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Himalayan Scries So. XL! II. 




Text with English Translation, Notes 
and an Index, 


• ■.;.^. A 

Dt. Almora, Himalayas. 


All righlb received, j [ i'lice Rs. T>vo, 

Published by Swaml Madhavaoaada, Presldeatf 
Advaita Ashrama, Mayavati. 

Printed by Mohan Lai Sah Chowdhary 

at the Prabuddha Bharata Press, Mayavati, 

Dt. Almora. 

b 133 




Scarcely any introductiou is needed for 
a book that professes to be, as its title-7~ 
'Crest-jewel of Discrimination ' — shows, a 
masterpiece on Advaita V^edanta, the 
cardinal tenet of which is: Wp ^ "if^^fi^^^JT 
Sftfr ar|r^ ^TTT^:— 'Brahman alone is real, tlie 
universe is unreal and the individual soul 
is no other than the Universal Soul.' 
Being an original production of Sankara's 
genius, the book combines with a search- 
ing analysis of our experience an authori- 
tativencss and a depth of sincerity that 
at once carry conviction into the heart of 
its readers. The whole book is instinct 
with the prophetic vision of a Seer, a 
man of Realisation, and the expression, 
too, is so lucid and poetical that quite a 
new life has been breathed into the dry 
bones of philosophical discussion, and 
that, too, on the most abstruse subject 
ever known. 

In preparing this edition, which is a 
reprint in book -form ti om the Piabuddh'i 

r. 803 

[ ii ] 

Bhaiata, the translator gratefully ac- 
knowledges his indebtedness to the ad- 
mirable Sanskrit commentary of Swami 
Kesavacharya of the Munimandal, Kan- 
khal, which along with the Hindi trans- 
lation wonld be highly useful to those who 
want a fuller knowledge of this book. 

For facility of reference an Index has 
been added, and the book, it is hoped, 
will in its present form be a vade-mecum 
to. all students of Advaita: Philosophy^ 



^^%?TfriftT^rf?rnr^'f ?m'TT^':fl[ i 

•v, r^ 

I. I bow to Govinda, whose nature is Bliss 
Supreme, who is the Sadguru, who can be 
known only from the import of all Vedanta, 
and who is beyond the reach of speech and 

['Viveka' means discrimination, ' Chuda ' is 
crest, and * Man i," jewel. Hence the title means 
* Crest-jewel of discrimination.' Just as the jewel 
on the crest of a diadem is the most conspicuous 
ornament on a person's body, so the present 
treatise is a masterpiece among works treating of 
discrimination between the Real and the unreal. 

In this opening stanza salutation is made to 
God ( Govinda), or to the Guru, in his absolute 
aspect. It may be interesting to note that the 
name of Sankara's Guru was Govindapada, and the 
Sloka is ingeniously composed so as to admit of 
both interpretations. 

Sadgiirii — lit. the highly qualified preceptor, and 
may refer either to Sankara's own Guru or to God 
Himself, who is the Guru of Gurus. ] 



2. Foff all bemgs a huma?!!i birth is di& 
cult to obtain, more so is- a ma^ie body,, 
rarer thai5 that is Brahmmhood, rarer still is 
the attaGhment! to tfee path of ¥edic religion ; 
higher than thiis is eruditioft in the Scriptures ; 
discrimination between the Self and not- 
Self, Realisation, and co-ntia'oing in a state o£ 
identity with Brahm^n^ — these come next ini 
order. ( This kind of ) Mukts m not to be 
attained except throisgh the weU-earnecS 
merits of a hundred crore of births, 

3. There are three things whkh are ra? e in^ 
deed and are d»e to the grace of God — namely^ 
a human birth^ the longjng for Liberation^ 
and the protecting care of a perfected sage, 

4. The man who having by some mear^ 
obtained a human birth, with a male body 


and mastery of the Vcdas to boot, is 
foolish enough not to exert for self-liberation, 
verily commits suicide, for he kills himself by 
clinging to things unreal. 

5. What greater fool is there than the 
man who having obtained a rare human body, 
and a masculine body too, neglects to 
achieve the real end of this life. 

[ The real end &c.—v\z. Liberation. ] 

^^ 'inmiir *r^^ ^^^- ' 

6. Let people quote scriptures and sacri- 
fice to the gods, let them perform rituals and 
worship the deities, there is no Liberation for 
anyone without the realisation of one's identity 
with the Atman, no, not even in the lifetime 
of a hundred Brahmas put together. 

[ Lifetime &c. — i. e., an indefinite length of time. 
One day of Brahma ( the Creator ) is equivalent to 
432 million years of human computation, which is 
supposed to be the duration of the world. ] 

*^ ^cT TfT „. 

^Tfar m^T^t g%t^^ ^z ?m: iivsii 


7. There is no hope of Immortah'ty by 
means of riches — such indeed is the declara- 
tion of the Vedas. Hence it is clear that works 
cannot be the cause of Liberation. 

[The reference is to Yajnavalkya's words to his 
wife Maitreyi, Brihadaranyaka Il.iv. 2. Cf. the Vedic 

dictum, ^ ^T{w T srsrarviT^^r ^»r%% ^^^dr^ ^rr^ir:— 

'Neither by rituals, nor progeny, nor by riches, but 
by- renunciation alone some attained immortality. } 

8. Therefore the man of learning should 
strive his best for Liberation, having re- 
nounced his desire for pleasures from external 
objects, duly approaching a good and generous 
preceptor, and fixing his mind on the truth 
inculcated by him. 

[ Duly — i. e. according to the prescribed mode. 
(Vide Mundaka I. ii. 12). The characteristics of 
a qualified Guru are given later on in sloka 33. ] 

^rnT^5"c^^TOT^ ^T^75;:S;i[{^g?Tr 115.11 

9. Having attained the Yogarudha state, 
one should recover oneself, immersed in the 
sea of birth and death, by means of devotion 
to right discrimination. 


[ Vogdrudha state — Described in Gita VI. 4. — 
'''When one is attached neither to sense-objects 
nor to actions, and has given up all desires, then 
he is said to be Yogdrudha or to have ascended 
the Yoga-path." ] 

^^cTT qft^lw^Rm^mn ^^1%^: II? oil 

10. Let the wise and erudite man, having 
commenced the practice of the reah'sation of 
the Atman, give up all works and try to 
cut loose the bonds of birth and death. 

S^All works — only Sakdma-Karma or works per- 
formed with a view to gaining more sense-enjoy- 
ment are meant, not selfless work. ] ^^ 

'' *i(il" Work is for the purification of the 
mind, not for the perception of the reality. 
The realisation of Truth is brought about by 
discrimination and not in the least by ten 
millions of acts. 

r [The idea is, that works properly done cleanse the 
-s mind of its impurities, /when the Truth flashes of 
C itself. ] vX 


12. By adequate reasoning the convicti©n 
of the reality about the rope is gained, which 
puts an end to the great fear and misery 
caused by the snake worked up in the deluded 

[ Reality of the rope — i. e. that it is a rope and 
not a snake, for which it was mistaken. ] 

13. The conviction of the Truth is seen to 
proceed from reasoning upon the salutary 
counsel of the wise, and not by bathing in 
the sacred waters, nor by gifts, nor by 
hundreds of Pranayamas, 

\_The wise — men of realisation. ] 

14. Success depends essentially on a quali- 
fied aspirant, and time, place and such other 
means are but auxiliaries in this regard. 

[The qualifications will be enumerated in 
stanzas 1 6 and 17.] 

15. Hence the seeker after the Reality of 
the Atman should take to reasoning, after 


dtjly approaching the Guru — who should be 
the best of the kiKJwers of Brahman, aod an 
ocean of inercy„ 

16. The intelligent and learned man 
■skilled in arguing in favour of the Scriptures 
and refutirjg -counter-arguments against them, 
— one who has got the above characteristics is 
the fit recipient of the knowledge of the 

17. The man of discrimination between 
the Real and the unreal, whose mind is turned 
away from the unreal, who possesses calmness 
and the allied virtues, and Is longing for 
Liberation, is alone co«sidered qualified to 
inquire after Brahman. 

^ ^c^^ ^ftcgr ^T^^r% n %3?ri% M?^il 

18. Regarding this, sages have spoken of 
four means of attainment, which alone being 
present, the devotion to Brahman succeeds, 
and ia the absence of which, it fails. 


19. First is enumerated the discrimination 

i between the Real and the unreal, next comes 

*2_ the aversion to the enjoyment of fruits ( of 

one's actions ) here and hereafter, ( next is ) 

J the group of six attributes, viz., calmness and 

t^ the rest, and ( last ) is clearly the yearning 

for Liberation. 

Sim ^^ ^nr%^$^^^qt f%R^^: I 

20 A firm conviction of the mind to the 
effect that Brahman is real and the universe 
unreal, is designated as the discrimination 
(Viveka) between the real and the unreal. 

21. Vairagya or renunciation is the desire 
to give up all transitory enjoyments (ranging) 
from those of an ( animate ) body to those of 
Brahmahood, ( having already known their 
defects ) from o bservat ion, instruction and so 

[From those ,Brahmdhoed.'^'^i2,\imi is the 


highest beinjr in the scale of relative existence. 
The seeker after Freedom has to transcend this 
scale, undetained by enjoyments implying subject- 
object relation, and realise his Self as Existence- 
Knowledge-Bliss Absolute. 

Having already known etc.— ^i^^ST^xiirf^f^J may 
also be rendered as, *' (the giving up being effected) 
through all the enjoying organs and faculties." ] 

f^?:^^ fir^^afmif [^^^=5TT 5151* i 

22. The resting of the mind steadfastly 
on its Goal ( viz. Brahman ) after having 
detached itselfCfrom the manifold of sense- 
objects by continually observing their defects, 
is called Sama or c almne ss. 


23. Turning both kinds of sense-organs 
away from sense-objects and placing them in 
their respective centres is called Dama or 
self-control. The best Uparati or self-with- 
drawal consists in the mind-function ceasing 
to act by means of external objects. 

[ Bofh kinds of organs— \\z. The organs oi 
knoNvledge and those of action. ] 


24. The bearing of all afflictions without 
caring to redress them, being free ( at the 
same time ) from anxiety or lament on their 
score, is called Titiksha or forbearance. 

25. Acceptance by firm judgment of the 
mind as true of what the scriptures and the 

-- >-^ Guru instruct, is called by the sages Sraddha 

or faith, by means of which the Reality is 

[ Acceptance by firin judgment etc. — Not to be 
confused with what is generally called blind accep- 
tance. The whole mind must attain to that perfect 
state of assured reliance on the truth of instruc- 
tions received, without which a whole-hearted, one- 
pointed practice of those instructions is not 
possible. ] 

V 26. Not the mere indulgence of thought 
( in cujjosity ) but the constant concentration 
of the intellect ( or the affirming faculty ) ou 


the ever-pure Brahman is what is called 
Saraadhdna or self-settledness. 

[ Not the mere indulgence etc-^hat is, not the 
mere intellectual or philosophical satisfaction in 
thinking of or studying the Truth. jj The intellect 
must be sought to be r esolve d into the higher 
activity of concentration on the Truth. ] 

27. Mumukshuta or yearning for freedom 
is the desire to free oneself, by realising one's 
true nature, from all bondages from that of 
egoism to that of the body,— bondages super- 
imposed by Ignorance. 

5y^5f 3d: ^5!f sTf ;8rT ^^% ^«i: ii^'==ii 

28. Even though torpid or mediocre, this 
yearning for freedom, through the grace of the 
Guru, may bear fruit ( being developed ) by 
means of Vairagya ( renunciation ), Sama 
( calmness ), and so on. 

29. In his case verily whose renunciation 
and yearning for freedom are intense, calm- 


ness and the other practices have ( really ) 
their meaning and bear fruit. 

30. Where ( however ) this renunciation 
and yearning for freedom are torpid, there 
calmness and the other practices are as mere 
appearances, like water in a desert ! 

[ Mere appeaf-ances etc. — i. e. they are without 
any stability and may vanish like the mirage any 
time, ^ox without burning renunciation and desire 
for Freedom, the other practices may be swept off 
^\\ J by a strong impulse of fg^ or some strong bhnd 
attachment. ] ) 

^N »^, 

31. Among things conducive to Liberation, 
Devotion (Bhakti ) alone holds the supreme 
place. The seeking after one's real nature is 
designated as Devotion. 

[ The seeking etc. — This definition is from the 
Advaita standpoint. Dualists who substitute Isvara, 
the Supreme Lord, for the Atman or Supreme Self 
immanent in being, of course define Bhakti other- 
wise. For example, Narada defines it as gr ^^r%^ 
M^MMH^TT — " It is of the nature of extreme love 
to some Being," and Sandilya, another authority 


on the subject, puts it as m qTT^^FFO^— " It is 
extreme attachment to Isvara, ihe Lord." On 
reflection it will appear that there is not much dif- 
ference between the definitions of the two schools.] 

32-. Others maintain that the inquiry into 
the truth of one's own Self is Devotion. 
The inquirer about the truth of the Atman 
who is possessed of the above-mentioned 
means of attainment should approach a wise 
preceptor, who confers emancipation from 
bondage ; 

[ Truth of one's own self ^c. — This is simply 
putting the statement of the previous Sloka in 
another way, for we are the Atman in reality, 
though ignorance has veiled the truth from us. 

Ahove-vie7itioned — i. e. in Slokas 19 and 31. ] 

•^ rv 

33. Who is versed in the Vedas, sinless, 

unsmitten by desire and a knower of Brahman 

par excellence, who has withdrawn himself 

^ into Brahman,(^calm, like fire that has con- 

sumed its fueMwho is a boundless reservoir of 


mercy that knows no reason, and a friend of 
all good people who prostrate themselves be- 
fore him ; — 

{Fire..... fuel. — Cf. Svetasvatara, VI. 19. The state 
of mergence in Brahman, and( the perfect cessa- 
tion of all activity of the relative plane is meant.^ 

The Sloka is an adaptation of the language of 
Srutis. ] 

34. Worshipping that Guru with devotion, 
and approaching him, when he is pleased 
with prostration, humility and service, (he) 
should ask him what he has got to know : — 

3$. O Master, O friend of those that bow 
to thee, thou ocean of mercy, I bow to thee ; 
save me, fallen as I am into this sea of birth 
and death, with a straightforward glance of 
thine eye, which sheds nectar-like grace 

[ The expression, abounding in hyperbole, is 
characteristically Oriental. The meaning is quite 
plain. ] 


36. Save me from death, afflicted as I am 
by the unquenchable fire of this world-forest^ 
and shaken violently by the winds of ai> un- 
toward lot, terrified and ( so ) seeking refuge 
in thee, for I do not know of any other man 
with whom to seek shelter. 

[ Forest-fire &c. — The world ( Samsdra ) \% 
commonly compared to a wilderness on fire. The 

physical and mental torments are referred to. 

Untoward lot — the aggregate of bad deeds done 
in one's past incarnations, which bring on the evils 
of the present life. ] 

37. There are good souls, calm and 
magnanimous, who do good to others as does 
the spring, and who having themselves crossed 
this dreadful ocean of birth and death, help 
others also to cross the same, without any 
motive whatsoever. 


[ Do good spring — i. e. unasked, out of their 

heart's bounty, as the spring infuses new life into 
animate and inanimate nature, unobserved and un- 
sought. The next Sloka follows up the idea. ] 

sT^rrnTcTHm^RT f^m Rf^ ll^^ll 

38. It is the very nature of the magnani- 
mous to move of their own accord towards 
removing others' troubles. Here, for instance, 
is the moon who, as everybody knows, volun- 
tarily saves the earth parched by the flaming 
rays of the sun. 

HiTR?5:T:^T3^RT^T^Ir: 'jl': ^^fr^t^- 
g^?T§[r^^5aTi^>=F;l: ^Rf^^^W^T'5^: ^=^^ I 

39. O Lord, with thy nectar-like 
speech, sweetened by the enjoyment of the 
elixir-like bliss of Brahman, pure, cooling 
to a degree, issuing in streams from thy 
lips as from a pitcher, and delightful to the 
ear, — do thou sprinkle me who am tor- 
mented by worldly afflictions as by the 


tongues of a forest-fire. Blessed are those 
on whom even a passing glance of thine 
eye lights, accepting them as thine own. 

[ Stripped of metaphor the Sloka would mean : 
Take pity on me and teach me the way ont of this 
world and its afflictions. ] 

•s * rv "^ • 

40. How to cross this ocean of phe- 
nomenal existence, what is to be my fate, 
and which of the means should I adopt: — 
as to these I know nothing. Condescend 
to save me, O Lord, and describe at length 
how to put an end to the misery of this 
relative existence. 

[ Which of the means'. Among the various and 
often conflicting means prescribed in the Shastras, 
which am I to adopt ? ] 

41. As he thus speaks, tormented by 
the afflictions of the world — which is like 



a forest on fire — and seeking his protec-- 
tion, the saint eyes him with a glance 
softened with pity and spontaneously bidj. 
him give up all fear, 

42. To him who has sought his pr De- 
tection, thirsting for liberation, who duly 
obeys the injunctions of the scriptures,, 
who is of a pacified mind, and endowed 
v/ith calmness, — (to such a one) the sage 
proceeds to inculcate the truth out of 
sheer grace: 

[ This verse is an adaptation of Mundaka Upa. 
L ii. 13. 

To him who &€. — The adjectives imply that 
he is a qualified aspirant. ] 

ITT ^^ f^t^^^ ?rr^^TT^'. 

43. Fear not, O learned one, there is 
no death for thee; there is a means of 
crossing this sea of relative existence ; that 


very way by which sages have gone beyond 
it, I shall inculcate to thee. 

44. There is a sovereign means which 
puts an end to the fear of relative existence ; 
through that thou wilt cross the sea of 
Samsara and attain bliss supreme. 

45. Reasoning on the meaning of the 
Vedanta leads to efficient knowledge, which 
is immediately followed by the total 
annihilation of the misery born of relative 

[ Efficient hiowledge — the highest knowledge, 
which consists of the realisation of the identity of 
the individual soul with Brahman. ] 

46. Faith, devotion and the Yoga of 
meditation — these are mentioned by the 
Sruti as the immediate factors of Libera'tion 


in the case of a seeker; whoever abides in 
these, gets Liberation from the bondage of 
the body, which is the conjuring of 

[ The reference is to Kaivalya Upanishad i. 2. 

Faith — Shraddha, Devotion — Bhakti. These have 
been defined in Slokas 25 and 31, 32. 

Bondage of the body — i. e. the identification of 
the Self with the body, which is solely due to 
Ignorance or Avidya. ] 

47. It is verily through the touch of 
Ignorance that thou who art the Supreme 
Self, findest thyself under the bondage of 
non-Self, whence alone proceeds the round 
of births and deaths. The 'fire of knowl- 
edge, kindled by the discrimination be- 
tween these two, burns up the effects of 
Ignorance together with their root. 

48. The disciple said; Condescend to 
listen, Master, to the question I am 


putting (to thee) ; I shall l)e gratified to 
hear a reply to the same from thy lips. 

49. What is Bondage, forsooth? How 
has it c^ne (upon the Self) ? How does 
it continue to exist? How is one free^ 
from it? Who is this non-Self? And who 
is the Supreme Self? And how can one 
discriminate between them? — Do tell me 
about all these. 

50. The Guru replied: Blessed art 
thou! Thou hast achieved thy life's end 
and hast sanctified thy family, that thou 
wishest to attain Brahmanhood by getting 
free from the bondage of Ignorance ! 

51. A father has got his sons and 
others to free him from his debts, but he 


l;as got none but himself to remove his 

[ In this and the next few Slokas the necessity 
of direct realisation is emphasised as the only 
means of removing Ignorance. ] 

52. The trouble such as that caused by 
a load on the head can be removed by 
others, but none but one's own self can put 
a stop to the pain which is caused by 
hunger and the like. 

53. The patient who takes (the proper) 
diet and medicine is alone seen to recover 
completely, — not through work done by 

54. The true nature of things is to be 
known personally^ through the eye of clear 
illumination, and not through a sage: 
what the moon exactly is, is to be known 


•with one's own eyes; can others make 
hi SI know it? 

55. Who but one's own self can get 
rid of the bondage caused by the fetters of 
Ignorance, desire, action and the like, 
aye, even in a hundred crore of cycles? 

[ JgnoraJise of our real nature as the blissful 
Self leads to desire, which in its turn impels us to 
actio?i, entailing countless sufferings. 

Cycle — Kalpa, the entire duration of the evolved 
universe. See note on Sloka 6. ] 

V ♦v 

56. Neither by Yoga, nor by Sankhya, 
nor .by work, nor by learning., but by the 
realisation of one's identity with Brah- 
man is Liberation possible, and by no 
ether means. 

[ None of these, if practised mecliankaUy, will 
bring on the highest knowledge — the absolute 
identity of the }iva and Brahman — which alone, 
according to Advaita Vedanta, is the supreme way 
to liberation. 

* Yoga ' may mean Hathayoga which s^engthens 
die body. 

According to the Sankhya philosophy liberation 


is achieved by the discrimination botween Parnsha 
and Frakriti. The Purusha is sentient but inactive, 
and all activity belongs to Frakriti, which is 
non-sentient, yet independent of the Purusha. The 
Sankh.yas also believe in a plurality of Purushas, 
These are the main differences betvyeen the 
Sankhya and Vedanta philosophies. 

Work — Work for material ends, such as getting 
to heaven and so forth, is meant. 

\y^ Compare Svetasvatara Upa. III. 8. — * Seeing Him 
V J/L. alone one transcends death, there is no other way.'] 

57. The beauty of a guitar's form and 
the skill of playing on its chords serve 
merely to please same persons, they do not 
suffice to confer sovereignty. 

58. Loud speech consisting of a shower 
of words, the skill in expounding Scriptures » 
and Kkewise erudition — these merely bring, 
on a little personal enjoyment to the 
schol'ar but are no good for Liberation. 

[ Book-learning to the exclusion of realisation is- 
deprecated in this and the following Slokas. 

Loud speech. — Speech is divided into four kinds 
according to its degree of subtlety. Vaikhari is. 


the lowest class, and represents articulate speech. 
Hence, dabbling in mere terminology is meant.] 

59. The study of Scriptures is useless 
as long as the highest Truth is unknown, 
and it is equally useless when the high^est 
Truth has already been known. 

[ Prior to realisation, mere book-learning with- 
out Discrimination and Renunciation is useless 
as it cannot give us Freedom, and to the man of 
realisation, it is all the more so, as he has already 
achieved his life's end. ] 

• rv 

60. The Scriptures consisting of many 
words are a dense forest which causes the 
mind to ramble merely. Hence the man of 
wisdom should earnestly set about knowing 
the true nature of the Self. 

61. For one who has been bitten by the 
serpent of Ignorance the only remedy is 
the knowledge of Bra'hman; of what avail 
are the Vedas and Scriptures, Mantras and 
medicines to such a one ? 


62. A disease does not leave off if one 
simply utter the name of the medicine, 
without taking it; (similarly) without 
direct realisation one cannot be liberated 
by the mere utterance of the word Brah- 

63. Without causing the objective uni- 
verse to vanish and without knowing the 
truth- of (the self, how is one to achieve 
liberation by the mere utterance of the 
word Brahman?— -it would result merely 
in an effort of speech. 

[ Without causing... vanish. — By realising one's 

identity with Brahman, the one without a second^ 

f in Samadhi, one becomes the pure Chit (knowledge 

i absolute), and the duality of subject and object 

vanishes altogether. Short of this, ignorance which 

is the cause of all evil is not destroyed. ] 

64. Without killing one's enemies, and 
possessing oneself of the splendour of the 
entire surrounding region one cannot claim 


to be an emperor by merely saying, 'I am 
an emperor.' 

65. As a treasure hidden underground 
requires (for its extraction) competent 
instruction, excavation, the removal of 
stones and such other things lying above 
it and (finally) grasping, but never comes 
out by being (merely) called out by name, 
so the transparent Truth of the Self, which 
is hidden by Maya and its effects, is to be 
attained through the instructions of a 
knower of Brahman, followed by reflexion, 
meditation and so forth, but not through 
perverted argumentations. 

[ Nikshepah — something remaining hidden. The 
idea is — one must undergo the necessary practice.] 

66. Therefore the wise should, as in 
the case of disease and the like, personally 
strive by all the means in their power te 
be free from the bondage of repeated births 
and deaths. 


g;5r5fT^r ^'jsr^rt ^Tct^^t;^ gg^nr: \K^\\ 

67. The question that you have asked 
to-day is excellent, approved by those 
versed in the Shastras, aphoristic, preg- 
nant with meaning and fit to be known by 
the seekers after Liberation. 

[ Aphoristic — terse and pithy.] 

68. Listen attentively, O learned one, 
to what I am going to say. By listening 
to it you shall be instantly free from the 
bondage of Samsara. 

69. The first step to Liberation is the 
extreme aversion to all perishable things, 
then follow calmness, self-control, for- 
bearance, and the utter relinquishment of 
all work enjoined in the Scriptures. 

[ Aversion, calmness ^/r.— These four have been 
definecf in Slokas 20—24.. Cf. Srmi— HTF^ ^RT 


All work : all work done with moti-ve, including 
the good ones prescribed in the Shastras and those 
that are evil — which men do prompted by their 
own nature. ] 

70. Then come hearing, reflection on 
that, and long, constant and unbroken 
meditation, for the Muni. After that the 
learned one attains the supreme Nirvikalpa 
state and realises the bliss of Nirvana even 
in this life. 

[ Compare Bri. Upa. II. iv. 5. 

Hearing — of the Truth from the lips of the Guru. 

Meditation — the flowing of the mind in one un- 
broken stream towards one object. ^ 

Mjmi — the man of reflection. 

Nirvikalpa state — that state of the mind in which 
there is no distinction between subject and object — 
fall the mental activiti es are held in suspension,/ 
and the aspirant is one with his Atman.) It is a 
- s uperco nscious _state, bej^ond all relatjvity, which * 
\ can \)Q/elt by the fortunate seeker, but cannot be 
j described in words.) The utmost that can be said 
of it is that it is inexpressible Bliss, and Pure 
Consciousness. Nirvana, which literally means 
' blown out,' is another name for this. ] 


71. Now I am going to tell you fully 
about what you ought to know — the dis- 
crimination between the Self and non-Self. 
Listen to it and decide about it in your 

72. , Composed of the seven ingredients 
viz., marrow, bones, fat, flesh, blood, skin, 
and cuticle, and consisting of the follow- 
ing limbs and their parts — legs., thighs 
the chest, arms, the back, and the head — 

»\ rs rs • rv_» 

73. — This body, reputed to be the 
abode of the infatuation of ' I and mine,' 
is designated by sages as the gross body. 
The sky, air, fire, water and earth are 
subtle elements. They — 

[ The sky^ air etc, — These are the materials out 


of which the gross body has been formed. They 
have got two slates, one subtle and the other gross.] 

74. Being united with parts of one 
another and becoming gross (they) form 
the gross body. And their subtle essences 
form sense-objects — the groups of five 
such as sound and the rest which conduce 
to the happiness of the experiencer, the 
individual soul. 

[ Being united ^c, — The process is as follows : 
Each of the five elements is divided into two parts, 
one of the two halves is further divided into four 
parts. Then each gross element is formed by 
the union of one-half of itself with one-eighth of 
each of the other four. 

Subtle essences — Tanmdtrds. 

Form sense-ohjects — by being received by the 

Soimd and ike r^j/— sound, touch, smell, taste 
and sight. 

Happiness &c. — Happiness includes its opposite, 
— misery also. ] 


iRmf?cT fsrqr?^^ ^f'S^- 

5E^^^f^^ ^^5r #r&T: llvsv^ll 

75. Those fools who are tied to these 
sense-objects by the stout cord of attach- 
ment, so very difficult to snap, come and 
depart, up and down, carried amain by the 
powerful emissary of one's own action. 

[ Come and depart &c. — Become sabject to 
t>irth and death and assume various bodies from 
those of angels to those of brutes, according t© the 
merits of their work. 

Powerful emissary &c. — Just as culprit seizing 
things not belonging to him is put in fetters and 
sentenced by the royal affair in various ways, so 
the Jiva, oblivious of his real nature, through his 
attachment to sense-object is subjected to various 
kinds of misery. ] 

^c^rf^nr: q^w:^ q^ 

76. The deer, the elephant, the moth,' 
the fish and the black-bee — these five have 
died, being tied to one or other of the five 
senses viz., sound etc., through their own 
attachment. What then is in store for 
man who is attached to all these five ! 

[ Their own attachment : The word * guna ' in 
the text means both * a rope ' and * a tendency.' ] 


r r- 

11 . Sense-objects are more virulent in 
their evil effects than the poison of the 
cobra even. Poison kills one who takes it, 
but those others kill one vvho even looks 
at them through the eyes. 

\Looksat them eyes. — The mention of the 

eyes here is only typical, and implies the other 
sense-organs also ; contact with the external world 
by any organ, is intended. ] 

^ o;^ 3^^ g^^ ^T?^: ^^T^^fk llvs'^^ll 

78. He who is free from the terrible 
fetters of the hankering for the sense- 
objects so very difficult to get rid of, is 
alone fit for liberation, and none else. — 
even though he be versed in all the six 

[ Six Shastras. — The six schools of Indian 
philosophy are meant. Mere book-learning with- 
out ^h^Jieart^sj^earning for emancipationywill net 
produce any effect. ] 



79. Those seekers after liberation wlicf- 
have got only an apparent dispassiont 
(Vairagya) and are trying to cross the 
ocean of Samsara (relative existence), the 
shark of hankering catches by the throat 
and violently snatching away drowns-them. 


[ Snatching away — from the pursuit of Brahma- 
]nana. ] 

80. He who has killed the shark known, 
as sense-object with the sword of mature 
dispassion, crosses the ocean of Sanlsa;:aj, 
free from all obstacles. 

[ Dispassion — Vairagya. ] 

rv r- 

81 . Know that death quickly overtakes^ 
the stupid man who walks along the dread- 
ful ways of sense-pleasure, whereas one 
who vt^alks in accordance with the in- 
structions of a well-wishing and worthy 
Guru, as also his own reasoning, achieyas. 
his end— know this to be true. 


82. If indeed thou hast a craving for 
liberation shun sense-objects from a good 
distance as thou wouldst do poison and al- 
ways cultivate carefully the nectar-like 
virtues of contentment, compassion, for- 
giveness, straight-forwardness, calmness 
and self-control. 

83. Whoever leaves aside what should 
always be attempted, viz., the emancipa- 
tion from the bondage of Ignorance with- 
out beginning, and passionately seeks to 
nourish this body — which is an object for 
others to enjoy — commits suicide thereby. 

[ For othtrs to enjoy : to be eaten perchance by 
dogs ^nd jackals after death. ] 

8j4-. Whoever seeks to realise the Self 


by devoting himself to the nourishment of 
the body, proceeds to cross a river by 
catching hold of a crocodile, mistaking it 
for a log. 

85. So for a seeker after liberation the 
infatuation over things like the body is a 
dire death. He who has thoroughly con- 
quered this deserves the state of freedom. 

[ Infatuation. — That I am the body or that the 
body etc. are mine. ] 

^ rar^T g^T'jft ^w^ crm^wt- ^^^ ^5:r ii^e 

86. Conquer the infatuation over things 
like the body, one's wife and children, — 
conquering which the sages reach that 
Supreme State of Vishnu. 

[ Supreme State of Vishnu. — From Rig- Veda, 

1. Xxii. 20-2I. J 

87. This gross body is to be deprecated 
for it consists of the skin, flesh, blo®d, 
arteries and veins, fat, marrow and bones ^ 
and full of other offensive things. 


^ •s *s 

^^^rTY^ ^^^: ^^^q*: 'j^^i^WT I 

88. This gross body is produced by 
one's past actions out of the gross ele- 
ments subdividing and combining with the 
other four, and is the medium of experi- 
ence for the soul. That is its waking state 
in which it perceives gross objects. 

[ Subdividing etc. — Paiichikarana : see note on 
Sloka 74. ] 

89. Identifying itself with this form the 
individual soul, though separate, enjoys 
gross objects, such as garlands and sandal- 
paste etc., by means of the external organs. 
Hence this body has its fullest play in the 
waking state. 

nrT% \^t ^^ ^TS^f^^f^: II6.0H 

90. Know this gross body to be like a 
house to the householder, on which rests 
man's entire dealing with the external 


91. Birth, decay and death are the 
various characteristics of the gross body, 
as also stoutness etc. ; childhood etc. are its 
different conditions; it has got various 
restrictions regarding caste and order of 
life; it is subject to various diseases, and 
meets with different kinds of treatment, 
such as worship, insult and high honours. 

Caste — Brahmana &c. Order of life — Brahma- 
charya etc. ] 

92. The ears, skin, eyes, nose and 
tongue are organs of knowledge, for they 
help us to cognise objects; the vocal 
organs, hands, legs etc. are organs of 
action, owing to their tendency for work. 

*S fV 


93 — 94. The inner organ (Antahkarana) 
is called Manas, Biiddhi, Ego or Chitta, 
^.ccording to their respective functionvS : 
the Manas, from its considering the pros 
and cons of a thing; the Biiddhi, from 
its property of determining the truth of 
objects; the Ego, from its identification 
with this body as one's own self; and the 
•Chitta, from its function of seeking for 
■pleasurable objects. 

95. The same Prana becomes Prana, 
Apana, Vyana, Udana and Saniana accord- 
ing to tlaeir diversity of functions and 
modifications, like gold and water etc. 

[Like gold etc. — Just as the same gold is fashioned 
into various ornaments, and as water takes the 
form of foam, waves, etc.] 


96. The five organs of action such as 
speech etc., the five organs of knowledge 
beginning with the ear, the group of five 
Pranas, Btiddhi and the rest, together with 
Nescience, desire and action — these eight 
'cities' make up what is called the subtle 

j Nescience &'c. — See note on Sloka 55, ] 

■ rs 

97. Listen, — this subtle body, called 
also Linga body, is produced out of the 
elements before their subdividing and 
combining with each other, is possessed, of 
desires and causes the soul to experience 
the fruits of its actions. It is a beginning- 
less superimposition on the soul brought 
on by its own ignorance. 

"K •^ 


98 — 99. Dream is a state of the soul 
distinct from the waking state, where it 
shines by itself. In dreams Biiddhi, by 
itself , takes on the role of the agent and 
the like, owing to various desires of the 
waking state, while the Supreme At man 
shines in its own glory, — with Buddhi as 
its only superimposition, the witness of 
everything, and is not touched by the least 
work that the Buddhi does. As it is 
wholly- unattacli,ed, it is not touched by 
any work that its superimpositions niay 

[Buddhi— here stands for the Antahkarana — the 
*' inner organ " or mind. 

By z/jf^— independently of the objective world. 

Takes OTi the role fe-V.— The Atman is the one 
intelligent principle, and whatever Buddhi does it 
does borrowing the light ot the Atman. ] 

^r^^ir^^fif^ c[^5iT§i^WK?iT ^^^'^#s^^ H 

42 , vivekachuDamani 

100. This subtle body is the instrument 
for all activity oi the Atman, who is 
Knowledge Absolute , like the adze and other 
tools of a carpenter. Therefore this Atman 
is perfectly unattached. 

101. Blindness, weakness, and sharpness 
are conditions of the eye, due to its fitness 
or defectiveness merely; so are deafness 
and dumbness etc. of the ear and so 
forth, — but never of the Atman, the 

102. Inhalation and exhalation, yawn- 
ing, sneezing, secretion, and leaving this 
body etc. are called by experts functions 
of Prana and the rest, while hunger and 
thirst are characteristics of Prana proper. 


103. The inner organ (mind) has its 
seat in the organs such as the eye etc., as 
well as in the body, identifying itself with 
them and endued with a jeflection of: the 
At man. 

104. Know that it is Egoism which, 
identifying itself with the "body, becomes 
the doer or enjoyer and in conjunction 
with the Gtmas such as the Sattva, as- 
sumes the three different states. 

[Gunas — the three component factors of Prakriti. 
Different jZ/z/^j-— those of waking etc.] 

105. When the sense-objects are favoiir- 
able it becomes happy, and it becomes 
miserable when the case is contrary. So 
happiness and misery are the characteristics 
of egoism, and not of the ever-blissful 

106. Sense-objects are pleasurable only 


as dependent on the Atman manifesting 
through them, and not independently, be- 
cause the Atman is by its very nature the 
most beloved of all. Therefore the Atman 
is ever blissful, and never suffers misery. 

[ Vide Bri. Upa. — Yajnavalkya's teachings to his 
wife Maitreyi. ] 

107. That in profound sleep we ex- 
perience the bliss of Atman independent 
of sense-objects, is clearly attested by Sruti, 
direct perception, tradition, and inference. 

[ Sruti — Chhandogya, Brihad^ranyaka, Kausi- 
taki and other Upanishads. 

J a grail — is a plural verb. ] 

108. Avidya (Nescience) or Ma}^^ called 
also the Undifferentiated, is the power of 
the Lord. It is without beginning, 
is made up of the three Gunas and is 
superior to the effects (as their cause) . 
She is to be inferred by one of clear 
intellect only from the effects She produces. 


It is She who brings forth this whole 
universe. # 

[ The Undifferentiated — the perfectly balanced 
stale of the three Gunas, where there is no mani- 
fested universe. When this balance is disturbed, 
then evolution begins. 

Power of the Lord. — This distinguishes the 
Vedantic conception of Maya from the Sankhya 
view of Prakriti which they call insentient and at 
the same time independent. ] 

109. §he is neither existent nor non- 
existent nor partaking of both charac- 
ters ; neither same nor different nor both ; 
— neither composed of parts nor an in- 
divisible whole nor both ; She is most 
wonderftd and cannot be described in 

rv V 

110. This Maya can be destroyed by 
the realisation of the pure Brahman, the 


one ■without a second, just as the mistaken 
idea of a snake is removed by the dis- 
crimination of the rope. She has Jier 
Gunas known as Rajas, Tanias and Sattva, 
named after their respective iunctions. 

1J.1. Rajas has its Vikshepa-Shakti or 
projecting power which is of the nature 
of an. activity, and from, which this 
primeval flow of activity has emanated. 
From this also, the mentalmodifications 
such as attachment and the rest and gtief 
a,nd the like are continually produced. 

[ Vikshepa-shakii—th2it power which at once 
projects a new form when once the real nature of a 
thing has been veiled by the dvarana-shakti, rhen- 
tioned later in Sloka 113, 

Primeval flow etc.—\, e. the phenomenal world, 
alternately evolving and going back into an involved 
state. Cf. Gita xv. 4.] 


112. Lust, aii^er, avarice, arrogance 
spite, egoism, envy and jealousy etc. — these 
are the dire attributes of Rajas, from which 
this worlflly tendency of man is produced. 
Therefore Rajas is a cause of bondage. 

113, ^z'rzV? or the veiling power is the 
power of Tamas which makes things ap.- 
pear other thaa what they are. It is this 
that causes man's repeated transmigra- 
tions, and starts the action of the project- 
ing power (Vikshepa) , 

•^ r^ 

ST^r^mR <TTOf cfTSPT ^g^Hi SC?r^eH^^3TTf 5T1"- 

114-, Even wise and. learned men and 
men who are clever and adepts in the 
vision of the exceedingly subtle Atman, are 
overpowered by Tamas and do not under- 
stand the Atman even though clearly 
explained in various Ways. Wtatis simply 


superimposed by delusion, they consider 
as true, and attach themselves to its 
effects. Alas! How powerful is the great 
Avrzlz Shakti of dreadful Tamast 

115.' Absence of right judgment, or 
contrary judgment, want of definite belief 
and doubt — these certainly never desert 
one who has any connection with this 
"veiling power" and then the "projecting 
power" gives ceaseless trouble. 

[ Wan/ of definite belief- — in the existence of a thing 
even though there may be a vague notion of it. ] 

116. Ignorance, lassitude, dulness, sleep, 
inadvertence and stupidity etc. are attri- 
butes of Tarn as. One tied to these does 
not comprehend anything but remains like 
one asleep or like a stock or stone. 

[ Stock or stojie — lit. pillar, ] 


117. Pure Sattva is (clear) like water, 
yet in conjunction with Rajas and Tamas 
makes for transmigration. A glimpse of 
the Atman becomes reflected in the 
Sattva and like the sun reveals the entire 
world of matter. 

m^^ ^T^^^ ¥Rf?cT VTITT 

118. The traits of mixed Sattva are an 
Titter absence of pride etc. and Niyamas 
and Yama etc., as well as faith, devotion, 
yearning for liberation, the divine tenden- 
cies and turning away from the unreal. 

[ Absence of pride etc. — The reference is to the 
higher attributes enumerated in the Bhagavad-Gita 
XIII. 8-12. 

Yama — Non-killing, truthfulness etc. Niyama — 
Purity, contentment etc. Vide Patanjali's Yoga 
Aphorisms III. 30 & 32. 

Divine tendencies — The reference is to the 
opening Slokas of Gita, Ch. XVI. ] 


119, The traits of pure Sattva ate 
cheerf Illness, the realisation, of one'S' owix 
Self, supreme peace, contentment, bliss,, 
and steady devotion for the At man, by 
which the aspirant enjoys bliss ev^erlasting-... 
[ Pure Sattva — Sattva unraixed with Rajas- aji<l 
Tamas elements. ] 

r^ 'N 

120. This Undifferentiated spoken of a»^ 
the compound of the three Gunas is- the 
causal body of the soul. Profound sleep is* 
its special state, in which the functions of 
the mind and all its organs are suspended. 

[ Undifferentiated— Avyakt'amyWiQn\!\QnQ6. in Sloka:^ 
io8 and following. 

0/tke x»«/— identifying itself thTOugh ignorance- 
>^ith thi& or the other two bodies. 

The functions. suspended'— not in perfect 

knowledge as in Samadhi, but in ignorance. Tfeis^ 
is the differentia between tbes€ two states. ] 


^^sr^r^fiTrdy HTi fNr- 

r^ r^ "^ 

121. Profound sleep is the cessation of 
all kinds of perception, in which the mind 
remains in a subtle, seed-like form. The 
test of this is the universal verdict that 
I did not know anything then. 

[Ail kifids of perception — including remem- 
brance and delusion also. 

The universal verdict &c. — This negative re- 
memhrance proves the continuity of the mind even 
in the sushupti state. ] 

^ f^^fKT f^^: 5[yT<^: I 

122. The body and the organs, the 
Pranas, Manas and Egoism etc., all forms 
of function, the sense-objects, pleasures 
and the rest, the gross elements such as 
the ether and so forth, in fact, the whole 
universe, up to the Undifferentiated — all 

this is Not-self. 

[ This and the next Sloka set forth what we are 
to avoid identifying ourselves with. We are the 
Pure Self, eternally free from all duality. ] 


123. From Mahat down to the gross 
]3ody everything is the effect of Maya : 
These and Maya Herself know thou to be 
Non-self and therefore unreal like the 
mirage in a desert, 

^[Mahat — Cosmic Intelligence. It is the first 
to proceed from Prakriti or Maya. For the 
hierarchy vide Katha Upa. I. iii. lo-ii. ] 

124. Now I am going to tell thee of the 
real nature of the Paramatman, realising 
which man is freed from bondage and at- 
tains liberation. 

[ Liberation : ' Kaivalya ' literally means extreme 
aloofness. ] 

125. There is some Absolute Entity, 
the eternal substratum of the perception 
of Egoism, the witness of three states, and 
distinct from the five sheaths or cover- 

l^Five sheaths &c. — Consisting respectively of 
Anna ( matter ), Prana ( force ), Mana ( mind ), 


Vijnina (knowledge) and Ananda (Bliss). The first 
two comprise this body of ours, the third and 
fourth make up the subtle body (Sukshma Sarira) 
and the last the causal body (Karana Sarira). The 
Atman referred to in this Sloka is beyond them all. 
These Kosas will be dealt with later on in the 
book. ] 

126. Who knows everything that hap- 
pens in the waking state, in dream and in 
profound sleep, is aware of the presence 
or absence of the mind and its functions, 
and is the background of the notion, 
' Here I am.' 

[ This Sloka gives the purport of such Sruti 
passages as Kena Up. I. 6, and Bri. III. iv. 2. ] 

127. Who Himself sees all, whom no 
one beholds, who illumines the Buddhi 
etc., but whom they cannot illumine. — 
This is He. 

128. By whom this universe is pervaded, 
whom nothing pervades, who shining all 


this (universe) shines as His reflection. — 
This is He. 

[By ivhom etc. — Compare Chhandogya III. xi. 6, 
and Gita x. 42. 

Who shining etc. — A reproduction of the sense 
of the celebrated verse occurring in Katha Upa. II. 
V. 15, Mundaka II. ii. 10, and Swetaswatara vi. 14.] 

129. By whose very presence the body, 
the organs, mind and intellect keep to 
their respective spheres of action, like 
servants ! 

rv "v. 

130. By whom everything from Egoism 
down to the body, the sense-objects and 
pleasure etc. is known as palpably as a 
jar, — for He is the essence of Eternal 
Knowledge ! 

[ Compare Bri. IV. iii. 23.] 

131. This is the innermost Self, the 
primeval Purtisha (Being) , whose essence 


is tlhe constaiit realisation of infinite Bliss, 
T\'ho is ever the same, yet reflecting 
through the different mental modifications, 
^nd commanded by whom the organs and 
Pranas perform their functions. 

[ iKfiermost Self — Vide Bri. III. 4 and elsewhere. 

Jiifleciitig etc. — Compare Kena II. 12. 

Commanded by whom ^c. — See the opening 
Sloka of the same Upanishad and the reply givea 
to it later on. ] 

^^RTH^T f^^^ftr^: !T^m^ \\\\\^ 

132. In this very body, in the mind fnll 
-of Sattva^ in the secret chamber of the 
intellect, in the Akasa known as the Un- 
manifested, the Atman, of charming 
splendour, shines like the sun aloft, mani- 
festing this universe through Its own efful- 

[ This Sloka gives t^e hint wh-ere to look in for 
the Atmen. First of all there i« the gross body ; 
within this there is the mind or " inner organ," 
of which Buddhi or intelligence, characterised 
hy determination^ is the most developed form ; 
^vithin Buddhi again, pervading it, is the causal 
body known as the Unmanifested. We must 
seek ti)£ Aiman iofeide this. The idea is that 


Atman transcends all the three bodies — in fact the 
whole sphere of duality and materiality. The 
word * Akasa ' often occurs in the Sruti in the 
sense of Atman or Brahman. The Vedanta Sutras 
(I. i. 22) discuss this question and decide in 
favour of this meaning. ] 

133. — The knower of the modifications 
of mind and egoism, and of the activities 
of the body, the organs, and Pranas, ap- 
parently taking their forms, like the fire in 
a ball of iron; It neither acts nor is 
subject to change in the least. 

[Like the fire iron — Just as fire has no form 

of its own, but seems to take on the form of the 
iron ball which it turns red-hot, so the Atmao 
though without form seems to appear as Buddhi 
and so forth. 

Compare Katha II. ii. 9. ] 

r\ •v •^ r^ •v /^ 

rv <v 

134. It is neither born nor dies, It 
neither grows nor decays, nor does It 


undergo any change, being eternal. It 
does not cease to exist even when this 
body is destroyed, like the sky in a jar 
(after it is broken) , for It is independent. 
[ This Sloka refers to the six states enumerated 
by Yaska, which overtake every being, such as 
birth, existence etc. The Atman is above all 
change. ] 

135. The Supreme Self, different from 
the Prakriti and its modifications, of the 
essence of Pure Knowledge, and Absolute, 
directly manifests this entire gross and 
subtle universe, in the waking and other 
states, as the substratum of the persistent 
sense of egoism and manifests Itself as 
the Witness of Buddhi, the determinative 


\ Prakrifi—ihQ Mother of the entire manifested 

Gross and subile universe— \.\iQ world of matter 
and thought. 

The Witness of Buddhi — all actions that we 
seem to be doing are really done by Buddhi, 
while the Self ever stands aloof , the only Absolute 

Entity. ] 


p^^JT^nrm ^r^rfkfe sf^sr^r^rrri I 

136. By means of a regulated mind and 
the purified intellect (Buddhi) realise thou 
directly thy own Self, in the body, so as 
to identify .jthyself with It, cross the 
boundless ocean of Samsara whose waves 
are birth and death, and firmly estalished 
in Brahman as thy own essence be 

\^ Identity // — instead of with the gross, 

subtle and causal bodies. 

Established nature — By our very nature we 

are ever identified with Brahman, but through 
ignorance we think we are limited and so forth. ] 

137. Identifying the Self with this Non- 
self — this is the bondage of man, which 
is due to his ignorance, and brings in its 
train the miseries of birth and death. It 
is through this that one considers this 
evanescent body as real, and identifying 


oneself with it, nourishes, bathes, and 
preserves it by means of ( agreeable ) 
sense-objects, by which latter he becomes 
bound as the caterpillar by the threads of 

its cocoon. 

[ ^izM<f^— keeps it clean and tidy. 

Sense-objects &c.—¥l^ runs after sense-pleasures 
thinking that will conduce to the well-being of the 
body, but these in turn throw him into a terrible 
bondage, and he has to abjure them wholly to 
attain his freedom, as the caterpillar has to cut 
through its cocoon. ] 

138. One who is overpowered by igno- 
xance mistakes a thing for what it is not : 
It is the absence of discrimination that 
causes one to mistake a snake for a rope 
and great dangers overtake him when he 
seizes it through that wTong notion. 
Hence, listen, my friend, it is the mistak- 
ing of transitory things as real that cons- 
titutes bondage. 

[ Discrimination — between what is real (viz. the 
Self ) and what is not real (viz. the phenomenal 
world). ] 



139. This veiling power {Avriti) , which 
preponderates in ignorance, covers the 
Self, whose glories are infinite and which 
manifests Itself through the power of 
knowledge, indivisible, eternal, and one 
without a second, — as Rahu does the orb 
of the stin. 

[ As Rdhu &c. — The reference is to the solar 
eclipse. In Indian mythology the sun is supposed 
to be periodically overpowered by a demon named 
Rahu. ] 

^ f^^rr^^T ^5T^ T55^r%3^5i?TRT ii?«oii 

140. When one's own Self, endowed 
with the purest splendour, is hidden from 
view, a man through ignorance falsely 
identifies himself with this body, which is 
non-self. And then the great power of 
Rajas called Vikshepa^ the projecting 
power, sorely afflicts him through the 
binding fetters of lust, anger etc. 

[ Projecting power^^StQ note on Sloka 1 1 1 . ] 


141. The man of perverted intellect, 
having his self-knowledge swallowed up by 
the shark of utter ignorance, himself 
imitates the various states of the Intellect 
(Buddhi) as that is its superimposed attri- 
bute — and drifts up and down in this 
boundless ocean of Samsara full of the 
poison of sense-enjoyment, now sinking, 
now rising, — a miserable fate indeed ! 

[ Himself imitates fe'c.— The Self is the real 
nature of every being, but a mistaken identification 
with the Buddhi causes him to appear as if he 
were active. See note on Sloka 135. 

Sarnsdra — the entire relative existence. 

Up and down : sinking and mz>/^.— Acquiring 
different bodies such as the angelic or the animal, 
according to the good and bad deeds performed, 
and enjoying or suffering therein. ] 


142 . As layers of clouds , generated by the 
sun's rays, cover the sun and appear solely 
(in the sky), so Egoism, generated by 
the Self, covers the Reality of the Self and 
appears solely by itself. 

[ Solely by itself -^2^.^ if there were no Atman at 
all. But the clouds vanish subsequently, and so 
does egoism too. ] 

143. Just as, on a cloudy day, when the 
sun is swallowed up by dense clouds y 
violent cold blasts trouble them, so when 
the Atman is hidden by intense ignorance, 
the dreadful Vikshepa Shakti (projecting 
power) afflicts the foolish man with 
numerous griefs. 

[Blasts trouble them — The root s^PT has .also a 
secondary meaning, namely to cause to wander, 
which is also implied here. The verb^qeiirf in the 
last line of this verse has also a similar meaning. 
The foolish man is made to take sometimes very 
low bodies — that is the meaning. ] 


144. It is from these two powers that 

man's bondage has proceeded, — beguiled 

by which he mistakes the body for the 

Self and wanders (from body to body) . 

[ Tzvo powers — viz., the veiling and projecting 
powers — Avarana and Vikshepa. ] tp 

•v •^ 

Tm : q-^^TTT5 ^^3^5: ^^?^nfR *. ^TT%^r : I 

145. Of the tree of Samsara ignorance 
is the seed, the identification with the 
body is its sprout, attachment its tender 
leaves, work its water, the body its trunk, 
the vital forces its branches, the organs 
its twigs, the sense-objects its flowers, 
various miseries due to diverse works are 
its fruits, and the individual soul is the 
bird on it. 

[ In tliis stanza Samsara or relative existence is 
likened to a tree, and the simile is brought out in 
detail. The appropriateness of the comparisons 
vrill be patent on reflection. It is this kind of 
Composition which shows Sankara not only to be 
a great philosopher but a true poet also. And such 
Slokas. as the reader will perceive, abound in this 
masterpiece of Vedantic literature. 

S&ul is tht bird &'c. — Compare the beautiful 


Slokas of the Mundaka Upanishad ( III. i. 1-2 ) — 
"ST ^'irr ^i^r ^m^ " &c. With the ripening of 
Knowledge the two birds coalesce into one, the 
Self alone remains, and life is known to be a 
dream. ] 

146. Friend, this bondage of non-Self 
springs from ignorance, is self-caused, and 
is described as without beginning and end. 
It subjects one to the long train of miseries 
such as birth and death, disease and 
decrepitude and so forth. 

[ Self-caused — not depending upon any other 

Wiihout end — Relatively speaking, that is. On 
the Realisation of the Self it disappears. ] 

rN •v 

147. This bondage can be destroyed 
neither by weapons nor by wind, nor by 
fire, nor by millions of acts — by nothing 
except the grea^ sword of the Knowledge 


of discrimination, sharpened by the grace 
of the Lord. Paramatman. 

L Acts — enjoined by the Scriptures, and done 
with motives. 

Grace Paratnatmait — An echo of Kaiha 

L'pa. I. ii. 20. The Sruti has also a different read- 
ing — '^TT^sraTH^r^' — which means 'through the purity 
of the mind and organs etc' — This meaning is 
also suggested here, j 

148. One who is passionately devoted to 
the authority of the Srutis acquires steadi- 
ness in his Swadharma, which alone con- 
duces to the purity of his mind. The 
man of pure mind realises the Supreme 
Self, and by this alone Samsara with its 
root is destroyed. 

[ Swadharma — lit. one's own duty, or the duly 
for which we are fit, — which the Gita enjoins on us 
all to perform, as the way to perfection. 

J is root — Ignorance. ] 



149. Covered by the sheaths like the' 
material one and the rest, which are the' 
products of Its own power, the Self ceases ^ 
to appear, like the water of a tank by its^ 
acctimulation of sedge. 

\^The sheaths &'c. — See note on Sloka i?5. 
They are called sheaths as they are coverings over 
the Atraan which manifests Itself through them. 
From the Afinamaya to the Anandainaya the' 
sheaths are gradually finer and finer. Knowledge 
consists in going beyond them all by means of 
regulated practiceand coming face to face, as it 
were, with the Atman. ] 


150. On the removal of - that sedge the 
i)erfectly pure water, that allays the pangs- 
of thirst and gives immediate joy, appears- 
unobstructed before the man. 

[ The water is not something that is to be pro- 
cured from anywhere else, it is already there : only 
the obstructions have to be removed. So in the- 
case of 'Atman also. ] 

151 . When all the five sheaths have been 
eliminated, the Self of man appears — pure, 
of the essence of everlasting and un- 


alloyed bliss, indwelling, supreme, and 
self -effulgent. 

\ Eliminated — Discriminated as being other than 
the Self. 

Indwelling — dwelling within the heart of all. ] 

152. To remove his bondage the wise 
man should discriminate between the Self 
and non-Self. By that alone he comes to 
know his own Self as Existence-Knowl- 
edge-Bliss x\bsolute, and becomes happy. 

153. He is free who discriminates be- 
tween all sense-objects and the indwelling, 
unattached and inactive Self, as one sepa- 
rates a stalk of grass from its enveloping 
sheath, and merging everything in It 
remains in a state of identity with That. 

\_All se?ise-ol)jects — specially the body and its 

Inactive — the Witness of all activity 

A stalk of grass &c. — Compare Katha Upanishad, 
IL iii. 17. 

Merging &€. — Knowing that only the Atman 
manifests Itself through name and form. ] 


154. This body of ours is the product o\ 
food and comprises the material sheath ; 
it lives on food, and dies without it ; 
it is a mass of skin, flesh, blood, bones 
and lots of other filthy things, and can 
never be the eternally pure, seif-existent 

[ Product of food — that went to build up the 
parent-body. ] 

155. It does not exist prior to birth or 
posterior to death, but lasts only for a 
short (intervening) period ; its virtues are 
transient, audit is changeful by nature; 
it is manifold, inert, and is a sense-object 
like a jar (or any other thing) ; how can 
it be one's own Self, the Witness of 
changes in all things ? 

{^Manifold — not a simple, and subject to constant 
transformations. ] 


156. The body, consisting of arms and 
legs, cannot be the Atman, for one conti- 
nues to live even when particular limbs 
are gone, and the different functions of 
the organism also remain intact. The 
body which is subject to another's rule 
cannot be the Self which is the Ruler of all. 

[ Different functions — other than those directly 
interfered with. ] 

157. That the Atman is different from 
the body, its characteristics, its activities, 
and its states etc., of which It is the 
witness, is self-evident, and needs no 

[ Characteristics — such as stoutness or leanness etc. 
States — boyhood, youth etc. ] 

158. How can the body, being a pack 
of bones, covered with flesh, and full of 
filth, and highly impure, be the self- 
exlstent Atman, the Knower, which is ever 
distinct from it ? 


^ffRr i:^^^: ^dRT I 

159. It is the foolish man who identi- 
fies himself with a mass of skin, flesh, fat, 
bones and filth, while the man of dis- 
crimination knows his own Self, the only 
Reality that there is, as distinct from the 

»v »s rv •v 

*^ *v 

160. The stupid man thinks he is the 
body, the book-learned man identifies 
himself with the mixture of body and soul, 
while the great man possessed of Realisa- 
tion due to discrimination, looks iipon 
the eternal Atman as his Self, and thinks, 
" I am Brahman." 

[Three classes of people are distinguished in 
this Sloka, of whom the Advaitist is of course 
given the highest place. 

Mixture of body a?id soul — The average man 
thinks he is both body and soul acting in unison.] 


^^^^ ^n*=?T ^^ ^^^^ H?^?!! 

161 . O foolish one, cease to identify thy- 
self with this bundle of skin, flesh, fat, 
bones ahd filth, and identify thy<;elf instead 
with the Absolute Brahman, the Self of all, 
2in(\ thus attain to supreme Peace. 

162. As long as the book-learned man 
does not give up his mistaken identifica- 
tion with the body and organs etc.-, 
which are unreal, there is no talk of 
emancipation even for him, be he ever so 
erudite in the Vedanta and morals. 

' Body and organs etc. — Jn fact, the wiioie ob- 
jective world. 

Erudite &€. — Mere book-learning is meant. Un- 
less he has realised the state of oneness he will be 
a mere talker, that is all. J 


163. Just as thou dost not identify tliy 
self with the shadow-body, the image- 
body, the dream -body, or the body thou 
hast in the imaginations of thy heart, cease 
thou to do Hkewise with the living- body 

[ Shadoiv-hody — The shadow of thv body. 

Jmage-body — the image or reflection of thy body, 
cast in water etc. 

Dream-body — the body that thou mayst assume 
in dreams. 

Living-body — the gross body, with the Pranas etc.] 

164. The identification with the body 
alone is the root which produces the 
mi.sery of birth etc., of people who are at- 
tached to the unreal ; therefore destroy 
thoii this with the utmost care. Whea 
this identification caiised by the mind is 
given up, there is no more chance for 

[ Compare Chhandogya Upa. VIII. xii. i. ] 


165. The Prana, with which we are all 
faniiiiar, coupled with the five organs of 
action, forms the Vital Sheath, permeated 
by which the Material Sheath enga^^es it- 
self in all activities as if it were living. 

[ Orga7is of acfio?i — The brain centres which 
control speech, manual activity, locomotion, ex- 
cretion and reproduction. See Sloka 92. 

Material Sheath — described in Slokas 154 and 

This activity which the Vital Sheath is here 
said to impart is again a borrowed one, as will 
appear tVon^ the last line of the next Sloka. 

For a description of the Five Kosas (Sheaths) 
the reader is referred to the Taittiriya Upa., second 
Valli or chapter. ] 

166. Neither is the Vital Sheath the 
Self — because it is a modification of Vayu 
and like the air it enters into and comes 
out of the body, and because it never 


knows in the least either its 'own weal and 

woe or those of others, being eternally 

-dependent on the Self. 

[ Vdyu : The Prana-Vayu or life-force is 
meant here. The word commonly means air, wiiich 
4)rings in the comparison with the air in the next line. 

Enters into ■&€. — i. e. as breath, which is its 
gross manifestation. ] 

167 . The organs of knowledge together 
with the mind form the Mental Sheath, — 
the cause of the diversity of things, such 
as T and 'mine.' It is powerful and 
endued wdth the faculty of creating dif- 
ferences of name etc. It manifests itself 
as permeating the preceding, i. e. Vital 

[ Organs of knowledge — The brain centres 
W'liich control sight, hearings smell, taste and ioucIl 
See Sloka 92. ] 


168. The Mental Sheath is the (sacri- 
ficial) fire which, fed with the fuel of 
desires by the five sense-organs which 
serve as priests, and set ablaze by the 
sense-objects which act as the stream of 
oblations, brings about this phenomenal 


[ The sacrificial fire confers on the Yajamana, or 
the man who performs the sacrifice, the enjoyments 
of the heavenly spheres. So the mind also confers 
on the Jiva or individual soul the pleasures of the 
objective world. 

It is the mind that projects the objective universe 
— this is the plain meaning. See Sloka 170, below.] 

169. There is no Ignorance (Avidya) 
outside the mind. The mind is Avidya,' 
the cause of the bondage of transmigra- 
tion. When that is destroyed, all else is 
destroyed, and when it manifests, every- 
thing else manifests. 

[According to Vedanla, there is no actual change 
in the Self, which is by nature pore and perfect. 
It is Ignorance or Avidya ihat has covered Jts 
vision, so to say and It appears as limited and 
subject to change. Now, this ignorance is imbeds 


ded in the mind. When the mind is thoroughly 
purified through Sadhana or discipline, the glory 
of the Atman manifests itself. This is said to be 
Destroyed— m the highest or Nirvikalpa Samadhi.] 

170. In dreams, wlien there is no actual 
contact with the external world, the mind 
alone creates the whole universe consisting 
of the enjoyer etc. And similarly in the 
waking state also, — there is no difference. 
Therefore all this ( phenomenal universe ) 
is the projection of the mind. 

[ The enjoyei- etc. — i. e., the enjoyer, the enjoy- 
able and enjoyment : subject, object and their 
coming into relation. ] 

r^ ■v 

171. In dreamless sleep, when the mind 
is reduced to its causal state, there exists 
nothing ( for the person asleep ) , as is 
evident from universal experience. Hence 


man's relative existence is simply the crea- 
tion of the mind, and has no objective 

'^Universal experience — The subject has been 
touched on already. See Sloka 121, ante. ] 

172. Clouds are brought in by the wind 
and again driven away by the same agency. 
Similarly, man's bondage is caused by the 
mind and Liberation too is caused by that 

173. It (first) creates an attachment in 
man for the body and all other sense- 
objects, and binds him through that at- 
tachment like a beast b}^ means of ropes. 
Afterwards, the self -same mind creates in 
the individual an utter distaste for these 
sense-objects and frees him from the 

[For the double meaning of the word Guna, see 
note on Sioka 76. ] 


174. Therefore the mind is the only 
cause that brings about man's bondage 
or liberation : when tainted bv the effects 
of Rajas it leads to bondage, and when 
pure and divested of the Rajas and Tamas 
elements it conduces to Liberation. 

[A reminiscence of the second Sloka of Amrita- 
bindu Upa. ] 

^^^cfr ifejT^r gg^T- 

175. Attaining purity through the pre- 
ponderance of Discrimination and Renun- 
ciation, the mind makes for Liberation. 
Hence the wise seeker after Liberation 
must first strengthen these two. 

[ Discriminaiion — between Self and Non-Self. 
Rernmciation — of the Non-self. ] 

*^ rv 


176. Ill the forest-tract of sense 
pleasures there prowls a hug^e tiger calle^i 
mind. Let o^ood people who have a long 
ing for Hberation never go there. 

177. The mind continually produces for 
the experiencer all sense-objects without 
exception, whether perceived as gross or 
fine; the differences of bodv, caste, order 
of life, and tribe, as well as the varieties 
of qualification, action, means and results. 

f Gross or fine — in the waking- and dream slates 

Action — to obtain desired results. 

Means — for these actions. 

Results — such as enjoyment or liberation. ] 

178. Deluding the Jiva who is unat- 
tached Pure Intelligence, and binding himr 
by the ties of body, organs and Prauas, 
the mind causes him to wander, with. 


ideas Gi ' I ' and ' mine,' amidst the vaned 
enjoyment of results achieved by himself. 

{^Binding Prafias — strictly speaking, it is 

our attachment for these that binds us. ] 

179. Man's transmigration is due to the 
evil of siiperimposition, and the bondage 
of superimposition is created by himself 
and none else. It is this that causes the 
misery of birth etc. for the man of non- 
discrimination who is tainted by Rajas 
and Tamas. 

[ Superimpositio7i — This is the favourite theme 
of the Vedanta Philosophy, to explain how the 
ever-free Self came to be bound at all. The whole 
thing is a mistaken identit}^, a self-hypnotism, it 
says, and the way out of it lies in de-hypnotising 
ourselves. ] 

180. Hence sages who have fathomed 
its secret have designated the mind alone 
as Avidya or Ignorance, by which alone 
the universe is moved to and fro, like 
masses of clouds by the wind. 


181. Therefore the seeker after Libera- 
tion must carefully purify the mind. When 
-this is purified, Liberation is as easy of 
access as a fruit on the palm of one's hand. 

182. He who by means of one-pointed 
devotion for Liberation roots out the at- 
tachment for sense- objects, renounces all 
actions, and with faith in the Real Brah- 
man regularly practises hearing etc., 
succeeds in purging the Rajasic nature of 
the intellect. 

r A U actions — that are done with selfish motives. 

Hearittg etc. — i. e. hearing (from the lips of the 
Guru), reflection and meditation, of the highest 
Vedantic truth — the identity of the Jiva and Brah- 
man. ] 


183 . Neither cam the Mental Sheath Be 
the Supreme Seif^ because it has a begin- 
nings and an end J is subject to modifications^ 
is characterised by pain and suffering, and 
is an object. Whereas the subject can 
never be identified with the objects of 

[ Is an object — cognisable by the Self which is the 
eternal subject. ] 

184. Buddhi with its modifications and. 
the organs of knowledge^ having the- 
characteristics of the agent, forms the 
Vijnanamaya Koshaor Knowledge Sheath^, 
which is the cause oi man's transmigration.. 

[ Buddhi — the determinative faculty. 

Modifications — such as Egoisnr^ etc. 

Having agent — thinking *I am the agents* ] 

185. This Knowledge Sheath, which 
seems to be followed by a reflection of the 
power of the Chit, is a modification of the 
Prakriti, is endowed with the functiQU oi 


knowledge, and always wholly identifies it- 
self with the body and the organs etc. 

[ Followed Chi/ — The Knowledge Sheath is 

in reality material and insentient, but a reflection 
of ihe C/ii/ or Atman makes it appear as intelligent. 

Modification ^c. — and therefore insentient. ] 

profit ^wiW^ 15^wr: 
frprrflr f^r^ferar g;;^?^^: i 

186-7. It is without beginning, charac- 
terised by egoism, is called the Jiva, and 
carries on all the activities on the relative 
plane. Through previous desires it per- ^ 

forms good and evil actions, and experi- 
ences their results. Being born in various 
bodies it comes and goes, up and down. 
It is this Knowledge Sheath that has the 
waking, dream and other states and ex- 
periences joy and grief. 

[ Previous desires — desires of previous births. 
Comes and goes, up and down — is born and dies, 
in higher or lower bodies, j 



188. It always mistakes the dutie* 
functions and attributes of the orders of 
life which belong to the body, as its own. 
The Knowledge Sheath is exceedingly 
effulgent, owing to its close proximity to 
the Supreme Self, which identifying Itself 
with it suffers transmigration through 
delusion. It is therefore a superimposi- 
tion on the Self. 

[ Orders of life — Ashramas. ] 

^vi Tk^^^^\ anr%5 eft ^Src^rt s^iM^: \ 

189. The self-effulgent Atman which is 
Pure Knowledge, shines in the midst of 
the Pranas, within the heart. Though im- 
mutable. It becomes the agent and ex- 
periencer owing to Its superimposition — 
the Knowledge Sheath. 

[ The first part of this Sloka is a quotation from 
Brihadaranyaka Upa. IV. iii. 7. 

In the midst of the Pranas — great neari^ess is 


meant. Prana means force, here the physiological 
And mental forces are referred to. 

Wiihin the heart— \vi Buddhi, the seat of which 
is supposed to be the heart. ] 

190. Though the Self of everything that 

exists, this Atman, Itself assuming the 

limitations of the Buddhi and wrongly 

identifying Itself with this totally unreal 

entity, looks upon Itself as something dif- 

terent, — like earthen jars from the earth 

of which they are made. 

[ Buddhi — here stands for the Knowledge- 

As something different — as conditioned and bound, 
just an ignorant man may consider earthen pots as 
something distinct from the earth of which they are 
made. The wise man knows that the difference is 
simply due to name and form, which are creations 
of the mind. ] 


191. Owing to its connection with the 
superimpositions the Supreme Self, even 
though naturally perfect and eternally un- 
changing, assumes the qualities of the 
superimpositions and appears to act just 
as they do — ^like the changeless fire assum- 
ing the modifications of the iron which it 
turns red-hot. 

[ Naturally perfect— Ox the phrase qi;: PTfT^nr^ 
may mean *' transcending Nature." 

Mcdificatiom — such as size, shape etc. ] 

192. The disciple questioned, *' Be it 
through delusion or otherwise that the 
Supreme Self has come to consider Itself 
as the Jiva, this superimposition is with- 
out beginning, and that which has no 
beginning cannot be supposed to have an 
end either. 

[ Jiva — individual soul, or the Self under self- 
imposed limitations. ] 

193. '* Therefore the Jivahood of the 
Soul also must have no end, and its transmit 


^ration continue for ever. How then can 
there be liberation for tht soul ? Kindly 
enlighten me on this point, O revered 

[ Jwahood — the self-hypnotised state of the cv<?i- 
free A tin an. ] 

194. The Teacher replied: Thou hast 
Tightly questioned, O learned one ! Listen 
thou therefore attentively: The imagina- 
tion which has been conjured up by delu* 
i;ion can never be accepted as a fact, 

^rf^cf f^nr r^riaiF^^ Ht**«i^ l^^i^: i 

195- But lor delusion there can be no 
connection of the Self — which is unat- 
tached, beyond activity and formless — with 
the objective world, as in the case of 
blueness etc. with reference to the sky. 

[ Blueness etc. — The sky has no colour of its 
own but we mentally associate blueness with it. 
The blueness is in our mind^ and not in the sky. 
Similarly, limitation exists not in the Absolute Self, 
bill in our own minds. ] 


196. The Jivahood of the Atman, the 
Witness, which is beyond qualities and 
beyond activity, and which is realised with- 
in as Knowledge and Bliss Absolute — has 
been superimposed by the delusion of the 
Buddhi, and is not r«al. And because it 
is by nature an unreality, it ceases to exist 
when the delusion is gone. 

[ As Knowledge and Bliss Absolute — These are 
Its essence, and therefore can never depart from It> 
as heat from fire. ] 

197. It exists only so long as the delu-- 
sion lasts, being caused by indiscrimitiar 
tion due to delusion. The rope is supposed 
to be the snake only so long as the mis- 
take lasts, and there is no more snake when 
the delusion has vanished. Similar is the 
case here. 


198-9. Avidya or Nescience and its 
effects are likewise considered as beginning- 
less. But with the rise of Vidya or Reali- 
sation, the entire effects of Avidya, even 
though begin ningless, are destroyed to- 
gether with their root — like dreams on 
waking up from sleep. It is clear that the 
phenomenal universe, even though begin- 
ningless, is not eternal, — like previous 

\ Their root — i. e. Avidya. 

Previous non-existence — Prdgabhdva — a term of 
Hindu logic. When we say a thing comes into 
l)eing at a definite point of lime, we imply also that 
there was non-existence of that particular thing 
prior to the moment of its birth. And this ' non- 
exi!^tence ' is obviously beginningless. But \\. ceases 
as soon as the thing comes into being. Similarly, 
AviJya which means absence of Vidya or knowl- 
edge, even though beginningless, disappears when 
realisation comes. ] 


200-1. A previous non-existence, even 
though beginningless, is observed to have 
an end. So the Jivahood which is 
imagined to be in the Atman through its 
relation with superimposed attributes such 
as the Buddhi, is not real; whereas the 
other (the Atman) is essentially different 
from it. The relation between the Atman 
and Buddhi is due to a false knowledge. 

[ Superimposed attributes'. Just as a crystal 
placed near a, red flower seems to appear as red. 
Or when we look at a thing behind a curtain 
through an aperture, as the aperture becomes bigger 
and bigger we see more and more of the thing 
behind ,* but we erroneously think that the thing is 
growing, whereas, in reality all the change takes 
place in the curtain only. Similarly we see the 
Atman through the covering of Prakriti or Nature, 
ot which Buddhi etc. are manifestations, and Nature 
which is continually changing, leads us to think 
that the Atman back of it is changing too, which is 
a mistake. ] 

202. The cessation of that superimposi- 
tion takes place through perfect knowl- 
edge, and by no other means. Perfect 


knowledge, according to the Srutis, con- 
sists in the realisation of the identity of 
the individual soul and Brahman. 

203. This realisation is attained by a 
perfect discrimination between the Self 
and non-Self. Therefore one must strive 
for the discrimination between the indivi- 
dual soul and the eternal Self. 

204. Just as the water which is very 
muddy again appears as transparent water 
when the mud is removed, so the Atman 
also manifests Its undimmed lustre when 
the taint has been removed. 

[ Water is naturally pure, but it is polluted by 
foreign substances mixing with it. These impurities 
can be removed bv filtration, distillation etc. So 
the apparent impurity of the soul can be removed 
by discrimination, which shows that it is Nescience 
thai hides the real nature of the Self. ] 


205. When the unreal ceases to exists 
this very individual soul is definitely 
realised as the eternal Self. Therefore 
one must make it a point to completely 
remove things like egoism etc. from the 
eternal Self. 

[ Things — which are in reality superimpositions.] 

206. This Knowledge Sheath (Vijnana- 
maya) that we have been speaking of, 
cannot be the Supreme Self for the follow- 
ing reasons — because it is subject to 
change, because it is insentient, is a 
limited thing, an object of the senses, and 
is not constantly present: An unreal 
thing cannot indeed be taken for the real 

[ Subject to change. — Whereas the Atman is 
changeless, Knowledge Absolute, unlimited, the 
eternal Subject, and the universal substratum of all 
things. Just as the rope is the only reality witbi 
regard to the mistaken snake-idea etc, ] 

^^r^TR^^JT^: nr5£rTfe?nir^: jir^rwrm^^:! 


207. The Blissful Sheath (Anandamaya) 
is that modification of Nescience which 
manifests itself catching a reflection of the 
Atman which is Bliss absolute; whose 
attiibutes are pleasure and the rest ; which 
appears in view when some object agree- 
able to oneself presents itself. It makes 
itself spontaneously felt to the fortunate 
during the fruition of their virtuous deeds ; 
from which every corporeal being derives 
great joy without the least effort. 

[ Modification of Nescience — The experience of 
the Sushupti state will be spoken of in the next Sloka 
to be the typical enjoyment of the Anandamaya 
Kosha. And deep sleep is always a state of intense 
ignorance. Hence this Sheath must be a modifica- 
tion of Nescience. 

Pleasure and the rest — The reference is to the 
Taittiriya Upa. II. v., where Friya, Moda and 
Pramoda ( various degrees of enjoyment ) are said 
to be the attributes of the Anandamaya Kosha. ] 

208. The Blissful Sheath has its fullest 
play during profound sleep, while in the 
dreaming and wakeful states it has only a 
partial manifestation, occasioned by the 

sight of agreeable objects and so forth. 

[ Sight... so for tk — actual sense perception (in the 
waking state), or memory-impressions (in dream).] 


^^f'WT'tjpwt: ^TT^T^ 

209. Nor is the Blissftil Sheath the Su- 
preme Self, because it is endowed with 
changeful attributes, because it is a modi- 
fication of Prakriti, is the effect of past 
good deeds, and imbedded in the other 
Sheaths which are modifications. 

[ Imbedded in the other Sheaths — The reference 
is again to the Taittiriya Upa., 2nd Chapter, where 
the five Koshas are spoken of as being similar in 
shape and one inside the other, the Annamaya or 
Material Sheath being the outermost and Ananda- 
maya the innermost. J 

210. When all the five Sheaths have 
been eliminated by the reasoning upon 
Sruti passages, what remains as the culmi- 
nating point of the process, is the Witness, 
the Knowledge Absolute, — the Atman. 

[ Sruti passages — those that describe the Atman 
negatively, by the Neti neii ( not this, not this ,) 

Culmuiating point — beyond which the process of 
reasoning or analysis cannot be carried any farther. 


What takes place then is termed the Aparokshd- 
nubhuii. Realisation, and the mind is then said to 
be in the Samadhi state. ] 

211. This self-efhilgent Atman which 

IS distinct from the five Sheaths, the 

Witness of the three states, the Real, the 

Changeless, the Untainted, the everlasting 

Bliss,— is to be realised by the wise one as 

one's own Self. 
[ Untainted— \>y Nescience ; hence Absolute. } 

ftiu.^<(^^^ mf^#S *)?iMd!g; ^^r^ r 

212. The disciple questioned, "After 
these five Sheaths have been eliminated 
as unreal, I find nothing, O Teacher, in 
this universe but a Void, the absence of 
everything. What entity does there at all 
remain with which the wise man should 
realise his identity?*' 

[ The position of the Shunyavddins or Nihilists 
who deny that there remains anything positive after 
Ihe ullimsite analysis, is set forth ia this Sloka as a 


prima facie view, and the refutation is given in the 
next few Slokas. ] 

213-4. The Gum answered : Thou hast 
tightly said, O learned one ! Thou art 
clever indeed in discrimination. That by 
which all those modifications such as egoism 
etc. and their absence as well which follows 
(during deep sleep) are perceived, but 
which Itself is not perceived, know thou 
that Atman — the Knower — ^through- the 
sharpest intellect. 

[ The argument is this : The Atman as the eter- 
nal Subject must remain always. Otherwise there 
being no Subject, knowledge itself will be im- 
possible. Even in the Sushupti state there must 
be the eternal Subject behind to record the blissful 
memory of that state. To take a familiar example : 
In a bioscope there must be the screen to allow 
the moving pictures to coalesce and form a 
connected whole. Motion presupposes rest. So 
the ever-changing Prakriti must have behind it ibc 
immutable Atman. 

Through the sharpest intellect — An echo of Hatha 
Upanishad I. Hi. 12. ] 


215. That which is perceived by some- 
thing else has for its witness the latter. 
When there is no agent to perceive a 
thing, we cannot speak of that thing hav- 
ing been perceived at all. 

216. This Atman is a self-cognised 
entity, because It is cognised by Itself. 
Hence the individual soul is itself and 
directly the Supreme Brahman, and noth- 
ing else. 

217. That which clearly manifests It' 
self in the states of wakefidness, dream 
and profound sleep; which is inwardly 
perceived in the mind in various forms, as 
an unbroken series of egoistic impressions ; 
which witnesses the egoism, the Buddhi 
etc, which are of diverse forms and modi- 


fications; and which makes Itself felt as- 
the Ex'.sieiice-Knowledge-Bliss Absolute;;, 
know thou this Atman, thy own Self with- 
in thy heart. 

[ Accor(.rnyg to lUe Sankhya Plvilosopliy, the 
w1k)1c ui»ivf r-se, as it appears to us, is a mixture of 
Puiusha ami Pjakiiii. — ot soaieihii>g wliicli im- 
pinges on or gives the suggestion to our minds,, 
and of liie Hiind \vi>Tch reacts, and covers it, as it 
^ere, wiili a cu.iiing ot its own. lu other words^ 
eveiuhing we perceive is this unknowii something 
plus i!ie niinti, or to put it briefly, X + mind. 
Veiiania suUsiitutes Brahman for Purusiia and* 
postulates- a Nescience as the inscrutable power oi 
traiiuj.iM, wliicii ci>v^rs the real nature of Brahtnan- 
ami n»ake> it liiink as if It were subject to all sorts. 
of change and Inniiation. Atman is only another 
joame of' i'lriilwuaM. So, whenever we perceive a 
thin<:, iroMi any mental impression, it must be 
the Alnian aniP nothing else tiiat we perceive. Only 
151 our ignorance we fail to grasp the real nature of 
the thing exjierienced (the Atman). and call it 
under various names and forms. l50, our egoism, 
oar iHieWect, and all mental slates are manifesU'- 
ttons of ti»e AtfKrtu and Atmaa altxie. ] 


218. Seeing the reflection of the sun 
mirrored in the water of a jar the fool 
thinks it is the sun itself. Similarly the 
stupid man, through delusion, identifies 
himself with the reflection of the Chit 
caught in the Buddhi which is Its super- 

[■^;j//_il,e Aiman \v]»icli is Knowledge Absolute] 


219. Just as the wise man leaves aside 
the jar, the water in it and the reflection 
of the sun in that water, and sees the self- 
luminous sun which illuminates these three 
and is independent of them ; 

[ hideptndent crV. — iliese being merely its reflec- 
tions, wli:cb serve to sugj^e^l ine leal bun. ] 


%m^ xk^j^vij jkT^T f^'j^i'. wv^.V^ 

220-2. Similarly, discarding the bod;- , the 
Buddhi, and the reflection oi the Ghi^ oi it, 
and realising the Witness, the Self, the 
Knowledge Absolute, the cause of the mani- 
festation of everything, which is hidden in 
the recesses of the Buddhi and is ^stinct 
from the gross and subtle, elernal, omni- 
present, all-pervading, extremely subtle, 
which has neither interiot nor ex-erlor, , 
and is identical with oneself, — fully realis- 
ing this true nature of oneself, one be- 
comes free from sin, and taint, and death 
and grief, and becomes the embodiment 
of Bliss. Illumined himself, he :s afraid of 
none. For a seeker after liberation there 
is no other way to the breaking of the 
bonds of transmigration than the realisa- 
tion of the truth of one's own Self. 

[ Bidden Bu(Idhi—li is llie purified Buddhi 

ivhich catclies a glimpse of ihe Atman, 

The sense of various Sruii p;<ssages (A Advailifc 
import is reproiluced in 'these StokftS. The t^adw 



is ync>cix\ny referred to tlie Brihadaranyaka III. viii. 
&, 'laiuiriya II. 2. and Sveta-^vatara III. 8.] 

223. The realisation of one's identi- 
ty N/itli f;lie Brahman is the cause of 
liberation from the bonds of Samsara, by 
mea.ns of which the wise man attains 
Brahman, the One without a second, the 
Bliss Absolute. 

224. Once having realised the Brahman 
one no longer returns to the realm of 
transmigration. Therefore, one must fully 
realise one's identity with the Brahman. 

225. Brahman is Existence, Knowledge^ 
the Absolute, pure, supreme, self -existent, 
eternal and indivisible Bliss, not different 
(in reality) from the individual soul, and 
devoid of interior or exterior, — there It 
reigns tiiumphant. 


226. ^ It is this Supreme Oneness which 
alone is real, since there is nothing else 
but the Self. Verily, there remains no 
other independent entity in the state of 
realisation of the highest Truth. 

\^ Nothing else — Evenlhing but the Self is an 
appearance merely. ] 

^\KA H^t?t \^yk TiT^TT^^ irarcf^irrfrn[ I 

227. All this universe which appears as of 
diverse forms through ignorance, is noth- 
ing else but Brahman v/hich is absolutely 
free from all the limitations of human 

\^P''reefrom thought — We imagine all sorts 

of tilings ilirougli ignoiiince, imt Hraliman is ever 
be\oiid lliem, and is liie only Reality. ] 

228. A jar, though a modification of 
earth, is not different from the earth; 
everywhere the jar is essentially the same 
as the earth. Why then call it a jar ? — It is 
fictitious, a fancied name merely. 

l^ Fictitious name merely — Quoted in SQum 

from the Chhandogya Upa., Ch. VI. ] 


^fTPCljk ^sf^^^l'^nTT ^^^^ 

t r- 

229. None can demonstrate that the 
essence of a jar is some'ching other than 
the earth (of which it is made) . Hence 
the jar is merely imagined through delu- 
rsion, and the component earth alone is the 
abiding reality in respect of it. 

230. Similarly, the whole universe being 
the effect of the real Brahman, is in reality 
nothing but Brahman. Its essence is That, 
and it does not exist apart from It. He 
who says 'it is,' is still under delusion,— 
he babbles like one asleep. 

[ Likg one asleep— \. e. incolierently. "| 

fy^?n^?Tf 5iir^T^ ft f^^ 



231. Th:s universe is verily Brahman — 
such is the august pronouncement of the 
Atharva Veda. Therefore this universe is 
nothing but Brahman, — for that which i& 
superimposed (on something) has no sepa- 
rate existence from its substratum. 

[ The reference is to Mundaka (II. ii. ii), which 
IS one of ihe Upanishads belonging to the Atharva 

Veda. ] 

232. If the universe were real as it is, 
there would be no cessation of the dualistic 
element, the Scriptures would be falsified, 
and the Lord Himself would become guilty 
of an untruth : None of these three is con- 
sidered either desirable or wholesome by 
the noble-minded. 

S^ No cessation...... clement — The world as it i» 

would become real, and as such could never be des- 
iroyed. Hence the duality wjih all its ugly features 
would persist. 

Scriptures...... falsified — According to staoDch 

AdvaJtins the numerous Advakic texts of the Sniiss*, 
inculcating the highest philosophic thought, are 
alone considered as bearing out the true im)>OTt o£ 


iheSmlis. to winch the rest of the Vedas must be 

The Lord etc.- beinp: ll.e Revealer of the truths 
of ti.e Sniiis. Or the i.lUisieii «nay be to Sri 
Krishna's words in the Gna quoted in the next 
verse. ] 

233. The Lord, who knows the secret 
of all things, has supported this view in 
the words— "But I am not in them/* 
" And the beings are not in Me." 

[ Whoknoivs fo^f.— Because He is Omniscient. 

" But I am not ^/f."— The reference is to the 4th 

and 5lh SU.kas of the 9iii chapter of the Gita 

A^'liicli declare thai all existence owes its being to 

Brahman which is its subsiratum, yet Absolute. ] 

jx^ ^^ ^>? ni^^ ^iHTiw^^mi?: I 

234. If the universe be true, let it then 
be perceived in the state of deep sleep also. 
As it is not at all perceived in that state, 
it must be unreal and false, like dreams. 


235. Therefore the universe does not 
-exist apart from the Supreme Self ; and 
the perception of its separateness is false 
like the qualities (of blueness etc. in the 
sky) . Has a superimposed attribute any 
meaning apart from its substratum ? It 
is the substratum that appears like that 
thro dgh delusion . 

[ Qualilles of bhieneas etc. — See Sloka 185. 
// is the substratum &"€ — The rope ai)[)ears as 
the snake. This idea is made clear iu the next 
few Slokas. ] 

^FcT^'qr ^^f i^r:^: iTcfr^ 

% 236. Whatever a deluded man perceives 
through mistake, is Brahman and Brah- 
man alone: The silver is nothing but the 
mother-of-pearl. It is Brahman which is 
always considered as this universe, where- 
as that which is superimposed on the Brah- 
man, viz. the universe, is merely a name. 


237. Hence whatever there manifests. 
viz. this universe, is the Supreme Brah- 
man Itself, the Real, the One without a 
second, Pure, the Essence of Knowledge, 
the Taintless, Pacified, devoid of begin- 
ning and end, beyond activity, the Essence 
of Bliss Absolute. 

238. Transcending all the diversities 
created by Maya or Nescience, eternal, ever 
beyond the reach of pain, indivisible, un- 
conditioned, formless, undifferentiated, 
nameless, immutable, self-luminous. 

239 . Sages realise the Supreme Principle , 
Brahman, — in which there is no differen- 
tiation of knower, knowledge and known, 
infinite, transcendent, the Essence of 
Knowledge Absolute. 


^ 240.. which can be neither thrown away 
nor taken tip, which is beyond the reach 
of mind and speech, immeasurable, with- 
out beginning and end, the Whole, one^s 
very Self, and of surpassing glory. 

[ Neither thrown taken «/>— Because It is not) 

a material thing but one's Real Self. ] 

241-2. If thus the Sruti, in the dictum 
''Thou art That" {Tat-Tzvam-Asi), xg:- 
peatedly establishes the absolute identity 
of Brahman (or Isvara) and Jiva, denoted 
by the terms That {Tat) and Thou (Tvani) 
respectively, divesting these terms of their 
relative associations, then it is the identity 
of their implied, not literal, meanings which 
is sought to be inculcated, for they are of 
contradictory attributes to each other — 
like the sun and a glow-worm, the king 


and a servant, the ocean and a well, or 
Mount Meru and an atom. 

y Jf ihtts the Sruli elc.—T\\Q reference is to the 
sixih Chapter of llie Chhandogya Upanishad, 
where Uddalaka Aruni tries to impress on ins son, 
Sveiaketu, the identity of Jiva and Brahman in 
various ways. ] 

243. This contradiction between them 
is created by superimposition, and is not 
something real. This superimposition, in 
the case of Isvara (the Lord) , is Maya or 
Nescience, which is the cause of Mahat 
and the rest, — and in the case of the Jiva 
(the individual soul), listen, — the five 
Sheaths, which are the effects of Maya, 

stand for it. 

\_ Mahat — See note on Sloka 123. 

And the rest — the grosser manifestations that 
proceed from Mahat. 

Five Sheaihs'^^SQQ note on Sloka 125.] 


244. These two are the superim positions 
of the Is vara and the Jiva, and when these 
are perfectly eliminated there is neither 
Isvara nor Jiva. A kingdom is the in- 
signia of a king, and a shield of the soldier, 
and when these are taken away, there is 
neither king nor soldier. 

[ JS'either king nor soldier — he is only a man 
then. Similailj, if we laive away the omniscience 
omnipotence etc. from Isvara, and deficiencies of 
knowledge and power etc. from tlie Jiva, on!y 
Brahman remains as llie substance of bolh. ] 


1^ »^ r^ r^ 

T'T'^'ar^ ^iiT?ir ^r^q^ se^ro: I 

245. The Vedas themselves in the words 
"Now then is the injunction" etc., repu- 
diates the duality imagined in the Brah- 
man. One must needs eliminate those 
two stiperimpositions by dint of realisation 
supported by the aiilhority of the Vedas. 

\'lhe I edas etc, — The reference is lo the Biihad- 
aranyaka Upa. II. iii. 6. ] 

f?^ rsii '^r^j %^^j ^^^m 


246. Neither this gross nor this subtle 
universe (is the Atman) . Being imagined 
they are not real, — like the snake seen in 
the rope, and like dreams. — Perfectly 
eliminating the objective world in this way 
by means of reasoning, one should next 
realise the oneness that underlies the 
Isvara and the Jiva. 

247. Hence those two terms (Isvara and 
Jiva) must be carefully considered through 
their ^?;2^/z><^ meanings, so that their abso- 
lute identity may be established. The 
method of wholesale rejection will not do, 
nor will the method of retaining in toio 
do either. One must reason out through 
the process which combines the two. 

[There are liiree kinds of Lakshana or implied 
nieaTiing^. The J^hati, the Ajahaii and the Bh^ga 
Lakshana. The first is that in which one of the 
terms lias lo give up its primary meaning. For 
example, tlie plirase inTT^ir ^T^* <ioes not mean 
that a vill;is;e of cowherils is /// ilie Ganges, but on 
the G;mges. 'Ihe second kind is that in wliich the 
primal y meaning is retained but souiething is sup- 


plied to make it clear, as the sentence 5[%?n" m^FT 
means •' a white (horse) is running." In the third 
kind of Lakshna each of the terms has to give up 
a part of its connotation, see the next Sloka. ] 

248-9. Just as in the sentence, ' This is 
that Devadatta,' the identity is spoken of, 
eliminating the contradictory portions, 
so in the sentence 'Thou art That,' the 
wise man must give up the contradictory 
elements on both sides and recognise the 
identity of Isvara and Jiva, noticing care- 
fully the essence of both, which is Chzl, 
Knowledge Absolute. Thus hundreds of 
Scriptural texts inculcate the oneness and 
identity of Brahman and Jiva. 

[ Coniradictory portions — Such as the differences 
of time and place etc. ] 

rs •^ 


250. Eliminating the objective world, — 
the not-self, by such arguments as ' It is 
not gross' etc., (one realises the Atman), 
which is self-established, unattached like 
the sky, and beyond the range of thought. 
Therefore, dismiss this mere phantom of an 
objective w^orld which thou perceivest and 
which thou hast accepted as thy own self. 
By means of the purified understanding 
that thou art Brahman, realise thy own 
Self, the Knowledge Absolute. 

^mJ^ ^^^ ^zjjk ^cT^ ^-^r^&^rr%<t 

251. All modifications of earth, such as 
the jar etc., which are always accepted by 
the mind as real, are (in reality) nothing 
but earth. Similarly this entire universe 
which is produced from the Real Brah- 
man, is Brahman Itself and nothing but 



Brahman. Because there is nothing else 
whatever but Brahman, and That is the 
only self -existent Reality, our very Self,. 
therefore thou art that Pacified, Pure, Su-^ 
preme Brahman, the One without a 


252. As the place, time, objects, knower, 
etc. called up- in. dream are all unreal, so 
is also the world experienced here in the 
w^aking state, for it is- all an effect of one's 
own ignorance. Because this body, the 
organs, and egoism etc. are also thus un- 
real, therefore thou art the Pacified,. Pure^. 
Supreme Brahman., the One without at 



5X^ ^T'^T ^flw ^fk^^ 

253. (What i&) erroneously supposed to^ 
exist in something, is when the truth 
about it has been known, nothing; but 


that substratum, and not at all different 
from it : The diversified dream universe 
(appears and) passes away in the dream 
itself. Does it appear on waking as some- 
thing distinct from one's own self? 

254. That which is beyond caste ancj 
creed, family and lineage ; devoid of name 
and form, merit and demerit ; transcend- 
ing space, time and sense-objects; — that 
Brahman art thou, meditate on this in 
thy mind. 

255. That Supreme Brahman which is • 
beyond the range of all speech, but ac- 
cessible to the eye of pure illumination ; 
which is pure, the Embodiment of Knowl- 
edge, the beginningless entity; — that 
Brahman art thou, meditate on this in 
thy mind. 


256. That which i^ untouched by the 
six-fold wave ; meditated upon by the 
Yogi's heart, but not grasped by the 
sense organs ; which the Buddhi cannot 
know; and which is unimpeachable; — 
that Brahman art thou, meditate on this 
in thy mind. 

[ Sixfold wave — viz. decay and death, hunger 
and thirst, grief and delusion, which overtake the 
body and mind. ] 

257. That which is the substratum of 
the universe with its various subdivisions, 
which are all creations of delusion ; which 
Itself has no other support; which is dis-^ 
tinct from the gross and subtle; which 
has no parts; and has verily no exemplar; — - 
that Brahman art thou, meditate on this 
in thy mind. 

VrVEtCACnUDAM ANt ! 1 f 

258. That which is free from birth,' 
growth, development, waste, disease and 
death; which is indestructible; which is 
the cause of the projection, maintenance 
and dissolution of the universe; — that 
Brahman art thou, meditate on this in thy 

259. That which is free from differen- 
tiation; whose essence is never non-exis- 
tent; which is unmoved like the ocean 
without waves; the ever-free ; of indivi- 
sible Form; — that Brahman art thou, 
meditate on this in thy mind. 


260/ That which, though One only, is 
the cause of the many; which refutes all 
other causes; which is Itself without 
cause; distinct from Maya and its effect, 
the universe; and independent ;— that 
Brahman art thou, meditate on this in thy 

261, That which is free from duality; 
which is infinite and indestructible; dis- 
tinct from the universe and Maya, — 
supreme, eternal; which is undying Bliss; 
taintless; — that Brahman art thou, medi- 
tate on this in thy mind. 

rs rv 

262. That Reality which (though One) 
appears variously owing to delusion, — 
taking on names and forms, attributes 
and changes. Itself always unchanged, 
like gold in its modifications, — that Biah- 


man art thou, meditate on this in thy 

263. That bevond which there is noth- 
ing; which shines above Maya even, which 
again is superior to its effects, the uni- 
verse; the inmost-Self of all. free from dif- 
ferentiation; the Real Self; the Existence- 
Knowledge-Bliss Absolute; Infinite and 
immutable; — that Brahman art thou, 
meditate on this in thy mind. 

264. On the Truth inculcated above,, 
one must oneself meditate in one's mind, by 
means of the recognised arguments. By 
that means one will realise the Truth free 
from doubt etc., like water in the palm ol 
one's hand. 

[ Inculcated above — in the ten preceding Slokas. 
Recognised arguments — that are in harmony with 
the Vedas. ] 


f^m^ ^^^ ^^^^ It?^ I 

265 . Realising: in this bodv the Knowledg^e 
Absohite free from Nescience and its 
effects, like the king in an ariny^ and 
being ever established in thy own Self, by 
resting on that Knowledge, merge the 
universe in the Brahman. 

266. In the recesses of the Bnddhi there 
is the Brahman, distinct from the gross 
and subtle, the Existence Absolute, Su- 
preme, the One without a second. Ke 
who lives in this cave as Brah7Jian^ for 
him, O beloved, there is no more entrance 
into the mother's v/omb. 

[ Cave — The Buddhi is often spoken of thus. 
He who lives etc. — He who always thinks of him- 
self as Brahman has no more rebirth. ] 

r- 'v 

iirm ^^3?^^ ^^f^cTT ^TO^TT yrn^':^ 


267. Even after the Truth has been 
realised, there remains that strong begin- 
ningless, obstinate imprcssioti that one i5 
the agent and experiencer, which is the" 
cause of one's transmigration. That 
impression has to be carefully removed by 
living in the Brahman with a constant 
identification with the SujDreme Self. The' 
sao:es call that liberation which is the 
attenuation of Vasanas or impressions here 
and now. 

[ Atienuatio7t <?/<:.— Because the man v/ho has^ 
no selfish desires easily attains Mukti. } 

•^ r^ 

268. The idea of ' me and mine' in the 
body and organs, which are non-self, — this* 
superimposition the wise one must put a 
stop to, by indentifying oneself with the 

269. Realising thy own Inmost Self, the 
Witness of the Buddhi and its modifica-' 
tions, and constantly revolving on the 


positive thought, *I am He,' conquer this 
identification with the non-Self. 

270. Relinquishing the observance of 
social formalities, giving up all ideas of 
trimming up the body, and avoiding too 
much engrossment with the Scriptures, 
do away with the superimposition that 
kas come upon thyself. 

271. Owing to the desire to walk after 
society, the passion for too much study 
of the Scriptures and the desire to keep 
the body comfortable, people cannot at- 
tain to proper Realisation. 

^Ts^rfkg^*. 'ETg^m gT%n irns^ii 

272. For one who seeks deliverance 
from the prison of this world (Samsara), 
those three desires have been designated 
t>y the wise as the strong iron fetters to 


shackle one's feet. He who is free from 
them truly attains to Liberation. 

273. The lovely odour of the Agaru 
(agallochum) which is hidden by a power- 
ful stench due to its contact with water 
etc., (again) manifests itself when the 
foreign smell has been fully removed by 
mere rubbine. 

274. Like the fragrance of the sandal- 
wood, the perfume of the Supreme Sglf, 
-which is covered with the dust of endless, 
virulent desires imbedded in the mind, w^heu 
purified by the constant friction of 
Knowledge, is (again) clearly perceived. 

[ Sandalwood — the ' Agaru ' of the prey|io,iji« 
Sloka is meant. 

VasaTid in Sanskrit means both ' odo.ux ' .9Jti4 
•desire. ] 

i^4 tlVEKACHUDAK^Al^f 

275. The desire for Self-realisation is 
obsctired by the countless desires foT 
things other thaii the Self. When they 
have been destroyed by the constant at- 
tachment for the Self,- the Atman clearly 
manifests Itself of Its own accord. 

276. As the mind becomes gradually 
established in the Inmost Self, it propor- 
tionately gives up the desires for external 
objects. And when all such desires have 
been eliminated^ there takes place the un- 
obstructed Realisation of the At man. 

277 The Yogi's mind dies, being cons- 
tantly fixed on his own (Real) Self. Thence 
follows the cessation of desires. There- 
fore do away with thy superimposition. 


278. Tamas is destroyed by both Sattva 
and Rajas, Rajas by Sattva, and Sattva 
dies when purified. Therefore do away 
with thy superimposiLion, through the 
help of Sattva. 

STR^ 5^^rcT ^jftm f^rfk^ f?rajqr: i 

279. Knowing for certain that the Pra- 
rabdha work will maintain this body, 
remain quiet and do away with thy 
superimposition carefully and with forti- 
tude . 

{ Prdrahdha — the resultant of past Karma that 
has led to the present birth. When this is worked 
out, the body falls, and Videhamukti is the result.] 

280. " I am not the individual soul, but 
the Supreme Brahman," — eliminating 
thus all that is not-Self, do away with thy 
superimposition, which has come through 
the momentum of (past) desires. 

281. Realising thyself as the Self of all 
by meai;s of Scripture, reasoning and thy 


own Realisation, do away with thy supef- 
imposition, even when a trace of it seems 
to appear. 

282. The sage has no connection what- 
ever with action, as he has no idea of 
accepting or giving up. Therefore, through 
constant engrossment on the Brahman 
alone, do away wdth thy superimposition. 

283. Through the realisation of the 
identity of Brahman and the soul, result- 
ing from such great dicta as ' Thou art 
That' and so forth, do away with thy 
superimposition, with a view to strengthen 
thv identification with Brahman. 

284. Until the identification with this 
body is completely rooted out, do away with 
thy superimposition with watchfulness 
and concentrated mind. 


285. So long as even a dream-like per- 
ception of the universe and souls persists^ 
do away with, thy superiinpo&itioii, O 
learned one, without the least break. 

[ The u?iiverse and souls — i. e. plurality. ] 

286. Without giving the slightest chance 
to oblivion on accoiint of sleep, concern 
in secular matters or the sense-objects,, 
reflect on the Self in thy mind, 

287. Shunning from a safe distance the 
the body, which has come from parents 
and itself consists of flesh and impurities^ 
— as one does an outcast, — be thou Brah- 
man and realise the consummation of thy 


[ Shunning — i. e. giving up all identification of 
the body which is very impure. J 

^ro"^T5d JTIT^T^ ^^T?m5T q^Trm% \ 

288. Merging the finite soul in the Su- 
preme Self, hke the space enclosed by a 
jar in the infinite space, by means of medi- 


tation on their identity, always keep quiet, 
O sage. 

289. Becoming thyself the self -effulgent 
Brahman, the substratum of all phenom- 
ena, — as that Reality, give tip both the 
macrocosm and the microcosm, like two 
filthy receptacles. 

[Giz'^e up vikrocosm — ceasing to care for the 

whole universe, which is other than the Self, and 
which pales into insignificance before the majesty 
of the Self.] 

290. Transferring the identification now 
rooted in the body, to the Atman, the 
Existence-Knowledge-Bliss Absolute, and 
discarding the subtle body, be thou ever 
alone, independent. 

[ Discardi7ig — ceasing to identify oneself with.] 

291. That in which there is this reflec- 
tion of the universe, as a city is reflected 
in a mirror, — that Brahman am I ; — 


knowing this thou wilt attain the con- 
summation of thy life. 

292. That which is real and thy own 
primeval Essence, that Knowledge, and 
Bliss Absolute, the One without a second, 
which is beyond form and activity — at- 
taining That one should cease to identify 
oneself with one's false bodies, like an 
actor giving up his assumed mask. 

[ liaise bodies — the gross, subtle and causal 
bodies, which are superimpositions upon the Atman. 

Like a?t actor etc. — When the actor has played 
his part, he is simply a man. So the man of reali- 
sation is one with Brahman, his real Essence. ] 

f^ •v 

293. This objective universe is absolute- 1^ 
ly unreal ; neither is Egoism a reality, for 
it is observed to be momentary. How 
cau the perception that I know all, be 


true of Egoism etc. which are momentary? 

\ The pei-GCption. .all — Man's ml4«rent belief' 

m the omHiseience of. the Atman is mea^nt. ] 

5% H^T R^ CRT ^fir: 5^^4 

294. But the real 'I' is that which, 
witnesses- the Ego and the rest. It exists- 
always, even in. the state of profound 
sleep. The Sniti herself says, " It is birth- 
less, eternal"' etc.. Therefore the Param- 
atman is different from, the gro>ss and 
subtle bodies. 

\ Exists ahvays sleep- — as the witness- of all- 


The Sruii &'c. — The reference is- ta the Katha> 
Upanlshad, I. ii. l8.] 

295. It is the knower of all changes 'in 
things, subject to change, therefore It 
should be eternal and chan«:eless. The 
unreality of the gross and subtle bodies is^ 


ao^aln and again clearly noticed in imagi- 
nation, dream and profound sleep. 

[The unreaiity sleep: Because the subtle is 

not perceived in the Sushupti state and the gross 
body in ilie dream and Sushupti states. ] 

296. Therefore give np thy identifica- 
tions with this lump of flesh — the gross 
body, as well as with the Ego or the subtle 
body, which are both imagined by the 
Buddhi. Realising thy own Self, which 
is Knowledge Absolute and not to be denied 
in past, present and future, — attain to 

[ Imagined by Buddhi — Because they are not in 
Annan and our ignorance conjures them up through 
the Buddhi or determinative faculty. 

Denied &'c, — Because the Atman transcends 
time, ] 

f^l^w '^^\^\^ ^t^r^r- 


>( 297. Cease to identify thyself with 
family, lineage, name and form which per- 
tain to the body, which is like a rotten 
corpse (to a Jnanin) . Similarly giving up 
the ideas that thon art the agent and so 
forth, which are attributes of the subtle 
body, be thou the Essence of Bliss Abso- 

[ Rotten corpse — The body appears as living only 
through the erroneous identification of the Buddhi^ 
and when that ceases on realisation, the body is 
nothing but a putrid corpse, to be shunned. 

Attributes of the subtle body. The Jnani must 
realise his identity with the Atman alone. ] 

298. Other obstacles are also observed 
to exist for men, which lead to transmigra- 
tion. The root of them, for the above 
reasons, is the first modification of Nes- 
cience they call Egoism. 

[ Other obstacles— ~s\iq\\ as desires etc. 
For the above reasojis — because but for Egoism, 
which is a product of nescience, there would not 
be any false identification, and therefore no serious 
. trouble. J 

cJf^vT ^^m^THT gf^^rTlT f^gWT IR^S.11 


299. So long as one has any relation 
with this wicked Ego, there should not be 
tlie least talk about Liberation, which is 

300. Freed from the clutches of Egoism, 
man attains to his real nature, as the moon 
from those of the planet Rahu. He be- 
comes pure, infinite, eternally blissful and 

[ Graha in Sanskrit means both * planet ' and 
* seizure.' The eclipses of the sun and moon are 
popularly ascribed by Hindu mythology to the 
periodical attacks by their enemy Rahu, a demon 
whom they prevented from drinking the nectar. ] 

f^ r^. 

^r ^ 5?: ^TSlTJTTrT STrfTcTT 

301. That which has been created by 
the Buddhi extremely deluded by Nescience, 
and which is perceived in this body as 'I 
am such and such,' — when that Egoism is 
totally destroyed, one attains an un- 
obstructed identity with the Brahman. 
[lam such and such — I am strong or weak, 


learned or ignorant, happy or miserable and so 
fortii. ] 

f^^r5ir^^JT^m?Tr ^rt^ctt f^r^^ m^^^^ 

302. The treasure of the Bliss of Brah- 
man is coiled round by the mighty deadly 
serpent of Egoism, and guarded for its 
own use by means of its three fierce hoods 
consisting of the three Gunas. Only the 
wise man destroying it by severing its 
three hoods with the great sword of Reali- 
sation in accordance with the teachings 
of the Srutis can enjoy this treasure which 
confers bliss. 

[In this Sloka Egoism i« compared to a three- 
headed snake. Sattva, Rajas and Tamas — balance, 
activity and inertia — are spoken of as its three 
hoods. The way to destroy it is through Realisation. 
When Egoism is gone, one is conscious of his 
real nature as Brahman. The appropriateness of 
the metaphors is obvious. ] 

303. As long as there is a trace of 
poisoning left in the body, how can one 

tivekaciiudama:ni 135 

h'ojfc for recovery? Similar is the effect of 
Egoism on the Yogi's Liberation. 

304. Through the complete cessation ol 
Egoism, through the stoppage of the diverse 
mental waves due to it, and through the 
discrimination of the inner Reality, one 
realises that Reality as 'I am This.' 

[A/en/al waves — such as doubt, wrong notion etc.] 

305. Give up immediately thy identi- 
fication with the Egoism — the agent — 
which is by its nature a modification, 
which is endued with a reflection of the 
Self, and which diverts one from being 
established in the Self, — identifying thy- 
self with which thou hast come by this 
relative existence, full of the miseries of 
birth, decay and death, — though thou art 
the Witness, the Essence of Knowledge 
and Bliss Absolute. 


[ Modificatioji — of Nescience, and therefore noo- 

Endued elc. — This makes it look intellio^ent. 
Relative existence — Samsara or transmigration.] 

306. But for th)- identification with that 
Egoism there can never be any transmi- 
gration for thee who art eternally the 
same, the Knowledge Absolute, omnipre- 
sent, the Bliss Absolute, and of untarnished 

[ Untarnished glory — compare Swelaswatara 
Vi.19. ]i 

307. Therefore, destroying this Egoism, 
thy enemy, — which appears like a thorn 
sticking in the throat of one taking his 
meal — through the great sword of Reali- 
sation, enjoy directly and freely the bliss of 
thy own empire, the majesty of the Alaian. 


,[ Great sword — Mnhdsi. Tlie phrase, as it is. ig 
applicable to only one side of the comparison, 
namely, ' the enemy,' but not to * the tliorn,' for 
which it should be interpreted to mean ' a sharp 

308. Therefore, checking the activities 
of Egoism etc., and giving np all attach- 
uient through the realisation of the Su- 
preme Reality, be free from all duality 
through tlie enjoyment of the Bliss of Self, 
and remain qniet in the Brahman, for 
thou hast attained thy infinite nature. 

[ Egois7n etc. — Egoism \Yith its two forms, ' I ' 
and ' mine.'] 

"^ rv 

r^ »^ 

309. Even thongh completely rooted out, "f* 
this terrible Egoism, if revolved in the 
mind for a moment only, returns to life 
and creates hundreds of mischiefs, like a 


cloud itskered in by the wind during tlie 
rainy season. 

sr^m^TCR^^Tnr^TTg II?? oil 

310. Overpowering this enemy, Egoism, 
not a moment's respite should b& given to 
it by thinking on sense-objects. That is 
verily the cause of its coming back to life, 
like water to a citron tree that has al- 
most dried up. 

311. He alone who has identified him- 
self with the bodv is o^reedv after senses 
pleasures. How can one devoid of body-idea 
be greedy (like him) ? Hence the tendency 
to think on sense-objectsis verily the cause 
of the bondage of transmigration, giving 
rise to an idea of distinction or duality. 


312. When the effects are developed, the 
seed is also observed to be such, and when 
the efiects are destroyed the seed also is 
seen to be destroyed. Therefore one must 
subdue the effects. 

[ Effects — actions done with selfish motives. 
Seed — desire for sense-pleasures. 
Tlie next Sloka explains this. 

313. Through the increase of desires 
selfish work increases, and when there is an 
increase of selfish work there is alwavs an 
increase of desire also. And man's trans- 
migration is never at an end. 

♦ r^ 

314. For the sake of breaking the chain 
of transmio^ration the Sannvasin should 
burn to ashes those two for by thinking 
of sense-objects and doing selfish acts 
lead to an increase of desires. 


315-6. Augmented by these two, desires 
produce one's transmigration. The way 
to destroy these three, however, lies in 
looking upon everything, under all cir- 
cumstances, always, everywhere and in all 
respects, as Brahman and Brahman alone. 
Through the strengthening of the longing 
to be one with Brahman those three are 

[ I'hese three — selfish work, dwelling on sense- 
objects and sense-hankering for ihem. The next 
Sloka gives the steps to realisation. ] 

317. With the cessation of selfish action 
the brooding on sense-objects is stopped, 
which is followed by the destruction of 
desires. The destruction of desires is 
Liberation, and this is considered as 

318. When the desire for realising the 
Brahman has a marked manifestation the 
egoistic desires readily vanish, as the most 


intense darkness effectively vanishes be- 
fore the glow of the rising sun. 

319. Darkness and the numerons evils 
that attend on it are not noticed when 
the sun rises. Similarly on the realisa- 
tion of the Bliss Absolute there is neither 
bondage nor the least trace of misery. 

320. Causing the external and internal 
universes which are now perceived to 
vanish and meditating on the Reality, the 
Bliss Embodied, one should pass one's time 
watchfully, if there be any residue of 
Prarabdha work left. 

[ Exiertial atid internal universes — the worlds 
of maUer and thought. The former exists outside 
of man, whereas the latter he himself creates by 
the power of thought. 

Causing to vanish — through the eliminating 


process, ' Neti, Neti '—Brahman is not this, not 

this, etc. ] 

321. One should never be careless in 
one's steadfastness to Brahman. Bhagavan 
Sanatkumara, who is Brahma's son, has 
called inadvertence to be death itself. 

[ Sa7mtkumara &c. — In the celebrated Sanat- 
sujata-Samvada (chapters 40-45, Udyoga Parva, 
Mahabharata) — the conversation between Sanat- 
kumara and King Dhritarashtra — there occur words 
like the following — ^^xK % ^^^Tt ^CfR— " I call 
inadvertence itself as death," ' &c. 

Brahmd's son — and therefore a high authority on 
spiritual matters. ] 

5T srRT^r^^^rs??fr ^Tf?r?r: ^'^^^^Tct: i 


322. There is no greater danger for the 
J7ta7itn than carelessness about his own 
real natiire. From this comes delusion, 
thence egoism, this is followed by bondage, 
and then comes misery. 

323. Finding even a wise man hanker- 
ing after sense-objects, oblivion torments 


him tlirough the evil propensities oi the 
Biiddhi, as a woman does her doting" 

[The memory of his sweetheart haunts the man 
and he is miserable.] 

324. As sedge, even if removed, does V 
not stay away for a moment but covers 
the water again, so Maya or Nescience also 
coders even a wise man if he is averse to 
meditation on the Self. 

[ The sedge has to be prevented from closing in> 
by means of a bamboo or some other thing. 
Meditation also is necessary to keep Nescience 
away. ] 

» *s 

Qr^?T^g;?T ^^r^ r^TfiTT^f 

*- <> 

^r^g^ ^f^^cT^^^cTct: I 

•n r- 

Simmer: sr^3^ ^rm^^j^: 

325. If the mind ever so slightly strays 
from the Ideal, and becomes outgoing, 
then it goes down and down, jiisl: as a 
play-ball inadvertently dropped on the 
staircase bounds down from one step to 
[Ideal — Brahman. Cf, IMundaka II. ii. 3-4. 


What a terrible and graphic warning to happy- 
go-lucky aspirants ! ] 

326. The mind that is attached to the 
sense-objects reflects on their qtiahties; 
from mature reflection arises desire, and 
after desiring a man sets about having that 

[ An echo of Gita, 11. 62-63. ] 

•s r^ 

327 . Hence to the discriminating knower 
of Brahman there is no worse death than 
inadvertence with regard to concentra- 
tion. But the man who is concentrated 
attains complete success. (Therefore) 
carefully concentrate thy mind (on Brah- 
man) . 

328. Through inadvertence a man 
deviates from his real nature, and the man 
who has thus deviated falls. The fallen 


man invariably comes to ruin, but is never 
seen to rise up ag^ain. 

m^^F^rq^^?fr ir^ '4jif 3% 7T^: ^r>: iiBv5l 

329. Therefore one shoujd give up re- 
flecting on sense-objects, which is the 
root of all mischief. He who is com- 
pletely aloof even while living, is alone 
aloof after the dissolution of the body. 
The Vajurveda declares that there is fear 
for one who sees the least bit of distinction. 

] Yajurveda «jV. — The Taiiiiriya Upanishad (II. 
vii.) which belongs to the Vajurveda. J 

^^r ^rr ^rft f^rrfW^'r 

^^rf^cT nT^crfTj-T iTJTr^R?^ \\\\^\\ 

330. Whenever the wise man sees the 
least difference in the infinite Brahman, 
at once that which he sees as different 
through mistake, becomes a source 01 
terror to him. ^ 


■ft* r-s 

331. He who identifies himself with the 
objective universe which has been, denied 
by the Vedas, Smritis and hundreds of 
inferences, experiences misery after misery,, 
like a thief, for he does something for- 

[ The thfef rs pmiisiied for stealing with im- 
prisonment etc., and the man who idenlifees him- 
self with the not-Self^ suffers infinite miseries. Jj 

332. He whohas devoted himself to medi- 
tation on the Reality (Brahman) , and is 
free from Nescience attains to the eternal 
glory of the Atman. But he who dwells^ 
on the unreal (the undverse) , is destroyed.. 
That this is so is evidenced in the case of 
one who is not a thief and one who is a 

[One who is not a thief etc. — The allusion is to- 
the hot-axe test applied m ancknt limes i<y persons 
charged with theft etc. An axe would be made red- 
hot and the accused would be asked to hold it m 


his hand. If his hand was not burnt, it was a 
proof that he was innocent, but if it was burnt, 
he would be convicted and subjected to the usual 
punishments. The Chhandogya Upanishad VI. 
xvi. makes use of such a parable, to which the 
present Sloka refers. ] 

333. The Sannyasin should give up 
dwelling on the unreal which causes 
bondage, and should always fix his 
thoughts on the Atman as ' I myself am 
This.' For the steadfastness in Brahman 
through the realisatioil of one's identity 
with It, gives rise to bliss and thoroughly 
removes the misery born of Nescience, 
which one experiences (in the ignorant 
state) . 

irrc^r f%%^: mi:r?T ^r^ 

334 The dwelling on external objects 
will only intensify its fruits, viz. further 
evil propensities which grow worse and 


worse. Knowing this through discrimi- 
nation one should avoid the external ob- 
jects and constantly apply oneself to medi- 
tation on the Atman. 

^m f?fftr^ ^^W' ar^^^TT 

335. When the external world is shut 
out, the mind is cheerful; cheerfulness of 
the mind brings on the vision of the 
Paramatman. When He is perfectly real- 
ised the chain of birth and death is broken. 
Hence the shutting out of the external 
world is the stepping-stone to Libera- 

rv <v »^ rs 

336. Where is the man who being 
learned, able to discriminate the real from 
the unreal, believing the Vedas as author- 
ity, realising the Atman, the Supreme Rea- 
lity, and being a seeker after Liberation, — 
will, like a child, consciously have recourse 


to the unreal (the iiniverse) which will 
cause his fall ? 

[ Like a child — i, e, foolishly. ] 

Zlil . There is no Liberation for one who 
has attachment for the body etc., and the 
liberated man has no identification with 
the body etc. The sleeping man is not 
awake, nor is the waking man asleep, for 
these two states are of contradictory 

338. He is free who knowing through 
his mind the Self in moving and iinmov- 
ing objects and observing It as their subs- 
tratum, gives up all superim positions and 
remains as the Absolute and the infinite 


•^ 339. To realise oneself as the Self of 
the whole universe is the means of get- 
ting rid of bondage. There is nothing 
higher than the identity of oneself with 
the whole universe. One realises this state 
by excluding the objective world through 
steadfastness in the eternal Atman. 

340. How is the exclusion of the ob- 
jective world possible for one who has an 
identification with the body, whose mind 
is attached to the perception of external 
objects, and who performs various acts 
for that end? This exclusion of sense- 
objects from the mind should be carefully 
practised by the sages who have renounced 
all kinds of duties and actions and objects, 
who are passionately devoted to the 
eternal Atman, and who wish to possess an 

undying bliss. 

[ Duties — belonging to various stations in life. 
Aeiions — i.e. selfish actions. O^yVr/j— sense -objects. 


3A1. To the Sannyasin who has gone 
through the act of hearing, the Sniti 
passage, ''Calm, self-controlled'^ etc., pres- 
cribes Samadhi, for his realisation of the 
universe as his own self. 

Hearing — ihe truth from the lips of the Guru, 
after the prescribed manner. 

"'Calm, self-cmitrolled'^ £=fr. — The reference is 
to Brihadaranyaka Upa. IV. iv. 23. ] 

342. Even wise men cannot suddenly 
destroy egoism after it has once become 
strong, barring those who are perfectly 
calm through the Nirvikalpa Samadhi. 
Desires are verily the effect of innumer- 
able births. 

[ .Xifvikalpa Samadhi — the highest kind of 
Samadhi in which all relative ideas are transcendeci 
and the Atman is realised as It is. The term has 
been already explained. ] 


343.^ The Projecting Power, throtigh the 
aid of strong Veiling Power, connects a 
man with the syren of the egoistic idea 
and distracts him through the attributes 
of that. 

The Veiling and Projecting Powers of Prakiiti 
or Maya have been aheady dealt wills, 

xM tributes of that — such ideas as that 'I am the 
doer ' and so fortli. ] 

344. It is extremely difficult to conquer 
the Projecting Power iinless the Veiling 
Power is perfectly rooted out. And cover- 
ing over the Atman naturally vanishes 
when the subject is perfectly distinguished 
from the objects, like milk from water. 
But the victory is undoubtedly (complete 
and) free from obstacles when there is no 
oscillation of the mind due to unreal sense- 



345. Perfect cliscriniinatioii brought on 
by direct realisation distinguishes the 
true nature of the subject from that of 
the object, and breaks the bond of dehi- 
sion created by IMaya ; and there is no 
more transmigration for one who had 
been freed from this. 

346. The knowledoe of the identity of 
Brnhman and Jiva entirely consumes the 
inipenelrable forest of Avidya or Nescience. 
For one who has realised their state of 
Oneness, is there any seed left for future 
transmigration ? 

347. The veil that hides Truth vanishes 
only when the Reality is fully realised. 
(Thence folio v.'s) the destriiction of false 
kno\vled2:e and the cessation of nriserv 
broiU{ht about bv the distraction caused 
by that. 


348. These three are observed in the 
case of a rope when its real nature is 
fully known. Therefore the wise man 
should know the real nature of things for 
the breaking of his bonds. 

^'FrTHrmrJTT g ^^rr^ ^t^^^j ii?X«»i 

349-50. Like iron manifesting as sparks 
through contact with fire the Buddhi 
manifests itself as knower and kncv.'n 
through the inherence of Brahman. As this 
secondary manifestation — the effects of 
Buddhi are observed to be unreal in the 
case of delusion, dream and imagination, 
similarly the modifications of Prakriti, from 
Egoism down to tlie body and all sense- 
objects are also unreal. Their unreality is 
verily due to their being subject to change 


everv moment. But the Atman never 

[Li/ct' iron &c. — Iron, itself, is never incande*;- 
cent. it is fire that makes it ap)pear so. Similarly 
the intcllif^ence of Brahman is imparted to Buddtii. 

The \v(ir(i Jrr^rf? can be disjoined in two wavs ; 

viz. as i^f^r f-^rf? or asjn^-!-^nf% the first gives 
us the meaning of ' sparks " and the second tiial of 
knower and known, i. e, subject and object. 

The viodificaiions are also unreal — because 

they, too, are effects and derivatives of Prakriii and 
depend on tlieir perception by the Buddhi. ] 

351. The Paramatman is ever of the na- 
ture of eternal, indivisible knowledge one 
withoiit a second, the Witness of Buddhi 
and the rest, distinct from the real and 
unreal, the implied meaning of the term 
and idea 'I,' the embodiment of inward, 
eternal bliss. 

[ The implied meaning — divesting it of its acci- 
dental condili<;ns of time and circumstances. See 
Notes on Slokas 248-9. ] 


^Y^r ftrgr^: ^^^Jr^ JaT^^frT li^H^II 

352. The wise man, d'scriniinating thus 
the real and the unreal, ascertaining the 
Truth through his eye of illumination, 
and realising his own Self which is Know- 
ledge Absolute, gets rid of the obstructions 
and directlv attains Peace. 

r Truth — I'he ideniitv of jiva and T3riihman- 
Obstructions — -meiuioned in Sloka 347.] 

Z^o. When the Atman — che One with- 
out a second — is realised by means of the 
NirvikalpavSamadhi, then the heart's knot 
— viz., ignorance — is totally destroyed. 

354. Such imaginations as 'Thou,' 'I' 
or ' This' take place through the defects 
of Buddhi. But when the Param atman, 
the Absolute, one without a second, mani- 
fests Itself in vSamadhi, all such imagina- 
tions are dissolved for him, through the 


realisation of the Truth of Atman. 

jorr-'d'r 3[r??T: q^'g'T^^r: ^^rr^^^T^Tf:: ^mra^ 

355. The Sannyasins, cahn, self-con- 
troiled, perfectly retiring; from the sense- 
world, forbearing, and devoting himself to 
the practice of Samadhi, always reflects 
on his own self being the Self of the whole 
universe . Destroying completely by this 
means the imaginations which are due to 
the gloom of ignorance, he lives blissfully 
in Brahman, free from action and oscil- 
lation of the mind. 

\ Forbearing — having forbeararce or fortitude. 

Free from aciion—x. e. selfish action. ] 

356. Those alone are free from the 
bondage of transmigration who, attainmg 
Samadhi, have merged the objective world, 
the sense-organs, the mind, nay, his very 
ego, in the Atman, the Knowledge Abso- 


lute, — and none else, who but dabble in 
second-hand talks. 
\_dabble talks. — Reading them from books etc.] 

•s »v 

357. Following the diversity of the 
supervening conditions (Upadhis) a man 
is apt to think of himself as also full of 
diversity; but with the removal of these 
he is again his own self, the Immutable. 
Therefore the wise man should ever devote 
himself to the practice of Nirvikalpa 
Samadhi, for the dissolution of the Upadhis . 

[When the rose is before the crystal, it also 
looks red, but when it is removed, the crystal again 
is transparent. ] 

358. The man who is attached to the 
Real becomes the Real, through his one- 
pointed devotion. Just as the cockroach 
thinking intently on the bhrainara is 
transformed into a bhra,nara. 

[ The reference is to the popular belief that the 
cockroach, through fright, does actually turn green 


when caiifjhl by the worm known as Bhramarakita.J 

359. Just as the cockroach, giving up 
the attachment foraU other actions, thinks 
intently on the bhraniara and becomes 
transformed into that worm, exactly in 
the same manner the Yogin meditating on 
tne Truth of the Paramatman, attains to 
It, through his one-pointed devotion to 

360. The Truth of the Paramatman is 
extremely subtle, and cannot be reached 
by the gross outgoing tendency of the 
mind. It is only accessible to the nobie 
souls with perfectly pure minds, by means 
of Samadhi brought on by an extraordi- 
nary fineness of the mental state. 


361. As gold purified by thorough heat- 
ing on the fire gives up its impurities and 
attains its own histre, so the mind, through 
meditation, gives up its impurities of 
Sattva, Rajas and Tamas, and reaches the 
Reality of Brahman. 

362. When the mind, purified" thus by 
constant practice, is merged in Brahman, 
then the Samadhi passes on from tJie 
Savikalpa to the Nirvikalpa stage, and 
leads directly to the realisation of the Bliss 
of Brahman, the One without a second. 

363. By this Samadhi are destroyed all 
desires which are like knots, all (selfish) 
■work is at an end, and inside and out 
there takes place everywhere and always 


lihe manifestation of one's real nature, — 
withoat any cffor!:. 

364. Reflection should be considered a 
'•^"hundred times superior to hearing, and 
• meditation a hundred thousand times su- 

pcrior to reflect-ou even, but the Nirvi- 
kalpa Samadhi is simply infinite in its 
[ Innnife etc. — Aiu! ilier^fore bears no com- 

•JTF^m ^^cT'Tr 5T5fin%: 

365. By the Nirvikalpa Samadhi the 
Truth of Brahman is clearly and definitely 
realised, but not otherwise, for then the 
mind, being unstable by nature, is apt to 
be mixed up with other perceptions. 


366. Hence witii yatir mind calm ant^^ 
the senses controlled alm^ays drown the/ 
mind, in the Paramatman who is within^, 
and through the realisation of your identity, 
with Brahman destroy the darknes-s created-^ 
by. Nesciencie which is without beginning'^ 

irv . <>. fN 

J67. The first steps to Yoga are control' 
ot speech, non-receiving of gifts, enter- 
taining no hope, freedom from activity,, 
and always living in a retired place, 

; Gifts — i. e, superfluous gifts. ] '' 

1*^ f*^ f^N 


^3^^^ ^^10^ ^ir?r m^^ 57r^r^t^^5TT 1 

.Too... Living in a retired place serves to> 
control the sense-organs, control of the 
[i^ense^ helps to control the mind, through 
control of the mijid, egoism is destroyed,^ 
and this again, gives the Yogin an uu — 
Broken, realisation of the Bliss of Brahman. 
T,herefore the man of reflection should air- 
ways strive only to 'Control the mind, . 



5^T r^^ ^=55 =^ ffe^Tf^mr i 
f^^r^^ mf^r{ ^Tm k^^^^ ii^^^il > 

369. Restrain speech in the Manas, and 
restrain Manas in the Buddhi; this again; 
restrain in the Witness of Buddhi, andj 
merging that also in the Infinite Absohite 
Self, attain to snpreme Peace.- 

[Speech — This includes all the sense-organs as weli 
Witness — i. c. the Jivatman or individual aspect 
of the Self. 

In this Sloka which reproduces in part Katha* 
Upa. L iii, 13, one is asked to ascend higher and 
higher, restraining successively the sense-activities, 
and mental activities, from the gross to the fine, tiif 
at last one is lost in Samadhi. ] 

370. The body, Pranas, organs, Manas^ j 
Buddhi and the rest, with wl^ichsoever of 
these Upadhis the mind is associated, the 
Yogin is transformed, a& it were , into that, 

371. When this is stopped,, the man of; 
teftectioB is foxiud to be easily detached : 


from everyth'tiof and gets the experience 0} 
^n abiinctance of everla«iling Blss, 

CT?^^tJTrrT ^rV^^mr BirxWi^^^ 5^^^ I 

* r 

372. It IS the niau oi d spass on (Vai^a- 
frygun) aipiie who :s tit ioy Ms ijilein^l 
as well cs e?:lernai reuinio^iaiion, ipr tli^ 
dispass onale man, out of the desne tp be 
free, relnqu shes both lulernal an^ exter- 
nal attachment. 

373. It is only the dispassionate man 
-vyho, being thoroughly grounded iq Brah- 
man, can give up the external at! achinent 
for the sense-objects and the internal 
attachment for egovsm etc. 

[ t.'goism ^.V.— i, c. fiil inotiificfiiioiis pf llic i>MMd.] 

374. Know, O wise one, dlspasslon and 
Realisation to be like the two wings of a 
bird in the case of a man. Unless both 
/ire there, none can, with the help cfi 


cither one, reach the creeper of Libera* 
tion that grows on the top of an edifice, 
as it were. 

[]NTukii has been compared to a creeper growing 
on i\u'. mp f»f a lufiy ImiMini^. a tentple for in- 
stance, as ii is iiiacce!<sil>le to llie ordinary man. ] 

375. For the extremely dispassionate 
mail alone there "'s Sainadhi, and the man 
of Samadhi alone gets si^eady Realisation; 
the man who has realised the Truth is 
alone free from bondage, and the free 
soul only experiences eternal Bliss. 

376. For the man of self-control I do 
not find any better instrument of happi- 
ness than dispassion, and if that is coupled 
with a highly pure realisation of the 
Self, it conduces to the suzerainty of 
absolute Independence; and since this is- 


the gateway to the damsel of everlasting 
Liberation, therefore for thy welfare, be 
dispassionate both internally and external- 
ly, and always fix thy mind on the eternal 

I Suzerainty etc, — Because the Realisation of 
the Self, ihe One without a second, is the real inde- 
pendence, for it is everlasting Bliss and there is 
nobody to dispute it. } 


Zn . Sever thy craving for sense-objects 
which are like poison, for it is the very 
image of death, and giving up thy pride 
of caste, family and order of life, fling 
actions to a distance ; give up thy identi- 
fication with such unreal things as the 
body and the rest, and fix thy mind on the 
Atman. For thou art really the Witness, 
the Brahman, unshackled by the rnind, 
the One without a second, and Supreme. 

^^ vmm ^TTO ^^fut ^^p:^ ^rirF?"^ 


378. Fixino^ the mind finaly on the 
Ideal, Brahman, and restraining the ex- 
ternal oro-ans in their respective centres; 
with the body held steady, and taking no 
thoii<rht for its main^-enance; attainin|»: 
the identity wHh Brahman; and heinj? 
one with It, always drink joyfully of the 
Bliss of Brahman in thy own Self, wiHi- 
• ont a break. What is the nse of other 
things which are entirely hollow ? 

{Resiraini^t^ centres— \. e. not allowing them 

to go outward. 

Other MrV/.<^j— pursued as means of happiness. j 

^nrrirf^T^^ ^^^^ittt^ -r-.^^^frmiT^ i 

379. Giving: np the thonght of the not^ 
Self which is evil and productive of misery, 
think of the Self, the Bliss 1^bsclnte,whici:' 
conduces to Liberation. 

'^ r- 

.380. Here shines eternally the Atman, 


tile Self-efftilgent Witness of everyt&ing'i, 
which has the Buddhi for Its seat. Makr 
lug this Atmaa which is distinct from 
the unreat> tke Ideal, meditate on It as 
thy own Self,,, excluding all other thought. 

381. Reflecting on this Atman conti- 
nuously aad without any foie:gn thought 
intervening, one must distinctly realise It 
to be one's own real Self. 

3S2. Strengthening one's identification 
with This, and giving that up with egoism 
and the rest^ one must live without any 
concern for them, as if they were trifling": 
things, like a cracked jar or the like* 

383. Fixing the purified mind in th& 
Self,. the Witness, the Knowledge Abso- 
lute, and slowly making it still, one mugt. 
then realise one's own Infinite SeH^. 


384. One tliould behold the^ Atman,the 
Indivisible and Infinite, free from all 
Upadhis (s'lpervenlng conditions) of the 
body, organs, Pranas, Manas and egoism 
etc. which are creatiens of one'^s own> 
ignorance,— 'like the infinite sky. 

385. The sky divested of the hundreds 
of Upadhis such as a jar, a pitcher^ 
a receptacle for grains, a needle, and so 
forth, is one, and not diverse; exactly 
in a similar way, the pure Brahman, when 
divcsled of egoism etc., is verily One. 

386. The Upadhis from Brahnid down 
to a clump of grass are all simply unreal. 
Therefore one should realise one*s owrii 


Infinite Self as ever identified with his 

[ From Brahmd c^c. — ^^Even the position of 
Creator is a pas^^ing- phase of the Self which is 
greater than all Its conditions. ] 

^^ ^F^r ^r%T^ fff^sr^ 

387. That in which somethino^ is ima- 
gined to e-'c'st throtio^h delusion, is, when 
rightly d'scriminated, that thing itself, 
and not d'stinct from it. When the delu- 
sion is sfone, the reality about the snake 
falsely perceived, becomes the rope. vSimi- 

larly the universe is in reality the Atman. 

[Tlie rope is always the rope and never act'ially 
turns into a snake ; similarly the universe also is 
Brahnrjan, ahvays. ] 

388. The Self is Brahma, the Self is 
Vishnu, the Self is Indra, the Self is Shiva ; 
the Self is all this universe. Nothing 
-exists except the Self. 

W?rf : ^^t ^^ ^T%: ^^ ^ 


389. The Self is within, and the vSelf is 
without; the Self is before and the Self 
is behind; the Self is on ihe south and 
the Self is on the north ; the Self likewise 
is above as well as below. 

[ An echo of ^Iiindak;i 11. ii. 11.] 

^'^ ^^^^^iT ^of ^5ir ^^r I 

390. As the wave, the foam, the whirl- 
pool and bubble etc. are all in essence 
but water, similarly the Chit (Knowledge 
Absohite) is all this, from the body up to 
egoism. Everything is verily the Chit, 
homogeneous and pure. 

\_From the body egoism. — See Sloka 384. ^ 


391. All this universe cognised by 
speech and mind is nothii?g but Brahman; 


there is nothing besides Brahman which 
exists beyond the utmost range of Prakriti. 
Are the pitcher, jug, or jar etc. ktuov'/n to 
be distinct from the earth of wiv'ch they 
are composed ? It is the deluded man 
who talks of 'Thou* and 'I,' as an effect of 
the wine of Maya. 

[ Pitcher etc. — The difference, if any, is only in 
name and form. ] 

392. The Sruti, in the passage, "Where 
one sees nothing else etc.,'* declares by 
an accumulation of verbs the absence of 
duality, in order to remove the false super- 

[ Where one sees &'c. — The reference is to 
Chhandogya VII. xxiv.i, — *'Wliere op^e sees nothing 
else, hears nothing- else, knows noliiiug else — that 
is the Infinite." That is, the Brahman is tlie only 
Reality there is. 

J^aise superitfipositions — i. e. consiJerin<2^ the- 
Knower, Knowledge and Known a^ distinct en- 
tities. ] 

^^^ ^t sTi? Rfiif^ ^r^K \\\^\\\ 


393. The Supreme Brahman is, like the 
sky, pure, absohite, iiifniile, motionless 
and clian|,cless, devoid of interior or ex- 
terior, tlie One Jix'slcnce, without a 
second, and is one's own EcH. is there 
any olher oL;ject of Knowledge (than 
Brahman) ? 

[ .-Ikv other nhjtct fec.-lu oil er f\oids, Drab'- 
man i.^ buiti hiilij* v.< anii tjhjcci. ] 

m.?T 55:5 ^?i^: ^^Tfi^ngn: ^jpt 

394. What is the use of dilating on thij 
subject t The Jiva is no olher than Brah- 
man; th*s whole extended universe is 
Brahman Itself; the Sruti inculcates the 
Brahman without a second; and it is an 
indubitable fact that people of enlightened 
minds who know their identity with Brah- 
man, and have given up their connection 
with the objective world, live palpably 
unified with Brahman, and with Eternal 
Knowledge and Bliss. 


^^mm ^n:=^r^ siit^^w mg w^^m 

395. (First) destroy the hopes raised by 
egoism in this filthy gross body, then do 
the same forcibly with the air-like subtle 
body; and realising Brahman, the em- 
bodiment of eternal Bliss, whose glories- 
the scriptures proclaim, as thy own Self „ 
live as Brahman. 

[ Destroy &'c. — Both the gross and subtle bodies- 
are the coverings over the Atman, the Existence- 
Knowledge-BUss Absolute, and freedom consists iu' 
going beyond thetn. ] 

^^ &^^r g^> vr^RT i^ cr^r^ :^f^?:fqn^ee^|i 

396. So long as man has any regard for 
this corpse-like body, he is impure, and 
suffers from enemies as well as from birth 
death and disease; but when he thinks of 
himself as pure, as the essence of the Good^ 
and immovable, he assuredly becomes free 
from them; the Sruti also says this. 

[ Suffers from enemies &c. — Compare Brihada- 
ranyaka II. iv. 6 — " The Brahmanas oust him who> 
sees them as diSerent from himself" &c., aiii^ 


Brihadaranyaka I. iv. 2 — ■'' So long as there is 4' 
second, there is fear." 

Srulis also ^c. — e, g. Ghhandogja VIII. xii. i — 
'•This body is mortal, O Indra," &c. ] 

•^ r^ 

v^97. By the elimination of all apparentf 
existences superimposed on the Sonl, the 
supreme Brahman — Infinite, the One 
without a second, and beyond action — 
remains as Itself. 

[Jpparen/ exis/ences — Such as egoism etc. 
As Itsdf — in Its own essence. ] 

fi^S. When the mind-fuuctions are- 
merged in the Supreme Atman, the Brah- 
man, the x\bsolute— none of this pheiio-; 
menal world is seen, whence it is reduced 
to mere talk. 

Merged- — through the Nirvikalpa Samadhi. 

Phenomenal ivorld — created by name and form, 
hence unreal. 

Mere talk — on the lips of others, who are igno - 
uanfe- Compare Chhandogya VI. i. 4,— '• AU' 


Jinodificaiinns are mere cfforis of speecli," etc.] 

f^ilVi^ir M^Tj^RK nf^ill [l^^j ^^: li^^.!.! 

399. In the One Entity (Brahman) ».hc 
concept ;oa oi the nuiveise Is a mere 
phan.oii). W hence ca.ii there be diversity 
iii that wu:cli is ^haii^riess, foi.nless, and 

fsTT^-^iK i^rran: f5if5(i> VvT-^v ?:^i: iivjodi 

400. In ihe Oue Entity devoid of the 
sconce p's of Seer, Seeing and Seen,— .vhieh 
is changeless, formless aiid ALsohite, — 
wkence can there be dTverslty ? 

[ 6Vt7' ^c — ot wliicii l44e piNeiiorntrtul worl<i 
con&isi.s ] 

^H^K Uin^k h%h^ r*TTf 5r<r. n^o?! 

401. hi the One Entity perfectly hill 
and motionless Jiikc the ocean after dis- 
solution of the universe, — which is 
changeless, formless, and Absolntc, — 
whence can there be diversity? 


402. Where the root of dehision is dis- 
solved like darkness in light, — in the 
Supreme Truth, the One without a second 
and Absolute, — whence can there be 

{Root 0/ delusion — i. e. Ignorance.] 

403. How can the talk of diversity apply 
to the Supreme Truth which is one and 
homogeneous? Who has ever noticed 
diversity in the unmixed bliss of the state 
of profound sleep? 

404. Even before the realisation of the 
highest Truth the universe does not exist 
in the Absolute Brahman, the Essence of 
Existence. In none of the three states of 
time the snake is ever observed in the rope, 
nor a drop of water in the mirage. 

[ Three states 0/ time — past, present and future. ] 

^ 1^^ ^%*. ^^cggHT^a^^f^ ll^o^ii 


405. The S nit is themselves declare that 
this dualist ie universe is but a deliision;. 
from the standpoint of absolute truths 
This is also experienced in the state o£ 
dreamless sleep. 

[ S?'u^is ^c — e. g. Katha Upa. IV. i*i, Brihad^a^ 
ranyaka, II. iv. 14., Mundaka, 11. ii. i-i, Chhan^ 
dogya, VI xiv., &c., &c. ] 

406. That which is superimposed upon 
something dse is observed; by the wise to 

be identical with the substratum, as in 
the case of the rope appearing as the 
snake.. The apparent difference depends 
solely on delusion. 

[ Apparent difference — noticed by the igiiorant. 

Depends delusion — i. e. lasts only so long as^ 

the delusion persists. ] 

^'5q;^r f^^^qrs^T f^rrmr^ jt^^jt v 

407,. ThiS' apparent universe has its- 
root in the mind, and' never persists after 
the mind is annihilated'. Therefore dis- 
solve the mind by concentrating it in the 
Supreme Selfj. which is thy inmost 


f^m^ ^cTct^t4 ^^r?^7^ 

r^ *- • r^ • r^. cn 

408. The wise one realises in his heart, 
through Samadhi, the Infinite Brahman 
which is something of the nature of 
eternal Knowledge and absolute Bliss, 
which has no exemplar, which transcends 
all limitations, is ever free and without 
activity, — which is like the limitless sky, 
indivisible and absolute. 

[ Heart — stands for the Buddhi. 

Something — which is inexpressible in terms of 
speech or thought. ] 

409. The wise one realises in his heart, 
through Samadhi, the Infinite Brahman 
which is devoid of the ideas of cause and 
effect, which is the Reality beyond all 
imaginations, homogeneous, matchless, be- 
yond the range of proofs, established by 
the pronouncements of the Vedas, and 
ever familiar to us as the sense of the ego. 


[ Proofs — other than Revelation, viz., direct per- 
ception and inference. Revelation also merely hints 
at It. 

Established &c. — We cannot deny the Self for 
the Vedas speak of It. 

Ever familiar ^'c. — Nobody can ever conceive 
that he is not. For a discussion on the subject 
refer to the Sariraka Bhashya on the Brahma- 
Sutras I. i. 2.] 

410. The wise one realises in his heart, 
through Samadhi, the Infinite Brahman 
which is undecaying and immortal, the 
positive Entity which precludes all nega- 
tions, which resembles the placid ocean 
and is without a name, where there are 
neither merits nor demerits, — which is 
eternal, pacified and One. 

[ Entity which precludes &c. — Being the Abso- 
lute Reality there is no room in It for any kind of 
Abh^va, such as Pragabhava (previous non- 
existence, as of a jar before it was made), Pra- 
dhwams^bh^va ( cessation by destruction, as when 
the jar is broken to pieces) and the like. ] 


411. With the mind restrained in Sama- 
dhi, behold in thy Self the Atman, of 
infinite glory,— cut off thy bondage 
strengthened by the impressions of pre- 
vious births, and carefully attain the con- 
summation of thy birth as a human being.' 

[ Consummation &c.—\. e. Moksha, which is 
only possible in a human birth. ] 

412. Meditate on the Atman which re- 
sides in thee, which is devoid of ^11 
limiting adjuncts,— the Existence-Knowl- 
edge-Bliss Absolute, the One without a 
second, — and thou shalt no more come 
under the round of birth and death. 

[ Resides in thee—'^s thy own Being. ] 

413. The sage never more attaches him- 
self to this body— which is visible as an 
appearance merely, like the shadow of a 
man, owing to the experience of the effects 


of past deeds,— after it has once been cast 
off to a distance like a corpse. 

[ Visible as an appearance etc. — It would not be 
perceived at all but for the effects of Prarabdha 
work which are experienced through the body. As 
it is, it is just an appearance. 

The man of realisation never identifies himself 
with the body, not even during his return to the 
normal plane after Samadhi. ] 

414. Realising the Atman, the eternal, 
pure Knowledge and Bliss, throw far 
away this limitation of a body which is 
inert and filthy by nature. Then no more 
remember it, for something that has been 
vomited excites but disgust when called to 

. rs 

415. Burning all this, with its very root,' 
in the fire of Brahman, the Eternal and 


\lDSolnte Self, the truly ^ise man there- 
aitei remains alone, as Atman, the eternal, 
pure Knowledge and Bliss. 

[ All M/s— the objective -universe— the not-Self. 

Root—\. e. Nescience. ] 

416. The knowei of Truth does no mere 
care whether thi^ body, spun out by the 
threads of Piarabdha work, falls or re- 
mains—like the garland on a cow— fcr 
his mind-functions are at^ rest in the 
Erahman, the Essence of Bliss. 

^Garland C0W—2.S, a cow is supremely im- 

concerned about t^e garland put on her neck by 
somebody, so the man of realisation has got 
nothtng to do with the body. ] 

f^m^^^ ^^ ^T \^\kt iwrfir ^x^f^^ « 

417. Realising the Atman, the Infinite 
.Bliss, as his very Self, with what object, 
•or for whom, should the knower of Truth 

cherish the body? 

[ With what object &c.^kTt^^o^^c\:\on of the 
^nse of Brihadaranyaka IV. iv. 12. He never 


thinks of himself as the Bhoktd, the enjoyer, or 

Cherish — like men of the world. ] 

•v rv 

418. The Yogin who has attained per- 
fection and is free-in-life gets tkis as 
result — he enjoys eternal Bliss in his mind,, 
internally as well as externally. 

419. The result of dispassion is Reali- 
sation, that of Realisation is withdrawal 
from sense-pleasures, which leads to the 
experience of the Bliss of Self, whence 
follows Peace. 

420. If there is absence of the succeed- 
ing stages, the preceding ones are meaning- 
less. ( When the series is perfect ) the 
cessation of the objective world, extreme 
satisfaction, and matchless bliss follow as 
a matter of course. 

»v V 


421. Being iinrtiflled by earthly troubles 
is the result in question of Knowledge. 
How can a man who did various loathsome 
deeds during the state of delusion, commit 
the same afterwards, having discrimina- 

[ Earthly — lit. visible, i. e. those experienced in 
this life, as opposed to the invisible ones, i. e. those 
which are to be experienced hereafter. ] 

*s r- 

422. The result of Knowledge should be 
the turning away from unreal things, and 
attachment to these is the result of 
ignorance. This is observed in the case 
of one who knows a mirage and things 
of that sort, and one who does not. 
Otherwise, what other tangible result da 
the knowers of Brahman obtain? 

{^ One who knows does not — The man who 

knows the mirage laughs at the illusion and passes 
b)% but the ignorant man runs after it, mistaking- 
it for water. To the sage the world appears no 
doubt, but he knows it to be unreal and is not lured 
by it. Not so the man of the world. ] 


423. If the heart's knot — ignorance — 
is totally destroyed, what natural cause 
can there be for inducing such a man to 
selfish action, for he is averse to sense- 
pleasures ? 

424. When sense-objects excite no more 
desire, then is the culmination of dis- 
passion. The extreme perfection of knowl- 
edge is the absence of any impulsion of 
the egoistic idea. And the limit of self- 
withdrawal is reached when the mind- 
functions that have been merged no pi ore 

[Compare Fanchadasi, 'Chitradipa' Chapter, 
-285-6 — ** The acme of dispassion is setting at 
naught even the joys of the Brahmaloka, the 
highest heaven ; Realisation is at its highest when 
one identifies oneself with the Supreme Atman as 
iirmly as the ordinary man identifies himself with 
his body; and the perfection of self-withdrawal is 
jeached when one forgets the dualistic universe as 
£ompletelj as in dreamless sleep." 


r^ »■ «> rv 

425. Freed from any sense of reality of 
external sense-objects, only seeming to 
enjoy such sense-objects as are offered by 
others like one sleepy, or like a child, be- 
holding this world like one seen in 
dreams, and having cognition of it at 
chance moments — rare indeed, is such a 
man, the enjoyer of the fruits of endless 
merit, and he alone is blessed and es- 
teemed on earth. 

[ 0?ily see?7iing others &€. — When his atten- 
dants or friends offer him food or some such 
thing he takes it but half-consciously, his mind 
being deeply absorbed in Brahman. 

The enjoyer merit — i. e. a most fortunate 

man. ] 

426. That Sannyasin has got a steady 
illumination who, having his soul wholly 
merged in Brahman, enjoys eternal bliss, 
is changeless and free from activity. 


[ The cliaracteristics of a man of realisation are 
set forth in this and the next few Slokas. Com- 
pare Gita II. 55-68. ] 

427. That kind of mental function 
which cognises only the identity of Brah- 
man and Self, purified of all adjuncts, — 
which is free from duality, and concerns 
itself only with Pure Intelligence, is called 
illumination. He who has this perfectly 
steady is called the man of steady illumi- 

[Purified adjuncts — eliminating the acci- 
dental adjuncts and meditating on the common 
substratum — Brahman, the Absolute. See note on 
Sloka 241 andj"^^. ] 

5qr^^ mm vr^csr^ ^^^R?€r r^^ct^: I 

»^ rs 

428. He whose illumination is steady, 
who has constant bliss, who has almost 
forgot the phenomenal universe, is accepted 
as a man liberated in this very life. 


429. He who, even having his mind 
merged in Brahman, is nevertheless quite 
alert, but free at the same time from the 
characteristics of the waking state, — and 
whose Realisation is free from desires, is 
accepted as a man liberated-in-life. 

[ /$• aleri — i. e. never deviates from the ideal 

life of a Jnani. 

Characteristics waking state — that is, cog- 
nising the objective world through the senses, and 
being attached to it, like the ignorant man. ] 

430. He whose cares about the pheno- 
menal state have been appeased, who, 
though possessed of a body consisting of 
parts, is yet devoid of parts, and whose 
mind is free from anxiety, is accepted as 
a man liberated-in-life. 

[ Cares state — i. e. how his bondage will 

cease, and so on. 

Devoid of parts — as Brahman. ] 

431. The absence of the ideas of 'I and 
mine' in this existing body which follows 
as a shadow, is a characteristic of one 


[ ' / and mine ' — that * I ' am fair or ' I ' am 
stout &c., or that this body is ' mine.' 

Shadoiv — See Sloka 413.] 

432. Not dwelling on the past, taking 
no thought for the future and looking 
with indifference upon the present, are 
characteristics of one liberated-in-life. 

433. Looking everywhere with an eye 
of equality in this world full of elements 
possessing merits and demerits, and dis- 
tinct by nature from one another, — is a 

characteristic of one liberated-in-life. 

[ Looki?ig &€. — The world is so full of diversity, 
yet the man of Realisation looks behind, and sees 
the one Brahman in everything. 

Nature — preponderance of one or other of the 
three Gunas. ] 

434. When things pleasant or painful 
present themselves, to remain unruffled in 
mind in both cases, through sameness of 
attitude, is a characteristic of one liberated- 


435. The absence of all ideas of interior 
or exterior in the case of a Sannyasin, 
owing to his mind being engrossed in 
tasting the elixir of the Bliss of Brahman, 
is a characteristic of one liberated-in-life. 

[ Interior &c. — Since there is but One Exis* 
tence — Brahman. ] 

436. He who lives unconcerned, devoid 
of all ideas of 'I and mine^ with regard to 
the body and the organs etc., as well as to 
his duties, is known as a man liberated- 

[ The Jnani is free from egoism or Abhimana, 
though he may be intensely active. This state is 
hinted at in this Sloka. ] 

437. He who has realised his Brahman- 
hood aided by the Scriptures, and is free 
from the bondage of transmigration, is^ 
know^n as a man liberated-in-life. 

[Aided (^c. — By discriminating the Truth in- 
culcated by the Scriptures. ] 


♦, »s rv •>- 

438. He who has under no circum- 
stances the idea of 'I' with regard to the 
body and the organs etc., nor that of 
'mine' in respect of things other than 
these, is accepted as one liberated-in-life. 

439. He who through his ilhimination 
always knows the identity of the Jiva and 
and Brahman, as well as of Brahman and 
the universe, is known as a man liberated- 

440. He who feels just the same when 
his body is either worshipped by the good 
or tormented by the wicked, is known as 
a man liberated-in-life. 

^^ srf^ f^^^r: ^^iTcTT 


441. The Sannyasin in whom sense- 
objects directed by others are engulfed 
like flowing rivers in the sea, and pro- 
duce no change, owing to his identity 
with the Existence Absolute, is indeed 

[ Directed by others — i. e. which others thrust 
upon him. Whatever comes within his knowl- 
edge but strengthens his identity with Brahman. 

Compare Gita II. 70. ] 

442. For one who has realised the Truth 
of Brahman there is no more transmigra- 
tion as before: If there is, that man has 
not realised his identity with Brahman, 
but is one whose senses are outgoing in 
their tendency. 

[ Is 0716 whose senses ■&'c. — is an ordinary sense- 
bound man. ] 

443. If it be urged that he is still sub- 
ject to transmigration through the mo- 
mentum of his old desires, the reply is — 
no, for desires get weakened through the 
realisation of one's identity with Brahman. 


444. The propensities of even a con- 
j5rmed libertine are checked in the pre- 
sence of his mother; just so, when 
Brahman, the Bliss Absolute, has been 
realised, the man of realisation has na.. 
longer any worldly tendency. 

445. One who is constantly practising 
meditation is observed to have external 
perceptions. The Srutis mention Pra- 
rabdha work in the case of such a man,, 
and we can infer this from results actual- 
ly seen. 

[ External perceptions — such as satisfying the 
physical needs or teaching enquirers etc. 

Srutis &c, — The reference is to Chhandogya 
Up. VI. xiv. 2, " The delay in his ( i. e. a Jnanin's ) 
case is only so long as hrs body lasts^ after which 
he becomes one with Brahman." 

Prdrabdha work — is the work done ia past lives 
which has engendered the present body (referred 
to in Sloka 451). The other two kinds of work are 
the * Sanchita ^ or accumulated ( mentioned \u 
Sloka 447) and the 'A'gami' or forthcoming (m.ei>- 
ioned in Sloka 449 )► 


Results &*€. — the continuance of the body after 
realisation, and its experiences during; that period 
can only be explained by assuming that the 
Prirabdha continues to work. This is further ex- 
plained in the next Sloka. ] 

WT^:^: fe^ii;^'? RT^^^r ^nk i^^nrci: ii 

446. Prarabdha work is acknowledged to 
persist so long as there is the perception 
of happiness and the like. Every result 
is preceded by an action, and nowhere is 
it seen to accrue independently of action. 

A-4-7 . Through the realisation that I am 
the Brahman, all the accumulated actions 
of a hundred crore of cycles come to 
nought, like the actions of the dream- 
state on awakening. 

448. Can the good actions or dreadful 
sins that one fancies to do in the dream- 
state, lead him to heaven or hell after he 
has awakened from sleep? 




449. Realising the Atman which is un- 
attached and indifferent like the sky, the 
aspirant is never touched in the least by 
actions yet to be done. 

»v •v 

450. The sky is not affected by the 
smell of liquor merely through its connec- 
tion with the jar; similarly the Atman is 
not, through Its connection with the 
limiting adjuncts, affected by the proper- 
ties thereof. 

[ The Atman, like the sky, is always unattached, 
though the ignorant man superimposes connection 
with external things on It. ] 

««^r^r ^^^^ ^^'Tgf^5:5?Ttr55€^rw^^ii^H? 

451. The work which has fashioned this 
body prior to the dawning of Knowledge, 
is not destroyed by that Knowledge with- 
out yielding its fruits, like the arrow shot 
at an object. 


452. The arrow which Is shot at an 
object with the idea that it is a tiger, 
does not, when that object is perceived to 
be a cow, check itself, but pierces the 
object with full force. 

*v •«. 

453. The Prarabdha work is certainly 
too strong for the man of realisation, and 
is spent only by the actual experience of 
its fruit; w^hile the actions previously 
accumulated and those yet to come are 
destroyed by the fire of perfect Knowledge. 
But none of the three at all affects those 
who realising their identity with Brah- 
man are always living absorbed in that 
idea. They are verily the transcendent 

[ 27te Prdrahdha Knowledge — The argument 

in the Srutis in support of Prarabdha being bind- 
ing on even the Jnani(as set forth in the first 
half of this Sloka as well as in Slokas. 445 and 
451-2) is only a re-statement ( anuvada ) of the 
popular view. Strictly speaking, the Jnani him- 
self is not even aware of its existence. The real 
truth about it is given in the last half of this Sloka 


and in Sloka 463, and reasons for this view are 
set forth in Sloka 454 et seq. We may add in 
passing that we have here the boldest pronounce- 
ment of the exahed status of a man of realisation, 
who is affected by nothing whatsoever in creation.] 

454. For the sage who lives in his own 
Self as the Brahman devoid of the identi- 
fication with the limiting adjuncts — the 
One without a second, the question of the 
existence of Prarabdha work is meaning- 
less, like the question of a man who has 
awakened from sleep having any connec- 
tion with the objects seen in the dream- 

*. rv 

fifing ^^^ f^^RT ^m^ ii^^^li 

455. The man who has awakened from 
sleep never has any idea of ^I' or 'mine* 
with regard to his dream-body and the 
dream-objects that ministered to that body, 
but lives quite awake, as his own Self* 


^ rT^^ m^^r5H44V4H'd«T 

rT^rrjf f^^iT ^f^'TT^ 

456. He has no desire to substantiate 
the unreal objects, nor is seen to maintain 
that dream-world. If he still clings to 
those nnrcal objects, he is emphatically 
declared to be not yet free from sleep. 

wsirMK ^mm ^irnr: 

457. Similarly he who is absorbed in 
Brahman lives identified with the eternal 
Atman, and beholds nothing else. As 
one has a memory of the objects seen in a 
dream, so the man of realisation has a 
memory of the everyday actions such as 
eating and so forth. 

458. The body has been fashioned by 
Karma, so one may imagine the Pra- 
labdha with reference to it. But it is not 


reasonable to attribute the same to Atmaui 
for the Atman is never the outcome of 

459. The Srutis, whose words are in- 
fallible, declare the Atman to be ^'birth- 
less, eternal and undecaying.'^ So, to the 
man who lives identified with That, how 
can the Prarabdha be attributed? , 

["Birthless" etc. — The reference is to Katha 

Up. I. ii. i8.— ^# R^: j^pg^rs^ ^r% ^ w^m 

^^^in ^KR — " The Atman is birthless, eternal, 
undecaying, and ever new ( ancient ), and is not 
destroyed when the body is destroyed."] 

460. The Prarabdha can be maintained 
only so long as one lives identified with 
the body. But no one admits that the 
man of realisation ever identifies himself 
with the body. Hence the Prarabdha 
should be rejected in his case. 


461. The attributing of Prarabdha to 
the body even is certainly a delusion. 
How can something that is superimposed 
(on another) have any existence, and how 
can that which is unreal have a birth? 
And how can that which has not been 
born at all, die ? So how can the Pra- 
rabdha exist for something that is unreal? 

[ The body being an effect of Maya is unreal, 
and it is absurd to speak of Prarabdha as affecting 
this unreal body. ] 

msr^^ ^^ k^ i:rt ^^^^"r ^^r^ n ^^^n 
^?Trarg; ^mr^^^^ir t^jtp-^ ^3[% ^rt*. i 

462-3. " If the effects of ignorance are 
destroyed with their root by Knowledge, 
then how does the body live?" — it is to 
convince those fools who entertain a 
doubt like this, that the Srutis from a re- 
lative standpoint hypothesise the Pra- 
rabdha, but not for proving the reality of. 
the bodv etc. of the man of realisation. 

464. There is only Brahman, the One 
without a second, infinite, without begin- 


laing -or end, transcendent, and change- 
less; there is no duality whatsoever in It. 

465. There is only Brahman, the One 
without a second, the Essence of Exis- 
tence, Knowledge and Eternal Bliss, and 
devoid of activity; there is no duality 
whatsoever in It. 

2T^n^^^ Tj^g^TT^^cT ^rfrg^??: I 

466. There is only Brahman, the One 
without a second, which is inside all, 
liomogeneous, infinite, endless, and all- 
pervading; there is no duality whatsoever 
in It. 

[ /-homogeneous — admiuing of no variation. ] 

467. There is only Brahman, the One 
without a second, which is neither to be 
shimn^d nor to be taken up or accepted, 
and is without any support; there is no 

"duality whatsoever in It. 

[ Shunned etc. — because It is the Self of all. 
Without any support — Self-existent, being Itself 

the supporx of everything else. ] 


468. There is only Brahman, the One 
without a second, beyond attributes, with- 
out parts, subtle, absolute, and taintless; 
there is no duality whatsoever in It. 

469. There is only Brahman, the Une 
without a second, whose real nature is in- 
comprehensible, and which is beyond the 
range of mind and speech ; there is no 
duality whatsoever in It. 

470. There is only Brahman, the One 
without a second, the Reality, effulgent, 
self -existent, pure, intelligent, and unlike 
anything finite ; there is no duality what- 
soever in It. 

[ Intelligent — strictly speaking, Intelligence 

Unlike ^c. — It has got no exemplar. 

The repetition is for emphasising the Absolute, 
Unconditioned aspect of Brahman. ] 


471. High-souled Sannyasins who have 
got rid of all attachment, and discarded 
ail sense-enjoyments, who are purified and 
perfectly restrained, realise this Supreme 
Truth and at the end attain the Supreme 
Bliss through their Self-realisation. 

[ Safifi}'asins — lit. those who struggle after 

Pacified — refers to control of the mind. Res- 
trained — to control of the senses. 

End &c, — They attain Videhamukti or dis- 
embodied, absolute Freedom after the fall of their 
body. ] 

472. Thou, too, discriminate this Su- 
preme Truth, the real nature of the Self, 
which is. Bliss undiluted, and shaking off 
thy delusion created by thy own mind, be 
free, and illumined, and attain the con- 
summation of thy life. ' 

[ Thou, too, &c. — The Guru is addressing the* 

Undiluted — unmixed, i. e. absolute. 


Illuviined — lit. awakened, i. e. from this unreal 
dream of duality. ] 

473. Through Samadhi in which the 
mind has been perfectly stilled, visualise 
the Truth of the Self with the eye of clear 
Realisation. If the meaning of the 
(scriptural) words heard from the Guru 
is perfectly and indubitably discerned, 
then it can lead to no more doubt. 

[ Samadhi— \. e. the highest or Nirvikalpa 

Scriptural words — such as "Thou art That," 
and so on. 

Discerned — realised in Samadhi. ] 

474. In the realisation of the Atman, 
the Bxistence-Knowledge-Bliss Absolute, 
through the breaking of one's connection 
with the bondage of Avidya or Ignorance, 
scriptures, reasoning, and the words of 


the Giini are the tests, while one^s own 
experience earned by concentrating the 
mind is another proof. 

[ Texts : The word ' Pramana ' can be translated 
also as 'proofs ' or 'authority.' 

Scriptures — which tell of one's eternal identity 
with Brahman, and declare all duality to be unreal. 

Reaso?iing — upon those scriptural statements so 
as to be convinced of their truth. For instance, 
one can argue that bondage being a creation of 
one's mind must be unreal and that Knowledge 
of Brahman dispels it, and so on. 

Words Guru: The Guru is a man of Reali- 
sation and perfectly unselfish and all-loving. He 
is therefore an Apta, and as such his words are 

One's own experience &'c. : This is the ultimate 
test. For otherwise one is not perfectly satisfied. 

Concefitrating &'c. — in Samadhi. ] 

475. Bondage, liberation, satisfaction, 
anxiety, recovery from illness, hunger and 
such other things arc known only to the 
man concerned, and knowledge of these 
to others is a mere inference. 

[ hiference: Others merely guess at them through 
signs. ] 


476. The Gtinis, as well as the Srntis, 
instruct the disciple, standing: aloof; while 
the man of realisation crosses (Avidya)' 
thronoh Illumination alone, backed by the 
grace of God. 

[The Gurus &c. — This instructron is parohha 
or indirect, while the aspirant's own experience in 
Samadhi is aparoksha or direct. The former is 
the means to the latter. ] 

Ml , Himself knowing his own indivi- 
sible Self through his own realisation, 
and thus becoming perfect, a man should 
stand face to face with the Atman, with 
his mind free from dualistic ideas. 
[Face to fact — i. e. must live in Atman. ] 

a^ #T^: ^^qr 5T^ir I 


478. The verdict of all discussions on 
Vedanta is that the Jiva and the whole uni- 
verse are nothing but Brahman, and that 
liberation means abiding in Brahman, the 
indivisible Entity. While the Srutis them- 
selves are authority (for the statement) 


that Brahman is One without a second. 

[ Abiding iti Brahman — as opposed to daalistic 

The teacher's address begun in Sloka 213 ends 
here. ] 

479. Realising the Supreme Truth at 
a blessed moment, through the above in- 
structions of the Guru, the authority of 
the scriptures and his own reasoning, 
with his senses pacified and the mind 
concentrated, (the disciple) became im- 
movable in form and perfectly established 
in the Atman. 

480. Concentrating the mind for some 
time in the Supreme Brahman he rose, 
and out of supreme bliss spoke as follows : 

[ Rose — came down to the ordinary sense-plane.] 


481. My mind has vanished, and all 
its activities have melted, by realising the 
identitv of the Brahman and the self; I 
do not know either this or not- this; nor 
what or how much the boundless Bliss 
(of Samadhi) is! 

[ This or not-this—2\\ relative ideas, that is. 
\Vhat or hoiv much &c. — The Bliss experienced 
in Samadhi is inexpressible and immeasurable. ] / 

482. The majesty of the ocean of Su- 
preme Brahman, replete with the current 
of the nectar-like Bliss of the Self, is 
verily impossible to express in speech, nor 
can it be conceived by the mind, — in an 
infinitesimal fraction of which mv mind 
melted like a hailstone getting merged in 
the ocean, and is now satisfied by that 
Essence of Bliss. 

[ Infinitesivial fr action : Lit. a particle of whose 
part's part. The Avyaktam or Unmanifest is a 
part of Brahman (through Upadhi or superimposed 
limitations ); the Sutratman or the Cosmic Mind 
is, again, part of that; while the Virat or the 
Being who considers himself as the Cosmic 




JBody,. is a fraction of this last. The- bliss of thi> 
Virat e^'en is enough to melt the finite mind: 
Compare Sri Ramakrishna's story of a ship- that 
came near a magnetie Fock and had all its bolts' 
drawn out, so that it was rediKed to its priatine- 

Haihtone &-c. : The hailstones that accompany 
a shower of rain on the ocean quickly melt and' 
become one with it. 

Now- — after return to the normal plane of con- 
sciousness. ] 

f^ ^ %5r ^ •fr# ^% ^T^ff&t ^'Tcf \ 

483'.. Where is the universe gone^ by 
v/hont removed, and whers^ is' it mei^ed? 
It was xust now seen by me, and has it 
ceased to exist? — It is parsing* strange! 

*v • 

TWf f^ T^g^^ T^^^ir^ r^r^^ipc ^ 

484. In the ocean ©f Brahman filled with 
the nectar of Absolute BIi&&,. what is to> 
be shtmaaed and what ajccepted, what is^ 
other (than^ oneself )< and what different? 

[ What shunned &^c. — There is nothing besides- 
the One Atman^ and the aspirant is identified with 
That. ] 


^Smi^^ H^t^?S[i:qi3|TTW K^tt^ii: \w^% 


485. I do not see, or hear, or know 
anything in this. I exist as the Self, 
the Eternal Bliss — distinct from every- 
thing else. 

[ See &'c. — All finite ideas have ceased. 
In ihis — state of Realisation. 

Distinct from everything else — being the Subject, 
whereas all else are objects. ] 

486. Repeated salutations to thee, O 
noble-minded Teacher, who art devoid of 
attachment, the best among the good 
souls, the embodiment of the essence of 
Eternal Bliss — the One without a second, — 
who art infinite, and ever the 
ocean of mercy; — 

487. Whose glance, like the showier of 
concentrated moonbeams, has removed 
my exhaustion brought on by the aflaiction.'^ 


of the world, and in a moment admitted 
me to the nndecaying status of the Atman, 
the BHss of infinite majesty! 

[Afflictions world — those arising from the 

body, from other creatures and from physical 
phenomena. ] 

^?^rs^ ^^^^Tst f^gT?7tst ^^^^Fci; i 

488. Blessed am I, I have attained the 
consummation of my life, and am free 
from the clutches of transmigration, — I 
am the Essence of Eternal Bliss, I am 
infinite, — all through thy mercy! 

489. I am unattached, I am disembodied, 
I am free from the subtle body, and nn- 
decaying. I am pacified, I am infinite, I 
am taintless, and eternal. 

[^Disembodied subtle body. I have realised 

my identity with the Atman, and no longer con- 
sider myself as a body or mind. ] 

490. I am not the doer, I am nor the 
enjoyer, I am changeless, and beyoud_ 



activity; I am the Essence of Pure Knowl- 
edge, I am Absolute, and indentified with 
Eternal Good. 

[ Not the doer &c, — It is the man under delusion 
\vho thinks himself as these. But I am Illumined.] 

491. I am indeed different from the seer, 
listener, speaker, and enjoyer; I am the 
Atnian — eternal, without any break, be- 
yond activity, limitless, unattached, and 
infinite Knowledge. 

I" Different from the seer &c.~\ never identify 
myself with any activity ©f the organs or the mind, 
for I am no longer finite. ] 

492. I am neither this nor that, but the 
Illuminer of both; I am indeed Brahman, 
the One without a second, pure, devoid of 
interior or exterior, and infinite. 

[ Neither this nor //^a/— things that come under 
direct or indirect perception. It is the body \Yhich 
makes ideas of nearness or remoteness etc. 
possible. ] 


493. I am indeed Brahman, the One 
without a second, matchless, the Reality 
that has no beginning, beyond such imagi- 
nations as thou or I, or this or that, the 
Essence of Eternal Bliss, the Truth. 

494. I am Narayana, the slayer of 
Naraka, I am the destroyer of Tripura, 
the Witness of everything; I have no 
other Ruler but myself, I am devoid of 
the ideas of 'I' and 'mine.' 

[ Naraka — a demon, son of Earth, killed by 

Tripura — the demon of the " three cities,'* 

destroyed by Shiva. ] 


495. I alone reside in all beings as 
Knowledge, being their internal and ex- 
ternal support. I myself am the enjoyer 
and all that is enjoyable, — whatever I 


looked upon as ' this' or the not-Self 


[ Support — being the substratum of all super- 

Previously — before Realisatioti. ] 

496. In me, the ocean of Infinite Bliss, 
the waves of the universe are created and 
destroyed by the playing of the wind of 

497. Such ideas as gross and so forth 
are erroneously imagined in me by people 
through the manifestation of things 
superimposed, — just as in the indivisible 
and absolute time cycles, years, half-years 
and seasons etc. are imagined. 

[Cj'cles — The pericxi of duration of the Universe.] 

«v /^ 




49S. That which is superimposed by th.e 
grossly ignorant fools can never taint the 
substratnra : The great rush of waters ob- 
served in a mirage never wets the desert 

<^ r^ 

499. I am beyond contamination like 
the sky; I am distinct from things ilhi- 
mined like the sun; I am always motion- 
less like the mountain; I am limitless like 
the ocean. 

"•^ "s •s • "N »^ •v 

500. I have no connection, with the 
body, as the sky with the clouds; so how 
can states of wakefulness^ dream and pro- 
found sleep, which are attributes of the. 
body, affect me? 

^ a:^ ^mn?T rnxxm g^ \ ' 
^ n:^ ^T^rC ra^ ^2rrt 


501. It is the Upadhi (superimposed at- 
tribute) that comes, and it is that alone 
which goes; that again performs actions 
and enjoys ( their fruits ) , that alone 
decays and dies, whereas I ever remain 
firm like the Kula mountain. 

[ A'ula moufi/diu— mQiMion^d \n the Puranas as 
being svonderfully stable. ] 

502. There is neither engaging in work 
nor cessation from it for me who am al- 
ways :he same and devoid of parts. How 
can that which is One, concentrated, 
without break, and infinite Hke the sky^ 
ever exert? 

[ Cvncenlrated — like a lump of sak which con- 
sists of nothing but salt.] 

503. How can there be merits and; 
demerits for me who am without orgaus^y 


withoiit mind, changeless, and formless, — 
who am the Realisation of Bliss Absolute? 
The Sruti also mentions this in the pas- 
sage, " Not touched &c." 

[ Sru^i &c. — Brihadaranyaka Upa., IV. iii. 22 — 
{In the state of profound sleep a man becomes) 
■"■ Untouched by merits and untouched by demerits, 
for he is then beyond all the afflictions of the 
heart." It may be added here that the experience 
of the Sushupta state is cited in the Sruti merely 
as an illustration of the liberated state, which is 
the real state of the Atman, beyond all misery. 
Vide Sankara's commentary on the chapter. ] 

504. If heat or cold, good or evil hap- 
pens to touch the shadow of a man's body, 
it affects not in the least the man him- 
self, who is distinct from the shadow. 

^ ^rf^nf Hr^^wr: ^^?s[rf?cr f^^^iirq: 

505. The properties of things manifested 
do not affect the Witness which is distinct 
from them, changeless, and indifferent, — 
as the properties of a room (do not affect) 
the lamp (that illumines it) . 


•s t ^ ^ ^ ^^ 

506. As the sun is a witness with re- 
gard to men's actions, and fire burns 
everything without distinction, and as the 
rope is related to a thing superimposed 
on it, — so am I, the unchangeable, intel- 
ligent Self. 

[Sun actions — people do good and bad 

deeds with the help ot sunlight, but the sun is un- 
affected by their results. 

Rope etc. — the relation of the rope to the 
snake is wholly fictitious. 

So am I etc. — unconcerned with the activities of 
the Buddhi. ] 

507. I am neither the doer nor do I 
make others do any action; I am neither 
the enjoyer nor do I make others enjoy; 
I neither see nor do I make others see; — 
I am that Self -effulgent, Transcendent 

[ I am neither &c. — I am free from all activity, 
direct or indirect. 

Transcendent — beyond the range of sense. ] 


sRcTTOT wg^rfer Wcfrsfer kr^ iiv^o^t; 

508. When the supervening adjunct 
(Upadhi) is moving, the movement of the 
reflection which is due to the Upadhi is 
ascribed by fools to the object reflected, 
such as the snn, which is free from activity, 
— (and they think) "I am the doer," "I 
am the enjoyer," "I am killed, oh alas!" 

[ Supervening adjunct — e. g. water, in which the 
sun is reflected. It is the water that moves and 
with it the reflection, but never the sun, though 
ignorant people may think the sun is also moving. 
Similarly, all activity which belongs to the Buddhi 
under the reflection of the Atman, is erroneously 
attributed to the latter. 

'- 1 am the doer,'' &c. — This is how the igno- 
rant man thinks and wails. ] 

509. Let this inert body drop down in 
water or on land, I am not touched by its 
properties, like the sky by the properties 
of the jar. 

[ Not touched Jar — Just as the sky seemingly 

enclosed in a jar is one with the infinite sky, and 


IS always the same whether the jar is broken or 
not, similarly is the Atman always the same despite 
Its apparent relation to the body. ] 


510. The passing states of the Buddhi 
such as agentship, enjoyment, cunning, 
drunkenness, dullness, bondage, freedom 
and so on, are never, in reality, in the Self, 
the Supreme Brahman, the Absolute, the 
One without a second. 

[ The Atman is Knowledge Absolute, which 
admits of no change, while the Buddhi or determi- 
native faculty, being inert, is subject to change. 
So the confusion of the characteristics of the Self 
\vith those of Buddhi is solely due to super- 
imposition. ] 

511. Let there be changes in Prakriti in 
ten, hundred, or a thousand ways, what 
have I — the unattached Knowledge Abso- 
lute — got to do with them? — Never do the 
clouds touch the sky ! 

[Prakri/i — the Undifferentiated, described in 
Slokas io8 and following. ] 


512. I am verily that Brahman, the One 
without a second, which is like the sky, 
subtle, without beginning or end, in which 
the whole universe from the Undifferentia- 
ted down to the gross body, appears merely 
as a shadow. 

[Appears shadow — to the ignorant, j 

513. I am verily that Brahman, the 
One without a second, which is the sup- 
port of all, which illumines all things, 
which has infinite forms, is omnipresent, 
devoid of multiplicity, eternal, pure, un- 
moved, and absolute. 

[ Support of all — being the one substratum of 
all phenomena, j 


514. I am verily that Brahman^ the One 
without a second, which transcends the 
endless differentiations of Maya, is the in- 
most essence of all^ beyond the range of 
consciousness, — which is Truth, Knowl' 
edge^ Infinitude, and Bliss Absolute. 

[ Maya — Same as Prakriti or Avyakta. 

Trtith — may be translated as Existence. Thi» 
line sets forth the Szuarnpa Lakshana or essentia! 
characteristics of Brahman, as distinct from It* 
Tatastha Lakshana or indirect attributes, such a* 
creatorship of the universe and so on. ] 

515. I am withoait activity, changeless^ 
without parts, formless, absolute, eternal,, 
wdthout any other support, the One with- 
out a second. 

[ Without support: Brahman is Itself Its- 
own support. ] 


516. I am the Universal, I am the All, 
I am transcendent, the -One without a 
second. I am Absolute and Infinite Knowl- 
edge, I am Bliss, and indivisible. 

{^Indivisible — without break. ] 

517. This splendour of the sovereignty 
of Self-effulgence I have received by virtue 
of the supreme majesty of thy grace. Salu- 
tation to thee, O glorious, noble-minded 
Teacher, — salutations again and again! 

[ Sel/-effulgenc€ — hence, absolute independence. 
The disciple is beside himself with joy, and hence 
the highly rhetorical language. ] 

518. O Teacher, thou hast out of sheer 
grace awakened me from sleep and com- 
pletely saved me, who was wandering, in 
an interminable dream, in a forest of 
birth, decay and death created by illusion, 


being tormented day after day by count- 
less afflictions, and sorely troubled by the 
tiger of Egoism. 

[ Sleep — of Nescience, which also creates the 
* dream,' two lines further on. 

Forest — i. e. diHicult to come through. 

Day after day : It is a well-known fact that 
even a short dream may, to the dreamer's mmd, 
appear as extending over years. ] 

519. Salutation to thee, O Prince of 
Teachers, thou unnamable Greatness, 
that art ever the same, and dost manifest 
thyself as this universe, — thee I salute! 

[ Greatness &c. — The Guru is addressed as 
Brahman Itself by the grateful disciple. Hence 
the use of epithets applicable to Brahman. Com- 
pare the salutation IMantram of the Guru-Gita : 
" The Guru is Brahma, the Guru is Vishnu, the 
Guru is Shiva, the God of Gods. The Guru verilv 
is the Supreme Brahman. Salutations to that ado- 
rable Guru!"] 


520. Seeing- the worthy disciple who had 
attained the Bliss of the Self, realised the 
Truth, and was glad at heart, thus pros- 
trating himself, that noble, ideal Teacher 
again addressed the following excellent 

521. The nniverse is an unbroken 
series of perceptions of Brahman,, hence 
it is in- all respects nothing but Brahman, 
See this- with the eye of illr&mination and 
a serene mind, under all circumstances. 
Is one who- has eyes ever found to see 
all around anything else but forms? 
Similarly, what is there except Brahman 
to engage the intellect of a man of reali- 

[ Sei'ies ......Brahman- — Existence^. KncHvIedge, 

and Bliss which are the Essence of Brahman can 
be found, upon analysis, as underlying, every per- 
ception of ours. By another way of reasoning,, 
the world is simply Brahman seen through a veil 
of name and form, which are contFibuted by th« 
mind. It is X +miQdy as Swami Vivekananda has 
put it. 


One who has eyes — -suggests a discriminaling 
man whose view of life will be difTerent from that 
of the ordinary man. Hence he can generalise 
the objective world as so m^ny/orms. ' Form ' 
implies 'colour,' which also is a meaning of the 
word ' Rupa.' ] 

522. What wise man would discard that 
enjoyment of Supreme Bliss and revel in 
things unsubstantial? When the exceed- ^ 
ingly charming moon is shining, who i 
would wish to look at a painted moon? 

^h: g^ mg ^^rcm%^r \Wi\\\ 

523, From the perception of unreal 
things there is neither satisfaction nor a 
cessation of misery. Therefore, being 
satisfied with the realisation of the Bliss 
Absolute, the One without a second, live 
happily in a state of identity with the 
Real Brahman. 


- [ Neither satisfaction &c. — Compare the cele- 
brated verse — " Never is desire appeased by the 
enjoyment of sense-pleasures," &c. ] 

524. Beholding the Self alone in all 
circumstances, thinking of the Self, the One 
without a second, and enjoying the Bliss 
of the Self, pass thy time, O noble soul! 

525. Dualistic conceptions in the Atman, 
the Infinite Knowledge, the Absolute, are 
like imagining castles in the air. There- 
fore, always identifying thyself with the 
Bliss Absolute, the One without a second, 
and thereby attaining Supreme Peace, re- 
main quiet. 

[ Quiet — as the Witness. How he is to live, is 
explained in the next verse. ] 

ai^T^iT^r 3^%5fr ^^R^jfr 


526. The restful state of the mind — 
which is the root of unreal imaii^inings — 
of the noble knower of Brahman, in a 
state of identity with Brahman, is Su- 
preme Quietude, in which there is con- 
stant enjoyment of the Bliss Absolute, — 
the One without a second. 

527 . To the man who has realised his 
own nature, and drinks the undiluted 
Bliss of the Self, there is nothing more 
exhilarating than the quietude that comes 
of a state of desirelessness. 

528. The illumined sage whose only 
pleasure is in the Self, ever lives at ease, 
whether going or staying, sitting or lying, 
or in any other condition. 

[ He is perfectly independent. ] 

529. The noble soul Avho has perfectly 


realised the Truth and whose mind- 
functions meet with no obstruction, does 
no more depend upon conditions of place, 
time, posture, direction, moral disciplines, 
objects of meditation and so forth. What 
regulative conditions can there be in 
knowing one's own self? 

[ Place — holy places are meant. Similarly with 

Posture: Which is an important thing with 
beginners. ' Asana ' may also mean ' seats.' 

Direction — facing north or east. 

Moral disciplines — The Yama and Niyama ob- 
servances mentioned in Ashtanga Yoga. 

Objects 0/ meditation — gross or fine. ] 

530. To know that this is a jar, what 

condition, forsooth, is necessary except 

that the means of knowledge be free from 

defect, which alone ensures a cognition of 

the object ? 

[ Means 0/ knowledge — e. g. the eye in the case 
of vision,- and so on, ] 

531. So this Atman, which is an eternal 
verity, manifests Itself as soon as the 


means of right knowledge are present, and 
does not depend upon either place, or time, 
or (internal) purity. 

[Means hwwledge — Realisation, to which 

direct perception, inference etc. are subordinate 
aids. ] 

rv •v 

532. The consciousness that I am Deva- 
datta is independent of circumstances; 
similar is the case with the realisation of 
this knower of Brahman that he is Brah- 

533. What indeed can manifest That 

whose lustre, like the sun, causes the 

whole universe — unsubstantial, unreal, in- 

■significant — to appear at all ? 

[An echo of the famous Sruti passage — " He 
shining, everything else shines, through His light 
all this is manifest."] 

534. What, forsooth, can illumine that 
Eternal Subject by which the Vedas and 


Poranas and other scriptures, as well as 
all beings are endowed with a meaning ? . 

[ An echo of Brihadaranyaka II. iv. 14. 

Other scriptures — may mean the Six Systems of 
Philosophy or anything else. ] 

535. Here is the Self-effulgent Atman, 
of infinite power, beyond the range of 
conditioned knowledge, 3-et the common 
experience of all, — realising which alone 
this incomparable Knower of Brahman 
lives his glorious life, freed from bondage. 
[ Incomparable — lit. best among the best, j 


536. Satisfied with undiluted, constant 
Bliss, he is neither grieved, nor elated by 
sense-objects, is neither attached nor 
averse to them, biit always disports with 
the Self and takes pleasure therein. 
[ Undiluted &'c. — i. e. Absolute Bliss. 

Neither attached &c — Compare Gita XIV. 22-25.] 


537. A child plays with his toys for- 
getting hunger and bodily pains; exactly 
so the man of realisation takes pleasure in 
the Reality, without ideas of ' I' or 'mine,' 
and is happy. 

538. Men of realisation have their food 
without anxiety or humiliation, by beg- 
ging, and their drink from the water of 
rivers; they live freely and independently, 
and sleep without fear in cremation 
grounds or forests; their clothing may be 
the quarters themselves, which need no 
washing and drying, or any bark, etc. ; the 
earth is their bed; they roam in the ave- 
nue of Vedanta; while their pastime is 
in the Supreme Brahman. 

" This is a splendid setting forth of the free life 
ot a true Sannyasin. 


Without fear — because of their identification 
with Brahman, the One without a second. 

Quarters &€. — He goes nude, that is. 

Any bark etc. — this is suggested by the word m 
in the text. 

Bark, or cloth, or anything may be their dress. ] 

539. The knower of Atrnan, who wears 
no outward mark and is unattached to 
external things, rests on this body with- 
out identification, and experiences all 
sorts of sense-objects as they come, 
through others' wish, like a child. 

[ No outward mark\ Hence it is so difficult to 
know them. 

^ense-objects — food etc. 

As they come — in the working out of Pr^rabdha 

Through others'' wish — as asked by his devotees 
or friends. ] 


540. Established in the ethereal plane 
of Knowledge Absolute, he wanders in the 
world, sometimes like a mad man, some- 
times like a child and at other times like 
a ghoul, having no other clothes on his 
person except the quarters, or sometimes 
wearing clothes, or perhaps skins at other 

[ Ghoul — with no sense of cleanliness. It should 
be noted that these are some of the devices to 
avoid the company of vulgar people. 

Skins — the word in the text also means • bark." ] 

^^riT^^ -^w g^: \^^ -^^ww mcT: \\^\ 

541. The sage, living alone, enjoys 
sense-objects, being the very embodiment 
of desirelessness, — always satisfied with 
his own Self, and himself present as the 

[ As the All — knowing his identity with the whole 
universe, as Atman. ] 

542. Sometimes a fool, sometimes a 
sage, sometimes possessed of regal splen- 


dour; sometimes wandering, sometimes 
behaving like a motionless python, some- 
times wearing a benignant expression; 
sometimes honoured, sometimes insulted, 
sometimes imknown; — thus lives the man 
of realisation, ever happy with Supreme 

[ These are some of the impressions which the 
phases of a saint's life produce upon the outside 
world. People judge him diversely, but he is 
supremely indifferent to what others think of or do 
towards him. 

Pytho7i — which seldom moves but waits for the 
food to come to it. ] 

543. Though without riches, yet ever 
content; though helpless, yet very power- 
ful; though not enjoying sense-objects, 
yet eternally satisfied; though without an 
exemplar, yet looking upon all with an 
eye of equality. 

\_ Powerful: The Atman is his wealth, power, 
and everything. ] 

544. Though doing, yet inactive ; though 


experiencing fruits of pasL actions, yet 
imtoiiched by them; though possessed of 
a body, yet without identification witli it; 
though limited, yet omnipresent is lie. 

545. Neither pleasure nor pain, nor 
good nor evil, ever touches this Knower 
of Brahman who always lives without the 

[ A reproduction of the sense of Chhandogya 
Vlil. xii. I. ] 

•^ ^rs 

546. Pleasure or pain, as well as good 
or evil, affects only him who has connec- 
tions with the gross body etc., and identi- 
fies himself with these. How can sfood 
or evil, or the effects thereof, touch the 
sage who has identified himself with the 
Reality and thereby shattered his bondage? 


547. The sun which appears to be^ 
but is not actually, swallowed by Rahu is- 
called as swallowed up by people, through 
delusion, not knowing the real nature of 
the sun. 

[ The reference is to the solar eclipse. 
Nature sun — which is a mass of light. ] 

•^ fv 

548. Similarly, ignorant people look 
upon the perfect knower of Brahman, who 
is wholly rid of bondages of the body etc, 
as possessed of the body, seeing but an 
appearance of it. 

549. In reality, however, he rests dis- 
carding the body, like the snake its slough ; 
and the body is moved hither and thither 
by the wind of Prana, just as it listeth. 

[ Discarding the body — ceasing to identify him- 
self with the body. 

Like the snake etc. — A reminiscence of Brihada- 
ranyaka IV. iv. 7. 

Wind — *Vayu/ which strictly speaking means 

Horce.' in which sense Pranas can be called 'Vayu/ 

There is another reading to the first line, ^iflH^^- 


'SrN'R f^^5T?frf ROTrT — which should be rendered 
thus " But the body of the liberated man remivinj 
like the slough of a snake. J 

550. As a piece of wood is drifted on to 
a high or low ground by the current, so 
is his body carried on by the momentum 
of past actions to the enjoyment of their 
fruits as they present themselves in due 

[ Efijoyment — includes ' suffering ' also. ] 

551. The man of realisation, bereft of 
the body-idea, moves amid sense-enjoy- 
ments like a man subject to transmigra- 
tion, through desires engendered by Pra- 
rabdha work. He himself, however, lives 
unmoved, in the body, like a witness, free 
from mental oscillations, like the pivot of 
the potter's wheel. 

[Like transmigration — only apparently. The 

Prarabdha has no meaning for the Jnani who i» 
identified with the Self. See Slokas 453-465. 


Pivot — which is fixed, on which the wheel turns.] 

552. He neither directs the sense-organs 
to their objects, nor detaches them from 
these, but stays like an unconcerned 
spectator. And he has not the least re- 
gard for the fruits of actions, his mind 
being thoroughly inebriated with drinking 
the undiluted elixir of the Bliss of Atman. 

[ For ^r^^ in the last line of the Sloka. there 
}S another reading SEfR^ which should be trans- 
lated as " including all minor joys." ] 


553. He who, giving up all such con 
siderations as this is a fit object of raedi 
tation and this is not, lives as the Abso 
lute Atman, is verily Shiva Himself, ane 
he is the best among Knowers of Brahman 

[ Fit object — and is therefore to be welcomec 
while the other is to be shunned. ] 


554. Through the destruction of the 
supervening adjuncts, the perfect Knowcr 
of Brahman merges himself in the One 
Brahman without a second — which he had 
been all along, becomes very free even 
while living and attains the consumma- 
tion of his life. 

[Merges himself in Brahma7i which. all alon^ 

( 9^ ?T^ a^'^frT )-r-Quoiation from Brihadi- 
ran^aka IV. iv. 6. ] 

<T^^ agn%^^^: ^^T 9[#^ ^VlT\ HT^XH 

555. As an actor, when he puts on the 
dress of his role or when he does not, is 
always a man, so the perfect Knower 01 
Brahman is always Brahman and nothing 

556. Let the body of the Sannyasin 
who has realised his identity with Brah- 
man, become withered and fall anywhere 
like the leaf of a tree, (it is of little con- 
sequence to him, for) it has already been 
burnt by the fire of Knowledge. 

[ Bur fit etc. — Hence lie need not even care about 
the creuiatit^n of the body after death. ] 


557. The sage who always lives in the 
Reality—^Brabman—as Infinite Bliss, the 
One without a second, does not depend. 
Mpou the customary considerations of 
place, time etc. for giving up this mass of 
skin, Sesh and filth. 

[He may give up the body any Lime he pleases^ 
tor H has cerved its purpose„ ] 

558,. For, the giving up of the body i& 
?iot L-iberatio-u, nor that of the staff and 
water-bcwly. but Liberation consists in the; 
destruction of the heart's knot, which is 


\ Staff and water -bowl—\}ci<s^ insignia ol a San- 
nyasin. Mere outward giving up is Kotbii:\g ; they 
mast have no place in the mind. 

Heart's, knot — to bind as it were the Chit of 
Absolute Knowledge to the inert body. ] 


S$9. If a leaf falls in a small stream, or 
a river, or a place consecrated by Shiva, or 
in a crossing of roads, of what good or 
or evil is that to the tree ? 

[ Places of varying purity are meant. ] 

^^^ %^^^^ "^^^^ ^n^' 

560. The destruction of the body,- 
organs, Pranas and Biiddhi is like that of 
the leaf or llovver or fruit (of a tree). It 
does not affect the Atman, the Reality, 
the Embodiment of Bliss — ,vliich is one's 
true nature. That survives, like the tree. 

[Pranas — Viial forces. Buddhi — ihe delermina- 
tive faculty, mviy slaiui here for the mind itself. ] 

561. Tiie Srutis, by setting forth the 
real nature of the Atman in the words, 
"the Embodiment of Knowledge" etc., 
which indicate Its Reality, speak of the 
destruction of the superve'iing adjuncts 

[" Kmdodimen/ of ftrtoia'edge" ^fc. — Brihadi- 


ranyakalV. v. 13: "As a lump of salt is without 
interior or exterior, whole, one homogeneous salt 
mass, so is verily this Alinan, O Maitreyi, the 
Embodiment of Knowledge which assumes dif- 
ferentiations through contact with the elements and 
ceases to have them when these elements are des- 
troyed (by liluinination ). After this dissolution It 
has no distinct name." It should be noted that the 
passage in the original is so worded as to confuse 
an ordinary enquirer, as it did Maitreyi actually. 
Then Yajnavalkya had to explain that he meant 
only the destruction of the snpervetiing adjuncts, 
and not that of the Atman— the Eternal Reality — 
which ever is. 

Supervening adjuncts — Such as water in which 
the sun is reflected, or the rose which casts its 
reflection on the crvsial, or the air which produces 
a bubble on the smfacc of water. When these 
Upadhis are removed th<-' special differentiations 
cease to exist, but the thing remains as 
it was. ] 

562. The Sruti passage, * 'Verily is this 
Atman immortal, nry dear,*' uientioiis tb« 
immortality of the Atman in the midst of 
perishable things that are subject to modi- 

[ ^;j//z—Biihad^ianyaka IV. v. 14; "Verily \% 

vivekaciiudamani 245 

this Alman immorul, my dear, iiidestruciible by 
Its very nature " J 

563. Just as stone, tree, grass, paddy, 
and busk etc., when burnt, are reduced to 
to earth (ashes) only, even so the whole 
objective universe comprising the body, 
organs, Pranas, Manas and so forth, are! 
when burnt by the fire of Realisation, re- 
duced to the Paramatman (Supreme Self). 

{Hmk: Another reading for g^y^ is ^j^^*^ ; 
Kata IS a kind of straw, and the otner word means 
cloth. ] 

564, As darkness which is distinct 
(from sunshine) vanishes in the sun's 
radiance, so the whole objective universe 
is merged in Brahman. 

^r: 5j\j v:m o^>jt o^iTf^cr '^^m ^z^i 1 

565. As when a jar is broken, the space 
enclosed by it becomes palpably the limit- 


Ifiss Space, so when the superv^eaing ad- 
juncts are destroyed, the Knower of Brah* 
man verily becomes Brahman Itself. 

^rt #^ ^m %H ^# ^^ ^^ ^ ! 

566. As riiilk pomed into milk, oil into 
oil, and water into water, becomes united 
and one with it, so the sage who has 
realised the Atman becomes one in the 

[Compare Katha Upanishad IV. 15, Also, 
Muudaka 111. ii. 8. ] 

567. Realising thus the isolation that 
• comes of diseiubodiedness and becoming, 

eternally identified with the Absolute 
Reality, Brahman, the sage no longer 

■snffeis iransmigration. 

568. For his bodies, consisting of Nes- 
cience etc., having been burnt by the 
realisation of the identity of Jiva and 
Brahman, he becomes Brahman Itself, and 
how can the Brahman ever have rebirth? 


[ Bodies Nescunce etc. — The three bodies a^e 

causal, subtle ami gross. The first consists of 
Nescience; the second of seventeen things — five 
-sensory organs, five motor organs, five Pranas (01, 
.according- to some, five fine; elements or Tauinllrasj, 
Manas and Buddhi ; and the last, consisting of the 
gross elements, is what we see. Tliesc three 
bodies make up the five Koshas or sheaths ::om 
the Anandamaya dov/n to the Aanamaya- The 
Atman is beyond them all. ] 

569. Bondage and liberation, which are \ 
vconjured up by Maya, d-o not really exist 
in tlie Atman, one's Reality, as the ap- 
pearance arid exit of the snake do not 
abide in the rope which suffers no change. 

^^I^^I^^^FR: ^T^'trt ^x ^%^ ^frT: lllit^G 

570. Bondage and liberation may bt 
.talked of when there is the presence or 
absence of a cover ng veil. But there cai' 
"be no covering veil for tb" Brahiriiin, 
M^l'hich is always uncovered for want of a 
second thing bes'des Itself. If there oe, 
|he Non-duality of Brahman will Le contra 


dieted, and the Srutis can never brook 

[ Sriiiis......dzmliiy — e. g. " One only without a 

second," (Chhdndogya VL ii. i), "There is nc 
duality in Brahman " ( Katha IV. ii), and so on. ] 

571. Bondage and liberation are attri- 
butes of the Buddhi which ignorant people 
falsely snperimpose on the Reality, as the 
covering of the eyes by a cloud is trans^- 
ierred to the sun. For this Immutable 
Brahman is Knowledge Absolute, the One 
without a second, and unattached. 

5%:\?r s^t^cTt ^t g r^^ ^'^^'> iiX^^ii 

572. The idea that bondage exists, and 
the idea that it does not exist, with refer- 
ence to the Reality, are both attributes of 
the Buddhi merely, and never belong to» 
the eternal Reality — Brahman. 

^^m m^m ^$\ ^^^m^x ^ ^rhr i 


573. Hence this bondage and liberation 
are created by Maya, and are not in the 
Atman. Hov/ can {here be any id^a ot 
limitation with regard to the Supreme 
Truth, which is without parts, without 
activity, cahi:, unimpeachable, taintless, 
and One without a second, as there can be 
none with regard to the infinite sky? 

574. There is neither death nor birth, 
neither bound nor striving for freedom, 

neither seeker after liberation nor liberated 

— this is the ultimate truth. 

[This is a verbatim quotation from the Amrita- 
bindu Upanishad, Sloka 10. There is not much 
difftrence between ' Siiiihaka 'and ' Mumukshu.' So 
long as there is mind, there are all these dis- 
tinctiotis, but the mind itself is a creation of 
Avid V 4. Hence the highest truth is that in which 
the«e is no lelalivity. ] 

575. I ha\e to-day repeatedly revealed 
to thee, as to cue's own son, this excel* 


lent and profound secret, which k the in- 
most piirport of all Vedanta — the crest of 
the Vedas — -considering thee an aspirant 
after liberation, purged of the taints of 
this Iron Age, and of a mind free Irora 

[ Secret — The discrimination between the Real 
.and unreal, which is hidden from the vulgar man. 
The teacher's address is finished here. ] 

576. Hearing these words of the Guru, 
the disciple out of reverence prostrated 
liimself before him, and with his permis- 
vsiou went his way, freed from bondage. 

577. And the Guru, with his mind 
^steeped in the ocean of Existence and 
Bliss Absolute, roamed, verily purifying 
the whole world, — ^all differentiating ideas 
banished from his mind. 

578. Thtis bv wav of a dialocnie between 
jthe teacher and the disciple, has the na- 


ttire of the Atman been ascertained ior 
the easy comprehension of seekers af;fcr 

579. May those Sannyasins who are 
seekers after liberation, who have purged 
themselves of all taints of the mind by the 
observance of the prescribed methods, who 
are averse to worldly pleasures, who are of 
pacified minds, and take a delight in the 
Sruti,, appreciate this sahitary teaching ! 

[ Sannyasins — The word * Yati ' may simply 
mean ' one who is struggling for Realisaiion." So 
also in Siokas 556 and 567. 

Prescribed methods — Secondary or indirect (such 
as, saoilices etc.) and primary or direct (such as. 
control of the senses and mind etc.). ] 

.530. For those who- are afflicted, in th^ 


way of the world, by the burning pain due 
to the sunshine of threefold misery; who 
through delusion wander about in a desert 
in search of water; — for them here is the 
trhimphant message of Sankara pointing 
cut, within easy reach, the comforting 
ocean of nectar — the Brahman, the One 
without a second — to lead them on to 
liberation ! 

[ Threefold misery — the ddhyd/mika (those per- 
tau/Uig to ti)e body and mind, such as pain, 
anguish etc.) the ddhidaivika (those coming from 
divine visitations or scourges of Nature, such as. 
cyclone, earthquake etc.), and the ddhibhauiiha 
(those due to other creatures on earth). 

V/ander water — are lured by the prospect of 

happiness from transitory things, which, as in the 
case of a mirage, exhaust them the more. 

Easy reach — for tliis Mine of Bliss is tkeir very 
ntttuie. h is no external thing to be acquired. 
They h;»ve simply to realise that they are already 

On io liberation — Uy inducing them to take away 

iihcir .'sell-JTnpo.sed ve'). 

The solemn cudcnce of the Sirdulavikridiia 
metre makes a fating termination to the prophetw 
discouise. ] 


[ The figures indicate the Sloka number. ] 

Aspirant's qualifications 16-7 

— questions 49 
Atman — Its nature 106-7, 124-36, 213-25, 531-5. 
— Its bondage apparent 194-202 
Avidyi, Avyakia, or M^i 108-9 

— to be destroyed by the Realisalioa of 

Brahraan no 
— its components, the Gunas 110 

Blissful Sheath disci iminated 206-9 

Bondage and its effects 137-8 

— is caused l)y the Veiling and Projecting 
Powers of Maya 1 4 1-4 

Brahman : lis nature 237-40 

— niediialion on It must be constant 321-30 
— how to realise It 377-97, 407-Z2 

Calmness or Sama defined 22 

Causal body 120 

Concentration : its means 367-71 

Desires bt ing the cause of Samsara are to be 

upjooted 311-20 
Devotion : its importance; new definitions 31-2 



i>i5c'^ple realises and s^lates his experience ^yg-^ti^ 
— how he is instructed to live after this 521-5^ 
'Discrimination defined 20 
I)ream-state 98-9 
Duahty is nowhere 398-404, 464-73, 478 

F'goism described IG4-5 

—ibeing the chief obstacle to -Reaii^^-iioi*' 
should be shunned 298-310 

f.lemenls, gross and subtle 73-4 

Kaith defined 25 
Forbearance defined 24 

Gross body and its objects described 72-4, 88, 90- r 
— attachment to these condemned 75-87 

Idenlification with gross and subtle bodies 10 be 
sliunned 287-97 

—its evil effects 331-40 

—-ceases after realisation 413-7 
Ignorance is the root of bondage 146 

— is destroyed by discriuiination 147 

Knowledge Slieath discritninated 284-206 

Libetaiion a most rare thing 2 

— is self-realisation, not scriptural cradiuoa of 

ceretnouials 6-7, 56-60 
—should be earnestly soughts through a 

teacher 8-iO 
— its means 46, 82 
— to \)^felt inwardly by oneself 474-7 
Liberation-in-iife : its characteristics 425-41, 

526-9, 536-59 
Material Sf>eiHH t.kt>t'fimtnatec! 354-64 


MdjA — sec under A vii^ yd 
AHeirai Sheath disciiminaied 167-83 
Mind or * inner organ ' ( Aniarikarana } an(t iCff- 
various fuiiclions 93-4 
— its seat 103 

Ntrvikalpa SamSdhi is the way to Realisation 34i-6(r* 

Org^ans of knowledge and action 92 

Tranas and their functions 95, 102 

I'riirabdha : does it exist for a man of Realisa 

tion 443-63 
Profound sleep ( Sushupti ) 121 
Frojecling Power of Rajas and its offshoots in-2, 


Realisation conges through discrimination; not 
work 1 1-5 
—its ineans 18-9, 69-70 
—its results 418, 421-24 
— leads to liberation 61-5 
— neglect in it is suicide 4-5 
— no more rebirth after it 563-74 
Djspassion ( Vairigya ) defined 21 
— its culmination 424 
— its impoi lance 29-30 

— leads to renunciation 372-73 and ultiniatelj' 
to I'eace 419 
Oispassion and Realisation conduce to libera^ 
tion 374-6 

Samsira compared to a tree 145 

— how destroyed 148 
Sattva, pure and mixed, and their functiosis 1X7-9 
.Seif-co<i(rol 01 DamA defined 23 



SeU-exertion : its importance 51-5, 66 
Self-settledness or Samidbina defined 26 
Self-witbdrawal or Uparati defined 23 

— its culmination 424. 
Sheaths (five) of the Atman 125, 149-50 

— should be discriminated to reveal the Atman 
151-3, 210-1 
Subtle body 96-7 

— is merely an instrument of the Atman which 
is unaffected 99-101 
Superimposilion and liovv to remove it 267-86 

Teacher: his qualifications 33 

— how he should be approached and questioned 

— how he comforts and encourages the dis- 
ciple 41-7, 50, 67 8 
''Thou art TIjat" explained 241-53 
— medilalion on this advised 254-63 
— result of lliis meditation 264-6 
Three rare boons 3 

Undifferenlialed— See Avidyi. 

Universe from Avyakia down to sense-objectS is 
Not-Self and iht;irfore unreal 122-3 
— is not apart from Brahman 226-36, 405-6 

Veiling: Power of lamas and its effects 113-6, t:^g 
Vital Sheath discrnninaied R65-6 

' V/aking slate 88-9 

Work but purifies ihe mind is 

Yearning lor iiberaiion defined 27 

























subtle body 











two for by 

two, for 



















5T*'i?T '^m^ 




^m r{m 










T^r 3T^ 





that covering 















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L 2 81987 



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