  which  was  within  his  jurisdiction.  In  the  first  place  the  sewer  in 
this  diagram  was  placed  upside  down ; and  further  it  appeared  that  a diagram  similar  to 
Mr.  Boulnois’  was  shewn  to  a witness,  who  was  asked  two  or  three  extraordinary  leading  questions, 
with  a view  to  shew  that  the  brick  sewer  in  Holborn  was  five  or  six  times  the  necessary  size ; because 
a pipe  of  the  size  shewn  would  carry  off  all  the  water  of  Holborn ; but  the  party  had  forgotten,  or 
probably  did  not  know,  that  it  was  intended  to  carry  off,  not  only  the  Holborn  water  and  foul  matter, 
but  that  of  a large  area  adjacent.  There  was  a curious  general  advocacy  of  the  tubular  system  int  his 
blue  book,  with  a vast  amount  of  theorizing  on  this  subject,  which,  if  it  proved  anything,  would 
prove  that  a two-in.  pipe  was  large  enough  for  any  house  of  a moderate  size.  The  size,  however,  of  a 
drain,  must  be  determined  by  practice,  and  when  the  advocates  of  the  very  minute  system  of  drains 
objected  that  drains,  as  generally  constructed,  were  double  or  treble  the  necessary  area  required, 
he,  Mr.  Haywood,  would  only  reply  that,  even  in  determining  the  sizes  of  their  own  drains,  they 
had  exceeded  the  size  which  their  theory  pretended  to  shew  was  sufficient,  and  they  did  so  because  they 
said  that  practically  it  was  necessary  to  have  larger  than  that  given  by  theory,  which  Mr.  Haywood 
quite  agreed  with,  and  would  state,  that  according  to  his  practice  a 3 in.  drain  was  not  large  enough 
for  a house.  V entilation  of  sewers  was  absolutely  necessary,  otherwise  they  would  ventilate  themselves 


98 


into  the  houses.  The  plan  of  ventilating  into  the  centre  of  the  street,  although  a bad  one  was,  per- 
haps, the  best  that  could  be  adopted  at  present,  as  it  brought  the  stream  of  foul  air  where  it  could  be 
the  easiest  diluted  and  carried  off.  With  regard  to  ventilating  by  the  rain  water  pipes  he  had  found  it 
to  answer,  although  many  complaints  were  made  of  smell  being  perceptible  in  the  houses  through  such 
mode  of  ventilation ; where  the  foul  air  had  been  conveyed  above  the  chimney-stacks,  it  appeared  in  certain 
conditions  of  the  atmosphere  that  the  effluvium  descended  again.  This  was  rather  a medical  question 
whether  it  would  be  better  to  ventilate  in  the  centre  of  the  street  or  by  the  peoples’  dwellings,  and  for 
himself  he  was  in  favour  of  employing  flues  ; and,  he  thought  that  a compulsory  measure  (such  as 
appeared  to  be  getting  fashionable)  to  make  manufacturers  allow  the  use  of  their  flues  and  tall  chimneys 
for  the  purpose  of  ventilating  the  sewers,  might  be  introduced  with  advantage,  but,  he  said  nothing  as 
to  the  justice  of  such  a measure.  With  regard  to  the  drain  pipes  of  Rome  and  Pompeii  he  imagined 
that  the  Homans  collected  and  applied  their  fecal  matter  to  agricultural  purposes,  as  was  now  done  on 
the  continent  generally,  and  that  the  pipes,  of  which  a specimen  was  on  the  table,  only  carried 
off  the  superfluous  water  of  the  house.  At  present  one  of  the  great  difficulties  in  Paris  was  the 
increasing  habit  of  using  water-closets,  which  had  greatly  diminished  the  value  of  manure,  which  had 
brought  them  hitherto  a rental  of  about  £30,000.  a year  ; and,  although  they  abused  the  Londoners 
for  polluting  their  river,  one  of  the  engineers  of  Paris  had  told  him,  Mr.  Haywood,  that  he  was  much 
afraid  they  would  be  compelled  to  do  the  same,  unless  the  usage  of  water  was  restricted.  Whatever 
sized  pipes  the  Homans  used  to  carry  off  water,  it  was  certain  that  they  used  large  and  flat-bottomed 
sewers,  and  the  charge  of  those  sewers  was  deemed  a highly  important  office,  as  he  hoped  it  would 
become  in  this  country.  Back  drainage  in  this  metropolis,  he  considered,  would  be  fraught  with  the 
greatest  inconvenience.  Where  two,  three,  or  four  water-closets  were  close  together,  one  drain  might 
be  employed,  but  to  carry  the  drain  through  the  property  of  many  different  occupiers  would  be  a most 
serious  disadvantage.  Without  interdicting  this  system  in  all  cases  he  thought  it  wrong  to  lay  it 
down  as  a general  principle,  and  he  quite  concurred  in  the  opinions  stated  by  Mr.  Garling  on  this 
point.  The  public  not  seeing  the  objections  to  this  plan  might  be  carried  away  by  its  first  cheapness? 
but  the  ultimate  inconvenience  of  it  would  be  very  great. 

Mr.  Powlee  (Bellow)  proposed  an  adjournment  of  the  discussion,  which  was  unanimously 
agreed  to. 

A vote  of  thanks  to  Mr.  Boulnois  was  also  carried  unanimously. 


ON  THE  DRAINAGE  OF  BUILDINGS  AND  STREETS  IN  THE  METROPOLIS. 

Br  W.  A.  Boulnois,  Associate. 


Being  a Discussion,  (in  continuation  of  that  which  took  place  at  the  previous  Meeting)  held,  at  the 
Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  April  3d,  1854. 


The  Chairman,  Mr.  ~W.  S.  Inman,  Y.  P.  having  impressed  on  the  meeting  the  value  of  giving  an 
uninterrupted  and  impartial  hearing  to  the  gentlemen  who  might  address  them,  Mr.  J.  J.  Scoles, 
Hon.  Secretary  read  a communication  from  Mr.  Thomas  Morris,  architect,  to  the  following  effect:  — 

There  is  one  point  in  relation  to  the  subject  of  Metropolitan  drainage  now  brought  under  the 
notice  of  the  Institute,  to  which  I would  beg  your  attention. 

It  is  the  presumed  applicability  of  syphon  sewers  to  at  least  the  surface  drainage,  so  as  to  enable 
the  rainwater  flowing  from  high  situations  to  be  passed  through  depressed  localities,  and  finally  dis- 
charged at  the  level  of  some  given  channel.  Thus  if  the  rain  falling  in  the  higher  environs  of  London, 
such  as  Camden  Town,  St.  John’s  Wood,  and  the  districts  to  the  north  had  to  be  brought  into  the 
Thames  at  Westminster,  it  would  traverse  a locality  actually  lower  than  the  upper  or  high  water  sur- 
face of  the  river  Thames,  and  the  flooding  of  such  a locality  would  be  the  inevitable  result  with  sewers 
of  the  ordinary  kind  whenever  the  quantity  of  rain  exceeded  the  capacity  of  the  sewers,  which  are  to 
be  regarded  as  reservoirs  while  the  floodgates  are  shut  by  the  action  of  the  tide.  To  obviate  such  an 
inconvenience  I suggested  some  years  ago  to  the  Commissioners  of  Sewers,  that  after  the  water 
had  been  allowed  to  find  its  way  down  to  a suitable  level  by  the  simple  law  of  gravitation,  means 
for  its  further  progress  should  be  provided  by  pipes,  similar  to  those  of  the  water  companies,  which 
within  limits  of  height,  well  known  to  every  architect,  would  allow  of  such  undulations  as  the  inter- 
vening surface  might  require.  Thus  a reservoir  at  the  level  of  Piccadilly  might  have  its  eduction 
pipe  carried  below  the  level  of  St.  James’  Park  and  the  lowest  parts  of  Westminster,  and  raised  up 
over  the  embankment  of  the  river,  so  as  to  pour  a continuous  current  into  the  Thames,  at  all  states  of 
the  tide.  Intercepting  sewers  of  very  considerable  length  would  by  this  means  be  wholly  obviated, 
and  the  enormous  expense  of  their  construction  avoided.  The  pipes,  it  may  be  mentioned,  would  not 
exhaust  themselves,  but  act  on  the  principle  of  intermitting  syphons. 

Mr.  Bazalgette,  C.  E.  observed  that  whilst  the  professions  of  Engineering  and  Architecture  were 
united  in  many  branches,  this  was  especially  the  case  with  regard  to  drainage.  The  main  drainage  of  a 
town  was  the  business  of  the  hydraulic  engineer,  but  all  the  details  of  house  drainage  were  within  the 
province  of  the  architect,  who  was  necessarily  called  in  when  any  defect  occurred,  and  expected  to 
provide  a remedy.  Architects  therefore  were  the  best  judges  as  to  what  systems  of  house  drainage 
acted  well  or  ill,  and  the  opinions  which  would  be  expressed  in  this  discussion  would  be  of  great  value 
from  them  practical  nature  and  the  experience  of  which  they  were  the  result.  In  one  remark  made 
by  Mr.  Boulnois,  he  could  not  concur.  That  gentleman  had  stated,  that  “ the  disagreement  of  pro- 
fessional men  upon  the  details”  of  the  subject  had  led  to  the  evils  which  had  occurred.  He  (Mr. 
Bazalgette)  had  carefully  studied  the  question,  and  was  of  opinion  that  practical  and  professional 
men  were  not  at  variance  upon  it,  but  that  the  controversy  was  between  them  upon  the  one  hand,  and 
non-professional  and  non-practical  men  upon  the  other.  This  was  his  opinion,  though  it  certainly 
had  for  a time  been  shaken  by  some  of  the  views  which  had  been  put  forth  in  the  “ Builder,”  a paper 
with  which  he  knew  some  professional  men  of  high  repute  were  connected,  and  which  he  regarded 
as  expressing  the  opinions  of  architects  in  general.  In  the  last  number  of  the  “ Builder,”  a very  fair 
account  of  Mr.  Boulnois’  paper  had  appeared ; it  was  followed  by  a statement,  headed  “ Progress  of  the 
manufacture  of  Tubular  Drain  Pipes,’  ’ which  shewed  the  great  increase  in  the  quantity  of  drain  pipes 

L 


100 


annually  manufactured  since  the  year  1848,  and  which  was  easily  explained  by  the  increased  attention 
that  had  been  given  to  sanitary  measures  since  that  period.  The  article  referred  to  proceeded  to 
state,  “ it  is  estimated  that  in  the  metropolis  about  15,000  houses  have  been  drained  with  4 in.  tubular 
drains,  and  about  half  as  many  with  6 in.  drains,  while  upwards  of  250  miles  of  pipe  sewers  have  been 
laid  down  in  streets.”  This  statement  was  very  incorrect,  and  he  was  at  a loss  to  imagine  the 
source  from  which  it  had  been  derived.  The  facts  were  that  the  whole  number  of  houses  drained 
within  the  last  four  years  amounted  to  26,978,  of  which 


4,926 

were  drained  in  1850 

8,581 

„ „ 1851 

6,271 

„ „ 1852 

7,200 

„ „ 1853 

Total  26,978 


Of  this  number  20,000  (instead  of  7500,  as  stated  in  the  Builder)  were  drained  with  6 in.  pipes.  Now 
although  the  numbers  had  been  erroneously  stated,  it  was  true  that  4 in.  pipes  had  been  largely  used,  but 
it  was  equally  true  that  they  had  failed  to  a great  extent,  and  caused  a considerable  amount  of  inconve- 
nience. The  present  Commissioners  of  Sewers  were  often  called  upon  to  take  up  4 in.  and  lay  down  6 in. 
pipes,  and  although  they  did  not  feel  justified  in  spending  the  public  money  in  that  way,  it  was  being  done 
to  a great  extent  by  private  individuals.  In  the  same  manner  the  quantity  of  pipe  sewers  (“  upwards 
of  250  miles”)  had  been  greatly  over  stated  in  the  article  referred  to.  They  had  however  been  exten- 
sively employed,  and,  as  the  diagrams  of  Mr.  Boulnois  proved,  they  had  been  often  incautiously 
applied.  Without  entering  upon  a crusade  against  pipe  sewers,  he  would  state  what  the  Commis- 
sioners of  sewers,  with  his  entire  concurrence  and  recommendation,  were  now  doing.  During  the  last 
year  they  executed  about  22  miles  of  public  brick  sewers  and  6 miles  of  pipe  sewers,  whilst  private 
individuals  had  executed  about  12  miles  of  brick  sewers,  and  about  85  miles  of  pipe  sewers  and  drains  ; 
making  a total  of  nearly  35  miles  of  brick  sewers,  and  nearly  92  miles  of  pipe  sewers  and  drains. 
This  statement  would  shew  that  the  Commissioners  did  not  advocate  any  exclusive  system,  but  that 
under  certain  circumstances  and  for  minor  branch  sewers  they  considered  pipe  sewers  advantageous. 
The  old  practice  of  brick  sewers  led  to  a large  expenditure,  but  did  not  end  in  failures,  nor  produce 
disease,  whereas  if  the  use  of  the  modem  pipe  was  carried  beyond  its  proper  limits,  failures  and 
obstructions  occurred,  together  with  an  amount  of  injury  to  the  public  health  which  could  not  be 
estimated  by  pounds,  shillings  and  pence.  Some  of  the  new  theorists  on  drainage  announced  their 
systems  as  the  most  “ economical  and  efficient,”  but  “ the  cheapest  and  best  house  in  London”  was 
generally  neither  the  cheapest  nor  the  best,  and  a system  of  drainage  which  might  be  most  expensive 
in  the  first  instance  might  be  the  cheapest  in  the  end.  It  had  been  strongly  asserted  that  pipes,  or 
small  sewers,  were  self-cleansing,  whereas  large  or  brick  sewers  had  a sluggish  flow  and  became  in  fact 
merely  elongated  cesspools.  He  could  state  most  positively  from  experience  that  this  was  not  the 
case.  It  was  true  that  some  of  the  large  sewers  in  London  were  not  self-cleansing,  but  this  was 
because  they  were  situated  in  low  and  flat  districts,  with  their  outlets  pent  up  for  eight  hours  at  a 
time  by  the  tide ; but  from  their  size  they  were  easily  entered  and  cleansed  by  workmen,  and  certainly 
pipe  sewers  in  the  same  situations  would  allow  deposit  to  be  made  in  the  same  ratio.  In  fact,  taking 
the  best  and  most  modern  forms  of  brick  and  pipe  sewers  of  the  last  ten  years,  and  laying  them  side  by 
side  with  a tolerable  fall  under  exactly  the  same  circumstances,  he  could  assert  that  the  self-cleansing 
powers  of  both  would  be  equal.  The  representations  in  Blue  Books  of  brick  sewers  half  filled  with 
deposit  were  drawn  from  old  sewers  without  sufficient  water  flowing  through  them,  many  of  them 
now  abandoned,  and  were  not  fair  representations  of  the  existing  state  of  the  London  sewers. 


101 


Mr.  Bazalgette  proceeded  to  show  by  reference  to  the  diagrams  that  the  proportion  of  the  sectional 
area  of  the  sewage  water  to  the  frictional  surface  of  the  sewer  or  drain  over  which  it  flowed,  in  conjunction 
with  the  fall,  governed  the  self-cleansing  power,  and  that  egg  shaped  brick  sewers  of  proper  dimensions 
had  the  advantage  over  small  pipe  sowers  in  this  respect,  especially  in  the  event  of  overcharge  from 
storm  waters,  while  they  also  enabled  men  to  remove  the  heavy  road  drift  which  was  so  likely  to 
produce  stoppages  in  the  latter.  All  sewors  became  in  time  covered  internally  with  a slimy  surface, 
which  produced  an  equality  of  smoothness  between  bricks  and  pipes,  and  in  execution  the  bottom  of  a 
brick  sewer  could  be  made  more  uniformly  smooth,  and  consequently  less  likely  to  create  an  obstruc- 
tion than  a pipe  with  numerous  joints.  Comparing  4 in.  with  Gin.  pipes,  Mr.  Bazalgette  applied 
the  theory  of  the  proportion  of  area  to  frictional  surface,  and  contended  that  the  scouring  power  in  the 
former  when  three  parts  full  would  be  practically  the  same  as  in  the  latter  when  half  full,  and 
that  the  6 in.  pipe  had  an  advantage  in  allowing  small  substances  to  pass,  which  in  the  smaller 
pipes  would  remain  and  become  the  nucleus  of  an  obstruction.  It  had  been  said  that  many  towns 
were  successfully  drained  by  small  pipe  sewers.  Now  he  had  been  directed  to  visit  some  of  these 
places,  namely,  Barnard  Castle,  Tottenham,  Rugby,  St.  Thomas’s  Exeter,  and  Sandgate  ; and  he 
found  that  the  pipes  had  been  laid  down  only  two  or  three  years  and  in  no  case  had  the  drainage 
been  completed,  whereas  it  was  obviously  necessary  to  have  the  experience  of  a system  for  at  least 
five  to  six  years  before  it  could  be  called  successful.  Again,  in  those  towns  which  were  represented 
as  entirely  drained  by  pipe  sewers,  he  found  there  was  the  former  system  still  in  use  for  surface  and 
subsoil  drainage,  the  modern  one,  of  pipes,  draining  the  houses  only.  At  Sandgate  two-thirds  of 
the  main  lines  had  required  to  be  taken  up  in  consequence  of  stoppages.  When  he  was  there 
pipes  were  opened  for  this  reason,  and  when  water  from  the  main  was  turned  on  it  would  not 
flow  through  the  pipe,  and  he  was  surprised  to  find  that  the  drainage  had  in  fact  forced  its  way 
through  the  joints,  and  had  been  oozing  through  the  gravelly  soil  for  some  time ; this  was  a most 
serious  objection  to  the  use  of  pipe  sewers,  as  embracing  all  the  evils  of  the  cesspool  system.  In 
some  of  these  places  they  had  openings  by  which  the  pipes  might  be  inspected,  but  if  the  joints 
were  defective,  this  mode  of  inspecting,  at  certain  points  only,  would  be  useless,  and  much  mischief 
might  be  done  before  the  stoppage  was  discovered.  With  reference  again  to  the  use  of  small  pipes, 
it  was  obvious  that  a larger  pipe  would  allow  for  a greater  amount  of  sinking  in  the  ground  on  which 
it  was  laid  than  a smaller  pipe.  Pipe  sewers  should  therefore  be  laid  larger  than  the  theoretic  size, 
to  allow  for  casualties  and  defects.  On  the  subject  of  combined  back  drainage,  Mr.  Bazalgette 
admitted  that  there  were  circumstances  in  which  it  might  be  economical  and  advantageous,  but  as  a 
general  rule  applied  to  London  it  would  be  neither  the  cheapest  nor  the  best  system.  The  experiments 
and  formulae  of  the  great  philosophers  who  had  studied  this  subject  could  not  be  disregarded,  and  it 
was  evident  from  these  that  a torrent  of  rain  or  storm  water  could  not  pass  through  a 6,  9,  or  12  inch 
pipe  from  a large  area.  One  of  the  diagrams  before  the  meeting  represented  the  Eleet  Sewer,  with  a 
sketch  of  a Locomotive  Engine  within  it  as  a scale  to  shew  its  immense  size,  but  lie  (Mr.  Bazalgette) 
knew  that  on  one  occasion  a few  years  ago  even  that  sewer  was  not  large  enough  to  carry  off  the  flood 
water  from  Hampstead,  &e.  Whether  separate  or  combined  house  drainage  were  adopted,  a sewer  in 
the  middle  of  the  street  for  the  surface  drainage  was  essential  in  all  large  towns,  whatever  might  suffice 
from  mere  country  roads,  and  this  point,  though  it  materially  affected  the  question  of  economy,  had  been 
overlooked  by  the  advocates  of  back  drainage.  Mr.  Bazalgette  produced  a drawing  in  illustration  of 
the  comparison  between  separate  and  combined  house  drainage,  and  contended  that  both  for  economy 
and  efficiency  the  former  system  was  the  better  one.  In  the  separate  drainage  system,  each  house  drain 
could  be  probed  from  the  common  sewer,  without  interfering  with  the  adjoining  houses  in  any  respect. 
He  further  adverted  to  the  difficulty  arising  from  the  conflicting  interests  of  different  owners,  which 
would  prevent  the  removal  of  obstructions  without  the  exercise  of  the  legal  powers  vested  in  the  Com- 
missioners, and  likewise  referred  to  the  frequent  erection  of  workshops  or  warehouses  in  the  rear  of 


102 


houses,  which  would  render  back  drainage  further  objectionable.  Upon  the  whole,  except  in  poor 
outlying  districts,  where  as  a matter  of  economy,  or  to  get  rid  of  the  greater  nuisance  of  a cesspool, 
combined  drainage  might  be  introduced,  the  Separate  system  was  the  best.  He  considered  that  in  the 
case  of  valuable  property,  where  stoppages  in  the  streets  and  injury  to  trade  was  of  the  most 
serious  consequence,  it  was  essential  to  adopt  large  sewers  and  the  separate  system,  as  that  which  would 
interfere  the  least  with  the  trade  and  traffic.  Mr.  Boulnois  had  dwelt  upon  the  breaking  of  pipe 
sewers,  but  he  (Mr.  Bazalgette)  was  of  opinion  that  the  manufacture  of  pipes  had  been  greatly 
improved,  and  that  they  might  be  made  strong  enough  to  bear  any  amount  of  pressure  ; although,  of 
course,  the  cost  was  increased  by  the  additional  thickness.  He  considered  the  half  socket  as  the  best 
kind  of  joint.  As  to  the  ventilation  of  sewers,  he  found  that  pipes  from  them  carried  above  the  roofs 
of  houses  were  liable  to  the  escape  of  effluvium  by  leakage,  or  that  the  smell  was  brought  down  to  the 
windows  by  eddy  currents  in  certain  states  of  the  atmosphere.  He  believed  that  a system  of 
ventilation  by  furnaces,  as  adopted  in  mines,  would  be  the  best  plan  ; but  that  in  the  meantime  the 
present  system  of  ventilation,  through  gratings  into  the  middle  of  the  street,  was  the  best  plan  that 
had  been  practised.  He  could  not  approve  of  Mr.  Boulnois’  suggestion  of  a channel  for  the  surface 
water  beneath  the  foot-pavement,  used  in  the  Corso  at  Borne,  inasmuch  as  straw  and  dirt  would  be 
washed  into  it,  producing  floodings,  and  causing  much  trouble  and  inconvenience. 

Mr.  Burnell,  C.E.,  referred  to  the  plan  called  “ en  encorbellement,”  formerly  adopted  in  Paris, 
of  using  a small  channel  worked  in  the  granite  curb  and  under  the  pavement  to  carry  off  the 
surface  water.  It  had  been  there  found,  however,  that  horses  were  very  liable  to  slip  and  break 
their  legs  in  consequence  of  these  gutters,  and  the  use  of  them  was,  therefore,  generally  discontinued. 
The  Bomans  confined  their  proceedings  to  land  drainage  and  surface  water — a description  of  which 
was  to  be  found  in  Columella’s,  Cato  the  Elder’s,  and  in  Varro’s  Works  “de  re  rustica” — any  system 
like  the  modern  sewerage  did  not  exist  either  at  Pompeii,  or  in  any  other  Boman  town.  Mr. 
Boulnois  had  adverted  to  the  system  of  sewerage  adopted  in  Paris,  and  he  was  sorry  to  observe  that 
Lord  Shaftesbury  had  praised  that  system  in  the  House  of  Lords.  The  fact  however  was,  that  there 
was  no  sewerage,  in  one  sense  of  the  word,  in  that  city,  and  although  a few  houses  and  hospitals  were 
said  to  have  their  sewage  conveyed  into  the  main  drains,  this  practice  rendered  private  parties  liable 
to  a heavy  penalty,  which  the  Municipality  rigidly  enforced.  The  whole  extent  of  the  main  drains 
executed  in  Paris  up  to  the  year  1852  was  about  90  miles,  whereas  the  Commissioners  of  Sewers  in 
our  own  metropolis  had  executed  35  miles  in  one  year.  All  the  sewers  of  Paris  were  large  enough  to 
allow  a man  to  enter,  the  bottoms  were  segmental,  and  the  minimum  fall  was  about  2 in  1,000.  But 
in  Paris  there  were  cesspools  beneath  every  house , and  although  great  care  and  superintendance  was 
exercised  in  their  construction,  and  excellent  materials  were  used  (meuliere  and  hydraulic  lime),  the 
filtration  from  the  cesspools  was  so  considerable  that  the  well  waters  had  been  pronounced  by  chemists 
to  be  unfit  for  the  ordinary  purposes  of  life.  Any  person  who  had  walked  the  streets  of  Paris  at 
night  could  not  have  failed  to  discover  that  all  these  cesspools  were  necessarily  opened  occasionally. 
Mr.  Burnell  added,  that  it  was  too  much  the  practice  in  Blue  Books  and  with  Boards  of  Health 
to  assume  when  any  convenient  phrase  or  formula  had  been  hit  upon  that  it  expressed  a fact.  Thus 
the  terms  “self-cleansing  sewers”  and  “ sewers  of  deposit  ” had  been  much  used ; but  a sewer  was 
a passive  object,  and  consequently  these  expressions  were  as  erroneous  in  grammar  as  they  were 
repugnant  to  common  sense.  The  expressions  hill-top  and  valley  water  were  exposed  to  the  same 
comment.  The  Board  of  Health  had  laid  it  down  as  one  of  these  “formulae”  that  80  gallons 
of  water  per  diem  should  be  allowed  as  a proper  supply  to  each  house,  but  at  Croydon  200  to 
500  gallons  had  been  given  to  each  house  to  carry  out  the  cleansing  of  these,  so  called,  self- 
cleansing small  tubular  drains.  Amongst  the  objections  to  back  drainage  one  had  been  overlooked, 
namely — that  the  land  upon  which  it  was  effected  became  public  property,  and  therefore  the  intro- 
duction of  the  system  would  occasion  an  interference  with  private  rights,  to  which  the  people  of 


103 


England  wore  unaccustomed.  Still  cases  might  arise  in  which  from  peculiar  circumstances  back 
drainage  might  be  desirable ; and  in  the  course  of  his  own  experience  he  had  been  asked  by  the 
Commissioners  of  Sewers  to  allow  another  property  to  be  drained  through  that  for  which  he 
was  concerned;  but  on  another  occasion  when  he  proposed  back  drainage  for  two  houses,  and 
offered  to  give  up  their  yards  to  the  public,  the  Commissioners  of  Sewers  refused  to  allow  it. 

Mr.  T.  H.  Wyatt,  Y.P.,  thought  the  Institute  much  indebted  to  Mr.  Boulnois  for  bringing 
before  them  with  much  clearness  and  ability  a subject  of  so  important  and  practical  a nature. 
Whilst  agreeing  with  almost  all  his  views  on  this  point  he  (Mr.  Wyatt)  regretted  that 
Mr.  Boulnois  had  thought  it  necessary  to  give,  as  an  additional  reason  for  introducing  this  subject, 
alleged  discontent  on  the  part  of  some  members  of  the  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers,  as  to  the 
manner  in  which  the  summaries  of  discussions  at  that  society  were  prepared,  and  at  a want 
of  impartiality  on  the  part  of  its  leading  members.  Having  the  honour  to  be  a Member  of  the 
Institution  of  Civil  Engineers  he  (Mr.  "W YATr)  could  not  allow  such  an  imputation  to  pass 
uncontradicted.  The  subject  had  been  most  fully  discussed  there ; and  he  ventured  to  assert, 
that  any  member  who  had  the  courage  to  express  his  opinions  at  those  discussions,  would  have 
been  heard  with  the  most  perfect  fairness.  He  believed  that  the  summaries  of  the  proceedings 
in  that  society  represented  faithfully  the  general  views  of  the  different  speakers,  and  it  was  absurd 
to  suppose  that  the  leading  men  of  that  Institution  were  one  atom  more  “ pledged  ” or  prejudiced  on 
a great  public  question  than  any  member  of  this  Institute.  One  thing,  however,  was  certain,  that 
the  Institute  of  British  Architects  was  not  the  place  for  members  of  the  Engineers’  Institution 
to  seek  redress  for  supposed  wrongs.  The  Coimcil  of  their  own  body  was  the  only  proper  channel 
of  appeal.  In  confirmation  of  the  evils  of  small  pipe  drainage  Mr.  Wyatt  produced  a portion  of 
deposit  of  fat  fully  11  in.  thick,  which  had  attached  itself  to  the  inner  circumference  of  a 6 in. 
glazed  earthenware  pipe,  laid  about  two  years  ago  at  St.  Luke’s  Hospital,  and  completely  stopped 
the  free  passage  of  the  water  and  flooded  the  front  area.  This  deposit  was  found  at  a distance 
of  more  than  200  ft.  from  the  scullery,  where  gratings  and  a trap  had  been  introduced  to  catch 
any  extraneous  matter ; with  the  exception  of  the  sinks  and  boilers  in  the  scullery  nothing  drained 
into  these  pipes  but  rain  water  and  the  overflow  from  a large  tank  at  the  commencement  of  the 
drain.  These  6 in.  pipes  had  been  taken  up  and  larger  ones  laid  down.  Mr.  Wyatt  quite  agreed 
with  Mr.  Burnell  that  in  matters  like  that  under  discussion,  it  was  a frequent  error  to  take 
stereotyped  “ dicta”  for  ascertained  facts  ; and  it  was  a dangerous  fashion  to  circulate  cut  and 
dried  plans  for  Drainage,  Schools,  Churches,  and  Parsonages,  as  applicable  for  general  use , instead 
of  dealing  with  each  individual  case  as  its  own  circumstances  and  peculiarities  demanded. 

Mr.  Boulnois,  Associate,  said  that  his  observation  at  the  last  meeting  was  that  complaints 
had  been  loudly  made  of  the  want  of  proper  digests  of  the  opinions  expressed  at  the  Institution 
of  Civil  Engineers.  In  making  that  observation  he  had  merely  reiterated  what  was  said  week  after 
week  in  the  “ Builder.” 

Mr.  Wyatt  did  not  assert  that  Mr.  Boulnois  had  given  the  opinion  as  his  own,  but  he  had,  as  it 
were,  taken  it  for  granted,  and  at  any  rate  had  implied  that  there  must  be  ground  for  such  a charge, 
otherwise  he  would  not  have  dwelt  on  the  fact  that  here  “ they  would  be  able  to  express  their  opinion 
without  reservation,  and  would  be  reported  precisely  in  proportion  to  the  clearness  and  accuracy  of 
their  remarks.”  Mr.  Wyatt  held  that  the  Institute  of  British  Architects  should  not  be  made  a 
refuge  for  the  destitute,  or  the  disaffected  of  other  societies. 

Mr.  Papworth,  Pellow,  inquired  what  Mr.  Bazalgette  considered  to  be  the  greatest  amount 
of  internal  pressure  to  which  a 6 in.  pipe  would  be  subjected. 

Mr.  Bazalgette  did  not  assume  any  pressure  till  a stoppage  took  place,  and  then  it  would 
depend  upon  the  head  of  water. 

Mr.  Papworth  then  inquired  what  head  of  water  could  be  stopped  up  in  a 6 in.  pipe  ? 


104 


Mr.  Bazalgette  said  that  he  was  not  prepared  to  answer  that  question  from  any  practical 
experience. 

The  Chairman  suggested  that  the  answer  would  be  given  by  Mr.  Bazalgette’s  stating  the 
hydraulic  proof  which  he  usually  put  upon  drain  pipes. 

Mr.  Bazalgette  said  that  hydraulic  proof  was  not  applied  to  the  pipes — the  actual  test  to 
which  they  were  subjected  was  the  external  pressure  which  would  crush  them.  The  6 in.  pipes 
bore  the  test,  but  the  15  and  18  in.  pipes  were  so  frequently  crushed,  that  until  the  manufacture 
was  improved  the  Commissioners  would  not  use  any  larger  than  12  in.  diameter.  In  practice  it  was 
found  that  the  6 in.  pipes  did  not  burst,  but  became  stopped  up.  The  external  pressure  would 
vary  with  the  depth  at  which  the  pipes  were  laid,  and  the  nature  of  the  soil.  He  was  not  aware 
that  pipes  were  proved  by  internal  pressure,  but  he  knew  that  when  they  were  first  introduced 
the  Board  of  Health  endeavoured  to  employ  them  as  water  mains,  and  in  those  cases  they  burst,  and 
iron  pipes  were  substituted. 

In  answer  to  a question  from  Mr.  Papwobth,  Mr.  Haywood,  C.E.  said,  that  the  gullies  in  Paris 
were  not  trapped,  and  that  a vast  quantity  of  faecal  matter  passed  into  the  sewers,  notwith- 
standing the  Mimicipal  prohibition. 

Mr.  Burnell  stated  that  according  to  the  experiments  of  M.  Boussingault  there  was  at  least 
ten  times  as  much  ammonia  in  the  atmosphere  of  Paris  as  there  was  in  the  open  country. 

Mr.  Haywood,  gave  the  particulars  of  the  pipe  sewer  in  Leadenhall  Market,  which  had  become 
stopped  up  as  stated  by  him  at  the  last  meeting.  It  was  135  feet  long  and  12  inches  in  diameter, 
with  a fall  of  1 in  120 ; eight  houses  drained  into  it,  and  these  were  all  fitted  with  water  closets 
and  syphon  pans.  It  was  stopped  up  from  end  to  end,  and  he  was  unable  to  state  the  cause,  and 
whether  it  arose  from  preventable  causes  or  not.  No  doubt  pipes  could  be  made  strong  enough  to 
bear  200  feet  head  of  water,  but  the  difficulty  was  to  join  them  securely : and  this  was  the  cause  of  the 
failure  when  the  Board  of  Health  attempted  to  employ  2 feet  pipes  for  water  mains. 

Mr.  Doulton,  Visitor,  expressed  his  regret  that  views  of  the  most  opposite  nature  and  carried 
to  the  greatest  extent  in  each  direction  had  been  expressed  by  the  advocates  of  the  different 
systems  of  drainage.  Thus  they  had  at  one  time  been  told  that  there  was  no  necessity  for  brick 
sewers  at  all,  and  at  another  that  it  was  extremely  improper  to  lay  a 12  in.  pipe  under  a carriage 
way.  Again  a 4 in.  pipe  was  said  to  be  sufficient  for  any  house  drainage,  and  soon  afterwards  it  was 
acknowledged  that  though  a 9 in.  pipe  might  be  sufficient,  a 12  in.  pipe  would  be  better.  At  first, 
pipes  were  made  exceedingly  and  injudiciously  thin,  but  now  it  was  contended  that  a 12  in.  pipe 
should  be  li  in.  thick.  It  appeared  to  him  that  the  truth  lay  midway  between  these  extremes.  The 
same  remark  applied  to  the  diagrams  of  the  drains  and  sewers.  In  the  Blue  Books  there  were 
illustrations  of  brick  sewers  which  would  almost  prevent  any  person  building  a brick  sewer  again, 
whilst  some  of  Mr.  Boulnois’  drawings  shewed  such  representation  of  defects  and  stoppages  in  pipes 
as  would  deter  any  one  from  laying  down  a pipe  again ; indeed  he  believed  these  drawings  would  have 
produced  a very  erroneous  impression  if  the  apparent  facts  had  not  been  modified  by  the  remarks 
of  Mr.  Haywood  and  Mr.  Bazalgette.  The  former  gentleman  had  distinctly  stated  that  the  use  of 
pipes  was  a great  and  most  important  improvement  in  drainage  operations.  The  pipe  system 
like  all  other  novelties  had  energetic  supporters,  whose  enthusiasm  might  be  pardonable ; and 
although  pipes  had  been  injudiciously  applied,  it  would  be  most  unscientific  to  conclude  that  it  was 
not  desirable  to  use  them  as  sewers.  Mr.  Boulnois  had  stated  that  pipe  sewers  in  the  Metropolis 
had  failed,  but  the  remarks  he  made  appeared  to  be  rather  in  contradiction  to  the  deductions  he 
drew  from  them.  He  admitted  that  pipes  had  been  laid  with  efficiency,  but  all  that  he  had  said 
seemed  to  bear  against  the  introduction  of  pipes  at  all  (No,  No,),  at  all  events,  except  under 
special  circumstances.  Considering  that  the  pipe  sewers  had  been  so  recently  introduced,  that  they 
were  laid  under  very  disadvantageous  circumstances  by  persons  unacquainted  with  the  proper  mode, 


105 


and  that  many  persons  were  prejudiced  against  them  as  a novelty,  he  thought  it  wonderful  that  there 
had  not  been  more  stoppages  than  had  actually  occurred.  He  attributed  those  stoppages  to  the 
defective  way  in  which  the  pipes  had  been  laid.  Why  a concrete  foundation  should  bo  applied  to  brick 
and  not  to  pipe  sewers  he  could  not  imagine,  and  if  concrete  had  always  been  applied  to  the  latter,  as 
it  was  now,  he  believed  the  occasional  sinking  would  have  been  prevented.  Mr.  Haywood  had  very 
properly  stated  that  pipes  could  be  made  of  any  required  strength,  and  engineers  and  architects  were 
to  blame  if  they  did  not  stipulate  for  a proper  amount  of  strength.  As  soon  as  the  rage  for  cheap- 
ness which  existed  a year  and  a half  ago  had  subsided,  the  pipes  were  made  thicker,  but  of  course  the 
cost  was  increased  in  proportion,  and  it  should  be  borne  in  mind  that  excellence  in  the  manufacture 
was  more  essential  than  mere  thickness,  the  thickest  pipe  not  being  always  the  strongest.  A 12  in. 
pipe,  1 in.  thick,  if  well  vitrified,  would  be  stronger  and  better  than  if  its  thickness  were  increased 
to  1^  in.  or  in.  as  the  manufacture  and  burning  would  be  better  with  the  inch  thickness.  Expe- 
rience had  suggested  many  improvements  in  laying  the  pipes,  and  the  failures  bore  but  a small 
proportion  to  the  amount  of  pipes  laid.  Pipes  were  now  being  laid  with  great  prudence  and  judgment 
in  such  a way  that  they  might  easily  be  approached  from  side  entrances  and  examined,  and  they 
were  laid  in  straight  lengths  and  not  upon  the  intricate  system  adopted  two  years  ago.  He  did  not 
consider  the  porous  nature  of  brick  to  be  favourable  for  the  formation  of  the  slimy  coating  to  which 
some  value  had  been  attributed : the  vitrified  internal  surface  of  the  tube  would  be  more  certain  in 
its  effects.  In  conclusion,  he  had  observed  that  however  various  the  theories  expressed  by  different 
persons,  their  practice  was  very  similar,  inasmuch  as  those  who  most  strongly  advocated  the  pipe 
system  occasionally  used  brick  sewers,  whilst  those  who  advocated  brick  sewers  frequently  laid  down 
pipes.  This  at  all  events  was  the  result  of  his  own  experience  and  observation. 

Mr.  Fowleb.  Fellow,  observed,  that  Mr.  Boulnois  had  divided  the  subject  into  three  branches, 
and  that  of  these  the  first  two  had  to  his  mind  been  satisfactorily  disposed  of.  The  third  branch  of 
the  subject,  that  of  outfall,  or  ultimate  disposal  of  the  sewage  matter  remained  for  discussion,  if  the 
meeting  thought  it  desirable ; and  he  therefore  proposed  that  its  consideration  should  be  adjourned 
till  another  evening. 

Mr.  C.  H.  Smith,  Visitor,  said  that  the  remarks  which  had  been  made  respecting  pipes  assumed 
that  they  were  perfect  when  laid  down,  whereas  he  had  seen  many  which  had  been  broken  or  cracked 
in  transit ; and  unless  actually  broken  to  pieces  they  were  laid  down,  and,  as  might  have  been  expected, 
they  had  failed,  in  some  cases  even  before  the  building  was  completed.  When  laid,  it  would  often 
happen  that  by  imperfect  filling  in  the  pressure  upon  the  pipes  would  not  be  uniform  ; but  if  it  were 
uniform  a very  thin  pipe  would  bear  an  enormous  pressure.  This  might  be  illustrated  by  the  pressure 
which  would  be  resisted  by  the  small  bottles  used  for  pneumatic  experiments,  and  even  by  a common 
hen’s  egg.  Pipe  drains  might  fail  from  the  causes  he  had  mentioned,  but  a brick  drain  once  properly 
constructed  would  always  remain  sound. 

Mr.  Cheistopheb,  Fellow,  differed  with  Mr.  Bazalgette,  as  to  the  greatest  amount  of  deposit 
being  found  in  old  and  abandoned  sewers.  In  his  own  district  (Hammersmith)  there  were  two  main 
sewers.  One  of  these  which  had  only  been  constructed  ten  years  was  frequently  liable  to  most 
serious  deposit,  and  had  now  been  for  three  months  in  course  of  emptying  by  hand  labour,  being 
filled  up  to  two-thirds  of  its  capacity  by  solid  deposit.  The  other  was  an  older  sewer  (3  ft.  6 in.) 
and  although  there  was  a large  flow  of  water  down  it  occasionally,  it  also  was  being  emptied.  Mr. 
Bazalgette’ s theory  as  to  the  scouring  power  would  not  apply  when  a deposit  had  been  formed ; 
and  the  eleansing  he  had  referred  to  absorbed  the  whole  local  sewer  rate  of  6d.  in  the  pound,  with 
the  exception  of  a small  margin  for  stafif  &e.,  leaving  nothing  whatever  towards  constructing  new 
sewers. 

Mr.  Bazalgette  stated  that  he  had  intended  his  remarks  to  be  of  general  application.  The  sewers 
of  London  for  the  most  part  were  clean  where  they  had  a tolerably  good  fall,  and  a moderate  quantity 


106 


of  water  passing  through  them,  and  if  the  road  drift  could  not  be  carried  away,  they  might  be  kept 
clear  by  raking.  It  was  plain  that  the  sewers  mentioned  by  Mr.  Christopher,  had  not  sufficient  fall 
in  proportion  to  the  quantity  of  water  passing  through  them  to  make  them  self-cleansing,  and  pipe 
sewers  in  the  same  circumstances  would  be  constantly  stopped  up.  In  these  instances,  the  deposit 
could  be  removed  without  disturbing  the  sewers  or  breaking  up  the  streets,  which  would  not  be  the 
case  with  pipes. 

Mr.  Pocock,  Pellow,  said  that  in  the  question  of  sewers,  as  in  other  affairs,  only  practical  men  knew 
how  and  when  to  modify  the  theory,  as  modified  it  must  be  occasionally.  The  frequent  changes  and  inter- 
ruptions which  had  occurred  in  the  proceedings  of  the  bodies  having  the  management  of  the  sewers,  even 
when  they  were  going  on  satisfactorily,  had  tended  to  impede  rather  than  to  promote  improvements. 
He  proceeded  to  narrate  a case  in  which  he  was  concerned  where  he  had  erected  at  different  periods  two 
sides  of  a square.  In  the  first  instance  he  applied  to  the  Westminster  Commissioners  for  permission 
to  put  in  a 3 feet.  6 in.  sewer,  which  he  thought  large  enough  to  drain  thirty-six  houses,  and  seeing  no 
prospect  for  years  of  getting  any  outlet  to  the  South,  he  proposed  to  connect  this  sewer  with  another  to 
the  Northwards;  and  although  certainly  this  was  not  the  most  direct  way  to  the  Thames,  the  Com- 
missioners would  not  have  objected  to  draining  a level  surface  as  he  proposed,  if  it  had  not  been  for 
the  opposition  of  an  energetic  theorist  in  the  Board  who  would  not  listen  to  the  proposition,  simply 
because  the  new  sewer  was  to  the  North  of  the  Thames,  and  therefore  as  he  contended,  must  drain 
directly  towards  it.  The  consequence  was  that  the  Board  after  several  years  delay  spent  a considerable 
sum  to  lower  a 2 ft.  6 in.  sewer  into  which  he  had  to  drain  his  4 ft.  6 in.  sewer  (the  size  insisted  on) 
through  an  intermediate  1 ft.  6 in.  barrel  drain.  When  the  reign  of  this  body  had  come  to  an  end,  he 
erected  sixteen  houses  on  the  other  side  of  the  square,  and  again  proposed  a 3 ft.  6 in.  sewer,  but  now 
nothing  would  do  but  a 9 inch  pipe  ! This  however  he  resisted,  and  was  fortified  by  one  of  the  con- 
tractors, who  said  he  would  advise  him  to  have  cesspools  rather  than  a pipe  sewer,  and  that  he 
would  build  him  a 3 ft.  6 in.  sewer  for  the  same  cost  as  the  9 in.  and  12  in.  pipe  sewer  to  which  the 
Board,  were  at  length  willing  to  accede.  He  (Mr.  Pocock)  resisted  the  board  until  his  tenants 
complained,  when  he  urged  them  to  complain  of  him  to  the  Commissioners,  and  the  result  was,  that 
they  gave  way,  and  he  put  in  the  the  3 ft.  6 in.  brick  sewer.  Generally,  although  a 6 in.  pipe  would  make 
a very  good  house  drain,  it  was  impossible  to  use  a pipe  for  a sewer  in  a public  road,  with  either 
economy  or  efficiency.  The  chief  advantage  of  a pipe  was  its  economy,  and  this  advantage  ceased  if 
the  pipe  was  more  than  9 inches  in  diameter,  for  an  18  inch  brick  barrel  drain  was  not  more  expen- 
sive than  a 12  inch  pipe.  The  frequent  complaints  against  the  opening  of  the  public  roads  for  the 
repairs  of  sewers,  gas,  and  water  pipes  sufficiently  shewed  the  tendency  of  the  public  mind,  and 
should  be  a warning  to  advocates  of  pipe  drainage. 

The  Chairman  proposed  the  thanks  of  the  meeting  to  Mr.  Bazalgette,  and  the  other  gentlemen 
who  had  given  them  the  benefit  of  their  experience,  and  moved  the  further  adjournment  of  the 
discussion.  He  stated  that  the  use  of  drain  tiles,  and  the  system  of  flushing  sewers  were  not 
modern  inventions,  that  the  latter  had  been  found  in  the  ruins  of  Fountains  Abbey,  and  he 
described  the  ingenious  system  by  which,  in  the  time  of  Cardinal  Wolsey,  the  water  of  the  moat, 
which  surrounded  Hampton  Court  Palace,  had  been  made  to  flush  and  carry  off  the  sewerage  of 
the  Palace.  The  original  supply  of  water  from  Coombe  was  conducted  under  the  river  Thames  by  an 
aqueduct,  known  as  the  Longford  Biver,  and  these  services  were  maintained  to  the  present  time  in 
perfect  operation. 


Correction  in  the  Paper  read  March  20th. 

Page  91,  line  14,  and  following  lines,  should  read  thus — The  thickness  of  pipes  must  now  be  ) in.  for  4 in.,  f in.  for  6 in. 
1 in.  for  9 in.,  and  1 J in.  for  12  in.  Beyond  this  the  Commissioners  do  not  permit  pipe  drains  within  then-  jurisdiction,  as  they 
have  been  found  to  break  and  cause  great  damage  and  expense. 


ON  THE  OPEN  SPACES  OF  OUR  METROPOLIS. 

By  S.  Angell,  Fellow. 

Read  at  an  intermediate  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects, 

May  8th,  1854. 


The  somewhat  exclusive  title  of  my  paper  induces  a very  natural  wish  on  the  part  of  its  author, 
that  on  examination  there  may  he  found  in  it  “more  than  meets  the  eye”  in  the  words  themselves^ 
though  I fear  I must  not  allow  myself  to  indidge  in  such  a consolatory  aspiration  ; for  on  glancing 
over  our  great  Metropolitan  Chart,  I observe  but  comparatively  few  important  sites  left  unencumbered 
by  ever  expanding  bricks  and  mortar,  with  the  bright  exception  of  “ London’s  silent  highway,”  the 
majestic  Thames ! 

The  immediate  purport  of  this  paper  is  to  secure  (as  far  as  may  be  practicable)  from  future 
encroachments  such  open  spaces  as  are  now  left  to  us  ; an  attempt  which  I am  the  more  induced  to 
make  by  the  now  daily  increasing  desire  in  corporate  and  parochial  bodies  to  adorn  and  improve  our 
cities  and  towns.  With  this  view  it  has  occurred  to  me  that  some  memoranda  culled  from  the  “ wise 
saws  ” of  our  old  Chronicles,  and  from  the  “modern  instances”  of  our  living  authors,  might  afford 
useful  information  for  our  guidance  ; these,  with  my  humble  services  as  your  Cicerone,  I now  offer 
during  half-an-hour’s  imaginary  ramble  through  the  “ open  spaces  of  our  Metropolis.” 

Proposing  at  the  outset  to  take  “high  ground,”  lean  only  regret  that  I have  not  a “ Mons 
Capitolinus”  for  my  summit  level;  in  the  absence  of  so  crowning  an  eminence,  I thought  I could 
establish  a Mons  Palatinus  on  Tower  Hill  as  my  starting  point,  for  Fitzstephen  says,  “ on  the  east  of 
London  stands  the  Palatine  Tower,”  but  having  consulted  Dugdale  and  Wren,  I believe  the  Palatine 
Tower  referred  to  must  have  been  at  Castle  Baynard  ; we  must  therefore,  I consider,  be  content  with 
Tower  Hill  without  such  lofty  pretensions. 

The  historical  associations  connected  with  this  spot  are  of  intense  interest,  but  on  this  occasion 
I feel  that  I must  confine  my  remarks  to  the  topographical  part  of  my  subject. 

Stow  describes  the  site  thus,  “ Tower  Hill,  sometime  a large  plot  of  ground,  now  greatly  straitened 
by  encroachments  (unlawfully  made  and  suffered)  for  gardens  and  houses.”  I am  inclined  to  think, 
however,  that  these  encroachments  have  since  been  removed  to  make  way  for  two  of  the  most  success- 
ful buildings  of  the  present  century,  the  Trinity  House  and  the  Mint,  which  stand  on  a very  airy 
and  refreshing  open  breathing  spot,  which  I have  always  found  more  free  from  fog  and  smoke  than 
any  other  in  the  Metropolis.  I must  not  venture  into  the  precincts  of  the  Tower  itself;  the  military 
engineers  having  taken  possession  of  the  architect’s  department,  any  remarks  on  my  part  might, 
perhaps,  not  be  considered  coming  within  the  civil  bounds  of  professional  etiquette. 

Descending  from  my  pseudo  Palatine,  I approach  the  less  aspiring  “ Fish  Street  Hill,”  which  is, 
however,  not  without  its  glories,  for  upon  it  “ was  one  great  house  which  pertained  for  some  time  to 
Edward  the  Black  Prince  ;”  it  formed  also  the  main  approach  to  old  London  bridge,  and  it  still  possesses 
two  of  Wren’s  choicest  works,  the  Monument,  and  tbe  Church  of  St.  Magnus. 

Travelling  onward,  I will  not  detain  you  at  St.  Mary-at-IIill,  St.  Dunstan’s,  Dowgate,  or  St. 
Bennet’s  Hills,  nor  need  I stop  on  the  declivity  to  the  Fleet  river  (now  arched  over)  by  Ludgate  on 
the  south  line  of  main  thoroughfare,  nor  on  that  of  the  north  by  Newgate, 

“ Where  from  Snow  Hill,  black  steepy  torrents  run ;” 
a Charybdis  more  dreaded  by  civic  navigators  than  the  Scylla-like  obstructions  of  Middle  Row ; but 


M 


108 


even  this  omnibus  engulphing  vortex  may,  I hope,  before  long  be  raised  to  its  proper  level : we  surely 
need  not  despair  when  we  see  the  energetic  doings  of  the  London  corporation  in  the  immediate 
vicinity,  and  know  that  one  of  its  most  influential  officers,  in  his  grand  and  comprehensive  plan  for 
a “ central  city  terminus,”  made  one  “ fell  swoop”  of  this  abominable  blockade  of  progress  and  free 
communication. 

Although  I have  for  many  years  been  acquainted  with  Saffron  Hill,  I have  not  found  it  to  he  a 
district  possessing  many  attractions,  I will  therefore  proceed  with  you  to  the  more  verdant  and 
salubrious  height  of  Primrose  Hill,  (London’s  “ Aventine  mount,”  if  you  please),  once  the  favorite 
resoi’t  of  Londoners.  It  forms  part  of  a large  estate  belonging  to  Eton  College,  and  although  its 
immediate  site  is,  I trust,  for  ever  secured  to  the  public,  its  once  picturesque  ascent  and  its  tree  crowned 
summit  are  now  sadly  shorn  of  their  former  beauties  ; bricks  and  mortar  have  displaced  its  verdure, 
and  I fear  the  most  indefatigable  botanist  would  now  find  great  difficulty  in  discovering  a soli- 
tary specimen  of  the  flower  from  which  the  hill  derives  its  name. 

I possess  a small  view  of  Primrose  Hill  taken  in  its  flourishing  days  by  that  truly  English  artist, 
Thomas  Girtin,  the  fellow  student  of  Turner,  and  one  of  the  first  to  lead  the  way  to  that  perfection 
to  which  the  art  of  painting  in  water  colours  attained,  before  the  modern  style  of  “relievo”  in  body 
colour  was  introduced. 

Our  Parks  come  next  in  the  order  of  my  series.  St.  James’  Park  was  first  formed  by  Henry 
VIII,  but  it  appears  to  have  reached  its  zenith  in  the  reign  of  Charles  II,  who  is  said  to  have  employed 
a Dr.  Morrison  upon  its  embellishment;  others  claim  for  Le  Notre  the  merit  of  laying  out  the 
grounds,  which  contain  about  87  acres.  Eosamond’s  pond,  the  Canal,  and  the  Decoy,  have  all  now 
disappeared,  and  though  the  antiquary  may  lament  their  loss,  the  lovers  of  the  picturesque  are  perhaps 
of  opinion,  that  the  present  appearance  of  the  park  is  fully  as  agreeable  as  it  could  have  been  in  the 
days  of  the  “ Merrie  Monarch,”  Nell  Gwynn,  Killigrew,  and  His  Grace  of  Buckingham. 

The  adjacent  Green  Park  was  originally  called  Upper  St.  James’  Park;  it  contains  about  56  acres 
but  was  formerly  larger,  a portion  having  been  taken  off  in  the  reign  of  George  III,  to  enlarge  the 
gardens  of  Buckingham  House.  On  the  east  side  there  are  some  noble  mansions.  Spencer  house  (the 
work  of  Vardy),  one  of  our  palatial  gems  ; Stafford  House,  and  Bridgewater  House.  I regret  I cannot 
extend  my  admiration  to  the  Eoyal  buildings  on  the  opposite  boundary  of  this  park. 

Hyde  Park  is  stated  to  have  been  enclosed  with  brick  walls  in  the  time  of  Charles  II.  It 
was  formerly  a deer  park,  in  which  the  French  ambassador  hunted  with  Edward  VI.  in  1550.  It  has 
always  been  celebrated  for  its  drives  and  promenades.  Pepys  relates,  that  he  used  to  ride  there  in  his 
coach,  and  that  on  one  occasion  he  met  the  Duke  of  York,  “ who  did  eye  my  wife  mightily.”  If  the 
gossiping  Secretary  could  see  Hyde  Park  at  the  present  day,  I wonder  what  his  exclamations  would 
be  upon  the  Colossus  from  the  Monte  Cavallo  ! and  on  the  Cavallo  perched  upon  the  Arco  Colosso  ! 

George  IV,  when  Eegent,  gave  us  an  additional  Metropolitan  lung  in  the  park  named  after  his 
title,  and  we  are  indebted  to  the  skill  of  the  late  Mr.  Nash  for  its  general  arrangement  and  plan  ; it 
contains  with  its  surrounding  terraces,  altogether  about  450  acres. 

At  the  eastern  extremity  of  London  we  have  Victoria  Park,  (another  modern  creation),  and  on 
my  list  I next  find  Whetstone  Park  ; but  as  I am  not  acquainted  with  any  beauties  in  it  to  describe, 
nor  the  number  of  acres  to  enumerate,  I will  pass  on  to  Battersea  Park,  which  can  scarcely  yet  be 
considered  in  esse ; while  Highbury  Park,  which  I fear  is  still  in  nubibus,  I have  not  ventured  to 
include  in  my  catalogue. 

Our  public  Gardens  may  not  inappropriately  follow  our  Parks.  Kensington  Gardens  are  “ par 


109 


excellence”  the  Gardens  of  tho  Metropolis;  they  originally  contained  only  2G  acres,  to  which  Queen 
Anne  added  30,  and  George  the  Second’s  Queen  300,  making  altogether  35G  acres,  where — 

“ The  dames  of  Britain  oft  in  crowds  repair 
To  gravel  walks  and  unpolluted  air, 

Here  while  the  town  in  damps  and  darkness  lies, 

They  breathe  in  sunshine,  and  see  azure  skies.” 

Spring  Gardens,  which  in  the  time  of  Charles  I and  II,  had  a bathing  pond,  pheasant  yard, 
and  bowling  green,  in  the  reign  of  Victoria,  present  no  other  rural  feature  than  the  name. 

Privy  Gardens  have  in  like  manner  undergone  a change,  and  bricks  and  mortar  have  now  invaded 
the  fair  “ three  and  a quarter  acres,”  which  Pepys  describes  as  having  been  laid  out  in  his  time  in  six- 
teen compartments,  having  a standing  statue  in  the  centre  of  each. 

The  Temple  Gardens  are  fortunately  still  preserved  to  us  in  nearly  all  their  integrity  repre- 
sented in  Canaletto’s  views  ; long,  long,  may  they  continue  with  their  green  plots,  and  flowers,  and 
fountains  “ sparkling  in  the  sun,”  and  in  the  sweet  words  of  Elia,  “ So  may  the  fresh  coloured  and 
cleanly  nursery  maid,  who,  by  leave,  airs  her  playful  charge  in  your  stately  gardens,  drop  her  prettiest 
blushing  curtsy  as  ye  pass,  reductive  of  juvenescent  emotion.” 

Gray’s  Inn  Gardens  are  also  well  preserved,  and  I expect  are  not  very  far  different  from  what 
they  were  in  the  days  of  the  Spectator  and  the  Tatler,  saving  the  encroachments  of  Verulam  and 
Raymond’s  Buildings.  Lord  Bacon  is  said  to  have  planted  some  of  the  trees,  and  Howell,  writing  from 
Venice  in  1621,  to  Mr.  Richard  Altham,  in  Gray’s  Inn,  says,  “ I would  I had  you  here  (in  Venice), 
with  a wish,  and  you  would  not  desire  in  haste  to  be  at  Gray’s  Inn,  though  I hold  your  walks  to  be 
the  pleasantest  place  about  London,  and  that  you  have  there  the  choicest  society.”  Mr.  Cunningham, 
in  his  instructive  “ Hand-book  of  London”  observes,  that  the  Gardens  in  Charles  the  Second’s  time 
possessed  an  uninterrupted  view  towards  Highgate  and  Hampstead — “ We  are  stepping  westward,”  says 
Mr.  Cunningham—"  Moorfields  gave  way  to  Gray’s  Inn,  Gray’s  Inn  to  the  Mall  in  St.  James’  Park ; 
the  Mall  to  the  Ring,  and  the  Ring  to  the  Long  "Walk  in  Kensington  Gardens.” 

Hatton  Garden’s  flourishing  days  seem  to  have  departed  in  Evelyn’s  time ; for  the  good  knight 
describes  the  foundations  being  laid  out  “ for  a longe  streete  and  buildings  designed  for  a little  towne, 
lately  an  ample  garden.” 

Many  of  the  City  Companies’  Halls  have  gardens  attached  to  them,  the  principal  of  which  are 
those  belonging  to  Drapers’  Hall,  in  Throgmorton  Street,  which  contain  nearly  two  acres.  These  gardens 
are  interesting  to  the  London  antiquary  from  the  circumstances  so  minutely  related  by  Stow,  of  the 
arbitrary  proceedings  in  1541,  of  Thomas  Cromwell,  Earl  of  Essex.  Stow’s  father  had  a garden 
there,  of  half  of  which  the  Earl  deprived  him ; he  tells  us,  “ no  warning  was  given  him,  or  other 
answer,  when  he  spake  to  the  surveyors  of  that  work,  but  that  their  master,  Sir  Thomas,  commanded 
them  so  to  do ; no  man  durst  go  to  argue  the  matter,  but  each  man  lost  his  land,  and  my  father  paid 
his  whole  rent,  which  was  6s.  6d.  the  year,  for  that  half  which  was  left.”  Old  Stow  adds,  “Thus 
much  of  my  own  knowledge  have  I thought  good  to  note,  that  the  sudden  rising  of  some  men  causeth 
them  to  forget  themselves.”  Ward,  in  his  “ London  Spy,”  commends  these  gardens  as  a fashionable 
promenade  “ an  hour  before  dinner  time.”  In  1552,  we  find  the  following  regulations  for  these 
gardens — “ The  Gardyner  to  suffer  no  strangers  to  bowle,  in  case  there  be  any  of  the  Company 
disposed  to  bowle  in  the  place  ; neither  to  take  erbys  or  fruite.” 

In  our  own  days,  we  have  our  Zoological  and  Botanical  Gardens,  richly  compensating  us  for  the 
loss  of  the  Bear  Garden  in  Bankside,  the  Dog  and  Duck  in  St.  George’s  Eields,  and  the  Cock  Pit  at 
Whitehall. 


110 


The  Fields  of  London  as  well  as  our  Gardens  require  some  notice,  and  although  it  is  complained 
that  we  have  now  “ no  more  fields,”  we  have  still  the  open  spaces,  if  not  “ the  daisy’ d hanks 
embroidered  o’er.”  Of  these,  for  extent,  Lincoln’s  Inn  Fields  claim  the  first  notice.  The  earliest 
accounts  describe  them  as  the  resort  of  bad  characters,  and  as  being  used  for  breaking  in  horses. 

In  the  Daily  Journal  9th  July,  1735,  we  find  that  “the  plan  for  beautifying  Lincoln’s  Inn  Fields 
is  now  before  His  Grace  the  Duke  of  Newcastle ; there  are  to  be  four  iron  gates,  one  at  each  corner, 
and  dwarf  walls  with  iron  palisades,  this  plan  has  been  agreed  to  by  the  inhabitants.” 

In  the  reign  of  Charles  II,  Thomas  Sadler,  a notorious  thief,  who  had  the  supreme  daring 
to  steal  the  mace  and  purse  of  Lord  Chancellor  Finch,  made  a mock  procession  with  his  booty  at 
night  through  Lincoln’s  Inn  Fields ; and  in  our  own  days  mobs  have  assembled  there  to  agitate 
questions  of  supposed  political  grievances. 

On  the  south  side  of  the  Square  is  the  College  of  Surgeons,  originally  the  work  of  Dance,  but 
since  altered  and  enlarged  by  Sir  Charles  Barry.  On  the  west,  stand  Newcastle  House,  Powis  House, 
and  Lindsey  House,  the  works  of  Inigo  Jones  ; on  the  north  side,  is  the  Museum  (formerly  the 
residence)  of  Sir  John  Soane,  a real  lover  and  munificent  patron  of  art,  whose  liberal  feelings  towards 
this  Institute  must  always  be  gratefully  remembered. 

The  east  side  of  Lincoln’s  Inu  Fields,  which  was  formerly  separated  from  the  adjoining  gardens  by 
a low  wall,  now  presents  a successful  group  of  buildings  in  the  mediaeval  style,  the  first  important 
work  of  a young  friend  of  mine,  who  appears  determined  that  the  name  of  Hardwick  shall  continue 
to  be  associated  with  success  in  art,  and  worthy  of  the  recent  honour  so  deservedly  bestowed  by  this 
Institute  on  his  esteemed  father.  We  have  all  heard  that  the  area  of  Lincoln’s  Inn  Fields  is  equal 
to  the  base  of  the  great  Pyramid.  I must  honestly  confess  myself  no  advocate  for  covering  this  most 
noble  “ of  our  open  spaces”  with  buildings,  however  useful  or  ornamental  they  may  be ; though  we 
appear  by  no  means  anxious  to  avail  ourselves  of  this  our  largest  “ open  space,”  by  providing  good 
access  to  it. 

Moorfields,  within  my  own  recollection,  were  bounded  on  the  south  side  by  a long  gloomy  foreign 
looking  building  with  pavillions  at  the  ends  enclosed  by  a high  brick  wall,  with  entrance  piers 
surmounted  by  those  master  pieces  of  Cibber,  so  characteristic  of  the  abode  of  which  they  appeared 
to  form  a part.  We  must  all  rejoice  that  this  Hospital  has  been  removed  to  a more  open  and  spacious 
situation  in  St.  George’s  Fields,  where,  thanks  to  the  philanthropy  and  common  sense  of  the  age,  the 
lunatic  is  now  treated  with  skill  and  kindness,  and  that  immediately  opposite  to  the  site  of  the 
former  repulsive  fabric,  there  now  stands  a building  devoted  to  the  purposes  of  literature  and  science. 

Casting  a glance  only  at  Goodman’s  Fields,  Spital  Fields,  Tothill  Fields,  Spa  Fields,  and  passing 
through  Bartholomew  Close,  we  enter  that  celebrated  field,  where,  in  days  of  yore,  a Lord  Mayor  of 
London  won  his  spurs,  and  William  Walworth’s  unerring  dagger  became  the  heraldic  emblem  of 
London’s  chivalry. 

The  site  of  Smithfield  is  as  full  of  historical  interest  as  Tower  Hill  itself,  and  its  reminiscences 
are  about  as  painful ; whatever  may  be  its  future  destination,  I feel  confident  that  those  who  have  the 
control  will  devote  it  to  the  purposes  best  suited  to  the  requirements  of  the  age,  with  a due  regard 
to  the  interests  of  the  adjoining  lloyal  Hospital  of  St.  Bartholomew. 

The  Squares  of  London  are  well  deserving  a few  words  of  notice ; they  form  one  of  the  most 
agreeable  features  of  our  Metropolis,  and  I am  not  acquainted  with  any  Continental  City  in  which 
they  are  equalled  in  point  of  number  or  in  general  arrangement. 

St.  James’  Square,  formed  in  1676,  has  always  been  inhabited  by  the  gentry  and  nobility. 
There  are  some  noble  mansions  in  it — the  residence  of  our  noble  President,  Norfolk  House  by 


Brettingham,  Lichfield  Houso  by  Athenian  Stuart,  and  London  House  by  the  present  accomplished 
Professor  of  Architecture  at  the  Royal  Academy. 

Grosvenor  Square,  so  called  after  Sir  Bichard  Grosvenor  who  died  in  17.32,  also  possesses  many 
noble  mansions,  and  has  more  of  an  aristocratic  air  than  any  other  of  our  London  Squares.  An 
equestrian  statue  of  George  III.,  formerly  in  the  centre,  has  disappeared.  Portman  Square,  com- 
menced in  IvGl,  was  not  completed  till  twenty  years  afterwards.  Manchester  Square  was  formed 
in  1776.  Cavendish  Square  was  laid  out  in  1718;  the  North  side,  which  was  reserved  for  the 
residence  of  the  Duke  of  Chandos,  has  been  since  built  over,  the  two  centre  houses  being,  I believe, 
from  the  designs  of  Sir  William  Chambers.  On  the  west  side  stands  Harcourt  house,  inhabited 
by  the  Duke  of  Portland,  which  presents  with  its  high  court  walls  and  “ porte-cochere,”  more  of 
the  appearance  of  a Parisian  mansion  than  any  other  house  in  London.  The  equestrian  statue  in 
the  centre  is  that  of  the  Duke  of  Cumberland,  and  on  the  South  side  there  has  lately  been  placed 
a statue  of  the  lamented  Lord  George  Bentinck. 

Hanover  Square,  named  in  honour  of  George  I.  was  formed  about  1718.  This  Square  in  connection 
with  George  Street  has  always  struck  me  as  one  of  the  most  scenic  architectural  displays  that  London 
presents ; the  street  expanding  towards  the  square,  the  unique  and  elegant  style  of  the  surrounding 
mansions,  the  judicious  mixture  of  red  brick  and  stone,  Chantrey’s  statue  and  the  successful 
ecclesiastical  work  of  James  altogether  produce  the  most  agreeable  effect. 

Leicester  Square  was  built  about  1635.  On  the  North  side  was  formerly  the  residence  of  the 
Prince  of  Wales,  father  of  George  III.  Hogarth,  Sir  Joshua  Beynolds,  and  the  celebrated  John 
Hunter,  the  surgeon,  dwelt  here  ; and  in  St.  Martin’s  Street  adjoining,  the  immortal  Newton  lived  ! 

I do  not  know  whether  we  may  consider  this  Square  as  one  of  the  lungs  of  St.  Martin’s  parish, 
if  it  is,  I fear  its  respiratory  action  must  be  somewhat  impeded  by  the  large  obstruction  now 
formed  in  its  centre. 

I cannot  take  leave  of  this  Square  without  a passing  word  of  praise  on  the  clever  and  original 
design  of  the  Panopticon,  the  successful  work  of  a talented  young  member  of  this  Institute. 

Trafalgar  Square  claims  a front  rank  in  our  list  of  “ open  spaces,”  more  particularly  when 
putting  forth  its  claim,  as  “ the  finest  site  in  Europe.”  When  the  decorative  accompaniments  to 
Nelson’s  column  are  completed,  and  George  IY.  is  allowed  to  have  an  equestrian  companion  on  the 
now  vacant  pedestal,  we  may  perhaps  be  better  enabled  to  decide  upon  the  merits  of  Trafalgar  Square. 

Of  the  Piazza  proper  of  Covent  Garden,  I may  remark  that  it  was  designed  by  Inigo  Jones  in 
1631,  with  the  Arcade  as  at  present  on  the  North  and  East  sides,  the  Church  on  the  West,  and 
the  wall  of  Bedford  house  on  the  South— the  mansion  was  taken  down  in  1704  ; next  this  wall  was 
a grove  of  trees  where  the  market  used  to  be  held.  In  the  centre  of  the  Square  was  placed  a column 
with  a dial. 

Gay  has  well  described  the  Church  and  the  Square  in  these  expressive  lines  : — 

“ Where  Covent  Garden’s  famous  Temple  stands, 

That  boasts  the  work  of  Jones’  immortal  hands, 

Columns  with  plain  magnificence  appear, 

And  graceful  porches  lead  along  the  Square.” 

The  present  market  was  built  in  1830,  our  brother  member,  Mr.  Eowler,  being  the  architect. 

I must  not  weary  you  by  a tour  through  the  other  squares  of  the  Metropolis,  in  Belgravia, 
Tybumia,  and  Westminster.  Bloomsbury,  which  the  Grand  Duke  Cosmo  was  taken  to  see  as  one  of 
the  wonders  of  England,  Einsbury  and  the  Minories,  all  put  in  a claim  for  their  “ open  quadrangular 


112 


spaces,”  and  in  that  gigantic  effort  of  Post  Office  literature,  the  Directory,  I am  told  that  more  than 
100  will  he  found  enumerated.  I am  sure,  therefore,  I shall  stand  excused  for  having  presented  a 
selection  only. 

Of  the  Greens  in  London,  Clerkenwell  and  Bethnal  are  the  only  ones  that  now  occur  to  me. 
Strype  tells  us  that  a mansion  was  built  on  the  latter  in  1570,  by  John  Thorpe,  the  architect 
of  Holland  House. 

Of  Yards  we  possess  several,  but  I will  only  name  the  two  Palace  yards,  Scotland  yard, 
and  Whitehall  yard. 

The  Tenter  Ground  and  the  Artillery  Ground  are  both  good  sized  “ open  spaces I believe  the 
latter  to  be  the  only  one  where  the  military  ardour  of  the  citizens  has  a field  for  active  exercise. 

The  Markets  of  London,  I fear,  will  not  strictly  come  under  the  title  of  my  paper  as  “ open 
spaces,”  but  I cannot  altogether  pass  them  over;  however  disposed  I might  feel  to  place  them  in 
the  condemned  schedule,  the  great  improvements  which  are  now  making  by  the  Corporation  of  London, 
under  the  excellent  judgment  of  their  architect,  in  the  fields  of  Copenhagen  and  on  the  shores  of 
Billingsgate  induce  me  to  look  forward  to  an  early  period,  when  the  shambles  of  Newgate  Street  shall 
give  place  to  an  extension  of  the  paths  of  literature  of  Paternoster,  and  the  hides  and  the  beeves,  and 
the  fish,  the  flesh  and  the  fowl  of  Leadenhall  shall  find  a more  suitable  abode,  and  resign  their  present 
site  to  the  enlargement  of  thoroughfares,  and  the  increase  of  that  important  branch  of  industry 
and  commerce,  our  Colonial  market ! 

There  is  one  attractive  feature  in  most  Continental  cities,  which  unfortunately  is  entirely 
wanting  in  London.  I allude  to  planted  avenues  of  approach,  or  surrounding  Boulevards.  What  can 
be  more  agreeable  and  refreshing  when  escaping  from  the  town’s  noisy  streets  than  the  shady  repose 
of  a leafy  avenue  ? the  effect  both  on  entering  and  on  departing  is  materially  affected  by  the  character  of 
the  thoroughfare,  I trust  therefore  the  day  is  not  far  distant,  when  in  direct  contrast  to  ourNewBoad 
and  City  Boad,  Curtain  Boad  and  New  Cut,  we  may  have  a spacious  open  Via  Beggia  from  the 
Begent’s  Park  to  princely  Hampstead,  in  accordance  with  the  noble  design  of  the  accomplished 
Professor  of  Architecture  of  the  Boyal  Academy. 

My  brother  architects  will  readily  recal  to  their  minds  those  lines  of  Spratt’s,  introduced  in  the 
Parentalia : — 

“ Fountains  and  trees  our  wearied  pride  do  please, 

Even  in  the  midst  of  gilded  palaces  ! 

And  in  our  towns  that  prospect  gives  delight 
Which  opens  round  the  country  to  our  sight.” 

I fear  by  this  time  your  Cicerone — like  many  others  of  his  class — must  have  nearly  exhausted 
your  patience.  May  I ask  you  kindly  to  extend  it  to  me  for  a very  short  period,  while  I detain  you 
with  the  most  important  part  of  my  subject,  “ St.  Paul’s  Church  Yard.” 

Our  indefatigable  antiquaries  have  put  in  a claim  for  a temple  to  Diana  on  this  spot,  but  Wren, 
who  had  a good  opportunity  of  forming  a judgment  when  preparing  his  foundations,  discovered  no 
corroborative  proof  in  support  of  Apollo  or  Diana;  Sir  Christopher’s  own  words  are — “ I must  assert, 
that  having  changed  all  the  foundations  of  St.  Paul’s,  and  upon  that  occasion  rummaged  all  the  ground 
thereabouts,  and  being  very  desirous  to  find  some  footstep  of  such  a temple,  I could  not  discover 
any ; and  therefore  can  give  no  more  credit  to  Diana  than  to  Apollo.”  And  in  the  excavations  for 
Messrs.  Cooks’  warehouse,  no  fragments  of  great  antiquity  were  found,  excepting  the  Bunic  stone, 
a cast  of  which  our  brother  member,  Mr.  Knowles,  has  kindly  presented  to  the  Institute,  and  several 
short  pieces  of  deer’s  horns — A Stukeley  would  immediately  connect  these  with  a fane  to  the  Goddess, 


113 


and  rear  his  temple  with  the  same  facility  as  a Paleologist  constructs  his  gigantic  monsters  from  a dental 
fragment,  or  a solitary  vertebra.  I should  much  prefer  some  columnar  shafts,  and  Ionic  volutes  to 
these  pieces  of  deer’s  horns,  which  I think  may  possibly  have  been  intended  to  form  rosaries 
for  paternosters.  A statue  however  of  a Boman  soldier  of  the  2nd  legion  was  found  near  the 
neighbouring  Ludgate,  and  as  the  topographical  inscription  under  the  sculptured  boy  in  the  adjoining 
Pannier  Alley  informs  us, 

“ That  if  you  search  all  London  round, 

Still  this  you’ll  find  the  highest  ground.” 

— it  may  be  reasonably  inferred  that  the  site  of  St.  Paul’s  Church  Yard  formed  an  important  part 
of  Boman  London. 

I may  here  perhaps  be  allowed  to  remark,  that  I doubt  whether  we  have  ever  justly  appreciated 
the  importance  and  size  of  the  Metropolis  in  its  Boman  days ; the  numerous  fragments  of  mosaic 
pavement  that  have  been  found,  the  Hypocaust  at  the  Coal  Exchange  in  Lower  Thames  Street,  the 
numerous  specimens  of  pottery  and  coins,  and  the  great  accumulation  of  debris,  all  tend  to  shew  that 
very  considerable  buildings  must  at  that  period  have  occupied  sites  now  covered  by  far  less  sub- 
stantial erections. 

Stow  speaks  of  a patent  of  Henry  I.,  granting  to  the  Bishop  so  much  of  the  Castle  "Wall, 
(Castle  Baynard  of  the  present  day)  as  should  be  needful  to  make  the  wall  of  the  church,  (St.  Paul’s) 
and  so  much  as  should  suffice  to  make  a wall  without  the  way  on  the  north  side ; and  in  the  time 
of  Edward  I.,  there  appears  to  have  been  a presentment  in  the  matter  of  the  grant,  when  it 
was  contended  that  the  whole  “ soil  between  the  gate  called  St.  Augustin’s  Gate  near  the  said 
church  and  the  gate  on  the  West  part  of  the  said  church  towards  Ludgate,  is  High  Street,  and  the 
King’s  highway,  whereof  a great  part  by  the  raising  of  the  wall  at  the  East,  and  the  building  of 
houses  is  now  enclosed,  and  the  King’s  High  Street  much  streightened  to  the  great  damage  of  the 
whole  city.”  Our  ancestors  therefore  appear  to  have  been  fully  alive  to  the  importance  of  “ open 
spaces,”  and  I only  regret  they  were  not  more  successful  in  resisting  those  very  encroachments 
which  are  now  only  in  part  cleared  away,  and  to  which  I shall  presently  more  particularly  allude. 

My  acquaintance  with  “black  letter”  literature  is  too  limited  to  enable  me  to  give  you  any 
further  account  of  St.  Paul’s  Churchyard  previous  to  the  time  of  Henry  III.,  in  whose  reign  we 
learn  from  Stow,  that  leave  was  granted  by  letters  patent  to  the  Bishop,  to  enclose  the  churchyard  of 
the  said  cathedral  church  and  the  precinct  with  a stone  wall  round  about.  On  the  North  side  of  the 
church  was  originally  a great  cloister  environing  a plot  of  ground,  “ of  old  time  called  Pardon  Church- 
yard,” about  which  was  a richly  painted  “ Dance  of  Death  and  “ over  the  East  side  of  the  cloister  was 
a fair  library,  and  in  the  midst  of  the  churchyard  was  also  a fair  chapel,  founded  by  Gilbert  Becket, 
port-grave  and  principal  magistrate  of  this  city  in  the  reign  of  King  Stephen.” 

“ In  the  year  1549  the  said  chapel  by  commandment  of  the  Duke  of  Somerset  was  begun  to  be 
pulled  down,  with  the  whole  cloister,  the  Dance  of  Death,  the  tombs  and  monuments,  so  that 
nothing  thereof  was  left  but  the  bare  plot  of  ground,  which  is  since  converted  into  a garden  for 
the  petty  canons.” 

Of  Paul’s  Cross,  one  of  the  most  interesting  objects  in  London  history,  Stow  tells  us,  that  it 
was  “ about  the  midst”  of  the  churchyard,  (it  is  shown  in  old  engravings  at  the  North  East  corner)  ; 
he  describes  it  “ as  a pulpit  cross  of  timber,  mounted  upon  steps  of  stone,  and  covered  with  lead,  in 
which  are  sermons  preached  by  learned  divines  every  Sunday  in  the  forenoon ; the  very  antiquitv 
of  winch  cross  is  to  me  unknown.” 


114 


In  this  part  also  (the  North  East  angle)  was  the  Campanile,  Clochier,  or  Bell  House ; Stow 
describes  it  as  “ four  square,  built  of  stone,  and  in  the  same  a most  strong  frame  of  timber  with  four 
bells,  the  greatest  I have  heard — these  were  called  Jesus’  bells,  and  belonged  to  Jesus  Chapel — the 
same  had  a great  spire  of  timber  covered  with  lead,  with  the  image  of  St.  Paul  on  the  top,  but  was 
pulled  down  by  Sir  Miles  Partridge  in  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  The  common  speech  then  was, 
that  he  did  set  a hundred  pounds  upon  a cast  at  dice  against  it,  and  so  won  the  said  Clochiard  and 
bells  of  the  King.” 

Our  chronicler  continues — “ then  was  there  on  the  North  side  of  this  churchyard  a large  charnel 
house  for  the  bones  of  the  dead,  and  over  it  a chapel  of  an  old  foundation ’ these  bones,  amount- 
ing to  more  than  1000  cart  loads,  were  removed  to  “ Pinsbery  field  ” — (extra-mural  interment  there- 
fore was  considered  necessary  in  those  days)  and  there  laid  on  a moorish  ground,  which  in  a short 
time  being  raised  by  the  soilage  of  the  city  upon  them,  was  able  to  bear  three  windmills,  (Wind- 
mill Street,  Moorfields,  is  no  doubt  formed  upon  the  spot).  The  chapel  and  charnel  were 
converted  into  dwelling  houses,  warehouses,  and  sheds  before  them,  for  stationers,  in  place  of  the 
tombs.” 

I am  inclined  to  think  the  removal  from  the  charnel  house  above  referred  to  could  not  have 
taken  place  till  after  1552,  for  we  find  the  pious  Latimer,  on  the  3rd  Sunday  in  Advent  in  that 
year,  complaining  in  his  sermon — “ I do  much  marvel  that  London  being  so  rich  a city  hath  not  a 
burial  place  without,  for  no  doubt  it  is  an  unwholesome  thing  to  bury  within  the  city,  specially  at  such 
a time  when  there  is  great  sickness,  so  that  many  die  together.  I think  verily  that  many  a man 
taketh  his  death  in  Paul’s  Churchyard,  and  this  I speak  of  experience,  for  I myself  when  I have  been 
there  in  some  mornings  to  hear  the  sermons,  have  felt  such  an  ill-favoured  unwholesome  savour,  that 
I was  the  worse  for  it  a great  while  after,  and  I think  no  less  but  it  be  the  occasion  of  much  sickness 
and  diseases.”  That  Wren  also  strongly  recommended  extra-mural  interments,  appears  from  his 
letter  to  his  brother  commissioner  for  building  fifty  additional  churches  in  London. 

Latimer  is  said  to  have  preached  his  sermon  of  the  Plough  in  “ the  Shrouds”  which  appears  to 
have  been  a sort  of  covered  gallery  attached  to  the  walls  of  the  cathedral,  in  which  probably  the 
more  distinguished  portion  of  the  congregation  used  commonly  to  be  seated,  and  where  the  preacher 
also  sometimes  took  his  station  when  the  weather  was  coarse. 

On  the  North  West  side  of  the  churchyard,  Stow  describes  the  Bishop’s  Palace  wherein 
“ divers  Kings  have  been  lodged,  and  great  household  hath  been  kept,”  and  on  the  South  side  was 
the  Chapter  House,  a beautiful  piece  of  work,  (shown  in  Hollar’s  View)  built  about  the  reign  of 
Edward  III.,  but  in  Stow’s  time  defaced  by  means  of  licences  granted  first  to  build  “low  sheds” 
and  then,  “ high  houses.” 

In  Pepys’  time,  St.  Paul’s  Churchyard  appears  to  have  been  as  much  famed  for  booksellers’ 
shops  as  Paternoster  Bow  is  at  the  present  time,  and  at  the  great  fire  the  losses  were  considerable, 
“ £ 150,000  worth,  and  all  the  great  booksellers  almost  undone.”  Vast  stores  of  books  were  consumed 
in  the  vaults  of  St.  Faith,  where  according  to  Evelyn  they  continued  to  burn  for  a week.  This  is 
the  subterranean  church,  to  which  in  our  early  days  we  attach  a mysterious  and  fabulous  history, 
and  to  which  the  lines  apply, 

“ This  church  needs  no  repair  at  all, 

For  Faith’s  defended  by  St.  Paul.” 

From  the  survey  taken  by  order  of  the  corporation  soon  after  the  great  fire,  for  the  use  of  the 
commissioners  of  the  streets,  lanes,  &c.,  (published  by  Yertue  in  1723),  we  can  form  a very  fair 
idea  of  the  general  state  of  St.  Paul’s  Churchyard  at  that  period. 


115 


St.  Paul’s  school  is  shown  on  the  plan  with  an  altered  “give  and  take”  line  of  frontage, 
extending  to  the  North  East  angle,  where  according  to  Treswell’s  plan,  (made  as  early  as  15S5) 
formerly  stood  St.  Paul’s  gate,  leading  to  Chepe,  close  to  which  was  the  church  of  St.  Michael  le 
Quern,  with  the  “ little  conduit”  at  the  East  end  of  it,  and  to  the  North,  Blow  Bladder  Street, 
conducting  to  Newgate  market.  The  houses  fronting  East  to  Cheapside,  were  called  Jackanapes  Bow. 
The  North  and  South  boundaries  of  the  churchyard,  which  have  been  described  as  “ the  string  and 
the  how,”  appear  with  trifling  alterations  to  have  been  nearly  similar  to  the  boundaries  as  they 
existed  previous  to  the  late  improvements  connected  with  Cannon  Street,  the  line  extending  in  a 
curve  from  Paul’s  Chain  up  to  the  West  end  of  Watling  Street,  where  formerly  was  situate  “ St. 
Austin’s  Gate.” 

The  plan  of  old  St.  Pauls  is  very  clearly  laid  down  in  the  city  plan  with  the  church  of  St. 
Gregory  and  the  Convocation  house  on  the  South  side.  I must  not  however  encroach  further  upon 
your  time  with  any  account  of  the  old  or  of  the  present  St.  Paul’s  ; those  buildings  would  of  themselves 
afford  abundant  interesting  matter  for  a separate  paper,  and  I therefore  commend  them  with  every 
confidence  for  that  purpose  to  the  able  and  learned  pen  of  the  present  estimable  architect  Custode. 

I must  detain  you  for  a few  moments  at  Sir  Christopher  Wren’s  drawing  office,  and  at  a building 
which  certainly  cannot  be  well  overlooked,  the  Colossal  warehouse,  lately  erected  by  our  brother 
member,  Mr.  Knowles,  for  Messrs.  Cook. 

The  great  architect’s  drawing  office  was  on  the  South  side;  it  now  forms  part  of  St.  Paul’s 
Coffee  house ; there  is  no  mistaking  it — from  the  balcony  in  front  there  is  a most  superb  view  of  the 
West  front,  of  which  I was  delighted  to  see  a most  successful  representation  at  the  Exhibition  of  the 
Royal  Academy,  the  performance  of  a rising  young  architect,  whose  distinguished  father  has  shown  his 
profound  veneration  for  Wren  in  the  most  elegant  testimonial  ever  produced  by  kindred  genius  ! 

The  Colossal  warehouse,  I think  yon  will  agree  with  me,  is  fully  entitled  to  that  appellation, 
when  I state  that  its  length  is  171  feet,  average  depth  74  feet,  height  90  feet,  and  the  cubical  contents 
one  million  one  hundred  thousand  and  fifty  feet ! I was  extremely  glad  to  have  the  aid  of 
steam  power  in  lifting  me  to  its  summit,  and  the  assistance  of  a guide  to  point  out  its  extent ; but  I 
know  not  whether  my  astonishment  at  its  size  was  not  surpassed,  when  the  architect  informed  me 
of  the  rapidity  with  which  the  work  had  been  executed,  ninety  days  only  having  elapsed  from  the  time 
that  the  first  brick  was  laid,  to  the  period  that  Messrs.  Cook  were  enabled  to  resume  their  business. 

To  refer  again  for  a moment  to  “ days  of  old,”  I will  adopt  Mr.  Knowles’  own  account  of  the 
Runic  monument  discovered  in  the  excavations  for  this  building. 

Mr.  Knowles  says  : — “ Dining  the  progress  of  the  excavation,  nothing  very  remarkable  was 
discovered,  with  the  exception  of  a Danish  grave  stone,  which  was  found  at  a depth  of  twenty  feet 
below  the  general  surface  level:  it  bears  upon  one  of  its  sides  a Runic  inscription,  which  on  the 
authority  of  the  Royal  Society  of  Northern  Antiquaries,  may  be  read  thus,  KINA  caused  this  stone 
to  be  laid  over,  or  in  memory  of,  TUKI.  The  date  of  this  relic  is  about  A.D.  1000,  and  it  is  said  to 
be  the  only  Runic  monument  known  to  have  been  discovered  in  London : by  the  side  of  the  stone 
were  laid  the  remains  of  a skeleton,  and  in  the  immediate  neighourhood  were  found  a great  number 
of  deer’s  horns  cut  into  short  pieces.” 

Having  thus  given  you  a rough  outline,  and  1 fear  a very  indistinct  one  of  the  former  and  of  the 
present  state  of  St.  Paul’s  Churchyard,  I will  venture  a few  words  upon  a most  interesting  document 
in  the  Soane  collection.  It  is  a sketch  plan  for  laying  out  the  area  round  the  Cathedral,  and 
as  there  is  the  hand  writing  of  Sir  Christopher  at  the  corner  of  the  drawing,  without  doubt  it 
is  by  Wren  himself!  Sir  Christopher’s  idea  appears  to  have  been,  to  make  the  area  as  nearly 

M 2 


116 


symmetrical  as  the  site  would  admit,  and  to  form  a continuous  portico  in  front  of  the  houses,  interrupted 
only  by  the  openings  to  the  lines  of  streets.  At  the  west  end,  we  can  almost  fancy  that  Sir 
Christopher  had  Bernini’s  great  work  in  view.  Sir  Christopher  had  been  introduced  to  Bernini  at 
Paris,  and  he  was  so  much  pleased  with  his  design  for  the  Louvre,  that  he  states,  “ Bernini’s  design 
for  the  Louvre,  I would  have  given  my  skin  for ; but  the  old  reserved  Italian  gave  me  but  a few 
minutes  view.”  At  the  western  extremity  of  his  plan,  Wren  has  designed  a circular  building  of  some 
importance,  the  purpose  of  which  I cannot  clearly  define,  it  appears  large  enough  for  a chapter  house, 
but  I have  no  doubt,  that  the  ingenuity  of  some  of  our  numerous  admirers  of  Wren  will  be  able  to  give 
a satisfactory  solution  of  the  difficulty.  In  the  catalogue  of  64  original  drawings  by  Wren  relating  to 
St.  Paul’s  now  at  All  Souls’  College,  Oxford,  I can  find  no  plan  which  appears  to  resemble  the  one  just 
described.  To  compare  this  most  admirable  plan  with  the  wretched  irregular  “ string  and  bow”  space 
of  the  present  Church-yard,  only  increases  our  regret,  that  Sir  Christopher  in  this  instance,  as  well 
as  in  his  noble  plan  for  rebuilding  London,  was  obliged  to  give  way  to  notions  of  false  economy,  and 
a mistaken  idea  of  maintaining  private  rights  ; his  plan,  if  executed,  would  have  rendered  London  the 
finest  city  in  the  world.  I fear  no  such  unqualified  pretensions  can  be  made  by  it  in  its  present  condition. 

A century  has  now  nearly  elapsed  since  Gwynn  produced  his  admirable  work,  “ London  and 
Westminster  improved  his  volume  has  been  a guide  and  a text  book  at  Whitehall  as  well  as  at  Guild- 
hall ; many  of  his  suggestions  have  been  adopted  with  complete  success,  and  I trust  they  may  be 
quickly  succeeded  by  others,  for  a golden  opportunity,  consequent  upon  the  recently  formed  opening  to 
Cannon  Street,  now  presents  itself  for  crowning  the  successful  labors  of  the  Improvement  Committee 
of  the  City  of  London  in  this  direction,  in  a manner  which  will  confer  upon  them  the  gratitude  and 
admiration  of  the  whole  metropolis ; indeed,  I may  extend  it  to  the  whole  civilized  world,  for  where  in 
the  whole  territory  of  civilization  is  the  individual  who  has  not  heard  of  this  “ noblest  of  Protestant 
temples  ?” 

I am  very  desirous  that  every  credit  should  be  given  to  that  body  of  gentlemen,  the  Improvement 
Committee,  for  the  satisfactory  manner  in  which  they  execute  the  large  and  important  matters  which 
are  intrusted  to  them  ; what  has  hitherto  been  done  by  them,  particularly  of  late,  is  admirable.  I 
well  know  the  responsibilities  they  have  undertaken,  the  numerous  applications  they  have  from  all 
parties  and  from  all  quarters,  and  beyond  all  these,  I am  aware  of  the  enormous  sums  that  are 
required  for  carrying  into  effect  great  lines  of  new  and  improved  thoroughfares  through  dense  and 
and  crowded  districts.  Many  here  present,  I have  no  doubt,  will  be  somewhat  surprised  to  hear  that 
the  cost  to  the  Corporation  of  London  for  the  Cannon  Street  improvement,  after  realizing  by  sale  the 
large  ground  rents  derivable  from  the  new  and  improved  frontages,  will  amount  to  more  than  half  a 
million  sterling ! 

It  may  be  all  very  well  for  some  ingenious  theorist  in  “ways  and  means,”  to  say  to  the  Corpora- 
tion, “ Sometime  since,  you  succeeded  in  removing  Crooked  Lane  from  its  former  position  in  East 
Cheap  to  anew  situation  in  Gresham  Street  West,  what  now  more  easy  than  to  make  a communication 
between  Yintry  and  Portsoken,  or  to  carry  a line  from  St.  Andrew  in  the  Wardrobe  to  St.  Margaret 
Pattens  P ” but,  gentlemen,  unless  the  sinews  of  improvement  are  forthcoming,  all  these  valuable 
suggestions  are  of  no  avail ; it  is  a popular  fallacy  to  suppose  that  these  improved  lines  of  public 
thoroughfare  are  remunerative  to  their  promoters,  for  when  the  sum  total  of  the  different  interests,  the 
freeholders,  the  leaseholders,  sometimes  four  or  five  deep,  the  tenants  in  possession,  the  good  wills,  the 
loss  of  trade,  the  removal,  and  the  fixtures,  with  10  per  cent,  in  addition  for  compulsory  sale,  the  refe- 
rences, the  law  charges,  not  omitting  the  surveyor’s  charges  ; when,  I repeat,  all  these  items  are  added 
together,  a result  is  produced  truly  astouuding  in  its  amount,  and  quite  sufficient,  I can  assure  you,  to 


117 


test  the  financial  skill  of  the  Committoo  I have  before  referred  to,  whose  groat  talent  and  ingenuity 
in  the  important  matter  of  raising  the  supplies  are  not  merely  confined  to  the  inhabitants  of  London, 
but  are  acknowledged,  I regret  I cannot  say  gratefully  acknowledged,  by  every  ratepayer  within  a 20 
miles  radius  of  the  Post  Office. 

I would  venture  to  submit  to  the  Authorities,  that  there  is  a loftier  point  than  a mere  financial  one, 
from  which  we  should  look  upon  this  question.  Although  it  may  be  a matter  involving  some  fifty 
or  sixty  thousand  pounds,  that  amount  ought  not  to  deter  us  from  the  proper  completion  of  the  most 
important  civic  improvement  of  modern  times.  Should  a dry  question  of  cost  in  London,  of  all  cities 
in  the  world,  prevent  its  citizens  from  displaying  the  finest  specimen  of  Italian  architecture  the 
metropolis  can  boast  of  ? Shall  we  allow  it  to  be  handed  down  to  posterity,  that  the  Londoners  are 
unable  to  appreciate  fine  works  of  art,  and  noble  triumphs  of  genius  ? Are  we  those  citizens  who 
aspire  to  the  title  of  “ merchant  princes,”  and  shall  we  yet  permit  our  continental  allies  and  rivals 
to  leave  us  far  behind,  in  supplying  proper  encouragement  and  resources  to  those  who  have  the 
talent  and  ability  to  give  an  appropriate  and  magnificent  character  to  the  architecture  of  their 
country  ? I would  implore  the  Authorities  to  put  aside  the  paltry  £.  s.  d.  question,  and  I would  appeal 
to  them  as  men  of  taste  as  well  as  men  of  business.  Let  me  urge  them  to  this,  adapting  for  the 
occasion  the  words  of  a city  poet,* 

“ That  they  may  add  to  London’s  dignity, 

And  London’s  dignity  may  add  to  theirs .” 

They  have  the  advantage  of  being  assisted  by  a member  of  this  body,  an  architect  whom  we 
all  esteem,  who  on  several  occasions  has  successfully  entwined  to  their  delight,  the  blossoms 
of  art  with  the  fruits  of  commerce  ; and  knowing  well  their  praise-worthy  veneration  for  prece- 
dents, I would  recall  to  their  recollection,  that  a few  years  since,  when  their  emporium  of  commerce 
was  rebuilt,  they  voluntarily  sacrificed  the  site  of  Bank  Buildings,  a plot  most  singularly  similar  in 
size  and  form  to  the  one  whose  freedom  I am  now  unworthily  advocating,  and  only  differing  from 
it  in  its  greater  local  value.  What  they  voluntarily  acceded  to  their  Exchange,  surely,  they  cannot 
refuse  to  their  Cathedral ! And  the  honor  they  so  worthily  paid  to  their  distinguished  architect 
in  the  19th,  they  cannot  for  one  moment  refuse  to  the  memory  of  London’s  great  architect  of 
the  17th  century  ! 

As  the  day  of  the  triumphal  opening  of  the  new  street  is  shortly  approaching,  may  I most  respect- 
fully take  the  liberty  of  suggesting,  that  on  that  auspicious  occasion  the  Authorities  should  allow  the 
encumbering  hoarding  to  be  removed,  and  the  site  fairly  levelled  P — they  would  then  display  to  their 
applauding  fellow  citizens  a sight  by  far  exceeding  all  the  elaborate  pageants  from  the  days  of  Walworth 
to  those  of  Sidney  ! 

I have  every  confidence  that  this  appeal  to  the  Corporation  of  London  will  not  be  made  in  vain, 
and  that  that  Body  on  their  part,  and  you  my  brother  members  of  this  Institute  on  yours,  will 
generously  step  forward  to  effect  the  great  national  objects  we  have  in  view — the  preservation  of  an 
open  space  through  which  the  light  of  glorious  day  may  shine  upon  the  most  noble  Protestant  temple 
in  the  world ! and  the  dedication  of  a statue  to  testify  our  gratitude  to  its  architect,  that  great  and 
good  man,  Sir  Christopher  Wren  ! 

Mr.  Hakdwick,  Bellow,  said  that  he  must  claim  it  as  his  special  duty  to  move  the  thanks  of  the 
Institute  to  Mr.  Angell  for  the  admirable  paper  just  read.  No  one  had  been  more  intimately  associated 
with  that  gentleman  than  he  had  for  a period  of  nearly  forty  years,  during  which  mutual  friendship 


George  Peel,  The  Pageant,  1585. 


118 


and  esteem  had  existed  between  them.  He  was  quite  sure  the  meeting  would  unite  with  him  in 
expressing  their  sense  of  the  attention  Mr.  Angell  had  paid  to  the  important  subject  of  his  paper. 
Although  they  must  all  feel  that  in  laying  out  a new  city  it  was  most  important  to  provide  open 
spaces,  it  was  much  more  important  to  preserve  those  which  existed  in  an  old  city  like  London ; and 
when  an  opportunity  occurred  of  leaving  unencumbered  such  a spot  of  open  ground  as  that  at  the 
south-east  of  St.  Paul’s,  so  as  to  expose  to  view  most  favourably  the  magnificent  structure  of  which 
they  were  justly  proud,  it  was  essential  to  embrace  it.  Mr.  Angell  had  been  peculiarly  happy  in  his 
allusion  to  the  unfortunate  attempts  which  had  been  made  to  fill  up  some  of  the  open  spaces  of  London. 
In  reference  to  Leicester  Square,  they  must  all  feel  that  what  had  been  done  was  a perfect  failure, 
and  he  would  rather  see  it  with  its  broken  shabby  railing,  and  its  dirty  trees  and  grass,  than  in  its 
present  state,  however  interesting  the  building  with  its  contents  which  now  occupied  it.  He  should, 
moreover,  be  extremely  sorry  to  see  Lincoln’s  Inn  Pields  covered  with  buildings.  If  the  space 
between  that  spot  and  the  Strand  were  cleared  away,  it  would  afford  a magnificent  site  for  the  proposed 
new, Law  Courts,  without  infringing  on  “our  vacant  spaces.” 

The  Chairman , Mr.  T.  H.  Wyatt,  Y.P.,  said  it  was  not  the  first  time  Mr.  Angell  had  instructed 
and  pleased  the  members  attending  the  evening  meetings  by  his  remarks,  and  they  would,  no 
doubt,  recollect  his  interesting  paper  on  the  life,  the  genius,  and  the  works  of  Vignola.  Mr.  Angell 
had  expressed  his  regret  at  the  departure  of  the  primroses  from  Primrose  Hill,  but  he  had  managed 
to  bestrew  his  paper  with  many  charming  flowers. 

Mr.  Tite,  Fellow,  considered  that  Mr.  Angell  had  nearly  exhausted  the  subject  in  his  own  excel- 
lent observations,  and  he  could  only  most  cordially  second  the  motion  of  his  friend  Mr.  Hardwick. 
Quoting  from  memory,  he  believed  that  one  of  the  Odes  of  Horace  commenced  with  the  remark,  that 
“ the  town  in  its  mighty  buildings  treads  so  heavily  upon  the  country,  that  there  soon  will  not  be  an 
acre  for  the  plough  to  work  upon,”  and  he  was  afraid  that  this  was  really  coming  to  pass  in  London. 
The  worthy  alderman  now  present  had  seen  many  changes,  and  known  many,  many  acres  covered  : 
the  fact  that  many  fields  which  had  been  covered  by  the  modern  Babel  in  the  recollection  even  of  young 
men,  and  the  idea  of  the  plough  yielding  to  the  palaces  of  the  present  day  became  strongly  impressed 
upon  the  mind,  and  the  preservation  of  all  existing  open  spaces,  merely  for  breathing  room,  was  therefore 
strongly  to  be  inculcated.  With  regard  to  the  space  at  the  south-east  end  of  St.  Paul’s,  he  would  not 
pretend  that  it  was  essential  for  the  mere  purposes  of  health — it  would  be  idle  to  seek  it  or  to  ask  it  on 
such  grounds — but  in  a meeting  of  architects  like  the  present,  its  importance  could  not  be  lost  sight  of. 
He  fully  understood  the  commercial  value  of  the  site,  and  the  difficulty  the  Corporation  would  find  in 
replacing  the  £50,000.  or  the  £ 60,000.  it  might  cost ; but  he  believed  they  would  appreciate  the  feeling 
of  architects,  and  the  immense  gain,  in  an  architectural  sense,  the  city  derived  from  the  marvellous 
view  which  had  been  afforded  of  its  great  national  work — a gain  far  greater  than  the  mere  £60,000.,  or 
any  sum  which  could  be  put  into  the  scale  against  it.  He  believed  it  was  only  necessary  to  appeal  to 
the  good  taste  of  the  citizens  of  London,  and  their  appreciation  of  the  magnificent  view  which  had  been 
thus  accidentally  opened,  and  that  they  would  do  their  best  to  preserve  it.  They  would  thus  be  enabled 
to  convince  foreigners,  that  there  was  something  in  London  worth  coming  to  see.  London  was 
formerly  a city  of  churches  and  monasteries,  it  then  became  a city  of  merchants’  dwelling  places,  it 
might  now  be  said  to  be  a city  of  counting-houses  ; it  was  important  therefore  to  preserve,  if  possible, 
some  memorial  of  its  former  more  open  state.  They  could  not  boast  in  London  of  the  fine  archi- 
tectural groupings  of  Berlin,  Munich,  Paris,  and  Home,  and  whilst  in  that  respect  they  could 
offer  so  little  to  the  wondering  stranger,  appalled  by  the  bustle  of  business,  and  the  mighty  interests 
involved  in  the  traffic  of  the  city,  they  should  indeed  be  glad  to  have  the  space  now  under  considera- 


11.9 


tion,  where  they  might  call  his  attention  to  the  artistic  beauty  of  the  south  and  east  fronts  of  the 
Cathedral,  as  developed  by  the  recent  improvements  effected  by  the  Corporation.  Regarded  in  this 
light  and  supported  by  the  interesting  historical  recollections  adverted  to  by  Mr.  Angell,  the  argument, 
he  had  no  doubt,  would  be  urged  upon  the  Corporation  with  great  force,  and  they  would  do  well  and 
wisely  to  yield  to  the  common  impression  on  the  subject,  that  it  would  be  unbecoming  of  the  spirit 
of  the  age  to  let  such  an  opportunity  be  lost,  merely  for  the  pounds,  shillings  and  pence  view  of  the 
question,  and  to  sacrifice  what  ho  believed  would  be  a more  valuable  monument  to  their  taste 
and  liberality  than  even  the  new  and  improved  communication  with  which  it  was  connected.  He  knew 
so  much  of  the  Corporation  of  London,  and  of  their  readiness  to  promote  improvements,  that  he  was 
always  willing  to  be  their  defender ; and  he  need  only  refer  to  the  state  of  Copenhagen  Fields  in 
former  days,  as  compared  with  the  skilfully  planned  and  well  executed  works  now  being  carried  out 
there,  as  an  instance  of  their  public  spirit.  The  wit  and  eloquence  of  Mr.  Angell’s  paper  deserved 
the  warmest  acknowledgments  of  the  meeting,  and  he  begged  to  second  the  offer  of  their  earnest 
thanks  for  the  instruction  which  it  had  afforded  them. 

Mr.  Twining,  Visitor,  referred  to  a ride  enforced  by  the  municipal  authorities  of  Paris,  which 
provided,  that  when  a house  in  any  narrow  thoroughfare  was  taken  down,  the  new  building  should  be  set 
back  12  or  15  feet.  By  this  means  all  the  narrow  streets  were  gradually  widened  ; an  object  which 
could  not  be  attained  without  the  exercise  of  some  authority.  It  occurred  to  him  that  of  the 
Continental  Squares,  or  open  places,  those  which  had  no  central  monument  or  great  architectural 
edifice,  were  generally  architectural  and  symmetrical, — such  as  the  Place  de  la  Concorde,  the  Place 
Vendome,  and  the  Place  du  Carrousel.  On  the  contrary,  the  open  spaces  surrounding  the  Cathedrals 
of  Antwerp  and  Strasburg,  and  Notre  Dame  at  Paris,  presented  no  such  regularity  or  symmetry.  The 
Piazza  of  St.  Mark  at  Venice,  and  the  approach  to  St.  Peter’s  at  Rome  were  however  exceptions, 
and  undoubtedly  the  effect  of  St.  Peter’s  was  much  increased  by  the  beautiful  access  and  the 
fountains  in  front  of  it.  In  the  other  cases  it  might  be  said  that  the  effect  of  the  cathedrals  was 
heightened  by  their  contrast  with  the  small  and  irregular  edifices  around  them.  He  was  of  opinion 
that  space  was  the  first  requisite  around  a large  and  imposing  edifice,  and  next  to  that,  buildings 
somewhat  in  harmony  with  it. 

Mr.  I‘Anson,  Fellow,  trusted  that  the  public  might  always  be  able  to  contemplate  the 
beauty  of  St.  Paul’s,  as  now  for  the  first  time  displayed.  Mr.  Tite  had  eulogized  the  Corpo- 
ration, but  he  (Mr.  I‘ Anson)  thought  that  on  this  occasion  they  might  appeal  not  only  to  the 
Corporation,  but  also  to  the  Government.  In  Paris,  the  municipality  and  the  Government  went  hand 
in  hand ; and  those  who  knew  Paris  thirty  years  ago  and  had  seen  it  recently  could  testify  with  what 
success.  The  Rue  de  Rivoli  was  now  perhaps  the  finest  street  in  Europe.  He  believed  that  if  the 
matter  were  properly  submitted  to  the  Government  they  would  assist  in  promoting  the  object 
before  the  meeting,  by  giving  to  the  Corporation  of  London  the  funds  derived  from  the  coal  duties. 
The  Government  had  already  assisted  in  many  civic  improvements,  and  this  assistance  might  easily 
be  extended  further.  Victoria  Street,  Westminster,  was  promoted  by  a grant  of  £50,000  from 
Government,  besides  other  advantages.  It  should  be  at  once  recognized  that  money  extended  in  this 
way  by  the  Government  was  indeed  well  spent ; and  it  was  most  desirable  that  the  inhabitants  of 
the  metropolis  should  have  not  one,  but  many  architectural  beauties  to  display  to  foreigners.  London 
already  possessed  the  finest  bridges  in  the  world,  and  a remarkably  fine  series  of  open  squares,  but 
it  also  displayed  a great  want  of  the  appreciation  of  artistic  decoration.  The  opening  of  the  view  of 
St.  Paul’s  would  refresh  the  eyes  of  passing  thousands,  and  would  tend  to  improve  the  public  taste, 
and  to  promote  decoration  in  minor  objects. 


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Mr.  Penbose,  Y.P.,  regretted  he  had  not  been  able  to  submit  to  the  meeting  some  photographs 
which  he  had  directed  to  he  taken  to  illustrate  the  subject,  which  indeed  had  been  so  well  urged  by 
Mr.  Angell  and  Mr.  Tite,  that  it  was  almost  impossible  to  add  anything  to  their  remarks.  Looking 
to  the  wedge  like  form  of  the  space  of  ground  in  question,  and  considering  the  very  great  portion  of  the 
Cathedral  which  must  he  hidden  by  building  upon  it,  it  was  of  the  greatest  consequence  to  “agitate” 
to  get  it  left  open,  if  possible.  The  greatest  difficulty  botli  to  ourselves  and  to  foreigners  in  contem- 
plating the  many  really  fine  edifices  in  London,  arose  from  the  fact  that  the  traffic  of  the  whole  city 
was  so  great  that  there  was  no  favorable  opportunity  for  looking  at  them.  Hence  the  opening 
of  a moderate  space  in  such  situations  as  this  was  most  desirable,  as  it  would  afford  an  enjoyable 
position  for  seeing  the  buildings  and  shewing  them  to  strangers,  who,  if  they  wished  to  sketch,  need 
not  then  he  exposed  to  an  order  to  “ move  on.” 

Mr.  Bellamy,  Fellow,  could  not  refrain  from  expressing  his  sense  of  the  importance  of  the 
opportunity  now  offered.  Many  non-professional  men  were  not  aware  of  the  extreme  beauty  of 
the  magnificent  view  which  architects  now  sought  to  keep  open.  When  he  saw  it  on  a recent 
occasion  he  was  most  forcibly  struck  with  it,  as  the  beau  ideal  of  outline  and  composition. 
Instead  of  falling  in  with  Mr.  I‘ Anson’s  suggestion,  he  would  say,  let  the  honour  be  to  the  Corpo- 
ration alone ; and  he  was  sure  the  city  would  not  begrudge  the  sacrifice,  great  as  it  might  be ; the 
question  should  not  be  put  upon  the  pecuniary  consideration,  hut  rather  upon  the  honour  which  would 
accrue  to  the  Corporation  availing  itself  of  the  present  opportunity.  It  was  in  contemplation, 
and  he  believed  might  be  regarded  as  a fait  accompli,  that  the  statue  of  Peel  should  he  placed  at 
the  north  east  angle  of  the  Cathedral ; now  if  a statue  of  Wren  were  erected  at  the  south  east 
angle,  the  balance  of  these  statues  would  be  a vast  improvement  to  the  city.  He  could  not  indeed 
conceive  anything  more  calculated  to  elevate  the  minds  of  the  people  than  the  contemplation 
of  the  statues  of  so  great  an  architect  as  Wren,  and  of  so  great  a statesman  as  Peel.  Every  man  who 
had  read  the  life  of  Wren,  must  be  moved  by  the  greatness  of  his  mind,  his  profound  scientific 
attainments,  and  his  high  moral  character ; a lesson  to  all  that  those  qualities  might  be  combined. 
He  therefore  strongly  urged  upon  all  present  the  importance  of  the  improvement  in  question,  which 
they  should  strongly  impress  upon  their  friends,  and  which  they  might  all  aid  in  accomplishing. 

Mr.  Retwie,  C.  E.,  having  attended  the  meeting  at  the  suggestion  of  his  friend,  Mr.  Penrose, 
had  listened  with  great  interest  to  the  admirable  paper  of  Mr.  Angell,  and  the  remarks  which  had 
been  made  upon  it.  In  the  early  part  of  his  life  he  had  been  familiar  with  many  open  spaces 
which  were  now  covered  with  buildings.  He  recollected  Moor  Fields  with  its  long  rows  of  trees,  and 
ponds  between  them ; Old  Bethlehem  Hospital  with  Colley  Cibber’s  “ brainless  brothers,” — the 
remnants  of  Banelagh  Gardens, — and  St.  George’s  Fields,  with  that  favorite  resort,  the  Dog  and 
Duck  ; but  he  remembered  with  still  greater  pleasure  the  locality  of  St.  Paul’s  School,  where  he 
had  passed  some  years  of  his  education,  and  for  which  he  had  imbibed  a love  that  had  increased  with 
age.  In  youth  he  had  been  led  to  consult  the  writings  of  Sir  Christopher  Wren,  and  had  learnt 
to  respect  him  as  the  founder  of  the  Royal  Society,  as  an  astronomer,  mechanician,  and  a mathema- 
tician ; and  especially  in  that  capacity  in  which  he  was  best  known  to  the  meeting, — a great  architect. 
He,  Mr.  Rennie,  was  lately  walking  with  his  brother  through  New  Cannon  Street  for  the  first  time,  and 
was  so  struck  with  the  magnificence  of  the  view  of  St.  Paul’s  which  it  presented,  that  he  at  once 
expressed  his  anxiety  that  the  triangular  space  at  the  east  end  of  the  Cathedral  should  not  be  again 
covered  with  buildings.  His  brother  urged  him  to  write  to  the  “ Times  ” upon  the  subject ; but  being 
unwilling  to  bring  his  name  before  the  public,  he  wrote  to  Mr.  Penrose ; and  that  gentleman  had 
thereupon  written  to  the  “Times”  the  excellent  letter  with  which  they  were  acquainted;  he 

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was  indeed  gratified  that  public  attention  had  been  thus  called  to  the  subject.  £ GO, 000.  was  but 

a small  consideration  to  the  wealthy  City  of  London.  Such  a sum  was  often  thrown  away  by  them 
on  matters  of  mere  personal  gratification ; and  surely  they  should  not  neglect  to  expose  to  general 
admiration  the  finest  work  of  the  greatest  architect  of  this  country.  This  was  an  object  worthy  of 
the  Corporation  of  the  City  of  London, — they  alone  should  take  up  the  subject,  and  the  honour  of  it 
should  be  theirs  alone. 

Mr.  Piper,  visitor,  expressed  his  admiration  of  the  ability  which  the  paper  and  the  discussion  had 
manifested.  He  ventured  to  say  to  the  members  of  the  Institute  present,  that  from  them  the  public 
ought  to  learn  that  their  daily  footfall  was  on  ground  of  historical  interest,  and  that  they  had  amongst 
them  monuments  which  such  efforts  as  the  present  on  the  part  of  the  Institute  would  shew  them 
how  best  to  see  and  enjoy.  The  Institute  could  have  no  more  honorable  task  than  to  convince 
the  public  that  they  possessed  in  this  metropolis  architectural  works  of  the  highest  value,  and  that 
it  was  their  duty  to  preserve  and  appreciate  them. 

Mr.  DonAxnson,  Fellow,  observed  that  there  could  be  but  one  opinion  amongst  architects  and 
men  of  taste  upon  the  question.  Tt  had  been  said  there  were  few  points  of  architectural  interest 
in  the  metropolis ; but  one  had  been  forgotten,  which  he  (Mr.  Donaldson)  regarded  as  amongst  the 
finest  which  the  world  could  present.  Looking  from  the  east  end  of  the  Poultry  towards  the  Eoyal 
Exchange,  with  the  Bank  on  the  left,  the  Mansion  House  on  the  right,  and  the  beautiful  church  in 
Lombard  Street  in  view,  an  architectural  group  was  displayed  which  he  believed  could  not  be 
surpassed  in  any  other  city.  He  trusted  the  Corporation  would  not  lose  the  present  opportunity, 
especially  as  that  body  included  many  men  of  taste  ; while  apart  from  the  question  of  architectural 
effect,  he  felt  the  great  practical  importance  of  this  improvement  in  connection  with  its  facilitating 
the  access  to  the  Bailway  Stations  at  London  Bridge,  now  so  much  impeded  by  the  crowded 
state  of  the  streets.  The  advantage,  in  this  point  of  view,  of  opening  the  space  in  question,  would 
be  at  once  seen  by  reference  to  the  plan.  "With  regard  to  the  cost,  it  should  be  borne  in  mind,  that 
if  carried  out,  the  improvement  would  always  redound  to  the  honour  of  the  Corporation,  whereas,  if 
neglected,  it  would  be  a lasting  reproach  to  them  that  they  had  the  opportunity,  and  that  for  the 
paltry  sum  of  £60,000.  it  had  been  thrown  away.  If  once  again  built  upon,  the  space  could  never  be 
cleared  again.  It  was  comparatively  a new  feature  in  the  thoroughfares  of  great  cities  that  instead  of 
being  directed  as  formerly  to  the  great  entrances  from  the  immediately  surrounding  country,  they 
should  be  directed  towards  the  principal  railway  termini.  In  Paris  the  Emperor  had  ordered  the 
construction  of  a road  100  feet  wide  to  the  Strasbourg  Bailway  Station,  and  so  the  Corporation 
should  by  every  means  promote  the  access  to  the  Stations  at  London  Bridge.  In  Glasgow  and  in 
Edinburgh  the  houses  in  the  principal  streets  must  all  be  faced  with  stone, — in  New  York  a magnifi- 
cent city  was  rising,  with  elevations  of  granite  or  of  marble,  and  London  should  not  be  backward  in 
the  march  of  improvement.  In  the  present  question  their  opinions,  as  architects  and  men  of  sound 
practical  sense,  were  unanimous,  and  he  trusted  the  thoroughfare  nobly  commenced  and  carried  on 
with  so  much  credit  by  their  friend  Mr.  Bunning,  would  be  rendered  complete  by  the  preservation  of 
the  vacant  space  which  had  led  to  so  much  interesting  discussion. 

The  Chairman  conveyed  to  Mr.  Angell  the  thanks  of  the  meeting,  and  the  proceedings 
closed. 


ON  THE  DRAINAGE  OF  BUILDINGS  AND  STREETS  IN  THE  METROPOLIS. 


Being  a Discussion  (in  continuation)  held  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting 
of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  May  15,  1851. 


The  Chairman,  Mr.  F.  C.  Penrose,  Y.P.  stated  that  it  was  necessary  the  discussion  should  be 
concluded  that  evening,  and  that  in  conformity  with  the  wishes  expressed  at  the  last  Meeting  it  should 
be  confined  as  far  as  possible  to  the  question  of  outfall,  which  had  not  yet  been  discussed.  Although 
not  immediately  connected  with  their  duties  as  architects,  this  branch  of  the  subject  was  of  very  great 
importance,  and  there  was  ample  room  for  a discussion  of  it  with  reference  to  scientific  principles. 

Mr.  Fowler,  Fellow,  observed  that  the  removal  of  sewage  from  the  houses  and  conveying  it 
under  the  streets  had  given  rise  to  much  interesting  discussion  at  the  former  meetings,  and  although 
opinions  might  differ  as  to  the  best  modes  of  doing  so,  there  existed  much  greater  activity  and 
efficiency  in  house  and  street  drainage  than  at  any  former  period.  But  what  was  the  result  ? The 
more  that  filth  was  drawn  off  from  houses  and  streets,  the  more  it  was  thrown  into  the  Thames  to 
pollute  the  stream  and  render  it  a source  of  annoyance  and  pestilence  to  the  inhabitants  along  its 
banks.  The  offensive  state  of  the  river  and  its  shores  was  a matter  of  notoriety.  It  had  been  urged 
that  the  body  of  water  in  the  river  was  so  large  as  compared  with  the  sewage  flowing  into  it,  that  the 
latter  was  so  diluted  as  to  be  inoffensive,  but  the  experience  of  their  senses  was  sufficient  to  refute 
this  assertion.  In  fact  the  offensive  matter  being  lighter  than  the  main  body  of  the  water  floated  upon 
the  surface,  and  as  it  was  not  conducted  into  the  main  stream,  it  remained  near  the  banks,  where  the 
velocity  of  the  current  was  much  less,  and  with  the  ebb  of  the  tide  it  was  deposited  upon  the  shore. 
This  matter,  so  offensive  to  the  senses  and  so  injurious  to  the  health,  was  in  itself  valuable,  and  if  it 
could  be  applied  to  the  land  as  a fertilizing  agent,  its  value  would  be  incalculable.  Various  schemes 
had  been  proposed  for  accomplishing  this  object,  especially  one  which  in  a commercial  sense  had  been 
a failure,  although  it  had  so  far  succeeded  as  to  shew  that  the  sewage  water  might  be  dealt  with  in  the 
above  manner  if  the  proper  means  were  applied,  and  if  the  matter  were  taken  up  as  a public  measure 
rather  than  as  a private  speculation.  Other  modes  had  been  suggested,  and  sewage  manure  had  been 
manufactured  in  a solid  form,  but  these  had  all  been  failures.  At  the  present  time  Mr.  Wicksteed, 
the  Engineer  of  the  East  London  Water  Works,  was  engaged  in  a very  large  speculation  of  this  kind 
at  Leicester,  by  which  he  hoped  to  obtain  the  offensive  but  valuable  matter  from  the  sewage  when 
collected  in  reservoirs,  and  to  leave  the  water  pure.  He,  Mr.  Fowler,  looked  with  much  anxiety  and 
interest  to  the  result  of  this  experiment,  especially  with  reference  to  the  possibility  of  its  application 
to  the  metropolis,  but  he  had  some  misgivings  as  to  its  success.  Another  plan  which  had  been  pro- 
posed was  that  of  conveying  the  sewer  water  direct  by  main  pipes  into  the  country,  and  then 
distributing  it  over  the  land ; and  in  many  instances  liquid  manure  had  been  so  applied  with  most 
beneficial  and  profitable  results.  With  respect  to  the  views  of  the  Government,  to  whom  the  decision 
of  the  question  must  eventually  come,  Lord  Palmerston  had  declared  that  they  would  consider  no 
general  plan  for  the  drainage  of  London  effective  which  did  not  provide  for  saving  the  river  from 
pollution,  and  at  the  same  time  preserving  the  products  of  the  sewage  for  fertilizing  the  country. 
If  this  were  the  right  principle,  it  was  obvious  that  the  sewage  should  be  carried  by  the  shortest 
and  most  easy  courses  into  the  country  direct,  and  therefore  the  majority  of  the  plans  proposed, 
suggesting  as  they  did  the  concentration  of  the  sewage  at  a spot  some  distance  down  the  river,  had 
a tendency  to  obstruct  that  principle,  and  were  therefore  unadvisable.  These  plans  too  still  made  the 
Thames  the  receptacle  of  the  sewage,  and  he  (Mr.  Fowler)  believed  that  even  from  below  Greenwich 


124 

it  would  be  carried  upwards  by  the  flow  of  the  tide  as  far  as  Hammersmith.  It  would  in  fact  be  kept 
floating  up  and  down  with  each  tide,  and  would  only  get  half  a mile  lower  down  at  each  ebb.  Thus 
both  of  the  principles  laid  down  by  Lord  Palmerston  would  be  violated.  The  subject  was  one  of 
great  importance,  and  it  had  not  escaped  the  attention  of  the  Government.  He  had  great  appre- 
hensions that  the  plans  hitherto  proposed,  although  emanating  from  gentlemen  of  great  talent  and 
authority,  would  hardly  fulfil  the  objects  intended,  and  he  was  therefore  anxious  that  the  subject 
should  be  fully  discussed,  in  order  that  some  plan  likely  to  ensure  satisfactory  results  should  be  adopted. 

Me.  Mobewood,  representing  the  Great  London  Drainage  Company,  stated  that  the  question 
before  the  Meeting  was  the  “ outfall”  for  the  drainage  of  the  Metropolis,  and  as  the  Board  of 
Health  plan  dispensed  with  all  the  present  arrangements,  and  consequently  with  the  necessity  for  an 
outfall,  it  might  be  well  to  say  a word  in  reference  to  their  plan,  as  recommended  by  Mr.  Pitzroy  to  the 
Metropolitan  Commission  of  Sewers,  which  had  been  ascertained  to  be  identically  the  same  as  that 
which  the  Sanitary  Commission  advocated  in  1848.  It  consisted  of  “ liquid  distribution  of  sewer 
water,”  of  “ pipe  sewers  ” and  “ pipe  drains.”  Liquid  distribution  had  now  been  advocated  for  ten 
years,  and  was  specially  in  favour  in  Greek  Street  in  1849,  and  yet  up  to  this  time  there  was  not  one 
instance  of  its  being  used  in  any  one  of  the  towns  under  the  Board  of  Health.  In  fact  he  declared 
it  to  be  entirely  fallacious,  and  that  it  never  could  be  carried  out  profitably.  As  to  pipe  sewers ; 
Sir  Christopher  Wren  built  a sewer  20  inches  by  14  from  Cripplegate  to  Bridgewater  Square  in 
1691,  and  in  1714  it  had  to  be  taken  up  and  rebuilt  4 feet  by  2 feet.  Mr.  Kelsey,  the  late  very 
able  surveyor  to  the  City  Commission  of  Sewers  stated,  “ it  is  not  in  the  least  improbable  that,  if 
drains  and  sewers  are  so  wire  drawn  as  barely,  and  that  with  the  most  unremitting  attention  to  their 
cleanliness,  to  suffice  for  the  ordinary  discharge  of  the  foul  waters  of  houses,  and  of  ordinary  showers 
of  rain,  another  generation  will  not  pass  away  before  another  re-modelling  of  such  matters  will  be 
found  imperatively  demanded,  as  one  may  with  tolerable  certainty  predict  that  if  sewers  should 
be  built  into  which  a man  cannot  get  to  examine  and  repair  as  time  shall  gnaw  them  away,  the  evil 
day  must  and  will  come  when  the  whole  will  have  to  be  re-constructed.”  In  reference  to  reducing 
the  optional  sizes  of  house  drains  to  12  by  9 inches,  he  said,  “ with  what  advantage  or  detriment 
time  will  shew,”  and  the  very  words  which  he  used  in  respect  to  stoppages  and  failures,  were  the  same 
as  those  used  in  a report  from  the  Board  of  Health  in  reference  to  Croydon.  “ In  cleaning  the 
obstructed  sewers,  however,  it  has  generally  been  found  that  the  stoppages,  whether  in  4 or  6 inch 
pipes,  have  occurred  from  substances  which  ought  never  to  have  gained  admittance  to  the  sewers  at 
all.  From  Mr.  Simpson’s  evidence  in  1846  it  appeared  that  the  Chelsea  Water  Works  Company  had 
laid  down  a quantity  of  earthenware  pipes,  which  after  a few  years  had  a dull  sound  when  struck,  and 
when  they  burst  might  be  crumbled  with  the  hand.  At  Croydon  some  of  the  pipes  were  found  to 
have  become  softened,  and  there  was  moreover  the  Metropolitan  Commissioners’  report  of  failures, 
with  a vast  number  of  illustrations.  The  Board  of  Health  plan  of  liquid  distribution  of  sewer-water  of 
pipe  sewers  and  drains  was  therefore  entirely  inadmissable. 

The  recognition  of  that  which  the  Metropolis  requires,  a lower  outfall  than  the  Thames,  was  to  be 
found  in  a pamphlet  in  1839,  emanating  from  an  architect,  who,  after  shewing  the  existing  levels 
in  Westminster,  states  that  it  is  quite  impossible  for  the  Commissioners  of  Sewers  to  remedy  the 
evils  complained  of.  They  had  for  years  past  endeavoured  to  palliate  the  mischief ; all  the  sewers  in 
Westminster  for  twelve  hours  out  of  the  twenty-four  were  merely  cesspools  or  reservoirs,  the  mouths 
being  closed  by  sluice  gates  ; indeed,  were  it  not  for  these  gates  every  house  in  Westminster,  even 
those  in  Park  Street  and  James  Street,  would  at  high  tides  be  inundated  with  the  filthiest  of  floods. 
In  1846  Mr.  Donaldson  gave  very  decided  evidence  in  reference  to  the  inefficiency  of  the  present  outfall 


125 


into  tlic  Thames,  and  showed  how  readily  the  Westminster  Commissioners  of  Sewers  were  availing 
themselves  of  the  temporary  lower  outfall  caused  by  the  removal  of  old  London  Bridge  ; and  in  1847 
Mr.  Wm.  Hosking  in  a postscript  to  his  work,  strongly  warned  the  Government  against  further 
clogging  the  sewers  and  the  Thames,  “ unless  the  refuse  can  be  certainly  hurried  on  through  the 
sewers,  and  in  a diluted  state  to  an  effective  outfall .”  Mr.  Simpson,  when  asked  in  1851,  “ If 
water  be  not  drawn  for  domestic  purposes  below  Hammersmith  Bridge,  do  you  see  any  objection  to  the 
Thames  continuing  the  means  of  drainage  to  the  Metropolis,”  replied,  “ Yes,  I do.  I think  it 
would  bo  the  greatest  gift  to  the  Metropolis  if  we  could  convey  the  sewage  lower  down.”  This 
lower  “ outfall,”  this  removal  of  the  sewage  Mr.  Morewood  considered  could  alone  be  effected  by 
the  drainage  plan  with  which  he  was  connected,  commonly  known  by  the  name  of  the  Great  London 
Drainage,  which  consisted  of  two  tunnel  sewers  extending  on  each  side  of  the  Thames  respectively,  from 
Chelsea  andVauxhall  to  the  marshes  east  of  London,  the  sewers  running  under  the  streets  and  roads, 
as  the  Strand,  Fleet  Street,  &c.,  to  be  made  by  tunnelling,  and  to  be  laid  with  an  artificial  or  addi- 
tional fall,  so  that  the  sewage  might  be  passed  away  from  the  Metropolis  and  pumped  up  at  the 
terminal  works,  there  to  be  formed  into  a dry  manure,  the  refuse  water  being  thrown  on  the  top  of  the 
tide.  He  stated  that  this  drainage  plan  had  been  prosecuted  in  the  session  of  1848,  when  it  had  been 
very  favourably  entertained  by  the  Government,  but  it  was  most  unexpectedly  stopped  at  the  second 
reading  on  the  7th  March,  1848.  In  1853,  the  proposed  works  and  estimates  had  been  proved  before  a 
Select  Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons,  and  the  minutes  of  evidence  printed  by  the  House,  with 
a view  to  future  legislation,  and  the  chairman  of  the  Committee  had  stated  to  the  House,  that  they  had 
fully  approved  of  the  works  proposed,  viz.  two  tunnel  sewers  to  deliver  the  refuse  below  the  town. 
In  reference  to  the  Metropolitan  Commission  of  Sewers,  Mr.  Morewood  stated  that  their  own  report  to 
Parliament  in  1851,  fully  identified  them  with  these  very  works  ; the  tunnel  sewer  on  the  north  side 
being  described  as  from  Chelsea  “ to  the  pumping  station  on  the  river  Lea,”  and  that  on  the  south 
side  as  “ a system  of  sewers  between  a point  near  the  top  of  Woolwich  Beach  and  Vauxhall,  the  main 
line  and  branches  comprising  upwards  of  thirteen  miles.”  A report  from  the  surveyors  of  the 
Metropolitan  and  City  Commission  of  Sewers  entirely  approved  of  the  line  of  those  sewers  as  pro- 
posed by  the  Great  London  Drainage  Company,  declaring  in  reference  to  the  north  side  that  it  was  in 
some  respects  better  than  the  alteration  adopted  by  the  Metropolitan  Commission  (in  1851);  and  respect- 
ing the  south  side,  “ the  general  levels  of  the  district,  as  well  as  the  levels  of  the  inverts  of  its  sewers 
are  such  that  the  interception  of  the  sewage  can  be  effected  by  either  scheme.”  Bespecting  high 
level  sewers,  by  which  the  question  has  since  been  complicated,  they  expressly  said,  “ and  it  would 
in  our  opinion  be  found  necessary  at  some  future  day  to  construct  upper  lines  of  intercepting  sewers. 

The  point  of  difference  with  the  Commissioners  was  the  guarantee  of  a contingent  interest  of 
three  per  cent,  for  twenty-five  years ; and  also  the  Commissioners  not  having  taken  into  their  calcu- 
lation that  the  tunnel  sewers  were  never  intended  for  Biclimond  and  Croydon ; that  evaporation 
amounted  to  thirty-two  inches  when  the  rainfall  was  twenty-seven  inches  ; that  absorption  materially 
reduce  the  quantity  of  rain  water  to  be  provided  for  by  tunnel  sewers ; and  that  immense  storage 
room  was  already  in  existence  for  storm  waters,  which  would  pass  through  the  present  channels  into  the 
Thames,  when  the  quantity  of  ordinary  sewage,  ten  or  twelve  million  cubic  feet,  exceeded  the  thirty- 
seven  millions  for  which  the  two  tunnel  sewers  provided. 

Me.  G.  B.  Burnell,  C.E.,  in  reference  to  the  deodorizing  of  sewage  water,  alluded  to  the  works 
which  had  been  carried  on  at  Cardiff,  and  said  that  Professor  Way  had  informed  him  that  there  was  a 
great  difference  between  the  sewage  water  of  large  and  of  small  towns,  and  that  the  sewage  of 
London  when  it  had  passed  through  great  length  of  sewer,  and  arrived  near  the  outfall,  had  lost  so 


12G 


much  by  evaporation  that  it  contained  very  little  indeed  of  really  valuable  matter  available  for  agri- 
cultural purposes.  Seven  years  ago  he  had  visited  the  works  near  Chelsea  referred  to  by  Mr.  Fowler, 
and  although  they  had  been  highly  eulogized  at  the  time,  he  found  that  they  did  not  distribute 
sewage  water  at  all,  but  merely  the  water  from  a canal. 

Mb.  Fowlee  explained  that  that  had  been  the  case  only  in  the  commencement  of  their  operations, 
the  main  was  afterwards  laid  into  the  well. 

Mr.  Burnell  said  the  fact  was  as  he  had  stated  it  even  more  recently. 

Mr.  Fowler  said  that  Mr.  Burnell  had  been  misinformed.  In  1852  the  company  distributed  a 
great  quantity  of  sewage  water. 

Me.  Burnell  considered  the  general  question  to  be  purely  of  an  engineering  nature,  and  that 
the  Home  Secretary  was  travelling  out  of  his  path  in  deciding  that  an  uniform  system  should  prevail, 
when  in  fact  nothing  was  clearly  known  upon  the  subject,  and  scientific  men  declared  that  the  sewage 
of  small  towns  was  fit  to  be  profitably  used,  whilst  that  of  large  towns  was  not. 

Mr.  Fowler  believed  that  the  Government  merely  asserted  a general  principle  which  did  not 
involve  any  engineering  question.  It  was  simply  a question  of  economy,  and  one  that  might  be  pro- 
perly taken  up  by  the  Government.  They  had  not  gone  so  far  as  to  dictate  any  particular  mode  of 
carrying  out  their  principle.  Mr.  Fowler  added  that  the  discharge  from  the  King’s  Scholars’  Pond 
sewer  had  been  found  to  possess  fertilizing  qualities  in  a very  high  degree . 

Mr.  Haywood,  C.  E.  observed  that  the  question  of  outfall  hinged  entirely  upon  the  question  of  the 
value  of  the  sewer  water.  If  it  could  be  proved  that  manipulating  the  latter  would  pay  five  or  six  per 
cent,  small  manufactories  might  be  established  at  the  mouth  of  every  sewer,  but  unless  it  could  be  made 
to  pay  it  would  not  be  so  dealt  with.  If  the  drainage  was  not  to  flow  into  the  Thames  intercepting 
sewers  were  necessary ; and  if  though  flowing  into  the  Thames  its  reflux  was  to  be  prevented,  then  it 
should  of  course  be  carried  sufficiently  low  down  to  prevent  its  returning  with  the  tide.  With  regard 
to  irrigation  with  sewer  water  he  had  no  doubt  of  its  advantages,  but  he  much  questioned  whether 
it  could  be  made  to  pay.  The  mode  of  draining  towns  should  be  regulated  by  natural  and  local 
features.  In  country  towns  it  was  natural  to  attempt  the  distribution  of  the  sewage  in  a liquid  form, 
and  where  a town  was  drained  into  a beautiful  trout  stream,  it  should  be  a sine  qua  non  that  something 
should  be  done  to  get  rid  of  the  sewage  before  it  polluted  the  water,  whether  the  means  adopted 
paid  or  not.  The  magnitude  of  the  drainage  of  London  (amounting  as  it  did,  without  a drop  of  rain, 
to  twelve  millions  of  cubic  feet  of  water  every  twenty-four  hours)  was  a serious  obstacle  to  any  purifying 
scheme,  but  even  that  would  be  surmounted  if  it  would  pay  five  per  cent.  The  late  John  Martin 
was  the  first  to  originate  the  idea  of  intercepting  sewers ; he  was  followed  by  Mr.  Foster,  Sir  Wm.  Cubitt 
and  many  others,  and  lastly  by  Mr.  Bazalgette  and  himself.  Their  plan  had  no  particular  novelty, 
but  they  believed  it  was  the  best  that  had  been  laid  down  ; they  considered  that  the  great  fault  in 
the  plan  of  the  Great  London  Drainage  Company  was  that  it  was  not  sufficiently  comprehensive,  and 
did  not  allow  for  the  extraordinary  influx  of  storm  waters.  A scheme  of  this  kind  should  be  avail- 
able for  the  next  thirty  years  at  least,  and  not  be  liable  to  require  reconstruction  in  every  ten  years  ; 
they  also  objected  to  the  pumping  on  Mr.  Morewood’s  plan,  preferring  drainage  by  the  natural 
force  of  gravitation  as  a cheaper  system,  and  one  not  so  liable  to  accidental  interruption.  Mr. 
Fowler  was  in  error  as  to  the  effect  of  the  tide  upon  the  sewage,  if  admitted  into  the  Thames  some 
distance  below  London.  The  plan  of  Mr.  Bazalgette  and  himself  was  that  the  sewage  should  be 
discharged,  say  at  Woolwich,  only  with  the  first  two  or  three  hours  of  the  ebb  tide,  and  in  that  case 
none  of  it  would  return  so  high  as  the  point  at  which  it  was  discharged.  He  did  not  believe  that  the 
Thames  was  polluted  to  the  extent  that  was  generally  supposed,  but  as  the  population  was  so  rapidly 


127 


increasing,  and  would  probably  amount  to  five  millions  iu  thirty  years,  the  river  would  certainly  not  be 
improved  in  that  time.  The  sewage  was  an  infinitesimal  quantity  compared  with  the  water  of  the 
river,  and  was  far  less  injurious  than  the  public  imagined  ; four  minutes  of  ebb  tide  at  London  Bridge 
would  suffice  to  carry  down  all  the  real  fecal  matter  of  the  twenty-four  hours,  if  collected  together, 
aud  much  of  the  effluvium  which  arose  at  low  water  was  ill  consequence  of  the  sewers  discharging 
their  contents  upon  the  shore,  instead  of  being  conveyed  by  culverts  to  parts  below  low  water  mark. 
Mr.  Haywood  repeated  that  the  whole  subject  turned  upon  the  value  of  the  animal  matter  contained  in 
the  sewage,  and  he  should  consider  £50,000  well  spent  in  determining  the  value  of  this  matter  when 
relieved  of  seven  hundred  times  its  bulk  of  water.  All  the  illustrations  of  its  value  had  been  drawn 
fi-orn  places  where  its  dilution  was  not  one-third  or  one-sixth  so  much  as  in  London.  Thus  at 
Edinburgh  the  valuable  matter  was  so  highly  concentrated  that  its  distribution  over  the  surrounding 
meadows  had  become  a fearful  nuisance,  but  it  had  been  argued  that  in  London  all  the  smell  would 
be  lost  in  two  minutes  and  a half. 

Mr.  Austin,  Visitor,  produced  a drawing  of  his  proposed  plan  of  Sewerage,  which  consisted  of 
a large  tunnel  below  the  streets,  providing  at  the  same  time  space  for  gas  and  water  pipes,  and  con- 
taining a tramway  for  connecting  the  different  railway  stations.  He  also  produced  a plan  of  drainage 
by  means  of  two  tunnels  under  the  bed  of  the  river  on  each  side.  He  proposed  that  only  the  flood  or 
rain  water  should  pass  directly  into  the  Thames.  Mr.  Austin  alluded  to  a plan  of  deodorizing  sewage 
water,  and  rendering  it  so  pure  that  it  might  be  drunk.  He  urged  that  the  fertilizing  properties  of 
sewage  manure  had  been  clearly  proved  at  Glasgow.  In  reply  to  the  Chairman,  he  stated  that  he  had 
not  made  any  estimate  of  the  cost  of  his  project,  and  that  the  size  of  his  tunnel  was  26  feet  in  height 
by  18  feet  in  width.  He  did  not  consider  this  too  much,  looking  to  the  increase  of  population ; on 
the  contrary,  he  considered  all  the  existing  sewers  were  much  too  small.  The  value  of  the  sewage 
running  to  waste  in  the  river  was  incredible,  but  some  idea  of  it  might  be  formed  when  he  stated  that 
six  crops  of  rye  had  been  obtained  in  one  year  by  using  sewage  water.  Hence  he  felt  assured  that 
sewage  matter,  properly  collected,  would  pay  a proper  return  on  the  outlay. 

Mr.  Garling,  Fellow,  said  it  was  a question  "whether  deodorizing  sewage  did  not  spoil  its 
agricultural  purposes  ; and,  moreover,  he  believed  that  although  mechanical  purity  could  be  obtained, 
chemical  purity  could  not,  and  that  however  pure,  apparently,  such  water  would  be  unfit  for  ordinary 
purposes.  The  organization  of  a general  system  of  sewerage  was  properly  the  duty  of  the  Govern- 
ment : but  if  it  could  be  made  to  pay,  which  he  very  much  doubted,  he  believed  it  would  be  better 
carried  out  by  private  enterprise.  The  question  of  the  proper  course  for  the  outfall  must  depend  on 
a system  of  levels  very  accurately  laid  down.  In  reference  to  Mr.  Haywood’s  statement,  that  Mr. 
John  Martin  was  the  first  to  originate  the  idea  of  intercepting  sewers,  Mr.  Garling  read  an  extract 
from  a letter  written  by  himself  in  1824,  referring  to  a project  which  he  had  put  forth  ten  years 
before.  This  shewed  that  he  (Mr.  Garling)  had  really  proposed  intercepting  sewers  before  Mr.  Martin 
did  so,  and  that  his  views  at  that  early  period  were  similar  to  those  of  Messrs.  Bazalgette  and 
Haywood. 

Mr.  Morewood  observed  that  a very  similar  plan  had  been  suggested  by  Mr.  Dodd  fifty  years  ago. 
He  stated  that  the  Great  London  Drainage  Company  contemplated  the  formation  of  high-level  sewers 
in  addition  to  low-level  sewers,  as  the  size  and  population  of  London  increased,  and  that  their  plan 
was  fully  adequate  to  provide  for  the  ordinary  rainfall  iu  the  metropolis. 

Mr.  Boulnois,  Associate,  begged  to  make  a few  observations  by  way  of  general  reply,  not  limiting 
his  remarks  to  outfall  only.  He  had  stated  in  the  paper  which  had  led  to  this  discussion,  that  all  the 
plans  proposed  were  so  expensive  in  their  nature  as  to  preclude  the  possibility  of  their  being  carried 


128 


out.  Of  all  the  plans  that  of  Mr.  M'Lean  was,  perhaps,  the  most  feasible.  It  appeared  that  all 
parties  were  agreed  that  the  outfall  should  be  at  some  point  low  down  the  river,  that  the  expense 
should  be  modified  as  much  as  possible,  and  that  the  details  must  be  left  to  those  engineers  who 
were  capable  of  carrying  them  out.  On  the  question  which  had  been  first  raised,  namely,  the  merits  of 
pipe  sewers  and  brick  sewers,  it  was  remarkable  that,  with  the  exception  of  a pipe  manufacturer,  not 
a single  advocate  for  pipe  sewers  had  come  forward.  Some  gentlemen  had  said  that  they  adopted 
them  for  cheapness  only ; but  not  one  had  said  that  a pipe  was  better  than  a brick  sewer.  As  the 
advocates  for  brick  sewers  had  thus  thrown  down  the  gauntlet,  which  had  not  been  accepted,  it  must 
be  taken  that  they  were  all  agreed  that  when  the  cost  was  the  same  the  brick  sewers  were  to  be 
preferred. 

Mr.  Rawlinson,  C.E.,  expressed  his  dissent.  He  had  been  absent  from  London  at  the  time  of 
the  former  discussion,  but  if  another  evening  could  be  devoted  to  the  subject,  he  pledged  himself  to 
meet  the  objections  to  pipe  sewers. 

The  Chaibmam  suggested  that  Mr.  Rawlinson  should  at  once  dispose  of  the  subject. 

Mr.  Rawlinson  proceeded  to  say  that  in  reference  to  outfall,  it  was  a question  for  practical 
engineers.  He  begged  to  caution  the  public  against  tunnel  sewers  for  conveying  sewage  at  a great 
depth,  perhaps  twenty  or  thirty  yards  below  the  surface,  and  then  pumping  it  up  again,  a plan  which 
he  considered  most  objectionable.  Its  cost,  moreover,  could  not  be  estimated ; and  it  might  be  ten, 
fifteen,  or  twenty  millions.  The  Victoria  Sewer  was  estimated  to  cost  £ 15,000.,  but  he  believed  it 
had  cost  double  or  treble  that  sum.  With  regard  to  pipes,  he  could  not  fully  enter  upon  that  point ; 
but  would  say  that  he  had  sewered  entire  towns  on  the  pipe  system,  which  had  since  been  in  use  twelve 
or  eighteen  months,  and  he  would  stake  his  professional  character  upon  those  works.  Lour  years  ago 
he  was  sent  for  by  Lord  Grey  to  remedy  the  defects  of  a brick  sewer,  5 feet  high  and  3 feet  wide, 
which  ramified  under  his  house  in  Northumberland.  He  substituted  for  this  earthenware  pipes 
6 inches  in  diameter  (with  asphalted  canvass  wrapped  round  the  joints),  and  those  pipes  had 
effectually  carried  off  the  soil  refuse,  roof  refuse,  yard  refuse,  &c.,  ever  since,  without  the  slightest 
annoyance,  stoppage,  or  breakage.  He  was  now,  in  conjunction  with  the  Duke  of  Northumberland’s 
architect,  revising  the  drainage  of  Alnwick,  which  town,  as  well  as  Morpeth,  was  entirely  drained 
by  pipes. 

Mr.  Botjxnois  must  state  that  it  was  against  pipe  sewers  in  streets,  not  against  pipe  drains  in 
houses,  that  he  had  mainly  directed  his  observations.  He  did  not  consider  Morpeth  and  Alnwick,  where 
one  house  in  six  or  eight  drained  into  a small  pipe  sewer , at  all  satisfactory  as  evidence  in  favour  of  the 
pipe  system.  It  was  clear,  from  the  former  discussion,  that  in  the  metropolis  pipe  sewers  had  failed. 
Mr.  Bazalgette  and  Mr.  Haywood  admitted  this,  and  the  latter  gentleman  had  given  an  instance  of 
failure  in  Leadenhall  Market  which  he  was  unable  to  account  for.  The  advocates  of  pipes  had  had  seven 
weeks  for  consideration,  and  he  looked  upon  it  as  nothing  more  than  a ruse  de  guerre  for  them  to  come 
forward  at  the  last  moment,  and  to  say  that  if  they  had  the  opportunity  they  could  say  a great  deal  in 
favour  of  the  system. 

The  Chaibman  was  sure  that,  on  consideration,  Mr.  Boulnois  would  qualify  this  remark.  They 
had  now  reached  the  usual  hour  for  adjournment,  and  the  discussion,  which  had  extended  beyond  the 
usual  length,  must  be  brought  to  a close.  Much  interesting  information  had  been  elicited,  and  it  only 
remained  for  the  Members  to  return  a vote  of  thanks  to  the  many  gentlemen  by  whom  it  had  been  so 
kindly  afforded. 

The  vote  of  thanks  was  carried  uanimously,  and  the  meeting  adjourned. 

Correction  in  the  discussion  of  April  3rd,  1854. 

Page  106.  The  last  sentence  should  read  thus ; — The  original  supply  of  water  from  Coombe  is  conducted  through  a main 
pipe  under  the  River  Thames,  and  the  other  source  of  supply  is  known  as  the  Longford  River;  both  these  services  are  maintained 
to  the  present  day  in  perfect  order. 


ON  SOME  RECENT  DISCOVERIES  AT  FOUNTAINS  ABBEY. 


Extracts  from  Letters  forwarded  by  the  Earl  do  Grey,  President,  read  at  the  Ordinary  General 
Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  May  29th,  1854. 


Itipon,  January  1854. 

My  Lord, 

I have  to  apologize  for  not  writing  earlier  respecting  the  interesting  'excavations 
now  in  progress  at  your  Abbey  of  Fountains,  but  I have  been  waiting  until  the  works  had  progressed 
as  far  as  the  middle  transept ; because,  according  to  the  MS.  Chronicle  deposited  among  your  Lord- 
ship’s archives,  it  appears  that  most  of  the  Abbots,  after  the  year  1435,  were  buried  in  the  transept, 
or  at  the  east  end  of  the  nave.  However,  as  yet  the  excavators  have  only  uncovered  two  tombstones, 
one  of  which  (that  of  Abbot  Ripon,  1435)  we  had  seen  in  the  partial  openings  that  took  place 
in  1841. 

To  give  the  clearest  idea  that  I can,  I will  detail  in  order  the  result  of  the  discoveries  in  this 
present  excavation,  commencing  with  the  west  gateway,  through  which  the  railway  had  to  be  cut,  in 
aiming  for  the  great  west  door  of  the  Abbey  church. 

First,  on  the  south  side  of  the  gateway  a large  room  (No.  1 on  the  plan)  not  yet  of  course 
thoroughly  cleared,  with  strong  marks  of  fire  on  the  floor,  and  an  immense  quantity  of  ashes,  as  if  the 
place  had  been  burnt  down ; an  “ Early  English”  bracket  of  one  of  the  groining  ribs  is  one  of  the 
most  beautifully  simple  and  elegant  I have  ever  seen. 

Two  or  three  different  levels  exist  in  the  space  between  the  gateway  and  the  west  door  of  the 
church ; this  is  called  in  some  of  the  records  the  first  Court ; it  appears  to  have  been  paved  with 
cobbles. 

No.  2 on  the  plan  marks  the  site  of  the  porch  (15  feet  wide  from  west  to  east)  hitherto  totally 
unsuspected ; it  is  of  later  date  than  the  nave,  being  apparently  “ Early  English,”  of  a period  just 
subsequent  to  the  date  of  the  Lady  Chapel  (A.D.  1245)  ;*  the  date  of  the  nave,  with  its  massive 
pillars,  is  between  1140  and  1156  ; the  fragments  of  the  porch  denote  it  to  have  been  of  a very  novel 
design,  but  of  course  the  space  it  covers  cannot  be  thoroughly  cleared  until  the  excavations  in  the 
church  are  finished. 

No.  3 marks  a tombstone  without  the  slightest  trace  of  brass  or  inscription ; it  is  a fine  large 
stone  nine  feet  long,  with  a border'  of  plain  Tudor  tiles  round  it ; the  position  is  peculiar — the  head 
of  the  stone  being  close  to  the  west  wall  of  the  north  transept;  whereas  the  general  feeling  and  custom 
were  to  have  the  foot  of  the  grave  as  near  as  possible  to  the  east  portion  of  the  part  of  the  building 
in  which  a person  was  buried.  May  this  stone  have  covered  Abbot  Thirsk — one  of  the  rebels  in  the 
insurrection  of  the  “ Pilgrimage  of  Grace,”  who  suffered  at  Tyburn,  but  whose  body  was  brought 
back  to  Fountains  for  interment  ? Or  is  it  the  grave  of  the  great  architect  of  the  tower — Huby  p 

* Since  this  porch  or  “ Gallilee”  has  been  thoroughly  cleared,  I find  that  I am  only  partly  right  in  referring  its  date  to  a 
period  subsequent  to  1245.  The  base  of  the  doorway,  and  the  fragments  of  dog-toothed  early  English  caps  and  arches  only 
show  that  extensive  insertions  and  alterations  have  taken  place  subsequent  to  1245.  The  original  structure  was  Norman,  of  a 
date  very  little  later  than  that  of  the  nave  itself. — say  circa  A.D.  1170,  or  1180. 

0 


0 


130 


who  might  consider  that  the  buildings  he  had  caused  to  be  reared  were  quite  sufficient  to  perpetuate 
his  name,  without  a tomb  richly  inlaid  with  brass,  or  gorgeously  carved. 

No.  4 marks  the  large  blue  marble  slab  which  covered  Abbot  Itipon  (1435)  ; it  has  been  richly 
inlaid  with  a brass  figure  of  the  abbot,  two  shields  of  arms,  a mitre,  a canopy,  and  a very  long 
inscription  surrounding  the  whole.  It  was  much  broken,  but  it  has  been  admirably  set  straight  and 
repaired  under  the  instructions  of  Mr.  Mason. 

No.  5 marks  the  site  of  the  “ Early  English”  base  of  a Holy  "Water  Stoup,  near  the  entrance  from 
the  Cloister  Court. 

No.  6 (in  the  Chapel  of  St.  Michael  the  Archangel)  is  the  most  perfect  relic  yet  found  of  the 
coloured  pavement  laid  down  by  Abbot  John  de  Cancia  (1220-1246-47);  it  is  a copy  of  a pattern 
at  Sawley  Abbey,  though  differently  arranged.  All  the  pillars  of  the  choir  have  been  pulled  down  to 
their  foundations,  except  those  numbered  7,  8 and  9 on  the  enclosed  plan.  Fifteen  feet  east  of  Abbot 
Eipon’s  tomb  is  the  platform  of  the  choir  with  an  ascent  of  two  steps. 

Nos.  10,  11,  12,  13,  14  and  15  on  the  plan  mark  the  bases  of  six  of  the  nine  altars  of  the  [so  called] 
Lady  Chapel,  the  other  three  being  under  the  east  window.  I would  respectfully  suggest  the 
propriety  of  re-opening  the  aumbryes  (or  plate  closets)  of  these  altars,  which  appear  to  have  been 
walled  up  in  Mr.  Aislabie’s  time.  One  of  the  piscinas  of  these  chapels,  discovered  close  to  the 
remains  of  its  altar,  shows  that  the  majority  of  them  were  of  the  same  character  as  those  at 
Jervaulx,  and  fixed  in  the  floor.  The  first  chapel  at  the  south  end  had  once  a fine  large  piscina  fixed 
in  the  wall. 

A fragment  of  a gravestone  turned  up  in  the  rubbish  of  the  south  transept  is  inscribed, 
“ ©rate  pro  a’t’a  I hope  more  of  this  stone  may  be  found  ; it  is  of  limestone — date  late  in  the 
fifteenth  or  early  in  the  sixteenth  century. 

Abbots  Darnton  and  Huby  (1479-1526)  appear  to  have  repaved  portions  of  the  transept  and 
nave  with  tiles  of  the  same  pattern  as  those  found  in  the  Hall  of  the  Abbot’s  house : one  has 
the  arms  of  the  Abbey — three  horse  shoes — surrounded  by  that  beautiful  and  appropriate  inscription, 
“ Ucncturitc  jfontcS  tiomtno  ; ” the  other  has  a Mitre  and  a Crosier  on  a shield,  impaling  Huby’s  initials 
M.  H.,  and  his  favourite  inscription,  so  frequently  repeated  on  the  tower,  “ jcolt  Ijco  honor  et  gloria.” 

As  many  of  these  tiles  have  been  severely  burnt,  apparently  by  large  fires  kindled  on  the  floor  of 
the  nave  and  transept,  and  as  the  earth  in  several  places  is  quite  black  with  ashes,  I have  no  doubt 
but  that  when  the  abbey  was  pillaged,  great  bonfires  were  made  of  the  wooden  lattice  work  and  screens, 
and  the  lead  of  the  roofs  was  melted  into  “pigs”  for  more  convenient  carriage.  A passage  in  a 
curious  letter  published  by  Sir  Henry  Ellis  is  highly  illustrative  of  this  idea,  and  gives  a complete 
picture  of  the  destruction  that  took  place  at  the  dissolution  of  the  Monasteries. 

The  writer,  who  lived  in  Yorkshire,  says,  “ it  would  have  made  a heart  of  flint  to  have  melted 
and  wept  to  have  seen  the  breaking-up  of  the  house,  and  their  sorrowful  departing ; and  the  sudden 
spoil  that  fell  the  same  day  of  their  departure  from  the  house.  And  every  person  had  every  thing 
good-cheap,  except  the  poor  monks,  friars,  and  nuns,  that  had  no  money  to  bestow  of  anything,  as  it 
appeared  by  the  suppression  of  an  abbey,  hard  by  me,  called  the  Eoche  Abbey ; a house  of  white 
monks,  a very  fair-builded  house,  all  of  freestone,  and  every  house  vaulted  with  freestone,  and  covered 
with  lead  (as  the  abbeys  was  in  England,  as  well  as  the  churches  be).  At  the  breaking-up  whereof 
an  uncle  of  mine  was  present,  being  well  acquainted  with  certain  of  the  monks  there ; and  when  they 
were  put  forth  of  the  house,  one  of  the  monks,  his  friend,  told  him  that  every  one  of  the  convent  had 
given  to  him  his  cell  wherein  he  lied  ; wherein  was  not  anything  of  price,  but  his  bed  and  apparel, 
which  was  but  simple  and  of  small  price ; which  monk  willed  my  uncle  to  buy  something  of  him,  who 


131 


said,  ‘ I see  nothing  that  is  worth  money  to  my  use.’  ‘ No  !’  said  he,  ‘ give  me  ijd'  for  my  cell  door 
which  was  never  made  with  v8-’  ‘ No,’  said  my  uncle,  ‘ I know  not  what  to  do  with  it’  (for  he  was 

a young  man  unmarried,  and  then  neither  stood  in  need  of  houses  nor  doors).  But  such  persons 
as  afterwards  bought  their  corn  and  hay,  or  such  like,  found  all  the  doors  either  open,  or  the  locks 
and  shackles  plucked  away,*  or  the  door  itself  taken  away,  went  in  and  took  what  they  found,  and 
filched  it  away. 

“ Some  took  the  service  books  that  lied  in  the  church,  and  laid  them  upon  their  waine-coppes  to 
piece  the  same  ; some  took  windows  of  the  hayleith  and  hid  them  in  their  hay  ; and  likewise  they  did 
of  many  other  things ; for  some  pulled  forth  the  iron  hooks  out  of  the  walls  that  bought  none,  when 
the  yeomen  and  gentlemen  of  the  country  had  bought  the  timber  of  tbe  church.  For  the  church 
was  the  first  thing  that  was  put  to  the  spoil ; and  then  the  abbot’s  lodging,  dorter  and  frater,  with  the 
cloister,  and  all  the  buildings  thereabout  within  the  abbey  walls ; for  nothing  was  spared  but  the 
ox-houses  and  swine-cotes,  and  such  other  houses  of  office  that  stood  without  the  walls,  which  had 
more  favour  showed  than  the  very  church  itself ; which  was  done  by  the  advice  of  Cromwell,  as  Fqx 
reporteth  in  his  book  of  Acts  and  Monuments.  It  would  have  pitied  any  heart  to  see  what  tearing 
up  of  the  lead  there  was,  and  plucking  up  of  boards,  and  throwing  down  of  the  spars  ; and  when  the 
lead  was  torn  off  and  cast  down  into  the  church,  and  the  tombs  in  the  church  all  broken  (for  in 
most  abbeys  were  divers  noble  men  and  women,  yea,  in  some  abbeys,  kings,  whose  tombs  were  regarded 
no  more  than  the  tombs  of  all  other  inferior  persons  ; for  to  what  end  should  they  stand,  when  the 
church  over  them  was  not  spared  for  their  cause  ?)  and  all  things  of  price  either  spoiled,  carped  away, 
or  defaced  to  the  uttermost. 

“ The  persons  that  cast  the  lead  into  fodders  plucked  up  all  the  seats  in  the  choir,  wherein  the 
monks  sat  when  they  said  service,  which  were  like  to  the  seats  in  minsters,  and  burned  them,  and 
melted  the  lead  therewithall,  although  there  was  wood  plenty  within  a flight-shot  of  them,  for  the 
Abbey  stood  among  the  woods  and  the  rocks  of  stone,  in  which  rocks  was  pewter  vessels  found  that 
was  conveyed  away  and  there  hid ; so  that  every  person  bent  himself  to  filch  and  spoil  what  he  could, 
yea,  even  such  persons  were  content  to  spoil  them  that  seemed  not  tivo  days  before  to  alloio  their  religion, 
and  do  great  worship  and  reverence  at  their  mattins,  masses,  and  other  service,  and  all  other  their 
doings,  which  is  a strange  thing  to  say,  that  they  could  this  day  think  it  to  be  the  house  of  Glod,  and 
the  next  day  the  house  of  the  devil ; or  else  they  would  not  have  been  so  ready  to  have  spoiled  it. 

“For  the  better  proof  of  this  my  saying,  I demanded  of  my  father,  thirty  years  after  the 
Suppression,  which  had  bought  part  of  the  timber  of  the  Church,  and  all  the  timber  in  the  steeple, 
with  the  bell  frame,  with  others  his  partners  therein  (in  the  which  steeple  hung  viij.  yea  ix.  bells  ; 
whereof  the  least  but  one  could  not  be  bought  at  this  day  for  xx11-  which  bells  I did  see  hang  there 
myself  more  than  a year  after  the  Suppression),  whether  he  thought  well  of  the  religious  persons  and 
of  the  religion  then  used  P And  he  told  me  yea ; for,  said  he,  I did  see  no  cause  to  the  contrary. 
Well,  said  I,  then  how  came  it  to  pass  you  was  so  ready  to  destroy  and  spoil  the  thing  that  you 
thought  well  of  ? What  should  I do  ? said  he.  Might  I not,  as  well  as  others,  have  some  profit  of 
the  spoil  of  the  Abbey  ? for  I did  see  all  would  away,  and  therefore  I did  as  others  did.  And  thus 
much  upon  my  own  knowledge  touching  the  fall  of  the  said  Eoche  Abbey.” — MS.  Cole,  vol.  xii.  Ellis, 
III.  Hi.  35. 

* It  may  not  be  uninteresting  to  state  that  tbe  late  Ralph  Tinsley,  of  Fountains — for  many  years  tbe  burly  blacksmith  at 
Studley  Hall— purchased,  of  his  predecessor,  or  his  executors,  a great  quantity  of  old  iron — door  hinges,  staples,  and  crooks — 
•which  the  said  predecessor  had  -wrenched  from  the  Abbey  walls.  Ralph  used  to  declare  that  it  was  the  toughest  iron  he  ever 
worked  up. 


132 


Bipon,  February  1 6th,  1854. 

Shortly  after  writing  the  letter  in  January  a few  curious  discoveries  caused  me  to  delay  sending 
it,  in  order  that  I might  forward  additional  information. 

The  rest  of  the  gravestone  beginning  “ ©rate  pro  a’t’a  ” has  been  discovered  in  the  south 
transept  (No.  16  on  the  plan).  The  inscription,  in  fine  black  letter,  shows  it  to  have  covered  the 
remains  of  Brother  John  Rypon  “.-jfr’te  Bppon,”a  monk  I suspect,  and  not  the  abbot  of  that 

name.  Unfortunately  the  portion  of  the  stone  that  would  have  furnished  us  with  the  title  and  dignity 
of  “ Brother  John  ” is  broken.  The  date,  too,  is  gone,  except  the  name  of  the  month  (March),  and 
the  last  figure  of  the  year  of  our  Lord  ...  4. 

I have  since  discovered,  after  a minute  examination  of  the  base  of  the  Holy-water  stoup,  (No.  5 
on  the  plan)  that  its  marble  basin  is  now  used  as  the  Baptismal  Font  in  Aldjield  Chapel.  It  is  most 
beautifully  carved,  and  is  evidently  the  work  of  the  marble-mason  of  the  Abbey  during  the  erection 
of  the  choir  and  Lady  Chapel  (1204,  1245),  who  is  styled  in  the  charters  of  that  date,  “ Thomas, 
Marmorarius  de  Sawley.” 

A screen  once  crossed  the  nave  from  pillar  to  pillar  (No.  17  on  the  plan).  In  a space  in 
the  thickness  of  this  screen  a very  curious  discovery  has  been  made,  viz. — A number  of  large 
earthenware  jars  laid  on  their  sides,  and  embedded  in  the  base  of  the  wall,  a very  few  inches 
below  the  level  of  the  floor.  They  were  filled  with  charcoal  ashes,  but  at  present  it  has  puzzled 
us  all  to  discover  their  use.  I hope  shortly  to  be  able  to  send  a drawing  of  the  place,  and  a correct 
sketch  of  one  or  more  of  the  jars. 

At  the  west-end  of  the  nave,  and  a few  feet  in  front  of  the  pillars,  we  have  found  one  or 
two  of  the  processional  stones.*  They  are  of  Morkar  limestone,  about  2 ft.  3 in.  square,  with  a 
ring  lined  out  in  the  centre.  On  these  stones  the  Abbot  and  brethren  arranged  themselves  prior 
to  proceeding  to  perform  service  in  the  Choir.  The  stone  on  which  the  Abbot  stood  was 

in  the  middle,  at  the  west  end,  only  a few  feet  from  the  west  door.  Similar  stones  were  formerly 
visible  at  the  west-end  of  the  nave  of  York  Cathedral. 

Bases  of  stone  altars  have  been  discovered  fixed  to  the  pillars  of  the  nave.  Two  pillars  have 
brackets  for  the  images  of  the  Saints  to  whom  these  altars  were  dedicated.  One  altar  (no  doubt  a 
wooden  one)  was  placed  on  a small  platform  of  tiles  a foot  higher  than  the  floor  of  the  rest  of  the 
Church. 

But  the  most  curious  discovery  of  all  is  the  existence  of  a “ Galilee  ” or  west  porch  (No.  2 on 
the  plan).  To  our  astonishment  we  found  that  this  porch  had  occupied  the  whole  breadth  of  the 
west  front  (70  ft.).  I suspect  from  the  remains  of  the  architectural  fragments  that  it  had  a series 
of  interlacing  arches,  with  double  shafts,  and  that  this  arcade  was  always  open  to  the  air.  The  wall 
would  be  about  4 ft.  high  to  the  bases  of  the  columns  supporting  the  arches  and  its  superincumbent 
structure.  At  the  south-end  of  this  porch  are  five  coffin  slabs — the  cross-heads  on  three  are  missing, 
the  other  two  are  plain,  excepting  their  slightly  moulded  edges.  At  the  north-end  are  two  coffin-slabs 
— the  first  is  plain,  the  other,  close  to  the  north  wall,  is  the  most  perfect  yet  discovered.  The  device 
it  bears  is  a processional  cross  of  the  patee  form,  enclosed  in  a circle.  It  is  in  its  original  position 
on  the  stone  coffin,  and  firmly  fixed  with  metal  cramps. 


* A minute  investigation  has  since  shewn  that  the  processional  stones  at  Fountains  a xe fifty-two  in  number.  They  range 
in  two  straight  lines  seven  feet  distant  from  the  bases  of  the  nave  pillars — the  pathway  between  them  being  12  ft.  8 in.  wide. 
The  cross-bearer’s  stone  is  in  the  middle,  at  the  east  end  of  the  range,  ninety  feet  distant  from  the  Abbot’s  standing  place. 


133 


Iu  this  porch,  nearly  in  front  of  the  great  west  door,  was  found  the  prostrate  and  mutilated 
figure  of 

“ The  Virgin  Mother  of  the  God-born  Child.” 

The  Abbey  was  dedicated  to  the  Virgin  Mary.  It  is  but  the  remains  of  a fine  statue — the  head 
gone,  and  the  figure  of  our  Saviour  nearly  all  broken  off.  I have  no  doubt  it  occupied  the  now  vacant 
niche  above  the  great  west  window.  This  window  was  inserted  by  Abbot  Darnton  between  March 
and  May,  1494,  and  the  figure  of  the  Virgin  is  of  the  same  date. 

It  is  useless  to  expatiate  on  the  wonderful  effect  this  last  excavation  has  given  to  the  appearance 
of  the  interior.  It  is  quite  marvellous.  In  fact  the  Abbey  is  now  another  place  altogether.  The 
opening  of  the  great  staircase,  from  the  nave  to  the  monk’s  dormitory,  has  given  a fine  effect  to  that 
portion  of  the  church  to  which  it  is  attached. 

In  clearing  out  the  undercroft  of  the  vestry  (No.  18)  the  bones  of  more  than  400  skeletons 
have  been  found  piled  in  a somewhat  regular  order.  This  place  was  always  called  the  “ Bonehouse  ” 
by  the  old  guides,  but  I feel  certain  the  deposit  is  subsequent  to  the  dissolution  of  the  Abbey 
(a.d.  1539). 

An  opportunity  could  now  be  taken  to  get  casts  of  two  small,  but  beautiful  statues  in  the  tower, 
as  well  as  the  Angel  on  the  fine  canopy,  holding  a shield  with  Abbot  Huby’s  initials.  This  last 
carving  is  important,  as  it  fixes  the  date  of  the  tower,  and  I am  afraid  that  both  it  and  the  figures 
(being  cut  in  limestone)  are  beginning  to  suffer  from  the  effects  of  the  weather.  I would  suggest  that 
all  these  casts,  after  the  sketches  are  taken,  should  be  deposited  in  the  Museum,  which  I understand  is 
to  be  formed  in  the  “ Hall  of  Pleas” — the  dry  groined  room  over  the  kitchen. 


Pipon,  17th  March,  1854. 

My  Lonn, 

Capt.  Smith  has  favoured  me  with  a perusal  of  your  note  respecting  the  singular 
rude  vases  or  pots  found  at  Fountains.  The  drawing  (by  Mr.  H.  "W.  Todd),  the  plan  and  the  section 
herewith  forwarded,  will,  I trust,  be  found  sufficiently  explanatory  of  the  position  and  appearance 
of  these  very  curious  objects. 

The  wall  in  which  the  pots  are  deposited  is,  evidently,  the  base  of  a passage  in  the  thickness  of 
the  old  screen,  which  might  be  entered  by  a doorway  in  the  side  wall  of  the  entrance  through 
the  screen ; the  floor  being  a step  or  two  below  the  general  level  of  the  Church.  There  is  a small  room 
in  the  thickness  of  the  choir  screen  at  Eipon  Minster,  on  the  north  side— the  similar  space  on  the 
south  side  being  occupied  by  the  stone  staircase  leading  to  the  organ  loft.  The  screen  in  the 
Church  at  Fountains,  not  only  crossed  the  nave  from  pillar  to  pillar,  but  it  also  occupied  the  space  of 
the  last  arch  of  each  side  aisle  of  the  nave.  The  pots  or  vases  are  laid  in  the  wall  on  their  sides, 
embedded  in  mortar.  The  depth  of  each  vase  is  from  12  to  14  inches  ; the  diameter  across  the 
widest  part,  10  inches ; the  mouth  6 or  7 inches  diameter.  The  necks  of  those  in  the  west  wall 
protruded  slightly  from  the  masonry  ; those  in  the  north  wall,  when  perfect,  projected  a little  further. 

The  presence  of  the  charcoal  in  and  around  the  vases  will  not,  I fear,  assist  us  in  coming 
to  any  conclusion  as  to  the  real  use  of  them.  For  the  charcoal  found  here  filled  nearly 
the  whole  of  the  space  No.  1 on  the  plan,  and  may  have  been  the  embers  of  the  fires 
(fed  by  the  stalls  and  other  lattice  work)  when  the  lead  was  melted  at  the  dissolution  of 
the  monastery.  Charcoal  was  also  observed  on  several  parts  of  the  floor  of  the  nave.  Cinders 
were  also  found  in  very  small  quantities , mixed  with  charcoal  in  large  quantities,  in  the  pots 


134 


or  near  them.  It  may  be  well  to  remark  that  the  whole  of  the  depressed  space  in  front  of  the  wall 
in  which  the  pots  are  embedded,  was  filled  with  charcoal.  It  is  my  opinion  that  the  charcoal  has 
nothing  to  do  with  the  purpose  or  use  to  which  the  pots  have  been  put.  We  know,  from  written 
record,  that  the  lead  from  the  roof  at  Fountains  was  melted  into  “ pigs,"  and  the  remains  of  a small 
furnace,  ( evidently  post-reformation  work)  were  found,  in  making  the  recent  excavations,  attached  to 
one  of  the  pillars  of  the  nave,  near  to  the  place  where  the  pots  were  discovered.  In  fact,  charcoal 
was  found  strewed  in  large  and  small  quantities  over  the  floor  of  the  nave  and  transepts. 

The  “ icritten  record ” alluded  to,  is  in  the  muniment  room  at  Studley  Royal ; and  it  discloses  the 
fact  that  a man  was  prosecuted  for  stealing  “ pigs  ” of  lead  from  the  Abbey  at  Fountains,  in  the  time 
of  Sir  Richard  Gresham,  who  had  the  site  granted  to  him  shortly  after  the  dissolution. 

I think  these  pots  have  been  placed  for  some  local  use,  which  it  is  now  impossible  to  guess. 
Their  position  proves  that  they  could  not  be  of  much  use  for  holding  oil,  or  any  liquid.  They  must 
have  been  intended  to  receive  some  dry  substance,  that  could  easily  be  taken  out  by  the  hand. 
One  visitor,  the  other  day,  asserted  that  there  was  a similar  instance  in  Durham  Cathredral.  But 
I cannot  hear  that  such  is  actually  the  case.  Mr.  'Walbran  has  written  to  the  Rev.  Jas.  Raine 
(the  Librarian  of  the  Cathredal)  on  the  subject,  but  a reply  has  not  yet  come  to  hand.  Mr.  Raine’s 
able  and  learned  little  book  on  Durham  Cathedral  says  nothing  on  the  subject.* 

Your  Lordship  remarks  that  this  screen  across  the  nave  would  have  thrown  the  whole  of  the 
transept,  north  and  south,  into  the  choir.  This  arrangement  was  not  uncommon,  particularly  in  the 
Norman  period ; but  the  choir  would  only  cross  the  transept,  and  the  north  and  south  ends  would  be 
screened  from  the  middle  space,  the  breadth  of  the  nave,  or  perhaps  the  breadth  of  the  nave  and 
aisles:  the  choir  of  Westminster  Abbey  is  continued  into  the  nave,  as  far  as  the  fftli  pillar  from 
the  east. 

Before  the  erection  of  the  beautiful  choir  and  Lady  Chapel  at  Fountains,  we  know  from  the 
Abbey  Chronicle  (written  by  Hugh,  a monk  of  Kirkstall,  between  1225  and  1247)  that  the  Norman 
choir  was  a contracted  space,  and  too  small  for  the  “unusual”  number  of  monks  officiating 
at  that  period.  This  caused  John  do  Ebor,  the  Eighth  Abbot,  in  1203,  to  project  the  erection  of 
the  new  choir.  The  plant  of  Kirkstall  Abbey  Church — a daughter  of  Fountains,  and  built 
under  the  superintendence  of  the  brethren  of  the  latter  house,  gives  the  best  idea  of  what  the 
plan  of  Fountains  was,  previous  to  the  days  of  John  de  Ebor.  The  Church  at  Kirkstall  has  never  been 
altered  in  plan  from  its  Norman  form.  Insertions  of  perpendicular  windows,  and  the  addition  of  a story 
in  the  same  period  (temp.  Henry  VII),  to  the  centre  tower,  have  taken  place ; but  in  plan  the  Church 
is  just  as  it  was  first  built,  and  I have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  it  was  copied  from  Fountains. 

If  we  dig  a slight  trench  down  the  centre  of  either  the  north  or  south  aisles  of  the  choir  at 
Fountains,  from  east  to  west  (where  the  pavement  is  all  gone,  and  where  we  can  do  no  harm),  we 
shall  very  probably  discover  the  site  of  the  eastern  wall  of  the  old  choir,  for  I know  that  in  several 
instances,  where  similar  elongations  have  occurred,  the  old  walls  were  only  pulled  down  to  the  exact 
level  of  the  floor.  £ 

* Mr.  Raine  has  communicated  with  Mr.  Walbran  on  the  subject.  He  says  there  is  nothing  of  the  kind  in  Durham 
Cathedral.  All  traces  of  ancient  arrangement  on  the  floor  have  been  obliterated. 

t See  Sharpe’s  Architectural  Parallels  ; Ground  Plans,  Vol.  1. 

J His  Lordship  having  expressed  a wish  that  the  termination  of  the  Norman  choir  should  be  sought  for,  on  Monday  last 
(5th  June,  1854),  after  half  an  hour’s  excavation,  it  was  found  together  with  the  eastern  walls  of  the  first  north  and  south  chapels. 
It  differs  slightly  from  that  at  Kirkstall,  inasmuch  as  these  first  chapels,  on  either  side,  are  longer  than  the  others.  Its 
extent  and  position  is  indicated  on  the  plan.  Mr.  Walbran  discovered  the  Norman  choir  at  Sawley  shortly  after  the 
completion  of  the  excavations  there. 


135 


I think,  too,  that  the  choir  at  Fountains  may  once  have  been  continued  further  down  the  nave  than 
tho  screen  on  tho  east  side  of  which  the  pots  have  been  found.  There  are  clear  indications  of  another 
screen — a wooden  one  ; on  tho  Gth  or  7th  pillars  of  the  nave,  from  tho  west.  But  tho  whole  of  the 
church  has  been  screened  and  divided  into  chapels  with  altars,  in  every  direction.  The  space  for 
94  feet  from  the  west  door  down  the  nave  has  been  clear,  because  the  “ processional  stones,”  fifty-two 
in  number,  extend  so  far.  The  choir  would  also  be  clear,  but,  except  these  two  spaces,  it  has  quite 
surprised  me  to  find  how  the  whole  Church  has  been  crossed  and  recrossed  by  screens  both  of  wood 
and  stone. 

I hope  soon  to  forward  a new,  large,  and  detailed  plan  of  the  Abbey  Church.  Since  I have 
commenced  taking  measurements  and  drawings,  and  looking  after  the  man  making  the  moulds,  I have 
accumulated  a quantity  of  interesting  matter  and  details,  which  I hope  shortly,  through  the  kindness 
of  Captain  Smith,  to  lay  before  your  Lordship. 


Hipon,  22nd  April,  1854. 

My  Lord, 

The  large  traced  facsimile  of  Abbot  Iluby’s  Initials  (a.d.  1494 — 1526)  which  I had 
the  honor  to  forward  the  other  day  was,  very  recently,  taken  from  the  house  of  Tinsley  the  Blacksmith, 
in  the  Village  of  Fountains.  At  some  period  it  had  been  purloined  from  the  Abbey  ; and,  I believe, 
has  formed  some  portion  of  one  of  the  stone  screens  built  in  the  time  of  Abbot  Huby,  in  the  Abbey 
Church.  This  stone  is  interesting  and  curious  on  two  or  three  accounts.  The  letter  M is  formed  of 
two  serpent-like  winged  wyverns  entwined  in  close  combat.  Unfortunately  the  head  of  one,  and  the 
claw  or  leg  of  the  other,  has  been  broken  off.  The  H is  composed  of  a stately  looking  raven, 
apparently  treating  with  indifference  the  bite  of  a winged  asp.  These  letters  are  decidedly  Saxon,  or 
early  Norman  or  English  in  their  character,  and  it  is  not  unreasonable  to  suppose  that  “ My  Lord 
Abbot  ” has  selected  them  from  some  of  the  many  old  illuminated  MSS.  the  Library  at  Fountains 
possessed.  The  crozier,  as  in  other  examples  of  Marmaduke  Huby’s  Initials,  passes  through  the  mitre, 
and  the  scarf  or  vexillum  that  was  frequently  wrapped  round  the  staff,  is  well  expressed.  The  label, 
above  all,  has  no  doubt  borne  a painted  black-letter  inscription,  but  long  exposure  to  the  weather  has 
worn  away  all  trace  of  it.  The  stone  is  a piece  of  tolerably  hard  flagstone  grit. 

The  drawing  of  “Brother”  Bypon’s  tombstone,  I have  taken  pains  to  have  delineated  with  every 
fracture  that  occurs  on  the  original,  to  show  how  the  sepulchral  memorials  have  been  shattered  by 
the  reckless  destruction  of  the  roofs,  and  by  the  large  stones  thrown  down  from  the  summit  of  the 
walls.  This  will  account  for  the  non-discovery  of  the  many  gravestones  we  expected  to  find  on  the 
floor  where  the  centre  tower  stood.  From  that  valuable  record,  “the  President  Book,”  we 

learn  that,  after  the  chapter-house  was  about  full,  the  place  of  interment  of  most  of  the  Abbots 
was  the  space  in  the  middle  transept,  immediately  in  front  of  the  choir  screen,  The  solitary  4 
at  the  conclusion  of  the  inscription  on  Bypon’s  tomb,  and  the  character  of  the  black  letter,  may 
warrant  a practised  eye  in  referring  its  date  to  1504,  1514,  or  1524. 

Just  outside  the  newly  discovered  west-porch  three  beautiful  perforated  plates  of  lead  have  been 
found ; two  are  exactly  alike,  and  I have  taken  a gutta-percha  impression  of  one,  which  I 
forward  by  this  post.  We  found  a similar  fragment  of  lead  in  excavating  the  Abbot’s  house,  but  its 
style  of  design  was  a century  later  than  these  now  discovered,  which  may  be  referred  to  the  Decorated 
Period  (a.d.  1290 — 1390).  A like  relic  was  found  in  clearing  out  the  Abbey  at  Sawley.  The  one  I 
have  drawn  weighs  21  oz.  The  other  two  weigh  slightly  over  3 oz.  each.  They  are  perforated,  and 


136 


both  sides  bear  the  same  design.  We  at  first  imagined  that  these  curious  relics  had  been  used  for 
the  purpose  of  more  readily  covering  the  panels  of  Aumbrye  Doors,  or  fine  and  small  screen  work, 
with  elaborate  tracery.  Supposing  the  wooden  surface  to  be  first  coloured  with  bright  Vermillion  or 
ultra-marine,  this  leaden  tracery  work,  well  silvered  or  gilt,  would  produce  a rich  effect.  But  the 
fact  of  the  plates  being  alike  on  both  surfaces,  destroys  this  theory.  They  may  have  been  patterns 
moulded,  and  cast  in  lead,  by  the  designers  in  the  middle  ages,  and  sold  to  the  Ecclesiastics  or  their 
architects,  as  new  styles  arose  during  the  progress  of  Gothic  architecture.*  At  all  events,  they  are 
very  curious  and  valuable  relics,  and,  if  not  taken  into  your  Lordship’s  private  collection,  will  be 
interesting  objects  in  the  Abbey  museum. 

The  workman  I have  employed  to  take  different  casts  about  the  Abbey,  has  completed  moulds  for — 
Three  early  English  brackets  : 

The  broken  figure  of  the  Virgin : 

Two  bas-relief  sculptures  of  the  Evangelists  : 

The  Lombardic  Inscription  on  Abbot  John  de  Cancia’s  tomb : 

The  Initials  of  Abbot  Huby : 

A niche  and  canopy,  containing  the  figure  of  an  Angel  holding  the  arms  of  the  Abbey  ; 
this  is  above  the  lowest  east  window  of  the  tower.  Some  lesser  objects  I cannot  now  clearly 
remember,  as  I have  not  all  the  moulds  in  my  possession. 

The  workman  is  now  employed  on  a small  figure  above  the  lowest  large  north  window  in  the 
tower.  It  proves  to  be  a crowned  female  martyr  saint,  holding  a palm  branch  in  the  right,  and  a 
book  in  the  left  hand,  (perhaps  St.  Margaret). 

I would  draw  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  highest  inscription  on  the  tower  has  never  yet 
been  decyphered,  partly  on  account  of  its  position,  but  more  particularly  of  its  decayed  condition.  I 
have  read  portions  of  it  through  a good  telescope ; but  it  is  impossible  to  make  it  out  clearly, 
unless  an  experienced  person  were  face  to  face  with  it.  It  may  only  be  a religious  inscription 
— perhaps  a repetition  of  those  below — but,  to  judge  from  other  examples  I have  read  of,  and  seen, 
it  is  not  improbable  that  it  may  contain  some  information  of  importance,  historically,  as  regards  the 
Abbey.  A similar  black  letter  inscription  on  the  south  west  tower  of  York  Cathedral  bears  the  name 
of  the  “ Treasurer ,”  John  Birmingham.  With  a little  scaffolding,  from  the  top,  this  inscription  at 
Eountains  might  easily  be  reached,  and  read. 

In  conclusion,  I would  add,  that  I sincerely  hope  and  trust  that  the  noble  and  spirited  example 
set  by  your  Lordship,  not  only  in  this  great  work,  but  also  in  the  lesser  one  on  the  banks  of  the  Bibble, 
will  be  speedily  followed  by  other  proprietors  of  our  monastic  remains.  The  time  has  arrived  when 
this  should  be  accomplished.  Very  few  Abbeys  now  present  the  same  appearance  as  those  of 
Fountains,  Sawley,  and  Jervaulx.  It  is  sad  to  call  to  mind  the  present  state  of  Byland,  Bivaulx, 
Kirkstall,  Mount  Grace,  Guisborough,  Easby,  Coverham,  and  a score  of  others  I could  mention. 
Their  storied  pavements,  the  tombs  and  graves  of  our  old  patriots  and  dignified  ecclesiastics ; and  the 
architectural  fragments  of  their  superb  but  “ bare  and  ruined  choirs,”  yet  lie  shrouded  in  the  rubbish 
which  “ an  undistinguishing  reformation  has  heaped  on  their  heads.” 

Your  Lordship’s  obliged  and  obedient  Servant, 

WILLIAM  HARRISON. 


* Professor  Willis  has  clearly  proved  to  me  that  these  perforated  lead  plates  are  nothing  more  nor  less  than  ventilators; 
and  he  has  seen  similar  specimens  yet  occupying  their  original  position  in  old  windows. 


■ 


ON  THE  INFLUENCE  OF  SOME  EXTERNAL  AGENTS  ON  THE  DURABILITY 

OF  BUILDING  MATERIALS. 

By  Geo.  R.  Bubneli,  C.  E. 

Read  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  June  5th,  1854. 


When  the  very  imperfect  state  of  that  part  of  meteorology  which  treats  of  the  constituent  parts 
of  the  atmosphere  is  considered,  it  cannot  be  a matter  of  surprise  that  little  is  known  to  guide 
us  to  any  definite  conclusions  as  to  the  causes  which  affect  the  durability  of  building  materials, 
and  to  their  modes  of  action  even  under  ordinary  circumstances.  Experience  and  tradition  are  the  only 
authorities  upon  a subject  of  such  importance ; and  the  rules  at  present  adopted  in  the  selection 
and  employment  of  the  various  classes  of  building  materials  can  hardly  be  considered  other  than 
empirical.  In  the  following  article  it  will,  therefore,  be  my  object  merely  to  state  what  is  known  and 
acted  upon ; and  at  the  same  time  to  call  attention  to  some  phenomena  which  require  explanation. 

The  influence  of  the  atmosphere  upon  building  materials  is  of  a complicated  nature ; it  is 
chemical,  mechanical,  and  medial , under  which  term  are  included  all  the  various  modifications  pro- 
duced by  moisture,  heat,  and  electricity. 

The  chemical  influence,  or,  in  other  words,  the  decomposition  determined  by  chemical  affinity, 
depends,  of  course,  upon  the  composition  of  the  atmosphere  itself,  and  this  is  known  to  vary  in  an 
extraordinary  manner  in  different  localities.  The  normal  composition  of  atmospheric  air  is  con- 
sidered to  consist  principally  of  oxygen  and  nitrogen,  in  the  proportions  of  208  of  the  former  to 
792  of  the  latter ; but  there  are  also  numerous  other  gases  present,  such  as  the  carbonic  acid, 
ammoniacal,  hydrochloric,  nitrous,  and  sulphuric,  with  sulphuretted  hydrogen ; the  proportions  of  all 
which  are  affected  by  local  causes.  Even  in  the  same  locality  the  composition  varies  with  the 
elevation  above  the  ground,  and  the  application  of  some  theoretical  deductions  have  led  to  such 
signal  failures,  as  to  justify  us  in  dwelling  on  the  necessity  for  examining  carefully  the  actual  con- 
ditions of  each  position. 

It  is  to  Messrs.  Dumas  and  Boussingault  that  we  are  indebted  for  the  analysis  of  the  at- 
mosphere quoted  above,  and  from  the  researches  of  numerous  other  philosophers  it  appears  that 
the  proportions  of  oxygen  and  azote  are  constant.  Messrs.  Boussingault  and  Levy  ascertained 
that  the  quantity  of  carbonic  acid  gas  varied  from  3.253  to  2.989  parts  of  gas  (in  volume)  in 
10,000  parts  of  air,  the  former  result  having  been  obtained  at  Paris,  the  latter  at  Andilly,  near 
Montmorency ; but  Michel  Levy  states  that  the  quantity  of  this  gas  in  suspension  varies  between 
4 and  6 in  10,000,  the  smaller  quantity  being  that  most  frequently  found  in  the  open  country.  Car- 
buretted  hydrogen  is  found  most  abundantly  in  the  neighbourhood  of  marshes ; nitrous  acid  gas 
in  districts  which  are  subject  to  violent  storms,  and  it  is  supposed  to  be  generated  by  the  decomposi- 
tion of  azote  by  electrical  action.  M.  Eresenius  (Ann.  de  Chim.  1849,  p.  208)  states  that  he 
found  the  proportion  of  ammonia  in  the  air  to  be  in  100,000  parts  in  volume,  0.133  ammonia,  0.205 
oxide  of  ammonium,  and  0.379  carbonate  of  ammonia.  But  M.  Boussingault’ s observations  upon 
the  quantities  of  ammonia  in  rain  water  show  that  it  varies  notably  according  to  the  position,  from 
1 to  5.45.  Under  all  circumstances  the  air  of  the  night  is  richer  in  ammonia  than  that  of  the  day, 
a fact  which  may  be  accounted  for  by  the  theory  of  the  nutrition  of  plants,  and  the  precipitation 
of  ammonia  by  the  early  morning  dews. 


p 


138 


M.  Chevalier  (Journal  de  Pharmacie,  1835)  found  that  the  atmosphere  of  London  contained  sul- 
phuric acid,  generated  no  doubt  by  the  combustion  of  coal.  The  same  author  also  observed  that  the 
atmosphere  of  Paris  contained  the  acetate  and  the  hydro-sulphate  of  ammonia,  which  are  to  be 
attributed  to  the  exhalations  from  the  numerous  cesspools  of  that  town.  M.  Vogel,  of  Munich, 
has  the  merit  of  having  ascertained  the  presence  of  hydrochloric  acid  in  the  atmosphere  surrounding 
the  waters  of  the  Baltic  and  the  Mediterranean.  The  action  of  the  sea  breezes  upon  some  building 
materials,  to  which  I shall  have  occasion  hereafter  to  refer,  appears  to  prove  that  this  gas  is  not 
confined  to  those  seas.  As  it  is  furnished  by  the  evaporation  of  the  ocean,  it  necessarily  varies  in 
quantity  according  to  the  season ; and  we  may  also  suspect  that  other  deleterious  gases  are  from  time 
to  time  suspended  in  the  atmosphere,  though  their  existence  can  hardly  be  demonstrated  on  account 
of  their  minute  proportions. 

The  meteorological  conditions  of  the  atmosphere  are  subject  to  periodical  variations,  and  they 
have  distinctly  marked  phases  of  day  and  night,  unless  extraordinary  phenomena  occur.  Thus, 
in  clear  weather  the  atmosphere  attains  two  maxima  and  two  minima  in  its  electrical  state ; the  first 
maximum  being  between  seven  and  nine  in  the  morning,  and  the  second  between  seven  and  nine  in 
the  evening ; the  first  minimum  about  four  in  the  morning,  and  the  second  between  five  and  ten  in 
the  evening ; but  it  must  be  observed  that  its  hygrometric  state  frequently  modifies  these  periods. 
The  intensity  of  the  sun’s  light,  and  necessarily  of  its  actinic  influence,  has  its  maximum  rather 
before  mid-day,  and  two  minima  corresponding  nearly  with  the  periods  of  twilight.  A maximum 
occurs  in  the  temperature  about  two  o’clock  in  the  afternoon  upon  the  average  of  the  year,  but 
there  is  a slight  irregularity  according  to  the  seasons ; a minimum  occurs,  generally  speaking,  when 
the  sun  occupies  a position  about  14°  47'  below  the  horizon,  according  to  M.  Bouvard’s  observations 
in  Paris ; the  period  of  mean  temperature  varies  in  the  different  months.  The  atmosphere  is  driest 
about  mid-day,  and  contains  the  greatest  amount  of  moisture  at  night ; the  deposition  of  dew  takes 
place  to  the  greatest  extent  between  midnight  and  sunrise,  on  account  of  the  greater  cold  which 
then  prevails.  In  our  latitudes  the  disturbances  of  the  barometric  action  are  not  marked  by  any 
regularity;  but  there  is  a tendency  to  increase  in  the  morning,  when  the  barometer  generally 
rises ; it  falls  about  mid-day,  rises  again  about  sunset,  and  falls  once  more  about  midnight.  It 
may,  in  fact,  be  considered  that  the  meteorological  fluctuations  of  every  day  are  affected  by  the 
relative  positions  of  the  sun  and  the  earth,  and  that  they  correspond  more  or  less  closely  with 
the  cardinal  positions  of  the  former  at  rising  and  setting,  at  mid-day  and  midnight. 

The  mean  temperature  of  London  throughout  the  year  is  50°. 50'.,  whilst  that  of  the  sur- 
rounding country  is  48°.  50'.  The  thermometer  very  rarely  rises  above  96°.,  and  the  greatest 
cold  hitherto  recorded  in  our  metropolis  is  5°.  below  Zero.  The  mean  barometric  range  amounts 
only  to  2.07in. 

One  of  the  most  important  conditions  of  the  atmosphere  depends  upon  the  rate  of  evaporation, 
and  the  amount  of  humidity  in  suspension ; and  the  intensity  of  these  agents  is  greatest  at  directly 
opposite  seasons  of  the  year.  Evaporation  is  greatest  in  summer,  and  least  in  winter ; the  reverse 
takes  place  with  respect  to  humidity.  Mr.  Daniell  estimated  the  mean  evaporation  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  London  at  23.974  inches  per  annum,  ranging  in  the  various  months  from  about  half 
an  inch  in  January  and  December  to  3f  inches  in  June,  and  31  inches  in  July.  Supposing  the 
complete  saturation  of  the  atmosphere  to  be  represented  by  100 ; the  humidity  of  the  months  of 
December,  January  and  February  will  then  be  expressed  by  92.  In  the  intervening  months  the 
humidity  diminishes  with  tolerable  regularity  to  the  minimum  of  78  at  the  end  of  June,  except  in 
the  month  of  May,  when  a trifling  irregularity  occurs.  It  thus  happens  that  the  greatest  amount 


139 


of  moisture  is  suspended  in  the  air,  to  be  absorbed  by  porous  materials,  precisely  at  the  season 
of  diminished  temperature  and  exposure  to  the  attacks  of  frost ; while  evaporation  takes  place  at 
the  period  when  the  conditions  of  temperature  are  most  favourable  to  the  production  and  develop- 
ment of  the  salts  by  the  previously  absorbed  moisture  acting  on  the  earthy  bases. 

Such  we  may  consider  the  general  properties  of  the  atmosphere  likely  to  affect  the  conditions 
of  building  materials,  and  we  may  trace  their  influence  under  circumstances  apparently  very 
dissimilar. 

The  various  external  agents  produce  effects,  either  by  the  new  combinations  they  superinduce 
between  the  earthy  bases,  the  metals,  and  the  metalloids  of  the  different  classes  of  building  materials 
and  the  gases  they  contain ; or  by  the  solution  and  removal  of  the  combinations  previously  existing. 
There  are  few,  indeed  we  may  almost  say  that  there  are  no  conditions  either  of  organic  or 
inorganic  chemistry  which  can  be  considered  permanent ; and  as  the  gradual  decay  of  rocks  is  a law 
of  nature  everywhere,  and  inevitably,  at  work  to  renew  the  face  of  the  world  by  apparent  destruction, 
it  is  not  to  be  expected  that  the  insignificant  quantities  we  deal  with  can  be  exempt  from  similar 
laws.  The  consideration  of  the  circumstances  attending  the  formation  of  the  new  compounds  of 
oxygen,  hydrogen,  carbonic,  ammoniacal,  and  hydrochloric  gases  with  the  bases  above  mentioned ; 
with  the  action  of  the  fermentation  of  woody  sap,  would  lead  to  a lengthened  investigation  of 
the  most  abstruse  branches  of  chemistry.  The  importance,  however,  of  these  compounds  cannot 
be  too  strongly  insisted  upon,  nor  can  the  attention  of  scientific  men  be  too  decidedly  called  to  them. 
Sometimes  they  act  to  destroy,  at  others  to  consolidate ; but  in  all  their  influence  is  very  marked, 
and  calls  for  serious  consideration  from  the  architect.  Limes,  cements,  and  some  descriptions  of 
building  stones,  when  properly  employed,  gain  in  strength  and  durability  by  the  slow,  but  sure, 
action  of  the  air.  "When  injudiciously  employed  they  rapidly  decay,  through  the  decomposition  to 
which  that  element  gives  rise,  or  the  mechanical  agents  to  which  it  serves  as  a medium ; while 
the  destruction  of  the  metallic  or  the  organized  matters  employed,  is  equally  occasioned  by  the 
same  cause.  I shall  now  proceed  to  point  out  the  various  phenomena  exhibited  by  the  respective 
classes  of  building  materials  usually  employed  in  London,  not  attempting,  however,  more  than 
a very  general  description  of  a subject  so  vast,  and  at  the  same  time  so  complicated. 

Granites  present  many  varieties,  differing  greatly  in  their  composition  and  the  mechanical 
arrangement  of  their  elements.  Those  from  Devonshire  and  Cornwall  contain  a large  proportion  of 
schorl,  and  are  frequently  pervaded  by  masses  of  felspar,  of  such  dimensions,  and  so  distinctly 
crystallized,  as  to  cause  them  to  assume  a porphyritic  character.  According  to  Sir  H.  De  la  Beche. 
the  granites  of  Ireland  are  of  the  same  character,  but  the  schorl  occurs  in  smaller  proportions, 
The  granites  of  Aberdeenshire  are  more  decidedly  micaceous,  and  schorl  is  rarely  found  in  them ; 
they  also  differ  from  those  of  England  and  Ireland,  in  having  their  component  parts  more  equal  in 
volume,  and  more  evenly  distributed.  In  some  cases  hornblende  takes  the  place  of  mica,  and  in 
others  the  quartz  and  the  felspar  are  both  so  much  affected  in  colour  by  the  presence,  doubtless,  of 
hydrous  oxide  of  iron,  as  to  give  a general  rosy  hue  to  the  whole  mass.  An  instance  of  this  is  the 
well  known  granite  of  Peterhead.  The  granites  of  Guernsey,  Jersey,  and  the  Isles  Chausey,  which 
are  occasionally  brought  into  the  London  market,  resemble  those  of  Cornwall ; and,  indeed, 
M'Culloch,  in  his  “ Classification  of  Bocks,”  states  that  they  pass  into  the  same  variety.  Their 
appearance  is,  however,  sometimes  diversified  by  the  occurrence  of  large  imperfectly  shaped  crystals 
of  compact  felspar,  which  give  the  whole  mass  either  a greenish  tinge,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Guernsey, 
or  a rosy  one  as  in  that  of  the  Jersey  granite. 

The  decomposition  of  granites  takes  place  from  the  action  of  the  atmosphere  upon  their  con- 


HO 


stituent  particles.  “ The  quartz  is  almost  pure  silicious  earth,  in  a crystalline  form.  The  felspar 
and  mica  are  very  compounded  substances ; both  contain  silica,  alumina,  and  oxide  of  iron.  In  the 
felspar  there  is  usually  lime  and  potassa ; in  the  mica,  lime  and  magnesia.  When  a granitic  rock 
of  this  kind  has  been  long  exposed  to  the  influence  of  air  and  water,  the  lime  and  the  potassa  con- 
tained in  its  constituent  parts  are  acted  upon  by  water  and  carbonic  acid ; and  the  oxide  of  iron, 
which  is  almost  always  in  its  least  oxidized  state,  or  in  that  of  the  protoxide,  tends  to  combine  with 
more  oxygen ; the  consequence  is  that  the  felspar  decomposes,  and  likewise  the  mica,  but  the  first  the 
more  rapidly.”  Such  are  the  words  in  which  Sir  H.  Davy  (Agricultural  Chemistry,  p.  189)  describes 
the  mode  of  decomposition  of  granites ; and  they  may  be  taken  to  express  the  present  state  of  science 
so  far  as  the  granites  usually  employed  in  England  are  concerned.  But  there  appear  to  be  different 
conditions  in  the  combinations  of  the  bases  of  felspar  which  give  rise  to  some  apparent  anomalies. 
Thus,  the  Egyptian  porphyries,  which  contain  a notable  excess  of  rose-coloured  felspar,  resist  the 
influence  of  the  atmosphere  in  an  extraordinary  manner.  Possibly  this  may  be  accounted  for  by 
the  closeness  of  the  grain  (so  to  speak),  which  would  to  a certain  extent  prevent  atmospheric 
moisture  from  communicating  with  anything  beyond  the  immediate  surface ; or  the  more  simple 
character  of  some  of  these  porphyritic  rocks  may  be  favourable  to  their  preservation ; whereas  the 
different  rates  of  expansion  of  the  ingredients  must  have  a material  mechanical  influence  in  disinte- 
grating rocks  when  they  exist  in  considerable  numbers.  The  difference  between  the  rapid  rate 
of  decomposition  of  the  porphyritic  granites  of  Spain,  Britany,  and  Cornwall,  and  that  of  the 
Egyptian  specimens  appears  to  justify  the  inference  that  the  cause  last  suggested  has  great  influence 
upon  their  durability.  The  former  are,  in  fact,  composed  of  a greater  number  of  ingredients  than  the 
latter,  in  which  both  mica  and  hornblende  are  wanting. 

Practically  it  is  found  that  the  uniform  character  of  the  Aberdeen  granites  resists  atmospheric 
influences  in  our  latitude  better  than  the  more  easily  worked  stones  of  Devonshire  and  Cornwall. 

It  may,  perhaps,  be  as  well  to  call  attention  to  the  fact  that  the  modern  application  of  the  term 
“ porphyry”  is  in  some  cases  inconsistent  with  its  derivation ; the  grey  granites  of  Devonshire, 
Cornwall,  and  the  1ST.  W.  of  Spain,  being  occasionally  called  porphyritic,  as  well  as  the  purple, 
felspathic  rock  of  Egypt.  The  latter  is  almost  entirely  composed  of  felspar,  with  occasional  crystals 
of  amphibole  and  quartz  ; but  the  colour  is  entirely  owing  to  the  felspar,  which  is  of  a beautiful 
purple  occasioned  by  the  presence  of  a large  proportion  of  the  hydrous  oxide  of  iron.  Ophite 
(green  antique  porphyry),  and  melaphyre  (black  porphyry)  are  instances  of  a similar  disregard 
for  the  derivation  of  a generic  name.  A description  of  granite,  known  to  mineralogists  by  the 
name  Syenite,  was  also  much  used  by  the  ancient  Egyptians ; it  is  remarkable  for  having  the  mica 
replaced  by  hornblendish  amphibole,  and  is  of  a rose  colour.  The  atmosphere  does  not  appear  to 
have  much  action  upon  this  variety,  at  least  ki  Egypt,  if  we  may  judge  by  the  state  of  Pompey’s 
Pillar,  and  Cleopatra’s  Needle. 

Whinstones,  or  basalts,  become  disintegrated  unequally  under  the  effects  of  exposure  to  the 
atmosphere,  in  consequence  of  the  variable  proportions  of  felspar  they  contain,  and  perhaps  also  of  the 
particular  combinations  of  alumina,  lime  and  magnesia,  which,  in  connection  with  silica,  consti- 
tute their  base.  If  any  potassa  be  present  in  combination  with  the  silica  in  the  shape  of  felspar,  the 
action  is  more  rapid  than  under  ordinary  circumstances,  the  humidity  of  the  atmosphere  decomposing 
the  felspar  into  two  substances,  one  of  which  is  soluble,  and  easily  removed  by  succeeding  rains. 
Serpentines,  and  the  diallage  rocks,  which  are  silicates  of  magnesia  combined  with  hydrates  of  that 
base,  yield  easily  to  the  attacks  of  acids  when  the  silicates  are  in  certain  proportions,  and  alumina 
is  present.  The  most  beautiful  varieties  of  these  materials  employed  in  the  arts  are  obtained 


141 


from  the  environs  of  Genoa,  and  from  Zooblitz  in  Saxony ; but  it  is  much  to  be  feared  that  the 
atmosphere  of  large  towns,  especially  when  containing  sulphuric  acid  gas  from  the  combustion  of 
coal,  renders  the  employment  of  even  the  best  of  these  decorative  materials  very  hazardous.  It  appears 
also  that  in  parting  with  their  water  of  crystallization  upon  exposure  to  the  air,  an  unequal  con- 
traction takes  place  in  the  constituent  parts  of  the  serpentine  obtained  in  certain  localities,  which 
in  consequence  breaks  in  an  irregular  manner. 

The  next  description  of  building  materials  to  be  considered,  in  following  the  ascensional  order 
of  the  geological  scries,  are  the  slate  rocks.  Those  worked  for  the  supply  of  the  London  market 
are  principally  situated  in  North  Wales,  Cumberland  and  Westmoreland,  the  former  being  a 
tolerably  homogeneous  clay  slate,  the  latter  being  much  more  chloritic.  Exposed  freely  to  the 
action  of  the  atmosphere  both  varieties  appear  to  be  tolerably  durable,  but  Westmoreland  slates 
decay  very  rapidly  in  damp  positions,  when  the  air  around  them  is  not  frequently  renewed.  They 
decay,  in  fact,  in  the  covered  parts,  probably  from  the  decomposition  of  the  silicate  of  iron  to  which 
they  owe  their  peculiar  colour.  The  combination  of  silica  and  alumina  in  the  Welsh  slates 
appears  to  be  more  stable  than  that  which  prevails  in  any  other  material  of  the  same  nature ; for  their 
powers  of  resistance  to  atmospheric  influence  are  greater  than  those  of  any  slates  employed  in 
Western  Europe,  or  North  America.  As  a general  rule,  the  denser  the  slate  the  more  durable  it 
will  be ; and  the  most  important  condition  to  be  observed  in  its  use  is  that  water  should  not  be 
allowed  to  percolate  between  the  edges  of  the  strata.  Practically  it  is  found  that  the  smoother  the 
surfaces  of  the  slates,  and  the  closer  they  lie,  the  greater  is  the  pitch  requisite  to  be  given  to  the 
roof ; because,  under  such  circumstances,  capillary  action  takes  effect  to  a greater  extent  than  when 
the  slates  present  irregular  and  perceptibly  large  intervals. 

The  various  sandstones,  millstone  grits,  and  conglomerates,  are  affected  by  the  atmosphere,  either 
through  the  decomposition  of  the  material  cementing  their  particles  together,  or  by  the  mechanical 
effects  of  moisture.  These  last  may  consist,  either  in  the  removal  of  the  cementing  material,  or  in 
the  destruction  of  the  cohesion  of  the  particles  by  the  expansion  of  the  water  in  freezing.  Many 
of  the  sandstones  occur  in  regular  layers,  separated  by  thin  films  of  a species  of  clay,  as  in 
the  common  Yorkshire  flagstones,  and  when  these  films  are  sufficiently  thick  to  offer  an  efficient 
resistance  to  the  passage  of  water,  to  retain  it  in  fact  under  the  upper  shale,  the  expansion  during 
frost  will  almost  inevitably  destroy  the  stone.  If  the  water  should  change  its  form  from  other  causes, 
such  as  heat,  the  same  effect  will  be  produced ; and  it  is  therefore  found  that  the  Yorkshire 
stones  of  a very  porous,  and  at  the  same  time  of  a very  fissile  character,  are  unable  to  resist 
the  extremes  either  of  cold  or  heat.  The  best  materials  of  this  description  are  those  of  an  homo- 
geneous nature— such  as  the  Park  Spring,  the  Idle,  and  the  Darley  Dale  stones,  in  all  of  which  the 
minute  subdivisions  disappear,  and  the  mass  may  be  described  as  consisting  of  an  assemblage  of 
distinct  molecules  of  similar  nature,  united  by  mechanical  juxta-position. 

The  sandstones,  in  which  the  silicious  molecules  are  united  by  a calcareous  cement,  are  far  more 
susceptible  of  decomposition  than  those  united  by  a silicious  cement,  for  it  appears  that  in  the  former 
cases  the  chemical  combination  is  rarely  effected  between  the  lime  and  the  silica ; as  the  latter 
is  not  in  the  state  known  as  free  silica,  nor  such  as  can  easily  form  combinations  with  other 
materials.  In  the  case  of  some  of  the  millstone  grits,  however,  the  cementing  substance,  which  is 
silicious,  forms  so  energetic  a combination  with  the  molecules  it  envelopes,  that  both  resist  the  action 
of  external  causes  in  an  equal  manner,  and  the  durability  of  the  Bramley  Fall  stone  may  fairly  be 
compared  even  to  that  of  granite  itself.  These  remarks  may  be  extended  to  the  conglomerates,  in  all 
essential  respects  at  least,  because  in  fact,  generally  speaking,  they  differ  from  the  millstone  grits 
only  in  the  size  of  their  elements. 

p 2 


142 


The  crystalline  marbles  vary  in  sucb  a very  marked  manner,  both  in  the  nature  and  the 
proportions  of  some  of  their  constituents,  and  they  have  been  so  modified  by  the  accidental 
circumstances  of  their  geological  position,  that  it  is  more  than  usually  difficult  to  trace  the  laws 
of  their  decomposition  under  the  action  of  atmospheric  causes.  In  many  instances  they  are  traversed 
by  veins  filled  in  with  more  perfectly  defined  crystals  of  the  base  of  the  rock,  or  the  fissures  caused  by 
these  veins  are  filled  in  with  extraneous  matters,  such  as  clay,  and  sometimes  even  with  minerals. 
Again,  however  regular  the  structure  of  the  mass  may  seem,  there  is  always  a tendency  in  the  more 
crystalline  rocks  to  assume  a distinct  cleavage,  which  is  often  different  from  the  direction  of  the  planes 
of  stratification.  Under  such  circumstances,  the  moisture  furnished  by  the  atmosphere  either 
furnishes  the  elements  necessary  for  the  decomposition  of  the  materials  introduced  into  the  veins,  or 
by  the  mechanical  effects  it  produces  in  consequence  of  the  changes  of  temperature,  disintegrates  the 
mass.  The  former  class  of  phenomena  may  be  most  distinctly  observed  in  the  Breccias,  or  such 
marbles  as  the  Brocatello  and  the  Oriental  Jasper;  the  white  marbles  very  frequently  exhibit  the 
cleavage  above  alluded  to,  and  are  the  most  exposed  to  the  injuries  produced  by  the  infiltration  of  water 
between  the  planes  of  division.  It  is  to  be  observed  that  the  species  of  false  stratification  indicated 
by  the  cleavage  is  most  apparent  in  the  rocks  which,  like  the  slate  rocks,  have  been  affected  by 
proximity  to  igneous  formations,  and  that  the  more  crystalline  the  marhle  the  more  exposed  it  is  to 
this  inconvenience.  At  the  same  time  it  must  be  observed  that  the  more  perfectly  crystallized 
carbonates  of  lime,  under  which  denomination  in  fact  nearly  all  the  finer  marbles  may  be  included, 
resist  tlie  chemical  influences  of  the  atmosphere  more  successfully  than  similar  substances  where 
the  forms  are  not  so  distinctly  marked.  It  would  appear  as  though  the  process  of  crystallization  were 
accompanied  by  the  development  of  some  chemical  affinity  between  the  ultimate  particles,  similar  to 
that  which  is  noticed  with  respect  to  the  various  forms  of  silica,  and  which  enables  them  afterwards  to 
resist  more  energetically  external  causes  of  decay.  In  some  marbles  the  joints  assume  different 
directions  from  either  the  lines  of  stratigraphical  deposition,  or  from  the  planes  of  cleavage ; but  in 
the  practical  operations  of  building  the  consideration  of  this  peculiarity  may  be  neglected,  because 
they  are  usually  so  distinctly  marked  as  to  place  in  reality  the  natural  limits  to  the  sizes  of  the  blocks 
raised. 

M.  Durocher  communicated  to  the  Academie  des  Sciences  a memoir  “ sur  l’absorption  de 
l’eau  atmospherique  par  les  substances  minerales,”  which  throws  some  light  on  the  subject  of  the 
decomposition  of  silicated  materials,  or  those  containing  metallic  oxides.  From  his  experiments  it 
appears  that  all  substances  of  this  description  actually  absorb  water  from  the  atmosphere,  and 
undergo  a commencement  of  hydration,  which  must  necessarily  facilitate  the  decomposition  of  mixed 
minerals,  such  as  the  silicates,  and  is  apparently  the  commencement  of  that  action.  Messrs.  Jamin  and 
Bertrand  have  also  shown  that  in  porous  bodies  gasses  are  condensed  with  remarkable  facility,  so  that 
it  is  possible  that  the  conditions  of  molecular  aggregation  influence  the  durability  of  mineral 
substances  in  the  direct  proportion  of  the  facilities  which  are  offered  to  the  passage  of  air  to  the 
interior.  From  this  we  may  infer  that  the  existence  of  a crystalline  structure  is  in  itself  a protection 
to  the  materials  in  which  it  may  occur,  because  under  such  circumstances  the  porosity  is  usually  less ; 
or  at  any  rate  the  intervals  between  the  ultimate  molecules  are  proportionally  smaller  than  in  the 
case  of  materials  held  together  simply  by  aggregation  without  crystallization.  Sir  H.  De  la  Beche 
notices  the  universality  of  this  law  (Geol.  Observer,  ed.  1851,  p.  8),  but  he  does  not  attempt  to 
account  for  it. 

The  magnesian,  the  oolitic,  and  the  ordinary  secondary  and  tertiary  limestones,  are  liable 
to  decay  under  the  influence  of  the  atmosphere  with  very  various  degrees  of  rapidity ; and  it  is, 


143 


moreover,  to  bo  noted,  that  the  same  formations  yield  materials  varying  singularly  in  their 
powers  of  resistance  according  to  tho  position  they  occupied  in  the  quarries,  and  the  exposure  of  the 
building  in  which  they  are  employed.  The  results  obtained  by  the  use  of  the  Anston  magnesian 
limestone,  and  tho  marked  differences  to  be  observed  in  the  Bath,  Caen  and  Portland  Oolites,  as  well  as 
in  the  several  members  of  the  tertiary  series  of  the  Paris  basin,  appear  to  show  that  no  a priori  laws  can 
be  laid  down  with  respect  to  their  durability  when  exposed  to  the  air.  All  these  classes  of  materials  are 
supposed  to  have  been  deposited  by  waters  containing  their  elements  in  solution,  and  if  they  were 
once  in  that  state  (i.  e.  of  solution)  it  must  be  evident  that  they  are  always  susceptible  of  passing 
into  it  again,  if  the  necessary  conditions  are  presented,  unless  the  deposition  should  have  been  effected 
by  the  introduction  of  some  additional  element,  or  such  element  should  have  been  supplied  at  a later 
period.  There  is  another  chemical  agent  at  work  in  many  cases  to  hasten  the  decomposition  of  the 
sedimentary  rocks  unaffected  by  Plutonic  action,  namely — the  animal  matter  which  they  so  often 
contain ; and  as  the  distribution  of  this  matter  is  not  subject  to  any  definite  law  it  necessarily 
produces  irregular  effects.  Occasionally,  also,  the  body  of  the  stones  is  traversed  by  numerous  fissures 
which  have  been  subsequently  filled  in  by  more  crystalline  materials  of  greater  powers  of  resistance  ; 
and  again,  the  chemical  nature  of  these  stones  often  varies,  owing  to  the  presence  of  more  or  less 
silica  in  combination  with  the  ordinary  bases.  Every  possible  variety  in  the  mode  of  disintegration 
may  therefore  be  observed  in  these  stones. 

Experience  has  shown  that  the  magnesian  limestones  are  not  more  capable  of  resisting  the  effects 
of  our  London  atmosphere  than  the  carbonates  of  lime  formerly  used,  when  proper  care  has  been 
exercised  in  the  selection  of  the  latter.  Mr.  Rogers  indeed  remarks  (Brit.  Assoc.  1849)  that  rain- 
water slightly  carbonated  takes  up  the  carbonate  of  magnesia  more  rapidly  than  it  does  the  carbonate 
of  lime,  and  that  the  magnesian  silicates  are  easily  soluble  even  in  pure  water.  Eorchhammer  also 
observes,  that  water  which  contains  carbonate  of  soda  acts  easily  upon  magnesian  rocks.  Now  it  is 
very  probable  that  the  rain-water  falling  through  the  atmosphere  of  London  should  be  charged  at  any 
rate  with  carbonic  acid  gas,  and  thus  become  extremely  prejudicial  to  this  class  of  materials ; and 
it  is  possible  that  the  rain  may  give  rise  to  a catalytic  action  between  the  lime  and  magnesia  contained 
in  this  class  of  stones,  which  would  facilitate  their  decomposition.  Every  stone,  as  may  be  gathered 
from  what  has  been  said  above,  is  exposed  to  decay  in  the  precise  ratio  of  its  porosity,  but  in  addition 
to  this  cause  of  disintegration,  which  acts  principally  by  allowing  water  to  exercise  its  natural 
mechanical  powers,  all  the  ordinary  building  stones  are  exposed  to  the  peculiar  process  known 
by  the  name  of  nitrification,  which,  in  consequence  of  the  formation  of  the  crystals  of  nitre, 
combined  with  a base,  tends  to  disintegration  of  the  surface.  The  magnesian  limestones  allow  the 
development  of  this  process  as  freely  as  the  carbonates  of  lime,  even  if  they  do  not  offer  extraordinary 
facilities  for  its  action.  The  generally  received  opinion  is,  that  the  azote,  furnished  by  the  decom- 
position of  the  animal  matters  diffused  through  the  rocks,  combines  with  the  oxygen  of  the 
atmosphere  to  form  nitrogen,  which  latter  gas  in  its  turn  combines  with  the  soda,  existing  in 
small  quantities  in  all  sedimentary  deposits,  to  form  the  nitrate  of  soda,  or  the  saltpetre  of  commerce, 
Dumas  says  that  azote  and  oxygen  combine  most  readily  under  the  influence  of  electricity,  but 
that  the  energetic  bases,  lime  and  magnesia,  may  suffice,  especially  when  moisture  is  present,  to 
replace  that  intermediate  agent.  At  any  rate  this  chemical  operation  takes  place  in  nearly  all 
building  stones  of  a porous  nature,  and  it  may  confirm  the  common  opinion  that  of  stones,  of  the  same 
description  geologically,  the  densest  are  the  most  likely  to  resist  the  action  of  the  atmosphere. 

The  phenomena  of  the  saltpetring  of  building  materials  are  very  little  understood  ; but  there  are 
certain  practical  rules  which  may  serve  to  guide  the  architect  in  his  endeavours  to  avoid  the  incon- 


144 


veiiience  arising  from  it.  They  are,  first : To  employ,  if  possible,  in  damp  positions,  either  granite, 
the  mill  stone  grits,  the  conglomerates  of  a purely  silicious  character,  or  sandstones  free  from  animal 
matter,  and  the  sulphate  of  iron. 

Secondly.  If  the  cost  of  either  of  these  classes  of  materials  should  render  their  employment 
impracticable,  the  use  of  any  of  the  ordinary  limestones  should  be  avoided  in  positions  where  they 
are  exposed  to  warm  dampness,  should  it  be  desired  to  execute  any  coloured  decorations  upon  the 
immediate  surface  of  the  walls  When  from  local  considerations  it  may  be  advisable  to  employ  these 
materials  in  basements,  or  other  damp  positions,  they  must  be  separated  from  the  upper  structure 
by  the  interposition  of  a layer  of  some  impermeable  material,  to  intercept  the  passage  of  the  water, 
which  would  otherwise  be  absorbed  by  the  capillarity  of  the  upper  stonework. 

Thirdly.  Every  precaution  must  be  taken  to  prevent  the  saturation  of  the  ordinary  limestones 
bv  sea  water,  and  the  use  of  sea  sand  in  the  mortar  to  be  employed  with  them  must  be  carefully 
avoided,  because  sea  water  furnishes  the  salts  of  soda  most  likely  to  assist  in  the  formation  of  the 
nitrates,  and  sea  saud  is  also  highly  impregnated  with  the  same  salts.  It  is  equally  known  that  the 
atmosphere  of  the  sea  shore  holds  in  suspension  a notable  quantity  of  the  various  salts  which  pass 
off  by  evaporation  from  the  surface  of  the  sea,  and  it  is  for  this  reason  that  stones  which  are 
exposed  to  nitrification  suffer  more  rapidly  in  such  positions  than  in  the  interior  of  the  country. 

Fourthly.  To  isolate  decorative  works  effectually  from  the  walls  formed  of  materials  in  any 
way  susceptible  of  saltpetring.  Of  late  years  attempts  have  been  made  in  Paris,  and  some  other 
continental  towns,  to  revive  the  practice  of  mural  decorations,  but  the  results  have  generally  been 
unfavourable,  in  consequence  of  the  chemical  action  of  the  atmospheric  moisture  transmitted  through 
the  pores  of  the  stones.  So  seriously  has  this  cause  been  observed  to  affect  internal  decorations,  that 
the  architect  of  the  new  Hotel  du  Ministere  des  Affaires  Etrangeres,  M.  Lacornee,  has  lined  the 
inner  surfaces  of  the  walls  destined  to  receive  either  silk  panels  or  paintings  with  sheet  lead,  and 
has  then  battened  out  independently  of  them.  In  the  new  church  of  St.  Vincent  de  Paul  the  painting 
on  the  dome  behind  the  high  altar  has  begun  to  fade  from  the  effects  of  the  transmission  of  the 
moisture  of  the  atmosphere  through  the  stone  vaulting.  This  work  has  not  been  executed  more 
than  about  twelve  months. 

It  must  be  observed  with  respect  both  to  the  carbonates  of  lime  and  the  magnesian  limestones, 
that  their  principal  elements  exist  only  in  the  state  of  subcarbonates  while  the  stones  remain  in  the 
rock  They  absorb  carbonic  acid  from  the  atmosphere,  and  harden  by  exposure  to  the  air ; but 
as  the  hardening  process  would  augment  the  cost  of  labour,  and  is  moreover  very  slow  in  its  action, 
it  is  rarely  resorted  to  in  practice.  For  many  reasons,  however,  it  would  be  desirable  to  quarry 
the  stone  required  for  an  important  building  twelve  months  before  it  is  to  be  employed,  because 
the  danger  to  be  apprehended  from  frost  would  be  avoided,  and  the  carbonization  would  be  more 
perfect.  Another  very  useful  precaution  is  to  cover  the  exposed  surfaces  with  a wash  of  some  descrip- 
tion, able  either  to  close  their  pores  or  to  produce  a chemical  action  on  the  stones  themselves. 
The  practice  of  some  London  masons  of  painting  the  stone  work  as  it  is  carried  up,  with  a thick 
slime  of  stoue  dust  and  water,  acts  in  the  former  manner ; the  washing  all  exposed  surfaces  with  an 
alkaline  silicate  acts  in  the  latter,  and  it  would  be  unquestionably  preferable  were  it  not  that  in  some 
positions  the  addition  of  even  the  small  quantity  of  soda,  requisite  to  hold  the  silica  in  solution, 
might  furnish  the  element  of  the  saltpetre. 

Of  late  years  attempts  have  been  made  to  cast  doubts  upon  the  correctness  of  the  generally 
received  opinion,  that  it  is  essential  to  place  stones  on  the  same  bed  as  they  occupied  in  the 
quarry.  With  some  few  stones  when  in  place,  it  may  be  true  that  the  position  of  the  layers  is  a 

v 


145 


matter  of  indifference ; for  the  rocho  do  St.  Cloud,  and  the  Villebois  atone  of  the  neighbourhood  of 
Lyons,  amongst  the  secondary  and  tertiary  limestones,  have  been  employed  without  reference 
to  the  planes  of  bed  for  many  centuries  without  inconvenience.  But  these  cases  are  decidedly 
exceptional,  and  even  in  them  the  powers  of  the  stone  to  resist  a crushing  weight  are  less  when 
it  is  applied  in  a direction  parallel  to  the  beds,  than  when  it  is  applied  transversely.  In  almost 
every  other  case  it  will  bo  found  that  when  stones  are  used  the  wrong  way  of  the  bed,  to  employ 
a workman’s  phrase,  they  disintegrate  in  parallel  plates.  Great  care  requires  to  be  exercised  to 
ascertain  the  precise  direction  of  the  natural  beds,  because  many  stones  present  the  appearance  of 
inclined  planes  of  deposition,  which  cut  the  beds  and  joints  under  every  modification  of  angle. 
When  from  the  stones  having  been  worked  in  the  quarry  it  is  difficult  to  ascertain  the  precise  bed, 
it  is  possible  that  the  mason  may  be  misled  by  the  greater  facility  with  which  they  work  m one 
direction,  and  may  mistake  this  cleavage  for  the  real  bed.  The  only  remedy  appears  to  be  to  cause 
the  stones  exposed  to  this  danger  to  be  marked  in  the  quarry,  but  fortunately  the  examples  of  its 
occurrence  are  rare. 

The  principal  danger  of  exfoliation  arises  from  the  expansion  of  the  moisture  contained  in  the 
stone  under  the  influence  of  frost,  and  a very  elegant  process  was  invented  by  M.  Brard,  for  the 
purpose  of  ascertaining  the  probable  extent  due  to  this  cause.  M.  Brard  in  his  experiments 
upon  the  resistance  of  stones,  caused  them  to  be  boiled  for  half  an  hour  in  a saturated  solution  of  the 
sulphate  of  soda.  They  were  then  withdrawn  and  allowed  to  stand  in  a flat  vessel,  at  the  bottom 
of  which  was  a small  quantity  of  the  same  solution,  the  first  efflorescences  were  washed  off,  and  the 
degradation  of  the  stones  during  the  next  five  or  six  days,  under  the  effects  of  the  continued  efflor- 
escence, were  taken  as  an  indication  of  the  probable  extent  to  which  they  would  be  affected  by 
frost.  In  the  first  volume  of  Rondelet’s  Art  de  Batir,  page  307,  (ed.  1842,  Paris),  M.  Brard’s 
process  is  described  iu  detail ; but  some  very  curious  experiments  recorded  in  vol.  7,  lre-  serie  des 
Annales  des  Fonts  et  Chaussees  by  M.  Minard,  together  with  an  article  by  M.  Vicat,  inserted  in  the 
same  volume,  throw  very  considerable  doubts  upon  the  exact  amount  of  dependance  to  be  placed  on 
its  indications.  M.  Vicat,  indeed,  very  properly  observes,  that  it  still  remains  to  be  proved  that 
the  expansive  action  of  water  in  freezing  is  identical  with  that  of  crystallization,  which  can  only 
produce  energetic  effect  at  temperatures  between  68°  and  86°  Pahr.  According  to  this  very  accurate 
observer,  stones  which  are  exposed  to  a southerly  aspect,  on  the  north  of  the  equator,  are  more 
affected  by  frost  than  those  exposed  to  the  north ; and  the  most  efficient  protection  to  materials  of 
this  description  of  a porous  nature  is  a coating  of  oil  paint,  or  any  other  fatty  pigment  which  prevents 
moisture  from  being  driven  or  absorbed  into  the  stone.  M.  Minard  recommends  that  stone  should 
be  quarried  in  the  spring,  and  not  employed  in  a building  until  it  has  been  exposed  to  the  effects 
of  one  winter  at  least. 

In  many  varieties  of  the  oolites,  the  fossil  shells  are  to  be  observed  left  in  high  relief  upon  the 
surface  by  the  decomposition  of  the  materials  in  which  they  were  embedded,  and  in  Bath  stone  the 
veins  of  calcareous  spar  frequently  become  detached.  It  appears  that  the  cause  is  the  same  in  both 
cases,  and  that  the  shells  and  the  veins  protrude  in  consequence  of  the  resisting  powers  of  the 
more  perfectly  crystallized  carbonate  of  lime,  of  which  they  are  composed,  exceeding  those  of 
the  amorphous  mass  in  which  they  are  embedded.  When  nodules  of  flint  or  chert  occur  in  the 
numerous  varieties  of  carbonate  of  lime,  the  stone  around  them  is  usually  more  durable  than  the 
general  mass  of  the  rock,  doubtless  because  it  contains  a portion  of  the  silica  in  combination  with 
the  lime.  It  is  known,  indeed,  that  the  application  of  a soluble  solution  of  silica  will  at  all  times 
add  much  to  the  durability  of  the  purer  carbonates  of  lime ; but  it  is  very  desirable  that  the  con- 


146 


ditions  under  which  such  a solution  should  be  employed  should  be  made  the  subject  of  close  and 
careful  experiments. 

There  are  some  varieties  of  arenaceous  limestones  and  sandstones  with  calcareous  cements,  and 
a very  remarkable  silicious  deposit,  to  be  met  with  in  the  upper  secondary  and  tertiary  formations, 
which  may  eventually  serve  to  throw  light  upon  the  chemical  changes  produced  by  the  atmosphere 
in  consequence  of  the  very  decided  character  they  assume.  For  instance,  the  sandy  beds  of  the 
Kentish  rag  perish  in  consequence  of  the  mechanical  removal  of  the  sandy  cement  which  binds 
together  the  particles  of  limestone.  The  gres  or  sand  stones  of  Fontainebleau  and  Windsor 
forest  as  frequently  decompose,  in  consequence  of  the  removal  of  their  calcareous  cement  by  moisture, 
or  by  the  action  of  the  air ; whilst  the  silicious  beds  of  the  lower  chalk  appear  likely,  from  ]\Ir.  Way’s 
experiments,  to  furnish  materials  of  inestimable  value  to  plastic  art,  and  also  affording  a convenient 
and  economical  supply  of  the  soluble  silica  required  to  compensate  the  deficiencies  in  other  more 
generally  employed  materials. 

With  respect  to  the  gypseous  formations,  it  appears  that  where  they  occur  in  sufficient 
abundance  to  be  used  as  ordinary  building  materials,  they  absorb  moisture  from  the  atmosphere  with 
extraordinary  facility ; while  they  decompose  with  such  rapidity  that  the  municipal  authorities  of 
Paris  have  forbidden  their  being  used  for  the  walls  of  houses.  Occasionally,  however,  rubble 
plaster  stone  is  used  for  enclosure  walls,  but  it  rarely  lasts  more  than  from  twenty  to  thirty  years, 
when  exposed  to  the  weather  near  Paris.  The  cause  of  this  rapid  decay,  according  to  Gmelin,  is  to 
be  found  in  the  fact  that  the  sulphates  with  an  earthy  base  (gypsum  being  a sulphate  of  lime) 
are  soluble  in  water.  It  is  also  to  be  observed  that  many  of  the  gypseous  deposits,  especially  those 
found  near  Paris,  are  impregnated  with  an  extraordinary  proportion  of  organic  matter ; this  decom- 
poses on  exposure  to  the  air  in  warm  and  damp  positions,  and  gives  rise  to  the  formation  of  nitrous 
salts  to  such  an  extent,  that  the  saltpetre  used  by  the  French  powder  manufacturers,  during  the 
last  war,  was  almost  entirely  obtained  from  cellars  constructed  of  rubble  masonry,  set  in  plaster  in 
the  style  usually  adopted  in  France.  It  is  possible  that  the  gases  which  are  present  in  rain  water, 
or  in  the  atmosphere,  may  give  rise  to  a species  of  decomposition  by  relative  affinity,  in  combination 
with  the  sulphuric  acid  of  the  gypsum. 

Atmospheric  influence  upon  bricks,  tiles,  and  other  building  materials  obtained  by  the  burning  of 
plastic  clays,  depends  very  much  on  the  chemical  composition  of  the  clays,  and  on  the  degree  of  burning. 
Thus  any  distinct  portions  of  limestone  present  in  them  would  be  converted  into  quick  lime  in  the 
kiln,  and  when  the  bricks  were  thoroughly  wetted  would  expand  in  such  a mamier  as  to  disintegrate 
the  mass.  If  the  clay  used  is  too  poor,  that  is  to  say,  if  it  contains  an  excess  of  sand,  the  bricks 
will  not  become  sufficiently  fused,  and  upon  exposure  to  the  weather  their  constituent  parts  will 
separate.  It  is  to  be  observed  that  in  bricks,  as  in  stones,  decomposition  does  not  take  place  with 
the  greatest  rapidity  where  constant  moisture  exists,  but  rather  where,  from  the  influence  of 
capillarity,  variable  according  to  the  moisture  furnished  by  the  atmosphere  either  directly  or 
indirectly,  a series  of  alternations  of  dryness  and  humidity  prevail.  The  foundation  walls  of  buildings 
do  not  in  fact  suffer  so  much  in  the  parts  immediately  upon  the  ground,  as  they  do  in  those  at  a height 
of  from  one  to  three  feet,  according  to  the  permeability  of  the  materials  employed.  When  bricks 
made  of  clay  containing  free  silica  are  laid  in  mortar,  and  moisture  can  pass  freely  from  either  one 
or  the  other,  it  may  be  observed  that  the  edges  in  contact  become  harder  than  the  body  of  the  bricks. 
No  doubt  this  arises  from  the  formation  of  a silicate  of  lime  and  alumina,  the  lime  being  furnished 
bv  the  passage  of  the  water  through  the  bed  of  mortar. 

I Upon  limes  and  cements  the  effects  of  the  atmosphere  are  very  marked,  although  at  present 


147 


they  are  considered  to  be  of  far  less  importance  than  formerly.  All  the  materials  of  this  class, 
whether  the  hydraulic,  or  the  rich  limes,  the  cements,  or  the  plasters  properly  so  called, 
have  a remarkable  avidity  for  water,  and  abstracting  it  from  the  surrounding  atmosphere 
assume  the  form  of  hydrates.  If  these  occur  in  the  conditions  requisite  to  enable  them  to 
pass  into  the  carbonates,  or  sulphates,  a species  of  confused  crystallization,  or  aggregation,  takes 
place.  But  it  must  be  evident,  from  what  was  said  in  the  commencement  of  this  notice,  that 
the  quantity  of  carbonic  acid  gas  the  atmosphere  is  capable  of  furnishing  within  a moderate  period 
is  exceedingly  small,  and  the  theory  that  limes  or  cements  harden  originally  by  the  absorption  of  that 
gas,  and  the  consequent  conversion  of  the  lime  into  carbonate  of  lime,  must  be  abandoned.  There 
can  be  no  doubt  but  that  the  conversion  of  the  lime  into  the  carbonate  must  increase  its  cohesion, 
but  the  rapid  setting,  to  use  a workman’s  phrase,  cannot  be  accounted  for  in  this  manner.  It  appears, 
so  far  as  we  are  able  to  judge  in  the  actual  state  of  applied  chemistry,  that  mortars  harden  in  conse- 
quence of  the  formation  of  an  insoluble  silicate  of  lime  and  alumina,  the  silica  being  either  furnished 
by  the  limestone  itself,  or  by  the  sand,  pozzolano,  or  other  ingredient  mixed  with  the  slacked 
lime.  When  the  setting  has  been  once  effected,  the  absorption  of  carbonic  acid  gas  from  the 
atmosphere  may  tend  to  harden  a thin  external  film ; but  the  very  perceptible  character  of  this  film 
militates  against  the  supposition  that  the  cause  producing  it  can  act  upon  the  interior  of  the  mass. 

Nevertheless  the  numerous  classes  of  limes,  cements,  and  plasters,  exhibit  very  marked  differ- 
ences in  their  manner  of  resisting  the  action  of  the  atmosphere.  The  purer  carbonates  of  lime 
when  used  for  the  preparation  of  mortar,  are  excessively  soluble  in  water ; and  if  the  mortar 
obtained  from  them  be  much  exposed  to  the  weather,  or  to  the  action  of  running  water,  it  will  be 
rapidly  removed.  The  argillaceous  limestones,  on  the  contrary,  furnish  the  elements  necessary  to 
form  an  insoluble  double  salt  of  lime  with  the  silica  and  alumina ; and  if  the  mortars  made  from 
them  be  protected  from  running  water  during  the  period  required  for  their  setting,  the  action  of 
either  weather  or  running  water  subsequently  will  rather  tend  to  increase  their  powers  of  resistance. 
The  practical  lesson  to  be  drawn  from  these  facts  would  appear  to  be,  that  none  but  the  limes 
obtained  from  argillaceous  limestones  should  be  employed  in  damp  situations.  With  respect  to 
the  use  of  plaster,  the  observations  before  made  upon  the  gypseous  stones  will  apply  here  perhaps 
with  even  greater  force.  Indeed  the  marked  difference  between  the  external  aspects  of  the  applied 
plaster  and  the  natural  stone,  would  show  that  in  the  process  of  calcination  some  element  we  are 
unable  to  ascertain  must  be  driven  off.  It  may  be  that  the  burnt  plaster  yields  more  readily  on 
account  of  the  absence  of  this  very  element ; but  certain  it  is  that  plaster  of  Paris  very  rapidly 
decays  when  exposed  to  the  influence  of  the  atmosphere. 

Temperature  appears  to  act  in  a distinct  manner  upon  limes  and  cements,  for  if  they  are  used  in 
summer,  without  the  adoption  of  any  precautions  to  defend  them  from  the  sun,  they  invariably 
crack ; and  of  course,  if  their  water  of  crytallization  becomes  frozen  in  winter,  the  whole  mass  will 
disintegrate.  The  more  rapidly  limes  or  cements  solidify,  the  more  they  appear  to  be  exposed  to  the 
danger  and  inconvenience  of  cracking  in  warm  weather,  and  it  would  appear  that  the  most  favourable 
condition  for  their  resistance  is  when  a certain  degree  of  uniform  moderate  dampness  prevails.  It 
must  also  be  observed,  that  sea  air  has  a marked  influence  upon  the  durability  of  some  limes,  because 
the  minute  particles  of  sea-water  it  contains  hold  in  solution  many  salts  with  which  free  lime  has  more 
affinity  than  with  silica.  ! 

The  decay  of  wood  superinduced  by  atmospheric  action,  is  affected  by  a different  class  of 
phenomena  from  those  which  tend  to  destroy  stones  and  metals,  namely,  those  connected  with 


J 


tri  r 4- 


148 

organic  chemistry ; although  at  the  same  time  the  changes  produced  by  inorganic  elements  are 
as  powerful  in  the  one  case  as  the  other.  Prom  the  day  when  wood  is  felled  to  the  day  it  is 
used,  it  requires  care  and  attention,  and  when  it  is  in  place,  precautions  should  still  be  taken 
to  ensure  its  durability.  Currents  of  air  which  are  either  renewed  with  too  great  rapidity,  or 
are  too  dry,  a temperature  too  elevated,  constant  moisture  at  high  temperatures,  alternations  of 
dryness  and  humidity,  absence  of  ventilation  producing  wet  rot,  the  accidental  transport  by  the 
atmosphere  of  the  seeds  of  certain  cryptogamous  plants  producing  dry  rot,  and  the  attacks  of 
insects,  together  with  the  fermentation  of  the  sap  of  the  trees,  may  be  cited  amongst  the  numerous 
sources  of  danger  from  which  it  is  necessary  to  secure  wood  either  when  in  store,  or  when 
employed. 

When  wood  is  exposed  to  frequent  currents  of  air,  especially  at  high  temperatures,  the  moisture 
it  contains  evaporates  too  rapidly,  and  gives  rise  to  cracks  and  fissures  which  either  destroy  the 
resistance  of  the  material,  or  open  a passage  for  the  water  contained  at  other  times  in  the  atmos- 
phere to  penetrate  to  the  interior  of  the  mass.  If  the  temperature  to  which  wood  is  exposed,  whilst 
any  sap  remains  in  it,  is  too  elevated,  the  vegetable  fluids  ferment ; the  tenacity  is  diminished,  and 
when  the  action  is  carried  to  its  full  extent,  the  wood  quickly  becomes  affected  by  the  dry  rot. 
Exposure  to  the  atmosphere  in  positions  where  rain  can  lodge  in  quantity,  contact  with  the  ground, 
and  application  in  damp  situations  deprived  of  air,  will  render  wood  liable  to  the  wet  rot ; and 
however  well  seasoned  it  may  have  been  previously  to  being  brought  within  the  influence  of  any 
of  these  causes,  it  will  infallibly  suffer.  It  is  therefore  of  the  highest  importance,  that  whether 
in  the  merchants’  stores,  or  subsequently  when  placed  in  a building,  wood  should  be  preserved 
from  contact  with  the  ground,  and  that  air  should  have  free  access  to  it  in  every  direction.  The 
germs  of  destruction  are  often  communicated  whilst  the  wood  is  in  store  from  neglect  of  these 
simple  precautions  ; if  they  be  once  implanted,  the  progress  of  decay  can  never  be  subsequently 
arrested.  It  has  been  supposed  that  keeping  wood  in  water  tends  to  prevent  the  commencement 
of  dry  rot,  because  in  that  position  the  sap  is  washed  out  of  the  pores.  If  this  theory  is 
correct,  it  must  be  evident  that  the  oftener  the  water  is  changed,  the  greater  will  be  the  probability 
of  its  producing  the  desired  effect,  because  if  it  be  allowed  to  stagnate  it  must  become  saturated 
with  the  sap  in  course  of  time,  and  unable  to  take  up  any  additional  quantity  which  may  be 
present.  Duhamel  observed,  that  if  wood  were  immersed  immediately  after  it  was  felled,  it  would 
be  less  liable  to  decay  than  if  put  in  water  at  a subsequent  period ; he  also  found  that  immersion 
tended  to  preserve  the  wood  from  the  attacks  of  insects,  and  even  to  arrest  the  progress  of  some 
kinds  of  decay,  but  that  a notable  portion  of  the  strength  was  lost.  The  drying  and  seasoning 
take  place  with  greater  rapidity  after  immersion,  probably  because  the  water  displaces  the  sap,  which 
does  not  evaporate  so  rapidly  as  the  thinner  fluid.  Duhamel  asserts  that  the  process  of  charring  the 
ends  of  posts,  &c.,  built  into  the  ground,  is  very  inefficient,  and  that  it  is  only  of  use  to  the  extent  of 
interposing  an  extraneous  substance  between  the  wood  and  the  earth ; in  his  opinion  it  would  be 
better  to  enclose  the  lower  ends  in  sand,  stone,  cinders,  or  other  materials  which  would  easily 
carry  off  the  water  supplied  by  the  surrounding  media. 

When  wood  is  converted  and  placed  in  a building,  its  durability  may  be  greatly  increased  by 
covering  it  with  a coating  of  paint,  or  other  substance  which  will  prevent  the  moisture  of  the 
atmosphere  from  obtaining  access  to  it.  But  it  is  essential  that  the  wood  so  covered  should  be 
free  from  sap,  or  internal  moisture,  or  the  very  perfection  of  the  coating  will  be  found  to  accelerate 
its  decay.  Care  must  be  taken  to  prevent  water  from  finding  its  way  into  the  joints,  and  if  the 


149 


wood  be  exposed  directly  to  the  action  of  the  sun,  it  should  be  painted  of  a colour  able  to  reflect 
rather  than  to  absorb  heat.  It  is  desirable  that  it  should  be  planed  before  being  painted,  in  order 
that  the  paint  may  be  applied  in  an  equal  manner  over  tho  surface.  It  is  important  also  to 
observe,  that  tho  moisture  in  the  atmosphere  not  only  affects  the  volume  of  tho  wood,  but  frequently 
alters  the  position  of  the  fibres  by  producing  a torsion  analagous  to  that  which  may  be  observed 
in  hygrometric  cords. 

Of  late  years  tho  processes  of  Kyanizing,  creosoting,  and  immersing  timber  in  solutions  of 
mineral  salts,  have  been  applied  with  various  success  for  preserving  it  from  rot,  and  the  attacks  of 
worms  or  ants.  Of  these,  Kyanizing,  which  employs  a solution  of  deutochloride  of  mercury,  appears 
to  be  most  satisfactory  ; and  among  some  striking  illustrations  of  its  results  may  be  cited  the 
fence  of  the  Regent’s  Park ; the  posts  of  which  were  inserted  in  the  ground,  without  being  painted, 
at  least  18  years  since,  and  remain  at  the  present  day  in  very  tolerable  condition.  For  railways, 
and  harbour  works,  English  engineers  appear  to  prefer  the  system  of  creosoting,  or  immersing 
the  timber  in  the  rough  oil  of  tar,  until  it  has  absorbed  at  least  7 or  8 lbs.  per  cubic  foot.  The 
difficulty  of  injecting  so  large  a quantity  of  oil  is  overcome  by  exhausting  the  sap  and  moisture  from 
the  wood  in  vacuo,  and  then  forcing  in  the  oil  under  great  pressure  ; a species  of  artificial  drying  is, 
however,  frequently  necessary,  and  indeed  the  success  of  this  process  appears  to  depend  entirely 
upon  the  extent  to  which  the  original  moisture  is  withdrawn.  Both  corrosive  sublimate,  and 
oil  of  tar,  are  capable  of  resisting  the  causes  of  decay  communicated  by  the  atmosphere,  and  the 
latter  is  said  to  be  an  effectual  preservative  against  the  attacks  of  boring  animals ; but  it  is  to  be 
feared  that  the  ordinary  manner  of  applying  them  does  not  ensure  their  penetration  to  a sufficient 
depth  to  attain  the  objects  desired.  The  use  of  the  sulphate  of  copper,  and  of  the  other  metallic 
salts  has  hitherto  been  unsuccessful. 

In  the  bent  timber  bridges  which  have  been  constructed  on  some  of  the  recent  lines  of  railway, 
although  every  ordinary  precaution  was  taken  in  selecting  the  timber,  immersing  it  in  solutions  of  the 
metallic  salts,  and  in  painting  it  when  in  place,  the  wet  rot  has  exhibited  itself  in  so  many  instances 
as  to  render  it  almost  necessary  to  abandon  a system  which  appeared  to  have  many  recommendations. 
It  is,  however,  to  be  observed  that  these  bridges  decayed  solely  because  their  elasticity  caused  them 
to  yield  upon  the  passage  of  every  train.  The  play  thus  produced  caused  the  joints  to  open ; and 
moisture,  furnished  by  rain,  or  the  condensation  of  vapour,  found  its  way  into  the  interior  of  the 
beams.  The  failure  of  the  bent  timber  ribs  in  such  situations  does  not,  therefore,  in  any  manner 
affect  the  propriety  of  using  that  construction  on  more  suitable  occasions.  A valuable  lesson  is,  however, 
to  be  learnt  from  the  above  fact,  viz.,  that  it  is  difficult,  if  not  impossible,  to  protect  complicated 
systems  of  carpentry  from  the  effects  of  the  atmosphere,  when  exposed  to  the  occasional  action  of 
heavy  loads  able  to  produce  a disturbance  of  their  main  parts. 

In  the  theatre  at  Munich  a soluble  glass  was  applied  to  the  woodwork  and  scenery  for  the  purpose 
of  preserving,  and,  as  far  as  possible,  rendering  them  incombustible.  This  glass  was  in  fact  a 
solution  of  free  silica  in  caustic  alkali ; and  if  the  wood  was  properly  seasoned,  there  can  be  no  doubt 
of  the  value  of  the  application,  especially  if  it  was  injected  under  pressure.  Professor  Way’s 
researches  into  the  silica  beds  of  the  lower  chalk  prove  that  a solution  of  this  nature  could  be  obtained 
easily  and  economically ; and  the  advantages  it  offers  certainly  render  its  application  desirable. 

The  action  of  the  atmosphere  upon  metals  is  even  more  complicated  than  that  which  takes  place 
upon  stones,  because  the  electro-chemical  changes  are  more  efficient,  and  the  metallic  bases  are 
susceptible  of  combining  with  a greater  number  of  gases  than  the  earthy  bases  or  the  metalloids.  In 

r 3 


150 

building  operations  the  metals  commonly  used  are  iron,  lead,  copper,  tin,  zinc,  with  the  mixed  metals, 
brass  or  bronze,  and  to  them  we  will  confine  our  attention. 

Iron,  whether  cast  or  wrought,  becomes  rusted  on  exposure  to  the  air  or  water  under  cer- 
tain conditions ; that  is  to  say,  the  outer  portions  of  the  metal  are  converted  into  a hydrous  oxide, 
and  can  be  detached  in  scales,  or  flakes.  Many  systems  have  been  proposed  to  obviate  the  danger 
and  many  substances  applied  to  correct  the  evil  arising  from  this  cause,  full  information  concerning 
which,  is  contained  in  Mr.  Eobert  Mallet’s  papers  in  the  Transactions  of  the  British  Association 
for  the  Advancement  of  Science.  His  experiments  appear  to  show  that  gas  tar  applied  hot  is  the 
most  efficacious  for  iron  work  exposed  tp  cold  water;  and  that  a coating  of  caoutchouc  varnish 
resists  the  longest  in  hot  water ; but  that  neither  of  them  can  be  considered  a durable  defence. 
Cases  cited  by  M.  Yicat  are  within  the  knowledge  of  every  architect  who  has  examined  this  class 
of  phenomena,  which  prove  that  in  some  waters,  as  in  some  positions  in  the  open  air,  iron  work, 
totally  unprotected,  will  last  an  indefinite  period.  These  exceptions  are,  nevertheless,  so  rare,  and 
the  destruction  of  iron  unprotected  is  generally  so  rapid,  both  in  air  and  in  water,  that  constant 
care  and  attention  are  required  to  guard  against  the  destructive  tendencies  of  those  agents.  If 
iron  work  be  exposed  to  the  air  in  positions  which  render  the  renewal  of  the  latter  difficult,  and  at 
the  same  time  retain  it  in  a marked  degree  of  dryness,  the  iron  will  become  covered  with  a coat  of 
rust,  through  which  the  atmosphere  cannot  penetrate  to  attack  the  metal  beneath.  If  the  water, 
in  which  iron  is  immersed,  contains  a very  small  portion  of  some  of  the  earthy  salts,  the  decomposition 
will  take  place  slowly.  But  it  is  necessary  to  observe  that  these  remarks  only  apply  to  iron  of 
considerable  dimensions  -.  small  wires  decay  rapidly  on  exposure  to  either  of  these  causes  of 
disintegration. 

Should  iron,  however,  be  exposed  to  confined  air  in  damp  positions,  the  decay  attains  its 
maximum.  Carbonic  acid  gas  contributes  much  to  this,  for,  under  its  influence,  iron  passes  (to 
use  the  words  of  Yicat)  into  the  state  of  the  carbonate  of  protoxide,  which,  absorbing  fresh  doses 
of  oxygen,  transforms  itself  into  a hydrated  peroxide.  It  is  indeed  generally  considered  that  oxidation 
cannot  take  place  to  a dangerous  extent  unless  carbonic  acid  be  present  ; and  it  is  precisely  for  this 
reason  that  iron,  bedded  in  fresh  masonry  or  concrete,  resists  the  action  of  the  air,  because  either  the 
mortar  absorbs  the  carbonic  gas,  which  has  a greater  affinity  for  lime  than  it  has  for  iron,  or  the 
masonry  is  sufficiently  dense  to  protect  the  iron  from  contact  with  the  atmosphere.  The  investi- 
gations of  the  Commission  in  1850,  respecting  the  fall  of  the  bridge  over  the  Maine,  at  Angers, 
(recorded  in  les  Annales  des  Ponts  et  Chaussees,  vol.  29,  2nd  series,  page  394)  appear  to  prove  that 
the  preservative  action  of  the  lime  depends  upon  its  being  in  immediate  contact  with  the  iron,  and 
that  if  a space,  however  small,  be  left  between  the  two  substances,  moisture  will  insinuate  itself, 
and  in  course  of  time  produce  active  oxidation.  M.  Yicat,  in  a note  inserted  in  the  Annales  des 
Ponts  et  Chaussees  for  May  and  June,  1853,  appears  to  doubt  the  correctness  of  this  conclusion, 
but  even  he  admits  that  the  preservative  action  of  the  lime  depends  upon  its  absorption  of  carbonic 
acid  gas,  and  that  directly  its  hardening  ceases,  it  loses  its  power  of  resisting  the  action  of  the 
atmosphere  on  the  iron. 

M.  Payen  found  that  the  addition  of  very  small  quantities  of  the  sub-carbonate  of  potassa,  or  of 
sodium,  to  pure  water,  was  sufficient  to  render  it  innocuous  either  to  cast  or  wrought  iron,  and  the 
same  property  existed  in  nearly  all  alkaline  solutions ; whilst,  on  the  contrary,  the  addition  of  a small 
quantity  of  the  chloride  of  sodium  rendered  the  process  of  oxidation  much  more  rapid  than  it  usually  is 
in  pure  water.  It  appears  that  grey  cast  iron  is  more  susceptible  of  destruction  by  oxidation  than 


151 


cither  wrought  iron,  or  white  cast  iron  ; and  that  wrought  iron  resists  the  action  of  sea  water  more 
effectually  than  cast.  It  is  a peculiar  fact  connected  with  this  subject,  that  iron,  exposed  to 
frequent  displacements,  shocks,  or  vibrations,  is  less  affected  by  oxidation  than  when  it  remains 
constantly  in  one  place,  without  disturbance.  Thus,  anchors  in  constant  use  are  less  exposed  to 
rust  than  those  preserved  in  the  magazine;  the  rails  of  the  main-lines  of  railroads  are  less  corroded 
than  those  in  the  sidings ; iron  steamers  rust  less  when  in  active  service  than  when  in  dock.  But 
the  positions  in  which  iron  decomposes  with  the  greatest  rapidity,  are  those  where  it  is  fixed, 
and  alternately  exposed  to  the  air  and  immersed  in  sea  water.  Ammoniacal  and  sulphuric  acid 
gas  exercise  very  serious  effects  upon  the  durability  of  cast  and  wrought  iron.  It  is  important, 
therefore,  to  prevent  their  use,  either  in  urinals,  roofs  over  gas  works,  or  the  engine  sheds  of  railway 
stations.  There  appears  also  to  be  some  danger  in  using  iron  in  contact  with  sulphate  of  lime,  or  in 
fact  under  any  circumstances  where  it  is  likely  to  take  up  sulphuric  acid  gas,  for  which  it  has  great 
affinity. 

The  galvanization  of  iron,  which,  as  generally  practised,  consists  in  forming  a superficial  coating 
upon  the  metal  by  immersing  it  in  melted  zinc,  appears  to  constitute  an  efficient  protection,  so  long  as 
the  iron  is  covered.  The  contact  with  the  zinc  brings  the  iron  into  an  electro-negative  state,  and  it  is 
known  that,  so  long  as  the  latter  prevails,  there  is  little  tendency  on  the  part  of  the  iron  to  combine 
with  oxygen.  From  a series  of  experiments  made  at  Brest  between  the  years  1842  and  1851, 
(see  note  by  M.  Dehargne,  Annales  des  Ponts  et  Chaussees,  1851)  it  appears  that  the  zincing 
process  does  not,  in  any  sensible  degree,  affect  the  tenacity  or  the  ductility  of  the  iron ; but  it  is 
important  to  secure  the  protected  metal  from  any  shocks,  or  friction,  likely  to  remove  the 
surface. 

Zinc,  when  exposed  to  the  atmosphere  in  its  ordinary  state,  becomes  rapidly  covered  by  a 
whitish  efflorescence,  which  adheres  to  the  metal,  and  forms,  as  it  were,  a species  of  varnish,  capable 
of  arresting  any  further  decay.  This  efflorescence  is  considered  to  be  a carbonate  of  zinc ; but  if  the 
atmosphere  should  contain  any  sulphuric  or  hydro-chloric  acid,  (as  in  London  and  in  the  immediate 
neighbourhood  of  the  sea,)  compounds  are  formed  of  a nature  to  compromise  the  solidity  of  the  metal. 
In  the  purer  atmosphere  of  Paris,  and  other  continental  towns,  where  wood  is  the  ordinary  fuel,  and 
to  which  the  sea  air  does  not  reach,  zinc  is  employed  successfully  for  roofing  purposes ; in  London, 
and  on  the  sea  shore,  its  durability  is  very  limited ; and  at  all  times  its  combustibility  must  be  a 
serious  objection  to  its  use  externally,  especially  for  roofs. 

Copper  resists  the  action  of  the  atmosphere  very  successfully,  and  the  presence  of  some  of 
the  gases  mentioned  above  does  not  seem  to  affect  it  in  any  material  degree.  A film  of  oxide,  or 
carbonate  of  copper,  is  rapidly  formed  over  the  surface,  and  secures  the  metal  from  further  decay. 
It  is  found,  however,  that  a mixed  metal  or  bronze,  made  of  copper  and  zinc,  resists  the  influence  of 
the  atmosphere,  and  sea  water,  more  successfully  than  pure  copper  alone. 

Lead  undergoes  little  change  upon  exposure  either  to  air  or  water,  especially  when  the  latter 
contains  small  proportions  of  the  salts  of  lime.  According  to  Brande,  when  lead  is  kept  in  distilled 
water,  to  which  air  has  access,  small  crystalline  scales  of  oxide  of  lead  are  formed,  a portion  of  which 
dissolves  in  the  water,  and  is  again  slowly  precipitated  in  the  form  of  a carbonate.  Soft  water  also, 
or  that  without  the  salts  of  lime,  appears  to  be  more  likely  to  attack  lead  than  that  containing  lime. 
The  use  of  lead  for  cisterns  must,  therefore,  be  regulated  by  the  nature  of  the  water  to  be  preserved 
in  them ; for  all  roofing  or  analagous  purposes,  there  do  not  appear  to  exist  any  philosophical  reasons 
to  object  to  the  use  of  this  metal,  or  to  limit  its  application  to  any  particular  districts. 

A very  important  remark  with  respect  to  the  use  of  metals  must  be  made:  viz.,  that  when 


152 


two  of  them  are  used  in  contact  in  positions  where  moisture,  in  any  form,  has  access  to  them,  a 
species  of  galvanic  action  is  established,  which  causes  them  to  decay  with  great  rapidity.  Illus- 
trations of  this  may  be  observed  in  iron  railings,  when  the  bars  are  secured  to  the  stone  curb  with  lead, 
and  the  decay  is  most  evident  when  the  iron  is  of  the  best  and  most  malleable  description.  A 
similar  phenomenon  may  also  be  observed  when  copper,  or  bronze,  is  in  contact  with  iron  in  sea  water; 
though  the  iron  decays  rapidly,  it  appears  to  exercise  a protective  influence  upon  the  copper. 

The  laws  of  electricity  developed  by  the  contact  of  two  metals  with  a liquid  containing  a solution 
of  an  alkaline  salt,  are  treated  at  some  length  in  vol.  1,  Gmelin’s  Hand-book  of  Chemistry,  p.  364. 
From  this  authority  it  appears  that  zinc,  tin,  and  iron,  protect  copper  in  sea  water.  Zinc  protects 
iron  and  tin  plate,  but  it  is  not  so  effective  for  the  defence  of  iron  in  sea  water  if  air  be  present,  and 
it  is  itself  rapidly  corroded  when  used  with  iron  in  the  sea.  In  that  element  tinned  iron  de- 
cays unequally,  the  iron  oxidating  whilst  the  tin  remains  intact ; and  it  appears  that  the  decay, 
superinduced  by  the  contact  with  tin,  is  greater  than  that  resulting  from  the  contact  with  copper. 
The  corrosion  of  copper  may  be  considerably  retarded  by  fastening  to  it  at  several  points  pieces 
of  cast  or  wrought  iron,  or  of  zinc,  when  sulphuretted  hydrogen  is  likely  to  be  present.  Water 
containing  bicarbonate  of  lime  will  deposit  the  lime  if  placed  in  contact  with  zinc  and  copper,  the 
deposit  taking  place  upon  the  copper ; and  when  water  of  this  description  flows  through  leaden  pipes, 
the  carbonate  of  lime  is  deposited  at  the  solder  joints  (composed  'of  an  alloy  of  tin  and  lead),  on  the 
brass  cocks,  and  on  any  piece  of  iron  or  silver  which  may  be  introduced.  The  inconvenience  arising 
from  the  stoppage  thus  produced  may  be  obviated  by  the  use  of  a lateral  pipe  fitted  to  the  main 
at  intervals,  and  furnished  with  plugs  of  a metal  likely  to  deposit  the  calcareous  matter,  which  can 
thus  be  withdrawn  from  the  main. 

The  class  of  atmospheric  influences  included  under  the  term  medial  action  in  the  early  part 
of  this  paper  acts  more  powerfully  upon  some  of  the  metals  than  on  other  building  materials.  Thus 
the  tenacity  of  the  former  increases  or  diminishes  with  the  temperature,  and  the  electrical  state 
of  the  atmosphere  frequently  modifies  their  powers  of  resistance.  The  most  elaborate  observations 
which  have  been  made  on  this  subject  have  been  exclusively  connected  with  the  changes  super- 
induced in  iron,  perhaps  on  account  of  its  more  general  employment.  They  are  to  be  found  in 
Mr.  Fairbairn’s  Treatise  on  the  Application  of  Cast  and  Wrought  Iron,  and  in  a communication 
by  M.  Wertheim  to  the  Annales  de  Chimie  et  Physique  (3rd  series,  vol.  12)  from  both  of  which 
it  appears  that  the  coefficient  of  resistance  of  the  metal  diminishes  with  an  increase  of  tempera- 
ture in  a more  rapid  proportion  than  the  dilatation.  Below  and  near  the  freezing  point  cast  iron 
becomes  exceedingly  brittle,  but  between  about  40°  and  about  120°.  Fahrenheit  there  does  not 
appear  to  be  much  change  in  its  elastic  powers.  The  lineal  dilatation  of  metals,  and  indeed  of  all 
building  materials,  requires  to  be  carefully  attended  to  in  all  constructions.  Very  useful  tables 
upon  the  subject  are  to  be  found  in  Weale’s  Engineers’  and  Contractors’  Pocket-book  for  1854, 
and  in  the  Annuaire  du  Bureau  des  Longitudes. 

Glass  under  certain  circumstances  is  affected  by  the  action  of  the  atmosphere,  for  the  potash 
and  soda  employed  in  its  manufacture  are  susceptible  of  being  decomposed  and  removed  by  the 
moisture,  or  the  gases  contained  in  it ; and  according  to  Gmelin  the  decomposition  takes  place  with 
greater  ease  in  proportion  as  the  glass  is  richer  in  the  above-named  alkalies,  and  the  temperature  of  the 
moisture  or  water  is  higher.  Glass  in  which  there  is  a deficiency  of  silica  is  exposed  to  this 
description  of  decay,  which  may  often  be  distinctly  perceived  in  window  glass,  the  alkali  from 
which  is  gradually  attracted  (Knapp’s  Applied  Chemistry,  vol.  2,  p.  8)  by  atmospheric  moisture 
and  washed  away,  whilst  a thin  layer  of  silica  or  silicate  of  lime  remains  upon  the  surface  and 


153 


exhibits  a play  of  prismatic  colours.  An  analagous  decomposition  takes  place  in  the  glass  used  in 
stables  in  consequence  of  the  ammoniacal  gases  ; and,  according  to  Knapp,  glass  containing  oxide 
of  lead  is  liable  to  blacken  on  exposure  to  air  impregnated  with  sulphuretted  hydrogen. 

The  chemical  changes  produced  in  oleaginous  and  metallic  pigments  by  the  gases  contained 
in  the  atmosphere  are  subjects  of  the  highest  importance  to  the  decorative  artist,  but  as  the  ex- 
amination of  them  would  extend  this  paper  too  far  beyond  the  usual  limits,  I must  refer  the 
architect  who  would  investigate  them  to  the  researches  of  M.  Chevreul  in  the  Memoires  de 
l’Academie  des  Sciences,  1850  (vol,  22).  1 may,  however,  state  that  M.  Chevreul  attributes 

the  solidiiication  of  paints  to  the  oils  they  contain  absorbing  oxygen  from  the  atmosphere,  and 
states  that  the  driers  act  by  facilitating  the  power  of  absorption.  The  various  substances  introduced 
to  communicate  colour  appear  to  affect  the  rate  of  absortion ; and  the  surfaces  upon  which  the 
paints  arc  applied  have  an  influence  independant  of  their  mere  capacity  of  taking  up  moisture.  The 
varieties  in  the  rates  of  drying  upon  the  several  woods  and  metals,  experimented  upon  by  M. 
Chevreul,  indicate  some  peculiar  differences  in  this  respect,  which  have  not  hitherto  been  suffi- 
ciently examined. 


The  consideration  of  the  numerous  topics  of  interest  contained  in  Mr.  Burnell’s  paper  was 
deferred  to  another  opportunity,  and  the  thanks  of  the  meeting  having  been  presented  to  that 
gentleman,  the  members  adjourned. 


154 


OMISSIONS  IN  THE  DISCUSSION  OF  MAT  15th,  1854. 

The  Chairman  asked  Mr.  Morewood,  what  would  be  the  cost  of  the  two  tunnel  sewers  carrying 
off  not  only  the  ordinary  sewage  water,  70  millions  of  gallons  daily,  but  270  millions.  Mr. 
Morewood  replied,  that  the  contract  was  ready  to  be  taken  at  one  million  sterling.  He  also  said, 
that  the  Metropolitan  and  City  Commissioners  of  Sewers  had  added  to  the  two  tunnels  several 
high  level  sewers  for  storm  waters,  involving  an  extra  cost  of  two  millions  sterling,  and  hence 
declared  that  three  millions  were  required  for  “ main  drainage.”  In  opposition  to  this,  he  stated  that 
the  surveyor  to  the  City  Commission  had  himself  told  him  twelve  months  ago,  that  the  two  tunnel 
sewers  as  proposed,  would  carry  off  every  thing  except  on  twelve  or  thirteen  days,  during  which  storm 
waters  would  pass  through  the  present  channels  into  the  Thames. 

Mr.  Morewood  having  also  stated  that  Sir  William  Cubitt  had  given  in  evidence : “ Three 
quarters  of  an  inch  of  rain  fell  yesterday,  and  we  saw  nothing  of  it ; in  twelve  hours  there  was  nothing 
seen  of  it,  it  made  no  disturbance  at  all,” — urged  that  a rainfall  of  23  to  27  inches,  during  150  or 
190  days,  did  not  admit  of  a frequent  fall  of  f of  an  inch,  and  that  a still  greater  fall  was  extremely 
rare  and  partial.  Under  these  circumstances  he  expressed  his  astonishment  that  the  Commissioners 
of  Sewers  had  proposed  to  spend  two  millions  for  such  high  level  sewers,  to  provide  for  storm  waters. 
He  declared  that  the  intercepting  sewers  to  pass  in  the  bank  of  the  Thames  formerly  suggested 
were  impracticable,  as  the  levels  would  not  admit  of  their  discharging  the  sewage. 

In  answer  to  the  objection  that  the  Metropolis  should  not  depend  upon  an  artificial  removal  of 
sewage  water ; he  stated  that  the  water  daily  converted  into  sewage,  was  artificially  supplied,  and 
when  steam  engines  ceased  to  be  able  to  pump  up  the  sewage  in  the  marshes,  east  of  London, 
they  would  also  cease  to  supply  the  inhabitants  with  water  ; a high  level  sewer  costing  £ 500,000. 
would  only  save  an  annual  expense  of  £ 4000.  for  pumping  and  would  entail  consequences  which  had 
been  entirely  overlooked. 

The  Great  London  Drainage  Company’s  Bill  proposed  government  controul,  supervision  and 
audit.  The  guarantee  of  a contingent  3 per  cent,  was  only  asked  on  one  million  sterling ; £ 37,000. 
were  deposited  as  security — impounding  of  money  was  suggested  by  the  promoters,  and  also  that  the 
3 per  cent,  should  only  be  paid,  provided  the  works  were  completed  within  a certain  period. 


ON  ARCHITECTURE  AS  REPRESENTED  IN  PICTURES. 


By  H.  Twining,  Esq. 

Read  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  June  12th,  1854. 


Considering  the  extensive  field  for  enquiry  presented  by  the  subject  of  my  communication,  I should 
feel  much  diffidence  in  introducing  it,  did  I not  in  a great  measure  rely  upon  the  observations, 
which  your  superior  knowledge  of  architecture  will  enable  you  to  make  on  those  points  which 
my  paper  may  suggest,  and  thus  impart  to  it  a degree  of  interest  and  usefulness  which  might 
otherwise  be  wanting. 

In  the  first  place,  pictures  exhibit  in  a convenient  manner  for  study,  the  different  styles  of  archi- 
tecture in  direct  connection  with  different  kinds  of  scenery.  (This  point  was  illustrated  by 
engravings  of  Indian  edifices  by  Daniell).  As  we  are  thus  enabled  to  appreciate  the  relation  of 
architectural  buildings  to  the  climate  and  character  of  different  countries,  we  have  great  facility  in 
selecting  those  styles  or  orders  of  architecture  which  are  best  adapted  to  the  scenery,  as  well  as  the 
climate  and  conditions  of  our  own  country.  Moreover  the  architecture  which  adorns  pictures  is 
exempt  from  those  trammels  which  considerations  of  economy  and  site,  and  other  hindrances,  impose 
on  the  work  of  the  architect ; and  it  therefore  possesses  every  facility  and  advantage  for  realising  the 
kind  of  edifice  which,  in  the  mind  of  the  artist,  appears  most  consistent  and  becoming. 

As  the  kind  of  embellishment  which  architecture  supplies  for  historical  pictures  was  more 
resorted  too  formerly,  than  at  the  present  time,  it  is  by  considering  the  old  masters  that  interesting 
facts  may  be  chiefly  elicited.  One  of  the  most  striking  points  in  connection  with  this  subject  is,  that 
architecture  seems  to  have  been  generally  treated  by  them  as  a somewhat  conventional  ornament, 
adapted  to  the  effect  of  the  picture,  but  without  reference  either  to  the  country,  or  to  the  period  of 
the  event  represented.  The  style  of  architecture  most  usually  selected  was  the  classic,  which  is 
frequently  brought  into  connection  with  events  taken  from  the  Scriptures,  and  which  therefore 
occured  chiefly  in  Judea.  But  notwithstanding  the  impropriety  of  introducing  the  classic  style  of 
architecture  into  subjects  which  are  entirely  Eastern,  the  association  of  the  simpler  orders  of  such 
architecture  with  scriptural  subjects  does  not  strike  so  offensively  as  might  be  expected,  a proof, 
it  may  be  considered,  that  this  style  is  remarkable  for  its  great  purity,  and  for  its  suitableness  for  all 
dignified  or  elevated  subjects. 

It  would  be  difficult  to  believe  that  the  Saracenic,  the  Renaissance,  or  any  other  elaborate  style 
of  architecture,  could  by  any  contrivance  be  made  to  associate  with  events  so  solemn,  and  at  the 
same  time  so  decidedly  local,  as  those  which  are  borrowed  from  Scripture. 

Raphael  was  one  of  the  Italian  masters  who  had  most  recourse  to  architecture  for  the  embel- 
lishment of  his  pictures ; and  although  he  did  not  always  avoid  the  inconsistencies  and  anachronisms 
which  contemporary  artists  were  apt  to  commit,  he  showed  an  attention  to  circumstantial  facts  and 
particulars  which  very  few  equalled.  One  of  the  earliest  and  most  beautiful  of  his  works,  known  as 
“ The  Marriage  of  the  Virgin  Mary,”  now  in  the  gallery  of  Milan,  is  adorned  by  an  elegant  building 
of  sixteen  sides  with  Ionic  columns,  probably  intended  for  a synagogue,  but  not  having  anything 
Eastern  in  its  style.  Its  appearance  has  however  nothing  offensive,  but  affords  a pleasing  accessory 
to  this  beautiful  subject.  In  his  painting  of  “Paul  and  Barnabas  at  Lystra,”  this  great  artist 
has  shown  the  same  attention  to  circumstantial  details,  and  with  the  happiest  results ; for  amongst 

Q 


156 


the  statues  which  decorate  noble  edifices,  the  statue  of  Mercury  appears  conspicuous,  reminding  the 
observer,  at  once,  that  the  inhabitants  believed  St.  Paul  himself  to  be  that  God  ; and  that  they  were 
about  to  offer  sacrifice  to  him  as  such ; it  is  plain  how  much  the  historical  account  is  elucidated 
by  such  particulars.  “ St.  Paul  preaching  at  the  Areopagus  at  Athens,”  likewise  affords  a successful 
proof  how  much  Raphael  enhanced  the  beauty  of  his  historical  pictures  by  means  of  tasteful 
architectural  buildings,  of  which  the  classic  orders,  clearly  defined,  are  perfectly  and  appropriately 
characteristic.  In  another  picture  (of  which  the  cartoon  is  at  Hampton  Court)  representing  St. 
Peter  and  St.  John  healing  the  lame  man  at  the  gate  of  the  temple  which  was  called  “Beautiful,” 
he  has  introduced  a number  of  spiral  columns,  richly  and  elaborately  decorated ; by  which  means 
he  has  marked  impressively  the  characteristic  splendour  of  the  porch.  But  in  this  instance  his 
attention  to  particulars  does  not  appear  to  have  been  equally  successful,  for  the  effect  is  meretricious, 
and  detracts  from  the  solemnity  of  the  subject.  A simpler  style  of  architecture,  though  perhaps 
less  truthful,  might  have  been  better  suited  to  the  dignity  of  the  composition. 

Neither  Michael  Angelo  nor  Leonardo  da  Vinci,  although  the  first  was  an  architect,  and  the 
second  an  engineer,  seems  to  have  resorted  much  to  architecture  for  the  embellishment  of  their 
pictures.  Nor  did  Correggio,  who  at  Parma  contributed  so  much  by  his  frescoes  to  embellish  the 
Duomo,  avail  himself  of  the  beauties  of  architecture  to  enrich  his  most  graceful  subjects.  The 
Venetian  school  of  painting,  however,  borrowed  a great  deal  from  the  sister  art ; and  in  this  we  may 
probably  mark  the  influence  of  the  architectural  magnificence  of  the  city. 

Gentile  Bellini  was  one  of  the  earliest  masters  who  painted  architectural  subjects  ; and  during  his 
residence  at  Constantinople  he  executed  a large,  and,  at  the  same  time,  elaborate  and  highly  finished 
picture  of  the  church  of  Santa  Sophia,  which  is  now  in  the  gallery  of  Milan. 

Another  picture  of  the  Venetian  school,  very  remarkable  for  its  architectural  interest,  represents 
what  was  termed  the  “ Miracle  of  the  Ring,”  so  famous  in  the  Venetian  annals.  It  was  painted 
by  Paris  Bordone,  and  the  back-ground  represents  the  beautiful  and  highly  decorative  architecture 
of  the  Palazzo  Ducale  almost  as  it  now  stands.  But  the  artist  of  this  school  who  gave  the  greatest 
importance  to  architectural  ornament  in  his  pictures  was  Paul  Veronese.  By  the  introduction  of 
architectural  monuments  on  a large  scale  he  imparted  great  beauty  and  originality  to  his  pictures. 
He  often  gave  perspective  depth  and  greatness  to  his  compositions  by  representing  these  edifices 
at  various  distances.  Further,  by  placing  them  on  the  most  diversified  situations  he  added  in  a 
remarkable  degree  to  their  picturesqueness.  These  architectural  arrangements  afforded  him  the 
means  of  diversifying  the  positions  and  attitudes  of  his  figures,  which  he  represented  alternately 
ascending  flights  of  steps,  leaning  over  elevated  balconies,  or  climbing  up  buildings,  in  order  to 
overlook  the  principal  scene  of  action. 

The  Dutch  and  Flemish,  as  well  as  the  French  painters,  usually  showed  the  same  disregard  for  a 
style  of  architecture  in  accordance  with  Eastern  subjects,  as  did  the  Italians.  For  instance,  Rubens, 
notwithstanding  his  extensive  information,  and  his  high  position  in  society,  introduced  the  Doric 
order  of  architecture  in  connection  with  “ The  Murder  of  the  Innocents.”  Nicholas  Poussin,  who 
largely  availed  himself  of  the  advantages  afforded  by  architecture,  introduced  columns,  apparently 
of  the  Corinthian  or  Ionic  orders,  in  paintings  of  David  and  Goliath.  “ The  Murder  of  the 
Innocents”  by  Le  Brun,  now  in  the  gallery  at  Dulwich,  is  likewise  enriched  by  edifices  of  Roman 
structure,  having  columns  of  the  Corinthian  order.  We  might  have -expected  rather  more  antiquarian 
knowledge  or  attention  to  facts,  from  so  eminent  and  comparatively  modern  an  artist. 

But  it  is  especially  as  an  embellishment  to  the  landscape  that  architecture  attains  the  highest 
value,  and  often  ennobles  scenes  which  without  such  ornaments  would  appear  tame  or  trivial. 


157 


Among  the  landscape  painters,  Claude  do  Lorraine  availed  himself  most  effectually  of  the 
resources  which  architectural  subjects  afford ; and  hy  the  frequent  introduction  of  temples,  arcades, 
palaces,  and  other  buildings,  into  his  landscapes,  he  imparted  to  them  an  elegance,  and  an  air  of 
classic  dignity,  which  it  would  perhaps  have  been  impossible  to  attain  without  the  elevating  influence 
of  this  class  of  accessories. 

The  two  Poussins  were  especially  fond  of  that  kind  of  embellishment  whicli  is  furnished  by 
architecture  ; and  Gaspar  Poussin,  who  was  essentially  a landscape  painter,  added  by  such  means 
greatly  to  the  interest  and  character  of  his  landscapes.  Por  instance,  he  marked  the  strength  of 
any  lofty  situation  by  walls  and  fortifications  ; the  particular  aptitude  of  any  site  for  being  inhabited 
by  a large  and  populous  city ; and  the  loneliness  of  a retired  spot  by  tombs,  obelisks,  and  mausoleums. 
He  thus  stamped  more  impressively  the  local  character  of  each  subject. 

The  Dutch  landscape  painters ; as  Poelemburgh,  Berghem,  and  Loutherburgh,  introduced 
buildings  and  monuments  chiefly  as  ruins,  in  which  forlorn,  hut  venerable  condition,  these  greatly 
enhanced  their  small  pictures.  But  there  is  a class  of  artists,  who  instead  of  making  architectural 
buddings  serve  as  an  ornament  to  their  landscapes,  completely  spodt  their  compositions  by  great 
abuse  of  the  resources  which  it  affords.  Amongst  these  may  be  mentioned,  Marco  Biccij 
Lingelbach,  and  sometimes  Panini.  They  availed  themselves  of  their  sojourn  in  Borne  to  copy  the 
numerous  monuments  of  various  periods  which  there  abound.  This  they  did,  however,  without  taste 
and  discernment ; and  in  their  pictures  they  introduced  promiscuously,  and  in  the  greatest  confusion, 
monuments  of  different  periods,  of  different  styles  of  architecture,  indeed  of  the  most  opposite 
character,  accumulating  these  incongruous  elements  with  a confused  profusion  of  which  Borne  itself 
does  not  afford  an  example.  In  some  instances  they  rendered  this  heterogeneous  assemblage  more 
ludicrous  by  intermingling  figures  of  different  dates  and  costumes  with  the  ruins. 

Modern  landscape  painters  have  devoted  themselves  more  exclusively  to  nature  herself,  and 
have  availed  themselves  generally  in  a less  degree  of  such  means  of  embellishment  as  architectural 
buildings  afford.  However  the  French  marine  artist  of  the  last  century,  Joseph  Vernet,  frequently 
introduced  architectural  buildings,  especially  light-houses,  bridges,  and  aqueducts,  with  great  taste  and 
effect ; and  his  English  contemporary  Wilson  realised  corresponding  advantages  by  the  ruins  of  such 
monuments.  I need  not  remark  that  the  late  Turner,  when  not  lead  by  the  fascinations  of  colour 
to  neglect  the  resources  of  ornamental  form,  availed  himself  most  advantageously  of  the  decorative 
beauty  of  architecture  in  his  landscapes,  as  may  be  seen  by  the  grace  and  elegance  which  his 
picture  representing  “ The  building  of  Carthage”  derives  from  its  architectural  monuments.  We 
are  aware  that  John  Martin  so  completely  commanded  the  resources  of  architecture  that  he 
thereby  imparted  a character  of  combined  splendour  and  vastness  to  his  compositions.  In  some 
of  his  pictures  ancient  cities  surprise  the  observer  by  their  extent,  their  remarkable  situation,  and 
the  originality  of  the  buildings.  In  others,  as  in  “ The  Feast  of  Belshazzar,”  it  is  the  magnitude 
of  the  palaces,  and  other  edifices,  which  causes  our  admiration.  In  these  subjects  a style  of  archi- 
tecture has  been  adopted,  which  though  to  some  extent  ideal,  at  least  carries  the  mind  at  once  to  the 
time  and  the  place  of  the  event  recorded,  an  attempt  which  had  not  been  made  by  the  landscape 
painters  of  olden  times  ; and  which,  although  till  lately  quite  new  in  this  branch  of  art,  Martin  carried 
out  with  the  most  complete  success. 


158 


Mr.  Donaldson,  Hon.  Sec.  For.  Cor.,  considered  that  the  painters  who  had  introduced 
architectural  subjects  into  their  pictures  might  be  divided  into  two  classes  : the  first  were  real  painters 
of  buildings,  such  as  Canaletto  and  Panini;  the  others,  as  Raphael,  treated  architecture  merely  in  the  light 
of  an  accessory,  and  to  give  contrast,  by  the  repose  of  the  structural  masses,  to  the  violent  action  and 
bustle  of  the  figures.  The  Venetian  School  afforded  good  examples  of  the  second  class.  It  was  obvious 
that  though  Raphael  had  exercised  great  thought  and  discretion  in  such  accessories,  he  had  committed 
some  incongruities,  as  in  representing  strictly  Roman  architecture  in  buildings  forming  the  background 
of  the  cartoon  of  St.  Paul  preaching  at  Athens.  The  introduction  of  architectural  subjects  into  pictures 
might  naturally  have  taken  place  in  a city  like  Rome,  abounding  in  ancient  remains,  which  would  work 
on  the  imagination  of  the  great  men  composing  the  brotherhood  of  practitioners  in  art  which  existed 
there  in  the  fifteenth  century.  Michael  Angelo  was  an  architect  by  accident — painting  and  sculpture 
were  more  especially  his  forte, — and  his  particular  case,  Mr.  Donaldson  would  adduce  as  a reason  why 
he  entirely  disagreed  with  Mr.  Ruskin  as  to  painter  architects  alone  deserving  the  palm  of  excellence ; 
Palladio,  Sanmichele,  and  Brunelleschi,  on  the  contrary,  were  highly  successful  as  architects,— great 
play  of  contrasts  was  exhibited  in  their  works — but  they  were  not  painters.  The  Beautiful  Gate  of 
the  Temple  shewn  in  one  of  the  cartoons,  might  perhaps  have  been  more  correctly  shewn  with 
columns  of  Egyptian  character,  but  it  might  be  supposed  that  Raphael  was  himself  ignorant  of  the 
real  architecture  of  the  place  which  he  had  undertaken  to  represent.  Claude,  on  the  contrary 
introduced  subjects  taken  from  Italian  ruins,  finely  grouped,  and  with  great  propriety,  into  his 
landscapes,  and  his  example  had  been  followed  by  our  countryman  Turner,  who,  by  desiring  to  have 
one  of  his  pictures  hung  between  two  by  Claude,  in  the  National  Gallery,  had  evidently  implied  the 
estimate  on  which  he  set  his  own  painting ; and  yet  it  should  be  remembered  that  Turner  had 
accomplished  no  more  than  Claude  had  between  200  and  300  years  previously,  without  any  predecessor 
to  instruct  him,  from  whose  productions  he  could  obtain  hints,  and  learn  to  avoid  errors.  To  Claude, 
innate  taste  and  the  study  of  nature  had  alone  been  assistants.  The  value  to  a painter  of  having  seen 
and  studied  the  antient  remains  in  Italy  might  be  seen  in  the  productions  of  Wilson  the  landscape 
painter.  The  training  necessary  to  render  an  artist  a good  scene  painter,  in  respect  to  treating 
architectural  subjects  with  strict  correctness,  had  produced  good  landscape  painters  in  the  persons  of 
Stanfield  and  Roberts.  The  views  of  Daniell  on  the  walls  afforded  a great  lesson  in  the  happy 
manner  in  which  Indian  architecture  was  composed  and  grouped  to  harmonize  in  all  respects  with 
nature — the  deep  shady  verandahs  and  colonnades,  surrounded  by  groves,  and  enlivened  by  cool 
fountains  and  glittering  minarets,  vieing,  as  it  were,  with  the  beauty  of  the  Eastern  climate.  Mr. 
Donaldson  felt  that  the  Meeting  were  highly  indebted  to  Mr.  Twining  for  calling  their  attention  to  so 
interesting  a subject. 

The  Rev.  R.  Burgess,  Hon.  Mem.,  offered  some  remarks  on  the  anachronisms  observable,  not 
only  in  the  architectural  accessories,  but  also  in  the  dress  and  character  represented  in  paintings  in 
Italy,  even  in  those  of  a late  period.  The  ancient  masters  were  no  doubt  ignorant  of  the  architecture 
of  foreign  countries ; still  there  would  appear  to  be  something  arbitrary  in  these  anachronisms,  for 
which  it  was  difficult  to  assign  any  good  reason.  In  this  respect  modern  painters  had  great  advantages ; 
modem  discoveries  have  brought  to  light  the  knowledge  of  Assyrian  art  for  instance,  with  which  the 
ancient  masters  were  totally  unacquainted.  Modern  painters,  then,  should  imitate  the  beauties 
generally,  and  not  the  ignorance  of  the  latter,  in  these  matters. 

Mr.  Donaldson  mentioned  the  fact  of  Garrick  having  performed  the  part  of  Macbeth  in  the  cos- 
tume of  his  own  time:  and  Mr.  Scoles,  Hon.  Sec.,  said  that  Northcote  had  excused  himself  for  instructing 
his  pupil  to  copy  armour  of  the  time  of  the  Commonwealth  in  a painting  representing  a classic  subject, 


159 


by  saying,  it  is  bettor  to  copy  what  wo  can  paint  well,  than  to  attempt  what  wo  do  not  know.  Turner’s 
skill  in  introducing  architectural  subjects  into  his  pictures  might  arise  from  the  knowledge  he  had 
obtained  in  the  office  of  an  architect  (the  late  Mr.  Bonomi),  where  he  was  in  fact  employed  to  put  in 
back  ground  to  the  drawings.  The  architecture  introduced  in  the  cartoon  representing  the  Beautiful 
Gate  of  the  Temple,  might  not  be  so  erroneous  as  had  been  supposed,  as  it  should  be  remembered  that 
Jerusalem,  at  the  time  represented,  had  been  for  years  under  Boman  dominion,  and  that  the  gate  in 
question  was  probably  a comparatively  recent  construction. 

Mr.  Papworth,  Fellow,  had  the  impression  that  Kaphael  was  said  to  have  represented  the  Beautiful 
Gate  in  conformity  with  a tradition  concerning  its  structure.  Some  of  the  most  effective  compositions 
of  architectural  subjects  in  pictures  had  been  produced  by  artists  who  were  strictly  scene  painters,  such 
as  Bibiena,  the  Quadratisti,  and  Servandoni,  celebrated  for  his  designs  for  ffites, — while  even 
architects,  as  Novosielski,  Soane,  and  Smirke,  had  furnished  designs  for  scenic  decorations,— Turner, 
in  early  life,  had  made  numerous  accurate  drawings  for  architectural  and  topographical  publications. 

Mr.  C.  H.  Smith,  Visitor,  said  that  though  the  great  masters  had  committed  such  anachronisms 
in  buildings  and  costumes,  men  of  less  note  were  often  free  from  such  faults.  J ames  Barry,  in  his 
painting  of  the  Olympic  Victors,  on  the  walls  of  the  Society  of  Arts  in  the  Adelphi,  had  correctly 
represented  a Greek  temple,  and  the  peculiar  Greek  head  dress,  before  the  publication  of  Stuart’s 
work  on  Athens,  and  the  acquisition  by  the  government  of  the  Elgin  marbles  had  given  accurate 
information  on  these  points.  Unfortunately,  painters  were  apt  to  neglect  the  rides  of  perspective, 
and  hence  they  could  not  grapple  with  architectural  drawing.  From  this  stricture  he  must, 
however,  except  the  accomplished  painter  of  the  picture  known  as  Byron’s  Dream,  in  which  the 
celebrated  temple  at  Egina  was  correctly  and  happily  introduced. 

Mr.  F.  C.  Penrose,  V.P.,  Chairman,  with  respect  to  the  anachronisms  of  the  old  masters, 
thought  that  they  did  not  strain  their  imagination  to  produce  representations  of  objects  which  were 
of  necessity  uncertain  and  beyond  their  reach.  All  the  knowledge  we  possess  should  be  brought  to 
bear  on  the  subject,  but  in  the  present  day,  entering  into  too  much  detail  caused  artists  to  lose  sight 
of  the  main  object  by  overscrupulous  attempts  at  accessories,  as  might  be  seen  in  some  paintings  in  the 
exhibition  of  the  Boyal  Academy.  Architecture  had  suffered  from  the  incursions  of  painters,  and  it 
should  be  remembered,  in  opposition  to  the  dictum  of  a modem  writer,  that  some  of  the  most  eminent 
architects  of  the  revival — as  Sanmichele,  Bramante,  Brunelleschi,  and  Palladio,  were  not  painters.  The 
beauty  of  Claude’s  architectural  subjects  was  generally  acknowledged,  and  the  book  bearing  his  name, 
called  the  Liber  Veritatis,  contained  numerous  excellent  motivi  connected  with  the  subject  of  such 
accessories  in  landscape  painting.  For  painting,  generally,  classic  architecture  would  seem  to  be  best 
adapted,  its  broad  masses  and  repose  telling  well  in  contrast  with  the  movement  of  the  figures.  At  the 
same  time  it  should  not  be  forgotten  that  a most  perfect  specimen  of  the  good  effect  produced  by  Gothic- 
architecture,  as  an  accessory,  was  to  be  seen  in  a painting  by  Van  Eyk,  in  the  Dresden  Gallery,  and 
that  Baphael,  in  his  early  paintings,  and  his  master,  Perugino,  introduced  distant  views  of  what  might 
be  called  imaginative  Gothic  towers  and  spires.  Mr.  Penrose  concluded  by  conveying  the  thanks  of 
the  Meeting  to  Mr.  Twining,  and  the  Members  adjourned. 


f 


, 


ON  THE  TOPOGRAPHY  AND  ANTIQUITIES  OF  CONSTANTINOPLE. 

By  the  Ret.  R.  Burgess,  B.D.,  Honorary  Member. 

Read  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  June  26th,  1854. 


I have  some  doubts  as  to  the  success  of  this  experiment  which  I am  about  to  make  upon  the  patience 
and  intelligence  of  this  Institute.  Through  a succession  of  seasons  I have  been  indulged  with  a 
hearing  once  a year,  and  the  scene  of  my  antiquarian  excursions  has  hitherto  been  limited  to  the 
ancient  Metropolis  of  the  "Western  Empire.  Events  which  occupy  the  mind  of  Europe,  rather  than 
any  particular  wish  of  our  own,  have  transported  us  to  the  shores  of  the  Bosphorus,  and  perched  us, 
in  spite  of  ourselves,  upon  the  heights  of  Scutari.  But  in  launching  forth  from  the  Tiber  to  the 
untried  waters  of  the  Bosphorus,  I do  not  navigate  without  chart  and  compass,  nor  am  I about  to 
describe  a city  I have  never  seen.  It  was  my  lot  in  1834  to  cast  anchor  in  the  Perami,  and  wander 
for  some  days  about  the  Bosphorus  and  the  Euxine  Sea.  It  is  the  result  of  my  poor  researches  into 
the  Topography  and  Antiquities  of  Constantinople  that  I propose  to  give  you  this  evening.  I shall 
endeavour  to  make  my  paper  consistent  with  the  requirements  of  these  conversazioni.  I must  bear 
in  mind  that  I read  a paper  at  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  who,  though  not  averse  to  an 
occasional  reference  to  the  modern  city,  will  naturally  look  for  the  vestiges  of  those  works  which  were 
made  under  the  Greek  Emperors  before  the  Arts  declined,  and  ere  Classic  Architecture  fell  before 
Mosques  and  Minarets, — we  must  begin  with  a page  of  ancient  story. 

658  years  b.  c.  the  navigator  Byzas,  said  to  be  the  son  of  Neptune,  arrived  at  the  Eastern 
promontory  of  Europe,  and  there  he  founded  the  celebrated  city  which  was  called  after  his  own  name, 
Byzantium  ; its  first  inhabitants  were  probably  not  much  better  than  the  followers  of  Romulus.  They 
seem  to  have  been  the  Bashi  Bazouks  of  those  early  days,  which  we  may  freely  translate  to  signify 
plundering  rascals.  The  situation  of  this  city  was  admirably  selected,  and  it  enabled  the  Byzantines 
to  check  the  kings  of  Bithynia,  and  to  fight  with  success  against  Philip  of  Macedon,  and  to  stem  for 
awhile  the  inundations  of  the  Gauls  when  they  rushed  into  the  centre  of  Asia  Minor.  Pausanias,  the 
Spartan  General,  after  the  defeat  of  Xerxes,  fortified  the  place,  and  I shall  shortly  point  out  the 
limited  space  which  was  occupied  by  the  original  city.  The  advantageous  position  of  Byzantium  was 
soon  discerned  by  the  Roman  Emperors.  It  is  thought  that  Augustus  conceived  the  idea  of  trans- 
ferring the  seat  of  Government  to  the  Bosphorus,  and  not  improbably  the  splendid  Ode,  Lib.  iii. 
Ode  3,  which  proclaims  the  vengeance  of  Juno  upon  the  attempt,  was  written  by  Horace  with  the 
view  of  deterring  the  Emperor  from  the  audacious  enterprize.  300  years  elapsed,  and  then  Diocletian 
revived  the  idea  of  fixing  the  seat  of  Empire  nearer  to  Asia.  The  first  Christian  Emperor  determined 
to  carry  the  plan  into  effect,  and  he  drew  the  line  of  his  fortifications  within  sight  of  the  scene  of  his 
good  fortune.  It  was  at  Chrysopolis  (now  Scutari)  where  he  gained  his  final  victory  over  his  rival 
for  Empire,  which  made  him  the  undisputed  master  of  the  Roman  W orld.  When  Constantine  began 
to  build  the  city  which  still  bears  his  name,  he  found  an  ample  supply  of  materials  within  a few  hours 
reach.  The  forests  of  the  Black  Sea  furnished  him  with  wood,  the  neighbouring  island  of  Proconnesus 
afforded  abimdance  of  marble,  the  cities  of  Greece  and  Asia  gave  up  the  works  of  Phidias,  Lysippus, 
and  Praxatiles,  and  even  Rome  contributed  of  its  stores  of  art  to  embellish  the  new  capital ; it  was 
finished  and  dedicated  in  334.  150  years  after,  dining  the  reign  of  Arcadius  and  Ilonorius,  who 

divided  the  Empire  between  them,  a catalogue  was  made  of  all  the  public  buildings  in  each  quarter, 
like  the  regionaries  of  Victor  and  Rufus  at  Rome.  This  document  is  extant,  and  is  known  under  the 
title  of  the  “Notitia;”  the  author  is  unknown.  It  was  first  published  by  Guido  Panciroli,  and  it 


162 


helped  Gyllius  to  find  his  way  in  the  comparative  Topograpy  of  the  two  capitals  of  the  Koman  Empire. 
But  Constantinople  received  a considerable  addition  to  its  extent  under  Theodosius  II.,  413,  as  I 
shall  have  occasion  to  point  out  when  we  come  to  make  the  circuit.  Another  portion  added  by 
Heraclius  in  620,  must  also  be  taken  into  account  before  we  get  the  whole  of  what  is  now  enclosed 
by  the  triple  wall  of  Stamboul.  The  lively  waters  of  the  Bosphorus,  after  rushing  out  of  the  Euxine 
Sea  and  flowing  in  a winding  channel  for  20  miles,  break  against  a triangular  shaped  promontory, 
which  forms  the  Eastern  extremity  of  Europe.  They  are  then  parted  into  the  Propontis  and  the 
Canal  of  Perami,  which  forms  the  magnificent  harbour  of  Stamboul.  The  ancients  compared  this 
canal,  with  its  winding  branches,  to  a stag’s  horn,  and  it  is  called  by  Strabo  the  Horn  of  the  Byzan- 
tines ; but  the  antlers  are  now  broken  off.  It  is  capable  of  containing  1,200  ships  of  the  largest  size. 
On  the  side  of  the  Horn  opposite  to  Galata  rise  the  mosques  and  habitations  of  Constantinople.  The 
city  is  a triangular  figure,  about  13  miles  in  perimeter,  along  a shore  extending  from  East  to  North 
to  a distance  of  3 miles,  forming  one  side  of  the  triangle.  There  were  anciently  twelve  gates  which 
opened  upon  the  Port,  most  of  them  still  remain  in  their  original  sites,  and  retain  their  ancient  names 
in  the  present  Turkish  designations, — the  one  at  the  Seraglio  Point,  called  the  Porta  Eugenii,  (a) — 
another,  nearly  opposite  St.  Sophia,  called  Porta  Neoria,  or  Naval  Gate  ( b ),  and  now  in  Turkish, 
Tchifout  Capoussi,  are  no  longer  in  use.  It  was  from  the  Porta  N avalis  that  the  chain  was  suspended 
which  (drawn  across  to  what  is  now  Galata)  shut  up  the  entrance  into  the  Golden  Horn.  I have  in 
former  times  fought  so  many  battles  over  the  Gates  of  Komulus,  which,  after  all,  may  never  have 
existed,  that  I should  feel  reluctant  to  engage  either  you  or  myself  in  a controversy  about  the  names 
of  the  Gates  of  Constantine,  particularly  as  we  should  have  not  only  to  cope  with  various  readings  of 
Greek,  but  to  adjust  the  value  of  a Turkish  translation.  To  proceed  with  our  Gates. — No.  1.  Ghemi 
Iskele,  or  the  Emit  Gate,  called  also  Zindan  Capoussi ; it  was  anciently  called  the  irvXr)  twv  Kapafiiwv, 
or  Gate  of  Boats,  and  it  is  at  this  time  the  principal  landing  place  for  the  caiques  crossing  the  port  from 
Pera.  No.  2.  Oun  Kapaneu  Capoussi,  anciently  the  Porta  Earinaria,  the  gate  by  which  the  corn  was 
taken  into  the  city ; it  is  now  closed.  No.  3.  Djubali  Capoussi,  or  the  Glazier’s  Gate.  I cannot 
find  an  ancient  name  for  this.  No.  4.  Aia  Capoussi,  that  is  7 rvXrj  ayia,  the  Holy  Gate,  so  called 
because  the  people  landed  there  to  go  to  the  Church  of  S.  Theodosia ; and  it  is  remarkable  that  the 
Turks  should  have  annexed  the  Greek  adjective  aia,  or  ayia,  holy,  to  their  Turkish  substantive  of 
Capoussi.  We  come  now  to  the  Eanar,  which  is  the  quarter  of  the  city  that  has  been  inhabited  by 
the  Greek  princes  and  nobles  ever  since  the  fall  of  the  Greek  Empire.  The  heroes,  descendants  of 
the  Cantecuzene  and  Palaeologi,  who  went  forth  to  fight  for  freedom  in  1820,  were  principally 
Fanariotes.  The  Eanar  Gate  is  still  called  by  the  Turks,  No.  5.  Petri  Capoussi,  or  the  Gate  of 
Peter.  Indeed  the  whole  district  was  named  after  the  Apostle  of  the  circumcision.  The  Begio  Petri 
is  celebrated  in  the  seige  of  Constantinople,  1453.  When  Mahmoud  II.  had  transported  his  light  ships 
overland  from  the  Bosphorus,  not  being  able  to  force  the  chain  drawn  across  from  the  Porta  Neoria, 
he  launched  his  boats  nearly  opposite  the  Gate  of  Peter.  Notaras  defended  the  gate  with  great  valour, 
but  his  abject  submission  to  the  conqueror  afterwards,  tarnished  his  renown.  If  he  had  had  a single 
screw  steamer,  the  multitude  of  light  ships  which  had  been  carried  over  the  heights  of  Pera  had  never 
shaken  the  Gate  of  the  Eanar.  This  gate,  like  all  the  rest  on  the  port,  is  narrow  and  low,  a mere 
opening  in  the  curtain  of  the  wall ; just  within  it  stands  the  house  of  the  Greek  Patriarch,  and 
the  Patriarchal  Church  of  St.  George,  to  which  we  shall  again  recur.  No.  6 is  the  Gate 
which  leads  to  the  Jews’  quarter,  called  Balat,  which  in  all  probability  is  a corruption  of  Palatium, 
for  the  gate  formerly  was  the  /WiAikij  irvX-q,  or  Boyal  Gate,  leading  to  an  imperial  residence,  of  which 
there  are  some  remains.  No.  7 is  Haivan  Hissari,  anciently  called  Cynegeton,  or  the  Gate  of  the 
Vivarium,  the  place  where  wild  beasts  were  kept  for  the  use  of  the  amphitheatre,  which  was  situated 
at  this  extremity  of  the  city.  The  Chiloporta  ( c ) at  the  very  angle  of  the  city  is  closed.  Before 


leaving  tho  enclosure  of  the  Bulat,  wo  have  the  Egroc  Capoussi  (No.  8),  anciently  called  Charsias. 
Towering  above  the  city  walls  we  see  tho  structure  of  a building  which  is  called  the  Palace  of  Con- 
stantino, but  ought  rather  to  be  called  the  Palace  of  ITeraclius,  for  we  are  now  in  that  portion  of  the 
city  which  was  added  by  that  Emperor  in  620.  From  hence  we  strike  across  the  Continent  to  pursue 
the  line  of  walls  which  stretch  from  the  Perami  Canal  to  tho  Sea  of  Marmora,  a length  of  about  4 miles, 
and  forming  the  base  of  the  triangle  or  harp,  to  which  may  be  likened  the  form  of  Stamboul.  No.  9. 
The  Edrene  Capoussi,  or  Iladrianople  Gate,  anciently  Poliandron,  may  be  considered  as  the  first  that 
occurs  in  the  walls  of  Theodosius.  A few  words  of  general  description  will  be  in  place  here. 

These  walls  present  a triple  line,  and  have  retained,  in  a great  measure,  their  original  appearance. 
The  inner  wall  is  the  highest  of  the  three  ranges,  and  it  is  strengthened  by  lofty  towers,  indifferently 
square,  circular,  or  octagonal.  The  second  or  middle  wall  is  much  lower,  and  the  towers  less,  being 
generally  circular ; and  the  third,  or  outer  wall,  with  batteries  running  along  the  top,  serves  as  the 
barrier  of  the  ditch  or  foss  that  runs  before  it.  “ The  intervals  between  those  walls  are  18  feet  wide, 
and  are  in  many  places  choked  up  with  earth  and  masses  of  fallen  ramparts.”  The  materials  are 
almost  invariably  stone  and  brick,  in  alternate  courses.  The  towers  in  some  parts  are  completely  clad 
with  ivy,  in  others  half  ruined  and  half  overshadowed  by  the  fig-tree,  which  has  caused  the  rent,  “mala 
robora  ficus.”  The  solitude  beneath  those  ramparts  is  as  complete  as  it  is  in  the  vicinity  of  the  walls 
of  Rome,  and  it  is  saddened  by  the  melancholy  groves  of  cypress  trees  which  stand  over  the 
Mussulmans’  graves.  Passing  the  Edrena  Capoussi,  we  must  stop  for  a few  moments  at  the  next, 
No.  10.  It  was  called  S.  Romanus,  the  Turks  now  call  it  Top  Capoussi,  or  the  Cannon  Gate,  on 
account  of  the  great  event  which  took  place  in  1453.  It  was  here  that  the  last  of  the  Constantines 
bravely  fought  and  fell  before  the  everpowering  force  of  Mahmoud  II. ; his  body  was  found  after  some 
days  under  heaps  of  slain,  and  was  only  recognised  by  the  silver  eagles  upon  his  slippers  ; — if  ever 

The  city  won  for  Allah  from  the  Giaour, 

The  Giaour  from  Othman’s  race  again  may  wrest, 

the  great  struggle  will  be  at  the  Top  Capoussi : there  the  assailants  would  be  beyond  the  reach  of 
war  vessels  in  the  ports,  and  the  heights  of  Scutari  are  too  distant  to  afford  protection : in  short, 
the  whole  line  of  wall,  from  the  Blachernae  to  the  7 towers,  would  require  to  be  covered,  if  50,000 
Russians  should  ever  cross  the  Balkan.  A little  further,  and  we  arrive  at  the  Mevlane  Yeni  Gate, 
No.  11,  called  in  former  times  Melandisia.  It  bears  upon  the  long  lintel,  which  rests  upon  two  consols, 
a Greek  inscription,  and  the  following  in  Latin : — 

Theodosi  jussis  gernino  nec  mense  peracto 
Constantinus  ovans  hue  mania  forma  locavit 
Tam  cito  tam  stabilem  Pallus  vix  conderet  arcem. 

No.  12  and  13  are  respectively  the  Selivri  and  the  Kapanen  Gate,  anciently  the  PortaQuintii,  and  the  Porta 
Attali.  We  now  arrive  at  the  enclosure  which  surrounds  the  Golden  Gate,  and  the  Yedi  Ivouleler, 
No.  14,  or  Seven  Towers.  Considering  the  Seraglio  Point,  where  the  Sublime  Porte  exists,  to  be  the 
seat  of  government,  we  are  now  at  the  farthest  extremity  of  the  city.  Behind  the  trees  which  hang 
from  the  walls,  and  flanked  by  two  large  square  marble  towers,  is  discerned  the  Porta  Aurea,  or 
Golden  Gate ; this  was  in  fact  a triumphal  arch  built  by  Theodosius,  to  commemorate  his  defeat  of 
Maximus.  Compared  with  similar  monuments  at  Rome,  there  is  nothing  remarkable  in  it  for  richness 
of  ornament,  or  elegance  of  construction : on  the  top  of  it  stood  a statue  of  Theodosius,  which,  after 
being  thrown  down  by  an  earthquake,  was  replaced  by  a statue  of  victory.  The  inscription  upon  it, 
which  is  still  legible,  is  this — 

Hsec  loca  Theodosius  decorat  post  fata  tyranni 
Aurea  ssecla  gerit  qui  portam  construct  auro. 

R 2 


164 


In  the  time  of  the  Greek  Emperors,  there  was  a fortress  at  this  extremity  of  the  walls,  it  was  called 
Cyclobion.  The  Latin  armies,  who  attacked  Constantinople  by  the  golden  gate,  destroyed  it.  John 
Cantacuzene  rebuilt  it,  but  it  was  in  ruins  when  Bajazet  threatened  the  city.  Mahomet  II., 
the  Conqueror  of  Constantinople,  finally  rebuilt  the  fortress  on  the  same  site,  and  added  several 
towers.  The  Greeks  called  them  Heptapirghion.  The  Turks,  Yedi  Kouleler,  the  seven  towers.  I 
could  only  discern  four  rising  conspicuously  above  the  outer  walls  of  the  city ; in  one  of  those,  that 
nearest  the  Golden  Gate,  the  foreign  ambassadors  used  to  be  stowed  whenever  they  displeased  the 
Sultans.  The  times  are  changed,  and  perhaps  the  Sultans  might  find  a lodging  in  the  same  tower,  if 
they  chance  to  displease  the  foreign  ambassadors.  This  may  be  called  the  Bastile  of  Constantinople. 
It  was  within  these  gloomy  walls  that  Brancovan,  Prince  of  Wallachia,  with  his  wife  and  four  sons, 
were  put  to  death ; while  Demetrius  Cantemir,  who  had  betrayed  the  unfortunate  Prince,  was  satiated 
with  the  favours  of  Sultan  Achmet.  During  the  Prench  wars,  a Russian  ambassador,  Count  de 
Bucalof,  was  imprisoned  here  for  nearly  two  years  ; also  a French  ambassador,  Rufin,  who  was  severely 
treated.  Even  as  late  as  half  a century  ago,  Sir  John  Arbuthnot  was  threatened  with  a lodging  in  the 
7 towers.  There  might  be  no  objection  perhaps  to  grant  a lodging  there  now  to  a Russian  ambassador. 
But  at  present,  the  successor  of  Baraguay  d’Hilliers  and  Lord  Stratford  de  Redcliffe,  may  look  at  the 
Yedi  Kouleler  with  as  little  apprehension  as  I did  on  the  last  day  of  July,  1834.  We  have  now  to 
run  along  the  third  side  of  the  triangle,  which  extends  from  the  7 towers  to  the  seraglio,  and  is 
washed  by  the  waters  of  the  Propontis.  The  first  gate  that  occurs  is  the  Gate  of  the  Bombshells, 
Aar  leu  Kapou  (15).  The  second  retains  its  Greek  appellation,  Psamatia  (16),  or  the  Sandgate,  and 
it  gives  the  name  to  the  quarter  of  the  city  to  which  it  immediately  leads,  in  which  there  is  a con- 
siderable population  of  Greeks  and  Armenians.  It  contains  churches,  dedicated  to  St.  Nicolas,  St. 
Poly  carp,  and  St.  Basilius  : it  is  probable  that  St.  Nicolas  is  the  least  popular  at  this  moment ! The 
walls  now  recede  from  the  line  of  shore,  and  form  an  angle  at  the  Gate  of  Daoud  Pascha  (17), 
probably  the  ancient  port  of  S.  Emilianus.  From  here  begins  a valley  which  runs  across  to  the 
Perami,  and  divides  the  city  of  Constantine  from  that  of  Theodosius.  It  is  a thinly  inhabited  quarter, 
with  a towering  mosque.  Gardens,  not  warehouses,  occupy  much  of  the  space,  and  the  whole  has  the 
appearance  of  a Turkish  village.  The  next,  that  is  the  fourth  gate  on  this  side,  is  Yeni  Capoussi  (18), 
or  Newgate.  We  next  arrive  at  Koum  Capoussi  (19),  another  Sandgate ; and  from  here  to  the 
Seraglio  we  obtain  in  our  circuit,  glimpses  of  the  original  work  of  Constantine,  patched  by  Genoese, 
and  Venetian  construction, — towers  built  upon  rows  of  columns  inserted  lengthways,  and  fragments 
of  marble  starting  out  of  crumbling  heaps  in  admired  disorder,— this  portion  of  the  line  of  wall  which 
ends  at  the  Tchatladi  Capoussi  (20),  is  a faithful  representative  of  the  Turkish  Empire.  Like  these 
walls,  it  is  built  up  of  heterogeneous  materials,  and  fragments  kept  together  by  cement  got  by  foreign 
aid,  capable  of  little  resistance,  and  presenting  a motley  sort  of  construction  of  the  Arabesque  order. 
The  last  gate  (21),  Akhour  Capoussi,  or  the  Stable  Gate,  so  called  because  it  leads  to  the  stables  of 
the  Harem,  and  from  it  begins  the  enclosure  of  the  Seraglio.  With  these  mysterious  walls  we  round 
the  promontory  which  forms  the  Eastern  extremity  of  Europe,  and  represents  the  apex,  somewhat 
flattened,  of  the  triangle  whose  perimeter  we  have  now  measured.  Bondelmonte  reckons  from  the 
angle  at  Blackernes  to  the  Golden  Gate  180  towers  ; from  these  to  the  Cape  S.  Demetrius  110 ; and 
he  makes  the  whole  circuit  of  the  walls  18  miles ; but  this  must  be  meant  to  include  Galata,  on  the 
other  side  of  Perami, — a suburb  of  Constantinople  we  have  yet  to  describe.  In  order  to  proceed  with 
this,  I must  take  you  in  a light  caique  from  the  Seraglio  Point,  Serai  Bournou,  across  to  Tophane, 
and  we  arrive  at  Galata,  to  which  must  be  added  Pera.  These  two  suburbs  separated  from  the 
Stamboul  of  the  Turks  by  the  Perami  canal  or  harbour,  were  possessed  by  a colony  of  Genoese. 
After  the  holy  wars  had  ceased,  at  the  end  of  the  13th  century,  they  obtained  the  suburb  as  a fief 
from  the  elder  Andronicus,  and  they  surrounded  and  fortified  it  with  walls.  The  Venetians  attempted 


1 65 


to  wrest  it  out  of  the  hands  of  their  rivals,  hut  in  1352  tiro  Genoese  were  victorious.  They  engrossed 
the  commerce  of  the  East  for  a century,  and  their  wealth  enabled  them  to  overawe  tho  enfeebled 
power  of  tho  Greek  empire.  They  made  a struggle  against  the  formidable  Mahmoud  II.,  but  were 
involved  in  tho  general  ruin  of  Constantinople.  The  walls  of  their  city  have  stood  unto  this  day. 
They  run  from  tho  artillery  barracks  of  Tophane,  to  the  mariners,  near  Cassim  Pacha,  along  the  shore 
of  the  Pcrami ; they  ascend  the  hill  in  a zigzag  line  to  the  tower  of  Galata,  and  descend  to  the  vicinity 
of  the  grand  mosque  of  Mahmoud.  They  are  built  of  small  square  stones,  with  numerous  fragments 
of  antiquity  filling  up  the  voids.  The  towers  are  round  or  square,  as  it  happens,  and  it  appears  the 
colony  was  governed  by  a Podestd.  I copied  this  inscription — Spectabil  JVolil  Harms  Imperialis 
Potas  Pere,  but  I know  nothing  more  of  this  respectable  noble  Ilarius  than  this  inscription.  I found 
the  dates  1433 — 1447  upon  the  towers,  and  it  was  only  six  years  after  the  latter  date  that  Constan- 
tinople was  taken  by  the  Turks.  This  district,  now  known  as  Galata,  was  anciently  called  the 
“Eegio  Sycarum,”  or  the  fig  trees  : in  the  ancient  “Notitia”  it  is  registered  as  the  XIII.  Eegion; 
and  it  bears  about  the  same  relation  to  Constantinople  proper,  as  the  Trans-Tyberine  Eegion  at  Eome 
bears  to  the  seven-hilled  city  on  the  left  bank  of  the  Tyber.  The  emperor  Honorius  built  a forum 
and  theatre  here,  and  there  was  a temple  of  Amphiaraus,  and  another  of  Diana  Lucifera.  The  emperor 
Justinian  joined  this  region  to  the  main  city  by  a bridge  thrown  across  the  harbour,  and  he  gave  it 
the  privileges  of  a municipality,  with  the  name  of  Justianopolis  ; but  the  name  is  now  only  to  be 
found  in  the  pages  of  Procopius.  A few  broken  columns  employed  in  the  Genoese  houses,  or  lying 
in  the  corner  of  the  streets,  are  all  the  vestiges  that  can  be  found  of  the  ancient  monuments.  I need 
not  bring  you  back  to  Galata  and  Pera,  for,  except  the  arsenal  of  Cassim  Pacha,  we  should  find  few 
objects  worthy  of  a Cicerone.  We  now  embark  again  in  our  light  caique  at  Tophane,  and  cross  the 
Bosphorus  to  the  port  of  Scutari,  a distance  of  two  miles.  If  we  ascend  to  the  top  of  Bourgaloue,  we 
obtain  a magnificent  view  of  the  cities  we  have  already  surveyed.  We  see  into  the  gulf  of  Xicomedia, 
and  the  eye  runs  along  the  Western  shore  of  the  Bosphorus  ; the  mountains  of  Asia  appear  to  fall  in 
azure  folds  ; in  the  distance  we  look  over  the  fields  of  Europe,  and  catch  a view  of  the  Propontis. 
Chalcedon,  now  Kadikeu,  lies  at  the  foot  of  the  mountains,  and  the  name  of  St.  Euphemia  preserves 
the  remembrance  of  the  famous  council  held  in  451,  when  the  heresy  of  Eutyches,  to  which  the 
Armenians  still  adhere,  was  condemned  ; the  founders  of  Chalcedon  have  become  immortal  in  contempt, 
for  having  selected  so  ineligible  a position  for  a city,  when  they  had  the  promontory  before  them,  on 
which  Byas,  with  more  discerning  eye,  founded  his  city  thirty  years  after.  But  Kadikeu  or  Chalcedon 
still  serves  for  our  topography,  for  as  the  Bosphorus  begins  to  expand  its  waters  into  the  Propontis 
it  passes  between  Byzantium  and  the  ancient  Chalcedon.  Erom  Kadikeu  we  may  ascend  to  the  vast 
cemetery  of  Scutari : this  is  a forest  of  cypresses,  extending  for  several  miles,  and  in  the  deep  recesses 
of  its  gloom  are  interred  the  remains  of  pious  Mussulmen  of  many  generations.  Every  true  follower 
of  Mahomet  prefers  the  country  of  the  prophet  for  his  last  resting  place, — he  considers  Asia,  not 
Europe,  his  home,- — he  believes  his  mortal  remains  will  be  better  protected  from  the  profanation 
of  the  infidel : but  perhaps  none  of  the  myriads  which  now  sleep  in  the  dust  ever  dreamt  that 
some  25,000  Giaours  or  infidels  would,  in  the  year  of  Hegira  1270,  be  taking  their  pastime 
among  the  cypress  groves  of  Scutari.  This  Asiatic  suburb,  although  said  to  be  as  large  and  populous 
as  Smyrna,  has  more  the  aspect  of  a village  than  a large  town,  except  about  the  port.  I speak 
of  its  ordinary  appearance,  it  occupies  the  site  of  the  ancient  Chrysopolis,  and  was  in  the  time  of 
the  Crusades  covered  with  the  armies  of  Godfrey  de  Boulogne.  I have  already  said  that  it  was  upon 
those  heights  above  the  port  where  Constantine  triumphed  over  the  last  of  his  rivals  for  empire 
the  unfortunate  Licinius  was  taken  captive  to  adorn  the  triumph  of  the  conqueror.  The  barracks 
which  are,  or  have  been  occupied  by  the  British  troops,  were  originally  built  by  Sultan  Selim,  and 
after  being  burnt  in  the  J anissary  war  of  1832,  were  reconstructed  as  they  now  exist  by  the  father  of 


166 


the  present  Sultan.  The  gaiety  which  reigns  around  the  open  fields  and  barracks  of  Scutari,  contrast 
strangely  with  the  gloom  of  the  sepulchres : life  and  death  appear  to  go  hand  in  hand.  Under  the 
shade  of  the  cypress  trees  are  groups  of  females  in  gay  attire,  resting  against  the  painted  turbans  on 
the  tombs,  and  squatting  on  the  graves  of  their  relatious  ; the  merry  laugh  goes  round,  and  not  a thought 
of  gloom  appears  to  cross  their  revelry.  The  Arlabats  which  jingle  past  are  saluted  from  the  tombs 
as  gaily  as  from  the  balcony,  and  the  grave  which  has  not  yet  grown  green  is  the  scene  of  life  among 
the  dead.  The  most  imposing  tomb  I saw  was  formed  of  a canopy  resting  on  four  columns,  covering 
an  ample  space  ; it  was  the  resting  place  of  no  distinguished  warrior  or  statesman,  but  the  tomb  of 
Sultan  Osman’s  favourite  horse.  The  great  sight  at  Scutari  is  the  performance  of  the  howling  der- 
vishes, but  the  description  of  “ this  religious  liberty  ” I leave  to  “ our  own  correspondent.”  "We  now 
leave  the  Asiatic  suburb  of  Constantinople,  and  for  a general  survey  of  the  places  I have  so  far 
described,  I shall  ask  you  to  accompany  me  to  the  top  of  the  Seraskier’s  tower  (F).  It  stands  within 
the  enclosure  of  the  old  seraglio,  and  on  the  highest  ground  in  Stamboul.  From  this  advantageous 
position  the  spectator  may  trace  the  outlines  of  the  seven  hills  on  which  the  city  of  Constantine, 
like  Rome,  was  built.  The  space  occupied  by  those  seven  hills  was  divided  into  thirteen  regions,  the 
one  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  canal  made  the  fourteenth,  although  it  was  the  thirteenth  in  numerical 
order.  The  XI Y.  regions  were  no  doubt  in  imitation  of  the  internal  arrangements  of  Rome,  made  by 
Augustus  : by  the  help  of  the  Notitia,  and  by  the  measurements  given  in  it,  we  may  ascertain  much  of 
the  topography  of  the  ancient  city. 

THE  SEYEX  HILLS  OF  CONSTANTINOPLE. 

The  number  seven  is  all  the  resemblance  that  exists  between  the  hills  of  Rome  and  those  of 
Constantinople,  no  renown  hovers  above  the  Byzantine  topography,  the  hills  have  not  even  names, 
and  glory  has  not  left  so  much  as  her  twilight  to  preserve  them  from  oblivion ; they  may  however  be 
traced,  and  their  outlines  be  as  strongly  drawn  as  the  Esquilise  and  Yiminal,  and  the  Quirinal  of  Rome, 
which  is  not  saying  much.  A topographical  survey  of  the  city  of  the  East,  is  not  complete  without 
them,  but  I shall  do  little  more  than  point  out  to  you  their  positions  by  citing  the  most  conspicuous 
buildings  which  stand  upon  each.  The  first  may  be  limited  by  the  Seraglio  walls,  and  comprises  all  the 
space  on  which  St.  Sophia  and  its  appendages  now  stand  (A) ; the  second  may  be  traced  from  the 
Mosque  of  Sultan  Achmet  (B),  in  a line  towards  the  Osmanea  (C)  ; and  the  Bezestein,  “ the  burnt 
pillar,”  to  which  we  shall  shortly  return,  stands  on  the  most  elevated  part  of  it,  and  its  outline  may 
be  followed  towards  the  Propontes  at  the  Tchatladi  Capoussee  (20) ; these  two  hills  may  be  considered 
as  comprising  the  site  of  the  ancient  Byzantium.  The  third  hill  is  crowned  by  the  splendid  Solimanea 
(E)  and  its  extensive  dependencies ; it  comprises  the  ground  on  which  stands  the  Mosque  of  Sultan 
Bajazet  (D),  including  the  Seraskier’s  Tower  on  which  we  are  now  supposed  to  be  standing,  and  reach- 
ing to  the  Yalide  Han,  falls  away  towards  the  port.  The  fourth  hill  begins  with  the  Aqueduct  of 
Yalens,  and  comprising  the  ground  which  rises  above  the  old  quarters  of  the  Janissaries,  it  ascends  to 
Sultan  Mahomet’s  Mosque  (G),  and  turns  by  the  south  side  of  the  Fanar  into  the  valley  west  below 
the  old  Seraglio.  The  fifth  hill  is  distinguished  by  Sultan  Selim’s  Mosque  (L),  and  comprises  all  the 
Fanar  down  to  the  Golden  Horn.  The  sixth  hill,  if  hill  it  may  be  called,  includes  about  one-third  of 
the  entire  space  within  the  circuit  of  the  walls,  extending  lengthways  from  below  the  Mosque  of 
Sultan  Mahomet  to  the  seven  towers.  In  the  year  413  Theodosius  enclosed  this  space,  and  thirty  years 
after,  when  the  wall  had  been  thrown  down  by  an  earthquake,  it  was  restored  by  the  Prefect  Cyrus, 
whose  glory  so  far  eclipsed  that  of  Theodosius  the  younger,  that  the  people  proposed  to  change  the 
name  of  that  part  of  the  city  and  call  it  Cyropolis.  Theodosius  became  jealous  of  the  restorer  of  the 
walls,  and  it  is  said  put  him  within  the  strong  walls  of  a monastery,  after  having  caused  him  to  be 
shorn,  and  there  he  died  of  grief.  The  remaining  hill  reaches  beyond,  and  comprises  the  quarter  of  the 


Vincent  Brooks  Lith.Xing  St  Covent,  Garden 


C YCARTTM 


# 

■ 


167 


Blachern®  which  was  left  without  the  walls  of  Theodosius.  The  Emperor  Ileraclius  added  this  to  the 
city,  and  so  entitled  it  to  be  called  seven-hilled.  The  most  conspicuous  object  on  this  seventh  hill  is 
Moribos  Sultana  Djami.  I liavo  already  remarked,  that  as  there  were  seven  hills,  so  were  there  also 
fourteen  regioncs ; each  contained  a number  of  public  buildings  which  are  enumerated  in  the  “ Notitia,” 
but  little  remains  of  any  of  them  to  tell  the  tale,  or  to  give  tho  antiquary  the  pleasure  of  disputing. 
Time,  war,  fire,  and  the  destructive  tendencies  of  the  T urks,  have  effaced  the  monuments  of  former 
ages,  and  if  we  would  enjoy  the  view  from  the  Seraskier  Tower,  we  must  invoke  the  muse  of  history, 
rather  than  the  sullen  genius  of  antiquity.  We  are  here  on  the  theatre  of  the  world’s  exploits.  A 
narrow  channel  divides  Asia  from  Europe,  those  two  quarters  of  the  world  which  until  modern  times 
had  monopolized  the  human  race,  and  those  arts  which  adorn  its  existence  ; the  very  waters  of  the 
Bosphorus  are  immortalized  by  deeds  consigned  to  the  lasting  page  of  history.  Over  it  once  passed 
the  innumerable  phalanxes  of  Darius,  the  ten  thousand  warriors  of  Xenophon,  and  the  crusading  hosts 
of  the  pious  Godfrey ; upon  it  the  celebrated  Doria  destroyed  three  hostile  fleets  in  a single  battle. 
Beyond  it  rises  the  first  city  in  Asia,  Scutari,  the  ancient  Chrysopolis ; near  it,  keeping  one  of  the 
portals  of  the  Propontis,  is  Kadikeu  or  Chalcedon,  the  school  of  sacred  learning,  but  the  scene 
of  religious  disorder ; around  us  at  our  feet  are  the  hills  we  have  just  been  tracing  out,  marked  by 
some  conspicuous  object  which  tells  us  we  are  in  the  city  of  the  Sultans  ; the  gigantic  Mosque  of  St. 
Sophia  is  not  entirely  despoiled  of  that  reverence  which  belonged  to  it  in  the  days  of  John  Chrysostom. 
The  eye  runs  over  the  magnificent  port  crowded  with  skiffs,  and  carrying  a whole  city  of  souls  upon  its 
buoyant  waters.  Opposite  is  Galata,  the  work  of  the  Genoese,  once  the  emporium  of  the  world,  and 
still  distinguished  by  the  colossal  towers  which  defend  it : the  countless  habitations  continue  as  far  as 
the  view  extends,  up  the  Bosphorus  and  the  Canal.  On  the  south  glitter,  on  the  Sea  of  Marmora,  the 
Isles  of  the  Princes,  Akalki,  Antigone,  and  Proti,  the  alluring  retreats  of  the  idle  and  wealthy ; and 
finally  the  horizon  is  bounded  by  the  azure  tops  of  1,000  far-famed  hills,  amidst  which,  as  a sovereign 
among  his  subjects,  towers  the  lofty  Olympus.  We  shall  now  descend  into  the  streets  of  Constanti- 
nople, and  see  what  the  ravages  of  time  and  fire  have  left  for  the  antiquary  and  the  topographer,  and 
what  recompense  we  have  under  the  Mahommedan  regime  for  the  loss  of  our  Boman  buildings. 
Constantinople  under  the  reigns  of  Arcadius  and  Honorius  (who  divided  the  empire  between  them 
into  East  and  West,  a.d.  380),  contained  4,388  houses,  besides  fourteen  extensive  palaces  or  mansions, 
it  contained  eight  Therm®  or  large  bath  establishments,  two  basilicas,  two  forums,  two  senate  houses, 
two  theatres,  fifty-two  porticoes,  153  private  baths,  twenty  public  swimming  schools,  the  purple 
column,  two  other  honorary  columns,  and  one  colossus,  a mint,  a capitol,  four  harbours,  a circus, 
together  with  cisterns,  nympluea,  and  other  objects  necessary  for  a great  city  ; thirteen  Curators  and 
sixty-five  Yico-magistri  had  the  care  of  the  whole;  and  there  were  at  that  time  only  fourteen  Churches. 
It  will  be  seen  from  the  above  enumeration,  that  the  City  of  the  East  bore  no  comparison  to  Imperial 
Borne,  either  in  the  splendour  or  quantity  of  public  edifices.  The  Goths  and  Vandals  spared  more  of 
Borne  than  the  Turks  have  done  of  Constantinople,  and  the  basilicas  and  museums  supplied  by  Popes, 
have  by  far  outshone  in  splendour  and  magnitude  the  mosques  and  Hanes  of  a line  of  Sultans.  The 
Hippodrome  (d)  is  the  first  object  of  antiquity  that  attracts  our  notice,  and  npon  its  now  disfigured 
arena,  “ we  are  met  by  the  shades  of  Justinian  and  Belisarius.”  The  Turks  call  it  by  a name  which 
denotes  its  original  purpose,  Atmeidan,  or  the  place  of  horses.  Septimus  Severus  first  made  a circus 
in  the  midst  of  the  ancient  Byzantium,  modelled,  no  doubt,  after  the  Circus  Maximus  at  Borne,  and 
this  afterwards  became  the  Hippodrome ; the  space  which  was  the  arena  is  yet  clear  of  buildings. 
Three  monuments  of  antiquity  remain  in  their  original  positions — 1.  a half  ruined  pyramid  of  stone, 
which  it  appears  from  an  inscription  was  covered  with  bronze  by  Constantine  Porphyrogenitus. 
2.  The  twisted  column  of  the  bronze  serpents,  and  3.  an  Egyptian  obelisk : all  these  stand  in  a line,  and 
I have  little  doubt  they  formed  some  of  the  ornaments  of  the  Spina ; there  is  a bas-relief  on  the 


168 


obelisk  which  I take  to  be  a representation  of  the  Spina ; from  the  stone  pyramid  to  the  twisted 
column  I measured  forty-seven  paces,  to  the  obelisk  twenty-two ; the  whole  length  of  the  Hippodrome 
I calculated  at  1,000  feet,  that  is  about  half  the  length  of  the  Circus  Maximus  at  Rome.  I need  not 
stay  to  describe  the  Pyramid  of  Stones,  it  is  a rude  work  and  merits  little  observation,  but  the  Twisted 
Column  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  classical  monuments  in  existence  ; no  one  ever  doubted  that  this 
curious  relic  was  brought  from  the  Delphic  temple,  and  was  the  consecrated  offering  of  the  Greeks 
after  the  glorious  defeat  of  Xerxes.  Gibbon  dwells  upon  this  relic  with  delight,  and  even  his  sceptical 
mind  admits  that  it  is  genuine.  It  now  stands  about  eleven  feet  above  ground,  three  serpents’  tails 
are  twisted  together  into  a column,  their  heads  supported  the  golden  tripod,  which,  of  course,  has 
disappeared.  Mahmoud  with  a stroke  of  his  battle-axe  broke  one  of  the  serpents,  and  the  other  two  heads 
have  gone  with  the  golden  tripod.  If  this  relic  were  still  at  Delphi,  it  might  be  doubtful,  whether  it 
should  follow  the  destiny  of  the  Elgin  marbles  ; but  our  allies,  the  Turks,  are  little  curious  upon  these 
classical  subjects ; they  have  long  ago  scratched  Arabic  characters  upon  the  folds  of  this  Delphic 
column,  and  in  the  hollow  of  the  bronze  they  have  amused  themselves  by  inserting  stones ; under 
these  circumstances,  I would  encourage  the  idea  of  enriching  our  national  depository  of  antiquities 
with  the  Twisted  Column,  and  I should  imagine,  that  a piece  of  cannon  being  of  equal  weight  with 
the  bronze,  would  be  considered  an  ample  equivalent  for  a useless  piece  of  antiquity.  The  Obelisk 
was  set  up  in  the  reign  of  Theodosius,  as  it  appears  from  incriptions  still  legible  on  the  lower  plinth  of 
the  pedestal ; it  would  occupy  me  some  time  if  I were  to  attempt  to  describe  and  translate  the  bas- 
reliefs,  and  inscriptions,  Greek  and  Latin,  which  are  seen  on  the  four  faces  of  the  Obelisk  : I hope  the 
task  may  be  performed  by  some  of  our  centurions  during  the  vacancy  at  Constantinople.  The  four 
steeds  of  brass  now  glowing  before  St.  Mark’s  at  Venice,  “ their  gilded  collars  glittering  in  the  sun,” 
were  taken  from  this  Hippodrome,  and  most  probably  stood  over  the  Porta  Pomps,  that  is  the  gate 
by  which  the  processions  entered  the  arena,  through  the  middle  of  the  “ Carceres.”  The  factions  of 
the  blues  and  greens,  which  once  shook  the  walls  of  this  Hippodrome  have  long  since  ceased,  but  the 
scenes  of  cruelty  and  bloodshed  of  which  this  arena  was  the  witness,  inflicted  such  a wound  on  Oriental 
Christianity,  that  Mahommedanism  had  at  last  an  easy  victory.  The  Moslem  has  now  enjoyed  his 
triumph  of  a thousand  years,  his  dusky  wings  have  overspread  the  fairest  regions  of  the  East. 

“ While  blasted  by  his  crescent’s  dreadful  glare, 

The  bloom  of  science  and  of  genius  dies  ! ” 

There  were  several  triumphal  columns  in  Constantinople,  one  in  honor  of  Theodosius,  which  stood 
on  the  seventh  or  most  remote  hill,  and  on  each  side  were  the  statues  of  Arcadius  and  Honorius;  these 
are  no  longer  existing,  except  in  the  pictures  of  Gentile  Bellini ; but  near  to  the  Avret  Bazaar,  there 
stands  a pedestal  sustaining  the  Torus  of  a column’s  base,  and  this  was  the  pillar  of  Arcadius.  Not 
far  from  the  Shah  Zadi  Dgiami  (M),  or  Mosque  of  the  Sultan’s  Son,  stands  a column  called  by  the 
Turks  “Kistash,”  or  the  Virgin’s  stone  (F)  ; the  basement  and  pedestal  are  of  marble,  the  shaft  of 
granite,  and  it  has  suffered  by  fire ; on  the  upper  plinth  we  can  still  decipher  the  three  words,  Quod 
Tatianu  sopus:  but  the  English  traveller,  Wheeler,  read  the  whole  inscription : it  was  erected  to  Tatian, 
by  the  Emperor  Marcian,  who  ascended  the  Byzantine  throne  in  450 : the  capital  is  a ponderous 
weight  of  marble  placed  on  a tall  shaft,  and  it  would  require  all  the  skill  and  knowledge  of  this  Insti- 
tute to  explain  the  winged  figures  and  the  monograms  which  appear  on  the  capital  and  the  pedestal : 
such  caprices  generally  mark  a period  of  decline  in  art  and  genius,  not  unlike  some  authors,  who,  for 
want  of  originality,  fill  up  their  pages  with  inapt  quotations,  and  try  to  conceal  the  theft.  The 
Aqueduct  of  Valens  is  best  seen  near  the  At  Bazaar,  or  horse  market ; its  origin,  no  doubt,  is  Roman, 
but  its  conspicuous  rows  of  arches  are  chiefly  the  patchwork  of  the  Sultans.  The  next  object  of 
antiquity  worthy  of  notice,  is  the  Burnt  Pillar,  which  has  attracted  the  special  notice  of  travellers  (e), 


169 


it  is  of  porphyry,  the  shaft  composed  of  several  pieces,  the  jointures  concealed  by  garlands ; it  is  now 
bound  iu  several  places  with  iron  bands  to  keep  together  the  calcinated  pieces  loosened  by  the  fire ; it 
is  said  to  have  been  brought  by  Constantine  from  Eomo,  and  on  the  top  was  a statue  of  Apollo ; on 
the  upper  part  is  an  inscription  bearing  the  name  of  Manuel  Comnenus  as  the  restorer.  When 
Mahmoud  II.  entered  Constantinople,  the  Greeks  had  a prophecy,  that  when  the  invaders  arrived  at  the 
Burnt  Pillar  they  would  be  stopt  by  the  destroying  angel ; but  the  prophecy  did  not  come  true.  Pocock 
observes,  that  Arius  died  near  this  column ; very  near  to  it  are  the  subterraneous  cisterns,  two  of 
them  now  dry,  and  only  used  for  spinning  silk  and  making  ropes  ; in  one  of  them  (h),  I counted  five 
divisions  supported  by  thirty-two  granite  columns  of  perfect  symmetry ; the  second  is  said  to  have 
1,001  columns,  which  is  just  the  number  of  stories  in  the  Arabian  Nights  Entertainment,  but  I did 
not  take  the  trouble  to  verify  the  number.  There  is  a third  cistern  which  still  serves  the  original 
purpose  (k),  it  is  called  Batan  Serai,  and  Gyllius  counted  in  it  336  columns ; it  best  explains  the 
nature  and  objects  of  those  large  works  made  by  the  Greek  Emperors  for  supplying  the  city  with  fresh 
water ; they  appear  to  have  attracted  the  attention  of  our  countrymen  more  than  any  other  object  of 
antiquity,  and  I can  conceive  a practical  engineer,  or  even  the  commissariat,  prefering  the ' Cisterns  to 
the  Burnt  Pillar  or  the  Twisted  Column.  The  rest  of  the  antiquities  of  Constantinople  must  be  sought 
for  in  the  walls  of  Mosques  and  in  the  gardens  of  the  inhabitants  ; fragments  of  marble  are  frequently 
turned  into  stepping-stones  in  the  street,  and  pieces  of  statues  inserted  into  houses  ; you  occasionally 
stumble  over  a broken  shaft,  or  you  may  hurt  your  shin  against  the  corner  of  a votive  altar,  you  may 
fancy  you  have  found  an  inscription  which  is  to  throw  light  upon  your  topography,  but  approaching  to 
read,  it  turns  out  to  be  a verse  of  the  Koran,  or  Mahommed  is  his  prophet.  There  is  yet,  however,  much 
that  an  antiquary,  if  he  had  time  and  a pickaxe,  might  evolve  out  of  “ the  double  night  of  ages  and  of 
ignorance and  perhaps  this  new  sort  of  a column  into  which  English,  French  and  Turks  are  twisted 
now,  may  lead  to  some  excavations  that  will  bring  to  light  a work  of  Phidias,  or  one  of  the  Oboli  dropped 
into  the  begging  bag  of  Belisarius  ! I did  not  profess,  in  offering  this  paper  to  the  Institute,  to  attempt 
any  account  or  description  of  the  modem  buildings  of  Stamboul,  not  for  want  of  matter,  but  for  want 
of  time ; and  in  order  to  maintain  a certain  consistency  with  the  heading  of  our  conversazione  ; but 
before  I conclude  this  paper,  I will  venture  upon  two  specimens  of  existing  objects  respectively 
belonging  to  the  religion  of  Turks  and  Christians,  I mean  a Mosque  and  a Church.  The  Mosque  of 
Sultan  Achmet,  erected  in  1610,  is  doubtless  one  of  the  finest  buildings  the  Turks  ever  produced,  it 
is  the  only  one  that  has  six  minarets.  The  Osmanea,  built  by  Osmyn  III,  is  also  worthy  to  be  men- 
tioned. The  Valide,  built  by  the  mother  of  Mahomet  IV,  is  another  of  the  chief  Turkish  temples, 
but  the  Mosque  I shall  take  as  a specimen  is  the  one  I obtained  access  to,  the  Solimanea.  The  Sultan, 
Soliman  XIV.  Emperor  of  the  Turks,  was  fully  entitled  by  the  laws  of  the  Koran  to  erect  a temple, 
for  he  had  subdued  provinces  in  three  out  of  the  four  quarters  of  the  world,  he  was  contemporary  with 
Charles  V,  and  struck  terror  into  the  European  sovereigns.  Returning  from  his  conquests  of  Rhodes 
and  Bagdat,  he  reared  this  stately  Mosque,  where  the  rules  of  Mahommedan  architecture  are  strictly 
followed,  it  was  mainly  built  out  of  the  spoils  of  the  ancient  Chalcedon.  A fine  quadrangular  court, 
like  the  cloister  of  a monastery  in  form,  is  supported  by  ancient  columns  of  granite  and  porphyry,  in 
the  midst  is  the  fountain  for  the  religious  ablutions  of  the  Musselmans  ; the  whole  magnitude  of  the 
interior  is  displayed  to  the  eye  of  the  stranger  at  his  first  entrance.  There  are  no  nefs  or  subdivisions 
to  obstruct  the  full  comprehension  of  the  whole  space  enclosed.  The  dome,  supported  upon  four 
splendid  granite  columns,  covers  the  whole  space  on  which  we  stand,  and  Pantheon-like  gathers  and 
eats  up  all  the  air  around  it.  The  lamps  suspended  and  crossed  in  all  directions,  add  as  little  to  the 
simplicity  and  dignity  of  the  interior,  as  the  innumerable  wax-lights  and  festoons  of  the  Romans  add 
to  their  Basilicas.  On  the  side  opposite  the  entrance  are  several  stained  glass  windows,  reported  to 
have  been  done  by  some  artists  from  Persia ; the  colours  are  rich  but  generally  much  deeper  than  in 


170 


our  cathedrals.  The  Keble,  or  Caaba,  is  on  the  same  side : here  the  chief  Mufti  says  his  prayers,  on 
his  left  he  has  an  elevated  pulpit  from  which  he  expounds  the  Koran ; opposite  this  is  the  seat  of  the 
Mollah ; these  are  arranged  as  systematically  as  any  of  our  modern  Sedilia.  On  the  right, 
but  not  conspicuous,  is  the  Sultan’s  seat  whenever  he  chooses  to  pray  at  the  Solimanea;  behind 
the  pillars  and  in  the  recesses  of  the  walls  are  seen  the  worshippers,  some  praying,  and  others 
reading  the  Koran  aloud,  copies  of  which,  as  our  Bibles  used  to  be  in  days  of  scarcity,  are  chained 
to  the  walls.  We  walk  round  the  whole  of  the  interior  with  shoeless  feet  upon  smooth  matting,  the 
Caaba  only  is  carpeted,  and  a Mollah  keeps  an  eye  upon  the  Giaours  aud  their  piastres,  as  they  dare 
to  violate  this  sanctuary  of  Ismalism.  Near  to  this  Mosque,  in  a garden,  is  the  Mausoleum  of  Soliman 
and  his  relations,  an  octagonal  building  covered  by  a neat  dome,  but  I must  omit  the  detailed  descrip- 
tion. The  number  of  Imperial  Mosques  are  seven  in  all,  a remarkable  coincidence  with  the  seven 
Basilicas  of  Borne  ; these  (I  mean  the  Mosques)  are — 

S.  Sophia.  The  Solimanea. 

Sultan  Mahomed.  Sultan  Achmet. 

Sultan  Selim.  The  Osmaynea. 

and  the  Sultan  Bajazet. 

Except  the  one  of  Sultan  Achmet,  they  have  all  four  minarets  each,  and  large  groups  of  cupolas. 

As  the  specimen  of  a Christian  place  of  worship  I shall  take  the  patriarchal  church  of  St.  George, 
which  stands  just  within  Petri  Capoussi,  a gate  of  the  Eanar.  In  entering  the  court  the  visitor  is 
seized  with  a shuddering  fit,  when  he  is  told  that  he  is  passing  under  the  beam  to  which  the  aged 
patriarch  Gregory  was  suspended,  in  his  pontifical  robes,  on  Easter  Sunday  1821.  The  Jews  took  his 
body,  and  with  mockery  and  insult  threw  it  into  the  canal,  mutilated  and  bleeding.  The  thrilling 
effect  which  this  inhuman  murder  produced  throughout  Christendom,  contributed  greatly  to  the  Greek 
cause,  which  issued  in  independence.  The  interior  of  the  cathedral  boasts  of  no  richness  of  material, 
but  it  is  kept  clean ; there  is  a screen  in  better  taste  than  in  most  of  the  Greek  churches.  They  show 
the  episcopal  chair  of  burnished  wood,  which  is  said  to  be  the  cathedra  of  John  Chrysostom,  but  this 
seems  to  be  too  much  even  for  the  credulity  of  an  Asiatic  Greek  Christian.  The  column  to  which  they 
say  the  Saviour  was  bound,  is  held  in  greater  veneration  ; the  expounder  did  not  seem  to  be  aware  that 
there  were  several  others  in  the  Latin  part  of  the  world  : the  frieze  under  the  gallery  is  painted  by 
some  Italian  artist,  who,  perhaps,  followed  in  the  steps  of  Bellini  from  Venice.  A coarse  mosaic  of 
the  Virgin,  and  some  ordinary  Greek  paintings,  decorate  the  walls  around  the  inner  sanctuary,  and  the 
gilding  of  the  screen  is  perhaps  the  richest  ornament  the  Oriental  church  possesses.  This  cathedral, 
for  such  we  must  call  it,  can  accommodate  600  or  700  persons  at  one  time,  and  it  is  the  largest 
and  best  conditioned  Christian  temple  in  Constantinople ; close  adjoining  to  it  is  the  patriarch’s 
dwelling,  a remarkable  contrast  with  the  splendid  palaces  of  his  brother  of  the  "West,  “ The  most  Holy 
Anthemos”  seemed  to  me  to  be  more  happy  with  one  chamber  to  sleep  in,  and  another  in  which  to 
drink  his  coffee,  than  his  more  fortunate  competitor  for  sacerdotal  dominion,  with  eleven  hundred 
chambers  at  the  Vatican,  and  a palace  at  Castel  Gandolfo.  But  here  we  pause.  I dare  not  venture  up 
the  Bosphorus  into  the  Black  Sea,  although  there  are  many  objects  of  classical  interest  which  that 
excursion  would  afford.  If  the  Peace  Society  should  allow  the  war  to  go  on  for  another  of  your  sessions, 
I shall  think  it  my  duty  to  tell  all  I know  of  Beicos  Bay,  and  the  fortresses  on  both  sides  the  stream, 
built  by  Prench  engineers  during  the  latter  half  of  last  century,  perhaps  for  Ereneh  artillery  to  knock 
down  during  the  present.  Constantinople  has  its  Campagna  as  well  as  Borne,  and  the  coast  of  the 
Euxine  Sea  is  now  becoming  as  celebrated  as  the  Lavinian  shores.  We  do  not  know  what  another 
year  may  bring  forth,  but  some  great  change  is  inevitable,  or  “ where  the  Bussian  Ksar 
******  or  sultan  in  Bizance 
Turchestan  born.” — (Milton.) 


171 


It  is  still  possible  we  may  have  an  excavation  in  Constantinople,  and  a free  admission  for  Franks  into 
Santa  Sophia.  The  patriarch  may  possibly  get  an  additional  wing  to  St.  George,  and  the  Crescent  and 
the  Cross  may  appear  on  the  same  standard  which  is  to  wave  on  the  ruins  of  Sebastopol  and  avenge 
Sinope ; “ sed  nos  hacc  grandia  hand  conamur,”  you  will  not  be  surprised  to  hear,  “ that  the  weapon 
which  my  Spirit  yields  is  of  another  temper.”  I have  more  confidence  in  a Peace  Society  which  was 
instituted  eighteen  centuries  ago,  and  which  has  been  waging  war  with  the  powers  of  evil  ever  since? 
but  its  legitimate  weapons  are  not  of  stool,  nor  its  artillery  of  brass  and  iron  ; it  proposes  to  overcome, 
and  finally  to  triumph,  by  the  simple  proclamation  of  “ peace  on  earth  and  goodwill  towards  men,” 
and  I look  forward  to  the  sower  going  out  to  sow  in  peace  when  the  battle  of  the  warrior  has  ceased. 
The  highway  to  the  East  will  be  made  for  all  nations,  and  who  knows  but  the  Jews  may  dwell  in  their 
own  land.  The  artist  may  make  his  cheap  excursion  in  the  same  steamboat  which  will  carry  the 
biblical  student  to  the  land  of  Armenia  ; and  the  architect  may  still  measure  the  columns  which  are 
concealed  at  Derbe  and  at  Lystra,  where  the  gods  were  supposed  once  to  have  come  down  in  the  likeness 
of  men.  The  gates  of  Constantinople  shall  stand  open  to  receive  the  civilising  influences  which  always 
follow  in  the  train  of  the  Christian  missionary,  witness  New  Zealand  and  Sierra  Leone,  and  the  regions 
round  about  Abbeokouta.  A summer  excursion  will  be  more  easily  made  than  it  was  in  1834,  when 
the  humble  individual  who  has  now  tried  the  patience  of  his  audience,  gathered  up  the  materials  which 
have  enabled  him  to  compile  this  paper,  chiefly  out  of  his  own  book,  on  the  Topography  and  Antiquities 
of  Constantinople. 

Mr.  T.  H.  Wyatt,  V.P.,  Chairman,  proposed  the  thanks  of  the  Institute  to  Mr.  Burgess  for 
his  brilliant  and  learned  paper,  which  had  lost  none  of  the  grace  and  spirit  of  his  former  communications. 

Mr.  Tite,  Fellow,  entirely  concurred  in  the  eulogium  of  the  chairman.  He  hoped,  however, 
Mr.  Burgess  would  not  consider  that  he  had  communicated  all  his  information  respecting  Constanti- 
nople, inasmuch  as  very  little  had  been  said  about  St.  Sophia,  and  he  hoped  therefore  the  Institute  might 
be  favoured  with  another  paper  on  that  remarkable  building,  of  which  comparatively  little  was  known 
in  this  country.  The  drawings  of  the  Mahomedan  buildings  at  Bejapoor,  now  exhibited  by  Colonel 
Sykes,  were  proofs  of  the  skill  of  the  Mahomedans  as  architects.*  The  style  which  they  adopted 
was  peculiar,  and  no  doubt  scientific.  The  same  sentiment  and  mode  of  construction  might  be 
traced  in  Turkey,  throughout  the  whole  of  India,  and  in  the  Alhambra. 

Mr.  Donaldson,  Hon.  Sec.  For.  Cor.,  observed,  that  the  mosque  of  St.  Sophia  was  the  work  of 
Greek  and  not  Mahomedan  architects,  It  would  be  interesting  to  know  the  history  of  the  other 
mosques  at  Constantinople,  and  whether  they  also  owed  their  origin  to  Greek  architects.  Their  simi- 

* In  reference  to  these  drawings  Me.  Donaldson  observed,  that  they  were  especially  interesting,  from  the  elaborate  and 
careful  manner  in  which  they  had  been  prepared,  and  as  illustrations  of  the  employment  of  colour  and  mosaics. 

Colonel  Sykes,  Visitor,  stated  that  the  drawings  referred  to  were  due  to  the  suggestion  of' a member  of  the  Institute,  Mr. 
Fergusson,  who  strongly  urged  the  importance  of  having  plans  and  sections  of  these  buildings,  especially  of  the  great  dome  of  the 
Gol  Goomuz,  the  diameter  of  the  lower  octagon  of  which  was  no  less  than  135  feet.  Orders  were  accordingly  sent  out  to  the 
government  of  Bombay,  and,  under  the  superintendence  of  Mr.  Frere,  the  distinguished  Commissioner  of  Scinde,  who  was  a great 
lover  of  art,  the  seventy-four  plans,  elevations,  and  sections  now  submitted  to  the  meeting  had  been  prepared  ; and  so  accurately 
had  this  been  done,  that  it  would  he  quite  practicable  to  reconstruct  the  buildings  from  these  drawings  alone.  These  buildings 
were  erected  by  a dynasty  (comprising  five  or  six  kings),  which  was  put  an  end  to  by  Aurungzehe,  in  the  seventeenth  century, 
and  which  had  expended  vast  sums  of  money,  and  displayed  great  taste  in  architecture,  as  the  Mahomedans  always  did.  The 
beauty  and  harmony  of  the  colouring  in  these  works,  was  especially  characteristic  and  remarkable.  In  reply  to  Mr.  Tite, 
Colonel  Sykes  added,  that  the  buildings  in  question  were  constructed  of  brick  and  slate,  the  latter  admitting  of  a durable 
polish.  The  surrounding  country  was  flat,  and  whatever  stone  was  used,  had  to  be  brought  from  a considerable  distance. 
Hitherto  it  had  been  presumed  that  no  marble  adapted  for  building  or  statuary  was  to  he  met  with  in  India,  but  from  intelligence 
received  by  the  last  mail,  it  appeared  that  through  the  energy  and  zeal  of  the  gentleman  in  charge  of  the  museum  of  mineralogy 
at  Madras,  some  very  fine  marble  had  been  discovered  in  many  districts.  Colonel  Sykes  briefly  described  the  composition  of 
the  chunam  (so  called)  or  stucco  forming  the  surface  of  the  walls. 


172 


larity  of  plan  rather  favoured  this  idea;  hut  it  was  a question  well  deserving  study,  how  far  the  Turks 
had  departed  from  that  type  and  added  new  features  to  it.  Signor  Fossati,  who  had  been  employed  to 
restore  the  mosque  of  St.  Sophia,  had  published  an  instructive  illustrative  work  on  that  building. 
And  this  study  would  he  further  facilitated  by  an  important  work,  now  in  course  of  publication  at 
Berlin  by  Salzenberg,  a German  architect,  who  had  been  sent  out  on  purpose  to  examine,  and  take 
plans  and  details  of  the  Greek  churches  of  Constantinople. 

Mr.  Burgess  stated,  that  he  had  never  been  inside  the  mosque  of  St.  Sophia,  to  which  admission 
was  not  obtained  without  much  greater  difficulty  than  in  the  case  of  other  mosques.  He  believed  that 
all  the  Turkish  mosques  were  built  upon  the  plan  of  St.  Sophia.  He  had  visited  one  at  Adrianople, 
which  corresponded  exactly  with  that  of  Solimanea,  which  he  had  described. 

Mr.  Alfred  Bailey,  Associate,  said  that,  having  been  very  recently  in  Constantinople,  he  was 
able  to  state  that  the  bigotry  against  Christians,  which  formerly  existed,  was  very  much  diminished. 
He  had  himself  been  in  at  least  three  dozen  mosques,  and  never  found  any  difficulty  in  obtaining  the 
necessary  firman,  with  the  aid  of  a few  piastres.  In  the  autumn  of  1852,  when  he  was  at  Constanti- 
nople, a fire  took  place  adjoining  the  Hippodrome,  which  exposed  to  view  an  immense  circular  wall, 
which  had  been  taken  for  a theatre,  but  which  at  all  events  proved  that  the  Hippodrome  had  formerly 
occupied  a much  larger  space  than  at  present.  He  might  observe  that  one  of  the  heads  of  the  serpents 
forming  the  twisted  column  of  bronze  (referred  to  by  Mr.  Burgess),  was  preserved  in  the  Museum  of  the 
Armoury,  and  that  in  one  of  the  outbuildings  of  the  church  of  St.  George  a museum  had  been  formed, 
in  which  a number  of  sarcophagi  and  other  objects  of  antiquity  were  preserved ; although  from  their 
religious  creed,  which  regarded  as  an  abomination  all  representations  of  the  living  form,  an  immense 
number  of  monuments  had  been  destroyed  by  the  Turks.  It  was  to  be  regretted  that  the  church  of 
St.  Sophia,  like  other  Byzantine  works,  had  been  disfigured,  first  by  a coat  of  compo,  and  then  by  a 
coat  of  yellow  wash.  Upon  the  whole  there  could  not  be  a doubt  that  the  architects  of  Constantinople, 
who  had  produced  such  magnificent  mosques,  fountains,  &c.,  were  decidedly  great  artists,  and  had 
left  some  equivalent  for  the  older  works  which  they  had  destroyed. 

Mr.  Papworth,  Fellow,  suggested  that  it  appeared  from  the  best  authorities,  that  the  Mahom- 
edan  princes  and  nobles,  not  only  in  former  times  but  to  this  day,  employed  Armenian  Christians  as 
the  architects  and  builders  of  their  mosques  and  temples ; and  that  this  might  have  been  the  case  in 
Constantinople,  in  Egypt,  in  Syria,  and  even  in  the  north  of  India,  on  the  confines  of  Persia. 

Colonel  Sykes  said  that  this  was  not  the  fact  in  India. 

The  thanks  of  the  meeting  were  unanimously  voted  to  the  Rev.  Mr.  Burgess,  and  the  proceedings 
of  the  Session  terminated. 


ROYAL  INSTITUTE  OF  BRITISH  ARCHITECTS. 

Incorporated  in  tfje  £ebent|)  Pear  of  0Hilliam  IU. 


Patroness  . . THE  QUEEN. 

Patron  . . . H.  R.  H.  PRINCE  ALBERT. 


LIST  OF  THE  MEMBERS; 

THE  REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL 

Read  at  the  Annual  General  Meeting  held  2nd  May,  1853; 


WITH 

THE  BALANCE  SHEET, 

AND 

LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTIONS  TO  THE  COLLECTION  AND  LIBRARY. 


USUI  CIVIUM,  DECORI  urbium. 


LONDON  1853. 


PUBLISHED  AT  THE  ROOMS  OF  THE  INSTITUTE,  16,  GROSVENOR  STREET. 


LONDON:  PRINTED  BY  J.  DAVY  AND  SONS,  137,  LONG  ACRE. 


ROYAL  INSTITUTE  OF  BRITISH  ARCHITECTS 

Patrons . . her  majesty. 

patron  . . . . H.  R.  H.  PRINCE  ALBERT. 


LIST 

OF  OFFICE  BEARERS. 
1853. 

W.  S.  INMAN. 

COUNCIL. 

president. 

EARL  DE  GREY. 

I7t(e=If)restdents. 

D.  MOCATTA. 
T.  H.  WYATT. 

J.  J.  SCOLES. 

fiJonorarg  Secretaries. 

C.  C.  NELSON. 

H.  ASHTON. 

©rdtnarg  JFlembers  of  Counril. 

R.  C.  HUSSEY. 

J.  BELL,  M.P. 
G.  GODWIN. 

J.  T.  KNOWLES. 
G.  MAIR. 

J.  H.  GOOD,  Jun.  R.  W.  MYLNE. 

R.  HESKETH.  H.  ROBERTS. 

f&onorarg  gbetmarg  for  Jporrtgn  Correspondence. 

T.  L.  DONALDSON. 

/ 

Auditors. 

JOHN  WHICHCORD,  Jun.,  Fellow.  J.  PEACOCK,  Associate. 

treasurer  and  23anber» 

SIR  WALTER  ROCKLIFF  FARQ.UHAR,  Bart.,  16,  St.  James’s  Street. 

f^onorarg  Collator. 

WILLIAM  L.  DONALDSON,  18,  Southampton  Street,  Bloomsbury  Square. 


librarian. 

W.  A.  BUCKLEY,  Associate,  16,  Grosvenor  Street. 


4 


LIST  OF  MEMBERS. 


FELLOWS. 


(D)  Those  who  have  been  donors  to  the  Funds  or  Collection  to  the  amount  of  Five  Pounds  and  upwards, 
t Those  who  have  been  or  are  Vice  Presidents.  * Past  or  present  Members  of  the  Council. 

*George  Alexander,  Westrop  House,  Highworth,  Wilts. 

Geo.  Townsend  Andrews,  York. 

(d)  -|-*Samuel  Angell,  18,  Gower  Street,  Bedford  Square. 

Arthur  Ashpitel,  2,  Poets’  Corner,  Westminster,  and  Crown  Court,  Old 
Broad  Street. 

*Henry  Ashton,  6,  Half  Moon  Street,  Piccadilly. 

Henry  G.  Austin,  Canterbury. 

(d)  *George  Bailey,  13,  Lincoln’s  Inn  Fields. 

William  Barnes,  3,  Church  Court,  Old  Jewry. 

(d)  f*SiR  Charles  Barry,  1,  Old  Palace  Yard,  Westminster. 

* James  Bell,  M.P.,  1,  Devonshire  Place,  Portland  Place. 

Richard  Bell,  17,  Gracechurch  Street. 

(d)  f*TnoMAS  Bellamy,  8,  Charlotte  Street,  Bedford  Square. 

(d)  *W.  J.  Booth,  34,  Red  Lion  Square. 

(d)  *David  Brandon,  75,  Great  Russell  Street,  Bloomsbury  Square. 

David  Bryce,  Edinburgh. 

*J.  B.  Bunning,  Guilford  Street,  Russell  Square. 

(d)  ^William  Burn,  6,  Stratton  Street. 

John  Burrell,  144,  New  Bond  Street,  and  Grove  Hill,  Camberwell. 

(d)  fDECiMUS  Burton,  6,  Spring  Gardens. 

*Talbot  Bury,  50,  Welbeck  Street. 

^Robert  Dennis  Chantrell,  4,  St.  Mary’s  Road,  Cannonbury. 

Ewan  Christian,  10,  Whitehall  Place. 

Henry  Clutton,  8,  Whitehall  Place. 

(d)  fC.  R.  Cockerell,  Bank  of  England,  Professor  of  Architecture  at  the  Royal 
Academy. 

John  J.  Cole,  25,  Essex  Street,  Strand. 

*Joiin  Crake,  Datchet,  Bucks. 

C.  N.  Cumberlege,  John  Street,  Adelphi. 

(d)  *Thomas  Cundy,  13,  Chester  Square,  Pimlico. 

John  Davies,  33,  Great  St.  Helen’s,  Bishopsgate. 

John  Dobson,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

(d)  !*Thos.  Leverton  Donaldson,  Professor  of  Architecture  at  University  College, 
London,  Bolton  Gardens,  Russell  Square. 

*W.  John  Donthorn,  18,  Hanover  Street,  Hanover  Square 
Christopher  Eales,  4,  Chapel  Place,  Cavendish  Square. 

Francis  Edwards,  17,  Hart  Street,  Bloomsbury  Square. 


LIST  OF  MEMBERS. 


5 


*Benjamin  Ferrey,  1,  Trinity  Place,  Charing  Cross. 

(d)  f *Chaiiles  Fowler,  Fair  Seat,  Wrotham,  Kent. 

(d)  *Edward  M.  Foxiiall,  18,  South  Audley  Street. 

Charles  Freeman,  21,  Montague  Street,  Russell  Square. 

Thomas  Fulljames,  Barton  Street,  Gloucester. 

(d)  *John  B.  Gardiner,  Bank  Chambers,  Lothbury. 

(d)  *Henry  Garling,  27,  Bedford  Row. 

John  Gibson,  11,  Park  Street,  Westminster. 

(d)  *George  Godwin,  24,  Alexander  Square,  Brompton. 

J.  H.  Good,  Palace  Green,  Kensington. 

*J.  H.  Good,  Jun.,  75,  Hatton  Garden. 

(d)  H.  E.  Goodridge,  Bath. 

Benjamin  Green,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

J.  E.  Gregan,  Manchester. 

John  Griffith,  Finsbury  Place  South. 

W.  P.  Griffith,  9,  St.  John’s  Square,  Clerkenwell. 

(d)  *George  Gutcfi,  Porteus  House,  Paddington. 

W.  G.  Habersiion,  38,  Bloomsbury  Square. 

Matthew  Ellison  Hadfield,  Corn  Exchange  Chambers,  Sheffield. 

(d)  "j" Philip  Hardwick,  21,  Cavendish  Square. 

Philip  Charles  Hardwick,  21,  Cavendish  Square. 

William  Rooke  Harrison,  Hanover  Square,  Sheffield. 

^Robert  Hesketh,  95,  Wimpole  Street. 

(d)  J.  D.  Hopkins,  25,  Bedford  Square. 

*R.  C.  Hussey,  16,  King  William  Street,  Strand. 

*Edward  PAnson,  Jun.,  Lawrence  Pountney  Lane. 
fW.  S.  Inman,  Office  of  Works. 

^Joseph  Jennings,  14,  King  Street,  Portman  Square. 

(d)  Owen  Jones,  9,  Argyll  Place,  Regent  Street. 

(d)  f*H.  E.  Kendall,  17,  Suffolk  Street,  Pall  Mall  East. 

*H.  E.  Kendall,  Jun.,  33,  Brunswick  Square. 

*James  Thomas  Knowles,  1,  Raymond  Buildings,  Gray’s  Inn. 

Charles  Evans  Lang,  Adam  Street,  Adelphi. 

Edward  Lapidge,  2,  Derby  Street,  Westminster. 

G.  O.  Leicester,  28,  Nelson  Square,  Blackfriars  Road. 

T.  H.  Lewis,  70,  Baker  Street,  Portman  Square. 

William  Conrad  Lochner,  5,  West  Street,  Finsbury  Circus. 

*George  Mair,  41,  Upper  Bedford  Place,  Russell  Square. 

Richard  S.  Martyr,  Burney  Street,  Greenwich. 

*Charles  Mayhew,  14,  Argyll  Street,  Regent  Street. 

^Arthur  Mee,  58,  Pall  Mall. 

(d)  4*David  Mocatta,  29,  Gloucester  Square,  Hyde  Park,  and  57,  Old  Broad 
Street,  City. 

B 


6 


LIST  OF  MEMBERS. 


(d)  *George  Moore,  64,  Lincoln’s  Inn  Fields. 

J.  Morris,  15,  Duke  Street,  Adelphi. 

Andrew  Moseley,  53,  Great  Ormond  Street,  Queen  Square. 

* William  C.  Mylne,  New  River  Head. 

*R.  W.  Mylne,  Carlton  Chambers,  8,  Regent  Street. 

^Charles  C.  Nelson,  30,  Hyde  Park  Gardens. 

(d)  *James  Noble,  Battersea  House,  West  Battersea. 

(d)  *J.  W.  Papworth,  14a,  Great  Marlborough  Street. 

(d)  ^Charles  Parker,  16,  Tavistock  Street,  Bedford  Square. 

James  Pennethorne,  7,  Whitehall  Yard. 

*F.  C.  Penrose,  4,  Trafalgar  Square. 

Thomas  Penson,  Oswestry. 

William  W.  Pocock,  10,  Trevor  Terrace,  Knightsbridge. 

George  Porter,  Fort  Place,  Bermondsey. 

(d)  *George  Pownall,  37,  Bloomsbury  Square. 

(d)  ^William  Railton,  Carlton  Chambers,  12,  Regent  Street. 

Robert  Reid,  44,  Charlotte  Square,  Edinburgh. 

(d)  C.  J.  Richardson,  2,  Keppel  Street,  Russell  Square. 

(d)  *Henry  Roberts,  10,  Connaught  Square,  Hyde  Park. 

William  Rogers,  Palace  Chambers,  Lambeth. 

Robert  L.  Roumieu,  10,  Lancaster  Place,  Strand. 

(d)  -|-*Anthony  Salvin,  20,  Argyll  Street. 

(d)  *J.  J.  Scoles,  58,  Pall  Mall. 

*George  Gilbert  Scott,  Spring  Gardens. 

(d)  Edmund  Sharpe,  Lancaster. 

(d)  *John  Shaw,  Christ’s  Hospital. 

(d,  -|-*Sydney  Smirke,  24,  Berkeley  Square. 

Alfred  Smith,  9,  Southampton  Street,  Bloomsbury  Square. 

(d)  f George  Smith,  Frederick’s  Place,  Old  Jewry. 

Thomas  Smith,  Hart  Street,  Bloomsbury  Square. 

Henry  I.  Stevens,  Derby. 

W.  C.  Stow,  Camberwell  Green. 

John  Tarring,  23,  Charles  Street,  Middlesex  Hospital. 

(d)  *George  L.  Taylor,  29,  Hyde  Park  Square. 

John  H.  Taylor,  22,  Parliament  Street. 

Samuel  Sanders  Teulon,  2,  Lansdown  Place,  Brunswick  Square. 

*James  Thomson,  57,  Devonshire  Street,  Portland  Place. 

f William  Tite,  42,  Lowndes  Square,  and  17,  St.  Helen’s  Place,  Bishopsgate. 

W.  W.  Wardell,  the  Green  Hill,  Hampstead. 

John  Whichcoiid,  Jun.,  2,  Poets’  Corner,  Westminster. 

T.  Willoughby,  15,  St.  James’s  Square. 

*Sancton  Wood,  Craig’s  Court,  Charing  Cross. 

*Edmund  Woodthorpe,  47,  Coleman  Street,  City. 

!*Thomas  H.  Wyatt,  77,  Great  Russell  Street,  Bloomsbury  Square. 


LIST  OF  MEMBERS. 


7 


HONORARY  FELLOWS. 

(d)  Earl  De  Grey,  k.g.,  President,  St.  James’s  Square. 

The  Duke  of  Sutherland,  k.g.,  Stafford  House,  St.  James’s. 

The  Marquess  of  Salisbury,  k.g.,  20,  Arlington  Street. 

The  Marquess  of  Lansdowne,  k.g.,  Berkeley  Square. 

The  Earl  of  Aberdeen,  k.t.,  Argyll  Street. 

Sir  Robert  Smirke,  r.a.,  Cheltenham. 

Peter  Legh,  Esq.,  Norbury  Booth’s  Hall,  Knutsford,  Cheshire. 

Joseph  Neeld,  Esq.,  m.p.,  6,  Grosvenor  Square. 

(d)  James  Morrison,  Esq.,  57,  Upper  Harley  Street. 

Charles  Morrison,  Esq.,  57,  Upper  Harley  Street. 

William  Mountford  Nurse,  Esq.,  5,  Cavendish  Square. 

Charles  Henry  Christian  Lang,  Esq.  m.d.,  Bryanstone  Place. 

(d)  William  R.  Hamilton,  Esq.,  12,  Bolton  Row. 

J.  H.  Vivian,  Esq.  m.p.,  Singleton,  Swansea. 

(d)  G.  B.  Greenough,  Esq.,  Regent’s  Park. 

Samuel  Ware,  Esq.,  34,  Portland  Place. 

Beriah  Botfield,  Esq.,  9,  Stratton  Street,  Piccadilly. 

Henry  Thomas  Hope,  Esq.,  116,  Piccadilly. 

Alexander  James  Beresford  Hope,  Esq.,  Connaught  Place,  Hyde  Park. 


HONORARY  MEMBERS. 

(d)  His  Highness  the  Rajah  of  Tanjore. 

(d)  John  Britton,  Esq.,  17,  Burton  Street,  Burton  Crescent. 

Michael  Faraday,  Esq.,  d.c.l.,  Royal  Institution,  Albemarle  Street. 

The  Rev.  William  Whewell,  d.d.,  Master  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 
The  Rev.  R.  Willis,  m.a.,  Jacksonian  Professor,  Cambridge. 

(d)  The  Very  Rev.  Robert  Hurrell  Froude,  Archdeacon,  Totnes,  Devonshire. 
(d)  Sir  Gardner  Wilkinson,  33,  York  Street,  Portman  Square. 

The  Rev.  Richard  Burgess,  b.d.,  10,  Cadogan  Place. 

(d)  Lieut.-General  Sir  C.  W.  Pasley,  12,  Norfolk  Crescent,  Hyde  Park. 

(d)  James  Walker,  Esq.,  23,  Great  George  Street. 

The  Very  Rev.  W.  Buckland,  d.d.,  Deanery,  Westminster. 

Col.  W.  Martin  Leake,  50,  Queen  Anne  Street. 

Major-General  Howard  Vyse,  Stoke  Place,  near  Windsor. 

Eaton  Hodgkinson,  Esq.,  22,  Torriano  Avenue,  Camden  Road. 

Austen  Henry  Layard,  Esq.,  d.c.l.,  m.p. 

(d)  The  Rev.  J.  L.  Petit,  m.a.,  9,  New  Square,  Lincoln’s  Inn. 

Charles  Winston,  Esq.,  3,  Harcourt  Buildings,  Temple. 


8 


LIST  OF  MEMBERS. 


HONORARY  AND  CORRESPONDING  MEMBERS. 


(») 

(°) 

(d) 

(D) 


(d) 


Architects,  Members  of  the  Institute,  Paris. 


Architects,  Paris. 


Caen. 


(d)  P.  F.  L.  Fontaine. 

L.  H.  Le  Bas. 

(d)  Achille  Leclere. 

Auguste  Caristie. 

M.  P.  Gauthier. 

F.  C.  Gau. 

J.  J.  Hittorff. 

G.  Abel  Blouet. 

Felix  Duban. 

Cesar  Daly. 

J.  B.  Lesueur. 

O.  Visconti. 

Girault  de  Prangey,  Dijon. 

Firmin  Epellet,  Arras,  Architect  of  the  Department  of  the  Pas  de  Calais. 
Monsieur  Guy,  City  Architect. 

Monsieur  de  Caumont. 

Pascal  Coste,  Marseilles. 

F.  Brunet-Debaines,  Architect,  Havre. 

L. 

Mynheer 

Monsieur  Zocher,  Architect,  Haarlem,  Member  of  the  Institute  and 
Royal  Academy  of  Fine  Arts  at  Amsterdam. 

A.  de  Chateauneuf,  Architect,  Hamburgh. 

Louis  Roelandt,  City  Architect,  Ghent. 

Monsieur  Suys,  Brussels,  Architect  to  H.  M.  the  King  of  the  Belgians. 

J.  P.  Cluysenaar,  Architect,  Brussels. 

Brunot  Renard,  Architect,  Tournay. 

P.  Bourla,  Architect,  Member  of  the  Academy,  Antwerp. 

Monsieur  Delsaux,  Architect  of  the  Province,  Liege. 

(d)  Dr.  George  Moller,  Architect,  Darmstadt. 

(d)  Chevalier  Beuth,  Berlin,  Privy  Counsellor  of  H.  M.  the  King  of  Prussia. 
(d)  Chevalier  Bunsen,  Prussian  Envoy  Extraordinary  and  Minister 
Plenipotentiary. 


Reijers,  City  Architect.  > ,j^e  jjagUe 

YNHEER  WEENINK.  S 


August  Stuler,  Architect  to  H.  M.  the  King  of  Prussia. 

Heinrich  Strack,  Architect,  Professor  of  the  R.  Academy  of  Fine  Arts. 
Herr  Busse,  Architect,  Director  of  the  Academyof  Public  Constructions. 
Herr  Wilhelm  Zahn. 

Herr  Stein,  Architect,  Aix-la-Chapelle. 

Herr  Geutebruck,  Architect  of  the  University,  Leipzig. 


Berlin. 


LIST  OF  MEMBERS. 


9 


> Architects,  Munich,  Bavaria. 


\ 


Architects,  Frankfort  on  the  Maine. 


Chevalier  Leo  von  Klenze,  Privy  Counsellor 
of  H.M.  the  King  of  Bavaria. 

Herr  Metzger. 

Friedrich  Ziebland. 

(d)  Herr  Laves,  King’s  Architect,  Hanover. 

Herr  Zanth,  Architect,  Stutgard,  Wiirtemberg. 

Herr  Fischer,  Architect,  Saxe  Coburg. 

Herr  Heideloff,  Architect,  Professor  of  the  Polytechnic  School  at  Nuremberg. 
Professor  F.  N.  Hessemer. 

Friedrich  Peipers. 

J.  Offermann,  Director  of  the  Public  Works,  Mayence. 

Herr  Zwirner,  Architect,  Cologne. 

Herr  Sulpice  Boisseree,  Architect,  Bonn. 

Monsieur  Fries,  Architect,  Strasburg. 

(d)  Professor  C.  F.  Ludwig  Forster. 

Cavaliere  Pietro  Nobile. 

Paul  Sprenger. 

Herr  Kranner,  Architect,  Prague. 

Heinrich  Hubsch. 

Herr  Eisenlohr. 

F.  Lange,  Architect,  Fulda. 

G.  Hetsch,  Architect,  Copenhagen. 

Alexander  Brulloff,  Architect,  Professor  of  the  Academy  of  Fine 
St.  Petersburg. 

(d)  Chevalier  A.  Ricard,  de  Montferrand,  Architect,  St.  Petersburg. 

— Besia,  Member  and  Professor  of  the  I.  and  R.  Academy  of  the  Fine 
Arts  at  Milan. 

Il  Conte  Selvatico,  Venice. 

Cavaliere  Niccolo  Matas. 

Cavaliere  Pasquale  Poccianti. 


Architects,  Vienna. 


Architects,  Carlsruhe,  Pays  de  Baden. 


Arts, 


Architects,  Florence. 


(d)  Commendatore  Luigi  Canina,  Member  of  the  Academy  of  St.  Luke  at  Rome. 
Cavaliere  Clemente  Folchi,  Architect,  Vice  President  of  the  Academy 
of  St.  Luke  at  Rome. 

Cavaliere  Gio.  Pietro  Campana,  Rome. 

Ludwig  Gruner. 

The  Abate  Antonio  Magrini. 

Signor  Miglioranza,  Architect. 

Signor  Antolini,  Architect,  Professor  of  Architecture  at  the  Academy  at 
Bologna. 

Signor  Vantini,  Architect,  Brescia. 

Conte  Orte  di  Manara,  Verona. 

Cavaliere  Bechi,  Architect.  x 


Vicenza. 


Signor  Bonucci. 
Signor  Achille  Pulli. 


Naples. 


10 


LIST  OF  MEMBERS. 


(d)  The  Duke  of  Serradifalco.  \ 

Raffaelle  Politi,  Girgenti.  Sicily. 

Signor  Cavalari,  Palermo.  ' 

(d)  Gasparo  Fossati,  Architect  to  the  Russian  Embassy,  Constantinople. 
Christian  Hansen,  Architect,  Trieste. 

Monsieur  Berry,  Architect,  Basle. 

Frederick  Diaper,  Architect,  New  York,  U.  S. 

(d)  Frederick  Catherwood,  Architect,  America. 

George  Snell,  Architect,  Boston,  America. 

Senor  Lorenzo  Hidalga,  Professor  of  Architecture  in  the  Military  College, 
Mexico. 


ASSOCIATES. 

k 

Charles  Ainslie,  13,  Park  Street,  Westminster. 

Thomas  Allom,  103,  St.  Martin’s  Lane. 

Arthur  Allom,  103,  St.  Martin’s  Lane. 

Addington  Artis,  19,  Warwick  Street,  Golden  Square. 

A.  Bailey,  Percy  Chambers,  Percy  Street. 

A.  J.  Baker,  51,  Burton  Crescent. 

Robt.  R.  Banks,  1,  York  Villas,  Stroud  Green,  Tollington  Park,  Hornsey  Road. 
Charles  Barry,  Jun.,  8,  Duke  Street,  St.  James’s. 

R.  C.  Baxter,  34,  Clifton  Road,  Carlton  Hill,  St.  John’s  Wood. 

William  Beck,  33,  Finsbury  Circus. 

(d)  R.  W.  Billings,  3,  St.  Mary’s  Road,  Cannonbury  Square,  Islington. 

Alfred  B.  Blenkarn,  29,  Fenchurch  Street. 

William  A.  Boulnois,  Waterloo  Place,  Regent  Street. 

John  Henry  Browne,  Holland  Estate  Office,  Addison  Road,  Kensington. 

H.  B.  Browning,  Stamford. 

E.  Browning,  Stamford. 

Henry  H.  Burnell,  20,  Cheyne  Walk,  Chelsea. 

William  A.  Buckley,  1,  Holland  Park  Terrace,  Notting  Hill. 

George  Adam  Burn,  3,  St.  Martin’s  Place,  Trafalgar  Square. 

Alfred  Burton,  St.  Leonard’s-on-Sea. 

Louis  George  Butcher,  8,  Guilford  Street,  Russell  Square. 

Francis  Byass,  Brentford. 

Wm.  Hinton  Campbell,  26,  Argyll  Street. 

Francis  Chambers,  Hornsey  Rise. 

George  Somers  Clarke,  12,  Buckingham  Street,  Adelphi. 

Joseph  Clarke,  13,  Stratford  Place,  Oxford  Street. 

(d)  John  Clayton,  38,  Elizabeth  Street,  Eaton  Square. 

William  G.  Coldwell,  6,  Huntington  Street,  Thornhill  Square,  Islington. 
Robert  Cooke,  Kendal  Place,  Vassall  Road,  Brixton. 

W.  Corbett,  5,  Raymond  Buildings,  Gray’s  Inn. 


LIST  OF  MEMBERS. 


J.  E.  Cox,  Oxford  and  Cambridge  Club,  Pall  Mall. 

Henry  Currey,  4,  Lancaster  Place,  Strand. 

W.  W.  Deane,  7,  Percy  Street,  Bedford  Square. 

A.  R.  Dobson,  New  Bridge  Street,  Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 

George  Enoch,  Grove  Lane,  Camberwell. 

(d)  E.  Falkener,  21,  Bloomsbury  Square,  and  61,  Gracechurch  Street. 
(d)  James  Fergusson,  20,  Langham  Place. 

Richard  Forster,  9,  Warwick  Crescent,  Harrow  Road. 

Charles  Fowler,  Jun.,  12,  Furnival’s  Inn. 

Francis  E.  H.  Fowler,  21,  Saville  Row. 

Frederick  J.  Francis,  38,  Upper  Bedford  Place. 

C.  H.  Gabriel,  Surrey  Chambers,  24,  Arundel  Street,  Strand. 

H.  B.  Garling,  11,  King’s  Road,  Bedford  Row. 

Alfred  S.  Goodridge,  Bath. 

Arthur  John  Green,  12,  Furnival’s  Inn. 

Frederick  H.  Groves,  9,  Trelleck  Terrace,  Pimlico. 

E.  Habershon,  38,  Bloomsbury  Square. 

J.  G.  Hall,  119,  Stanhope  Street,  Hampstead  Road. 

Octavius  Hansard,  2,  Kensington  Garden  Terrace,  Hyde  Park. 

T.  Harris,  8,  Chapel  Street,  Grosvenor  Square. 

R.  W.  Heneker,  10,  Old  Jewry  Chambers. 

Charles  Henman,  7,  Millman  Street,  Bedford  Row. 

Henry  Hodge,  1,  High  Street,  Camden  Town. 

C.  H.  Howell,  Union  Street,  New  Bridge  Street,  Blackfriars. 
William  Hynam,  14,  Lower  Belgrave  Place. 

Horace  Jones,  11,  Furnival’s  Inn. 

George  Judge,  Jun.,  15|,  Woburn  Buildings. 

E.  J.  Kelly,  9,  Thavies  Inn. 

Thomas  Yale  Kimpton',  Hertford. 

Samuel  Lapidge,  2,  Derby  Street,  Westminster. 

Frederick  Lawford,  10,  Old  Jewry  Chambers. 

Frederick  Lett,  1,  Stockwell  Crescent,  Stockwell  Common. 

J.  M.  Lockyer,  19,  Southampton  Street,  Fitzroy  Square. 

John  M.  Maclure,  14,  Harley  Street. 

E.  H.  Martineau,  24,  Lincoln’s  Inn  Fields. 

William  A.  Mason,  9,  Great  St.  Helen’s. 

Thomas  Meyer,  16,  Warwick  Street,  Golden  Square. 

George  Morgan,  22,  Parliament  Street. 

James  Murray,  25,  Portman  Street. 

Edwin  Nash,  5,  Adelaide  Place,  London  Bridge. 

S.  J.  Nicholl,  44,  Chapel  Street,  New  Road. 

John  Norton,  24,  Old  Bond  Street. 

Harry  Oliver,  39,  Gower  Street,  Bedford  Square, 


12 


LIST  OF  MEMBERS. 


Joseph  Peacock,  15,  Bloomsbury  Square. 

R.  K.  Penson,  Oswestry. 

R.  M.  Phipson,  34,  Moorgate  Street. 

R.  P.  Pope,  3,  Provost  Road,  Haverstock  Hill,  Hampstead  Road. 

F.  W.  Porter,  13,  Charlotte  Street,  Bedford  Square. 

Nathaniel  Thos.  Randall,  28,  Great  Winchester  Street. 

W.  C.  Reed,  Old  Broad  Street. 

C.  F.  Reeks,  7,  Whitehall  Yard. 

Edward  C.  Robins,  11,  Winchester  Place,  Claremont  Square. 

James  Rochfort,  1,  Belina  Villas,  Kentish  Town. 

William  Roe,  Jun.,  3,  Smith  Street,  Chelsea. 

T.  H.  Rushforth,  1,  Trinity  Place,  Charing  Cross. 

Edward  Salomons,  63,  King  Street,  Manchester. 

A.  Salvin,  Jun.,  20,  Argyll  Street. 

James  Pearse  St.  Aubyn,  35,  John  Street,  Bedford  Row. 

Edmund  Scott,  4,  Trafalgar  Square. 

J.  P.  Seddon,  Percy  Chambers,  Percy  Street,  and  Llandaff,  Glamorganshire. 
(d)  R.  L.  Sibley,  39,  Great  Ormond  Street. 

Edmund  A.  Spurr,  3,  Newton  Road,  Bayswater. 

Lewis  Stride,  6,  Bloomsbury  Square. 

Richard  G.  Suter,  3,  Upper  Woburn  Place. 

T.  C.  Tarring,  23,  Charles  Street,  Middlesex  Hospital. 

C.  B.  Thurston,  9,  Southampton  Street,  Bloomsbury  Square. 

George  Vulliamy,  26,  Suffolk  Street,  Pall  Mall  East. 

J.  F.  Wadmore,  5,  Crosby  Hall  Chambers,  Bishopsgate  Street. 

John  Burley  Waring,  24,  Huntly  Street,  Bedford  Square. 

M.  Warton,  Stepney  Causeway,  Ratcliff. 

R.  Warton,  Jun.,  Finchley. 

G.  J.  Wigley,  34,  Soho  Square. 

G.  B.  Williams,  Frederick’s  Place,  Old  Jewry. 

Herbert  Williams,  54,  Great  Ormond  Street,  Queen  Square. 

R.  J.  Withers,  70,  Tachbrook  Street,  Pimlico. 

William  Wright,  27,  King  Street,  Cheapside. 

Matthew  Digby  Wyatt,  54,  Guilford  Street,  Russell  Square. 


ROYAL  INSTITUTE  OF  BRITISH  ARCHITECTS. 


REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL 

TO  THE  ANNUAL  GENERAL  MEETING,  MAY  2nd,  1853. 


A ke view  of  the  proceedings  during  the  past  twelve  months  gives  assurance  to 
the  Council  that  satisfactory  advancement  in  its  prospects  and  objects  still 
continues  to  mark  the  career  of  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects. 

Since  the  last  Annual  Meeting  the  Institute  has  received  the  accession  of 
one  Fellow,  previously  an  Associate,  ten  Associates,  two  Honorary  Members, 
and  Five  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Members  ; while  one  Fellow  and  Four 
Associates  have  retired,  and  the  names  of  Messrs.  J.  Green  and  W.  A.  Nicholson, 
Fellows,  of  Huve,  Japelli,  Ittar  and  Haviland,  Honorary  and  Corresponding 
Members,  and  of  C.  J.  Eddrup,  Associate,  have  been  lost  to  the  list  of  Members 
through  the  decease  of  those  gentlemen.* 

The  Council  venture  to  suggest  to  several  Associates,  who  have  now  been 
several  years  Members  of  that  class,  and  are  occupying  leading  positions  in 
their  profession,  the  propriety  of  becoming  full  Members  ; while  the  Council 
look  confidently  forward  to  ~an  accession  to  both  classes,  when  the  reduced 
subscription  now  paid  by  Country  Members  shall  have  become  more  generally 
known  by  those  qualified  to  join  the  Society,  who  may  appreciate  the  advantages 
offered  by  it. 

The  presentation  of  the  Royal  Gold  Medal  for  the  year  1851,  which  was 
awarded  to  the  Chevalier  Leo  von  Ivlenze,  of  Munich,  took  place  at  an  Ordinary 
General  Meeting  in  June  last,  when  the  Bavarian  Minister,  Baron  Cetto,  who 
was  present  to  receive  it  from  our  President,  returned  thanks  on  behalf  of 
that  distinguished  architect. 

* The  Institute  now  consists  of  120  Fellows,  19  Honorary  Fellows,  17  Honorary  Members, 
86  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Members,  and  107  Associates. 

C 


14 


REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 


The  recommendations  of  the  Council  with  respect  to  the  award  of  the 
Royal  Gold  Medal,  and  the  other  Medals  and  Prizes  of  the  Institute,  for  the 
year  1852,  were  taken  into  consideration  and  approved,  at  a Meeting  specially 
summoned  for  the  purpose.  The  Royal  sanction  having  been  obtained,  the 
presentation  took  place  at  the  following  Meeting,  when  our  President,  Earl 
de  Grey,  presented  the  Royal  Medal  to  Sir  Robert  Smirke,  Honorary 
Fellow,  R.A.,  who  was  represented  on  the  occasion  by  his  brother,  Mr.  Sydney 
Smirke,  Fellow,  A.R.A.  The  eulogistic  terms  in  which  the  presentation  was 
made  by  the  Noble  Earl,  and  Mr.  S.  Smirke’s  acknowledgment  in  reply,  have 
been  faithfully  recorded  in  the  printed  report  of  that  Meeting. 

The  enlarged  scope  given  last  year  to  competitors  for  the  Silver  Medals  of 
the  Institute  appears  to  have  been  so  far  productive  of  the  desired  result,  that 
two  Silver  Medals  of  the  Institute,  and  two  Silver  Medals  of  Merit,  have  been 
this  year  awarded. 

For  the  current  year  the  choice  of  subjects  for  the  Essays  is  left  almost 
unlimited  to  the  competitors,  provided  they  adhere  to  such  as  are  strictly 
connected  with  Architecture.  The  Council  must  express  their  desire  that  this 
freedom  of  choice  may  stimulate  numerous  candidates  to  enter  the  field  of 
competition. 

The  most  important  of  their  proceedings,  connected  with  the  internal 
regulations  of  the  Institute,  during  the  last  twelvemonth,  which  the  Council 
have  to  mention,  is  the  revision  of  the  Bye-Laws,  to  which  they  devoted  much 
time  and  attention,  availing  themselves  of  the  able  advice  and  assistance  of 
the  Honorary  Solicitor,  to  whom  they  feel  that  the  Institute  is  much  indebted 
for  this  and  numerous  other  kind  offices  most  promptly  rendered.  At  his 
suggestion  several  amendments,  tending  to  simplify  the  Bye-Laws,  were  made? 
which,  with  the  reduction  in  the  payments  by  Country  Members,  and  the 
regulation  for  making  known  the  names  of  all  Members  in  arrear  on  the 
first  Monday  in  May  of  each  year,  constitute  the  chief  alterations,  which 
were  ratified  at  a Meeting  specially  called  to  consider  them  in  January  last, 
and  copies  of  the  new  Bye-Laws  were  subsequently  forwarded  to  all  the 
Members. 

Shortly  after  the  last  Annual  Meeting  our  Noble  President  opened  his 
mansion  for  the  reception  of  the  Members  of  the  Institute,  numerous  Artists, 
and  Literary  and  Scientific  individuals. 


RETORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 


15 


His  Lordship,  to  whose  ever  ready  advice  and  co-operation  the  sincere 
thanks  of  the  Council  are  justly  due,  has  consented  to  be  again  placed  in 
nomination  for  the  office  of  President,  which  he  has  so  well  filled  since  the 
formation  of  the  Society. 

The  subscription,  raised  among  the  Members  of  the  Institute,  in  aid  of 
the  researches  at  Nineveh,  has  been  forwarded  to  Colonel  Rawlinson,  who  had 
undertaken  to  apply  the  funds  in  the  manner  desired,  and  has  since  expressed 
his  intention  of  placing  any  results  of  the  excavations  at  the  disposal  of  the 
Institute. 

The  Council  have  every  reason  to  believe  that  the  Memorial,  on  the 
condition  of  the  Royal  Tombs  in  Westminster  Abbey,  which  was  submitted 
last  year  by  the  Institute  to  Her  Majesty,  is  again  under  consideration. 

At  the  Ordinary  General  Meetings  which  have  taken  place  during  the 
last  twelvemonths,  papers  and  discussions  on  various  interesting  subjects  have 
been  brought  before  the  Members  present,  while  the  same  endeavours  as  here- 
tofore have  been  made  to  convey  a correct  account  of  the  proceedings  to 
those  who  were  absent. 

Mr.  Hesketh,  Fellow,  explained  his  method  of  admitting  daylight  into 
buildings,  especially  in  the  narrow  and  confined  localities  of  towns;  and 
exhibited  his  Patent  Combination  Reflectors,  by  means  of  which  he  has 
produced  satisfactory  results,  in  very  difficult  situations.  On  the  same 
occasion,  a very  interesting  letter  was  read  from  Mr.  Tite,  Fellow,  describing 
the  excavations  and  discoveries  which  had  been  made  by  the  Commendatore 
Canina,  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Member,  on  the  Appian  Way,  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Rome.  Mr.  Penrose,  Fellow,  gave  an  instructive  account  of 
the  difficulties  which  the  Architect  of  St.  Paul’s  Cathedral  had  to  contend  with 
in  designing  and  executing  that  building,  and  followed  up  the  subject  on 
another  evening  by  some  remarks  on  the  decorations  suitable  and  required 
to  complete  the  interior  in  accordance  with  the  supposed  intentions  of 
Sir  Christopher  Wren.  The  honourable  and  responsible  situation  which 
Mr.  Penrose  has  subsequently  been  elected  to  fill  in  connexion  with  the 
Cathedral,  and  the  repairs  to  the  paintings  of  the  cupola  which  have  been 
commenced,  are  proofs  of  the  assurance  which  the  authorities  feel,  that  the 
same  talent  which  enabled  him  to  elucidate  the  minute  refinements  of  Grecian 
Architecture,  will  also  be  available  to  ensure  the  due  completion  of  our 
Metropolitan  Cathedral. 


16 


KEPOKT  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 


Mr.  Charles  Winston,  who  has  since  been  elected  Honorary  Member,  gave 
two  instructive  papers  on  the  revived  manufacture  of  coloured  glass  used  in 
ancient  windows,  and  on  the  methods  of  painting  upon  glass.  The  value  of 
his  researches,  and  his  perfect  acquaintance  with  the  subject,  have  received 
full  confirmation  in  the  specimens  of  glass  painting  which  have  been  erected 
at  his  expense  in  the  round  part  of  the  Temple  Church.  A memoir  of 
Mr.  Savage  was  read  at  one  of  these  meetings.  As  the  Architect  of  St.  Luke’s 
Church,  Chelsea,  his  name  was  familiar  to  the  public  and  to  the  profession, 
while  the  fact  was  not  so  well  known,  that  he  was  one  of  the  few  remaining 
who  had,  till  a late  period,  practised  his  profession  in  its  entirety,  not  recog- 
nizing the  distinction  between  the  architect  and  the  engineer,  which  of  late 
years  has  taken  place  in  its  ranks. 

Some  information,  conveyed  in  a letter  from  Mr.  Tite,  then  in  Rome, 
induced  our  esteemed  Honorary  Member,  the  Rev.  Richard  Burgess,  to  explain 
his  present  views  on  the  topography  of  the  Roman  Forum  and  the  Clivus 
Capitolinus,  with  the  nomenclature  of  the  Temples  thereon.  The  much 
debated  subject  of  site  and  of  nomenclature,  seemed  to  be  fairly  stated  and  set 
at  rest  by  his  observations  and  critical  acumen  in  reconciling  the  passages  of 
ancient  writers  with  the  results  of  modern  discoveries,  while  the  interest  of  the 
subject  was  much  enhanced  by  the  large  photographic  drawings  of  the  Forum 
in  its  present  state,  which  Mr.  Tite  had  procured  in  Rome,  and  which  he 
exhibited  on  the  occasion. 

Our  noble  President  favoured  the  meeting  with  an  account  of  the  pro- 
ceedings at  Fountains  Abbey,  from  which  it  was  evident  that  great  care,  guided 
by  refined  taste  and  judgment,  is  bestowed  by  his  Lordship  in  arresting  the 
progress  of  decay,  and  preserving  the  integrity  of  the  original  fragments  of  this 
interesting  relic  of  a by-gone  age. 

Two  evenings  at  the  commencement  of  the  present  session  were  given  to 
the  consideration  of  the  sites  proposed  for  the  National  Gallery,  Mr.  C.  H. 
Smith  offering  some  suggestions  for  altering  and  enlarging  the  present 
edifice,  by  occupying  the  site  of  certain  buildings  now  standing  on  the  north 
east  of  it.  A learned  investigator  from  Hungary,  Dr.  Henzlemann,  having 
expressed  a great  desire  to  call  the  attention  of  the  Institute  to  his  theory 
respecting  the  constructional  laws  followed  by  the  Mediaeval  Church  Architects, 
an  opportunity  was  afforded  him  for  explaining  an  elaborate  series  of  drawings 
which  he  had  prepared  in  illustration  of  the  subject;  and  a Committee,  which 
was  subsequently  appointed  at  his  request  to  examine  the  merits  of  his  alleged 
discovery  of  those  laws,  devoted  much  time  and  pains  to  the  investigation,  and 


REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 


17 


highly  commended  the  zeal,  learning,  and  industry,  which  Dr.  Henzlemann 
had  bestowed  on  the  prosecution  of  his  researches. 

Mr.  G.  R.  Burnell,  C.E.,  laid  the  result  of  his  observations,  made  during 
an  excursion  in  the  province  of  Orense,  in  the  Kingdom  of  Galicia,  before  a 
Meeting  in  December,  and  showed  the  value  to  which  due  energy  and 
perseverance  might  turn  the  natural  advantages  of  that  neglected  country. 
Mr.  Donaldson,  V.P.,  afforded  the  benefit  of  his  remarks  on  a highly 
curious  and  interesting  class  of  Gallo-Byzantine  Churches  in  and  near 
Perigueux,  in  France,  to  which  scientific  attention  had  been  called  by  our 
Fellow,  Mr.  E.  Sharpe,  previously  to  their  attracting  the  notice  of  French 
Architects  and  Archaeologists.  At  the  following  Meeting,  Mr.  Donaldson  gave 
the  results  of  much  research  and  investigation  in  a paper  on  the  Architectural 
Medals  of  the  Ancients,  as  illustrating  the  edifices  of  the  Greeks  and  Romans. 
The  labour  involved  in  preparing  the  numerous  illustrations  which  accom- 
panied this  lecture,  appeared  almost  too  valid  a reason  for  hesitating  to  request 
an  immediate  continuation  of  the  subject,  though  desired  by  the  Members, 
and  kindly  promised  by  him. 

A communication  from  Mr.  Hay,  entitled  an  attempt  to  develop  the 
principle  which  governs  the  proportions  and  curves  of  the  Parthenon,  of 
Athens,  with  a few  observations  on  the  application  of  ^Esthetic  Science  to 
Architecture  generally,  being  a subject  which  required  much  consideration, 
Mr.  Hay  kindly  consented  to  allow  his  diagrams  to  remain  in  the  rooms  of  the 
Institute  for  inspection  till  required  for  publication,  for  which  purpose  they 
have  since  been  returned  to  him.  We  may,  therefore,  look  forward  to  the 
benefit  of  a work  especially  devoted  to  Architecture,  in  addition  to  those  on 
kindred  subjects  which  he  has  already  sent  forth.  Mr.  H.  Twining,  whose 
devotion  to  the  Fine  Arts  is  well  known,  explained  the  use  of  an  ingenious 
instrument,  invented  by  himself,  called  the  Artist’s  Goniameter,  by  means  of 
which  that  accuracy  of  delineation  from  real  objects,  which  is  so  essential  to 
the  Architect,  can  be  insured. 

Signor  G.  Abbate,  of  Naples,  gave  us,  in  his  native  language,  the  result 
of  many  years  intense  devotion  to  the  study  of  the  decorative  painting  of 
Pompeii,  which  Mr.  M.  Digby  Wyatt,  Associate,  explained  and  enlarged  on 
in  a highly  interesting  manner.  The  Members  availed  themselves  of  the 
occasion  to  express  their  sense  of  the  spirited  conduct  evinced  by  the  Directors 
of  the  Crystal  Palace  Company  in  securing  the  assistance  of  Signor  Abbate  to 
produce  a fac-simile  of  a Pompeian  dwelling  at  Sydenham,  and  in  obtaining, 
for  public  inspection  and  information,  casts  of  the  most  celebrated  productions 
of  sculpture,  both  in  this  country  and  abroad. 


18 


REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 


At  the  last  Evening  Meeting,  Mr.  T.  H.  Lewis,  Fellow,  explained  the 
details  and  construction  of  the  building  called  the  Royal  Panopticon  of  Science, 
in  Leicester  Square,  in  the  construction  and  decoration  of  which  he  has  given 
evidences  of  great  skill  and  feeling,  combined  with  sedulous  attention  to  the 
numerous  and  complicated  arrangements  essential  to  the  success  of  such  an 
establishment. 

The  introduction  of  an  improved  Bill  for  the  regulation  of  Metropohtan 
Buildings,  has  not  hitherto  taken  place  in  the  House  of  Commons,  but  it  is 
understood  that  the  First  Commissioner  of  Her  Majesty’s  Works  and  Pubhc 
Buildings  will  during  the  recess  take  into  consideration  a measure  for  that 
puipose,  in  which  it  may  be  hoped  that  the  recommendations  conveyed 
by  the  Institute  to  a former  head  of  that  department  will  not  be  altogether 
overlooked. 

It  is  satisfactory  to  be  assured  that  comprehensive  measures  are  being 
taken  by  the  different  Companies,  under  the  sanction  of  the  Government,  to 
ensure  an  ample  supply  of  water  to  this  Metropolis,  and  that  the  grand 
question  of  conveying  away  the  sewerage  without  polluting  the  river,  is  under- 
going such  investigation  as  maybe  expected  to  lead  to  important  results;  while 
the  determination  evinced  by  the  constituted  authorities  to  enforce  the  closing 
of  intramural  grave-yards,  the  erection  of  fit  dwellings  for  the  labouring  classes, 
the  formation  of  pubhc  parks,  and,  not  least,  the  intention  expressed  of 
erecting  numerous  additional  churches,  are  satisfactory  proofs  of  progress 
in  a right  direction : nor  should  it  be  forgotten  in  this  Institute,  that 
the  attention  now  given  to  improving  the  dwellings  of  the  poor  has 
received  great  impetus  from  the  philanthropic  endeavours  and  suggestions  of 
our  Fellows,  Mr.  Roberts  and  Mr.  Godwin ; — the  latter,  by  his  recent  inves- 
tigation of  the  wretched  habitations  existing  in  the  centre  of  this  Metropohs ; 
— the  former,  by  his  earlier  researches  among  the  same  scenes,  and  by  his 
long  continued  course  of  usefulness  as  Honorary  Architect  to  the  Society  for 
improving  the  dwelhngs  of  the  Labouring  Classes. 

It  appears  that  a Committee  of  the  House  of  Commons  wih  be  appointed 
to  consider  the  subject  of  bridge  accommodation  for  the  Metropohs  generally ; 
while  among  those  as  yet  contemplated  or  in  progress,  mention  may  be  made 
of  the  new  bridge  proposed  at  Westminster,  of  one  in  the  vicinity  of  Charing 
Cross,  of  another  near  St.  Paul’s,  besides  the  suspension  bridge  now  in  course  of 


REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 


19 


erection  at  Battersea.  Among  other  improvements,  reference  may  be  made  to 
the  continuation  of  the  street  from  Cannon  Street  to  the  south  side  of  St.  Paul’s, 
by  which  that  building  will  be  presented  in  a novel  and  highly  effective  point 
of  view  ; to  the  progress  made  in  Victoria  Street,  Westminster,  and  to  the  new 
Cattle  Market,  in  Copenhagen  Fields,  in  lieu  of  that  which  has  for  centuries 
been  held  in  the  very  centre  of  the  City ; nor  should  mention  be  omitted  of 
the  buildings  designed  with  apparently  somewhat  similar  views,  viz.,  the 
Crystal  Palace  at  Sydenham ; and  the  Panopticon  of  Science,  in  Leicester 
Square.  The  introduction  of  sculptural  decoration  into  the  Mansion  House, 
at  the  suggestion  of  our  Fellow,  Mr.  Bunning,  is  a highly  gratifying  proof  of 
the  existence  of  an  increased  feeling  for  Fine  Art  in  this  Metropolis.  The 
buildings  erected  for  the  Industrial  Exhibition  in  Dublin,  and  the  proposed 
restoration  of  the  Church  at  Doncaster,  recently  destroyed  by  fire,  may  perhaps 
be  mentioned  as  the  most  remarkable  architectural  matters  occurring  at  a 
distance  from  the  Metropolis. 

The  Council  cannot  refrain  from  alluding  with  great  satisfaction  to  that 
portion  of  the  Report  of  the  Royal  Commissioners,  which  recommends  the 
application  of  the  surplus  funds  of  the  Great  International  Exhibition  of  1851 
to  founding  an  Institution  which  may  serve  to  increase  the  means  of  industrial 
education,  and  extend  the  influence  of  science  and  art  upon  productive 
industry.  Nor  can  they  omit  to  call  attention  to  the  opportunities  for  study 
which  will  be  offered  by  the  noble  collection  of  casts  from  the  best  sculptures 
at  home  and  abroad,  now  in  course  of  formation  in  the  Crystal  Palace  at 
Sydenham,  and  to  the  progress  which  has  already  been  made  in  the  department 
of  Practical  Art  at  Marlborough  House,  where  the  sound  principles  of  design 
and  decoration  urged  by  our  Members,  Owen  Jones  and  Digby  Wyatt,  are 
appreciated,  and  from  which  an  important  document  has  just  emanated  in  the 
shape  of  the  first  Report.  The  advantages  offered  by  the  Museum  of  Economic 
Geology  must  be  too  obvious  to  call  for  any  lengthened  eulogium  in  a 
Society  of  practical  Architects. 

An  invitation  which  M.de  Caumont  conveyed  to  the  Members,  through  our 
Honorary  Secretary  for  Foreign  Correspondence,  to  be  present  at  an  Archaeolo- 
gical Congress  at  Paris,  offered  an  opportunity  to  some  of  them  to  inspect 
the  vast  architectural  improvements  which  have  taken  place,  as  well  as  those 
which  are  in  progress  in  that  metropolis. 


20 


REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 


During  the  past  year  some  important  additions  have  been  made  to  our 
Library  and  Collection.  His  Majesty  the  King  of  Prussia  was  pleased  to 
honour  the  Institute,  by  presenting,  through  his  Ambassador,  the  Chevalier 
Bunsen,  a Copy  of  an  important  work  on  Egypt,  the  result  of  the  investigations 
of  the  Commission  which  his  Majesty  had  sent  to  that  country,  under  the 
direction  of  Dr.  Lepsius.  The  Commendatore  Canina  has  forwarded  the 
concluding  portion  of  his  learned  work  Etruria  Marittima  compresa  nella 
dizione  Ponteficia.  Signor  Fossati  has  forwarded  his  Illustrations  of  the 
Mosque  Aya  Sofia  at  Constantinople,  which  has  recently  been  restored 
under  his  superintendance.  M.  Hector  Horeau  has  given  his  Panorama 
of  Egypt;  and  M.M.  Cesar  Daly,  of  Paris,  and  Forster,  of  Vienna,  have 
continued  to  supply  us  with  the  well-known  serial  works  published  by  them. 
Among  the  donors  to  the  Collection,  we  have  to  thank  Mr.  Catherwood  for  a 
large  specimen  of  auriferous  quartz,  from  California,  Mr.  Brandon  for  a slab 
of  Parian  marble,  Mr.  Falkener  for  numerous  interesting  specimens  of 
building  materials,  from  Greece,  Asia  Minor  and  Egypt ; and  Mr.  Twining  for 
the  instrument  called  the  artist’s  Goniameter,  invented  by  him.  The  names 
of  other  donors  to  the  Library  and  Collection  are  set  forth  in  the  list  attached 
to  the  Report;  but  among  them  the  Council  cannot  omit  to  mention  that  of  the 
Rev.  J.  L.  Petit,  Honorary  Member,  the  author  of  many  well-known  works  on 
Mediaeval  Ecclesiastical  Architecture.*  The  Council  have  just  adopted  the 
recommendation  of  the  Library  Committee,  respecting  the  purchase  of  several 
works  required  to  complete  defective  sets,  and  of  others  which  they  consider 
essential  to  the  practical  utility  of  the  Collection. 

Impressed  with  the  advantage  which  the  Library  would  derive  from 
containing  the  Parliamentary  Reports  and  Blue  Books,  connected  with  profes- 
sional subjects,  issued  during  the  Session  of  the  two  Houses  of  Legislature,  the 
Council  have  applied  to  their  President  and  to  Mr.  J.  Bell  (Fellow),  M.P.,  to 
assist  them  in  obtaining  those  documents;  and  they  trust  that  the  Parliamentary 
regulation,  stated  to  be  in  contemplation,  for  forwarding  such  papers  to  certain 
literary  and  scientific  institutions,  will  soon  be  carried  into  effect  to  the  advan- 
tage of  this  Institute. 

Anxious  to  obviate  complaints  respecting  the  present  accommodation,  the 
Council  have  repeatedly  sought  for  rooms  more  advantageously  situated,  and 


* During  the  past  year,  112  volumes  of  books  and  pamphlets,  25  engravings  and  prints,  and 
81  miscellaneous  articles,  have  been  added  to  the  Library  and  Collection. 


REPORT  OF  THE  COUNCIL. 


21 


they  have  to  report  that  several  propositions  are  now  occupying  the  attention 
of  the  Committee  specially  appointed  to  enquire  for  new  premises.  The 
Council  will  be  most  happy  to  submit  to  the  Members  any  feasible  proposition 
that  may  be  offered,  by  which  better  accommodation  in  a more  convenient 
position  may  be  obtained;  at  the  same  time  they  invite  the  co-operation  of  all 
interested  in  their  endeavour  to  carry  out  the  often  expressed  wishes  of  the 
Members. 

The  Balance  Sheet  for  the  year  ending  December  31st,  1852,  signed  by 
the  Auditors,  is  now  submitted,  with  a supplementary  statement  to  the  present 
date.  The  balance  in  hand  this  day  is  less  than  that  of  last  year  by  the  sum 
of  =£42. 4s.  4d.,  but  ,£177.  18s.  6d.  Stock,  which  includes  the  life  subscriptions 
of  certain  Members,  has  been  purchased  and  added  to  the  Funded  Stock  of 
the  Institute. 

Many  Members  having  adopted  the  recommendation  contained  in  the 
Report  of  last  year,  and  given  the  order  for  payment  of  their  annual  subscrip- 
tions by  their  Bankers  in  the  form  proposed,  a copy  of  it  is  appended  to  the 
present  Report. 

The  punctual  and  assiduous  attention  given  by  the  Librarian  to  the 
numerous  and  various  duties  undertaken  by  him,  continues  to  entitle  him 
to  the  cordial  acknowledgment  of  the  Council. 


Messrs. 

Please  to  pay  Messrs.  Herries,  Farquhar,  & Co.  my  Subscription 
°f  to  the  Royal  Institute  of  British  Architects,  due  on 

the  1st  of  January,  18  ; — and  the  same  amount  on  the  1st  of  January  in  every 

succeeding  year,  till  further  notice. 


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Books,  Drawings,  Prints,  Models,  Casts,  Furniture,  Sec. 


CONTRIBUTIONS 


TO 

THE  COLLECTION  AND  THE  LIBRARY  OF  THE  INSTITUTE, 
Between  the  3rd  of  May,  1852,  and  the  2nd  of  May,  1853. 


The  Rev.  J.  L.  Petit,  Honorary  Member.  A donation  of  Twenty  Guineas 
to  the  Library  Fund. 

W.  A.  Mason,  Associate.  A donation  of  Two  Guineas  to  the  Library  Fund. 

ENGRAVINGS  AND  LITHOGRAPHIC  PRINTS. 

J.  B.  Bunning,  Fellow.  Billingsgate  Market,  1851.  J.  B.  Bunning,  Archi- 
tect. Coloured  Lithographic  View. 

Messrs  Davy  and  Sons.  Illustrated  Particulars  with  Plans  of  the  Milton 
Abbas  Estate,  Dorsetshire,  (containing  seven  Lithographic  Views  of  Milton 
Abbey.)  folio.  London,  1852. 

Sir  Edward  C.  Dering,  Bart.  Plan  for  Building  on  the  Henwood  Estate, 
the  property  of  Sir  Edward  C.  Dering,  Bart.,  Ashford,  Kent.  George 
Godwin,  F.R.S.,  Architect.  Lithograph. 

T.  L.  Donaldson,  V.P.  Portrait  of  Julius  H.  Mansart,  engraved  by  E. 
Edelinck,  from  a Painting  by  H.  Rigaud.  1647-1708.  Portrait  of 
George  Gutch,  Fellow,  from  a daguerreotype  by  J.  W.  G.  Gutch. 
Lithograph. 

The  Directors  of  the  Hope  Mutual  Life  Assurance  and  Honesty 
Guarantee  Society.  Almanac  for  the  Year  1853.  Colored  Lithograph. 
J.  J.  Hittorff,  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Member.  Tracings  of  the 
Plan,  Elevation,  Section  and  Details,  of  the  Cirque  Napoleon  at  Paris. 
Messrs.  Maughan  and  Fowler,  Architects,  Louth.  Elevation  of  West  Side, 
and  Vertical  Section  looking  East,  of  the  Tower  of  the  Church  of  St. 
James,  Louth,  Lincolnshire.  Lithograph.  1852. 

A.  Morant,  Esq.  Print  of  Sir  C.  Wren,  engraved  for  Elmes’s  Life  of  Wren. 
London,  1823. 

J.  W.  Papworth,  Fellow.  Portrait  of  Benjamin  Wyatt,  Esq.  Engraved  by 
T.  Blood  for  the  European  Magazine,  from  an  Original  Painting  by  S. 
Drummond,  A.R.A.  London,  1812. 


LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTIONS. 


25 


Alfred  Smith,  Fellow.  Three  Interior  Views  of  the  Army  and  Navy  Club 
House — The  Morning  Room,  Coffee  Room,  and  Staircase.  Drawn  and 
Lithographed  in  Colours,  by  R.  K.  Thomas,  under  the  direction  of 
Alfred  Smith,  Esq.,  Architect. 

J.  F.  Wadmore,  Associate.  A Coloured  Lithograph  of  a New  Stained  Glass 
Window,  recently  put  up  in  the  Worshipful  Company  of  Skinners’  Hall, 
under  the  superintendence  of  Mr.  George  Moore  of  Lincoln’s  Inn 
Fields,  Surveyor  to  the  Company. 

Messrs.  Weightman,  Hadfield,  and  Goldie.  South-west  View  of  St. 
George’s  Church,  Doncaster.  Drawn  by  J.  G.  Weightman.  Engraved 
by  Robert  Sands.  London,  Jan.  1,  1828. 

M.  Digby  Wyatt,  Associate.  Roman  Tessellated  Pavement,  discovered  on 
the  Grounds  of  Andrew  Lawson,  Esq.,  at  Aldborough,  Yorkshire,  Sep- 
tember 22,  1848.  Colored  Lithograph. 

MISCELLANEOUS. 

David  Brandon,  Fellow.  A Slab  of  Parian  Marble. 

J.  B.  Bunning,  Fellow.  A Medal  in  commemoration  of  the  Opening  of  the 
New  Coal  Exchange,  October  30tli,  1849. 

F.  Catherwood,  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Member.  A Slab  of  Quartz, 
of  the  Gold-bearing  kind,  from  California. 

E.  Falkener,  Associate.  A Collection  of  Specimens  of  Building  Materials 
from  Egypt,  Greece,  and  Italy,  consisting  of  about  seventy  pieces. 

R.  Hesketh,  Fellow.  Specimens  of  Glass  coated  with  Metallic  Silver,  as 
used  for  Hesketli’s  Patent  Combination  Reflectors.  Three  pieces. 

R.  C.  Hussey,  Fellow.  A medal  struck  in  commemoration  of  the  Restora- 
tion of  the  Church  at  Frittenden,  Kent,  1848. 

J.  Jennings,  Fellow.  An  Improved  Valve  for  Closet  Cisterns  and  a new 
Bell  Trap,  invented  by  Mr.  George  Jennings. 

Henry  Twining,  Esq.  An  Instrument  called  the  Artist’s  Goniameter. 

James  Yates,  Esq.  A Medal  representing  Birmingham  Town  Hall,  inscrip- 
tion “First  Musical  Festival,  Oct.  1884;”  and  Birmingham  Free 
Grammar  School,  inscription,  “ Founded  by  King  Edward  VI.  1552. 
Present  Edifice  finished  1837.”  A Medal  of  Birmingham  Free  Grammar 
School.  Founded  1552,  rebuilt  1707.  Present  Edifice  erected  1836. 
C.  Barry,  Architect. 


26 


LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTIONS. 


BOOKS,  PAMPHLETS,  &c. 

His  Majesty  the  King  of  Prussia.  Denkmaeler  aus  Aegypten  und 
Aetliiopien  nacli  den  Zeiclinungen  der  von  Seiner  Majestaet  dem  Koenige 
von  Preussen  Friedrich  Wilhelm  IV.  nach  diesen  laendern  gesendeten 
und  in  den  Jahren  1842-1845,  ausgefuehrten  wissenschafthchen  Expe- 
dition auf  Befelil  Seiner  Majestaet  herausgegeben  und  erlaeutert  von  C. 
R.  Lepsius,  5 vols.  plates,  large  folio,  Berlin,  vols.  1 and  2 incomplete. — 
Vorlaufige  Nachricht  liber  die  Expedition,  ihre  Ergebnisse  und  deren 
Publikation.  4to.,  Berlin,  1849. 

The  Architectural,  Archaeological,  and  Historic  Society,  for  the 
County,  City,  and  Neighbourhood  of  Chester.  Journal.  Part  2, 
from  July  1850  to  December  1851.  8vo.  Chester,  1852. 

The  Society  of  Antiquaries.  Archaeologia:  or  Miscellaneous  Tracts  rela- 
ting to  Antiquity.  Published  by  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London, 
vol  88  in  two  parts,  4to.  London,  1849;  vol.  84  in  two  parts,  4to.  London, 
1851.  Proceedings  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries  of  London,  vol.  2,  Nos. 
18  to  32,  8vo.  1849  to  1852.  Report  of  the  Committee  appointed  by  the 
Council  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  to  investigate  the  circumstances 
attending  the  recent  discovery  of  a Body  in  St.  Stephen’s  Chapel, 
Westminster.  Pamphlet,  4to.  London,  1852. 

The  Architectural  Institute  of  Scotland.  Proceedings  of  the  Institute. 
Third  Session.  1852-53.  1st  to  9th  Meetings.  8vo.  Edinburgh. 
Transactions  of  the  Architectural  Institute  of  Scotland,  vol.  2,  parts  3 
to  6.  8vo.  Edinburgh,  1852.  Illustrations  of  an  Essay  on  Mural 
Decoration,  read  before  the  Architectural  Institute  of  Scotland.  By 
Thomas  Pur  die.  Engraved  for  the  Transactions  of  the  Institute,  foho. 
Edinburgh. 

The  Architectural  Publication  Society.  Text  with  Illustrations.  Part  1 
of  Volume  for  1851-52.  folio.  London,  April  5th,  1852.  Part  2 of 
volume  for  1851-52.  folio.  London.  September  6,  1852.  Part  3 of 
Volume  for  1851-52.  folio.  London,  21st  February,  1853. 

The  Archaeological  Institute  of  Great  Britain  and  Ireland.  Map  of  the 
Watling  Street,  the  chief  line  of  Roman  communication  leading  across 
the  Counties  of  Durham  and  Northumberland,  from  a Survey  made  in 
the  years  1850  and  1851,  by  direction  of  his  Grace  the  Duke  of  North- 
umberland. Surveyed  and  drawn  by  Henry  Mac  Lauchlan.  folio. 
London.  Memoir  written  during  a Survey  of  the  Watling  Street,  from 


LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTIONS. 


27 


the  Tees  to  the  Scotch  Border,  in  the  years  1850  and  1851.  By  Henry 
Mac  Lauchlan.  Pamphlet.  8vo.  London,  1852.  Proceedings  at  the 
Annual  Meeting  of  the  Archasological  Institute  of  Great  Britain  and 
Ireland.  At  York,  July  1846,  2 Parts.  . 8vo.  London,  1846. 

Ditto  At  Norwich,  July,  1847.  . . 8vo.  London,  1847. 

Ditto  At  Lincoln,  July,  1848.  . . 8vo.  London,  1848. 

The  Council  of  the  Art-Union.  Sixteenth  Annual  Report  of  the  Council 
of  the  Art-Union  of  London,  with  List  of  Subscribers.  8vo,  London, 
1852.  Art-Union  of  London  Almanac,  1853.  Two  copies  Sheets.  Two 
copies  48mo. 

The  Bristol  Society  of  Architects.  Rules  of  the  Society,  established 
April  3rd,  1850.  12mo.  Bristol.  First  Annual  Report  for  May,  1851. 

Second  Annual  Report  for  May,  1852. 

The  Chevalier  Bunsen.  Prussian  Minister.  Honorary  and  Corresponding 
Member.  Berliner  Gemeinniitzige  Bau-Gesellschaft,  (Prospectus  of) 
Berlin,  im  Dezember,  1851.  A Sheet. 

The  Commendatore  Canina.  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Member.  L’Antica 
Etruria  Marittima  compresa  nella  Dizione  Pontificia  descritta  ed  illustrata 
con  i Monumenti  dal  Commendatore  Luigi  Canina.  Seconda  parte  della 
pubblicazione.  folio.  Roma,  1849.  Vol.  2do  delle  Tavole.  folio.  Roma, 
1851. — Particolare  Genere  di  Architettura  Domestica  decorato  con 
ornamenti  di  Svelte  Forme  ed  impiegato  con  poca  varieta  dai  pm 
Rinomati  Popoli  Antichi  ora  solo  ordinato  con  metodo  e proposto  all’ 
applicazione  delle  Fabbriclie  Moderne  in  parte  costrutte  col  legno  e 
ferro  fuso  dal  Commendatore  Luigi  Canina.  folio.  Roma,  1852. 

J.  Clarke,  Associate.  Schools  and  School  Houses:  A series  of  Views,  Plans 
and  Details,  for  Rural  Parishes.  By  Joseph  Clarke.  4to.  London,  1852. 

The  Committee  for  Promoting  the  Establishment  of  Baths  and  Wash- 
houses for  the  Labouring  Classes.  A Statement  of  the  Proceedings 
of  the  Committee  appointed  to  promote  the  Establishment  of  Baths  and 
Wash-houses.  By  Price  Prichard  Baly,  C.E.  4to.  London,  1852. 
Appendix  to  the  Statement  of  the  Proceedings  of  the  Committee 
appointed  to  promote  the  Establishment  of  Baths  and  Wash-houses. 
By  Price  Prichard  Baly,  C.E.  4to.  London,  1853. 

M.  Cesar  Daly,  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Member.  Revue  Generale 
de  1’  Architecture  et  des  Travaux  Publics:  Publie  sous  la  direction  de  M. 
Cesar  Daly.  6*  volume,  numeros  2 et  3.  1845.  7e  volume,  numero  4. 
1847.  10e  volume,  numeros  1,2,  3,  et  4.  1852.  4to.  Paris. 


28 


LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTIONS. 


Sir  Henry  De  La  Beche,  on  the  part  of  Her  Majesty’s  Government. 
Memoirs  of  the  Geological  Survey  of  Great  Britain,  and  of  the  Museum 
of  Economic  Geology  in  London,  vol.  1,  8vo.,  London,  1846;  vol.  2> 
parts  1 and  2,  8vo.,  London,  1848 — Museum  of  Practical  Geology  and 
Geological  Survey.  Records  of  the  School  of  Mines  and  of  Science 
applied  to  the  Arts,  vol.  1,  part  1,  8vo.  London,  1852 — Report  with 
reference  to  the  Selection  of  Stone  for  Building  the  New  Houses  of 
Parliament,  folio.  London,  1889. 

The  Devonport  Mechanics’  Institute.  Report  of  the  Committee  of  the 
Devonport  Mechanics’  Institute,  for  the  half-year  ending  March  25th, 
1852.  8vo.  Devonport. 

T.  L.  Donaldson,  V.P.  Exemplars  of  Tudor  Architecture,  adapted  to  Modem 
Habitations.  4to.  London,  1830,  Designs  for  Parsonage  Houses,  Alms 
Houses,  &c .,  Architettura  Campestre.  4to.  London,  1827,  and  Half 
a Dozen  Hints  on  Picturesque  Domestic  Architecture.  By  T.  F. 
Hunt,  Architect.  4to.  London,  1825.  The  Industrial  Arts  of  the 
Nineteenth  Century:  a series  of  Illustrations  of  the  Choicest  Speci- 
mens produced  by  every  Nation  at  the  Great  Exhibition  of  Works  of 
Industry,  1851.  Dedicated,  by  permission,  to  His  Royal  Highness  The 
Prince  Albert.  By  M.  Digby  Wyatt,  Architect.  Divisions  1st,  2nd,  and 
3rd.  folio.  London,  1851-52. — La  Theorie  et  la  Pratique  du  Jardinage. 
4to.  Paris,  1709. 

G.  F.  Eckstein,  Esq.  A Practical  Treatise  on  Chimneys.  By  G.  F.  Eckstein. 
8vo.,  London,  1852. 

The  Editor.  The  Builder,  Nos.  483  to  534. 

The  Editor.  The  Literary  Gazette,  Nos.  1824  to  1893.  4to.,  London. 

The  Editor.  The  Canadian  Journal.  A Repertory  of  Industry,  Science 
and  Art;  and  a Record  of  the  Proceedings  of  the  Canadian  Institute, 
vol.  1,  Nos.  1 to  7.  4to.,  Toronto,  1852-53. 

The  Editor.  Gazette  des  Beaux- Arts,  ler  volume,  Nos.  1 to  5,  4to. 
Paris,  1853. 

Exeter  Diocesan  Architectural  Society.  Transactions  of  the  Exeter 
Diocesan  Architectural  Society,  vol.  4,  part  2,  4to.,  Exeter,  1852. 

C.  F.  Ludwig  Forster,  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Member.  Allgemeine 
Bauzeitung  mit  Abbildungen.  Redigirt  und  lierausgegeben  von  Prof.  C. 
F.  L.  Forster,  Architekt.  Plates  folio,  2 bis  12  Heft,  4to.  Vienna,  1852. 

The  Chevalier  Gaspard  Fossati,  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Member. 
Aya  Sofia  Constantinople,  as  recently  restored  by  order  of  H.  M.  the 


LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTIONS. 


20 


Sultan  Abdul  Medjid,  from  the  original  drawings  by  Chevalier  Gaspard 
Fossati.  Lithographed  by  Louis  Haghe,  Esq.  folio,  London,  1852. 

Henry  Garling,  Fellow.  Recueil  de  differents  Projets  d’ Architecture  de 
Charpente  et  autres  concernant  la  Construction  des  Fonts.  Par  Feu  M. 
Pitrou.  folio,  Paris,  1750. 

George  Godwin,  Fellow.  History  in  Ruins  : a Series  of  Letters  to  a Lady, 
embodying  a Popular  Sketch  of  the  History  of  Architecture.  By  George 
Godwin,  F.R.S.  Small  8vo.,  London,  1853. 

J.  H.  Good,  Jun.  Fellow.  Parliamentary  Reports.  The  Thirtieth,  Thirty- 
first,  and  Thirty-second  Annual  Reports  of  Her  Majesty’s  Commissioners 
for  Building  New  Churches,  folio.  29th  July,  1850;  30th  July,  1851 
and  18tli  March,  1853. 

W.  P.  Griffith,  Fellow.  Architectural  Botany;  setting  forth  the  Geometrical 
Distribution  of  Foliage,  Flowers,  Fruit,  &c.  (extracted  from  Ancient  Gothic 
Churches,  part  3).  By  William  Pettit  Griffith,  Architect.  4to.  London, 
1852.  Ancient  Gothic  Churches,  their  Proportions  and  Chromatics. 
Part  the  Third.  By  William  Pettit  Griffith,  Architect.  4to.  London,  1852. 

Her  Majesty’s  Commissioners.  Second  Report  of  the  Commissioners  for  the 
Exhibition  of  1851,  to  the  Right  Hon.  Spencer  Horatio  Walpole,  &c.. 
one  of  Her  Majesty’s  Principal  Secretaries  of  State.  8vo.  London,  1852. 
Exhibition  of  the  Works  of  Industry  of  all  Nations,  1851.  Reports  by 
the  Juries  on  the  Subjects  in  the  thirty  Classes  into  which  the  Exhibition 
was  divided.  Presentation  Copy.  8vo.  London,  1852. 

M.  Hector  Horeau.  Institute  de  France — Academie  des  Sciences.  Extrait 
des  Comptes  rendus  des  Seances  de  l’Academie  des  Sciences,  tome  xxxiv. 
— Rapport  sur  les  nouveaux  Appareils  de  Panification  de  M.  Rolland, 
Boulanger.  Pamphlet,  8vo.  Paris.  Panorama  d’Egypte  et  du  Nubie, 
avec  un  portrait  de  Mehemet-Ali  et  un  texte  orne  de  vignettes,  par  Hector 
Horeau,  Architecte.  folio.  Paris,  1841. 

R.  C.  Hussey,  Fellow.  Prospettiva  de’  Pittori  e Architetti  d’  Andrea  Pozzo 
della  Compagnia  di  Giesu’.  2 Parts,  folio.  Roma,  1693  and  1700. 

W.  S.  Inman,  Y.P.  The  Elements  and  Mathematical  Principles  of  the  Greek 
Architects  and  Artists.  By  John  Pennethorne,  Pamphlet,  8vo.  Lond.  1844. 

The  Institution  of  Civil  Engineers.  Proceedings  of  the  Institution  of  Civil 
Engineers,  Session  1852-53.  8vo.  London. 

J.  Jennings,  Fellow.  Bye  Laws  of  the  District  Surveyors’  Association,  and 
Awards  and  Proceedings  relative  to  the  Metropolitan  Buildings  Act  and 
Justices  of  the  Peace  Act.  12mo.  London,  1850. 

E 


30 


LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTIONS. 


W.  Laxton,  Esq.  Editor.  The  Civil  Engineer  and  Architects’  Journal,  Nos. 
219  to  230.  4to.  London,  1852-53. 

The  Liverpool  Architectural  and  Archaeological  Society.  Annual  Report 
from  the  Council.  May,  1852.  4to.  sheet.  Proceedings  of  the  Society, 
vol.  1,  Sessions  1848-49  and  1849-50.  4to.  Liverpool,  1852. 

The  London  (Watford)  Spring  Water  Company.  Report  from  the  Provisional 
Directors  of  the  London  (Watford)  Spring  Water  Company,  to  the  Share- 
holders and  the  Public  ; and  Mr.  Hope’s  opening  Speech  before  the  Par- 
liamentary Committee.  Pamphlet,  8vo.  London,  1852.  Reports  made 
to  the  Directors  of  the  London  (Watford)  Spring  Water  Company,  on  the 
results  of  Microscopical  Examinations  of  the  organic  matters  and  solid 
contents  of  Waters  supplied  from  the  Thames  and  other  sources.  By 
Edwin  Lankester,  M.D.  F.R.S.,  and  Peter  Redfern,  M.D.  F.R.C.S.L. 
Pamphlet,  8vo.  London,  1852. 

Alfred  Morant,  Esq.  Historisclier  Schauplatz  in  welchem  die  Merkwiirdig- 
sten  Brucken  aus  alien  vier  Theilen  der  Welt;  vorgestellet  und  beschrieben 
werden ; von  Carl  Christian  Schramm,  folio,  Leipzig,  1735 — Anleitung 
zur  Biirgerlichen  Bau-Kunst,  von  Johann  Friedrich  Penther,  4 vols.  folio, 
Augsburg,  1744,  1745,  1746  and  1748. 

J.  Morris,  Fellow.  Principaux  Monuments  Gotliiques  de  l’Europe,  dessines 
sur  les  Lieux  et  Lithographies,  par  Gustave  Simonau.  Large  folio. 
Bruxelles,  1843. 

C.  C.  Nelson,  Honorary  Secretary.  The  Penny  Cyclopaedia  of  the  Society  for 
the  diffusion  of  Useful  Knowledge,  volumes  23,  24,  25,  26  and  27, 
London,  1842-43.  Supplement  to  ditto,  vols.  1 and  2,  London,  1846  & 1851 

J.  W.  Papworth,  Fellow.  Transactions  of  the  Society  instituted  at  London, 
for  the  Encouragement  of  Arts,  Manufactures,  and  Commerce.  Supple- 
ment to  vol.  36.  Vols.  37  to  43.  48  and  49.  8vo.  London,  1819-1833. 

The  Royal  Geographical  Society  of  London.  Address  to  the  Royal  Geogra- 
phical Society  of  London ; delivered  at  the  Anniversary  Meeting  on  the 
24th  of  May,  1852.  By  Sir  R.  I.  Murchison,  G.  C.  St.  S.,  M.A.,  F.R.S., 
President.  8vo.  London,  1852.  Catalogue  of  the  Library  of  the  Royal 
Geographical  Society,  corrected  to  May,  1851.  8vo.  London,  1852. 
The  Journal  of  the  Royal  Geographical  Society  of  London.  Vol.  22. 
8 vo.  London,  1852. 

The  Royal  Institution  of  Great  Britain.  A List  of  the  Members,  Officers, 
&c.,  with  the  Report  of  the  Visitors  for  the  year  1851.  8vo.  London, 
1852.  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Institution,  Nos.  10,  11,  12,  and  14. 
8 vo.  London,  1852. 


LIST  OF  CONTRIBUTIONS. 


31 

The  Royal  Society  of  London.  Proceedings  of  the  Royal  Society.  Nos.  80 
to  93.  8vo.,  1852. 

The  Royal  Society  of  Edinburgh.  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of 
Edinburgh,  vol.  20,  part  3,  for  the  Session  1851-52.  4to.  Edinburgh. 
Proceedings  of  the  Society,  vol.  3,  No.  42.  8vo.  Edinburgh,  1851-52. 
W.  H.  V illiers  Sankey,  Esq.,  C.E.  Encyclopaedia  of  Engineering,  Civil  and 
Mechanical.  By  Edward  Lomax,  Esq.,  C.E.,  assisted  by  Thomas  Gunyon, 
Esq.,  Architect,  and  C.E.,  and  W.  H.  Villiers  Sankey,  Esq.,  C.E. 
Division  2.  4to.  London. 

Signor  D.  Sauli.  Dei  Bacini  di  Carenaggio  e particolarmente  di  quello 
costrutto  nel  Porto  di  Genova  dal  1847  al  1851.  Memoria  di  Damiano 
Sauli.  8vo.  Genova,  1852.  Plates  to  ditto. — Dichiarazione  di  una 
Riserva  fatta  da  uno  de’  Membri  della  Commissione  pel  Progetto  del  Doc 
nel  rapporto  del  19  Febbraio,  1852.  4to.  Genova,  1852. 

J.  P.  Seddon,  Associate.  Progress  in  Art  and  Architecture,  with  Precedents 
for  Ornament.  By  John  P.  Seddon,  Architect,  M.R.I.B.A.  4to. 
London,  1852. 

Granville  Sharpe,  Esq.  The  Prize  Essay  on  the  Application  of  Recent 
Inventions  collected  at  the  Great  Exhibition  of  1851,  to  the  Purposes 
of  Practical  Banking.  By  Granville  Sharpe.  (2  copies.)  Pamphlet,  8vo. 
London,  1852. 

Edward  Snell,  Esq.  On  the  Stability  of  Arches.  By  George  Snell,  Assoc. 
Inst.  C.E..  And  an  Account  of  the  Pont-y-tu-prydd  over  the  River  Tafe, 
Glamorganshire.  By  Thomas  Macdougall  Smith,  M.  Inst.  C.E.  8vo. 
London,  1846. 

The  “ Societe  Libre  des  Beaux  Arts.”  Revue  des  Beaux  Arts,  &c.  Livrai- 
son  9 to  11,  and  13  to  24,  1852.  Livraison  1 to  4 and  6,  1853. 

The  Society  of  Arts.  The  Journal  of  the  Society  of  Arts,  Nos.  1 to  23. 
Large  8vo.  London,  1852-53. 

J.  Spurgin,  Esq.,  M.D.  Six  Lectures  on  Materia  Medica,  and  its  relations  to 
the  Animal  Economy.  By  John  Spurgin,  M.D.,  F.C.P.S.  8vo.  Lond.  1853 
H.  Twining,  Esq.  The  Elements  of  Picturesque  Scenery,  or  Studies  of 
Nature  made  in  travel,  with  a view  to  improvement  in  Landscape  Painting. 
By  Henry  Twining.  8vo.  London,  1853. 

Charles  Winston,  Esq.,  Honorary  Member.  On  the  Painted  Glass  in  New 
College  Chapel  and  Hall,  Oxford.  By  Charles  Winston.  (From  No.  33  of 
the  Archaeological  Journal).  Pamphlet,  8vo.  An  Introduction  to  the  Study 
of  Painted  Glass.  By  Charles  Winston,  Esq.  Pamphlet,  8vo.  Oxford,  1849. 
M.  D.  Wyatt,  Associate.  An  Attempt  to  define  the  Principles  which  should 
determine  Form  in  the  Decorative  Arts.  By  M.  Digby  Wyatt,  Esq. 
Pamphlet,  8vo.  London,  1852. 


32 


PROCEEDINGS  AT  THE  ORDINARY  & SPECIAL  GENERAL  MEETINGS, 

PAPERS  READ,  &c. 

From  the  VJth  of  May,  1852,  to  the  18i th  of  April,  1853. 


hth  May , 1852. — “ On  the  admission  of  Daylight  into  Buildings,  particularly  in  the  narrow 
and  confined  localities  of  Towns,”  by  Robert  Hesketh,  Fellow. 

Specimens  of  his  Combination  Reflectors,  as  applied  to  Buildings,  were  exhibited  by 
Mr.  Hesketh.  M.  Chappuis  exhibited  and  explained  M.  Troupeau’s  Patent  Diurnal  Reflectors. 
Some  Carvings  in  Wood,  by  Mr.  Rogers,  representing  the  Yia  Crucis,  were  exhibited. 
Mr.  Austin,  Architect,  pointed  out  the  application  of  his  Registered  Bricks  for  British 
Bond  and  the  formation  of  Hollow  Walls. 


31s£  May. — “A  few  remarks  on  St.  Paul’s  and  its  appropriate  Decorations,”  by  F.  C. 
Penrose,  Fellow. 

TAsth  June. — “ On  a Revived  Manufacture  of  Coloured  Glass  used  in  Ancient  Windows,” 
by  Charles  Winston,  Esq. 

28 th  June. — “ On  the  Topography  of  the  Roman  Forum  and  the  Clivus  Capitolinus,”  by 
the  Rev.  Richard  Burgess,  B.D.,  Honorary  Member. 

The  Medals  and  the  Premiums  in  Books  awarded  during  the  Session  were  presented 
by  the  President,  as  follows : — 

To  Chevalier  Leo  von  Klenze,  of  Munich,  Hon.  and } 

Cor.  Member  (through  Baron  de  Cetto,  Bavarian  > The  Royal  Gold  Medal  of  the  Institute 
Minister)  . . . . . . j 

To  Mr.  James  Thomas  Knowles,  jun.,  for  a Design  for 
Public  Baths,  Laundry,  &c. 


The  Medal  of  Merit. 


I 

To  Mr.  W.  Lightly  for  his  Design  for  the  same  subject . j 


To  Mr.  B.  Fletcher,  Student,  for  a Design  for  a Parsonage  | A Copy  of  “ An  Encyclopaedia  of 
House  . . . . . . J Architecture ,”  by  Joseph  Gwilt. 

A Copy  of  “Histoire  de  H Art  Mo- 
numental,” par  L.  Batissier. 

Each  a Copy  of  “ Studies  and  Exam- 
ples of  the  Modern  School  of 
English  Architecture.”  The  Tra- 
vellers' Club  House,  by  Charles 
Barry,  Architect. 

Earl  De  Grey,  President,  read  a Paper  descriptive  of  the  recent  Excavations  now 
proceeding  under  his  Lordship’s  directions  at  Fountains  Abbey,  and  the  methods  adopted  to 
secure  the  ruins  from  further  injury  and  decay. 

5 th  July. — The  adjourned  Discussion  on  the  Decorations  suitable  to  St.  Paul’s,  took  place 
at  the  Closing  General  Meeting  of  the  Session. 


To  Mr.  W.  Lightly,  and  Mr.  T.  C.  Tarring,  Students, 
for  their  series  of  Sketches  from  subjects  given 
Monthly  by  the  Council  during  the  year  . 


PAPERS,  ETC.  READ  AT  THE  ORDINARY  AND  SPECIAL  GENERAL  MEETINGS.  33 


15 tli  November. — “ Suggestions  for  altering  and  enlarging  the  present  National  Gallery,” 
by  Mr.  C.  H.  Smith. 

29 th  November. — A Discussion  “On  the  Sites  proposed  for  the  National  Gallery,”  took 
place. 

A portfolio,  containing  numerous  Photographic  Drawings  of  a large  size,  was  exhibited 
by  M.  Bailliere. 

The  Chairman  announced  the  decease  of  John  Green,  Fellow,  and  of  Signori  Ittar  and 
Japelli,  Honorary  and  Corresponding  Members. 

6th  December. — At  an  intermediate  Ordinary  General  Meeting,  Dr.  Henszlmann  explained 
his  series  of  Drawings  illustrative  of  his  alleged  discovery  of  the  constructional  Laws  of 
Mediaeval  Church  Architecture. 

It  was  Eesolved : — That  it  be  referred  to  the  Council  to  appoint  a Committee  of  three 
members  of  the  Institute  to  examine  Dr.  Henszlmann’ s communication  of  his  system,  and 
report  their  opinion  thereon  to  the  Institute. 

\Qth  December. — “ Notes  on  an  Excursion  in  the  South  West  of  Galicia,”  by  Geo.  R. 
Burnell,  Esq.,  C.E. 

The  Chairman  announced  the  decease  of  Mons.  O.  Huve,  Honorary  and  Corresponding 
Member. 

10 th  January , 1853. — “ Some  remarks  on  a certain  class  of  Gallo-Byzantine  Churches  in 
and  near  Perigueux  in  France,”  by  T.  L.  Donaldson,  Y.P. 

\7th  January. — At  a Special  General  Meeting,  it  was  resolved,  that  new  Bye  Laws  in  the 
words  and  form  stated  and  set  forth  in  the  printed  Paper  accompanying  the  Notice  convening 
the  Meeting,  entitled,  “ Bye  Laws  of  the  Institute  of  British  Architects,”  should  be,  with  the 
verbal  alteration  made  in  the  same  respecting  the  composition  of  Country  Members  removing 
to  London,  the  Bye  Laws  of  the  Institute  in  the  place  of  the  existing  Bye  Laws,  and  that  all 
then  existing  Bye  Laws  should  be  revoked. 

24 th  January. — “ On  the  Architectural  Medals  and  Coins  of  the  Ancients,  as  illustrative 
of  the  Edifices  of  the  Greeks  and  Romans, ” by  T.  L.  Donaldson,  Y.P. 

7 th  February. — “ An  Attempt  to  develop  the  Principle  which  governs  the  Proportions  and 
Curves  of  the  Parthenon  of  Athens  ; with  a few  Observations  on  the  application  of  .Esthetic 
Science  to  Architecture  generally,”  by  D.  R.  Hay,  Esq.,  F.R.I.E. 

A model  of  an  enamelled  tile,  to  be  secured  on  iron  rafters,  was  exhibited  by  Mons. 
L.  Alaboissette. 

The  Report  of  the  Committee  appointed  to  investigate  Dr.  Henszlmann’ s alleged 
discovery  of  the  Constructional  Laws  of  Mediaeval  Church  Architecture,  was  read. 

21s£  February. — “ A Description  of  the  Artist’s  Goniameter,  used  to  obtain  a correct 
representation  of  natural  objects,”  by  Henry  Twining  Esq. 

Mr.  Twining  exhibited  the  Instrument,  and  explained  the  method  of  using  it. 

7th  March. — “ On  the  Methods  of  Painting  upon  Glass,”  by  Charles  Winston,  Esq. 

A specimen  of  Galvanized  Iron  corroded  after  seven  years’  wear  in  a roof  gutter,  was 
exhibited  by  Mr.  Jennings,  Fellow. 


34  PAPERS,  ETC.  READ  AT  THE  ORDINARY  AND  SPECIAL  GENERAL  MEETINGS. 


I4cth  March. — At  a Special  General  Meeting,  the  Eesolution  of  the  Council,  submitting  to 
the  consideration  of  the  Meeting  that  the  Royal  Gold  Medal  for  the  year  1852  should  be 
awarded  to  Sir  Robert  Smirke,  R.A.,  was  read  and  unanimously  agreed  to. 

The  Report  of  the  Council  relative  to  the  Essays  received  in  competition  for  the  Medals 
of  the  Institute,  and  the  Premium  in  Books  to  the  Students’  Class,  was  read  and  confirmed, 
and  the  Prizes  were  adjudged  as  follows  : — 

To  Mr.  Chas.  T.  Hargrave,  C.E.,  for  his  Essay  “ On  the 
Construction  of  Walls,  as  influenced  by  local  cir- 
cumstances  and  the  materials  most  readily  avail-  [ ’ 
able.”  . . . . . . j 

To  Mr.  John  H.  Chamberlain,  for  his  Essay  “ On  the  1 


A Silver  Medal  of  the  Institute. 


introduction  of  Colour,  including  Paintings  in  [A  silcer  MeJal  of  fhe  Imtitute. 
Eresco,  to  promote  or  heighten  the  effect  of  Archi-  j 
tectural  Composition  generally.”  . . . J 

To  William  George  Coldwell,  Associate,  for  his  Essay  'j 
“ On  the  advantage  to  Architecture  which  has  re- 
sulted, and  what  further  advantage  may  he  derived 
from  the  use  of  Iron,  both  as  to  construction  and 
embellishment.” 

To  Mr.  James  Thomas  Knowles,  Jun.,  for  his  Essay 
“ On  Architectural  Education.” 

To  Mr.  T.  A.  Britton,  Student,  for  his  “ Sketches  for 
the  Month.”  ..... 


A Medal  of  Merit. 


A Medal  of  Merit. 


A Premium  in  Boohs. 


4ith  April. — “ On  the  Decorative  Painting  of  Pompeii”  (written  in  Italian)  by  Signor  G. 
Abbate,  of  Naples. 

A translation  of  the  Paper  was  read,  and  some  remarks  illustrative  of  the  same  subject 
were  made  by  M.  Digby  Wyatt,  Associate. 

A Letter  was  read  by  the  President,  conveying  to  his  Lordship,  by  command  of  the 
Queen,  the  entire  approbation  of  Her  Majesty  and  H.R.H.  the  Prince,  of  the  presentation  of 
Her  Gold  Medal  to  Sir  Robert  Smirke,  Honorary  Fellow,  R.A. 

A Letter  was  read  by  the  Honorary  Secretary,  from  Sir  Robert  Smirke,  acknowledging 
the  honor  conferred  upon  him  by  the  award  of  the  Royal  Gold  Medal,  and  his  gratification  at 
receiving  such  an  expression  of  the  favorable  opinion  of  the  Members  of  the  Institute. 

The  Medals  and  the  Premium  in  Books  awarded  during  the  Session  were  presented  by 
the  President;  Mr.  Sydney  Smirke,  Fellow,  attending,  to  receive  the  Royal  Gold  Medal,  on 
behalf  of  his  brother  Sir  Robert  Smirke. 

A frame  containing  22  Bronze  Medals,  portion  of  a series  intended  to  serve  as  a Medallic 
History  of  Architecture,  by  Mr.  Wiener;  and  one  of  a set  of  twelve  Girandoles  for  the  Library 
at  Coolhurst,  by  Mr.  W.  Rogers,  were  exhibited. 

18 th  April. — “ A Description  of  the  Panopticon,  with  details  of  the  Construction  and 
Decoration,”  by  T.  H.  Lewis,  Fellow. 

Some  elaborate  Wood  Carvings  were  exhibited  by  Mr.  Rogers. 


Illustrations  of  the  different  subjects  treated  in  the  Papers  were  exhibited  at  all  the  Evening 
Meetings. 


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36 


SUBJECTS  FOR  MEDALS  TO  BE  AWARDED  IN  1853. 


Extracts  from  the  Minutes  of  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting,  held  on  Monday,  Ath  April,  1853. 

ROYAL  MEDAL. 

Her  Majesty  having  been  pleased  to  grant  her  gracious  permission  for  the  Royal  Medal  to  be 
conferred  on  such  distinguished  Architect  or  Man  of  Science,  of  any  Country,  as  may  have 
designed  or  executed  any  building  of  high  merit,  or  produced  a work  tending  to  promote  or 
facilitate  the  knowledge  of  Architecture,  or  the  various  branches  of  Science  connected  therewith. 
That  the  Council  do  proceed,  in  January  1854,  to  take  into  consideration  the  appropriation  of 
the  Royal  Medal  accordingly. 

INSTITUTE  MEDAL. 

That  the  Silver  Medals  of  the  Institute  be  awarded  to  the  Authors  of  the  best  Essays  on  any 
subjects  tending  to  promote  or  facilitate  the  knowledge  of  Architecture,  or  the  various 
branches  of  Science  connected  therewith. 

The  Essays  to  be  accompanied  by  suitable  illustrations. 

N.B.  Each  Essay  to  be  written  in  a clear  and  distinct  hand  on  alternate  pages. 

SOANE  MEDALLION. 

That  the  Soane  Medallion  be  awarded  for  the  best  design  for  any  of  the  following  subjects  : — 

A Metropolitan  Railway  Station  for  a Main  Line  on  the  Ground  Level ; a General  Cemetery ; 
or  a Town  Hall  for  a large  Municipality. 

The  buildings  respectively  to  be  adapted  for  an  isolated  position.  The  plans,  elevations,  and 
sections  of  the  buildings  to  be  drawn  to  a scale  of  of  an  inch  to  a foot.  Perspective 
views  and  such  other  drawings  to  a larger  scale  as  the  Candidate  may  consider  necessary 
for  the  perfect  development  of  his  design.  The  drawings  to  be  tinted  with  Indian  ink 
or  Sepia. 

The  successful  Competitor,  if  he  go  abroad,  will  be  entitled  to  the  sum  of  £50.  at  the  end  of 
one  year’s  absence,  on  sending  satisfactory  evidence  of  his  progress  and  his  studies. 

N.B.  The  competition  for  the  Soane  Medallion  is  open  to  all  Members  of  the  Profession  under  the  age 
of  thirty  years. 

DIRECTIONS  EOR  CANDIDATES. 

Each  Essay  and  set  of  Drawings  is  to  be  distinguished  by  a mark  or  motto,  without  any  name 
attached,  and  to  be  accompanied  by  a sealed  Letter,  enclosing  the  name  of  the  Author,  and  having  oh  the 
outside  the  same  mark  or  motto  as  that  attached  to  the  Essay  or  Drawings,  with  an  Address  to  which  a 
communication  may  be  sent.  The  packet  directed,  To  the  Honorary  Secretaries  of  the  Royal  Institute 
of  British  Architects,  and  marked  Essay  for  Medal  (or)  Drawings  for  Medal  (Motto),  is  to  be  delivered  at 
the  Rooms  of  the  Institute,  on  or  before  the  31st  of  December,  1853. 

The  Institute  will  not  consider  themselves  called  upon  to  adjudge  a Premium,  unless  the  Essays  or 
Drawings  shall  be  of  sufficient  merit  to  deserve  that  distinction ; if  the  best  Essay  or  Drawing  should  be 
by  a Candidate  who  has  been  successful  on  a former  occasion,  they  reserve  to  themselves  the  power  of 
adjudging  such  other  adequate  reward  as  they  may  think  fit,  and  of  awarding  the  Medals  offered  to  the 
second  in  merit.  The  Essays  to  which  Premiums  are  awarded,  become  the  property  of  the  Institute,  to  be 
published  by  them  if  thought  fit.  In  case  they  are  not  published  within  six  months  after  the  award  of  the 
Medals,  the  authors  will  be  at  liberty  to  publish  them.  The  Drawings  will  be  returned  to  all  the  Candidates, 
on  application,  the  unsuccessful  ones,  after  the  adjudication,  and  the  successful  ones  after  the  presentation 
of  the  Medal. 

Copies  of  this  Paper , or  any  further  information , may  he  had  on  application  to  the  Secretaries,  hy  letter pre-paid. 


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PAPERS 


READ  AT 


Cjjc  lion  a I Institute  of  §ritisj)  Arcljitects, 


SESSION  1854—55. 


USUI  CIVIUM,  DECORI  URBIUM. 


LONDON : 

PUBLISHED  AT  THE  ROOMS  OF  THE  INSTITUTE,  16,  GROSVENOR  STREET. 


1855. 


PRINTED  BY  J.  DAVY  AND  SONS,  137,  LONG  ACRE. 


INDEX. 


TITLE. 

AUTHOR. 

DATE. 

PAGE. 

Extracts  from  a Paper  on  the  Application 
of  the  Harmonic  Law  of  Nature  in  the 
Orthography  of  Architectural  Design 
— illustrated  by  a Gothic  Elevation, 
similar  to  that  of  the  East  End  of 
Lincoln  Cathedral. 

D.R.Hay,  Esq.,r.B.s.E. 

Nov.  13th,  1854*. 

1—  4 

On  the  Architectural  Splendour  of  the 
City  of  Beejapoor. 

Jas.Fergusson,  f.r.a.s. 

Nov.  27th 

>7 

5—  13 

Great  Dome  of  Sultan  Muham- 

med’s  Tomb  at  Bejapore. 

— 

Dec.  11th 

15—  20 

the  Spire  of  All  Saints’  Church, 

Chesterfield. 

W.  G.  Coldwell. 

Jan.  8th,  1855. 

21—  26 

A Description  of  some  of>  the  Construc- 
tions now  in  Course  of  execution  be- 
tween the  Louvre  and  the  Palais  Royal 
at  Paris. 

T.  L.  Donaldson. 

Jan.  22nd 

27—  32 

Some  Notice  of  an  Illustrated  Work  by 
W.  Salzenberg,  entitled  Early  Chris- 
tian Monuments  of  Constantinople 
from  the  Eifth  to  the  Twelfth  Century. 

Charles  C.  Nelson. 

Feb.  5th 

5? 

33—  41 

Remarks  on  the  Mosaics  and  other  Deco- 
rations of  the  Church  of  Sta.  Sophia, 
Constantinople. 

M.  Digby  Wyatt. 

Feb.  19th 

43—  55 

A Description  of  some  Alterations  in 
Bells,  and  Bell  Machinery. 

W.  L.  Baker,  C.E. 

Mar.  5th 

J? 

57—  64 

On  the  Principles  to  be « observed  in 
Designing  Mediaeval  Decorations  and 
Ornaments,  with  reference  to  the 
Sources  of  Ornament  offered  by  the 
Natural  Kingdom. 

W.  P.  Griffith. 

Mar.  19th 

65—  76 

Architecture  of  the  Pre- Gothic  Age 

in  Germany,  or  the  Romanesque  De- 
velopment of  the  Rhine  and  Central 
Europe. 

C.  E.  Hayward,  Esq. 

April  30th 

V 

77—  88 

Summary  of  a Report  made  by  Mons. 
Remont,  Architect  of  the  City  of 
Liege,  on  Works  relating  to  the  Health 
and  Public  Utility  of  London. 

W.  L.  Donaldson. 

May  21st 

V 

89—  92 

A few  Remarks  on  Italian  Architecture. 

Rev.  J.  L.  Petit,  m.a. 

June  4th 

93—102 

An  Enquiry  as  to  the  Methods  whjch  it 
is  most  advisable  to  adopt  in  the  Me- 
tropolitan Buildings  Bill  for  Regu- 
lating the  Thickness  of  Walls. 

Robert  Hesketh. 

June  11th 

>> 

103—114 

Practical  Observations  on  Pile  Driving. 

G.  R.  Burnell,  C.E. 

June  18th 

115—122 

APPENDIX. 

A Letter  respecting  Kentish  Rag-stone,  from  C.  H.  Smith. 
Ditto  ditto  Chesterfield  Spire,  from  G.  G.  Scott. 

EXTEACTS  EEOM  A PAPEE  ON  THE  APPLICATION  OE  THE  IIAEMONIC 
LAW  OF  NATUEE  IN  THE  OETHOGEAPHT  OF  AECHITECTUEAL  DESIGN 
ILLUSTEATED  BY  A GOTHIC  ELEVATION,  SIMILAE  TO  THAT  OF  THE  EAST 
END  OF  LINCOLN  CATHEDEAL. 

By  D.  E.  Hat,  Esq.,  F.E.S.E. 

Eead  at  the  Ordinary  General  Meeting  of  the  Eoyal  Institute  of  British  Architects, 

November  13th,  1854. 


In  this  communication  Mr.  Hay  showed  how  the  harmonic  law,  described  and  applied  to  the  front 
elevation  of  the  Parthenon  at  Athens,  in  his  former  Paper,*  might  be  similarly  applied  and  made  to 
operate  in  the  construction  of  a Gothic  elevation ; his  object  being  a further  attempt  to  prove  that 
there  really  does  exist  a mathematical  law  coinciding  with  the  harmony  always  found  in  nature,  and 
that  this  law  can  be  applied  to  impart  orthographic  beauty  to  architectural  structures  of  any  order 
or  style. 

He  explained  numerically  the  simple  nature  of  the  law  of  harmonic  ratio — a law  which  is  found 
operating  in  the  force  of  gravity  ; in  the  planetary  movements  ; in  heat,  light,  electricity,  and  chemical 
affinity ; in  the  forms  of  animals  and  plants  ; and  in  the  perceptions  of  the  human  mind. 

The  first  numerical  rule  is,  that  any  number,  to  be  harmonic,  must  either  be  one  of  the  four  first 
multiples  of  1 — viz.,  2,  3,  5,  and  7 — or  a multiple  of  one  of  these  simple  numbers.  This  rule  is  based 
upon  the  simple  fact,  that  the  three  first  numerals,  1,  2,  3,  embody  all  the  principles  of  harmony,  and 
it  is  by  their  simplest  modes  of  union  that  the  above  four  governing  elements  are  produced. 

The  second  rule  is,  that,  for  the  practical  application  of  these  harmonic  numbers,  they  must  be 
formed  into  a series  of  scales,  arranged  in  such  a manner  that  the  most  simple  be  made  to  form  the 
primary  or  governing  elements. 

The  third  rule  is,  that,  in  employing  these  numbers  as  divisors,  the  parts  of  whatever  is  divided 
must  be  integral  parts. 

The  simple  elementary  figures  which  may  be  combined  in  an  architectural  design  are— 

The  square,  and  its  curvilinear  figure,  the  circle. 

The  oblong  rectangle,  and  its  curvilinear  figure,  the  ellipse. 

The  isosceles  triangle,  and  its  curvilinear  figure,  the  composite  ellipse. 

The  basis  of  his  theory  being  that  the  eye  estimates  proportion  not  by  distance,  but  by  angular 
direction,  it  follows  that  each  of  these  figures  is  governed  in  its  individual  proportions  by  a particular 
angle,  and  that  their  harmonic  combination  in  architecture  is  likewise  governed  by  angles.  This  being 
the  case,  there  must  be  a fundamental  angle,  to  which  all  other  angles  so  employed  should  harmonically 
relate  as  an  integral  part. 

Now,  as  the  employment  of  these  figures  in  architectural  composition  demands  that  their  axes, 
whether  equal  or  unequal,  should  be  in  the  horizontal  and  vertical  lines,  and  as  the  meeting  of  these 
lines  makes  the  right  angle,  that  angle  must,  in  this  case,  necessarily  be  taken  as  the  fundamental 
angle. 

* Read  February  7,  1853;  afterwards  printed,  and  forwarded  to  tbe  members  of  the  Institute.  It  was  subsequently 
published,  with  illustrations,  by  Mr.  Hay. 


S 


2 


The  manner  of  applying  the  law  of  numerical  ratio,  in  the  construction  of  these  six  elementary 
figures,  having  been  fully  explained  in  his  former  communication,  as  well  as  in  several  of  his  published 
works,  he  confined  his  illustrations  to  a few  simple  examples  of  its  effect  in  harmoniously  arranging 
groups  of  rectangles. 

Four  scales  of  harmonic  parts  of  the  right  angle  being  obtained  by  dividing  the  quadrant  of  a 
circle  by  elementary  harmonic  numbers,  some  of  these  are  employed  to  form  diagonals  to  a series 
of  rectangles.  It  is  the  nature  of  harmonic  ratio,  as  applied  to  form,  to  require  that,  when  any  two 
geometric  figures  are  placed  in  juxta-position,  in  order  that  a proper  contrast  be  produced,  their 
respective  proportions  must  bear  a distinct  and  definite  ratio  to  each  other.  (This  was  illustrated  by 
eight  groups  of  rectangles,  selected  from  the  foregoing  series.) 

The  east  end  of  Lincoln  Cathedral  is,  in  the  general  arrangement  of  its  parts,  decidedly  a vertical 
composition,  while  that  of  the  Parthenon  is  decidedly  a horizontal  one.  The  first  is  composed 
of  seven  vertical  parts,  divided  horizontally  into  bases,  windows,  and  tracery,  ending  in  a series  of 
seven  acute  angles.  The  second  is  composed  of  three  horizontal  parts,  vertically  divided  into  columns, 
triglyphs,  and  metopes,  and  surmounted  by  one  obtuse  angle.  Notwithstanding  the  difference  of 
character  thus  existing  between  these  examples,  it  is  confirmatory  of  the  truth  of  the  system,  and  the 
great  scope  of  its  usefulness,  to  find  that  the  proportions  of  the  one  style  are  as  susceptible  of  the 
application  of  this  harmonic  law  as  those  of  the  other. 


The  fundamental  angles  in  the  front  of  the  Parthenon  had  been  shown  to  be  the  following : — 


(1)  (1)  (i) 

(1)  (i) 

(}) 

(tV) 


(i)  (I) 


(i) 

(A) 


of  the 

Eight  Angle. 


Those  he  had  employed  in  the  construction  of  the  Gothic  front  are  : — 


(i)  a)  a)  a)  (i) 
a)  a)  m 

(iV) 


(i) 


of  the 

1 Eight  Angle. 


The  Parthenon  being,  as  already  observed,  a horizontal  composition,  the  principal  angles  were 
made  with  the  horizontal  line.  In  the  present  case,  the  composition  being  vertical,  the  principal 
angles,  nine  in  number,  are  made  with  the  vertical  line. 

Having  in  recent  works  pointed  out  the  operation  of  this  law  of  nature,  in  the  constitution  of 
that  beauty  of  form  and  proportion  by  which  the  human  figure  is  distinguished  above  all  other  works 
of  creation,  as  also  the  application  of  the  same  law  by  the  ancient  Greeks,  in  those  inimitable  sculp- 
tures by  which  they  represented  the  figures  and  attributes  of  their  various  deities  during  the  best 
pei-iod  of  art  the  world  ever  knew  ; having  afterwards  discovered  that  the  same  law,  similarly  applied  by 
the  same  people  during  the  same  period,  governed  the  general  form  and  the  relative  proportions  of  all 
the  parts,  as  well  as  all  the  curves,  of  the  details  of  that  unequalled  monument  of  architectural  chaste- 
ness and  beauty,  the  Parthenon  of  Athens ; and  having  on  the  present  occasion  shown  that  the  same 
law,  similarly  systematised,  is  equally  calculated  to  govern  the  form  and  proportions  of  Gothic  archi- 
tecture, it  might  be  asked  what  further  proof  is  required  to  establish  the  fact,  that  there  really  is  a 
mathematical  law  coincident  with  the  harmony  of  nature,  and  applicable  to  building  ? 


3 


In  illustrating  this  latter  proof  of  the  existence  of  such  a law,  he  adopted  the  design  of  one  of 
the  most  beautiful  £tod  perfect  remains  of  those  interesting  monuments  of  tho  piety  of  our  ancestors 
which  he  could  find ; and  although  not  enabled  to  ascertain  witli  sufficient  certainty  that  the  law  in 
question  was  really  applied  in  the  execution  of  this  design,  yet  the  approximation  to  a perfect  develop- 
ment is  so  close  as  to  suggest  that  it  really  was,  although  perhaps  in  a less  perfect  manner.  From 
this  latter  fact  the  probability  suggests  itself,  that  a system  of  applying  this  law  of  nature  in  archi- 
tectural construction  was  the  only  great  practical  secret  of  the  Free-masons ; all  their  other  secrets 
being  connected,  not  with  their  art,  but  with  the  social  constitution  of  their  society. 

It  can  scarcely  be  doubted  that  there  were  some  such  practically  useful  secrets  amongst  the  Free- 
masons, or  early  Gothic  architects ; for  we  find,  in  all  the  venerable  remains  of  their  art  which  exist  in 
this  country,  symmetrical  elegance  of  form  pervading  the  general  design — harmonious  proportion 
amongst  all  the  parts — beautiful  geometrical  arrangements  throughout  all  the  tracery — as  well  as  in 
the  elegantly  symmetrised,  foliated  decorations,  which  belong  to  that  style  of  architecture.  But  it  is, 
at  the  same  time,  worthy  of  remark,  that  whenever  they  diverged  from  architecture  to  sculpture  and 
painting,  and  attempted  to  represent  the  human  figure,  or  even  any  of  the  lower  animals,  their  produc- 
tions are  uniformly  such  as  to  convince  us  that  in  this  country  these  arts  were  in  a most  degraded 
state  of  barbarism — the  figures  are  grossly  disproportioned,  and  often  much  distorted  in  their  attitudes  ; 
the  subjects  they  represent  are  paltry  in  composition,  and  puerile  in  conception;  while  their  repre- 
sentations of  animals  and  chimeras  are  whimsically  absurd.  It  would  therefore  appear  that  archi- 
tecture, as  a fine  art,  must  have  been  preserved  by  some  peculiar  influence  from  partaking  of  the 
barbarism  so  apparent  in  the  sister  arts  of  that  period. 

Pythagoras,  who  is  said  to  have  acquired  his  knowledge  of